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Sample records for 1 ribosomal frameshifting

  1. -1 Programmed Ribosomal Frameshifting as a Force-Dependent Process.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Koen

    2016-01-01

    -1 Programmed ribosomal frameshifting is a translational recoding event in which ribosomes slip backward along messenger RNA presumably due to increased tension disrupting the codon-anticodon interaction at the ribosome's coding site. Single-molecule physical methods and recent experiments characterizing the physical properties of mRNA's slippery sequence as well as the mechanical stability of downstream mRNA structure motifs that give rise to frameshifting are discussed. Progress in technology, experimental assays, and data analysis methods hold promise for accurate physical modeling and quantitative understanding of -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting. PMID:26970190

  2. A stochastic model of translation with -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Brenae L.; Visscher, Koen; Watkins, Joseph

    2014-02-01

    Many viruses produce multiple proteins from a single mRNA sequence by encoding overlapping genes. One mechanism to decode both genes, which reside in alternate reading frames, is -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting. Although recognized for over 25 years, the molecular and physical mechanism of -1 frameshifting remains poorly understood. We have developed a mathematical model that treats mRNA translation and associated -1 frameshifting as a stochastic process in which the transition probabilities are based on the energetics of local molecular interactions. The model predicts both the location and efficiency of -1 frameshift events in HIV-1. Moreover, we compute -1 frameshift efficiencies upon mutations in the viral mRNA sequence and variations in relative tRNA abundances, predictions that are directly testable in experiment.

  3. High frequency of +1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting in Euplotes octocarinatus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruanlin; Xiong, Jie; Wang, Wei; Miao, Wei; Liang, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    Programmed −1 ribosomal frameshifting (−1 PRF) has been identified as a mechanism to regulate the expression of many viral genes and some cellular genes. The slippery site of −1 PRF has been well characterized, whereas the +1 PRF signal and the mechanism involved in +1 PRF remain poorly understood. Previous study confirmed that +1 PRF is required for the synthesis of protein products in several genes of ciliates from the genus Euplotes. To accurately assess the frequency of genes requiring frameshift in Euplotes, the macronuclear genome and transcriptome of Euplotes octocarinatus were analyzed in this study. A total of 3,700 +1 PRF candidate genes were identified from 32,353 transcripts, and the gene products of these putative +1 PRFs were mainly identified as protein kinases. Furthermore, we reported a putative suppressor tRNA of UAA which may provide new insights into the mechanism of +1 PRF in euplotids. For the first time, our transcriptome-wide survey of +1 PRF in E. octocarinatus provided a dataset which serves as a valuable resource for the future understanding of the mechanism underlying +1 PRF. PMID:26891713

  4. FSscan: a mechanism-based program to identify +1 ribosomal frameshift hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Pei-Yu; Choi, Yong Seok; Lee, Kelvin H.

    2009-01-01

    In +1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF), ribosomes skip one nucleotide toward the 3′-end during translation. Most of the genes known to demonstrate +1 PRF have been discovered by chance or by searching homologous genes. Here, a bioinformatic framework called FSscan is developed to perform a systematic search for potential +1 frameshift sites in the Escherichia coli genome. Based on a current state of the art understanding of the mechanism of +1 PRF, FSscan calculates scores for a 16-nt window along a gene sequence according to different effects of the stimulatory signals, and ribosome E-, P- and A-site interactions. FSscan successfully identified the +1 PRF site in prfB and predicted yehP, pepP, nuoE and cheA as +1 frameshift candidates in the E. coli genome. Empirical results demonstrated that potential +1 frameshift sequences identified promoted significant levels of +1 frameshifting in vivo. Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the presence of the frameshifted proteins expressed from a yehP-egfp fusion construct. FSscan allows a genome-wide and systematic search for +1 frameshift sites in E. coli. The results have implications for bioinformatic identification of novel frameshift proteins, ribosomal frameshifting, coding sequence detection and the application of mass spectrometry on studying frameshift proteins. PMID:19783813

  5. Analysis of tetra- and hepta-nucleotides motifs promoting -1 ribosomal frameshifting in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Virag; Prère, Marie-Françoise; Canal, Isabelle; Firth, Andrew E.; Atkins, John F.; Baranov, Pavel V.; Fayet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Programmed ribosomal -1 frameshifting is a non-standard decoding process occurring when ribosomes encounter a signal embedded in the mRNA of certain eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes. This signal has a mandatory component, the frameshift motif: it is either a Z_ZZN tetramer or a X_XXZ_ZZN heptamer (where ZZZ and XXX are three identical nucleotides) allowing cognate or near-cognate repairing to the -1 frame of the A site or A and P sites tRNAs. Depending on the signal, the frameshifting frequency can vary over a wide range, from less than 1% to more than 50%. The present study combines experimental and bioinformatics approaches to carry out (i) a systematic analysis of the frameshift propensity of all possible motifs (16 Z_ZZN tetramers and 64 X_XXZ_ZZN heptamers) in Escherichia coli and (ii) the identification of genes potentially using this mode of expression amongst 36 Enterobacteriaceae genomes. While motif efficiency varies widely, a major distinctive rule of bacterial -1 frameshifting is that the most efficient motifs are those allowing cognate re-pairing of the A site tRNA from ZZN to ZZZ. The outcome of the genomic search is a set of 69 gene clusters, 59 of which constitute new candidates for functional utilization of -1 frameshifting. PMID:24875478

  6. Analysis of tetra- and hepta-nucleotides motifs promoting -1 ribosomal frameshifting in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Virag; Prère, Marie-Françoise; Canal, Isabelle; Firth, Andrew E; Atkins, John F; Baranov, Pavel V; Fayet, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    Programmed ribosomal -1 frameshifting is a non-standard decoding process occurring when ribosomes encounter a signal embedded in the mRNA of certain eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes. This signal has a mandatory component, the frameshift motif: it is either a Z_ZZN tetramer or a X_XXZ_ZZN heptamer (where ZZZ and XXX are three identical nucleotides) allowing cognate or near-cognate repairing to the -1 frame of the A site or A and P sites tRNAs. Depending on the signal, the frameshifting frequency can vary over a wide range, from less than 1% to more than 50%. The present study combines experimental and bioinformatics approaches to carry out (i) a systematic analysis of the frameshift propensity of all possible motifs (16 Z_ZZN tetramers and 64 X_XXZ_ZZN heptamers) in Escherichia coli and (ii) the identification of genes potentially using this mode of expression amongst 36 Enterobacteriaceae genomes. While motif efficiency varies widely, a major distinctive rule of bacterial -1 frameshifting is that the most efficient motifs are those allowing cognate re-pairing of the A site tRNA from ZZN to ZZZ. The outcome of the genomic search is a set of 69 gene clusters, 59 of which constitute new candidates for functional utilization of -1 frameshifting. PMID:24875478

  7. Multiple Cis-acting elements modulate programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting in Pea enation mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Simon, Anne E

    2016-01-29

    Programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (-1 PRF) is used by many positive-strand RNA viruses for translation of required products. Despite extensive studies, it remains unresolved how cis-elements just downstream of the recoding site promote a precise level of frameshifting. The Umbravirus Pea enation mosaic virus RNA2 expresses its RNA polymerase by -1 PRF of the 5'-proximal ORF (p33). Three hairpins located in the vicinity of the recoding site are phylogenetically conserved among Umbraviruses. The central Recoding Stimulatory Element (RSE), located downstream of the p33 termination codon, is a large hairpin with two asymmetric internal loops. Mutational analyses revealed that sequences throughout the RSE and the RSE lower stem (LS) structure are important for frameshifting. SHAPE probing of mutants indicated the presence of higher order structure, and sequences in the LS may also adapt an alternative conformation. Long-distance pairing between the RSE and a 3' terminal hairpin was less critical when the LS structure was stabilized. A basal level of frameshifting occurring in the absence of the RSE increases to 72% of wild-type when a hairpin upstream of the slippery site is also deleted. These results suggest that suppression of frameshifting may be needed in the absence of an active RSE conformation. PMID:26578603

  8. Multiple Cis-acting elements modulate programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting in Pea enation mosaic virus

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Simon, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (-1 PRF) is used by many positive-strand RNA viruses for translation of required products. Despite extensive studies, it remains unresolved how cis-elements just downstream of the recoding site promote a precise level of frameshifting. The Umbravirus Pea enation mosaic virus RNA2 expresses its RNA polymerase by -1 PRF of the 5′-proximal ORF (p33). Three hairpins located in the vicinity of the recoding site are phylogenetically conserved among Umbraviruses. The central Recoding Stimulatory Element (RSE), located downstream of the p33 termination codon, is a large hairpin with two asymmetric internal loops. Mutational analyses revealed that sequences throughout the RSE and the RSE lower stem (LS) structure are important for frameshifting. SHAPE probing of mutants indicated the presence of higher order structure, and sequences in the LS may also adapt an alternative conformation. Long-distance pairing between the RSE and a 3′ terminal hairpin was less critical when the LS structure was stabilized. A basal level of frameshifting occurring in the absence of the RSE increases to 72% of wild-type when a hairpin upstream of the slippery site is also deleted. These results suggest that suppression of frameshifting may be needed in the absence of an active RSE conformation. PMID:26578603

  9. Changed in translation: mRNA recoding by -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting.

    PubMed

    Caliskan, Neva; Peske, Frank; Rodnina, Marina V

    2015-05-01

    Programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (-1PRF) is an mRNA recoding event commonly utilized by viruses and bacteria to increase the information content of their genomes. Recent results have implicated -1PRF in quality control of mRNA and DNA stability in eukaryotes. Biophysical experiments demonstrated that the ribosome changes the reading frame while attempting to move over a slippery sequence of the mRNA--when a roadblock formed by a folded downstream segment in the mRNA stalls the ribosome in a metastable conformational state. The efficiency of -1PRF is modulated not only by cis-regulatory elements in the mRNA but also by trans-acting factors such as proteins, miRNAs, and antibiotics. These recent results suggest a molecular mechanism and new important cellular roles for -1PRF. PMID:25850333

  10. Stimulation of -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting by a metabolite-responsive RNA pseudoknot.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ming-Yuan; Lin, Szu-Chieh; Chang, Kung-Yao

    2010-06-01

    Specific recognition of metabolites by functional RNA motifs within mRNAs has emerged as a crucial regulatory strategy for feedback control of biochemical reactions. Such riboswitches have been demonstrated to regulate different gene expression processes, including transcriptional termination and translational initiation in prokaryotic cells, as well as splicing in eukaryotic cells. The regulatory process is usually mediated by modulating the accessibility of specific sequence information of the expression platforms via metabolite-induced RNA conformational rearrangement. In eukaryotic systems, viral and the more limited number of cellular decoding -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) are commonly promoted by a 3' mRNA pseudoknot. In addition, such -1 PRF is generally constitutive rather than being regulatory, and usually results in a fixed ratio of products. We report here an RNA pseudoknot capable of stimulating -1 PRF whose efficiency can be tuned in response to the concentration of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), and the improvement of its frameshifting efficiency by RNA engineering. In addition to providing an alternative approach for small-molecule regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic cells, such a metabolite-responsive pseudoknot suggests a plausible mechanism for metabolite-driven translational regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic systems. PMID:20435898

  11. Cell cycle control (and more) by programmed −1 ribosomal frameshifting: implications for disease and therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Belew, Ashton T; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Like most basic molecular mechanisms, programmed –1 ribosomal frameshifting (−1 PRF) was first identified in viruses. Early observations that global dysregulation of −1 PRF had deleterious effects on yeast cell growth suggested that −1 PRF may be used to control cellular gene expression, and the cell cycle in particular. Collection of sufficient numbers of viral −1 PRF signals coupled with advances in computer sciences enabled 2 complementary computational approaches to identify −1 PRF signals in free living organisms. The unexpected observation that almost all −1 PRF events on eukaryotic mRNAs direct ribosomes to premature termination codons engendered the hypothesis that −1 PRF signals post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by functioning as mRNA destabilizing elements. Emerging research suggests that some human diseases are associated with global defects in −1 PRF. The recent discovery of −1 PRF signal-specific trans-acting regulators may provide insight into novel therapeutic strategies aimed at treating diseases caused by changes in gene expression patterns. PMID:25584829

  12. Large-scale mass spectrometry-based analysis of Euplotes octocarinatus supports the high frequency of +1 programmed ribosomal frameshift

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruanlin; Zhang, Zhiyun; Du, Jun; Fu, Yuejun; Liang, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    Programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) is commonly used to express many viral and some cellular genes. We conducted a genome-wide investigation of +1 PRF in ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus through genome and transcriptome sequencing and our results demonstrated that approximately 11.4% of genes require +1 PRF to produce complete gene products. While nucleic acid-based evidence for candidate genes with +1 PRF is strong, only very limited information is available at protein levels to date. In this study, E. octocarinatus was subjected to large-scale mass spectrometry-based analysis to verify the high frequency of +1 PRF and 226 +1 PRF gene products were identified. Based on the amino acid sequences of the peptides spanning the frameshift sites, typical frameshift motif AAA-UAR for +1 PRF in Euplotes was identified. Our data in this study provide very useful insight into the understanding of the molecular mechanism of +1 PRF. PMID:27597422

  13. Large-scale mass spectrometry-based analysis of Euplotes octocarinatus supports the high frequency of +1 programmed ribosomal frameshift.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruanlin; Zhang, Zhiyun; Du, Jun; Fu, Yuejun; Liang, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    Programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) is commonly used to express many viral and some cellular genes. We conducted a genome-wide investigation of +1 PRF in ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus through genome and transcriptome sequencing and our results demonstrated that approximately 11.4% of genes require +1 PRF to produce complete gene products. While nucleic acid-based evidence for candidate genes with +1 PRF is strong, only very limited information is available at protein levels to date. In this study, E. octocarinatus was subjected to large-scale mass spectrometry-based analysis to verify the high frequency of +1 PRF and 226 +1 PRF gene products were identified. Based on the amino acid sequences of the peptides spanning the frameshift sites, typical frameshift motif AAA-UAR for +1 PRF in Euplotes was identified. Our data in this study provide very useful insight into the understanding of the molecular mechanism of +1 PRF. PMID:27597422

  14. Spacer-length dependence of programmed −1 or −2 ribosomal frameshifting on a U6A heptamer supports a role for messenger RNA (mRNA) tension in frameshifting

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhaoru; Gilbert, Robert J. C.; Brierley, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Programmed −1 ribosomal frameshifting is employed in the expression of a number of viral and cellular genes. In this process, the ribosome slips backwards by a single nucleotide and continues translation of an overlapping reading frame, generating a fusion protein. Frameshifting signals comprise a heptanucleotide slippery sequence, where the ribosome changes frame, and a stimulatory RNA structure, a stem–loop or RNA pseudoknot. Antisense oligonucleotides annealed appropriately 3′ of a slippery sequence have also shown activity in frameshifting, at least in vitro. Here we examined frameshifting at the U6A slippery sequence of the HIV gag/pol signal and found high levels of both −1 and −2 frameshifting with stem–loop, pseudoknot or antisense oligonucleotide stimulators. By examining −1 and −2 frameshifting outcomes on mRNAs with varying slippery sequence-stimulatory RNA spacing distances, we found that −2 frameshifting was optimal at a spacer length 1–2 nucleotides shorter than that optimal for −1 frameshifting with all stimulatory RNAs tested. We propose that the shorter spacer increases the tension on the mRNA such that when the tRNA detaches, it more readily enters the −2 frame on the U6A heptamer. We propose that mRNA tension is central to frameshifting, whether promoted by stem–loop, pseudoknot or antisense oligonucleotide stimulator. PMID:22743270

  15. The three transfer RNAs occupying the A, P and E sites on the ribosome are involved in viral programmed -1 ribosomal frameshift

    PubMed Central

    Léger, Mélissa; Dulude, Dominic; Steinberg, Sergey V.; Brakier-Gingras, Léa

    2007-01-01

    The -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifts (PRF), which are used by many viruses, occur at a heptanucleotide slippery sequence and are currently thought to involve the tRNAs interacting with the ribosomal P- and A-site codons. We investigated here whether the tRNA occupying the ribosomal E site that precedes a slippery site influences -1 PRF. Using the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) frameshift region, we found that mutating the E-site codon altered the -1 PRF efficiency. When the HIV-1 slippery sequence was replaced with other viral slippery sequences, mutating the E-site codon also altered the -1 PRF efficiency. Because HIV-1 -1 PRF can be recapitulated in bacteria, we used a bacterial ribosome system to select, by random mutagenesis, 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) mutations that modify the expression of a reporter requiring HIV-1 -1 PRF. Three mutants were isolated, which are located in helices 21 and 22 of 16S rRNA, a region involved in translocation and E-site tRNA binding. We propose a novel model where -1 PRF is triggered by an incomplete translocation and depends not only on the tRNAs interacting with the P- and A-site codons, but also on the tRNA occupying the E site. PMID:17704133

  16. A Genome-Wide Analysis of RNA Pseudoknots That Stimulate Efficient −1 Ribosomal Frameshifting or Readthrough in Animal Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qiang; Du, Zhihua

    2013-01-01

    Programmed −1 ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) and stop codon readthrough are two translational recoding mechanisms utilized by some RNA viruses to express their structural and enzymatic proteins at a defined ratio. Efficient recoding usually requires an RNA pseudoknot located several nucleotides downstream from the recoding site. To assess the strategic importance of the recoding pseudoknots, we have carried out a large scale genome-wide analysis in which we used an in-house developed program to detect all possible H-type pseudoknots within the genomic mRNAs of 81 animal viruses. Pseudoknots are detected downstream from ~85% of the recoding sites, including many previously unknown pseudoknots. ~78% of the recoding pseudoknots are the most stable pseudoknot within the viral genomes. However, they are not as strong as some designed pseudoknots that exhibit roadblocking effect on the translating ribosome. Strong roadblocking pseudoknots are not detected within the viral genomes. These results indicate that the decoding pseudoknots have evolved to possess optimal stability for efficient recoding. We also found that the sequence at the gag-pol frameshift junction of HIV1 harbors potential elaborated pseudoknots encompassing the frameshift site. A novel mechanism is proposed for possible involvement of the elaborated pseudoknots in the HIV1 PRF event. PMID:24298557

  17. Ribosomal pausing at a frameshifter RNA pseudoknot is sensitive to reading phase but shows little correlation with frameshift efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kontos, H; Napthine, S; Brierley, I

    2001-12-01

    Here we investigated ribosomal pausing at sites of programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting, using translational elongation and ribosome heelprint assays. The site of pausing at the frameshift signal of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was determined and was consistent with an RNA pseudoknot-induced pause that placed the ribosomal P- and A-sites over the slippery sequence. Similarly, pausing at the simian retrovirus 1 gag/pol signal, which contains a different kind of frameshifter pseudoknot, also placed the ribosome over the slippery sequence, supporting a role for pausing in frameshifting. However, a simple correlation between pausing and frameshifting was lacking. Firstly, a stem-loop structure closely related to the IBV pseudoknot, although unable to stimulate efficient frameshifting, paused ribosomes to a similar extent and at the same place on the mRNA as a parental pseudoknot. Secondly, an identical pausing pattern was induced by two pseudoknots differing only by a single loop 2 nucleotide yet with different functionalities in frameshifting. The final observation arose from an assessment of the impact of reading phase on pausing. Given that ribosomes advance in triplet fashion, we tested whether the reading frame in which ribosomes encounter an RNA structure (the reading phase) would influence pausing. We found that the reading phase did influence pausing but unexpectedly, the mRNA with the pseudoknot in the phase which gave the least pausing was found to promote frameshifting more efficiently than the other variants. Overall, these experiments support the view that pausing alone is insufficient to mediate frameshifting and additional events are required. The phase dependence of pausing may be indicative of an activity in the ribosome that requires an optimal contact with mRNA secondary structures for efficient unwinding. PMID:11713298

  18. Transactivation of programmed ribosomal frameshifting by a viral protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhua; Treffers, Emmely E; Napthine, Sawsan; Tas, Ali; Zhu, Longchao; Sun, Zhi; Bell, Susanne; Mark, Brian L; van Veelen, Peter A; van Hemert, Martijn J; Firth, Andrew E; Brierley, Ian; Snijder, Eric J; Fang, Ying

    2014-05-27

    Programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (-1 PRF) is a widely used translational mechanism facilitating the expression of two polypeptides from a single mRNA. Commonly, the ribosome interacts with an mRNA secondary structure that promotes -1 frameshifting on a homopolymeric slippery sequence. Recently, we described an unusual -2 frameshifting (-2 PRF) signal directing efficient expression of a transframe protein [nonstructural protein 2TF (nsp2TF)] of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from an alternative reading frame overlapping the viral replicase gene. Unusually, this arterivirus PRF signal lacks an obvious stimulatory RNA secondary structure, but as confirmed here, can also direct the occurrence of -1 PRF, yielding a third, truncated nsp2 variant named "nsp2N." Remarkably, we now show that both -2 and -1 PRF are transactivated by a protein factor, specifically a PRRSV replicase subunit (nsp1β). Embedded in nsp1β's papain-like autoproteinase domain, we identified a highly conserved, putative RNA-binding motif that is critical for PRF transactivation. The minimal RNA sequence required for PRF was mapped within a 34-nt region that includes the slippery sequence and a downstream conserved CCCANCUCC motif. Interaction of nsp1β with the PRF signal was demonstrated in pull-down assays. These studies demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that a protein can function as a transactivator of ribosomal frameshifting. The newly identified frameshifting determinants provide potential antiviral targets for arterivirus disease control and prevention. Moreover, protein-induced transactivation of frameshifting may be a widely used mechanism, potentially including previously undiscovered viral strategies to regulate viral gene expression and/or modulate host cell translation upon infection. PMID:24825891

  19. Nucleotide sequence of Zygosaccharomyces bailii virus Z: Evidence for +1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting and for assignment to family Amalgaviridae.

    PubMed

    Depierreux, Delphine; Vong, Minh; Nibert, Max L

    2016-06-01

    Zygosaccharomyces bailii virus Z (ZbV-Z) is a monosegmented dsRNA virus that infects the yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii and remains unclassified to date despite its discovery >20years ago. The previously reported nucleotide sequence of ZbV-Z (GenBank AF224490) encompasses two nonoverlapping long ORFs: upstream ORF1 encoding the putative coat protein and downstream ORF2 encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The lack of overlap between these ORFs raises the question of how the downstream ORF is translated. After examining the previous sequence of ZbV-Z, we predicted that it contains at least one sequencing error to explain the nonoverlapping ORFs, and hence we redetermined the nucleotide sequence of ZbV-Z, derived from the same isolate of Z. bailii as previously studied, to address this prediction. The key finding from our new sequence, which includes several insertions, deletions, and substitutions relative to the previous one, is that ORF2 in fact overlaps ORF1 in the +1 frame. Moreover, a proposed sequence motif for +1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting, previously noted in influenza A viruses, plant amalgaviruses, and others, is also present in the newly identified ORF1-ORF2 overlap region of ZbV-Z. Phylogenetic analyses provided evidence that ZbV-Z represents a distinct taxon most closely related to plant amalgaviruses (genus Amalgavirus, family Amalgaviridae). We conclude that ZbV-Z is the prototype of a new species, which we propose to assign as type species of a new genus of monosegmented dsRNA mycoviruses in family Amalgaviridae. Comparisons involving other unclassified mycoviruses with RdRps apparently related to those of plant amalgaviruses, and having either mono- or bisegmented dsRNA genomes, are also discussed. PMID:26951859

  20. Ribosomal frameshifting used in influenza A virus expression occurs within the sequence UCC_UUU_CGU and is in the +1 direction.

    PubMed

    Firth, A E; Jagger, B W; Wise, H M; Nelson, C C; Parsawar, K; Wills, N M; Napthine, S; Taubenberger, J K; Digard, P; Atkins, J F

    2012-10-01

    Programmed ribosomal frameshifting is used in the expression of many virus genes and some cellular genes. In eukaryotic systems, the most well-characterized mechanism involves -1 tandem tRNA slippage on an X_XXY_YYZ motif. By contrast, the mechanisms involved in programmed +1 (or -2) slippage are more varied and often poorly characterized. Recently, a novel gene, PA-X, was discovered in influenza A virus and found to be expressed via a shift to the +1 reading frame. Here, we identify, by mass spectrometric analysis, both the site (UCC_UUU_CGU) and direction (+1) of the frameshifting that is involved in PA-X expression. Related sites are identified in other virus genes that have previously been proposed to be expressed via +1 frameshifting. As these viruses infect insects (chronic bee paralysis virus), plants (fijiviruses and amalgamaviruses) and vertebrates (influenza A virus), such motifs may form a new class of +1 frameshift-inducing sequences that are active in diverse eukaryotes. PMID:23155484

  1. Ribosomal frameshifting used in influenza A virus expression occurs within the sequence UCC_UUU_CGU and is in the +1 direction

    PubMed Central

    Firth, A. E.; Jagger, B. W.; Wise, H. M.; Nelson, C. C.; Parsawar, K.; Wills, N. M.; Napthine, S.; Taubenberger, J. K.; Digard, P.; Atkins, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Programmed ribosomal frameshifting is used in the expression of many virus genes and some cellular genes. In eukaryotic systems, the most well-characterized mechanism involves –1 tandem tRNA slippage on an X_XXY_YYZ motif. By contrast, the mechanisms involved in programmed +1 (or −2) slippage are more varied and often poorly characterized. Recently, a novel gene, PA-X, was discovered in influenza A virus and found to be expressed via a shift to the +1 reading frame. Here, we identify, by mass spectrometric analysis, both the site (UCC_UUU_CGU) and direction (+1) of the frameshifting that is involved in PA-X expression. Related sites are identified in other virus genes that have previously been proposed to be expressed via +1 frameshifting. As these viruses infect insects (chronic bee paralysis virus), plants (fijiviruses and amalgamaviruses) and vertebrates (influenza A virus), such motifs may form a new class of +1 frameshift-inducing sequences that are active in diverse eukaryotes. PMID:23155484

  2. Crystal Structure of a Luteoviral RNA Pseudoknot and Model for a Minimal Ribosomal Frameshifting Motif

    SciTech Connect

    Pallan, Pradeep S.; Marshall, William S.; Harp, Joel; Jewett III, Frederic C.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Brown II, Bernard A.; Rich, Alexander; Egli, Martin

    2010-03-08

    To understand the role of structural elements of RNA pseudoknots in controlling the extent of -1-type ribosomal frameshifting, we determined the crystal structure of a high-efficiency frameshifting mutant of the pseudoknot from potato leaf roll virus (PLRV). Correlations of the structure with available in vitro frameshifting data for PLRV pseudoknot mutants implicate sequence and length of a stem-loop linker as modulators of frameshifting efficiency. Although the sequences and overall structures of the RNA pseudoknots from PLRV and beet western yellow virus (BWYV) are similar, nucleotide deletions in the linker and adjacent minor groove loop abolish frameshifting only with the latter. Conversely, mutant PLRV pseudoknots with up to four nucleotides deleted in this region exhibit nearly wild-type frameshifting efficiencies. The crystal structure helps rationalize the different tolerances for deletions in the PLRV and BWYV RNAs, and we have used it to build a three-dimensional model of the PRLV pseudoknot with a four-nucleotide deletion. The resulting structure defines a minimal RNA pseudoknot motif composed of 22 nucleotides capable of stimulating -1-type ribosomal frameshifts.

  3. A conserved predicted pseudoknot in the NS2A-encoding sequence of West Nile and Japanese encephalitis flaviviruses suggests NS1' may derive from ribosomal frameshifting

    PubMed Central

    Firth, Andrew E; Atkins, John F

    2009-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, Usutu and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses form a tight subgroup within the larger Flavivirus genus. These viruses utilize a single-polyprotein expression strategy, resulting in ~10 mature proteins. Plotting the conservation at synonymous sites along the polyprotein coding sequence reveals strong conservation peaks at the very 5' end of the coding sequence, and also at the 5' end of the sequence encoding the NS2A protein. Such peaks are generally indicative of functionally important non-coding sequence elements. The second peak corresponds to a predicted stable pseudoknot structure whose biological importance is supported by compensatory mutations that preserve the structure. The pseudoknot is preceded by a conserved slippery heptanucleotide (Y CCU UUU), thus forming a classical stimulatory motif for -1 ribosomal frameshifting. We hypothesize, therefore, that the functional importance of the pseudoknot is to stimulate a portion of ribosomes to shift -1 nt into a short (45 codon), conserved, overlapping open reading frame, termed foo. Since cleavage at the NS1-NS2A boundary is known to require synthesis of NS2A in cis, the resulting transframe fusion protein is predicted to be NS1-NS2AN-term-FOO. We hypothesize that this may explain the origin of the previously identified NS1 'extension' protein in JEV-group flaviviruses, known as NS1'. PMID:19196463

  4. Programmed Ribosomal Frameshifting Mediates Expression of the α-Carboxysome.

    PubMed

    Chaijarasphong, Thawatchai; Nichols, Robert J; Kortright, Kaitlyn E; Nixon, Charlotte F; Teng, Poh K; Oltrogge, Luke M; Savage, David F

    2016-01-16

    Many bacteria employ a protein organelle, the carboxysome, to catalyze carbon dioxide fixation in the Calvin Cycle. Only 10 genes from Halothiobacillus neapolitanus are sufficient for heterologous expression of carboxysomes in Escherichia coli, opening the door to detailed mechanistic analysis of the assembly process of this complex (more than 200MDa). One of these genes, csoS2, has been implicated in assembly but ascribing a molecular function is confounded by the observation that the single csoS2 gene yields expression of two gene products and both display an apparent molecular weight incongruent with the predicted amino acid sequence. Here, we elucidate the co-translational mechanism responsible for the expression of the two protein isoforms. Specifically, csoS2 was found to possess -1 frameshifting elements that lead to the production of the full-length protein, CsoS2B, and a truncated protein, CsoS2A, which possesses a C-terminus translated from the alternate frame. The frameshifting elements comprise both a ribosomal slippery sequence and a 3' secondary structure, and ablation of either sequence is sufficient to eliminate the slip. Using these mutants, we investigated the individual roles of CsoS2B and CsoS2A on carboxysome formation. In this in vivo formation assay, cells expressing only the CsoS2B isoform were capable of producing intact carboxysomes, while those with only CsoS2A were not. Thus, we have answered a long-standing question about the nature of CsoS2 in this model microcompartment and demonstrate that CsoS2B is functionally distinct from CsoS2A in the assembly of α-carboxysomes. PMID:26608811

  5. Structure and Function of the Ribosomal Frameshifting Pseudoknot RNA from Beet Western Yellow Virus

    SciTech Connect

    Egli, M.; Sarkhel, S.; Minasov, G.; Rich, A.

    2010-03-05

    Many viruses reprogram ribosomes to produce two different proteins from two different reading frames. So-called -1 frameshifting often involves pairwise alignment of two adjacent tRNAs at a 'slippery' sequence in the ribosomal A and P sites such that an overlapping codon is shifted upstream by one base relative to the zero frame. In the majority of cases, an RNA pseudoknot located downstream stimulates this type of frameshift. Crystal structures of the frameshifting RNA pseudoknot from Beet Western Yellow Virus (BWYV) have provided a detailed picture of the tertiary interactions stabilizing this folding motif, including a minor-groove triplex and quadruple-base interactions. The structure determined at atomic resolution revealed the locations of several magnesium ions and provided insights into the role of structured water stabilizing the RNA. Systematic in vitro and in vivo mutational analyses based on the structural results revealed specific tertiary interactions and regions in the pseudoknot that drastically change frameshifting efficiency. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of pseudoknot-mediated ribosomal frameshifting on the basis of the insights gained from structural and functional studies of the RNA pseudoknot from BWYV.

  6. Minor groove RNA triplex in the crystal structure of a ribosomal frameshifting viral pseudoknot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, L.; Chen, L.; Egli, M.; Berger, J. M.; Rich, A.

    1999-01-01

    Many viruses regulate translation of polycistronic mRNA using a -1 ribosomal frameshift induced by an RNA pseudoknot. A pseudoknot has two stems that form a quasi-continuous helix and two connecting loops. A 1.6 A crystal structure of the beet western yellow virus (BWYV) pseudoknot reveals rotation and a bend at the junction of the two stems. A loop base is inserted in the major groove of one stem with quadruple-base interactions. The second loop forms a new minor-groove triplex motif with the other stem, involving 2'-OH and triple-base interactions, as well as sodium ion coordination. Overall, the number of hydrogen bonds stabilizing the tertiary interactions exceeds the number involved in Watson-Crick base pairs. This structure will aid mechanistic analyses of ribosomal frameshifting.

  7. Translational recoding as a feedback controller: systems approaches reveal polyamine-specific effects on the antizyme ribosomal frameshift.

    PubMed

    Rato, Claudia; Amirova, Svetlana R; Bates, Declan G; Stansfield, Ian; Wallace, Heather M

    2011-06-01

    The antizyme protein, Oaz1, regulates synthesis of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine by controlling stability of the polyamine biosynthetic enzyme, ornithine decarboxylase. Antizyme mRNA translation depends upon a polyamine-stimulated +1 ribosomal frameshift, forming a complex negative feedback system in which the translational frameshifting event may be viewed in engineering terms as a feedback controller for intracellular polyamine concentrations. In this article, we present the first systems level study of the characteristics of this feedback controller, using an integrated experimental and modeling approach. Quantitative analysis of mutant yeast strains in which polyamine synthesis and interconversion were blocked revealed marked variations in frameshift responses to the different polyamines. Putrescine and spermine, but not spermidine, showed evidence of co-operative stimulation of frameshifting and the existence of multiple ribosome binding sites. Combinatorial polyamine treatments showed polyamines compete for binding to common ribosome sites. Using concepts from enzyme kinetics and control engineering, a mathematical model of the translational controller was developed to describe these complex ribosomal responses to combinatorial polyamine effects. Each one of a range of model predictions was successfully validated against experimental frameshift frequencies measured in S-adenosylmethionine-decarboxylase and antizyme mutants, as well as in the wild-type genetic background. PMID:21303766

  8. A novel role for poly(C) binding proteins in programmed ribosomal frameshifting

    PubMed Central

    Napthine, Sawsan; Treffers, Emmely E.; Bell, Susanne; Goodfellow, Ian; Fang, Ying; Firth, Andrew E.; Snijder, Eric J.; Brierley, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Translational control through programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) is exploited widely by viruses and increasingly documented in cellular genes. Frameshifting is induced by mRNA secondary structures that compromise ribosome fidelity during decoding of a heptanucleotide ‘slippery’ sequence. The nsp2 PRF signal of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is distinctive in directing both −2 and −1 PRF and in its requirement for a trans-acting protein factor, the viral replicase subunit nsp1β. Here we show that the the trans-activation of frameshifting is carried out by a protein complex composed of nsp1β and a cellular poly(C) binding protein (PCBP). From the results of in vitro translation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we demonstrate that a PCBP/nsp1β complex binds to a C-rich sequence downstream of the slippery sequence and here mimics the activity of a structured mRNA stimulator of PRF. This is the first description of a role for a trans-acting cellular protein in PRF. The discovery broadens the repertoire of activities associated with poly(C) binding proteins and prototypes a new class of virus–host interactions. PMID:27257056

  9. A novel role for poly(C) binding proteins in programmed ribosomal frameshifting.

    PubMed

    Napthine, Sawsan; Treffers, Emmely E; Bell, Susanne; Goodfellow, Ian; Fang, Ying; Firth, Andrew E; Snijder, Eric J; Brierley, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Translational control through programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) is exploited widely by viruses and increasingly documented in cellular genes. Frameshifting is induced by mRNA secondary structures that compromise ribosome fidelity during decoding of a heptanucleotide 'slippery' sequence. The nsp2 PRF signal of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is distinctive in directing both -2 and -1 PRF and in its requirement for a trans-acting protein factor, the viral replicase subunit nsp1β. Here we show that the the trans-activation of frameshifting is carried out by a protein complex composed of nsp1β and a cellular poly(C) binding protein (PCBP). From the results of in vitro translation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we demonstrate that a PCBP/nsp1β complex binds to a C-rich sequence downstream of the slippery sequence and here mimics the activity of a structured mRNA stimulator of PRF. This is the first description of a role for a trans-acting cellular protein in PRF. The discovery broadens the repertoire of activities associated with poly(C) binding proteins and prototypes a new class of virus-host interactions. PMID:27257056

  10. The highly conserved codon following the slippery sequence supports -1 frameshift efficiency at the HIV-1 frameshift site.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Suneeth F; Crowe-McAuliffe, Caillan; Graves, Ryan; Cardno, Tony S; McKinney, Cushla; Poole, Elizabeth S; Tate, Warren P

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 utilises -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting to translate structural and enzymatic domains in a defined proportion required for replication. A slippery sequence, U UUU UUA, and a stem-loop are well-defined RNA features modulating -1 frameshifting in HIV-1. The GGG glycine codon immediately following the slippery sequence (the 'intercodon') contributes structurally to the start of the stem-loop but has no defined role in current models of the frameshift mechanism, as slippage is inferred to occur before the intercodon has reached the ribosomal decoding site. This GGG codon is highly conserved in natural isolates of HIV. When the natural intercodon was replaced with a stop codon two different decoding molecules-eRF1 protein or a cognate suppressor tRNA-were able to access and decode the intercodon prior to -1 frameshifting. This implies significant slippage occurs when the intercodon is in the (perhaps distorted) ribosomal A site. We accommodate the influence of the intercodon in a model of frame maintenance versus frameshifting in HIV-1. PMID:25807539

  11. Efficient -2 frameshifting by mammalian ribosomes to synthesize an additional arterivirus protein.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ying; Treffers, Emmely E; Li, Yanhua; Tas, Ali; Sun, Zhi; van der Meer, Yvonne; de Ru, Arnoud H; van Veelen, Peter A; Atkins, John F; Snijder, Eric J; Firth, Andrew E

    2012-10-23

    Programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (-1 PRF) is a gene-expression mechanism used to express many viral and some cellular genes. In contrast, efficient natural utilization of -2 PRF has not been demonstrated previously in eukaryotic systems. Like all nidoviruses, members of the Arteriviridae (a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses) express their replicase polyproteins pp1a and pp1ab from two long ORFs (1a and 1b), where synthesis of pp1ab depends on -1 PRF. These polyproteins are posttranslationally cleaved into at least 13 functional nonstructural proteins. Here we report that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and apparently most other arteriviruses, use an additional PRF mechanism to access a conserved alternative ORF that overlaps the nsp2-encoding region of ORF1a in the +1 frame. We show here that this ORF is translated via -2 PRF at a conserved G_GUU_UUU sequence (underscores separate ORF1a codons) at an estimated efficiency of around 20%, yielding a transframe fusion (nsp2TF) with the N-terminal two thirds of nsp2. Expression of nsp2TF in PRRSV-infected cells was verified using specific Abs, and the site and direction of frameshifting were determined via mass spectrometric analysis of nsp2TF. Further, mutagenesis showed that the frameshift site and an unusual frameshift-stimulatory element (a conserved CCCANCUCC motif 11 nucleotides downstream) are required to direct efficient -2 PRF. Mutations preventing nsp2TF expression impair PRRSV replication and produce a small-plaque phenotype. Our findings demonstrate that -2 PRF is a functional gene-expression mechanism in eukaryotes and add another layer to the complexity of arterivirus genome expression. PMID:23043113

  12. Programmed -1 frameshifting by kinetic partitioning during impeded translocation.

    PubMed

    Caliskan, Neva; Katunin, Vladimir I; Belardinelli, Riccardo; Peske, Frank; Rodnina, Marina V

    2014-06-19

    Programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (-1PRF) is an mRNA recoding event utilized by cells to enhance the information content of the genome and to regulate gene expression. The mechanism of -1PRF and its timing during translation elongation are unclear. Here, we identified the steps that govern -1PRF by following the stepwise movement of the ribosome through the frameshifting site of a model mRNA derived from the IBV 1a/1b gene in a reconstituted in vitro translation system from Escherichia coli. Frameshifting occurs at a late stage of translocation when the two tRNAs are bound to adjacent slippery sequence codons of the mRNA. The downstream pseudoknot in the mRNA impairs the closing movement of the 30S subunit head, the dissociation of EF-G, and the release of tRNA from the ribosome. The slippage of the ribosome into the -1 frame accelerates the completion of translocation, thereby further favoring translation in the new reading frame. PMID:24949973

  13. Ribosomal frameshifting and transcriptional slippage: From genetic steganography and cryptography to adventitious use

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, John F.; Loughran, Gary; Bhatt, Pramod R.; Firth, Andrew E.; Baranov, Pavel V.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic decoding is not ‘frozen’ as was earlier thought, but dynamic. One facet of this is frameshifting that often results in synthesis of a C-terminal region encoded by a new frame. Ribosomal frameshifting is utilized for the synthesis of additional products, for regulatory purposes and for translational ‘correction’ of problem or ‘savior’ indels. Utilization for synthesis of additional products occurs prominently in the decoding of mobile chromosomal element and viral genomes. One class of regulatory frameshifting of stable chromosomal genes governs cellular polyamine levels from yeasts to humans. In many cases of productively utilized frameshifting, the proportion of ribosomes that frameshift at a shift-prone site is enhanced by specific nascent peptide or mRNA context features. Such mRNA signals, which can be 5′ or 3′ of the shift site or both, can act by pairing with ribosomal RNA or as stem loops or pseudoknots even with one component being 4 kb 3′ from the shift site. Transcriptional realignment at slippage-prone sequences also generates productively utilized products encoded trans-frame with respect to the genomic sequence. This too can be enhanced by nucleic acid structure. Together with dynamic codon redefinition, frameshifting is one of the forms of recoding that enriches gene expression. PMID:27436286

  14. Ribosomal frameshifting and transcriptional slippage: From genetic steganography and cryptography to adventitious use.

    PubMed

    Atkins, John F; Loughran, Gary; Bhatt, Pramod R; Firth, Andrew E; Baranov, Pavel V

    2016-09-01

    Genetic decoding is not 'frozen' as was earlier thought, but dynamic. One facet of this is frameshifting that often results in synthesis of a C-terminal region encoded by a new frame. Ribosomal frameshifting is utilized for the synthesis of additional products, for regulatory purposes and for translational 'correction' of problem or 'savior' indels. Utilization for synthesis of additional products occurs prominently in the decoding of mobile chromosomal element and viral genomes. One class of regulatory frameshifting of stable chromosomal genes governs cellular polyamine levels from yeasts to humans. In many cases of productively utilized frameshifting, the proportion of ribosomes that frameshift at a shift-prone site is enhanced by specific nascent peptide or mRNA context features. Such mRNA signals, which can be 5' or 3' of the shift site or both, can act by pairing with ribosomal RNA or as stem loops or pseudoknots even with one component being 4 kb 3' from the shift site. Transcriptional realignment at slippage-prone sequences also generates productively utilized products encoded trans-frame with respect to the genomic sequence. This too can be enhanced by nucleic acid structure. Together with dynamic codon redefinition, frameshifting is one of the forms of recoding that enriches gene expression. PMID:27436286

  15. Evidence for ribosomal frameshifting and a novel overlapping gene in the genomes of insect-specific flaviviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Firth, Andrew E.; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Wills, Norma M.; Miller, Cathy L.; Atkins, John F.

    2010-03-30

    Flaviviruses have a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of approx11 kb, encoding a large polyprotein that is cleaved to produce approx10 mature proteins. Cell fusing agent virus, Kamiti River virus, Culex flavivirus and several recently discovered flaviviruses have no known vertebrate host and apparently infect only insects. We present compelling bioinformatic evidence for a 253-295 codon overlapping gene (designated fifo) conserved throughout these insect-specific flaviviruses and immunofluorescent detection of its product. Fifo overlaps the NS2A/NS2B coding sequence in the - 1/+ 2 reading frame and is most likely expressed as a trans-frame fusion protein via ribosomal frameshifting at a conserved GGAUUUY slippery heptanucleotide with 3'-adjacent RNA secondary structure (which stimulates efficient frameshifting in vitro). The discovery bears striking parallels to the recently discovered ribosomal frameshifting site in the NS2A coding sequence of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup of flaviviruses and suggests that programmed ribosomal frameshifting may be more widespread in flaviviruses than currently realized.

  16. RNA dimerization plays a role in ribosomal frameshifting of the SARS coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Ishimaru, Daniella; Plant, Ewan P.; Sims, Amy C.; Yount, Boyd L.; Roth, Braden M.; Eldho, Nadukkudy V.; Pérez-Alvarado, Gabriela C.; Armbruster, David W.; Baric, Ralph S.; Dinman, Jonathan D.; Taylor, Deborah R.; Hennig, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    Messenger RNA encoded signals that are involved in programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (-1 PRF) are typically two-stemmed hairpin (H)-type pseudoknots (pks). We previously described an unusual three-stemmed pseudoknot from the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV) that stimulated -1 PRF. The conserved existence of a third stem–loop suggested an important hitherto unknown function. Here we present new information describing structure and function of the third stem of the SARS pseudoknot. We uncovered RNA dimerization through a palindromic sequence embedded in the SARS-CoV Stem 3. Further in vitro analysis revealed that SARS-CoV RNA dimers assemble through ‘kissing’ loop–loop interactions. We also show that loop–loop kissing complex formation becomes more efficient at physiological temperature and in the presence of magnesium. When the palindromic sequence was mutated, in vitro RNA dimerization was abolished, and frameshifting was reduced from 15 to 5.7%. Furthermore, the inability to dimerize caused by the silent codon change in Stem 3 of SARS-CoV changed the viral growth kinetics and affected the levels of genomic and subgenomic RNA in infected cells. These results suggest that the homodimeric RNA complex formed by the SARS pseudoknot occurs in the cellular environment and that loop–loop kissing interactions involving Stem 3 modulate -1 PRF and play a role in subgenomic and full-length RNA synthesis. PMID:23275571

  17. Ribosomal frameshifting and dual-target antiactivation restrict quorum-sensing–activated transfer of a mobile genetic element

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Joshua P.; Tester, Laura G. L.; Major, Anthony S.; Sullivan, John T.; Edgar, Christina D.; Kleffmann, Torsten; Patterson-House, Jackson R.; Hall, Drew A.; Tate, Warren P.; Hynes, Michael F.; Ronson, Clive W.

    2015-01-01

    Symbiosis islands are integrative and conjugative mobile genetic elements that convert nonsymbiotic rhizobia into nitrogen-fixing symbionts of leguminous plants. Excision of the Mesorhizobium loti symbiosis island ICEMlSymR7A is indirectly activated by quorum sensing through TraR-dependent activation of the excisionase gene rdfS. Here we show that a +1 programmed ribosomal frameshift (PRF) fuses the coding sequences of two TraR-activated genes, msi172 and msi171, producing an activator of rdfS expression named Frameshifted excision activator (FseA). Mass-spectrometry and mutational analyses indicated that the PRF occurred through +1 slippage of the tRNAphe from UUU to UUC within a conserved msi172-encoded motif. FseA activated rdfS expression in the absence of ICEMlSymR7A, suggesting that it directly activated rdfS transcription, despite being unrelated to any characterized DNA-binding proteins. Bacterial two-hybrid and gene-reporter assays demonstrated that FseA was also bound and inhibited by the ICEMlSymR7A-encoded quorum-sensing antiactivator QseM. Thus, activation of ICEMlSymR7A excision is counteracted by TraR antiactivation, ribosomal frameshifting, and FseA antiactivation. This robust suppression likely dampens the inherent biological noise present in the quorum-sensing autoinduction circuit and ensures that ICEMlSymR7A transfer only occurs in a subpopulation of cells in which both qseM expression is repressed and FseA is translated. The architecture of the ICEMlSymR7A transfer regulatory system provides an example of how a set of modular components have assembled through evolution to form a robust genetic toggle that regulates gene transcription and translation at both single-cell and cell-population levels. PMID:25787256

  18. Orsay virus utilizes ribosomal frameshifting to express a novel protein that is incorporated into virions

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Hongbing; Franz, Carl J.; Wu, Guang; Renshaw, Hilary; Zhao, Guoyan; Firth, Andrew E.; Wang, David

    2014-02-15

    Orsay virus is the first identified virus that is capable of naturally infecting Caenorhabditis elegans. Although it is most closely related to nodaviruses, Orsay virus differs from nodaviruses in its genome organization. In particular, the Orsay virus RNA2 segment encodes a putative novel protein of unknown function, termed delta, which is absent from all known nodaviruses. Here we present evidence that Orsay virus utilizes a ribosomal frameshifting strategy to express a novel fusion protein from the viral capsid (alpha) and delta ORFs. Moreover, the fusion protein was detected in purified virus fractions, demonstrating that it is most likely incorporated into Orsay virions. Furthermore, N-terminal sequencing of both the fusion protein and the capsid protein demonstrated that these proteins must be translated from a non-canonical initiation site. While the function of the alpha–delta fusion remains cryptic, these studies provide novel insights into the fundamental properties of this new clade of viruses. - Highlights: • Orsay virus encodes a novel fusion protein by a ribosomal frameshifting mechanism. • Orsay capsid and fusion protein is translated from a non-canonical initiation site. • The fusion protein is likely incorporated into Orsay virions.

  19. Ribosomal frameshifting in the CCR5 mRNA is regulated by miRNAs and the NMD pathway

    PubMed Central

    Belew, Ashton Trey; Meskauskas, Arturas; Musalgaonkar, Sharmishtha; Advani, Vivek M.; Sulima, Sergey O.; Kasprzak, Wojciech K.; Shapiro, Bruce A.; Dinman, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Programmed –1 ribosomal frameshift (–1 PRF) signals redirect translating ribosomes to slip back one base on messenger RNAs. Although well characterized in viruses, how these elements may regulate cellular gene expression is not understood. Here we describe a –1 PRF signal in the human mRNA encoding CCR5, the HIV-1 co-receptor. CCR5 mRNA-mediated –1 PRF is directed by an mRNA pseudoknot, and is stimulated by at least two microRNAs. Mapping the mRNA–miRNA interaction suggests that formation of a triplex RNA structure stimulates –1 PRF. A –1 PRF event on the CCR5 mRNA directs translating ribosomes to a premature termination codon, destabilizing it through the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. At least one additional mRNA decay pathway is also involved. Functional –1 PRF signals that seem to be regulated by miRNAs are also demonstrated in mRNAs encoding six other cytokine receptors, suggesting a novel mode through which immune responses may be fine-tuned in mammalian cells. PMID:25043019

  20. Competing pathways control host resistance to virus via tRNA modification and programmed ribosomal frameshifting.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Nathaniel D; Macklin, Derek N; Kirkegaard, Karla; Covert, Markus W

    2012-01-01

    Viral infection depends on a complex interplay between host and viral factors. Here, we link host susceptibility to viral infection to a network encompassing sulfur metabolism, tRNA modification, competitive binding, and programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF). We first demonstrate that the iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis pathway in Escherichia coli exerts a protective effect during lambda phage infection, while a tRNA thiolation pathway enhances viral infection. We show that tRNA(Lys) uridine 34 modification inhibits PRF to influence the ratio of lambda phage proteins gpG and gpGT. Computational modeling and experiments suggest that the role of the iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis pathway in infection is indirect, via competitive binding of the shared sulfur donor IscS. Based on the universality of many key components of this network, in both the host and the virus, we anticipate that these findings may have broad relevance to understanding other infections, including viral infection of humans. PMID:22294093

  1. Silencing quorum sensing and ICE mobility through antiactivation and ribosomal frameshifting

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Joshua P; Ronson, Clive W

    2015-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements run an evolutionary gauntlet to maintain their mobility in the face of selection against their selfish dissemination but, paradoxically, they can accelerate the adaptability of bacteria through the gene-transfer events that they facilitate. These temporally conflicting evolutionary forces have shaped exquisite regulation systems that silence mobility and maximize the competitive fitness of the host bacterium, but maintain the ability of the element to deliver itself to a new host should the opportunity arise. Here we review the excision regulation system of the Mesorhizobium loti symbiosis island ICEMlSymR7A, a 502-kb integrative and conjugative element (ICE) capable of converting non-symbiotic mesorhizobia into plant symbionts. ICEMlSymR7A excision is activated by quorum sensing, however, both quorum sensing and excision are strongly repressed in the vast majority of cells by dual-target antiactivation and programmed ribosomal-frameshifting mechanisms. We examine these recently discovered regulatory features under the light of natural selection and discuss common themes that can be drawn from recent developments in ICE biology. PMID:26942047

  2. Yeast telomere maintenance is globally controlled by programmed ribosomal frameshifting and the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway

    PubMed Central

    Advani, Vivek M.; Belew, Ashton T.; Dinman, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that ~10% of all eukaryotic mRNAs contain potential programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (-1 PRF) signals and that some function as mRNA destabilizing elements through the Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay (NMD) pathway by directing translating ribosomes to premature termination codons. Here, the connection between -1 PRF, NMD and telomere end maintenance are explored. Functional -1 PRF signals were identified in the mRNAs encoding two components of yeast telomerase, EST1 and EST2, and in mRNAs encoding proteins involved in recruiting telomerase to chromosome ends, STN1 and CDC13. All of these elements responded to mutants and drugs previously known to stimulate or inhibit -1 PRF, further supporting the hypothesis that they promote -1 PRF through the canonical mechanism. All affected the steady-state abundance of a reporter mRNA and the wide range of -1 PRF efficiencies promoted by these elements enabled the determination of an inverse logarithmic relationship between -1 PRF efficiency and mRNA accumulation. Steady-state abundances of the endogenous EST1, EST2, STN1 and CDC13 mRNAs were similarly inversely proportional to changes in -1 PRF efficiency promoted by mutants and drugs, supporting the hypothesis that expression of these genes is post-transcriptionally controlled by -1 PRF under native conditions. Overexpression of EST2 by ablation of -1 PRF signals or inhibition of NMD promoted formation of shorter telomeres and accumulation of large budded cells at the G2/M boundary. A model  is presented describing how limitation and maintenance of correct stoichiometries of telomerase components by -1 PRF is used to maintain yeast telomere length. PMID:24563826

  3. A general strategy to inhibiting viral -1 frameshifting based on upstream attenuation duplex formation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hao-Teng; Cho, Che-Pei; Lin, Ya-Hui; Chang, Kung-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Viral -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) as a potential antiviral target has attracted interest because many human viral pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and coronaviruses, rely on -1 PRF for optimal propagation. Efficient eukaryotic -1 PRF requires an optimally placed stimulator structure downstream of the frameshifting site and different strategies targeting viral -1 PRF stimulators have been developed. However, accessing particular -1 PRF stimulator information represents a bottle-neck in combating the emerging epidemic viral pathogens such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Recently, an RNA hairpin upstream of frameshifting site was shown to act as a cis-element to attenuate -1 PRF with mechanism unknown. Here, we show that an upstream duplex formed in-trans, by annealing an antisense to its complementary mRNA sequence upstream of frameshifting site, can replace an upstream hairpin to attenuate -1 PRF efficiently. This finding indicates that the formation of a proximal upstream duplex is the main determining factor responsible for -1 PRF attenuation and provides mechanistic insight. Additionally, the antisense-mediated upstream duplex approach downregulates -1 PRF stimulated by distinct -1 PRF stimulators, including those of MERS-CoV, suggesting its general application potential as a robust means to evaluating viral -1 PRF inhibition as soon as the sequence information of an emerging human coronavirus is available. PMID:26612863

  4. A general strategy to inhibiting viral −1 frameshifting based on upstream attenuation duplex formation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hao-Teng; Cho, Che-Pei; Lin, Ya-Hui; Chang, Kung-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Viral −1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) as a potential antiviral target has attracted interest because many human viral pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and coronaviruses, rely on −1 PRF for optimal propagation. Efficient eukaryotic −1 PRF requires an optimally placed stimulator structure downstream of the frameshifting site and different strategies targeting viral −1 PRF stimulators have been developed. However, accessing particular −1 PRF stimulator information represents a bottle-neck in combating the emerging epidemic viral pathogens such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Recently, an RNA hairpin upstream of frameshifting site was shown to act as a cis-element to attenuate −1 PRF with mechanism unknown. Here, we show that an upstream duplex formed in-trans, by annealing an antisense to its complementary mRNA sequence upstream of frameshifting site, can replace an upstream hairpin to attenuate −1 PRF efficiently. This finding indicates that the formation of a proximal upstream duplex is the main determining factor responsible for −1 PRF attenuation and provides mechanistic insight. Additionally, the antisense-mediated upstream duplex approach downregulates −1 PRF stimulated by distinct −1 PRF stimulators, including those of MERS-CoV, suggesting its general application potential as a robust means to evaluating viral −1 PRF inhibition as soon as the sequence information of an emerging human coronavirus is available. PMID:26612863

  5. A cis-acting element in retroviral genomic RNA links Gag-Pol ribosomal frameshifting to selective viral RNA encapsidation

    PubMed Central

    Chamanian, Mastooreh; Purzycka, Katarzyna J.; Wille, Paul T.; Ha, Janice S.; McDonald, David; Gao, Yong; Le Grice, Stuart F.J.; Arts, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY During retroviral RNA encapsidation two full length genomic (g) RNAs are selectively incorporated into assembling virions. Packaging involves a cis-acting packaging element (ψ) within the 5'-untranslated region of unspliced HIV-1 RNA genome. However, the mechanism(s) that selects and limits gRNAs for packaging remains uncertain. Using a dual complementation system involving bipartite HIV-1 gRNA, we observed that gRNA packaging is additionally dependent on a cis-acting RNA element, the Genomic RNA Packaging Enhancer (GRPE), found within the gag p1–p6 domain and overlapping the Gag-Pol ribosomal frameshift signal. Deleting or disrupting the two conserved GRPE stem-loops diminished gRNA packaging and infectivity >50-fold, while deleting gag sequences between ψ and GRPE had no effect. Downregulating the translation termination factor eRF1 produces defective virus particles containing 20-times more gRNA. Thus, only the HIV-1 RNAs employed for Gag-Pol translation may be specifically selected for encapsidation, possibly explaining the limitation of two gRNAs per virion. PMID:23414758

  6. Structural and Functional Characterization of Programmed Ribosomal Frameshift Signals in West Nile Virus Strains Reveals High Structural Plasticity Among cis-Acting RNA Elements.

    PubMed

    Moomau, Christine; Musalgaonkar, Sharmishtha; Khan, Yousuf A; Jones, John E; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2016-07-22

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a prototypical emerging virus for which no effective therapeutics currently exist. WNV uses programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (-1 PRF) to synthesize the NS1' protein, a C terminally extended version of its non-structural protein 1, the expression of which enhances neuro-invasiveness and viral RNA abundance. Here, the NS1' frameshift signals derived from four WNV strains were investigated to better understand -1 PRF in this quasispecies. Sequences previously predicted to promote -1 PRF strongly promote this activity, but frameshifting was significantly more efficient upon inclusion of additional 3' sequence information. The observation of different rates of -1 PRF, and by inference differences in the expression of NS1', may account for the greater degrees of pathogenesis associated with specific WNV strains. Chemical modification and mutational analyses of the longer and shorter forms of the -1 PRF signals suggests dynamic structural rearrangements between tandem stem-loop and mRNA pseudoknot structures in two of the strains. A model is suggested in which this is employed as a molecular switch to fine tune the relative expression of structural to non-structural proteins during different phases of the viral replication cycle. PMID:27226636

  7. Ribosomal frameshifting during translation of measles virus P protein mRNA is capable of directing synthesis of a unique protein.

    PubMed Central

    Liston, P; Briedis, D J

    1995-01-01

    Members of the Paramyxoviridae family utilize a variety of different strategies to increase coding capacity within their P cistrons. Translation initiation at alternative 5'-proximal AUG codons is used by measles virus (MV) to express the virus-specific P and C proteins from overlapping reading frames on their mRNAs. Additional species of mRNAs are transcribed from the MV P cistron by the insertion of extra nontemplated G residues at a specific site within the P transcript. Addition of only a single nontemplated G residue results in the expression of the V protein, which contains a unique carboxyl terminus. We have used an Escherichia coli system to express MV P cistron-related mRNAs and proteins. We have found that ribosomal frameshifting on the MV P protein mRNA is capable of generating a previously unrecognized P cistron-encoded protein that we have designated R. Some ribosomes which have initiated translation of the P protein mRNA use the sequence TCC CCG AG (24 nucleotides upstream of the V protein stop codon) to slip into the -1 reading frame, thus translating the sequence as TC CCC GAG. The resulting R protein terminates five codons downstream of the frameshift site at the V protein stop codon. We have gone on to use a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter system to demonstrate that this MV-specific sequence is capable of directing frameshifting during in vivo translation in eukaryotic cells. Analysis of immunoprecipitated proteins from MV-infected cells by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis allowed detection of a protein species consistent with R protein in MV-infected cells. Quantitation of this protein species allowed a rough estimation of frameshift frequency of approximately 1.8%. Significant stimulation of ribosomal frameshift frequency at this locus of the MV P mRNA was mediated by a downstream stimulator element which, although not yet fully defined, appeared to be neither a conventional stem-loop nor an RNA pseudoknot structure. PMID:7474085

  8. Evolution of +1 programmed frameshifting signals and frameshift-regulating tRNAs in the order Saccharomycetales.

    PubMed

    Farabaugh, Philip J; Kramer, Emily; Vallabhaneni, Haritha; Raman, Ana

    2006-10-01

    Programmed translational frameshifting is a ubiquitous but rare mechanism of gene expression in which mRNA sequences cause the translational machinery to shift reading frames with extreme efficiency, up to at least 50%. The mRNA sequences responsible are deceptively simple; the sequence CUU-AGG-C causes about 40% frameshifting when inserted into an mRNA in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The high efficiency of this site depends on a set of S. cerevisiae tRNA isoacceptors that perturb the mechanism of translation to cause the programmed translational error. The simplicity of the system might suggest that it could evolve frequently and perhaps be lost as easily. We have investigated the history of programmed +1 frameshifting in fungi. We find that frameshifting has persisted in two structural genes in budding yeasts, ABP140 and EST3 for about 150 million years. Further, the tRNAs that stimulate the event are equally old. Species that diverged from the lineage earlier both do not employ frameshifting and have a different complement of tRNAs predicted to be inimical to frameshifting. The stability of the coevolution of protein coding genes and tRNAs suggests that frameshifting has been selected for during the divergence of these species. PMID:16838213

  9. Adjustable under-expression of yeast mating pathway proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a programmed ribosomal frameshift.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Yeon; Park, Sang-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Experimental research in molecular biology frequently relies on the promotion or suppression of gene expression, an important tool in the study of its functions. Although yeast is among the most studied model systems with the ease of maintenance and manipulation, current experimental methods are mostly limited to gene deletion, suppression or overexpression of genes. Therefore, the ability to reduce protein expressions and then observing the effects would promote a better understanding of the exact functions and their interactions. Reducing protein expression is mainly limited by the difficulties associated with controlling the reduction level, and in some cases, the initial endogenous abundance is too low. For the under-expression to be useful as an experimental tool, repeatability and stability of reduced expression is important. We found that cis-elements in programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting (-1RFS) of beet western yellow virus (BWYV) could be utilized to reduced protein expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The two main advantages of using -1RFS are adjustable reduction rates and ease of use. To demonstrate the utility of this under-expression system, examples of reduced protein abundance were shown using yeast mating pathway components. The abundance of MAP kinase Fus3 was reduced to approximately 28-75 % of the wild-type value. Other MAP kinase mating pathway components, including Ste5, Ste11, and Ste7, were also under-expressed to verify that the -1RFS system works with different proteins. Furthermore, reduced Fus3 abundance altered the overall signal transduction outcome of the mating pathway, demonstrating the potential for further studies of signal transduction adjustment via under-expression. PMID:26837218

  10. Programmed Ribosomal Frameshift Alters Expression of West Nile Virus Genes and Facilitates Virus Replication in Birds and Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Du, Fangyao; Owens, Nick; Bosco-Lauth, Angela M.; Nagasaki, Tomoko; Rudd, Stephen; Brault, Aaron C.; Bowen, Richard A.; Hall, Roy A.; van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Khromykh, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a human pathogen of significant medical importance with close to 40,000 cases of encephalitis and more than 1,600 deaths reported in the US alone since its first emergence in New York in 1999. Previous studies identified a motif in the beginning of non-structural gene NS2A of encephalitic flaviviruses including WNV which induces programmed −1 ribosomal frameshift (PRF) resulting in production of an additional NS protein NS1′. We have previously demonstrated that mutant WNV with abolished PRF was attenuated in mice. Here we have extended our previous observations by showing that PRF does not appear to have a significant role in virus replication, virion formation, and viral spread in several cell lines in vitro. However, we have also shown that PRF induces an over production of structural proteins over non-structural proteins in virus-infected cells and that mutation abolishing PRF is present in ∼11% of the wild type virus population. In vivo experiments in house sparrows using wild type and PRF mutant of New York 99 strain of WNV viruses showed some attenuation for the PRF mutant virus. Moreover, PRF mutant of Kunjin strain of WNV showed significant decrease compared to wild type virus infection in dissemination of the virus from the midgut through the haemocoel, and ultimately the capacity of infected mosquitoes to transmit virus. Thus our results demonstrate an important role for PRF in regulating expression of viral genes and consequently virus replication in avian and mosquito hosts. PMID:25375107

  11. An Expanded CAG Repeat in Huntingtin Causes +1 Frameshifting.

    PubMed

    Saffert, Paul; Adamla, Frauke; Schieweck, Rico; Atkins, John F; Ignatova, Zoya

    2016-08-26

    Maintenance of triplet decoding is crucial for the expression of functional protein because deviations either into the -1 or +1 reading frames are often non-functional. We report here that expression of huntingtin (Htt) exon 1 with expanded CAG repeats, implicated in Huntington pathology, undergoes a sporadic +1 frameshift to generate from the CAG repeat a trans-frame AGC repeat-encoded product. This +1 recoding is exclusively detected in pathological Htt variants, i.e. those with expanded repeats with more than 35 consecutive CAG codons. An atypical +1 shift site, UUC C at the 5' end of CAG repeats, which has some resemblance to the influenza A virus shift site, triggers the +1 frameshifting and is enhanced by the increased propensity of the expanded CAG repeats to form a stem-loop structure. The +1 trans-frame-encoded product can directly influence the aggregation of the parental Htt exon 1. PMID:27382061

  12. Net -1 frameshifting on a noncanonical sequence in a herpes simplex virus drug-resistant mutant is stimulated by nonstop mRNA.

    PubMed

    Pan, Dongli; Coen, Donald M

    2012-09-11

    Ribosomal frameshifting entails slippage of the translational machinery during elongation. Frameshifting permits expression of more than one polypeptide from an otherwise monocistronic mRNA, and can restore expression of polypeptides in the face of frameshift mutations. A common mutation conferring acyclovir resistance in patients with herpes simplex virus disease deletes one cytosine from a run of six cytosines (C-chord) in the viral thymidine kinase (tk) gene. However, this mutation does not abolish TK activity, which is important for pathogenicity. To investigate how this mutant retains TK activity, we engineered and analyzed viruses expressing epitope-tagged TK. We found that the mutant's TK activity can be accounted for by low levels of full-length TK polypeptide produced by net -1 frameshifting during translation. The efficiency of frameshifting was relatively high, 3-5%, as the polypeptide from the reading frame generated by the deletion, which lacks stop codons (nonstop), was poorly expressed mainly because of inefficient protein synthesis. Stop codons introduced into this reading frame greatly increased its expression, but greatly decreased the level of full-length TK, indicating that frameshifting is strongly stimulated by a new mechanism, nonstop mRNA, which we hypothesize involves stalling of ribosomes on the polyA tail. Mutational studies indicated that frameshifting occurs on or near the C-chord, a region lacking a canonical slippery sequence. Nonstop stimulation of frameshifting also occurred when the C-chord was replaced with a canonical slippery sequence from HIV. This mechanism thus permits biologically and clinically relevant TK synthesis, and may occur more generally. PMID:22927407

  13. Net −1 frameshifting on a noncanonical sequence in a herpes simplex virus drug-resistant mutant is stimulated by nonstop mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Dongli; Coen, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Ribosomal frameshifting entails slippage of the translational machinery during elongation. Frameshifting permits expression of more than one polypeptide from an otherwise monocistronic mRNA, and can restore expression of polypeptides in the face of frameshift mutations. A common mutation conferring acyclovir resistance in patients with herpes simplex virus disease deletes one cytosine from a run of six cytosines (C-chord) in the viral thymidine kinase (tk) gene. However, this mutation does not abolish TK activity, which is important for pathogenicity. To investigate how this mutant retains TK activity, we engineered and analyzed viruses expressing epitope-tagged TK. We found that the mutant's TK activity can be accounted for by low levels of full-length TK polypeptide produced by net −1 frameshifting during translation. The efficiency of frameshifting was relatively high, 3–5%, as the polypeptide from the reading frame generated by the deletion, which lacks stop codons (nonstop), was poorly expressed mainly because of inefficient protein synthesis. Stop codons introduced into this reading frame greatly increased its expression, but greatly decreased the level of full-length TK, indicating that frameshifting is strongly stimulated by a new mechanism, nonstop mRNA, which we hypothesize involves stalling of ribosomes on the polyA tail. Mutational studies indicated that frameshifting occurs on or near the C-chord, a region lacking a canonical slippery sequence. Nonstop stimulation of frameshifting also occurred when the C-chord was replaced with a canonical slippery sequence from HIV. This mechanism thus permits biologically and clinically relevant TK synthesis, and may occur more generally. PMID:22927407

  14. Solenopsis invicta virus 3: Mapping of Structural Proteins, Ribosomal Frameshifting, and Similarities to Acyrthosiphon pisum virus and Kelp fly virus

    PubMed Central

    Valles, Steven M.; Bell, Susanne; Firth, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We show that the second open reading frame (ORF) of the dicistronic genome is expressed via a frameshifting mechanism and that the sequences encoding the structural proteins map to both ORF2 and the 3' end of ORF1, downstream of the sequence that encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The genome organization and structural protein expression strategy resemble those of Acyrthosiphon pisum virus (APV), an aphid virus. The capsid protein that is encoded by the 3' end of ORF1 in SINV-3 and APV is predicted to have a jelly-roll fold similar to the capsid proteins of picornaviruses and caliciviruses. The capsid-extension protein that is produced by frameshifting, includes the jelly-roll fold domain encoded by ORF1 as its N-terminus, while the C-terminus encoded by the 5' half of ORF2 has no clear homology with other viral structural proteins. A third protein, encoded by the 3' half of ORF2, is associated with purified virions at sub-stoichiometric ratios. Although the structural proteins can be translated from the genomic RNA, we show that SINV-3 also produces a subgenomic RNA encoding the structural proteins. Circumstantial evidence suggests that APV may also produce such a subgenomic RNA. Both SINV-3 and APV are unclassified picorna-like viruses distantly related to members of the order Picornavirales and the family Caliciviridae. Within this grouping, features of the genome organization and capsid domain structure of SINV-3 and APV appear more similar to caliciviruses, perhaps suggesting the basis for a "Calicivirales" order. PMID:24686475

  15. Extensive frameshift at all AGG and CCC codons in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of Perkinsus marinus (Alveolata; Dinoflagellata)

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Isao; Matsuzaki, Motomichi; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Diverse mitochondrial (mt) genetic systems have evolved independently of the more uniform nuclear system and often employ modified genetic codes. The organization and genetic system of dinoflagellate mt genomes are particularly unusual and remain an evolutionary enigma. We determined the sequence of full-length cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mRNA of the earliest diverging dinoflagellate Perkinsus and show that this gene resides in the mt genome. Apparently, this mRNA is not translated in a single reading frame with standard codon usage. Our examination of the nucleotide sequence and three-frame translation of the mRNA suggest that the reading frame must be shifted 10 times, at every AGG and CCC codon, to yield a consensus COX1 protein. We suggest two possible mechanisms for these translational frameshifts: a ribosomal frameshift in which stalled ribosomes skip the first bases of these codons or specialized tRNAs recognizing non-triplet codons, AGGY and CCCCU. Regardless of the mechanism, active and efficient machinery would be required to tolerate the frameshifts predicted in Perkinsus mitochondria. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of translational frameshifts in protist mitochondria and, by far, is the most extensive case in mitochondria. PMID:20507907

  16. HIV-1 and Human PEG10 Frameshift Elements Are Functionally Distinct and Distinguished by Novel Small Molecule Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Sleebs, Brad E.; Lackovic, Kurt; Parisot, John P.; Moss, Rebecca M.; Crowe-McAuliffe, Caillan; Mathew, Suneeth F.; Edgar, Christina D.; Kleffmann, Torsten; Tate, Warren P.

    2015-01-01

    Frameshifting during translation of viral or in rare cases cellular mRNA results in the synthesis of proteins from two overlapping reading frames within the same mRNA. In HIV-1 the protease, reverse transcriptase, and integrase enzymes are in a second reading frame relative to the structural group-specific antigen (gag), and their synthesis is dependent upon frameshifting. This ensures that a strictly regulated ratio of structural proteins and enzymes, which is critical for HIV-1 replication and viral infectivity, is maintained during protein synthesis. The frameshift element in HIV-1 RNA is an attractive target for the development of a new class of anti HIV-1 drugs. However, a number of examples are now emerging of human genes using −1 frameshifting, such as PEG10 and CCR5. In this study we have compared the HIV-1 and PEG10 frameshift elements and shown they have distinct functional characteristics. Frameshifting occurs at several points within each element. Moreover, frameshift modulators that were isolated by high-throughput screening of a library of 114,000 lead-like compounds behaved differently with the PEG10 frameshift element. The most effective compounds affecting the HIV-1 element enhanced frameshifting by 2.5-fold at 10 μM in two different frameshift reporter assay systems. HIV-1 protease:gag protein ratio was affected by a similar amount in a specific assay of virally-infected cultured cell, but the modulation of frameshifting of the first-iteration compounds was not sufficient to show significant effects on viral infectivity. Importantly, two compounds did not affect frameshifting with the human PEG10 element, while one modestly inhibited rather than enhanced frameshifting at the human element. These studies indicate that frameshift elements have unique characteristics that may allow targeting of HIV-1 and of other viruses specifically for development of antiviral therapeutic molecules without effect on human genes like PEG10 that use the same

  17. Solenopsis invicta virus 3: mapping of structural proteins, ribosomal frameshifting, and similarities to Acyrthosiphon pisum virus and kelp fly virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We show that the second open reading frame (ORF) of the dicistronic genome is expressed via a frameshifting mechanism and that the sequences encoding the stru...

  18. A Three-Stemmed mRNA Pseudoknot in the SARS Coronavirus Frameshift Signal

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    A wide range of RNA viruses use programmed −1 ribosomal frameshifting for the production of viral fusion proteins. Inspection of the overlap regions between ORF1a and ORF1b of the SARS-CoV genome revealed that, similar to all coronaviruses, a programmed −1 ribosomal frameshift could be used by the virus to produce a fusion protein. Computational analyses of the frameshift signal predicted the presence of an mRNA pseudoknot containing three double-stranded RNA stem structures rather than two. Phylogenetic analyses showed the conservation of potential three-stemmed pseudoknots in the frameshift signals of all other coronaviruses in the GenBank database. Though the presence of the three-stemmed structure is supported by nuclease mapping and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance studies, our findings suggest that interactions between the stem structures may result in local distortions in the A-form RNA. These distortions are particularly evident in the vicinity of predicted A-bulges in stems 2 and 3. In vitro and in vivo frameshifting assays showed that the SARS-CoV frameshift signal is functionally similar to other viral frameshift signals: it promotes efficient frameshifting in all of the standard assay systems, and it is sensitive to a drug and a genetic mutation that are known to affect frameshifting efficiency of a yeast virus. Mutagenesis studies reveal that both the specific sequences and structures of stems 2 and 3 are important for efficient frameshifting. We have identified a new RNA structural motif that is capable of promoting efficient programmed ribosomal frameshifting. The high degree of conservation of three-stemmed mRNA pseudoknot structures among the coronaviruses suggests that this presents a novel target for antiviral therapeutics. PMID:15884978

  19. DVL3 Alleles Resulting in a -1 Frameshift of the Last Exon Mediate Autosomal-Dominant Robinow Syndrome.

    PubMed

    White, Janson J; Mazzeu, Juliana F; Hoischen, Alexander; Bayram, Yavuz; Withers, Marjorie; Gezdirici, Alper; Kimonis, Virginia; Steehouwer, Marloes; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; van Bon, Bregje W M; Sutton, V Reid; Lupski, James R; Brunner, Han G; Carvalho, Claudia M B

    2016-03-01

    Robinow syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by mesomelic limb shortening, genital hypoplasia, and distinctive facial features. Recent reports have identified, in individuals with dominant Robinow syndrome, a specific type of variant characterized by being uniformly located in the penultimate exon of DVL1 and resulting in a -1 frameshift allele with a premature termination codon that escapes nonsense-mediated decay. Here, we studied a cohort of individuals who had been clinically diagnosed with Robinow syndrome but who had not received a molecular diagnosis from variant studies of DVL1, WNT5A, and ROR2. Because of the uniform location of frameshift variants in DVL1-mediated Robinow syndrome and the functional redundancy of DVL1, DVL2, and DVL3, we elected to pursue direct Sanger sequencing of the penultimate exon of DVL1 and its paralogs DVL2 and DVL3 to search for potential disease-associated variants. Remarkably, targeted sequencing identified five unrelated individuals harboring heterozygous, de novo frameshift variants in DVL3, including two splice acceptor mutations and three 1 bp deletions. Similar to the variants observed in DVL1-mediated Robinow syndrome, all variants in DVL3 result in a -1 frameshift, indicating that these highly specific alterations might be a common cause of dominant Robinow syndrome. Here, we review the current knowledge of these peculiar variant alleles in DVL1- and DVL3-mediated Robinow syndrome and further elucidate the phenotypic features present in subjects with DVL1 and DVL3 frameshift mutations. PMID:26924530

  20. Complementary roles of initiation factor 1 and ribosome recycling factor in 70S ribosome splitting

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Michael Y; Antoun, Ayman; Lovmar, Martin; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that ribosomes containing a messenger RNA (mRNA) with a strong Shine–Dalgarno sequence are rapidly split into subunits by initiation factors 1 (IF1) and 3 (IF3), but slowly split by ribosome recycling factor (RRF) and elongation factor G (EF-G). Post-termination-like (PTL) ribosomes containing mRNA and a P-site-bound deacylated transfer RNA (tRNA) are split very rapidly by RRF and EF-G, but extremely slowly by IF1 and IF3. Vacant ribosomes are split by RRF/EF-G much more slowly than PTL ribosomes and by IF1/IF3 much more slowly than mRNA-containing ribosomes. These observations reveal complementary splitting of different ribosomal complexes by IF1/IF3 and RRF/EF-G, and suggest the existence of two major pathways for ribosome splitting into subunits in the living cell. We show that the identity of the deacylated tRNA in the PTL ribosome strongly affects the rate by which it is split by RRF/EF-G and that IF3 is involved in the mechanism of ribosome splitting by IF1/IF3 but not by RRF/EF-G. With support from our experimental data, we discuss the principally different mechanisms of ribosome splitting by IF1/IF3 and by RRF/EF-G. PMID:18497739

  1. BUD22 Affects Ty1 Retrotransposition and Ribosome Biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Dakshinamurthy, Arun; Nyswaner, Katherine M.; Farabaugh, Philip J.; Garfinkel, David J.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of cellular factors affect the movement of the retrovirus-like transposon Ty1. To identify genes involved in Ty1 virus-like particle (VLP) function, the level of the major capsid protein (Gag-p45) and its proteolytic precursor (Gag-p49p) was monitored in a subset of Ty1 cofactor mutants. Twenty-nine of 87 mutants contained alterations in the level of Gag; however, only bud22Δ showed a striking defect in Gag processing. BUD22 affected the +1 translational frameshifting event required to express the Pol proteins protease, integrase, and reverse transcriptase. Therefore, it is possible that the bud22Δ mutant may not produce enough functional Ty1 protease to completely process Gag-p49 to p45. Furthermore, BUD22 is required for 18S rRNA processing and 40S subunit biogenesis and influences polysome density. Together our results suggest that BUD22 is involved in a step in ribosome biogenesis that not only affects general translation, but also may alter the frameshifting efficiency of ribosomes, an event central to Ty1 retrotransposition. PMID:20498295

  2. Identification and characterization of a -1 reading frameshift in the heavy chain constant region of an IgG1 recombinant monoclonal antibody produced in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Lian, Zhirui; Wu, Qindong; Wang, Tongtong

    2016-01-01

    Frameshifts lead to complete alteration of the intended amino acid sequences, and therefore may affect the biological activities of protein therapeutics and pose potential immunogenicity risks. We report here the identification and characterization of a novel -1 frameshift variant in a recombinant IgG1 therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells during the cell line selection studies. The variant was initially observed as an atypical post-monomer fragment peak in size exclusion chromatography. Characterization of the fragment peak using intact and reduced liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses determined that the fragment consisted of a normal light chain disulfide-linked to an aberrant 26 kDa fragment that could not be assigned to any HC fragment even after considering common modifications. Further analysis using LC-MS/MS peptide mapping revealed that the aberrant fragment contained the expected HC amino acid sequence (1-232) followed by a 20-mer novel sequence corresponding to expression of heavy chain DNA sequence in the -1 reading frame. Examination of the DNA sequence around the frameshift initiation site revealed that a mononucleotide repeat GGGGGG located in the IgG1 HC constant region was most likely the structural root cause of the frameshift. Rapid identification of the frameshift allowed us to avoid use of a problematic cell line containing the frameshift as the production cell line. The frameshift reported here may be observed in other mAb products and the hypothesis-driven analytical approaches employed here may be valuable for rapid identification and characterization of frameshift variants in other recombinant proteins. PMID:26652198

  3. Mechanisms and Implications of Programmed Translational Frameshifting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    While ribosomes must maintain translational reading frame in order to translate primary genetic information into polypeptides, cis-acting signals located on mRNAs represent higher order information content that can be used to fine tune gene expression. Classes of signals have been identified that direct a fraction of elongating ribosomes to shift reading frame by one base in the 5′ (−1) or 3′ (+1) direction. This is called programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF). Although mechanisms of PRF differ, a common feature is induction of ribosome pausing, which alters kinetic partitioning rates between in-frame and out-of-frame codons at specific “slippery” sequences. Many viruses use PRF to ensure synthesis of the correct ratios of virus-encoded proteins required for proper viral particle assembly and maturation, thus identifying PRF as an attractive target for antiviral therapeutics. In contrast, recent studies indicate that PRF signals may primarily function as mRNA destabilizing elements in cellular mRNAs. These studies suggest that PRF may be used to fine-tune gene expression through mRNA decay pathways. The possible regulation of PRF by non-coding RNAs is also discussed. PMID:22715123

  4. Novel SMC1A frameshift mutations in children with developmental delay and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Jessica H R; Tim-Aroon, Thipwimol; Shieh, Joseph; Merrill, Michelle; Deeb, Kristin K; Zhang, Shulin; Bass, Nancy E; Bedoyan, Jirair K

    2015-10-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare dominantly inherited genetic multisystem developmental condition with considerable phenotypic and allelic heterogeneity. Missense and in-frame deletions within the SMC1A gene can be associated with epilepsy and milder craniofacial features. We report two females who presented with developmental delay and developed isolated medically refractory seizures with unrevealing initial laboratory, imaging and genetic evaluations. Whole exome sequencing (WES) analyses were performed and were instrumental in uncovering the genetic etiology for their conditions. WES identified two novel de novo heterozygous frameshift mutations in the SMC1A gene [c.2853_2856delTCAG (p.Ser951Argfs*12) and c.3549_3552dupGGCC (p.Ile1185Glyfs*23)]. We also observed marked skewing of X-inactivation in one patient. The individual with the p.Ser951Argfs*12 mutation represents an extreme on the CdLS phenotypic spectrum, with prominent neurological involvement of severe developmental delay and refractory epilepsy, with mild craniofacial features. Both individuals eventually had incomplete clinical responses to therapy with valproic acid. We review previous reports of SMC1A mutations with epilepsy. SMC1A should be included in clinical gene panels for early infantile and early childhood epileptic encephalopathy. PMID:26386245

  5. Activity Suppression Behavior Phenotype in SULT4A1 Frameshift Mutant Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Crittenden, Frank; Thomas, Holly R; Parant, John M; Falany, Charles N

    2015-07-01

    Since its identification in 2000, sulfotransferase (SULT) 4A1 has presented an enigma to the field of cytosolic SULT biology. SULT4A1 is exclusively expressed in neural tissue, is highly conserved, and has been identified in every vertebrate studied to date. Despite this singular level of conservation, no substrate or function for SULT4A1 has been identified. Previous studies demonstrated that SULT4A1 does not bind the obligate sulfate donor, 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate, yet SULT4A1 is classified as a SULT superfamily member based on sequence and structural similarities to the other SULTs. In this study, transcription activator-like effector nucleases were used to generate heritable mutations in the SULT4A1 gene of zebrafish. The mutation (SULT4A1(Δ8)) consists of an 8-nucleotide deletion within the second exon of the gene, resulting in a frameshift mutation and premature stop codon after 132 AA. During early adulthood, casual observations were made that mutant zebrafish were exhibiting excessively sedentary behavior during the day. These observations were inconsistent with published reports on activity in zebrafish that are largely diurnal organisms and are highly active during the day. Thus, a decrease in activity during the day represents an abnormal behavior and warranted further systematic analysis. EthoVision video tracking software was used to monitor activity levels in wild-type (WT) and SULT4A1(Δ8/Δ8) fish over 48 hours of a normal light/dark cycle. SULT4A1(Δ8/Δ8) fish were shown to exhibit increased inactivity bout length and frequency as well as a general decrease in daytime activity levels when compared with their WT counterparts. PMID:25934576

  6. Activity Suppression Behavior Phenotype in SULT4A1 Frameshift Mutant Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Crittenden, Frank; Thomas, Holly R.; Parant, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Since its identification in 2000, sulfotransferase (SULT) 4A1 has presented an enigma to the field of cytosolic SULT biology. SULT4A1 is exclusively expressed in neural tissue, is highly conserved, and has been identified in every vertebrate studied to date. Despite this singular level of conservation, no substrate or function for SULT4A1 has been identified. Previous studies demonstrated that SULT4A1 does not bind the obligate sulfate donor, 3′-phosphoadenosine-5′-phosphosulfate, yet SULT4A1 is classified as a SULT superfamily member based on sequence and structural similarities to the other SULTs. In this study, transcription activator-like effector nucleases were used to generate heritable mutations in the SULT4A1 gene of zebrafish. The mutation (SULT4A1Δ8) consists of an 8-nucleotide deletion within the second exon of the gene, resulting in a frameshift mutation and premature stop codon after 132 AA. During early adulthood, casual observations were made that mutant zebrafish were exhibiting excessively sedentary behavior during the day. These observations were inconsistent with published reports on activity in zebrafish that are largely diurnal organisms and are highly active during the day. Thus, a decrease in activity during the day represents an abnormal behavior and warranted further systematic analysis. EthoVision video tracking software was used to monitor activity levels in wild-type (WT) and SULT4A1Δ8/Δ8 fish over 48 hours of a normal light/dark cycle. SULT4A1Δ8/Δ8 fish were shown to exhibit increased inactivity bout length and frequency as well as a general decrease in daytime activity levels when compared with their WT counterparts. PMID:25934576

  7. DVL1 Frameshift Mutations Clustering in the Penultimate Exon Cause Autosomal-Dominant Robinow Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    White, Janson; Mazzeu, Juliana F.; Hoischen, Alexander; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Gambin, Tomasz; Alcino, Michele Calijorne; Penney, Samantha; Saraiva, Jorge M.; Hove, Hanne; Skovby, Flemming; Kayserili, Hülya; Estrella, Elicia; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T.; Steehouwer, Marloes; Muzny, Donna M.; Sutton, V. Reid; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lupski, James R.; Brunner, Han G.; van Bon, Bregje W.M.; Carvalho, Claudia M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Robinow syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by mesomelic limb shortening, genital hypoplasia, and distinctive facial features and for which both autosomal-recessive and autosomal-dominant inheritance patterns have been described. Causative variants in the non-canonical signaling gene WNT5A underlie a subset of autosomal-dominant Robinow syndrome (DRS) cases, but most individuals with DRS remain without a molecular diagnosis. We performed whole-exome sequencing in four unrelated DRS-affected individuals without coding mutations in WNT5A and found heterozygous DVL1 exon 14 mutations in three of them. Targeted Sanger sequencing in additional subjects with DRS uncovered DVL1 exon 14 mutations in five individuals, including a pair of monozygotic twins. In total, six distinct frameshift mutations were found in eight subjects, and all were heterozygous truncating variants within the penultimate exon of DVL1. In five families in which samples from unaffected parents were available, the variants were demonstrated to represent de novo mutations. All variant alleles are predicted to result in a premature termination codon within the last exon, escape nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), and most likely generate a C-terminally truncated protein with a distinct −1 reading-frame terminus. Study of the transcripts extracted from affected subjects’ leukocytes confirmed expression of both wild-type and variant alleles, supporting the hypothesis that mutant mRNA escapes NMD. Genomic variants identified in our study suggest that truncation of the C-terminal domain of DVL1, a protein hypothesized to have a downstream role in the Wnt-5a non-canonical pathway, is a common cause of DRS. PMID:25817016

  8. DVL1 frameshift mutations clustering in the penultimate exon cause autosomal-dominant Robinow syndrome.

    PubMed

    White, Janson; Mazzeu, Juliana F; Hoischen, Alexander; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Gambin, Tomasz; Alcino, Michele Calijorne; Penney, Samantha; Saraiva, Jorge M; Hove, Hanne; Skovby, Flemming; Kayserili, Hülya; Estrella, Elicia; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T; Steehouwer, Marloes; Muzny, Donna M; Sutton, V Reid; Gibbs, Richard A; Lupski, James R; Brunner, Han G; van Bon, Bregje W M; Carvalho, Claudia M B

    2015-04-01

    Robinow syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by mesomelic limb shortening, genital hypoplasia, and distinctive facial features and for which both autosomal-recessive and autosomal-dominant inheritance patterns have been described. Causative variants in the non-canonical signaling gene WNT5A underlie a subset of autosomal-dominant Robinow syndrome (DRS) cases, but most individuals with DRS remain without a molecular diagnosis. We performed whole-exome sequencing in four unrelated DRS-affected individuals without coding mutations in WNT5A and found heterozygous DVL1 exon 14 mutations in three of them. Targeted Sanger sequencing in additional subjects with DRS uncovered DVL1 exon 14 mutations in five individuals, including a pair of monozygotic twins. In total, six distinct frameshift mutations were found in eight subjects, and all were heterozygous truncating variants within the penultimate exon of DVL1. In five families in which samples from unaffected parents were available, the variants were demonstrated to represent de novo mutations. All variant alleles are predicted to result in a premature termination codon within the last exon, escape nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), and most likely generate a C-terminally truncated protein with a distinct -1 reading-frame terminus. Study of the transcripts extracted from affected subjects' leukocytes confirmed expression of both wild-type and variant alleles, supporting the hypothesis that mutant mRNA escapes NMD. Genomic variants identified in our study suggest that truncation of the C-terminal domain of DVL1, a protein hypothesized to have a downstream role in the Wnt-5a non-canonical pathway, is a common cause of DRS. PMID:25817016

  9. A Stochastic Model of RNA Translation with Frameshifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Brenae

    2011-10-01

    Many viruses can produce different proteins from the same RNA sequence by encoding them in overlapping genes. One mechanism that causes the ribosomes of infected cells to decode both genes is called programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF). Although PRF has been recognized for 25 years, the mechanism is not well understood. We have developed a model that treats RNA translation as a stochastic process in which the transition probabilities are based on the free energies of local molecular interactions. The model reproduces observed translation rates and frameshift efficiencies, and can be used to predict the effects of mutations in the viral RNA sequence on both the mean translation rate and the frameshift efficiency.

  10. Ribosomal protein methyltransferases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadid, Qais; White, Jonelle; Clarke, Steven

    2016-02-12

    A significant percentage of the methyltransferasome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes is devoted to methylation of the translational machinery. Methylation of the RNA components of the translational machinery has been studied extensively and is important for structure stability, ribosome biogenesis, and translational fidelity. However, the functional effects of ribosomal protein methylation by their cognate methyltransferases are still largely unknown. Previous work has shown that the ribosomal protein Rpl3 methyltransferase, histidine protein methyltransferase 1 (Hpm1), is important for ribosome biogenesis and translation elongation fidelity. In this study, yeast strains deficient in each of the ten ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae were examined for potential defects in ribosome biogenesis and translation. Like Hpm1-deficient cells, loss of four of the nine other ribosomal protein methyltransferases resulted in defects in ribosomal subunit synthesis. All of the mutant strains exhibited resistance to the ribosome inhibitors anisomycin and/or cycloheximide in plate assays, but not in liquid culture. Translational fidelity assays measuring stop codon readthrough, amino acid misincorporation, and programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting, revealed that eight of the ten enzymes are important for translation elongation fidelity and the remaining two are necessary for translation termination efficiency. Altogether, these results demonstrate that ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae play important roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation. PMID:26801560

  11. Bmi1 promotes erythroid development through regulating ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rui; Chen, Sisi; Kobayashi, Michihiro; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Yingchi; Wan, Yang; Young, Sara K.; Soltis, Anthony; Yu, Ming; Vemula, Sasidhar; Fraenkel, Ernest; Cantor, Alan; Antipin, Yevgeniy; Xu, Yang; Yoder, Mervin C.; Wek, Ronald C.; Ellis, Steven R.; Kapur, Reuben; Zhu, Xiaofan; Liu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    While Polycomb group protein Bmi1 is important for stem cell maintenance, its role in lineage commitment is largely unknown. We have identified Bmi1 as a novel regulator of erythroid development. Bmi1 is highly expressed in mouse erythroid progenitor cells and its deficiency impairs erythroid differentiation. BMI1 is also important for human erythroid development. Furthermore, we discovered that loss of Bmi1 in erythroid progenitor cells results in down-regulation of transcription of multiple ribosomal protein genes and impaired ribosome biogenesis. Bmi1 deficiency stabilizes p53 protein, leading to upregulation of p21 expression and subsequent G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Genetic inhibition of p53 activity rescues the erythroid defects seen in the Bmi1 null mice, demonstrating that a p53-dependent mechanism underlies the pathophysiology of the anemia. Mechanistically, Bmi1 is associated with multiple ribosomal protein genes and may positively regulate their expression in erythroid progenitor cells. Thus, Bmi1 promotes erythroid development, at least in part through regulating ribosome biogenesis. Ribosomopathies are human disorders of ribosome dysfunction, including diamond blackfan anemia (DBA) and 5q- syndrome, in which genetic abnormalities cause impaired ribosome biogenesis, resulting in specific clinical phenotypes. We observed that BMI1 expression in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from patients with DBA is correlated with the expression of some ribosomal protein genes, suggesting that BMI1 deficiency may play a pathological role in DBA and other ribosomopathies. PMID:25385494

  12. Bmi1 promotes erythroid development through regulating ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rui; Chen, Sisi; Kobayashi, Michihiro; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Yingchi; Wan, Yang; Young, Sara K; Soltis, Anthony; Yu, Ming; Vemula, Sasidhar; Fraenkel, Ernest; Cantor, Alan; Antipin, Yevgeniy; Xu, Yang; Yoder, Mervin C; Wek, Ronald C; Ellis, Steven R; Kapur, Reuben; Zhu, Xiaofan; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-01

    While Polycomb group protein Bmi1 is important for stem cell maintenance, its role in lineage commitment is largely unknown. We have identified Bmi1 as a novel regulator of erythroid development. Bmi1 is highly expressed in mouse erythroid progenitor cells and its deficiency impairs erythroid differentiation. BMI1 is also important for human erythroid development. Furthermore, we discovered that loss of Bmi1 in erythroid progenitor cells results in decreased transcription of multiple ribosomal protein genes and impaired ribosome biogenesis. Bmi1 deficiency stabilizes p53 protein, leading to upregulation of p21 expression and subsequent G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Genetic inhibition of p53 activity rescues the erythroid defects seen in the Bmi1 null mice, demonstrating that a p53-dependent mechanism underlies the pathophysiology of the anemia. Mechanistically, Bmi1 is associated with multiple ribosomal protein genes and may positively regulate their expression in erythroid progenitor cells. Thus, Bmi1 promotes erythroid development, at least in part through regulating ribosome biogenesis. Ribosomopathies are human disorders of ribosome dysfunction, including Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) and 5q- syndrome, in which genetic abnormalities cause impaired ribosome biogenesis, resulting in specific clinical phenotypes. We observed that BMI1 expression in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from patients with DBA is correlated with the expression of some ribosomal protein genes, suggesting that BMI1 deficiency may play a pathological role in DBA and other ribosomopathies. PMID:25385494

  13. A Nascent Peptide Signal Responsive to Endogenous Levels of Polyamines Acts to Stimulate Regulatory Frameshifting on Antizyme mRNA*

    PubMed Central

    Yordanova, Martina M.; Wu, Cheng; Andreev, Dmitry E.; Sachs, Matthew S.; Atkins, John F.

    2015-01-01

    The protein antizyme is a negative regulator of cellular polyamine concentrations from yeast to mammals. Synthesis of functional antizyme requires programmed +1 ribosomal frameshifting at the 3′ end of the first of two partially overlapping ORFs. The frameshift is the sensor and effector in an autoregulatory circuit. Except for Saccharomyces cerevisiae antizyme mRNA, the frameshift site alone only supports low levels of frameshifting. The high levels usually observed depend on the presence of cis-acting stimulatory elements located 5′ and 3′ of the frameshift site. Antizyme genes from different evolutionary branches have evolved different stimulatory elements. Prior and new multiple alignments of fungal antizyme mRNA sequences from the Agaricomycetes class of Basidiomycota show a distinct pattern of conservation 5′ of the frameshift site consistent with a function at the amino acid level. As shown here when tested in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and mammalian HEK293T cells, the 5′ part of this conserved sequence acts at the nascent peptide level to stimulate the frameshifting, without involving stalling detectable by toe-printing. However, the peptide is only part of the signal. The 3′ part of the stimulator functions largely independently and acts at least mostly at the nucleotide level. When polyamine levels were varied, the stimulatory effect was seen to be especially responsive in the endogenous polyamine concentration range, and this effect may be more general. A conserved RNA secondary structure 3′ of the frameshift site has weaker stimulatory and polyamine sensitizing effects on frameshifting. PMID:25998126

  14. Evidence that Yih1 resides in a complex with ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Waller, Tracey; Lee, Su Jung; Sattlegger, Evelyn

    2012-05-01

    Adjusting protein synthesis by phosphorylating eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) is a major mechanism by which eukaryotes adapt to and overcome stress. The eIF2α kinase Gcn2 is essential for overcoming amino acid starvation in all eukaryotes. We have shown that to sense starvation, the Gcn2 RWD domain must directly contact its effector protein, Gcn1, and both must bind to the ribosome, suggesting that starvation is sensed within a Gcn1-Gcn2-ribosome complex. The mammalian protein IMPACT, highly expressed in neurons, and its yeast orthologue yeast IMPACT homologue (Yih1) harbour an RWD domain with Gcn1-binding activity. We have shown that Yih1 downregulates Gcn2 by competing with Gcn2 for Gcn1-binding. Here, we provide evidence that Yih1 forms a complex with ribosomes. In velocity sedimentation assays, overexpressed glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged Yih1 cosedimented with polyribosomes independently of Gcn1. Reduction of polyribosomes to monosomes concomitantly decreased GST-Yih1 sedimentation in the heavy fractions where polyribosomes are normally found. Furthermore, GST-Yih1 coprecipitated large ribosomal protein Rpl39 independently of Gcn1. GST-Yih1 overexpression did not significantly affect Gcn1-ribosome or Gcn2-ribosome cosedimentation. myc-tagged Yih1 expressed from its own promoter cosedimented with polyribosomes independently of Gcn1, indicating that Yih1-ribosome interaction occurs under physiological conditions. GST-IMPACT cosedimented with yeast ribosomes and coprecipitated Rpl39 in a Gcn1-independent fashion, suggesting that Yih1/IMPACT-ribosome association is evolutionarily conserved. Moreover, GST-IMPACT coprecipitated actin as found for GST-Yih1. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that IMPACT/Yih1 associates with ribosomes and that these ribosomes may simultaneously carry Gcn1 and Gcn2. Close physical proximity of Yih1 to the Gcn1-Gcn2-ribosome complex would allow cells to quickly inhibit Gcn2 whenever or wherever

  15. A CNGB1 Frameshift Mutation in Papillon and Phalène Dogs with Progressive Retinal Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ahonen, Saija J.; Arumilli, Meharji; Lohi, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Progressive retinal degenerations are the most common causes of complete blindness both in human and in dogs. Canine progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) or degeneration resembles human retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and is characterized by a progressive loss of rod photoreceptor cells followed by a loss of cone function. The primary clinical signs are detected as vision impairment in a dim light. Although several genes have been associated with PRAs, there are still PRAs of unknown genetic cause in many breeds, including Papillons and Phalènes. We have performed a genome wide association and linkage studies in cohort of 6 affected Papillons and Phalènes and 14 healthy control dogs to map a novel PRA locus on canine chromosome 2, with a 1.9 Mb shared homozygous region in the affected dogs. Parallel exome sequencing of a trio identified an indel mutation, including a 1-bp deletion, followed by a 6-bp insertion in the CNGB1 gene. This mutation causes a frameshift and premature stop codon leading to probable nonsense mediated decay (NMD) of the CNGB1 mRNA. The mutation segregated with the disease and was confirmed in a larger cohort of 145 Papillons and Phalènes (PFisher = 1.4×10−8) with a carrier frequency of 17.2 %. This breed specific mutation was not present in 334 healthy dogs from 10 other breeds or 121 PRA affected dogs from 44 other breeds. CNGB1 is important for the photoreceptor cell function its defects have been previously associated with retinal degeneration in both human and mouse. Our study indicates that a frameshift mutation in CNGB1 is a cause of PRA in Papillons and Phalènes and establishes the breed as a large functional animal model for further characterization of retinal CNGB1 biology and possible retinal gene therapy trials. This study enables also the development of a genetic test for breeding purposes. PMID:24015210

  16. A CNGB1 frameshift mutation in Papillon and Phalène dogs with progressive retinal atrophy.

    PubMed

    Ahonen, Saija J; Arumilli, Meharji; Lohi, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Progressive retinal degenerations are the most common causes of complete blindness both in human and in dogs. Canine progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) or degeneration resembles human retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and is characterized by a progressive loss of rod photoreceptor cells followed by a loss of cone function. The primary clinical signs are detected as vision impairment in a dim light. Although several genes have been associated with PRAs, there are still PRAs of unknown genetic cause in many breeds, including Papillons and Phalènes. We have performed a genome wide association and linkage studies in cohort of 6 affected Papillons and Phalènes and 14 healthy control dogs to map a novel PRA locus on canine chromosome 2, with a 1.9 Mb shared homozygous region in the affected dogs. Parallel exome sequencing of a trio identified an indel mutation, including a 1-bp deletion, followed by a 6-bp insertion in the CNGB1 gene. This mutation causes a frameshift and premature stop codon leading to probable nonsense mediated decay (NMD) of the CNGB1 mRNA. The mutation segregated with the disease and was confirmed in a larger cohort of 145 Papillons and Phalènes (PFisher = 1.4×10(-8)) with a carrier frequency of 17.2 %. This breed specific mutation was not present in 334 healthy dogs from 10 other breeds or 121 PRA affected dogs from 44 other breeds. CNGB1 is important for the photoreceptor cell function its defects have been previously associated with retinal degeneration in both human and mouse. Our study indicates that a frameshift mutation in CNGB1 is a cause of PRA in Papillons and Phalènes and establishes the breed as a large functional animal model for further characterization of retinal CNGB1 biology and possible retinal gene therapy trials. This study enables also the development of a genetic test for breeding purposes. PMID:24015210

  17. Dravet syndrome with favourable cognitive and behavioral development due to a novel SCN1A frameshift mutation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peifang; Shen, Jue; Yu, Yonglin; Jiang, Lihua; Xu, Jialu; Xu, Lu; Yu, Huimin; Gao, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Children with Dravet syndrome (DS) often have severe cognitive, behaviour and motor impairments. Patients with truncating mutations would logically have the more severe phenotype. Here we present a case of DS with an unusually favourable cognitive and behavioral development with a novel SCN1A frameshift mutation (c.4233-4234insAT). Under regular following up for ten years, the patient had normal expressive language and mild motor clumsiness. It is suggested that besides the type of SCN1A mutation, other mechanisms may be existed to influence the SCN1A phenotype, such as modifier genes, developmental variability, accumulation of somatic mutation in lifetime and environmental insults can all contribute to the cognitive and behavioral outcome. PMID:27209029

  18. CAG tract of MJD-1 may be prone to frameshifts causing polyalanine accumulation.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, C; Jannatipour, M; Dion, P; Laganière, J; Sequeiros, J; Brais, B; Rouleau, G A

    2000-08-12

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is one of several disorders caused by the expansion of a coding CAG repeat (exp-CAG). The presence of intranuclear inclusions (INIs) in patients and cellular models of exp-CAG-associated diseases has lead to a nuclear toxicity model. Similar INIs are found in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy, which is caused by a short expansion of an alanine-encoding GCG repeat. Here we propose that transcriptional or translational frameshifts occurring within expanded CAG tracts result in the production and accumulation of polyalanine-containing mutant proteins. We hypothesize that these alanine polymers deposit in cells forming INIs and may contribute to nuclear toxicity. We show evidence that supports our hypothesis in lymphoblast cells from MJD patients, as well as in pontine neurons of MJD brain and in in vitro cell culture models of the disease. We also provide evidence that alanine polymers alone are harmful to cells and predict that a similar pathogenic mechanism may occur in the other CAG repeat disorders. PMID:10942424

  19. Genetic analysis of the E site during RF2 programmed frameshifting

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Christina L.; Curran, James F.

    2007-01-01

    The roles of the ribosomal E site are not fully understood. Prior evidence suggests that deacyl-tRNA in the E site can prevent frameshifting. We hypothesized that if the E-site codon must dissociate from its tRNA to allow for frameshifting, then weak codon:anticodon duplexes should allow for greater frameshifting than stronger duplexes. Using the well-characterized Escherichia coli RF2 (prfB) programmed frameshift to study frameshifting, we mutagenized the E-site triplet to all Unn and Cnn codons. Those variants should represent a very wide range of duplex stability. Duplex stability was estimated using two different methods. Frameshifting is inversely correlated with stability, as estimated by either method. These findings indicate that pairing between the deacyl-tRNA and the E-site codon opposes frameshifting. We discuss the implications of these findings on frame maintenance and on the RF2 programmed frameshift mechanism. PMID:17660276

  20. Homozygous frameshift mutation in TMCO1 causes a syndrome with craniofacial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies, and mental retardation

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Baozhong; Puffenberger, Erik G.; Turben, Susan; Tan, Haiyan; Zhou, Aimin; Wang, Heng

    2009-01-01

    We identified an autosomal recessive condition in 11 individuals in the Old Order Amish of northeastern Ohio. The syndrome was characterized by distinctive craniofacial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies, and mental retardation. The typical craniofacial dysmorphism included brachycephaly, highly arched bushy eyebrows, synophrys, long eyelashes, low-set ears, microdontism of primary teeth, and generalized gingival hyperplasia, whereas Sprengel deformity of scapula, fusion of spine, rib abnormities, pectus excavatum, and pes planus represented skeletal anomalies. The genome-wide homozygosity mapping using six affected individuals localized the disease gene to a 3.3-Mb region on chromosome 1q23.3-q24.1. Candidate gene sequencing identified a homozygous frameshift mutation, c.139_140delAG, in the transmembrane and coiled-coil domains 1 (TMCO1) gene, as the pathogenic change in all affected members of the extended pedigree. This mutation is predicted to result in a severely truncated protein (p.Ser47Ter) of only one-fourth the original length. The TMCO1 gene product is a member of DUF841 superfamily of several eukaryotic proteins with unknown function. The gene has highly conserved amino acid sequence and is universally expressed in all human tissues examined. The high degree of conservation and the ubiquitous expression pattern in human adult and fetal tissues suggest a critical role for TMCO1. This report shows a TMCO1 sequence variant being associated with a genetic disorder in human. We propose “TMCO1 defect syndrome” as the name of this condition. PMID:20018682

  1. A Tumor-Specific Neo-Antigen Caused by a Frameshift Mutation in BAP1 Is a Potential Personalized Biomarker in Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jun; Zhou, Zhan; Tang, Xiao-Jing; Gao, Zhi-Bin; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Shu-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive rare malignancy associated with asbestos exposure. A better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of MPM will help develop a targeted therapy strategy. Oncogene targeted depth sequencing was performed on a tumor sample and paired peripheral blood DNA from a patient with malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum. Four somatic base-substitutions in NOTCH2, NSD1, PDE4DIP, and ATP10B and 1 insert frameshift mutation in BAP1 were validated by the Sanger method at the transcriptional level. A 13-amino acids neo-peptide of the truncated Bap1 protein, which was produced as a result of this novel frameshift mutation, was predicted to be presented by this patient’s HLA-B protein. The polyclonal antibody of the synthesized 13-mer neo-peptide was produced in rabbits. Western blotting results showed a good antibody-neoantigen specificity, and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining with the antibody of the neo-peptide clearly differentiated neoplastic cells from normal cells. A search of the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database also revealed that 53.2% of mutations in BAP1 were frameshift indels with neo-peptide formation. An identified tumor-specific neo-antigen could be the potential molecular biomarker for personalized diagnosis to precisely subtype rare malignancies such as MPM. PMID:27187383

  2. A Tumor-Specific Neo-Antigen Caused by a Frameshift Mutation in BAP1 Is a Potential Personalized Biomarker in Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jun; Zhou, Zhan; Tang, Xiao-Jing; Gao, Zhi-Bin; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Shu-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive rare malignancy associated with asbestos exposure. A better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of MPM will help develop a targeted therapy strategy. Oncogene targeted depth sequencing was performed on a tumor sample and paired peripheral blood DNA from a patient with malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum. Four somatic base-substitutions in NOTCH2, NSD1, PDE4DIP, and ATP10B and 1 insert frameshift mutation in BAP1 were validated by the Sanger method at the transcriptional level. A 13-amino acids neo-peptide of the truncated Bap1 protein, which was produced as a result of this novel frameshift mutation, was predicted to be presented by this patient's HLA-B protein. The polyclonal antibody of the synthesized 13-mer neo-peptide was produced in rabbits. Western blotting results showed a good antibody-neoantigen specificity, and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining with the antibody of the neo-peptide clearly differentiated neoplastic cells from normal cells. A search of the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database also revealed that 53.2% of mutations in BAP1 were frameshift indels with neo-peptide formation. An identified tumor-specific neo-antigen could be the potential molecular biomarker for personalized diagnosis to precisely subtype rare malignancies such as MPM. PMID:27187383

  3. NF1 frameshift mutation (c.6520_6523delGAGA) association with nervous system tumors and bone abnormalities in a Chinese patient with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Su, S Y; Zhou, X; Pang, X M; Chen, C Y; Li, S H; Liu, J L

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1, also known as NF1 or von Recklinghausen's disease, is a common neurocutaneous syndrome that presents with multiple café-au-lait patches, skinfold freckling, dermatofibromas, neurofibromas, and Lisch nodules. The mutations of the gene NF1, encoding the protein neurofibromin, have been identified as the cause of this disease. Here, we report a clinical and molecular study of a Chinese patient with multiple café-au-lait skin freckles, dermatofibroma, central and peripheral nervous system tumors, and bone abnormalities attributed to NF1. The patient showed >6 café-au-lait spots on the body and multiple dermatofibromas. A brain glioma and multiple nerve sheath tumors inside and outside the vertebral canal were identified by magnetic resonance imaging, which also showed multiple intercostal nerve schwannomas and hydrocephalies above the cerebellar tentorium. Talipes equinus was also apparent. A mutation analysis of the NF1 gene revealed a novel frameshift mutation in exon 43, consisting of a heterozygous deletion of four nucleotides (GAGA) between positions 6520 and 6523. No NF1 mutations were detected in the patient's parents or younger brother. These results extend the list of known mutations in this gene. The absence of the NF1 mutation in the healthy family members suggests that it is responsible for the NF1 phenotype. To our knowledge, this frameshift mutation represents a novel NF1 case, and may be associated with nervous system tumors and bone abnormalities. PMID:27173220

  4. Seven, eight and nine-membered anticodon loop mutants of tRNA(2Arg) which cause +1 frameshifting. Tolerance of DHU arm and other secondary mutations.

    PubMed

    Tuohy, T M; Thompson, S; Gesteland, R F; Atkins, J F

    1992-12-20

    The mutant tRNA(2Arg) encoded by the genetically-selected frameshift suppressor, sufT621, inserts arginine and causes a +1 reading-frame shift at the proline codon, CCG(U). There is an extra base, G36.1, in argV beta, one of the four identical genes for tRNA(2Arg) in the position between bases 36 and 37, corresponding to the 3' side of the anticodon. The new four-base anticodon, predicted from DNA sequencing to be 3' GGCA 5', is complementary to the four-base codon CCGU. Quadruplet translocation promoted by mutant argV does not require perfect complementarity between the codon and the anticodon since synthetic genes encoding derivatives of tRNA(2Arg) and tRNA(1Pro), with four-base anticodons complementary to three out of the four bases of CCGU, were also shown to be capable of frameshifting. Two other mutants of argV, inferred to have normal-size, seven-base anticodon loops, were also found to be capable of four-base-decoding demonstrating that quadruplet translocation promoted by mutant argV does not require an enlarged anticodon loop. Other alleles of argV, predicted to have nine bases in the anticodon loop, were also found to cause frameshifting. The DNA sequence of two of these showed in addition, either a deletion of G24, or a ten-base duplication in the region corresponding to the TFC arm. A general finding is that mutations in the DHU arm of tRNA(2Arg) are compatible with, and in one case necessary for, frameshifting. PMID:1474576

  5. Dystrophin in frameshift deletion patients with Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Gangopadhyay, S.B.; Ray, P.N.; Worton, R.G.; Sherratt, T.G.; Heckmatt, J.Z.; Dubowitz, V.; Strong, P.N.; Miller, G. ); Shokeir, M. )

    1992-09-01

    In a previous study the authors identified 14 cases with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) or its milder variant, Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), with a deletion of exons 3-7, a deletion that would be expected to shift the translational reading frame of the mRNA and give a severe phenotype. They have examined dystrophin and its mRNA from muscle biopsies of seven cases with either mild or intermediate phenotypes. In all cases they detected slightly lower-molecular-weight dystrophin in 12%-15% abundance relative to the normal. By sequencing amplified mRNA they have found that exon 2 is spliced to exon 8, a splice that produces a frameshifted mRNA, and have found no evidence for alternate splicing that might be involved in restoration of dystrophin mRNA reading frame in the patients with a mild phenotype. Other transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms such as cryptic promoter, ribosomal frameshifting, and reinitiation are suggested that might play some role in restoring the reading frame. 34 refs., 5 figs. 1 tab.

  6. Epigeneitc silencing of ribosomal RNA genes by Mybbp1a

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transcription of the ribosomal RNA gene repeats by Pol I occurs in the nucleolus and is a fundamental step in ribosome biogenesis and protein translation. Due to tight coordination between ribosome biogenesis and cell proliferation, transcription of rRNA and stable maintenance of rDNA clusters are thought to be under intricate control by intercalated mechanisms, particularly at the epigenetic level. Methods and Results Here we identify the nucleolar protein Myb-binding protein 1a (Mybbp1a) as a novel negative regulator of rRNA expression. Suppression of rDNA transcription by Mybbp1a was linked to promoter regulation as illustrated by its binding to the chromatin around the hypermethylated, inactive rDNA gene promoters. Our data further showed that downregulation of Mybbp1a abrogated the local DNA methylation levels and histone marks associated with gene silencing, and altered the promoter occupancy of various factors such UBF and HDACs, consequently leading to elevated rRNA expression. Mechanistically, we propose that Mybbp1a maintains rDNA repeats in a silenced state while in association with the negative epigenetic modifiers HDAC1/2. Conclusions Results from our present work reveal a previously unrecognized co-repressor role of Mybbp1a in rRNA expression. They are further consistent with the scenario that Mybbp1a is an integral constituent of the rDNA epigenetic regulation that underlies the balanced state of rDNA clusters. PMID:22686419

  7. Frameshift mutation events in beta-glucosidases.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Antonio; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Montero, Miguel A; Arola, Lluís; Romeu, Antoni

    2003-09-18

    Compensated frameshift mutation is a modification of the reading frame of a gene that takes place by way of various molecular events. It appears to be a widespread event that is only observed when homologous amino acid and nucleodotide sequences are compared. To identify these mutation events, the sequence analysis rationale was based on the search for short regions that would have much lower degrees of conservation in protein, but not in DNA, in well-conserved beta-glucosidase families. We have restricted our study to a seed set of sequences of O-glycoside hydrolase families 1 and 3. We found compensated frameshift mutation in the family of 1 beta-glucosidases for the Erwinia herbicola, Cellulomonas fimi, and (non-cyanogenic) Trifolium repens gene sequences, and in the family of 3 beta-glucosidases for the Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium stercorarium gene sequences. By computational treatment, the observed mutation events in the gene frameshifting sub-sequence have been neutralised. Each nucleotide insertion must be eliminated and each nucleotide deletion must be substituted by the symbol N (any nucleotide). When the frameshifting fragments of the amino acid sequences were substituted by the computationally neutralised subsequences, the beta-glucosidase alignments were improved. We also discuss the structural implications of the compensated frameshift mutations events. PMID:14527732

  8. Salt Effects on the Thermodynamics of a Frameshifting RNA Pseudoknot under Tension.

    PubMed

    Hori, Naoto; Denesyuk, Natalia A; Thirumalai, D

    2016-07-17

    Because of the potential link between -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting and response of a pseudoknot (PK) RNA to force, a number of single-molecule pulling experiments have been performed on PKs to decipher the mechanism of programmed ribosomal frameshifting. Motivated in part by these experiments, we performed simulations using a coarse-grained model of RNA to describe the response of a PK over a range of mechanical forces (fs) and monovalent salt concentrations (Cs). The coarse-grained simulations quantitatively reproduce the multistep thermal melting observed in experiments, thus validating our model. The free energy changes obtained in simulations are in excellent agreement with experiments. By varying f and C, we calculated the phase diagram that shows a sequence of structural transitions, populating distinct intermediate states. As f and C are changed, the stem-loop tertiary interactions rupture first, followed by unfolding of the 3'-end hairpin (I⇌F). Finally, the 5'-end hairpin unravels, producing an extended state (E⇌I). A theoretical analysis of the phase boundaries shows that the critical force for rupture scales as (logCm)(α) with α=1(0.5) for E⇌I (I⇌F) transition. This relation is used to obtain the preferential ion-RNA interaction coefficient, which can be quantitatively measured in single-molecule experiments, as done previously for DNA hairpins. A by-product of our work is the suggestion that the frameshift efficiency is likely determined by the stability of the 5'-end hairpin that the ribosome first encounters during translation. PMID:27315694

  9. Postmortem diagnosis of Marfan syndrome in a case of sudden death due to aortic rupture: Detection of a novel FBN1 frameshift mutation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunyun; Chen, Shu; Wang, Rongshuai; Huang, Sizhe; Yang, Mingzhen; Liu, Liang; Liu, Qian

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the sudden death of a 36-year-old Chinese man, a medicolegal autopsy was performed, combining forensic pathological examinations and genetic sequencing analysis to diagnose the cause of death. Genomic DNA samples were extracted from blood and subjected to high-throughput sequencing. Major findings included a dilated aortic root with a ruptured and dissected aorta and consequent tamponade of the pericardial sac. Moreover, arachnodactyly and other skeletal deformities were noted. By sequencing the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1), five genetic variations were found, including four previously known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a novel frameshift mutation, leading to the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome. The frameshift mutation (c.4921delG, p.glu1641llysFsX9) detected in exon 40 led to a stop codon after the next 8 amino acids. The four SNPs included a splice site mutation (c.3464-5 G>A, rs11853943), a synonymous mutation (p.Asn625Asn, rs25458), and two missense mutations (p.Pro1148Ala, rs140598; p.Cys472Tyr, rs4775765). Genetic screening was recommended for the relatives as it was reported that the father and brother of the deceased had died at the ages of 40 and 25, respectively, from sudden cardiac failure. The son of the deceased lacked the relevant mutations. This report emphasizes the important contribution of medicolegal postmortem analysis on the molecular pathogenesis study of Marfan syndrome and early diagnosis of at-risk relatives. PMID:26905825

  10. PIM1 destabilization activates a p53-dependent response to ribosomal stress in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Vinay; Caldarola, Sara; Aria, Valentina; Monteleone, Valentina; Fuoco, Claudia; Gargioli, Cesare; Cannata, Stefano; Loreni, Fabrizio

    2016-04-26

    Defects in ribosome biogenesis triggers a stress response (ribosomal stress) that can lead to growth arrest and apoptosis. Signaling pathways activated by ribosomal stress are specifically involved in the pathological mechanism of a group of disorders defined as ribosomopathies. However, more generally, the quality control of ribosome synthesis is part of the regulatory circuits that control cell metabolism. A number of studies identified tumor suppressor p53 as a central player in ribosomal stress. We have previously reported that the kinase PIM1 plays a role as a sensor for ribosome deficiency. In this report we address the relationship between PIM1 and p53 in cancer cell lines after depletion of a ribosomal protein. We identified a novel signaling pathway that includes the kinase AKT and the ubiquitin ligase MDM2. In fact, our results indicate that the lower level of PIM1, induced by ribosomal stress, causes inactivation of AKT, inhibition of MDM2 and a consequent p53 stabilization. Therefore, we propose that activation of p53 in response to ribosomal stress, is dependent on the pathway PIM1-AKT-MDM2. In addition, we report evidence that PIM1 level may be relevant to assess the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs that induce ribosomal stress. PMID:26993775

  11. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 signaling regulates mammalian lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Selman, Colin; Tullet, Jennifer M.A.; Wieser, Daniela; Irvine, Elaine; Lingard, Steven J.; Choudhury, Agharul I.; Claret, Marc; Al-Qassab, Hind; Carmignac, Danielle; Ramadani, Faruk; Woods, Angela; Robinson, Iain C.A.; Schuster, Eugene; Batterham, Rachel L.; Kozma, Sara C.; Thomas, George; Carling, David; Okkenhaug, Klaus; Thornton, Janet M.; Partridge, Linda; Gems, David; Withers, Dominic J.

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) protects against aging and disease but the mechanisms by which this affects mammalian lifespan are unclear. We show in mice that deletion of the nutrient-responsive mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling pathway component ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 (S6K1) led to increased lifespan and resistance to age-related pathologies such as bone, immune and motor dysfunction and loss of insulin sensitivity. Deletion of S6K1 induced gene expression patterns similar to those seen in CR or with pharmacological activation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a conserved regulator of the metabolic response to CR. Our results demonstrate that S6K1 influences healthy mammalian lifespan, and suggest therapeutic manipulation of S6K1 and AMPK might mimic CR and provide broad protection against diseases of aging. PMID:19797661

  12. Slip of grip of a molecular motor on a crowded track: Modeling shift of reading frame of ribosome on RNA template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Bhavya; Schütz, Gunter M.; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2016-06-01

    We develop a stochastic model for the programmed frameshift of ribosomes synthesizing a protein while moving along a mRNA template. Normally the reading frame of a ribosome decodes successive triplets of nucleotides on the mRNA in a step-by-step manner. We focus on the programmed shift of the ribosomal reading frame, forward or backward, by only one nucleotide which results in a fusion protein; it occurs when a ribosome temporarily loses its grip to its mRNA track. Special “slippery” sequences of nucleotides and also downstream secondary structures of the mRNA strand are believed to play key roles in programmed frameshift. Here we explore the role of an hitherto neglected parameter in regulating ‑1 programmed frameshift. Specifically, we demonstrate that the frameshift frequency can be strongly regulated also by the density of the ribosomes, all of which are engaged in simultaneous translation of the same mRNA, at and around the slippery sequence. Monte Carlo simulations support the analytical predictions obtained from a mean-field analysis of the stochastic dynamics.

  13. Ribosome-associated Asc1/RACK1 is required for endonucleolytic cleavage induced by stalled ribosome at the 3' end of nonstop mRNA.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi, Ken; Inada, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Dom34-Hbs1 stimulates degradation of aberrant mRNAs lacking termination codons by dissociating ribosomes stalled at the 3' ends, and plays crucial roles in Nonstop Decay (NSD) and No-Go Decay (NGD). In the dom34Δ mutant, nonstop mRNA is degraded by sequential endonucleolytic cleavages induced by a stalled ribosome at the 3' end. Here, we report that ribosome-associated Asc1/RACK1 is required for the endonucleolytic cleavage of nonstop mRNA by stalled ribosome at the 3' end of mRNA in dom34Δ mutant cells. Asc1/RACK1 facilitates degradation of truncated GFP-Rz mRNA in the absence of Dom34 and exosome-dependent decay. Asc1/RACK1 is required for the sequential endonucleolytic cleavages by the stalled ribosome in the dom34Δ mutant, depending on its ribosome-binding activity. The levels of peptidyl-tRNA derived from nonstop mRNA were elevated in dom34Δasc1Δ mutant cells, and overproduction of nonstop mRNA inhibited growth of mutant cells. E3 ubiquitin ligase Ltn1 degrades the arrest products from truncated GFP-Rz mRNA in dom34Δ and dom34Δasc1Δ mutant cells, and Asc1/RACK1 represses the levels of substrates for Ltn1-dependent degradation. These indicate that ribosome-associated Asc1/RACK1 facilitates endonucleolytic cleavage of nonstop mRNA by stalled ribosomes and represses the levels of aberrant products even in the absence of Dom34. We propose that Asc1/RACK1 acts as a fail-safe in quality control for nonstop mRNA. PMID:27312062

  14. Ribosome-associated Asc1/RACK1 is required for endonucleolytic cleavage induced by stalled ribosome at the 3′ end of nonstop mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Ikeuchi, Ken; Inada, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Dom34-Hbs1 stimulates degradation of aberrant mRNAs lacking termination codons by dissociating ribosomes stalled at the 3′ ends, and plays crucial roles in Nonstop Decay (NSD) and No-Go Decay (NGD). In the dom34Δ mutant, nonstop mRNA is degraded by sequential endonucleolytic cleavages induced by a stalled ribosome at the 3′ end. Here, we report that ribosome-associated Asc1/RACK1 is required for the endonucleolytic cleavage of nonstop mRNA by stalled ribosome at the 3′ end of mRNA in dom34Δ mutant cells. Asc1/RACK1 facilitates degradation of truncated GFP-Rz mRNA in the absence of Dom34 and exosome-dependent decay. Asc1/RACK1 is required for the sequential endonucleolytic cleavages by the stalled ribosome in the dom34Δ mutant, depending on its ribosome-binding activity. The levels of peptidyl-tRNA derived from nonstop mRNA were elevated in dom34Δasc1Δ mutant cells, and overproduction of nonstop mRNA inhibited growth of mutant cells. E3 ubiquitin ligase Ltn1 degrades the arrest products from truncated GFP-Rz mRNA in dom34Δ and dom34Δasc1Δ mutant cells, and Asc1/RACK1 represses the levels of substrates for Ltn1-dependent degradation. These indicate that ribosome-associated Asc1/RACK1 facilitates endonucleolytic cleavage of nonstop mRNA by stalled ribosomes and represses the levels of aberrant products even in the absence of Dom34. We propose that Asc1/RACK1 acts as a fail-safe in quality control for nonstop mRNA. PMID:27312062

  15. Whole-exome sequencing of a patient with severe and complex hemostatic abnormalities reveals a possible contributing frameshift mutation in C3AR1

    PubMed Central

    Leinøe, Eva; Nielsen, Ove Juul; Jønson, Lars; Rossing, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The increasing availability of genome-wide analysis has made it possible to rapidly sequence the exome of patients with undiagnosed or unresolved medical conditions. Here, we present the case of a 64-yr-old male patient with schistocytes in the peripheral blood smear and a complex and life-threatening coagulation disorder causing recurrent venous thromboembolic events, severe thrombocytopenia, and subdural hematomas. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a frameshift mutation (C3AR1 c.355-356dup, p.Asp119Alafs*19) resulting in a premature stop codon in C3AR1 (Complement Component 3a Receptor 1). Based on this finding, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome was suspected because of a genetic predisposition, and a targeted treatment regime with eculizumab was initiated. Life-threatening hemostatic abnormalities would most likely have persisted had it not been for the implementation of whole-exome sequencing in this particular clinical setting. PMID:27551680

  16. Motion of individual ribosomes along mRNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visscher, Koen

    2004-11-01

    Ribosomes move along messenger RNA to translate a sequence of ribonucleotides into a corresponding sequence of amino acids that make up a protein. Efficient motion of ribosomes along the mRNA requires hydrolysis of GTP, converting chemical energy into mechanical work, like better known molecular motors such as kinesin. However, motion is just one of the many tasks of the ribosome, whereas for kinesin, motion itself is the main goal. In keeping with these functional differences, the ribosome is also much larger consisting of more than 50 proteins and with half of its mass made up of ribosomal RNA. Such structural complexity enables indirect ways of coupling GTP hydrolysis to directed motion. In order to elucidate the mechanochemical coupling in ribosomes we have developed a single-molecule assay based on using optical tweezers to record the motion of individual ribosomes along mRNA. Translation rates of 2-4 codons/s have been observed. However, when increasing the force opposing motion, we observe backward slippage of ribosomes along homopolymeric poly(U) messages. Currently, it is not clear if the motor operates in reverse or if backward motion has become completely uncoupled from GTP hydrolysis. Interestingly, force-induced backward motion is of biological relevance because of its possible role in -1 frameshifting, a mechanism used by viruses to regulate gene expression at the level of translation.

  17. Case Report: Whole exome sequencing reveals a novel frameshift deletion mutation p.G2254fs in COL7A1 associated with autosomal recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

    PubMed Central

    Karuthedath Vellarikkal, Shamsudheen; Jayarajan, Rijith; Verma, Ankit; Nair, Sreelata; Ravi, Rowmika; Senthivel, Vigneshwar; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Scaria, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa simplex (DEB) is a phenotypically diverse inherited skin fragility disorder. It is majorly manifested by appearance of epidermal bullae upon friction caused either by physical or environmental trauma. The phenotypic manifestations also include appearance of milia, scarring all over the body and nail dystrophy. DEB can be inherited in a recessive or dominant form and the recessive form of DEB (RDEB) is more severe. In the present study, we identify a novel p.G2254fs mutation in COL7A1 gene causing a sporadic case of RDEB by whole exome sequencing (WES). Apart from adding a novel frameshift Collagen VII mutation to the repertoire of known mutations reported in the disease, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a genetically characterized case of DEB from India. PMID:27408687

  18. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Stm1p facilitates ribosome preservation during quiescence

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, Natalya; Chanchorn, Ekkawit; Van Dyke, Michael W.

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p confers increased resistance to the macrolide starvation-mimic rapamycin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p maintains 80S ribosome integrity during stationary phase-induced quiescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p facilitates polysome formation following quiescence exit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p facilitates protein synthesis following quiescence exit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stm1p is a ribosome preservation factor under conditions of nutrient deprivation. -- Abstract: Once cells exhaust nutrients from their environment, they enter an alternative resting state known as quiescence, whereby proliferation ceases and essential nutrients are obtained through internal stores and through the catabolism of existing macromolecules and organelles. One example of this is ribophagy, the degradation of ribosomes through the process of autophagy. However, some ribosomes need to be preserved for an anticipated recovery from nutrient deprivation. We found that the ribosome-associated protein Stm1p greatly increases the quantity of 80S ribosomes present in quiescent yeast cells and that these ribosomes facilitate increased protein synthesis rates once nutrients are restored. These findings suggest that Stm1p can act as a ribosome preservation factor under conditions of nutrient deprivation and restoration.

  19. Maize reas1 Mutant Stimulates Ribosome Use Efficiency and Triggers Distinct Transcriptional and Translational Responses.

    PubMed

    Qi, Weiwei; Zhu, Jie; Wu, Qiao; Wang, Qun; Li, Xia; Yao, Dongsheng; Jin, Ying; Wang, Gang; Wang, Guifeng; Song, Rentao

    2016-02-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a fundamental cellular process in all cells. Impaired ribosome biogenesis causes developmental defects; however, its molecular and cellular bases are not fully understood. We cloned a gene responsible for a maize (Zea mays) small seed mutant, dek* (for defective kernel), and found that it encodes Ribosome export associated1 (ZmReas1). Reas1 is an AAA-ATPase that controls 60S ribosome export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm after ribosome maturation. dek* is a weak mutant allele with decreased Reas1 function. In dek* cells, mature 60S ribosome subunits are reduced in the nucleus and cytoplasm, but the proportion of actively translating polyribosomes in cytosol is significantly increased. Reduced phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α and the increased elongation factor 1α level indicate an enhancement of general translational efficiency in dek* cells. The mutation also triggers dramatic changes in differentially transcribed genes and differentially translated RNAs. Discrepancy was observed between differentially transcribed genes and differentially translated RNAs, indicating distinct cellular responses at transcription and translation levels to the stress of defective ribosome processing. DNA replication and nucleosome assembly-related gene expression are selectively suppressed at the translational level, resulting in inhibited cell growth and proliferation in dek* cells. This study provides insight into cellular responses due to impaired ribosome biogenesis. PMID:26645456

  20. PTRF/Cavin-1 promotes efficient ribosomal RNA transcription in response to metabolic challenges.

    PubMed

    Liu, Libin; Pilch, Paul F

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA transcription mediated by RNA polymerase I represents the rate-limiting step in ribosome biogenesis. In eukaryotic cells, nutrients and growth factors regulate ribosomal RNA transcription through various key factors coupled to cell growth. We show here in mature adipocytes, ribosomal transcription can be acutely regulated in response to metabolic challenges. This acute response is mediated by PTRF (polymerase I transcription and release factor, also known as cavin-1), which has previously been shown to play a critical role in caveolae formation. The caveolae-independent rDNA transcriptional role of PTRF not only explains the lipodystrophy phenotype observed in PTRF deficient mice and humans, but also highlights its crucial physiological role in maintaining adipocyte allostasis. Multiple post-translational modifications of PTRF provide mechanistic bases for its regulation. The role of PTRF in ribosomal transcriptional efficiency is likely relevant to many additional physiological situations of cell growth and organismal metabolism. PMID:27528195

  1. Slipping and Sliding: frameshift mutations in herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase and drug-resistance

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Some of the most successful antiviral agents currently available are effective against herpes simplex virus. However, resistance to these drugs is frequently associated with significant morbidity, particularly in immunocompromised patients. In addition to the clinical implications of drug resistance, the range of biological processes exploited by the virus to attain resistance while maintaining pathogenicity is proving to be surprising. These mechanisms, which include ribosomal frameshifting, induced infidelity of the DNA polymerase, and internal ribosome entry, are discussed. PMID:21940196

  2. Molecular characterization of WFS1 in an Iranian family with Wolfram syndrome reveals a novel frameshift mutation associated with early symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sobhani, Maryam; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Rajab, Asadollah; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Noori-Daloii, Mohammad Reza

    2013-10-10

    Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder that represents a likely source of childhood diabetes especially among countries in the consanguinity belt. The main responsible gene is WFS1 for which over one hundred mutations have been reported from different ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular etiology of WS and to perform a possible genotype-phenotype correlation in Iranian kindred. An Iranian family with two patients was clinically studied and WS was suspected. Genetic linkage analysis via 5 STR markers was carried out. For identification of mutations, DNA sequencing of WFS1 including all the exons, exon-intron boundaries and the promoter was performed. Linkage analysis indicated linkage to the WFS1 region. After DNA sequencing of WFS1, one novel pathogenic mutation, which causes frameshift alteration c.2177_2178insTCTTC (or c.2173_2177dupTCTTC) in exon eight, was found. The genotype-phenotype correlation analysis suggests that the presence of the homozygous mutation may be associated with early onset of disease symptoms. This study stresses the necessity of considering the molecular analysis of WFS1 in childhood diabetes with some symptoms of WS. PMID:23845777

  3. GATA1 and PU.1 Bind to Ribosomal Protein Genes in Erythroid Cells: Implications for Ribosomopathies

    PubMed Central

    Amanatiadou, Elsa P.; Papadopoulos, Giorgio L.; Strouboulis, John; Vizirianakis, Ioannis S.

    2015-01-01

    The clear connection between ribosome biogenesis dysfunction and specific hematopoiesis-related disorders prompted us to examine the role of critical lineage-specific transcription factors in the transcriptional regulation of ribosomal protein (RP) genes during terminal erythroid differentiation. By applying EMSA and ChIP methodologies in mouse erythroleukemia cells we show that GATA1 and PU.1 bind in vitro and in vivo the proximal promoter region of the RPS19 gene which is frequently mutated in Diamond-Blackfan Anemia. Moreover, ChIPseq data analysis also demonstrates that several RP genes are enriched as potential GATA1 and PU.1 gene targets in mouse and human erythroid cells, with GATA1 binding showing an association with higher ribosomal protein gene expression levels during terminal erythroid differentiation in human and mouse. Our results suggest that RP gene expression and hence balanced ribosome biosynthesis may be specifically and selectively regulated by lineage specific transcription factors during hematopoiesis, a finding which may be clinically relevant to ribosomopathies. PMID:26447946

  4. GATA1 and PU.1 Bind to Ribosomal Protein Genes in Erythroid Cells: Implications for Ribosomopathies.

    PubMed

    Amanatiadou, Elsa P; Papadopoulos, Giorgio L; Strouboulis, John; Vizirianakis, Ioannis S

    2015-01-01

    The clear connection between ribosome biogenesis dysfunction and specific hematopoiesis-related disorders prompted us to examine the role of critical lineage-specific transcription factors in the transcriptional regulation of ribosomal protein (RP) genes during terminal erythroid differentiation. By applying EMSA and ChIP methodologies in mouse erythroleukemia cells we show that GATA1 and PU.1 bind in vitro and in vivo the proximal promoter region of the RPS19 gene which is frequently mutated in Diamond-Blackfan Anemia. Moreover, ChIPseq data analysis also demonstrates that several RP genes are enriched as potential GATA1 and PU.1 gene targets in mouse and human erythroid cells, with GATA1 binding showing an association with higher ribosomal protein gene expression levels during terminal erythroid differentiation in human and mouse. Our results suggest that RP gene expression and hence balanced ribosome biosynthesis may be specifically and selectively regulated by lineage specific transcription factors during hematopoiesis, a finding which may be clinically relevant to ribosomopathies. PMID:26447946

  5. Whole-exome analysis of foetal autopsy tissue reveals a frameshift mutation in OBSL1, consistent with a diagnosis of 3-M Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background We report a consanguineous couple that has experienced three consecutive pregnancy losses following the foetal ultrasound finding of short limbs. Post-termination examination revealed no skeletal dysplasia, but some subtle proximal limb shortening in two foetuses, and a spectrum of mildly dysmorphic features. Karyotype was normal in all three foetuses (46, XX) and comparative genomic hybridization microarray analysis detected no pathogenic copy number variants. Results Whole-exome sequencing and genome-wide homozygosity mapping revealed a previously reported frameshift mutation in the OBSL1 gene (c.1273insA p.T425nfsX40), consistent with a diagnosis of 3-M Syndrome 2 (OMIM #612921), which had not been anticipated from the clinical findings. Conclusions Our study provides novel insight into the early clinical manifestations of this form of 3-M syndrome, and demonstrates the utility of whole exome sequencing as a tool for prenatal diagnosis in particular when there is a family history suggestive of a recurrent set of clinical symptoms. PMID:25923536

  6. Maize reas1 Mutant Stimulates Ribosome Use Efficiency and Triggers Distinct Transcriptional and Translational Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Weiwei; Zhu, Jie; Wu, Qiao; Wang, Qun; Li, Xia; Yao, Dongsheng; Jin, Ying; Wang, Gang; Wang, Guifeng

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a fundamental cellular process in all cells. Impaired ribosome biogenesis causes developmental defects; however, its molecular and cellular bases are not fully understood. We cloned a gene responsible for a maize (Zea mays) small seed mutant, dek* (for defective kernel), and found that it encodes Ribosome export associated1 (ZmReas1). Reas1 is an AAA-ATPase that controls 60S ribosome export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm after ribosome maturation. dek* is a weak mutant allele with decreased Reas1 function. In dek* cells, mature 60S ribosome subunits are reduced in the nucleus and cytoplasm, but the proportion of actively translating polyribosomes in cytosol is significantly increased. Reduced phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α and the increased elongation factor 1α level indicate an enhancement of general translational efficiency in dek* cells. The mutation also triggers dramatic changes in differentially transcribed genes and differentially translated RNAs. Discrepancy was observed between differentially transcribed genes and differentially translated RNAs, indicating distinct cellular responses at transcription and translation levels to the stress of defective ribosome processing. DNA replication and nucleosome assembly-related gene expression are selectively suppressed at the translational level, resulting in inhibited cell growth and proliferation in dek* cells. This study provides insight into cellular responses due to impaired ribosome biogenesis. PMID:26645456

  7. Architecture of the Rix1-Rea1 checkpoint machinery during pre-60S-ribosome remodeling.

    PubMed

    Barrio-Garcia, Clara; Thoms, Matthias; Flemming, Dirk; Kater, Lukas; Berninghausen, Otto; Baßler, Jochen; Beckmann, Roland; Hurt, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome synthesis is catalyzed by ∼200 assembly factors, which facilitate efficient production of mature ribosomes. Here, we determined the cryo-EM structure of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae nucleoplasmic pre-60S particle containing the dynein-related 550-kDa Rea1 AAA(+) ATPase and the Rix1 subcomplex. This particle differs from its preceding state, the early Arx1 particle, by two massive structural rearrangements: an ∼180° rotation of the 5S ribonucleoprotein complex and the central protuberance (CP) rRNA helices, and the removal of the 'foot' structure from the 3' end of the 5.8S rRNA. Progression from the Arx1 to the Rix1 particle was blocked by mutational perturbation of the Rix1-Rea1 interaction but not by a dominant-lethal Rea1 AAA(+) ATPase-ring mutant. After remodeling, the Rix1 subcomplex and Rea1 become suitably positioned to sense correct structural maturation of the CP, which allows unidirectional progression toward mature ribosomes. PMID:26619264

  8. Whole-exome sequencing identifies a novel homozygous frameshift mutation in the PROM1 gene as a causative mutation in two patients with sporadic retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sanmei; Xie, Lan; Yue, Jun; Ma, Tao; Peng, Chunyan; Qiu, Biyuan; Yang, Zhenglin; Yang, Jiyun

    2016-06-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) refers to a heterogeneous group of inherited retinal diseases caused by the loss of photoreceptors. The present study aimed to identify the gene mutations responsible for RP in two patients diagnosed with sporadic RP using next-generation sequencing technology. For this purpose, two patients with sporadic RP and family members (namely parents and siblings) were recruited into this study and underwent a complete ophthalmological assessment. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on genomic DNA samples isolated from peripheral leukocytes which had been obtained from the two patients diagnosed with sporadic RP. WES data were annotated and filtered against four public databases and one in-house database. Subsequently, Sanger sequencing was performed in order to determine whether any of the candidate variants co-segregated with the disease phenotype in the families. A homozygous frameshift mutation, c.1445dupT (p.F482fs) in exon 12 of the PROM1 gene (MIM: 604365), satisfied a recessive inheritance model and showed complete co-segregation of the mutation with the disease phenotype in the families. The same mutation was not detected in the 200 ethnically-matched control samples by Sanger sequencing. The novel homozygous mutation c.1445dupT (p.F482fs) in the PROM1 gene was identified as a causative mutation for RP. Thus, the identification of this mutation has further expanded the existing spectrum of PROM1 mutations in patients with RP, thereby assisting in the molecular diagnosis of RP and enhancing our understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations in order to provide effective genetic counseling. PMID:27082927

  9. Whole-exome sequencing identifies a novel homozygous frameshift mutation in the PROM1 gene as a causative mutation in two patients with sporadic retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    LIU, SANMEI; XIE, LAN; YUE, JUN; MA, TAO; PENG, CHUNYAN; QIU, BIYUAN; YANG, ZHENGLIN; YANG, JIYUN

    2016-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) refers to a heterogeneous group of inherited retinal diseases caused by the loss of photoreceptors. The present study aimed to identify the gene mutations responsible for RP in two patients diagnosed with sporadic RP using next-generation sequencing technology. For this purpose, two patients with sporadic RP and family members (namely parents and siblings) were recruited into this study and underwent a complete ophthalmological assessment. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on genomic DNA samples isolated from peripheral leukocytes which had been obtained from the two patients diagnosed with sporadic RP. WES data were annotated and filtered against four public databases and one in-house database. Subsequently, Sanger sequencing was performed in order to determine whether any of the candidate variants co-segregated with the disease phenotype in the families. A homozygous frameshift mutation, c.1445dupT (p.F482fs) in exon 12 of the PROM1 gene (MIM: 604365), satisfied a recessive inheritance model and showed complete co-segregation of the mutation with the disease phenotype in the families. The same mutation was not detected in the 200 ethnically-matched control samples by Sanger sequencing. The novel homozygous mutation c.1445dupT (p.F482fs) in the PROM1 gene was identified as a causative mutation for RP. Thus, the identification of this mutation has further expanded the existing spectrum of PROM1 mutations in patients with RP, thereby assisting in the molecular diagnosis of RP and enhancing our understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations in order to provide effective genetic counseling. PMID:27082927

  10. Two coexisting heterozygous frameshift mutations in PROP1 are responsible for a different phenotype of combined pituitary hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ziemnicka, K; Budny, B; Drobnik, K; Baszko-Błaszyk, D; Stajgis, M; Katulska, K; Waśko, R; Wrotkowska, E; Słomski, R; Ruchała, M

    2016-08-01

    The role of genetic background in childhood-onset combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) has been extensively studied. The major contributors are the PROP1, POU1F1, LHX3, LHX4 and HESX1 genes coding transcription factors implicated in pituitary organogenesis. The clinical consequences of mutations encompass impaired synthesis of a growth hormone (GH) and one or more concurrent pituitary hormones (i.e. LH, FSH, TSH, PRL). Manifestation of the disorder may vary due to various mutation impacts on the final gene products or an influence of environmental factors during pituitary organogenesis. We describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of two brothers aged 47 and 39 years presenting an uncommon manifestation of congenital hypopituitarism. Sequencing of the PROP1, POU1F1, LHX3, LHX4 and HESX1 genes was performed to confirm the genetic origin of the disorder. A compound heterozygosity in the PROP1 gene has been identified for both probands. The first change represents a mutational hot spot (c.150delA, p.R53fsX164), whereas the second is a novel alteration (p.R112X) that leads to protein disruption. Based on precise genetic diagnosis, an in silico prediction of a p.R112X mutation on protein architecture was performed. The resulting clinical phenotype was surprisingly distinct compared to most patients with genetic alterations in PROP1 reported in the current literature. This may be caused by a residual activity of a newly identified p.R112X protein that preserves over 70 % of the homeodomain structure. This examination may confirm a key role of a DNA-binding homeodomain in maintaining PROP1 functionality and suggests a conceivable explanation of an unusual phenotype. PMID:26608600

  11. MUTATION SPECTRA OF GLU-P-1 IN SALMONELLA: INDUCTION OF HOTSPOT FRAMESHIFTS AND SITE-SPECIFIC BASE SUBSTITUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mutations induced in approximately 2,000 mutants of Salmonella by the heterocyclic@ amine Glu-P-1 were determined by colony probe hybridization and PCR/DNA sequence analysis. ll of the mutations were at sites containing guanine, which is the base at which Glu-P-1 forms DNA ad...

  12. Hrr25/CK1δ-directed release of Ltv1 from pre-40S ribosomes is necessary for ribosome assembly and cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Ghalei, Homa; Schaub, Franz X.; Doherty, Joanne R.; Noguchi, Yoshihiko; Roush, William R.; Cleveland, John L.; Stroupe, M. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Casein kinase 1δ/ε (CK1δ/ε) and their yeast homologue Hrr25 are essential for cell growth. Further, CK1δ is overexpressed in several malignancies, and CK1δ inhibitors have shown promise in several preclinical animal studies. However, the substrates of Hrr25 and CK1δ/ε that are necessary for cell growth and survival are unknown. We show that Hrr25 is essential for ribosome assembly, where it phosphorylates the assembly factor Ltv1, which causes its release from nascent 40S subunits and allows subunit maturation. Hrr25 inactivation or expression of a nonphosphorylatable Ltv1 variant blocked Ltv1 release in vitro and in vivo, and prevented entry into the translation-like quality control cycle. Conversely, phosphomimetic Ltv1 variants rescued viability after Hrr25 depletion. Finally, Ltv1 knockdown in human breast cancer cells impaired apoptosis induced by CK1δ/ε inhibitors, establishing that the antiproliferative activity of these inhibitors is due, at least in part, to disruption of ribosome assembly. These findings validate the ribosome assembly pathway as a novel target for the development of anticancer therapeutics. PMID:25778921

  13. Insertion of the Biogenesis Factor Rei1 Probes the Ribosomal Tunnel during 60S Maturation.

    PubMed

    Greber, Basil Johannes; Gerhardy, Stefan; Leitner, Alexander; Leibundgut, Marc; Salem, Michèle; Boehringer, Daniel; Leulliot, Nicolas; Aebersold, Ruedi; Panse, Vikram Govind; Ban, Nenad

    2016-01-14

    Eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis depends on several hundred assembly factors to produce functional 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits. The final phase of 60S subunit biogenesis is cytoplasmic maturation, which includes the proofreading of functional centers of the 60S subunit and the release of several ribosome biogenesis factors. We report the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the yeast 60S subunit in complex with the biogenesis factors Rei1, Arx1, and Alb1 at 3.4 Å resolution. In addition to the network of interactions formed by Alb1, the structure reveals a mechanism for ensuring the integrity of the ribosomal polypeptide exit tunnel. Arx1 probes the entire set of inner-ring proteins surrounding the tunnel exit, and the C terminus of Rei1 is deeply inserted into the ribosomal tunnel, where it forms specific contacts along almost its entire length. We provide genetic and biochemical evidence that failure to insert the C terminus of Rei1 precludes subsequent steps of 60S maturation. PMID:26709046

  14. Novel frameshift mutation in the CACNA1A gene causing a mixed phenotype of episodic ataxia and familiar hemiplegic migraine.

    PubMed

    Kinder, S; Ossig, C; Wienecke, M; Beyer, A; von der Hagen, M; Storch, A; Smitka, M

    2015-01-01

    Episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2, MIM#108500) is the most common form of EA and an autosomal-dominant inherited disorder characterized by paroxysmal episodes of ataxia. The disease causative gene CACNA1A encodes for the alpha 1A subunit of the voltage-gated P/Q-type calcium channel. We report on a family with a novel mutation in the CACNA1A gene. The clinical symptoms within the family varied from the typical clinical presentation of EA2 with dysarthria, gait ataxia and oculomotor symptoms to migraine and dystonia. A novel nonsense mutation of the CACNA1A gene was identified in all affected family members and is most likely the disease causing molecular defect. The pharmacological treatment with acetazolamide (AAA) was successful in three family members so far. Treatment with AAA led to a reduction of migraine attacks and an improvement of the dystonia. This relationship confirmed the hypothesis that this novel mutation results in a heterogeneous phenotype and confutes the coincidence with common migraine. Dystonia is potentially included as a further part of the phenotype spectrum of CACNA1A gene mutations. PMID:25468264

  15. Both endonucleolytic and exonucleolytic cleavage mediate ITS1 removal during human ribosomal RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Katherine E; Mattijssen, Sandy; Lebaron, Simon; Tollervey, David; Pruijn, Ger J M; Watkins, Nicholas J

    2013-03-01

    Human ribosome production is up-regulated during tumorogenesis and is defective in many genetic diseases (ribosomopathies). We have undertaken a detailed analysis of human precursor ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) processing because surprisingly little is known about this important pathway. Processing in internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) is a key step that separates the rRNA components of the large and small ribosomal subunits. We report that this was initiated by endonuclease cleavage, which required large subunit biogenesis factors. This was followed by 3' to 5' exonucleolytic processing by RRP6 and the exosome, an enzyme complex not previously linked to ITS1 removal. In contrast, RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the endoribonuclease MRP did not result in a clear defect in ITS1 processing. Despite the apparently high evolutionary conservation of the pre-rRNA processing pathway and ribosome synthesis factors, each of these features of human ITS1 processing is distinct from those in budding yeast. These results also provide significant insight into the links between ribosomopathies and ribosome production in human cells. PMID:23439679

  16. PTRF/Cavin-1 promotes efficient ribosomal RNA transcription in response to metabolic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Libin; Pilch, Paul F

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA transcription mediated by RNA polymerase I represents the rate-limiting step in ribosome biogenesis. In eukaryotic cells, nutrients and growth factors regulate ribosomal RNA transcription through various key factors coupled to cell growth. We show here in mature adipocytes, ribosomal transcription can be acutely regulated in response to metabolic challenges. This acute response is mediated by PTRF (polymerase I transcription and release factor, also known as cavin-1), which has previously been shown to play a critical role in caveolae formation. The caveolae–independent rDNA transcriptional role of PTRF not only explains the lipodystrophy phenotype observed in PTRF deficient mice and humans, but also highlights its crucial physiological role in maintaining adipocyte allostasis. Multiple post-translational modifications of PTRF provide mechanistic bases for its regulation. The role of PTRF in ribosomal transcriptional efficiency is likely relevant to many additional physiological situations of cell growth and organismal metabolism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17508.001 PMID:27528195

  17. GeneTack database: genes with frameshifts in prokaryotic genomes and eukaryotic mRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Antonov, Ivan; Baranov, Pavel; Borodovsky, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Database annotations of prokaryotic genomes and eukaryotic mRNA sequences pay relatively low attention to frame transitions that disrupt protein-coding genes. Frame transitions (frameshifts) could be caused by sequencing errors or indel mutations inside protein-coding regions. Other observed frameshifts are related to recoding events (that evolved to control expression of some genes). Earlier, we have developed an algorithm and software program GeneTack for ab initio frameshift finding in intronless genes. Here, we describe a database (freely available at http://topaz.gatech.edu/GeneTack/db.html) containing genes with frameshifts (fs-genes) predicted by GeneTack. The database includes 206 991 fs-genes from 1106 complete prokaryotic genomes and 45 295 frameshifts predicted in mRNA sequences from 100 eukaryotic genomes. The whole set of fs-genes was grouped into clusters based on sequence similarity between fs-proteins (conceptually translated fs-genes), conservation of the frameshift position and frameshift direction (-1, +1). The fs-genes can be retrieved by similarity search to a given query sequence via a web interface, by fs-gene cluster browsing, etc. Clusters of fs-genes are characterized with respect to their likely origin, such as pseudogenization, phase variation, etc. The largest clusters contain fs-genes with programed frameshifts (related to recoding events). PMID:23161689

  18. A residue substitution in the plastid ribosomal protein L12/AL1 produces defective plastid ribosome and causes early seedling lethality in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Chang-Quan; Li, Qian-Feng; Yang, Qing-Qing; Gu, Ming-Hong; Liu, Qiao-Quan

    2016-05-01

    The plastid ribosome is essential for chloroplast biogenesis as well as seedling formation. As the plastid ribosome closely resembles the prokaryotic 70S ribosome, many plastid ribosomal proteins (PRPs) have been identified in higher plants. However, their assembly in the chloroplast ribosome in rice remains unclear. In the present study, we identified a novel rice mutant, albino lethal 1 (al1), from a chromosome segment substitution line population. The al1 mutant displayed an albino phenotype at the seedling stage and did not survive past the three-leaf stage. No other apparent differences in plant morphology were observed in the al1 mutant. The albino phenotype of the al1 mutant was associated with decreased chlorophyll content and abnormal chloroplast morphology. Using fine mapping, AL1 was shown to encode the PRPL12, a protein localized in the chloroplasts of rice, and a spontaneous single-nucleotide mutation (C/T), resulting in a residue substitution from leucine in AL1 to phenylalanine in al1, was found to be responsible for the early seedling lethality. This point mutation is located at the L10 interface feature of the L12/AL1 protein. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that there was no physical interaction between al1 and PRPL10. In addition, the mutation had little effect on the transcript abundance of al1, but had a remarkable effect on the protein abundance of al1 and transcript abundance of chloroplast biogenesis-related and photosynthesis-related genes. These results provide a first glimpse into the molecular details of L12's function in rice. PMID:26873698

  19. Runx1 deficiency decreases ribosome biogenesis and confers stress resistance to hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiongwei; Gao, Long; Teng, Li; Ge, Jingping; Oo, Zaw Min; Kumar, Ashish R.; Gilliland, D. Gary; Mason, Philip J.; Tan, Kai; Speck, Nancy A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The transcription factor RUNX1 is frequently mutated in myelodysplastic syndrome and leukemia. RUNX1 mutations can be early events, creating pre-leukemic stem cells that expand in the bone marrow. Here we show, counter-intuitively, that Runx1 deficient hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) have a slow growth, low biosynthetic, small cell phenotype and markedly reduced ribosome biogenesis (Ribi). The reduced Ribi involved decreased levels of rRNA and many mRNAs encoding ribosome proteins. Runx1 appears to directly regulate Ribi; Runx1 is enriched on the promoters of genes encoding ribosome proteins, and binds the ribosomal DNA repeats. Runx1 deficient HSPCs have lower p53 levels, reduced apoptosis, an attenuated unfolded protein response, and accordingly are resistant to genotoxic and endoplasmic reticulum stress. The low biosynthetic activity and corresponding stress resistance provides a selective advantage to Runx1 deficient HSPCs, allowing them to expand in the bone marrow and outcompete normal HSPCs. PMID:26165925

  20. The role of L1 stalk:tRNA interaction in the ribosome elongation cycle

    PubMed Central

    Trabuco, Leonardo G.; Schreiner, Eduard; Eargle, John; Cornish, Peter; Ha, Taekjip; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida; Schulten, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The ribosomal L1 stalk is a mobile structure implicated in directing tRNA movement during translocation through the ribosome. This article investigates three aspects of L1 stalk:tRNA interaction. First, by combining through the molecular dynamics flexible fitting method data from cryo-electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, and molecular dynamics simulations, atomic models of different tRNAs occupying the hybrid P/E state interacting with the L1 stalk are obtained. These models confirm the assignment of FRET states from previous single-molecule investigations of L1 stalk dynamics. Second, the models reconcile how initiator tRNAfMet interacts less strongly with the L1 stalk than elongator tRNAPhe, as seen in previous single-molecule experiments. Third, results from a simulation of the entire ribosome in which the L1 stalk is moved from a half-closed to its open conformation are found to support the hypothesis that L1 stalk opening is involved in tRNA release from the ribosome. PMID:20691699

  1. Nom1 Mediates Pancreas Development by Regulating Ribosome Biogenesis in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wei; Chen, Zelin; Zhang, Yihan; Yan, Ruibin; Yan, Guanrong; Li, Song; Zhong, Hanbing; Lin, Shuo

    2014-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is an important biological process for proper cellular function and development. Defects leading to improper ribosome biogenesis can cause diseases such as Diamond-Blackfan anemia and Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome. Nucleolar proteins are a large family of proteins and are involved in many cellular processes, including the regulation of ribosome biogenesis. Through a forward genetic screen and positional cloning, we identified and characterized a zebrafish line carrying mutation in nucleolar protein with MIF4G domain 1 (nom1), which encodes a conserved nulceolar protein with a role in pre-rRNA processing. Zebrafish nom1 mutants exhibit major defects in endoderm development, especially in exocrine pancreas. Further studies revealed that impaired proliferation of ptf1a-expressing pancreatic progenitor cells mainly contributed to the phenotype. RNA-seq and molecular analysis showed that ribosome biogenesis and pre-mRNA splicing were both affected in the mutant embryos. Several defects of ribosome assembly have been shown to have a p53-dependent mechanism. In the nom1 mutant, loss of p53 did not rescue the pancreatic defect, suggesting a p53-independent role. Further studies indicate that protein phosphatase 1 alpha, an interacting protein to Nom1, could partially rescue the pancreatic defect in nom1 morphants if a human nucleolar localization signal sequence was artificially added. This suggests that targeting Pp1α into the nucleolus by Nom1 is important for pancreatic proliferation. Altogether, our studies revealed a new mechanism involving Nom1 in controlling vertebrate exocrine pancreas formation. PMID:24967912

  2. La Autoantigen Induces Ribosome Binding Protein 1 (RRBP1) Expression through Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES)-Mediated Translation during Cellular Stress Condition.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenqing; Li, Qi; Zhu, Ruiyu; Jin, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The function of ribosome binding protein 1 (RRBP1) is regulating the transportation and secretion of some intracellular proteins in mammalian cells. Transcription of RRBP1 is induced by various cytokines. However, few studies focused on the process of RRPB1 mRNA translation. The RRBP1 mRNA has a long 5' untranslated region that potentially formed a stable secondary structure. In this study, we show that the 5' UTR of RRBP1 mRNA contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Moreover, the RRBP1 expression is induced by chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel or adriamycin in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and accompanied with the increased expression of La autoantigen (La), which binds to RRBP1 IRES element and facilitates translation initiation. Interestingly, we found IRES-mediated RRBP1 translation is also activated during serum-starvation condition which can induce cytoplasmic localization of La. After mapping the entire RRBP1 5' UTR, we determine the core IRES activity is located between nt-237 and -58. Furthermore, two apical GARR loops within the functional RRBP1 IRES elements may be important for La binding. These results strongly suggest an important role for IRES-dependent translation of RRBP1 mRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma cells during cellular stress conditions. PMID:27447629

  3. La Autoantigen Induces Ribosome Binding Protein 1 (RRBP1) Expression through Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES)-Mediated Translation during Cellular Stress Condition

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wenqing; Li, Qi; Zhu, Ruiyu; Jin, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The function of ribosome binding protein 1 (RRBP1) is regulating the transportation and secretion of some intracellular proteins in mammalian cells. Transcription of RRBP1 is induced by various cytokines. However, few studies focused on the process of RRPB1 mRNA translation. The RRBP1 mRNA has a long 5′ untranslated region that potentially formed a stable secondary structure. In this study, we show that the 5′ UTR of RRBP1 mRNA contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Moreover, the RRBP1 expression is induced by chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel or adriamycin in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and accompanied with the increased expression of La autoantigen (La), which binds to RRBP1 IRES element and facilitates translation initiation. Interestingly, we found IRES-mediated RRBP1 translation is also activated during serum-starvation condition which can induce cytoplasmic localization of La. After mapping the entire RRBP1 5′ UTR, we determine the core IRES activity is located between nt-237 and -58. Furthermore, two apical GARR loops within the functional RRBP1 IRES elements may be important for La binding. These results strongly suggest an important role for IRES-dependent translation of RRBP1 mRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma cells during cellular stress conditions. PMID:27447629

  4. Resistance in the Ribosome: RUNX1, pre-LSCs, and HSPCs

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kyoko; Ito, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic targeting of pre-leukemic stem cells (pre-LSCs) may be a viable strategy to eradicate residual disease and prevent leukemia relapse. Now in Cell Stem Cell, Cai et al. (2015) show that loss-of-function mutations in RUNX1 reduce ribosome biogenesis and provide pre-LSCs a selective advantage over normal hematopoietic cells through increased stress resistance. PMID:26253196

  5. The nucleolar GTPase nucleostemin-like 1 plays a role in plant growth and senescence by modulating ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Young; Park, Yong-Joon; Cho, Hui Kyung; Jung, Hyun Ju; Ahn, Tae-Kyu; Kang, Hunseung; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Nucleostemin is a nucleolar GTP-binding protein that is involved in stem cell proliferation, embryonic development, and ribosome biogenesis in mammals. Plant nucleostemin-like 1 (NSN1) plays a role in embryogenesis, and apical and floral meristem development. In this study, a nucleolar function of NSN1 in the regulation of ribosome biogenesis was identified. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused NSN1 localized to the nucleolus, which was primarily determined by its N-terminal domain. Recombinant NSN1 and its N-terminal domain (NSN1-N) bound to RNA in vitro. Recombinant NSN1 expressed GTPase activity in vitro. NSN1 silencing in Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana led to growth retardation and premature senescence. NSN1 interacted with Pescadillo and EBNA1 binding protein 2 (EBP2), which are nucleolar proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis, and with several ribosomal proteins. NSN1, NSN1-N, and EBP2 co-fractionated primarily with the 60S ribosomal large subunit in vivo. Depletion of NSN1 delayed 25S rRNA maturation and biogenesis of the 60S ribosome subunit, and repressed global translation. NSN1-deficient plants exhibited premature leaf senescence, excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and senescence-related gene expression. Taken together, these results suggest that NSN1 plays a crucial role in plant growth and senescence by modulating ribosome biogenesis. PMID:26163696

  6. The NBS1-Treacle complex controls ribosomal RNA transcription in response to DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Dorthe H; Hari, Flurina; Clapperton, Julie A; Gwerder, Myriam; Gutsche, Katrin; Altmeyer, Matthias; Jungmichel, Stephanie; Toledo, Luis I; Fink, Daniel; Rask, Maj-Britt; Grøfte, Merete; Lukas, Claudia; Nielsen, Michael L; Smerdon, Stephen J; Lukas, Jiri; Stucki, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome breakage elicits transient silencing of ribosomal RNA synthesis, but the mechanisms involved remained elusive. Here we discover an in-trans signaling mechanism that triggers pan-nuclear silencing of rRNA transcription in response to DNA damage. This is associated with transient recruitment of the Nijmegen breakage syndrome protein 1 (NBS1), a central regulator of DNA damage responses, into the nucleoli. We further identified TCOF1-Treacle, a nucleolar factor implicated in ribosome biogenesis and mutated in Treacher Collins syndrome, as an interaction partner of NBS1, and demonstrate that NBS1 translocation and accumulation in the nucleoli is Treacle-dependent. Finally, we provide evidence that Treacle-mediated NBS1 recruitment into the nucleoli regulates rRNA silencing in-trans in the presence of distant chromosome breaks. PMID:25064736

  7. Ribosomal protein L3: Gatekeeper to the A-site

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Summary Ribosomal protein L3 (L3) is an essential and indispensable component for formation of the peptidyltransferase center. Atomic resolution ribosome structures reveal two extensions of L3 protruding deep into the core of the large subunit. The central extension of L3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated using a combination of molecular genetic, biochemical, chemical probing and molecular modeling methods. A reciprocal relationship between ribosomal affinity for eEF-1A stimulated binding of aa-tRNA and for eEF2 suggests that the central extension of L3 may function as an allosteric switch in coordinating binding of the elongation factors. Opening of the aa-tRNA accommodation corridor promoted resistance to the A-site specific translational inhibitor anisomycin, suggesting a competitive model for anisomycin resistance. These changes were also found to inhibit peptidyltransferase activity, stimulating programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting, and promoting virus propagation defects. These studies provide a basis for deeper insight for rational design of small molecule antiviral therapeutics. PMID:17386264

  8. Concerted removal of the Erb1-Ytm1 complex in ribosome biogenesis relies on an elaborate interface.

    PubMed

    Thoms, Matthias; Ahmed, Yasar Luqman; Maddi, Karthik; Hurt, Ed; Sinning, Irmgard

    2016-01-29

    The complicated process of eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis involves about 200 assembly factors that transiently associate with the nascent pre-ribosome in a spatiotemporally ordered way. During the early steps of 60S subunit formation, several proteins, collectively called A3 cluster factors, participate in the removal of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) from 27SA3 pre-rRNA. Among these factors is the conserved hetero-trimeric Nop7-Erb1-Ytm1 complex (or human Pes1-Bop1-Wdr12), which is removed from the evolving pre-60S particle by the AAA ATPase Rea1 to allow progression in the pathway. Here, we clarify how Ytm1 and Erb1 interact, which has implications for the release mechanism of both factors from the pre-ribosome. Biochemical studies show that Ytm1 and Erb1 bind each other via their ß-propeller domains. The crystal structure of the Erb1-Ytm1 heterodimer determined at 2.67Å resolution reveals an extended interaction surface between the propellers in a rarely observed binding mode. Structure-based mutations in the interface that impair the Erb1-Ytm1 interaction do not support growth, with specific defects in 60S subunit synthesis. Under these mutant conditions, it becomes clear that an intact Erb1-Ytm1 complex is required for 60S maturation and that loss of this stable interaction prevents ribosome production. PMID:26657628

  9. The ribosomal protein Asc1/RACK1 is required for efficient translation of short mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Mary K; Rojas-Duran, Maria F; Gangaramani, Paritosh; Gilbert, Wendy V

    2016-01-01

    Translation is a core cellular process carried out by a highly conserved macromolecular machine, the ribosome. There has been remarkable evolutionary adaptation of this machine through the addition of eukaryote-specific ribosomal proteins whose individual effects on ribosome function are largely unknown. Here we show that eukaryote-specific Asc1/RACK1 is required for efficient translation of mRNAs with short open reading frames that show greater than average translational efficiency in diverse eukaryotes. ASC1 mutants in S. cerevisiae display compromised translation of specific functional groups, including cytoplasmic and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, and display cellular phenotypes consistent with their gene-specific translation defects. Asc1-sensitive mRNAs are preferentially associated with the translational ‘closed loop’ complex comprised of eIF4E, eIF4G, and Pab1, and depletion of eIF4G mimics the translational defects of ASC1 mutants. Together our results reveal a role for Asc1/RACK1 in a length-dependent initiation mechanism optimized for efficient translation of genes with important housekeeping functions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11154.001 PMID:27117520

  10. Las1 interacts with Grc3 polynucleotide kinase and is required for ribosome synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Christopher D.; Sardana, Richa; Dandekar, Varada; Borgianini, Victoria; Johnson, Arlen W.; Denicourt, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a multi-step process that couples cell growth with cell proliferation. Although several large-scale analysis of pre-ribosomal particles have identified numerous trans-acting factors involved in this process, many proteins involved in pre-rRNA processing and ribosomal subunit maturation have yet to be identified. Las1 was originally identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a protein involved in cell morphogenesis. We previously demonstrated that the human homolog, Las1L, is required for efficient ITS2 rRNA processing and synthesis of the 60S ribosomal subunit. Here, we report that the functions of Las1 in ribosome biogenesis are also conserved in S. cerevisiae. Depletion of Las1 led to the accumulation of both the 27S and 7S rRNA intermediates and impaired the synthesis of the 60S subunit. We show that Las1 co-precipitates mainly with the 27S rRNA and associates with an Nsa1 and Rix1-containing pre-60S particle. We further identify Grc3 as a major Las1-interacting protein. We demonstrate that the kinase activity of Grc3 is required for efficient pre-rRNA processing and that depletion of Grc3 leads to rRNA processing defects similar to the ones observed in Las1-depleted cells. We propose that Las1 and Grc3 function together in a conserved mechanism to modulate rRNA processing and eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis. PMID:23175604

  11. Ribosomal DNA ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequence comparisons as a tool for predicting genetic relatedness.

    PubMed

    Coleman, A W; Mai, J C

    1997-08-01

    The determination of the secondary structure of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions separating nuclear ribosomal RNA genes of Chlorophytes has improved the fidelity of alignment of nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences from related organisms. Application of this information to sequences from green algae and plants suggested that a subset of the ITS-2 positions is relatively conserved. Organisms that can mate are identical at all of these 116 positions, or differ by at most, one nucleotide change. Here we sequenced and compared the ITS-1 and ITS-2 of 40 green flagellates in search of the nearest relative to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The analysis clearly revealed one unique candidate, C. incerta. Several ancillary benefits of the analysis included the identification of mislabelled cultures, the resolution of confusion concerning C. smithii, the discovery of misidentified sequences in GenBank derived from a green algal contaminant, and an overview of evolutionary relationships among the Volvocales, which is congruent with that derived from rDNA gene sequence comparisons but improves upon its resolution. The study further delineates the taxonomic level at which ITS sequences, in comparison to ribosomal gene sequences, are most useful in systematic and other studies. PMID:9236277

  12. The A1 Subunit of Shiga Toxin 2 Has Higher Affinity for Ribosomes and Higher Catalytic Activity than the A1 Subunit of Shiga Toxin 1.

    PubMed

    Basu, Debaleena; Li, Xiao-Ping; Kahn, Jennifer N; May, Kerrie L; Kahn, Peter C; Tumer, Nilgun E

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections can lead to life-threatening complications, including hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), which is the most common cause of acute renal failure in children in the United States. Stx1 and Stx2 are AB5 toxins consisting of an enzymatically active A subunit associated with a pentamer of receptor binding B subunits. Epidemiological evidence suggests that Stx2-producing E. coli strains are more frequently associated with HUS than Stx1-producing strains. Several studies suggest that the B subunit plays a role in mediating toxicity. However, the role of the A subunits in the increased potency of Stx2 has not been fully investigated. Here, using purified A1 subunits, we show that Stx2A1 has a higher affinity for yeast and mammalian ribosomes than Stx1A1. Biacore analysis indicated that Stx2A1 has faster association and dissociation with ribosomes than Stx1A1. Analysis of ribosome depurination kinetics demonstrated that Stx2A1 depurinates yeast and mammalian ribosomes and an RNA stem-loop mimic of the sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) at a higher catalytic rate and is a more efficient enzyme than Stx1A1. Stx2A1 depurinated ribosomes at a higher level in vivo and was more cytotoxic than Stx1A1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Stx2A1 depurinated ribosomes and inhibited translation at a significantly higher level than Stx1A1 in human cells. These results provide the first direct evidence that the higher affinity for ribosomes in combination with higher catalytic activity toward the SRL allows Stx2A1 to depurinate ribosomes, inhibit translation, and exhibit cytotoxicity at a significantly higher level than Stx1A1. PMID:26483409

  13. RINT-1 interacts with MSP58 within nucleoli and plays a role in ribosomal gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chuan-Pin; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Yi-Chao; Lee, Kuen-Haur; Chiang, Chi-Wu; Wang, Ju-Ming; Hsu, Che-Chia; Chang, Wen-Chang; Lin, Ding-Yen

    2016-09-16

    The nucleolus is the cellular site of ribosomal (r)DNA transcription and ribosome biogenesis. The 58-kDa microspherule protein (MSP58) is a nucleolar protein involved in rDNA transcription and cell proliferation. However, regulation of MSP58-mediated rDNA transcription remains unknown. Using a yeast two-hybrid system with MSP58 as bait, we isolated complementary (c)DNA encoding Rad50-interacting protein 1 (RINT-1), as a MSP58-binding protein. RINT-1 was implicated in the cell cycle checkpoint, membrane trafficking, Golgi apparatus and centrosome dynamic integrity, and telomere length control. Both in vitro and in vivo interaction assays showed that MSP58 directly interacts with RINT-1. Interestingly, microscopic studies revealed the co-localization of MSP58, RINT-1, and the upstream binding factor (UBF), a rRNA transcription factor, in the nucleolus. We showed that ectopic expression of MSP58 or RINT-1 resulted in decreased rRNA expression and rDNA promoter activity, whereas knockdown of MSP58 or RINT-1 by siRNA exerted the opposite effect. Coexpression of MSP58 and RINT-1 robustly decreased rRNA synthesis compared to overexpression of either protein alone, whereas depletion of RINT-1 from MSP58-transfected cells enhanced rRNA synthesis. We also found that MSP58, RINT-1, and the UBF were associated with the rDNA promoter using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Because aberrant ribosome biogenesis contributes to neoplastic transformation, our results revealed a novel protein complex involved in the regulation of rRNA gene expression, suggesting a role for MSP58 and RINT-1 in cancer development. PMID:27530925

  14. p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1) isoenzyme specifically regulates cytokinesis progression.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hyun-Ja; Lee, In Jeong; Jang, Seunghoon; Bae, Chang-Dae; Kwak, Sahng-June; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2014-02-01

    The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase family (RSK1-4) of Ser/Thr kinases is a downstream component of the Ras-MAPK cascade responsible for regulating various cellular processes. Here, we examined the potential involvement of RSKs in regulating mitosis by transfecting HeLa cells with siRNAs targeting RSK1 and -2, which are the major isoforms. Depletion of RSK1 but not RSK2 triggered a significant accumulation of binucleated cells compared to control cells (0.5% vs. 10.5%, respectively); this was rescued by expression of exogenous RSK1 but not a kinase-defective mutant. Monitoring of cell division by time-lapse imaging revealed that the observed binucleation mainly stemmed from a failure to form and ingress the cleavage furrow during early cytokinesis. Immunocytochemical analysis of RhoA and anillin, the two principal regulators of cleavage furrow formation and ingression, showed that these proteins were abnormally localized during anaphase in RSK1-depleted cells. Furthermore, RSK1-depleted cells seemed to have impairments in midzone microtubule formation, as suggested by morphological changes and lengthening of the midzone (15.2 ± 1.7 μm vs. 17.4 ± 1.7 μm in control cells). We also observed shortening of the pole-to-polar-cortex distance in RSK1-depleted cells (4.30 ± 1.37 μm vs. 2.80 ± 0.84 μm in control cells) and scanty distribution of microtubules at the periphery of the equatorial region during anaphase, suggesting an aberrant distribution of astral microtubules. Taken together, these results suggest that RSK1 is specifically required for cleavage furrow formation and ingression during cytokinesis. This may occur via the involvement of RSK1 in proper midzone and astral microtubule structure formation during anaphase, which is essential for the correct localization of anillin and RhoA. PMID:24269382

  15. Ribosome rescue and translation termination at non-standard stop codons by ICT1 in mammalian mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Akabane, Shiori; Ueda, Takuya; Nierhaus, Knud H; Takeuchi, Nono

    2014-09-01

    Release factors (RFs) govern the termination phase of protein synthesis. Human mitochondria harbor four different members of the class 1 RF family: RF1Lmt/mtRF1a, RF1mt, C12orf65 and ICT1. The homolog of the essential ICT1 factor is widely distributed in bacteria and organelles and has the peculiar feature in human mitochondria to be part of the ribosome as a ribosomal protein of the large subunit. The factor has been suggested to rescue stalled ribosomes in a codon-independent manner. The mechanism of action of this factor was obscure and is addressed here. Using a homologous mitochondria system of purified components, we demonstrate that the integrated ICT1 has no rescue activity. Rather, purified ICT1 binds stoichiometrically to mitochondrial ribosomes in addition to the integrated copy and functions as a general rescue factor, i.e. it releases the polypeptide from the peptidyl tRNA from ribosomes stalled at the end or in the middle of an mRNA or even from non-programmed ribosomes. The data suggest that the unusual termination at a sense codon (AGA/G) of the oxidative-phosphorylation enzymes CO1 and ND6 is also performed by ICT1 challenging a previous model, according to which RF1Lmt/mtRF1a is responsible for the translation termination at non-standard stop codons. We also demonstrate by mutational analyses that the unique insertion sequence present in the N-terminal domain of ICT1 is essential for peptide release rather than for ribosome binding. The function of RF1mt, another member of the class1 RFs in mammalian mitochondria, was also examined and is discussed. PMID:25233460

  16. NPM1/B23: A Multifunctional Chaperone in Ribosome Biogenesis and Chromatin Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Mikael S.

    2011-01-01

    At a first glance, ribosome biogenesis and chromatin remodeling are quite different processes, but they share a common problem involving interactions between charged nucleic acids and small basic proteins that may result in unwanted intracellular aggregations. The multifunctional nuclear acidic chaperone NPM1 (B23/nucleophosmin) is active in several stages of ribosome biogenesis, chromatin remodeling, and mitosis as well as in DNA repair, replication and transcription. In addition, NPM1 plays an important role in the Myc-ARF-p53 pathway as well as in SUMO regulation. However, the relative importance of NPM1 in these processes remains unclear. Provided herein is an update on the expanding list of the diverse activities and interacting partners of NPM1. Mechanisms of NPM1 nuclear export functions of NPM1 in the nucleolus and at the mitotic spindle are discussed in relation to tumor development. It is argued that the suggested function of NPM1 as a histone chaperone could explain several, but not all, of the effects observed in cells following changes in NPM1 expression. A future challenge is to understand how NPM1 is activated, recruited, and controlled to carry out its functions. PMID:21152184

  17. Identification and characterization of CHCHD1, AURKAIP1, and CRIF1 as new members of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Koc, Emine C.; Cimen, Huseyin; Kumcuoglu, Beril; Abu, Nadiah; Akpinar, Gurler; Haque, Md. Emdadul; Spremulli, Linda L.; Koc, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Defects in mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs) cause various diseases in humans. Because of the essential role of MRPs in synthesizing the essential subunits of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes, identifying all of the protein components involved in the mitochondrial translational machinery is critical. Initially, we identified 79 MRPs; however, identifying MRPs with no clear homologs in bacteria and yeast mitochondria was challenging, due to limited availability of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the databases available at that time. With the improvement in genome sequencing and increased sensitivity of mass spectrometry (MS)-based technologies, we have established four previously known proteins as MRPs and have confirmed the identification of ICT1 (MRP58) as a ribosomal protein. The newly identified MRPs are MRPS37 (Coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain containing protein 1-CHCHD1), MRPS38 (Aurora kinase A interacting protein1, AURKAIP1), MRPS39 (Pentatricopeptide repeat-containing protein 3, PTCD3), in the small subunit and MRPL59 (CR-6 interacting factor 1, CRIF1) in the large subunit. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the essential roles of CHCHD1, AURKAIP1, and CRIF1in mitochondrial protein synthesis by siRNA knock-down studies, which had significant effects on the expression of mitochondrially encoded proteins. PMID:23908630

  18. Concerted removal of the Erb1–Ytm1 complex in ribosome biogenesis relies on an elaborate interface

    PubMed Central

    Thoms, Matthias; Ahmed, Yasar Luqman; Maddi, Karthik; Hurt, Ed; Sinning, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    The complicated process of eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis involves about 200 assembly factors that transiently associate with the nascent pre-ribosome in a spatiotemporally ordered way. During the early steps of 60S subunit formation, several proteins, collectively called A3 cluster factors, participate in the removal of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) from 27SA3 pre-rRNA. Among these factors is the conserved hetero-trimeric Nop7–Erb1–Ytm1 complex (or human Pes1–Bop1–Wdr12), which is removed from the evolving pre-60S particle by the AAA ATPase Rea1 to allow progression in the pathway. Here, we clarify how Ytm1 and Erb1 interact, which has implications for the release mechanism of both factors from the pre-ribosome. Biochemical studies show that Ytm1 and Erb1 bind each other via their ß-propeller domains. The crystal structure of the Erb1–Ytm1 heterodimer determined at 2.67Å resolution reveals an extended interaction surface between the propellers in a rarely observed binding mode. Structure-based mutations in the interface that impair the Erb1–Ytm1 interaction do not support growth, with specific defects in 60S subunit synthesis. Under these mutant conditions, it becomes clear that an intact Erb1–Ytm1 complex is required for 60S maturation and that loss of this stable interaction prevents ribosome production. PMID:26657628

  19. Pre-40S ribosome biogenesis factor Tsr1 is an inactive structural mimic of translational GTPases

    PubMed Central

    McCaughan, Urszula M.; Jayachandran, Uma; Shchepachev, Vadim; Chen, Zhuo Angel; Rappsilber, Juri; Tollervey, David; Cook, Atlanta G.

    2016-01-01

    Budding yeast Tsr1 is a ribosome biogenesis factor with sequence similarity to GTPases, which is essential for cytoplasmic steps in 40S subunit maturation. Here we present the crystal structure of Tsr1 at 3.6 Å. Tsr1 has a similar domain architecture to translational GTPases such as EF-Tu and the selenocysteine incorporation factor SelB. However, active site residues required for GTP binding and hydrolysis are absent, explaining the lack of enzymatic activity in previous analyses. Modelling of Tsr1 into cryo-electron microscopy maps of pre-40S particles shows that a highly acidic surface of Tsr1 is presented on the outside of pre-40S particles, potentially preventing premature binding to 60S subunits. Late pre-40S maturation also requires the GTPase eIF5B and the ATPase Rio1. The location of Tsr1 is predicted to block binding by both factors, strongly indicating that removal of Tsr1 is an essential step during cytoplasmic maturation of 40S ribosomal subunits. PMID:27250689

  20. Pre-40S ribosome biogenesis factor Tsr1 is an inactive structural mimic of translational GTPases.

    PubMed

    McCaughan, Urszula M; Jayachandran, Uma; Shchepachev, Vadim; Chen, Zhuo Angel; Rappsilber, Juri; Tollervey, David; Cook, Atlanta G

    2016-01-01

    Budding yeast Tsr1 is a ribosome biogenesis factor with sequence similarity to GTPases, which is essential for cytoplasmic steps in 40S subunit maturation. Here we present the crystal structure of Tsr1 at 3.6 Å. Tsr1 has a similar domain architecture to translational GTPases such as EF-Tu and the selenocysteine incorporation factor SelB. However, active site residues required for GTP binding and hydrolysis are absent, explaining the lack of enzymatic activity in previous analyses. Modelling of Tsr1 into cryo-electron microscopy maps of pre-40S particles shows that a highly acidic surface of Tsr1 is presented on the outside of pre-40S particles, potentially preventing premature binding to 60S subunits. Late pre-40S maturation also requires the GTPase eIF5B and the ATPase Rio1. The location of Tsr1 is predicted to block binding by both factors, strongly indicating that removal of Tsr1 is an essential step during cytoplasmic maturation of 40S ribosomal subunits. PMID:27250689

  1. The RICE MINUTE-LIKE1 (RML1) gene, encoding a ribosomal large subunit protein L3B, regulates leaf morphology and plant architecture in rice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ming; Wang, Yihua; Liu, Xi; Sun, Juan; Wang, Yunlong; Xu, Yang; Lv, Jia; Long, Wuhua; Zhu, Xiaopin; Guo, Xiuping; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Chunming; Wan, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of ribosomal proteins (RPs) are known to cause developmental abnormalities in yeast, mammals, and dicotyledonous plants; however, their effects have not been studied in rice. Here, we identifiy a ribosomal biogenesis mutant, rice minute-like1 (rml1) that displays a minute phenotype as evidenced by retarded growth and defects in the vascular system. We determine that RML1 encodes a ribosome large subunit protein 3B (RPL3B) in rice by means of map-based cloning and genetic complementation. RPL3B is abundantly expressed in all the tissues, whereas RPL3A, another RPL3 gene family member, is expressed at low levels. Notably, the expression level of RPL3A in the rml1 mutant is similar to that in the wild-type, suggesting that RPL3A provides no functional compensation for RPL3B in rml1 plants. Ribosomal profiles show that mutation of RPL3B leads to a significant reduction in free 60S ribosomal subunits and polysomes, indicating a ribosomal insufficiency in the rml1 mutant. Our results demonstrate that the ribosomal protein gene RPL3B is required for maintaining normal leaf morphology and plant architecture in rice through its regulation of ribosome biogenesis. PMID:27241493

  2. The RICE MINUTE-LIKE1 (RML1) gene, encoding a ribosomal large subunit protein L3B, regulates leaf morphology and plant architecture in rice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ming; Wang, Yihua; Liu, Xi; Sun, Juan; Wang, Yunlong; Xu, Yang; Lv, Jia; Long, Wuhua; Zhu, Xiaopin; Guo, Xiuping; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Chunming; Wan, Jianmin

    2016-05-01

    Mutations of ribosomal proteins (RPs) are known to cause developmental abnormalities in yeast, mammals, and dicotyledonous plants; however, their effects have not been studied in rice. Here, we identifiy a ribosomal biogenesis mutant, rice minute-like1 (rml1) that displays a minute phenotype as evidenced by retarded growth and defects in the vascular system. We determine that RML1 encodes a ribosome large subunit protein 3B (RPL3B) in rice by means of map-based cloning and genetic complementation. RPL3B is abundantly expressed in all the tissues, whereas RPL3A, another RPL3 gene family member, is expressed at low levels. Notably, the expression level of RPL3A in the rml1 mutant is similar to that in the wild-type, suggesting that RPL3A provides no functional compensation for RPL3B in rml1 plants. Ribosomal profiles show that mutation of RPL3B leads to a significant reduction in free 60S ribosomal subunits and polysomes, indicating a ribosomal insufficiency in the rml1 mutant. Our results demonstrate that the ribosomal protein gene RPL3B is required for maintaining normal leaf morphology and plant architecture in rice through its regulation of ribosome biogenesis. PMID:27241493

  3. Molecular insights into replication initiation by Qβ replicase using ribosomal protein S1

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Daijiro; Yamashita, Seisuke; Tomita, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal protein S1, consisting of six contiguous OB-folds, is the largest ribosomal protein and is essential for translation initiation in Escherichia coli. S1 is also one of the three essential host-derived subunits of Qβ replicase, together with EF-Tu and EF-Ts, for Qβ RNA replication in E. coli. We analyzed the crystal structure of Qβ replicase, consisting of the virus-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (β-subunit), EF-Tu, EF-Ts and the N-terminal half of S1, which is capable of initiating Qβ RNA replication. Structural and biochemical studies revealed that the two N-terminal OB-folds of S1 anchor S1 onto the β-subunit, and the third OB-fold is mobile and protrudes beyond the surface of the β-subunit. The third OB-fold mainly interacts with a specific RNA fragment derived from the internal region of Qβ RNA, and its RNA-binding ability is required for replication initiation of Qβ RNA. Thus, the third mobile OB-fold of S1, which is spatially anchored near the surface of the β-subunit, primarily recruits the Qβ RNA toward the β-subunit, leading to the specific and efficient replication initiation of Qβ RNA, and S1 functions as a replication initiation factor, beyond its established function in protein synthesis. PMID:25122749

  4. The structure of Rpf2-Rrs1 explains its role in ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kharde, Satyavati; Calviño, Fabiola R; Gumiero, Andrea; Wild, Klemens; Sinning, Irmgard

    2015-08-18

    The assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes is a hierarchical process involving about 200 biogenesis factors and a series of remodeling steps. The 5S RNP consisting of the 5S rRNA, RpL5 and RpL11 is recruited at an early stage, but has to rearrange during maturation of the pre-60S ribosomal subunit. Rpf2 and Rrs1 have been implicated in 5S RNP biogenesis, but their precise role was unclear. Here, we present the crystal structure of the Rpf2-Rrs1 complex from Aspergillus nidulans at 1.5 Å resolution and describe it as Brix domain of Rpf2 completed by Rrs1 to form two anticodon-binding domains with functionally important tails. Fitting the X-ray structure into the cryo-EM density of a previously described pre-60S particle correlates with biochemical data. The heterodimer forms specific contacts with the 5S rRNA, RpL5 and the biogenesis factor Rsa4. The flexible protein tails of Rpf2-Rrs1 localize to the central protuberance. Two helices in the Rrs1 C-terminal tail occupy a strategic position to block the rotation of 25S rRNA and the 5S RNP. Our data provide a structural model for 5S RNP recruitment to the pre-60S particle and explain why removal of Rpf2-Rrs1 is necessary for rearrangements to drive 60S maturation. PMID:26117542

  5. Phylogenetic Information Content of Copepoda Ribosomal DNA Repeat Units: ITS1 and ITS2 Impact

    PubMed Central

    Zagoskin, Maxim V.; Lazareva, Valentina I.; Grishanin, Andrey K.; Mukha, Dmitry V.

    2014-01-01

    The utility of various regions of the ribosomal repeat unit for phylogenetic analysis was examined in 16 species representing four families, nine genera, and two orders of the subclass Copepoda (Crustacea). Fragments approximately 2000 bp in length containing the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) 18S and 28S gene fragments, the 5.8S gene, and the internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS1 and ITS2) were amplified and analyzed. The DAMBE (Data Analysis in Molecular Biology and Evolution) software was used to analyze the saturation of nucleotide substitutions; this test revealed the suitability of both the 28S gene fragment and the ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions for the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. Distance (minimum evolution) and probabilistic (maximum likelihood, Bayesian) analyses of the data revealed that the 28S rDNA and the ITS1 and ITS2 regions are informative markers for inferring phylogenetic relationships among families of copepods and within the Cyclopidae family and associated genera. Split-graph analysis of concatenated ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions of cyclopoid copepods suggested that the Mesocyclops, Thermocyclops, and Macrocyclops genera share complex evolutionary relationships. This study revealed that the ITS1 and ITS2 regions potentially represent different phylogenetic signals. PMID:25215300

  6. Crystal structure of ribosomal protein L1 from the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonova, E. Yu.; Tishchenko, S. V.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Shklyaeva, A. A.; Garber, M. B.; Nikonov, S. V.; Nevskaya, N. A.

    2011-07-01

    The crystal structure of ribosomal protein L1 from the bacterium Aquifex aeolicus was solved by the molecular-replacement method and refined to R cryst = 19.4% and R free = 25.1% at 2.1 Å protein consists of two domains linked together by a flexible hinge region. In the structure under consideration, the domains are in close proximity and adopt a closed conformation. Earlier, this conformation has been found in the structure of protein L1 from the bacterium Thermus thermophilus, whereas the structures of archaeal L1 proteins and the structures of all L1 proteins in the RNA-bound form have an open conformation. The fact that a closed conformation was found in the structures of two L1 proteins which crystallize in different space groups and belong to different bacteria suggests that this conformation is a characteristic feature of L1 bacterial proteins in the free form.

  7. Biogenesis and nuclear export of ribosomal subunits in higher eukaryotes depend on the CRM1 export pathway.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Franziska; Kutay, Ulrike

    2003-06-15

    The production of ribosomes constitutes a major biosynthetic task for cells. Eukaryotic small and large ribosomal subunits are assembled in the nucleolus and independently exported to the cytoplasm. Most nuclear export pathways require RanGTP-binding export receptors. We analyzed the role of CRM1, the export receptor for leucine-rich nuclear export signals (NES), in the biogenesis of ribosomal subunits in vertebrate cells. Inhibition of the CRM1 export pathway led to a defect in nuclear export of both 40S and 60S subunits in HeLa cells. Moreover, the export of newly made ribosomal subunits in Xenopus oocytes was efficiently and specifically competed by BSA-NES conjugates. The CRM1 dependence of 60S subunit export suggested a conserved function for NMD3, a factor proposed to be a 60S subunit export adaptor in yeast. Indeed, we observed that nuclear export of human NMD3 (hNMD3) is sensitive to leptomycin B (LMB), which inactivates CRM1. It had, however, not yet been demonstrated that Nmd3 can interact with CRM1. Using purified recombinant proteins we have shown here that hNMD3 binds to CRM1 directly, in a RanGTP-dependent manner, by way of a C-terminal NES sequence. Our results suggest that the functions of CRM1 and NMD3 in ribosomal subunit export are conserved from yeast to higher eukaryotes. PMID:12724356

  8. Effects of Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCPP) in Tetrahymena Thermophila: Targeting the Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Giesy, John P.; Yu, Liqin; Li, Guangyu; Liu, Chunsheng

    2015-01-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) has been frequently detected in the environment, and exposure to TDCPP appears widespread. It has been implicated to cause toxicity in vertebrates, but its potential to affect lower-trophic-level species remains unknown. In the present study, the ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila, was used as a model to evaluate toxic effects of TDCPP and explore molecular mechanisms by integrating phenotypic observation, RNA-Seq and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Imaging technologies. Exposure to 0.01, 0.1 or 1 μM TDCPP for 5 days significantly decreased the relative biomass by reducing number of cells, size of cells and quantity of cilia in a dose-dependent manner. RNA-Seq analysis demonstrated that expression of twenty-one ribosome protein genes was down-regulated and these genes were enriched in “ribosome” term in KEGG pathway analysis. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes expressing ribosome proteins was accompanied by decreased ribosome quantity in rough endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm and enlarged ribosome size. Therefore, taken together, the data from the present study suggest that exposure to TDCPP affects growth and reproduction of Tetrahymena thermophila by targeting the ribosome. This information might provide insights into critical mechanisms of toxic action in other species and lead to useful bioindicators of exposure to TDCPP. PMID:25994279

  9. Effects of Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCPP) in Tetrahymena Thermophila: Targeting the Ribosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Giesy, John P.; Yu, Liqin; Li, Guangyu; Liu, Chunsheng

    2015-05-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) has been frequently detected in the environment, and exposure to TDCPP appears widespread. It has been implicated to cause toxicity in vertebrates, but its potential to affect lower-trophic-level species remains unknown. In the present study, the ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila, was used as a model to evaluate toxic effects of TDCPP and explore molecular mechanisms by integrating phenotypic observation, RNA-Seq and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Imaging technologies. Exposure to 0.01, 0.1 or 1 μM TDCPP for 5 days significantly decreased the relative biomass by reducing number of cells, size of cells and quantity of cilia in a dose-dependent manner. RNA-Seq analysis demonstrated that expression of twenty-one ribosome protein genes was down-regulated and these genes were enriched in “ribosome” term in KEGG pathway analysis. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes expressing ribosome proteins was accompanied by decreased ribosome quantity in rough endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm and enlarged ribosome size. Therefore, taken together, the data from the present study suggest that exposure to TDCPP affects growth and reproduction of Tetrahymena thermophila by targeting the ribosome. This information might provide insights into critical mechanisms of toxic action in other species and lead to useful bioindicators of exposure to TDCPP.

  10. Specific primers for PCR amplification of the ITS1 (ribosomal DNA) of Trypanosoma lewisi.

    PubMed

    Desquesnes, Marc; Marc, Desquesnes; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Ketsarin, Kamyingkird; Yangtara, Sarawut; Sarawut, Yangtara; Milocco, Cristina; Cristina, Milocco; Ravel, Sophie; Sophie, Ravel; Wang, Ming-Hui; Ming-Hui, Wang; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Zhao-Rong, Lun; Morand, Serge; Serge, Morand; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Sathaporn, Jittapalapong

    2011-08-01

    Trypanosoma lewisi is a mild or non-pathogenic parasite of the sub-genus Herpetosoma transmitted by fleas to rats. In a previous study we described pan-trypanosome specific primers TRYP1 which amplify the ITS1 of ribosomal DNA by hybridizing in highly conserved regions of 18S and 5.8S genes. These primers proved to be useful for detecting T. lewisi DNA in laboratory rats, but a recent large scale survey in wild rodents demonstrated a lack of specificity. In the present study, we designed and evaluated mono-specific primers LEW1S and LEW1R, for the detection and identification of T. lewisi by a single-step PCR. These primers were designed inside the highly variable region of the ITS1 sequence of T. lewisi ribosomal DNA. The product size of 220 bp is specific to T. lewisi. The sensitivity limit was estimated between 0.055 and 0.55 pg of DNA per reaction, equivalent to 1-10 organisms per reaction. All the PCR products obtained from 6 different T. lewisi isolates were more than 98% similar with each other and similar to the sequences of T. lewisi already published in Genbank. All DNA of 7 T. lewisi stocks from China gave the specific 220 bp product. We showed that LEW1S and LEW1R primers enabled sensitive detection and identification of T. lewisi infection in laboratory and wild rats. This assay is recommended for monitoring T. lewisi infections in rat colonies or for studying infections in the wild fauna. An absence of cross reaction with human DNA means that these primers can be used to investigate atypical trypanosome infections in humans. Given the risk of T. lewisi infection in human, we believe that these primers will be beneficial for public health diagnosis and rodents investigation programmes. PMID:21570489

  11. The structure of Rpf2–Rrs1 explains its role in ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kharde, Satyavati; Calviño, Fabiola R.; Gumiero, Andrea; Wild, Klemens; Sinning, Irmgard

    2015-01-01

    The assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes is a hierarchical process involving about 200 biogenesis factors and a series of remodeling steps. The 5S RNP consisting of the 5S rRNA, RpL5 and RpL11 is recruited at an early stage, but has to rearrange during maturation of the pre-60S ribosomal subunit. Rpf2 and Rrs1 have been implicated in 5S RNP biogenesis, but their precise role was unclear. Here, we present the crystal structure of the Rpf2–Rrs1 complex from Aspergillus nidulans at 1.5 Å resolution and describe it as Brix domain of Rpf2 completed by Rrs1 to form two anticodon-binding domains with functionally important tails. Fitting the X-ray structure into the cryo-EM density of a previously described pre-60S particle correlates with biochemical data. The heterodimer forms specific contacts with the 5S rRNA, RpL5 and the biogenesis factor Rsa4. The flexible protein tails of Rpf2–Rrs1 localize to the central protuberance. Two helices in the Rrs1 C-terminal tail occupy a strategic position to block the rotation of 25S rRNA and the 5S RNP. Our data provide a structural model for 5S RNP recruitment to the pre-60S particle and explain why removal of Rpf2–Rrs1 is necessary for rearrangements to drive 60S maturation. PMID:26117542

  12. Inhibition of HIV-1 Replication by Balsamin, a Ribosome Inactivating Protein of Momordica balsamina

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zahra; Blanchet, Fabien P.; Mangeat, Bastien; Piguet, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are endowed with several medicinal properties, including antiviral activity. We demonstrate here that the recently identified type I RIP from Momordica balsamina also possesses antiviral activity, as determined by viral growth curve assays and single-round infection experiments. Importantly, this activity is at play even as doses where the RIP has no cytotoxic effect. In addition, balsamin inhibits HIV-1 replication not only in T cell lines but also in human primary CD4+ T cells. This antiviral compound exerts its activity at a viral replicative step occurring later than reverse-transcription, most likely on viral protein translation, prior to viral budding and release. Finally, we demonstrate that balsamin antiviral activity is broad since it also impedes influenza virus replication. Altogether our results demonstrate that type I RIP can exert a potent anti-HIV-1 activity which paves the way for new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of viral infections. PMID:24040067

  13. Classification of a frameshift/extended and a stop mutation in WT1 as gain-of-function mutations that activate cell cycle genes and promote Wilms tumour cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Maike; Schwindt, Heinrich; Brandt, Artur; Beier, Manfred; Görldt, Nicole; Romaniuk, Paul; Toska, Eneda; Roberts, Stefan; Royer, Hans-Dieter; Royer-Pokora, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    The WT1 gene encodes a zinc finger transcription factor important for normal kidney development. WT1 is a suppressor for Wilms tumour development and an oncogene for diverse malignant tumours. We recently established cell lines from primary Wilms tumours with different WT1 mutations. To investigate the function of mutant WT1 proteins, we performed WT1 knockdown experiments in cell lines with a frameshift/extension (p.V432fsX87 = Wilms3) and a stop mutation (p.P362X = Wilms2) of WT1, followed by genome-wide gene expression analysis. We also expressed wild-type and mutant WT1 proteins in human mesenchymal stem cells and established gene expression profiles. A detailed analysis of gene expression data enabled us to classify the WT1 mutations as gain-of-function mutations. The mutant WT1Wilms2 and WT1Wilms3 proteins acquired an ability to modulate the expression of a highly significant number of genes from the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, and WT1 knockdown experiments showed that they are required for Wilms tumour cell proliferation. p53 negatively regulates the activity of a large number of these genes that are also part of a core proliferation cluster in diverse human cancers. Our data strongly suggest that mutant WT1 proteins facilitate expression of these cell cycle genes by antagonizing transcriptional repression mediated by p53. We show that mutant WT1 can physically interact with p53. Together the findings show for the first time that mutant WT1 proteins have a gain-of-function and act as oncogenes for Wilms tumour development by regulating Wilms tumour cell proliferation. PMID:24619359

  14. Nucleolin enhances internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated translation of Sp1 in tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chia-Yang; Yang, Wen-Bin; Wang, Shao-An; Hsu, Tsung-I; Chang, Wen-Chang; Hung, Jan-Jong

    2014-12-01

    Our previous study indicated that specificity protein-1 (Sp1) is accumulated during hypoxia in an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-dependent manner. Herein, we found that the Sp1 was induced strongly at the protein level, but not in the mRNA level, in lung tumor tissue, indicating that translational regulation might contribute to the Sp1 accumulation during tumorigenesis. A further study showed that the translation of Sp1 was dramatically induced through an IRES-dependent pathway. RNA immunoprecipitation analysis of proteins bound to the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of Sp1 identified interacting protein - nucleolin. Knockdown of nucleolin significantly inhibited IRES-mediated translation of Sp1, suggesting that nucleolin positively facilitates Sp1 IRES activation. Further analysis of the interaction between nucleolin and the 5'-UTR of Sp1 mRNA revealed that the GAR domain was important for IRES-mediated translation of Sp1. Moreover, gefitinib, and LY294002 and MK2206 compounds inhibited IRES-mediated Sp1 translation, implying that activation of the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway via Akt activation triggers the IRES pathway. In conclusion, EGFR activation-mediated nucleolin phosphorylated at Thr641 and Thr707 was recruited to the 5'-UTR of Sp1 as an IRES trans-acting factor to modulate Sp1 translation during lung cancer formation. PMID:25173817

  15. Atrial natriuretic peptide frameshift mutation in familial atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Hodgson-Zingman, Denice M; Karst, Margaret L; Zingman, Leonid V; Heublein, Denise M; Darbar, Dawood; Herron, Kathleen J; Ballew, Jeffrey D; de Andrade, Mariza; Burnett, John C; Olson, Timothy M

    2008-07-10

    Atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia that is hereditary in a small subgroup of patients. In a family with 11 clinically affected members, we mapped an atrial fibrillation locus to chromosome 1p36-p35 and identified a heterozygous frameshift mutation in the gene encoding atrial natriuretic peptide. Circulating chimeric atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was detected in high concentration in subjects with the mutation, and shortened atrial action potentials were seen in an isolated heart model, creating a possible substrate for atrial fibrillation. This report implicates perturbation of the atrial natriuretic peptide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway in cardiac electrical instability. PMID:18614783

  16. Chlorogenic Acid Improves Neuroprotective Effect of PEP-1-Ribosomal Protein S3 Against Ischemic Insult

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Eun Hee; Kim, Dae Won; Shin, Min Jea; Kwon, Soon Won; Kim, Young Nam; Kim, Duk-Soo; Lim, Soon Sung; Kim, Joon; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik

    2011-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) possesses various biological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic activities. In the present study, we examined the effect of CGA on the transduction efficiency of PEP-1-ribosomal protein S3 (PEP-1-rpS3) into cells and brain tissues, and its neuroprotective potential against ischemia/reperfusion. We found that, in the presence of CGA, the transduction efficiency of PEP-1-rpS3 into astrocytes and the CA1 region of the hippocampus was enhanced, compared to its transduction in the absence of CGA. Also, cell viability data demonstrated that the sample treated with CGA + PEP-1-rpS3 exhibited improved cell viability against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced toxicity more significantly than the sample treated with PEP-1-rpS3 alone. Also, in a gerbil ischemia model, data demonstrated that following the ischemic insult, the group treated with PEP-1-rpS3 + CGA showed markedly enhanced protection of neuron cells in CA1 region of hippocampus, compared to those treated with CGA or PEP-1-rpS3 alone. Taken together, these results suggest that CGA may improve the transduction efficiency of protein transduction domain (PTD) fusion proteins into target cells or tissues, thereby enhancing their therapeutic potential against various diseases. PMID:22355261

  17. Ribosome Protein L4 is essential for Epstein–Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 function

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Liu, Cheng-Der; You, Ren-In; Ching, Yung-Hao; Liang, Jun; Ke, Liangru; Chen, Ya-Lin; Chen, Hong-Chi; Hsu, Hao-Jen; Liou, Je-Wen; Kieff, Elliott; Peng, Chih-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV) Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1)-mediated origin of plasmid replication (oriP) DNA episome maintenance is essential for EBV-mediated tumorigenesis. We have now found that EBNA1 binds to Ribosome Protein L4 (RPL4). RPL4 shRNA knockdown decreased EBNA1 activation of an oriP luciferase reporter, EBNA1 DNA binding in lymphoblastoid cell lines, and EBV genome number per lymphoblastoid cell line. EBV infection increased RPL4 expression and redistributed RPL4 to cell nuclei. RPL4 and Nucleolin (NCL) were a scaffold for an EBNA1-induced oriP complex. The RPL4 N terminus cooperated with NCL-K429 to support EBNA1 and oriP-mediated episome binding and maintenance, whereas the NCL C-terminal K380 and K393 induced oriP DNA H3K4me2 modification and promoted EBNA1 activation of oriP-dependent transcription. These observations provide new insights into the mechanisms by which EBV uses NCL and RPL4 to establish persistent B-lymphoblastoid cell infection. PMID:26858444

  18. Cloning and characterization of a gene from Rhizobium melilotii 2011 coding for ribosomal protein S1.

    PubMed Central

    Schnier, J; Thamm, S; Lurz, R; Hussain, A; Faist, G; Dobrinski, B

    1988-01-01

    A 7 kb chromosomal DNA fragment from R. melilotii was cloned, which complemented temperature-sensitivity of an E. coli amber mutant in rpsA, the gene for ribosomal protein S1 (ES1). From complementation and maxicell analysis a 58 kd protein was identified as the homolog of protein S1 (RS1). DNA sequence analysis of the R. melilotii rpsA gene identified a protein of 568 amino acids, which showed 47% identical amino acid homology to protein S1 from E. coli. The RS1 protein lacked the two Cys residues which had been reported to play an important role for the function of ES1. Two repeats containing Shine-Dalgarno sequences were identified upstream of the structural gene. Binding studies with RNA polymerase from E. coli and Pseudomonas putida located one RNA-polymerase binding site close to the RS1 gene and another one several hundred basepairs upstream. One possible promoter was also identified by DNA sequence comparison with the corresponding E. coli promoter. Images PMID:3368316

  19. Sumoylation of Rap1 mediates the recruitment of TFIID to promote transcription of ribosomal protein genes.

    PubMed

    Chymkowitch, Pierre; Nguéa, Aurélie P; Aanes, Håvard; Koehler, Christian J; Thiede, Bernd; Lorenz, Susanne; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Klungland, Arne; Enserink, Jorrit M

    2015-06-01

    Transcription factors are abundant Sumo targets, yet the global distribution of Sumo along the chromatin and its physiological relevance in transcription are poorly understood. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we determined the genome-wide localization of Sumo along the chromatin. We discovered that Sumo-enriched genes are almost exclusively involved in translation, such as tRNA genes and ribosomal protein genes (RPGs). Genome-wide expression analysis showed that Sumo positively regulates their transcription. We also discovered that the Sumo consensus motif at RPG promoters is identical to the DNA binding motif of the transcription factor Rap1. We demonstrate that Rap1 is a molecular target of Sumo and that sumoylation of Rap1 is important for cell viability. Furthermore, Rap1 sumoylation promotes recruitment of the basal transcription machinery, and sumoylation of Rap1 cooperates with the target of rapamycin kinase complex 1 (TORC1) pathway to promote RPG transcription. Strikingly, our data reveal that sumoylation of Rap1 functions in a homeostatic feedback loop that sustains RPG transcription during translational stress. Taken together, Sumo regulates the cellular translational capacity by promoting transcription of tRNA genes and RPGs. PMID:25800674

  20. Ribosome Protein L4 is essential for Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 function.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Liu, Cheng-Der; You, Ren-In; Ching, Yung-Hao; Liang, Jun; Ke, Liangru; Chen, Ya-Lin; Chen, Hong-Chi; Hsu, Hao-Jen; Liou, Je-Wen; Kieff, Elliott; Peng, Chih-Wen

    2016-02-23

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1)-mediated origin of plasmid replication (oriP) DNA episome maintenance is essential for EBV-mediated tumorigenesis. We have now found that EBNA1 binds to Ribosome Protein L4 (RPL4). RPL4 shRNA knockdown decreased EBNA1 activation of an oriP luciferase reporter, EBNA1 DNA binding in lymphoblastoid cell lines, and EBV genome number per lymphoblastoid cell line. EBV infection increased RPL4 expression and redistributed RPL4 to cell nuclei. RPL4 and Nucleolin (NCL) were a scaffold for an EBNA1-induced oriP complex. The RPL4 N terminus cooperated with NCL-K429 to support EBNA1 and oriP-mediated episome binding and maintenance, whereas the NCL C-terminal K380 and K393 induced oriP DNA H3K4me2 modification and promoted EBNA1 activation of oriP-dependent transcription. These observations provide new insights into the mechanisms by which EBV uses NCL and RPL4 to establish persistent B-lymphoblastoid cell infection. PMID:26858444

  1. Structure of Intergenic Spacer IGS1 of Ribosomal Operon from Schistidium Mosses.

    PubMed

    Milyutina, I A; Ignatova, E A; Ignatov, M S; Goryunov, D V; Troitsky, A V

    2015-11-01

    The structure of the intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) of the ribosomal operon from 12 species of Schistidium mosses was studied. In the IGS1 sequences of these species, three conserved regions and two areas of GC- and A-enriched repeats were identified. All of the studied mosses have a conserved pyrimidine-enriched motif at the 5'-end of IGS1. Species-specific nucleotide substitutions and insertions were found in the conserved areas. The repeated units contain single nucleotide substitutions that make unique the majority of repeated units. The positions of such repeats in IGS1 are species-specific, but their number can vary within the species and among operons of the same specimen. The comparison of IGS1 sequences from the Schistidium species and from representatives of ten other moss genera revealed the presence of common conserved motifs with similar localization. Presumably, these motifs are elements of termination of the pre-rRNA transcription and processing of rRNA. PMID:26615440

  2. Structural Basis of Human p70 Ribosomal S6 Kinase-1 Regulation by Activation Loop Phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Sunami, Tomoko; Byrne, Noel; Diehl, Ronald E.; Funabashi, Kaoru; Hall, Dawn L.; Ikuta, Mari; Patel, Sangita B.; Shipman, Jennifer M.; Smith, Robert F.; Takahashi, Ikuko; Zugay-Murphy, Joan; Iwasawa, Yoshikazu; Lumb, Kevin J.; Munshi, Sanjeev K.; Sharma, Sujata

    2010-03-04

    p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) is a downstream effector of the mTOR signaling pathway involved in cell proliferation, cell growth, cell-cycle progression, and glucose homeostasis. Multiple phosphorylation events within the catalytic, autoinhibitory, and hydrophobic motif domains contribute to the regulation of p70S6K. We report the crystal structures of the kinase domain of p70S6K1 bound to staurosporine in both the unphosphorylated state and in the 3{prime}-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1-phosphorylated state in which Thr-252 of the activation loop is phosphorylated. Unphosphorylated p70S6K1 exists in two crystal forms, one in which the p70S6K1 kinase domain exists as a monomer and the other as a domain-swapped dimer. The crystal structure of the partially activated kinase domain that is phosphorylated within the activation loop reveals conformational ordering of the activation loop that is consistent with a role in activation. The structures offer insights into the structural basis of the 3{prime}-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1-induced activation of p70S6K and provide a platform for the rational structure-guided design of specific p70S6K inhibitors.

  3. Stabilization and ribosome association of unspliced pre-mRNAs in a yeast upf1- mutant.

    PubMed Central

    He, F; Peltz, S W; Donahue, J L; Rosbash, M; Jacobson, A

    1993-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, the accelerated turnover of mRNAs transcribed from genes containing early nonsense mutations, is dependent on the product of the UPF1 gene in yeast. Mutations that inactivate UPF1 lead to the selective stabilization of mRNAs containing early nonsense mutations but have no effect on the half-lives of almost all other mRNAs. Since the transcripts of nonsense alleles are not typical cellular constituents, we sought to identify those RNAs that comprise normal substrates of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. Many yeast pre-mRNAs contain early in-frame nonsense codons and we consider it possible that a role of this pathway is to accelerate the degradation of pre-mRNAs present in the cytoplasm. Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that, in a strain lacking UPF1 function, the CYH2, RP51B, and MER2 pre-mRNAs are stabilized 2- to 5-fold and are associated with ribosomes. We conclude that a major source of early nonsense codon-containing cytoplasmic transcripts in yeast is pre-mRNAs and that the UPF1 protein may be part of a cellular system that ensures that potentially deleterious nonsense fragments of polypeptides do not accumulate. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8346213

  4. Functional Characterization of a Novel Frameshift Mutation in the C-terminus of the Nav1.5 Channel Underlying a Brugada Syndrome with Variable Expression in a Spanish Family

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, Lucía; Barana, Adriana; Amorós, Irene; Matamoros, Marcos; Pérez-Hernández, Marta; González de la Fuente, Marta; Álvarez-López, Miguel; Macías-Ruiz, Rosa; Tercedor-Sánchez, Luis; Jiménez-Jáimez, Juan; Delpón, Eva; Caballero, Ricardo; Tamargo, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We functionally analyzed a frameshift mutation in the SCN5A gene encoding cardiac Na+ channels (Nav1.5) found in a proband with repeated episodes of ventricular fibrillation who presented bradycardia and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Seven relatives also carry the mutation and showed a Brugada syndrome with an incomplete and variable expression. The mutation (p.D1816VfsX7) resulted in a severe truncation (201 residues) of the Nav1.5 C-terminus. Methods and Results Wild-type (WT) and mutated Nav1.5 channels together with hNavβ1 were expressed in CHO cells and currents were recorded at room temperature using the whole-cell patch-clamp. Expression of p.D1816VfsX7 alone resulted in a marked reduction (≈90%) in peak Na+ current density compared with WT channels. Peak current density generated by p.D1816VfsX7+WT was ≈50% of that generated by WT channels. p.D1816VfsX7 positively shifted activation and inactivation curves, leading to a significant reduction of the window current. The mutation accelerated current activation and reactivation kinetics and increased the fraction of channels developing slow inactivation with prolonged depolarizations. However, late INa was not modified by the mutation. p.D1816VfsX7 produced a marked reduction of channel trafficking toward the membrane that was not restored by decreasing incubation temperature during cell culture or by incubation with 300 μM mexiletine and 5 mM 4-phenylbutirate. Conclusion Despite a severe truncation of the C-terminus, the resulting mutated channels generate currents, albeit with reduced amplitude and altered biophysical properties, confirming the key role of the C-terminal domain in the expression and function of the cardiac Na+ channel. PMID:24363796

  5. Wnt5a Signals through DVL1 to Repress Ribosomal DNA Transcription by RNA Polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Dass, Randall A; Sarshad, Aishe A; Carson, Brittany B; Feenstra, Jennifer M; Kaur, Amanpreet; Obrdlik, Ales; Parks, Matthew M; Prakash, Varsha; Love, Damon K; Pietras, Kristian; Serra, Rosa; Blanchard, Scott C; Percipalle, Piergiorgio; Brown, Anthony M C; Vincent, C Theresa

    2016-08-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is essential for cell growth and proliferation and is commonly elevated in cancer. Accordingly, numerous oncogene and tumor suppressor signaling pathways target rRNA synthesis. In breast cancer, non-canonical Wnt signaling by Wnt5a has been reported to antagonize tumor growth. Here, we show that Wnt5a rapidly represses rDNA gene transcription in breast cancer cells and generates a chromatin state with reduced transcription of rDNA by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). These effects were specifically dependent on Dishevelled1 (DVL1), which accumulates in nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and binds to rDNA regions of the chromosome. Upon DVL1 binding, the Pol I transcription activator and deacetylase Sirtuin 7 (SIRT7) releases from rDNA loci, concomitant with disassembly of Pol I transcription machinery at the rDNA promoter. These findings reveal that Wnt5a signals through DVL1 to suppress rRNA transcription. This provides a novel mechanism for how Wnt5a exerts tumor suppressive effects and why disruption of Wnt5a signaling enhances mammary tumor growth in vivo. PMID:27500936

  6. Wnt5a Signals through DVL1 to Repress Ribosomal DNA Transcription by RNA Polymerase I

    PubMed Central

    Dass, Randall A.; Sarshad, Aishe A.; Feenstra, Jennifer M.; Kaur, Amanpreet; Pietras, Kristian; Serra, Rosa; Blanchard, Scott C.; Percipalle, Piergiorgio; Brown, Anthony M. C.; Vincent, C. Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is essential for cell growth and proliferation and is commonly elevated in cancer. Accordingly, numerous oncogene and tumor suppressor signaling pathways target rRNA synthesis. In breast cancer, non-canonical Wnt signaling by Wnt5a has been reported to antagonize tumor growth. Here, we show that Wnt5a rapidly represses rDNA gene transcription in breast cancer cells and generates a chromatin state with reduced transcription of rDNA by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). These effects were specifically dependent on Dishevelled1 (DVL1), which accumulates in nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and binds to rDNA regions of the chromosome. Upon DVL1 binding, the Pol I transcription activator and deacetylase Sirtuin 7 (SIRT7) releases from rDNA loci, concomitant with disassembly of Pol I transcription machinery at the rDNA promoter. These findings reveal that Wnt5a signals through DVL1 to suppress rRNA transcription. This provides a novel mechanism for how Wnt5a exerts tumor suppressive effects and why disruption of Wnt5a signaling enhances mammary tumor growth in vivo. PMID:27500936

  7. Ribosomal Biogenesis and Translational Flux Inhibition by the Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) XPO1 Antagonist KPT-185.

    PubMed

    Tabe, Yoko; Kojima, Kensuke; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Sekihara, Kazumasa; Matsushita, Hiromichi; Davis, Richard Eric; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Wencai; Ishizawa, Jo; Kazuno, Saiko; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Ueno, Takashi; Miida, Takashi; Andreeff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma characterized by the aberrant expression of several growth-regulating, oncogenic effectors. Exportin 1 (XPO1) mediates the nucleocytoplasmic transport of numerous molecules including oncogenic growth-regulating factors, RNAs, and ribosomal subunits. In MCL cells, the small molecule KPT-185 blocks XPO1 function and exerts anti-proliferative effects. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of this putative anti-tumor effect on MCL cells using cell growth/viability assays, immunoblotting, gene expression analysis, and absolute quantification proteomics. KPT-185 exhibited a p53-independent anti-lymphoma effect on MCL cells, by suppression of oncogenic mediators (e.g., XPO1, cyclin D1, c-Myc, PIM1, and Bcl-2 family members), repression of ribosomal biogenesis, and downregulation of translation/chaperone proteins (e.g., PIM2, EEF1A1, EEF2, and HSP70) that are part of the translational/transcriptional network regulated by heat shock factor 1. These results elucidate a novel mechanism in which ribosomal biogenesis appears to be a key component through which XPO1 contributes to tumor cell survival. Thus, we propose that the blockade of XPO1 could be a promising, novel strategy for the treatment of MCL and other malignancies overexpressing XPO1. PMID:26340096

  8. Ribosomal Biogenesis and Translational Flux Inhibition by the Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) XPO1 Antagonist KPT-185

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shinichi; Sekihara, Kazumasa; Matsushita, Hiromichi; Davis, Richard Eric; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Wencai; Ishizawa, Jo; Kazuno, Saiko; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Ueno, Takashi; Miida, Takashi; Andreeff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma characterized by the aberrant expression of several growth-regulating, oncogenic effectors. Exportin 1 (XPO1) mediates the nucleocytoplasmic transport of numerous molecules including oncogenic growth-regulating factors, RNAs, and ribosomal subunits. In MCL cells, the small molecule KPT-185 blocks XPO1 function and exerts anti-proliferative effects. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of this putative anti-tumor effect on MCL cells using cell growth/viability assays, immunoblotting, gene expression analysis, and absolute quantification proteomics. KPT-185 exhibited a p53-independent anti-lymphoma effect on MCL cells, by suppression of oncogenic mediators (e.g., XPO1, cyclin D1, c-Myc, PIM1, and Bcl-2 family members), repression of ribosomal biogenesis, and downregulation of translation/chaperone proteins (e.g., PIM2, EEF1A1, EEF2, and HSP70) that are part of the translational/transcriptional network regulated by heat shock factor 1. These results elucidate a novel mechanism in which ribosomal biogenesis appears to be a key component through which XPO1 contributes to tumor cell survival. Thus, we propose that the blockade of XPO1 could be a promising, novel strategy for the treatment of MCL and other malignancies overexpressing XPO1. PMID:26340096

  9. Ribosomal proteins: functions beyond the ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiang; Liao, Wen-Juan; Liao, Jun-Ming; Liao, Peng; Lu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Although ribosomal proteins are known for playing an essential role in ribosome assembly and protein translation, their ribosome-independent functions have also been greatly appreciated. Over the past decade, more than a dozen of ribosomal proteins have been found to activate the tumor suppressor p53 pathway in response to ribosomal stress. In addition, these ribosomal proteins are involved in various physiological and pathological processes. This review is composed to overview the current understanding of how ribosomal stress provokes the accumulation of ribosome-free ribosomal proteins, as well as the ribosome-independent functions of ribosomal proteins in tumorigenesis, immune signaling, and development. We also propose the potential of applying these pieces of knowledge to the development of ribosomal stress-based cancer therapeutics. PMID:25735597

  10. Recent structural studies on Dom34/aPelota and Hbs1/aEF1α: important factors for solving general problems of ribosomal stall in translation

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kan; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    In the translation process, translating ribosomes usually move on an mRNA until they reach the stop codon. However, when ribosomes translate an aberrant mRNA, they stall. Then, ribosomes are rescued from the aberrant mRNA, and the aberrant mRNA is subsequently degraded. In eukaryotes, Pelota (Dom34 in yeast) and Hbs1 are responsible for solving general problems of ribosomal stall in translation. In archaea, aPelota and aEF1α, homologous to Pelota and Hbs1, respectively, are considered to be involved in that process. In recent years, great progress has been made in determining structures of Dom34/aPelota and Hbs1/aEF1α. In this review, we focus on the functional roles of Dom34/aPelota and Hbs1/aEF1α in ribosome rescue, based on recent structural studies of them. We will also present questions to be answered by future work. PMID:27493551

  11. First application of next-generation sequencing in Moroccan breast/ovarian cancer families and report of a novel frameshift mutation of the BRCA1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Jouali, Farah; Laarabi, Fatima-Zahra; Marchoudi, Nabila; Ratbi, Ilham; Elalaoui, Siham Chafai; Rhaissi, Houria; Fekkak, Jamal; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2016-01-01

    At present, breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in females. The majority of cases are sporadic, but 5–10% are due to an inherited predisposition to develop breast and ovarian cancers, which are transmitted as an autosomal dominant form with incomplete penetrance. The beneficial effects of clinical genetic testing, including next generation sequencing (NGS) for BRCA1/2 mutations, is major; in particular, it benefits the care of patients and the counseling of relatives that are at risk of breast cancer, in order to reduce breast cancer mortality. BRCA genetic testing was performed in 15 patients with breast cancer and a family with positivity for the heterozygous c.6428C>A mutation of the BRCA2 gene. Informed consent was obtained from all the subjects. Genomic DNAs were extracted and the NGS for genes was performed using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) with a 316 chip. The reads were aligned with the human reference HG19 genome to elucidate variants in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Mutations detected by the PGM platform were confirmed by target direct Sanger sequencing on a second patient DNA sample. In total, 4 BRCA variants were identified in 6 families by NGS. Of these, 3 mutations had been previously reported: c.2126insA of BRCA1, and c.1310_1313delAAGA and c.7235insG of BRCA2. The fourth variant, c.3453delT in BRCA1, has, to the best of our knowledge, never been previously reported. The present study is the first to apply NGS of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes to a Moroccan population, prompting additional investigation into local founder mutations and variant characteristics in the region. The variants with no clear clinical significance may present a diagnostic challenge when performing targeted resequencing. These results confirm that an NGS approach based on Ampliseq libraries and PGM sequencing is a highly efficient, speedy and high-throughput mutation detection method, which may be preferable in lower income countries. PMID:27446417

  12. Allosteric collaboration between elongation factor G and the ribosomal L1 stalk directs tRNA movements during translation

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Jingyi; Bronson, Jonathan E.; Hofman, Jake M.; Srinivas, Rathi L.; Wiggins, Chris H.; Gonzalez, Ruben L.

    2009-01-01

    Determining the mechanism by which tRNAs rapidly and precisely transit through the ribosomal A, P, and E sites during translation remains a major goal in the study of protein synthesis. Here, we report the real-time dynamics of the L1 stalk, a structural element of the large ribosomal subunit that is implicated in directing tRNA movements during translation. Within pretranslocation ribosomal complexes, the L1 stalk exists in a dynamic equilibrium between open and closed conformations. Binding of elongation factor G (EF-G) shifts this equilibrium toward the closed conformation through one of at least two distinct kinetic mechanisms, where the identity of the P-site tRNA dictates the kinetic route that is taken. Within posttranslocation complexes, L1 stalk dynamics are dependent on the presence and identity of the E-site tRNA. Collectively, our data demonstrate that EF-G and the L1 stalk allosterically collaborate to direct tRNA translocation from the P to the E sites, and suggest a model for the release of E-site tRNA. PMID:19717422

  13. Involvement of multiple basic amino acids in yeast ribosomal protein L1 in 5S rRNA recognition.

    PubMed

    Yeh, L C; Lee, J C

    1995-01-01

    The role of basic amino acid residues located at the C-terminal region of the yeast ribosomal protein L1 in 5S rRNA binding was characterized in vitro and in vivo. Mutant proteins containing single or multiple amino acid substitutions were generated by site-directed mutagenesis of the L1 gene carried on a plasmid. In vitro RNP formation was examined by production of the mutant protein in the presence of the RNA molecule. The thermostability of the resultant RNP was also studied. Effects of these mutations on cell viability and ribosome assembly were characterized by transformation of a conditional null L1 yeast mutant with the mutated L1 gene expressed from the plasmid. Substitution of any one of the lysine or arginine residue did not affect significantly RNA binding in vitro or cell growth in vivo. However, several mutant proteins with substitutions of two of these basic amino acids bound RNA weakly and the RNPs were less stable. Cells expressing these mutant proteins were lethal. Theoretical structural prediction of these amino acids further provided information regarding their collective contributions to RNA recognition and to interaction between the RNP and other components of the 60S ribosomal subunit. PMID:8643400

  14. Ribosomal protein genes are highly enriched among genes with allele-specific expression in the interspecific F1 hybrid catfish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ailu; Wang, Ruijia; Liu, Shikai; Peatman, Eric; Sun, Luyang; Bao, Lisui; Jiang, Chen; Li, Chao; Li, Yun; Zeng, Qifan; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-06-01

    Interspecific hybrids provide a rich source for the analysis of allele-specific expression (ASE). In this work, we analyzed ASE in F1 hybrid catfish using RNA-Seq datasets. While the vast majority of genes were expressed with both alleles, 7-8 % SNPs exhibited significant differences in allele ratios of expression. Of the 66,251 and 177,841 SNPs identified from the datasets of the liver and gill, 5420 (8.2 %) and 13,390 (7.5 %) SNPs were identified as significant ASE-SNPs, respectively. With these SNPs, a total of 1519 and 3075 ASE-genes were identified. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that genes encoding cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (RP) were highly enriched among ASE genes. Parent-of-origin was determined for 27 and 30 ASE RP genes in the liver and gill, respectively. The results indicated that genes from both channel catfish and blue catfish were involved in ASE. However, each RP gene appeared to be almost exclusively expressed from only one parent, indicating that ribosomes in the hybrid catfish were in the "hybrid" form. Overall representation of RP transcripts among the transcriptome appeared lower in the F1 hybrid catfish than in channel catfish or blue catfish, suggesting that the "hybrid" ribosomes may work more efficiently for translation in the F1 hybrid catfish. PMID:26747053

  15. Anti-Human Endoglin (hCD105) Immunotoxin—Containing Recombinant Single Chain Ribosome-Inactivating Protein Musarmin 1

    PubMed Central

    Barriuso, Begoña; Antolín, Pilar; Arias, F. Javier; Girotti, Alessandra; Jiménez, Pilar; Cordoba-Diaz, Manuel; Cordoba-Diaz, Damián; Girbés, Tomás

    2016-01-01

    Endoglin (CD105) is an accessory component of the TGF-β receptor complex, which is expressed in a number of tissues and over-expressed in the endothelial cells of tumor neovasculature. Targeting endoglin with immunotoxins containing type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins has proved an effective tool to reduce blood supply to B16 mice tumor xenografts. We prepared anti-endoglin immunotoxin (IT)—containing recombinant musarmin 1 (single chain ribosome-inactivating proteins) linked to the mouse anti-human CD105 44G4 mouse monoclonal antibody via N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate (SPDP). The immunotoxin specifically killed L929 fibroblast mouse cells transfected with the short form of human endoglin with IC50 values in the range of 5 × 10−10 to 10−9 M. PMID:27294959

  16. Translational Compensation of a Frameshift Mutation Affecting Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase Is Sufficient To Permit Reactivation from Latency

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Anthony; Chen, Shun-Hua; Horsburgh, Brian C.; Coen, Donald M.

    2003-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase is important for reactivation of virus from its latent state and is a target for the antiviral drug acyclovir. Most acyclovir-resistant isolates have mutations in the thymidine kinase gene; however, how these mutations confer clinically relevant resistance is unclear. Reactivation from explanted mouse ganglia was previously observed with a patient-derived drug-resistant isolate carrying a single guanine insertion within a run of guanines in the thymidine kinase gene. Despite this mutation, low levels of active enzyme were synthesized following an unusual ribosomal frameshift. Here we report that a virus, generated from a pretherapy isolate from the same patient, engineered to lack thymidine kinase activity, was competent for reactivation. This suggested that the clinical isolate contains alleles of other genes that permit reactivation in the absence of thymidine kinase. Therefore, to establish whether thymidine kinase synthesized via a ribosomal frameshift was sufficient for reactivation under conditions where reactivation requires this enzyme, we introduced the mutation into the well-characterized strain KOS. This mutant virus reactivated from latency, albeit less efficiently than KOS. Plaque autoradiography revealed three phenotypes of reactivating viruses: uniformly low thymidine kinase activity, mixed high and low activity, and uniformly high activity. We generated a recombinant thymidine kinase-null virus from a reactivating virus expressing uniformly low activity. This virus did not reactivate, confirming that mutations in other genes that would influence reactivation had not arisen. Therefore, in strains that require thymidine kinase for reactivation from latency, low levels of enzyme synthesized via a ribosomal frameshift can suffice. PMID:12663777

  17. Structure and function of the yeast listerin (Ltn1) conserved N-terminal domain in binding to stalled 60S ribosomal subunits.

    PubMed

    Doamekpor, Selom K; Lee, Joong-Won; Hepowit, Nathaniel L; Wu, Cheng; Charenton, Clement; Leonard, Marilyn; Bengtson, Mario H; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Sachs, Matthew S; Lima, Christopher D; Joazeiro, Claudio A P

    2016-07-19

    The Ltn1 E3 ligase (listerin in mammals) has emerged as a paradigm for understanding ribosome-associated ubiquitylation. Ltn1 binds to 60S ribosomal subunits to ubiquitylate nascent polypeptides that become stalled during synthesis; among Ltn1's substrates are aberrant products of mRNA lacking stop codons [nonstop translation products (NSPs)]. Here, we report the reconstitution of NSP ubiquitylation in Neurospora crassa cell extracts. Upon translation in vitro, ribosome-stalled NSPs were ubiquitylated in an Ltn1-dependent manner, while still ribosome-associated. Furthermore, we provide biochemical evidence that the conserved N-terminal domain (NTD) plays a significant role in the binding of Ltn1 to 60S ribosomal subunits and that NTD mutations causing defective 60S binding also lead to defective NSP ubiquitylation, without affecting Ltn1's intrinsic E3 ligase activity. Finally, we report the crystal structure of the Ltn1 NTD at 2.4-Å resolution. The structure, combined with additional mutational studies, provides insight to NTD's role in binding stalled 60S subunits. Our findings show that Neurospora extracts can be used as a tool to dissect mechanisms underlying ribosome-associated protein quality control and are consistent with a model in which Ltn1 uses 60S subunits as adapters, at least in part via its NTD, to target stalled NSPs for ubiquitylation. PMID:27385828

  18. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) variation in the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Andean region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was sequenced for Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) originating from 85 collections from the northern and central Andean countries of South America including Argentina (Tucumán), Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The IT...

  19. Ribosomes in a Stacked Array

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Yui; Kadokura, Yoshitomo; Sotta, Naoyuki; Fujiwara, Toru; Takigawa, Ichigaku; Satake, Akiko; Onouchi, Hitoshi; Naito, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Expression of CGS1, which codes for an enzyme of methionine biosynthesis, is feedback-regulated by mRNA degradation in response to S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet). In vitro studies revealed that AdoMet induces translation arrest at Ser-94, upon which several ribosomes stack behind the arrested one, and mRNA degradation occurs at multiple sites that presumably correspond to individual ribosomes in a stacked array. Despite the significant contribution of stacked ribosomes to inducing mRNA degradation, little is known about the ribosomes in the stacked array. Here, we assigned the peptidyl-tRNA species of the stacked second and third ribosomes to their respective codons and showed that they are arranged at nine-codon intervals behind the Ser-94 codon, indicating tight stacking. Puromycin reacts with peptidyl-tRNA in the P-site, releasing the nascent peptide as peptidyl-puromycin. This reaction is used to monitor the activity of the peptidyltransferase center (PTC) in arrested ribosomes. Puromycin reaction of peptidyl-tRNA on the AdoMet-arrested ribosome, which is stalled at the pre-translocation step, was slow. This limited reactivity can be attributed to the peptidyl-tRNA occupying the A-site at this step rather than to suppression of PTC activity. In contrast, puromycin reactions of peptidyl-tRNA with the stacked second and third ribosomes were slow but were not as slow as pre-translocation step ribosomes. We propose that the anticodon end of peptidyl-tRNA resides in the A-site of the stacked ribosomes and that the stacked ribosomes are stalled at an early step of translocation, possibly at the P/E hybrid state. PMID:24652291

  20. Evidence that Synthesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitochondrially Encoded Ribosomal Protein Var1p May Be Membrane Localized

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, Alessandro; Mason, Thomas L.; Fox, Thomas D.

    2003-01-01

    The 5′-untranslated leaders of mitochondrial mRNAs appear to localize translation within the organelle. VAR1 is the only yeast mitochondrial gene encoding a major soluble protein. A chimeric mRNA bearing the VAR1 untranslated regions and the coding sequence for pre-Cox2p appears to be translated at the inner membrane surface. We propose that translation of the ribosomal protein Var1p is also likely to occur in close proximity to the inner membrane. PMID:12796311

  1. Nucleotide sequence of the L1 ribosomal protein gene of Xenopus laevis: remarkable sequence homology among introns.

    PubMed Central

    Loreni, F; Ruberti, I; Bozzoni, I; Pierandrei-Amaldi, P; Amaldi, F

    1985-01-01

    Ribosomal protein L1 is encoded by two genes in Xenopus laevis. The comparison of two cDNA sequences shows that the two L1 gene copies (L1a and L1b) have diverged in many silent sites and very few substitution sites; moreover a small duplication occurred at the very end of the coding region of the L1b gene which thus codes for a product five amino acids longer than that coded by L1a. Quantitatively the divergence between the two L1 genes confirms that a whole genome duplication took place in Xenopus laevis approximately 30 million years ago. A genomic fragment containing one of the two L1 gene copies (L1a), with its nine introns and flanking regions, has been completely sequenced. The 5' end of this gene has been mapped within a 20-pyridimine stretch as already found for other vertebrate ribosomal protein genes. Four of the nine introns have a 60-nucleotide sequence with 80% homology; within this region some boxes, one of which is 16 nucleotides long, are 100% homologous among the four introns. This feature of L1a gene introns is interesting since we have previously shown that the activity of this gene is regulated at a post-transcriptional level and it involves the block of the normal splicing of some intron sequences. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:3841512

  2. High-Resolution Analysis of Coronavirus Gene Expression by RNA Sequencing and Ribosome Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Joshua D.; Chung, Betty Y.-W.; Siddell, Stuart G.; Brierley, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Members of the family Coronaviridae have the largest genomes of all RNA viruses, typically in the region of 30 kilobases. Several coronaviruses, such as Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), are of medical importance, with high mortality rates and, in the case of SARS-CoV, significant pandemic potential. Other coronaviruses, such as Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and Avian coronavirus, are important livestock pathogens. Ribosome profiling is a technique which exploits the capacity of the translating ribosome to protect around 30 nucleotides of mRNA from ribonuclease digestion. Ribosome-protected mRNA fragments are purified, subjected to deep sequencing and mapped back to the transcriptome to give a global “snap-shot” of translation. Parallel RNA sequencing allows normalization by transcript abundance. Here we apply ribosome profiling to cells infected with Murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus, strain A59 (MHV-A59), a model coronavirus in the same genus as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The data obtained allowed us to study the kinetics of virus transcription and translation with exquisite precision. We studied the timecourse of positive and negative-sense genomic and subgenomic viral RNA production and the relative translation efficiencies of the different virus ORFs. Virus mRNAs were not found to be translated more efficiently than host mRNAs; rather, virus translation dominates host translation at later time points due to high levels of virus transcripts. Triplet phasing of the profiling data allowed precise determination of translated reading frames and revealed several translated short open reading frames upstream of, or embedded within, known virus protein-coding regions. Ribosome pause sites were identified in the virus replicase polyprotein pp1a ORF and investigated experimentally. Contrary to expectations, ribosomes were not found to pause at the ribosomal

  3. High-Resolution Analysis of Coronavirus Gene Expression by RNA Sequencing and Ribosome Profiling.

    PubMed

    Irigoyen, Nerea; Firth, Andrew E; Jones, Joshua D; Chung, Betty Y-W; Siddell, Stuart G; Brierley, Ian

    2016-02-01

    Members of the family Coronaviridae have the largest genomes of all RNA viruses, typically in the region of 30 kilobases. Several coronaviruses, such as Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), are of medical importance, with high mortality rates and, in the case of SARS-CoV, significant pandemic potential. Other coronaviruses, such as Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and Avian coronavirus, are important livestock pathogens. Ribosome profiling is a technique which exploits the capacity of the translating ribosome to protect around 30 nucleotides of mRNA from ribonuclease digestion. Ribosome-protected mRNA fragments are purified, subjected to deep sequencing and mapped back to the transcriptome to give a global "snap-shot" of translation. Parallel RNA sequencing allows normalization by transcript abundance. Here we apply ribosome profiling to cells infected with Murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus, strain A59 (MHV-A59), a model coronavirus in the same genus as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The data obtained allowed us to study the kinetics of virus transcription and translation with exquisite precision. We studied the timecourse of positive and negative-sense genomic and subgenomic viral RNA production and the relative translation efficiencies of the different virus ORFs. Virus mRNAs were not found to be translated more efficiently than host mRNAs; rather, virus translation dominates host translation at later time points due to high levels of virus transcripts. Triplet phasing of the profiling data allowed precise determination of translated reading frames and revealed several translated short open reading frames upstream of, or embedded within, known virus protein-coding regions. Ribosome pause sites were identified in the virus replicase polyprotein pp1a ORF and investigated experimentally. Contrary to expectations, ribosomes were not found to pause at the ribosomal

  4. Ribosomal L22-like1 (RPL22L1) Promotes Ovarian Cancer Metastasis by Inducing Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Nan; Wei, Jia; Wang, Yuhui; Yan, Jinyan; Qin, Ying; Tong, Dandan; Pang, Bo; Sun, Donglin; Sun, Haiming; Yu, Yang; Sun, Wenjing; Meng, Xiangning; Zhang, Chunyu; Bai, Jing; Chen, Feng; Geng, Jingshu; Lee, Ki-Young; Fu, Songbin; Jin, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Double minute chromosomes (DMs) have important implications for cancer progression because oncogenes frequently amplified on them. We previously detected a functionally undefined gene amplified on DMs, Ribosomal L22-like1 (RPL22L1). The relationship between RPL22L1 and cancer progression is unknown. Here, RPL22L1 was characterized for its role in ovarian cancer (OC) metastasis and its underlying mechanism was examined. DNA copy number and mRNA expression of RPL22L1 in OC cells was analyzed using data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas and the Gene Expression Omnibus database. An immunohistochemical analysis of clinical OC specimens was performed and the relationships between expression level and clinicopathological factors were evaluated. Additionally, in vivo and in vitro assays were performed to understand the role of RPL22L1 in OC. RPL22L1 expression was higher in OC specimens than in normal tissues, and its expression level was highly positively correlated with invasion and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). RPL22L1 over-expression significantly enhanced intraperitoneal xenograft tumor development in nude mice and promoted invasion and migration in vitro. Additionally, RPL22L1 knockdown remarkably inhibited UACC-1598 cells invasion and migration. Further, RPL22L1 over-expression up-regulated the mesenchymal markers vimentin, fibronectin, and α-SMA, reduced expression of the epithelial markers E-cadherin, α-catenin, and β-catenin. RPL22L1 inhibition reduced expression of vimentin and N-cadherin. These results suggest that RPL22L1 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our data showed that the DMs amplified gene RPL22L1 is critical in maintaining the aggressive phenotype of OC and in triggering cell metastasis by inducing EMT. It could be employed as a novel prognostic marker and/or effective therapeutic target for OC. PMID:26618703

  5. Ribosome-inactivating proteins

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Matthew J; Dodd, Jennifer E; Hautbergue, Guillaume M

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were first isolated over a century ago and have been shown to be catalytic toxins that irreversibly inactivate protein synthesis. Elucidation of atomic structures and molecular mechanism has revealed these proteins to be a diverse group subdivided into two classes. RIPs have been shown to exhibit RNA N-glycosidase activity and depurinate the 28S rRNA of the eukaryotic 60S ribosomal subunit. In this review, we compare archetypal RIP family members with other potent toxins that abolish protein synthesis: the fungal ribotoxins which directly cleave the 28S rRNA and the newly discovered Burkholderia lethal factor 1 (BLF1). BLF1 presents additional challenges to the current classification system since, like the ribotoxins, it does not possess RNA N-glycosidase activity but does irreversibly inactivate ribosomes. We further discuss whether the RIP classification should be broadened to include toxins achieving irreversible ribosome inactivation with similar turnovers to RIPs, but through different enzymatic mechanisms. PMID:24071927

  6. Ribosomal protein S1 induces a conformational change of tmRNA; more than one protein S1 per molecule of tmRNA.

    PubMed

    Bordeau, Valérie; Felden, Brice

    2002-08-01

    tmRNA (10Sa RNA, ssrA) acts to rescue stalled bacterial ribosomes while encoding a peptide tag added trans-translationally to the nascent peptide, targeting it for proteolysis. Ribosomal protein S1 is required for tmRNA binding to isolated and poly U-programmed ribosomes. Mobility assays on native gels indicate that the binding curves of both recombinant and purified proteins S1 from E. coli is biphasic with apparent binding constants of approximately 90 and approximately 300 nM, respectively, suggesting that more than one protein interacts with tmRNA. Structural probing of native tmRNA in the presence and absence of the purified protein suggest that when S1 binds, tmRNA undergoes a significant conformational change. In the presence of the protein, nucleotides from tmRNA with enhanced (H2, H3, PK1, PK2, PK4, in and around the first triplet to be translated), or decreased (H5 and PK2), reactivity towards a probe specific for RNA single-strands are scattered throughout the molecule, with the exception of the tRNA-like domain that may be dispensable for the interaction. Converging experimental evidence suggests that ribosomal protein S1 binds to pseudoknot PK2. Previous structural studies of tmRNA in solution have revealed several discrepancies between the probing data and the phylogeny, and most of these are reconciled when analyzing tmRNA structure in complex with the protein(s). Ribosomal protein(s) S1 is proposed to set tmRNA in the mRNA mode, relieving strains that may develop when translating a looped mRNA. PMID:12457560

  7. The DEAD-box Protein Rok1 Orchestrates 40S and 60S Ribosome Assembly by Promoting the Release of Rrp5 from Pre-40S Ribosomes to Allow for 60S Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Khoshnevis, Sohail; Askenasy, Isabel; Dattolo, Maria D.; Young-Erdos, Crystal L.; Stroupe, M. Elizabeth; Karbstein, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    DEAD-box proteins are ubiquitous regulators of RNA biology. While commonly dubbed “helicases,” their activities also include duplex annealing, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent RNA binding, and RNA-protein complex remodeling. Rok1, an essential DEAD-box protein, and its cofactor Rrp5 are required for ribosome assembly. Here, we use in vivo and in vitro biochemical analyses to demonstrate that ATP-bound Rok1, but not adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-bound Rok1, stabilizes Rrp5 binding to 40S ribosomes. Interconversion between these two forms by ATP hydrolysis is required for release of Rrp5 from pre-40S ribosomes in vivo, thereby allowing Rrp5 to carry out its role in 60S subunit assembly. Furthermore, our data also strongly suggest that the previously described accumulation of snR30 upon Rok1 inactivation arises because Rrp5 release is blocked and implicate a previously undescribed interaction between Rrp5 and the DEAD-box protein Has1 in mediating snR30 accumulation when Rrp5 release from pre-40S subunits is blocked. PMID:27280440

  8. The DEAD-box Protein Rok1 Orchestrates 40S and 60S Ribosome Assembly by Promoting the Release of Rrp5 from Pre-40S Ribosomes to Allow for 60S Maturation.

    PubMed

    Khoshnevis, Sohail; Askenasy, Isabel; Johnson, Matthew C; Dattolo, Maria D; Young-Erdos, Crystal L; Stroupe, M Elizabeth; Karbstein, Katrin

    2016-06-01

    DEAD-box proteins are ubiquitous regulators of RNA biology. While commonly dubbed "helicases," their activities also include duplex annealing, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent RNA binding, and RNA-protein complex remodeling. Rok1, an essential DEAD-box protein, and its cofactor Rrp5 are required for ribosome assembly. Here, we use in vivo and in vitro biochemical analyses to demonstrate that ATP-bound Rok1, but not adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-bound Rok1, stabilizes Rrp5 binding to 40S ribosomes. Interconversion between these two forms by ATP hydrolysis is required for release of Rrp5 from pre-40S ribosomes in vivo, thereby allowing Rrp5 to carry out its role in 60S subunit assembly. Furthermore, our data also strongly suggest that the previously described accumulation of snR30 upon Rok1 inactivation arises because Rrp5 release is blocked and implicate a previously undescribed interaction between Rrp5 and the DEAD-box protein Has1 in mediating snR30 accumulation when Rrp5 release from pre-40S subunits is blocked. PMID:27280440

  9. TORC1 and TORC2 work together to regulate ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yerlikaya, Seda; Meusburger, Madeleine; Kumari, Romika; Huber, Alexandre; Anrather, Dorothea; Costanzo, Michael; Boone, Charles; Ammerer, Gustav; Baranov, Pavel V; Loewith, Robbie

    2016-01-15

    Nutrient-sensitive phosphorylation of the S6 protein of the 40S subunit of the eukaryote ribosome is highly conserved. However, despite four decades of research, the functional consequences of this modification remain unknown. Revisiting this enigma in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found that the regulation of Rps6 phosphorylation on Ser-232 and Ser-233 is mediated by both TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TORC2. TORC1 regulates phosphorylation of both sites via the poorly characterized AGC-family kinase Ypk3 and the PP1 phosphatase Glc7, whereas TORC2 regulates phosphorylation of only the N-terminal phosphosite via Ypk1. Cells expressing a nonphosphorylatable variant of Rps6 display a reduced growth rate and a 40S biogenesis defect, but these phenotypes are not observed in cells in which Rps6 kinase activity is compromised. Furthermore, using polysome profiling and ribosome profiling, we failed to uncover a role of Rps6 phosphorylation in either global translation or translation of individual mRNAs. Taking the results together, this work depicts the signaling cascades orchestrating Rps6 phosphorylation in budding yeast, challenges the notion that Rps6 phosphorylation plays a role in translation, and demonstrates that observations made with Rps6 knock-ins must be interpreted cautiously. PMID:26582391

  10. Novel structural co-expression analysis linking the NPM1-associated ribosomal biogenesis network to chronic myelogenous leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lawrence WC; Lin, Xihong; Yung, Godwin; Lui, Thomas; Chiu, Ya Ming; Wang, Fengfeng; Tsui, Nancy BY; Cho, William CS; Yip, SP; Siu, Parco M.; Wong, SC Cesar; Yung, Benjamin YM

    2015-01-01

    Co-expression analysis reveals useful dysregulation patterns of gene cooperativeness for understanding cancer biology and identifying new targets for treatment. We developed a structural strategy to identify co-expressed gene networks that are important for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). This strategy compared the distributions of expressional correlations between CML and normal states, and it identified a data-driven threshold to classify strongly co-expressed networks that had the best coherence with CML. Using this strategy, we found a transcriptome-wide reduction of co-expression connectivity in CML, reflecting potentially loosened molecular regulation. Conversely, when we focused on nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) associated networks, NPM1 established more co-expression linkages with BCR-ABL pathways and ribosomal protein networks in CML than normal. This finding implicates a new role of NPM1 in conveying tumorigenic signals from the BCR-ABL oncoprotein to ribosome biogenesis, affecting cellular growth. Transcription factors may be regulators of the differential co-expression patterns between CML and normal. PMID:26205693

  11. The catalytic subunit of shiga-like toxin 1 interacts with ribosomal stalk proteins and is inhibited by their conserved C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Andrew J; Poon, Gregory M K; Bolewska-Pedyczak, Eleonora; Srikumar, Tharan; Jeram, Stanley M; Raught, Brian; Gariépy, Jean

    2008-04-25

    Shiga-like toxin 1 (SLT-1) is a type II ribosome-inactivating protein; its A(1) domain blocks protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells by catalyzing the depurination of a single adenine base in 28 S rRNA. The molecular mechanism leading to this site-specific depurination event is thought to involve interactions with eukaryotic ribosomal proteins. Here, we present evidence that the A(1) chain of SLT-1 binds to the ribosomal proteins P0, P1, and P2. These proteins were identified from a HeLa cell lysate by tandem mass spectrometry, and subsequently confirmed to bind to SLT-1 A(1) chain by yeast-two-hybrid and pull-down experiments using candidate full-length proteins. Moreover, the removal of the last 17 amino acids of either protein P1 or P2 abolishes the interaction with the A(1) chain, whereas P0, lacking this common C terminus, still binds to the A(1) domain. In vitro pull-down experiments using fusion protein-tagged C-terminal peptides corresponding to the common 7, 11, and 17 terminal residues of P1 and P2 confirmed that the A(1) chain of SLT-1 as well as the A chain of ricin bind to this shared C-terminal peptide motif. More importantly, a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 17 amino acid C terminus of P1 and P2 was shown to inhibit the ribosome-inactivating function of the A(1) chain of SLT-1 in an in vitro transcription and translation-coupled assay. These results suggest a role for the ribosomal stalk in aiding the A(1) chain of SLT-1 and other type II ribosome-inactivating proteins in localizing its catalytic domain near the site of depurination in the 28 S rRNA. PMID:18358491

  12. The Transcription Factor EGR1 Localizes to the Nucleolus and Is Linked to Suppression of Ribosomal Precursor Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ponti, Donatella; Bellenchi, Gian Carlo; Puca, Rosa; Bastianelli, Daniela; Maroder, Marella; Ragona, Giuseppe; Roussel, Pascal; Thiry, Marc; Mercola, Dan; Calogero, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    EGR1 is an immediate early gene with a wide range of activities as transcription factor, spanning from regulation of cell growth to differentiation. Numerous studies show that EGR1 either promotes the proliferation of stimulated cells or suppresses the tumorigenic growth of transformed cells. Upon interaction with ARF, EGR1 is sumoylated and acquires the ability to bind to specific targets such as PTEN and in turn to regulate cell growth. ARF is mainly localized to the periphery of nucleolus where is able to negatively regulate ribosome biogenesis. Since EGR1 colocalizes with ARF under IGF-1 stimulation we asked the question of whether EGR1 also relocate to the nucleolus to interact with ARF. Here we show that EGR1 colocalizes with nucleolar markers such as fibrillarin and B23 in the presence of ARF. Western analysis of nucleolar extracts from HeLa cells was used to confirm the presence of EGR1 in the nucleolus mainly as the 100 kDa sumoylated form. We also show that the level of the ribosomal RNA precursor 47S is inversely correlated to the level of EGR1 transcripts. The EGR1 iseffective to regulate the synthesis of the 47S rRNA precursor. Then we demonstrated that EGR1 binds to the Upstream Binding Factor (UBF) leading us to hypothesize that the regulating activity of EGR1 is mediated by its interaction within the transcriptional complex of RNA polymerase I. These results confirm the presence of EGR1 in the nucleolus and point to a role for EGR1 in the control of nucleolar metabolism. PMID:24787739

  13. The interaction pattern between a homology model of 40S ribosomal S9 protein of Rhizoctonia solani and 1-hydroxyphenaize by docking study.

    PubMed

    Dharni, Seema; Sanchita; Samad, Abdul; Sharma, Ashok; Patra, Dharani Dhar

    2014-01-01

    1-Hydroxyphenazine (1-OH-PHZ), a natural product from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain SD12, was earlier reported to have potent antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. In the present work, the antifungal activity of 1-OH-PHZ on 40S ribosomal S9 protein was validated by molecular docking approach. 1-OH-PHZ showed interaction with two polar contacts with residues, Arg69 and Phe19, which inhibits the synthesis of fungal protein. Our study reveals that 1-OH-PHZ can be a potent inhibitor of 40S ribosomal S9 protein of R. solani that may be a promising approach for the management of fungal diseases. PMID:24864254

  14. The Interaction Pattern between a Homology Model of 40S Ribosomal S9 Protein of Rhizoctonia solani and 1-Hydroxyphenaize by Docking Study

    PubMed Central

    Dharni, Seema; Sanchita; Sharma, Ashok; Patra, Dharani Dhar

    2014-01-01

    1-Hydroxyphenazine (1-OH-PHZ), a natural product from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain SD12, was earlier reported to have potent antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. In the present work, the antifungal activity of 1-OH-PHZ on 40S ribosomal S9 protein was validated by molecular docking approach. 1-OH-PHZ showed interaction with two polar contacts with residues, Arg69 and Phe19, which inhibits the synthesis of fungal protein. Our study reveals that 1-OH-PHZ can be a potent inhibitor of 40S ribosomal S9 protein of R. solani that may be a promising approach for the management of fungal diseases. PMID:24864254

  15. Polar Lipid Composition of a Plastid Ribosome-Deficient Barley Mutant 1

    PubMed Central

    Dorne, Albert-Jean; Carde, Jean-Pierre; Joyard, Jacques; Börner, Thomas; Douce, Roland

    1982-01-01

    Green and white leaves of the barley mutant line `albostrians' were compared for their polar lipid content and fatty acid composition. The mutant plastids of the white leaves have a double-layered envelope, but in contrast with the normal chloroplasts, lack 70 S ribosomes and thylakoids. In the green leaves, the amount of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) consistently exceeds the amount of digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) and the amount of galactolipids exceeds the amount of phospholipids. In contrast, in white leaves the amount of DGDG exceeds the amount of MGDG and the amount of phospholipids exceeds the amount of galactolipids. In white leaves, the galactolipid composition reflects the plastid envelope composition which is rich in DGDG, whereas in green leaves the galactolipid composition reflects the thylakoid composition which is rich in MGDG. These results demonstrate the likelihood that all the enzymes involved in galactolipid, sulfolipid and fatty acid synthesis are coded by the nuclear genome. Images PMID:16662423

  16. The Conserved Endoribonuclease YbeY Is Required for Chloroplast Ribosomal RNA Processing in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinwen; Zhou, Wenbin; Liu, Guifeng; Yang, Chuanping; Sun, Yi; Wu, Wenjuan; Cao, Shenquan; Wang, Chong; Hai, Guanghui; Wang, Zhifeng; Bock, Ralph; Huang, Jirong

    2015-01-01

    Maturation of chloroplast ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) comprises several endoribonucleolytic and exoribonucleolytic processing steps. However, little is known about the specific enzymes involved and the cleavage steps they catalyze. Here, we report the functional characterization of the single Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene encoding a putative YbeY endoribonuclease. AtYbeY null mutants are seedling lethal, indicating that AtYbeY function is essential for plant growth. Knockdown plants display slow growth and show pale-green leaves. Physiological and ultrastructural analyses of atybeY mutants revealed impaired photosynthesis and defective chloroplast development. Fluorescent microcopy analysis showed that, when fused with the green fluorescence protein, AtYbeY is localized in chloroplasts. Immunoblot and RNA gel-blot assays revealed that the levels of chloroplast-encoded subunits of photosynthetic complexes are reduced in atybeY mutants, but the corresponding transcripts accumulate normally. In addition, atybeY mutants display defective maturation of both the 5′ and 3′ ends of 16S, 23S, and 4.5S rRNAs as well as decreased accumulation of mature transcripts from the transfer RNA genes contained in the chloroplast rRNA operon. Consequently, mutant plants show a severe deficiency in ribosome biogenesis, which, in turn, results in impaired plastid translational activity. Furthermore, biochemical assays show that recombinant AtYbeY is able to cleave chloroplast rRNAs as well as messenger RNAs and transfer RNAs in vitro. Taken together, our findings indicate that AtYbeY is a chloroplast-localized endoribonuclease that is required for chloroplast rRNA processing and thus for normal growth and development. PMID:25810095

  17. Identification and characterization of anaerobic gut fungi using molecular methodologies based on ribosomal ITS1 and 185 rRNA.

    PubMed

    Brookman, J L; Mennim, G; Trinci, A P; Theodorou, M K; Tuckwell, D S

    2000-02-01

    The gut fungi are an unusual group of zoosporic fungi occupying a unique ecological niche, the anaerobic environment of the rumen. They exhibit two basic forms, with nuclear migration throughout the hyphal mass for polycentric species and with concentration of nuclear material in a zoosporangium for monocentric species. Differentiation between isolates of these fungi is difficult using conventional techniques. In this study, DNA-based methodologies were used to examine the relationships within and between two genera of monocentric gut fungi gathered from various geographical locations and host animals. The ribosomal ITS1 sequence from 16 mono- and 4 polycentric isolates was PCR-amplified and sequenced; the sequences obtained were aligned with published sequences and phylogenetic analyses were performed. These analyses clearly differentiate between the two genera and reflect the previously published physiological conclusions that Neocallimastix spp. constitute a more closely related genus than the relatively divergent genus Piromyces. The analyses place two type species N. frontalis and N. hurleyensis together but, contrary to a recent suggestion in the literature, place them apart from the other agreed species N. patriciarum. In situ hybridization and slot-blotting were investigated as potential methods for detection of and differentiation between monocentric gut fungi. DNA slot-blot analysis using ribosomal sequences is able to differentiate between gut fungal genera and thus has considerable potential for use in ecological studies of these organisms. PMID:10708378

  18. Gcn1 contacts the small ribosomal protein Rps10, which is required for full activation of the protein kinase Gcn2.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Jung; Swanson, Mark J; Sattlegger, Evelyn

    2015-03-15

    In eukaryotes, amino acid deprivation leads to the accumulation of uncharged tRNAs that are detected by Gcn2 (general control non-derepressible 2), which in turn phosphorylates eIF2α (α-subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2), an essential process for overcoming starvation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sensing amino acid shortages requires that Gcn2 binds directly to its effector protein Gcn1 and both must associate with the ribosome. Our hypothesis is that uncharged tRNAs occur in the ribosomal A-site and that Gcn1 is directly involved in transfer of this starvation signal to Gcn2. In the present paper, we provide evidence that Gcn1 directly contacts the small ribosomal protein S10 (Rps10). Gcn1 residues 1060-1777 showed a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction with Rps10A. In vitro, Rps10A or Rps10B co-precipitated Gcn1[1060-1777] in an RNA-independent manner. rps10AΔ or rps10BΔ strains showed reduced eIF2α phosphorylation under replete conditions and shortly after onset of starvation, suggesting that Gcn1-mediated Gcn2 activation was impaired. Overexpression of GST-tagged Rps10 reduced growth under amino acid starvation and this was exacerbated by the Gcn1-M7A mutation known to impair Gcn1-ribosome interaction and Gcn2 activity. Under amino acid starvation, eEF3 (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 3) overexpression, known to weaken Gcn1 function on the ribosome, exacerbated the growth defect of rps10AΔ or rps10BΔ strains. Taken together, these data support the idea that Gcn1 contacts ribosome-bound Rps10 to efficiently mediate Gcn2 activation. PMID:25437641

  19. X-ray sequence and crystal structure of luffaculin 1, a novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiaomin; Chen, Minghuang; Chen, Liqing; Meehan, Edward J; Xie, Jieming; Huang, Mingdong

    2007-01-01

    Background Protein sequence can be obtained through Edman degradation, mass spectrometry, or cDNA sequencing. High resolution X-ray crystallography can also be used to derive protein sequence information, but faces the difficulty in distinguishing the Asp/Asn, Glu/Gln, and Val/Thr pairs. Luffaculin 1 is a new type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) isolated from the seeds of Luffa acutangula. Besides rRNA N-glycosidase activity, luffaculin 1 also demonstrates activities including inhibiting tumor cells' proliferation and inducing tumor cells' differentiation. Results The crystal structure of luffaculin 1 was determined at 1.4 Å resolution. Its amino-acid sequence was derived from this high resolution structure using the following criteria: 1) high resolution electron density; 2) comparison of electron density between two molecules that exist in the same crystal; 3) evaluation of the chemical environment of residues to break down the sequence assignment ambiguity in residue pairs Glu/Gln, Asp/Asn, and Val/Thr; 4) comparison with sequences of the homologous proteins. Using the criteria 1 and 2, 66% of the residues can be assigned. By incorporating with criterion 3, 86% of the residues were assigned, suggesting the effectiveness of chemical environment evaluation in breaking down residue ambiguity. In total, 94% of the luffaculin 1 sequence was assigned with high confidence using this improved X-ray sequencing strategy. Two N-acetylglucosamine moieties, linked respectively to the residues Asn77 and Asn84, can be identified in the structure. Residues Tyr70, Tyr110, Glu159 and Arg162 define the active site of luffaculin 1 as an RNA N-glycosidase. Conclusion X-ray sequencing method can be effective to derive sequence information of proteins. The evaluation of the chemical environment of residues is a useful method to break down the assignment ambiguity in Glu/Gln, Asp/Asn, and Val/Thr pairs. The sequence and the crystal structure confirm that luffaculin 1 is a new

  20. The C-terminal silencing domain of Rap1p is essential for the repression of ribosomal protein genes in response to a defect in the secretory pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Mizuta, K; Tsujii, R; Warner, J R; Nishiyama, M

    1998-01-01

    We have previously shown that a functional secretory pathway is essential for continued ribosome synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When a temperature-sensitive mutant defective in the secretory pathway is transferred to the non-permissive temperature, transcription of both rRNA genes and ribosomal protein genes is nearly abolished. In order to define the cis -acting element(s) of ribosomal protein genes sensitive to a defect in the secretory pathway, we have constructed a series of fusion genes containing the CYH2 promoter region, with various deletions, fused to lacZ. Each fusion gene for which transcription is detected is subject to the repression. Rap1p is the transcriptional activator for most ribosomal protein genes, as well as having an important role in silencing in the vicinity of telomeres and at the silent mating-type loci. To assess its role in the repression of transcription by the defect in the secretory pathway, we have introduced rap1 mutations. The replacement of wild-type Rap1p by Rap1p truncated at the C-terminal region caused substantial attenuation of the repression. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the Rap1p-truncation affects the repression of TCM1 , encoding ribosomal protein L3, which has no Rap1p-binding site in its upstream regulatory region. These results suggest that the repression of transcription of ribosomal protein genes by a secretory defect is mediated through Rap1p, but does not require a Rap1p-binding site within the UAS. PMID:9461469

  1. Role of frameshift ubiquitin B protein in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Petranovic, Dina

    2016-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease and is characterized by accumulation of misfolded and aggregated proteins. Since the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is the major intracellular protein quality control (PQC) system in eukaryotic cells, it is likely involved in the etiology of AD. The frameshift form of ubiquitin (Ubb(+1) ) accumulates in the neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in patients with AD. Ubb(+1) accumulates in an age-dependent manner as a result of RNA-polymerase mediated molecular misreading during transcription, which allows the formation of mutant proteins in the absence of gene mutations. The accumulation of the Ubb(+1) protein may act as an endogenous reporter for proteasome dysfunction and a growing number of studies have shown that Ubb(+1) may play more important pathogenic roles in AD etiology than previously hypothesized. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae shares many conserved biological processes with all eukaryotic cells, including human neurons. This organism has been regarded as a model system for investigating the fundamental intracellular mechanisms, including those underlying neurodegeneration. We propose here that yeast systems biology approaches, combined with cell and molecular biology approaches will increase the relevant knowledge needed for advancement and elucidation of mechanisms and complex traits, which could provide new targets for therapeutic intervention in AD. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2016, 8:300-313. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1340 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27240056

  2. The gene of an archaeal α-l-fucosidase is expressed by translational frameshifting

    PubMed Central

    Cobucci-Ponzano, Beatrice; Conte, Fiorella; Benelli, Dario; Londei, Paola; Flagiello, Angela; Monti, Maria; Pucci, Piero; Rossi, Mosè; Moracci, Marco

    2006-01-01

    The standard rules of genetic translational decoding are altered in specific genes by different events that are globally termed recoding. In Archaea recoding has been unequivocally determined so far only for termination codon readthrough events. We study here the mechanism of expression of a gene encoding for a α-l-fucosidase from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus (fucA1), which is split in two open reading frames separated by a −1 frameshifting. The expression in Escherichia coli of the wild-type split gene led to the production by frameshifting of full-length polypeptides with an efficiency of 5%. Mutations in the regulatory site where the shift takes place demonstrate that the expression in vivo occurs in a programmed way. Further, we identify a full-length product of fucA1 in S.solfataricus extracts, which translate this gene in vitro by following programmed −1 frameshifting. This is the first experimental demonstration that this kind of recoding is present in Archaea. PMID:16920738

  3. Rmt1 catalyzes zinc-finger independent arginine methylation of ribosomal protein Rps2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Lipson, Rebecca S.; Webb, Kristofor J.; Clarke, Steven G.

    2010-01-22

    Rps2/rpS2 is a well conserved protein of the eukaryotic ribosomal small subunit. Rps2 has previously been shown to contain asymmetric dimethylarginine residues, the addition of which is catalyzed by zinc-finger-containing arginine methyltransferase 3 (Rmt3) in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) in mammalian cells. Here, we demonstrate that despite the lack of a zinc-finger-containing homolog of Rmt3/PRMT3 in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rps2 is partially modified to generate asymmetric dimethylarginine and monomethylarginine residues. We find that this modification of Rps2 is dependent upon the major arginine methyltransferase 1 (Rmt1) in S. cerevisiae. These results are suggestive of a role for Rmt1 in modifying the function of Rps2 in a manner distinct from that occurring in S. pombe and mammalian cells.

  4. Characterizing inactive ribosomes in translational profiling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Botao; Qian, Shu-Bing

    2016-01-01

    The broad impact of translational regulation has emerged explosively in the last few years in part due to the technological advance in genome-wide interrogation of gene expression. During mRNA translation, the majority of actively translating ribosomes exist as polysomes in cells with multiple ribosomes loaded on a single transcript. The importance of the monosome, however, has been less appreciated in translational profiling analysis. Here we report that the monosome fraction isolated by sucrose sedimentation contains a large quantity of inactive ribosomes that do not engage on mRNAs to direct translation. We found that the elongation factor eEF2, but not eEF1A, stably resides in these non-translating ribosomes. This unique feature permits direct evaluation of ribosome status under various stress conditions and in the presence of translation inhibitors. Ribosome profiling reveals that the monosome has a similar but not identical pattern of ribosome footprints compared to the polysome. We show that the association of free ribosomal subunits minimally contributes to ribosome occupancy outside of the coding region. Our results not only offer a quantitative method to monitor ribosome availability, but also uncover additional layers of ribosome status needed to be considered in translational profiling analysis. PMID:27335722

  5. 20-Hydroxyecdysone stimulates nuclear accumulation of BmNep1, a nuclear ribosome biogenesis-related protein in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Ji, M-M; Liu, A-Q; Sima, Y-H; Xu, S-Q

    2016-10-01

    The pathway of communication between endocrine hormones and ribosome biogenesis critical for physiological adaptation is largely unknown. Nucleolar essential protein 1 (Nep1) is an essential gene for ribosome biogenesis and is functionally conserved in many in vertebrate and invertebrate species. In this study, we cloned Bombyx mori Nep1 (BmNep1) due to its high expression in silk glands of silkworms on day 3 of the fifth instar. We found that BmNep1 mRNA and protein levels were upregulated in silk glands during fourth-instar ecdysis and larval-pupal metamorphosis. By immunoprecipitation with the anti-BmNep1 antibody and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses, it was shown that BmNep1 probably interacts with proteins related to ribosome structure formation. Immunohistochemistry, biochemical fractionation and immunocytochemistry revealed that BmNep1 is localized to the nuclei in Bombyx cells. Using BmN cells originally derived from ovaries, we demonstrated that 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) induced BmNep1 expression and stimulated nuclear accumulation of BmNep1. Under physiological conditions, BmNep1 was also upregulated in ovaries during larval-pupal metamorphosis. Overall, our results indicate that the endocrine hormone 20E facilitates nuclear accumulation of BmNep1, which is involved in nuclear ribosome biogenesis in Bombyx. PMID:27329527

  6. Translation of branched-chain aminotransferase-1 transcripts is impaired in cells haploinsufficient for ribosomal protein genes.

    PubMed

    Pereboom, Tamara C; Bondt, Albert; Pallaki, Paschalina; Klasson, Tim D; Goos, Yvonne J; Essers, Paul B; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; Gazda, Hanna T; Holstege, Frank C P; Costa, Lydie Da; MacInnes, Alyson W

    2014-05-01

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a bone marrow failure syndrome linked to mutations in ribosomal protein (RP) genes that result in the impaired proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. The etiology of DBA is not completely understood; however, the ribosomal nature of the genes involved has led to speculation that these mutations may alter the landscape of messenger RNA (mRNA) translation. Here, we performed comparative microarray analysis of polysomal mRNA transcripts isolated from lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from DBA patients carrying various haploinsufficient mutations in either RPS19 or RPL11. Different spectrums of changes were observed depending on the mutant gene, with large differences found in RPS19 cells and very few in RPL11 cells. However, we find that the small number of altered transcripts in RPL11 overlap for the most part with those altered in RPS19 cells. We show specifically that levels of branched-chain aminotransferase-1 (BCAT1) transcripts are significantly decreased on the polysomes of both RPS19 and RPL11 cells and that translation of BCAT1 protein is especially impaired in cells with small RP gene mutations, and we provide evidence that this effect may be due in part to the unusually long 5'UTR of the BCAT1 transcript. The BCAT1 enzyme carries out the final step in the biosynthesis and the first step of degradation of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Interestingly, several animal models of DBA have reported that leucine ameliorates the anemia phenotypes generated by RPS19 loss. Our study suggests that RP mutations affect the synthesis of specific proteins involved in regulating amino acid levels that are important for maintaining the normal proliferative capacity of hematopoietic cells. PMID:24463277

  7. Miz-1 regulates translation of Trp53 via ribosomal protein L22 in cells undergoing V(D)J recombination

    PubMed Central

    Rashkovan, Marissa; Vadnais, Charles; Ross, Julie; Gigoux, Mathieu; Suh, Woong-Kyung; Gu, Wei; Kosan, Christian; Möröy, Tarik

    2014-01-01

    To be effective, the adaptive immune response requires a large repertoire of antigen receptors, which are generated through V(D)J recombination in lymphoid precursors. These precursors must be protected from DNA damage-induced cell death, however, because V(D)J recombination generates double-strand breaks and may activate p53. Here we show that the BTB/POZ domain protein Miz-1 restricts p53-dependent induction of apoptosis in both pro-B and DN3a pre-T cells that actively rearrange antigen receptor genes. Miz-1 exerts this function by directly activating the gene for ribosomal protein L22 (Rpl22), which binds to p53 mRNA and negatively regulates its translation. This mechanism limits p53 expression levels and thus contains its apoptosis-inducing functions in lymphocytes, precisely at differentiation stages in which V(D)J recombination occurs. PMID:25468973

  8. Ribosomal Database Project II

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides ribosome related data and services to the scientific community, including online data analysis and aligned and annotated Bacterial small-subunit 16S rRNA sequences. As of March 2008, RDP Release 10 is available and currently (August 2009) contains 1,074,075 aligned 16S rRNA sequences. Data that can be downloaded include zipped GenBank and FASTA alignment files, a histogram (in Excel) of the number of RDP sequences spanning each base position, data in the Functional Gene Pipeline Repository, and various user submitted data. The RDP-II website also provides numerous analysis tools.[From the RDP-II home page at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/index.jsp

  9. Rapid identification of Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) using ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer 1.

    PubMed

    Perera, Omaththage P; Allen, Kerry C; Jain, Devendra; Purcell, Matthew; Little, Nathan S; Luttrell, Randall G

    2015-01-01

    Rapid identification of invasive species is crucial for deploying management strategies to prevent establishment. Recent Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) invasions and subsequent establishment in South America has increased the risk of this species invading North America. Morphological similarities make differentiation of H. armigera from the native Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) difficult. Characteristics of adult male genitalia and nucleotide sequence differences in mitochondrial DNA are two of the currently available methods to differentiate these two species. However, current methods are likely too slow to be employed as rapid detection methods. In this study, conserved differences in the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of the ribosomal RNA genes were used to develop species-specific oligonucleotide primers that amplified ITS1 fragments of 147 and 334 bp from H. armigera and H. zea, respectively. An amplicon (83 bp) from a conserved region of 18S ribosomal RNA subunit served as a positive control. Melting temperature differences in ITS1 amplicons yielded species-specific dissociation curves that could be used in high resolution melt analysis to differentiate the two Helicoverpa species. In addition, a rapid and inexpensive procedure for obtaining amplifiable genomic DNA from a small amount of tissue was identified. Under optimal conditions, the process was able to detect DNA from one H. armigera leg in a pool of 25 legs. The high resolution melt analysis combined with rapid DNA extraction could be used as an inexpensive method to genetically differentiate large numbers of H. armigera and H. zea using readily available reagents. PMID:26516166

  10. Rapid Identification of Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Using Ribosomal RNA Internal Transcribed Spacer 1

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Omaththage P.; Allen, Kerry C.; Jain, Devendra; Purcell, Matthew; Little, Nathan S.; Luttrell, Randall G.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid identification of invasive species is crucial for deploying management strategies to prevent establishment. Recent Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) invasions and subsequent establishment in South America has increased the risk of this species invading North America. Morphological similarities make differentiation of H. armigera from the native Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) difficult. Characteristics of adult male genitalia and nucleotide sequence differences in mitochondrial DNA are two of the currently available methods to differentiate these two species. However, current methods are likely too slow to be employed as rapid detection methods. In this study, conserved differences in the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of the ribosomal RNA genes were used to develop species-specific oligonucleotide primers that amplified ITS1 fragments of 147 and 334 bp from H. armigera and H. zea, respectively. An amplicon (83 bp) from a conserved region of 18S ribosomal RNA subunit served as a positive control. Melting temperature differences in ITS1 amplicons yielded species-specific dissociation curves that could be used in high resolution melt analysis to differentiate the two Helicoverpa species. In addition, a rapid and inexpensive procedure for obtaining amplifiable genomic DNA from a small amount of tissue was identified. Under optimal conditions, the process was able to detect DNA from one H. armigera leg in a pool of 25 legs. The high resolution melt analysis combined with rapid DNA extraction could be used as an inexpensive method to genetically differentiate large numbers of H. armigera and H. zea using readily available reagents. PMID:26516166

  11. Dictyostelium ribosomal protein genes and the elongation factor 1B gene show coordinate developmental regulation which is under post-transcriptional control.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A K; Blumberg, D D

    1999-06-01

    Starvation for amino acids initiates the developmental program in the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum [19, 20]. One of the earliest developmental events is the decline in ribosomal protein synthesis [2, 17, 29, 30]. The ribosomal protein mRNAs are excluded from polysomes with 20 min to 1 h following the removal of nutrients, and their mRNA levels decline sharply at about 9 h into the 24-h developmental cycle [28, 31, 35, 36]. It has been generally assumed that the decline in r-protein mRNA levels during late development reflected a decline in the transcription rate [12, 32, 43]. Here we demonstrate that this is not the case. The transcription rates of three ribosomal protein genes, rpL11, rpL23 and rpS9 as well as an elongation factor 1B gene have been determined during growth and development in Dictyostelium. Throughout growth and development the transcription rate of the ribosomal protein genes remains relatively constant at 0.2%-0.5% of the rate of rRNA transcription while the elongation factor 1B gene is transcribed at 0.4%-0.6% of the rRNA rate. This low but constant transcription rate is in contrast to a spore coat protein gene Psp D, which is transcribed at 6% of the rRNA rate in late developing cells. The elongation factor 1B gene appears to be co-regulated with the ribosomal protein genes both in terms of its transcription rate and mRNA accumulation. Dictyostelium has been a popular model for understanding signal transduction and the growth to differentiation transition, thus it is of significance that the regulation of ribosome biosynthesis in Dictyostelium resembles that of higher eukaryotes in being regulated largely at the post-transcriptional level in response to starvation as opposed to yeasts where the regulation is largely transcriptional [27]. PMID:10374261

  12. A Neurospora crassa ribosomal protein gene, homologous to yeast CRY1, contains sequences potentially coordinating its transcription with rRNA genes.

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, B M; Harrison, K

    1990-01-01

    We have isolated and sequenced a Neurospora crassa ribosomal protein gene (designated crp-2) strongly homologous to the rp59 gene (CRY1) of yeast and the S14 ribosomal protein gene of mammals. The inferred sequence of the crp-2 protein is more homologous (83%) to the mammalian S14 sequence than to the yeast rp59 sequence (69%). The gene has three intervening sequences (IVSs) two of which are offset 7 bp from the position of IVSs in the mammalian genes. None correspond to the position of the IVS in the yeast gene. Crp-2 was mapped by RFLP analysis to the right arm of linkage group III. The 5' region of the gene contains three copies of a sequence, the Ribo box, previously shown to be required for transcription of both 5S and 40S rRNA genes. We speculate that the Ribo box may coordinate ribosomal protein and rRNA gene transcription. Images PMID:1977135

  13. RAN translation and frameshifting as translational challenges at simple repeats of human neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wojciechowska, Marzena; Olejniczak, Marta; Galka-Marciniak, Paulina; Jazurek, Magdalena; Krzyzosiak, Wlodzimierz J.

    2014-01-01

    Repeat-associated disorders caused by expansions of short sequences have been classified as coding and noncoding and are thought to be caused by protein gain-of-function and RNA gain-of-function mechanisms, respectively. The boundary between such classifications has recently been blurred by the discovery of repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation reported in spinocerebellar ataxia type 8, myotonic dystrophy type 1, fragile X tremor/ataxia syndrome and C9ORF72 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. This noncanonical translation requires no AUG start codon and can initiate in multiple frames of CAG, CGG and GGGGCC repeats of the sense and antisense strands of disease-relevant transcripts. RNA structures formed by the repeats have been suggested as possible triggers; however, the precise mechanism of the translation initiation remains elusive. Templates containing expansions of microsatellites have also been shown to challenge translation elongation, as frameshifting has been recognized across CAG repeats in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 and Huntington's disease. Determining the critical requirements for RAN translation and frameshifting is essential to decipher the mechanisms that govern these processes. The contribution of unusual translation products to pathogenesis needs to be better understood. In this review, we present current knowledge regarding RAN translation and frameshifting and discuss the proposed mechanisms of translational challenges imposed by simple repeat expansions. PMID:25217582

  14. Translational and transcriptional control of Sp1 against ischaemia through a hydrogen peroxide-activated internal ribosomal entry site pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Shiu Hwa; Yang, Wen Bin; Gean, Po Wu; Hsu, Chung Yi; Tseng, Joseph T.; Su, Tsung Ping; Chang, Wen Chang; Hung, Jan Jong

    2011-01-01

    The exact mechanism underlying increases in Sp1 and the physiological consequences thereafter remains unknown. In rat primary cortical neurons, oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) causes an increase in H2O2 as well as Sp1 in early ischaemia but apparently does not change mRNA level or Sp1 stability. We hereby identified a longer 5′-UTR in Sp1 mRNA that contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that regulates rapid and efficient translation of existing mRNAs. By using polysomal fragmentation and bicistronic luciferase assays, we found that H2O2 activates IRES-dependent translation. Thus, H2O2 or tempol, a superoxide dismutase-mimetic, increases Sp1 levels in OGD-treated neurons. Further, early-expressed Sp1 binds to Sp1 promoter to cause a late rise in Sp1 in a feed-forward manner. Short hairpin RNA against Sp1 exacerbates OGD-induced apoptosis in primary neurons. While Sp1 levels increase in the cortex in a rat model of stroke, inhibition of Sp1 binding leads to enhanced apoptosis and cortical injury. These results demonstrate that neurons can use H2O2 as a signalling molecule to quickly induce Sp1 translation through an IRES-dependent translation pathway that, in cooperation with a late rise in Sp1 via feed-forward transcriptional activation, protects neurons against ischaemic damage. PMID:21441538

  15. PAK1IP1, a ribosomal stress-induced nucleolar protein, regulates cell proliferation via the p53–MDM2 loop

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Weishi; Qiu, Zhongwei; Gao, Na; Wang, Liren; Cui, Hengxiang; Qian, Yu; Jiang, Li; Luo, Jian; Yi, Zhengfang; Lu, Hua; Li, Dali; Liu, Mingyao

    2011-01-01

    Cell growth and proliferation are tightly controlled via the regulation of the p53–MDM2 feedback loop in response to various cellular stresses. In this study, we identified a nucleolar protein called PAK1IP1 as another regulator of this loop. PAK1IP1 was induced when cells were treated with chemicals that disturb ribosome biogenesis. Overexpression of PAK1IP1 inhibited cell proliferation by inducing p53-dependent G1 cell-cycle arrest. PAK1IP1 bound to MDM2 and inhibited its ability to ubiquitinate and to degrade p53, consequently leading to the accumulation of p53 levels. Interestingly, knockdown of PAK1IP1 in cells also inhibited cell proliferation and induced p53-dependent G1 arrest. Deficiency of PAK1IP1 increased free ribosomal protein L5 and L11 which were required for PAK1IP1 depletion-induced p53 activation. Taken together, our results reveal that PAK1IP1 is a new nucleolar protein that is crucial for rRNA processing and plays a regulatory role in cell proliferation via the p53–MDM2 loop. PMID:21097889

  16. The Crystal Structure of the Ubiquitin-like Domain of Ribosome Assembly Factor Ytm1 and Characterization of Its Interaction with the AAA-ATPase Midasin.

    PubMed

    Romes, Erin M; Sobhany, Mack; Stanley, Robin E

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of eukaryotic ribosomes is a complex, energetically demanding process requiring the aid of numerous non-ribosomal factors, such as the PeBoW complex. The mammalian PeBoW complex, composed of Pes1, Bop1, and WDR12, is essential for the processing of the 32S preribosomal RNA. Previous work in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has shown that release of the homologous proteins in this complex (Nop7, Erb1, and Ytm1, respectively) from preribosomal particles requires Rea1 (midasin or MDN1 in humans), a large dynein-like protein. Midasin contains a C-terminal metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) domain that interacts with the N-terminal ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain of Ytm1/WDR12 as well as the UBL domain of Rsa4/Nle1 in a later step in the ribosome maturation pathway. Here we present the crystal structure of the UBL domain of the WDR12 homologue from S. cerevisiae at 1.7 Å resolution and demonstrate that human midasin binds to WDR12 as well as Nle1 through their respective UBL domains. Midasin contains a well conserved extension region upstream of the MIDAS domain required for binding WDR12 and Nle1, and the interaction is dependent upon metal ion coordination because removal of the metal or mutation of residues that coordinate the metal ion diminishes the interaction. Mammalian WDR12 displays prominent nucleolar localization that is dependent upon active ribosomal RNA transcription. Based upon these results, we propose that release of the PeBoW complex and subsequent release of Nle1 by midasin is a well conserved step in the ribosome maturation pathway in both yeast and mammalian cells. PMID:26601951

  17. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase1 coordinates with TOR-Raptor2 to regulate thylakoid membrane biosynthesis in rice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Linxiao; Yu, Yonghua; Hu, Weiqin; Min, Qiming; Kang, Huiling; Li, Yilu; Hong, Yue; Wang, Xuemin; Hong, Yueyun

    2016-07-01

    Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) functions as a key component in the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway involved in multiple processes in eukaryotes. The role and regulation of TOR-S6K in lipid metabolism remained unknown in plants. Here we provide genetic and pharmacological evidence that TOR-Raptor2-S6K1 is important for thylakoid galactolipid biosynthesis and thylakoid grana modeling in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Genetic suppression of S6K1 caused pale yellow-green leaves, defective thylakoid grana architecture. S6K1 directly interacts with Raptor2, a core component in TOR signaling, and S6K1 activity is regulated by Raptor2 and TOR. Plants with suppressed Raptor2 expression or reduced TOR activity by inhibitors mimicked the S6K1-deficient phenotype. A significant reduction in galactolipid content was found in the s6k1, raptor2 mutant or TOR-inhibited plants, which was accompanied by decreased transcript levels of the set of genes such as lipid phosphate phosphatase α5 (LPPα5), MGDG synthase 1 (MGD1), and DGDG synthase 1 (DGD1) involved in galactolipid synthesis, compared to the control plants. Moreover, loss of LPPα5 exhibited a similar phenotype with pale yellow-green leaves. These results suggest that TOR-Raptor2-S6K1 is important for modulating thylakoid membrane lipid biosynthesis, homeostasis, thus enhancing thylakoid grana architecture and normal photosynthesis ability in rice. PMID:27102613

  18. COMPLEX FRAMESHIFT MUTATIONS MEDIATED BY PLASMID PKM101: MUTATIONAL MECHANISMS DEDUCED FROM 4-AMINOBIPHENYL-INDUCED MUTATION SPECTRA IN SALMONELLA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used colony probe hybridization and PCR/DNA sequencing to determine the mutations -aminobiphenyl (4-AB) +S9-induced revertants of the -1 frameshift allele in 2,300 4-aminobiphenyl of the base-substitution allele hisD3052 in strains TA1978, TA1538, and TA98 and were at strains ...

  19. Ribosome engineering to promote new crystal forms

    SciTech Connect

    Selmer, Maria; Gao, Yong-Gui; Weixlbaumer, Albert; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2012-05-01

    Truncation of ribosomal protein L9 in T. thermophilus allows the generation of new crystal forms and the crystallization of ribosome–GTPase complexes. Crystallographic studies of the ribosome have provided molecular details of protein synthesis. However, the crystallization of functional complexes of ribosomes with GTPase translation factors proved to be elusive for a decade after the first ribosome structures were determined. Analysis of the packing in different 70S ribosome crystal forms revealed that regardless of the species or space group, a contact between ribosomal protein L9 from the large subunit and 16S rRNA in the shoulder of a neighbouring small subunit in the crystal lattice competes with the binding of GTPase elongation factors to this region of 16S rRNA. To prevent the formation of this preferred crystal contact, a mutant strain of Thermus thermophilus, HB8-MRCMSAW1, in which the ribosomal protein L9 gene has been truncated was constructed by homologous recombination. Mutant 70S ribosomes were used to crystallize and solve the structure of the ribosome with EF-G, GDP and fusidic acid in a previously unobserved crystal form. Subsequent work has shown the usefulness of this strain for crystallization of the ribosome with other GTPase factors.

  20. The human 18S rRNA base methyltransferases DIMT1L and WBSCR22-TRMT112 but not rRNA modification are required for ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zorbas, Christiane; Nicolas, Emilien; Wacheul, Ludivine; Huvelle, Emmeline; Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie; Lafontaine, Denis L. J.

    2015-01-01

    At the heart of the ribosome lie rRNAs, whose catalytic function in translation is subtly modulated by posttranscriptional modifications. In the small ribosomal subunit of budding yeast, on the 18S rRNA, two adjacent adenosines (A1781/A1782) are N6-dimethylated by Dim1 near the decoding site, and one guanosine (G1575) is N7-methylated by Bud23-Trm112 at a ridge between the P- and E-site tRNAs. Here we establish human DIMT1L and WBSCR22-TRMT112 as the functional homologues of yeast Dim1 and Bud23-Trm112. We report that these enzymes are required for distinct pre-rRNA processing reactions leading to synthesis of 18S rRNA, and we demonstrate that in human cells, as in budding yeast, ribosome biogenesis requires the presence of the modification enzyme rather than its RNA-modifying catalytic activity. We conclude that a quality control mechanism has been conserved from yeast to human by which binding of a methyltransferase to nascent pre-rRNAs is a prerequisite to processing, so that all cleaved RNAs are committed to faithful modification. We further report that 18S rRNA dimethylation is nuclear in human cells, in contrast to yeast, where it is cytoplasmic. Yeast and human ribosome biogenesis thus have both conserved and distinctive features. PMID:25851604

  1. The ribosome filter redux.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Vincent P; Edelman, Gerald M

    2007-09-15

    The ribosome filter hypothesis postulates that ribosomes are not simply translation machines but also function as regulatory elements that differentially affect or filter the translation of particular mRNAs. On the basis of new information, we take the opportunity here to review the ribosome filter hypothesis, suggest specific mechanisms of action, and discuss recent examples from the literature that support it. PMID:17890902

  2. A Single Missense Mutation in a Coiled-Coil Domain of Escherichia coli Ribosomal Protein S2 Confers a Thermosensitive Phenotype That Can Be Suppressed by Ribosomal Protein S1

    PubMed Central

    Aseev, Leonid V.; Chugunov, Anton O.; Efremov, Roman G.

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomal protein S2 is an essential component of translation machinery, and its viable mutated variants conferring distinct phenotypes serve as a valuable tool in studying the role of S2 in translation regulation. One of a few available rpsB mutants, rpsB1, shows thermosensitivity and ensures enhanced expression of leaderless mRNAs. In this study, we identified the nature of the rpsB1 mutation. Sequencing of the rpsB1 allele revealed a G-to-A transition in the part of the rpsB gene which encodes a coiled-coil domain of S2. The resulting E132K substitution resides in a highly conserved site, TKKE, a so-called N-terminal capping box, at the beginning of the second alpha helix. The protruding coiled-coil domain of S2 is known to provide binding with 16S rRNA in the head of the 30S subunit and, in addition, to interact with a key mRNA binding protein, S1. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed a detrimental impact of the E132K mutation on the coiled-coil structure and thereby on the interactions between S2 and 16S rRNA, providing a clue for the thermosensitivity of the rpsB1 mutant. Using a strain producing a leaderless lacZ transcript from the chromosomal lac promoter, we demonstrated that not only the rpsB1 mutation generating S2/S1-deficient ribosomes but also the rpsA::IS10 mutation leading to partial deficiency in S1 alone increased translation efficiency of the leaderless mRNA by about 10-fold. Moderate overexpression of S1 relieved all these effects and, moreover, suppressed the thermosensitive phenotype of rpsB1, indicating the role of S1 as an extragenic suppressor of the E132K mutation. PMID:23104805

  3. Rrp12 and the Exportin Crm1 Participate in Late Assembly Events in the Nucleolus during 40S Ribosomal Subunit Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Moriggi, Giulia; Nieto, Blanca; Dosil, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    During the biogenesis of small ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes, the pre-40S particles formed in the nucleolus are rapidly transported to the cytoplasm. The mechanisms underlying the nuclear export of these particles and its coordination with other biogenesis steps are mostly unknown. Here we show that yeast Rrp12 is required for the exit of pre-40S particles to the cytoplasm and for proper maturation dynamics of upstream 90S pre-ribosomes. Due to this, in vivo elimination of Rrp12 leads to an accumulation of nucleoplasmic 90S to pre-40S transitional particles, abnormal 35S pre-rRNA processing, delayed elimination of processing byproducts, and no export of intermediate pre-40S complexes. The exportin Crm1 is also required for the same pre-ribosome maturation events that involve Rrp12. Thus, in addition to their implication in nuclear export, Rrp12 and Crm1 participate in earlier biosynthetic steps that take place in the nucleolus. Our results indicate that, in the 40S subunit synthesis pathway, the completion of early pre-40S particle assembly, the initiation of byproduct degradation and the priming for nuclear export occur in an integrated manner in late 90S pre-ribosomes. PMID:25474739

  4. Mutations in Ribosomal Proteins, RPL4 and RACK1, Suppress the Phenotype of a Thermospermine-Deficient Mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Kakehi, Jun-Ichi; Kawano, Eri; Yoshimoto, Kaori; Cai, Qingqing; Imai, Akihiro; Takahashi, Taku

    2015-01-01

    Thermospermine acts in negative regulation of xylem differentiation and its deficient mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, acaulis5 (acl5), shows excessive xylem formation and severe dwarfism. Studies of two dominant suppressors of acl5, sac51-d and sac52-d, have revealed that SAC51 and SAC52 encode a transcription factor and a ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10), respectively, and these mutations enhance translation of the SAC51 mRNA, which contains conserved upstream open reading frames in the 5’ leader. Here we report identification of SAC53 and SAC56 responsible for additional suppressors of acl5. sac53-d is a semi-dominant allele of the gene encoding a receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) homolog, a component of the 40S ribosomal subunit. sac56-d represents a semi-dominant allele of the gene for RPL4. We show that the GUS reporter activity driven by the CaMV 35S promoter plus the SAC51 5’ leader is reduced in acl5 and restored by sac52-d, sac53-d, and sac56-d as well as thermospermine. Furthermore, the SAC51 mRNA, which may be a target of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, was found to be stabilized in these ribosomal mutants and by thermospermine. These ribosomal proteins are suggested to act in the control of uORF-mediated translation repression of SAC51, which is derepressed by thermospermine. PMID:25625317

  5. Structome Analysis of Virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Which Survives with Only 700 Ribosomes per 0.1 fl of Cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Aono, Akio; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported the exquisite preservation of the ultrastructures of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells processed through cryofixation and rapid freeze substitution. Here, we report the “structome” analysis (i.e., the quantitative three-dimensional structural analysis of a whole cell at the electron microscopic level) of virulent M. tuberculosis using serial ultrathin sections prepared after cryofixation and rapid freeze substitution and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Five M. tuberculosis cells, which were contained in the serial ultrathin cross sections encompassing from one end to the other, were cut into 24, 36, 69, 55, and 63 serial ultrathin sections, respectively. On average, the cells were 2.71 ± 1.05 μm in length, and the average diameter of the cell was 0.345 ± 0.029 μm. The outer membrane and plasma membrane surface areas were 3.04 ± 1.33 μm2 and 2.67 ± 1.19 μm2, respectively. The cell, outer membrane, periplasm, plasma membrane, and cytoplasm volumes were 0.293 ± 0.113 fl (= μm3), 0.006 ± 0.003 fl, 0.060 ± 0.021 fl, 0.019 ± 0.008 fl, and 0.210 ± 0.091 fl, respectively. The average total ribosome number was 1,672 ± 568, and the ribosome density was 716.5 ± 171.4/0.1 fl. This is the first report of a structome analysis of M. tuberculosis cells prepared as serial ultrathin sections following cryofixation and rapid freeze substitution and examined by transmission electron microscopy. These data are based on the direct measurement and enumeration of exquisitely preserved single-cell structures in transmission electron microscopy images rather than calculations or assumptions from indirect biochemical or molecular biological data. In addition, these data may explain the slow growth of M. tuberculosis and enhance understanding of the structural properties related to the expression of antigenicity, acid-fastness, and the mechanism of drug resistance, particularly in regard to the ratio of target to drug

  6. The Src-family tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP1 interferes with the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Shah, O Jameel; Kimball, Scot R; Jefferson, Leonard S

    2002-01-01

    Considerable biochemical and pharmacological evidence suggests that the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases (S6Ks) by activated receptor tyrosine kinases involves multiple co-ordinated input signals. However, the identities of many of these inputs remain poorly described, and their precise involvement in S6K activation has been the subject of great investigative effort. In the present study, we have shown that 4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP1), a selective inhibitor of the Src family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases, interferes with the activation of 70 and 85 kDa S6K gene products (p70S6K1 and p85S6K1) by insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, sodium orthovanadate and activated alleles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and H-Ras. PP1 also impedes the activation of AKT/protein kinase B and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 by these various stimuli. Insulin-like growth factor 1 was observed to induce a sustained increase in c-Src autophosphorylation as revealed using anti-phospho-Y416 antisera, but this effect was absent from the cells treated with PP1. To conclude, an activated allele of p70S6K1 is compared with the wild-type allele, resistant to inhibition by PP1 when co-expressed with phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), suggesting that PP1 affects p70S6K1 via a PDK1-independent pathway. Thus activation of Src may supply a necessary signal for the activation of p70S6K1 and possibly other S6Ks. PMID:12014987

  7. Structure of the mammalian antimicrobial peptide Bac7(1-16) bound within the exit tunnel of a bacterial ribosome.

    PubMed

    Seefeldt, A Carolin; Graf, Michael; Pérébaskine, Natacha; Nguyen, Fabian; Arenz, Stefan; Mardirossian, Mario; Scocchi, Marco; Wilson, Daniel N; Innis, C Axel

    2016-03-18

    Proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMPs) produced as part of the innate immune response of animals, insects and plants represent a vast, untapped resource for the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. PrAMPs such as oncocin or bactenecin-7 (Bac7) interact with the bacterial ribosome to inhibit translation, but their supposed specificity as inhibitors of bacterial rather than mammalian protein synthesis remains unclear, despite being key to developing drugs with low toxicity. Here, we present crystal structures of the Thermus thermophilus 70S ribosome in complex with the first 16 residues of mammalian Bac7, as well as the insect-derived PrAMPs metalnikowin I and pyrrhocoricin. The structures reveal that the mammalian Bac7 interacts with a similar region of the ribosome as insect-derived PrAMPs. Consistently, Bac7 and the oncocin derivative Onc112 compete effectively with antibiotics, such as erythromycin, which target the ribosomal exit tunnel. Moreover, we demonstrate that Bac7 allows initiation complex formation but prevents entry into the elongation phase of translation, and show that it inhibits translation on both mammalian and bacterial ribosomes, explaining why this peptide needs to be stored as an inactive pro-peptide. These findings highlight the need to consider the specificity of PrAMP derivatives for the bacterial ribosome in future drug development efforts. PMID:26792896

  8. Decreased activity of Blastocladiella emersonii zoospore ribosomes: correlation with developmental changes in ribosome-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, A J; Wilson, J B

    1989-10-01

    Ribosomal proteins isolated from dormant zoospores were compared to the ribosomal proteins found in the active growth phase by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Zoospore ribosomes were found to contain a set of five proteins, designated Z1 to Z5, which were not present in growth phase ribosomes. The Z1-Z5 proteins were not removed by high-salt washes using either 1 M KCl or 1 M NH4 Cl. The Z1 protein is found associated with zoospore 60 S subunits while Z2-Z5 are bound to 40 S subunits. Zoospore monoribosomes and polyribosomes contain comparable levels of each of the five proteins. Approximately 60 min. after sporulation is induced, the Z1-Z5 proteins begin to accumulate on the ribosomes with the highest levels of these proteins found associated with ribosomes at the zoospore stage. During germination, the proteins gradually disappear and are not detectable on the ribosomes after 4 hr of germination. The presence of the Z1-Z5 proteins correlates with a decrease in in vitro protein synthetic activity of the fungal ribosomes. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the proteins regulate translation by completely blocking protein synthesis on a subset of ribosomes while the remainder of the ribosomes function at normal rates. PMID:2776972

  9. Synthesis of ribosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, J R

    1989-01-01

    The assembly of a eucaryotic ribosome requires the synthesis of four ribosomal ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules and more than 75 ribosomal proteins. It utilizes all three RNA polymerases; it requires the cooperation of the nucleus and the cytoplasm, the processing of RNA, and the specific interaction of RNA and protein molecules. It is carried out efficiently and is exquisitely sensitive to the needs of the cell. Our current understanding of this process in the genetically tractable yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reviewed. The ribosomal RNA genes are arranged in a tandem array of 100 to 200 copies. This tandem array has led to unique ways of carrying out a number of functions. Replication is asymmetric and does not initiate from every autonomously replicating sequence. Recombination is suppressed. Transcription of the major ribosomal RNA appears to involve coupling between adjacent transcription units, which are separated by the 5S RNA transcription unit. Genes for many ribosomal proteins have been cloned and sequenced. Few are linked; most are duplicated; most have an intron. There is extensive homology between yeast ribosomal proteins and those of other species. Most, but not all, of the ribosomal protein genes have one or two sites that are essential for their transcription and that bind a common transcription factor. This factor binds also to many other places in the genome, including the telomeres. There is coordinated transcription of the ribosomal protein genes under a variety of conditions. However, the cell seems to possess no mechanism for regulating the transcription of individual ribosomal protein genes in response either to a deficiency or an excess of a particular ribosomal protein. A deficiency causes slow growth. Any excess ribosomal protein is degraded very rapidly, with a half-life of 1 to 5 min. Unlike most types of cells, yeast cells appear not to regulate the translation of ribosomal proteins. However, in the case of ribosomal protein L32

  10. Optimized Replicating Renilla Luciferase Reporter HIV-1 Utilizing Novel Internal Ribosome Entry Site Elements for Native Nef Expression and Function.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Michael O; Jones, Jennifer J; Miglietta, Riccardo; Ding, Haitao; Bakshi, Rakesh K; Edmonds, Tara G; Kappes, John C; Ochsenbauer, Christina

    2015-12-01

    We previously developed replication-competent reporter HIV-1 (referred to herein as LucR.T2A reporter viruses), utilizing a "ribosome skipping" T2A peptide strategy to link Renilla luciferase (LucR) with Nef expression. The demonstrated utility for HIV-1 vaccine and transmission study applications included measurement of neutralizing antibody (NAb) activity in vaccine sera, improved cell-mediated virus inhibition assays, such as T cell-mediated virus inhibition and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays, and humanized mouse models. Herein, we extend our prior work and introduce reporter virus technology for applications that require fully functional Nef. We demonstrate that in CD4(+) T cells productively infected with LucR.T2A reporter viruses, T2A peptide-driven Nef expression and function, such as down-regulation of surface CD4 and MHC-I, were impaired. We overcame this limitation of LucR.T2A reporter viruses and achieved physiological Nef expression and function by engineering novel LucR reporter HIV-1 comprising 11 different internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements chosen for size and relative activity. A range of Nef expression was observed in 293T cells transfected with the different LucR.IRES reporter virus constructs. Iteratively, we identified IRES reporter genomes that expressed Nef closest to physiological levels and produced virus with infectivity, titers, and replication kinetics similar to nonreporter viruses. Our results demonstrated that LucR reporter activity was stable over multiple replication cycles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Furthermore, we analyzed Nef functionality, i.e., down-modulation of MHC-I and CD4, following infection of T cell lines and PBMCs. Unlike LucR.T2A reporter virus, one of the redesigned LucR.IRES reporter viruses [containing the modified encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) 6ATR IRES element, "6ATRi"] demonstrated Nef expression and function similar to parental "nonreporter" virus

  11. Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18-2 is highly expressed in endometrial cancers along with free E2F1.

    PubMed

    Mints, Miriam; Mushtaq, Muhammad; Iurchenko, Natalia; Kovalevska, Larysa; Stip, Maria C; Budnikova, Daria; Andersson, Sonia; Polischuk, Ludmila; Buchynska, Lubov; Kashuba, Elena

    2016-04-19

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most frequent causes of cancer death among women in developed countries. Histopathological diagnosis and imaging techniques for EC are limited, thus new prognostic markers are needed to offer patients the best treatment and follow-up.In the present paper we showed that the level of mitochondrial ribosomal protein MRPS18-2 (S18-2) increased in EC compared with the normal endometrium and hyperplasia, based on a study of 42 patient biopsies. Importantly, high expression of free E2F1 in EC correlates well with high S18-2 expression. The EC cell line HEC-1-A, which overexpresses S18-2 constitutively, showed an increased proliferation capacity in vitro and in vivo (in SCID mice). Moreover, pan-keratin, beta-catenin and E-cadherin signals are diminished in these cells, compared to the parental HEC-1-A line, in contrast to vimentin signal that is increased. This may be associated with epithelial-mesenchymal cell transition (EMT).We conclude that high expression of S18-2 and free E2F1, and low pan-keratin, beta-catenin, and E-cadherin signals might be a good set of prognostic markers for EC. PMID:26959119

  12. Symportin 1 chaperones 5S RNP assembly during ribosome biogenesis by occupying an essential rRNA-binding site

    PubMed Central

    Calviño, Fabiola R.; Kharde, Satyavati; Ori, Alessandro; Hendricks, Astrid; Wild, Klemens; Kressler, Dieter; Bange, Gert; Hurt, Ed; Beck, Martin; Sinning, Irmgard

    2015-01-01

    During 60S biogenesis, mature 5S RNP consisting of 5S RNA, RpL5 and RpL11, assembles into a pre-60S particle, where docking relies on RpL11 interacting with helix 84 (H84) of the 25S RNA. How 5S RNP is assembled for recruitment into the pre-60S is not known. Here we report the crystal structure of a ternary symportin Syo1–RpL5-N–RpL11 complex and provide biochemical and structural insights into 5S RNP assembly. Syo1 guards the 25S RNA-binding surface on RpL11 and competes with H84 for binding. Pull-down experiments show that H84 releases RpL11 from the ternary complex, but not in the presence of 5S RNA. Crosslinking mass spectrometry visualizes structural rearrangements on incorporation of 5S RNA into the Syo1–RpL5–RpL11 complex supporting the formation of a pre-5S RNP. Our data underline the dual role of Syo1 in ribosomal protein transport and as an assembly platform for 5S RNP. PMID:25849277

  13. Symportin 1 chaperones 5S RNP assembly during ribosome biogenesis by occupying an essential rRNA-binding site.

    PubMed

    Calviño, Fabiola R; Kharde, Satyavati; Ori, Alessandro; Hendricks, Astrid; Wild, Klemens; Kressler, Dieter; Bange, Gert; Hurt, Ed; Beck, Martin; Sinning, Irmgard

    2015-01-01

    During 60S biogenesis, mature 5S RNP consisting of 5S RNA, RpL5 and RpL11, assembles into a pre-60S particle, where docking relies on RpL11 interacting with helix 84 (H84) of the 25S RNA. How 5S RNP is assembled for recruitment into the pre-60S is not known. Here we report the crystal structure of a ternary symportin Syo1-RpL5-N-RpL11 complex and provide biochemical and structural insights into 5S RNP assembly. Syo1 guards the 25S RNA-binding surface on RpL11 and competes with H84 for binding. Pull-down experiments show that H84 releases RpL11 from the ternary complex, but not in the presence of 5S RNA. Crosslinking mass spectrometry visualizes structural rearrangements on incorporation of 5S RNA into the Syo1-RpL5-RpL11 complex supporting the formation of a pre-5S RNP. Our data underline the dual role of Syo1 in ribosomal protein transport and as an assembly platform for 5S RNP. PMID:25849277

  14. Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18-2 is highly expressed in endometrial cancers along with free E2F1

    PubMed Central

    Iurchenko, Natalia; Kovalevska, Larysa; Stip, Maria C; Budnikova, Daria; Andersson, Sonia; Polischuk, Ludmila; Buchynska, Lubov; Kashuba, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most frequent causes of cancer death among women in developed countries. Histopathological diagnosis and imaging techniques for EC are limited, thus new prognostic markers are needed to offer patients the best treatment and follow-up. In the present paper we showed that the level of mitochondrial ribosomal protein MRPS18-2 (S18-2) increased in EC compared with the normal endometrium and hyperplasia, based on a study of 42 patient biopsies. Importantly, high expression of free E2F1 in EC correlates well with high S18-2 expression. The EC cell line HEC-1-A, which overexpresses S18-2 constitutively, showed an increased proliferation capacity in vitro and in vivo (in SCID mice). Moreover, pan-keratin, beta-catenin and E-cadherin signals are diminished in these cells, compared to the parental HEC-1-A line, in contrast to vimentin signal that is increased. This may be associated with epithelial-mesenchymal cell transition (EMT). We conclude that high expression of S18-2 and free E2F1, and low pan-keratin, beta-catenin, and E-cadherin signals might be a good set of prognostic markers for EC. PMID:26959119

  15. WHITE PANICLE1, a Val-tRNA Synthetase Regulating Chloroplast Ribosome Biogenesis in Rice, Is Essential for Early Chloroplast Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunming; Zheng, Ming; Lyu, Jia; Xu, Yang; Li, Xiaohui; Niu, Mei; Long, Wuhua; Wang, Di; Wang, Yihua; Wan, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts and mitochondria contain their own genomes and transcriptional and translational systems. Establishing these genetic systems is essential for plant growth and development. Here we characterized a mutant form of a Val-tRNA synthetase (OsValRS2) from Oryza sativa that is targeted to both chloroplasts and mitochondria. A single base change in OsValRS2 caused virescent to albino phenotypes in seedlings and white panicles at heading. We therefore named this mutant white panicle 1 (wp1). Chlorophyll autofluorescence observations and transmission electron microscopy analyses indicated that wp1 mutants are defective in early chloroplast development. RNA-seq analysis revealed that expression of nuclear-encoded photosynthetic genes is significantly repressed, while expression of many chloroplast-encoded genes also changed significantly in wp1 mutants. Western-blot analyses of chloroplast-encoded proteins showed that chloroplast protein levels were reduced in wp1 mutants, although mRNA levels of some genes were higher in wp1 than in wild type. We found that wp1 was impaired in chloroplast ribosome biogenesis. Taken together, our results show that OsValRS2 plays an essential role in chloroplast development and regulating chloroplast ribosome biogenesis. PMID:26839129

  16. Deconstructing ribosome construction

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Keith; Culver, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    The ribosome is an essential ribonucleoprotein enzyme, and its biogenesis is a fundamental process in all living cells. Recent X-ray crystal structures of the bacterial ribosome and new technologies have allowed a greater interrogation of in vitro ribosome assembly; however, substantially less is known about ribosome biogenesis in vivo. Ongoing investigations are focused on elucidating the cellular processes that facilitate biogenesis of the ribosomal subunits, and many extraribosomal factors, including modification enzymes, remodeling enzymes and GTPases, are being uncovered. Moreover, specific roles for ribosome biogenesis factors in subunit maturation are now being elaborated. Ultimately, such studies will reveal a more complete understanding of processes at work in in vivo ribosome biogenesis. PMID:19376708

  17. Chronic rapamycin treatment or lack of S6K1 does not reduce ribosome activity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Garelick, Michael G; MacKay, Vivian L; Yanagida, Aya; Academia, Emmeline C; Schreiber, Katherine H; Ladiges, Warren C; Kennedy, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    Reducing activity of the mTORC1/S6K1 pathway has been shown to extend lifespan in both vertebrate and invertebrate models. For instance, both pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1 with the drug rapamycin or S6K1 knockout extends lifespan in mice. Since studies with invertebrate models suggest that reducing translational activity can increase lifespan, we reasoned that the benefits of decreased mTORC1 or S6K1 activity might be due, at least in part, to a reduction of general translational activity. Here, we report that mice given a single dose of rapamycin have reduced translational activity, while mice receiving multiple injections of rapamycin over 4 weeks show no difference in translational activity compared with vehicle-injected controls. Furthermore, mice lacking S6K1 have no difference in global translational activity compared with wild-type littermates as measured by the percentage of ribosomes that are active in multiple tissues. Translational activity is reduced in S6K1-knockout mice following single injection of rapamycin, demonstrating that rapamycin’s effects on translation can occur independently of S6K1. Taken together, these data suggest that benefits of chronic rapamycin treatment or lack of S6K1 are dissociable from potential benefits of reduced translational activity, instead pointing to a model whereby changes in translation of specific subsets of mRNAs and/or translation-independent effects of reduced mTOR signaling underlie the longevity benefits. PMID:23839034

  18. Atomic resolution structure of cucurmosin, a novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Xiaomin; Meehan, Edward J.; Xie, Jieming; Huang, Mingdong; Chen, Minghuang; Chen, Liqing

    2008-10-27

    A novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) designated cucurmosin was isolated from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin). Besides rRNA N-glycosidase activity, cucurmosin exhibits strong cytotoxicities to three cancer cell lines of both human and murine origins, but low toxicity to normal cells. Plant genomic DNA extracted from the tender leaves was amplified by PCR between primers based on the N-terminal sequence and X-ray sequence of the C-terminal. The complete mature protein sequence was obtained from N-terminal protein sequencing and partial DNA sequencing, confirmed by high resolution crystal structure analysis. The crystal structure of cucurmosin has been determined at 1.04 {angstrom}, a resolution that has never been achieved before for any RIP. The structure contains two domains: a large N-terminal domain composed of seven {alpha}-helices and eight {beta}-strands, and a smaller C-terminal domain consisting of three {alpha}-helices and two {beta}-strands. The high resolution structure established a glycosylation pattern of GlcNAc{sub 2}Man3Xyl. Asn225 was identified as a glycosylation site. Residues Tyr70, Tyr109, Glu158 and Arg161 define the active site of cucurmosin as an RNA N-glycosidase. The structural basis of cytotoxicity difference between cucurmosin and trichosanthin is discussed.

  19. HIV-1 RNA dimerization initiation site is structurally similar to the ribosomal A site and binds aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Ennifar, Eric; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Marquet, Roland; Ehresmann, Bernard; Ehresmann, Chantal; Dumas, Philippe; Walter, Philippe

    2003-01-24

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genomic RNA is packaged into virions as a dimer. The first step of dimerization is the formation of a kissing-loop complex at the so-called dimerization initiation site (DIS). We found an unexpected and fortuitous resemblance between the HIV-1 DIS kissing-loop complex and the eubacterial 16 S ribosomal aminoacyl-tRNA site (A site), which is the target of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Similarities exist not only at the primary and secondary structure level but also at the tertiary structure level, as revealed by comparison of the respective DIS and A site crystal structures. Gel shift, inhibition of lead-induced cleavage, and footprinting experiments showed that paromomycin and neomycin specifically bind to the kissing-loop complex formed by the DIS, with an affinity and a geometry similar to that observed for the A site. Modeling of the aminoglycoside-DIS complex allowed us to identify antibiotic modifications likely to increase the affinity and/or the specificity for the DIS. This could be a starting point for designing antiviral drugs against HIV-1 RNA dimerization. PMID:12435744

  20. Tn9 and IS1 inserts in a ribosomal ribonucleic acid operon of Escherichia coli are incompletely polar.

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, J M; Morgan, E A

    1981-01-01

    Transcription is known to be coupled to translation in many or all bacterial operons which code for proteins. In these operons, nonsense codons which prevent normal translation often result in premature termination of transcription (polarity). However, efficient transcription of ribosomal ribonucleic acid operons (rrn operons) occurs, although rrn transcripts are not translated. It therefore seemed possible that insertion sequences and transposable elements which are polar in protein-coding operons might not be polar in rrn operons. Previously, it has been shown (E. A. Morgan, Cell 21:257-265, 1980) that Tn10 is incompletely polar in the rrnX operon. Here we show that the transposon Tn9 and the insertion sequence IS1 also incompletely polar in rrnX. In normal cells expression of sequences distal to the insertions can be detected by genetic methods. In ultraviolet-irradiated cells expression of distal sequences is about 80% of that observed in uninterrupted rrnX operons. These observations provide evidence that ribonucleic acid polymerase molecules beginning at rrnX promoters can read through Tn9 and IS1 and that, at least in ultraviolet-irradiated cells, read-through is very efficient. Images PMID:6171559

  1. Correlation between Density of CD8+ T-cell Infiltrate in Microsatellite Unstable Colorectal Cancers and Frameshift Mutations: A Rationale for Personalized Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Maby, Pauline; Tougeron, David; Hamieh, Mohamad; Mlecnik, Bernhard; Kora, Hafid; Bindea, Gabriela; Angell, Helen K; Fredriksen, Tessa; Elie, Nicolas; Fauquembergue, Emilie; Drouet, Aurélie; Leprince, Jérôme; Benichou, Jacques; Mauillon, Jacques; Le Pessot, Florence; Sesboüé, Richard; Tuech, Jean-Jacques; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Michel, Pierre; Frébourg, Thierry; Galon, Jérôme; Latouche, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI) represent 15% of all colorectal cancers, including Lynch syndrome as the most frequent hereditary form of this disease. Notably, MSI colorectal cancers have a higher density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) than other colorectal cancers. This feature is thought to reflect the accumulation of frameshift mutations in sequences that are repeated within gene coding regions, thereby leading to the synthesis of neoantigens recognized by CD8(+) T cells. However, there has yet to be a clear link established between CD8(+) TIL density and frameshift mutations in colorectal cancer. In this study, we examined this link in 103 MSI colorectal cancers from two independent cohorts where frameshift mutations in 19 genes were analyzed and CD3(+), CD8(+), and FOXP3(+) TIL densities were quantitated. We found that CD8(+) TIL density correlated positively with the total number of frameshift mutations. TIL densities increased when frameshift mutations were present within the ASTE1, HNF1A, or TCF7L2 genes, increasing even further when at least one of these frameshift mutations was present in all tumor cells. Through in vitro assays using engineered antigen-presenting cells, we were able to stimulate peripheral cytotoxic T cells obtained from colorectal cancer patients with peptides derived from frameshift mutations found in their tumors. Taken together, our results highlight the importance of a CD8(+) T cell immune response against MSI colorectal cancer-specific neoantigens, establishing a preclinical rationale to target them as a personalized cellular immunotherapy strategy, an especially appealing goal for patients with Lynch syndrome. PMID:26060019

  2. Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/S6 Kinase 1 Signals Influence T Cell Activation Independently of Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Salmond, Robert J.; Brownlie, Rebecca J.; Meyuhas, Oded

    2015-01-01

    Ag-dependent activation of naive T cells induces dramatic changes in cellular metabolism that are essential for cell growth, division, and differentiation. In recent years, the serine/threonine kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has emerged as a key integrator of signaling pathways that regulate these metabolic processes. However, the role of specific downstream effectors of mTOR function in T cells is poorly understood. Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) is an essential component of the ribosome and is inducibly phosphorylated following mTOR activation in eukaryotic cells. In the current work, we addressed the role of phosphorylation of rpS6 as an effector of mTOR function in T cell development, growth, proliferation, and differentiation using knockin and TCR transgenic mice. Surprisingly, we demonstrate that rpS6 phosphorylation is not required for any of these processes either in vitro or in vivo. Indeed, rpS6 knockin mice are completely sensitive to the inhibitory effects of rapamycin and an S6 kinase 1 (S6K1)–specific inhibitor on T cell activation and proliferation. These results place the mTOR complex 1-S6K1 axis as a crucial determinant of T cell activation independently of its ability to regulate rpS6 phosphorylation. PMID:26453749

  3. Isolation and Characterization of an RIP (Ribosome-Inactivating Protein)-Like Protein from Tobacco with Dual Enzymatic Activity1[w

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neelam; Park, Sang-Wook; Vepachedu, Ramarao; Barbieri, Luigi; Ciani, Marialibera; Stirpe, Fiorenzo; Savary, Brett J.; Vivanco, Jorge M.

    2004-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are N-glycosidases that remove a specific adenine from the sarcin/ricin loop of the large rRNA, thus arresting protein synthesis at the translocation step. In the present study, a protein termed tobacco RIP (TRIP) was isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves and purified using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography in combination with yeast ribosome depurination assays. TRIP has a molecular mass of 26 kD as evidenced by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and showed strong N-glycosidase activity as manifested by the depurination of yeast rRNA. Purified TRIP showed immunoreactivity with antibodies of RIPs from Mirabilis expansa. TRIP released fewer amounts of adenine residues from ribosomal (Artemia sp. and rat ribosomes) and non-ribosomal substrates (herring sperm DNA, rRNA, and tRNA) compared with other RIPs. TRIP inhibited translation in wheat (Triticum aestivum) germ more efficiently than in rabbit reticulocytes, showing an IC50 at 30 ng in the former system. Antimicrobial assays using highly purified TRIP (50 μg mL-1) conducted against various fungi and bacterial pathogens showed the strongest inhibitory activity against Trichoderma reesei and Pseudomonas solancearum. A 15-amino acid internal polypeptide sequence of TRIP was identical with the internal sequences of the iron-superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) from wild tobacco (Nicotiana plumbaginifolia), Arabidopsis, and potato (Solanum tuberosum). Purified TRIP showed SOD activity, and Escherichia coli Fe-SOD was observed to have RIP activity too. Thus, TRIP may be considered a dual activity enzyme showing RIP-like activity and Fe-SOD characteristics. PMID:14671015

  4. Selective cytotoxic activity of immunotoxins composed of a monoclonal anti-Thy 1.1 antibody and the ribosome-inactivating proteins bryodin and momordin.

    PubMed Central

    Stirpe, F.; Wawrzynczak, E. J.; Brown, A. N.; Knyba, R. E.; Watson, G. J.; Barbieri, L.; Thorpe, P. E.

    1988-01-01

    The ribosome-inactivating proteins, bryodin, from Bryonia dioica, and momordin, from Momordica charantia, were coupled by a disulphide bond to a monoclonal anti-Thy 1.1 antibody (OX7). Both immunotoxins were specifically cytotoxic to the Thy 1.1-expressing mouse lymphoma cell line AKR-A in vitro. The OX7-bryodin immunotoxins were the more powerfully toxic and reduced protein synthesis in AKR-A cells by 50% at a concentration of 1-4 x 10(-11) M as compared with 1 x 10(-9) M for the OX7-momordin immunotoxins. Neither of the immunotoxins was toxic to mouse lymphoma EL4 cells, which lack the Thy 1.1 antigen, at concentrations up to 3 x 10(-8) M. Further, bryodin and momordin immunotoxins made from an antibody (R10) of irrelevant specificity were without effect on AKR-A cells. PMID:3265330

  5. Selective cytotoxic activity of immunotoxins composed of a monoclonal anti-Thy 1.1 antibody and the ribosome-inactivating proteins bryodin and momordin.

    PubMed

    Stirpe, F; Wawrzynczak, E J; Brown, A N; Knyba, R E; Watson, G J; Barbieri, L; Thorpe, P E

    1988-11-01

    The ribosome-inactivating proteins, bryodin, from Bryonia dioica, and momordin, from Momordica charantia, were coupled by a disulphide bond to a monoclonal anti-Thy 1.1 antibody (OX7). Both immunotoxins were specifically cytotoxic to the Thy 1.1-expressing mouse lymphoma cell line AKR-A in vitro. The OX7-bryodin immunotoxins were the more powerfully toxic and reduced protein synthesis in AKR-A cells by 50% at a concentration of 1-4 x 10(-11) M as compared with 1 x 10(-9) M for the OX7-momordin immunotoxins. Neither of the immunotoxins was toxic to mouse lymphoma EL4 cells, which lack the Thy 1.1 antigen, at concentrations up to 3 x 10(-8) M. Further, bryodin and momordin immunotoxins made from an antibody (R10) of irrelevant specificity were without effect on AKR-A cells. PMID:3265330

  6. LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-ribosomal RNA synthesis under uridine downregulated conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuju; Huang, Henry; Wilkinson, Scott C.; Zhong, Diansheng; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Fu, Haian; Marcus, Adam; He, Yulong; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the mechanism underlying 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) mediated apoptosis in LKB1-null non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Metabolic profile analysis revealed depletion of the intracellular pyrimidine pool after AICAR treatment, but uridine was the only nucleotide precursor capable of rescuing this apoptosis, suggesting the involvement of RNA metabolism. Because half of RNA transcription in cancer is for pre-ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, which is suppressed by over 90% after AICAR treatment, we evaluated the role of TIF-IA-mediated rRNA synthesis. While the depletion of TIF-IA by RNAi alone promoted apoptosis in LKB1-null cells, the overexpression of a wild-type or a S636A TIF-IA mutant, but not a S636D mutant, attenuated AICAR-induced apoptosis. In LKB1-null H157 cells, pre-rRNA synthesis was not suppressed by AICAR when wild-type LKB1 was present, and cellular fractionation analysis indicated that TIF-IA quickly accumulated in the nucleus in the presence of a wild-type LKB1 but not a kinase-dead mutant. Furthermore, ectopic expression of LKB1 was capable of attenuating AICAR-induced death in AMPK-null cells. Because LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-rRNA synthesis, this discovery suggested that targeted depletion of uridine related metabolites may be exploited in the clinic to eliminate LKB1-null cancer cells. PMID:26506235

  7. The site-specific ribosomal DNA insertion element R1Bm belongs to a class of non-long-terminal-repeat retrotransposons

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Y.; Eickbush, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    Two types of insertion elements, R1 and R2 (previously called type I and type II), are known to interrupt the 28S ribosomal genes of several insect species. In the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, each element occupies approximately 10% of the estimated 240 ribosomal DNA units, while at most only a few copies are located outside the ribosomal DNA units. The authors present here the complete nucleotide sequence of an R1 insertion from B. mori (R1Bm). This 5.1-kilobase element contains two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) which together occupy 88% of its length. ORF1 is 461 amino acids in length and exhibits characteristics of retroviral gag genes. ORF2 is 1,051 amino acids in length and contains homology to reverse transcriptase-like enzymes. The analysis of 3' and 5' ends of independent isolates from the ribosomal locus supports the suggestion that R1 is still functioning as a transposable element. The precise location of the element within the genome implies that its transposition must occur with remarkable insertion sequence specificity. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences from six retrotransposons, R1 and R2 of B. mori, I factor and F element of Drosophila melanogaster, L1 of Mus domesticus, and Ingi of Trypanosoma brucei, reveals a relatively high level of sequence homology in the reverse transcriptase region. Like R1, these elements lack long terminal repeats. The authors therefore named this class of related elements the non-long-terminal-repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons.

  8. The Ribosomal L1 Protuberance in Yeast Is Methylated on a Lysine Residue Catalyzed by a Seven-β-strand Methyltransferase*

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Kristofor J.; Al-Hadid, Qais; Zurita-Lopez, Cecilia I.; Young, Brian D.; Lipson, Rebecca S.; Clarke, Steven G.

    2011-01-01

    Modification of proteins of the translational apparatus is common in many organisms. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we provide evidence for the methylation of Rpl1ab, a well conserved protein forming the ribosomal L1 protuberance of the large subunit that functions in the release of tRNA from the exit site. We show that the intact mass of Rpl1ab is 14 Da larger than its calculated mass with the previously described loss of the initiator methionine residue and N-terminal acetylation. We determined that the increase in mass of yeast Rpl1ab is consistent with the addition of a methyl group to lysine 46 using top-down mass spectrometry. Lysine modification was confirmed by detecting 3H-N-ϵ-monomethyllysine in hydrolysates of Rpl1ab purified from yeast cells radiolabeled in vivo with S-adenosyl-l-[methyl-3H]methionine. Mass spectrometric analysis of intact Rpl1ab purified from 37 deletion strains of known and putative yeast methyltransferases revealed that only the deletion of the YLR137W gene, encoding a seven-β-strand methyltransferase, results in the loss of the +14-Da modification. We expressed the YLR137W gene as a His-tagged protein in Escherichia coli and showed that it catalyzes N-ϵ-monomethyllysine formation within Rpl1ab on ribosomes from the ΔYLR137W mutant strain lacking the methyltransferase activity but not from wild-type ribosomes. We also showed that the His-tagged protein could catalyze monomethyllysine formation on a 16-residue peptide corresponding to residues 38–53 of Rpl1ab. We propose that the YLR137W gene be given the standard name RKM5 (ribosomal lysine (K) methyltransferase 5). Orthologs of RKM5 are found only in fungal species, suggesting a role unique to their survival. PMID:21460220

  9. Human nucleolar protein Nop52 (RRP1/NNP-1) is involved in site 2 cleavage in internal transcribed spacer 1 of pre-rRNAs at early stages of ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Harunori; Ishikawa, Hideaki; Izumikawa, Keiichi; Miura, Yutaka; Hayano, Toshiya; Isobe, Toshiaki; Simpson, Richard J.; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    During the early steps of ribosome biogenesis in mammals, the two ribosomal subunits 40S and 60S are produced via splitting of the large 90S pre-ribosomal particle (90S) into pre-40S and pre-60S pre-ribosomal particles (pre-40S and pre-60S). We previously proposed that replacement of fibrillarin by Nop52 (RRP1/NNP-1) for the binding to p32 (C1QBP) is a key event that drives this splitting process. However, how the replacement by RRP1 is coupled with the endo- and/or exo-ribonucleolytic cleavage of pre-rRNA remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that RRP1 deficiency suppressed site 2 cleavage on ITS1 of 47S/45S, 41S and 36S pre-rRNAs in human cells. RRP1 was also present in 90S and was localized in the dense fibrillar component of the nucleolus dependently on active RNA polymerase I transcription. In addition, double knockdown of XRN2 and RRP1 revealed that RRP1 accelerated the site 2 cleavage of 47S, 45S and 41S pre-rRNAs. These data suggest that RRP1 is involved not only in competitive binding with fibrillarin to C1QBP on 90S but also in site 2 cleavage in ITS1 of pre-rRNAs at early stages of human ribosome biogenesis; thus, it is likely that RRP1 integrates the cleavage of site 2 with the physical split of 90S into pre-40S and pre-60S. PMID:25969445

  10. Human nucleolar protein Nop52 (RRP1/NNP-1) is involved in site 2 cleavage in internal transcribed spacer 1 of pre-rRNAs at early stages of ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Harunori; Ishikawa, Hideaki; Izumikawa, Keiichi; Miura, Yutaka; Hayano, Toshiya; Isobe, Toshiaki; Simpson, Richard J; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2015-06-23

    During the early steps of ribosome biogenesis in mammals, the two ribosomal subunits 40S and 60S are produced via splitting of the large 90S pre-ribosomal particle (90S) into pre-40S and pre-60S pre-ribosomal particles (pre-40S and pre-60S). We previously proposed that replacement of fibrillarin by Nop52 (RRP1/NNP-1) for the binding to p32 (C1QBP) is a key event that drives this splitting process. However, how the replacement by RRP1 is coupled with the endo- and/or exo-ribonucleolytic cleavage of pre-rRNA remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that RRP1 deficiency suppressed site 2 cleavage on ITS1 of 47S/45S, 41S and 36S pre-rRNAs in human cells. RRP1 was also present in 90S and was localized in the dense fibrillar component of the nucleolus dependently on active RNA polymerase I transcription. In addition, double knockdown of XRN2 and RRP1 revealed that RRP1 accelerated the site 2 cleavage of 47S, 45S and 41S pre-rRNAs. These data suggest that RRP1 is involved not only in competitive binding with fibrillarin to C1QBP on 90S but also in site 2 cleavage in ITS1 of pre-rRNAs at early stages of human ribosome biogenesis; thus, it is likely that RRP1 integrates the cleavage of site 2 with the physical split of 90S into pre-40S and pre-60S. PMID:25969445

  11. Profiling of Mycoplasma gallisepticum Ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Fisunov, G Y; Evsyutina, D V; Arzamasov, A A; Butenko, I O; Govorun, V M

    2015-01-01

    The development of high-throughput technologies is increasingly resulting in identification of numerous cases of low correlation between mRNA and the protein level in cells. These controversial observations were made on various bacteria, such as E. coli, Desulfovibrio vulgaris, and Lactococcus lactis. Thus, it is important to develop technologies, including high-throughput techniques, aimed at studying gene expression regulation at the level of translation. In the current study, we performed proteomic profiling of M. gallisepticum ribosomes and identified high abundant noncanonical proteins. We found that binding of mRNAs to ribosomes is mainly determined by two parameters: (1) abundance of mRNA itself and (2) complimentary interactions between the 3' end of 16S rRNA and the ribosome binding site in the 5'-untranslated region of mRNA. PMID:26798497

  12. Profiling of Mycoplasma gallisepticum Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Fisunov, G. Y.; Evsyutina, D. V.; Arzamasov, A. A.; Butenko, I. O.; Govorun, V. M.

    2015-01-01

    The development of high-throughput technologies is increasingly resulting in identification of numerous cases of low correlation between mRNA and the protein level in cells. These controversial observations were made on various bacteria, such as E. coli, Desulfovibrio vulgaris, and Lactococcus lactis. Thus, it is important to develop technologies, including high-throughput techniques, aimed at studying gene expression regulation at the level of translation. In the current study, we performed proteomic profiling of M. gallisepticum ribosomes and identified high abundant noncanonical proteins. We found that binding of mRNAs to ribosomes is mainly determined by two parameters: (1) abundance of mRNA itself and (2) complimentary interactions between the 3’ end of 16S rRNA and the ribosome binding site in the 5’-untranslated region of mRNA. PMID:26798497

  13. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 signaling in prefrontal cortex controls depressive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Jason M.; Maldonado-Avilés, Jaime G.; Lepack, Ashley E.; DiLeone, Ralph J.; Duman, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Current treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD) have a time lag and are ineffective for a large number of patients. Development of novel pharmacological therapies requires a comprehensive understanding of the molecular events that contribute to MDD pathophysiology. Recent evidence points toward aberrant activity of synaptic proteins as a critical contributing factor. In the present studies, we used viral-mediated gene transfer to target a key mediator of activity-dependent synaptic protein synthesis downstream of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) known as p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). Targeted delivery of two mutants of S6K1, constitutively active or dominant-negative, to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats allowed control of the mTORC1/S6K1 translational pathway. Our results demonstrate that increased expression of S6K1 in the mPFC produces antidepressant effects in the forced swim test without altering locomotor activity. Moreover, expression of active S6K1 in the mPFC blocked the anhedonia caused by chronic stress, resulting in a state of stress resilience. This antidepressant response was associated with increased neuronal complexity caused by enhanced S6K1 activity. Conversely, expression of dominant-negative S6K1 in the mPFC resulted in prodepressive behavior in the forced swim test and was sufficient to cause anhedonia in the absence of chronic stress exposure. Together, these data demonstrate a critical role for S6K1 activity in depressive behaviors, and suggest that pathways downstream of mTORC1 may underlie the pathophysiology and treatment of MDD. PMID:25918363

  14. Role of the pks15/1 gene in the biosynthesis of phenolglycolipids in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Evidence that all strains synthesize glycosylated p-hydroxybenzoic methyl esters and that strains devoid of phenolglycolipids harbor a frameshift mutation in the pks15/1 gene.

    PubMed

    Constant, Patricia; Perez, Esther; Malaga, Wladimir; Lanéelle, Marie-Antoinette; Saurel, Olivier; Daffé, Mamadou; Guilhot, Christophe

    2002-10-11

    Diesters of phthiocerol and phenolphthiocerol are important virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, the two main mycobacterial pathogens in humans. They are both long-chain beta-diols, and their biosynthetic pathway is beginning to be elucidated. Although the two classes of molecules share a common lipid core, phthiocerol diesters have been found in all the strains of the M. tuberculosis complex examined although phenolphthiocerol diesters are produced by only a few groups of strains. To address the question of the origin of this diversity 8 reference strains and 10 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis were analyzed. We report the presence of glycosylated p-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl esters, structurally related to the type-specific phenolphthiocerol glycolipids, in the culture media of all reference strains of M. tuberculosis, suggesting that the strains devoid of phenolphthiocerol derivatives are unable to elongate the putative p-hydroxybenzoic acid precursor. We also show that all the strains of M. tuberculosis examined and deficient in the production of phenolphthiocerol derivatives are natural mutants with a frameshift mutation in pks15/1 whereas a single open reading frame for pks15/1 is found in Mycobacterium bovis BCG, M. leprae, and strains of M. tuberculosis that produce phenolphthiocerol derivatives. Complementation of the H37Rv strain of M. tuberculosis, which is devoid of phenolphthiocerol derivatives, with the fused pks15/1 gene from M. bovis BCG restored phenolphthiocerol glycolipids production. Conversely, disruption of the pks15/1 gene in M. bovis BCG led to the abolition of the synthesis of type-specific phenolphthiocerol glycolipid. These data indicate that Pks15/1 is involved in the elongation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid to give p-hydroxyphenylalkanoates, which in turn are converted, presumably by the PpsA-E synthase, to phenolphthiocerol derivatives. PMID:12138124

  15. Modified nucleotides in T1 RNase oligonucleotides of 18S ribosomal RNA of the Novikoff hepatoma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y C; Busch, H

    1978-06-27

    The primary structure of 18S rRNA of the Novikoff hepatoma cells was investigated. Regardless of whether the primary sequence of 18S rRNA is finally determined by RNA sequencing methods or DNA sequencing methods, it is important to identify numbers and types of the modified nucleotides and accordingly the present study was designed to localize the modified regions in T1 RNase derived oligonucleotide. Modified nucleotides found in 66 different oligonucleotide sequences included 2 m62A, 1 m6A, 1 m7G, 1m1cap3psi, 7 Cm, 13 Am, 9 Gm, 11 Um, and 38 psi residues. A number of these modified nucleotides are now placed in defined sequences of T1 RNase oligonucleotides which are now being searched for in larger fragments derived from partial T1 RNase digests of 18S rRNA. Improved homochromatography fingerprinting (Choi et al. (1976) Cancer Res. 36, 4301) of T1 RNase derived oligonucleotides provided a distinctive pattern for 18S rRNA of Novikoff hepatoma ascites cells. The 116 spots obtained by homochromatography contain 176 oligonucleotide sequences. PMID:209819

  16. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) variation in the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Andean region.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Bruce D; Steck, Gary J; Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Srivastava, Pratibha; Alvarado, Norma Nolazco; Colque, Fredy; Landa, Erick Yábar; Sánchez, Juan José Lagrava; Quisberth, Elizabeth; Peñaranda, Emilio Arévalo; Clavijo, P A Rodriguez; Alvarez-Baca, Jeniffer K; Zapata, Tito Guevara; Ponce, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was sequenced for Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) originating from 85 collections from the northern and central Andean countries of South America including Argentina (Tucumán), Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The ITS1 regions of additional specimens (17 collections) from Central America (México, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panamá), Brazil, Caribbean Colombia, and coastal Venezuela were sequenced and together with published sequences (Paraguay) provided context for interpretation. A total of six ITS1 sequence variants were recognized in the Andean region comprising four groups. Type I predominates in the southernmost range of Anastrepha fraterculus. Type II predominates in its northernmost range. In the central and northern Andes, the geographic distributions overlap and interdigitate with a strong elevational effect. A discussion of relationships between observed ITS1 types and morphometric types is included. PMID:26798259

  17. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) variation in the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Andean region

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Bruce D.; Steck, Gary J.; Norrbom, Allen L.; Rodriguez, Erick J.; Srivastava, Pratibha; Alvarado, Norma Nolazco; Colque, Fredy; Landa, Erick Yábar; Sánchez, Juan José Lagrava; Quisberth, Elizabeth; Peñaranda, Emilio Arévalo; Clavijo, P. A. Rodriguez; Alvarez-Baca, Jeniffer K.; Zapata, Tito Guevara; Ponce, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was sequenced for Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) originating from 85 collections from the northern and central Andean countries of South America including Argentina (Tucumán), Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The ITS1 regions of additional specimens (17 collections) from Central America (México, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panamá), Brazil, Caribbean Colombia, and coastal Venezuela were sequenced and together with published sequences (Paraguay) provided context for interpretation. A total of six ITS1 sequence variants were recognized in the Andean region comprising four groups. Type I predominates in the southernmost range of Anastrepha fraterculus. Type II predominates in its northernmost range. In the central and northern Andes, the geographic distributions overlap and interdigitate with a strong elevational effect. A discussion of relationships between observed ITS1 types and morphometric types is included. PMID:26798259

  18. Human acidic ribosomal phosphoproteins P0, P1, and P2: Analysis of cDNA clones, in vitro synthesis, and assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, B.E.; Steitz, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    cDNA clones encoding three antigenically related human ribosomal phosophoproteins (P-proteins) P0, P1, and P2 were isolated and sequenced. P1 and P2 are analogous to Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L7/L12, and P0 is likely to be an analog of L10. The three proteins have a nearly identical carboxy-terminal 17-amino-acid sequence (KEESEESD(D/E)DMGFGLFD-COOH) that is the basis of their immunological cross-reactivity. The identifies of the P1 and P2 cDNAs were confirmed by the strong similarities of their encoded amino acid sequences to published primary structures of the homologous rat, brine shrimp, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins. The P0 cDNA was initially identified by translation of hybrid-selected mRNA and immunoprecipitation of the products. To demonstrate that the coding sequences are full length, the P0, P1, and P2 cDNAs were transcribed in vitro by bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and the resulting mRNAs were translated in vitro. The synthetic P0, P1, and P2 proteins were serologically and electrophoretically identical to P-proteins extracted from HeLa cells. These synthetic P-proteins were incorporated into 60S but not 40S ribosomes and also assembled into a complex similar to that described for E. coli L7/L12 and L10.

  19. The ribosomal database project.

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, N; Olsen, G J; Maidak, B L; McCaughey, M J; Overbeek, R; Macke, T J; Marsh, T L; Woese, C R

    1993-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) is a curated database that offers ribosome data along with related programs and services. The offerings include phylogenetically ordered alignments of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences, derived phylogenetic trees, rRNA secondary structure diagrams and various software packages for handling, analyzing and displaying alignments and trees. The data are available via ftp and electronic mail. Certain analytic services are also provided by the electronic mail server. PMID:8332524

  20. The structure of Erb1-Ytm1 complex reveals the functional importance of a high-affinity binding between two β-propellers during the assembly of large ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Wegrecki, Marcin; Rodríguez-Galán, Olga; de la Cruz, Jesús; Bravo, Jeronimo

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is one of the most essential pathways in eukaryotes although it is still not fully characterized. Given the importance of this process in proliferating cells, it is obvious that understanding the macromolecular details of the interactions that take place between the assembly factors, ribosomal proteins and nascent pre-rRNAs is essentially required for the development of new non-genotoxic treatments for cancer. Herein, we have studied the association between the WD40-repeat domains of Erb1 and Ytm1 proteins. These are essential factors for the biogenesis of 60S ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes that form a heterotrimeric complex together with the also essential Nop7 protein. We provide the crystal structure of a dimer formed by the C-terminal part of Erb1 and Ytm1 from Chaetomium thermophilum at 2.1 Å resolution. Using a multidisciplinary approach we show that the β-propeller domains of these proteins interact in a novel manner that leads to a high-affinity binding. We prove that a point mutation within the interface of the complex impairs the interaction between the two proteins and negatively affects growth and ribosome production in yeast. Our study suggests insights into the association of the Erb1-Ytm1 dimer with pre-ribosomal particles. PMID:26476442

  1. The structure of Erb1-Ytm1 complex reveals the functional importance of a high-affinity binding between two β-propellers during the assembly of large ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Wegrecki, Marcin; Rodríguez-Galán, Olga; de la Cruz, Jesús; Bravo, Jeronimo

    2015-12-15

    Ribosome biogenesis is one of the most essential pathways in eukaryotes although it is still not fully characterized. Given the importance of this process in proliferating cells, it is obvious that understanding the macromolecular details of the interactions that take place between the assembly factors, ribosomal proteins and nascent pre-rRNAs is essentially required for the development of new non-genotoxic treatments for cancer. Herein, we have studied the association between the WD40-repeat domains of Erb1 and Ytm1 proteins. These are essential factors for the biogenesis of 60S ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes that form a heterotrimeric complex together with the also essential Nop7 protein. We provide the crystal structure of a dimer formed by the C-terminal part of Erb1 and Ytm1 from Chaetomium thermophilum at 2.1 Å resolution. Using a multidisciplinary approach we show that the β-propeller domains of these proteins interact in a novel manner that leads to a high-affinity binding. We prove that a point mutation within the interface of the complex impairs the interaction between the two proteins and negatively affects growth and ribosome production in yeast. Our study suggests insights into the association of the Erb1-Ytm1 dimer with pre-ribosomal particles. PMID:26476442

  2. The Ribosomal Database Project.

    PubMed Central

    Maidak, B L; Larsen, N; McCaughey, M J; Overbeek, R; Olsen, G J; Fogel, K; Blandy, J; Woese, C R

    1994-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) is a curated database that offers ribosome-related data, analysis services, and associated computer programs. The offerings include phylogenetically ordered alignments of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences, derived phylogenetic trees, rRNA secondary structure diagrams, and various software for handling, analyzing and displaying alignments and trees. The data are available via anonymous ftp (rdp.life.uiuc.edu), electronic mail (server/rdp.life.uiuc.edu) and gopher (rdpgopher.life.uiuc.edu). The electronic mail server also provides ribosomal probe checking, approximate phylogenetic placement of user-submitted sequences, screening for chimeric nature of newly sequenced rRNAs, and automated alignment. PMID:7524021

  3. Cool temperatures interfere with D1 synthesis in tomato by causing ribosomal pausing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Photodamage occurs when leaves are exposed to light in excess of what can be used for photosynthesis and in excess of the capacity of ancillary photoprotective mechanisms. A primary site of the photodamage is the chloroplast encoded D1 protein, a component of the photosystem II (PSII) reaction-cent...

  4. Recombinant L7/L12 ribosomal protein and gamma-irradiated Brucella abortus induce a T-helper 1 subset response from murine CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, S C; Zhu, Y; Splitter, G A

    1994-01-01

    Immunity to Brucella abortus crucially depends on antigen (Ag)-specific T-cell mediated activation of macrophages, which are the major effectors of cell-mediated killing of this organism. Ribosomal preparations have been used as vaccines against several pathogens, including B. abortus, conferring a high degree of protection. In the present study, we have examined the pattern of T-helper (Th) cell response from infected BALB/c mice after in vitro stimulation with recombinant (r) L7/L12 ribosomal protein or gamma-irradiated B. abortus. In addition to Ag-specific proliferation, CD4+ T cells were tested for interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA expression and secretion. Detection of cytokine transcripts and secreted cytokines was performed using reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and specific ELISA assays. Primed CD4+ T cells proliferated to the recombinant protein or whole B. abortus. The functional cytokine profile of the proliferating cells was typical of a Th1 cell phenotype, as we detected transcripts for IL-2 and IFN-gamma but not IL-4. Among the cytokines analysed, only IFN-gamma produced in the Th cell culture supernatants was detected by ELISA when bacteria or recombinant protein were used. Thus, rL7/L12 ribosomal protein and gamma-irradiated B. abortus preferentially stimulated IFN-gamma-producing Th1 cells after in vitro stimulation. The results of this study provide for the first time an explanation of why ribosomal vaccines may protect against intracellular infections, and an experimental basis for identifying polypeptides from a pathogen which stimulates the desired cytokine profile and Th cell response crucial for the design of genetically engineered candidate vaccines. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7875746

  5. Biochemical characterization of three mycobacterial ribosomal fractions.

    PubMed

    Portelance, V; Beaudet, R

    1983-02-01

    The induction of antituberculous immunity by crude ribosomal fractions isolated from Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Ra, M. bovis strain BCG, and M. smegmatis was studied in CF-1 mice. Levels of antituberculous immunity similar to that induced by live BCG were induced by the BCG and H37Ra ribosomal fractions whereas that isolated from M. smegmatis was found to be inactive. Electrophoresis of the three ribosomal fractions in sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacylamide gels followed by differential staining showed the two active ribosomal fractions to be similar in their proteins, carbohydrate-containing substances, and lipid profiles. The inactive smegmatis ribosomal fraction differed mainly from the active ones on the basis of its carbohydrate-containing substances profile and by the absence of lipids. The polysaccharides and the ribosomes present in the H37Ra ribosomal fractions were purified by affinity chromatography on concanavalin A - Sepharose 4B. Each purified preparation showed no or only low antituberculous activity when injected separately, but when mixed together a high protection was observed. The formation of complexes between the ribosomes and the polysaccharide fraction was suggested and appears to be necessary for the induction of antituberculous immunity. PMID:6189570

  6. The leukemogenic t(8;21) fusion protein AML1-ETO controls ribosomal RNA genes and associates with nucleolar organizing regions at mitotic chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Rachit; Zaidi, Sayyed K.; Pande, Sandhya; Hassan, Mohammad Q.; Young, Daniel W.; Lian, Jane B.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Stein, Janet L.; Stein, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY RUNX1/AML1 is required for definitive hematopoiesis and is frequently targeted by chromosomal translocation in acute myeloid leukemias (AML). The t(8;21) related AML1-ETO fusion protein blocks differentiation of myeloid progenitors. Here, we show by immunofluorescence microscopy that during interphase, endogenous AML1-ETO localizes to nuclear microenvironments distinct from those containing native RUNX1/AML1 protein. At mitosis, we clearly detect binding of AML1-ETO to nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) in AML derived Kasumi-1 cells and binding of RUNX1/AML1 to NORs in Jurkat cells. Both RUNX1/AML1 and AML1-ETO occupy ribosomal DNA repeats during interphase, as well as interact with the endogenous RNA Pol I transcription factor UBF-1. Promoter cytosine methylation analysis indicates that RUNX1/AML1 binds to rDNA repeats that are more highly CpG methylated than those bound by AML1-ETO. Down-regulation by RNA interference reveals that RUNX1/AML1 negatively regulates rDNA transcription, while AML1-ETO is a positive regulator in Kasumi-1 cells. Taken together, our findings identify a novel role for the leukemia-related AML1-ETO protein in epigenetic control of cell growth through upregulation of RNA Pol I-mediated ribosomal gene transcription, consistent with the hyper-proliferative phenotype of myeloid cells in AML patients. PMID:19001502

  7. Structures of the human and Drosophila 80S ribosome.

    PubMed

    Anger, Andreas M; Armache, Jean-Paul; Berninghausen, Otto; Habeck, Michael; Subklewe, Marion; Wilson, Daniel N; Beckmann, Roland

    2013-05-01

    Protein synthesis in all cells is carried out by macromolecular machines called ribosomes. Although the structures of prokaryotic, yeast and protist ribosomes have been determined, the more complex molecular architecture of metazoan 80S ribosomes has so far remained elusive. Here we present structures of Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens 80S ribosomes in complex with the translation factor eEF2, E-site transfer RNA and Stm1-like proteins, based on high-resolution cryo-electron-microscopy density maps. These structures not only illustrate the co-evolution of metazoan-specific ribosomal RNA with ribosomal proteins but also reveal the presence of two additional structural layers in metazoan ribosomes, a well-ordered inner layer covered by a flexible RNA outer layer. The human and Drosophila ribosome structures will provide the basis for more detailed structural, biochemical and genetic experiments. PMID:23636399

  8. Ribosomal acidic phosphoproteins P1 and P2 are not required for cell viability but regulate the pattern of protein expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Remacha, M; Jimenez-Diaz, A; Bermejo, B; Rodriguez-Gabriel, M A; Guarinos, E; Ballesta, J P

    1995-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with either three inactivated genes (triple disruptants) or four inactivated genes (quadruple disruptants) encoding the four acidic ribosomal phosphoproteins, YP1 alpha, YP1 beta, YP2 alpha, and YP2 beta, present in this species have been obtained. Ribosomes from the triple disruptants and, obviously, those from the quadruple strain do not have bound P proteins. All disrupted strains are viable; however, they show a cold-sensitive phenotype, growing very poorly at 23 degrees C. Cell extracts from the quadruple-disruptant strain are about 30% as active as the control in protein synthesis assays and are stimulated by the addition of free acidic P proteins. Strains lacking acidic proteins do not have a higher suppressor activity than the parental strains, and cell extracts derived from the quadruple disruptant do not show a higher degree of misreading, indicating that the absence of acidic proteins does not affect the accuracy of the ribosomes. However, the patterns of protein expressed in the cells as well as in the cell-free protein system are affected by the absence of P proteins from the particles; a wild-type pattern is restored upon addition of exogenous P proteins to the cell extract. In addition, strains carrying P-protein-deficient ribosomes are unable to sporulate but recover this capacity upon transformation with one of the missing genes. These results indicate that acidic proteins are not an absolute requirement for protein synthesis but regulate the activity of the 60S subunit, affecting the translation of certain mRNAs differently. PMID:7651393

  9. Lassomycin, a ribosomally synthesized cyclic peptide, kills Mycobacterium tuberculosis by targeting the ATP-dependent protease ClpC1P1P2

    PubMed Central

    Gavrish, Ekaterina; Sit, Clarissa S.; Cao, Shugeng; Kandror, Olga; Spoering, Amy; Peoples, Aaron; Ling, Losee; Fetterman, Ashley; Hughes, Dallas; Bissell, Anthony; Torrey, Heather; Akopian, Tatos; Mueller, Andreas; Epstein, Slava; Goldberg, Alfred; Clardy, Jon; Lewis, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Summary Languishing antibiotic discovery and flourishing antibiotic resistance have prompted development of alternative untapped sources for antibiotic discovery, including previously uncultured bacteria. Here, we screen extracts from uncultured species against M. tuberculosis and identify lassomycin, an antibiotic that exhibits potent bactericidal activity against both growing and dormant mycobacteria, including drug-resistant forms of M. tuberculosis, but little activity against other bacteria or mammalian cells. Lassomycin is a highly basic, ribosomally-encoded cyclic peptide with an unusual structural fold that only partially resembles that of other lasso peptides. We show that lassomycin binds to a highly acidic region of the ClpC1 ATPase complex and markedly stimulates its ATPase activity without stimulating ClpP1P2 catalyzed protein breakdown, which is essential for viability of mycobacteria. This mechanism, uncoupling ATPase from proteolytic activity, accounts for lassomycin's bacteriocidal activity. PMID:24684906

  10. The Ribosomal Database Project

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Gary J.; Overbeek, Ross; Larsen, Niels; Marsh, Terry L.; McCaughey, Michael J.; Maciukenas, Michael A.; Kuan, Wen-Min; Macke, Thomas J.; Xing, Yuqing; Woese, Carl R.

    1992-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) compiles ribosomal sequences and related data, and redistributes them in aligned and phylogenetically ordered form to its user community. It also offers various software packages for handling, analyzing and displaying sequences. In addition, the RDP offers (or will offer) certain analytic services. At present the project is in an intermediate stage of development. PMID:1598241

  11. Phylogenetic Relationships and Genetic Variation in Longidorus and Xiphinema Species (Nematoda: Longidoridae) Using ITS1 Sequences of Nuclear Ribosomal DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Weimin; Szalanski, Allen L.; Robbins, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Genetic analyses using DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS1 were conducted to determine the extent of genetic variation within and among Longidorus and Xiphinema species. DNA sequences were obtained from samples collected from Arkansas, California and Australia as well as 4 Xiphinema DNA sequences from GenBank. The sequences of the ITS1 region including the 3' end of the 18S rDNA gene and the 5' end of the 5.8S rDNA gene ranged from 1020 bp to 1244 bp for the 9 Longidorus species, and from 870 bp to 1354 bp for the 7 Xiphinema species. Nucleotide frequencies were: A = 25.5%, C = 21.0%, G = 26.4%, and T = 27.1%. Genetic variation between the two genera had a maximum divergence of 38.6% between X. chambersi and L. crassus. Genetic variation among Xiphinema species ranged from 3.8% between X. diversicaudatum and X. bakeri to 29.9% between X. chambersi and X. italiae. Within Longidorus, genetic variation ranged from 8.9% between L. crassus and L. grandis to 32.4% between L. fragilis and L. diadecturus. Intraspecific genetic variation in X. americanum sensu lato ranged from 0.3% to 1.9%, while genetic variation in L. diadecturus had 0.8% and L. biformis ranged from 0.6% to 10.9%. Identical sequences were obtained between the two populations of L. grandis, and between the two populations of X. bakeri. Phylogenetic analyses based on the ITS1 DNA sequence data were conducted on each genus separately using both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analysis. Among the Longidorus taxa, 4 subgroups are supported: L. grandis, L. crassus, and L. elongatus are in one cluster; L. biformis and L. paralongicaudatus are in a second cluster; L. fragilis and L. breviannulatus are in a third cluster; and L. diadecturus is in a fourth cluster. Among the Xiphinema taxa, 3 subgroups are supported: X. americanum with X. chambersi, X. bakeri with X. diversicaudatum, and X. italiae and X. vuittenezi forming a sister group with X. index. The relationships observed in this study

  12. Mimicking Ribosomal Unfolding of RNA Pseudoknot in a Protein Channel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyue; Xu, Xiaojun; Yang, Zhiyu; Burcke, Andrew J; Gates, Kent S; Chen, Shi-Jie; Gu, Li-Qun

    2015-12-23

    Pseudoknots are a fundamental RNA tertiary structure with important roles in regulation of mRNA translation. Molecular force spectroscopic approaches such as optical tweezers can track the pseudoknot's unfolding intermediate states by pulling the RNA chain from both ends, but the kinetic unfolding pathway induced by this method may be different from that in vivo, which occurs during translation and proceeds from the 5' to 3' end. Here we developed a ribosome-mimicking, nanopore pulling assay for dissecting the vectorial unfolding mechanism of pseudoknots. The pseudoknot unfolding pathway in the nanopore, either from the 5' to 3' end or in the reverse direction, can be controlled by a DNA leader that is attached to the pseudoknot at the 5' or 3' ends. The different nanopore conductance between DNA and RNA translocation serves as a marker for the position and structure of the unfolding RNA in the pore. With this design, we provided evidence that the pseudoknot unfolding is a two-step, multistate, metal ion-regulated process depending on the pulling direction. Most notably, unfolding in both directions is rate-limited by the unzipping of the first helix domain (first step), which is Helix-1 in the 5' → 3' direction and Helix-2 in the 3' → 5' direction, suggesting that the initial unfolding step in either pulling direction needs to overcome an energy barrier contributed by the noncanonical triplex base-pairs and coaxial stacking interactions for the tertiary structure stabilization. These findings provide new insights into RNA vectorial unfolding mechanisms, which play an important role in biological functions including frameshifting. PMID:26595106

  13. A Nucleolar Protein, Ribosomal RNA Processing 1 Homolog B (RRP1B), Enhances the Recruitment of Cellular mRNA in Influenza Virus Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Su, Wen-Chi; Hsu, Shih-Feng; Lee, Yi-Yuan; Jeng, King-Song

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A virus (IAV) undergoes RNA transcription by a unique capped-mRNA-dependent transcription, which is carried out by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), consisting of the viral PA, PB1, and PB2 proteins. However, how the viral RdRp utilizes cellular factors for virus transcription is not clear. Previously, we conducted a genome-wide pooled short hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen to identify host factors important for influenza A virus replication. Ribosomal RNA processing 1 homolog B (RRP1B) was identified as one of the candidates. RRP1B is a nucleolar protein involved in ribosomal biogenesis. Upon IAV infection, part of RRP1B was translocated from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm, where viral RNA synthesis likely takes place. The depletion of RRP1B significantly reduced IAV mRNA transcription in a minireplicon assay and in virus-infected cells. Furthermore, we showed that RRP1B interacted with PB1 and PB2 of the RdRp and formed a coimmunoprecipitable complex with RdRp. The depletion of RRP1B reduced the amount of capped mRNA in the RdRp complex. Taken together, these findings indicate that RRP1B is a host factor essential for IAV transcription and provide a target for new antivirals. IMPORTANCE Influenza virus is an important human pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality and threatens the human population with epidemics and pandemics every year. Due to the high mutation rate of the virus, antiviral drugs targeting viral proteins might ultimately lose their effectiveness. An alternative strategy that explores the genetic stability of host factors indispensable for influenza virus replication would thus be desirable. Here, we characterized the rRNA processing 1 homolog B (RRP1B) protein as an important cellular factor for influenza A virus transcription. We showed that silencing RRP1B hampered viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity, which is responsible for virus transcription and replication. Furthermore, we

  14. When ribosomes go bad: diseases of ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Freed, Emily F.; Bleichert, Franziska; Dutca, Laura M.; Baserga, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Ribosomes are vital for cell growth and survival. Until recently, it was believed that mutations in ribosomes or ribosome biogenesis factors would be lethal, due to the essential nature of these complexes. However, in the last few decades, a number of diseases of ribosome biogenesis have been discovered. It remains a challenge in the field to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying them. PMID:20174677

  15. Separate domains in GCN1 for binding protein kinase GCN2 and ribosomes are required for GCN2 activation in amino acid-starved cells

    PubMed Central

    Sattlegger, Evelyn; Hinnebusch, Alan G.

    2000-01-01

    GCN2 stimulates GCN4 translation in amino acid-starved cells by phosphorylating the α-subunit of translation initiation factor 2. GCN2 function in vivo requires the GCN1/GCN20 complex, which binds to the N-terminal domain of GCN2. A C-terminal segment of GCN1 (residues 2052–2428) was found to be necessary and sufficient for binding GCN2 in vivo and in vitro. Overexpression of this fragment in wild-type cells impaired association of GCN2 with native GCN1 and had a dominant Gcn– phenotype, dependent on Arg2259 in the GCN1 fragment. Substitution of Arg2259 with Ala in full-length GCN1 abolished complex formation with native GCN2 and destroyed GCN1 regulatory function. Consistently, the Gcn– phenotype of gcn1-R2259A, but not that of gcn1Δ, was suppressed by overexpressing GCN2. These findings prove that GCN2 binding to the C-terminal domain of GCN1, dependent on Arg2259, is required for high level GCN2 function in vivo. GCN1 expression conferred sensitivity to paromomycin in a manner dependent on its ribosome binding domain, supporting the idea that GCN1 binds near the ribosomal acceptor site to promote GCN2 activation by uncharged tRNA. PMID:11101534

  16. Separate domains in GCN1 for binding protein kinase GCN2 and ribosomes are required for GCN2 activation in amino acid-starved cells.

    PubMed

    Sattlegger, E; Hinnebusch, A G

    2000-12-01

    GCN2 stimulates GCN4 translation in amino acid-starved cells by phosphorylating the alpha-subunit of translation initiation factor 2. GCN2 function in vivo requires the GCN1/GCN20 complex, which binds to the N-terminal domain of GCN2. A C-terminal segment of GCN1 (residues 2052-2428) was found to be necessary and sufficient for binding GCN2 in vivo and in vitro. Overexpression of this fragment in wild-type cells impaired association of GCN2 with native GCN1 and had a dominant Gcn(-) phenotype, dependent on Arg2259 in the GCN1 fragment. Substitution of Arg2259 with Ala in full-length GCN1 abolished complex formation with native GCN2 and destroyed GCN1 regulatory function. Consistently, the Gcn(-) phenotype of gcn1-R2259A, but not that of gcn1Delta, was suppressed by overexpressing GCN2. These findings prove that GCN2 binding to the C-terminal domain of GCN1, dependent on Arg2259, is required for high level GCN2 function in vivo. GCN1 expression conferred sensitivity to paromomycin in a manner dependent on its ribosome binding domain, supporting the idea that GCN1 binds near the ribosomal acceptor site to promote GCN2 activation by uncharged tRNA. PMID:11101534

  17. Characterization of the L11, L1, L10 and L12 equivalent ribosomal protein gene cluster of the halophilic archaebacterium Halobacterium cutirubrum.

    PubMed Central

    Shimmin, L C; Dennis, P P

    1989-01-01

    We have cloned and characterized a 5.2 kb fragment of genomic Halobacterium cutirubrum DNA encoding two potential proteins of unknown function (ORF and NAB) and four proteins which are equivalent to the L11, L1, L10 and L12 ribosomal proteins of Escherichia coli (L11e, L1e, L10e and L12e). The ribosomal protein genes are clustered in the same order as that in E. coli although the transcription pattern differs. Transcripts characterized include (i) abundant monocistronic L11e and tricistronic L1e-L10e-L12e transcripts; (ii) less abundant bicistronic NAB-L11e and monocistronic NAB transcripts and (iii) a very rare ORF monocistronic transcript. The consensus sequence in the promoter region is TTCGA ... 4-10 nucleotides ... TTAA ... 25-26 nucleotides ... initiation site; termination generally occurs on poly(T) tracts following GC-rich regions. Poly(T) tracts in the sense strands within coding regions are notably absent; this is probably related to their participation in transcription termination and to the fact that these ribosomal protein genes are highly expressed and stoichiometrically balanced. In the third position of the codons G or C is utilized 87% of the time. The 74 nt long untranslated leader of the L1e-L10e-L12e transcript contains a region that has a sequence and structure almost identical to a region within the binding domain for the L1e protein in 23S rRNA and highly similar to the E. coli L11-L1 mRNA leader sequence that has been implicated in autogenous translational regulation. Other transcripts are initiated at or adjacent to the ATG translation initiation codon. Images PMID:2743981

  18. Structural analysis of a type 1 ribosome inactivating protein reveals multiple L-asparagine-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine monosaccharide modifications: Implications for cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    HOGG, TANIS; MENDEL, JAMESON T.; LAVEZO, JONATHAN L.

    2015-01-01

    Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) belongs to the family of type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs): Ribotoxins, which function by depurinating the sarcin-ricin loop of ribosomal RNA. In addition to its antibacterial and antifungal properties, PAP has shown promise in antiviral and targeted tumor therapy owing to its ability to depurinate viral RNA and eukaryotic rRNA. Several PAP genes are differentially expressed across pokeweed tissues, with natively isolated seed forms of PAP exhibiting the greatest cytotoxicity. To help elucidate the molecular basis of increased cytotoxicity of PAP isoenzymes from seeds, the present study used protein sequencing, mass spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography to determine the complete covalent structure and 1.7 Å X-ray crystal structure of PAP-S1aci isolated from seeds of Asian pokeweed (Phytolacca acinosa). PAP-S1aci shares ~95% sequence identity with PAP-S1 from P. americana and contains the signature catalytic residues of the RIP superfamily, corresponding to Tyr72, Tyr122, Glu175 and Arg178 in PAP-S1aci. A rare proline substitution (Pro174) was identified in the active site of PAP-S1aci, which has no effect on catalytic Glu175 positioning or overall active-site topology, yet appears to come at the expense of strained main-chain geometry at the pre-proline residue Val173. Notably, a rare type of N-glycosylation was detected consisting of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine monosaccharide residues linked to Asn10, Asn44 and Asn255 of PAP-S1aci. Of note, our modeling studies suggested that the ribosome depurination activity of seed PAPs would be adversely affected by the N-glycosylation of Asn44 and Asn255 with larger and more typical oligosaccharide chains, as they would shield the rRNA-binding sites on the protein. These results, coupled with evidence gathered from the literature, suggest that this type of minimal N-glycosylation in seed PAPs and other type I seed RIPs may serve to enhance cytotoxicity by exploiting receptor

  19. The K+-dependent GTPase Nug1 is implicated in the association of the helicase Dbp10 to the immature peptidyl transferase centre during ribosome maturation

    PubMed Central

    Manikas, Rizos-Georgios; Thomson, Emma; Thoms, Matthias; Hurt, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome synthesis employs a number of energy-consuming enzymes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. One such enzyme is the conserved circularly permuted GTPase Nug1 (nucleostemin in human). Nug1 is essential for 60S subunit assembly and nuclear export, but its role and time of action during maturation remained unclear. Based on in vitro enzymatic assays using the Chaetomium thermophilum (Ct) orthologue, we show that Nug1 exhibits a low intrinsic GTPase activity that is stimulated by potassium ions, rendering Nug1 a cation-dependent GTPase. In vivo we observe 60S biogenesis defects upon depletion of yeast Nug1 or expression of a Nug1 nucleotide-binding mutant. Most prominently, the RNA helicase Dbp10 was lost from early pre-60S particles, which suggested a physical interaction that could be reconstituted in vitro using CtNug1 and CtDbp10. In vivo rRNA–protein crosslinking revealed that Nug1 and Dbp10 bind at proximal and partially overlapping sites on the 60S pre-ribosome, most prominently to H89 that will constitute part of the peptidyl transferase center (PTC). The binding sites of Dbp10 are the same as those identified for the prokaryotic helicase DbpA bound to the 50S subunit. We suggest that Dbp10 and DbpA are performing a conserved role during PTC formation in all organisms. PMID:26823502

  20. The K⁺-dependent GTPase Nug1 is implicated in the association of the helicase Dbp10 to the immature peptidyl transferase centre during ribosome maturation.

    PubMed

    Manikas, Rizos-Georgios; Thomson, Emma; Thoms, Matthias; Hurt, Ed

    2016-02-29

    Ribosome synthesis employs a number of energy-consuming enzymes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. One such enzyme is the conserved circularly permuted GTPase Nug1 (nucleostemin in human). Nug1 is essential for 60S subunit assembly and nuclear export, but its role and time of action during maturation remained unclear. Based on in vitro enzymatic assays using the Chaetomium thermophilum (Ct) orthologue, we show that Nug1 exhibits a low intrinsic GTPase activity that is stimulated by potassium ions, rendering Nug1 a cation-dependent GTPase. In vivo we observe 60S biogenesis defects upon depletion of yeast Nug1 or expression of a Nug1 nucleotide-binding mutant. Most prominently, the RNA helicase Dbp10 was lost from early pre-60S particles, which suggested a physical interaction that could be reconstituted in vitro using CtNug1 and CtDbp10. In vivo rRNA-protein crosslinking revealed that Nug1 and Dbp10 bind at proximal and partially overlapping sites on the 60S pre-ribosome, most prominently to H89 that will constitute part of the peptidyl transferase center (PTC). The binding sites of Dbp10 are the same as those identified for the prokaryotic helicase DbpA bound to the 50S subunit. We suggest that Dbp10 and DbpA are performing a conserved role during PTC formation in all organisms. PMID:26823502

  1. The ribosomal subunit assembly line

    PubMed Central

    Dlakić, Mensur

    2005-01-01

    Recent proteomic studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified nearly 200 proteins, other than the structural ribosomal proteins, that participate in the assembly of ribosomal subunits and their transport from the nucleus. In a separate line of research, proteomic studies of mature plant ribosomes have revealed considerable variability in the protein composition of individual ribosomes. PMID:16207363

  2. Characterization of Two Novel Type I Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins from the Storage Roots of the Andean Crop Mirabilis expansa1

    PubMed Central

    Vivanco, Jorge M.; Savary, Brett J.; Flores, Hector E.

    1999-01-01

    Two novel type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were found in the storage roots of Mirabilis expansa, an underutilized Andean root crop. The two RIPs, named ME1 and ME2, were purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation-exchange perfusion chromatography, and C4 reverse-phase chromatography. The two proteins were found to be similar in size (27 and 27.5 kD) by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their isoelectric points were determined to be greater than pH 10.0. Amino acid N-terminal sequencing revealed that both ME1 and ME2 had conserved residues characteristic of RIPs. Amino acid composition and western-blot analysis further suggested a structural similarity between ME1 and ME2. ME2 showed high similarity to the Mirabilis jalapa antiviral protein, a type I RIP. Depurination of yeast 26S rRNA by ME1 and ME2 demonstrated their ribosome-inactivating activity. Because these two proteins were isolated from roots, their antimicrobial activity was tested against root-rot microorganisms, among others. ME1 and ME2 were active against several fungi, including Pythium irregulare, Fusarium oxysporum solani, Alternaria solani, Trichoderma reesei, and Trichoderma harzianum, and an additive antifungal effect of ME1 and ME2 was observed. Antibacterial activity of both ME1 and ME2 was observed against Pseudomonas syringae, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Agrobacterium radiobacter, and others. PMID:10198104

  3. The ribosome returned

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Peter B

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, insights obtained from electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography have transformed our understanding of how the most important ribozyme in the cell, the ribosome, catalyzes protein synthesis. This review provides a brief account of how this structural revolution came to pass, and the impact it has had on our understanding of how the ribosome decodes messenger RNAs. PMID:19222865

  4. Ribosome-omics of the human ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Varun; Warner, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-01

    The torrent of RNA-seq data becoming available not only furnishes an overview of the entire transcriptome but also provides tools to focus on specific areas of interest. Our focus on the synthesis of ribosomes asked whether the abundance of mRNAs encoding ribosomal proteins (RPs) matched the equimolar need for the RPs in the assembly of ribosomes. We were at first surprised to find, in the mapping data of ENCODE and other sources, that there were nearly 100-fold differences in the level of the mRNAs encoding the different RPs. However, after correcting for the mapping ambiguities introduced by the presence of more than 2000 pseudogenes derived from RP mRNAs, we show that for 80%–90% of the RP genes, the molar ratio of mRNAs varies less than threefold, with little tissue specificity. Nevertheless, since the RPs are needed in equimolar amounts, there must be sluggish or regulated translation of the more abundant RP mRNAs and/or substantial turnover of unused RPs. In addition, seven of the RPs have subsidiary genes, three of which are pseudogenes that have been “rescued” by the introduction of promoters and/or upstream introns. Several of these are transcribed in a tissue-specific manner, e.g., RPL10L in testis and RPL3L in muscle, leading to potential variation in ribosome structure from one tissue to another. Of the 376 introns in the RP genes, a single one is alternatively spliced in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:24860015

  5. The Genes for Cytoplasmic Ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid in Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Scott, N. Steele; Ingle, J.

    1973-01-01

    The genes for cytoplasmic ribosomal RNA are partially resolved from the bulk of the DNA by CsCl equilibrium centrifugation. Although in some plants the buoyant density of the ribosomal RNA genes is as expected from the base composition of ribosomal RNA, others show a large discrepancy which cannot be due to the presence of low G-C spacer-DNA. The cross-hybridization observed with 1.3 and 0.7 × 106 molecular weight ribosomal RNAs and DNA, which varies greatly with different plant species, is not due to contamination of the ribosomal RNAs, and is specific for the ribosomal DNA of each species, probably largely restricted to those sequences coding for the two stable ribosomal RNAs. The double reciprocal plot may be used for the extrapolation of saturation values only with caution, because in these cases such plots are not linear over the whole of the hybridization reaction. PMID:16658392

  6. GUN1 Controls Accumulation of the Plastid Ribosomal Protein S1 at the Protein Level and Interacts with Proteins Involved in Plastid Protein Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Tadini, Luca; Pesaresi, Paolo; Kleine, Tatjana; Rossi, Fabio; Guljamow, Arthur; Sommer, Frederik; Mühlhaus, Timo; Schroda, Michael; Masiero, Simona; Pribil, Mathias; Rothbart, Maxi; Hedtke, Boris; Grimm, Bernhard; Leister, Dario

    2016-03-01

    Developmental or metabolic changes in chloroplasts can have profound effects on the rest of the plant cell. Such intracellular responses are associated with signals that originate in chloroplasts and convey information on their physiological status to the nucleus, which leads to large-scale changes in gene expression (retrograde signaling). A screen designed to identify components of retrograde signaling resulted in the discovery of the so-called genomes uncoupled (gun) mutants. Genetic evidence suggests that the chloroplast protein GUN1 integrates signals derived from perturbations in plastid redox state, plastid gene expression, and tetrapyrrole biosynthesis (TPB) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings, exerting biogenic control of chloroplast functions. However, the molecular mechanism by which GUN1 integrates retrograde signaling in the chloroplast is unclear. Here we show that GUN1 also operates in adult plants, contributing to operational control of chloroplasts. The gun1 mutation genetically interacts with mutations of genes for the chloroplast ribosomal proteins S1 (PRPS1) and L11. Analysis of gun1 prps1 lines indicates that GUN1 controls PRPS1 accumulation at the protein level. The GUN1 protein physically interacts with proteins involved in chloroplast protein homeostasis based on coimmunoprecipitation experiments. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments suggest that GUN1 might transiently interact with several TPB enzymes, including Mg-chelatase subunit D (CHLD) and two other TPB enzymes known to activate retrograde signaling. Moreover, the association of PRPS1 and CHLD with protein complexes is modulated by GUN1. These findings allow us to speculate that retrograde signaling might involve GUN1-dependent formation of protein complexes. PMID:26823545

  7. Paradigms of ribosome synthesis: Lessons learned from ribosomal proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gamalinda, Michael; Woolford, John L

    2015-01-01

    The proteome in all cells is manufactured via the intricate process of translation by multimolecular factories called ribosomes. Nevertheless, these ribonucleoprotein particles, the largest of their kind, also have an elaborate assembly line of their own. Groundbreaking discoveries that bacterial ribosomal subunits can be self-assembled in vitro jumpstarted studies on how ribosomes are constructed. Until recently, ribosome assembly has been investigated almost entirely in vitro with bacterial small subunits under equilibrium conditions. In light of high-resolution ribosome structures and a more sophisticated toolkit, the past decade has been defined by a burst of kinetic studies in vitro and, importantly, also a shift to examining ribosome maturation in living cells, especially in eukaryotes. In this review, we summarize the principles governing ribosome assembly that emerged from studies focusing on ribosomal proteins and their interactions with rRNA. Understanding these paradigms has taken center stage, given the linkage between anomalous ribosome biogenesis and proliferative disorders. PMID:26779413

  8. MUTAGENICITY AND MUTATION SPECTRA OF 2-ACETYLAMINOFLUORENE AT FRAMESHIFT AND BASE-SUBSTITUTION ALLELES IN FOUR DNA REPAIR BACKGROUNDS OF SALMONELLA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used colony probe hybridization procedures-to determine the mutations in 600 revertants of the -1 frameshift allele hisD3052 and 200 revertants of the base substitution allele hisG46 of Salmonella typhimurium induced by 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) in the presence of S9. -AAF...

  9. Plant L10 Ribosomal Proteins Have Different Roles during Development and Translation under Ultraviolet-B Stress1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ferreyra, María Lorena Falcone; Pezza, Alejandro; Biarc, Jordane; Burlingame, Alma L.; Casati, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10) proteins are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has three RPL10 genes encoding RPL10A to RPL10C proteins, while two genes are present in the maize (Zea mays) genome (rpl10-1 and rpl10-2). Maize and Arabidopsis RPL10s are tissue-specific and developmentally regulated, showing high levels of expression in tissues with active cell division. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicate that RPL10s in Arabidopsis associate with translation proteins, demonstrating that it is a component of the 80S ribosome. Previously, ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure was shown to increase the expression of a number of maize ribosomal protein genes, including rpl10. In this work, we demonstrate that maize rpl10 genes are induced by UV-B while Arabidopsis RPL10s are differentially regulated by this radiation: RPL10A is not UV-B regulated, RPL10B is down-regulated, while RPL10C is up-regulated by UV-B in all organs studied. Characterization of Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional mutants indicates that RPL10 genes are not functionally equivalent. rpl10A and rpl10B mutant plants show different phenotypes: knockout rpl10A mutants are lethal, rpl10A heterozygous plants are deficient in translation under UV-B conditions, and knockdown homozygous rpl10B mutants show abnormal growth. Based on the results described here, RPL10 genes are not redundant and participate in development and translation under UV-B stress. PMID:20516338

  10. Adaptive Reversion of a Frameshift Mutation in Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, J.; Foster, P. L.

    1991-01-01

    Mutation rates are generally thought not to be influenced by selective forces. This doctrine rests on the results of certain classical studies of the mutations that make bacteria resistant to phages and antibiotics. We have studied a strain of Escherichia coli which constitutively expresses a lacI-lacZ fusion containing a frameshift mutation that renders it Lac(-). Reversion to Lac(+) is a rare event during exponential growth but occurs in stationary cultures when lactose is the only source of energy. No revertants accumulate in the absence of lactose, or in the presence of lactose if there is another, unfulfilled requirement for growth. The mechanism for such mutation in stationary phase is not known, but it requires some function of RecA which is apparently not required for mutation during exponential growth. PMID:1916241

  11. Novel Frameshift CHD7 Mutation Related to CHARGE Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Quintana, E.; Rodríguez-González, F.; Garay-Sánchez, P.; Tugores, A.

    2014-01-01

    CHARGE syndrome is a rare congenital condition characterized by 6 cardinal features: coloboma, heart defect, atresia choanae, retarded growth and development, genital anomalies, and ear anomalies/deafness. Mutations of the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein gene CHD7 are reported to be a major cause of CHARGE syndrome. Herein, we report the case of a 27-year-old patient presenting with typical symptoms who bears a novel heterozygous insertion in exon 2 of the CHD7 gene (c.327dupC) resulting in an amino acid substitution and a frameshift (p.Val110Argfs*22) that leads to a 131-amino-acid truncated polypeptide, likely representing a null allele. Parental genetic screening confirmed the sporadic origin of the mutation. PMID:24550764

  12. Chloroplast Elongation Factor Ts Pro-Protein Is an Evolutionarily Conserved Fusion with the S1 Domain-Containing Plastid-Specific Ribosomal Protein-7

    PubMed Central

    Beligni, María Verónica; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    The components of chloroplast translation are similar to those of prokaryotic translation but contain some additional unique features. Proteomic analysis of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast ribosome identified an S1-like protein, plastid-specific ribosomal protein-7 (PSRP-7), as a stoichiometric component of the 30S subunit. Here, we report that PSRP-7 is part of a polyprotein that contains PSRP-7 on its amino end and two translation elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts) domains at the carboxy end. We named this polyprotein PETs (for polyprotein of EF-Ts). Pets is a single-copy gene containing the only chloroplast PSRP-7 and EF-Ts sequences found in the C. reinhardtii genome. The pets precursor transcript undergoes alternative splicing to generate three mRNAs with open reading frames (ORFs) of 1.68, 1.8, and 3 kb. A 110-kD pro-protein is translated from the 3-kb ORF, and the majority of this protein is likely posttranslationally processed into the 65-kD protein PSRP-7 and a 55-kD EF-Ts. PETs homologs are found in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa). The conservation of the 110-kD PETs polyprotein in the plant kingdom suggests that PSRP-7 and EF-Ts function together in some aspects of chloroplast translation and that the PETs pro-protein may have a novel function as a whole. PMID:15548736

  13. Transcription-Coupled Translation Control of AML1/RUNX1 Is Mediated by Cap- and Internal Ribosome Entry Site-Dependent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Pozner, Amir; Goldenberg, Dalia; Negreanu, Varda; Le, Shu-Yun; Elroy-Stein, Orna; Levanon, Ditsa; Groner, Yoram

    2000-01-01

    AML1/RUNX1 belongs to the runt domain transcription factors that are important regulators of hematopoiesis and osteogenesis. Expression of AML1 is regulated at the level of transcription by two promoters, distal (D) and proximal (P), that give rise to mRNAs bearing two distinct 5′ untranslated regions (5′UTRs) (D-UTR and P-UTR). Here we show that these 5′UTRs act as translation regulators in vivo. AML1 mRNAs bearing the uncommonly long (1,631-bp) P-UTR are poorly translated, whereas those with the shorter (452-bp) D-UTR are readily translated. The low translational efficiency of the P-UTR is attributed to its length and the cis-acting elements along it. Transfections and in vitro assays with bicistronic constructs demonstrate that the D-UTR mediates cap-dependent translation whereas the P-UTR mediates cap-independent translation and contains a functional internal ribosome entry site (IRES). The IRES-containing bicistronic constructs are more active in hematopoietic cell lines that normally express the P-UTR-containing mRNAs. Furthermore, we show that the IRES-dependent translation increases during megakaryocytic differentiation but not during erythroid differentiation, of K562 cells. These results strongly suggest that the function of the P-UTR IRES-dependent translation in vivo is to tightly regulate the translation of AML1 mRNAs. The data show that AML1 expression is regulated through usage of alternative promoters coupled with IRES-mediated translation control. This IRES-mediated translation regulation adds an important new dimension to the fine-tuned control of AML1 expression. PMID:10713153

  14. Overexpression of ribosomal L1 domain containing 1 is associated with an aggressive phenotype and a poor prognosis in patients with prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    LI, XIAO-PING; JIAO, JU; LU, LI; ZOU, QIONG; ZHU, SHU; ZHANG, YONG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the overexpression and significance of ribosomal L1 domain containing 1 (RSL1D1) in prostate cancer (PCA). The present study performed immunohistochemical analysis on the tissues of 138 patients with pathologically confirmed PCA. The patients were followed up for a median of 87 months. In addition, 50 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were enrolled in the present study as a control group. Of the 138 PCA tissue samples, 124 (89.9%) expressed RSL1D1, while 4 out of the 50 (8.0%) BPH tissues expressed RSL1D1. The present study defined a high RSL1D1 expression level as the relative gene expression that was equal to or higher than the median, and low expression as the gene expression lower than the median. The pathological stage of patients with PCA (≥pT3a vs. pT2c) and the Gleason scores of patients (≥7 vs. <7) were associated with RSL1D1 expression (χ2=4.809 and 14.703; P=0.028 and P<0.0001, respectively) and a high expression of RSL1D1 (χ2=10.294 and 17.520; P=0.001 and P<0.0001, respectively). Kaplan-Meier curve analysis demonstrated that the biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival rate of the patients was increased in patients without RSL1D1 expression (P=0.0046), in those with low RSL1D1 expression (P<0.0001) and in those without RSL1D1 expression in the mesenchyme (P=0.006) compared with those patients with no expression, low expression and no mesenchymal expression, respectively. A high expression level of RSL1D1 was demonstrated to be an independent prognostic factor of BCR in patients with PCA using Cox regression analysis. Overall, the present study demonstrated that RSL1D1 expression was associated with PCA, and that it may aid in the improvement of diagnosis, prognosis and risk stratification of patients with PCA. PMID:27073561

  15. Loss of Nucleolar Histone Chaperone NPM1 Triggers Rearrangement of Heterochromatin and Synergizes with a Deficiency in DNA Methyltransferase DNMT3A to Drive Ribosomal DNA Transcription*

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg Olausson, Karl; Nistér, Monica; Lindström, Mikael S.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleoli are prominent nuclear structures assembled and organized around actively transcribed ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The nucleolus has emerged as a platform for the organization of chromatin enriched for repressive histone modifications associated with repetitive DNA. NPM1 is a nucleolar protein required for the maintenance of genome stability. However, the role of NPM1 in nucleolar chromatin dynamics and ribosome biogenesis remains unclear. We found that normal fibroblasts and cancer cells depleted of NPM1 displayed deformed nucleoli and a striking rearrangement of perinucleolar heterochromatin, as identified by immunofluorescence staining of trimethylated H3K9, trimethylated H3K27, and heterochromatin protein 1γ (HP1γ/CBX3). By co-immunoprecipitation we found NPM1 associated with HP1γ and core and linker histones. Moreover, NPM1 was required for efficient tethering of HP1γ-enriched chromatin to the nucleolus. We next tested whether the alterations in perinucleolar heterochromatin architecture correlated with a difference in the regulation of rDNA. U1242MG glioma cells depleted of NPM1 presented with altered silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions, coupled to a modest decrease in H3K9 di- and trimethylation at the rDNA promoter. rDNA transcription and cell proliferation were sustained in these cells, indicating that altered organization of heterochromatin was not secondary to inhibition of rDNA transcription. Furthermore, knockdown of DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A markedly enhanced rDNA transcription in NPM1-depleted U1242MG cells. In summary, this study highlights a function of NPM1 in the spatial organization of nucleolus-associated heterochromatin. PMID:25349213

  16. Isolation and Characterization of a Type 1 Ribosome-Inactivating Protein from Fruiting Bodies of the Edible Mushroom (Volvariella volvacea).

    PubMed

    Yao; Yu; Ooi; Ng; Chang; Sun; Ooi

    1998-02-16

    A novel single-chained ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) with a molecular weight of approximately 29 000 was purified from fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Volvariellavolvacea with a procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, and gel filtration on Superdex 75. The mushroom RIP, designated volvarin, exhibited a potent inhibitory action on protein synthesis in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an IC(50) value of 0.5 nM. Like most plant RIPs, volvarin acted as an N-glycosidase that depurinated rRNA from rabbit reticulocyte lysate, releasing a characteristic RNA fragment after treatment with aniline. It also exerted a deoxyribonuclease activity on supercoiled SV-40 DNA and demonstrated a strong abortifacient effect in mice. PMID:10554316

  17. Crystallography of ribosomal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonath, A.; Frolow, F.; Shoham, M.; Müssig, J.; Makowski, I.; Glotz, C.; Jahn, W.; Weinstein, S.; Wittmann, H. G.

    1988-07-01

    Several forms of three-dimensional crystals and two-dimensional sheets of intact ribosomes and their subunits have been obtained as a result of: (a) an extensive systematic investigation of the parameters involved in crystallization, (b) a development of an experimental procedure for controlling the volumes of the crystallization droplets, (c) a study of the nucleation process, and (d) introducing a delicate seeding procedure coupled with variations in the ratios of mono- and divalent ions in the crystallization medium. In all cases only biologically active particles could be crystallized, and the crystalline material retains its integrity and activity. Crystallographic data have been collected from crystals of 50S ribosomal subunits, using synchrotron radiation at temperatures between + 19 and - 180°C. Although at 4°C the higher resolution reflections decay within minutes in the synchrotron beam, at cryo-temperature there was hardly any radiation damage, and a complete set of data to about 6Åresolution could be collected from a single crystal. Heavy-atom clusters were used for soaking as well as for specific binding to the surface of the ribosomal subunits prior to crystallization. The 50S ribosomal subunits from a mutant of B. stearothermophilus which lacks the ribosomal protein BL11 crystallize isomorphously with in the native ones. Models, aimed to be used for low resolution phasing, have been reconstructed from two-dimensional sheets of 70S ribosomes and 50S subunits at 47 and 30Å, respectively. These models show the overall structure of these particles, the contact areas between the large and small subunits, the space where protein synthesis might take place and a tunnel which may provide the path for the nascent protein chain.

  18. A molecular characterization of spontaneous frameshift mutagenesis within the trpA gene of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, Aaron; Villalta, Christopher F.; Doan, Michael; Jabri, Mouna; Chockalingham, Valliammal; White, Steven J.; Fowler, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous frameshift mutations are an important source of genetic variation in all species and cause a large number of genetic disorders in humans. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of frameshift mutagenesis, 583 spontaneous Trp+ revertants of two trpA frameshift alleles in Escherichia coli were isolated and DNA sequenced. In order to measure the contribution of methyl-directed mismatch repair to frameshift production, mutational spectra were constructed for both mismatch repair-proficient and repair-defective strains. The molecular origins of practically all of the frameshifts analyzed could be explained by one of six simple models based upon misalignment of the template or nascent DNA strands with or without misincoroporation of primer nucleotides during DNA replication. Most frameshifts occurred within mononucleotide runs as has been shown often in previous studies but the location of the 76 frameshift sites was usually outside of runs. Mismatch repair generally was most effective in preventing the occurrence of frameshifts within runs but there was much variation from site to site. Most frameshift sites outside of runs appear to be refractory to mismatch repair although the small number of occurrences at most of these sites make firm conclusions impossible. There was a dense pattern of reversion sites within the trpA DNA region where reversion events could occur, suggesting that, in general, most DNA sequences are capable of undergoing spontaneous mutational events during replication that can lead to small deletions and insertions. Many of these errors are likely to occur at low frequencies and be tolerated as events too costly to prevent or repair. These studies also revealed an unpredicted flexibility in the primary amino acid sequence of the trpA product, the α subunit of tryptophan synthase. PMID:17084112

  19. Detection and discrimination of Loa loa, Mansonella perstans and Wuchereria bancrofti by PCR-RFLP and nested-PCR of ribosomal DNA ITS1 region.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Maribel; González, Luis Miguel; Carranza, Cristina; Bailo, Begoña; Pérez-Ayala, Ana; Muro, Antonio; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Gárate, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1) of two filarial nematodes, Loa loa and Mansonella perstans, was amplified and further sequenced to develop an species-specific polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) protocol for the differentiation of both species from Wuchereria bancrofti, three filarial nematodes with blood circulating microfilariae. The ITS1-PCR product digested with the restriction endonuclease Ase I generated an specific diagnostic pattern for each of the three species. Moreover, three new specific nested-PCRs, targeting the ITS1 region, for differential detection of L. loa, M. perstans and W. bancrofti were developed and used when the ITS1-PCR products were insufficient for the Ase I enzymatic digestion. These filarial species-specific molecular protocols were evaluated in forty blood samples from African adult immigrants attending in the Hospital Insular of Gran Canaria, Canarias, Spain. PMID:20599994

  20. Frameshift and nonsense p53 mutations in squamous-cell carcinoma of head and neck - non-reactivity with 3 anti-p53 monoclonal-antibodies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Xu, L; Massey, L; Zlotolow, I; Huvos, A; Garinchesa, P; Old, L

    1994-03-01

    p53 mutations in human tumors are often associated with overexpression of p53, and immunohistochemical detection of p53 has frequently been chosen as a simpler method than genetic analysis to access p53 mutations. In this study, we analyzed the p53 gene by single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) and DNA sequencing, and correlated findings to Ab staining results. In a series of 58 squamous cell carcinoma, 15 showed mutations in exons 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 by SSCP. Of these 15 cases, 11 were positive by antibody staining, and DNA sequencing showed missense mutations but no frameshift or nonsense mutations. In contrast, the antibody-negative cases had frameshift or nonsense mutations, but no missense mutations. SSCP analysis of these 4 cases showed mutations in exon 6 (2 cases), exon 7 (1), and exon 8 (1), respectively. In case 1, sequencing data revealed a single-base addition in exon 6, leading to a truncated gene product of 207 amino acids (aa), in contrast to 393 aa in wild-type p53. Similar frameshift mutations were shown in case 2 and case 3. Case 4, instead of a frameshift mutation, carried a nonsense mutation, and a truncated peptide of 235 aa. All these mutations thus shared the feature of producing truncated p53 products nonreactive with antibodies. We conclude that frameshift mutations as well as nonsense mutations can lead to altered p53 undetectable by available monoclonal antibodies. Our finding indicates that the absence of Ab reactivity does not rule out genetic alterations of the p53 gene in human tumors. PMID:21566966

  1. The Ribosome Comes Alive

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This essay is a reflection on the ways the X-ray structures of the ribosome are helping in the interpretation of cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps showing the translating ribosome in motion. Through advances in classification methods, cryo-EM and single-particle reconstruction methods have recently evolved to the point where they can yield an array of structures from a single sample (“story in a sample”), providing snapshots of an entire subprocess of translation, such as translocation or decoding. PMID:21072331

  2. The Ribosome Comes Alive.

    PubMed

    Frank, Joachim

    2010-06-18

    This essay is a reflection on the ways the X-ray structures of the ribosome are helping in the interpretation of cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps showing the translating ribosome in motion. Through advances in classification methods, cryo-EM and single-particle reconstruction methods have recently evolved to the point where they can yield an array of structures from a single sample ("story in a sample"), providing snapshots of an entire subprocess of translation, such as translocation or decoding. PMID:21072331

  3. Structure of the DNA distal to the gene for ribosomal protein S20 in Escherichia coli K12: presence of a strong terminator and an IS1 element.

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, G A

    1986-01-01

    The sequence of nucleotides extending over 2.3 kb distal to the gene for ribosomal protein S20 of E. coli has been determined. Included in the sequence is an efficient rho-independent terminator 50 b.p. distal to the coding sequence for S20, a complete copy of IS1 which lacks, however, flanking direct repeats, and finally, an open reading frame capable of encoding a 28 kDa polypeptide of unknown function. Several lines of evidence suggest that the IS1 sequence described here must represent one of the copies resident in the bacterial chromosome rather than a newly transposed copy. Northern blotting experiments show that the gene for S20 is functionally monocistronic under all conditions tested in several genetic backgrounds. Thus it seems unlikely that the distal copy of IS1 plays any role in the termination or stability of mRNA transcribed from the gene for S20. Images PMID:2429258

  4. GIGANTUS1 (GTS1), a member of Transducin/WD40 protein superfamily, controls seed germination, growth and biomass accumulation through ribosome-biogenesis protein interactions in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background WD40 domains have been found in a plethora of eukaryotic proteins, acting as scaffolding molecules assisting proper activity of other proteins, and are involved in multi-cellular processes. They comprise several stretches of 44-60 amino acid residues often terminating with a WD di-peptide. They act as a site of protein-protein interactions or multi-interacting platforms, driving the assembly of protein complexes or as mediators of transient interplay among other proteins. In Arabidopsis, members of WD40 protein superfamily are known as key regulators of plant-specific events, biologically playing important roles in development and also during stress signaling. Results Using reverse genetic and protein modeling approaches, we characterize GIGANTUS1 (GTS1), a new member of WD40 repeat protein in Arabidopsis thaliana and provide evidence of its role in controlling plant growth development. GTS1 is highly expressed during embryo development and negatively regulates seed germination, biomass yield and growth improvement in plants. Structural modeling analysis suggests that GTS1 folds into a β-propeller with seven pseudo symmetrically arranged blades around a central axis. Molecular docking analysis shows that GTS1 physically interacts with two ribosomal protein partners, a component of ribosome Nop16, and a ribosome-biogenesis factor L19e through β-propeller blade 4 to regulate cell growth development. Conclusions Our results indicate that GTS1 might function in plant developmental processes by regulating ribosomal structural features, activities and biogenesis in plant cells. Our results suggest that GIGANTUS1 might be a promising target to engineer transgenic plants with higher biomass and improved growth development for plant-based bioenergy production. PMID:24467952

  5. New developmental evidence supports a homeotic frameshift of digit identity in the evolution of the bird wing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The homology of the digits in the bird wing is a high-profile controversy in developmental and evolutionary biology. The embryonic position of the digits cartilages with respect to the primary axis (ulnare and ulna) corresponds to 2, 3, 4, but comparative-evolutionary morphology supports 1, 2, 3. A homeotic frameshift of digit identity in evolution could explain how cells in embryonic positions 2, 3, 4 began developing morphologies 1, 2, 3. Another alternative is that no re-patterning of cell fates occurred, and the primary axis shifted its position by some other mechanism. In the wing, only the anterior digit lacks expression of HoxD10 and HoxD12, resembling digit 1 of other limbs, as predicted by 1, 2, 3. However, upon loss of digit 1 in evolution, the most anterior digit 2 could have lost their expression, deceitfully resembling a digit 1. To test this notion, we observed HoxD10 and HoxD12 in a limb where digit 2 is the most anterior digit: The rabbit foot. We also explored whether early inhibition of Shh signalling in the embryonic wing bud induces an experimental homeotic frameshift, or an experimental axis shift. We tested these hypotheses using DiI injections to study the fate of cells in these experimental wings. Results We found strong transcription of HoxD10 and HoxD12 was present in the most anterior digit 2 of the rabbit foot. Thus, we found no evidence to question the use of HoxD expression as support for 1, 2, 3. When Shh signalling in early wing buds is inhibited, our fate maps demonstrate that an experimental homeotic frameshift is induced. Conclusion Along with comparative morphology, HoxD expression provides strong support for 1, 2, 3 identity of wing digits. As an explanation for the offset 2, 3, 4 embryological position, the homeotic frameshift hypothesis is consistent with known mechanisms of limb development, and further proven to be experimentally possible. In contrast, the underlying mechanisms and experimental plausibility of an

  6. Isoleucine starvation caused by sulfometuron methyl in Salmonella typhimurium measured by translational frameshifting.

    PubMed

    Kaplun, Alexander; Chipman, David M; Barak, Ze'ev

    2002-03-01

    The authors have developed a tool for the study of inhibitor-induced amino acid starvation in bacteria which exploits the phenomenon of translational frameshifting. The inhibition of acetohydroxyacid synthase II by the herbicide sulfometuron methyl (SMM) has complex effects on branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis. Experiments were done with Salmonella typhimurium containing a plasmid with an isoleucine codon in a 'shifty' region, prone to translational frameshifting. SMM did not cause translational frameshifting in minimal medium under conditions that inhibit growth. A 20-fold higher concentration of SMM was required to cause starvation for isoleucine, e.g. in the presence of valine. This starvation was reflected in translational frameshifting correlated with inhibition of growth. These observations support the authors' previous suggestions based on other techniques. The method used here could be generalized for the study of complex metabolic effects related to amino acids. PMID:11882705

  7. [Ribosomal RNA Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    It is generally believed that an RNA World existed at an early stage in the history of life. During this early period, RNA molecules are seen to be potentially involved in both catalysis and the storage of genetic information. Translation presents several interrelated themes of inquiry for exobiology. First, it is essential, for understanding the very origin of life, how peptides and eventually proteins might have come to be made on the early Earth in a template directed manner. Second, it is necessary to understand how a machinery of similar complexity to that found in the ribosomes of modern organisms came to exist by the time of the last common ancestor (as detected by 16S rRNA sequence studies). Third, the ribosomal RNAs themselves likely had a very early origin and studies of their history may be very informative about the nature of the RNA World. Moreover, studies of these RNAs will contribute to a better understanding of the potential roles of RNA in early evolution.During the past year we have ave conducted a comparative study of four completely sequenced bacterial genoames. We have focused initially on conservation of gene order. The second component of the project continues to build on the model system for studying the validity of variant 5S rRNA sequences in the vicinity of the modern Vibrio proteolyticus 5S rRNA that we established earlier. This system has made it possible to conduct a detailed and extensive analysis of a local portion of the sequence space. These core methods have been used to construct numerous mutants during the last several years. Although it has been a secondary focus, this work has continued over the last year such that we now have in excess of 125 V. proteolyticus derived constructs which have been made and characterized. We have also continued high resolution NMR work on RNA oligomers originally initiated by G. Kenneth Smith who was funded by a NASA Graduate Student Researcher's Fellowship Award until May of 1996. Mr. Smith

  8. Higher-level phylogeny of the Therevidae (Diptera: insecta) based on 28S ribosomal and elongation factor-1 alpha gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Wiegmann, B M; Yeates, D K; Irwin, M E

    2000-06-01

    Therevidae (stilleto flies) are a little-known family of asiloid brachyceran Diptera (Insecta). Separate and combined phylogenetic analyses of 1200 bases of the 28S ribosomal DNA and 1100 bases of elongation factor-1alpha were used to infer phylogenetic relationships within the family. The position of the enigmatic taxon Apsilocephala Kröber is evaluated in light of the molecular evidence. In all analyses, molecular data strongly support the monophyly of Therevidae, excluding Apsilocephala, and the division of Therevidae into two main clades corresponding to a previous classification of the family into the subfamilies Phycinae and Therevinae. Despite strong support for some relationships within these groups, relationships at the base of the two main clades are weakly supported. Short branch lengths for Australasian clades at the base of the Therevinae may represent a rapid radiation of therevids in Australia. PMID:10860652

  9. Target of Rapamycin Regulates Development and Ribosomal RNA Expression through Kinase Domain in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Maozhi; Qiu, Shuqing; Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Feng, Li; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Datla, Raju

    2011-01-01

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) is a central regulator of cell growth, cell death, nutrition, starvation, hormone, and stress responses in diverse eukaryotes. However, very little is known about TOR signaling and the associated functional domains in plants. We have taken a genetic approach to dissect TOR functions in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and report here that the kinase domain is essential for the role of TOR in embryogenesis and 45S rRNA expression. Twelve new T-DNA insertion mutants, spanning 14.2 kb of TOR-encoding genomic region, have been characterized. Nine of these share expression of defective kinase domain and embryo arrest at 16 to 32 cell stage. However, three T-DNA insertion lines affecting FATC domain displayed normal embryo development, indicating that FATC domain was dispensable in Arabidopsis. Genetic complementation showed that the TOR kinase domain alone in tor-10/tor-10 mutant background can rescue early embryo lethality and restore normal development. Overexpression of full-length TOR or kinase domain in Arabidopsis displayed developmental abnormalities in meristem, leaf, root, stem, flowering time, and senescence. We further show that TOR, especially the kinase domain, plays a role in ribosome biogenesis by activating 45S rRNA production. Of the six putative nuclear localization sequences in the kinase domain, nuclear localization sequence 6 was identified to confer TOR nuclear targeting in transient expression assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that the HEAT repeat domain binds to 45S rRNA promoter and the 5′ external transcribed spacer elements motif. Together, these results show that TOR controls the embryogenesis, postembryonic development, and 45S rRNA production through its kinase domain in Arabidopsis. PMID:21266656

  10. Ribosome Assembly as Antimicrobial Target

    PubMed Central

    Nikolay, Rainer; Schmidt, Sabine; Schlömer, Renate; Deuerling, Elke; Nierhaus, Knud H.

    2016-01-01

    Many antibiotics target the ribosome and interfere with its translation cycle. Since translation is the source of all cellular proteins including ribosomal proteins, protein synthesis and ribosome assembly are interdependent. As a consequence, the activity of translation inhibitors might indirectly cause defective ribosome assembly. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing between direct and indirect effects, and because assembly is probably a target in its own right, concepts are needed to identify small molecules that directly inhibit ribosome assembly. Here, we summarize the basic facts of ribosome targeting antibiotics. Furthermore, we present an in vivo screening strategy that focuses on ribosome assembly by a direct fluorescence based read-out that aims to identify and characterize small molecules acting as primary assembly inhibitors. PMID:27240412

  11. Ribosome Assembly as Antimicrobial Target.

    PubMed

    Nikolay, Rainer; Schmidt, Sabine; Schlömer, Renate; Deuerling, Elke; Nierhaus, Knud H

    2016-01-01

    Many antibiotics target the ribosome and interfere with its translation cycle. Since translation is the source of all cellular proteins including ribosomal proteins, protein synthesis and ribosome assembly are interdependent. As a consequence, the activity of translation inhibitors might indirectly cause defective ribosome assembly. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing between direct and indirect effects, and because assembly is probably a target in its own right, concepts are needed to identify small molecules that directly inhibit ribosome assembly. Here, we summarize the basic facts of ribosome targeting antibiotics. Furthermore, we present an in vivo screening strategy that focuses on ribosome assembly by a direct fluorescence based read-out that aims to identify and characterize small molecules acting as primary assembly inhibitors. PMID:27240412

  12. Structural insights into ribosome translocation.

    PubMed

    Ling, Clarence; Ermolenko, Dmitri N

    2016-09-01

    During protein synthesis, tRNA and mRNA are translocated from the A to P to E sites of the ribosome thus enabling the ribosome to translate one codon of mRNA after the other. Ribosome translocation along mRNA is induced by the universally conserved ribosome GTPase, elongation factor G (EF-G) in bacteria and elongation factor 2 (EF-2) in eukaryotes. Recent structural and single-molecule studies revealed that tRNA and mRNA translocation within the ribosome is accompanied by cyclic forward and reverse rotations between the large and small ribosomal subunits parallel to the plane of the intersubunit interface. In addition, during ribosome translocation, the 'head' domain of small ribosomal subunit undergoes forward- and back-swiveling motions relative to the rest of the small ribosomal subunit around the axis that is orthogonal to the axis of intersubunit rotation. tRNA/mRNA translocation is also coupled to the docking of domain IV of EF-G into the A site of the small ribosomal subunit that converts the thermally driven motions of the ribosome and tRNA into the forward translocation of tRNA/mRNA inside the ribosome. Despite recent and enormous progress made in the understanding of the molecular mechanism of ribosome translocation, the sequence of structural rearrangements of the ribosome, EF-G and tRNA during translocation is still not fully established and awaits further investigation. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:620-636. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1354 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27117863

  13. Features of 80S mammalian ribosome and its subunits

    PubMed Central

    Budkevich, Tatyana V.; El'skaya, Anna V.; Nierhaus, Knud H.

    2008-01-01

    It is generally believed that basic features of ribosomal functions are universally valid, but a systematic test still stands out for higher eukaryotic 80S ribosomes. Here we report: (i) differences in tRNA and mRNA binding capabilities of eukaryotic and bacterial ribosomes and their subunits. Eukaryotic 40S subunits bind mRNA exclusively in the presence of cognate tRNA, whereas bacterial 30S do bind mRNA already in the absence of tRNA. 80S ribosomes bind mRNA efficiently in the absence of tRNA. In contrast, bacterial 70S interact with mRNA more productively in the presence rather than in the absence of tRNA. (ii) States of initiation (Pi), pre-translocation (PRE) and post-translocation (POST) of the ribosome were checked and no significant functional differences to the prokaryotic counterpart were observed including the reciprocal linkage between A and E sites. (iii) Eukaryotic ribosomes bind tetracycline with an affinity 15 times lower than that of bacterial ribosomes (Kd 30 μM and 1–2 μM, respectively). The drug does not effect enzymatic A-site occupation of 80S ribosomes in contrast to non-enzymatic tRNA binding to the A-site. Both observations explain the relative resistance of eukaryotic ribosomes to this antibiotic. PMID:18632761

  14. Activity of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cell cycle-dependent internal ribosomal entry site is modulated by IRES trans-acting factors.

    PubMed

    Vallejos, Maricarmen; Deforges, Jules; Plank, Terra-Dawn M; Letelier, Alejandro; Ramdohr, Pablo; Abraham, Christopher G; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Kieft, Jeffrey S; Sargueil, Bruno; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2011-08-01

    The 5' leader of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genomic RNA harbors an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that is functional during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Here we show that translation initiation mediated by the HIV-1 IRES requires the participation of trans-acting cellular factors other than the canonical translational machinery. We used 'standard' chemical and enzymatic probes and an 'RNA SHAPE' analysis to model the structure of the HIV-1 5' leader and we show, by means of a footprinting assay, that G2/M extracts provide protections to regions previously identified as crucial for HIV-1 IRES activity. We also assessed the impact of mutations on IRES function. Strikingly, mutations did not significantly affect IRES activity suggesting that the requirement for pre-formed stable secondary or tertiary structure within the HIV-1 IRES may not be as strict as has been described for other viral IRESes. Finally, we used a proteomic approach to identify cellular proteins within the G2/M extracts that interact with the HIV-1 5' leader. Together, data show that HIV-1 IRES-mediated translation initiation is modulated by cellular proteins. PMID:21482538

  15. Fission yeast TORC1 regulates phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 proteins in response to nutrients and its activity is inhibited by rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Akio; Sato, Tatsuhiro; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Cellular activities are regulated by environmental stimuli through protein phosphorylation. Target of rapamycin (TOR), a serine/threonine kinase, plays pivotal roles in cell proliferation and cell growth in response to nutrient status. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, TORC1, which contains Tor2, plays crucial roles in nutrient response. Here we find a nitrogen-regulated phosphoprotein, p27, in S. pombe using the phospho-Akt substrate antibody. Response of p27 phosphorylation to nitrogen availability is mediated by TORC1 and the TSC-Rhb1 signaling, but not by TORC2 or other nutrient stress-related pathways. Database and biochemical analyses indicate that p27 is identical to ribosomal protein S6 (Rps6). Ser235 and Ser236 in Rps6 are necessary for Rps6 phosphorylation by TORC1. These Rps6 phosphorylations are dispensable for cell viability. Rps6 phosphorylation by TORC1 also responds to availability of glucose and is inhibited by osmotic and oxidative stresses. Rapamycin inhibits the ability of TORC1 to phosphorylate Rps6, owing to interaction of the rapamycin-FKBP12 complex with the FRB domain in Tor2. Rapamycin also leads to a decrease in cell size in a TORC1-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that the nutrient-responsive and rapamycin-sensitive TORC1-S6 signaling exists in S. pombe, and that this pathway plays a role in cell size control. PMID:20144990

  16. Activity of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cell cycle-dependent internal ribosomal entry site is modulated by IRES trans-acting factors

    PubMed Central

    Vallejos, Maricarmen; Deforges, Jules; Plank, Terra-Dawn M.; Letelier, Alejandro; Ramdohr, Pablo; Abraham, Christopher G.; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Kieft, Jeffrey S.; Sargueil, Bruno; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    The 5′ leader of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genomic RNA harbors an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that is functional during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Here we show that translation initiation mediated by the HIV-1 IRES requires the participation of trans-acting cellular factors other than the canonical translational machinery. We used ‘standard’ chemical and enzymatic probes and an ‘RNA SHAPE’ analysis to model the structure of the HIV-1 5′ leader and we show, by means of a footprinting assay, that G2/M extracts provide protections to regions previously identified as crucial for HIV-1 IRES activity. We also assessed the impact of mutations on IRES function. Strikingly, mutations did not significantly affect IRES activity suggesting that the requirement for pre-formed stable secondary or tertiary structure within the HIV-1 IRES may not be as strict as has been described for other viral IRESes. Finally, we used a proteomic approach to identify cellular proteins within the G2/M extracts that interact with the HIV-1 5′ leader. Together, data show that HIV-1 IRES-mediated translation initiation is modulated by cellular proteins. PMID:21482538

  17. Essential ribosome assembly factor Fap7 regulates a hierarchy of RNA-protein interactions during small ribosomal subunit biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hellmich, Ute A; Weis, Benjamin L; Lioutikov, Anatoli; Wurm, Jan Philip; Kaiser, Marco; Christ, Nina A; Hantke, Katharina; Kötter, Peter; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Schleiff, Enrico; Wöhnert, Jens

    2013-09-17

    Factor activating Pos9 (Fap7) is an essential ribosome biogenesis factor important for the assembly of the small ribosomal subunit with an uncommon dual ATPase and adenylate kinase activity. Depletion of Fap7 or mutations in its ATPase motifs lead to defects in small ribosomal subunit rRNA maturation, the absence of ribosomal protein Rps14 from the assembled subunit, and retention of the nascent small subunit in a quality control complex with the large ribosomal subunit. The molecular basis for the role of Fap7 in ribosome biogenesis is, however, not yet understood. Here we show that Fap7 regulates multiple interactions between the precursor rRNA, ribosomal proteins, and ribosome assembly factors in a hierarchical manner. Fap7 binds to Rps14 with a very high affinity. Fap7 binding blocks both rRNA-binding elements of Rps14, suggesting that Fap7 inhibits premature interactions of Rps14 with RNA. The Fap7/Rps14 interaction is modulated by nucleotide binding to Fap7. Rps14 strongly activates the ATPase activity but not the adenylate kinase activity of Fap7, identifying Rps14 as an example of a ribosomal protein functioning as an ATPase-activating factor. In addition, Fap7 inhibits the RNA cleavage activity of Nob1, the endonuclease responsible for the final maturation step of the small subunit rRNA, in a nucleotide independent manner. Thus, Fap7 may regulate small subunit biogenesis at multiple stages. PMID:24003121

  18. Studies on membrane proteins involved in ribosome binding on the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Ribophorins have no ribosome-binding activity.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, H; Tondokoro, N; Asano, Y; Mizusawa, K; Yamagishi, R; Horigome, T; Sugano, H

    1987-01-01

    A membrane protein fraction showing affinity for ribosomes was isolated from rat liver microsomes (microsomal fractions) in association with ribosomes by treatment of the microsomes with Emulgen 913 and then solubilized from the ribosomes with sodium deoxycholate. This protein fraction was separated into two fractions, glycoproteins, including ribophorins I and II, and non-glycoproteins, virtually free from ribophorins I and II, on concanavalin A-Sepharose columns. The two fractions were each reconstituted into liposomes to determine their ribosome-binding activities. The specific binding activity of the non-glycoprotein fraction was approx. 2.3-fold higher than that of the glycoprotein fraction. The recovery of ribosome-binding capacity of the two fractions was about 85% of the total binding capacity of the material applied to a concanavalin A-Sepharose column, and about 90% of it was found in the non-glycoprotein fraction. The affinity constants of the ribosomes for the reconstituted liposomes were somewhat higher than those for stripped rough microsomes. The mode of ribosome binding to the reconstituted liposomes was very similar to that to the stripped rough microsomes, in its sensitivity to proteolytic enzymes and its strong inhibition by increasing KCl concentration. These results support the idea that ribosome binding to rat liver microsomes is not directly mediated by ribophorins I and II, but that another unidentified membrane protein(s) plays a role in ribosome binding. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:3663192

  19. Identification of nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP1) as an interacting partner of plant ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) and a positive regulator of rDNA transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Ora; Kim, Sunghan; Shin, Yun-jeong; Kim, Woo-Young; Koh, Hee-Jong; Cheon, Choong-Ill

    2015-09-18

    The ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) is a downstream component of the signaling mediated by the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase that acts as a central regulator of the key metabolic processes, such as protein translation and ribosome biogenesis, in response to various environmental cues. In our previous study, we identified a novel role of plant RPS6, which negatively regulates rDNA transcription, forming a complex with a plant-specific histone deacetylase, AtHD2B. Here we report that the Arabidopsis RPS6 interacts additionally with a histone chaperone, nucleosome assembly protein 1(AtNAP1;1). The interaction does not appear to preclude the association of RPS6 with AtHD2B, as the AtNAP1 was also able to interact with AtHD2B as well as with an RPS6-AtHD2B fusion protein in the BiFC assay and pulldown experiment. Similar to a positive effect of the ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (AtS6K1) on rDNA transcription observed in this study, overexpression or down regulation of the AtNAP1;1 resulted in concomitant increase and decrease, respectively, in rDNA transcription suggesting a positive regulatory role played by AtNAP1 in plant rDNA transcription, possibly through derepression of the negative effect of the RPS6-AtHD2B complex. - Highlights: • Nucleosome assembly protein 1 (AtNAP1) interacts with RPS6 as well as with AtHD2B. • rDNA transcription is regulated S6K1. • Overexpression or down regulation of AtNAP1 results in concomitant increase or decrease in rDNA transcription.

  20. Yeast linker histone Hho1p is required for efficient RNA polymerase I processivity and transcriptional silencing at the ribosomal DNA

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Anat; Eyal, Miri; Hershkovits, Gitit; Salmon-Divon, Mali; Klutstein, Michael; Katcoff, Don Jay

    2008-01-01

    Nucleosome core particles in eukaryotes are linked by a stretch of DNA that is usually associated with a linker histone. Here, we show in yeast, that the presence of yeast linker histone Hho1p represses expression of a pol II transcribed gene (MET15) embedded in the rDNA. In vivo deletions of Hho1p sequences showed that the second globular domain is sufficient for that repression, whereas the presence of the N terminus is required for its derepression. In contrast, a run-on assay confirmed by a ChIP experiment showed that Hho1p is required for maximal pol I processivity during rDNA transcription. Psoralen accessibility experiments indicated that Hho1p is necessary for normal rDNA compaction. DNA array expression analysis comparing RNA transcripts in wild-type and hho1 strains before and after a heat-shock showed that Hho1p is necessary to achieve wild-type mRNA levels of transcripts that encode ribosomal components. Taken together, our results suggest that Hho1p is involved in rDNA compaction, and like core histones, is required for efficient rDNA transcription by pol I. PMID:18687885

  1. Ribosomal S6K1 in POMC and AgRP Neurons Regulates Glucose Homeostasis but Not Feeding Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark A.; Katsouri, Loukia; Irvine, Elaine E.; Hankir, Mohammed K.; Pedroni, Silvia M.A.; Voshol, Peter J.; Gordon, Matthew W.; Choudhury, Agharul I.; Woods, Angela; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Carling, David; Withers, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hypothalamic ribosomal S6K1 has been suggested as a point of convergence for hormonal and nutrient signals in the regulation of feeding behavior, bodyweight, and glucose metabolism. However, the long-term effects of manipulating hypothalamic S6K1 signaling on energy homeostasis and the cellular mechanisms underlying these roles are unclear. We therefore inactivated S6K1 in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons, key regulators of energy homeostasis, but in contrast to the current view, we found no evidence that S6K1 regulates food intake and bodyweight. In contrast, S6K1 signaling in POMC neurons regulated hepatic glucose production and peripheral lipid metabolism and modulated neuronal excitability. S6K1 signaling in AgRP neurons regulated skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and was required for glucose sensing by these neurons. Our findings suggest that S6K1 signaling is not a general integrator of energy homeostasis in the mediobasal hypothalamus but has distinct roles in the regulation of glucose homeostasis by POMC and AgRP neurons. PMID:25865886

  2. Ribosome recycling induces optimal translation rate at low ribosomal availability.

    PubMed

    Marshall, E; Stansfield, I; Romano, M C

    2014-09-01

    During eukaryotic cellular protein synthesis, ribosomal translation is made more efficient through interaction between the two ends of the messenger RNA (mRNA). Ribosomes reaching the 3' end of the mRNA can thus recycle and begin translation again on the same mRNA, the so-called 'closed-loop' model. Using a driven diffusion lattice model of translation, we study the effects of ribosome recycling on the dynamics of ribosome flow and density on the mRNA. We show that ribosome recycling induces a substantial increase in ribosome current. Furthermore, for sufficiently large values of the recycling rate, the lattice does not transition directly from low to high ribosome density, as seen in lattice models without recycling. Instead, a maximal current phase becomes accessible for much lower values of the initiation rate, and multiple phase transitions occur over a wide region of the phase plane. Crucially, we show that in the presence of ribosome recycling, mRNAs can exhibit a peak in protein production at low values of the initiation rate, beyond which translation rate decreases. This has important implications for translation of certain mRNAs, suggesting that there is an optimal concentration of ribosomes at which protein synthesis is maximal, and beyond which translational efficiency is impaired. PMID:25008084

  3. Ribosome recycling induces optimal translation rate at low ribosomal availability

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, E.; Stansfield, I.; Romano, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    During eukaryotic cellular protein synthesis, ribosomal translation is made more efficient through interaction between the two ends of the messenger RNA (mRNA). Ribosomes reaching the 3′ end of the mRNA can thus recycle and begin translation again on the same mRNA, the so-called ‘closed-loop’ model. Using a driven diffusion lattice model of translation, we study the effects of ribosome recycling on the dynamics of ribosome flow and density on the mRNA. We show that ribosome recycling induces a substantial increase in ribosome current. Furthermore, for sufficiently large values of the recycling rate, the lattice does not transition directly from low to high ribosome density, as seen in lattice models without recycling. Instead, a maximal current phase becomes accessible for much lower values of the initiation rate, and multiple phase transitions occur over a wide region of the phase plane. Crucially, we show that in the presence of ribosome recycling, mRNAs can exhibit a peak in protein production at low values of the initiation rate, beyond which translation rate decreases. This has important implications for translation of certain mRNAs, suggesting that there is an optimal concentration of ribosomes at which protein synthesis is maximal, and beyond which translational efficiency is impaired. PMID:25008084

  4. Functional characterization of transcriptional regulatory elements in the upstream region and intron 1 of the human S6 ribosomal protein gene.

    PubMed Central

    Antoine, M; Kiefer, P

    1998-01-01

    Expression of housekeeping genes involves regulation at comparable levels in a wide spectrum of cells. To define the cis-regulatory elements in the human S6 ribosomal protein (rpS6) gene, we made a series of deletions of the upstream non-transcribed region, including or excluding exon 1 or intron 1 sequences. The mutated rpS6 gene regulatory regions were fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene and transfected into HeLa and COS-1 cells. The results have identified three parts of the rpS6 gene that are required for efficient and specific transcription. The core promoter includes only a 40 bp region upstream of the transcription start site and initiation region. Both upstream and intronic elements enhance transcription from the core promoter. Furthermore, mutation of the splice donor site of intron 1 almost completely abolished the enhancing activity of the intronic transcriptional modulator. We used gel retardation assays to identify sequence-specific binding sites in the upstream region and in the proximal half of intron 1. Both common and different nuclear factors that bind the rpS6 gene promoter were identified in extracts from HeLa and COS-1 cells, suggesting that different transcription factors may bind specifically to the same binding region and might be interchangeable in their function to ensure high-level expression of housekeeping genes independently of the cell type. PMID:9820808

  5. Functional and Structural Analysis of the Internal Ribosome Entry Site Present in the mRNA of Natural Variants of the HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Vallejos, Maricarmen; Carvajal, Felipe; Pino, Karla; Navarrete, Camilo; Ferres, Marcela; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo; Sargueil, Bruno; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The 5′untranslated regions (UTR) of the full length mRNA of the HIV-1 proviral clones pNL4.3 and pLAI, harbor an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). In this study we extend this finding by demonstrating that the mRNA 5′UTRs of natural variants of HIV-1 also exhibit IRES-activity. Cap-independent translational activity was demonstrated using bicistronic mRNAs in HeLa cells and in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The possibility that expression of the downstream cistron in these constructs was due to alternative splicing or to cryptic promoter activity was ruled out. The HIV-1 variants exhibited significant 5′UTR nucleotide diversity with respect to the control sequence recovered from pNL4.3. Interestingly, translational activity from the 5′UTR of some of the HIV-1 variants was enhanced relative to that observed for the 5′UTR of pNL4.3. In an attempt to explain these findings we probed the secondary structure of the variant HIV-1 5′UTRs using enzymatic and chemical approaches. Yet subsequent structural analyses did not reveal significant variations when compared to the pNL4.3-5′UTR. Thus, the increased IRES-activity observed for some of the HIV-1 variants cannot be ascribed to a specific structural modification. A model to explain these findings is proposed. PMID:22496887

  6. Structure of the mammalian antimicrobial peptide Bac7(1–16) bound within the exit tunnel of a bacterial ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Seefeldt, A. Carolin; Graf, Michael; Pérébaskine, Natacha; Nguyen, Fabian; Arenz, Stefan; Mardirossian, Mario; Scocchi, Marco; Wilson, Daniel N.; Innis, C. Axel

    2016-01-01

    Proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMPs) produced as part of the innate immune response of animals, insects and plants represent a vast, untapped resource for the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. PrAMPs such as oncocin or bactenecin-7 (Bac7) interact with the bacterial ribosome to inhibit translation, but their supposed specificity as inhibitors of bacterial rather than mammalian protein synthesis remains unclear, despite being key to developing drugs with low toxicity. Here, we present crystal structures of the Thermus thermophilus 70S ribosome in complex with the first 16 residues of mammalian Bac7, as well as the insect-derived PrAMPs metalnikowin I and pyrrhocoricin. The structures reveal that the mammalian Bac7 interacts with a similar region of the ribosome as insect-derived PrAMPs. Consistently, Bac7 and the oncocin derivative Onc112 compete effectively with antibiotics, such as erythromycin, which target the ribosomal exit tunnel. Moreover, we demonstrate that Bac7 allows initiation complex formation but prevents entry into the elongation phase of translation, and show that it inhibits translation on both mammalian and bacterial ribosomes, explaining why this peptide needs to be stored as an inactive pro-peptide. These findings highlight the need to consider the specificity of PrAMP derivatives for the bacterial ribosome in future drug development efforts. PMID:26792896

  7. A key role for the mRNA leader structure in translational control of ribosomal protein S1 synthesis in gamma-proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Tchufistova, Ludmila S; Komarova, Anastassia V; Boni, Irina V

    2003-12-01

    The translation initiation region (TIR) of the Escherichia coli rpsA mRNA coding for ribosomal protein S1 is characterized by a remarkable efficiency in driving protein synthesis despite the absence of the canonical Shine-Dalgarno element, and by a strong and specific autogenous repression in the presence of free S1 in trans. The efficient and autoregulated E.coli rpsA TIR comprises not less than 90 nt upstream of the translation start and can be unambiguously folded into three irregular hairpins (HI, HII and HIII) separated by A/U-rich single-stranded regions (ss1 and ss2). Phylogenetic comparison revealed that this specific fold is highly conserved in the gamma-subdivision of proteobacteria (but not in other subdivisions), except for the Pseudomonas group. To test phylogenetic predictions experimentally, we have generated rpsA'-'lacZ translational fusions by inserting the rpsA TIRs from various gamma-proteobacteria in-frame with the E.coli chromosomal lacZ gene. Measurements of their translation efficiency and negative regulation by excess protein S1 in trans have shown that only those rpsA TIRs which share the structural features with that of E.coli can govern efficient and regulated translation. We conclude that the E.coli-like mechanism for controlling the efficiency of protein S1 synthesis evolved after divergence of Pseudomona. PMID:14627832

  8. Kinetics of paused ribosome recycling in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Brian D.; Hayes, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The bacterial tmRNA•SmpB system recycles stalled translation complexes in a process termed ‘ribosome rescue’. tmRNA•SmpB specifically recognizes ribosomes that are paused at or near the 3′ end of truncated mRNA, and therefore nucleolytic mRNA processing is required before paused ribosomes can be rescued from full-length transcripts. Here, we examine the recycling of ribosomes paused on both full-length and truncated mRNAs. Peptidyl-tRNAs corresponding to each paused translation complex were identified, and their turnover kinetics used to estimate the half-lives of paused ribosomes in vivo. Ribosomes were paused at stop codons on full-length mRNA using a nascent peptide motif that interferes with translation termination and elicits tmRNA•SmpB activity. Peptidyl-tRNA turnover from these termination-paused ribosomes was slightly more rapid in tmRNA+ cells (T1/2 = 22 ± 2.2 s), compared to ΔtmRNA cells (T1/2 = 32 ± 1.6 s). Overexpression of release factor-1 (RF-1) greatly accelerated peptidyl-tRNA turnover from termination-paused ribosomes in both tmRNA+ and ΔtmRNA cells, whereas other termination factors had little or no effect on recycling. In contrast to inefficient translation termination, ribosome recycling from truncated transcripts lacking in-frame stop codons was dramatically accelerated by tmRNA•SmpB. However, peptidyl-tRNA still turned over from nonstop-paused ribosomes at a significant rate (t1/2 = 61 ± 7.3 s) in ΔtmRNA cells. Overexpression of RF-1, RF-3, and ribosome recycling factor (RRF) in ΔtmRNA cells failed to accelerate ribosome recycling from nonstop mRNA. These results indicate that tmRNA•SmpB activity is rate-limited by mRNA cleavage, and that RF-3 and RRF do not constitute a tmRNA-independent rescue pathway as previously suggested. Peptidyl-tRNA turnover from nonstop-paused ribosomes in ΔtmRNA cells suggests the existence of another uncharacterized ribosome rescue pathway. PMID:19761774

  9. Mitomycin C Inhibits Ribosomal RNA

    PubMed Central

    Snodgrass, Ryan G.; Collier, Abby C.; Coon, Amy E.; Pritsos, Chris A.

    2010-01-01

    Mitomycin C (MMC) is a commonly used and extensively studied chemotherapeutic agent requiring biological reduction for activity. Damage to nuclear DNA is thought to be its primary mechanism of cell death. Due to a lack of evidence for significant MMC activation in the nucleus and for in vivo studies demonstrating the formation of MMC-DNA adducts, we chose to investigate alternative nucleic acid targets. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR was used to determine changes in mitochondrial gene expression induced by MMC treatment. Although no consistent effects on mitochondrial mRNA expression were observed, complementary results from reverse transcription-PCR experiments and gel-shift and binding assays demonstrated that MMC rapidly decreased the transcript levels of 18S ribosomal RNA in a concentration-dependent manner. Under hypoxic conditions, transcript levels of 18S rRNA decreased by 1.5-fold compared with untreated controls within 30 min. Recovery to base line required several hours, indicating that de novo synthesis of 18S was necessary. Addition of MMC to an in vitro translation reaction significantly decreased protein production in the cell-free system. Functional assays performed using a luciferase reporter construct in vivo determined that protein translation was inhibited, further confirming this mechanism of toxicity. The interaction of MMC with ribosomal RNA and subsequent inhibition of protein translation is consistent with mechanisms proposed for other natural compounds. PMID:20418373

  10. Dengue virus NS1 protein interacts with the ribosomal protein RPL18: this interaction is required for viral translation and replication in Huh-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Salazar, Margot; Angel-Ambrocio, Antonio H; Soto-Acosta, Ruben; Bautista-Carbajal, Patricia; Hurtado-Monzon, Arianna M; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L; Ludert, Juan E; Del Angel, Rosa M

    2015-10-01

    Given dengue virus (DENV) genome austerity, it uses cellular molecules and structures for virion entry, translation and replication of the genome. NS1 is a multifunctional protein key to viral replication and pathogenesis. Identification of cellular proteins that interact with NS1 may help in further understanding the functions of NS1. In this paper we isolated a total of 64 proteins from DENV infected human hepatic cells (Huh-7) that interact with NS1 by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation assays. The subcellular location and expression levels during infection of the ribosomal proteins RPS3a, RPL7, RPL18, RPL18a plus GAPDH were determined. None of these proteins changed their expression levels during infection; however, RPL-18 was redistributed to the perinuclear region after 48hpi. Silencing of the RPL-18 does not affect cell translation efficiency or viability, but it reduces significantly viral translation, replication and viral yield, suggesting that the RPL-18 is required during DENV replicative cycle. PMID:26092250

  11. Structural analysis of a class III preQ1 riboswitch reveals an aptamer distant from a ribosome-binding site regulated by fast dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, Joseph A.; Suddala, Krishna C.; Aytenfisu, Asaminew; Chan, Dalen; Belashov, Ivan A.; Salim, Mohammad; Mathews, David H.; Spitale, Robert C.; Walter, Nils G.; Wedekind, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    PreQ1-III riboswitches are newly identified RNA elements that control bacterial genes in response to preQ1 (7-aminomethyl-7-deazaguanine), a precursor to the essential hypermodified tRNA base queuosine. Although numerous riboswitches fold as H-type or HLout-type pseudoknots that integrate ligand-binding and regulatory sequences within a single folded domain, the preQ1-III riboswitch aptamer forms a HLout-type pseudoknot that does not appear to incorporate its ribosome-binding site (RBS). To understand how this unusual organization confers function, we determined the crystal structure of the class III preQ1 riboswitch from Faecalibacterium prausnitzii at 2.75 Å resolution. PreQ1 binds tightly (KD,app 6.5 ± 0.5 nM) between helices P1 and P2 of a three-way helical junction wherein the third helix, P4, projects orthogonally from the ligand-binding pocket, exposing its stem-loop to base pair with the 3′ RBS. Biochemical analysis, computational modeling, and single-molecule FRET imaging demonstrated that preQ1 enhances P4 reorientation toward P1–P2, promoting a partially nested, H-type pseudoknot in which the RBS undergoes rapid docking (kdock ∼0.6 s−1) and undocking (kundock ∼1.1 s−1). Discovery of such dynamic conformational switching provides insight into how a riboswitch with bipartite architecture uses dynamics to modulate expression platform accessibility, thus expanding the known repertoire of gene control strategies used by regulatory RNAs. PMID:26106162

  12. Structural analysis of a class III preQ1 riboswitch reveals an aptamer distant from a ribosome-binding site regulated by fast dynamics.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Joseph A; Suddala, Krishna C; Aytenfisu, Asaminew; Chan, Dalen; Belashov, Ivan A; Salim, Mohammad; Mathews, David H; Spitale, Robert C; Walter, Nils G; Wedekind, Joseph E

    2015-07-01

    PreQ1-III riboswitches are newly identified RNA elements that control bacterial genes in response to preQ1 (7-aminomethyl-7-deazaguanine), a precursor to the essential hypermodified tRNA base queuosine. Although numerous riboswitches fold as H-type or HLout-type pseudoknots that integrate ligand-binding and regulatory sequences within a single folded domain, the preQ1-III riboswitch aptamer forms a HLout-type pseudoknot that does not appear to incorporate its ribosome-binding site (RBS). To understand how this unusual organization confers function, we determined the crystal structure of the class III preQ1 riboswitch from Faecalibacterium prausnitzii at 2.75 Å resolution. PreQ1 binds tightly (KD,app 6.5 ± 0.5 nM) between helices P1 and P2 of a three-way helical junction wherein the third helix, P4, projects orthogonally from the ligand-binding pocket, exposing its stem-loop to base pair with the 3' RBS. Biochemical analysis, computational modeling, and single-molecule FRET imaging demonstrated that preQ1 enhances P4 reorientation toward P1-P2, promoting a partially nested, H-type pseudoknot in which the RBS undergoes rapid docking (kdock ∼ 0.6 s(-1)) and undocking (kundock ∼ 1.1 s(-1)). Discovery of such dynamic conformational switching provides insight into how a riboswitch with bipartite architecture uses dynamics to modulate expression platform accessibility, thus expanding the known repertoire of gene control strategies used by regulatory RNAs. PMID:26106162

  13. Characterization of a conserved C-terminal motif (RSPRR) in ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 required for its mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent regulation.

    PubMed

    Schalm, Stefanie S; Tee, Andrew R; Blenis, John

    2005-03-25

    The mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, is a Ser/Thr kinase that promotes cell growth and proliferation by activating ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). We previously identified a conserved TOR signaling (TOS) motif in the N terminus of S6K1 that is required for its mTOR-dependent activation. Furthermore, our data suggested that the TOS motif suppresses an inhibitory function associated with the C terminus of S6K1. Here, we have characterized the mTOR-regulated inhibitory region within the C terminus. We have identified a conserved C-terminal "RSPRR" sequence that is responsible for an mTOR-dependent suppression of S6K1 activation. Deletion or mutations within this RSPRR motif partially rescue the kinase activity of the S6K1 TOS motif mutant (S6K1-F5A), and this rescued activity is rapamycin resistant. Furthermore, we have shown that the RSPRR motif significantly suppresses S6K1 phosphorylation at two phosphorylation sites (Thr-389 and Thr-229) that are crucial for S6K1 activation. Importantly, introducing both the Thr-389 phosphomimetic and RSPRR motif mutations into the catalytically inactive S6K1 mutant S6K1-F5A completely rescues its activity and renders it fully rapamycin resistant. These data show that the N-terminal TOS motif suppresses an inhibitory function mediated by the C-terminal RSPRR motif. We propose that the RSPRR motif interacts with a negative regulator of S6K1 that is normally suppressed by mTOR. PMID:15659381

  14. Frameshift events associated with the lysyl-tRNA and the rare arginine codon, AGA, in Escherichia coli: a case study involving the human Relaxin 2 protein.

    PubMed

    Kerrigan, John J; McNulty, Dean E; Burns, Matthew; Allen, Kimberly E; Tang, Xiaoyan; Lu, Quinn; Trulli, Janice M; Johanson, Kyung O; Kane, James F

    2008-08-01

    Human Relaxin 2 is an insulin-related peptide hormone with a mass of 19,084 Da. The mRNA contains a number of arginine codons that are rarely used by Escherichia coli to produce highly expressed proteins. As a result, expressing this recombinant protein in E. coli is problematic. When human Relaxin 2 was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3), several forms of the protein were made. One species had the expected molecular weight (19,084 Da). A second species observed had a molecular weight of 21,244 Da. A third minor species had a molecular weight of 17,118 Da. These aberrant molecular weights can be explained as follows. First, a sequence CGA-AAA-AAG-AGA, containing the rare arginine codons CGA and AGA was the site of the +1 frameshift that generated the 21,244 Da species. Since there was a limited supply of this arginyl-tRNA, the peptidyl-tRNA moved +1 nucleotide to occupy the codon and resumed protein synthesis. Second, a -1 frameshift associated with 'slippery A' sequence XXA-AAA-AAG accounted for 10% of the product with a mass of 17,118 Da. Presumably, the shift to -1 also occurred because there was a paucity of the arginyl-tRNAArgucu. Introduction of a plasmid coding for the cognate tRNA for AGA and site directed mutagenesis prevented the formation of both frameshift species. PMID:18474430

  15. Hypoxia-Induced Invadopodia Formation Involves Activation of NHE-1 by the p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase (p90RSK)

    PubMed Central

    Lucien, Fabrice; Brochu-Gaudreau, Karine; Arsenault, Dominique; Harper, Kelly; Dubois, Claire M.

    2011-01-01

    The hypoxic and acidic microenvironments in tumors are strongly associated with malignant progression and metastasis, and have thus become a central issue in tumor physiology and cancer treatment. Despite this, the molecular links between acidic pH- and hypoxia-mediated cell invasion/metastasis remain mostly unresolved. One of the mechanisms that tumor cells use for tissue invasion is the generation of invadopodia, which are actin-rich invasive plasma membrane protrusions that degrade the extracellular matrix. Here, we show that hypoxia stimulates the formation of invadopodia as well as the invasive ability of cancer cells. Inhibition or shRNA-based depletion of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE-1, along with intracellular pH monitoring by live-cell imaging, revealed that invadopodia formation is associated with alterations in cellular pH homeostasis, an event that involves activation of the Na+/H+ exchange rate by NHE-1. Further characterization indicates that hypoxia triggered the activation of the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (p90 RSK), which resulted in invadopodia formation and site-specific phosphorylation and activation of NHE-1. This study reveals an unsuspected role of p90RSK in tumor cell invasion and establishes p90RS kinase as a link between hypoxia and the acidic microenvironment of tumors. PMID:22216126

  16. Cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinases from ribosomes and phosphorylation of a single 40S ribosomal subunit protein in zoospores of Blastocladiella emersonii.

    PubMed

    Bonato, M C; da Costa Maia, J C; Juliani, M H

    1983-06-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) activity was found in the nuclear cap organelle, within which ribosomes of zoospores of Blastocladiella emersonii are sequestered. Two protein kinase activities were resolved from the high-salt wash fraction of zoospore ribosomes by selective adsorption to DEAE-cellulose. Both enzymes phosphorylated in vitro a 32,000 Mr protein of the 40S ribosomal subunit. Phosphorylation of this ribosomal protein, which exhibits electrophoretic properties similar to those of mammalian ribosomal protein S6, was also observed in vivo in 32P-labeled zoospores. PMID:6853450

  17. Regulation of ribosomal DNA amplification by the TOR pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Carmen V.; Cruz, Cristina; Hull, Ryan M.; Keller, Markus A.; Ralser, Markus; Houseley, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Repeated regions are widespread in eukaryotic genomes, and key functional elements such as the ribosomal DNA tend to be formed of high copy repeated sequences organized in tandem arrays. In general, high copy repeats are remarkably stable, but a number of organisms display rapid ribosomal DNA amplification at specific times or under specific conditions. Here we demonstrate that target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling stimulates ribosomal DNA amplification in budding yeast, linking external nutrient availability to ribosomal DNA copy number. We show that ribosomal DNA amplification is regulated by three histone deacetylases: Sir2, Hst3, and Hst4. These enzymes control homologous recombination-dependent and nonhomologous recombination-dependent amplification pathways that act in concert to mediate rapid, directional ribosomal DNA copy number change. Amplification is completely repressed by rapamycin, an inhibitor of the nutrient-responsive TOR pathway; this effect is separable from growth rate and is mediated directly through Sir2, Hst3, and Hst4. Caloric restriction is known to up-regulate expression of nicotinamidase Pnc1, an enzyme that enhances Sir2, Hst3, and Hst4 activity. In contrast, normal glucose concentrations stretch the ribosome synthesis capacity of cells with low ribosomal DNA copy number, and we find that these cells show a previously unrecognized transcriptional response to caloric excess by reducing PNC1 expression. PNC1 down-regulation forms a key element in the control of ribosomal DNA amplification as overexpression of PNC1 substantially reduces ribosomal DNA amplification rate. Our results reveal how a signaling pathway can orchestrate specific genome changes and demonstrate that the copy number of repetitive DNA can be altered to suit environmental conditions. PMID:26195783

  18. Exploring Ribosome Positioning on Translating Transcripts with Ribosome Profiling.

    PubMed

    Spealman, Pieter; Wang, Hao; May, Gemma; Kingsford, Carl; McManus, C Joel

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advances (e.g., microarrays and massively parallel sequencing) have facilitated genome-wide measurement of many aspects of gene regulation. Ribosome profiling is a high-throughput sequencing method used to measure gene expression at the level of translation. This is accomplished by quantifying both the number of translating ribosomes and their locations on mRNA transcripts. The inventors of this approach have published several methods papers detailing its implementation and addressing the basics of ribosome profiling data analysis. Here we describe our lab's procedure, which differs in some respects from those published previously. In addition, we describe a data analysis pipeline, Ribomap, for ribosome profiling data. Ribomap allocates sequence reads to alternative mRNA isoforms, normalizes sequencing bias along transcripts using RNA-seq data, and outputs count vectors of per-codon ribosome occupancy for each transcript. PMID:26463378

  19. Magnesium ions mediate contacts between phosphoryl oxygens at positions 2122 and 2176 of the 23S rRNA and ribosomal protein L1.

    PubMed Central

    Drygin, D; Zimmermann, R A

    2000-01-01

    The complex of ribosomal protein L1 with 23S rRNA from Escherichia coli is of great interest because of the unique structural and functional aspects of this ribonucleoprotein domain. We have minimized the binding site for protein L1 on the 23S rRNA to nt 2120-2129, 2159-2162, and 2167-2178. This RNA fragment consists of two helices as well as an interconnecting loop of unknown structure. RNA molecules corresponding to the minimized L1 binding site, in which G, A, U, or C were individually replaced by their deoxyribo- (dN) or alpha-thio- (rNaS) analogs have been synthesized by T7 transcription in vitro and analyzed for their ability to bind protein L1. It has been demonstrated that the substitution of rNaS at position 2122 or 2176 decreases the affinity of the RNA for the protein in the presence of magnesium five- to tenfold, whereas the same changes have little effect on binding in the presence of manganese. This suggests that Rp oxygens in the phosphates preceding positions 2122 and 2176 are coordinated with Mg2+ and may participate in L1-23S rRNA interaction via magnesium bridges. We have also shown that this interaction is impaired by the presence of dC at position 2122 coupled with the presence of deoxyribonucleotide(s) at other positions in the RNA. This study demonstrates that the ribose-phosphate backbone of the helix encompassing nt 2120-2124/2174-2178 is intimately involved in the interaction of protein L1 with the 23S rRNA. In particular, we suggest that this helix is positioned in the cleft between the two domains of protein L1. PMID:11142372

  20. The structure of the human intron-containing S8 ribosomal protein gene and determination of its chromosomal location at 1p32-p32. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.; Fried, M. )

    1993-01-01

    The intron-containing gene encoding human ribosomal protein SS (RPS8) has been cloned and characterized, and its chromosomal position determined. Using a PCR-based cloning strategy, we have isolated the intron-containing gene in the presence of its many processed pseudogenes and determined the DNA sequence of the entire gene and its upstream and downstream flanking regions. The human RPS8 gene is 3161 bp in length and comprises six exons. Despite lacking a consensus TATA box, primer extension analysis indicates that the start of transcription is precisely located at a C residue within an 11-bp oligopyrimidine tract. The first exon, which contains the ATG start codon, is just 27 bp in length. The DNA sequence 5[prime] to the RPS8 gene and within the first exon and intron shows several features of a CpG island. A combination of Southern blotting, PCR, and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses has enabled the chromosomal location of the human RPSS gene to be determined as lp32-p34.1. 51 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Cyclin-dependent Kinase 5 (Cdk5)-dependent Phosphorylation of p70 Ribosomal S6 Kinase 1 (S6K) Is Required for Dendritic Spine Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kwok-On; Liang, Zhuoyi; Fei, Erkang; Huang, Huiqian; Ip, Nancy Y

    2015-06-01

    The maturation and maintenance of dendritic spines depends on neuronal activity and protein synthesis. One potential mechanism involves mammalian target of rapamycin, which promotes protein synthesis through phosphorylation of eIF4E-binding protein and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K). Upon extracellular stimulation, mammalian target of rapamycin phosphorylates S6K at Thr-389. S6K also undergoes phosphorylation at other sites, including four serine residues in the autoinhibitory domain. Despite extensive biochemical studies, the importance of phosphorylation in the autoinhibitory domain in S6K function remains unresolved, and its role has not been explored in the cellular context. Here we demonstrated that S6K in neuron was phosphorylated at Ser-411 within the autoinhibitory domain by cyclin-dependent kinase 5. Ser-411 phosphorylation was regulated by neuronal activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Knockdown of S6K in hippocampal neurons by RNAi led to loss of dendritic spines, an effect that mimics neuronal activity blockade by tetrodotoxin. Notably, coexpression of wild type S6K, but not the phospho-deficient S411A mutant, could rescue the spine defects. These findings reveal the importance of cyclin-dependent kinase 5-mediated phosphorylation of S6K at Ser-411 in spine morphogenesis driven by BDNF and neuronal activity. PMID:25903132

  2. Heterozygous frameshift mutation in keratin 5 in a family with Galli–Galli disease

    PubMed Central

    Reisenauer, AK; Wordingham, SV; York, J; Kokkonen, EWJ; Mclean, WHI; Wilson, NJ; Smith, FJD

    2014-01-01

    Background Reticulate pigmentary disorders include the rare autosomal dominant Galli–Galli disease (GGD) and Dowling–Degos disease (DDD). Clinical diagnosis between some of the subtypes can be difficult due to a degree of overlap between clinical features, therefore analysis at the molecular level may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Objectives To identify the underlying genetic defect in a 48-year-old Asian-American woman with a clinical diagnosis of GGD. Methods Histological analysis was performed on a skin biopsy using haematoxylin–eosin staining. KRT5 (the gene encoding keratin 5) was amplified from genomic DNA and directly sequenced. Results The patient had a history of pruritus and hyperpigmented erythematous macules and thin papules along the flexor surfaces of her arms, her upper back and neck, axillae and inframammary areas. Hypopigmented macules were seen among the hyperpigmentation. A heterozygous 1-bp insertion mutation in KRT5 (c.38dupG; p.Ser14GlnfsTer3) was identified in the proband. This mutation occurs within the head domain of the keratin 5 protein leading to a frameshift and premature stop codon. Conclusions From the histological findings and mutation analysis the individual was identified as having GGD due to haploinsufficiency of keratin 5. PMID:24372084

  3. A CHRNE frameshift mutation causes congenital myasthenic syndrome in young Jack Russell Terriers.

    PubMed

    Rinz, Caitlin J; Lennon, Vanda A; James, Fiona; Thoreson, James B; Tsai, Kate L; Starr-Moss, Alison N; Humphries, H Dale; Guo, Ling T; Palmer, Anthony C; Clark, Leigh Anne; Shelton, G Diane

    2015-12-01

    Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs) are a group of rare genetic disorders of the neuromuscular junction resulting in structural or functional causes of fatigable weakness that usually begins early in life. Mutations in pre-synaptic, synaptic and post-synaptic proteins have been demonstrated in human cases, with more than half involving aberrations in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunits. CMS was first recognized in dogs in 1974 as an autosomal recessive trait in Jack Russell Terriers (JRTs). A deficiency of junctional AChRs was demonstrated. Here we characterize a CMS in 2 contemporary cases of JRT littermates with classic clinical and electromyographic findings, and immunochemical confirmation of an approximately 90% reduction in AChR protein content. Loci encoding the 5 AChR subunits were evaluated using microsatellite markers, and CHRNB1 and CHRNE were identified as candidate genes. Sequences of the splice sites and exons of both genes revealed a single base insertion in exon 7 of CHRNE that predicts a frameshift mutation and a premature stop codon. We further demonstrated this pathogenic mutation in CHRNE in archival tissues from unrelated JRTs studied 34 years ago. PMID:26429099

  4. Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy Caused by a Novel Frameshift in the BAG3 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo-Arlandi, Javier; Allegue, Catarina; Iglesias, Anna; Mangas, Alipio; Brugada, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Background Dilated cardiomyopathy, a major cause of chronic heart failure and cardiac transplantation, is characterized by left ventricular or biventricular heart dilatation. In nearly 50% of cases the pathology is inherited, and more than 60 genes have been reported as disease-causing. However, in 30% of familial cases the mutation remains unidentified even after comprehensive genetic analysis. This study clinically and genetically assessed a large Spanish family affected by dilated cardiomyopathy to search for novel variations. Methods and Results Our study included a total of 100 family members. Clinical assessment was performed in alive, and genetic analysis was also performed in alive and 1 deceased relative. Genetic screening included resequencing of 55 genes associated with sudden cardiac death, and Sanger sequencing of main disease-associated genes. Genetic analysis identified a frame-shift variation in BAG3 (p.H243Tfr*64) in 32 patients. Genotype-phenotype correlation identified substantial heterogeneity in disease expression. Of 32 genetic carriers (one deceased), 21 relatives were clinically affected, and 10 were asymptomatic. Seventeen of the symptomatic genetic carriers exhibited proto-diastolic septal knock by echocardiographic assessment. Conclusions We report p.H243Tfr*64_BAG3 as a novel pathogenic variation responsible for familial dilated cardiomyopathy. This variation correlates with a more severe phenotype of the disease, mainly in younger individuals. Genetic analysis in families, even asymptomatic individuals, enables early identification of individuals at risk and allows implementation of preventive measures. PMID:27391596

  5. Molecular characterisation of three regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA unit and the mitochondrial cox1 gene of Sarcocystis fusiformis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Bjørn; Hilali, Mosaad; Mawgood, Sahar Abdel

    2015-09-01

    A total of 33 macroscopically visible (3-11 × 1-5 mm) sarcocysts of Sarcocystis fusiformis were excised from the oesophagus of 12 freshly slaughtered water buffalos in Giza, Egypt. Genomic DNA was extracted from the sarcocysts, and all isolates were characterised at the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene through PCR amplification and direct sequencing, whereas a few selected isolates were characterised at the 18S and 28S ribosomal (r) RNA genes and the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the nuclear rDNA unit following cloning. Among the 33 cox1 sequences (1,038-bp long), there was a total of 13 haplotypes, differing from each other by one to seven substitutions and sharing an identity of 99.3-99.9 %. In comparison, the sequence identity was 98.8-99.0 % among eight complete 18S rRNA gene sequences (1,873-1,879-bp long), 98.1-100 % among 28 complete ITS1 sequences (853-864-bp long) and 97.4-99.6 % among five partial 28S rRNA gene sequences (1,607-1,622 bp). At the three nuclear loci, the intraspecific (and intra-isolate) sequence variation was due to both substitutions and indels, which necessitated cloning of the PCR products before sequencing. Some additional clones of the 18S and 28S rRNA genes were highly divergent from the more typical clones, but the true nature of these aberrant clones could not be determined. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses based on either 18S rRNA gene or cox1 nucleotide sequences, placed S. fusiformis closest to Sarcocystis cafferi from the African buffalo, but only the analyses based on cox1 data separated the two taxa clearly from each other and showed that they were separate species (monophyletic clusters and 93 % sequence identity at cox1 versus interleaved sequences and 98.7-99.1 % sequence identity at the 18S rRNA gene). Two cats experimentally infected with sarcocysts of S. fusiformis started shedding small numbers of sporocysts 8-10 days post-infection (dpi) and were euthanized 15

  6. Modeling Interactions of Erythromycin Derivatives with Ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Shishkina, A V; Makarova, T M; Tereshchenkov, A G; Makarov, G I; Korshunova, G A; Bogdanov, A A

    2015-11-01

    Using a method of static simulation, a series of erythromycin A analogs was designed with aldehyde functions introduced instead of one of the methyl substituents in the 3'-N-position of the antibiotic that was potentially capable of forming a covalent bond with an amino group of one of the nucleotide residues of the 23S rRNA in the ribosomal exit tunnel. Similar interaction is observed for antibiotics of the tylosin series, which bind tightly to the large ribosomal subunit and demonstrate high antibacterial activity. Binding of novel erythromycin derivatives with the bacterial ribosome was investigated with the method of fluorescence polarization. It was found that the erythromycin analog containing a 1-methyl-3-oxopropyl group in the 3'-N-position demonstrates the best binding. Based on the ability to inhibit protein biosynthesis, it is on the same level as erythromycin, and it is significantly better than desmethyl-erythromycin. Molecular dynamic modeling of complexes of the derivatives with ribosomes was conducted to explain the observed effects. PMID:26615442

  7. ABCA7 frameshift deletion associated with Alzheimer disease in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Cukier, Holly N.; Kunkle, Brian W.; Vardarajan, Badri N.; Rolati, Sophie; Hamilton-Nelson, Kara L.; Kohli, Martin A.; Whitehead, Patrice L.; Dombroski, Beth A.; Van Booven, Derek; Lang, Rosalyn; Dykxhoorn, Derek M.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Vance, Jeffery M.; Gilbert, John R.; Beecham, Gary W.; Martin, Eden R.; Carney, Regina M.; Mayeux, Richard; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Byrd, Goldie S.; Haines, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify a causative variant(s) that may contribute to Alzheimer disease (AD) in African Americans (AA) in the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A (ABC1), member 7 (ABCA7) gene, a known risk factor for late-onset AD. Methods: Custom capture sequencing was performed on ∼150 kb encompassing ABCA7 in 40 AA cases and 37 AA controls carrying the AA risk allele (rs115550680). Association testing was performed for an ABCA7 deletion identified in large AA data sets (discovery n = 1,068; replication n = 1,749) and whole exome sequencing of Caribbean Hispanic (CH) AD families. Results: A 44-base pair deletion (rs142076058) was identified in all 77 risk genotype carriers, which shows that the deletion is in high linkage disequilibrium with the risk allele. The deletion was assessed in a large data set (531 cases and 527 controls) and, after adjustments for age, sex, and APOE status, was significantly associated with disease (p = 0.0002, odds ratio [OR] = 2.13 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.42–3.20]). An independent data set replicated the association (447 cases and 880 controls, p = 0.0117, OR = 1.65 [95% CI: 1.12–2.44]), and joint analysis increased the significance (p = 1.414 × 10−5, OR = 1.81 [95% CI: 1.38–2.37]). The deletion is common in AA cases (15.2%) and AA controls (9.74%), but in only 0.12% of our non-Hispanic white cohort. Whole exome sequencing of multiplex, CH families identified the deletion cosegregating with disease in a large sibship. The deleted allele produces a stable, detectable RNA strand and is predicted to result in a frameshift mutation (p.Arg578Alafs) that could interfere with protein function. Conclusions: This common ABCA7 deletion could represent an ethnic-specific pathogenic alteration in AD. PMID:27231719

  8. FOB1 affects DNA topoisomerase I in vivo cleavages in the enhancer region of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal DNA locus

    PubMed Central

    Di Felice, Francesca; Cioci, Francesco; Camilloni, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the FOB1 gene affects replication fork blocking activity at the replication fork block (RFB) sequences and promotes recombination events within the rDNA cluster. Using in vivo footprinting assays we mapped two in vivo Fob1p-binding sites, RFB1 and RFB3, located in the rDNA enhancer region and coincident with those previously reported to be in vitro binding sites. We previously provided evidences that DNA topoisomerase I is able to cleave two sites within this region. The results reported in this paper, indicate that the DNA topoisomerase I cleavage specific activity at the enhancer region is affected by the presence of Fob1p and independent of replication and transcription activities. We thus hypothesize that the binding to DNA of Fob1p itself may be the cause of the DNA topoisomerase I activity in the rDNA enhancer. PMID:16269824

  9. Nutritional stimulation of milk protein yield of cows is associated with changes in phosphorylation of mammary eukaryotic initiation factor 2 and ribosomal s6 kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Toerien, Chanelle A; Trout, Donald R; Cant, John P

    2010-02-01

    Production of protein by the lactating mammary gland is stimulated by intake of dietary energy and protein. Mass-action effects of essential amino acids (EAA) cannot explain all of the nutritional response. Protein synthesis in tissues of growing animals is regulated by nutrients through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and integrated stress response (ISR) networks. To explore if nutrients signal through the mTOR and ISR networks in the mammary gland in vivo, lactating cows were feed-deprived for 22 h and then infused i.v. for 9 h with EAA+ glucose (Glc), Glc only, l-Met+l-Lys, l-His, or l-Leu. Milk protein yield was increased 33 and 27% by EAA+Glc and Glc infusions, respectively. Infusions of Met+Lys and His generated 35 and 41%, respectively, of the EAA+Glc response. Infusion of EAA+Glc reduced phosphorylation of the ISR target, eukaryotic initiation factor(eIF) 2, in mammary tissue and increased phosphorylation of the mTOR targets, ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and S6. Both responses are stimulatory to protein synthesis. Glucose did not significantly increase mammary S6K1 phosphorylation but reduced eIF2 phosphorylation by 62%, which implicates the ISR network in the stimulation of milk protein yield. In contrast, the EAA infusions increased (P < 0.05) or tended to increase (P < 0.1) mammary mTOR activity and only His, like Glc, decreased eIF2 phosphorylation by 62%. Despite activation of these protein synthesis signals to between 83 and 127% of the EAA+Glc response, EAA infusions produced less than one-half of the milk protein yield response generated by EAA+Glc, indicating that ISR and mTOR networks exert only a portion of the control over protein yield. PMID:20032484

  10. Stimulation of ribosomal RNA gene promoter by transcription factor Sp1 involves active DNA demethylation by Gadd45-NER pathway.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Pallavi; Pandey, Vijaya; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-08-01

    The well-studied Pol II transcription factor Sp1 has not been investigated for its regulatory role in rDNA transcription. Here, we show that Sp1 bound to specific sites on rDNA and localized into the nucleoli during the G1 phase of cell cycle to activate rDNA transcription. It facilitated the recruitment of Pol I pre-initiation complex and impeded the binding of nucleolar remodeling complex (NoRC) to rDNA resulting in the formation of euchromatin active state. More importantly, Sp1 also orchestrated the site-specific binding of Gadd45a-nucleotide excision repair (NER) complex resulting in active demethylation and transcriptional activation of rDNA. Interestingly, knockdown of Sp1 impaired rDNA transcription due to reduced engagement of the Gadd45a-NER complex and hypermethylation of rDNA. Thus, the present study unveils a novel role of Sp1 in rDNA transcription involving promoter demethylation. PMID:27156884

  11. Protein-RNA crosslinking in Escherichia coli 30S ribosomal subunits. Identification of a 16S rRNA fragment crosslinked to protein S12 by the use of the chemical crosslinking reagent 1-ethyl-3-dimethyl-aminopropylcarbodiimide.

    PubMed Central

    Chiaruttini, C; Expert-Bezançon, A; Hayes, D; Ehresmann, B

    1982-01-01

    1-ethyl-3-dimethyl aminopropylcarbodiimide (EDC) was used to cross-link 30S ribosomal proteins to 16S rRNA within the E. coli 3OS ribosomal subunit. Covalently linked complexes containing 30S proteins and 16S rRNA, isolated by sedimentation of dissociated crosslinked 30S subunits through SDS containing sucrose gradients, were digested with RNase T1, and the resulting oligonucleotide-protein complexes were fractionated on SDS containing polyacrylamide gels. Eluted complexes containing 30S proteins S9 and S12 linked to oligonucleotides were obtained in pure form. Oligonucleotide 5'terminal labelling was successful in the case of S12 containing but not of the S9 containing complex and led to identification of the S12 bound oligonucleotide as CAACUCG which is located at positions 1316-1322 in the 16S rRNA sequence. Protein S12 is crosslinked to the terminal G of this heptanucleotide. Images PMID:6760129

  12. Reducing Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase 1 Expression Improves Spatial Memory and Synaptic Plasticity in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Caccamo, Antonella; Branca, Caterina; Talboom, Joshua S.; Shaw, Darren M.; Turner, Dharshaun; Ma, Luyao; Messina, Angela; Huang, Zebing; Wu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Aging is the most important risk factor associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the molecular mechanisms linking aging to AD remain unclear. Suppression of the ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) increases healthspan and lifespan in several organisms, from nematodes to mammals. Here we show that S6K1 expression is upregulated in the brains of AD patients. Using a mouse model of AD, we found that genetic reduction of S6K1 improved synaptic plasticity and spatial memory deficits, and reduced the accumulation of amyloid-β and tau, the two neuropathological hallmarks of AD. Mechanistically, these changes were linked to reduced translation of tau and the β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1, a key enzyme in the generation of amyloid-β. Our results implicate S6K1 dysregulation as a previously unidentified molecular mechanism underlying synaptic and memory deficits in AD. These findings further suggest that therapeutic manipulation of S6K1 could be a valid approach to mitigate AD pathology. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Aging is the most important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about how it contributes to AD pathogenesis. S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) is a protein kinase involved in regulation of protein translation. Reducing S6K1 activity increases lifespan and healthspan. We report the novel finding that reducing S6K1 activity in 3xTg-AD mice ameliorates synaptic and cognitive deficits. These improvement were associated with a reduction in amyloid-β and tau pathology. Mechanistically, lowering S6K1 levels reduced translation of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 and tau, two key proteins involved in AD pathogenesis. These data suggest that S6K1 may represent a molecular link between aging and AD. Given that aging is the most important risk factor for most neurodegenerative diseases, our results may have far-reaching implications into other diseases. PMID:26468204

  13. Turnover of R1 (Type I) and R2 (Type Ii) Retrotransposable Elements in the Ribosomal DNA of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczak, J. L.; Zenni, M. K.; Woodruff, R. C.; Eickbush, T. H.

    1992-01-01

    R1 and R2 are distantly related non-long terminal repeat retrotransposable elements each of which inserts into a specific site in the 28S rRNA genes of most insects. We have analyzed aspects of R1 and R2 abundance and sequence variation in 27 geographical isolates of Drosophila melanogaster. The fraction of 28S rRNA genes containing these elements varied greatly between strains, 17-67% for R1 elements and 2-28% for R2 elements. The total percentage of the rDNA repeats inserted ranged from 32 to 77%. The fraction of the rDNA repeats that contained both of these elements suggested that R1 and R2 exhibit neither an inhibition of nor preference for insertion into a 28S gene already containing the other type of element. Based on the conservation of restriction sites in the elements of all strains, and sequence analysis of individual elements from three strains, nucleotide divergence is very low for R1 and R2 elements within or between strains (<0.6%). This sequence uniformity is the expected result of the forces of concerted evolution (unequal crossovers and gene conversion) which act on the rRNA genes themselves. Evidence for the role of retrotransposition in the turnover of R1 and R2 was obtained by using naturally occurring 5' length polymorphisms of the elements as markers for independent transposition events. The pattern of these different length 5' truncations of R1 and R2 was found to be diverse and unique to most strains analyzed. Because recombination can only, with time, amplify or eliminate those length variants already present, the diversity found in each strain suggests that retrotransposition has played a critical role in maintaining these elements in the rDNA repeats of D. melanogaster. PMID:1317313

  14. Sharing of mitotic pre-ribosomal particles between daughter cells.

    PubMed

    Sirri, Valentina; Jourdan, Nathalie; Hernandez-Verdun, Danièle; Roussel, Pascal

    2016-04-15

    Ribosome biogenesis is a fundamental multistep process initiated by the synthesis of 90S pre-ribosomal particles in the nucleoli of higher eukaryotes. Even though synthesis of ribosomes stops during mitosis while nucleoli disappear, mitotic pre-ribosomal particles persist as observed in pre-nucleolar bodies (PNBs) during telophase. To further understand the relationship between the nucleolus and the PNBs, the presence and the fate of the mitotic pre-ribosomal particles during cell division were investigated. We demonstrate that the recently synthesized 45S precursor ribosomal RNAs (pre-rRNAs) as well as the 32S and 30S pre-rRNAs are maintained during mitosis and associated with the chromosome periphery together with pre-rRNA processing factors. Maturation of the mitotic pre-ribosomal particles, as assessed by the stability of the mitotic pre-rRNAs, is transiently arrested during mitosis by a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)1-cyclin-B-dependent mechanism and can be restored by CDK inhibitor treatments. At the M-G1 transition, the resumption of mitotic pre-rRNA processing in PNBs does not induce the disappearance of PNBs; this only occurs when functional nucleoli reform. Strikingly, during their maturation process, mitotic pre-rRNAs localize in reforming nucleoli. PMID:26929073

  15. Effect of alpha-sarcin and ribosome-inactivating proteins on the interaction of elongation factors with ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Brigotti, M; Rambelli, F; Zamboni, M; Montanaro, L; Sperti, S

    1989-02-01

    alpha-Sarcin from Aspergillus giganteus and the ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) from higher plants inactivate the 60 S ribosomal subunit. The former is an RNAase, whereas RIPs are N-glycosidases. The site of cleavage of RNA and that of N-glycosidic depurinization are at one nucleotide distance in 28 S rRNA [Endo & Tsurugi (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 8128-8130]. The effect of alpha-sarcin and that of RIPs on the interaction of elongation factors with Artemia salina (brine shrimp) ribosomes have been investigated. alpha-Sarcin inhibits both the EF1 (elongation factor 1)-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNA and the GTP-dependent binding of EF2 (elongation factor 2) to ribosomes, whereas two of the RIPs tested, ricin from Ricinus communis (castor bean) and volkensin from Adenia volkensii (kilyambiti), inhibit only the latter reaction. EF2 protects ribosomes from inactivation by both alpha-sarcin and ricin. The EF1-binding site is affected only by alpha-sarcin. The sensitivity of this site to alpha-sarcin is increased by pretreatment of ribosomes with ricin. A. salina ribosomes were highly resistant to the third RIP tested, namely gelonin from Gelonium multiflorum. All four proteins tested have, however, a comparable activity on the rabbit reticulocyte-lysate system. PMID:2930482

  16. Bioactivities of Jc-SCRIP, a type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein from Jatropha curcas seed coat.

    PubMed

    Nuchsuk, Chanthakan; Wetprasit, Nuanchawee; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; T-Thienprasert, Nattanan; Yokthongwattana, Chotika; Arpornsuwan, Theerakul; Ratanapo, Sunanta

    2013-10-01

    In this study, a type 1 RIP, designated as Jc-SCRIP, was first isolated from the seed coat of Jatropha curcas Linn. It was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel™ and CM-cellulose columns. Purification fold of Jc-SCRIP increased 113.8 times, and the yield was 1.13% of the total protein in the final step. It was shown to be a monomeric glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 38 938 Da, as determined by MALDI-TOF/MS. It exhibited hemagglutination activity and possessed strong N-glycosidase activity. The antimicrobial activity of Jc-SCRIP was tested against nine human pathogenic bacteria and one fungus; the most potent inhibitory activity was against Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, with minimum inhibitory concentration value of 0.20 μm. Jc-SCRIP demonstrated in vitro cytotoxicity against human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7), a colon adenocarcinoma (SW620), and a liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2), with IC50 values of 0.15, 0.25, and 0.40 mm, respectively. The results suggested that Jc-SCRIP may be a potential natural antimicrobial and anticancer agent in medical applications. PMID:23773434

  17. Stochastic and nonstochastic post-transcriptional silencing of chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase genes involves increased RNA turnover-possible role for ribosome-independent RNA degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Holtorf, H; Schöb, H; Kunz, C; Waldvogel, R; Meins, F

    1999-01-01

    Stochastic and nonstochastic post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in Nicotiana sylvestris plants carrying tobacco class I chitinase (CHN) and beta-1,3-glucanase transgenes differs in incidence, stability, and pattern of expression. Measurements with inhibitors of RNA synthesis (cordycepin, actinomycin D, and alpha-amanitin) showed that both forms of PTGS are associated with increased sequence-specific degradation of transcripts, suggesting that increased RNA turnover may be a general feature of PTGS. The protein synthesis inhibitors cycloheximide and verrucarin A did not inhibit degradation of CHN RNA targeted for PTGS, confirming that PTGS-related RNA degradation does not depend on ongoing protein synthesis. Because verrucarin A, unlike cycloheximide, dissociates mRNA from ribosomes, our results also suggest that ribosome-associated RNA degradation pathways may not be involved in CHN PTGS. PMID:10072405

  18. Functional interaction of yeast elongation factor 3 with yeast ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Chakraburtty, K

    1999-01-01

    Elongation factor 3 (EF-3) is a unique and essential requirement of the fungal translational apparatus. EF-3 is a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 116,000. EF-3 is required by yeast ribosomes for in vitro translation and for in vivo growth. The protein stimulates the binding of EF-1 alpha :GTP:aa-tRNA ternary complex to the ribosomal A-site by facilitating release of deacylated-tRNA from the E-site. The reaction requires ATP hydrolysis. EF-3 contains two ATP-binding sequence motifs (NBS). NBSI is sufficient for the intrinsic ATPase function. NBSII is essential for ribosome-stimulated activity. By limited proteolysis, EF-3 was divided into two distinct functional domains. The N-terminal domain lacking the highly charged lysine blocks failed to bind ribosomes and was inactive in the ribosome-stimulated ATPase activity. The C-terminally derived lysine-rich fragment showed strong binding to yeast ribosomes. The purported S5 homology region of EF-3 at the N-terminal end has been reported to interact with 18S ribosomal RNA. We postulate that EF-3 contacts rRNA and/or protein(s) through the C-terminal end. Removal of these residues severely weakens its interaction mediated possibly through the N-terminal domain of the protein. PMID:10216951

  19. Phosphorylation of Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase 1 at Thr421/Ser424 and Dephosphorylation at Thr389 Regulates SP600125-Induced Polyploidization of Megakaryocytic Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Di; Zhao, Yong-Shan; Liu, Shuo; Xing, Si-Ning; Zhao, Song; Chen, Cong-Qin; Jiang, Zhi-Ming; Pu, Fei-Fei; Cao, Jian-Ping; Ma, Dong-Chu

    2014-01-01

    Megakaryocytes (MKs) are one of the few cell types that become polyploid; however, the mechanisms by which these cells are designated to become polyploid are not fully understood. In this investigation, we successfully established two relatively synchronous polyploid cell models by inducing Dami and CMK cells with SP600125. We found that SP600125 induced the polyploidization of Dami and CMK cells, concomitant with the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) at Thr421/Ser424 and dephosphorylation at Thr389. The polyploidization was partially blocked by H-89, a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor, through direct binding to S6K1, leading to dephosphorylation at Thr421/Ser424 and phosphorylation at Thr389, independent of PKA. Overexpression of a rapamycin-resistant mutant of S6K1 further enhanced the inhibitory effect of LY294002 on the SP600125-induced polyploidization of Dami and CMK cells. SP600125 also induced the polyploidization of Meg-01 cells, which are derived from a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia, without causing a significant change in S6K1 phosphorylation. Additionally, SP600125 induced the polyploidization of HEL cells, which are derived from a patient with erythroleukemia, and phosphorylation at Thr389 of S6K1 was detected. However, the polyploidization of both Meg-01 cells and HEL cells as a result of SP600125 treatment was lower than that of SP600125-induced Dami and CMK cells, and it was not blocked by H-89 despite the increased phosphorylation of S6K1 at Thr389 in both cell lines in response to H-89. Given that the Dami and CMK cell lines were derived from patients with acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMKL) and expressed high levels of platelet-specific antigens, our data suggested that SP600125-induced polyploidization is cell-type specific, that these cell lines were more differentiated, and that phosphorylation at Thr421/Ser424 and dephosphorylation at Thr389 of S6K1 may play an important role in the SP600125

  20. The mechanics of ribosomal translocation.

    PubMed

    Achenbach, John; Nierhaus, Knud H

    2015-07-01

    The ribosome translates the sequence of codons of an mRNA into the corresponding sequence of amino acids as it moves along the mRNA with a codon-step width of about 10 Å. The movement of the million-dalton complex ribosome is triggered by the universal elongation factor G (EF2 in archaea and eukaryotes) and is termed translocation. Unraveling the molecular details of translocation is one of the most challenging tasks of current ribosome research. In the last two years, enormous progress has been obtained by highly-resolved X-ray and cryo-electron microscopic structures as well as by sophisticated biochemical approaches concerning the trigger and control of the movement of the tRNA2·mRNA complex inside the ribosome during translocation. This review inspects and surveys these achievements. PMID:25514765

  1. The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP).

    PubMed Central

    Maidak, B L; Olsen, G J; Larsen, N; Overbeek, R; McCaughey, M J; Woese, C R

    1996-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) is a curated database that offers ribosome-related data, analysis services and associated computer programs. The offerings include phylogenetically ordered alignments of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences, derived phylogenetic trees, rRNA secondary structure diagrams and various software for handling, analyzing and displaying alignments and trees. The data are available via anonymous ftp (rdp.life.uiuc.edu), electronic mail (server@rdp.life.uiuc.edu), gopher (rdpgopher.life.uiuc.edu) and World Wide Web (WWW)(http://rdpwww.life.uiuc.edu/). The electronic mail and WWW servers provide ribosomal probe checking, screening for possible chimeric rRNA sequences, automated alignment and approximate phylogenetic placement of user-submitted sequences on an existing phylogenetic tree. PMID:8594608

  2. WBSCR22/Merm1 is required for late nuclear pre-ribosomal RNA processing and mediates N7-methylation of G1639 in human 18S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Sara; Kretschmer, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomal (r)RNAs are extensively modified during ribosome synthesis and their modification is required for the fidelity and efficiency of translation. Besides numerous small nucleolar RNA-guided 2′-O methylations and pseudouridinylations, a number of individual RNA methyltransferases are involved in rRNA modification. WBSCR22/Merm1, which is affected in Williams–Beuren syndrome and has been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis formation, was recently shown to be involved in ribosome synthesis, but its molecular functions have remained elusive. Here we show that depletion of WBSCR22 leads to nuclear accumulation of 3′-extended 18SE pre-rRNA intermediates resulting in impaired 18S rRNA maturation. We map the 3′ ends of the 18SE pre-rRNA intermediates accumulating after depletion of WBSCR22 and in control cells using 3′-RACE and deep sequencing. Furthermore, we demonstrate that WBSCR22 is required for N7-methylation of G1639 in human 18S rRNA in vivo. Interestingly, the catalytic activity of WBSCR22 is not required for 18S pre-rRNA processing, suggesting that the key role of WBSCR22 in 40S subunit biogenesis is independent of its function as an RNA methyltransferase. PMID:25525153

  3. Single-Molecule Study of Ribosome Hierarchic Dynamics at the Peptidyl Transferase Center

    PubMed Central

    Altuntop, Mediha Esra; Ly, Cindy Tu; Wang, Yuhong

    2010-01-01

    During protein biosynthesis the ribosome moves along mRNA in steps of precisely three nucleotides. The mechanism for this ribosome motion remains elusive. Using a classification algorithm to sort single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer data into subpopulations, we found that the ribosome dynamics detected at the peptidyl transferase center are highly inhomogeneous. The pretranslocation complex has at least four subpopulations that sample two hybrid states, whereas the posttranslocation complex is mainly static. We observed transitions among the ribosome subpopulations under various conditions, including 1), in the presence of EF-G; 2), spontaneously; 3), in different buffers, and 4), bound to antibiotics. Therefore, these subpopulations represent biologically active ribosomes. One key observation indicates that the Hy2 hybrid state only exists in a fluctuating ribosome subpopulation, which prompts us to propose that ribosome dynamics are hierarchically arranged. This proposal may have important implications for the regulation of cellular translation rates. PMID:21044598

  4. Ribosome dynamics and the evolutionary history of ribosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, George E.; Paci, Maxim; Tran, Quyen; Petrov, Anton S.; Williams, Loren D.

    2015-09-01

    The ribosome is a dynamic nanomachine responsible for coded protein synthesis. Its major subsystems were essentially in place at the time of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). Ribosome evolutionary history thus potentially provides a window into the pre- LUCA world. This history begins with the origins of the peptidyl transferase center where the actual peptide is synthesized and then continues over an extended timeframe as additional functional centers including the GTPase center are added. The large ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) have grown over time by an accretion process and a model exists that proposes a relative age of each accreted element. We have compared atomic resolution ribosome structures before and after EF-G bound GTP hydrolysis and thereby identified the location of 23 pivot points in the large rRNAs that facilitate ribosome dynamics. Pivots in small subunit helices h28 and h44 appear to be especially central to the process and according to the accretion model significantly older than the other helices containing pivots. Overall, the results suggest that ribosomal dynamics occurred in two phases. In the first phase, an inherently mobile h28/h44 combination provided the flexibility needed to create a dynamic ribosome that was essentially a Brownian machine. This addition likely made coded peptide synthesis possible by facilitating movement of a primitive mRNA. During the second phase, addition of pivoting elements and the creation of a factor binding site allowed the regulation of the inherent motion created by h28/h44. All of these events likely occurred before LUCA.

  5. Ribosome Inactivating Proteins from Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    Shang, Chenjing; Rougé, Pierre; Van Damme, Els J M

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are widespread among higher plants of different taxonomic orders. In this study, we report on the RIP sequences found in the genome/transcriptome of several important Rosaceae species, including many economically important edible fruits such as apple, pear, peach, apricot, and strawberry. All RIP domains from Rosaceae share high sequence similarity with conserved residues in the catalytic site and the carbohydrate binding sites. The genomes of Malus domestica and Pyrus communis contain both type 1 and type 2 RIP sequences, whereas for Prunus mume, Prunus persica, Pyrus bretschneideri, and Pyrus communis a complex set of type 1 RIP sequences was retrieved. Heterologous expression and purification of the type 1 as well as the type 2 RIP from apple allowed to characterize the biological activity of the proteins. Both RIPs from Malus domestica can inhibit protein synthesis. Furthermore, molecular modelling suggests that RIPs from Rosaceae possess three-dimensional structures that are highly similar to the model proteins and can bind to RIP substrates. Screening of the recombinant type 2 RIP from apple on a glycan array revealed that this type 2 RIP interacts with terminal sialic acid residues. Our data suggest that the RIPs from Rosaceae are biologically active proteins. PMID:27556443

  6. Neuron-Like Networks Between Ribosomal Proteins Within the Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Poirot, Olivier; Timsit, Youri

    2016-01-01

    From brain to the World Wide Web, information-processing networks share common scale invariant properties. Here, we reveal the existence of neural-like networks at a molecular scale within the ribosome. We show that with their extensions, ribosomal proteins form complex assortative interaction networks through which they communicate through tiny interfaces. The analysis of the crystal structures of 50S eubacterial particles reveals that most of these interfaces involve key phylogenetically conserved residues. The systematic observation of interactions between basic and aromatic amino acids at the interfaces and along the extension provides new structural insights that may contribute to decipher the molecular mechanisms of signal transmission within or between the ribosomal proteins. Similar to neurons interacting through "molecular synapses", ribosomal proteins form a network that suggest an analogy with a simple molecular brain in which the "sensory-proteins" innervate the functional ribosomal sites, while the "inter-proteins" interconnect them into circuits suitable to process the information flow that circulates during protein synthesis. It is likely that these circuits have evolved to coordinate both the complex macromolecular motions and the binding of the multiple factors during translation. This opens new perspectives on nanoscale information transfer and processing. PMID:27225526

  7. Neuron-Like Networks Between Ribosomal Proteins Within the Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Poirot, Olivier; Timsit, Youri

    2016-01-01

    From brain to the World Wide Web, information-processing networks share common scale invariant properties. Here, we reveal the existence of neural-like networks at a molecular scale within the ribosome. We show that with their extensions, ribosomal proteins form complex assortative interaction networks through which they communicate through tiny interfaces. The analysis of the crystal structures of 50S eubacterial particles reveals that most of these interfaces involve key phylogenetically conserved residues. The systematic observation of interactions between basic and aromatic amino acids at the interfaces and along the extension provides new structural insights that may contribute to decipher the molecular mechanisms of signal transmission within or between the ribosomal proteins. Similar to neurons interacting through “molecular synapses”, ribosomal proteins form a network that suggest an analogy with a simple molecular brain in which the “sensory-proteins” innervate the functional ribosomal sites, while the “inter-proteins” interconnect them into circuits suitable to process the information flow that circulates during protein synthesis. It is likely that these circuits have evolved to coordinate both the complex macromolecular motions and the binding of the multiple factors during translation. This opens new perspectives on nanoscale information transfer and processing. PMID:27225526

  8. 16S ribosomal RNA-based methods to monitor changes in the hindgut bacterial community of piglets after oral administration of Lactobacillus sobrius S1.

    PubMed

    Su, Yong; Yao, Wen; Perez-Gutierrez, Odette N; Smidt, Hauke; Zhu, Wei-Yun

    2008-04-01

    16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene based PCR/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR were used to monitor the changes in the composition of microbiota in the hindgut of piglets after oral administration of Lactobacillus sobrius S1. Six litters of neonatal piglets were divided randomly into control group and treatment group. At 7, 9, and 11 days of age, piglets in the treatment group orally received a preparation of L. sobrius S1. At 7, 14, 21(weaning), 24, and 35 days of age, one piglet from each litter was sacrificed and digesta samples of hindgut were collected. DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA gene V6-V8 region for all bacteria showed that several populations present in the hindgut of piglets, represented by far-migrating bands, disappeared after weaning. Most of these bands corresponded to Lactobacillus spp. as revealed by sequence analysis. Quantitative real-time PCR specific for lactobacilli further demonstrated that the number of lactobacilli population tended to decrease after the piglets were weaned. Drastic changes of L. amylovorus and L. sobrius in total Lactobacillus populations were also observed in the colon of piglets around weaning, as monitored by 16S rRNA gene V2-V3 region based Lactobacillus-specific PCR-DGGE. Species-specific real-time PCR also revealed that the population of L. sobrius declined apparently in the colon of piglets after weaning. No remarkable changes in the overall microbial community in the hindgut were found between control and treatment groups. However, comparison of DGGE profiles between the two groups revealed a specific band related to Clostridium disporicum that was found in treatment group on day 14. On day 35, a specific band appeared only in the control group, representing a population most closely related to Streptococcus suis (99%). Real-time PCR showed that L. sobrius 16S rRNA gene copies in treatment group were relatively higher than in the control group (10(8.45) vs. 10(6.83)) on day 35, but no

  9. Eukaryotic class 1 translation termination factor eRF1--the NMR structure and dynamics of the middle domain involved in triggering ribosome-dependent peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Elena V; Kolosov, Peter M; Birdsall, Berry; Kelly, Geoff; Pastore, Annalisa; Kisselev, Lev L; Polshakov, Vladimir I

    2007-08-01

    The eukaryotic class 1 polypeptide chain release factor is a three-domain protein involved in the termination of translation, the final stage of polypeptide biosynthesis. In attempts to understand the roles of the middle domain of the eukaryotic class 1 polypeptide chain release factor in the transduction of the termination signal from the small to the large ribosomal subunit and in peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis, its high-resolution NMR structure has been obtained. The overall fold and the structure of the beta-strand core of the protein in solution are similar to those found in the crystal. However, the orientation of the functionally critical GGQ loop and neighboring alpha-helices has genuine and noticeable differences in solution and in the crystal. Backbone amide protons of most of the residues in the GGQ loop undergo fast exchange with water. However, in the AGQ mutant, where functional activity is abolished, a significant reduction in the exchange rate of the amide protons has been observed without a noticeable change in the loop conformation, providing evidence for the GGQ loop interaction with water molecule(s) that may serve as a substrate for the hydrolytic cleavage of the peptidyl-tRNA in the ribosome. The protein backbone dynamics, studied using 15N relaxation experiments, showed that the GGQ loop is the most flexible part of the middle domain. The conformational flexibility of the GGQ and 215-223 loops, which are situated at opposite ends of the longest alpha-helix, could be a determinant of the functional activity of the eukaryotic class 1 polypeptide chain release factor, with that helix acting as the trigger to transmit the signals from one loop to the other. PMID:17651434

  10. Functional characterization of the ribosome biogenesis factors PES, BOP1, and WDR12 (PeBoW), and mechanisms of defective cell growth and proliferation caused by PeBoW deficiency in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Chang Sook; Cho, Hui Kyung; Lee, Du-Hwa; Sim, Hee-Jung; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    The nucleolar protein pescadillo (PES) controls biogenesis of the 60S ribosomal subunit through functional interactions with Block of Proliferation 1 (BOP1) and WD Repeat Domain 12 (WDR12) in plants. In this study, we determined protein characteristics and in planta functions of BOP1 and WDR12, and characterized defects in plant cell growth and proliferation caused by a deficiency of PeBoW (PES-BOP1-WDR12) proteins. Dexamethasone-inducible RNAi of BOP1 and WDR12 caused developmental arrest and premature senescence in Arabidopsis, similar to the phenotype of PES RNAi. Both the N-terminal domain and WD40 repeats of BOP1 and WDR12 were critical for specific associations with 60S/80S ribosomes. In response to nucleolar stress or DNA damage, PeBoW proteins moved from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. Kinematic analyses of leaf growth revealed that depletion of PeBoW proteins led to dramatically suppressed cell proliferation, cell expansion, and epidermal pavement cell differentiation. A deficiency in PeBoW proteins resulted in reduced cyclin-dependent kinase Type A activity, causing reduced phosphorylation of histone H1 and retinoblastoma-related (RBR) protein. PeBoW silencing caused rapid transcriptional modulation of cell-cycle genes, including reduction of E2Fa and Cyclin D family genes, and induction of several KRP genes, accompanied by down-regulation of auxin-related genes and up-regulation of jasmonic acid-related genes. Taken together, these results suggest that the PeBoW proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis play a critical role in plant cell growth and survival, and their depletion leads to inhibition of cell-cycle progression, possibly modulated by phytohormone signaling. PMID:27440937

  11. Functional characterization of the ribosome biogenesis factors PES, BOP1, and WDR12 (PeBoW), and mechanisms of defective cell growth and proliferation caused by PeBoW deficiency in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chang Sook; Cho, Hui Kyung; Lee, Du-Hwa; Sim, Hee-Jung; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2016-09-01

    The nucleolar protein pescadillo (PES) controls biogenesis of the 60S ribosomal subunit through functional interactions with Block of Proliferation 1 (BOP1) and WD Repeat Domain 12 (WDR12) in plants. In this study, we determined protein characteristics and in planta functions of BOP1 and WDR12, and characterized defects in plant cell growth and proliferation caused by a deficiency of PeBoW (PES-BOP1-WDR12) proteins. Dexamethasone-inducible RNAi of BOP1 and WDR12 caused developmental arrest and premature senescence in Arabidopsis, similar to the phenotype of PES RNAi. Both the N-terminal domain and WD40 repeats of BOP1 and WDR12 were critical for specific associations with 60S/80S ribosomes. In response to nucleolar stress or DNA damage, PeBoW proteins moved from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm. Kinematic analyses of leaf growth revealed that depletion of PeBoW proteins led to dramatically suppressed cell proliferation, cell expansion, and epidermal pavement cell differentiation. A deficiency in PeBoW proteins resulted in reduced cyclin-dependent kinase Type A activity, causing reduced phosphorylation of histone H1 and retinoblastoma-related (RBR) protein. PeBoW silencing caused rapid transcriptional modulation of cell-cycle genes, including reduction of E2Fa and Cyclin D family genes, and induction of several KRP genes, accompanied by down-regulation of auxin-related genes and up-regulation of jasmonic acid-related genes. Taken together, these results suggest that the PeBoW proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis play a critical role in plant cell growth and survival, and their depletion leads to inhibition of cell-cycle progression, possibly modulated by phytohormone signaling. PMID:27440937

  12. Functional Role of Ribosomal Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke; Eargle, John; Sarkar, Krishnarjun; Gruebele, Martin; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2010-01-01

    Although structure and sequence signatures in ribosomal RNA and proteins are defining characteristics of the three domains of life and instrumental in constructing the modern phylogeny, little is known about their functional roles in the ribosome. In this work, the largest coevolving RNA/protein signatures in the bacterial 30S ribosome are investigated both experimentally and computationally through all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations. The complex includes the N-terminal fragment of the ribosomal protein S4, which is a primary binding protein that initiates 30S small subunit assembly from the 5′ domain, and helix 16 (h16), which is part of the five-way junction in 16S rRNA. Our results show that the S4 N-terminus signature is intrinsically disordered in solution, whereas h16 is relatively stable by itself. The dynamic disordered property of the protein is exploited to couple the folding and binding process to the five-way junction, and the results provide insight into the mechanism for the early and fast binding of S4 in the assembly of the ribosomal small subunit. PMID:21156135

  13. Chloroplast ribosomes and protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, E H; Boynton, J E; Gillham, N W

    1994-01-01

    Consistent with their postulated origin from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, chloroplasts of plants and algae have ribosomes whose component RNAs and proteins are strikingly similar to those of eubacteria. Comparison of the secondary structures of 16S rRNAs of chloroplasts and bacteria has been particularly useful in identifying highly conserved regions likely to have essential functions. Comparative analysis of ribosomal protein sequences may likewise prove valuable in determining their roles in protein synthesis. This review is concerned primarily with the RNAs and proteins that constitute the chloroplast ribosome, the genes that encode these components, and their expression. It begins with an overview of chloroplast genome structure in land plants and algae and then presents a brief comparison of chloroplast and prokaryotic protein-synthesizing systems and a more detailed analysis of chloroplast rRNAs and ribosomal proteins. A description of the synthesis and assembly of chloroplast ribosomes follows. The review concludes with discussion of whether chloroplast protein synthesis is essential for cell survival. PMID:7854253

  14. Mechanisms of Spontaneous and Induced Frameshift Mutation in Bacteriophage T4

    PubMed Central

    Streisinger, George; Owen, Joyce Emrich

    1985-01-01

    Frequencies of spontaneous and proflavine-induced frameshift mutations increase dramatically as a function of the number of reiterated base pairs at each of two sites in the lysozyme gene of bacteriophage T4. At each site, proflavine induces addition mutations more frequently than deletion mutations. We confirm that the steroidal diamine, irehdiamine A, induces frameshift addition mutations. At sites of reiterated bases, we propose that base pairing is misaligned adjacent to a gap. The misaligned configuration is stabilized by the stacking of mutagen molecules around the extrahelical base, forming a sandwich. Proflavine induces addition mutations efficiently at a site without any reiterated bases. Mutagenesis at such sites may be due to mutagen-induced stuttering of the replication complex. PMID:3988038

  15. Structural snapshots of actively translating human ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Elmar; Loerke, Justus; Budkevich, Tatyana V; Yamamoto, Kaori; Schmidt, Andrea; Penczek, Pawel A; Vos, Matthijn R; Bürger, Jörg; Mielke, Thorsten; Scheerer, Patrick; Spahn, Christian M T

    2015-05-01

    Macromolecular machines, such as the ribosome, undergo large-scale conformational changes during their functional cycles. Although their mode of action is often compared to that of mechanical machines, a crucial difference is that, at the molecular dimension, thermodynamic effects dominate functional cycles, with proteins fluctuating stochastically between functional states defined by energetic minima on an energy landscape. Here, we have used cryo-electron microscopy to image ex-vivo-derived human polysomes as a source of actively translating ribosomes. Multiparticle refinement and 3D variability analysis allowed us to visualize a variety of native translation intermediates. Significantly populated states include not only elongation cycle intermediates in pre- and post-translocational states, but also eEF1A-containing decoding and termination/recycling complexes. Focusing on the post-translocational state, we extended this assessment to the single-residue level, uncovering striking details of ribosome-ligand interactions and identifying both static and functionally important dynamic elements. PMID:25957688

  16. Structural snapshots of actively translating human ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Behrmann, Elmar; Loerke, Justus; Budkevich, Tatyana V.; Yamamoto, Kaori; Schmidt, Andrea; Penczek, Pawel A.; Vos, Matthijn R.; Bürger, Jörg; Mielke, Thorsten; Scheerer, Patrick; Spahn, Christian M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Macromolecular machines, such as the ribosome, undergo large-scale conformational changes during their functional cycles. While their mode of action is often compared to that of mechanical machines, a crucial difference is that at the molecular dimension, thermodynamic effects dominate functional cycles, with proteins fluctuating stochastically between functional states defined by energetic minima on an energy landscape. Here, we have used cryo-electron microscopy to image ex vivo-derived human polysomes as a source of actively translating ribosomes. Multiparticle refinement and three-dimensional variability analysis allowed us to visualize a variety of native translation intermediates. Significantly populated states include not only elongation cycle intermediates in pre- and post-translocational states, but also eEF1A-containing decoding and termination/recycling complexes. Focusing on the post-translocational state, we extended this assessment to the single-residue level, uncovering striking details of ribosome-ligand interactions and identifying both static and functionally important dynamic elements. PMID:25957688

  17. Comprehensive analysis of phosphorylated proteins of Escherichia coli ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Soung, George Y; Miller, Jennifer L; Koc, Hasan; Koc, Emine C

    2009-07-01

    Phosphorylation of bacterial ribosomal proteins has been known for decades; however, there is still very limited information available on specific locations of the phosphorylation sites in ribosomal proteins and the role they might play in protein synthesis. In this study, we have mapped the specific phosphorylation sites in 24 Escherichia coli ribosomal proteins by tandem mass spectrometry. Detection of phosphorylation was achieved by either phosphorylation specific visualization techniques, ProQ staining, and antibodies for phospho-Ser, Thr, and Tyr; or by mass spectrometry equipped with a capability to detect addition and loss of the phosphate moiety. Enrichment by immobilized metal affinity and/or strong cation exchange chromatography was used to improve the success of detection of the low abundance phosphopeptides. We found the small subunit (30S) proteins S3, S4, S5, S7, S11, S12, S13, S18, and S21 and the large subunit (50S) proteins L1, L2, L3, L5, L6, L7/L12, L13, L14, L16, L18, L19, L21, L22, L28, and L31 to be phosphorylated at one or more residues. Potential roles for each specific site in ribosome function were deduced through careful evaluation of the given phosphorylation sites in 3D-crystal structure models of ribosomes and the previous mutational studies of E. coli ribosomal proteins. PMID:19469554

  18. Comprehensive Molecular Structure of the Eukaryotic Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Derek J.; Devkota, Batsal; Huang, Andrew D.; Topf, Maya; Narayanan, Eswar; Sali, Andrej; Harvey, Stephen C.; Frank, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Despite the emergence of a large number of X-ray crystallographic models of the bacterial 70S ribosome over the past decade, an accurate atomic model of the eukaryotic 80S ribosome is still not available. Eukaryotic ribosomes possess more ribosomal proteins and ribosomal RNA than bacterial ribosomes, which are implicated in extra-ribosomal functions in the eukaryotic cells. By combining cryo-EM with RNA and protein homology modeling, we obtained an atomic model of the yeast 80S ribosome complete with all ribosomal RNA expansion segments and all ribosomal proteins for which a structural homolog can be identified. Mutation or deletion of 80S ribosomal proteins can abrogate maturation of the ribosome, leading to several human diseases. We have localized one such protein unique to eukaryotes, rpS19e, whose mutations are associated with Diamond-Blackfan anemia in humans. Additionally, we characterize crucial and novel interactions between the dynamic stalk base of the ribosome with eukaryotic elongation factor 2. PMID:20004163

  19. New ribosomes for new memories?

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, A Iván; Alarcon, Juan M; Allen, Kim D

    2015-01-01

    Widely thought to be a housekeeping process, the regulation and synthesis of rRNA emerges as a potentially central mechanism for the maintenance of synaptic plasticity and memory. We have recently shown that an essential component of late-phase synaptic plasticity is rRNA biosynthesis — the rate-limiting step in the production of new ribosomes. We hypothesize that a particular population of ribosomes is generated upon learning-associated neural activity to alter the rate of synthesis of plasticity factors at tagged synapses that will support the maintenance of synaptic plasticity and memory. PMID:26479998

  20. The β1 adrenergic effects of antibodies against the C-terminal end of the ribosomal P2β protein of Trypanosoma cruzi associate with a specific pattern of epitope recognition

    PubMed Central

    Bergami, P Lopez; Gómez, KA; Levy, GV; Grippo, V; Baldi, A; Levin, MJ

    2005-01-01

    BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi ribosomal P2β protein (TcP2β) develop a strong and specific antibody response against its 13 residue-long C-terminal epitope (peptide R13: EEEDDDMGFGLFD) that has a concomitant β1-adrenergic stimulating activity. However, other animals that undergo similar immunizations seem tolerant to this epitope. To evaluate further the antibody response against the ribosomal P proteins, 25 BALB/c and 25 Swiss mice were immunized with TcP2β. From the 50 animals, 31 developed a positive anti-R13 response, whereas 19 were non-responsive. From the 31 anti-R13 positive mice, 25 had anti-R13 antibodies that recognized the discontinuous motif ExDDxGF, and their presence correlated with the recording of supraventricular tachycardia. The other six had anti-R13 antibodies but with a normal electrocardiographic recording. These anti-R13 antibodies recognized the motif DDxGF shared by mammals and T. cruzi and proved to be a true anti-P autoantibody because they were similar to those elicited in Swiss, but not in BALB/c mice, by immunization with the C-terminal portion of the mouse ribosomal P protein. Our results show that the recognition of the glutamic acid in position 3 of peptide R13 defines the ability of anti-R13 antibodies to react with the motif AESDE of the second extracellular loop of the β1-adrenergic receptor, setting the molecular basis for their pathogenic β1 adrenoceptor stimulating activity. PMID:16178868

  1. SERPINB11 Frameshift Variant Associated with Novel Hoof Specific Phenotype in Connemara Ponies

    PubMed Central

    Young, Amy; Affolter, Verena; Joshi, Nikhil A.; Ramsay, Sheila; Bannasch, Danika L.

    2015-01-01

    Horses belong to the order Perissodactyla and bear the majority of their weight on their third toe; therefore, tremendous force is applied to each hoof. An inherited disease characterized by a phenotype restricted to the dorsal hoof wall was identified in the Connemara pony. Hoof wall separation disease (HWSD) manifests clinically as separation of the dorsal hoof wall along the weight-bearing surface of the hoof during the first year of life. Parents of affected ponies appeared clinically normal, suggesting an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. A case-control allelic genome wide association analysis was performed (ncases = 15, ncontrols = 24). Population stratification (λ = 1.48) was successfully improved by removing outliers (ncontrols = 7) identified on a multidimensional scaling plot. A genome-wide significant association was detected on chromosome 8 (praw = 1.37x10-10, pgenome = 1.92x10-5). A homozygous region identified in affected ponies spanned from 79,936,024-81,676,900 bp and contained a family of 13 annotated SERPINB genes. Whole genome next-generation sequencing at 6x coverage of two cases and two controls revealed 9,758 SNVs and 1,230 indels within the ~1.7-Mb haplotype, of which 17 and 5, respectively, segregated with the disease and were located within or adjacent to genes. Additional genotyping of these 22 putative functional variants in 369 Connemara ponies (ncases = 23, ncontrols = 346) and 169 horses of other breeds revealed segregation of three putative variants adjacent or within four SERPIN genes. Two of the variants were non-coding and one was an insertion within SERPINB11 that introduced a frameshift resulting in a premature stop codon. Evaluation of mRNA levels at the proximal hoof capsule (ncases = 4, ncontrols = 4) revealed that SERPINB11 expression was significantly reduced in affected ponies (p<0.001). Carrier frequency was estimated at 14.8%. This study describes the first genetic variant associated with a hoof wall specific

  2. SERPINB11 frameshift variant associated with novel hoof specific phenotype in Connemara ponies.

    PubMed

    Finno, Carrie J; Stevens, Carlynn; Young, Amy; Affolter, Verena; Joshi, Nikhil A; Ramsay, Sheila; Bannasch, Danika L

    2015-04-01

    Horses belong to the order Perissodactyla and bear the majority of their weight on their third toe; therefore, tremendous force is applied to each hoof. An inherited disease characterized by a phenotype restricted to the dorsal hoof wall was identified in the Connemara pony. Hoof wall separation disease (HWSD) manifests clinically as separation of the dorsal hoof wall along the weight-bearing surface of the hoof during the first year of life. Parents of affected ponies appeared clinically normal, suggesting an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. A case-control allelic genome wide association analysis was performed (ncases = 15, ncontrols = 24). Population stratification (λ = 1.48) was successfully improved by removing outliers (ncontrols = 7) identified on a multidimensional scaling plot. A genome-wide significant association was detected on chromosome 8 (praw = 1.37x10-10, pgenome = 1.92x10-5). A homozygous region identified in affected ponies spanned from 79,936,024-81,676,900 bp and contained a family of 13 annotated SERPINB genes. Whole genome next-generation sequencing at 6x coverage of two cases and two controls revealed 9,758 SNVs and 1,230 indels within the ~1.7-Mb haplotype, of which 17 and 5, respectively, segregated with the disease and were located within or adjacent to genes. Additional genotyping of these 22 putative functional variants in 369 Connemara ponies (ncases = 23, ncontrols = 346) and 169 horses of other breeds revealed segregation of three putative variants adjacent or within four SERPIN genes. Two of the variants were non-coding and one was an insertion within SERPINB11 that introduced a frameshift resulting in a premature stop codon. Evaluation of mRNA levels at the proximal hoof capsule (ncases = 4, ncontrols = 4) revealed that SERPINB11 expression was significantly reduced in affected ponies (p<0.001). Carrier frequency was estimated at 14.8%. This study describes the first genetic variant associated with a hoof wall specific

  3. Initiation factor 2 stabilizes the ribosome in a semirotated conformation.

    PubMed

    Ling, Clarence; Ermolenko, Dmitri N

    2015-12-29

    Intersubunit rotation and movement of the L1 stalk, a mobile domain of the large ribosomal subunit, have been shown to accompany the elongation cycle of translation. The initiation phase of protein synthesis is crucial for translational control of gene expression; however, in contrast to elongation, little is known about the conformational rearrangements of the ribosome during initiation. Bacterial initiation factors (IFs) 1, 2, and 3 mediate the binding of initiator tRNA and mRNA to the small ribosomal subunit to form the initiation complex, which subsequently associates with the large subunit by a poorly understood mechanism. Here, we use single-molecule FRET to monitor intersubunit rotation and the inward/outward movement of the L1 stalk of the large ribosomal subunit during the subunit-joining step of translation initiation. We show that, on subunit association, the ribosome adopts a distinct conformation in which the ribosomal subunits are in a semirotated orientation and the L1 stalk is positioned in a half-closed state. The formation of the semirotated intermediate requires the presence of an aminoacylated initiator, fMet-tRNA(fMet), and IF2 in the GTP-bound state. GTP hydrolysis by IF2 induces opening of the L1 stalk and the transition to the nonrotated conformation of the ribosome. Our results suggest that positioning subunits in a semirotated orientation facilitates subunit association and support a model in which L1 stalk movement is coupled to intersubunit rotation and/or IF2 binding. PMID:26668356

  4. Chromatographic Purification of Highly Active Yeast Ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Meskauskas, Arturas; Leshin, Jonathan A.; Dinman, Jonathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic ribosomes are much more labile as compared to their eubacterial and archael counterparts, thus posing a significant challenge to researchers. Particularly troublesome is the fact that lysis of cells releases a large number of proteases and nucleases which can degrade ribosomes. Thus, it is important to separate ribosomes from these enzymes as quickly as possible. Unfortunately, conventional differential ultracentrifugation methods leaves ribosomes exposed to these enzymes for unacceptably long periods of time, impacting their structural integrity and functionality. To address this problem, we utilize a chromatographic method using a cysteine charged Sulfolink resin. This simple and rapid application significantly reduces co-purifying proteolytic and nucleolytic activities, producing high yields of intact, highly biochemically active yeast ribosomes. We suggest that this method should also be applicable to mammalian ribosomes. The simplicity of the method, and the enhanced purity and activity of chromatographically purified ribosome represents a significant technical advancement for the study of eukaryotic ribosomes. PMID:22042245

  5. Ribosomal protein uS19 mutants reveal its role in coordinating ribosome structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Alicia M; Musalgaonkar, Sharmishtha; Moomau, Christine A; Gulay, Suna P; Mirvis, Mary; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies identified allosteric information pathways connecting functional centers in the large ribosomal subunit to the decoding center in the small subunit through the B1a and B1b/c intersubunit bridges in yeast. In prokaryotes a single SSU protein, uS13, partners with H38 (the A-site finger) and uL5 to form the B1a and B1b/c bridges respectively. In eukaryotes, the SSU component was split into 2 separate proteins during the course of evolution. One, also known as uS13, participates in B1b/c bridge with uL5 in eukaryotes. The other, called uS19 is the SSU partner in the B1a bridge with H38. Here, polyalanine mutants of uS19 involved in the uS19/uS13 and the uS19/H38 interfaces were used to elucidate the important amino acid residues involved in these intersubunit communication pathways. Two key clusters of amino acids were identified: one located at the junction between uS19 and uS13, and a second that appears to interact with the distal tip of H38. Biochemical analyses reveal that these mutations shift the ribosomal rotational equilibrium toward the unrotated state, increasing ribosomal affinity for tRNAs in the P-site and for ternary complex in the A-site, and inhibit binding of the translocase, eEF2. These defects in turn affect specific aspects of translational fidelity. These findings suggest that uS19 plays a critical role as a conduit of information exchange between the large and small ribosomal subunits directly through the B1a, and indirectly through the B1b/c bridges. PMID:26824029

  6. Ribosomal protein uS19 mutants reveal its role in coordinating ribosome structure and function.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Alicia M; Musalgaonkar, Sharmishtha; Moomau, Christine A; Gulay, Suna P; Mirvis, Mary; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies identified allosteric information pathways connecting functional centers in the large ribosomal subunit to the decoding center in the small subunit through the B1a and B1b/c intersubunit bridges in yeast. In prokaryotes a single SSU protein, uS13, partners with H38 (the A-site finger) and uL5 to form the B1a and B1b/c bridges respectively. In eukaryotes, the SSU component was split into 2 separate proteins during the course of evolution. One, also known as uS13, participates in B1b/c bridge with uL5 in eukaryotes. The other, called uS19 is the SSU partner in the B1a bridge with H38. Here, polyalanine mutants of uS19 involved in the uS19/uS13 and the uS19/H38 interfaces were used to elucidate the important amino acid residues involved in these intersubunit communication pathways. Two key clusters of amino acids were identified: one located at the junction between uS19 and uS13, and a second that appears to interact with the distal tip of H38. Biochemical analyses reveal that these mutations shift the ribosomal rotational equilibrium toward the unrotated state, increasing ribosomal affinity for tRNAs in the P-site and for ternary complex in the A-site, and inhibit binding of the translocase, eEF2. These defects in turn affect specific aspects of translational fidelity. These findings suggest that uS19 plays a critical role as a conduit of information exchange between the large and small ribosomal subunits directly through the B1a, and indirectly through the B1b/c bridges. PMID:26824029

  7. AMPLIFICATION OF RIBOSOMAL RNA SEQUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book chapter offers an overview of the use of ribosomal RNA sequences. A history of the technology traces the evolution of techniques to measure bacterial phylogenetic relationships and recent advances in obtaining rRNA sequence information. The manual also describes procedu...

  8. Studies on Pea Ribosomal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chu-Yung; Chia, Subrina Li-Li; Travis, Robert L.; Key, Joe L.

    1975-01-01

    Ribosomal subunits prepared by NH4Cl dissociation (0.5 m) of the monomeric ribosomes were much less active in in vitro protein synthesis than those prepared by KCl dissociation. The decrease in activity correlated with a detachment of some proteins (L2 and L9 as shown by gel electrophoresis) within the 60S ribosomal subunits. Subunits prepared with 0.3 m NH4Cl retained L2 and L9, but the activity remained low. Incubation of these 60S subunits in TKM buffer (50 mm tris [pH 7.5], 20 mm KCl, and 5 mm MgCl2) for 20 min at 37 C restored the activity almost to the level of those obtained by KCl dissociation. Treatment of the 0.3 m NH4Cl-derived 60S subunits with a protein reagent, Procion brilliant blue, prior to extraction of the ribosomal proteins resulted in the loss of L2 and L9, showing that these proteins were made accessible for dye binding. These observations suggest that a considerable degree of unfolding of the 60S subunit occurs at 0.3 m NH4Cl (this apparently leads to a preferential detachment of L2 and L9 at 0.5 m NH4Cl) and that the activity of the purified subunits depends not only on the presence of L2 and L9 but also on the organization of these proteins within the 60S subunits. Images PMID:16659254

  9. Effects of ribosome-inactivating proteins on Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens translation systems.

    PubMed Central

    Girbés, T; Barbieri, L; Ferreras, M; Arias, F J; Rojo, M A; Iglesias, R; Alegre, C; Escarmis, C; Stirpe, F

    1993-01-01

    The effects of 30 type 1 and of 2 (ricin and volkensin) type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) on Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens cell-free translation systems were compared with the effects on a rabbit reticulocyte translation system. The depurinating activity of RIPs on E. coli ribosomes was also evaluated. Only six type 1 RIPs inhibited endogenous mRNA-directed translational activity of E. coli lysates, with submicromolar 50% inhibitory concentrations. Four RIPs had similar activities on poly(U)-directed phenylalanine polymerization by E. coli ribosomes, and three RIPs inhibited poly(U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis by A. tumefaciens ribosomes, with submicromolar 50% inhibitory concentrations. Images PMID:8407849

  10. Recycling of eukaryotic post-termination ribosomal complexes

    PubMed Central

    Pisarev, Andrey V.; Hellen, Christopher U. T.; Pestova, Tatyana V.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY After translational termination, mRNA and P site deacylated tRNA remain associated with ribosomes in post-termination complexes (post-TCs), which must therefore be recycled by releasing mRNA and deacylated tRNA and by dissociating ribosomes into subunits. Recycling of bacterial post-TCs requires elongation factor EF-G and a ribosome recycling factor RRF. Eukaryotes do not encode a RRF homologue and their mechanism of ribosomal recycling is unknown. We investigated eukaryotic recycling using post-TCs assembled on a model mRNA encoding a tetrapeptide followed by a UAA stop codon and report that initiation factors eIF3, eIF1, eIF1A and eIF3j, a loosely associated subunit of eIF3, can promote recycling of eukaryotic post-TCs. eIF3 is the principal factor that promotes splitting of post-termination ribosomes into 60S subunits and tRNA- and mRNA-bound 40S subunits. Its activity is enhanced by eIF3j, eIF1 and eIF1A. eIF1 also mediates release of P-site tRNA, whereas eIF3j ensures subsequent dissociation of mRNA. PMID:17956730

  11. Regulation of the mammalian elongation cycle by subunit rolling: a eukaryotic-specific ribosome rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Budkevich, Tatyana V; Giesebrecht, Jan; Behrmann, Elmar; Loerke, Justus; Ramrath, David J F; Mielke, Thorsten; Ismer, Jochen; Hildebrand, Peter W; Tung, Chang-Shung; Nierhaus, Knud H; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y; Spahn, Christian M T

    2014-07-01

    The extent to which bacterial ribosomes and the significantly larger eukaryotic ribosomes share the same mechanisms of ribosomal elongation is unknown. Here, we present subnanometer resolution cryoelectron microscopy maps of the mammalian 80S ribosome in the posttranslocational state and in complex with the eukaryotic eEF1A⋅Val-tRNA⋅GMPPNP ternary complex, revealing significant differences in the elongation mechanism between bacteria and mammals. Surprisingly, and in contrast to bacterial ribosomes, a rotation of the small subunit around its long axis and orthogonal to the well-known intersubunit rotation distinguishes the posttranslocational state from the classical pretranslocational state ribosome. We term this motion "subunit rolling." Correspondingly, a mammalian decoding complex visualized in substates before and after codon recognition reveals structural distinctions from the bacterial system. These findings suggest how codon recognition leads to GTPase activation in the mammalian system and demonstrate that in mammalia subunit rolling occurs during tRNA selection. PMID:24995983

  12. Chemical probing of the tRNA--ribosome complex.

    PubMed Central

    Peattie, D A; Herr, W

    1981-01-01

    We probed the (Escherichia coli) tRNAPhe--ribosome interaction with the chemical reagents dimethyl sulfate and diethyl pyrocarbonate. This monitored the higher-order structure of the tRNA in this biological complex and identified critical sites in the tRNA molecule involved in binding to the ribosome. The methylation of the N-7 position of guanosine and the N-3 position of cytidine as well as diethyl pyrocarbonate attack on adenosines are sensitive to secondary and tertiary interactions. Here we identify specific bases in E. coli Phe-tRNAPhe affected by the interaction with the ribosome. The 70S ribosome protects the N-3 position of cytidine-74 and 75 in the 3'-terminal C-C-A, suggesting a strong, possibly base pairing, interaction between the ribosome and that universal sequence. The ribosome also induces strong reactivities at the N-7 positions of G-24 and G-46 in the central region of the tRNA molecule near the variable-loop domain as well as less significant reactivities at 11 other guanosines. Two of these, G-10 and G-44, are close to G-24 and G-46 in the center of the molecule; the others (guanosines 1, 5, 6, 18, 19, 63, 65, 69, and 71) are in the coaxial acceptor stem-T stem helix. All of the effects are ribosome induced and occur in the presence or absence of the messenger poly(U). Prior chemical modification of the anticodon bases as well as the two adjacent 3' purines and, less effectively, four purines in the anticodon stem prevent stable poly(U)-directed ribosome binding. Thus, we identify the 3' terminal C-C-A sequence, near the peptidyl transferase site, and the anticodon stem and loop of tRNAPhe as forming critical contacts with the ribosome. Other regions of the molecule become reactive on ribosome binding, but these do not suggest a significant conformational change being more likely due to a change of environment. Images PMID:6166006

  13. The immunogenic activity of ribosomal fractions derived from Brucella abortus.

    PubMed Central

    Corbel, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    The immunizing activity of ribosome preparations derived from Brucella abortus strain 19 cells was examined in guinea-pigs and mice. After subcutaneous injections of Br. abortus ribosomes in Freund's incomplete adjuvant, both mice and guinea-pigs developed immunity to challenge by virulent Br. abortus 544 organisms which was at least as effective as the protection conferred by live strain 19 vaccine. Both mice and guinea-pigs also developed agglutinating and complement-fixing antibodies and delayed hypersensitivity to Br. Abortus antigens. Conversely, ribosome preparations elicited delayed hypersensitivity reactions on intracutaneous injection into guinea-pigs chronically infected with Br. abortus or Br. melitensis. On injection into rabbits, Br. abortus ribosomes incorporated in incomplete adjuvant induced high titres of agglutinins, complement fxing antibodies and precipitins for Br. abortus antigens. On immunochemical examination, the ribosome preparations were not grossly contaminated with antigens derived from the cell surface. They were chemically complex, however, and in addition to RNA contained numerous protein components identified by disk electrophoresis. The nature of the components responsible for conferring protection against Br. abortus was not determined. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:812900

  14. Frameshift Deletion by Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA Polymerase Dpo4 T239W Is Selective for Purines and Involves Normal Conformational Change Followed by Slow Phosphodiester Bond Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huidong; Beckman, Jeff W.; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2009-01-01

    The human DNA polymerase κ homolog Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) produces “−1frameshift deletions while copying unmodified DNA and, more frequently, when bypassing DNA adducts. As judged by steady-state kinetics and mass spectrometry, bypass of purine template bases to produce these deletions occurred rarely but with 10-fold higher frequency than with pyrimidines. The DNA adduct 1,N2-etheno-2′-deoxyguanosine, with a larger stacking surface than canonical purines, showed the highest frequency of formation of −1 frameshift deletions. Dpo4 T239W, a mutant we had previously shown to produce fluorescence changes attributed to conformational change following dNTP binding opposite cognate bases (Beckman, J. W., Wang, Q., and Guengerich, F. P. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 36711–36723), reported similar conformational changes when the incoming dNTP complemented the base following a templating purine base or bulky adduct (i.e. the “+1” base). However, in all mispairing cases, phosphodiester bond formation was inefficient. The frequency of −1 frameshift events and the associated conformational changes were not dependent on the context of the remainder of the sequence. Collectively, our results support a mechanism for −1 frameshift deletions by Dpo4 that involves formation of active complexes via a favorable conformational change that skips the templating base, without causing slippage or flipping out of the base, to incorporate a complementary residue opposite the +1 base, in a mechanism previously termed “dNTP-stabilized incorporation.” The driving force is attributed to be the stacking potential between the templating base and the incoming dNTP base. PMID:19837980

  15. Frameshift deletion by Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase Dpo4 T239W is selective for purines and involves normal conformational change followed by slow phosphodiester bond formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huidong; Beckman, Jeff W; Guengerich, F Peter

    2009-12-11

    The human DNA polymerase kappa homolog Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) produces "-1" frameshift deletions while copying unmodified DNA and, more frequently, when bypassing DNA adducts. As judged by steady-state kinetics and mass spectrometry, bypass of purine template bases to produce these deletions occurred rarely but with 10-fold higher frequency than with pyrimidines. The DNA adduct 1,N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine, with a larger stacking surface than canonical purines, showed the highest frequency of formation of -1 frameshift deletions. Dpo4 T239W, a mutant we had previously shown to produce fluorescence changes attributed to conformational change following dNTP binding opposite cognate bases (Beckman, J. W., Wang, Q., and Guengerich, F. P. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 36711-36723), reported similar conformational changes when the incoming dNTP complemented the base following a templating purine base or bulky adduct (i.e. the "+1" base). However, in all mispairing cases, phosphodiester bond formation was inefficient. The frequency of -1 frameshift events and the associated conformational changes were not dependent on the context of the remainder of the sequence. Collectively, our results support a mechanism for -1 frameshift deletions by Dpo4 that involves formation of active complexes via a favorable conformational change that skips the templating base, without causing slippage or flipping out of the base, to incorporate a complementary residue opposite the +1 base, in a mechanism previously termed "dNTP-stabilized incorporation." The driving force is attributed to be the stacking potential between the templating base and the incoming dNTP base. PMID:19837980

  16. Alcoholic Liver Disease and the Mitochondrial Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Alan; Sykora, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Summary Chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to severely compromise mitochondrial protein synthesis. Hepatic mitochondria isolated from alcoholic animals contain decreased levels of respiratory complexes and display depressed respiration rates when compared to pair-fed controls. One underlying mechanism for this involves ethanol-elicited alterations in the structural and functional integrity of the mitochondrial ribosome. Ethanol feeding results in ribosomal changes that include decreased sedimentation rates, larger hydrodynamic volumes, increased levels of unassociated subunits and changes in the levels of specific ribosomal proteins. The methods presented in this chapter detail how to isolate mitochondrial ribosomes, determine ribosomal activity, separate ribosomes into nucleic acid and protein, and perform two-dimensional nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoretic polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to separate and subsequently identify mitochondrial ribosomal proteins. PMID:18369931

  17. [About the ribosomal biogenesis in human].

    PubMed

    Tafforeau, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomes are cellular ribonucleoprotein particles required for a fundamental mechanism, translation of the genetic information into proteins. Ribosome biogenesis is a highly complex pathway involving many maturation steps: ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, rRNA processing, pre-rRNA modifications, its assembly with ribosomal proteins in the nuceolus, export of the subunit precursors to the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm. Ribosome biogenesis has mainly being investigated in yeast during these last 25 years. However, recent works have shown that, despite many similarities between yeast and human ribosome structure and biogenesis, human pre-rRNA processing is far more complex than in yeast. In order to better understand diseases related to a malfunction in ribosome synthesis, the ribosomopathies, research should be conducted directly in human cells and animal models. PMID:26152166

  18. Intersubunit movement is required for ribosomal translocation

    PubMed Central

    Horan, Lucas H.; Noller, Harry F.

    2007-01-01

    Translocation of tRNA and mRNA during protein synthesis is believed to be coupled to structural changes in the ribosome. The “ratchet model,” based on cryo-EM reconstructions of ribosome complexes, invokes relative movement of the 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits in this process; however, evidence that directly demonstrates a requirement for intersubunit movement during translocation is lacking. To address this problem, we created an intersubunit disulfide cross-link to restrict potential movement. The cross-linked ribosomes were unable to carry out polypeptide synthesis; this inhibition was completely reversed upon reduction of the disulfide bridge. In vitro assays showed that the cross-linked ribosomes were specifically blocked in elongation factor G-dependent translocation. These findings show that intersubunit movement is required for ribosomal translocation, accounting for the universal two-subunit architecture of ribosomes. PMID:17360328

  19. Efficient Translation Initiation Directed by the 900-Nucleotide-Long and GC-Rich 5′ Untranslated Region of the Human Retrotransposon LINE-1 mRNA Is Strictly Cap Dependent Rather than Internal Ribosome Entry Site Mediated▿

    PubMed Central

    Dmitriev, Sergey E.; Andreev, Dmitri E.; Terenin, Ilya M.; Olovnikov, Ivan A.; Prassolov, Vladimir S.; Merrick, William C.; Shatsky, Ivan N.

    2007-01-01

    Retrotransposon L1 is a mobile genetic element of the LINE family that is extremely widespread in the mammalian genome. It encodes a dicistronic mRNA, which is exceptionally rare among eukaryotic cellular mRNAs. The extremely long and GC-rich L1 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) directs synthesis of numerous copies of RNA-binding protein ORF1p per mRNA. One could suggest that the 5′UTR of L1 mRNA contained a powerful internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element. Using transfection of cultured cells with the polyadenylated monocistronic (L1 5′UTR-Fluc) or bicistronic (Rluc-L1 5′UTR-Fluc) RNA constructs, capped or uncapped, it has been firmly established that the 5′UTR of L1 does not contain an IRES. Uncapping reduces the initiation activity of the L1 5′UTR to that of background. Moreover, the translation is inhibited by upstream AUG codons in the 5′UTR. Nevertheless, this cap-dependent initiation activity of the L1 5′UTR was unexpectedly high and resembles that of the beta-actin 5′UTR (84 nucleotides long). Strikingly, the deletion of up to 80% of the nucleotide sequence of the L1 5′UTR, with most of its stem loops, does not significantly change its translation initiation efficiency. These data can modify current ideas on mechanisms used by 40S ribosomal subunits to cope with complex 5′UTRs and call into question the conception that every long GC-rich 5′UTR working with a high efficiency has to contain an IRES. Our data also demonstrate that the ORF2 translation initiation is not directed by internal initiation, either. It is very inefficient and presumably based on a reinitiation event. PMID:17470553

  20. Replication of ribosomal DNA in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Bozzoni, I; Baldari, C T; Amaldi, F; Buongiorno-Nardelli, M

    1981-09-01

    The study of the localization of the replication origins of rDNA in Xenopus laevis has been approached by two different methods. 1. The DNA of X. laevis larvae was fractionated by CsCl gradient centrifugation in bulk and ribosomal DNA and examined in the electron microscope. In bulk DNA, clusters of microbubbles, which are related with the origins of replication, appear to be spaced along the DNA molecules at intervals comparable with the size of the 'average' replicon of X. laevis. In ribosomal DNA, the distance between adjacent clusters is much shorter and corresponds to the size of the rDNA repeating unit. When ribosomal DNA was submitted to digestion with restriction enzymes (Eco RI and HindIII) the microbubbles are observed in the non-transcribed spacer-containing fragment. 2. Cultured cells of X. laevis were synchronized by mitotic selection and incubated with 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine for a time longer than the G1 phase. This treatment synchronizes the replicons and allows them to start replicating very slowly. It was thus possible to obtain a preferential labelling of the regions containing the origins. The analysis by gel electrophoresis of the Eco Ri-digested rDNA showed that the radioactivity was preferentially incorporated in the fragments which contain the non-transcribed spacer. The results of these two approaches indicate that the rRNA gene cluster consists of multiple units of replication, possibly one per gene unit. Furthermore they show that the origins of replication are localized into the non-transcribed spacer. PMID:7297565

  1. Yeast ribosomal protein L7 and its homologue Rlp7 are simultaneously present at distinct sites on pre-60S ribosomal particles

    PubMed Central

    Babiano, Reyes; Badis, Gwenael; Saveanu, Cosmin; Namane, Abdelkader; Doyen, Antonia; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio; Jacquier, Alain; Fromont-Racine, Micheline; de la Cruz, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis requires >300 assembly factors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ribosome assembly factors Imp3, Mrt4, Rlp7 and Rlp24 have sequence similarity to ribosomal proteins S9, P0, L7 and L24, suggesting that these pre-ribosomal factors could be placeholders that prevent premature assembly of the corresponding ribosomal proteins to nascent ribosomes. However, we found L7 to be a highly specific component of Rlp7-associated complexes, revealing that the two proteins can bind simultaneously to pre-ribosomal particles. Cross-linking and cDNA analysis experiments showed that Rlp7 binds to the ITS2 region of 27S pre-rRNAs, at two sites, in helix III and in a region adjacent to the pre-rRNA processing sites C1 and E. However, L7 binds to mature 25S and 5S rRNAs and cross-linked predominantly to helix ES7Lb within 25S rRNA. Thus, despite their predicted structural similarity, our data show that Rlp7 and L7 clearly bind at different positions on the same pre-60S particles. Our results also suggest that Rlp7 facilitates the formation of the hairpin structure of ITS2 during 60S ribosomal subunit maturation. PMID:23945946

  2. An adolescent case of familial hyperparathyroidism with a germline frameshift mutation of the CDC73 gene.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Takako; Yoto, Yuko; Tsugawa, Takeshi; Kamasaki, Hotaka; Kondo, Atsushi; Ogino, Jiro; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Yama, Naoya; Anan, Sawa; Uchino, Shinya; Ishikawa, Aki; Sakurai, Akihiro; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    A 13-yr-old boy who complained of persistent nausea, vomiting and weight loss had hypercalcemia and an elevated intact PTH level. Computed tomography confirmed two tumors in the thyroid gland. The tumors were surgically removed and pathologically confirmed as parathyroid adenoma. Because his maternal aunt and grandmother both had histories of parathyroid tumors, genetic investigation was undertaken for him, and a germline frameshift mutation of the CDC73 gene was identified. CDC73 gene analysis should be done on individuals who are at risk of familial hyperparathyroidism, including those who are asymptomatic, and they should be followed for potential primary hyperparathyroidism and associated disorders including resultant parathyroid carcinoma. PMID:26568659

  3. A novel frameshift mutation of CHD7 in a Japanese patient with CHARGE syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Shono, Miki; Naruto, Takuya; Watanabe, Miki; Suga, Ken-ichi; Nakagawa, Ryuji; Kagami, Shoji; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Imoto, Issei

    2016-01-01

    CHARGE syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant developmental disorder involving multiple organs. CHD7 is a major causative gene of CHARGE syndrome. We performed targeted-exome sequencing using a next-generation sequencer for molecular diagnosis of a 4-month-old male patient who was clinically suspected to have CHARGE syndrome, and report a novel monoallelic mutation in CHD7, NM_017780.3(CHD7_v001):c.2966del causing a reading frameshift [p.(Cys989Serfs*3)]. PMID:27081570

  4. Frameshift mutations at two hotspots in vasopressin transcripts in post-mitotic neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D A; van der Kleij, A A; Sonnemans, M A; Burbach, J P; van Leeuwen, F W

    1994-01-01

    Mutations in DNA underlie carcinogenesis, inherited pathology, and aging and are generally thought to be introduced during meiosis and mitosis. Here we report that in post-mitotic neurons specific frameshift mutations occur at high frequency. These mutations were identified in vasopressin transcripts in magnocellular neurons of the homozygous Brattleboro rat and predominantly consist of a GA deletion in GAGAG motifs. Immunocytochemistry provides evidence for similar events in wild-type rats. However, the diseased state of the Brattleboro rat, resulting in a permanent activation of vasopressin neurons, enhanced the mutational rate. These data reveal hitherto unrecognized somatic mutations in nondividing neurons. Images PMID:8016115

  5. Ribosome biogenesis: emerging evidence for a central role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass†

    PubMed Central

    Chaillou, Thomas; Kirby, Tyler J.; McCarthy, John J.

    2016-01-01

    The ribosome is a supramolecular ribonucleoprotein complex that functions at the heart of the translation machinery to convert mRNA into protein. Ribosome biogenesis is the primary determinant of translational capacity of the cell and accordingly has an essential role in the control of cell growth in eukaryotes. Cumulative evidence supports the hypothesis that ribosome biogenesis has an important role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass. The purpose of this review is to, first, summarize the main mechanisms known to regulate ribosome biogenesis and, second, put forth the hypothesis that ribosome biogenesis is a central mechanism used by skeletal muscle to regulate protein synthesis and control skeletal muscle mass in response to anabolic and catabolic stimuli. The mTORC1 and Wnt/β-catenin/c-myc signaling pathways are discussed as the major pathways that work in concert with each of the three RNA polymerases (RNA Pol I, II and III) in regulating ribosome biogenesis. Consistent with our hypothesis, activation of these two pathways has been shown to be associated with ribosome biogenesis during skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Although further study is required, the finding that ribosome biogenesis is altered under catabolic states, in particular during disuse atrophy, suggests that its activation represents a novel therapeutic target to reduce or prevent muscle atrophy. Lastly, the emerging field of ribosome specialization is discussed and its potential role in the regulation of gene expression during periods of skeletal muscle plasticity. PMID:24604615

  6. Atomic model of the Thermus thermophilus 70S ribosome developed in silico.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chang-Shung; Sanbonmatsu, Kevin Y

    2004-10-01

    The ribosome is a large molecular complex that consists of at least three ribonucleic acid molecules and a large number of proteins. It translates genetic information from messenger ribonucleic acid and makes protein accordingly. To better understand ribosomal function and provide information for designing biochemical experiments require knowledge of the complete structure of the ribosome. For expanding the structural information of the ribosome, we took on the challenge of developing a detailed Thermus thermophilus ribosomal structure computationally. By combining information derived from the low-resolution x-ray structure of the 70S ribosome (providing the overall fold), high-resolution structures of the ribosomal subunits (providing the local structure), sequences, and secondary structures, we have developed an atomic model of the T. thermophilus ribosome using a homology modeling approach. Our model is stereochemically sound with a consistent single-species sequence. The overall folds of the three ribosomal ribonucleic acids in our model are consistent with those in the low-resolution crystal structure (root mean-square differences are all <1.9 angstroms). The large overall interface area (approximately 2500 angstroms2) of intersubunit bridges B2a, B3, and B5, and the inherent flexibility in regions connecting the contact residues are consistent with these bridges serving as anchoring patches for the ratcheting and rolling motions between the two subunits during translocation. PMID:15454463

  7. A Ribosome Flow Model for Analyzing Translation Elongation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuveni, Shlomi; Meilijson, Isaac; Kupiec, Martin; Ruppin, Eytan; Tuller, Tamir

    We describe the first genome wide analysis of translation based on a model aimed at capturing the physical and dynamical aspects of this process. The Ribosomal Flow Model (RFM) is a computationally efficient approximation of the Totally Asymmetric Exclusion Process (TASEP) model (e.g. see [1]). The RFM is sensitive to the order of codons in the coding sequence, the tRNA pool of the organism, interactions between ribosomes and their size (see Figure [1]). The RFM predicts fundamental outcomes of the translation process, including translation rates, protein abundance and ribosomal densities [2] and the relation between all these variables, better than alternative ('non-physical') approaches (e.g. see [3,4]). In addition, we show that the RFM model can be used for accurate inference of initiation rates, the effect of codon order on protein abundance and the cost of translation. All these variables could not be inferred by previous predictors.

  8. Architecture of the 90S Pre-ribosome: A Structural View on the Birth of the Eukaryotic Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Kornprobst, Markus; Turk, Martin; Kellner, Nikola; Cheng, Jingdong; Flemming, Dirk; Koš-Braun, Isabelle; Koš, Martin; Thoms, Matthias; Berninghausen, Otto; Beckmann, Roland; Hurt, Ed

    2016-07-14

    The 90S pre-ribosome is an early biogenesis intermediate formed during co-transcriptional ribosome formation, composed of ∼70 assembly factors and several small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) that associate with nascent pre-rRNA. We report the cryo-EM structure of the Chaetomium thermophilum 90S pre-ribosome, revealing how a network of biogenesis factors including 19 β-propellers and large α-solenoid proteins engulfs the pre-rRNA. Within the 90S pre-ribosome, we identify the UTP-A, UTP-B, Mpp10-Imp3-Imp4, Bms1-Rcl1, and U3 snoRNP modules, which are organized around 5'-ETS and partially folded 18S rRNA. The U3 snoRNP is strategically positioned at the center of the 90S particle to perform its multiple tasks during pre-rRNA folding and processing. The architecture of the elusive 90S pre-ribosome gives unprecedented structural insight into the early steps of pre-rRNA maturation. Nascent rRNA that is co-transcriptionally folded and given a particular shape by encapsulation within a dedicated mold-like structure is reminiscent of how polypeptides use chaperone chambers for their protein folding. PMID:27419870

  9. Role of ribosomes in Semliki Forest virus nucleocapsid uncoating.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, I; Helenius, A

    1992-01-01

    The mechanism by which Semliki Forest virus nucleocapsids are uncoated was analyzed in living cells and in vitro. In BHK-21 cells, uncoating occurred with virtually complete efficiency within 1 to 2 min after the nucleocapsids entered the cytoplasm. It was inhibited by monensin, which blocks nucleocapsid penetration from endosomes. As previously shown for Sindbis virus (G. Wengler and G. Wengler, Virology 134:435-442, 1984), the capsid proteins from incoming nucleocapsids became associated with ribosomes. The ribosome-bound capsid proteins were distributed throughout the cytoplasm, while the viral RNA remained associated with vacuolar membranes. Using purified nucleocapsids and ribosomes in vitro, we established that ribosomes alone were sufficient for uncoating. Their role was to release the capsid proteins from nucleocapsids and irreversibly sequester them, in a process independent of energy and translation. The process was stoichiometric rather than catalytic, with a maximum of three to six capsid proteins bound to each ribosome. More than 80% of the capsid proteins could thus be removed from the viral RNA, resulting in the formation of nucleocapsid remnants whose sedimentation coefficients progressively decreased from 140S to 80S as uncoating proceeded. Images PMID:1433506

  10. Neutron scattering in the ribosome structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serdyuk, Igor N.

    1997-02-01

    Thermal neutron scattering has become a powerful instrument for studying the ribosome and its components. The application of neutron scattering allowed to establish some principal features of the ribosome structure: non-homogeneous distribution of the RNA and protein within ribosomal particles, the RNA role as a framework in the arrangement and maintenance of the structure of ribosomal particles, and the globular character of ribosomal proteins. The use of selective deuteration of separate ribosomal proteins in combination with the triangulation method revealed mutual spatial arrangement (the 3D-map) of all the ribosomal proteins within the small particle and in the most part of the large ribosomal particle. An essential impact has been made in the structural studies of ribosomes with the development of novel experimental approaches: triple isotopic substitution and spin contrast variation. These approaches with direct interpretation of spherical harmonics provide new possibilities for constructing models of ribosomal particles, opening principally new perspectives for joint use of X-ray synchrotron diffraction in crystals and small-angle neutron scattering in solution.

  11. Identification of a Dual Inhibitor of Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) and p70 Ribosomal S6 Kinase1 (S6K1) Pathways.

    PubMed

    Byun, Sanguine; Lim, Semi; Mun, Ji Young; Kim, Ki Hyun; Ramadhar, Timothy R; Farrand, Lee; Shin, Seung Ho; Thimmegowda, N R; Lee, Hyong Joo; Frank, David A; Clardy, Jon; Lee, Sam W; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-09-25

    Bioactive phytochemicals can suppress the growth of malignant cells, and investigation of the mechanisms responsible can assist in the identification of novel therapeutic strategies for cancer therapy. Ginger has been reported to exhibit potent anti-cancer effects, although previous reports have often focused on a narrow range of specific compounds. Through a direct comparison of various ginger compounds, we determined that gingerenone A selectively kills cancer cells while exhibiting minimal toxicity toward normal cells. Kinase array screening revealed JAK2 and S6K1 as the molecular targets primarily responsible for gingerenone A-induced cancer cell death. The effect of gingerenone A was strongly associated with relative phosphorylation levels of JAK2 and S6K1, and administration of gingerenone A significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo. More importantly, the combined inhibition of JAK2 and S6K1 by commercial inhibitors selectively induced apoptosis in cancer cells, whereas treatment with either agent alone did not. These findings provide rationale for dual targeting of JAK2 and S6K1 in cancer for a combinatorial therapeutic approach. PMID:26242912

  12. Whole exome sequencing identifies a novel frameshift mutation in GPC3 gene in a patient with overgrowth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Das Bhowmik, Aneek; Dalal, Ashwin

    2015-11-10

    Overgrowth syndromes are a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by focal or generalized overgrowth. Many of the syndromes have overlapping clinical features and it is difficult to diagnose the condition based on clinical features alone. In the present study we report on a patient with overgrowth syndrome where extensive investigation did not reveal the cause of disease. Finally exome sequencing revealed a novel hemizygous single base pair deletion in exon 8 of GPC3 gene (chrX:132670203delA) resulting in a frameshift and creating a new stop codon at 62 amino acids downstream to codon 564 (c.1692delT; p.Leu565SerfsTer63) of the protein. The mutation was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The mother was found to be heterozygous for the mutation. This variation is not reported in the 1000 Genomes, Exome Variant Server (EVS), Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) and dbSNP databases and the region is conserved across primates. Exome sequencing was helpful in establishing diagnosis of Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 1 (SGBS1) in a patient with unknown overgrowth syndrome. PMID:26321508

  13. Phase variation of gonococcal pili by frameshift mutation in pilC, a novel gene for pilus assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, A B; Nyberg, G; Normark, S

    1991-01-01

    Pili prepared from Neisseria gonorrhoeae contain minor amounts of a 110 kd outer membrane protein denoted PilC. The corresponding gene exists in two copies, pilC1 and pilC2, in most strains of N.gonorrhoeae. In the piliated strain MS11(P+), only one of the genes, pilC2, was expressed. Inactivation of pilC2 by a mTnCm insertion resulted in a nonpiliated phenotype, while a mTnCm insertion in pilC1 had no effect on piliation. Expression of pilC was found to be controlled at the translational level by frameshift mutations in a run of G residues positioned in the region encoding the signal peptide. Nonpilated (P-), pilin expressing colony variants that did not express detectable levels of PilC were selected; all P+ backswitchers from these P-, PilC- clones were found to be PilC+. The structural gene for pilin, pilE, was sequenced and found to be identical in one P-, PilC- and P+, PilC+ pair. Most PilC- cells were completely bald whereas the PilC+ backswitcher had 10-40 pili per cell. Thus, a turn ON and turn OFF in the expression of PilC results in gonococcal pili phase variation. These results suggest that PilC is required for pilus assembly and/or translocation across the gonococcal outer membrane. Images PMID:1671354

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of the marine Haplosclerida (Phylum Porifera) employing ribosomal (28S rRNA) and mitochondrial (cox1, nad1) gene sequence data.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Niamh E; Raleigh, Jean; van Soest, Rob W M; Kelly, Michelle; Travers, Simon A A; Bradshaw, Brian; Vartia, Salla; Stephens, Kelly M; McCormack, Grace P

    2011-01-01

    The systematics of the poriferan Order Haplosclerida (Class Demospongiae) has been under scrutiny for a number of years without resolution. Molecular data suggests that the order needs revision at all taxonomic levels. Here, we provide a comprehensive view of the phylogenetic relationships of the marine Haplosclerida using many species from across the order, and three gene regions. Gene trees generated using 28S rRNA, nad1 and cox1 gene data, under maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches, are highly congruent and suggest the presence of four clades. Clade A is comprised primarily of species of Haliclona and Callyspongia, and clade B is comprised of H. simulans and H. vansoesti (Family Chalinidae), Amphimedon queenslandica (Family Niphatidae) and Tabulocalyx (Family Phloeodictyidae), Clade C is comprised primarily of members of the Families Petrosiidae and Niphatidae, while Clade D is comprised of Aka species. The polyphletic nature of the suborders, families and genera described in other studies is also found here. PMID:21931685

  15. Phylogenetic Relationships of the Marine Haplosclerida (Phylum Porifera) Employing Ribosomal (28S rRNA) and Mitochondrial (cox1, nad1) Gene Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Niamh E.; Raleigh, Jean; van Soest, Rob W. M.; Kelly, Michelle; Travers, Simon A. A.; Bradshaw, Brian; Vartia, Salla; Stephens, Kelly M.; McCormack, Grace P.

    2011-01-01

    The systematics of the poriferan Order Haplosclerida (Class Demospongiae) has been under scrutiny for a number of years without resolution. Molecular data suggests that the order needs revision at all taxonomic levels. Here, we provide a comprehensive view of the phylogenetic relationships of the marine Haplosclerida using many species from across the order, and three gene regions. Gene trees generated using 28S rRNA, nad1 and cox1 gene data, under maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches, are highly congruent and suggest the presence of four clades. Clade A is comprised primarily of species of Haliclona and Callyspongia, and clade B is comprised of H. simulans and H. vansoesti (Family Chalinidae), Amphimedon queenslandica (Family Niphatidae) and Tabulocalyx (Family Phloeodictyidae), Clade C is comprised primarily of members of the Families Petrosiidae and Niphatidae, while Clade D is comprised of Aka species. The polyphletic nature of the suborders, families and genera described in other studies is also found here. PMID:21931685

  16. The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) inhibitor BI-D1870 prevents gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis and mediates senescence via RSK- and p53-independent accumulation of p21WAF1/CIP1

    PubMed Central

    Neise, D; Sohn, D; Stefanski, A; Goto, H; Inagaki, M; Wesselborg, S; Budach, W; Stühler, K; Jänicke, R U

    2013-01-01

    The p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) family is a group of highly conserved Ser/Thr kinases that promote cell proliferation, growth, motility and survival. As they are almost exclusively activated downstream of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), therapeutic intervention by RSK inhibition is less likely to produce such severe side effects as those observed following inhibition of the upstream master regulators Raf, MEK and ERK1/2. Here, we report that BI-D1870, a potent small molecule inhibitor of RSKs, induces apoptosis, although preferentially, in a p21-deficient background. On the other hand, BI-D1870 also induces a strong transcription- and p53-independent accumulation of p21 protein and protects cells from gamma irradiation (γIR)-induced apoptosis, driving them into senescence even in the absence of γIR. Although we identified p21 in in vitro kinase assays as a novel RSK substrate that specifically becomes phosphorylated by RSK1-3 at Ser116 and Ser146, RNA-interference, overexpression and co-immunoprecipitation studies as well as the use of SL0101, another specific RSK inhibitor, revealed that BI-D1870 mediates p21 accumulation via a yet unknown pathway that, besides its off-site targets polo-like kinase-1 and AuroraB, also does also not involve RSKs. Thus, this novel off-target effect of BI-D1870 should be taken into serious consideration in future studies investigating the role of RSKs in cellular signaling and tumorigenesis. PMID:24136223

  17. Loss-of-function mutations in the RNA biogenesis factor NAF1 predispose to pulmonary fibrosis-emphysema.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Susan E; Gable, Dustin L; Wagner, Christa L; Carlile, Thomas M; Hanumanthu, Vidya Sagar; Podlevsky, Joshua D; Khalil, Sara E; DeZern, Amy E; Rojas-Duran, Maria F; Applegate, Carolyn D; Alder, Jonathan K; Parry, Erin M; Gilbert, Wendy V; Armanios, Mary

    2016-08-10

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary fibrosis have been hypothesized to represent premature aging phenotypes. At times, they cluster in families, but the genetic basis is not understood. We identified rare, frameshift mutations in the gene for nuclear assembly factor 1, NAF1, a box H/ACA RNA biogenesis factor, in pulmonary fibrosis-emphysema patients. The mutations segregated with short telomere length, low telomerase RNA levels, and extrapulmonary manifestations including myelodysplastic syndrome and liver disease. A truncated NAF1 was detected in cells derived from patients, and, in cells in which the frameshift mutation was introduced by genome editing, telomerase RNA levels were reduced. The mutant NAF1 lacked a conserved carboxyl-terminal motif, which we show is required for nuclear localization. To understand the disease mechanism, we used CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease) to generate Naf1(+/-) mice and found that they had half the levels of telomerase RNA. Other box H/ACA RNA levels were also decreased, but rRNA pseudouridylation, which is guided by snoRNAs, was intact. Moreover, first-generation Naf1(+/-) mice showed no evidence of ribosomal pathology. Our data indicate that disease in NAF1 mutation carriers is telomere-mediated; they show that NAF1 haploinsufficiency selectively disturbs telomere length homeostasis by decreasing the levels of telomerase RNA while sparing rRNA pseudouridylation. PMID:27510903

  18. Another functional frame-shift polymorphism of DEFB126 (rs11467497) associated with male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shiwei; Shi, Changgeng; Chen, Guowu; Zheng, Ju-fen; Wu, Bin; Diao, Hua; Ji, Lindan; Gu, Yihua; Xin, Aijie; Wu, Yancheng; Zhou, Weijin; Miao, Maohua; Xu, Limin; Li, Zheng; Yuan, Yao; Wang, Peng; Shi, Huijuan

    2015-01-01

    DEFB126 rs140685149 mutation was shown to cause sperm dysfunction and subfertility. Indel rs11467497 is another 4-nucleotide frame-shift mutation (151bp upstream of rs140685149) that leads to the premature termination of translation and the expression of peptide truncated at the carboxyl terminus. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive association study to check the contribution of rs140685149 and rs11467497 to male infertility. Our results confirmed the previous findings that there was no association between rs140685149 and sperm motility. In contrast, we found a significant association of another indel rs11467497 with male infertility. Moreover, rs11467497 was shown to be associated with higher number of round cells in the infertile males with low sperm motility. Surprisingly, the two mutations commonly existed in the sperm donors (n = 672), suggesting a potential application of the two indels in the screening for eligible sperm donors. Western blotting assays showed the sperms with rs140685149 2-nt deletion tended to have unstable DEFB126 protein in contrast of no DEFB126 protein expressed in the sperms with rs11467497 4-nt deletion, suggesting a more severe consequence caused by rs11467497 mutation. In conclusion, our study presented a significant contribution of another functional frame-shift polymorphism of DEFB126 (rs11467497) to male infertility. PMID:25721098

  19. Identification of Two Distinct Hybrid State Intermediates On the Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Munro, James B.; Altman, Roger B.; O’Connor, Nathan; Blanchard, Scott C.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY High-spatial and –time resolution single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements have been used to probe the structural and kinetic parameters of transfer RNA (tRNA) movements within the aminoacyl (A) and peptidyl (P) sites of the ribosome. Our investigation of tRNA motions, quantified on wild-type, mutant, and L1-depleted ribosome complexes, reveals a dynamic exchange between three metastable tRNA configurations, one of which is a previously unidentified hybrid state in which only deacylated-tRNA adopts its hybrid (P/E) configuration. These new dynamic information suggests a framework in which the formation of intermediate states in the translocation process is achieved through global conformational rearrangements of the ribosome particle. PMID:17317624

  20. Structural Insights Into Ribosome Recycling Factor Interactions with the 70S Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Raj D.; Zhang, Wen; Schuwirth, Barbara S.; Hirokawa, Go; Kaji, Hideko; Kaji, Akira; Cate, Jamie H.D.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY At the end of translation in bacteria, ribosome recycling factor (RRF) is used together with Elongation Factor G (EF-G) to recycle the 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits for the next round of translation. In x-ray crystal structures of RRF with the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome, RRF binds to the large ribosomal subunit in the cleft that contains the peptidyl transferase center (PTC). Upon binding of either E. coli or T. thermophilus RRF to the E. coli ribosome, the tip of ribosomal RNA helix H69 in the large subunit moves away from the small subunit toward RRF by 8 Å, thereby disrupting a key contact between the small and large ribosomal subunits, termed bridge B2a. In the ribosome crystals, the ability of RRF to destabilize bridge B2a is influenced by crystal packing forces. Movement of H69 involves an ordered to disordered transition upon binding of RRF to the ribosome. The disruption of bridge B2a upon RRF binding to the ribosome seen in the present structures reveals one of the key roles that RRF plays in ribosome recycling, the dissociation of 70S ribosomes into subunits. The structures also reveal contacts between Domain II of RRF and protein S12 in the 30S subunit that may also play a role in ribosome recycling. PMID:18234219

  1. Two orthogonal cleavages separate subunit RNAs in mouse ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minshi; Anikin, Leonid; Pestov, Dimitri G.

    2014-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a dynamic multistep process, many features of which are still incompletely documented. Here, we show that changes in this pathway can be captured and annotated by means of a graphic set of pre-rRNA ratios, a technique we call Ratio Analysis of Multiple Precursors (RAMP). We find that knocking down a ribosome synthesis factor produces a characteristic RAMP profile that exhibits consistency across a range of depletion levels. This facilitates the inference of affected steps and simplifies comparative analysis. We applied RAMP to examine how endonucleolytic cleavages of the mouse pre-rRNA transcript in the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) are affected by depletion of factors required for maturation of the small ribosomal subunit (Rcl1, Fcf1/Utp24, Utp23) and the large subunit (Pes1, Nog1). The data suggest that completion of early maturation in a subunit triggers its release from the common pre-rRNA transcript by stimulating cleavage at the proximal site in ITS1. We also find that splitting of pre-rRNA in the 3′ region of ITS1 is prevalent in adult mouse tissues and quiescent cells, as it is in human cells. We propose a model for subunit separation during mammalian ribosome synthesis and discuss its implications for understanding pre-rRNA processing pathways. PMID:25190460

  2. De novo frameshift mutation in COUP-TFII (NR2F2) in human congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    PubMed

    High, Frances A; Bhayani, Pooja; Wilson, Jay M; Bult, Carol J; Donahoe, Patricia K; Longoni, Mauro

    2016-09-01

    COUP-TFII (NR2F2) is mapped to the 15q26 deletion hotspot associated with the common and highly morbid congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Conditional homozygous deletions of COUP-TFII in mice result in diaphragmatic defects analogous to the human Bochdalek-type hernia phenotype. Despite evidence from animal models however, mutations in the coding sequence of COUP-TFII have not been reported in patients, prompting the speculation that additional coding or non-coding sequences in the 15q26 locus are necessary for diaphragmatic hernias to develop. In this report, we describe a case of a patient with a heterozygous de novo COUP-TFII frameshift mutation, presenting with CDH and an atrial septal defect. The p.Pro33AlafsTer77 mutation specifically disrupts protein isoform 1 which contains the DNA binding domain. In addition, we review other COUP-TFII sequence variations and deletions that have been described in cases of CDH. We conclude that COUP-TFII mutations can cause diaphragmatic hernias, and should be included in the differential diagnosis of CDH patients, particularly those with comorbid congenital heart defects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27363585

  3. De Novo Frameshift Mutation in COUP-TFII (NR2F2) in Human Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

    PubMed Central

    High, Frances A.; Bhayani, Pooja; Wilson, Jay M.; Bult, Carol J.; Donahoe, Patricia K.; Longoni, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    COUP-TFII (NR2F2) is mapped to the 15q26 deletion hotspot associated with the common and highly morbid congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Conditional homozygous deletions of COUP-TFII in mice result in diaphragmatic defects analogous to the human Bochdalek-type hernia phenotype. Despite evidence from animal models however, mutations in the coding sequence of COUP-TFII have not been reported in patients, prompting the speculation that additional coding or non-coding sequences in the 15q26 locus are necessary for diaphragmatic hernias to develop. In this report, we describe a case of a patient with a heterozygous de novo COUP-TFII frameshift mutation, presenting with CDH and an atrial septal defect. The p.Pro33AlafsTer77 mutation specifically disrupts protein isoform 1 which contains the DNA binding domain. In addition, we review other COUP-TFII sequence variations and deletions that have been described in cases of CDH. We conclude that COUP-TFII mutations can cause diaphragmatic hernias, and should be included in the differential diagnosis of CDH patients, particularly those with comorbid congenital heart defects. PMID:27363585

  4. CCR4 frameshift mutation identifies a distinct group of adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Noriaki; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Kato, Takeharu; Sakata-Yanagimoto, Mamiko; Niino, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi; Miyahara, Masaharu; Kurita, Daisuke; Sasaki, Yuya; Shimono, Joji; Kawamoto, Keisuke; Utsunomiya, Atae; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Seto, Masao; Ohshima, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    Adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is an intractable T cell neoplasm caused by human T cell leukaemia virus type 1. Next-generation sequencing-based comprehensive mutation studies have revealed recurrent somatic CCR4 mutations in ATLL, although clinicopathological findings associated with CCR4 mutations remain to be delineated. In the current study, 184 cases of peripheral T cell lymphoma, including 113 cases of ATLL, were subjected to CCR4 mutation analysis. This sequence analysis identified mutations in 27% (30/113) of cases of ATLL and 9% (4/44) of cases of peripheral T cell lymphoma not otherwise specified. Identified mutations included nonsense (NS) and frameshift (FS) mutations. No significant differences in clinicopathological findings were observed between ATLL cases stratified by presence of CCR4 mutation. All ATLL cases with CCR4 mutations exhibited cell-surface CCR4 positivity. Semi-quantitative CCR4 protein analysis of immunohistochemical sections revealed higher CCR4 expression in cases with NS mutations of CCR4 than in cases with wild-type (WT) CCR4. Furthermore, among ATLL cases, FS mutation was significantly associated with a poor prognosis, compared with NS mutation and WT CCR4. These results suggest that CCR4 mutation is an important determinant of the clinical course in ATLL cases, and that NS and FS mutations of CCR4 behave differently with respect to ATLL pathophysiology. PMID:26847489

  5. Control of ribosome formation in rat heart

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Diabetes of 9 days duration produced a 17% diminution in the rate of total protein synthesis in rat hearts perfused as Langendorff preparations supplied with glucose, plasma levels of amino acids, and 400 ..mu..U/ml insulin. This reduction was attributable to a decrease in efficiency of protein synthesis and total RNA content. Total messenger RNA content decreased in diabetic hearts in proportion to the reduction in total RNA. Diabetes also resulted in diminished ribosome content as reflected by the induction in total RNA. Ribosome production was investigated by monitoring incorporation of (/sup 3/H)phenylalanine into the proteins of cytoplasmic ribosomes. Rates of ribosome formation in diabetic hearts were as fast as control rates in the presence of insulin, and were faster than control rates in the absence of the hormone. These results indicated that ribosome content fell in diabetic hearts despite unchanged or faster rates of ribosome formation.

  6. Seeing is Believing in Ribosome Assembly.

    PubMed

    Warner, Jonathan R

    2016-07-14

    Many proteins have been implicated genetically and biochemically in the assembly of eukaryotic ribosomes. Now, Kornprobst et al. show us how they are put together with a cryoEM structure of the 90S processome that initiates ribosome assembly, revealing the arrangement of U3 RNA and the several UTP complexes that form a chaperone-like structure around and within the developing 40S ribosomal subunit. PMID:27419867

  7. Ribosome biogenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Woolford, John L; Baserga, Susan J

    2013-11-01

    Ribosomes are highly conserved ribonucleoprotein nanomachines that translate information in the genome to create the proteome in all cells. In yeast these complex particles contain four RNAs (>5400 nucleotides) and 79 different proteins. During the past 25 years, studies in yeast have led the way to understanding how these molecules are assembled into ribosomes in vivo. Assembly begins with transcription of ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus, where the RNA then undergoes complex pathways of folding, coupled with nucleotide modification, removal of spacer sequences, and binding to ribosomal proteins. More than 200 assembly factors and 76 small nucleolar RNAs transiently associate with assembling ribosomes, to enable their accurate and efficient construction. Following export of preribosomes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, they undergo final stages of maturation before entering the pool of functioning ribosomes. Elaborate mechanisms exist to monitor the formation of correct structural and functional neighborhoods within ribosomes and to destroy preribosomes that fail to assemble properly. Studies of yeast ribosome biogenesis provide useful models for ribosomopathies, diseases in humans that result from failure to properly assemble ribosomes. PMID:24190922

  8. Tricks an IRES uses to enslave ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotes, mRNAs are primarily translated through a cap-dependent mechanism whereby initiation factors recruit the 40S ribosomal subunit to a cap structure at the 5’ end of the mRNA. However, some viral and cellular messages initiate protein synthesis without a cap. They use a structured RNA element termed an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) to recruit the 40S ribosomal subunit. IRESs were discovered over 20 years ago but only recently have studies using a model IRES from dicistroviruses expanded our understanding of how a three dimensional RNA structure can capture and manipulate the ribosome to initiate translation. PMID:22944245

  9. Scattering studies on ribosomes in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, V.

    1986-02-01

    Ribosomes are organelles that play a central role in protein synthesis. They are complexes of protein and nucleic acid, and can be analysed as two-component systems by neutron scattering. Moreover, ribosomes can be biochemically prepared that have specific proteins deuterated. Both these properties have been exploited to study the structure of the ribosome by neutron scattering. This article reviews the studies carried out on the small ribosomal subunit, and describes a recent study that has resolved a conflict between the results of two classes of experiments.

  10. Oligosaccharyltransferase directly binds to ribosome at a location near the translocon-binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Y.; Li, H.; Li, Hua; Lennarz, W. J.

    2009-04-28

    Oligosaccharyltransferase (OT) transfers high mannose-type glycans to the nascent polypeptides that are translated by the membrane-bound ribosome and translocated into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum through the Sec61 translocon complex. In this article, we show that purified ribosomes and OT can form a binary complex with a stoichiometry of {approx}1 to 1 in the presence of detergent. We present evidence that OT may bind to the large ribosomal subunit near the site where nascent polypeptides exit. We further show that OT and the Sec61 complex can simultaneously bind to ribosomes in vitro. Based on existing data and our findings, we propose that cotranslational translocation and N-glycosylation of nascent polypeptides are mediated by a ternary supramolecular complex consisting of OT, the Sec61 complex, and ribosomes.

  11. The activity of the acidic phosphoproteins from the 80 S rat liver ribosome.

    PubMed

    MacConnell, W P; Kaplan, N O

    1982-05-25

    The selective removal of acidic phosphoproteins from the 80 S rat liver ribosome was accomplished by successive alcohol extractions at low salt concentration. The resulting core ribosomes lost over 90% of their translation activity and were unable to support the elongation factor 2 GTPase reaction. Both activities were partially restored when the dialyzed extracts were added back to the core ribosome. The binding of labeled adenosine diphosphoribosyl-elongation factor 2 to ribosomes was also affected by extraction and could be reconstituted, although not to the same extent as the GTPase activity associated with elongation factor 2 in the presence of the ribosome. The alcohol extracts of the 80 S ribosome contained mostly phosphoproteins P1 and P2 which could be dephosphorylated and rephosphorylated in solution by alkaline phosphatase and protein kinase, respectively. Dephosphorylation of the P1/P2 mixture in the extracts caused a decrease in the ability of these proteins to reactivate the polyphenylalanine synthesis activity of the core ribosome. However, treatment of the dephosphorylated proteins with the catalytic subunit of 3':5'-cAMP-dependent protein kinase in the presence of ATP reactivated the proteins when compared to the activity of the native extracts. Rabbit antisera raised against the alcohol-extracted proteins were capable of impairing both the polyphenylalanine synthesis reaction and the elongation factor 2-dependent GTPase reaction in the intact ribosomes. PMID:6121796

  12. The ribosome-associated complex antagonizes prion formation in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Amor, Alvaro J; Castanzo, Dominic T; Delany, Sean P; Selechnik, Daniel M; van Ooy, Alex; Cameron, Dale M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The number of known fungal proteins capable of switching between alternative stable conformations is steadily increasing, suggesting that a prion-like mechanism may be broadly utilized as a means to propagate altered cellular states. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which cells regulate prion formation and toxicity we examined the role of the yeast ribosome-associated complex (RAC) in modulating both the formation of the [PSI+] prion – an alternative conformer of Sup35 protein – and the toxicity of aggregation-prone polypeptides. The Hsp40 RAC chaperone Zuo1 anchors the RAC to ribosomes and stimulates the ATPase activity of the Hsp70 chaperone Ssb. We found that cells lacking Zuo1 are sensitive to over-expression of some aggregation-prone proteins, including the Sup35 prion domain, suggesting that co-translational protein misfolding increases in Δzuo1 strains. Consistent with this finding, Δzuo1 cells exhibit higher frequencies of spontaneous and induced prion formation. Cells expressing mutant forms of Zuo1 lacking either a C-terminal charged region required for ribosome association, or the J-domain responsible for Ssb ATPase stimulation, exhibit similarly high frequencies of prion formation. Our findings are consistent with a role for the RAC in chaperoning nascent Sup35 to regulate folding of the N-terminal prion domain as it emerges from the ribosome. PMID:25739058

  13. Molecular mechanisms of ribosomal protein gene coregulation.

    PubMed

    Reja, Rohit; Vinayachandran, Vinesh; Ghosh, Sujana; Pugh, B Franklin

    2015-09-15

    The 137 ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) of Saccharomyces provide a model for gene coregulation. We examined the positional and functional organization of their regulators (Rap1 [repressor activator protein 1], Fhl1, Ifh1, Sfp1, and Hmo1), the transcription machinery (TFIIB, TFIID, and RNA polymerase II), and chromatin at near-base-pair resolution using ChIP-exo, as RPGs are coordinately reprogrammed. Where Hmo1 is enriched, Fhl1, Ifh1, Sfp1, and Hmo1 cross-linked broadly to promoter DNA in an RPG-specific manner and demarcated by general minor groove widening. Importantly, Hmo1 extended 20-50 base pairs (bp) downstream from Fhl1. Upon RPG repression, Fhl1 remained in place. Hmo1 dissociated, which was coupled to an upstream shift of the +1 nucleosome, as reflected by the Hmo1 extension and core promoter region. Fhl1 and Hmo1 may create two regulatable and positionally distinct barriers, against which chromatin remodelers position the +1 nucleosome into either an activating or a repressive state. Consistent with in vitro studies, we found that specific TFIID subunits, in addition to cross-linking at the core promoter, made precise cross-links at Rap1 sites, which we interpret to reflect native Rap1-TFIID interactions. Our findings suggest how sequence-specific DNA binding regulates nucleosome positioning and transcription complex assembly >300 bp away and how coregulation coevolved with coding sequences. PMID:26385964

  14. Ribosome-Inactivating and Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Schrot, Joachim; Weng, Alexander; Melzig, Matthias F.

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are toxins that act as N-glycosidases (EC 3.2.2.22). They are mainly produced by plants and classified as type 1 RIPs and type 2 RIPs. There are also RIPs and RIP related proteins that cannot be grouped into the classical type 1 and type 2 RIPs because of their different sizes, structures or functions. In addition, there is still not a uniform nomenclature or classification existing for RIPs. In this review, we give the current status of all known plant RIPs and we make a suggestion about how to unify those RIPs and RIP related proteins that cannot be classified as type 1 or type 2 RIPs. PMID:26008228

  15. Elongation factor G stabilizes the hybrid-state conformation of the 70S ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, P. Clint; Ermolenko, Dmitri N.; Noller, Harry F.

    2007-01-01

    Following peptide bond formation, transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and messenger RNA (mRNA) are translocated through the ribosome, a process catalyzed by elongation factor EF-G. Here, we have used a combination of chemical footprinting, peptidyl transferase activity assays, and mRNA toeprinting to monitor the effects of EF-G on the positions of tRNA and mRNA relative to the A, P, and E sites of the ribosome in the presence of GTP, GDP, GDPNP, and fusidic acid. Chemical footprinting experiments show that binding of EF-G in the presence of the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog GDPNP or GDP·fusidic acid induces movement of a deacylated tRNA from the classical P/P state to the hybrid P/E state. Furthermore, stabilization of the hybrid P/E state by EF-G compromises P-site codon–anticodon interaction, causing frame-shifting. A deacylated tRNA bound to the P site and a peptidyl-tRNA in the A site are completely translocated to the E and P sites, respectively, in the presence of EF-G with GTP or GDPNP but not with EF-G·GDP. Unexpectedly, translocation with EF-G·GTP leads to dissociation of deacylated tRNA from the E site, while tRNA remains bound in the presence of EF-G·GDPNP, suggesting that dissociation of tRNA from the E site is promoted by GTP hydrolysis and/or EF-G release. Our results show that binding of EF-G in the presence of GDPNP or GDP·fusidic acid stabilizes the ribosomal intermediate hybrid state, but that complete translocation is supported only by EF-G·GTP or EF-G·GDPNP. PMID:17630323

  16. Probing the Translation Dynamics of Ribosomes Using Zero-Mode Waveguides.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Albert; Puglisi, Joseph D; Uemura, Sotaro

    2016-01-01

    In order to coordinate the complex biochemical and structural feat of converting triple-nucleotide codons into their corresponding amino acids, the ribosome must physically manipulate numerous macromolecules including the mRNA, tRNAs, and numerous translation factors. The ribosome choreographs binding, dissociation, physical movements, and structural rearrangements so that they synergistically harness the energy from biochemical processes, including numerous GTP hydrolysis steps and peptide bond formation. Due to the dynamic and complex nature of translation, the large cast of ligands involved, and the large number of possible configurations, tracking the global time evolution or dynamics of the ribosome complex in translation has proven to be challenging for bulk methods. Conventional single-molecule fluorescence experiments on the other hand require low concentrations of fluorescent ligands to reduce background noise. The significantly reduced bimolecular association rates under those conditions limit the number of steps that can be observed within the time window available to a fluorophore. The advent of zero-mode waveguide (ZMW) technology has allowed the study of translation at near-physiological concentrations of labeled ligands, moving single-molecule fluorescence microscopy beyond focused model systems into studying the global dynamics of translation in realistic setups. This chapter reviews the recent works using the ZMW technology to dissect the mechanism of translation initiation and elongation in prokaryotes, including complex processes such as translational stalling and frameshifting. Given the success of the technology, similarly complex biological processes could be studied in near-physiological conditions with the controllability of conventional in vitro experiments. PMID:26970189

  17. N-terminal sequence of some ribosome-inactivating proteins.

    PubMed

    Montecucchi, P C; Lazzarini, A M; Barbieri, L; Stirpe, F; Soria, M; Lappi, D

    1989-04-01

    The N-terminal portion of some type 1 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) isolated from the seeds of Gelonium multiflorum, Momordica charantia, Bryonia dioica, Saponaria officinalis and from the leaves of Saponaria officinalis are reported in the present paper. Their relationship with other RIPs is discussed. PMID:2753596

  18. Human Cells Require Non-stop Ribosome Rescue Activity in Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Feaga, Heather A.; Quickel, Michael D.; Hankey-Giblin, Pamela A.; Keiler, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria use trans-translation and the alternative rescue factors ArfA (P36675) and ArfB (Q9A8Y3) to hydrolyze peptidyl-tRNA on ribosomes that stall near the 3' end of an mRNA during protein synthesis. The eukaryotic protein ICT1 (Q14197) is homologous to ArfB. In vitro ribosome rescue assays of human ICT1 and Caulobacter crescentus ArfB showed that these proteins have the same activity and substrate specificity. Both ArfB and ICT1 hydrolyze peptidyl-tRNA on nonstop ribosomes or ribosomes stalled with ≤6 nucleotides extending past the A site, but are unable to hydrolyze peptidyl-tRNA when the mRNA extends ≥14 nucleotides past the A site. ICT1 provided sufficient ribosome rescue activity to support viability in C. crescentus cells that lacked both trans-translation and ArfB. Likewise, expression of ArfB protected human cells from death when ICT1 was silenced with siRNA. These data indicate that ArfB and ICT1 are functionally interchangeable, and demonstrate that ICT1 is a ribosome rescue factor. Because ICT1 is essential in human cells, these results suggest that ribosome rescue activity in mitochondria is required in humans. PMID:27029019

  19. Mutations Outside the Anisomycin-Binding Site Can Make Ribosomes Drug-Resistant

    SciTech Connect

    Blaha,G.; Gurel, G.; Schroeder, S.; Moore, P.; Steitz, T.

    2008-01-01

    Eleven mutations that make Haloarcula marismortui resistant to anisomycin, an antibiotic that competes with the amino acid side chains of aminoacyl tRNAs for binding to the A-site cleft of the large ribosomal unit, have been identified in 23S rRNA. The correlation observed between the sensitivity of H. marismortui to anisomycin and the affinity of its large ribosomal subunits for the drug indicates that its response to anisomycin is determined primarily by the binding of the drug to its large ribosomal subunit. The structures of large ribosomal subunits containing resistance mutations show that these mutations can be divided into two classes: (1) those that interfere with specific drug-ribosome interactions and (2) those that stabilize the apo conformation of the A-site cleft of the ribosome relative to its drug-bound conformation. The conformational effects of some mutations of the second kind propagate through the ribosome for considerable distances and are reversed when A-site substrates bind to the ribosome.

  20. Hypoxic stress-induced changes in ribosomes of maize seedling roots. [Zea mays L

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey-Serres, J.; Freeling, M. )

    1990-11-01

    The hypoxic stress response of Zea mays L. seedling roots involves regulation of gene expression at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. We investigated the effect of hypoxia on the translational machinery of seedling roots. The levels of monoribosomes and ribosomal subunits increased dramatically within 1 hour of stress. Prolonged hypoxia resulted in continued accumulation of nontranslating ribosomes, as well as increased levels of small polyribosomes. The return of seedlings to normal aerobic conditions resulted in recovery of normal polyribosome levels. Comparison of ribosomal proteins from control and hypoxic roots revealed differences in quantity and electrophoretic mobility. In vivo labeling of roots with ({sup 35}S)methionine revealed variations in newly synthesized ribosomal proteins. In vivo labeling of roots with ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate revealed a major reduction in the phosphorylation of a 31 kilodalton ribosomal protein in hypoxic stressed roots. In vitro phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins by endogenous kinases was used to probe for differences in ribosome structure and composition. The patterns of in vitro kinased phosphoproteins of ribosomes from control and hypoxic roots were not identical. Variation in phosphoproteins of polyribosomes from control and hypoxic roots, as well as among polyribosomes from hypoxic roots were observed. These results indicate that modification of the translational machinery occurs in response to hypoxic stress.

  1. Ribosome Mechanics Informs about Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael T; Jia, Kejue; Jernigan, Robert L

    2016-02-27

    The essential aspects of the ribosome's mechanism can be extracted from coarse-grained simulations, including the ratchet motion, the movement together of critical bases at the decoding center, and movements of the peptide tunnel lining that assist in the expulsion of the synthesized peptide. Because of its large size, coarse graining helps to simplify and to aid in the understanding of its mechanism. Results presented here utilize coarse-grained elastic network modeling to extract the dynamics, and both RNAs and proteins are coarse grained. We review our previous results, showing the well-known ratchet motions and the motions in the peptide tunnel and in the mRNA tunnel. The motions of the lining of the peptide tunnel appear to assist in the expulsion of the growing peptide chain, and clamps at the ends of the mRNA tunnel with three proteins ensure that the mRNA is held tightly during decoding and essential for the helicase activity at the entrance. The entry clamp may also assist in base recognition to ensure proper selection of the incoming tRNA. The overall precision of the ribosome machine-like motions is remarkable. PMID:26687034

  2. Frameshift mutations of a tumor suppressor gene ZNF292 in gastric and colorectal cancers with high microsatellite instability.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Hwa; Song, Sang Yong; Kim, Min Sung; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2016-07-01

    A transcription factor-encoding gene ZNF292 is considered a candidate tumor suppressor gene (TSG). Its mutations have been identified in cancers from liver, colon, and bone marrow. However, ZNF292 inactivating mutations that might suppress the TSG functions have not been reported in gastric (GC) and colorectal cancers (CRC) with microsatellite instability (MSI). In a public database, we found that ZNF292 gene had mononucleotide repeats in the coding sequences that might be mutation targets in the cancers with MSI. In this study, we analyzed 79 GCs and 124 CRCs including high MSI (MSI-H) and microsatellite stable/low MSI (MSS/MSI-L) cases for the detection of somatic mutations in the repeats. Overall, we identified frameshift mutations of ZNF292 in 3 (8.8%) GCs and 11 (13.9%) CRCs with MSI-H (14/113), but not in MSS/MSI-L cancers (0/90) (p < 0.001). Also, we studied intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) of the ZNF292 frameshift mutations in 16 CRCs and found that two (12.5%) had regional ITH of the mutations. Our data show that ZNF292 gene harbors not only frameshift mutations but also mutational ITH, which together may be features of GC and CRC with MSI-H. Based on this, the ZNF292 frameshift mutations may possibly contribute to tumorigenesis by altering its TSG functions in GC and CRC. PMID:27150435

  3. Frameshift Sequence Variants in the Human Lipase-H Gene Causing Hypotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Sabba; Shah, Sayed Hajan; Jan, Abid; Younus, Muhammad; Ahmad, Farooq; Ayub, Muhammad; Ahmad, Wasim

    2016-01-01

    Hypotrichosis is a condition of abnormal hair pattern characterized by sparse to absent hair on different parts of the body, including the scalp. The condition is often characterized by tightly curled woolly hairs, discoloration of hair, and development of multiple keratin filled cysts or papules on the body. Sequence analysis of the lipase H (LIPH) gene, mapped on chromosome 3q27.3, led to the identification of a novel frameshift deletion variant (c.932delC, p.Pro311Leufs*3) in one family and previously reported 2-bp deletion (c.659_660delTA) in five other families, inherited hypotrichosis, and woolly hair in an autosomal recessive pattern. The study further extends the body of evidence that sequence variants in the LIPH gene result in hypotrichosis and woolly hair phenotype. PMID:26645693

  4. A cryptic melibiose transporter gene possessing a frameshift from Citrobacter freundii.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, T; Shimamoto, T; Xu, X J; Okazaki, N; Kawakami, H; Tsuchiya, T

    2001-04-01

    Wild-type Citrobacter freundii cannot grow on melibiose as a sole source of carbon. The melibiose transporter gene melB was cloned from a C. freundii mutant M4 that could utilize melibiose as a sole carbon source. Although the cloned melB gene is closely similar to the melB genes of other bacteria, it is cryptic because of a frameshift mutation. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to construct a functional melB gene by deleting one nucleotide, resulting in the production of an active melibiose transporter. The active MelB transporter could utilize Na(+) and H(+) as coupling cations to melibiose transport. The amino acid sequence of the C. freundii MelB was found to be most similar to those of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli MelB. These facts are consistent with the phylogenetic relationship of bacteria and the cation coupling properties of the melibiose transporters. PMID:11275561

  5. Molecular consequences of a frameshifted DLX3 mutant leading to Tricho-Dento-Osseous syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Olivier; Lee, Delia; Hassan, Mohammad Q; Chen, Susie X; Jaisser, Frederic; Lian, Jane B; Morasso, Maria I

    2008-07-18

    The homeodomain protein Distal-less-3 (Dlx3) plays a crucial role during embryonic development. This transcription factor is known to be essential for placental formation and to be involved in skin and skeletal organogenesis. In humans, a frameshift mutation in the coding sequence of the DLX3 gene results in an ectodermal dysplasia called Tricho-Dento-Osseous syndrome (TDO). The main features of this autosomal dominant disorder are defects in hair, teeth, and bone. To investigate the functional alterations caused by the mutated DLX3(TDO) isoform ex vivo, we used tetracycline-inducible osteoblastic and keratinocyte cell lines and calvarial derived osteoblasts in which the expression of DLX3(WT) and/or DLX3(TDO) could be regulated and monitored. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that both DLX3(WT) and DLX3(TDO) recombinant proteins are targeted to the nucleus. However, as demonstrated by electrophoresis mobility shift assay, DLX3(TDO) is not able to bind to the canonical Dlx3 binding site. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the frameshifted C-terminal domain in DLX3(TDO) is accountable for the loss of DNA binding activity because the C-terminal domain in DLX3(WT) is not required for DNA binding activity. Although DLX3(TDO) alone cannot bind to a Dlx3 responsive element, when DLX3(WT) and DLX3(TDO) are co-expressed they form a complex that can bind DNA. Concomitant with the inability to bind DNA, DLX3(TDO) has a defective transcriptional activity. Moreover, the transcriptional activity of DLX3(WT) is significantly reduced in the presence of the mutated isoform, indicating that DLX3(TDO) has a dominant negative effect on DLX3(WT) transcriptional activity. PMID:18492670

  6. Ribosome flow model with positive feedback

    PubMed Central

    Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic mRNAs usually form a circular structure; thus, ribosomes that terminatae translation at the 3′ end can diffuse with increased probability to the 5′ end of the transcript, initiating another cycle of translation. This phenomenon describes ribosomal flow with positive feedback—an increase in the flow of ribosomes terminating translating the open reading frame increases the ribosomal initiation rate. The aim of this paper is to model and rigorously analyse translation with feedback. We suggest a modified version of the ribosome flow model, called the ribosome flow model with input and output. In this model, the input is the initiation rate and the output is the translation rate. We analyse this model after closing the loop with a positive linear feedback. We show that the closed-loop system admits a unique globally asymptotically stable equilibrium point. From a biophysical point of view, this means that there exists a unique steady state of ribosome distributions along the mRNA, and thus a unique steady-state translation rate. The solution from any initial distribution will converge to this steady state. The steady-state distribution demonstrates a decrease in ribosome density along the coding sequence. For the case of constant elongation rates, we obtain expressions relating the model parameters to the equilibrium point. These results may perhaps be used to re-engineer the biological system in order to obtain a desired translation rate. PMID:23720534

  7. Evolution of the ribosome at atomic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Anton S.; Bernier, Chad R.; Hsiao, Chiaolong; Norris, Ashlyn M.; Kovacs, Nicholas A.; Waterbury, Chris C.; Stepanov, Victor G.; Harvey, Stephen C.; Fox, George E.; Wartell, Roger M.; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2014-01-01

    The origins and evolution of the ribosome, 3–4 billion years ago, remain imprinted in the biochemistry of extant life and in the structure of the ribosome. Processes of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) expansion can be “observed” by comparing 3D rRNA structures of bacteria (small), yeast (medium), and metazoans (large). rRNA size correlates well with species complexity. Differences in ribosomes across species reveal that rRNA expansion segments have been added to rRNAs without perturbing the preexisting core. Here we show that rRNA growth occurs by a limited number of processes that include inserting a branch helix onto a preexisting trunk helix and elongation of a helix. rRNA expansions can leave distinctive atomic resolution fingerprints, which we call “insertion fingerprints.” Observation of insertion fingerprints in the ribosomal common core allows identification of probable ancestral expansion segments. Conceptually reversing these expansions allows extrapolation backward in time to generate models of primordial ribosomes. The approach presented here provides insight to the structure of pre-last universal common ancestor rRNAs and the subsequent expansions that shaped the peptidyl transferase center and the conserved core. We infer distinct phases of ribosomal evolution through which ribosomal particles evolve, acquiring coding and translocation, and extending and elaborating the exit tunnel. PMID:24982194

  8. Viral IRES RNA structures and ribosome interactions.

    PubMed

    Kieft, Jeffrey S

    2008-06-01

    In eukaryotes, protein synthesis initiates primarily by a mechanism that requires a modified nucleotide 'cap' on the mRNA and also proteins that recruit and position the ribosome. Many pathogenic viruses use an alternative, cap-independent mechanism that substitutes RNA structure for the cap and many proteins. The RNAs driving this process are called internal ribosome-entry sites (IRESs) and some are able to bind the ribosome directly using a specific 3D RNA structure. Recent structures of IRES RNAs and IRES-ribosome complexes are revealing the structural basis of viral IRES' 'hijacking' of the protein-making machinery. It now seems that there are fundamental differences in the 3D structures used by different IRESs, although there are some common features in how they interact with ribosomes. PMID:18468443

  9. Differential Stoichiometry among Core Ribosomal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Slavov, Nikolai; Semrau, Stefan; Airoldi, Edoardo; Budnik, Bogdan; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Summary Understanding the regulation and structure of ribosomes is essential to understanding protein synthesis and its dysregulation in disease. While ribosomes are believed to have a fixed stoichiometry among their core ribosomal proteins (RPs), some experiments suggest a more variable composition. Testing such variability requires direct and precise quantification of RPs. We used mass spectrometry to directly quantify RPs across monosomes and polysomes of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) and budding yeast. Our data show that the stoichiometry among core RPs in wild-type yeast cells and ESC depends both on the growth conditions and on the number of ribosomes bound per mRNA. Furthermore, we find that the fitness of cells with a deleted RP-gene is inversely proportional to the enrichment of the corresponding RP in polysomes. Together, our findings support the existence of ribosomes with distinct protein composition and physiological function. PMID:26565899

  10. Ribosome defects in disorders of erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Narla, Anupama; Hurst, Slater N; Ebert, Benjamin L

    2011-02-01

    Over the past decade, genetic lesions that cause ribosome dysfunction have been identified in both congenital and acquired human disorders. These discoveries have established a new category of disorders, known as ribosomopathies, in which the primary pathophysiology is related to impaired ribosome function. The protoptypical disorders are Diamond-Blackfan anemia, a congenital bone marrow failure syndrome, and the 5q- syndrome, a subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome. In both of these disorders, impaired ribosome function causes a severe macrocytic anemia. In this review, we will discuss the evidence that defects in ribosomal biogenesis cause the hematologic phenotype of Diamond-Blackfan anemia and the 5q- syndrome. We will also explore the potential mechanisms by which a ribosomal defect, which would be expected to have widespread consequences, may lead to specific defects in erythropoiesis. PMID:21279816

  11. Viral IRES RNA structures and ribosome interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kieft, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    In eukaryotes, protein synthesis initiates primarily by a mechanism that requires a modified nucleotide ‘cap’ on the mRNA and also proteins that recruit and position the ribosome. Many pathogenic viruses use an alternative, cap-independent mechanism that substitutes RNA structure for the cap and many proteins. The RNAs driving this process are called internal ribosome-entry sites (IRESs) and some are able to bind the ribosome directly using a specific 3D RNA structure. Recent structures of IRES RNAs and IRES–ribosome complexes are revealing the structural basis of viral IRES’ ‘hijacking’ of the protein-making machinery. It now seems that there are fundamental differences in the 3D structures used by different IRESs, although there are some common features in how they interact with ribosomes. PMID:18468443

  12. Interaction of Chloramphenicol Tripeptide Analogs with Ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Tereshchenkov, A G; Shishkina, A V; Tashlitsky, V N; Korshunova, G A; Bogdanov, A A; Sumbatyan, N V

    2016-04-01

    Chloramphenicol amine peptide derivatives containing tripeptide fragments of regulatory "stop peptides" - MRL, IRA, IWP - were synthesized. The ability of the compounds to form ribosomal complexes was studied by displacement of the fluorescent erythromycin analog from its complex with E. coli ribosomes. It was found that peptide chloramphenicol analogs are able to bind to bacterial ribosomes. The dissociation constants were 4.3-10 µM, which is 100-fold lower than the corresponding values for chloramphenicol amine-ribosome complex. Interaction of the chloramphenicol peptide analogs with ribosomes was simulated by molecular docking, and the most probable contacts of "stop peptide" motifs with the elements of nascent peptide exit tunnel were identified. PMID:27293096

  13. Differential Stoichiometry among Core Ribosomal Proteins.

    PubMed

    Slavov, Nikolai; Semrau, Stefan; Airoldi, Edoardo; Budnik, Bogdan; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the regulation and structure of ribosomes is essential to understanding protein synthesis and its dysregulation in disease. While ribosomes are believed to have a fixed stoichiometry among their core ribosomal proteins (RPs), some experiments suggest a more variable composition. Testing such variability requires direct and precise quantification of RPs. We used mass spectrometry to directly quantify RPs across monosomes and polysomes of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) and budding yeast. Our data show that the stoichiometry among core RPs in wild-type yeast cells and ESC depends both on the growth conditions and on the number of ribosomes bound per mRNA. Furthermore, we find that the fitness of cells with a deleted RP-gene is inversely proportional to the enrichment of the corresponding RP in polysomes. Together, our findings support the existence of ribosomes with distinct protein composition and physiological function. PMID:26565899

  14. Co-translational capturing of nascent ribosomal proteins by their dedicated chaperones

    PubMed Central

    Pausch, Patrick; Singh, Ujjwala; Ahmed, Yasar Luqman; Pillet, Benjamin; Murat, Guillaume; Altegoer, Florian; Stier, Gunter; Thoms, Matthias; Hurt, Ed; Sinning, Irmgard; Bange, Gert; Kressler, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Exponentially growing yeast cells produce every minute >160,000 ribosomal proteins. Owing to their difficult physicochemical properties, the synthesis of assembly-competent ribosomal proteins represents a major challenge. Recent evidence highlights that dedicated chaperone proteins recognize the N-terminal regions of ribosomal proteins and promote their soluble expression and delivery to the assembly site. Here we explore the intuitive possibility that ribosomal proteins are captured by dedicated chaperones in a co-translational manner. Affinity purification of four chaperones (Rrb1, Syo1, Sqt1 and Yar1) selectively enriched the mRNAs encoding their specific ribosomal protein clients (Rpl3, Rpl5, Rpl10 and Rps3). X-ray crystallography reveals how the N-terminal, rRNA-binding residues of Rpl10 are shielded by Sqt1's WD-repeat β-propeller, providing mechanistic insight into the incorporation of Rpl10 into pre-60S subunits. Co-translational capturing of nascent ribosomal proteins by dedicated chaperones constitutes an elegant mechanism to prevent unspecific interactions and aggregation of ribosomal proteins on their road to incorporation. PMID:26112308

  15. Co-translational capturing of nascent ribosomal proteins by their dedicated chaperones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausch, Patrick; Singh, Ujjwala; Ahmed, Yasar Luqman; Pillet, Benjamin; Murat, Guillaume; Altegoer, Florian; Stier, Gunter; Thoms, Matthias; Hurt, Ed; Sinning, Irmgard; Bange, Gert; Kressler, Dieter

    2015-06-01

    Exponentially growing yeast cells produce every minute >160,000 ribosomal proteins. Owing to their difficult physicochemical properties, the synthesis of assembly-competent ribosomal proteins represents a major challenge. Recent evidence highlights that dedicated chaperone proteins recognize the N-terminal regions of ribosomal proteins and promote their soluble expression and delivery to the assembly site. Here we explore the intuitive possibility that ribosomal proteins are captured by dedicated chaperones in a co-translational manner. Affinity purification of four chaperones (Rrb1, Syo1, Sqt1 and Yar1) selectively enriched the mRNAs encoding their specific ribosomal protein clients (Rpl3, Rpl5, Rpl10 and Rps3). X-ray crystallography reveals how the N-terminal, rRNA-binding residues of Rpl10 are shielded by Sqt1's WD-repeat β-propeller, providing mechanistic insight into the incorporation of Rpl10 into pre-60S subunits. Co-translational capturing of nascent ribosomal proteins by dedicated chaperones constitutes an elegant mechanism to prevent unspecific interactions and aggregation of ribosomal proteins on their road to incorporation.

  16. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 is involved in regulation of ribosome biogenesis in yeast.

    PubMed

    Yabuki, Yukari; Kodama, Yushi; Katayama, Masako; Sakamoto, Akiko; Kanemaru, Hirofumi; Wan, Kun; Mizuta, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    Secretory defects cause transcriptional repression of both ribosomal proteins and ribosomal RNA genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rrs1, a trans-acting factor that participates in ribosome biogenesis, is involved in the signaling pathway induced by secretory defects. Here, we found that Rrs1 interacts with two homologs of the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), Rim11, and Mrk1. Rrs1 possesses a repetitive consensus amino acid sequence for phosphorylation by GSK-3, and mutation of this sequence abolished the interaction of Rrs1 with Rim11 and Mrk1. Although this mutation did not affect vegetative cell growth or secretory response, disruption of all four genes encoding GSK-3 homologs, especially Mck1, diminished the transcriptional repression of ribosomal protein genes in response to secretory defects. Among the four GSK-3 kinases, Mck1 appears to be the primary mediator of this response, while the other GSK-3 kinases contribute redundantly. PMID:25035982

  17. Proteins of rough microsomal membranes related to ribosome binding. II. Cross-linking of bound ribosomes to specific membrane proteins exposed at the binding sites

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Two proteins (ribophorins I and II), which are integral components of rough microsomal membranes and appear to be related to the bound ribosomes, were shown to be exposed on the surface of rat liver rough microsomes (RM) and to be in close proximity to the bound ribosomes. Both proteins were labeled when intact RM were incubated with a lactoperoxidase iodinating system, but only ribophorin I was digested during mild trypsinization of intact RM. Ribophorin II (63,000 daltons) was only proteolyzed when the luminal face of the microsomal vesicles was made accessible to trypsin by the addition of sublytical detergent concentrations. Only 30--40% of the bound ribosomes were released during trypsinization on intact RM, but ribosome release was almost complete in the presence of low detergent concentrations. Very low glutaraldehyde concentrations (0.005--0.02%) led to the preferential cross-linking of large