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  1. 7 CFR 1b.3 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Categorical exclusions. 1b.3 Section 1b.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.3 Categorical exclusions... individual or cumulative effect on the human environment and are excluded from the preparation...

  2. 7 CFR 1b.3 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Categorical exclusions. 1b.3 Section 1b.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.3 Categorical exclusions... individual or cumulative effect on the human environment and are excluded from the preparation...

  3. Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Octahydro - 1,3,5,7 - tetranitro - 1,3,5,7 - tetr . . . ( HMX ) ; CASRN 2691 - 41 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I

  4. 7 CFR 1.3 - Agency implementing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency implementing regulations. 1.3 Section 1.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.3 Agency implementing regulations. Each agency of the Department shall promulgate regulations setting forth...

  5. 7 CFR 1.3 - Agency implementing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency implementing regulations. 1.3 Section 1.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.3 Agency implementing regulations. Each agency of the Department shall promulgate regulations setting forth...

  6. Fragrance material review on (3aalpha,4alpha,6alpha,7alpha,7aalpha)-3a,4,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-3-methyl-5-methylene-4,7-methano-1H-inden-6-yl acetate.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, S P; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2008-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of (3aalpha,4alpha,6alpha,7alpha,7aalpha)-3a,4,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-3-methyl-5-methylene-4,7-methano-1H-inden-6-yl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented.

  7. Dissociative electron attachment to the nitroamine HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine).

    PubMed

    Postler, Johannes; Goulart, Marcelo M; Matias, Carolina; Mauracher, Andreas; Ferreira da Silva, Filipe; Scheier, Paul; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Denifl, Stephan

    2013-05-01

    In the present study, dissociative electron attachment (DEA) measurements with gas phase HMX, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, C4H8N8O8, have been performed by means of a crossed electron-molecular beam experiment. The most intense signals are observed at 46 and 176 u and assigned to NO2(-) and C3H6N5O4(-), respectively. Anion efficiency curves for 15 negatively charged fragments have been measured in the electron energy region from about 0-20 eV with an energy resolution of ~0.7 eV. Product anions are observed mainly in the low energy region, near 0 eV, arising from surprisingly complex reactions associated with multiple bond cleavages and structural and electronic rearrangement. The remarkable instability of HMX towards electron attachment with virtually zero kinetic energy reflects the highly explosive nature of this compound. Substantially different intensity ratios of resonances for common fragment anions allow distinguishing the nitroamines HMX and royal demolition explosive molecule (RDX) in negative ion mass spectrometry based on free electron capture.

  8. Syndrome measurement order for the [[7,1,3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Yaakov S.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we explore the accuracy of quantum error correction depending of the order of the implemented syndrome measurements. CSS codes require that bit-flip and phase-flip syndromes be measured separately. To comply with fault-tolerant demands and to maximize accuracy, this set of syndrome measurements should be repeated allowing for flexibility in the order of their implementation. We examine different possible orders of Shor-state and Steane-state syndrome measurements for the [[7,1,3

  9. Fidelity of an encoded [7,1,3] logical zero

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, Yaakov S.

    2011-07-15

    I calculate the fidelity of a [7,1,3] Calderbank-Shor-Steane quantum error correction code logical zero state constructed in a nonequiprobable Pauli operator error environment for two methods of encoding. The first method is to apply fault-tolerant error correction to an arbitrary state of seven qubits utilizing Shor states for syndrome measurement. The Shor states are themselves constructed in the nonequiprobable Pauli operator error environment, and their fidelity depends on the number of verifications done to ensure multiple errors will not propagate into the encoded quantum information. Surprisingly, performing these verifications may lower the fidelity of the constructed Shor states. The second encoding method is to simply implement the [7,1,3] encoding gate sequence also in the nonequiprobable Pauli operator error environment. Perfect error correction is applied after both methods to determine the correctability of the implemented errors. I find that which method attains higher fidelity depends on which of the Pauli operators errors is dominant. Nevertheless, perfect error correction applied after the encoding suppresses errors to at least first order for both methods.

  10. Oxidation of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine by hypochlorite ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheidorov, V. P.; Ershov, Yu. A.; Chalyi, G. Yu.; Titorovich, O. V.

    2011-08-01

    The kinetics of the oxidative conversion of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine upon treatment with hypochlorite ions (OCl-) in aqueous medium at 283-298 K and pH 8.2 was studied. The reaction order with respect to each component was determined and proved to be 1. It was established that the temperature dependence of the reaction rate follows the Arrhenius equation. The activation parameters of the reaction were measured: E a = 33.58 kJ/mol, Δ H ≠ = 31.12 kJ/mol, Δ S ≠ = -170.02 J/(K mol), Δ G ≠ = 81.45 kJ/mol. The stoichiometry of the reaction was studied, and the chemistry of the oxidative conversion of caffeine treated with OCl- is discussed.

  11. Toxicity of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in three vertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark S; McFarland, Craig A; Bazar, Matthew A; Quinn, Michael J; LaFiandra, Emily May; Talent, Larry G

    2010-04-01

    The explosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine or high-melting explosive (HMX), has been found in soils in areas used for testing and training by the military. Many of these areas contain habitat for valued wildlife species. In an effort to better understand the environmental consequences from exposure, a reptilian (western fence lizard [Sceloporus occidentalis]), an amphibian (red-backed salamander [Plethodon cinereus]), and a mammalian species (rabbit [Oryctolagus cuniculus]) were exposed to HMX under controlled laboratory conditions. Lizards and rabbits were exposed to HMX by way of corn oil through gavage, and salamanders were exposed to HMX in soil. Two deaths occurred from acute oral exposures to lizards to 5000 mg HMX/kg BW. Histological and gross pathologic assessment suggested gut impaction as a possible cause of death. Salamanders exposed to concentrations of HMX in soil < or = 1970 mg HMX/kg soil for 10 days did not show adverse effects. Rabbits, however, showed neurologic effects manifested as hyperkinetic events with convulsions at > 24 h after oral exposures. An LD(50) for rabbits was calculated as 93 mg/kg (95% confidence interval 76-117). A subacute 14-day testing regime found a lowest observed effect level of 10 mg/kg-d and a no observed adverse effect level of 5 mg/kg-d based on hyperkinesia and seizure incidence, although changes suggesting functional hepatic alterations were also found. These data suggest that physiologic differences between species, particularly in gastrointestinal structure and function, can affect the absorption of HMX and hence lead to marked differences in toxicity from exposure to the same compound. PMID:20012743

  12. Toxicity of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in three vertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark S; McFarland, Craig A; Bazar, Matthew A; Quinn, Michael J; LaFiandra, Emily May; Talent, Larry G

    2010-04-01

    The explosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine or high-melting explosive (HMX), has been found in soils in areas used for testing and training by the military. Many of these areas contain habitat for valued wildlife species. In an effort to better understand the environmental consequences from exposure, a reptilian (western fence lizard [Sceloporus occidentalis]), an amphibian (red-backed salamander [Plethodon cinereus]), and a mammalian species (rabbit [Oryctolagus cuniculus]) were exposed to HMX under controlled laboratory conditions. Lizards and rabbits were exposed to HMX by way of corn oil through gavage, and salamanders were exposed to HMX in soil. Two deaths occurred from acute oral exposures to lizards to 5000 mg HMX/kg BW. Histological and gross pathologic assessment suggested gut impaction as a possible cause of death. Salamanders exposed to concentrations of HMX in soil < or = 1970 mg HMX/kg soil for 10 days did not show adverse effects. Rabbits, however, showed neurologic effects manifested as hyperkinetic events with convulsions at > 24 h after oral exposures. An LD(50) for rabbits was calculated as 93 mg/kg (95% confidence interval 76-117). A subacute 14-day testing regime found a lowest observed effect level of 10 mg/kg-d and a no observed adverse effect level of 5 mg/kg-d based on hyperkinesia and seizure incidence, although changes suggesting functional hepatic alterations were also found. These data suggest that physiologic differences between species, particularly in gastrointestinal structure and function, can affect the absorption of HMX and hence lead to marked differences in toxicity from exposure to the same compound.

  13. Synthesis and antiarrhythmic properties of novel 3-selena-7-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonanes and derivatives. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of 7-benzyl-3-selena-7-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one and 7-benzyl-3-selena-7-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane hydroperchlorate.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M D; Smith, G S; Berlin, K D; Holt, E M; Scherlag, B J; van der Helm, D; Muchmore, S W; Fidelis, K A

    1987-05-01

    Several members of the heterocyclic family 3-selena-7-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane have been synthesized and characterized via IR, 1H, 13C, 15N, and 77Se NMR spectroscopy and, in some cases, by X-ray diffraction analysis. Select members, namely the hydroperchlorates of the amines, were examined for antiarrhythmic properties in anesthetized dogs in which myocardial infarctions were induced by techniques previously described. In the predrug, or control state, sustained ventricular tachycardia were induced by ventricular paced beats at rates above 300/min. When 7-benzyl-3-selena-7-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane hydroperchlorate was administered at 3 and 6 mg/kg, the sustained ventricular tachycardia could no longer be induced. Similar doses of lidocaine, a commonly used antiarrhythmic, caused slowing of the sustained ventricular tachycardia below 300/min but did not abolish their inducibility. In addition, select members of the hydroperchlorates caused a moderate 10-20% increase in mean blood pressure whereas lidocaine caused either no change in or slightly reduced mean blood pressure. Some general conclusions are delineated concerning the structural requirements that appear to be necessary for activity in this family of heterocycles and that have not been reported previously.

  14. Optical resolution by preferential crystallization of (1RS,3RS)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-isoquinolinecarboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Shiraiwa, Tadashi; Kiyoe, Ryuuichi

    2005-09-01

    The racemic structure of (1RS,3RS)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dihydroxy-1-methyl-3-isoquinolinecarboxylic acid [(1RS,3RS)-1] was examined based on the melting point, solubility, and IR spectrum, with the aim of optical resolution by preferential crystallization. (1RS,3RS)-1 was indicated from these results to exist as a conglomerate. The successive optical resolution by preferential crystallization of (1RS,3RS)-1 yielded (1S,3S)- and (1R,3R)-1 with optical purities of 85--95% at 66--81% degrees of resolution, which were fully purified by recrystallization.

  15. The T 7 flavor symmetry in 3-3-1 model with neutral leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vien, V. V.; Long, H. N.

    2014-04-01

    We construct a 3-3-1 model based on non-Abelian discrete symmetry T 7 responsible for the fermion masses. Neutrinos get masses from only anti-sextets which are in triplets and under T 7. The flavor mixing patterns and mass splitting are obtained without perturbation. The tribimaximal form obtained with the breaking T 7 → Z 3 in charged lepton sector and both T 7 → Z 3 and Z 3 → {Identity} must be taken place in neutrino sector but only apart in breakings Z 3 → {Identity} (without contribution of σ '), and the upper bound on neutrino mass mi at the level is presented. The Dirac CP violation phase δ is predicted to either or which is maximal CP violation. From the Dirac CP violation phase we obtain the relation between Euler's angles which is consistent with the experimental in PDG 2012. On the other hand, the realistic lepton mixing can be obtained if both the direction for breakings T 7 → Z 3 and Z 3 → {Identity} are taken place in neutrino sectors. The CKM matrix is the identity matrix at the tree-level.

  16. Protection against aflatoxin B1-induced cytotoxicity by expression of the cloned aflatoxin B1-aldehyde reductases rat AKR7A1 and human AKR7A3.

    PubMed

    Bodreddigari, Sridevi; Jones, Laundette Knight; Egner, Patricia A; Groopman, John D; Sutter, Carrie Hayes; Roebuck, Bill D; Guengerich, F Peter; Kensler, Thomas W; Sutter, Thomas R

    2008-05-01

    The reduction of the aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1) dialdehyde metabolite to its corresponding mono and dialcohols, catalyzed by aflatoxin B 1-aldehyde reductase (AFAR, rat AKR7A1, and human AKR7A3), is greatly increased in livers of rats treated with numerous chemoprotective agents. Recombinant human AKR7A3 has been shown to reduce the AFB 1-dialdehyde at rates greater than those of the rat AKR7A1. The activity of AKR7A1 or AKR7A3 may detoxify the AFB 1-dialdehyde, which reacts with proteins, and thereby inhibits AFB 1-induced toxicity; however, direct experimental evidence of this hypothesis was lacking. Two human B lymphoblastoid cell lines, designated pMF6/1A2/AKR7A1 and pMF6/1A2, were genetically engineered to stably express AKR7A1 and/or cytochrome P4501A2 (1A2). The pMF6/1A2/AKR7A1 cells were refractory to the cytotoxic effects of 3 ng/mL AFB 1, in comparison to pM6/1A2 cells, which were more sensitive. Diminished protection occurred at higher concentrations of AFB 1 in pMF6/1A2/AKR7A1 cells, suggesting that additional factors were influencing cell survival. COS-7 cells were transfected with either vector control, rat AKR7A1, or human AKR7A3, and the cells were treated with AFB 1-dialdehyde. There was a 6-fold increase in the dialdehyde LC 50, from 66 microM in vector-transfected cells to 400 microM in AKR7A1-transfected cells, and an 8.5-fold increase from 35 microM in vector-transfected cells to 300 microM in AKR7A3-transfected cells. In both cases, this protective effect of the AFAR enzyme was accompanied by a marked decrease in protein adducts. Fractionation of the cellular protein showed that the mitochondria/nuclei and microsomal fractions contained the highest concentration of protein adducts. The levels of human AKR7A3 and AKR7A2 were measured in 12 human liver samples. The expression of AKR7A3 was detectable in all livers and lower than those of AKR7A2 in 11 of the 12 samples. Overall, these results provide the first direct evidence of a role for rat AKR7A1

  17. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.; Hammond, P.R.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  18. HSD1 and AQP7 short-term gene regulation by cortisone in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Quesada-López, Tania; González-Dávalos, Laura; Piña, Enrique; Mora, Ofelia

    2016-01-01

    Adipose Tissue (AT) is a complex organ with a crucial regulatory role in energy metabolism and in the development of obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome (MS). Modified responses and the metabolism of hormones have been observed in visceral adiposity during obesity, specifically as related with cortisone. The objective of this study was to assess, in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line, the short-term effect of cortisone on the expression of 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd1), which is responsible for activation of cortisone into cortisol, and for Aquaporin 7 (Aqp7), involved in glycerol transport through the cell membrane. Total RNA (tRNA) and complementary DNA (cDNA) were obtained from cell samples treated with cortisone (0.1, 1, and 10 μM) during different times (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min, and 48 h) to quantify the expression of the aforementioned genes by real time PCR employing MnSOD and Ppia as housekeeping genes. There was a time-dependent response of Aqp7, a dose-dependent response of Hsd1, and an increase observed in the expression of both genes during min 1 of treatment (5- and 6-fold, respectively), followed by a decrease during the following 5-10 min (P < 0.05). With the 1-μM cortisone treatment, both genes showed cubic tendencies in their expression; the Hsd1 tendency is described by the equation y = 0.18×(3)-1.65×(2)+3.59x+1.31, while the Aqp7 tendency is described by y = 0.33×(3)-2.67×(2)+4.93x+1.84. There are immediate and quantitatively important actions of cortisone on the expression of Aqp7 and Hsd1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  19. HSD1 and AQP7 short-term gene regulation by cortisone in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Quesada-López, Tania; González-Dávalos, Laura; Piña, Enrique; Mora, Ofelia

    2016-01-01

    Adipose Tissue (AT) is a complex organ with a crucial regulatory role in energy metabolism and in the development of obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome (MS). Modified responses and the metabolism of hormones have been observed in visceral adiposity during obesity, specifically as related with cortisone. The objective of this study was to assess, in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line, the short-term effect of cortisone on the expression of 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd1), which is responsible for activation of cortisone into cortisol, and for Aquaporin 7 (Aqp7), involved in glycerol transport through the cell membrane. Total RNA (tRNA) and complementary DNA (cDNA) were obtained from cell samples treated with cortisone (0.1, 1, and 10 μM) during different times (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min, and 48 h) to quantify the expression of the aforementioned genes by real time PCR employing MnSOD and Ppia as housekeeping genes. There was a time-dependent response of Aqp7, a dose-dependent response of Hsd1, and an increase observed in the expression of both genes during min 1 of treatment (5- and 6-fold, respectively), followed by a decrease during the following 5-10 min (P < 0.05). With the 1-μM cortisone treatment, both genes showed cubic tendencies in their expression; the Hsd1 tendency is described by the equation y = 0.18×(3)-1.65×(2)+3.59x+1.31, while the Aqp7 tendency is described by y = 0.33×(3)-2.67×(2)+4.93x+1.84. There are immediate and quantitatively important actions of cortisone on the expression of Aqp7 and Hsd1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:27617175

  20. 40 CFR 721.10710 - 4, 7-Methano-1H-indene, 3a, 4, 7, 7a-tetrahydro-, polymer with 2-methyl-1, 3-butadiene and 5-(1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 4, 7-Methano-1H-indene, 3a, 4, 7, 7a-tetrahydro-, polymer with 2-methyl-1, 3-butadiene and 5-(1-methylethenyl)bicyclo hept-2-ene. 721.10710 Section 721.10710 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES...

  1. A scanning tunneling microscopy study of PH 3 adsorption on Si(1 1 1)-7 × 7 surfaces, P-segregation and thermal desorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Shen, T.-C.

    2007-04-01

    PH 3 adsorption on Si(1 1 1)-7 × 7 was studied after various exposures between 0.3 and 60 L at room temperature by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). PH 3-, PH 2-, H-reacted, and unreacted adatoms can be identified by analyzing empty-state STM images at different sample biases. PH x-reacted rest-atoms can be observed in empty-state STM images if neighboring adatoms are hydrogen terminated. Most of the PH 3 adsorbs dissociatively on the surface, generating H- and PH 2-adsorbed rest-atom and adatom sites. Dangling-bonds at rest-atom sites are more reactive than adatom sites and the faulted half of the 7 × 7 unit cell is more reactive than the unfaulted half. Center adatoms are overwhelmingly preferred over corner adatoms for PH 2 adsorption. The saturation P coverage is ˜0.18 ML. Annealing of PH 3-reacted 7 × 7 surfaces at 900 K generates disordered, partially P-covered surfaces, but dosing PH 3 at 900 K forms P/Si(1 1 1)- 6√{3} surfaces. Si deposition at 510 K leaves disordered clusters on the surface, which cannot be reordered by annealing up to 800 K. However, annealing above 900 K recreates P/Si(1 1 1)- 6√{3} surfaces. Surface morphologies formed by sequential rapid thermal annealing are also presented.

  2. Synthesis and Antiproliferative Activity of [RuCp(PPh3)2(HdmoPTA)](OSO2CF3)2 (HdmoPTA = 3,7-H-3,7-Dimethyl-1,3,7-triaza-5-phosphabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane).

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Zenaida; Lorenzo-Luis, Pablo; Serrano-Ruiz, Manuel; Martín-Batista, Elva; Padrón, José M; Scalambra, Franco; Romerosa, Antonio

    2016-08-15

    The complex [RuCp(PPh3)2(HdmoPTA)](OSO2CF3)2 (2; HdmoPTA = 3,7-H-3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-triaza-5-phosphabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane) was synthesized and characterized. Its crystal structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The complex showed a more potent antiproliferative activity than cisplatin against a representative panel of human cancer cells. PMID:27462992

  3. 7 CFR Appendices 1-3 to Subpart - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing 1 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy...-3 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart—Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Articles Subject To: Appendix...

  4. 7 CFR Appendices 1-3 to Subpart - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing 1 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy...-3 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart—Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Articles Subject to: Appendix...

  5. 7 CFR Appendices 1-3 to Subpart - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing 1 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy...-3 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart—Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Articles Subject to: Appendix...

  6. 7 CFR Appendices 1-3 to Subpart - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing 1 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy...-3 Appendices 1-3 to Subpart—Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Articles Subject to: Appendix...

  7. Effectiveness of the KiVa Antibullying Program: Grades 1-3 and 7-9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karna, Antti; Voeten, Marinus; Little, Todd D.; Alanen, Erkki; Poskiparta, Elisa; Salmivalli, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of the KiVa Antibullying Program in two samples of students, one from Grades 1-3 (7-9 years old, N = 6,927) and the other from Grades 7-9 (13-15 years old, N = 16, 503). The Grades 1-3 students were located in 74 schools and Grades 7-9 students in 73 schools that were randomly assigned to intervention and…

  8. Synthesis and antifungal activity of 7-methyl-7-hydroxy-2,3-benzo[c]octa-1,6-olide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin; Dong, Hong-Bo; Yang, Ming-Yan; Du, Juan; Jiang, Jia-Zheng; Wang, Ming-An

    2014-01-01

    The racemic 7-methyl-7-hydroxy-2,3-benzo[c]octa-1,6-olide, the analog of natural product (6R)-3,7-dimethyl-7-hydroxy-2-octen-1,6-olide, was totally synthesized using easily available (E)-2-(2-carboxyvinyl)benzoic acid as a raw material in nine-step reactions including three key steps of Wittig reaction, epoxidation, and cyclization, with an overall yield of 10.3%. The bioassay results showed that ( ± )-2 exhibited stronger antifungal activity than the natural product ( ± )-1 and (R)-1 against Alternaria solani with an EC₅₀ value of 27.36 μg/ml. PMID:24456253

  9. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analysis of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX).

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoping; Zhang, Baohong; Tian, Kang; Jones, Lindsey E; Liu, Jun; Anderson, Todd A; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Cobb, George P

    2006-01-01

    A quantitative liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for the analysis of the explosive, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). In negative ionization mode, HMX forms an acetate adduct ion [M + CH(3)COO](-), m/z 355, in the presence of a small amount of acetic acid in the mobile phase. The ESI collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectrum of m/z 355 was acquired and the transitions m/z 355 --> 147 and m/z 355 --> 174 were chosen for the determination of HMX in samples. Using this quantification technique, the method detection limit was 1.57 microg/L and good linearity was achieved in the range 5-500 microg/L. This method will help to unambiguously analyze environmentally relevant concentrations of HMX.

  10. 40 CFR 721.5500 - 7-Oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptane, 3-ethenyl, homopolymer, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-pro...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., homopolymer, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-pro-pane-diol (3:1), epoxidized. 721.5500 Section 721...-Oxabicyclo heptane, 3-ethenyl, homopolymer, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-pro-pane-diol (3:1... 7-oxabicyclo heptane, 3-ethenyl, homopolymer, ether with 2-ethyl-2(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5500 - 7-Oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptane, 3-ethenyl, homopolymer, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-pro...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., homopolymer, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-pro-pane-diol (3:1), epoxidized. 721.5500 Section 721...-Oxabicyclo heptane, 3-ethenyl, homopolymer, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-pro-pane-diol (3:1... 7-oxabicyclo heptane, 3-ethenyl, homopolymer, ether with 2-ethyl-2(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol...

  12. Genome and proteome analysis of 7-7-1, a flagellotropic phage infecting Agrobacterium sp H13-3

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The flagellotropic phage 7-7-1 infects motile cells of Agrobacterium sp H13-3 by attaching to and traveling along the rotating flagellar filament to the secondary receptor at the base, where it injects its DNA into the host cell. Here we describe the complete genomic sequence of 69,391 base pairs of this unusual bacteriophage. Methods The sequence of the 7-7-1 genome was determined by pyro(454)sequencing to a coverage of 378-fold. It was annotated using MyRAST and a variety of internet resources. The structural proteome was analyzed by SDS-PAGE coupled electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Results Sequence annotation and a structural proteome analysis revealed 127 open reading frames, 84 of which are unique. In six cases 7-7-1 proteins showed sequence similarity to proteins from the virulent Burkholderia myovirus BcepB1A. Unique features of the 7-7-1 genome are the physical separation of the genes encoding the small (orf100) and large (orf112) subunits of the DNA packaging complex and the apparent lack of a holin-lysin cassette. Proteomic analysis revealed the presence of 24 structural proteins, five of which were identified as baseplate (orf7), putative tail fibre (orf102), portal (orf113), major capsid (orf115) and tail sheath (orf126) proteins. In the latter case, the N-terminus was removed during capsid maturation, probably by a putative prohead protease (orf114). PMID:22650361

  13. Abundance and diversity of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)-metabolizing bacteria in UXO-contaminated marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Shen; Manno, Dominic; Hawari, Jalal

    2007-03-01

    Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) is a toxic explosive known to be resistant to biodegradation. In this study, we found that sediment collected from two unexploded ordnance (UXO) disposal sites (UXO-3, UXO-5) and one nearby reference site (midref) in Hawaii contained anaerobic bacteria capable of removing HMX. Two groups of HMX-removing bacteria were found in UXO-5: group I contained aerotolerant anaerobes and microaerophiles, and group II contained facultative anaerobes. In UXO-3 and midref sediments, HMX-metabolizing bacteria were strictly anaerobic (group III and group IV). Using 16S rRNA sequencing, group I was assigned to a novel phylogenetic cluster of Clostridiales, and groups II and III were related to Paenibacillus and Tepidibacter of Firmicutes, respectively. Group IV bacteria were identified as Desulfovibrio of Deltaproteobacteria. Using [UL-(14)C]-HMX, group IV isolates were found to mineralize HMX (26.8% in 308 d) as determined by liberated (14)CO(2), but negligible mineralization was observed in groups I-III. Resting cells of isolates metabolized HMX to N(2)O and HCHO via the intermediary formation of 1-nitroso-octahydro-3,5,7-trinitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine together with methylenedinitramine. These experimental findings suggest that HMX biotransformation occurred either via initial denitration followed by ring cleavage or via reduction of one or more of the N-NO(2) group(s) to the corresponding N-NO bond(s) prior to ring cleavage.

  14. Kinetics of the {beta} {yields} {delta} Solid-Solid Transition of HMX, Octahydro-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine

    SciTech Connect

    Weese, R K; Maienschein, J L; Perrino, C T

    2001-09-05

    We apply Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC, to measure the kinetics of the {beta} {yields} {delta} solid-solid phase transition of Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocinet HMX. Integration of the DSC signal gives a direct measurement of degree of conversion. We apply 1st order kinetics, the Ozawa method, and isoconversional analysis to show that the phase transition is not a simple one-step reaction, but instead is a complex combination of steps. The range of activation energies found in this work, centering around 500 kJ/mol, is higher than previously reported values. We discuss possible reasons for the higher activation energies measured here.

  15. Theoretical study of the thermodynamic properties, phase transition wave, and phase transition velocity for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2015-09-21

    We develop a phonon-electron free energy model to study the thermodynamic properties and phase transitions of δ-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. The bulk modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat, Hugoniot curve, and phase transition curve are calculated in wide temperature and pressure ranges. The results are in agreement with the available experiments at zero pressure, and are reasonable predictions at high pressure for the lack of experiment. Two kinds of phase transition waves are investigated. We find the velocity of shock-induced phase transition wave is between 3400 m/s and 4700 m/s, and the velocity of self-sustaining phase transition wave is between 1300 m/s and 1900 m/s.

  16. Effects of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) exposure on reproduction and hatchling development in Northern bobwhite quail.

    PubMed

    Brunjes, Kristina J; Severt, Scott A; Liu, Jun; Pan, Xiaoping; Brausch, John; Cox, Stephen A; Cobb, George P; McMurry, Scott T; Kendall, Ronald J; Smith, Philip N

    2007-04-15

    Adult Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were exposed via food to octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), an energetic compound found in soils at military training installations. Depuration of HMX into eggs was examined in an initial study, and effects on egg production, hatching, growth, development, and survival of chicks were examined in a follow-up study. HMX was readily and rapidly transferred from female quail into eggs. Marked weight loss was observed in quail exposed to 125 and 250 mg/kg HMX in food, likely due to reductions in food intake rather than a toxic mechanism. In the second study, significant alterations in body mass occurred among quail at concentrations >52.5 +/- 9.3 mg/kg but not at 12.3 +/- 1.1 mg/kg in food. Treatment-related reductions in food consumption and decreases in egg laying rates were observed. No HMX-related effects were found in chick growth or survival. Quail inhabiting HMX-contaminated sites could possibly be exposed to HMX and therefore deposition of HMX into eggs is also possible. However, results of these studies further suggest that the potential for reproductive toxicity of HMX to birds is low.

  17. Chronic toxicity of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in soil determined using the earthworm (Eisenia andrei) reproduction test.

    PubMed

    Robidoux, P Y; Hawari, J; Thiboutot, S; Ampleman, G; Sunahara, G I

    2001-01-01

    The sublethal and chronic effects of the environmental contaminant and explosive octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in artificial soil were assessed using the earthworm (Eisenia andrei). Based on various reproduction parameters (total and hatched number of cocoons, number of juveniles and their biomass), fecundity was reduced at the different concentrations of HMX tested (from 280.0 +/- 12.3 to 2502.9 +/- 230.0 mg kg-1 dry soil) in spiked artificial soil (LOEC: 280.0 +/- 12.3 mg kg-1 dry soil). The growth of adult E. andrei was also reduced at the different concentrations tested, though no mortality occurred, even at the highest tested concentrations. The number of juveniles produced was correlated with the number of total and hatched cocoons, and the biomass of juveniles was correlated with the number of cocoons. Pooled results of these and earlier studies on explosives (TNT, RDX) using the E. andrei reproduction test confirm that effects of HMX on cocoon production are indicative of some reproductive consequences (number of juvenile and their biomass), whereas adult growth, in general, does not correlate strongly with change in reproduction capacity.

  18. 7 CFR 301.1-3 - Action on special need requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Action on special need requests. 301.1-3 Section 301.1-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Preemption and Special...

  19. 7 CFR 301.1-3 - Action on special need requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Action on special need requests. 301.1-3 Section 301.1-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Preemption and Special...

  20. Selective ligands for rat A3 adenosine receptors: structure-activity relationships of 1,3-dialkylxanthine 7-riboside derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kim, H O; Ji, X D; Melman, N; Olah, M E; Stiles, G L; Jacobson, K A

    1994-11-11

    1,3-Dibutylxanthine 7-riboside has been found to be a partial agonist at A3 adenosine receptors (van Galen et al. Mol. Pharmacol. 1994, 45, 1101-1111). 1,3-Dialkylxanthine 7-riboside analogues modified at the 1-, 3-, and 8-purine positions and at the ribose 5'-position were synthesized. The nucleoside analogues were examined for affinity in radioligand binding assays at rat brain A3 adenosine receptors stably expressed in CHO cells, using the radioligand [[125I]-4-amino-3-iodobenzyl]adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (AB-MECA). Affinity was assayed at rat brain A1 and A2a receptors using [3H]PIA and [3H]CGS 21680, respectively. The affinity of xanthine 7-ribosides at A3 receptors depended on the 1,3-dialkyl substituents in the order: Pent > or = Bu > Hx > Pr approximately Me. 1,3-Dipentylxanthine 7-riboside was slightly selective for A3 receptors (2-fold vs A1 and 10-fold vs A2a). 8-Methoxy substitution was tolerated at A3 receptors. 2-Thio vs 2-oxo substitution increased potency at all three subtypes and slightly increased A3 vs A1 selectivity. The 5'-uronamide modification, which was previously found to enhance A3 selectivity in N6-benzyladenosine derivatives, was also incorporated into the xanthine 7-ribosides, with similar results. The affinity of 1,3-dialkylxanthine 7-riboside 5'-uronamides at A3 receptors depended on the N-alkyluronamide substituent in the order: MeNH > EtNH > NH2 > Me2N. Affinity of the 5'-uronamides at A3 receptors was dependent on the 1,3-dialkyl substitution in the order: Bu > Pent > Hex. 1,3-Dibutylxanthine 7-riboside 5'-N-methylcarboxamide, with a Ki value of 229 nM at A3 receptors, was 160-fold selective for rat A3 vs A1 receptors and > 400-fold selective vs A2a receptors. This derivative acted as a full agonist in the A3 receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase.

  1. Stereoselective chemo-enzymatic oxidation routes for (1R,3E,7E,11S,12S)-3,7,18-dolabellatriene

    PubMed Central

    Görner, Christian; Hirte, Max; Huber, Stephanie; Schrepfer, Patrick; Brück, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The diterpene (1R,3E,7E,11S,12S)-3,7,18-dolabellatriene from the marine brown alga Dilophus spiralis belongs to the dolabellanes natural product family and has antimicrobial activity against multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Recently, we generated a CotB2 diterpene synthase mutant (W288G), which instead of its native product cyclooctat-9-en-7-ol, generates (1R,3E,7E,11S,12S)-3,7,18-dolabellatriene. In vivo CotB2 W288G reconstitution in an Escherichia coli based terpene production system, allowed efficient production of this olefinic macrocycle. To diversify the 3,7,18-dolabellatriene bioactivity we evaluated chemical and enzymatic methods for selective oxidation. Epoxidation by acetic peracid, which was formed in situ by a lipase catalyzed reaction of acetic acid with H2O2, provided efficient access to two monooxidized dolabellanes and to a novel di-epoxidated dolabellane species. These compounds could act as synthons en-route to new dolabellanes with diversified bioactivities. Furthermore, we demonstrate the almost quantitative 3,7,18-dolabellatriene conversion into the new, non-natural compound (1R,3E,7E,11S,12S,18R)-dolabella-3,7-diene-20-ol by hydroboration–oxidation with an enantiomeric excess of 94%, for the first time. PMID:26528263

  2. Studies on activation mechanism of a mitomycin dimer, 7-N,7'-N'-(1″,2″-dithiepanyl-3″,7″-dimethylenyl)bismitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Jin; Kim, Hyoung Rae; Lee, Sang Hyup

    2012-09-01

    We report the studies on nucleophilic activation and DNA alkylation of a cyclic disulfide mitomycin dimer, 7-N,7'-N'-(1″,2″-dithiepanyl-3″,7″-dimethylenyl)bismitomycin C (6) along with a diol mitomycin dimer, 7-N,7'-N'-(2″,6″-dihydroxy-1″,7″-heptanediyl)bismitomycin C (7). We wished to see if disulfide mitomycin 6 undergoes efficient nucleophilic activation and corresponding formation of DNA interstrand cross-link (DNA ISC) products compared to diol mitomycin 7. Mitomycin 6 is a dimer connected by a seven-membered cyclic disulfide (a 1,2-dithiepane) linker, and mitomycin 7 is also a dimer containing 2,6-dihydroxyheptane linker that was employed as a reference one to identify the effect of disulfide unit in 6. Through kinetic studies using solvolysis reaction, we found that 6 underwent much faster nucleophilic activation by Et3P compared to 7, and that the enhanced activation rates were induced by the disulfide unit in 6. These findings led us to propose a nucleophilic activation mechanism for 6. We further demonstrated that 6 produced much higher levels of DNA ISC (86%) by the action of Et3P compared with 7 (5%) and 1 (4%). Therefore, we have concluded that 6 was highly efficient for nucleophilic activation and DNA ISC formation due to the key role of cyclic disulfide unit in 6.

  3. (7-Benzyloxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[1,2-a]indol-1-yl)acetic Acids as S1P1 Functional Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    S1P1 is a validated target for treatment of autoimmune disease, and functional antagonists with superior safety and pharmacokinetic properties are being sought as second generation therapeutics. We describe the discovery and optimization of (7-benzyloxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[1,2-a]indol-1-yl)acetic acids as potent, centrally available, direct acting S1P1 functional antagonists, with favorable pharmacokinetic and safety properties. PMID:25516794

  4. Mott Physics in lightly doped (Sr1-xLax)3Ir2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affeldt, Gregory; Hogan, Tom; Smallwood, Christopher; Das, Tanmoy; Denlinger, Jonathan; Mo, Sung-Kwan; Wilson, Stephen; Lanzara, Alessandra

    The layered perovskite iridates Sr2IrO4 and Sr3Ir2O7 exhibit a spin-orbit Mott insulating state that becomes metallic upon sufficient carrier doping. While Sr2IrO4 presents striking similarities to cuprates upon electron doping, Sr3Ir2O7 appears to be a correlated metal. We show a detailed doping and temperature-dependent ARPES study which reveals important similarities between (Sr1-xLax)3Ir2O7 and doped Sr2IrO4, as well as other doped Mott insulators.

  5. Kv1.3 channel blockade enhances the phagocytic function of RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Yan, Li; Gu, JingLi; Hao, Wei; Cao, JiMin

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to comprehend the largely unknown role of voltage-gated potassium channel 1.3 (Kv1.3) in the phagocytic function of macrophages. We found that blocking of the Kv1.3 channel with 100 pmol L(-1) Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin (ShK) enhanced the phagocytic capacities of both resting and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages in the chicken erythrocyte system. In the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled Escherichia coli k-12 system, ShK increased the phagocytic capacities of resting RAW264.7 cells, but not of the LPS-stimulated cells, as LPS alone stimulated almost saturated phagocytosis of the macrophages. ShK increased the nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-activated cells, but not in resting RAW264.7 cells. There was no effect of ShK alone on the cytokine secretions in resting RAW264.7 cells, but it suppressed IL-1β secretion in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. At a concentration of 100 pmol L(-1), ShK did not affect the viability of the tested cells. Kv1.3 was expressed in RAW264.7 cells; this expression was downregulated by LPS, but significantly upregulated by disrupting caveolin-dependent endocytosis with filipin III. In addition, cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, did not affect the Kv1.3 expression. Thus, blocking of the Kv1.3 channel enhances the phagocytic capacity and NO production of this cell line. Our results suggest that Kv1.3 channel serves as a negative regulator of phagocytosis in macrophages and can therefore be a potential target in the treatment of macrophage dysfunction. PMID:26354506

  6. 7 CFR 7.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 7.3 Section 7.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.3 Definitions. The terms defined in part 719 of this title...

  7. Anaerobic transformation of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) by ovine rumen microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Perumbakkam, Sudeep; Craig, A M

    2012-01-01

    Explosives such as octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) provide a challenge in terms of bioremediation. In the present study, sheep rumen was studied for its potential to detoxify HMX using analytical chemistry and molecular microbial ecology tools. Results indicated significant loss (p < 0.05) of HMX at 8 h post-incubation and complete disappearance of the parent molecule after 16 h. Qualitative LC-MS/MS analysis provided evidence for the formation of 1-NO-HMX and MEDINA metabolites. A total of 1006 16S rRNA-V3 clones were sequenced and the Classifier tool of the RDPII database was used to sort the sequences at their phylum level. Most sequences were associated with either the phylum Bacteroidetes or Firmicutes. Significant differences at the phylum level (p < 0.001) were found between 0 h and 8 h HMX treatments. Using LibCompare analysis, 8 h HMX treatment showed enrichment of clones (p < 0.01) belonging to the genus Prevotella. From these results, it could be concluded that members of the genus Prevotella are enriched in the rumen and are capable of detoxifying HMX.

  8. Signalling pathways involved in 1-nitropyrene (1-NP)-induced and 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-NF)-induced cell death in Hepa1c1c7 cells.

    PubMed

    Asare, Nana; Tekpli, Xavier; Rissel, Mary; Solhaug, Anita; Landvik, Nina; Lecureur, Valerie; Podechard, Normand; Brunborg, Gunnar; Låg, Marit; Lagadic-Gossmann, Dominique; Holme, Jørn A

    2009-11-01

    We previously reported that 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-NF) elicited apoptotic cell death as well as non-apoptotic programmed cell deaths (PCDs) with paraptotic and necroptotic characteristics, respectively. In the present study, we have further confirmed and extended these findings. Flow cytometric analyses of 1-NP-exposed/3NF-exposed Hepa1c1c7 cells revealed that caspase-3 was only activated in the subpopulation of cells corresponding to that with classic apoptotic morphology. Immunocytochemical analysis indicated that leucocyte elastase inhibitor-derived DNaseII (LEI/L-DNaseII), apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G (EndoG) were more clearly translocated to the nucleus following 3-NF exposure than after 1-NP. These 3-NF-induced changes in AIF and EndoG translocation were reduced by necrostatin-1, an inhibitor of necroptotic cell death. Both compounds lead to accumulation of lipid droplets and induced DNA damage. Activation of checkpoint kinase (CHK) 1 and H2AX, but not ataxia telangiectasia mutated and CHK2, were observed. Furthermore, inhibition of p53 using pifithrin-alpha reduced the cell death induced by both compounds, suggesting a role of DNA damage/CHK1/p53 pathway in the death process. 1-NP-induced cell death was in addition characterized by increased oxidative damage and intracellular accumulation of Ca(2+). These findings further support the notion that 1-NP elicited apoptotic cell death and PCD with paraptotic characteristics, while 3-NF induced apoptosis and a PCD with necroptotic features. PMID:19703935

  9. Food avoidance behavior to dietary octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) exposure in the northern bobwhite (Colinusvirginianus).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark S; Gogal, Robert M; Larsen, Calvert T

    2005-08-13

    High-melting explosive (HMX; octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) is a widely utilized explosive component of munitions used by the military. Consequently, production and use through testing and training at military installations has resulted in deposition of HMX in soil. Since these areas are often used by birds, the oral toxicity of HMX exposure to northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) was evaluated. Attempts to determine the acute lethal dose were unsuccessful. Initially, 8 birds (1 male/1 female per dose group) were orally dosed at levels ranging from 125 to 2125 mg HMX/kg body weight. A single death at the midrange resulted in subsequent trials of oral doses up to 10,760 mg/kg body weight. Only a single death occurred at 7173 mg/kg. A subsequent 28-d feeding study was then conducted to evaluate the potential for toxicity resulting from repetitive oral exposures. Northern bobwhite were exposed to concentrations of HMX in feed of either 10000, 1000, 100, or 0 mg/kg. These exposures resulted in a clear concentration-related reduction in feed consumption and body mass. Reductions in egg production in females were correlated with changes in body mass and feed consumption. Other physiological indicators were consistent with a considerable reduction in feed intake. These results suggest that HMX concentration is responsible for intense feed aversion behavior and thus not likely a factor that would appreciably contribute to risk for wild birds at military ranges.

  10. 40 CFR 721.10467 - 2-Propenoic acid, 3-hydroxytricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]dec-1-yl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for...)(i), (a)(2)(iii), (a)(3), (a)(4) (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health...

  11. A comparative study of 1,3,5-Trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) under high pressures using Raman spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yangyang; Song, Yunfei; Yu, Guoyang; Zheng, Xianxu; Guo, Wencan; Zhao, Jun; Yang, Yanqiang

    2016-09-01

    High pressure Raman experiment was performed to compare RDX and HMX crystals. Ab initio calculations using B3LYP Density Functional Theory method with Sadlej's medium-sized polarized basis set (SadlejpVTZ) were carried out for Caae RDX and 1,5-diaxial-3,7-diequatorial chair HMX molecules. Our calculations and measured Raman vibrational spectra reveal both molecules have similarities on bonding and vibrational properties at ambient pressure. However, high pressure responses for both molecules aren't the same. For RDX, at pressure near 4 GPa, a number of changes become apparent in the Raman spectra, such as modes splitting, intensity modification, and discontinuity of pressure-dependence of frequency shifts, which are consistent with previous experiment and believed to associate with α-γ phase transition. For HMX, only slight conformational deformation involving NO2 group was observed, and was considered as an onset of β-ε phase transition. It is proposed that the markedly different behavior under high pressure for these two molecules results from different molecular packing in unit cell.

  12. On the low pressure shock initiation of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine based plastic bonded explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersall, Kevin S.; Tarver, Craig M.; Garcia, Frank; Chidester, Steven K.

    2010-05-01

    In large explosive and propellant charges, relatively low shock pressures on the order of 1-2 GPa impacting large volumes and lasting tens of microseconds can cause shock initiation of detonation. The pressure buildup process requires several centimeters of shock propagation before shock to detonation transition occurs. In this paper, experimentally measured run distances to detonation for lower input shock pressures are shown to be much longer than predicted by extrapolation of high shock pressure data. Run distance to detonation and embedded manganin gauge pressure histories are measured using large diameter charges of six octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) based plastic bonded explosives (PBX's): PBX 9404; LX-04; LX-07; LX-10; PBX 9501; and EDC37. The embedded gauge records show that the lower shock pressures create fewer and less energetic "hot spot" reaction sites, which consume the surrounding explosive particles at reduced reaction rates and cause longer distances to detonation. The experimental data is analyzed using the ignition and growth reactive flow model of shock initiation in solid explosives. Using minimum values of the degrees of compression required to ignite hot spot reactions, the previously determined high shock pressure ignition and growth model parameters for the six explosives accurately simulate the much longer run distances to detonation and much slower growths of pressure behind the shock fronts measured during the shock initiation of HMX PBX's at several low shock pressures.

  13. Performance of mesophilic anaerobic granules for removal of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    An, Chun-jiang; He, Yan-ling; Huang, Guo-he; Liu, Yong-hong

    2010-07-15

    The performance of mesophilic anaerobic granules to degrade octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) was investigated under various conditions. The results of batch experiments showed that anaerobic granules were capable of removing HMX from aqueous solution with high efficiency. Both biotic and abiotic mechanisms contributed to the removal of HMX by anaerobic granules under mesophilic conditions. Adsorption appeared to play a significant role in the abiotic process. Furthermore, HMX could be biodegraded by anaerobic granules as the sole substrate. After 16 days of incubation, 99.04% and 96.42% of total HMX could be removed by 1g VSS/L acclimated and unacclimated granules, respectively. Vancomycin, an inhibitor of acetogenic bacteria, caused a significant inhibition of HMX biotransformation, while 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid, an inhibitor of methanogenic bacteria, only resulted in a slight decrease of metabolic activity. The presence of the glucose, as a suitable electron donor and carbon source, was found to enhance the degradation of HMX by anaerobic granules. Our study showed that sulfate had little adverse effects on biotransformation of HMX by anaerobic granules. However, nitrate had significant inhibitory effect on the extent of HMX removal especially in the initial period. This study offered good prospects of using high-rate anaerobic technology in the treatment of munition wastewater.

  14. T7 flavor symmetry scheme for understanding neutrino mass and mixing in 3-3-1 model with neutral leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vien, V. V.

    2014-09-01

    We construct a new version for the 3-3-1 model based on T7 flavor symmetry where the left-handed leptons under T7 differ from those of our previous work while the SU(3)C ⊗SU(3)L ⊗U(1)X gauge symmetry is retained. The flavor mixing patterns and mass splitting are obtained without perturbation. The realistic lepton mixing can be obtained if both the direction of breakings T7 →Z3 and Z3 →{Identity} are taken place in neutrino sector. Maximal CP violation is predicted and Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix is the identity matrix at the tree-level.

  15. Zebrafish IRF1, IRF3, and IRF7 Differentially Regulate IFNΦ1 and IFNΦ3 Expression through Assembly of Homo- or Heteroprotein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hui; Zhang, Qi-Min; Zhang, Yi-Bing; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Jun; Xiong, Ya-Wei; Wu, Min; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2016-09-01

    In mammals, IFN regulatory factor (IRF)1, IRF3, and IRF7 are three critical transcription factors that are pivotal for cooperative regulation of the type I IFN response. In this study, we explored the relative contribution of zebrafish (Danio rerio) IRF1 (DrIRF1), IRF3 (DrIRF3), and IRF7 (DrIRF7) (DrIRF1/3/7) to zebrafish IFNΦ1 (DrIFNΦ1) and IFNΦ3 (DrIFNΦ3) (DrIFNΦ1/3) activation. Following spring viremia of carp virus infection, DrIFNΦ1/3 and DrIRF1/3/7 transcripts are significantly induced in zebrafish tissues, which correlates with the replication of spring viremia of carp virus. DrIRF1/3/7 selectively bind to the IRF-binding element/IFN-stimulated regulatory element sites of DrIFNΦ1/3 promoters, with the exception that DrIRF3 has no preference for two IRF-binding element/IFN-stimulated regulatory element motifs within the DrIFNΦ3 promoter. Consistently, DrIRF3 alone activates DrIFNΦ1, but not DrIFNΦ3; DrIRF7 predominantly stimulates DrIFNΦ3; and DrIRF1 has similar potential to DrIFNΦ1 and DrIFNΦ3. Strikingly, DrIRF3 facilitates the binding of DrIRF1 and DrIRF7 to both zebrafish IFN promoters, and so does DrIRF7 for the binding of DrIRF1, particularly to the DrIFNΦ3 promoter. These binding properties correlate with differential responses of DrIFNΦ1 and DrIFNΦ3 to the combinatory stimulation of DrIRF1/3/7, depending on their relative amounts. Similar to the dual roles of human IRF3 in regulating IRF7-activated IFNα genes, DrIRF3 exerts dual effects on DrIRF1-mediated DrIFNΦ3 gene expression: an inhibitory effect at lower concentrations and a synergistic effect at higher concentrations. These data provide evidence that fish and mammals have evolved a similar IRF-dependent regulatory mechanism fine-tuning IFN gene activation. PMID:27496972

  16. In Silico Alkaline Hydrolysis of Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine: Density Functional Theory Investigation.

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, Liudmyla K; Gorb, Leonid; Hill, Frances C; Leszczynska, Danuta; Shukla, Manoj K; Okovytyy, Sergiy I; Hovorun, Dmytro; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2016-09-20

    HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine), an energetic material used in military applications, may be released to the environment during manufacturing, transportation, storage, training, and disposal. A detailed investigation of a possible mechanism of alkaline hydrolysis, as one of the most promising methods for HMX remediation, was performed by computational study at PCM(Pauling)/M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level. Obtained results suggest that HMX hydrolysis at pH 10 represents a highly exothermic multistep process involving initial deprotonation and nitrite elimination, hydroxide attachment accompanied by cycle cleavage, and further decomposition of cycle-opened intermediate to the products caused by a series of C-N bond ruptures, hydroxide attachments, and proton transfers. Computationally predicted products of HMX hydrolysis such as nitrite, 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal, formaldehyde, nitrous oxide, formate, and ammonia correspond to experimentally observed species. Based on computed reaction pathways for HMX decomposition by alkaline hydrolysis, the kinetics of the entire process was modeled. Very low efficiency of this reaction at pH 10 was observed. Computations predict significant increases (orders of magnitude) of the hydrolysis rate for hydrolysis reactions undertaken at pH 11, 12, and 13. PMID:27523798

  17. Biophysical assessment of human aquaporin-7 as a water and glycerol channel in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Ana; Camps, Marta; Zorzano, Antonio; Moura, Teresa F; Soveral, Graça

    2013-01-01

    The plasma membrane aquaporin-7 (AQP7) has been shown to be expressed in adipose tissue and its role in glycerol release/uptake in adipocytes has been postulated and correlated with obesity onset. However, some studies have contradicted this view. Based on this situation, we have re-assessed the precise localization of AQP7 in adipose tissue and analyzed its function as a water and/or glycerol channel in adipose cells. Fractionation of mice adipose tissue revealed that AQP7 is located in both adipose and stromal vascular fractions. Moreover, AQP7 was the only aquaglyceroporin expressed in adipose tissue and in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. By overexpressing the human AQP7 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes it was possible to ascertain its role as a water and glycerol channel in a gain-of-function scenario. AQP7 expression had no effect in equilibrium cell volume but AQP7 loss of function correlated with higher triglyceride content. Furthermore it is also reported for the first time a negative correlation between water permeability and the cell non-osmotic volume supporting the observation that AQP7 depleted cells are more prone to lipid accumulation. Additionally, the strong positive correlation between the rates of water and glycerol transport highlights the role of AQP7 as both a water and a glycerol channel and reflects its expression levels in cells. In all, our results clearly document a direct involvement of AQP7 in water and glycerol transport, as well as in triglyceride content in adipocytes. PMID:24376702

  18. Biophysical Assessment of Human Aquaporin-7 as a Water and Glycerol Channel in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, Ana; Camps, Marta; Zorzano, Antonio; Moura, Teresa F.; Soveral, Graça

    2013-01-01

    The plasma membrane aquaporin-7 (AQP7) has been shown to be expressed in adipose tissue and its role in glycerol release/uptake in adipocytes has been postulated and correlated with obesity onset. However, some studies have contradicted this view. Based on this situation, we have re-assessed the precise localization of AQP7 in adipose tissue and analyzed its function as a water and/or glycerol channel in adipose cells. Fractionation of mice adipose tissue revealed that AQP7 is located in both adipose and stromal vascular fractions. Moreover, AQP7 was the only aquaglyceroporin expressed in adipose tissue and in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. By overexpressing the human AQP7 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes it was possible to ascertain its role as a water and glycerol channel in a gain-of-function scenario. AQP7 expression had no effect in equilibrium cell volume but AQP7 loss of function correlated with higher triglyceride content. Furthermore it is also reported for the first time a negative correlation between water permeability and the cell non-osmotic volume supporting the observation that AQP7 depleted cells are more prone to lipid accumulation. Additionally, the strong positive correlation between the rates of water and glycerol transport highlights the role of AQP7 as both a water and a glycerol channel and reflects its expression levels in cells. In all, our results clearly document a direct involvement of AQP7 in water and glycerol transport, as well as in triglyceride content in adipocytes. PMID:24376702

  19. Flame spread through cracks of PBX 9501 (a composite octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine-based explosive)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berghout, H. Laine; Son, Steven F.; Hill, Larry G.; Asay, Blaine W.

    2006-06-01

    Recent experiments involving combustion of PBX 9501 [a plastic-bonded high explosive composed of 95% octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) by weight in a plasticized, estane-based binder] under confined conditions underscore the importance of cracks and flaws in reaction violence. The presence of a small void space or alternative escape path for combustion gases at the closed end of a crack drastically alters combustion violence. In the case of a true closed-ended crack, where gases can only escape by exiting the open end of the crack, luminous combustion spreads through the closed crack at relatively low rates in the range of a few meters per second, regardless of the pressure external to the slot. Hence, external pressure determines whether reaction can progress into the restricted dimensions of the slot, but it does not necessarily determine the dynamics of the flame's progress in the slot. When an alternative combustion-gas escape path is available at the closed end of the slot, luminous combustion spreads through the crack at hundreds of meters per second. Additionally, combustion in cracks of confined PBX 9501 materials exhibits oscillatory behavior with a frequency of about 1000 Hz for the experimental configuration used. This oscillatory behavior resembles combustion instabilities observed in rocket motors and may arise from similar processes. We also report on preliminary experiments involving 19.1 cm long slots in confined PBX 9501, which have produced very high flame-propagation rates of 1500 m/s.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of p-type conductivity dopant 2-(3-(adamantan-1-yl)propyl)-3,5,6-trifluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane

    SciTech Connect

    Rainbolt, James E.; Koech, Phillip K.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Von Ruden, Amber L.; Wang, Liang; Sapochak, Linda S.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Gaspar, Daniel J.

    2013-01-22

    We report the synthesis and characterization of 2-(3-(adamantan-1-yl)propyl)-3,5,6-trifluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F3TCNQ-Ad1), a substituted analog of 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ), designed for p-type conductivity doping. The dopant is designed as a model for substituted alternatives to F4TCNQ that maintain similar electronic properties with the goal of engineering dopants with superior fabrication characteristics over F4TCNQ. We describe the design strategy for F3TCNQ-Ad1 based on molecular modeling predictions that substitution of a single fluorine atom of F4TCNQ has little effect on the electronic properties of the molecule. Photophysical and electrochemical characterization reveal that the adamantyl substituent in F3TCNQ-Ad1 does not significantly alter the electronic properties of the substituted dopant relative to F4TCNQ. Unfortunately, F3TCNQ-Ad1 degrades under standard sublimation conditions, preventing sublimation deposition processing. Instead, hole-only devices were made via solution-processing of the p-doped films with the structure glass/ITO/2.3 x103Å PVK:(MTDATA:dopant)/2.0x102Å Au/1.0x103Å Al, where dopant is either F4TCNQ or F3TCNQ-Ad1. We demonstrate that F3TCNQ-Ad1 increased the conductivity of the films by at least 1,000 times compared to an undoped device.

  1. Accumulation and effects of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) exposure in the green anole (Anolis carolinensis).

    PubMed

    McMurry, S T; Jones, L E; Smith, P N; Cobb, G P; Anderson, T A; Lovern, M B; Cox, S; Pan, X

    2012-03-01

    Environmental contamination by energetic compounds is an increasing international concern, although little is known of their accumulation in and affect on wildlife. Reptiles are often good models for contaminants studies due to natural history traits that increase their potential for exposure. We report a study to assess accumulation and effects of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX, High Melting Explosive) in green anoles (Anolis carolinensis). Acute oral toxicity (LD(50)) was estimated to exceed 2000 mg/kg body weight in adult male and female anoles using a standard up-and-down method. Accumulation of HMX was assessed in adult females via dietary exposure and into eggs by two routes (directly from the soil and via maternal transfer). HMX readily accumulated into adult females in a dose-dependent manner and into eggs following both exposure pathways. However, total HMX in soil-exposed eggs was up to 40-times greater than those exposed via maternal transfer. Although there was a suggestion of an HMX-induced reduction in body weight in adult females, overall there were no effects observed over the 12 week exposure period. The only significant effect on eggs was a 50% reduction in hatching success for eggs exposed to 2000 mg/kg HMX in the soil during incubation. Growth and survival of hatchlings was not affected by HMX exposure. Our results demonstrate that HMX accumulates through the food chain and into eggs from the soil, but likely poses minimal threat to lizards except to hatching success in eggs incubated in soils with HMX levels near maximum environmental concentrations.

  2. Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HxCDD), mixture of 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD and 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hexachlorodibenzo - p - dioxin ( HxCDD ) , mixture of 1,2,3,6,7,8 - HxCDD and 1,2,3,7,8,9 - HxCDD ; CASRN 57653 - 85 - 7 and 19408 - 74 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in

  3. Discovery and optimization of 7-aminofuro[2,3-c]pyridine inhibitors of TAK1.

    PubMed

    Hornberger, Keith R; Berger, Dan M; Crew, Andrew P; Dong, Hanqing; Kleinberg, Andrew; Li, An-Hu; Medeiros, Matthew R; Mulvihill, Mark J; Siu, Kam; Tarrant, James; Wang, Jing; Weng, Felix; Wilde, Victoria L; Albertella, Mark; Bittner, Mark; Cooke, Andrew; Gray, Michael J; Maresca, Paul; May, Earl; Meyn, Peter; Peick, William; Romashko, Darlene; Tanowitz, Michael; Tokar, Brianna

    2013-08-15

    The discovery and potency optimization of a series of 7-aminofuro[2,3-c]pyridine inhibitors of TAK1 is described. Micromolar hits taken from high-throughput screening were optimized for biochemical and cellular mechanistic potency to ~10nM, as exemplified by compound 12az. Application of structure-based drug design aided by co-crystal structures of TAK1 with inhibitors significantly shortened the number of iterations required for the optimization. PMID:23850198

  4. 1,5-Dichloro-3(2,7),7(2,7)-dinaphthal-ena-2,4,6,8-tetra-oxa-1(2,6),5(2,6)-di(1,3,5-triazina)octa-phane.

    PubMed

    Sang, Qiu-Guang; Yang, Jing-Kui

    2011-09-01

    In the macrocyclic title compound, C(26)H(12)Cl(2)N(6)O(4), an O-atom-bridged calix[2]naphthalene-[2]triazine synthesized using a one-pot approach from naphthalene-2,7-diol and cyanuric chloride, the two isolated naphthalene planes and the two triazine-2,6-di-oxy planes adopt a 1,3-alternate configuration, with a dihedral angle of 84.10 (8)° between the naphthalene rings and a dihedral angle of 39.02 (14)° between the triazine rings. In the crystal, weak inter-molecular π-π stacking inter-actions are found between face-to-face naphthalene rings [centroid-centroid distance = 3.662 (7) Å].

  5. Identification of dipeptidyl peptidase 3 as the Angiotensin-(1-7) degrading peptidase in human HK-2 renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Diaz, Nildris; Wilson, Bryan A; Pirro, Nancy T; Brosnihan, K Bridget; Marshall, Allyson C; Chappell, Mark C

    2016-09-01

    Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) is expressed within the kidney and exhibits renoprotective actions that antagonize the inflammatory, fibrotic and pro-oxidant effects of the Ang II-AT1 receptor axis. We previously identified a peptidase activity from sheep brain, proximal tubules and human HK-2 proximal tubule cells that metabolized Ang-(1-7); thus, the present study isolated and identified the Ang-(1-7) peptidase. Utilizing ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, a single 80kDa protein band on SDS-PAGE was purified from HK-2 cells. The 80kDa band was excised, the tryptic digest peptides analyzed by LC-MS and a protein was identified as the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 3 (DPP 3, EC: 3.4.14.4). A human DPP 3 antibody identified a single 80kDa band in the purified enzyme preparation identical to recombinant human DPP 3. Both the purified Ang-(1-7) peptidase and DPP 3 exhibited an identical hydrolysis profile of Ang-(1-7) and both activities were abolished by the metallopeptidase inhibitor JMV-390. DPP 3 sequentially hydrolyzed Ang-(1-7) to Ang-(3-7) and rapidly converted Ang-(3-7) to Ang-(5-7). Kinetic analysis revealed that Ang-(3-7) was hydrolyzed at a greater rate than Ang-(1-7) [17.9 vs. 5.5 nmol/min/μg protein], and the Km for Ang-(3-7) was lower than Ang-(1-7) [3 vs. 12μM]. Finally, chronic treatment of the HK-2 cells with 20nM JMV-390 reduced intracellular DPP 3 activity and tended to augment the cellular levels of Ang-(1-7). We conclude that DPP 3 may influence the cellular expression of Ang-(1-7) and potentially reflect a therapeutic target to augment the actions of the peptide. PMID:27315786

  6. α(1,3)-Fucosyltransferases FUT4 and FUT7 Control Murine Susceptibility to Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huili; Morales-Levy, Maria; Rose, Jason; Mackey, Lantz C.; Bodary, Peter; Eitzman, Daniel; Homeister, Jonathon W.

    2014-01-01

    The α(1,3)-fucosyltransferases, types IV and VII (FUT4 and FUT7, respectively), are required for the synthesis of functional selectin-type leukocyte adhesion molecule ligands. The selectins and their ligands modulate leukocyte trafficking, and P-selectin and its ligand, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1, can modulate hemostasis and thrombosis. Regulation of thrombosis by FUT4 and/or FUT7 activity was examined in mouse models of carotid artery thrombosis and collagen/epinephrine-induced thromboembolism. Mice lacking both FUT4 and FUT7 (Fut−/− mice) had a shorter time to occlusive thrombus formation in the injured carotid artery and a higher mortality due to collagen/epinephrine-induced pulmonary thromboemboli. Mice lacking P-selectin or P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 did not have a prothrombotic phenotype. Whole blood platelet aggregation was enhanced, and plasma fibrinogen content, clot weight, and clot strength were increased in Fut−/− mice, and in vitro clot lysis was reduced compared with wild type. Fut4−/−, but not Fut7−/−, mice had increased pulmonary thromboembolism-induced mortality and decreased thromboemboli dissolution in vivo. These data show that FUT4 and FUT7 activity regulates thrombosis in a P-selectin– and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1–independent manner and suggest that FUT4 activity is important for thrombolysis. PMID:23562273

  7. Metal ion displacements in noncentrosymmetric chalcogenides La3Ga1.67S7, La3Ag0.6GaCh7 (Ch=S, Se), and La3MGaSe7 (M=Zn, Cd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Abishek K.; Yin, Wenlong; Rudyk, Brent W.; Lin, Xinsong; Nilges, Tom; Mar, Arthur

    2016-11-01

    The quaternary Ga-containing chalcogenides La3Ag0.6GaS7, La3Ag0.6GaSe7, La3ZnGaSe7, and La3CdGaSe7, as well as the related ternary chalcogenide La3Ga1.67S7, were prepared by reactions of the elements at 950 °C. They adopt noncentrosymmetric hexagonal structures (space group P63, Z=2) with cell parameters (a=10.2 Å, c=6.1 Å for the sulfides; a=10.6 Å, c=6.4 Å for the selenides) that are largely controlled by the geometrical requirements of one-dimensional stacks of Ga-centered tetrahedra separated by the La atoms. Among these compounds, which share the common formulation La3M1-xGaCh7 (M=Ga, Ag, Zn, Cd; Ch=S, Se), the M atoms occupy sites within a stacking of trigonal antiprisms formed by Ch atoms. The location of the M site varies between extremes with trigonal antiprismatic (CN6) and trigonal planar (CN3) geometry. Partial occupation of these sites and intermediate ones accounts for the considerable versatility of these structures and the occurrence of large metal displacement parameters. The site occupations can be understood in a simple way as being driven by the need to satisfy appropriate bond valence sums for both the M and Ch atoms. Band structure calculations rationalize the substoichiometry observed in the Ag-containing compounds (La3Ag0.6GaS7, La3Ag0.6GaSe7) as a response to overbonding. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy supports the presence of monovalent Ag atoms in these compounds, which are not charge-balanced.

  8. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid and oxindole-3-acetic acid to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid --> Oxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside.

  9. Superconductivity and magnetic ordering in YBa2(Cu1- x Fe x )3O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossler, W. J.; Yu, X. H.; Greer, A.; Schone, H. E.; Stronach, C. E.; Davis, M.; Cary, R. S.; Lankford, W. F.; Moodenbaugh, A.; Oostens, J.

    1991-02-01

    Transverse-and zero-field μSR measurements have been made for YBa2(Cu1- x Fe x )3O7 with x=0.04, 0.08 and 0.12. The temperature range studied was from approximately 7.5 K to 100 K. The onset of magnetic ordering commences at about 7.5 K for x=0.04, 10 K for x=0.08 and 20 K for x=0.12. The Gaussian depolarization parameter, σ of G x ( t) = exp(-σ2 t 2/2), is depressed by a factor of about 0.6 for x=0.04, but for the x=0.08 sample σ is depressed by a factor of 10 and increasing suppression is seen as the temperature is lowered below 45 K. This decrease in σ is interpreted in terms of decreasing electronic mean free paths.

  10. Expression of purinergic P2X receptor subtypes 1, 2, 3 and 7 in equine laminitis.

    PubMed

    Zamboulis, Danae E; Senior, Mark; Clegg, Peter D; Milner, Peter I

    2013-11-01

    Tissue sensitisation and chronic pain have been described in chronic-active laminitis in the horse, making treatment of such cases difficult. Purinergic P2X receptors are linked to chronic pain and inflammation. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of purinergic P2X receptor subtypes 1, 2, 3 and 7 in the hoof, palmar digital vessels and nerve, dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord in horses with chronic-active laminitis (n=5) compared to non-laminitic horses (n=5). Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on tissue sections using antibodies against P2X receptor subtypes 1-3 and 7. In horses with laminitis, there was a reduction in the thickness of the tunica media layer of the palmar digital vein as a proportion of the whole vessel diameter (0.48±0.05) compared to the non-laminitic group (0.57±0.04; P=0.02). P2X receptor subtype 3 was expressed in the smooth muscle layer (tunica media) of the palmar digital artery of horses with laminitis, but was absent in horses without laminitis. There was strong expression of P2X receptor subtype 7 in the proliferating, partially keratinised, epidermal cells of the secondary epidermal lamellae in the hooves of horses with laminitis, but no immunopositivity in horses without laminitis.

  11. Structural and magnetic properties in La 0.7Pb 0.3Mn 1- XCo XO 3 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, S. L.; Chen, Y. C.; Horng, Lance; Wu, T. C.; Chen, H. Z.; Shi, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    In this study we present the results of an extensive structural investigation of the La 0.7Pb 0.3Mn 1- XCo XO 3 (0≦ x≦1) system. Powder X-ray diffraction shows a single-phase rhombohedral distorted perovskite structure for all samples. There is a gradual decrease in the lattice parameter as the Co content increases. In addition, we have systematically investigated the magnetic properties by using a SQUID magnetometer. The magnetoresistances are also measured and a giant negative magnetoresistance of over 50% can be obtained.

  12. Magnetism in La0.7Sr0.3Mn1-xCoxO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Sharma, Himanshu; Tomy, C. V.; Thakur, Ajay D.

    2016-05-01

    We study the structural and magnetic properties of La0.7Sr0.3Mn1-xCoxO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1). Rietveld refinement of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern suggests phase purity of the polycrystalline samples with R-3c space group. Interplay of Ferromagnetic (FM) and Antiferromagnetic (AFM) interaction upon Co substitution at Mn site in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 is evident from magnetic measurements. There is an optimal cobalt substitution at which the coercive field is maximum.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and thermolysis studies on 3,7-dinitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazabicyclo[3,3,1]nonane (DPT): A key precursor in the synthesis of most powerful benchmark energetic materials (RDX/HMX) of today.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, S; Talawar, M B; Venugopalan, S; Narasimhan, V L

    2008-04-15

    This paper reports studies undertaken on 3,7-dinitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazabicyclo[3,3,1]nonane (DPT). The synthesis of DPT was carried out by the nitration of hexamine based on the lines of reported method with minor modification. DPT was characterized by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Thermal stability of DPT was studied using thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermal analysis studies revealed that DPT undergoes decomposition at 211 degrees C. Decomposition of DPT using TG-FTIR indicated the evolution of carbon dioxide, water and oxides of nitrogen as main gaseous products. The electrochemical behavior of DPT was studied using cyclic voltammetric (CV) studies. The experimentally determined sensitivity parameters indicated the insensitive nature of DPT towards external stimuli. The performance parameters of DPT, RDX and HMX have been computed using Linear Output Thermodynamic User Friendly Software for Energetic Systems (LOTUSES) code. The predicted properties of DPT are interesting and important from the point of process technology and/or safety. The work reported in this paper enriches the existing scanty research and development data on one of the key precursor used for synthesis of important high energy materials (HEMs).

  14. Suppression of Adipogenesis by 5-Hydroxy-3,6,7,8,3',4'-Hexamethoxyflavone from Orange Peel in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Lee, Pei-Sheng; Chen, Yi-Fen; Ho, Chi-Tang; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2016-09-01

    We reported previously that hydroxylated polymethoxyflavones (HPMFs) effectively suppressed obesity in high-fat-induced mouse. In this study, we further investigated the molecular mechanism of action of 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone (5-OH-HxMF), one of major HPMFs in orange peel. Treatment of 5-OH-HxMF effectively inhibited lipid accumulation by 55-60% in a dose-dependent manner. The 5-OH-HxMF attenuated adipogenesis through downregulating adipogenesis-related transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs), as well as downstream target fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). 5-OH-HxMF activated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling and silent mating type information regulation 1 (SIRTUIN 1 or SIRT1) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes to decrease lipid accumulation. In addition, the inhibition rate of lipid accumulation was compared between 5-OH-HxMF and 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HpMF). 5-OH-HxMF inhibited lipid accumulation 15-20% more than HpMF did, indicating that hydroxyl group at position 5 can be a key factor in the suppression of adipogenesis. PMID:27542074

  15. SF3B1 mutations correlated to cytogenetics and mutations in NOTCH1, FBXW7, MYD88, XPO1 and TP53 in 1160 untreated CLL patients.

    PubMed

    Jeromin, S; Weissmann, S; Haferlach, C; Dicker, F; Bayer, K; Grossmann, V; Alpermann, T; Roller, A; Kohlmann, A; Haferlach, T; Kern, W; Schnittger, S

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed a large cohort of 1160 untreated CLL patients for novel genetic markers (SF3B1, NOTCH1, FBXW7, MYD88, XPO1) in the context of molecular, immunophenotypic and cytogenetic data. NOTCH1 mutations (mut) (12.3%), SF3B1mut (9.0%) and TP53mut (7.1%) were more frequent than XPO1mut (3.4%), FBXW7mut (2.5%) and MYD88mut (1.5%). SF3B1mut, NOTCH1mut, TP53mut and XPO1mut were highly correlated to unmutated, whereas MYD88mut were associated with mutated IGHV status. Associations of diverse cytogenetic aberrations and mutations emerged: (1) SF3B1mut with del(11q), (2) NOTCH1mut and FBXW7mut with trisomy 12 and nearly exclusiveness of SF3B1mut, (3) MYD88mut with del(13q) sole and low frequencies of SF3B1mut, NOTCH1mut and FBXW7mut. In patients with normal karyotype only SF3B1mut were frequent, whereas NOTCH1mut rarely occurred. An adverse prognostic impact on time to treatment (TTT) and overall survival (OS) was observed for SF3B1mut, NOTCH1mut and TP53 disruption. In multivariate analyses SF3B1mut, IGHV mutational status and del(11q) were the only independent genetic markers for TTT, whereas for OS SF3B1mut, IGHV mutational status and TP53 disruption presented with significant impact. Finally, our data suggest that analysis of gene mutations refines the risk stratification of cytogenetic prognostic subgroups and confirms data of a recently proposed model integrating molecular and cytogenetic data. PMID:24113472

  16. Ab initio studies of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine/1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone cocrystal under high pressure using dispersion corrected density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Bang-Ming; Lin, He; Zhu, Shun-Guan

    2014-04-14

    A detailed study of structural, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)/1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMI) cocrystal under the hydrostatic pressure of 0–100 GPa was performed by using dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) method. The calculated crystal structure is in reasonable agreement with the experimental data at the ambient pressure. Based on the analysis of lattice constants, bond lengths, bond angles, and dihedral angles under compression, it is found that HMX molecules in HMX/DMI cocrystal are seriously distorted. In addition, as the pressure increases, the band gap decreases gradually, which suggests that HMX/DMI cocrystal is becoming more metallic. Some important intermolecular interactions between HMX and DMI are also observed in the density of states spectrum. Finally, its thermodynamic properties were characterized, and the results show that HMX/DMI cocrystal is more easily formed in the low pressure.

  17. Ethyl 2,7,7-trimethyl-4-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-5-oxo-1,4,5,6,7,8-hexa-hydro-quinoline-3-carboxyl-ate.

    PubMed

    Oztürk Yildirim, Sema; Butcher, Ray J; Gündüz, Miyase Gözde; El-Khouly, Ahmed; Simşek, Rahime; Safak, Cihat

    2013-01-01

    In the title mol-ecule, C24H28N2O3, the cyclo-hexene ring is in a sofa conformation and the 1,4-dihydro-pyridine ring is in a slight boat conformation. In the indole ring system, the pyrrole and benzene rings form a dihedral angle of 2.63 (7)°. In the crystal, N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect the mol-ecules into C(6) chains parallel to the b axis and pairs of weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link inversion-related chains into a ladder motif through R2(2)(18) rings. A weak intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond is also observed. PMID:23476426

  18. Determination of magic wavelengths for the 7 s 1/2 2S -7 p 3/2, 1/2 2P transitions in Fr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sukhjit; Sahoo, B. K.; Arora, Bindiya

    2016-08-01

    Magic wavelengths (λmagic) for the 7 S1 /2-7 P1 /2 ,3 /2 transitions (D lines) in Fr were reported by Dammalapati et al. [U. Dammalapati, K. Harada, and Y. Sakemi, Phys. Rev. A 93, 043407 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.043407]. These λmagic were determined by plotting dynamic polarizabilities (α ) of the involved states with the above transitions against a desired range of wavelengths. Electric dipole (E1) matrix elements listed in [J. E. Sansonetti, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 36, 497 (2007), 10.1063/1.2719251], from the measured lifetimes of the 7 P1 /2 ,3 /2 states and from the calculations considering core-polarization effects in the relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) method, were used to determine α . However, contributions from core correlation effects and from the E1 matrix elements of the 7 P -7 S , 7 P -8 S , and 7 P -6 D transitions to α of the 7 P states were ignored. In this work, we demonstrate importance of these contributions and improve accuracies of α further by replacing the E1 matrix elements taken from the HFR method by the values obtained employing relativistic coupled-cluster theory. Our static α are found to be in excellent agreement with the other available theoretical results, whereas substituting the E1 matrix elements used by Dammalapati et al. gives very small α values for the 7 P states. Owing to this, we find disagreement in λmagic reported by Dammalapati et al. for linearly polarized light, especially at wavelengths close to the D lines and in the infrared region. As a consequence, a λmagic reported at 797.75 nm which was seen supporting a blue detuned trap in their work is now estimated at 771.03 nm and is supporting a red detuned trap. Also, none of our results match with the earlier results for circularly polarized light. Moreover, our static values of α will be very useful for guiding experiments to carry out their measurements.

  19. Crystal structure of cytochrome c3 from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Norway at 1.7 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Czjzek, M; Payan, F; Guerlesquin, F; Bruschi, M; Haser, R

    1994-11-01

    The crystal structure of cytochrome c3 (M(r) 13,000) from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (118 residues, four heme groups) has been crystallographically refined to 1.7 A resolution using a simulated annealing method, based on the structure-model at 2.5 A resolution, already published. The final R-factor for 10,549 reflections was 0.198 covering the range from 5.5 to 1.7 A resolution. The individual temperature factors were refined for a total of 1059 protein atoms, together with 126 bound solvent molecules. The structure has been analyzed with respect to its detailed conformational properties, secondary structure features, temperature factor behaviour, bound solvent sites and heme geometry and ligation. The characteristic secondary structures of the polypeptide chain of this molecule are one extended alpha-helix, a short beta-strand and 13 reverse turns. The four heme groups are located in different structural environments, all highly exposed to solvent. The particular structural features of the heme environments are compared to the four hemes of the cytochrome c3 from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki. PMID:7966289

  20. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(9)-7 - Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; section 3(4) of ERISA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; section 3(4) of ERISA. 1.501(c)(9)-7 Section 1.501(c)(9)-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.501(c)(9)-7 Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; section 3(4) of ERISA. The term... Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), 29 U.S.C. 1002(4), and the requirements which...

  1. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(9)-7 - Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; section 3(4) of ERISA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; section 3(4) of ERISA. 1.501(c)(9)-7 Section 1.501(c)(9)-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.501(c)(9)-7 Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; section 3(4) of ERISA. The term... Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), 29 U.S.C. 1002(4), and the requirements which...

  2. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(9)-7 - Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; section 3(4) of ERISA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; section 3(4) of ERISA. 1.501(c)(9)-7 Section 1.501(c)(9)-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.501(c)(9)-7 Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; section 3(4) of ERISA. The term... Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), 29 U.S.C. 1002(4), and the requirements which...

  3. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(9)-7 - Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; section 3(4) of ERISA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; section 3(4) of ERISA. 1.501(c)(9)-7 Section 1.501(c)(9)-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.501(c)(9)-7 Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; section 3(4) of ERISA. The term... Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), 29 U.S.C. 1002(4), and the requirements which...

  4. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(9)-7 - Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; section 3(4) of ERISA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; section 3(4) of ERISA. 1.501(c)(9)-7 Section 1.501(c)(9)-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.501(c)(9)-7 Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; section 3(4) of ERISA. The term... Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), 29 U.S.C. 1002(4), and the requirements which...

  5. Magnetostriction ``jumps'' in twinned Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, A. E.; Teter, J. P.; McMasters, O. D.

    1988-04-01

    Large ``jumps'' in the magnetostriction have been observed in twinned single crystals of Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9 (Terfenol-D) for magnetic fields parallel to the crystalline [112¯] direction. The interpretation of these large magnetostriction discontinuities is based upon a model of twinned dendritic Terfenol-D in which the magnetization of one twin jumps between two [111] directions while the magnetization of the remaining twin undergoes a continuous rotation of the magnetization. The field dependence of the magnetization and magnetostriction of cubic single crystals with λ111≫λ100 was calculated using an expression which included the anisotropy constants K1 and K2 and compressive loads along [112¯]. With K1=-0.6 J/m3 and K2=-2.0 J/m3 (values appropriate for Terfenol-D near room temperature), magnetization ``jumping'' is predicted. For the twinned crystal, the jump in the magnetostriction was calculated to be greater than 1000 ppm. Because of this large magnetostriction, it is possible to configure a device to perform a substantial amount of work by the application of only a triggering magnetic field centered about an optimum bias field.

  6. 1,3,4,6,7,9-Hexamethylbenzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene: a twisted heteroarene.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao-Ting; Tai, Chia-Cheng; Lin, Wei-Chih; Baldridge, Kim K

    2009-07-01

    1,3,4,6,7,9-Hexamethylbenzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene (C-Me) was prepared by palladium-catalyzed methylations of the corresponding hexabromide C-Br. The twisted structure of C-Me has been confirmed by X-ray crystal analysis. The physical properties of twisted C-Me and planar benzo[1,2-c:3,4-c':5,6-c'']trithiophene (C-H) were studied and compared. Crystal structures are compared to computational structures determined using density functional theory, with both the M06-2X and B3PW91 functionals.

  7. Acute hepatotoxicity of the polycyclic musk 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphtaline (AHTN).

    PubMed

    Steinberg, P; Fischer, T; Arand, M; Park, E; Elmadfa, I; Rimkus, G; Brunn, H; Dienes, H P

    1999-12-20

    Synthetic musks are present in fine fragrances, cosmetics, soaps and laundry detergents. One of the most important synthetic musks is 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-naphthaline+ ++ (AHTN; annual production: about 1500 metric tons). An increasing number of studies show that AHTN accumulates in surface water and fish and can be detected in human adipose tissue, as well in human milk. In the present report it is shown that a single high dose of AHTN leads to acute hepatic damage in rats, characterized by single cell necrosis, inflammation, swelling of liver parenchymal cells, and the presence of cytoplasmic condensations in the hepatocytes, while at the ultrastructural level disorganization of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria as well as focal cytolysis is evident. Furthermore, evidence is presented that AHTN is not genotoxic, does not induce peroxisome proliferation, and does not lead to the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes as phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene do.

  8. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of acyclo C-nucleosides: 3-(alditol-1-yl)-7-oxo-5-phenyl-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-a]pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Shaban, M A; Nasr, A Z; Morgaan, A E

    2000-02-01

    Condensation of 2-hydrazino-4-oxo-6-phenylpyrimidine (1) with aldopentoses 2a-d or aldohexoses 2e-g gave the corresponding aldehydo-sugar (4-oxo-6-phenylpyrimidin-2-yl)hydrazones 3a-g which were acetylated to the corresponding poly-O-acetyl-aldehydo-sugar (3-acetyl-4-oxo-6-phenylpyrimidin-2-yl)hydrazones 4a-g. The latter compounds underwent oxidative cyclization with bromine in acetic acid and in the presence of sodium acetate to the corresponding 8-acetyl-3- (poly-O-acetyl-alditol-1-yl)-7-oxo-5-phenyl-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-a]pyrimid ines 6a-g. Compounds 6a-g were also obtained by consecutive one-pot oxidative cyclization/acetylation in which the parent hydrazones 3a-g were treated with bromine/acetic acid/sodium acetate followed by acetic anhydride. Deacetylation of 6a-g with ammonium hydroxide in methanol gave the title compounds 7a-g. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of compounds 3c, 3f, 7c and 7f are reported. PMID:10723764

  9. F-16XL ship #1 - CAWAP outboard rakes #7 and inboard rack #3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This photo shows the #7 outboard rake and the #3 inboard rake on the left wing of NASA's single-seat F-16XL (ship #1) used for the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamic Project (CAWAP) at Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The modified airplane features a delta 'cranked-arrow' wing with strips of tubing along the leading edge to the trailing edge to sense static on the wing and obtain pressure distribution data. The right wing receives data on pressure distribution and the left wing has three types of instrumentation - preston tubes to measure local skin friction, boundary layer rakes to measure boundary layer profiles (the layer where the air interacts with the surfaces of a moving aircraft), and hot films to determine boundary layer transition locations. The first flight of CAWAP occurred on November 21, 1995, and the test program ended in April 1996.

  10. Metabolism of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine by Clostridium bifermentans strain HAW-1 and several other H2-producing fermentative anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Shen; Paquet, Louise; Halasz, Annamaria; Manno, Dominic; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-08-01

    Several H2-producing fermentative anaerobic bacteria including Clostridium, Klebsiella and Fusobacteria degraded octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) (36 microM) to formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) with rates ranging from 5 to 190 nmol h(-1)g [dry weight] of cells(-1). Among these strains, C. bifermentans strain HAW-1 grew and transformed HMX rapidly with the detection of the two key intermediates the mononitroso product and methylenedinitramine. Its cellular extract alone did not seem to degrade HMX appreciably, but degraded much faster in the presence of H2, NADH or NADPH. The disappearance of HMX was concurrent with the release of nitrite without the formation of the nitroso derivative(s). Results suggest that two types of enzymes were involved in HMX metabolism: one for denitration and the second for reduction to the nitroso derivative(s).

  11. Aggregation of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine with methylene blue in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranovskii, S. F.; Bolotin, P. A.; Evstigneev, M. P.

    2006-03-01

    We have studied self-association of aromatic molecules of the thiazine dye methylene blue in aqueous solution, using a dimer model. We have determined the dimerization equilibrium constant for the dye molecules KD = 3900 ± 800 M-1 at T = 293 K. We have decomposed the experimental spectrum into dimer and monomer components. Using the ratio of the molar absorption coefficients for two absorption bands of the dimer spectrum, we obtained the “average” value of the angle between the electronic transition moments of the molecules in the dimers, α = 48°. We have studied heteroassociation of methylene blue (MB) and 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) molecules in aqueous solution. We have calculated the heteroassociation constant as 200 ± 34 M-1. We conclude that heteroassociation of methylene blue and caffeine molecules leads to a lower effective dye concentration in solution, which hypothetically may affect its biological activity. We have determined the values of the Gibbs free energy, the enthalpy, and the entropy for dimerization of methylene blue molecules: ΔG293 = -(20 ± 3) kJ/mol, ΔH = -(25 ± 9) kJ/mol, Δ S293 = -(17 ± 6) J/mol·K; and for methylene blue-caffeine heteroassociation: ΔG293 = -(13 ± 3) kJ/mol, ΔH = -(14 ± 10) kJ/mol, ΔS293 = -(2.4 ± 0.2) J/mol·K, respectively. We have shown that the methylene blue aggregates and the heteroassociates with caffeine are predominantly stabilized by dispersion interactions between the chromophore molecules in the associates.

  12. Effect of doping of trivalent cations Ga3+, Sc3+, Y3+ in Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7 (PO4)3 (LATP) system on Li+ ion conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Dharmesh H.; Kanchan, D. K.

    2016-11-01

    We report the effect of trivalent cations dopants in the Li1.3Al0.3-xRxTi1.7(PO4)3 (R=Ga3+, Sc3+, Y3+) NASICON ceramic system in the concentration range x=0.01,0.03,0.05,0.07, on the Li+ ion conducting properties using impedance spectroscopy. The samples were prepared by solid state reaction method and characterized by X-Ray Diffraction and density measurements. The electrical properties were studied using impedance spectroscopy in frequency range 10 Hz to 20 MHz and temperature range 303 K to 423 K. Although the porosity of the material decreased with doping, the overall Li+ ion conductivity of the system did not improve with doping. Ionic radii of the dopant cations was found to be an important factor in formation of impurity phases and low Li+ ion conductivity. Gallium doped samples exhibited a higher Li+ ion conductivity compared to its scandium and yttrium doped counterparts.

  13. Evaluation of the oral subchronic toxicity of AHTN (7-Acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene) in the rat.

    PubMed

    Api, Anne Marie; Smith, Robert L; Pipino, Sandra; Marczylo, Timothy; De Matteis, Francesco

    2004-05-01

    7-Acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) is used as a fragrance material in a wide variety of consumer products. Because of its widespread exposure, a 90-day oral feeding study, with 4-week recovery periods for selected rats, was conducted. AHTN was added to the diet of rats at levels calculated to result in mean daily doses of 1.5, 5, 15 or 50 mg AHTN/kg body weight/day. On completion of the treatment period, 3 males and 3 females from each of the high dose groups and controls were maintained for a treatment free period of 4 weeks. There were no adverse effects revealed upon clinical examination or following extensive histopathological examinations. Histopathological examination of the prostate, seminal vesicles, mammary gland and testes of males and ovaries, mammary gland, uterus and vagina of females, undertaken on all animals in all test groups, revealed no evidence of hormonal effects of AHTN. A statistically significant decrease in body weight gain was observed in both sexes in the high dose group only. Statistically significant effects were observed in hematology and blood chemistry, although these effects were all within the range for historical controls and were not proportional to dose. A green to dark brown coloration in the livers and mesenteric lymph nodes was also seen in high dose animals. At the end of the treatment-free period, the color change was almost completely reversed; one high dose male still had green colored lymph nodes, but the liver appeared normal. A green coloration of the lacrimal glands in females, but not males, was also seen in 8/12, 4/15 and in 1 female given 50, 15 and 5 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. This green color was still present in 2/3 of the high dose females after the treatment-free period. Microscopic examination of unstained sections of frozen livers under UV illumination did not reveal any fluorescence that might have been consistent with porphyrin accumulation. These findings were

  14. Electrochemical performance and 7Li NMR studies on an inverse spinel LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fey, George Ting-Kuo; Muralidharan, P.; Cho, Yung-Da; Chang, Pai-Ching; Kao, Hsien-Ming

    A new inverse spinel LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 cathode material was synthesized through a citric acid assisted polyethylene glycol (CA:PEG; 3:1, 3:0.5 and 3:0) polymeric method, followed by calcination at 723 K for 5 h in air. The synthesized compound was characterized by TG/DTGA, XRD, FTIR, TEM, and 7Li NMR techniques. TG/DTGA curves showed that the formation of LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 occurred between 523 and 673 K and the phase pure crystalline formed at 723 K, as also confirmed by XRD analysis which showed that the crystalline phase peaks formed when heated at 723 K for 5 h in air. TEM images revealed that nanosized particles ranged ∼170-190 nm. FTIR spectra showed that all organic residues were removed and LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 formed. The 7Li MAS NMR spectrum of the LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 sample revealed that the paramagnetic effect is small and small side band manifolds were observed. The galvanostatic cycling study suggests that the cycle stability and capacity retention were enhanced for LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 prepared with a CA:PEG molar ratio of 3:1 when it was cycled between 2.8 and 4.9 V (versus Li) at a 0.15 C rate. The electrochemical impedance behavior suggested that a passive layer was formed on the surface of the cathode materials during continuous cycling.

  15. Validating Geant4 Versions 7.1 and 8.3 Against 6.1 for BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Swagato; Brown, David N.; Chen, Chunhui; Cote, David; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory P.; Gaponenko, Igor; Kim, Peter C.; Lockman, William S.; Neal, Homer A.; Simi, Gabriele; Telnov, Alexandre V.; Wright, Dennis H.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    Since 2005 and 2006, respectively, Geant4 versions 7.1 and 8.3 have been available, providing: improvements in modeling of multiple scattering; corrections to muon ionization and improved MIP signature; widening of the core of electromagnetic shower shape profiles; newer implementation of elastic scattering for hadronic processes; detailed implementation of Bertini cascade model for kaons and lambdas, and updated hadronic cross-sections from calorimeter beam tests. The effects of these changes in simulation are studied in terms of closer agreement of simulation using Geant4 versions 7.1 and 8.3 as compared to Geant4 version 6.1 with respect to data distributions of: the hit residuals of tracks in BABAR silicon vertex tracker; the photon and K{sub L}{sup 0} shower shapes in the electromagnetic calorimeter; the ratio of energy deposited in the electromagnetic calorimeter and the flux return of the magnet instrumented with a muon detection system composed of resistive plate chambers and limited-streamer tubes; and the muon identification efficiency in the muon detector system of the BABAR detector.

  16. 7 CFR 3.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 3.3 Section 3.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT General § 3.3 Definitions. For the purpose of this part, except as... Executive branch of the government. Government or Federal government means the government of the...

  17. Benzophenanthridines. V. Investigation of the Rodionov-Suvorov scheme. Synthesis of 3,3-diethoxycarbonyl-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-6,7-dimethoxy-1-tetralone

    SciTech Connect

    Kyong, D.H.; Sladkov, V.I.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1988-02-20

    Triethyl 1,3-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)propane-1,2,2-tricarboxylate was synthesized by the alkylation of the lithium enolate of ethyl homoveratrate with /alpha/-bromo(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)malonic ester. It was converted by intramolecular acylation, catalyzed by BF/sub 3/ /times/ OEt/sub 2/, into the ACD synthon for the total synthesis of benzo(c)-phenanthridine alkaloids by the Rodionov-Suvorov scheme, i.e., 3,3-diethoxy-carbonyl-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-6,7-dimethoxy-1-tetralone. The structure of the synthesized substances agrees well with the data from elemental analysis and IR, /sup 1/H NMR, and mass spectra.

  18. In vivo neurometabolic profiling in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia types 1, 2, 3, and 7.

    PubMed

    Adanyeguh, Isaac M; Henry, Pierre-Gilles; Nguyen, Tra M; Rinaldi, Daisy; Jauffret, Celine; Valabregue, Romain; Emir, Uzay E; Deelchand, Dinesh K; Brice, Alexis; Eberly, Lynn E; Öz, Gülin; Durr, Alexandra; Mochel, Fanny

    2015-04-15

    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) belong to polyglutamine repeat disorders and are characterized by a predominant atrophy of the cerebellum and the pons. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H MRS) using an optimized semiadiabatic localization by adiabatic selective refocusing (semi-LASER) protocol was performed at 3 T to determine metabolite concentrations in the cerebellar vermis and pons of a cohort of patients with SCA1 (n=16), SCA2 (n=12), SCA3 (n=21), and SCA7 (n=12) and healthy controls (n=33). Compared with controls, patients displayed lower total N-acetylaspartate and, to a lesser extent, lower glutamate, reflecting neuronal loss/dysfunction, whereas the glial marker, myoinositol (myo-Ins), was elevated. Patients also showed higher total creatine as reported in Huntington's disease, another polyglutamine repeat disorder. A strong correlation was found between the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia and the neurometabolites in both affected regions of patients. Principal component analyses confirmed that neuronal metabolites (total N-acetylaspartate and glutamate) were inversely correlated in the vermis and the pons to glial (myo-Ins) and energetic (total creatine) metabolites, as well as to disease severity (motor scales). Neurochemical plots with selected metabolites also allowed the separation of SCA2 and SCA3 from controls. The neurometabolic profiles detected in patients underlie cell-specific changes in neuronal and astrocytic compartments that cannot be assessed by other neuroimaging modalities. The inverse correlation between metabolites from these two compartments suggests a metabolic attempt to compensate for neuronal damage in SCAs. Because these biomarkers reflect dynamic aspects of cellular metabolism, they are good candidates for proof-of-concept therapeutic trials. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  19. Absorption spectra of isomeric OH adducts of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine

    SciTech Connect

    Vinchurkar, M.S.; Rao, B.S.M.; Mohan, H.; Mittal, J.P.; Schmidt, K.H.; Jonah, C.D.

    1997-04-17

    The reactions of OH{sup .}, O{sup .-}, and SO{sub 4}{sup .-} with 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) were studied by pulse radiolysis with optical and conductance detection techniques. The absorption spectra of transients formed in OH{sup .} reaction in neutral solutions exhibited peaks at 310 and 335 nm, as well as a broad absorption maximum at 500 nm, which decayed by first-order kinetics. The rate (k = (4.0 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}) of this decay is independent of pH in the range 4-9 and is in agreement with that determined from the conductance detection (k = 4 x 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}). The spectrum in acidic solutions has only a broad peak around 330 nm with no absorption in the higher wavelength region. The intermediates formed in reaction of O{sup .-} absorb around 310 and at 350 nm, and the first-order decay at the latter wavelength was not seen. The OH radical adds to C-4 (X-40H{sup .}) and C-8 (X-80H{sup .}) positions of caffeine in the ratio 1:2 as determined from the redox titration and conductivity measurements. H abstraction from the methyl group is an additional reaction channel in O{sup .-} reaction. Dehydroxylation of the X-40H{sup .} adduct occurs, whereas the X-80H{sup .} adduct does not undergo ring opening. The spectrum obtained for OH{sup .} reaction in oxygenated solutions is similar to that observed in SO{sub 4}{sup .-} reaction in basic solutions. 25 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Repeated dose toxicity and relative potency of 1,2,3,4,6,7-hexachloronaphthalene (PCN 66) 1,2,3,5,6,7-hexachloronaphthalene (PCN 67) compared to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) for induction of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and thymic atrophy in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Hooth, Michelle J; Nyska, Abraham; Fomby, Laurene M; Vasconcelos, Daphne Y; Vallant, Molly; DeVito, Michael J; Walker, Nigel J

    2012-11-15

    In this study we assessed the relative toxicity and potency of the chlorinated naphthalenes 1,2,3,4,6,7-hexachloronaphthalene (PCN 66) and 1,2,3,5,6,7-hexachloronaphthalene (PCN 67) relative to that of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Chemicals were administered in corn oil:acetone (99:1) by gavage to female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats at dosages of 0 (vehicle), 500, 1500, 5000, 50,000 and 500,000 ng/kg (PCN 66 and PCN 67) and 1, 3, 10, 100, and 300 ng/kg (TCDD) for 2 weeks. Histopathologic changes were observed in the thymus, liver and lung of TCDD treated animals and in the liver and thymus of PCN treated animals. Significant increases in CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 associated enzyme activity were observed in all animals exposed to TCDD, PCN 66 and PCN 67. Dose response modeling of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and thymic atrophy gave ranges of estimated relative potencies, as compared to TCDD, of 0.0015-0.0072, for PCN 66 and 0.00029-0.00067 for PCN 67. Given that PCN 66 and PCN 67 exposure resulted in biochemical and histopathologic changes similar to that seen with TCDD, this suggests that they should be included in the WHO toxic equivalency factor (TEF) scheme, although the estimated relative potencies indicate that these hexachlorinated naphthalenes should not contribute greatly to the overall human body burden of dioxin-like activity.

  1. 6,7-Dimethoxy-2-{2-[4-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)phenyl]ethyl}-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines as superior reversal agents for P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baomin; Qiu, Qianqian; Zhao, Tianxiao; Jiao, Lei; Li, Yunman; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2015-02-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle for successful cancer chemotherapy. Based on our previous study, 17 novel compounds with the 6,7-dimethoxy-2-{2-[4-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)phenyl]ethyl}-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline scaffold were designed and synthesized. Among them, 2-[(1-{4-[2-(6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl)ethyl]phenyl}-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methoxy]-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide (compound 7 h) was identified as a potent modulator of P-gp-mediated MDR, with high potency (EC50 =127.5 ± 9.1 nM), low cytotoxicity (TI>784.3), and long duration (>24 h) in reversing doxorubicin (DOX) resistance in K562/A02 cells. Compound 7 h also enhanced the effects of other MDR-related cytotoxic agents (paclitaxel, vinblastine, and daunorubicin), increased the accumulation of DOX and blocked P-gp-mediated rhodamine 123 efflux function in K562/A02 MDR cells. Moreover, 7 h did not have any effect on cytochrome (CYP3A4) activity. These results indicate that 7 h is a relatively safe modulator of P-gp-mediated MDR that has good potential for further development.

  2. Li-Ion Conduction and Stability of Perovskite Li3/8Sr7/16Hf1/4Ta3/4O3.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bing; Xu, Biyi; Li, Yutao; Zhou, Weidong; You, Ya; Zhong, Shengwen; Wang, Chang-An; Goodenough, John B

    2016-06-15

    A solid Li-ion conductor with a high room temperature Li-ion conductivity and small interfacial resistance is required for its application in next-generation Li-ion batteries. Here, we prepared a cubic perovskite-related oxide with the general formula Li3/8Sr7/16Hf1/4Ta3/4O3 (LSHT) by a conventional solid-state reaction method, which was studied by X-ray diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and (7)Li MAS NMR. Li3/8Sr7/16Hf1/4Ta3/4O3 has a high Li-ion conductivity of 3.8 × 10(-4) S cm(-1) at 25 °C and a low activation energy of 0.36 eV in the temperature range 298-430 K. It exhibits both high stability and small interfacial resistance with commercial organic liquid electrolytes, which makes it promising as a separator in Li-ion batteries. PMID:27215282

  3. A balanced de novo inv(7)(p14.3q22.3) disrupting PDE1C and ATXN7L1 in a 14-year old developmentally delayed boy.

    PubMed

    Gamage, Thilini H; Misceo, Doriana; Fannemel, Madeleine; Frengen, Eirik

    2013-07-01

    We report a 14 year old male patient ascertained for developmental delay, carrying a de novo pericentric inversion on chr(7)(p14.3q22.3). Sequencing revealed that the breakpoints overlap a LTR sequence on 7q22.3 and a LINE on 7p14.3. A TTTAAA motif was found in proximity of the breakpoints on both arms. In addition the sequencing detected several small micro-rearrangements, deletion, duplication, insertion, at the breakpoints. No significant sequence identity exists between the 7p14.3 and 7q22.3 breakpoints. These features at the breakpoint junctions suggest that the inversion was triggered by the TTTAAA motif, LTR and LINE and healed by a Non Homologous End Joining (NHEJ) mechanism. The genes ATXN7L1 and PDE1C are disrupted by the inversion. PDE1C is responsible for the hydrolysis of the second messenger molecules cAMP and cGMP and is highly expressed in the human heart and certain brain regions. In mice, Pde1c is expressed in migrating neuronal cells within the central nervous system during early embryo development. Although neuronal migration disorder was not seen in our patient, this is the first patient described with haploinsufficiency of PDE1C possibly causing developmental delay.

  4. Synthesis and resolution of (+-)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-1-(3'-iodophenyl)-3-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro- 1H-3- benzazepine (TISCH): A high affinity and selective iodinated ligand for CNS D1 dopamine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Chumpradit, S.; Kung, M.P.; Billings, J.J.; Kung, H.F. )

    1991-03-01

    The synthesis and resolution of (+-)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-1-(3'-iodophenyl)-3-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 H-3- benzazepine, (+/-)-TISCH (8) has been achieved by resolution of intermediate 4, the O-methoxyl, 3'-bromo derivative, as the diastereomeric camphor sulfonate salt. The final products, R-(+)-8 and S-(-)-8, were prepared by treatment of R-(+)- or S-(-)-7, the 3'-tributyltin intermediates, with iodine in chloroform, followed by O-demethylation. By using HPLC with a chiral column, the optical purity (greater than 99%) of the intermediates and the final compounds was determined. Radioiodination was achieved by an iodo-destannylation reaction with sodium (125I)iodide and hydrogen peroxide. As expected, the R-(+)-(125I)-8 (the active isomer) displayed high affinity and selectivity to the CNS D-1 receptor in rat striatum tissue preparation (Kd = 0.205 nM). The rank order of potency was as follows: SCH-23390 (1a) greater than (+/-)-8 greater than (+)-butaclamol greater than spiperone, WB4101 greater than dopamine, 5-HT. After an iv injection, the R-(+)-(125I)-8 penetrated the blood-brain barrier with ease and displayed specific regional distribution corresponding to the D-1 receptor density, while the S-(-)-(125I)-8 showed no specific uptake. The data suggest that the ligand may be useful as a pharmacological tool for characterizing the D-1 dopamine receptor. When labeled with I-123, this ligand is a potential agent for in vivo imaging of CNS D-1 dopamine receptor.

  5. Designing a 1.7-5.3 μm athermalized lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardazzi, R.

    2008-10-01

    In the framework of a research program a broad band lens (1.7÷5.3 μm) has been designed to be inserted in an optoelectronic system of the Italian Navy. The optoelectronic system operates over full spectral band or over one of the seven sub-bands that are selected inserting spectral filters mounted on a wheel. The optoelectronic system FOV is 20°x15°, aperture F/# 2.4 and it is optically athermalized in the range -30°÷+70° C. Color aberrations correction and athermalization was obtained by means an appropriate choice of optical materials (Cleartran, Sapphire, BaF2 and CaF2). The optical athermalization has been achieved for an all aluminum mechanical mounting. The lens mechanical mounting is quite cheap as no moving parts are present while focusing is obtained regardless the objective temperature. The optical layout is composed by five lenses. The design was driven to have a low sensitive manufacturing and mounting tolerances. A diffractive lens free solution was selected because of the unacceptable radiation losses in the higher diffractive orders due to the wide spectral band. Dedicated BBAR coatings for Sapphire and Cleartran have been developed.

  6. Crystal structure of (1S,3R,8R,9R)-2,2-di-chloro-3,7,7-tri-methyl-10-methylenetri-cyclo-[6.4.0.0(1,3)]dodecan-9-ol.

    PubMed

    Benzalim, Ahmed; Auhmani, Aziz; Bimoussa, Abdoullah; Ait Itto, My Youssef; Daran, Jean-Claude; Auhmani, Abdelwahed

    2016-08-01

    The title compound, C16H24Cl2O, was synthesized by treating (1S,3R,8S,9R,10S)-2,2-di-chloro-3,7,7,10-tetra-methyl-9,10-ep-oxy-tri-cyclo-[6.4.0.0(1,3)]dodecane with a concentrated solution of hydro-bromic acid. It is built up from three fused rings: a cyclo-heptane ring, a cyclo-hexyl ring bearing alkene and hy-droxy substituents, and a cyclo-propane ring bearing two chlorine atoms. The asymmetric unit contains two mol-ecules linked by an O-H⋯O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, further O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds build up an R 4 (4)(8) cyclic tetra-mer. One of the mol-ecules presents disorder that affects the seven-membered ring. In both mol-ecules, the six-membered rings display a chair conformation, whereas the seven-membered rings display conformations inter-mediate between boat and twist-boat for the non-disordered mol-ecule and either a chair or boat and twist-boat for the disordered mol-ecule owing to the disorder. The absolute configuration for both mol-ecules is 1S,3R,8R,9R and was deduced from the chemical pathway and further confirmed by the X-ray structural analysis. PMID:27536404

  7. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Trim7 mediates c-Jun/AP-1 activation by Ras signalling

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Atanu; Diefenbacher, Markus E.; Mylona, Anastasia; Kassel, Olivier; Behrens, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The c-Jun/AP-1 transcription factor controls key cellular behaviours, including proliferation and apoptosis, in response to JNK and Ras/MAPK signalling. While the JNK pathway has been well characterised, the mechanism of activation by Ras was elusive. Here we identify the uncharacterised ubiquitin ligase Trim7 as a critical component of AP-1 activation via Ras. We found that MSK1 directly phosphorylates Trim7 in response to direct activation by the Ras–Raf–MEK–ERK pathway, and this modification stimulates Trim7 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Trim7 mediates Lys63-linked ubiquitination of the AP-1 coactivator RACO-1, leading to RACO-1 protein stabilisation. Consequently, Trim7 depletion reduces RACO-1 levels and AP-1-dependent gene expression. Moreover, transgenic overexpression of Trim7 increases lung tumour burden in a Ras-driven cancer model, and knockdown of Trim7 in established xenografts reduces tumour growth. Thus, phosphorylation-ubiquitination crosstalk between MSK1, Trim7 and RACO-1 completes the long sought-after mechanism linking growth factor signalling and AP-1 activation. PMID:25851810

  8. Discovery and Structure–Activity Relationship of Novel 2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-7-carboxamide and 2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-3(2H)-one-7-carboxamide Derivatives as Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Novel substituted 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-7-carboxamide (DHBF-7-carboxamide) and 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-3(2H)-one-7-carboxamide (DHBF-3-one-7-carboxamide) derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1). A structure-based design strategy resulted in lead compound 3 (DHBF-7-carboxamide; IC50 = 9.45 μM). To facilitate synthetically feasible derivatives, an alternative core was designed, DHBF-3-one-7-carboxamide (36, IC50 = 16.2 μM). The electrophilic 2-position of this scaffold was accessible for extended modifications. Substituted benzylidene derivatives at the 2-position were found to be the most potent, with 3′,4′-dihydroxybenzylidene 58 (IC50 = 0.531 μM) showing a 30-fold improvement in potency. Various heterocycles attached at the 4′-hydroxyl/4′-amino of the benzylidene moiety resulted in significant improvement in inhibition of PARP-1 activity (e.g., compounds 66–68, 70, 72, and 73; IC50 values from 0.718 to 0.079 μM). Compound 66 showed selective cytotoxicity in BRCA2-deficient DT40 cells. Crystal structures of three inhibitors (compounds (−)-13c, 59, and 65) bound to a multidomain PARP-1 structure were obtained, providing insights into further development of these inhibitors. PMID:24922587

  9. 40 CFR 721.8500 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 7-oxabicyclo [4.1.0]hept-3-ylmethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-oxabicyclo hept-3-ylmethyl ester. 721.8500 Section 721.8500 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... hept-3-ylmethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 7-oxabicyclo hept-3-ylmethyl ester (PMN P-89-30) is...

  10. 40 CFR 721.8500 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 7-oxabicyclo [4.1.0]hept-3-ylmethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-oxabicyclo hept-3-ylmethyl ester. 721.8500 Section 721.8500 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... hept-3-ylmethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance 2-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 7-oxabicyclo hept-3-ylmethyl ester (PMN P-89-30) is...

  11. (3-Ethyl-6,7-dimeth­oxy­naphthalen-1-yl)(phen­yl)methanone

    PubMed Central

    Sakthivel, Karuppusamy; Srinivasan, Kannupal; Natarajan, Sampath

    2012-01-01

    The asymetric unit of the title mol­ecule, C21H20O3, contains two crystallographically independent mol­ecules, A and B, which differ in the orientation of the ethyl group substituted on the naphthalene system; the dihedral angles between the ethyl group and the naphthalene system are 7.4 (3) and 68.1 (3)°, respectively, for mol­ecules A and B. The dihedral angles between the benzoyl and naphthalene groups are 64.7 (7) and 69.4 (8)°, respectively, for mol­ecules A and B. The crystal structure features four aromatic π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 4.181 (1), 3.891 (1), 4.423 (1) and 4.249 (1) Å]. PMID:22412555

  12. Methoxychlor suppresses the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-inducible CYP1A1 expression in murine Hepa-1c1c7 cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Eun Hee; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2007-08-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is a pesticide that was developed as a replacement for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The influence of MXC on CYP1A1 expression or the functions of mouse hepatoma Hepa-1clc7 remain unclear. Cultured Hepa-1c1c7 cells were treated with MXC with or without 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to assess the role of MXC on CYP1A1 expression. MXC alone did not affect CYP1A1-specific 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity. In contrast, TCDD-inducible EROD activities were markedly reduced upon concomitant treatment with TCDD and MXC in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment with ICI 182.780, an estrogen-receptor antagonist, did not affect the suppressive effects of MXC on TCDD-inducible EROD activity. TCDD-inducible CYP1A1 mRNA levels were markedly suppressed upon treatment with TCDD and MXC, and this is consistent with their effects on EROD activity. A transient transfection assay using dioxin-response element (DRE)-linked luciferase and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that MXC reduced the transformation of the aryl hydrocarbons (Ah) receptor to a form capable of specifically binding to the DRE sequence in the promoter region of the CYP1A1 gene. These results suggest that the downregulation of CYP1A1 gene expression by MXC in Hepa-1c1c7 cells might be an antagonism of the DRE binding potential of the nuclear Ah receptor but is not mediated through the estradiol receptor.

  13. Identification of a novel class of selective Tpl2 kinase inhibitors: 4-Alkylamino-[1,7]naphthyridine-3-carbonitriles.

    PubMed

    Kaila, Neelu; Green, Neal; Li, Huan-Qiu; Hu, Yonghan; Janz, Kristin; Gavrin, Lori Krim; Thomason, Jennifer; Tam, Steve; Powell, Dennis; Cuozzo, John; Hall, J Perry; Telliez, Jean-Baptiste; Hsu, Sang; Nickerson-Nutter, Cheryl; Wang, Qin; Lin, Lih-Ling

    2007-10-01

    We have previously reported the discovery and initial SAR of the [1,7]naphthyridine-3-carbonitriles and quinoline-3-carbonitriles as Tumor Progression Loci-2 (Tpl2) kinase inhibitors. In this paper, we report new SAR efforts which have led to the identification of 4-alkylamino-[1,7]naphthyridine-3-carbonitriles. These compounds show good in vitro and in vivo activity against Tpl2 and improved pharmacokinetic properties. In addition they are highly selective for Tpl2 kinase over other kinases, for example, EGFR, MEK, MK2, and p38. Lead compound 4-cycloheptylamino-6-[(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)-amino]-[1,7]naphthyridine-3-carbonitrile (30) was efficacious in a rat model of LPS-induced TNF-alpha production.

  14. Identification of a novel class of selective Tpl2 kinase inhibitors: 4-Alkylamino-[1,7]naphthyridine-3-carbonitriles.

    PubMed

    Kaila, Neelu; Green, Neal; Li, Huan-Qiu; Hu, Yonghan; Janz, Kristin; Gavrin, Lori Krim; Thomason, Jennifer; Tam, Steve; Powell, Dennis; Cuozzo, John; Hall, J Perry; Telliez, Jean-Baptiste; Hsu, Sang; Nickerson-Nutter, Cheryl; Wang, Qin; Lin, Lih-Ling

    2007-10-01

    We have previously reported the discovery and initial SAR of the [1,7]naphthyridine-3-carbonitriles and quinoline-3-carbonitriles as Tumor Progression Loci-2 (Tpl2) kinase inhibitors. In this paper, we report new SAR efforts which have led to the identification of 4-alkylamino-[1,7]naphthyridine-3-carbonitriles. These compounds show good in vitro and in vivo activity against Tpl2 and improved pharmacokinetic properties. In addition they are highly selective for Tpl2 kinase over other kinases, for example, EGFR, MEK, MK2, and p38. Lead compound 4-cycloheptylamino-6-[(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)-amino]-[1,7]naphthyridine-3-carbonitrile (30) was efficacious in a rat model of LPS-induced TNF-alpha production. PMID:17664070

  15. Thermal decomposition of energetic materials: Temporal behaviors of the rates of formation of the gaseous pyrolysis products from condensed-phase decomposition of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, R. Jr. )

    1990-08-23

    The temporal behaviors of the rates of formation of the gaseous products from the pyrolysis of HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) are determined by simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS). The gaseous products formed from the pyrolysis of HMX, and its deuterium- and {sup 15}NO{sub 2}-labeled analogues, between 210 and 235{degree}C are H{sub 2}O, HCN, CO, CH{sub 2}O, NO, N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}NHCHO, (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}NNO, 1-nitroso-3,5,7-trinitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (ONTNTA), and their isotopic analogues. In addition, a nonvolatile residue (NVR) is formed. The NVR is a polyamide that decomposes between 250 and 780{degree}C producing NH{sub 3}, HCN, HNCO, H{sub 2}NCHO, CH{sub 3}NHCHO, and products that include long-chain hydrocarbons. The temporal behaviors of the rates of gas formation of the pyrolysis products along with the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the NVR indicate that complex physical processes and chemical mechanisms within the condensed phase of HMX control the decomposition.

  16. 40 CFR 721.5288 - Chromate(2-), [3-hydroxy-4-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthenyl)azo]-7-nitro-1-substituted][N-[7-hydroxy-8...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...] -1-substituted]-, salt (generic). 721.5288 Section 721.5288 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-substituted]-, salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as chromate(2-), -7- nitro-1-substituted] -1-substituted]-,...

  17. Induction of nitric oxide production by the cytostatic macrolide apicularen A [2,4-heptadienamide, N-[(1E)-3-[(3S,5R,7R,9S)-3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10-octahydro-7,14 dihydroxy-1-oxo-5,9-epoxy-1H-2-benzoxacyclododecin-3-yl]-1 propenyl]-, (2Z,4Z)-(9CI)] and possible role of nitric oxide in apicularen A-induced apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, JangJa; Yokomakura, Aya; Nakano, Yasuhiro; Ban, Hyun Seung; Ishihara, Kenji; Ahn, Jong-Woong; Zee, OkPyo; Ohuchi, Kazuo

    2005-03-01

    We previously reported that apicularen A [2,4-heptadienamide, N-[(1E)-3-[(3S,5R,7R,9S)-3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10-octahydro-7,14 dihydroxy-1-oxo-5,9-epoxy-1H-2-benzoxacyclododecin-3-yl]-1 propenyl]-, (2Z,4Z)-(9CI)], a highly cytostatic macrolide isolated from the myxobacterial genus Chondromyces, induces apoptosis in the mouse leukemic monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To analyze the action mechanism of apicularen A for the induction of apoptosis, effects of apicularen A on nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells were examined. It was demonstrated that apicularen A at 10 and 100 nM induced nitrite production, whereas apicularen B [2,4-heptadienamide, N-[(1E)-3-[(3S,5R,7R,9S)-7-[[2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-beta-d-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10-octahydro-14-hydroxy-1-oxo-5,9-epoxy-1H-2-benzoxacyclododecin-3-yl]-1 propenyl]-, (2Z,4Z)-(9CI)], an N-acetyl-glucosamine glycoside of apicularen A, had no effect at 100 nM. The apicularen A-induced nitrite production was accompanied by an increase in the level of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and its mRNA and was suppressed by the NOS inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine acetate (l-NMMA). In addition, apicularen A activated nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) and decreased the level of IkappaB-alpha and increased that of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Furthermore, the apicularen A-induced nitrite production was suppressed by the NF-kappaB inhibitor Bay 11-7082 [(E)-3-(4-methylphenylsulfonyl)-2-propenenitrile] and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 [anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one]. These findings suggested that apicularen A activates NF-kappaB and AP-1, thus triggering the expression of iNOS mRNA and iNOS protein and induces NO production. Finally, apicularen A decreased cell growth and survival and cell viability and disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential. The addition of l-NMMA partially recovered the apicularen A-induced decrease in cell growth and survival and cell

  18. Process for manufacturing bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene

    DOEpatents

    Rasmussen, Paul George; Lawton, Richard Graham

    2014-06-03

    A process to manufacture substituted tetracyano-hexaazatricyclics with the substitutions occurring at the 9 and 10 hydrogens. The process begins with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanopyrazine, which is reacted to form the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different process embodiments enable different reaction paths to the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic embodiments include bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene and bis(2-methoxyethoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracen- e.

  19. Noncanonical E2 recruitment by the autophagy E1 revealed by Atg7-Atg3 and Atg7-Atg10 structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, Stephen E; Mao, Kai; Taherbhoy, Asad M; Yu, Shanshan; Olszewski, Jennifer L; Duda, David M; Kurinov, Igor; Deng, Alan; Fenn, Timothy D; Klionsky, Daniel J; Schulman, Brenda A

    2012-11-11

    Core functions of autophagy are mediated by ubiquitin-like protein (UBL) cascades, in which a homodimeric E1 enzyme, Atg7, directs the UBLs Atg8 and Atg12 to their respective E2 enzymes, Atg3 and Atg10. Crystallographic and mutational analyses of yeast (Atg7–Atg3)2 and (Atg7–Atg10)2 complexes reveal noncanonical, multisite E1-E2 recognition in autophagy. Atg7's unique N-terminal domain recruits distinctive elements from the Atg3 and Atg10 'backsides'. This, along with E1 and E2 conformational variability, allows presentation of 'frontside' Atg3 and Atg10 active sites to the catalytic cysteine in the C-terminal domain from the opposite Atg7 protomer in the homodimer. Despite different modes of binding, the data suggest that common principles underlie conjugation in both noncanonical and canonical UBL cascades, whereby flexibly tethered E1 domains recruit E2s through surfaces remote from their active sites to juxtapose the E1 and E2 catalytic cysteines.

  20. A conserved threonine in the S1-S2 loop of KV7.2 and K V7.3 channels regulates voltage-dependent activation.

    PubMed

    Füll, Yvonne; Seebohm, Guiscard; Lerche, Holger; Maljevic, Snezana

    2013-06-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channels KV7.2 and KV7.3 (KCNQ2/3 genes) play an important role in regulating neuronal excitability. More than 50 KCNQ2/3 mutations have been identified to cause an inherited form of epilepsy in newborns. For two of those (E119G and S122L) found in the S1-S2 region of KV7.2, we previously showed a decreased channel availability mainly at action potential subthreshold voltages caused by a slight depolarizing shift of the activation curve. Interestingly, recent studies revealed that a threonine residue within the S1-S2 loop, highly conserved among different classes of KV channels, is crucial for both their function and surface expression. To investigate the functional role of the homologous threonine residues in KV7.2 (T114) and KV7.3 (T144) channels, we replaced them with alanine and examined the electrophysiological properties using heterologous expression in CHO cells and whole cell patch clamping. Channels comprising mutant subunits yielded decreased potassium currents with slowed activation and accelerated deactivation kinetics. However, the most striking effect was a depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of activation reaching +30 mV upon co-expression of both mutant subunits. Potential interactions of T114 within the channel were analyzed by creating a 3D homology model of KV7.2 in an open state suggesting that this residue plays a central role in the formation of a stable interface between the S1-S2 and the S5 segment helices. This could be the explanation why substitution of the conserved threonine in KV7.2 and KV7.3 channels destabilizes the open and favors the closed state of these channels.

  1. Structures of apo IRF-3 and IRF-7 DNA binding domains: effect of loop L1 on DNA binding

    SciTech Connect

    De Ioannes, Pablo; Escalante, Carlos R.; Aggarwal, Aneel K.

    2013-11-20

    Interferon regulatory factors IRF-3 and IRF-7 are transcription factors essential in the activation of interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) gene in response to viral infections. Although, both proteins recognize the same consensus IRF binding site AANNGAAA, they have distinct DNA binding preferences for sites in vivo. The X-ray structures of IRF-3 and IRF-7 DNA binding domains (DBDs) bound to IFN-{beta} promoter elements revealed flexibility in the loops (L1-L3) and the residues that make contacts with the target sequence. To characterize the conformational changes that occur on DNA binding and how they differ between IRF family members, we have solved the X-ray structures of IRF-3 and IRF-7 DBDs in the absence of DNA. We found that loop L1, carrying the conserved histidine that interacts with the DNA minor groove, is disordered in apo IRF-3 but is ordered in apo IRF-7. This is reflected in differences in DNA binding affinities when the conserved histidine in loop L1 is mutated to alanine in the two proteins. The stability of loop L1 in IRF-7 derives from a unique combination of hydrophobic residues that pack against the protein core. Together, our data show that differences in flexibility of loop L1 are an important determinant of differential IRF-DNA binding.

  2. Synthesis of novel 16-spiro steroids: 7-(Aryl)tetrahydro-1H-pyrrolo[1,2-c][1,3]thiazolo estrone hybrid heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Jeyachandran, Veerappan; Vivek Kumar, Sundaravel; Ranjith Kumar, Raju

    2014-04-01

    The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides generated in situ from the reaction of isatins or acenaphthylene-1,2-dione and 1,3-thiazolane-4-carboxylic acid to various exocyclic dipolarophiles synthesized from estrone afforded a library of novel C-16 spiro oxindole or acenaphthylene-1-one - 7-(aryl)tetrahydro-1H-pyrrolo[1,2-c][1,3]thiazole - estrone hybrid heterocycles. These reactions occur regio- and stereo-selectively affording a single isomer of the spiro estrones in excellent yields with the formation of two C-C and one C-N bonds along with the generation of four new contiguous stereo-centers in a single step.

  3. SECTM1 produced by tumor cells attracts human monocytes via CD7-mediated activation of the PI3K pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Ge, Yingbin; Xiao, Min; Lopez-Coral, Alfonso; Li, Ling; Roesch, Alexander; Huang, Catherine; Alexander, Peter; Vogt, Thomas; Xu, Xiaowei; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Lieu, Melissa; Belser, Eric; Liu, Rui; Somasundaram, Rajasekharan; Herlyn, Meenhard; Kaufman, Russel E

    2014-04-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have essential roles in tumor progression and metastasis. Tumor cells recruit myeloid progenitors and monocytes to the tumor site, where they differentiate into TAMs; however, this process is not well studied in humans. Here we show that human CD7, a T-cell and NK cell receptor, is highly expressed by monocytes and macrophages. Expression of CD7 decreases in M-CSF-differentiated macrophages and in melanoma-conditioned medium-induced macrophages (MCMI/Mφ) in comparison to monocytes. A ligand for CD7, SECTM1 (secreted and transmembrane protein 1), is highly expressed in many tumors, including melanoma cells. We show that SECTM1 binds to CD7 and significantly increases monocyte migration by activation of the PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase) pathway. In human melanoma tissues, tumor-infiltrating macrophages expressing CD7 are present. These melanomas, with CD7-positive inflammatory cell infiltrations, frequently highly express SECTM1, including an N-terminal, soluble form, which can be detected in the sera of metastatic melanoma patients but not in normal sera. Taken together, our data demonstrate that CD7 is present on monocytes and tumor macrophages and that its ligand, SECTM1, is frequently expressed in corresponding melanoma tissues, possibly acting as a chemoattractant for monocytes to modulate the melanoma microenvironment.

  4. SandiaXTP, An object-oriented implementation of XTP 3.7. Release 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Strayer, T.

    1994-05-10

    The Xpress Transfer Protocol (XTP) is a transport layer protocol designed to provide a wide range of communication services built on the concept that orthogonal protocol mechanisms can be combined to produce appropriate paradigms within the same basic framework. Rather than using a separate protocol for each type of communication, XTP`s protocol options and control of the packet exchange patterns allow the application to create appropriate paradigms such as unreliable datagrams, unreliable arbitrarily long datagrams, reliable datagrams, transactions, unreliable streams, reliable connections, and many others. Error control, flow control, and rate control are each configured to the needs of the communication. SandiaXTP is an object oriented implementation of XTP 3.7. The core of base classes used in SandiaXTP come from the Meta-Transport Library software. The SandiaXTP implementation of XTP 3.7 is a user space daemon. User`s application code makes request of the daemon, and the daemon satisfies them. This User`s Guide describes the installation and use of the SandiaXTP object-oriented implementation of XTP 3.7. The software package includes the full source code for the implementation, as well as man pages and appropriate documents. The fully built SandiaXTP is a user-space daemon that implements XTP 3.7.

  5. Beyond the Dimer and Trimer: Tetraspiro[2.1.2(5).1.2(9).1.2(13).1(3)] hexadecane-1,3,5,7-tetraone--the Cyclic Tetramer of Carbonylcyclopropane.

    PubMed

    Sedenkova, Kseniya N; Averina, Elena B; Grishin, Yuri K; Andriasov, Kristian S; Stepanova, Svetlana A; Roznyatovsky, Vitaly A; Kutateladze, Andrei G; Rybakov, Victor B; Albov, Dmitry V; Kuznetsova, Tamara S; Zefirov, Nikolay S

    2016-03-14

    Tetraspiro[2.1.2(5).1.2(9).1.2(13).1(3)]hexadecane-1,3,5,7-tetraone 4, a unique tetraketone containing a cyclooctane core and four spiroannelated cyclopropane moieties, represents the previously unknown cyclotetramer of carbonylcyclopropane. For this purpose oxidation of the parent polyspirocyclic hydrocarbon was examined under various oxidative conditions, and the reactivity of oxidants towards methylene groups of the eight-membered cycle, activated by adjacent spirocyclopropane rings, was evaluated and contrasted. Whereas the treatment of tetraspirohexadecane with ozone resulted in monooxidation, its reaction with methyl(trifluoromethyl)dioxirane afforded the product of four-fold oxidation, triketoalcohol 10. Subsequent oxidation of the latter with Dess-Martin periodinane gave the target tetraketone 4.

  6. Surface Structure and Property Coupling of Sr3(Ru1-xMnx)2 O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Durand, Corentin; Li, An-Ping; Zhang, Jiandi; Jin, Rongying; Plummer, Ward

    2014-03-01

    The double-layered Ruthenate Sr3Ru2O7 exhibits interesting behavior under the influence of pressure, while partial substitution of Mn for Ru generates a dramatic response in the physical properties. Even more striking is the structure-property relationship observed at the surface. Combining LEED I - V , with STM/STS and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), we document a very unique surface phase diagram. The octahedra are tilted at the surface (not in the bulk) for low Mn doping, and the surface stabilizes and enhances the octahedra rotation, present in the bulk for Mn doping less that ~ 20%. The structure-property relationship at the surface is consistent with calculations of a tilt/rotation phase diagram (PRB 64, 020509 (2001)). Tilt distortion at the surface favors an insulating AFM ordered phase and when tilt is removed by doping of Mn the surface becomes conducting. Supported by NSF

  7. TCF7L1 Modulates Colorectal Cancer Growth by Inhibiting Expression of the Tumor-Suppressor Gene EPHB3

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Matthew; Chatterjee, Sujash S.; Jain, Sidharth; Katari, Manpreet; DasGupta, Ramanuj

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of the Wnt pathway leading to accumulation of β-catenin (CTNNB1) is a hallmark of colorectal cancer (CRC). Nuclear CTNNB1 acts as a transcriptional coactivator with TCF/LEF transcription factors, promoting expression of a broad set of target genes, some of which promote tumor growth. However, it remains poorly understood how CTNNB1 interacts with different transcription factors in different contexts to promote different outcomes. While some CTNNB1 target genes are oncogenic, others regulate differentiation. Here, we found that TCF7L1, a Wnt pathway repressor, buffers CTNNB1/TCF target gene expression to promote CRC growth. Loss of TCF7L1 impaired growth and colony formation of HCT116 CRC cells and reduced tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model. We identified a group of CTNNB1/TCF target genes that are activated in the absence of TCF7L1, including EPHB3, a marker of Paneth cell differentiation that has also been implicated as a tumor suppressor in CRC. Knockdown of EPHB3 partially restores growth and normal cell cycle progression of TCF7L1-Null cells. These findings suggest that while CTNNB1 accumulation is critical for CRC progression, activation of specific Wnt target genes in certain contexts may in fact inhibit tumor growth. PMID:27333864

  8. TCF7L1 Modulates Colorectal Cancer Growth by Inhibiting Expression of the Tumor-Suppressor Gene EPHB3.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Matthew; Chatterjee, Sujash S; Jain, Sidharth; Katari, Manpreet; DasGupta, Ramanuj

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of the Wnt pathway leading to accumulation of β-catenin (CTNNB1) is a hallmark of colorectal cancer (CRC). Nuclear CTNNB1 acts as a transcriptional coactivator with TCF/LEF transcription factors, promoting expression of a broad set of target genes, some of which promote tumor growth. However, it remains poorly understood how CTNNB1 interacts with different transcription factors in different contexts to promote different outcomes. While some CTNNB1 target genes are oncogenic, others regulate differentiation. Here, we found that TCF7L1, a Wnt pathway repressor, buffers CTNNB1/TCF target gene expression to promote CRC growth. Loss of TCF7L1 impaired growth and colony formation of HCT116 CRC cells and reduced tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model. We identified a group of CTNNB1/TCF target genes that are activated in the absence of TCF7L1, including EPHB3, a marker of Paneth cell differentiation that has also been implicated as a tumor suppressor in CRC. Knockdown of EPHB3 partially restores growth and normal cell cycle progression of TCF7L1-Null cells. These findings suggest that while CTNNB1 accumulation is critical for CRC progression, activation of specific Wnt target genes in certain contexts may in fact inhibit tumor growth. PMID:27333864

  9. Structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of layered perovskite La1.1Bi0.3Sr1.6Mn2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oubla, M.; Lamire, M.; Boutahar, A.; Lassri, H.; Manoun, B.; Hlil, E. K.

    2016-04-01

    The La1.1Bi0.3Sr1.6Mn2O7 sample was synthesized by coprecipitation method. Its structure has been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. The diffraction patterns are consistent with the I4/mmm symmetry, with tetragonal lattice parameters a=3.8750±0.0001 Å and c=20.0456±0.0002 Å. Magnetic measurements have shown a ferromagnetic like ordering with second order magnetic phase transition to paramagnetic states. The magnetic entropy change caused by a magnetic field, (-∆Smax), was estimated on the basis of the Maxwell relation. The maximum magnetic entropy change (-∆Smax) and the relative cooling power (RCP) are, 1.65 J kg-1K-1 and 134.4 J kg-1 respectively, for a 5 T magnetic field change at 340 K.

  10. SECTM1 Produced by Tumor Cells Attracts Human Monocytes Via CD7-mediated Activation of the PI3K Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Ge, Yingbin; Xiao, Min; Lopez-Coral, Alfonso; Li, Ling; Roesch, Alexander; Huang, Catherine; Alexander, Peter; Vogt, Thomas; Xu, Xiaowei; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Lieu, Melissa; Belser, Eric; Liu, Rui; Somasundaram, Rajasekharan; Herlyn, Meenhard; Kaufman, Russel E.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play essential roles in tumor progression and metastasis. Tumor cells recruit myeloid progenitors and monocytes to the tumor site, where they differentiate into TAMs; however, this process is not well studied in humans. Here we show that human CD7, a T cell and NK cell receptor, is highly expressed by monocytes and macrophages. Expression of CD7 decreases in M-CSF differentiated macrophages and in Melanoma-conditioned Medium Induced Macrophages (MCMI/Mϕ) in comparison to monocytes. A ligand for CD7, SECTM1 (Secreted and transmembrane protein 1), is highly expressed in many tumors, including melanoma cells. We show that SECTM1 binds to CD7 and significantly increases monocyte migration by activation of the PI3K pathway. In human melanoma tissues, tumor-infiltrating macrophages expressing CD7 are present. These melanomas, with CD7-positive inflammatory cell infiltrations, frequently highly express SECTM1, including an N-terminal, soluble form, which can be detected in the sera of metastatic melanoma patients but not in normal sera. Taken together, our data demonstrate that CD7 is present on monocytes and tumor macrophages, and that its ligand, SECTM1, is frequently expressed in corresponding melanoma tissues, possibly acting as a chemoattractant for monocytes to modulate the melanoma microenvironment. PMID:24157461

  11. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma – The molecular drivers of PAX3/7-FOXO1-induced tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is a soft tissue sarcoma arising from cells of a mesenchymal or skeletal muscle lineage. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is more aggressive than the more common embryonal (ERMS) subtype. ARMS is more prone to metastasis and carries a poorer prognosis. In contrast to ERMS, the majority of ARMS tumors carry one of several characteristic chromosomal translocations, such as t(2;13)(q35;q14), which results in the expression of a PAX3-FOXO1 fusion transcription factor. In this review we discuss the genes that cooperate with PAX3-FOXO1, as well as the target genes of the fusion transcription factor that contribute to various aspects of ARMS tumorigenesis. The characterization of these pathways will lead to a better understanding of ARMS tumorigenesis and will allow the design of novel targeted therapies that will lead to better treatment for this aggressive pediatric tumor. PMID:23206814

  12. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of La0.7Sr0.3Co1-xFexO3 catalysts for zinc air secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Seyoung; Kim, Ketack; Kim, Hyunsoo; Nam, Sangyong; Eom, Seungwook

    2010-05-01

    We prepared La0.7Sr0.3Co1-xFexO3 (x=0.1-0.4) catalysts for a zinc air battery by using the citrate method under controlled pH. The prepared precursor powder was heat treated at the calcination temperature of 700 °C and examined for the optimum structure of the cathode. The structure and performance of the catalysts were examined by x-ray diffraction and a scanning electron microscope. The air electrode was prepared by blending the catalyst, Vulcan XC-72R (carbon black), and (polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE) suspension. The oxygen reduction reaction and the oxygen evolution reaction were examined by linear sweep voltammetry. The results showed that La0.7Sr0.3Co0.7Fe0.3O3 (LSCF0.7) is an excellent catalyst for the zinc air secondary battery.

  13. Disposition and excretion of 14C-AHTN (7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene) and 14c-hhcb (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopenta-gamma-2-benzopyran) after intravenous administration to Sprague-Dawley rats and domestic pigs.

    PubMed

    Api, Anne Marie; Ritacco, Gretchen; Sipes, I Glenn

    2013-07-01

    7-Acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN ) and 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-gamma-2-benzopyran (HHCB) are polycyclic musks widely used as fragrance ingredients in consumer products. Because their metabolic fate following systemic exposure is not fully characterized, disposition and excretion of (14)C-AHTN- and (14)C-HHCB-derived radioactivity were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats and domestic pigs following a single intravenous dose. Rats administered with AHTN or HHCB excreted 21% or 28% of the radioactivity in urine and 67% or 61% in feces, respectively, within 7 days. In pigs administered AHTN or HHCB, 86% or 74% of the dose was excreted in the urine, and 12% or 15% in feces, respectively, during the 14-day collection period. Radioactivity in the whole blood and plasma of both species and tissues of rats declined steadily until the end of the study (28 days) for both the materials. Radioactivity in rat adipose tissue reached peak at 2 hours after dosing, decreasing steadily thereafter. Radioactivity in pig blood declined rapidly from 70 ng equivalents/g at 10 minutes to 1 ng equivalent/g or less by 28 days after administration of either AHTN or HHCB. Radioactivity in pig skin and adipose tissue decreased to below the limit of detection by 28 days for both the materials. Thin-layer chromatography showed multiple radioactive components in both species' urine after administration of either material. Components found in the urine of the 2 species were qualitatively similar but quantitatively different. Both AHTN and HHCB were completely metabolized and excreted. No unchanged parent compound was detected in rat or pig urine.

  14. Live-cell single-molecule tracking reveals co-recognition of H3K27me3 and DNA targets polycomb Cbx7-PRC1 to chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Chao Yu; Tatavosian, Roubina; Huynh, Thao Ngoc; Duc, Huy Nguyen; Das, Raibatak; Kokotovic, Marko; Grimm, Jonathan B; Lavis, Luke D; Lee, Jun; Mejia, Frances J; Li, Yang; Yao, Tingting; Ren, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    The Polycomb PRC1 plays essential roles in development and disease pathogenesis. Targeting of PRC1 to chromatin is thought to be mediated by the Cbx family proteins (Cbx2/4/6/7/8) binding to histone H3 with a K27me3 modification (H3K27me3). Despite this prevailing view, the molecular mechanisms of targeting remain poorly understood. Here, by combining live-cell single-molecule tracking (SMT) and genetic engineering, we reveal that H3K27me3 contributes significantly to the targeting of Cbx7 and Cbx8 to chromatin, but less to Cbx2, Cbx4, and Cbx6. Genetic disruption of the complex formation of PRC1 facilitates the targeting of Cbx7 to chromatin. Biochemical analyses uncover that the CD and AT-hook-like (ATL) motif of Cbx7 constitute a functional DNA-binding unit. Live-cell SMT of Cbx7 mutants demonstrates that Cbx7 is targeted to chromatin by co-recognizing of H3K27me3 and DNA. Our data suggest a novel hierarchical cooperation mechanism by which histone modifications and DNA coordinate to target chromatin regulatory complexes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17667.001 PMID:27723458

  15. Genotoxicity tests with 6-acetyl-1,1,2,4,4,7-hexamethyltetraline and 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-gamma-2-benzopyr an.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; San, R H

    1999-10-29

    6-Acetyl-1,1,2,4,4,7-hexamethyltetraline (AHTN) and 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-gamma-2-ben zopyran (HHCB), synthetic fragrance ingredients, were evaluated for potential genotoxicity in a battery of short-term tests. Salmonella typhimurium/Escherichia coli plate incorporation and liquid preincubation assays were conducted on AHTN using tester strains TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102, TA1535, TA1537 and WP2 uvrA +/- S9 activation at doses from 8 to 5000 micrograms/plate. The plate incorporation mutagenicity assay was conducted on HHCB using tester strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537, TA1538 and WP2 uvrA +/- S9 activation at doses from 10 to 5000 micrograms/plate. An in vitro cytogenetics assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was conducted with AHTN and HHCB at three concentrations each with +/- S9 activation. In the non-activated study, the exposure/harvest periods were 4/20-, 20/20- and 44/44-h. In the S9 activated study, the exposure/harvest periods were 4/20- and 4/44-h. In vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assays were conducted in primary rat hepatocytes at concentrations between 0.15 and 50 micrograms/ml for AHTN and HHCB. In vivo mouse micronucleus assays were conducted with high doses of 1600 mg AHTN/kg and of 1500 mg HHCB/kg in corn oil. No positive responses were observed in any of the tests with HHCB. With AHTN, no positive responses were observed except for cells with structural aberrations in the in vitro cytogenetics assay in CHO cells with S9 activation at the treatment/harvest time of 4/20 h. In initial studies with AHTN, the high dose of 7.8 micrograms/ml showed 0.5% aberrant cells, with the mitotic index at 41% relative to vehicle control and cell growth inhibition in the range of 25-50%. Thus the genotoxicity findings with AHTN were limited to this one positive response; all other genotoxicity tests with AHTN were considered as negative. In particular, the negative finding in the in vivo assay supports AHTN as not likely

  16. Selective androgen receptor modulators based on a series of 7H-[1,4]oxazino[3,2-g]quinolin-7-ones with improved in vivo activity.

    PubMed

    Long, Yun Oliver; Higuchi, Robert I; Caferro, Thomas R; Lau, Thomas L S; Wu, Min; Cummings, Marquis L; Martinborough, Esther A; Marschke, Keith B; Chang, William Y; López, Francisco J; Karanewsky, Donald S; Zhi, Lin

    2008-05-01

    Modification on a lead series of [1,4]oxazino[3,2-g]quinolin-7-ones at the 2-position led to selective androgen receptor modulators with improved in vivo activity. The most potent analog (-)-33a exhibited full maintenance of levator ani muscle at 3mg/kg and reduced activity on ventral prostate weight in a 2-week orally-dosed and orchidectomized rat maintenance assay.

  17. Arsenic inhibits induction of cytochrome P450 1A1 by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chao, How-Ran; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Li, Lih-Ann; Tsai, Feng-Yuan; Wang, Ya-Fen; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien; Chang, Eddy Essen; Miao, Zhi-Feng; Wu, Chia-Hsin; Lee, Wen-Jhy

    2006-09-21

    The aim of this study was to examine the arsenic effect on activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) in human hepatoma cells. The human hepatoma Huh7 cells were treated with sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) from 0.5 to 20 microM for 24 h. Our data revealed that NaAsO2 < or = 10 microM caused no significant cytotoxic effect on Huh7 cells (p>0.05). We also established a dioxin-responsive element (DRE)-mediated Chemical Activated LUciferase eXpression (CALUX) cell line, Huh7-DRE-Luc, by stable transfection of Huh7 with a DRE-driven firefly luciferase reporter plasmid (4xDRE-TATA-Luc). Treatments of Huh7-DRE-Luc and Huh7 with NaAsO2 attenuated the 2,3,7,8-TCDD-induced DRE-CALUX and cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) activations, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. We found that the calculated CALUX-toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels induced by cotreatment of NaAsO2 > or = 3.0 microM and 10 nM 2,3,7,8-TCDD were significantly lower than that induced by 2,3,7,8-TCDD alone (p<0.05). In the present study, we demonstrated that arsenic not only inhibited the TCDD-induced CYP1A1 activation but also interfered with DRE-CALUX bioassay in human hepatoma cells. Our finding also suggests that extensive cleanup of sample for removal of any possible interfering factor is critical to guarantee the accuracy of dioxin-TEQ levels using DRE-CALUX bioassay. PMID:16713074

  18. DNA Strand Cleaving Properties and Hypoxia-Selective Cytotoxicity of 7-Chloro-2-thienylcarbonyl-3-trifluoromethylquinoxaline 1,4-Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Junnotula, Venkatraman; Rajapakse, Anuruddha; Arbillaga, Leire; de Cerain, Adela López; Solano, Beatriz; Villar, Raquel; Monge, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The heterocyclic N-oxide, 3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide (tirapazamine, 1), shows promising antitumor activity in preclinical studies, but there is a continuing need to explore new compounds in this general structural category. In the work described here, we examined the properties of 7-chloro-2-thienylcarbonyl-3-trifluoromethylquinoxaline 1,4-dioxide (9h). We find that 9h causes redox-activated, hypoxia-selective DNA cleavage that mirrors the lead compound, tirapazamine, in both mechanism and potency. Furthermore, we find that 9h displays hypoxia-selective cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines. PMID:20371184

  19. Manganese Complexes of 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA): The First Nitrogen Bound Transition Metal Complex of PTA

    SciTech Connect

    Frost,B.; Bautista, C.; Huang, R.; Shearer, J.

    2006-01-01

    The structures of two manganese(II) complexes of 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA) reveal the first transition-metal complexes of PTA in which the metal preferentially coordinates to a nitrogen and not the phosphorus of PTA. The coordination environment about the manganese was probed using X-ray crystallography (solid state) and EXAFS spectroscopy (solution).

  20. 40 CFR 721.5262 - 2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5-[[4-chloro-6-[substituted] amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5- amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4-hydroxy-3- -, trisodium salt... identified generically as 2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5- amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4-hydroxy-3... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5262 - 2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5-[[4-chloro-6-[substituted] amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5- amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4-hydroxy-3- -, trisodium salt... identified generically as 2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5- amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4-hydroxy-3... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5262 - 2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5-[[4-chloro-6-[substituted] amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5- amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4-hydroxy-3- -, trisodium salt... identified generically as 2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5- amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4-hydroxy-3... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid,...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5262 - 2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5-[[4-chloro-6-[substituted] amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5- amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4-hydroxy-3- -, trisodium salt... identified generically as 2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5- amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4-hydroxy-3... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid,...

  4. Considerations on Daylight Operation of 1.6-VERSUS 3.7-µm Channel on NOAA and Metop Satellites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Cattani, Elsa; Melani, Samantha; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2004-06-01

    The transition from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)/2 to AVHRR/3 on NOAA polar orbiters was associated with a switching from daylight operations of the 3.7- to 1.6-µm wave band, while retaining 3.7 µm for nighttime operations. Investigations of the daylight applicability of the two channels suggest that the 1.6-µm wave band for daylight operations does not prove to be the better choice, at least for cloud applications. The 3.7-µm wave band is much less affected by surface contamination, and measures more faithfully and unambiguously the particle effective radius near cloud tops. The 1.6-µm radiation penetrates deeper into the cloud, supplying an integrated signal throughout the inner portions of the cloud, including surface contribution. Therefore, a synergetic use of the two wave bands can provide an improved retrieval of cloud microstructure and precipitation than from any of the channels alone. However, when one channel must be selected for the AVHRR/3, 3.7 µm performs much better for these applications. Both wave bands identify equally well microphysical features in the anvils of severe storms. For other applications, such as detection of ice and snow over vegetated surfaces and desert dust aerosols, the 1.6-µm wave band does not present clear advantages with respect to 3.7 µm, except that it can be used directly as is, whereas the 3.7-µm wave band has to be corrected for the thermal emission and water vapor absorption. Anyway, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) can be used instead for the applications to the relatively slowly changing surface properties, while prioritizing the AVHRR for the faster varying atmospheric applications. Finally, the 3.7-mm wave band is more effective in detecting fog, fires, and hot spots. All these factors need to be considered by the operators of AVHRR/3 making a justifiable choice of the channels for the maximum benefit of the user community.

  5. Significance of galectins-1, -3, -4 and -7 in the progression of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Alves, Pollianna M; Godoy, Gustavo P; Gomes, Daliana Q; Medeiros, Ana Miryam C; de Souza, Lélia B; da Silveira, Ericka J D; Vasconcelos, Marcelo G; Queiroz, Lélia M G

    2011-04-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the immunohistochemical expression of galectins-1, -3, -4, and -7 in 65 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and to correlate this expression with clinical (disease outcome, metastasis, and clinical stage) and morphological parameters (histological grade of malignancy). Clinical data were obtained from the patient records. The histological grading system of malignancy proposed by Bryne (1998) [9] was used for the analysis of morphological parameters. The results were analyzed statistically by χ(2) test (p < 0.05). Galectin-1 expression was observed in 87.7% of cases and was significantly correlated with metastasis (p = 0.033) and clinical stage (p = 0.016). Immunoexpression of galectin-3 was observed in 87.7% of cases and was correlated with the presence of metastasis (p = 0.033) and histological grade of malignancy (p = 0.031). Galectin-4 showed no significant correlation with any of the parameters studied. Expression of galectin-7 was observed in 73.8% of cases and was significantly correlated with the histological grade of malignancy (p = 0.005). In conclusion, the intense immunoexpression of galectins-1, -3, and -7 suggests the participation of these proteins in oral carcinogenesis and their use as markers of biological behavior and tumor progression in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. PMID:21397408

  6. Fish IRF3 up-regulates the transcriptional level of IRF1, IRF2, IRF3 and IRF7 in CIK cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaowen; Lai, Qinan; Gu, Meihui; Liu, Dan; Hou, Qunhao; Liu, Xiancheng; Mi, Yichuan; Sun, Zhicheng; Wang, Haizhou; Lin, Gang; Hu, Chengyu

    2015-12-01

    Interferon Regulatory Factors (IRFs) belong to a family of transcription factor involved in transcriptional regulation of type I IFN and IFN-stimulated genes (ISG) in cells. In the present study, an IRF3 full-length cDNA (termed CiIRF3, JX999055) and its promoter sequence were cloned by homology cloning strategy and genome walking from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The full-length cDNA sequence of CiIRF3 is comprised of a 5'UTR (195 bp), a 3'UTR (269 bp) and a largest open reading frame (ORF) of 1377 bp encoding a polypeptide of 458 amino acids. CiIRF3 has a conservative DNA-binding domain (DBD) at N-terminal and a relatively conserved interferon regulatory factors association domain (IAD). Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that CiIRF3 gathers together with other IRF-3 from higher vertebrates in the same branch. The promoter sequence of CiIRF3 (596 bp) consists of three IRF-E, a C/EBP beta, a NF-kappa B and a TATA-BOX. CiIRF3 was constitutively expressed at low level in different grass carp tissues but was rapidly up-regulated with Poly I:C stimulation. To study the molecular mechanism of CiIRF3 regulating the transcription of IRFs, CiIRF3 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and purified by affinity chromatography with the Ni-NTA His-Bind Resin. Gel mobility shift assays revealed the affinity of CiIRF3 protein with promoters of CiIRF1, CiIRF2, CiIRF3 and CiIRF7 respectively. Then, CIK cells were co-transfected with pcDNA3.1-CiIRF3, pGL3-promotor (pGL3-CiIRF1, pGL3-CiIRF2, pGL3-CiIRF3, pGL3-CiIRF7) and luciferase reporter vector respectively. The cotransfection experiment showed that CiIRF3 increased the promoter activity of CiIRF1, CiIRF2, CiIRF3 and CiIRF7. Furthermore, overexpression of CiIRF3 in CIK cells also up-regulated the expressions of CiIRF1, CiIRF2, CiIRF3 and CiIRF7. So, CiIRF3 can improve the transcriptional level of CiIRF1, CiIRF2, CiIRF3 and CiIRF7. PMID:26545324

  7. Inhibitory effects of constituents from Morus alba var. multicaulis on differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Gang; Matsuzaki, Keiichi; Takamatsu, Satoshi; Kitanaka, Susumu

    2011-07-19

    A new arylbenzofuran, 3',5'-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-7-prenyl-2-arylbenzofuran (1), and 25 known compounds, including moracin R (2), moracin C (3), moracin O (4), moracin P (5), artoindonesianin O (6), moracin D (7), alabafuran A (8), mulberrofuran L (9), mulberrofuran Y (10), kuwanon A (11), kuwanon C (12), kuwanon T (13), morusin (14), kuwanon E (15), sanggenon F (16), betulinic acid (17), uvaol (18), ursolic acid (19), β-sitosterol (20), oxyresveratrol 2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (21), mulberroside A (22), mulberroside B (23), 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (24), 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin 7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (25) and adenosine (26), were isolated from Morus alba var. multicaulis Perro. (Moraceae). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The prenyl-flavonoids 11-14, 16, triterpenoids 17,18 and 20 showed significant inhibitory activity towards the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The arylbenzofurans 1-10 and prenyl-flavonoids 11-16 also showed significant nitric oxide (NO) production inhibitory effects in RAW264.7 cells.

  8. Inhibitory effects of constituents from Morus alba var. multicaulis on differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Gang; Matsuzaki, Keiichi; Takamatsu, Satoshi; Kitanaka, Susumu

    2011-01-01

    A new arylbenzofuran, 3',5'-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-7-prenyl-2-arylbenzofuran (1), and 25 known compounds, including moracin R (2), moracin C (3), moracin O (4), moracin P (5), artoindonesianin O (6), moracin D (7), alabafuran A (8), mulberrofuran L (9), mulberrofuran Y (10), kuwanon A (11), kuwanon C (12), kuwanon T (13), morusin (14), kuwanon E (15), sanggenon F (16), betulinic acid (17), uvaol (18), ursolic acid (19), β-sitosterol (20), oxyresveratrol 2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (21), mulberroside A (22), mulberroside B (23), 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (24), 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin 7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (25) and adenosine (26), were isolated from Morus alba var. multicaulis Perro. (Moraceae). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The prenyl-flavonoids 11-14, 16, triterpenoids 17,18 and 20 showed significant inhibitory activity towards the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The arylbenzofurans 1-10 and prenyl-flavonoids 11-16 also showed significant nitric oxide (NO) production inhibitory effects in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:21772233

  9. 2,3,7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD)-MEDIATED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN FEMALE CYP1A-2 KNOCKOUT (CYP1A2-/-) MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Female CYP1A2 Knockout (CYP1A2-/-) Mice

    Deborah Burgin1, Janet Diliberto2, Linda Birnbaum2
    1UNC Toxicology; 2USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, RTP, NC

    Most of the effects due to TCDD exposure are mediated via...

  10. (3S,7R)-7,14,16-Trihy­droxy-3-methyl-3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12-deca­hydro-1H-2-benzoxacyclo­tetra­decin-1-one.

    PubMed Central

    Drzymala, Sarah; Kraus, Werner; Emmerling, Franziska; Koch, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C18H26O5, which is known as α-zearalanol, contains two mol­ecules having the same conformation, with a r.m.s. deviation of less than 0.03 Å for all non-H atoms. In each independent mol­ecule, an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond stabilizes the mol­ecular conformation. In the crystal, O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules, forming infinite chains along [110] and [1-10]. PMID:23284405

  11. Magnetoelectric properties of Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92/Pb(Zr x Ti1- x )O3 bilayer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sung-Ok; Koo, Chang Young; Lee, Jai-Yeoul; Lee, Hee Young; Ryu, Jungho; Kim, Jong-Woo

    2013-12-01

    Magnetoelectric Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92(Terfenol-D)/PbZr x Ti1- x O3(PZT) bilayer thin films were deposited on (111)-oriented Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si< 100 > substrates. The PZT layers with different compositions ( x = 0.3 and 0.52) were grown on the substrates by using the sol-gel method. Terfenol-D layers were deposited on the PZT-film-coated substrate by ion beam sputtering at room temperature with a dot-type patterned metal shadow mask. The structural characteristics and the ferroelectric, ferromagnetic and magnetoelectric(ME) properties of the Terfenol-D/PZT bilayer thin films were investigated. In our results, the maximum remnant polarization, 2 P r were ˜60 µC/cm2 for Terfenol-D/PZT(30/70) (Zr/Ti ratio = 30/70). The magnetization and the ME voltage coefficients were identical regardless of the Zr/Ti composition of PZT. The ME voltage coefficients of the films were over 400 mV/cm·Oe, which were about 4 times higher than the values reported for other bilayer structures.

  12. BLOC-1 and BLOC-3 regulate VAMP7 cycling to and from melanosomes via distinct tubular transport carriers.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Megan K; Delevoye, Cédric; Acosta-Ruiz, Amanda; Hurbain, Ilse; Romao, Maryse; Hesketh, Geoffrey G; Goff, Philip S; Sviderskaya, Elena V; Bennett, Dorothy C; Luzio, J Paul; Galli, Thierry; Owen, David J; Raposo, Graça; Marks, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    Endomembrane organelle maturation requires cargo delivery via fusion with membrane transport intermediates and recycling of fusion factors to their sites of origin. Melanosomes and other lysosome-related organelles obtain cargoes from early endosomes, but the fusion machinery involved and its recycling pathway are unknown. Here, we show that the v-SNARE VAMP7 mediates fusion of melanosomes with tubular transport carriers that also carry the cargo protein TYRP1 and that require BLOC-1 for their formation. Using live-cell imaging, we identify a pathway for VAMP7 recycling from melanosomes that employs distinct tubular carriers. The recycling carriers also harbor the VAMP7-binding scaffold protein VARP and the tissue-restricted Rab GTPase RAB38. Recycling carrier formation is dependent on the RAB38 exchange factor BLOC-3. Our data suggest that VAMP7 mediates fusion of BLOC-1-dependent transport carriers with melanosomes, illuminate SNARE recycling from melanosomes as a critical BLOC-3-dependent step, and likely explain the distinct hypopigmentation phenotypes associated with BLOC-1 and BLOC-3 deficiency in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome variants. PMID:27482051

  13. Fragrance material review on 1-(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-2,3,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)ethanone (OTNE).

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Politano, V T; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-2,3,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)ethanone (OTNE) when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. OTNE is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for OTNE were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2013) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances.

  14. The anisotropic nature of the superconducting properties of single crystal Y 1Ba 2Cu 3O 7 - x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, T. K.; Gallagher, W. J.; Kaiser, D. L.; Holtzberg, F. H.; Dinger, T. R.

    1988-06-01

    A series of noncontact magnetic measurements on high-quality single crystals of Y 1Ba 2Cu 3O 7 - x have enabled us to demonstrate that the superconducting-state properties of Y 1Ba 2Cu 3O 7 - x are those of a conventional, anisotropic superconductor with the anisotropy being associated with the highly conducting Cu sbnd O sheets in the Y 1Ba 2Cu 3O 7 - x crystal structure. The anisotropy in the superconducting state is reflected most strongly in the critical current anisotropy, which is as large as 20 to 1 at low temperatures and low fields and gets arbitrarily large at higher temperatures and higher fields. The upper critical field H C2 shows an anisotropy that varies from 6:1 to 10:1 in different crystals of high quality. Along the copper-oxygen sheets the upper critical field is enormous, extrapolating to ∼60 Tesla by 77 K and implying a low-temperature Ginzburg-Landau coherence length normal to the layers of 2Å- 4Å. Strong upward curvature is evident in the H C2 data in both orientations of applied field. This curvature can be interpreted in terms of thermodynamic fluctuations, and, if this explanation is correct, the critical region is enormous, extending more than 25 K below T C.

  15. A North American H7N3 Influenza Virus Supports Reassortment with 2009 Pandemic H1N1 and Induces Disease in Mice without Prior Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Graham D.; Pinto, Amelia K.; Doll, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reassortment between H5 or H9 subtype avian and mammalian influenza A viruses (IAV) can generate a novel virus that causes disease and transmits between mammals. Such information is currently not available for H7 subtype viruses. We evaluated the ability of a low-pathogenicity North American avian H7N3 virus (A/shorebird/Delaware/22/2006) to reassort with mammalian or avian viruses using a plasmid-based competition assay. In addition to genome segments derived from an avian H7N9 virus, the H7N3 virus reassorted efficiently with the PB2, NA, and M segments from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (PH1N1) virus. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the H7N3:PH1N1 (7 + 1) reassortant viruses revealed that the PB2, NA, or M segments from PH1N1 largely do not attenuate the H7N3 virus, whereas the PB1, PA, NP, or NS genome segments from PH1N1 do. Additionally, we assessed the functionality of the H7N3:PH1N1 7 + 1 reassortant viruses by measuring the inflammatory response in vivo. We found that infection with wild-type H7N3 resulted in increased inflammatory cytokine production relative to that seen with the PH1N1 strain and that the increase was further exacerbated by substitution of PH1N1 PB2 but not NA or M. Finally, we assessed if any adaptations occurred in the individually substituted segments after in vivo inoculation and found no mutations, suggesting that PH1N1 PB2, NA, and M are genetically stable in the background of this H7N3 virus. Taking the data together, we demonstrate that a North American avian H7N3 IAV is genetically and functionally compatible with multiple gene segments from the 2009 pandemic influenza virus strain without prior adaptation. IMPORTANCE The 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus continues to circulate and reassort with other influenza viruses, creating novel viruses with increased replication and transmission potential in humans. Previous studies have found that this virus can also reassort with H5N1 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses. We now show that

  16. Infrared Spectroscopic Evidences of Strong Electronic Correlations in (Sr1‑xLax)3Ir2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Gihyeon; Song, S. J.; Hogan, T.; Wilson, S. D.; Moon, S. J.

    2016-09-01

    We report on infrared spectroscopic studies of the electronic response of the (Sr1‑xLax)3Ir2O7 system. Our experiments revealed hallmarks of strong electronic correlations in the evolution of the electronic response across the filling-controlled insulator-metal transition. We observed a collapse of the Jeff = 1/2 Mott gap accompanying the transfer of the spectral weight from the high-energy region to the gap region with electron doping. The intraband conductivity at the metallic side of the transition was found to consist of coherent Drude-like and incoherent responses. The sum rule and the extended Drude model analyses further indicated a large mass enhancement. Our results demonstrate a critical role of the electronic correlations in the charge dynamics of the (Sr1‑xLax)3Ir2O7 system.

  17. Infrared Spectroscopic Evidences of Strong Electronic Correlations in (Sr1−xLax)3Ir2O7

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Gihyeon; Song, S. J.; Hogan, T.; Wilson, S. D.; Moon, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    We report on infrared spectroscopic studies of the electronic response of the (Sr1−xLax)3Ir2O7 system. Our experiments revealed hallmarks of strong electronic correlations in the evolution of the electronic response across the filling-controlled insulator-metal transition. We observed a collapse of the Jeff = 1/2 Mott gap accompanying the transfer of the spectral weight from the high-energy region to the gap region with electron doping. The intraband conductivity at the metallic side of the transition was found to consist of coherent Drude-like and incoherent responses. The sum rule and the extended Drude model analyses further indicated a large mass enhancement. Our results demonstrate a critical role of the electronic correlations in the charge dynamics of the (Sr1−xLax)3Ir2O7 system. PMID:27599573

  18. Infrared Spectroscopic Evidences of Strong Electronic Correlations in (Sr1-xLax)3Ir2O7.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Gihyeon; Song, S J; Hogan, T; Wilson, S D; Moon, S J

    2016-01-01

    We report on infrared spectroscopic studies of the electronic response of the (Sr1-xLax)3Ir2O7 system. Our experiments revealed hallmarks of strong electronic correlations in the evolution of the electronic response across the filling-controlled insulator-metal transition. We observed a collapse of the Jeff = 1/2 Mott gap accompanying the transfer of the spectral weight from the high-energy region to the gap region with electron doping. The intraband conductivity at the metallic side of the transition was found to consist of coherent Drude-like and incoherent responses. The sum rule and the extended Drude model analyses further indicated a large mass enhancement. Our results demonstrate a critical role of the electronic correlations in the charge dynamics of the (Sr1-xLax)3Ir2O7 system. PMID:27599573

  19. The interactions of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD) and 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (MCDF) in TCDD-induced porphyria

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Cheng Catsby.

    1989-01-01

    Halogenated aryl hydrocarbon(HAH)-induced porphyria is caused by alteration of porphyrin metabolism and results in the accumulation of hepatic and urinary porphyrins. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (75 {mu}/kg) caused significant increases of hepatic porphyrin levels in C57BL/6 male, female and ovariectomized female, and C57BL/10 male mice 3 weeks after treatment. In contrast, 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (MCDF) was inactive at a dose of 750 {mu}mol/kg. Cotreatment with MCDF (750 {mu}mol/kg) and 2,3,7,8-TCDD (75 {mu}g/kg) resulted in partial antagonism of 2,3,7,8-TCDD-induced porphyrin accumulation in female but not in male mice. In female C57BL/6 mice, 2,3,7,8-TCDD-induced porphyria was accompanied by the induction of hepatic microsomal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities and the inhibition of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) activity. MCDF (750 {mu}mol/kg) did not significantly affect these enzyme activities. In coadministration studies, MCDF partially antagonized 2,3,7,8-TCDD-induced hepatic porphyrin accumulation but did not affect the activities of hepatic AHH, EROD or UROD. These results demonstrate that the induction of the monooxygenase enzyme activities and the inhibition of UROD activity by 2,3,7,8-TCDD and the development of porphyria are not coordinately regulated in C57BL/6 female mice. In cultured chick embryo hepatocytes, 2,3,7,8-TCDD caused a significant increase in porphyrin levels and induced AHH and EROD activities. MCDF and Aroclor 1254 partially antagonized the 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced AHH and EROD activities but not the porphyrin accumulation.

  20. 7 CFR 7.1 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 7.1 Section 7.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SELECTION AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL STABILIZATION AND CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.1 Administration. (a) The regulations of this part...

  1. Patterning process exploration of metal 1 layer in 7nm node with 3D patterning flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Weimin; Ciofi, Ivan; Saad, Yves; Matagne, Philippe; Bachmann, Michael; Oulmane, Mohamed; Gillijns, Werner; Lucas, Kevin; Demmerle, Wolfgang; Schmoeller, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    In 7mn node (N7), the logic design requires the critical poly pitch (CPP) of 42-45nm and metal 1 (M1) pitch of 28- 32nm. Such high pattern density pushes the 193 immersion lithography solution toward its limit and also brings extremely complex patterning scenarios. The N7 M1 layer may require a self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) with triple litho-etch (LE3) block process. Therefore, the whole patterning process flow requires multiple exposure+etch+deposition processes and each step introduces a particular impact on the pattern profiles and the topography. In this study, we have successfully integrated a simulation tool that enables emulation of the whole patterning flow with realistic process-dependent 3D profile and topology. We use this tool to study the patterning process variations of N7 M1 layer including the overlay control, the critical dimension uniformity (CDU) budget and the lithographic process window (PW). The resulting 3D pattern structure can be used to optimize the process flow, verify design rules, extract parasitics, and most importantly, simulate the electric field and identify hot spots for dielectric reliability. As an example application, we will report extractions of maximum electric field at M1 tipto- tip which is one of the most critical patterning locations and we will demonstrate the potential of this approach for investigating the impact of process variations on dielectric reliability. We will also present simulations of an alternative M1 patterning flow, with a single exposure block using extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) and analyze its advantages compared to the LE3 block approach.

  2. Aromatization of 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene and oxydehydrogenation of cis-cyclooctene, 1,5-cyclooctadiene and 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene on clean and oxygen precovered Ag(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, Philip B.; Madix, Robert J.

    1996-10-01

    The bonding and reactions of cyclic C 8-alkenes were studied on clean and oxygen-precovered Ag(110). On the clean surface, cis-cyclooctene (COE), 1,5-cyclooctadiene (COD) and 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene (COT) desorb without reaction. Similar desorption energies were found for COE and COD ( E d = 15 {kcal}/{mol}), but COT showed unusually strong bonding ( E d ≥ 22 {kcal}/{mol}). Vibrational spectroscopy suggests that the stronger bonding of COT originates in charge transfer from the surface, resulting in formation of the planar, aromatic η8-COT dianion. On the oxygen-precovered surface COT bonds in a tub-shaped structure, since the presence of electron-withdrawing oxygen limits the extent of charge transfer to COT and blocks formation of the aromatic species. On the oxygen-precovered Ag(110) surface oxydehydrogenation of COD and COE commences at 200 K and 225 K, respectively, leading to the formation of η8-COT, which desorbs at 365 K. Combusition of adsorbed COT begins at 225 K. Depletion of surface oxygen by the combustion reaction, however, allows conversion of unreacted tub-shaped COT to the η8-COT aromatic species, which remains adsorbed until 365 K.

  3. Formal (4+1) Cycloaddition of Methylenecyclopropanes with 7-Aryl-1,3,5-cycloheptatrienes by Triple Gold(I) Catalysis**

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yahui; Muratore, Michael E; Rong, Zhouting; Echavarren, Antonio M

    2014-01-01

    7-Aryl-1,3,5-cycloheptatrienes react intermolecularly with methylenecyclopropanes in a triple gold(I)-catalyzed reaction to form cyclopentenes. The same formal (4+1) cycloaddition occurs with cyclobutenes. Other precursors of gold(I) carbenes can also be used as the C1 component of the cycloaddition. PMID:24898850

  4. Small-angle X-ray analysis of the effect of grain size on the thermal damage of octahydro-1, 3, 5, 7-tetranitro-1, 3, 5, 7 tetrazocine-based plastic-bounded expolsives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Guan-Yun; Tian, Qiang; Liu, Jia-Hui; Chen, Bo; Sun, Guang-Ai; Huang, Ming; Li, Xiu-Hong

    2014-07-01

    The microstructure evolution of plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) after thermal stimulus plays a key role in PBX performance. In this paper, the nanoscale pores of thermal-treated octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7 tetrazocine (HMX)-based PBXs with different HMX particle sizes [approximately 40 (FHP) and 100 μm (LHP)] were measured using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). No obvious pore variations were found in the LHP samples heated at 160 °C for 6 h, whereas the amount of pores of FHP decreased when subjected to 160 °C for 6 h. At 180 °C, the average pore radii of FHP and LHP decreased from approximately 45 nm to 25 nm, and the total pore volume increased distinctively because of phase transformation. The LHP sample reached a high level of pore content after being held at 180 °C for 1 h, whereas FHP required 3 h. Both FHP and LHP had relatively high pore volumes when subjected to 200 °C for 1 and 3 h.

  5. Grain size dependence of microwave absorption in Y 1Ba 2Cu 3O 7 powders near T c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, A.; Jackson, E. M.; Renouard, K.; Crittenden, R.; Bhagat, S. M.; Spencer, N. D.; Dolhert, L. E.; Wormsbecher, R. F.

    1988-11-01

    A systematic study of the relationship between particle dimensions and microwave absorption in micron size powders of superconducting Y 1Ba 2Cu 3O 7 reveals that small particles have negligible absorption at T<0.8 Tc, and that the transition gets sharper as the grains get bigger. However, when the particles get so large as to incorporate multiple grains, the transition broadens and there is significant absorption down to 0.7 Tc. The temperature dependence in the small (≤10 μm) powders is satisfactorily described by a simple extension of London's theory.

  6. 3D-QSAR Study of 7,8-Dialkyl-1,3-diaminopyrrolo-[3,2-f] Quinazolines with Anticancer Activity as DHFR Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin-can; Chen, Lan-mei; Liao, Si-yan; Qian, Li; Zheng, Kang-cheng

    2009-06-01

    A three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) study of a series of 7,8-dialkyl-1,3-diaminopyrrolo-[3,2-f] quinazolines with anticancer activity as dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitors was carried out by using the comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), on the basis of our reported 2D-QSAR of these compounds. The established 3D-QSAR model has good quality of statistics and good prediction ability; the non cross-validation correlation coefficient and the cross-validation value of this model are 0.993 and 0.619, respectively, the F value is 193.4, and the standard deviation SD is 0.208. This model indicates that the steric field factor plays a much more important role than the electrostatic one, in satisfying agreement with the published 2D-QSAR model. However, the 3D-QSAR model offers visual images of the steric field and the electrostatic field. The 3D-QSAR study further suggests the following: to improve the activity, the substituent R' should be selected to be a group with an adaptive bulk like Et or i-Pr, and the substituent R should be selected to be a larger alkyl. In particular, based on our present 3D-QSAR as well as the published 2D-QSAR, the experimentally-proposed hydrophobic binding mechanism on the receptor-binding site of the DHFR can be further explained in theory. Therefore, the QSAR studies help to further understand the “hydrophobic binding" action mechanism of this kind of compounds, and to direct the molecular design of new drugs with higher activity.

  7. Ultrathin Na1.1V3O7.9 nanobelts with superior performance as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuquan; Zhou, Jiang; Fang, Guozhao; Liu, Jing; Tang, Yan; Li, Xilin; Pan, Anqiang

    2013-09-11

    The Na1.1V3O7.9 nanobelts have been synthesized by a facile and scalable hydrothermal reaction with subsequent calcinations. The morphologies and the crystallinity of the nanobelts are largely determined by the calcination temperatures. Ultrathin nanobelts with a thickness around 20 nm can be obtained, and the TEM reveals that the nanobelts are composed of many stacked thinner belts. When evaluated as a cathode material for lithium batteries, the Na1.1V3O7.9 nanobelts exhibit high specific capacity, good rate capability, and superior long-term cyclic stability. A high specific capacity of 204 mA h g(-1) can be delivered at the current density of 100 mA g(-1). It shows excellent capacity retention of 95% after 200 cycles at the current density of 1500 mA g(-1). As demonstrated by the ex situ XRD results, the Na1.1V3O7.9 nanobelts have very good structural stability upon cycling. The superior electrochemical performances can be attributed to the ultra-thin nanobelts and the good structural stability of the Na1.1V3O7.9 nanobelts.

  8. Kinetics and computational studies of ligand migration in nitrophorin 7 and its Δ1-3 mutant.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana; Allegri, Alessandro; Bidon-Chanal, Axel; Knipp, Markus; Roitberg, Adrian E; Abbruzzetti, Stefania; Viappiani, Cristiano; Luque, F Javier

    2013-09-01

    Nitrophorins (NPs) are nitric oxide (NO)-carrying heme proteins found in the saliva of the blood-sucking insect Rhodnius prolixus. Though NP7 exhibits a large sequence resemblance with other NPs, two major differential features are the ability to interact with negatively charged cell surfaces and the presence of a specific N-terminus composed of three extra residues (Leu1-Pro2-Gly3). The aim of this study is to examine the influence of the N-terminus on the ligand binding, and the topological features of inner cavities in closed and open states of NP7, which can be associated to the protein structure at low and high pH, respectively. Laser flash photolysis measurements of the CO rebinding kinetics to NP7 and its variant NP71-3), which lacks the three extra residues at the N-terminus, exhibit a similar pattern and support the existence of a common kinetic mechanism for ligand migration and binding. This is supported by the existence of a common topology of inner cavities, which consists of two docking sites in the heme pocket and a secondary site at the back of the protein. The ligand exchange between these cavities is facilitated by an additional site, which can be transiently occupied by the ligand in NP7, although it is absent in NP4. These features provide a basis to explain the enhanced internal gas hosting capacity found experimentally in NP7 and the absence of ligand rebinding from secondary sites in NP4. The current data allow us to speculate that the processes of docking to cell surfaces and NO release may be interconnected in NP7, thereby efficiently releasing NO into a target cell. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxygen Binding and Sensing Proteins.

  9. 2,2,3,3,11,11,12,12-Octamethyl-1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclohexadecane: improved synthesis and crystal structure with NaSCN

    SciTech Connect

    Loustau-Chartez, Ms. Fanny; Robeson, Rachel M; Custelcean, Radu; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V

    2009-01-01

    An efficient synthesis of 2,2,3,3,11,11,12,12-octamethyl-1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclohexadecane (1, OM16C5) is described, which affords over an order of magnitude improvement in yield over the previously reported method. The first X-ray crystal structure of 1, as a complex with NaSCN, is also reported. There is much interest in sodium-selective ionophores [1,2] for use in electrodes [1,3] and optodes [4]. One such ionophore is 2,2,3,3,11,11,12,12-octamethyl-1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclohexadecane (1, octamethyl-16-crown-5 or OM16C5), which was first prepared in 1996 by Suzuki and coworkers [1]. The synthetic procedure as reported and shown in Scheme 1 involved three steps starting from pinacol. The first two steps proceeded in excellent (95%) and good (ca. 81%) yields, respectively. However, the cyclization step, involving the addition of diethylene glycol dimesylate to 2,3,3,9,9,10-hexamethyl-4,8-dioxa-2,10-undecanediol (2) using NaH in THF, proceeded poorly with a low (3.7%) isolated yield, making the overall yield for the three steps starting from pinacol approximately 2.8%. We were interested in this crown ether for alkali-metal extraction studies, and sought to improve the yield so that larger (potentially gram) quantities of material could be readily prepared. We report here a modification of the synthetic procedure that boosts the conversion of 1 from 2 over 15-fold, by using three good- to high-yielding steps that allows 1 to be obtained from 2 in a combined yield of 59%. We also report for the first time a crystal structure of 1, as the NaSCN complex

  10. The thermodynamic properties of 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Smith, N.K.; Steele, W.V.

    1992-12-01

    Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties are reported for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene. Experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, vibrating-tube densitometry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). Critical properties were estimated for both materials based on the measurement results. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gases for selected temperatures between 380 K and 700 K. The property-measurement results reported here for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene are the first for these important intermediates in the pyrene/H{sub 2} hydrogenation reaction network.

  11. Apically Linked Small Metallacarborane Clusters. Directed Synthesis and Structural Characterization of 7,7'-[CpCo(2,3-Et(2)C(2)B(4)H(3)](2) and [CpCo(2,3-Et(2)C(2)B(4)H(3)-7)](2)X Complexes (X = MeCH, HC=CH, C&tbd1;C)(,)(1).

    PubMed

    Curtis, Michael A.; Müller, Thomas; Beez, Volker; Pritzkow, Hans; Siebert, Walter; Grimes, Russell N.

    1997-08-13

    A series of novel bis(cobaltacarboranyl) (CoC(2)B(4))(2)X dicluster complexes whose B(7) (apex) atoms are linked by organic moieties involving sp-, sp(2)-, or sp(3)-hybridized carbon, or by a direct B(7)-B(7') bond, has been prepared by extension of the recently described "recapitation" method (Curtis, M. A.; et al. Inorg. Chem. 1996, 35, 6703) that entails treatment of 6-vertex nido-CoC(2)B(3) dianions with monoboron reagents. Reactions of Li(2)[nido-CpCo(Et(2)C(2)B(3)H(3))] in toluene with MeCH(BCl(2))(2) and with cis-(BCl(2))C(2)H(2) gave, respectively, [CpCo(2,3-Et(2)C(2)B(4)H(3)-7-)](2)MeCH (5) and cis-[CpCo(2,3-Et(2)C(2)B(4)H(3)-7-)](2)C(2)H(2) (6a) following chromatographic separation. Ultraviolet irradiation of 6a induced partial conversion to the trans isomer 6b, affording a 46:54 trans/cis equilibrium mixture in 84 h. Reactions of the same cobaltacarborane dianion with bis(catecholboryl)acetylene and with bis(catecholdiboryl) gave [CpCo(2,3-Et(2)C(2)B(4)H(3)-7-)](2)C(2) (7) and [CpCo(2,3-Et(2)C(2)B(4)H(3)-7-)](2) (8), respectively. The new complexes were isolated as air-stable, crystalline orange solids and were characterized from their (1)H, (11)B, and (13)C NMR, IR, UV-visible, and mass spectra, supported by X-ray crystallographic studies of 5, 6a, 7, and 8. Crystal data for 5: space group P2(1)ca (orthorhombic); a = 14.220(10) Å, b = 15.690(10) Å, c = 16.860(10) Å, Z = 4; R = 0.041 for 7485 independent reflections. Crystal data for 6a: space group C2/c (monoclinic); a = 12.849(6) Å, b = 11.435(6) Å, c = 25.619(13) Å, beta = 96.230(10) degrees; Z = 4; R = 0.036 for 5440 independent reflections. Crystal data for 7: space group P2(1)/n (monoclinic); a = 17.298(12) Å, b = 13.932(10) Å, c = 30.82(2) Å, beta = 96.34(5) degrees; Z = 8; R = 0.070 for 9632 independent reflections. Crystal data for 8: space group P&onemacr; (triclinic); a = 9.150(10) Å, b = 10.270(10) Å, c = 10.340(10) Å, alpha = 84.52(5) degrees, beta = 78.05(5) degrees, gamma = 68

  12. Heterozygous Mutations in MAP3K7, Encoding TGF-β-Activated Kinase 1, Cause Cardiospondylocarpofacial Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Carine; Rogers, Curtis; Le Goff, Wilfried; Pinto, Graziella; Bonnet, Damien; Chrabieh, Maya; Alibeu, Olivier; Nistchke, Patrick; Munnich, Arnold; Picard, Capucine; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

    2016-08-01

    Cardiospondylocarpofacial (CSCF) syndrome is characterized by growth retardation, dysmorphic facial features, brachydactyly with carpal-tarsal fusion and extensive posterior cervical vertebral synostosis, cardiac septal defects with valve dysplasia, and deafness with inner ear malformations. Whole-exome sequencing identified heterozygous MAP3K7 mutations in six distinct CSCF-affected individuals from four families and ranging in age from 5 to 37 years. MAP3K7 encodes transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), which is involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-p38 signaling pathway. MAPK-p38 signaling was markedly altered when expression of non-canonical TGF-β-driven target genes was impaired. These findings support the loss of transcriptional control of the TGF-β-MAPK-p38 pathway in fibroblasts obtained from affected individuals. Surprisingly, although TAK1 is located at the crossroad of inflammation, immunity, and cancer, this study reports MAP3K7 mutations in a developmental disorder affecting mainly cartilage, bone, and heart. PMID:27426734

  13. Common variation at 2p13.3, 3q29, 7p13 and 17q25.1 associated with susceptibility to pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Childs, Erica J; Mocci, Evelina; Campa, Daniele; Bracci, Paige M; Gallinger, Steven; Goggins, Michael; Li, Donghui; Neale, Rachel E; Olson, Sara H; Scelo, Ghislaine; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Bamlet, William R; Bijlsma, Maarten F; Blackford, Amanda; Borges, Michael; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Hermann; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Canzian, Federico; Capurso, Gabriele; Cavestro, Giulia M; Chaffee, Kari G; Chanock, Stephen J; Cleary, Sean P; Cotterchio, Michelle; Foretova, Lenka; Fuchs, Charles; Funel, Niccola; Gazouli, Maria; Hassan, Manal; Herman, Joseph M; Holcatova, Ivana; Holly, Elizabeth A; Hoover, Robert N; Hung, Rayjean J; Janout, Vladimir; Key, Timothy J; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Kurtz, Robert C; Landi, Stefano; Lu, Lingeng; Malecka-Panas, Ewa; Mambrini, Andrea; Mohelnikova-Duchonova, Beatrice; Neoptolemos, John P; Oberg, Ann L; Orlow, Irene; Pasquali, Claudio; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Saldia, Amethyst; Scarpa, Aldo; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Strobel, Oliver; Tavano, Francesca; Vashist, Yogesh K; Vodicka, Pavel; Wolpin, Brian M; Yu, Herbert; Petersen, Gloria M; Risch, Harvey A; Klein, Alison P

    2015-08-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the developed world. Both inherited high-penetrance mutations in BRCA2 (ref. 2), ATM, PALB2 (ref. 4), BRCA1 (ref. 5), STK11 (ref. 6), CDKN2A and mismatch-repair genes and low-penetrance loci are associated with increased risk. To identify new risk loci, we performed a genome-wide association study on 9,925 pancreatic cancer cases and 11,569 controls, including 4,164 newly genotyped cases and 3,792 controls in 9 studies from North America, Central Europe and Australia. We identified three newly associated regions: 17q25.1 (LINC00673, rs11655237, odds ratio (OR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19-1.34, P = 1.42 × 10(-14)), 7p13 (SUGCT, rs17688601, OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.84-0.92, P = 1.41 × 10(-8)) and 3q29 (TP63, rs9854771, OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.85-0.93, P = 2.35 × 10(-8)). We detected significant association at 2p13.3 (ETAA1, rs1486134, OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.09-1.19, P = 3.36 × 10(-9)), a region with previous suggestive evidence in Han Chinese. We replicated previously reported associations at 9q34.2 (ABO), 13q22.1 (KLF5), 5p15.33 (TERT and CLPTM1), 13q12.2 (PDX1), 1q32.1 (NR5A2), 7q32.3 (LINC-PINT), 16q23.1 (BCAR1) and 22q12.1 (ZNRF3). Our study identifies new loci associated with pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:26098869

  14. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles carrying BMP-7 plasmid DNA induce an osteogenic response in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Hadjicharalambous, Chrystalleni; Kozlova, Diana; Sokolova, Viktoriya; Epple, Matthias; Chatzinikolaidou, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Functionalized calcium phosphate nanoparticles with osteogenic activity were prepared. Polyethyleneimine-stabilized calcium phosphate nanoparticles were coated with a shell of silica and covalently functionalized by silanization with thiol groups. Between the calcium phosphate surface and the outer silica shell, plasmid DNA which encoded either for bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) or for enhanced green fluorescent protein was incorporated as cargo. The plasmid DNA-loaded calcium phosphate nanoparticles were used for the transfection of the pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. The cationic nanoparticles showed high transfection efficiency together with a low cytotoxicity. Their potential to induce an osteogenic response by transfection was demonstrated by measuring the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition with alizarin red staining. The expression of the osteogenic markers Alp, Runx2, ColIa1 and Bsp was investigated by means of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. It was shown that phBMP-7-loaded nanoparticles can provide a means of transient transfection and localized production of BMP-7 in MC3T3-E1 cells, with a subsequent increase of two osteogenic markers, specifically ALP activity and calcium accumulation in the extracellular matrix. Future strategies to stimulate bone regeneration focus into enhancing transfection efficiency and achieving higher levels of BMP-7 produced by the transfected cells.

  15. NorLeu3-Angiotensin (1-7) [DSC127] as a Therapy for the Healing of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Kathleen E.; Bolton, Laura L.; Verco, Shelagh; diZerega, Gere S.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Diabetes is a disorder that is well known to delay wound repair resulting in the formation of colonized chronic wounds. Over their lifetime, diabetic patients have a 25% incidence of foot ulcers (DFUs), which contribute to increased risk of morbidity, including osteomyelitis and amputations, and increased burden to the healthcare system. Recent Advances: The only active product approved for the treatment of diabetic ulcers, Regranex®, is not widely used due to minimal proven efficacy and recent warnings added to the Instructions for Use. A novel topical agent that accelerates healing and increases the proportion of fully healed DFUs, DSC127 [aclerastide; active ingredient, NorLeu3-angiotensin (1-7) (NorLeu3-A(1-7))], is recruiting patients in Phase III clinical trials (NCT01830348 and NCT01849965). NorLeu3-A(1-7) is an analog of the naturally occurring peptide, angiotensin 1-7. The mechanisms of action include induction of progenitor proliferation, accelerated vascularization, collagen deposition, and re-epithelialization. Critical Issues: Current modalities for the treatment of DFUs include strict offloading, bandaging, debridement and, on a limited basis, application of Regranex. Novel potent therapies are needed to combat this significant burden to the diabetic patient and the healthcare system. Future Direction: Preclinical and clinical research shows that DSC127 is highly effective in the closure of diabetic wounds and is superior to Regranex in animal studies. Clinical development of DSC127 as a topical agent for the healing of DFU is underway. Further investigation into the mechanisms by which this product accelerates healing is warranted. PMID:26029484

  16. Computational prediction of probabilistic ignition threshold of pressed granular octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,2,3,5-tetrazocine (HMX) under shock loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seokpum; Miller, Christopher; Horie, Yasuyuki; Molek, Christopher; Welle, Eric; Zhou, Min

    2016-09-01

    The probabilistic ignition thresholds of pressed granular octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,2,3,5-tetrazocine explosives with average grain sizes between 70 μm and 220 μm are computationally predicted. The prediction uses material microstructure and basic constituent properties and does not involve curve fitting with respect to or prior knowledge of the attributes being predicted. The specific thresholds predicted are James-type relations between the energy flux and energy fluence for given probabilities of ignition. Statistically similar microstructure sample sets are computationally generated and used based on the features of micrographs of materials used in actual experiments. The predicted thresholds are in general agreement with measurements from shock experiments in terms of trends. In particular, it is found that grain size significantly affects the ignition sensitivity of the materials, with smaller sizes leading to lower energy thresholds required for ignition. For example, 50% ignition threshold of the material with an average grain size of 220 μm is approximately 1.4-1.6 times that of the material with an average grain size of 70 μm in terms of energy fluence. The simulations account for the controlled loading of thin-flyer shock experiments with flyer velocities between 1.5 and 4.0 km/s, constituent elasto-viscoplasticity, fracture, post-fracture contact and friction along interfaces, bulk inelastic heating, interfacial frictional heating, and heat conduction. The constitutive behavior of the materials is described using a finite deformation elasto-viscoplastic formulation and the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. The ignition thresholds are determined via an explicit analysis of the size and temperature states of hotspots in the materials and a hotspot-based ignition criterion. The overall ignition threshold analysis and the microstructure-level hotspot analysis also lead to the definition of a macroscopic ignition parameter (J) and a microscopic

  17. TELESCAN. Volume 3, Issues 1-7, September/October 1983-July/August 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TELESCAN, 1984

    1984-01-01

    A digest about how higher education can use new telecommunications technologies, especially to reach students in off-campus settings, is presented. Seven issues of volume 3 of the newsletter "TELESCAN" include articles on special topics and descriptions of national initiatives involving applications of technology-based instruction in higher…

  18. 7 CFR Appendices 1, 2 and 3 to... - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Tokyo round Uruguay round NON-CHEESE ARTICLES BUTTER (NOTE 6) 5,278,428 1,698,572 EU-25 75,459 20,702... Uruguay 250,000 Other Countries 100,906 100,729 Any Country 300,000 BLUE-MOLD CHEESE (EXCEPT STILTON...,276 210,207 367,517 1,890,000 EU-25 2,496,468 885,532 2,025,000 Romania 500,000 Uruguay 428,000...

  19. 3,4,7,8-Tetra­methyl-1,10-phenanthrolin-1-ium nitrate monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke-Jie; Zhang, Yan-Fang

    2012-01-01

    In the crystal of the title compound, C16H17N2 +·NO3 −·H2O, the tetra­methyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium cations, nitrate anions and lattice water mol­ecules are all located on a mirror plane with the methyl H atoms of the cation equally disordered over two sites about the mirror plane. The cation, anion and water mol­ecule are linked by O—H⋯O and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into a sheet parallel to the bc plane. π–π stacking between phenanthroline ring systems is observed in the crystal structure, the centroid–centroid distance being 3.4745 (6) Å. PMID:22719684

  20. Comparative study of optical and structural properties of electrospun 1-dimensional CaYAl{sub 3}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 3+} nanofibers and bulk phosphor

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, Chul Jin; Unithrattil, Sanjith; Chung, Woon Jin; Im, Won Bin

    2014-09-15

    We report the optical and structural studies of Eu{sup 3+}-doped 1-dimensional CaYAl{sub 3}O{sub 7} nano-fiber phosphor. CaYAl{sub 3}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphors were synthesized by electrospinning technique and the pristine nano-fibers were annealed at 900 °C to form well crystallized uniform fibers. Under ultraviolet excitation, the CaYAl{sub 3}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 3+} exhibited red emission, due to transitions in the 4f states of Eu{sup 3+}. In order to explore the difference between the quantum efficiency of nano-fiber and bulk CaYAl{sub 3}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor, detailed structural and optical analyses were carried out. The structural analysis of the CaYAl{sub 3}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 3+} nano-fibers indicates that the structural environment surrounding the dopant Eu{sup 3+} ion was more unstable in nano-fiber when compared to a bulk sample. Decay curves for both the samples when fitted with double exponential decay model indicate that the nano-fiber has shorter decay time, arising from the larger contribution from the non-radiative decay, due to defect levels introduced in the host lattice. - Highlights: • Synthesis of red nano-phosphor through electrospinning • Luminescence properties of bulk and nano-phosphors are compared. • Inferior emission intensity of the nano-phosphor is analyzed using MEM. • Charge cloud around nano-phosphor was found to be oblique.

  1. Toxicity of the explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine in sediments to Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca: low-dose hormesis and high-dose mortality.

    PubMed

    Steevens, Jeffery A; Duke, B Maurice; Lotufo, Guilherme R; Bridges, Todd S

    2002-07-01

    The toxicity of the explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT); hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (royal demolition explosive [RDX]); and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (high-melting explosive [HMX]), was evaluated in spiked sediment with two freshwater invertebrates. The midge Chironomus tentans and the amphipod Hyalella azteca demonstrated significant toxic effects after exposure to TNT and its degradation products, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) and 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2,4-DANT). Significant reductions in survival of C. tentans exposed to TNT, TNB, and 2,4-DANT were observed at nominal sediment concentrations as low as 200 mg/kg. Hyalella azteca was more sensitive to TNT, TNB, and 2,4-DANT than the midge, where significant reductions in survival were observed at nominal concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Survival of the midge and the amphipod was unaffected after exposure to RDX or HMX at the highest concentrations of 1,000 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Growth of the midge, measured as total weight, was significantly reduced by 2,4-DANT. However, significantly increased growth was observed after exposure to sublethal concentrations of RDX and HMX. Although significant reductions in amphipod survival were observed at high concentrations of TNB, growth was significantly increased at sublethal concentrations. The results of the current investigation suggest that organisms exposed to explosives at contaminated sites may be affected at concentrations less than 25 mg/kg through hormetic growth enhancement and at higher concentrations through increased mortality.

  2. β1- and β3- voltage-gated sodium channel subunits modulate cell surface expression and glycosylation of Nav1.7 in HEK293 cells

    PubMed Central

    Laedermann, Cédric J.; Syam, Ninda; Pertin, Marie; Decosterd, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) are glycoproteins composed of a pore-forming α-subunit and associated β-subunits that regulate Nav α-subunit plasma membrane density and biophysical properties. Glycosylation of the Nav α-subunit also directly affects Navs gating. β-subunits and glycosylation thus comodulate Nav α-subunit gating. We hypothesized that β-subunits could directly influence α-subunit glycosylation. Whole-cell patch clamp of HEK293 cells revealed that both β1- and β3-subunits coexpression shifted V½ of steady-state activation and inactivation and increased Nav1.7-mediated INa density. Biotinylation of cell surface proteins, combined with the use of deglycosydases, confirmed that Nav1.7 α-subunits exist in multiple glycosylated states. The α-subunit intracellular fraction was found in a core-glycosylated state, migrating at ~250 kDa. At the plasma membrane, in addition to the core-glycosylated form, a fully glycosylated form of Nav1.7 (~280 kDa) was observed. This higher band shifted to an intermediate band (~260 kDa) when β1-subunits were coexpressed, suggesting that the β1-subunit promotes an alternative glycosylated form of Nav1.7. Furthermore, the β1-subunit increased the expression of this alternative glycosylated form and the β3-subunit increased the expression of the core-glycosylated form of Nav1.7. This study describes a novel role for β1- and β3-subunits in the modulation of Nav1.7 α-subunit glycosylation and cell surface expression. PMID:24009557

  3. Microwave-assisted Synthesis and antifungal activity of coumarin[8,7-e][1,3]oxazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Zhang, Rong-Rong; Yin, Wen-Zheng; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Ya-Ling; Liu, Pin; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Zhang, Wei-Hua

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of novel coumarin[8,7-e][1,3]oxazine derivatives through a microwave-assisted three-component one-pot Mannich reaction is described in this study. All the target compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum capsici, Alternaria solani, Gibberella zeae, Rhizoctonia solani, and Alternaria mali. The preliminary bioassays showed that 5e, 5m, and 5s exhibited good antifungal activity and the most active compound was 5m with an [Formula: see text] value as low as 2.1 nM against Botrytis cinerea. PMID:26880591

  4. Discovery of 7-aminofuro[2,3-c]pyridine inhibitors of TAK1: optimization of kinase selectivity and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Hornberger, Keith R; Chen, Xin; Crew, Andrew P; Kleinberg, Andrew; Ma, Lifu; Mulvihill, Mark J; Wang, Jing; Wilde, Victoria L; Albertella, Mark; Bittner, Mark; Cooke, Andrew; Kadhim, Salam; Kahler, Jennifer; Maresca, Paul; May, Earl; Meyn, Peter; Romashko, Darlene; Tokar, Brianna; Turton, Roy

    2013-08-15

    The kinase selectivity and pharmacokinetic optimization of a series of 7-aminofuro[2,3-c]pyridine inhibitors of TAK1 is described. The intersection of insights from molecular modeling, computational prediction of metabolic sites, and in vitro metabolite identification studies resulted in a simple and unique solution to both of these problems. These efforts culminated in the discovery of compound 13a, a potent, relatively selective inhibitor of TAK1 with good pharmacokinetic properties in mice, which was active in an in vivo model of ovarian cancer. PMID:23856049

  5. Discovery of 7-aminofuro[2,3-c]pyridine inhibitors of TAK1: optimization of kinase selectivity and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Hornberger, Keith R; Chen, Xin; Crew, Andrew P; Kleinberg, Andrew; Ma, Lifu; Mulvihill, Mark J; Wang, Jing; Wilde, Victoria L; Albertella, Mark; Bittner, Mark; Cooke, Andrew; Kadhim, Salam; Kahler, Jennifer; Maresca, Paul; May, Earl; Meyn, Peter; Romashko, Darlene; Tokar, Brianna; Turton, Roy

    2013-08-15

    The kinase selectivity and pharmacokinetic optimization of a series of 7-aminofuro[2,3-c]pyridine inhibitors of TAK1 is described. The intersection of insights from molecular modeling, computational prediction of metabolic sites, and in vitro metabolite identification studies resulted in a simple and unique solution to both of these problems. These efforts culminated in the discovery of compound 13a, a potent, relatively selective inhibitor of TAK1 with good pharmacokinetic properties in mice, which was active in an in vivo model of ovarian cancer.

  6. A Novel Mixed Macrocycle Complex of Nickel: Synthesis, Structure, and Redox Chemistry of [Ni(II)([9]aneN(3))([9]aneS(3))](ClO(4))(2).CHCl(3) ([9]aneN(3) = 1,4,7-Triazacyclononane and [9]aneS(3) = 1,4,7-Trithiacyclononane).

    PubMed

    McAuley, A.; Subramanian, S.; Zaworotko, M. J.; Atencio, R.

    1998-09-01

    The mixed macrocycle cation, [Ni([9]aneN(3))([9]aneS(3))](2+) (where [9]aneN(3) = 1,4,7-triazacyclononane and [9]aneS(3) = 1,4,7-trithiacyclononane), has been prepared by stepwise complexation of [9]aneN(3) and [9]aneS(3), respectively, to Ni(II) cation. The intermediate [Ni([9]aneN(3))(CH(3)NO(2))(3)](2+) has been isolated and characterized by mass spectrometry and UV-visible spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry of [Ni([9]aneN(3))(CH(3)NO(2))(3)](2+) shows a quasireversible wave for the Ni(II/III) couple (E(1/2) = 0.73V vs Fc(+/0)), and the Ni(III) species exhibits an axial ESR spectrum (g( perpendicular) = 2.101 and g( parallel) = 1.985). The structure of [Ni([9]aneN(3))([9]aneS(3))](ClO(4))(2).CHCl(3) has been determined. It crystallizes in monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with a = 13.3911(8) Å, b = 14.4430(9) Å, c = 13.6116(8) Å, beta = 107.2090(10) degrees, V = 2514.7(3) Å(3), and Z = 4. Of the 15 047 reflections collected, 5765 reflections (I > 2sigma(I)) were used in the refinement to obtain a final R(w) = 0.0278 and R(F) = 0.0368. In the cation [Ni([9]aneN(3))([9]aneS(3))](2+), the two macrocycles occupy the trigonal faces of the Ni(2+) ion, imposing a distorted octahedral geometry. Cyclic voltammetry of the complex in CH(3)CN (Pt electrodes, 0.1 M n-Bu(4)NClO(4), 500 mV) shows a quasireversible wave for the Ni(II)/Ni(III) couple (E(1/2) = 0.86V vs Fc(+/0)). Chemical oxidation by NOPF(6) of the cation [Ni([9]aneN(3))([9]aneS(3))](2+) generates a Ni(III) species that shows axial ESR spectrum with g( perpendicular) = 2.106 and g( parallel) = 2.063. No characteristic reduction wave was observed in either CH(3)CN or CH(3)NO(2) media. PMID:11670608

  7. 40 CFR 721.5260 - 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7-[[2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]- 4-[[4-[[2-[2-(ethenylsulfonyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- - 4- ethyl]amino]- 6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo... substance identified as 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- -4- ethyl]amino]-6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid,...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5260 - 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7-[[2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]- 4-[[4-[[2-[2-(ethenylsulfonyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- - 4- ethyl]amino]- 6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo... substance identified as 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- -4- ethyl]amino]-6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid,...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5260 - 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7-[[2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]- 4-[[4-[[2-[2-(ethenylsulfonyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- - 4- ethyl]amino]- 6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo... substance identified as 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- -4- ethyl]amino]-6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid,...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5260 - 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7-[[2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]- 4-[[4-[[2-[2-(ethenylsulfonyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- - 4- ethyl]amino]- 6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo... substance identified as 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- -4- ethyl]amino]-6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid,...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5260 - 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7-[[2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]- 4-[[4-[[2-[2-(ethenylsulfonyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- - 4- ethyl]amino]- 6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]azo... substance identified as 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid, 7- -4- ethyl]amino]-6-fluoro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1,3,6-Naphthalenetrisulfonic acid,...

  12. N-heterocyclic carbene gold(I) catalyzed transformation of N-tethered 1,5-bisallenes to 6,7-dimethylene-3-azabicyclo[3.1.1]heptanes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Min; Park, Ji Hoon; Kang, Youn Kyung; Chung, Young Keun

    2009-01-01

    Tying up loose ends: The reaction of bisallenes tethered with N-(p-tolylsulfonamide) in the presence of a cationic gold N-heterocyclic carbene catalyst gave new cycloisomerization products, 6,7-dimethyleneazabicyclo[3.1.1]heptanes, in high yields (see scheme; IPr = N,N'-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene). PMID:19437519

  13. A series of new infrared NLO semiconductors, ZnY6Si2S14, Al(x)Dy3(Si(y)Al(1-y))S7, and Al0.33Sm3SiS7.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng-Ping; Guo, Guo-Cong; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Zou, Jian-Ping; Xu, Gang; Wang, Guo-Jian; Long, Xi-Fa; Huang, Jin-Shun

    2009-08-01

    Four new quaternary isostructural rare-earth thiosilicates, ZnY(6)Si(2)S(14) (1), Al(0.50)Dy(3)(Si(0.50)Al(0.50))S(7) (2), Al(0.38)Dy(3)(Si(0.85)Al(0.15))S(7) (3), and Al(0.33)Sm(3)SiS(7) (4), crystallized in the chiral and polar space group P6(3), have been prepared by a facile synthetic routine. Compounds 1-3 show strong second harmonic generation effects at 2.1 um with the intensities of 1, 2, and 3 being about 2, 2, and 1 times that of KTP (KTiOPO(4)), respectively. The calculated band structure of 1 implies that the optical absorptions of BLn(6)M(2)Q(14) and ALn(3)MQ(7) family compounds are mainly ascribed to the charge transitions from Q-p to Ln-4f (4d for Y) states. Compounds 2-4 exhibit antiferromagnetic-like interactions.

  14. The 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane scaffold for subtype selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ligands. Part 1: the influence of different hydrogen bond acceptor systems on alkyl and (hetero)aryl substituents.

    PubMed

    Eibl, Christoph; Tomassoli, Isabelle; Munoz, Lenka; Stokes, Clare; Papke, Roger L; Gündisch, Daniela

    2013-12-01

    3,7-Diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane is a naturally occurring scaffold interacting with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). When one nitrogen of the 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane scaffold was implemented in a carboxamide motif displaying a hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) functionality, compounds with higher affinities and subtype selectivity for α4β2(∗) were obtained. The nature of the HBA system (carboxamide, sulfonamide, urea) had a strong impact on nAChR interaction. High affinity ligands for α4β2(∗) possessed small alkyl chains, small un-substituted hetero-aryl groups or para-substituted phenyl ring systems along with a carboxamide group. Electrophysiological responses of selected 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane derivatives to Xenopus oocytes expressing various nAChR subtypes showed diverse activation profiles. Compounds with strongest agonistic profiles were obtained with small alkyl groups whereas a shift to partial agonism/antagonism was observed for aryl substituents. PMID:24156938

  15. In-plane electric field controlled perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in an FePt/[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.7-(PbTiO3)0.3 heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qi; Xu, Xiaoguang; Feng, Julong; Liu, Pengfei; Wu, Yong; Ma, Li; Zhou, Shiming; Miao, Jun; Jiang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    We report the in-plane electric field controlled perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of L10-FePt films deposited on polarized [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.7-(PbTiO3)0.3 single crystal substrates. The out-of-plane coercivity (H c⊥) of FePt films exhibits a regular response to the in-plane electric field applied on substrates. The experimental change of H c⊥ is approximately 21.3% with the electric field varying from -10 to 10 kV/cm. The magnetization direction can be controlled by switching the electric field. The remanence of FePt films can also be manipulated by the electric field, so that a “W”-shaped sawtooth magnetic signal can be generated by a sawtooth electric field.

  16. Novel series of potent, nonsteroidal, selective androgen receptor modulators based on 7H-[1,4]oxazino[3,2-g]quinolin-7-ones.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Robert I; Arienti, Kristen L; López, Francisco J; Mani, Neelakhanda S; Mais, Dale E; Caferro, Thomas R; Long, Yun Oliver; Jones, Todd K; Edwards, James P; Zhi, Lin; Schrader, William T; Negro-Vilar, Andrés; Marschke, Keith B

    2007-05-17

    Recent interest in orally available androgens has fueled the search for new androgens for use in hormone replacement therapy and as anabolic agents. In pursuit of this, we have discovered a series of novel androgen receptor modulators derived from 7H-[1,4]oxazino[3,2-g]quinolin-7-ones. These compounds were synthesized and evaluated in competitive binding assays and an androgen receptor transcriptional activation assay. A number of compounds from the series demonstrated single-digit nanomolar agonist activity in vitro. In addition, lead compound (R)-16e was orally active in established rodent models that measure androgenic and anabolic properties of these agents. In this assay, (R)-16e demonstrated full efficacy in muscle and only partially stimulated the prostate at 100 mg/kg. These data suggest that these compounds may be utilized as selective androgen receptor modulators or SARMs. This series represents a novel class of compounds for use in androgen replacement therapy.

  17. (-)-Catechin suppresses expression of Kruppel-like factor 7 and increases expression and secretion of adiponectin protein in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Si Young; Park, Pil Joon; Shin, Hyun Jung; Kim, Young-Kyung; Shin, Dong Wook; Shin, Eui Seok; Lee, Hyoung Ho; Lee, Byeong Gon; Baik, Joo-Hyun; Lee, Tae Ryong

    2007-04-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific secretory hormone that can increase insulin sensitivity and promote adipocyte differentiation. Administration of adiponectin to obese or diabetic mice reduces plasma glucose and free fatty acid levels. Green tea polyphenols possess many pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, and antidiabetic activities. To investigate whether green tea polyphenols have an effect on the regulation of adiponectin, we measured expression and secretion levels of adiponectin protein after treatment of each green tea polyphenols in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that (-)-catechin enhanced the expression and secretion of adiponectin protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment of (-)-catechin increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in differentiated adipocytes and augmented the expression of adipogenic marker genes, including PPARgamma, CEBPalpha, FAS, and SCD-1, when (-)-catechin was treated during adipocyte differentiation. In search of the molecular mechanism responsible for inducible effect of (-)-catechin on adiponectin expression, we found that (-)-catechin markedly suppresses the expression of Kruppel-like factor 7 (KLF7) protein, which has recently been reported to inhibit the expression of adiponectin and other adipogenesis related genes, including leptin, PPARgamma, C/EBPalpha, and aP2 in adipocytes. KLF7 is a transcription factor in adipocyte and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Taken together, these data suggest that the upregulation of adiponectin protein by (-)-catechin may involve, at least in part, suppression of KLF7 in 3T3-L1 cells.

  18. 40 CFR 721.4097 - 7-Oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 7-Oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4097 7-Oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester. (a) Chemical...-oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester (PMN P-98-101) is subject to reporting under this...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4097 - 7-Oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 7-Oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4097 7-Oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester. (a) Chemical...-oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester (PMN P-98-101) is subject to reporting under this...

  20. 40 CFR 721.4097 - 7-Oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 7-Oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4097 7-Oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester. (a) Chemical...-oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester (PMN P-98-101) is subject to reporting under this...

  1. 40 CFR 721.4097 - 7-Oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 7-Oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4097 7-Oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester. (a) Chemical...-oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester (PMN P-98-101) is subject to reporting under this...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4097 - 7-Oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 7-Oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4097 7-Oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester. (a) Chemical...-oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester (PMN P-98-101) is subject to reporting under this...

  3. RANKL-induced down-regulation of CX3CR1 via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway suppresses Fractalkine/CX3CL1-induced cellular responses in RAW264.7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, Yurika; Koizumi, Keiichi Sakurai, Hiroaki; Minami, Takayuki; Saiki, Ikuo

    2007-12-21

    The receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) is essential for osteoclast differentiation. In this study, we examined the effects of RANKL on chemokine receptor expression in osteoclast precursor cells, RAW264.7 cells. CX3CL1 (also called Fractalkine) receptor, CX3CR1 mRNA expression, was rapidly reduced by treatment with RANKL in contrast to the increased expression of CCR1 and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). This reduction occurred within 12 h and was maintained for 5 days during osteoclastogenesis. Inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt, but not mitogen-activated protein kinases, restored the RANKL-induced reduction of CX3CR1 mRNA. The stability of CX3CR1 mRNA was not changed, suggesting transcriptional repression by RANKL. The down-regulation of CX3CR1 mRNA correlated with the suppression of CX3CL1-induced activation of Akt and ERK as well as chemotaxis. These results suggest a potential role for decreased CX3CL1-CX3CR1 interaction in osteoclastogenesis.

  4. 40 CFR 721.10469 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-ethyltricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]dec-2-yl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for...)(i), (a)(2)(iii), (a)(3), (a)(4) (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10468 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyltricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]dec-2-yl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for...)(i), (a)(2)(iii), (a)(3), (a)(4) (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health...

  6. Study on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of 0.7 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3 PbTiO3 single crystal with nano-patterned composite electrode.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Wenbin; Bagal, Abhijeet; Chang, Chih-Hao; Tian, Jian; Han, Pengdi; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2013-09-21

    Effect of nano-patterned composite electrode and backswitching poling technique on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of 0.7 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3 PbTiO3 was studied in this paper. Composite electrode consists of Mn nano-patterns with pitch size of 200 nm, and a blanket layer of Ti/Au was fabricated using a nanolithography based lift-off process, heat treatment, and metal film sputtering. Composite electrode and backswitching poling resulted in 27% increase of d 33 and 25% increase of dielectric constant, and we believe that this is attributed to regularly defined nano-domains and irreversible rhombohedral to monoclinic phase transition in crystal. The results indicate that nano-patterned composite electrode and backswitching poling has a great potential in domain engineering of relaxor single crystals for advanced devices.

  7. Study on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of 0.7 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3 PbTiO3 single crystal with nano-patterned composite electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Wenbin; Bagal, Abhijeet; Chang, Chih-Hao; Tian, Jian; Han, Pengdi; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2013-09-01

    Effect of nano-patterned composite electrode and backswitching poling technique on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of 0.7 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3 PbTiO3 was studied in this paper. Composite electrode consists of Mn nano-patterns with pitch size of 200 nm, and a blanket layer of Ti/Au was fabricated using a nanolithography based lift-off process, heat treatment, and metal film sputtering. Composite electrode and backswitching poling resulted in 27% increase of d33 and 25% increase of dielectric constant, and we believe that this is attributed to regularly defined nano-domains and irreversible rhombohedral to monoclinic phase transition in crystal. The results indicate that nano-patterned composite electrode and backswitching poling has a great potential in domain engineering of relaxor single crystals for advanced devices.

  8. Multilevel Resistance Switching Memory in La2/3Ba1/3MnO3/0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (011) Heterostructure by Combined Straintronics-Spintronics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weiping; Xiong, Yuanqiang; Zhang, Zhengming; Wang, Dunhui; Tan, Weishi; Cao, Qingqi; Qian, Zhenghong; Du, Youwei

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a memory device with multifield switchable multilevel states at room temperature based on the integration of straintronics and spintronics in a La2/3Ba1/3MnO3/0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) (011) heterostructure. By precisely controlling the electric field applied on the PMN-PT substrate, multiple nonvolatile resistance states can be generated in La2/3Ba1/3MnO3 films, which can be ascribed to the strain-modulated metal-insulator transition and phase separation of Manganite. Furthermore, because of the strong coupling between spin and charge degrees of freedom, the resistance of the La2/3Ba1/3MnO3 film can be readily modulated by magnetic field over a broad temperature range. Therefore, by combining electroresistance and magnetoresistance effects, multilevel resistance states with excellent retention and endurance properties can be achieved at room temperature with the coactions of electric and magnetic fields. The incorporation of ferroelastic strain and magnetic and resistive properties in memory cells suggests a promising approach for multistate, high-density, and low-power consumption electronic memory devices.

  9. Multilevel Resistance Switching Memory in La2/3Ba1/3MnO3/0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (011) Heterostructure by Combined Straintronics-Spintronics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weiping; Xiong, Yuanqiang; Zhang, Zhengming; Wang, Dunhui; Tan, Weishi; Cao, Qingqi; Qian, Zhenghong; Du, Youwei

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a memory device with multifield switchable multilevel states at room temperature based on the integration of straintronics and spintronics in a La2/3Ba1/3MnO3/0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) (011) heterostructure. By precisely controlling the electric field applied on the PMN-PT substrate, multiple nonvolatile resistance states can be generated in La2/3Ba1/3MnO3 films, which can be ascribed to the strain-modulated metal-insulator transition and phase separation of Manganite. Furthermore, because of the strong coupling between spin and charge degrees of freedom, the resistance of the La2/3Ba1/3MnO3 film can be readily modulated by magnetic field over a broad temperature range. Therefore, by combining electroresistance and magnetoresistance effects, multilevel resistance states with excellent retention and endurance properties can be achieved at room temperature with the coactions of electric and magnetic fields. The incorporation of ferroelastic strain and magnetic and resistive properties in memory cells suggests a promising approach for multistate, high-density, and low-power consumption electronic memory devices. PMID:26846130

  10. Protein Kinase CK2 Interacts at the Neuromuscular Synapse with Rapsyn, Rac1, 14-3-3γ, and Dok-7 Proteins and Phosphorylates the Latter Two*

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Dustin; Straubinger, Marion; Hashemolhosseini, Said

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the protein kinase CK2 associates with and phosphorylates the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK (muscle specific receptor tyrosine kinase) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), thereby preventing fragmentation of the NMJs (Cheusova, T., Khan, M. A., Schubert, S. W., Gavin, A. C., Buchou, T., Jacob, G., Sticht, H., Allende, J., Boldyreff, B., Brenner, H. R., and Hashemolhosseini, S. (2006) Genes Dev. 20, 1800–1816). Here, we asked whether CK2 interacts with other proteins involved in processes at the NMJ, which would be consistent with the previous observation that CK2 appears enriched at the NMJ. We identified the following proteins to interact with protein kinase CK2: (a) the α and β subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with weak interaction, (b) dishevelled (Dsh), and (c) another four proteins, Rapsyn, Rac1, 14-3-3γ, and Dok-7, with strong interaction. CK2 phosphorylated 14-3-3γ at serine residue 235 and Dok-7 at several serine residues but does not phosphorylate Rapsyn or Rac1. Furthermore, phosphomimetic Dok-7 mutants aggregated nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in C2C12 myotubes with significantly higher frequency than wild type Dok-7. Additionally, we mapped the interacting epitopes of all four binding partners to CK2 and thereby gained insights into the potential role of the CK2/Rapsyn interaction. PMID:26198629

  11. Protein kinase CK2 interacts at the neuromuscular synapse with Rapsyn, Rac1, 14-3-3γ, and Dok-7 proteins and phosphorylates the latter two.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Dustin; Straubinger, Marion; Hashemolhosseini, Said

    2015-09-11

    Previously, we demonstrated that the protein kinase CK2 associates with and phosphorylates the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK (muscle specific receptor tyrosine kinase) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), thereby preventing fragmentation of the NMJs (Cheusova, T., Khan, M. A., Schubert, S. W., Gavin, A. C., Buchou, T., Jacob, G., Sticht, H., Allende, J., Boldyreff, B., Brenner, H. R., and Hashemolhosseini, S. (2006) Genes Dev. 20, 1800-1816). Here, we asked whether CK2 interacts with other proteins involved in processes at the NMJ, which would be consistent with the previous observation that CK2 appears enriched at the NMJ. We identified the following proteins to interact with protein kinase CK2: (a) the α and β subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with weak interaction, (b) dishevelled (Dsh), and (c) another four proteins, Rapsyn, Rac1, 14-3-3γ, and Dok-7, with strong interaction. CK2 phosphorylated 14-3-3γ at serine residue 235 and Dok-7 at several serine residues but does not phosphorylate Rapsyn or Rac1. Furthermore, phosphomimetic Dok-7 mutants aggregated nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in C2C12 myotubes with significantly higher frequency than wild type Dok-7. Additionally, we mapped the interacting epitopes of all four binding partners to CK2 and thereby gained insights into the potential role of the CK2/Rapsyn interaction.

  12. Helical order and multiferroicity in the S =1/2 quasi-kagome system KCu3As2O7(OD)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, G. J.; Okamoto, Y.; Ishikawa, H.; Simonet, V.; Colin, C. V.; Cano, A.; Chapon, L. C.; Hansen, T.; Mutka, H.; Hiroi, Z.

    2014-04-01

    Several Cu2+ hydroxide minerals have been recently identified as candidate realizations of the S=1/2 kagome Heisenberg model. In this context, we have studied the distorted system KCu3As2O7(OD)3 using neutron scattering and bulk measurements. Although the distortion favors magnetic order over a spin liquid ground state, refinement of the magnetic diffraction pattern below TN1=7.05(5) K yields a complex helical structure with k =(0.77,0,0.11). This structure, as well as the spin excitation spectrum, are well described by a classical Heisenberg model with ferromagnetic nearest neighbor couplings. Multiferroicity is observed below TN1, with an unusual crossover between improper and pseudoproper behavior occurring at TN2=5.5 K. The polarization at T =2 K is P =1.5μCm-2. The properties of KCu3As2O7(OD)3 highlight the variety of physics which arise from the interplay of spin and orbital degrees of freedom in Cu2+ kagome systems.

  13. Mutations in MAP3K7 that Alter the Activity of the TAK1 Signaling Complex Cause Frontometaphyseal Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Wade, Emma M; Daniel, Philip B; Jenkins, Zandra A; McInerney-Leo, Aideen; Leo, Paul; Morgan, Tim; Addor, Marie Claude; Adès, Lesley C; Bertola, Debora; Bohring, Axel; Carter, Erin; Cho, Tae-Joon; Duba, Hans-Christoph; Fletcher, Elaine; Kim, Chong A; Krakow, Deborah; Morava, Eva; Neuhann, Teresa; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Veenstra-Knol, Irma; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Wilson, Louise C; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Sutherland-Smith, Andrew J; Strom, Tim M; Wilkie, Andrew O M; Brown, Matthew A; Duncan, Emma L; Markie, David M; Robertson, Stephen P

    2016-08-01

    Frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD) is a progressive sclerosing skeletal dysplasia affecting the long bones and skull. The cause of FMD in some individuals is gain-of-function mutations in FLNA, although how these mutations result in a hyperostotic phenotype remains unknown. Approximately one half of individuals with FMD have no identified mutation in FLNA and are phenotypically very similar to individuals with FLNA mutations, except for an increased tendency to form keloid scars. Using whole-exome sequencing and targeted Sanger sequencing in 19 FMD-affected individuals with no identifiable FLNA mutation, we identified mutations in two genes-MAP3K7, encoding transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-activated kinase (TAK1), and TAB2, encoding TAK1-associated binding protein 2 (TAB2). Four mutations were found in MAP3K7, including one highly recurrent (n = 15) de novo mutation (c.1454C>T [ p.Pro485Leu]) proximal to the coiled-coil domain of TAK1 and three missense mutations affecting the kinase domain (c.208G>C [p.Glu70Gln], c.299T>A [p.Val100Glu], and c.502G>C [p.Gly168Arg]). Notably, the subjects with the latter three mutations had a milder FMD phenotype. An additional de novo mutation was found in TAB2 (c.1705G>A, p.Glu569Lys). The recurrent mutation does not destabilize TAK1, or impair its ability to homodimerize or bind TAB2, but it does increase TAK1 autophosphorylation and alter the activity of more than one signaling pathway regulated by the TAK1 kinase complex. These findings show that dysregulation of the TAK1 complex produces a close phenocopy of FMD caused by FLNA mutations. Furthermore, they suggest that the pathogenesis of some of the filaminopathies caused by FLNA mutations might be mediated by misregulation of signaling coordinated through the TAK1 signaling complex. PMID:27426733

  14. Development of Cu1.3Mn1.7O4 spinel coating on ferritic stainless steel for solid oxide fuel cell interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, N.; Abbasi, M. H.; Karimzadeh, F.; Choi, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    To protect solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) from chromium poisoning and to improve area specific resistance (ASR), Cu1.3Mn1.7O4 is thermally grown on AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (FESEM-EDS) and 4-probe ASR tests. The results show that the coating not only decreases the ASR considerably, but also acts as a barrier to mitigate the sub-scale growth and to prevent chromium migration through the coating and the cathode. The EDS analysis reveals that a mixed spinel region is formed between the coating and oxide scale after 500 h oxidation at 750 °C causing a noticeable decrease in oxygen diffusivity through this layer and subsequent decline in sub-scale growth rate. The ASR of uncoated sample is measured to be 63.5 mΩ cm2 after 500 h oxidation, while the Cu1.3Mn1.7O4 spinel coated sample shows a value of 19.3 mΩ cm2 representing ∼70% reduction compared to the uncoated sample. It is proposed that the high electrical conductivity of Cu1.3Mn1.7O4 (140 S cm-1), reduction of oxide scale growth, and good bonding between the coating and substrate contribute to the substantial ASR reduction for the coated sample.

  15. Magic wavelengths for the 7s1/2-6d3/2,5/2 transitions in Ra+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiao-Mei; Li, Cheng-Bin; Tang, Yong-Bo; Shi, Ting-Yun

    2016-09-01

    The dynamic polarizabilities of the 7s and 6d states of Ra+ are calculated using a relativistic core polarization potential method. The magic wavelengths of the 7s1/2-6d3/2,5/2 transitions are identified. Comparing to the common radio-frequency (RF) ion traps, using the laser field at the magic wavelength to trap the ion could suppress the frequency uncertainty caused by the micromotion of the ion, and would not affect the transition frequency measurements. The heating rates of the ion and the powers of the laser for the ion trapping are estimated, which would benefit the possible precision measurements based on all-optical trapped Ra+. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB821305) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91336211 and 11504094).

  16. Magic wavelengths for the 7s1/2‑6d3/2,5/2 transitions in Ra+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiao-Mei; Li, Cheng-Bin; Tang, Yong-Bo; Shi, Ting-Yun

    2016-09-01

    The dynamic polarizabilities of the 7s and 6d states of Ra+ are calculated using a relativistic core polarization potential method. The magic wavelengths of the 7s1/2‑6d3/2,5/2 transitions are identified. Comparing to the common radio-frequency (RF) ion traps, using the laser field at the magic wavelength to trap the ion could suppress the frequency uncertainty caused by the micromotion of the ion, and would not affect the transition frequency measurements. The heating rates of the ion and the powers of the laser for the ion trapping are estimated, which would benefit the possible precision measurements based on all-optical trapped Ra+. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB821305) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91336211 and 11504094).

  17. Surface Broken Symmetry on Orthorhombic Double-layer Sr3(Ru1-xMnx)2 O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Nascimento, V. B.; Diao, Zhenyu; Zhang, Jiandi; Jin, Rongying; Plummer, E. W.

    The surface of double-layered ruthenate Sr3Ru2O7 exhibits octahedra tilt distortion and an enhanced rotational distortion caused by the broken symmetry. Previous LEED IV calculation reveals that the tilt angle is (2.5+/-1.7)°at 80 K (B. Hu et. al., Physical Review B 81, 184104 (2010). A glideline symmetry and a mirror symmetry along this direction are both broken. Results from LEED IV simulations show that both broken symmetries originate from the emergence of surface tilt. The degree of broken symmetry is more sensitive to the tilt angle, thus producing a smaller error than from conventional LEED IV calculation. When Mn doping is induced into the compound, the tilt is removed and the symmetry of the LEED pattern returns to what is expected for rotation, two glide planes and four-fold symmetry. Supported by NSF DMR-1002622.

  18. Development of influenza H7N9 virus like particle (VLP) vaccine: homologous A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) protection and heterologous A/chicken/Jalisco/CPA1/2012 (H7N3) cross-protection in vaccinated mice challenged with H7N9 virus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gale E; Flyer, David C; Raghunandan, Ramadevi; Liu, Ye; Wei, Ziping; Wu, Yingyun; Kpamegan, Eloi; Courbron, Denise; Fries, Louis F; Glenn, Gregory M

    2013-09-13

    The recent emergence of severe human illness caused by avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) viruses in China has precipitated a global effort to rapidly develop and test vaccine candidates. To date, non-A(H7N9) H7 subtype influenza vaccine candidates have been poorly immunogenic and difficulties in production of A(H7N9) virus seed strains have been encountered. A candidate recombinant A(H7N9) vaccine consisting of full length, unmodified hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) from the A/Anhui/1/2013 and the matrix 1 (M1) protein from the A/Indonesia/05/2005 (H5N1) were cloned into a baculovirus vector. Baculovirus infected Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells secreted virus like particles (VLP) composed of HA, NA, and M1 that resemble mature influenza virions. Genetic construction of vaccine from acquisition of an H7N9 genomic sequence to production of A(H7N9) VLP occurred in 26 days. The immunogenicity and efficacy of A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) VLP vaccine administered on days 0 and 14 were evaluated in a lethal wild-type challenge Balb/c mouse model. Control groups included a non-homologous H7 vaccine (A/chicken/Jalisco/CPA1/2012 (H7N3)-VLP), and A/Indonesia/05/2005 (H5N1)-VLP, or placebo. All vaccines were administered with or without ISCOMATRIX. A(H7N9) VLP elicited hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) antibody titers of ≥ 1:64 against the homologous virus, cross-reactive HAI against the heterologous A(H7N3), and 3- to 4-fold higher HAI responses in corresponding ISCOMATRIX subgroups. Similarly, all doses of H7N9 VLP elicited anti-neuraminidase (NA) antibody, with 3- to 4-fold higher responses measured in the corresponding ISCOMATRIX subgroups. The non-homologous H7 vaccine induced both H7N3 and H7N9 HAI but no N9 anti-NA antibodies. A lethal murine wild-type A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) challenge demonstrated 100% survival of all animals receiving A(H7N9) and A(H7N3) vaccine, versus 0% survival in A(H5N1) vaccine and placebo groups. Together, the data demonstrate that

  19. cis-trans photoisomerization of 1,3,5,7-octatetraene in n-hexane at 4.2 K

    PubMed Central

    Granville, Mark F.; Holtom, Gary R.; Kohler, Bryan E.

    1980-01-01

    Photoisomerization of the linear polyene 1,3,5,7-octatetraene has been observed in an n-hexane matrix maintained at the boiling point of helium. To a good approximation, only the trans,trans and cis,trans isomers participate in the photochemistry. These compounds have been unambiguously identified by comparing the observed high-resolution fluorescence spectra to those of chromatographically purified reference compounds. Although the quantum yield of this process is probably low, its microscopic rate seems to compete favorably with vibrational deactivation. PMID:16592751

  20. Magnetic excitations and lattice distortions in highly-doped (Sr1-xLax)3 Ir2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Tom; Upton, Mary; Wang, Xiaoping; Wilson, Stephen

    (Sr1-xLa,SUBx)3Ir2O7 has been shown to undergo a first-order phase transition from a localized antiferromagnetic insulating state to a correlated metal. We discuss the further characterization of these correlations by examining the excitation spectra of a highly-doped sample. These reveal evidence of a dispersive feature associated with an over-damped magnon mode, similar to the behavior of the undoped parent compound, as well as a higher energy excitation. The nature of the lattice distortion brought on by La-doping will also be discussed.

  1. IL-27 Production and STAT3-Dependent Upregulation of B7-H1 Mediate Immune Regulatory Functions of Liver Plasmacytoid DC1

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Benjamin M.; Raimondi, Giorgio; Rosborough, Brian R.; Sumpter, Tina L.; Thomson, Angus W.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmacytoid (p) dendritic cells (DC) are highly-specialized APC that, in addition to their well-recognized role in anti-viral immunity, also regulate immune responses. Liver-resident pDC are considerably less immunostimulatory than those from secondary lymphoid tissues and are equipped to promote immune tolerance/regulation through various mechanisms. IL-27 is an IL-12-family cytokine that regulates the function of both APC and T cells, although little is known about its role in pDC immunobiology. In this study, we show that mouse liver pDC express higher levels of IL-27p28 and EBV-induced protein (Ebi)3 compared to splenic pDC. Both populations of pDC express the IL-27Rα/WSX-1; however, only liver pDC significantly upregulate expression of the co-regulatory molecule B7 homolog-1 (B7-H1) in response to IL-27. Inhibition of STAT3 activation completely abrogates IL-27-induced upregulation of B7-H1 expression on liver pDC. Liver pDC treated with IL-27 increase the percentage of CD4+Foxp3+ T cells in MLR, which is dependent upon expression of B7-H1. pDC from Ebi3-deficient mice lacking functional IL-27, show increased capacity to stimulate allogeneic T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production in MLR. Liver but not spleen pDC suppress delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to OVA, an effect that is lost with Ebi3−/− and B7-H1−/− liver pDC compared to wild-type (WT) liver pDC. These data suggest that IL-27 signaling in pDC promotes their immunoregulatory function and that IL-27 produced by pDC contributes to their capacity to regulate immuneresponses in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22508931

  2. Synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties of novel 5,7-disubstituted-1,4-diazepine-2,3-dicarbonitriles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczorek, Ewelina; Gierszewski, Mateusz; Popenda, Lukasz; Tykarska, Ewa; Gdaniec, Maria; Jurga, Stefan; Sikorski, Marek; Mielcarek, Jadwiga; Piskorz, Jaroslaw; Goslinski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Three 5,7-disubstituted-1,4-diazepine-2,3-dicarbonitriles with bulky 2-(3,5-dibromophenyl)ethenyl, 2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)ethenyl and 2-(3,5-dibenzyloxyphenyl)ethenyl substituents were synthesized and characterized using UV-Vis, MS ES, elemental analysis and NMR spectroscopy. NMR data indicated that diazepine rings of all obtained compounds adopted 6H-tautomeric form. In addition, trans-isomerism within styryl substituents was observed. Experimental data for diazepine derivative containing 2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)ethenyl substituents were verified by X-ray crystallography. The obtained compounds were subjected to photophysical studies. In the UV-Vis absorption spectra two characteristic bands were found. In the solvatochromic study, the first band maxima were located in the range of 384-418 nm, whereas second band maxima in the range of 313-345 nm. Fluorescence intensity of novel diazepine derivatives was rather low in all solvents used with the values of fluorescence quantum yield VF = 10-4 for 2-(3,5-dibromophenyl)ethenyl, and 10-5 for 2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)ethenyl and 3,5-(dibenzyloxyphenyl)ethenyl 1,4-diazepine-2,3-dicarbonitriles.

  3. Studies of iron impurities in YxPr1-xBa2Cu3O7-delta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartzendruber, L. J.; Bennett, L. H.; Ritter, J.; Rubinstein, M.; Harford, M. Z.

    1990-01-01

    Pr is the only rare earth which, when substituted for Y in YBa2Cu3O7, significantly alters the superconducting transition temperature T(sub c) without changing the crystal structure. For YxPr1-xBa2Cu3O7-delta with delta approx. equal to 0, T(sub c) is reduced rapidly as x is increased, reaching zero for x about 0.5. For x above 0.5 the compound is antiferromagnetic with a Neel temperature that increases with increasing x, rising to above room temperature for x near 1. A similar behavior is observed when the oxygen deficit delta is increased from zero to 1 with x=0. For the case of Pr substitution, the drop in T(sub c) is believed due to magnetic interactions. For the case of varying delta with x=0, the drop can be attributed to a combination of magnetic interactions, band filling, and changes in crystal structure. To study these effects, the Mossbauer effect of 57 Fe atoms substituted for the Cu atoms has been observed as a function of delta, x, and temperature. The observed spectra are all well described by a two quadrupole-split pairs, a central singlet, and a six-line magnetic hyperfine field pattern. For several Pr compositions both delta and temperature were varied, and the results support the hypothesis that a magnetic interaction exists between the Fe in the Cu lattice and the substitutional Pr atoms.

  4. 3,3,6,6,9,9-Hexaethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexaoxacyclononane at 296 K.

    PubMed

    Cerna, Jorge; Bernès, Sylvain; Cañizo, Adriana; Eyler, Nora

    2009-11-01

    The title molecule (diethyl ketone triperoxide, DEKTP), C(15)H(30)O(6), is a cyclic triperoxide closely related to triacetone triperoxide (TATP), one of the most unstable explosives known. However, the stability of DEKTP is ca 20-50 times greater than that of TATP. DEKTP crystallizes with two molecules in the asymmetric unit, with virtually identical geometry. The cyclononane core is stabilized in a twisted boat-chair conformation (approximate D(3) symmetry), very close to that previously described for TATP. The explanation for the safe thermal behaviour of DEKTP compared with TATP should thus not be sought in the molecular dimensions, but rather in the thermal decomposition kinetics. PMID:19893236

  5. 40 CFR 721.5262 - 2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5-[[4-chloro-6-[substituted] amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5- amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4-hydroxy-3- -, trisodium salt...-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5- amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4-hydroxy-3- -, trisodium salt (PMN P-00-0803) is...-naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 5- ethyl]amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-4-hydroxy-3- -, sodium salt (1:3) (PMN......

  6. 10 CFR 7.3 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 7.3 Section 7.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.3 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an NRC officer or...

  7. 10 CFR 7.3 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 7.3 Section 7.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.3 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an NRC officer or...

  8. 10 CFR 7.3 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 7.3 Section 7.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.3 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an NRC officer or...

  9. 10 CFR 7.3 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 7.3 Section 7.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.3 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an NRC officer or...

  10. 10 CFR 7.3 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 7.3 Section 7.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.3 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an NRC officer or...

  11. 5 CFR 7.3 - Citizenship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Citizenship. 7.3 Section 7.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES GENERAL PROVISIONS (RULE VII) § 7.3 Citizenship. (a) No person shall be admitted to competitive examination unless such person is a citizen...

  12. 5 CFR 7.3 - Citizenship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Citizenship. 7.3 Section 7.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES GENERAL PROVISIONS (RULE VII) § 7.3 Citizenship. (a) No person shall be admitted to competitive examination unless such person is a citizen...

  13. 5 CFR 7.3 - Citizenship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citizenship. 7.3 Section 7.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES GENERAL PROVISIONS (RULE VII) § 7.3 Citizenship. (a) No person shall be admitted to competitive examination unless such person is a citizen...

  14. 5 CFR 7.3 - Citizenship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Citizenship. 7.3 Section 7.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES GENERAL PROVISIONS (RULE VII) § 7.3 Citizenship. (a) No person shall be admitted to competitive examination unless such person is a citizen...

  15. 5 CFR 7.3 - Citizenship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Citizenship. 7.3 Section 7.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES GENERAL PROVISIONS (RULE VII) § 7.3 Citizenship. (a) No person shall be admitted to competitive examination unless such person is a citizen...

  16. 6 CFR 7.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 7.3 Section 7.3 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 7.3... in 32 CFR parts 2001 and 2004, are applicable to this part....

  17. 6 CFR 7.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions. 7.3 Section 7.3 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 7.3... in 32 CFR parts 2001 and 2004, are applicable to this part....

  18. 6 CFR 7.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 7.3 Section 7.3 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 7.3... in 32 CFR parts 2001 and 2004, are applicable to this part....

  19. 6 CFR 7.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 7.3 Section 7.3 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 7.3... in 32 CFR parts 2001 and 2004, are applicable to this part....

  20. 21 CFR 7.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 7.3 Section 7.3 Food and Drugs FOOD... Provisions § 7.3 Definitions. (a) Agency means the Food and Drug Administration. (b) Citation or cite means a... authority to detect, prevent, or correct violations of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (e)...

  1. 21 CFR 7.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 7.3 Section 7.3 Food and Drugs FOOD... Provisions § 7.3 Definitions. (a) Agency means the Food and Drug Administration. (b) Citation or cite means a... authority to detect, prevent, or correct violations of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (e)...

  2. 21 CFR 7.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 7.3 Section 7.3 Food and Drugs FOOD... Provisions § 7.3 Definitions. (a) Agency means the Food and Drug Administration. (b) Citation or cite means a... authority to detect, prevent, or correct violations of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (e)...

  3. 7-Chloro-5-(2-ethoxy-phen-yl)-1-methyl-3-propyl-2,6-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming-Qiu; Zhu, Kai; Lv, Xiao-Ping; Han, Ping-Fang; Wei, Ping

    2009-09-05

    In the title compound, C(17)H(21)ClN(4)O, the benzene ring is oriented at dihedral angles of 1.59 (3) and 1.27 (3)° with respect to the pyrimidine and pyrazole rings, while the dihedral angle between the pyrimidine and pyrazole rings is 0.83 (3)°. An intra-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bond results in the formation of a planar (r.m.s. deviation 0.004 Å) six-membered ring.

  4. Synthesis and biological activity of novel series of 4-methoxy, and 4,9-dimethoxy-5-substituted furo[2,3-g]-1,2,3-benzoxathiazine-7,7-dioxide derivatives

    PubMed Central

    El-Sawy, Eslam R.; Ebaid, Manal S.; Abo-Salem, Heba M.; El-Hallouty, Salwa; Kassem, Emad M.; Mandour, Adel H.

    2013-01-01

    A novel series of 4-methoxy, and 4,9-dimethoxy-5-substituted furo[2,3-g]-1,2,3-benzoxathiazine-7,7-dioxide derivatives 3a,b, 10a–g and 11a–g were prepared in good yields via the reaction of 4-methoxy (1a) and 4,7-dimethoxy-5-acetyl-6-hydroxybenzofurans (1b) and their α,β-unsaturated keto derivatives 6a–g and 7a–g with chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (CSI). On the other hand, N-chlorosulfonyl carbamate derivatives 4a,b, 12a,b and 13a,b were prepared and allowed to react with piperidine to give the corresponding N-piperidinosulfonyl carbamate derivatives 5a,b, 14a,b and 15a,b, respectively. Sixteen new target compounds 3a,b, 10a–g, and 11a–g were tested for their DPPH radical-scavenging, and in vitro antiproliferative activity against A-549, MCF7 and HCT-116 cancer cell lines. Compounds 10a, 11c, 11e, and 11g showed moderate DPPH radical-scavenging activity compared to ascorbic acid at 100 μg/mL. 4,9-Dimethoxy-5-substituted styrylfuro[3,2-g]-1,2,3-benzoxathiazine-7,7-dioxides 11a, 11b, and 11c were found to be highly active against A-549 and HCT-116 cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 0.02 to 0.08 μmol/mL compared to doxorubicin with IC50 = 0.04 and 0.06 μmol/mL, respectively. PMID:25685501

  5. Magnetic phase separation in double layer ruthenates Ca3(Ru(1-x)Ti(x))2O7.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jin; Liu, J Y; Hu, J; Mao, Z Q; Zhang, F M; Wu, X S

    2016-01-01

    A phase transition from metallic AFM-b antiferromagnetic state to Mott insulating G-type antiferromagnetic (G-AFM) state was found in Ca3(Ru(1-x)Ti(x))2O7 at about x = 0.03 in our previous work. In the present, we focused on the study of the magnetic transition near the critical composition through detailed magnetization measurements. There is no intermediate magnetic phases between the AFM-b and G-AFM states, which is in contrasted to manganites where a similar magnetic phase transition takes place through the presence of several intermediate magnetic phases. The AFM-b-to-G-AFM transition in Ca3(Ru(1-x)Ti(x))2O7 happens through a phase separation process in the 2-5% Ti range, whereas similar magnetic transitions in manganites are tuned by 50-70% chemical substitutions. We discussed the possible origin of such an unusual magnetic transition and compared with that in manganites.

  6. Detergent-Stable Salt-Activated Proteinases from Virgibacillus halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 Isolated from Fish Sauce Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Montriwong, Aungkawipa; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2015-05-01

    The NaCl-activated and detergent-stable proteinases from Virgibacillus halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 isolated from fish sauce fermentation were purified and characterized. The enzymes with molecular masses of 20 and 36 kDa showed caseinolytic activity on a zymogram. Optimum azocaseinolytic activity was at 60 °C and pH 9. The proteolytic activity increased in the presence of 10 mM CaCl2 and 0.5 M NaCl and showed high stability at 0-2 M NaCl. The enzymes were stable at pH 4-10 and 10-50 °C. The enzymes preferably hydrolyzed Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA and were completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), showing subtilisin-like characteristics. Activity and stability remained high in the presence of H2O2 and various surfactants. The enzymes exhibited high stability (>95%) in various organic solvents (DMSO, butanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetonitrile) at concentration of 50%. The V. halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 proteinases showed potential as a biocatalyst in aqueous-organic solvent systems and as an additive in laundry detergent.

  7. Magnetic phase separation in double layer ruthenates Ca3(Ru1−xTix)2O7

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jin; Liu, J. Y.; Hu, J.; Mao, Z. Q.; Zhang, F. M.; Wu, X. S.

    2016-01-01

    A phase transition from metallic AFM-b antiferromagnetic state to Mott insulating G-type antiferromagnetic (G-AFM) state was found in Ca3(Ru1−xTix)2O7 at about x = 0.03 in our previous work. In the present, we focused on the study of the magnetic transition near the critical composition through detailed magnetization measurements. There is no intermediate magnetic phases between the AFM-b and G-AFM states, which is in contrasted to manganites where a similar magnetic phase transition takes place through the presence of several intermediate magnetic phases. The AFM-b-to-G-AFM transition in Ca3(Ru1−xTix)2O7 happens through a phase separation process in the 2–5% Ti range, whereas similar magnetic transitions in manganites are tuned by 50–70% chemical substitutions. We discussed the possible origin of such an unusual magnetic transition and compared with that in manganites. PMID:26771083

  8. Detergent-Stable Salt-Activated Proteinases from Virgibacillus halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 Isolated from Fish Sauce Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Montriwong, Aungkawipa; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2015-05-01

    The NaCl-activated and detergent-stable proteinases from Virgibacillus halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 isolated from fish sauce fermentation were purified and characterized. The enzymes with molecular masses of 20 and 36 kDa showed caseinolytic activity on a zymogram. Optimum azocaseinolytic activity was at 60 °C and pH 9. The proteolytic activity increased in the presence of 10 mM CaCl2 and 0.5 M NaCl and showed high stability at 0-2 M NaCl. The enzymes were stable at pH 4-10 and 10-50 °C. The enzymes preferably hydrolyzed Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA and were completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), showing subtilisin-like characteristics. Activity and stability remained high in the presence of H2O2 and various surfactants. The enzymes exhibited high stability (>95%) in various organic solvents (DMSO, butanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetonitrile) at concentration of 50%. The V. halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 proteinases showed potential as a biocatalyst in aqueous-organic solvent systems and as an additive in laundry detergent. PMID:25820449

  9. Magnetic properties of Y 1- xGd xBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuss, H.; Kronmüller, H.

    1995-02-01

    Y1-xGdxBa2Cu3O7-δ polycrystals are investigated with the purpose to obtain information about the influence of the paramagnetic Gd moments on the superconducting properties. Gd substitution does not affect the superconducting properties seriously but the paramagnetic Gd moments are just superposed to the superconducting diamagnetic moment without significant interaction. Magnetically the substituted Gd atoms behave, as if they were free Gd3+ ions. Relaxation experiments yield activation energies for thermally activated flux motion which are independent of the Gd content x but the critical current density, jc, decreases with increasing Gd content. Therefore the conclusion is drawn, that the pinning potential gets broader under the influence of Gd substitution but the barrier height remains constant. The maximum in the jc(H) curve which has become well known as the “fishtail-effect” is shifted to lower fields as the Gd content is increased. At temperatures below ≈ 10 K antiferromagnetic ordering of the Gd moments is observed, mainly for the fully substituted sample, GdBa2Cu3O7-δ.

  10. Impact of Ni doping on La0.7Sr0.3NixMn1-xO3 perovskite manganite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thamilmaran, P.; Arunachalam, M.; Sankarrajan, S.; Sakthipandi, K.

    2015-12-01

    On-line ultrasonic measurements on La0.7Sr0.3Mn1-xNixO3 perovskite manganite material (x=0.01, 0.02 and 0.03) were performed on the samples synthesised by solid state reaction technique. The XRD studies on the samples confirm the crystalline nature with single phase rhombohedral structure having R3C space group. The average size of the particles determined using SEM images are 0.587, 0.412 and 0.356 μm for x=0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 respectively. The temperature dependent ultrasonic velocities and attenuation measurements on the samples were used to reveal the ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition temperature (Curie temperature) 374, 358 and 342 K for the values of x=0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 respectively. In addition, ultrasonic measurements confirm that the increase in Ni doping concentration in La0.7Sr0.3Mn1-xNixO3 perovskites leads to a decrease in Curie temperature. The change in Mn3+/Mn4+ ratio with the phase transition temperature was explained on the basis of variation in amplitude of observed anomaly in ultrasonic measurements. The replacement of Mn4+ ion by Ni2+ ion leads to a change in the structural parameters and in the concentration of Mn3+ and Mn4+ ions.

  11. Quantitative analysis of damage in an octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazonic-based composite explosive subjected to a linear thermal gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Paul D.; Mang, Joseph T.; Asay, Blaine W.

    2005-05-01

    The microstructure within a slowly heated, consolidated explosive will be influenced by both physical changes and chemical reactions prior to thermal ignition. Thermal expansion, exothermic decomposition, endothermic phase change, and increased binder viscosity play significant roles in the cook-off to detonation. To further explore the details of this intricate cook-off process, we have conducted a series of experiments in which a carefully controlled temperature gradient has been applied along a cylinder of PBX 9501 [94.9/2.5/2.5/0.1-wt % octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)/Estane 5703/a eutectic mixture of bis(2,2 dinitropropyl) acetal and bis(2,2-dinitropropyl) formal [abbreviated BDNPA-F]/Irganox] and maintained for a specified amount of time. After heating and subsequent cooling of the PBX 9501, the sample morphology has been probed with polarized light microscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering. Using these techniques we have quantitatively characterized the particle morphology, porosity, and chemical state of the explosive as a function of position, and therefore thermal treatment. Results of the analyses clearly show that thermal damage in PBX 9501 can be classified into two separate temperature regimes--an initial low-temperature regime (155-174 deg. C) dominated by the endothermic {beta}-{delta} crystalline phase change, thermal expansion, and Ostwald ripening, and a high-temperature regime (175-210 deg. C) dominated by exothermic chemical decomposition. The results further show the complex interplay between the evolving sample morphology and the chemical reactions leading to a potential thermal self-ignition in the explosive.

  12. Production of 1,5-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-7-methylanthracene-9,10-dione by submerged culture of Shiraia bambusicola.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yujie; Ding, Yanrui; Tao, Guanjun; Liao, Xiangru

    2008-02-01

    1,5-Dihydroxy-3-methoxy-7-methylanthracene-9,10- dione (shiraiarin) is a kind of antitumor and antibacterial anthraquinone, and was produced for the first time from the submerged fermentation of Shiraia bambusicola, as confirmed by ESI-MS and NMR. The production of shiraiarin was significantly influenced when varying the carbon source, and a high amount of shiraiarin was only achieved when using lactose. The production of shiraiarin was also stimulated when using NaNO3 as the nitrogen source, whereas other nitrogen sources inhibited its production. Shiraiarin was formed during the stationary phase with a pH value higher than 8. The production of shiraiarin was inhibited by sporulation.

  13. MMP1, 2, 3, 7, and 9 Gene Polymorphisms and Urinary Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zuo; Lin, Li; Lei, Yin; Hongyuan, Yu; Hongwei, Jing; Yang, Liu; Chuize, Kong

    2015-01-01

    Background: The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of highly conserved, metal-dependent proteolytic enzymes that play an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Many studies have been carried out on the association between polymorphisms in the MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP7, and MMP9 genes and urinary cancer risk. However, the data from these published studies are conflicting and have low statistical power. Methods: In this study, we performed a meta-analysis of 12 different publications from the PubMed and WanFang databases, published up to May 2015, to better assess the purported associations. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined to reveal association strengths. Results: Some significant associations were found. For the MMP1 -1607 1G/2G polymorphism, a negative association was identified for the 2G allele in bladder cancer (2G2G+2G1G vs. 1G1G: OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.36–0.93, pheterogeneity = 0.001) and renal cell carcinoma (2G1G vs. 1G1G: OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.39–0.82, pheterogeneity = 0.567). For the MMP2 -1306 C/T polymorphism, there was a negative association with the T allele for bladder cancer in the Asian population (TT+TC vs. CC: OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.18–0.94, pheterogeneity = 0.195). For the MMP7 -181 A/G polymorphism, a decreased bladder cancer risk was found (G-allele vs. A-allele: OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.66–0.98, pheterogeneity = 0.325). Conclusion: In summary, our study showed evidence that genetic polymorphisms in MMP1 for all populations, but only in the Asian population for MMP2 and MMP7, may protect against bladder cancer risk. Future studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to further evaluate these associations in more detail. PMID:26301605

  14. Synthesis of novel ethyl 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-7-(fatty amido)-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylate derivatives and their biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Venepally, Vijayendar; Prasad, R B N; Poornachandra, Y; Kumar, C Ganesh; Jala, Ram Chandra Reddy

    2016-01-15

    A series of novel ethyl 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-7-(fatty amido)-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylate derivatives were prepared through multistep synthesis. The key step in the synthesis was to obtain the C-7 fatty amide derivative. The azide was selectively formed at C-7 position using sodium azide at 60°C. Subsequently, the azide was reduced under mild conditions using zinc and ammonium chloride to form the corresponding amine. The synthesized derivatives were further subjected to biological evaluation studies like cytotoxicity against a panel of cancer cell lines such as DU145, A549, SKOV3, MCF7 and normal lung cells, IMR-90 as well as with antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. It was observed that the carboxylated quinolone derivatives with hexanoic (8a), octanoic (8b), lauric (8d) and myristic (8e) moieties exhibited promising cytotoxicity against all the tested cancer cell lines. The results also suggested that hexanoic acid-based fatty amide carboxylated quinolone derivative (8a) exhibited promising activity against both bacterial and fungal strains and significant antibacterial activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96 (MIC value of 3.9μg/mL). The compound 8a also showed excellent anti-biofilm activity against Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96 and Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121 with MIC values of 2.1 and 4.6μg/mL, respectively.

  15. Synthesis of novel ethyl 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-7-(fatty amido)-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylate derivatives and their biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Venepally, Vijayendar; Prasad, R B N; Poornachandra, Y; Kumar, C Ganesh; Jala, Ram Chandra Reddy

    2016-01-15

    A series of novel ethyl 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-7-(fatty amido)-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylate derivatives were prepared through multistep synthesis. The key step in the synthesis was to obtain the C-7 fatty amide derivative. The azide was selectively formed at C-7 position using sodium azide at 60°C. Subsequently, the azide was reduced under mild conditions using zinc and ammonium chloride to form the corresponding amine. The synthesized derivatives were further subjected to biological evaluation studies like cytotoxicity against a panel of cancer cell lines such as DU145, A549, SKOV3, MCF7 and normal lung cells, IMR-90 as well as with antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. It was observed that the carboxylated quinolone derivatives with hexanoic (8a), octanoic (8b), lauric (8d) and myristic (8e) moieties exhibited promising cytotoxicity against all the tested cancer cell lines. The results also suggested that hexanoic acid-based fatty amide carboxylated quinolone derivative (8a) exhibited promising activity against both bacterial and fungal strains and significant antibacterial activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96 (MIC value of 3.9μg/mL). The compound 8a also showed excellent anti-biofilm activity against Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96 and Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121 with MIC values of 2.1 and 4.6μg/mL, respectively. PMID:26646219

  16. Halogen Bonding and Chalcogen Bonding in 4,7-Dibromo-5,6-dinitro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Mysore S; Jana, Ajay Kumar; Natarajan, S; Guru Row, Tayur N

    2015-08-27

    An organic solid, 4,7-dibromo-5,6-dinitro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole, has been designed to serve as an illustrative example to quantitatively evaluate the relative merits of halogen and chalcogen bonding in terms of charge density features. The compound displays two polymorphic modifications, one crystallizing in a non-centrosymmetric space group (Z' = 1) and the other in a centrosymmetric space group with two molecules in the asymmetric unit (Z' = 2). Topological analysis based on QTAIM clearly brings out the dominance of the chalcogen bond over the halogen bond along with an indication that halogen bonds are more directional compared to chalcogen bonds. The cohesive energies calculated with the absence of both strong and weak hydrogen bonds as well as stacking interaction are indicative of the stabilities associated with the polymorphic forms.

  17. Anti-AIDS agents 85. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of 1R,2R-dicamphanoyl-3,3-dimethyldihydropyrano-[2,3-c]xanthen-7(1H)-one (DCX) derivatives as novel anti-HIV agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ting; Shi, Qian; Chen, Chin-Ho; Huang, Li; Ho, Phong; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 1R,2R-dicamphanoyl-3,3-dimethydihydropyrano[2,3-c]xanthen-7(1H)-one (DCX) derivatives were designed and synthesized as novel anti-HIV agents against both wild-type and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 (RTMDR-1) strains. Twenty-four DCX analogs (6-29) were synthesized and evaluated against the non-drug-resistant HIV-1 NL4-3 strain, and selected analogs were also screened for their ability to inhibit the RTMDR-1 strain. Compared with the control 2-ethyl-3′,4′-di-O-(-)-camphanoyl-2′,2′-dimethyldihydropyrano[2,3-f]chromone (2-EDCP, 2), one of the best anti-HIV coumarin derivatives in our prior study, three DCX compounds (7, 12, and 22) showed better activity against both HIV strains with an EC50 range of 0.062 – 0.081 μM, and five additional compounds (8, 11, 16, 18, and 21) exhibited comparable anti-HIV potency. Six DCX analogs (7, 11-12, 18, and 21-22) also showed enhanced selectivity index (SI) values in comparison to the control. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) information suggested that the extended conjugated system of the pyranoxanthone skeleton facilitates the interaction of the small DCX molecule within the viral binding pocket, consequently leading to enhanced anti-HIV activity and selectivity. Compared to DCP compounds, DCX analogs are a more promising new class of anti-HIV agents. PMID:22063755

  18. A Fast Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometric Analysis of PETN (Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate), RDX (3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane) and HMX (Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) in Soil, Utilizing a Simple Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction with Minimum Solvent.

    PubMed

    Anilanmert, Beril; Aydin, Muhammet; Apak, Resat; Avci, Gülfidan Yenel; Cengiz, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Direct analyses of explosives in soil using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods are very limited in the literature and require complex procedures or relatively high amount of solvent. A simple and rapid method was developed for the determination of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), 3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), which are among the explosives used in terrorist attacks. A one-step extraction method for 1.00 g soil with 2.00 mL acetonitrile, and a 8-min LC-MS/MS method was developed. The detection limits for PETN, RDX and HMX were 5.2, 8.5 and 3.4 ng/g and quantitation limits were 10.0, 24.5, 6.0 ng/g. The intermediate precisions and Horwitz Ratio's were between 4.10 - 13.26% and 0.24 - 0.98, in order. This method was applied to a model post-blast debris collected from an artificial explosion and real samples collected after a terrorist attack in Istanbul. The method is easy and fast and requires less solvent use than other methods. PMID:27302580

  19. Accumulation of HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) in indigenous and agricultural plants grown in HMX-contaminated anti-tank firing-range soil.

    PubMed

    Groom, Carl A; Halasz, Annamaria; Paquet, Louise; Morris, Neil; Olivier, Lucie; Dubois, Charles; Hawari, Jalal

    2002-01-01

    To investigate their potential for phytoremediation, selected agricultural and indigenous terrestrial plants were examined fortheir capacity to accumulate and degrade the explosive octahydro-1 ,3,5,7-tetra nitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). Plant tissue and soil extracts were analyzed for the presence of HMX and possible degradative metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array UV detection (HPLC-UV), micellar electrokinetic chromatography with diode-array UV detection (MEKC-UV), and HPLC with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The pattern of HMX accumulation for alfalfa (Medicago sativa), bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), canola (Brassica rapa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and perennial ryegrass (Loliumperenne) grown in a controlled environment on contaminated soil from an anti-tank firing range was similar to that observed for plants (wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa), western wheat grass (Agropyron smithii), brome grass (Bromus sitchensis), koeleria (Koeleria gracilis), goldenrod (Solidago sp.), blueberry (Vaccinium sp.), anemone (Anemone sp.), common thistle (Circium vulgare), wax-berry (Symphoricarpos albus), western sage (Artemisia gnaphalodes), and Drummond's milk vetch (Astragalus drummondii)) collected from the range. No direct evidence of plant-mediated HMX (bio)chemical transformation was provided by the available analytical methods. Traces of mononitroso-HMX were found in contaminated soil extracts and were also observed in leaf extracts. The dominant mechanism for HMX translocation and accumulation in foliar tissue was concluded to be aqueous transpirational flux and evaporation. The accumulation of HMX in the leaves of most of the selected species to levels significantly above soil concentration is relevant to the assessment of both phytoremediation potential and environmental risks.

  20. Anisotropic shock sensitivity for β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine energetic material under compressive-shear loading from ReaxFF-lg reactive dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tingting; Zybin, Sergey V.; Liu, Yi; Huang, Fenglei; Goddard, William A.

    2012-06-01

    We report here the predictions on anisotropy of shock sensitivity and of chemical process initiation in single crystal β-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (β-HMX) using compressive shear reactive dynamics (CS-RD) model with ReaxFF-lg reactive force field. Analysis of resolved shear stress induced by uniaxial compression along three shock directions normal to (110), (011), and (010) planes leads to identify eight slip systems as candidates for shear deformation. For each of the eight slip systems, non-equilibrium reactive dynamics simulations were carried out to determine thermal, mechanical, and chemical responses to shear deformation. Shock direction normal to (010) plane exhibits large shear stress barriers arising from steric hindrance between molecules of adjacent layers leading to local dramatic energy and temperature increases under shear flow that in turn accelerate chemical bond breaking and initial product formation processes, promoting further molecular decomposition and eventually transition to detonation. This suggests that single crystal β-HMX is sensitive to shocks in direction normal to (010) plane. Shock directions normal to (110) and (011) planes reveal significantly less steric hindrance, leading to more modest energy and temperature increases followed by slower chemical reaction initiation. Thus, shock directions normal to (110) and (011) planes are less sensitive than shock direction normal to (010) plane, which agree with interpretations from currently available plate impact experiments on HMX. This validation of CS-RD and ReaxFF for characterizing sensitivity of single crystal energetic materials indicates that these methods can be applied to study sensitivity for more complex polymer bonded explosives and solid composite propellants having complex microstructures, corrugated interfaces, as well as defects.

  1. cDNA cloning, expression and activity of a second human aflatoxin B1-metabolizing member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily, AKR7A3.

    PubMed

    Knight, L P; Primiano, T; Groopman, J D; Kensler, T W; Sutter, T R

    1999-07-01

    The aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) aldehyde metabolite of AFB1 may contribute to the cytotoxicity of this hepatocarcinogen via protein adduction. Aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductases, specifically the NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductases of rat (AKR7A1) and human (AKR7A2), are known to metabolize the AFB1 dihydrodiol by forming AFB1 dialcohol. Using a rat AKR7A1 cDNA, we isolated and characterized a distinct aldo-keto reductase (AKR7A3) from an adult human liver cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence of AKR7A3 shares 80 and 88% identity with rat AKR7A1 and human AKR7A2, respectively. Recombinant rat AKR7A1 and human AKR7A3 were expressed and purified from Escherichia coli as hexa-histidine tagged fusion proteins. These proteins catalyzed the reduction of several model carbonyl-containing substrates. The NADPH-dependent formation of AFB1 dialcohol by recombinant human AKR7A3 was confirmed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies produced using recombinant rat AKR7A1 protein were shown to detect nanogram amounts of rat and human AKR7A protein. The amount of AKR7A-related protein in hepatic cytosols of 1, 2-dithiole-3-thione-treated rats was 18-fold greater than in cytosols from untreated animals. These antibodies detected AKR7A-related protein in normal human liver samples ranging from 0.3 to 0.8 microg/mg cytosolic protein. Northern blot analysis showed varying levels of expression of AKR7A RNA in human liver and in several extrahepatic tissues, with relatively high levels in the stomach, pancreas, kidney and liver. Based on the kinetic parameters determined using recombinant human AKR7A3 and AFB1 dihydrodiol at pH 7.4, the catalytic efficiency of this reaction (k2/K, per M/s) equals or exceeds those reported for other enzymes, for example cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases, known to metabolize AFB1 in vivo. These findings indicate that, depending on the extent of AFB1 dihydrodiol formation, AKR

  2. Crystal structure, spectroscopic investigations and quantum chemical calculation studies of (3aR,6S,7aR)-7a-bromo-6-methyl-2-[(4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]-1,2,3,6,7,7a-hexahydro-3a,6-epoxyisoindole: A combined experimental and theoretical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaşalvar, Can; Demircan, Aydın; Koşar, Başak; Pekacar, Ali İhsan; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2016-11-01

    The crystal structure and spectroscopic properties of (3aR,6S,7aR)-7a-bromo-6-methyl-2-[(4-methylphenyl)sulfonyl]-1,2,3,6,7,7a-hexahydro-3a,6-epoxyisoindole were determined by X-ray diffraction, IR and 13CNMR and 1H NMR spectroscopy techniques. We investigate molecular and crystal structure of the new sulfonamide, which was derived from an environmental friendly cyclization reaction in water. This work allow to the development of a stereo-selective tandem allylamine isomerization/Diels Alder cyclo-addition sequence led to rapid assembly of complex nitrogen containing heterocycles. The molecular geometry from X-ray determination, vibrational frequencies and NMR shifts values of the title compound in the ground state have been calculated by using CAM-B3LYP and B3LYP methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. The calculated results show that the optimized geometry can well regenerate the crystal structure and theoretical vibrational frequencies and chemical shift data are in good agreement with experimental data. Besides, it is examined nonlinear optic properties, molecular electrostatic potential map and HOMO-LUMO orbitals of the molecule.

  3. Co-culture with periodontal ligament stem cells enhanced osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells and osteoclastic differentiation of RAW264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shulan; Ye, Xin; Yu, Xinbo; Xu, Quanchen; Pan, Keqing; Lu, Shulai; Yang, Pishan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are characterized by having multipotential differentiation and immunoregulatory properties, which are the main mechanisms of PDLSCs-mediated periodontal regeneration. Periodontal or bone regeneration requires coordination of osteoblast and osteoclast, however, very little is known about the interactions between PDLSCs and osteoblast-like cells or osteoclast precursors. In this study, the indirect co-culture approach was introduced to preliminarily elucidate the effects of PDLSCs on differentiation of osteoblast-like cells and osteoclast precursors in vitro. Materials and methods: Human PDLSCs were obtained from premolars extracted and their stemness was identified in terms of their colony-forming ability, proliferative capacity, cell surface epitopes and multi-lineage differentiation potentials. A noncontact co-culture system of PDLSCs and preosteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 or osteoclast precursor cell line RAW264.7 was established, and osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 and osteoclastic differentiation of RAW264.7 were evaluated. Results: PDLSCs exhibited features of mesenchymal stem cells. Further investigation through indirect co-culture system showed that PDLSCs enhanced ALP activity, expressions of ALP, Runx2, BSP, OPN mRNA and BSP, OPN proteins and mineralization matrix deposition in MC3T3-E1. Meanwhile, they improved maturation of osteoclasts and expressions of TRAP, CSTK, TRAF6 mRNA and TRAP, TRAF6 proteins in RAW264.7. Conclusions: PDLSCs stimulates osteoblastic differentiation of osteoblast precursors and osteoclastic differentiation of osteoclast precursors, at least partially, in a paracrine fasion. PMID:26823783

  4. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4921_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1212, LB4921_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  5. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1211, LB4553_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1211, LB4553_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  6. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4929_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1511, LB4929_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  7. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4914_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Propenenitrile C3H3N + C7H16O Heptan-1-ol (VMSD1111, LB4914_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  8. Structural and electronic properties of epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-δ-La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 bilayers grown on SrTiO3 (1 1 0) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, L.; Driza, N.; Soltan, S.; Le Tacon, M.; Habermeier, H.-U.; Keimer, B.

    2014-10-01

    Epitaxial bilayers of the high-temperature-superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) and the ferromagnetic metal La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 (LCMO) were prepared by pulsed laser deposition on (1 1 0)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates, such that the CuO2 planes of YBCO are perpendicular to the YBCO-LCMO interface. X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering demonstrate complete (1 1 0) orientation of both YBCO and LCMO overlayers. The resistivity and magnetization of the bilayer films are highly anisotropic. The critical temperatures for superconductivity and ferromagnetism as well as the saturation magnetization exhibit modest reductions compared to corresponding bulk values.

  9. 40 CFR 721.5288 - Chromate(2-), [3-hydroxy-4-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthenyl)azo]-7-nitro-1-substituted][N-[7-hydroxy-8...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-substituted]-, salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The...] -1-substituted]-, salt (generic). 721.5288 Section 721.5288 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5288 - Chromate(2-), [3-hydroxy-4-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthenyl)azo]-7-nitro-1-substituted][N-[7-hydroxy-8...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-substituted]-, salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The...] -1-substituted]-, salt (generic). 721.5288 Section 721.5288 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5288 - Chromate(2-), [3-hydroxy-4-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthenyl)azo]-7-nitro-1-substituted][N-[7-hydroxy-8...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-substituted]-, salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The...] -1-substituted]-, salt (generic). 721.5288 Section 721.5288 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL...

  12. Inositolphosphoglycans and diacyglycerol are possible mediators in the glycogenic effect of GLP-1(7-36)amide in BC3H-1 myocytes.

    PubMed

    Galera, C; Clemente, F; Alcantara, A; Trapote, M A; Perea, A; Lopez-Delgado, M I; Villanueva-Penacarrillo, M L; Valverde, I

    1996-03-01

    A potent glycogenic effect of GLP-1(7-36)amide has been found in rat hepatocytes and skeletal muscle, and specific receptors for this peptide, which do not seem to be associated with the adenylate cyclase-cAMP system, have been detected in these tissue membranes. On the other hand, inositolphosphoglycan molecules (IPGs) have been implicated as second messengers of the action of insulin. In this work, we have found, in differentiated BC3H-1 myocytes, specific binding of [125I]GLP-1(7-36)amide, and a stimulatory effect of the peptide on glycogen synthesis, confirming the findings in rat skeletal muscle. Also, GLP-1(7-36)amide modulates the cell content of radiolabelled glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) and increases the production of diacylglycerol (DAG), in the same manner as insulin acts, indicating hydrolysis of GPIs and an immediate and short-lived generation of IPGs. Thus, IPGs and DAG could be mediators in the glycogenic action of GLP-1(7-36)amide in skeletal muscle.

  13. 29 CFR 550.1 - “Talent fees” as used in section 7(e)(3)(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 550.1 “Talent fees” as used in section 7(e)(3)(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended. The... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âTalent feesâ as used in section 7(e)(3)(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended. 550.1 Section 550.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor...

  14. 29 CFR 550.1 - “Talent fees” as used in section 7(e)(3)(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 550.1 “Talent fees” as used in section 7(e)(3)(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended. The... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âTalent feesâ as used in section 7(e)(3)(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended. 550.1 Section 550.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor...

  15. 29 CFR 550.1 - “Talent fees” as used in section 7(e)(3)(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 550.1 “Talent fees” as used in section 7(e)(3)(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended. The... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âTalent feesâ as used in section 7(e)(3)(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended. 550.1 Section 550.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor...

  16. 29 CFR 550.1 - “Talent fees” as used in section 7(e)(3)(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 550.1 “Talent fees” as used in section 7(e)(3)(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended. The... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âTalent feesâ as used in section 7(e)(3)(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended. 550.1 Section 550.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor...

  17. 29 CFR 550.1 - “Talent fees” as used in section 7(e)(3)(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 550.1 “Talent fees” as used in section 7(e)(3)(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended. The... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âTalent feesâ as used in section 7(e)(3)(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended. 550.1 Section 550.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor...

  18. 38 CFR 7.3 - The policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The policy. 7.3 Section 7...' CIVIL RELIEF Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act Amendments of 1942 § 7.3 The policy. (a) Any provision in a policy that may limit or eliminate a benefit other than the primary death benefit will...

  19. 38 CFR 7.3 - The policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The policy. 7.3 Section 7...' CIVIL RELIEF Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act Amendments of 1942 § 7.3 The policy. (a) Any provision in a policy that may limit or eliminate a benefit other than the primary death benefit will...

  20. 38 CFR 7.3 - The policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The policy. 7.3 Section 7...' CIVIL RELIEF Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act Amendments of 1942 § 7.3 The policy. (a) Any provision in a policy that may limit or eliminate a benefit other than the primary death benefit will...

  1. An analytical and experimental investigation of a 1.8 by 3.7 meter Fresnel lens solar concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, L. J.; Allums, S. L.; Jensen, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    Line-focusing acrylic Fresnel lenses with application potential in the 200 to 370 C range are being analytically and experimentally evaluated. Investigations previously conducted with a 56 cm wide lens have been extended by the present study to experimentation/analyses with a 1.8 by 3.7 m lens. A measured peak concentration ratio of 64 with 90 percent of the transmitted energy focused into a 5.0 cm width was achieved. A peak concentration of 61 and a 90 percent target width of 4.5 cm were analytically computed. The experimental and analytical lens transmittance was 81 percent and 86 percent, respectively. The lens also was interfaced with a receiver assembly and operated in the collection mode. The collection efficiency ranged from 42 percent at 100 C to 26 percent at 300 C.

  2. Studies on charge transport in Al-doped La0.7Ca0.3Mn1-xAlxO3 manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathod, Jalshikhaba S.; Keshvani, M. J.; Solanki, P. S.; Pandya, D. D.; Kataria, Bharat; Shah, N. A.; Kuberkar, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    In this communication, we report the results of the studies on the effect of non-magnetic Al3+-doping on structure and properties of La0.7Ca0.3Mn1-xAlxO3 (LCMAO) manganites synthesized by conventional solid state reaction (SSR) route. The Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) data confirms the single phasic nature of the samples without any detectable impurities. All the samples exhibit metal to insulator transition (TP) which decrease with increase in Al3+ doping concentration while it increases with applied magnetic field. To understand the nature of charge transport in metallic and insulating regions of resistivity, various models and mechanisms have been used to fit the observed experimental data.

  3. Prognostic value of autophagy related proteins ULK1, Beclin 1, ATG3, ATG5, ATG7, ATG9, ATG10, ATG12, LC3B and p62/SQSTM1 in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Qing-Hua; Liu, Fang; Yang, Zu-Li; Fu, Xin-Hui; Yang, Zi-Huan; Liu, Quentin; Wang, Lei; Wan, Xiang-Bo; Fan, Xin-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy-related (ATG) genes contributed to tumorigenesis and cancer progression. This study aims to investigate the expression of ATG proteins and their clinicopathological significance in gastric cancer. Nine well-known ATG proteins, (ULK1, Beclin 1, ATG3, ATG5, ATG7, ATG9, ATG10, ATG12 and LC3B) and p62/SQSTM1, which represented key regulators that participated in whole autophagosomes stepwise processes, were detected in a large cohort of 352 primary gastric cancer patients. Among these 352 patients, 117 cases were randomly assigned to the training set to detect the clinicopathological value of ATG proteins, and another 235 patients were used as the testing set for further validation. Except for Beclin 1, ATG9 and ATG10, another six ATG proteins and p62/SQSTM1 were closely correlated with histological types for gastric cancer. Moreover, low expression of ULK1, Beclin 1 and ATG10 were associated with lymph node metastasis. In addition, down-regulation of ULK1, Beclin 1, ATG7 and ATG10, up-regulation of ATG12 correlated with advanced TNM stage. Importantly, multivariate cox analysis identified ULK1, Beclin 1, ATG3 and ATG10 as favorable independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Combination analysis of ULK1, Beclin 1, ATG3, ATG10 revealed the improved prognostic accuracy for gastric cancer. Our study showed that ATG proteins might serve as novel prognostic biomarkers in gastric cancer, and supply a new valuable insight into cancer treatment targeting autophagy for patients. PMID:27725863

  4. Conduction cooled magnet design for 1.5 T, 3.0 T and 7.0 T MRI systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baig, Tanvir; Yao, Zhen; Doll, David; Tomsic, Michael; Martens, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Main magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are largely constructed with low temperature superconducting material. Most commonly used superconductors for these magnets are niobium-titanium (NbTi). Such magnets are operated at 4.2 K by being immersed in a liquid helium bath for long time operation. As the cost of liquid helium has increased threefold in the last decade and the market for MRI systems is on average increasing by more than 7% every year, there is a growing demand for an alternative to liquid helium. Superconductors such as magnesium-diboride (MgB2) and niobium-tin (Nb3Sn) demonstrate superior current carrying quality at higher critical temperatures than 4.2 K. In this article, electromagnetic designs for conduction cooled main magnets over the range of medium field strengths (1.5 T) to ultrahigh field strengths (7.0 T) are presented. These designs are achieved by an improved functional approach coming from a series of developments by the present research group and using properties of the state-of-the-art second generation MgB2 wires and Nb3Sn wires developed by Hyper Tech Research Inc. The MgB2 magnet designs operated at different field strengths demonstrate excellent homogeneity and shielding properties at an operating temperature of 10 K. At ultrahigh field, the high current density on Nb3Sn allowed by the larger magnetic field on wire helps to reduce the superconductor volume in comparison with high field NbTi magnet designs. This allows for a compact magnet design that can operate at a temperature of 8 K. Overall, the designs created show promise in the development of conduction cooled dry magnets that would reduce dependence on helium.

  5. Golgi-modifying properties of macfarlandin E and the synthesis and evaluation of its 2,7-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-one core

    PubMed Central

    Schnermann, Martin J.; Beaudry, Christopher M.; Egorova, Anastasia V.; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Sütterlin, Christine; Overman, Larry E.

    2010-01-01

    Golgi-modifying properties of the spongian diterpene macfarlandin E (MacE) and a synthetic analog, t-Bu-MacE, containing its 2,7-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-one moiety are reported. Natural product screening efforts identified MacE as inducing a novel morphological change in Golgi structure defined by ribbon fragmentation with maintenance of the resulting Golgi fragments in the pericentriolar region. t-Bu-MacE, which possesses the substituted 2,7-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-one but contains a tert-butyl group in place of the hydroazulene subunit of MacE, was prepared by chemical synthesis. Examination of the Golgi-modifying properties of MacE, t-Bu-MacE, and several related structures revealed that the entire oxygen-rich bridged-bicyclic fragment is required for induction of this unique Golgi organization phenotype. Further characterization of MacE-induced Golgi modification showed that protein secretion is inhibited, with no effect on the actin or microtubule cytoskeleton being observed. The conversion of t-Bu-MacE and a structurally related des-acetoxy congener to substituted pyrroles in the presence of primary amines in protic solvent at ambient temperatures suggests that covalent modification might be involved in the Golgi-altering activity of MacE. PMID:20332207

  6. Luminescence and energy-transfer properties of color-tunable Ca2Mg0.25Al1.5Si1.25O7:Ce(3+)/Eu(2+)/Tb(3+) phosphors for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bo; Song, Yanhua; Sheng, Ye; Zheng, Keyan; Huo, Qisheng; Xu, Xuechun; Zou, Haifeng

    2016-03-01

    A series of Ca2Mg0.25Al1.5Si1.25O7:Ce(3+)/Eu(2+)/Tb(3+) phosphors was been prepared via a conventional high temperature solid-state reaction and their luminescence properties were studied. The emission spectra of Ca2Mg0.25Al1.5Si1.25O7:Ce(3+),Eu(2+) and Ca2Mg0.25Al1.5Si1.25O7:Ce(3+),Tb(3+) phosphors show not only a band due to Ce(3+) ions (409 nm) but also as a band due to Eu(2+) (520 nm) and Tb(3+) (542 nm) ions. More importantly, the effective energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Eu(2+) and Tb(3+) ions was confirmed and investigated by emission/excitation spectra and luminescent decay behaviors. Furthermore, the energy level scheme and energy transfer mechanism were investigated and were demonstrated to be of resonant type via dipole-dipole (Ce(3+) to Eu(2+)) and dipole-quadrupole (Ce(3+) to Tb(3+)) reactions, respectively. Under excitation at 350 nm, the emitting color could be changed from blue to green by adjusting the relative doping concentration of Ce(3+) and Eu(2+) ions as well as Ce(3+) and Tb(3+) ions. The above results indicate that Ca2Mg0.25Al1.5Si1.25O7:Ce(3+),Eu(2+)/Tb(3+) are promising single-phase blue-to-green phosphors for application in phosphor conversion white-light-emitting diodes. PMID:26249728

  7. Metal-Free Radical Haloazidation of Benzene-Tethered 1,7-Enynes Leading to Polyfunctionalized 3,4-Dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-ones.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ai-Fang; Zhu, Yi-Long; Wang, Shu-Liang; Hao, Wen-Juan; Li, Guigen; Tu, Shu-Jiang; Jiang, Bo

    2016-02-01

    A new cascade three-component haloazidation of benzene-tethered 1,7-enynes for the formation of biologically interesting azidylated 3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-ones has been achieved under mild and metal-free conditions using TMSN3 as a N3 source and NIS (or NBS or NCS) as a halogen source. The reaction pathway involves in situ-generated azidyl radical-triggered α,β-conjugated addition/6-exo-dig cyclization/radical coupling sequence, resulting in successive multiple bond-forming events, including carbon-nitrogen, carbon-carbon, and carbon-halogen bonds to rapidly construct complex heterocyclic molecules. Furthermore, the resulting products would be useful building blocks in the discovery of lead compounds and other biologically interesting N3-containing heterocycles.

  8. Atg8 Transfer from Atg7 to Atg3: A Distinctive E1-E2 Architecture and Mechanism in the Autophagy Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Taherbhoy, Asad M.; Tait, Stephen W.; Kaiser, Stephen E.; Williams, Allison H.; Deng, Alan; Nourse, Amanda; Hammel, Michal; Kurinov, Igor; Rock, Charles O.; Green, Douglas R.; Schulman, Brenda A.

    2012-07-11

    Atg7 is a noncanonical, homodimeric E1 enzyme that interacts with the noncanonical E2 enzyme, Atg3, to mediate conjugation of the ubiquitin-like protein (UBL) Atg8 during autophagy. Here we report that the unique N-terminal domain of Atg7 (Atg7{sup NTD}) recruits a unique 'flexible region' from Atg3 (Atg3{sup FR}). The structure of an Atg7{sup NTD}-Atg3{sup FR} complex reveals hydrophobic residues from Atg3 engaging a conserved groove in Atg7, important for Atg8 conjugation. We also report the structure of the homodimeric Atg7 C-terminal domain, which is homologous to canonical E1s and bacterial antecedents. The structures, SAXS, and crosslinking data allow modeling of a full-length, dimeric (Atg7 {approx} Atg8-Atg3){sub 2} complex. The model and biochemical data provide a rationale for Atg7 dimerization: Atg8 is transferred in trans from the catalytic cysteine of one Atg7 protomer to Atg3 bound to the N-terminal domain of the opposite Atg7 protomer within the homodimer. The studies reveal a distinctive E1 {approx} UBL-E2 architecture for enzymes mediating autophagy.

  9. 17 CFR 270.3c-6 - Certain transfers of interests in section 3(c)(1) and section 3(c)(7) funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... used in this section: (1) The term Donee means a person who acquires a security of a Covered Company (or a security or other interest in a company referred to in paragraph (b)(3) of this section) as a... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT...

  10. Reaction between enaminones and acetylenic esters in the presence of triphenylphosphine: a convenient synthesis of alkyl 2(1-benzyl-2,4-dioxo-2,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydro-1H-indol-3-yl)acetates.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Farough; Bayzidi, Massood; Zolali, Amin

    2012-08-01

    One-pot reaction between enaminocarbonyl compounds derived from six-membered 1,3-diketones and substituted benzylamines, and electron-deficient acetylenic esters in the presence of triphenylphosphine lead to alkyl 2-(1-benzyl-6,6-dimethyl-2,4-dioxo-2,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydro-1H-indol-3-yl)acetate derivatives in good yields.

  11. CYP1A2 DOES NOT PLAY A CRITICAL ROLE IN 2, 3 7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN-INDUCED IMMUNOSUPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    CYP1A2 IS NOT REQUIRED FOR 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN-INDUCED IMMUNOSUPPRESSION Smialowicz, Ralph J1; Burgin, Deborah E2; Williams, Wanda C1; Diliberto, Janet J1; Birnbaum, Linda S1
    1 Experimental Toxicology Division, US EPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2Curriculum in Toxicology, U...

  12. Induction of Macrophage Function in Human THP-1 Cells Is Associated with Rewiring of MAPK Signaling and Activation of MAP3K7 (TAK1) Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Erik; Ventz, Katharina; Harms, Manuela; Mostertz, Jörg; Hochgräfe, Falko

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages represent the primary human host response to pathogen infection and link the immediate defense to the adaptive immune system. Mature tissue macrophages convert from circulating monocyte precursor cells by terminal differentiation in a process that is not fully understood. Here, we analyzed the protein kinases of the human monocytic cell line THP-1 before and after induction of macrophage differentiation by using kinomics and phosphoproteomics. When comparing the macrophage-like state with the monocytic precursor, 50% of the kinome was altered in expression and even 71% of covered kinase phosphorylation sites were affected. Kinome rearrangements are for example characterized by a shift of overrepresented cyclin-dependent kinases associated with cell cycle control in monocytes to calmodulin-dependent kinases and kinases involved in proinflammatory signaling. Eventually, we show that monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation is associated with major rewiring of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling networks and demonstrate that protein kinase MAP3K7 (TAK1) acts as the key signaling hub in bacterial killing, chemokine production and differentiation. Our study proves the fundamental role of protein kinases and cellular signaling as major drivers of macrophage differentiation and function. The finding that MAP3K7 is central to macrophage function suggests MAP3K7 and its networking partners as promising targets in host-directed therapy for macrophage-associated disease. PMID:27066479

  13. Theoretical studies on a new high energy density compound 6-amino-7-nitropyrazino[2,3-e][1,2,3,4]tetrazine 1,3,5-trioxide (ANPTTO).

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianyi; Zheng, Chunmei; Yang, Junqing; Zhang, Xueli; Gong, Xuedong; Xia, Mingzhu

    2014-06-01

    The derivatives of 1,2,3,4-tetrazine may be promising candidates for high-energy density compounds and are receiving more and more attentions. In this study, a new derivative 6-amino-7-nitropyrazino[2,3-e][1,2,3,4]tetrazine 1,3,5-trioxide (ANPTTO) has been designed. The geometrical structure and IR spectrum in the gas phase were studied at the B3LYP/6-31G* level of density functional theory (DFT). The crystal structure was predicted by molecular mechanics method and refined by the GGA/BOP function of periodic DFT with the basis set of TNP. The gas phase enthalpy of formation was calculated by the homodesmotic reaction method. The enthalpy of sublimation and solid phase enthalpy of formation were also predicted. The detonation properties were estimated with the Kamlet-Jacobs equations based on the predicted density and enthalpy of formation in solid state. The available free space in the lattice and resonance energy were calculated to evaluate its stability. ANPTTO has a high stability and is a promising high energetic component with the density >2 g · cm(-3), detonation velocity >9000 m · s(-1), and detonation pressure >40 GPa. A synthetic route was proposed to provide a consideration for further study.

  14. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel 7-substituted 1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-1-(2-thiazolyl)-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acids as antitumor agents. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Kyoji; Tsuzuki, Yasunori; Shibamori, Koh-ichiro; Tashima, Masanori; Kajikawa, Fumie; Sato, Yuji; Kashimoto, Shigeki; Chiba, Katsumi; Hino, Katsuhiko

    2002-12-01

    In an attempt to search for clinically useful antitumor agents, we have discovered that a series of 1,7-disubstituted-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acids possessed moderate cytotoxic activity. We investigated the structure-activity relationships in this series of compounds by changing N-1 and C-7 positions and the core ring structure itself and evaluated the synthesized compounds against several murine and human tumor cell lines. These modifications led us to the following findings. (1) The 2-thiazolyl group at the N-1 position of the naphthyridine structure is the best substituent for antitumor activity. (2) Regarding core ring structure, the naphthyridine derivative is the most active followed by pyridopyrimidine analogue. (3) At the C-7 position, aminopyrrolidine derivatives are more effective than other amines or thioether derivatives. Finally, the trans-3-amino-4-methoxypyrrolidinyl derivative (43j) and the 3-amino-3-methylpyrrolidinyl derivative (43f) as well as 3-aminopyrrolidinyl derivative (AT-3639, 1) were determined to be effective in in vitro and in vivo antitumor assays, and their activity was comparable to that of etoposide.

  15. Effects and mechanisms of 8-prenylnaringenin on osteoblast MC3T3-E1 and osteoclast-like cells RAW264.7

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Dan; Kang, Lumei; Ma, Yuhui; Chen, Hongping; Kuang, Haibin; Huang, Qiren; He, Ming; Peng, Weijie

    2014-01-01

    8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN) is a phytoestrogen with the highest estrogenic activity. The objective of the present study was to confirm the superiority of 8-PN on bone metabolisms and the estrogen receptor (ER) subtype mediating effects of 8-PN. The osteoblast MC3T3-E1 and osteoclast-like cell line RAW264.7 were treated with 17β-estradiol (10−8 mol/L), genistein (10−5 mol/L), daidzein (10−5 mol/L), 8-PN (10−5 mol/L) alone or in the presence of ERα antagonist MPP (10−7 mol/L) and ERβ antagonist PTHPP (1.5 × 10−7 mol/L). It has been found that 8-PN did not affect osteoblast proliferation, and that 8-PN increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin (OCN) concentrations, and the mineralized nodules. 8-PN inhibited RAW264.7 differentiating into osteoclasts and reduced the pit area of bone resorption. 8-PN could also inhibit the protein and mRNA expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) in osteoblasts, and conversely promote the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG). These effects of 8-PN were mainly inhibited not by PTHPP but by MPP and they were weaker than estrogen's effects but stronger than those of genistein and daidzein. In conclusion, the effects of 8-PN on promoting osteoblastic bone formation and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption were mediated by ERα instead of ERβ and the efficacy was more potent than that of the two classic phytoestrogens: genistein and daidzein. PMID:25473491

  16. Epitaxial yttria-stabilized zirconia on (1 -1 0 2) sapphire for YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, X. D.; Muenchausen, R. E.; Nogar, N. S.; Pique, A.; Edwards, R.

    1991-01-01

    Epitaxial yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films were deposited on (1 -1 0 2) sapphire by pulsed laser deposition. The films are formed in a cubic phase with the a axis normal to the substrate surface. Ion beam channeling measurements show that the YSZ films are highly crystalline with a channeling minimum yield of 8 percent. The epitaxial relationship between the film and substrate is further confirmed by a cross-section TEM study. Epitaxial YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films deposited on YSZ/sapphire have Tc and Jc of up to 89 K and 10 to the 6th A/sq cm at 77 K, respectively.

  17. The expression of TGF-β1, Smad3, phospho-Smad3 and Smad7 is correlated with the development and invasion of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling functions as a suppressor or a promoter in tumor development, depending on the tumor stage and type. However, the role of TGF-β signaling in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) has not been explored. Methods TGF-β1, Smad2, phospho-Smad2 (p-Smad2), Smad3, phospho-Smad3 (p-Smad3), Smad4, and Smad7 were detected in 5 cases of normal anterior pituitaries, 29 cases of invasive NFPAs, and 21 cases of noninvasive NFPAs by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis. Results The Smad3 and p-Smad3 protein levels gradually decreased from normal anterior pituitaries, noninvasive NFPAs, to invasive NFPAs. However, there were no significant differences in Smad2 (P = 0.122) and p-Smad2 protein levels (P = 0.101) or Smad2 mRNA level (P = 0.409). In addition, the TGF-β1 mRNA level gradually decreased while the Smad7 mRNA level gradually increased from normal anterior pituitaries, noninvasive NFPAs, to invasive NFPAs. Furthermore, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) mRNA level was markedly increased in invasive NFPAs compared to noninvasive ones (P < 0.01), and its level was negatively correlated with Smad3 mRNA level (P < 0.01). Conclusion The activity of TGF-β signaling may be restrained in NFPAs and is correlated with the development and invasion of NFPAs. PMID:24636138

  18. Changes in the expression of voltage-gated sodium channels Nav1.3, Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 in rat trigeminal ganglia following chronic constriction injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenhua; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yuanyin; Wang, Liecheng; Wang, Xuxia

    2016-08-17

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), especially the tetrodotoxin-sensitive Nav1.3 and Nav1.7, and the tetrodotoxin-resistant Nav1.8 and Nav1.9, have been implicated in acute and chronic neuropathic pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of VGSC Nav1.3, Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 after nerve injury and their roles in the development of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). We used the infraorbital nerve-chronic constriction injury model of TN in the rat. The time course of changes in the mechanical pain threshold was examined. In addition, real-time PCR and double immunofluorescence staining of VGSC α subunits were used to evaluate messenger RNA and protein expression, respectively, in the trigeminal ganglion. Behavioral tests showed that the mechanical pain threshold decreased significantly 4-42 days after surgery and reached the lowest observed value by day 12. Compared with sham-operated controls, we found that trigeminal ganglion in rats subjected to an infraorbital nerve-chronic constriction injury showed upregulation of Nav1.3 and downregulation of Nav1.7, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 messenger RNA and protein levels. Our findings suggest that VGSC may participate in the regulation of TN. PMID:27327156

  19. 7 CFR 3555.3 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Rural Development's civil rights compliance requirements are provided in 7 CFR part 1901, subpart E. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil rights. 3555.3 Section 3555.3 Agriculture... GUARANTEED RURAL HOUSING PROGRAM (Eff. 9-1-14) General § 3555.3 Civil rights. Rural Development, lenders,...

  20. Complex electronic states in double-layered ruthenates (Sr1-xCax)3Ru2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zhe; Peng, Jin; Liu, Tijiang; Fobes, David; Spinu, Leonard; Mao, Zhiqiang

    2009-09-01

    The magnetic ground state of (Sr1-xCax)3Ru2O7 (0≤x≤1) is complex, ranging from an itinerant metamagnetic state (0≤x<0.08) to an unusual heavy-mass nearly ferromagnetic (FM) state (0.081) . In this report we elucidate the electronic properties for these magnetic states, and show that the electronic and magnetic properties are strongly coupled in this system. The electronic ground state evolves from an AFM quasi-two-dimensional metal for x=1.0 to an Anderson localized state for 0.4≤x<1.0 (the AFM region). When the magnetic state undergoes a transition from the AFM to the nearly FM state, the electronic ground state switches to a weakly localized state induced by magnetic scattering for 0.25≤x<0.4 , and then to a magnetic metallic state with the in-plane resistivity ρab∝Tα (α>2) for 0.08

  1. Orientation Selection and Microstructural Evolution in Directionally Solidified Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.95

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palit, Mithun; Banumathy, S.; Singh, A. K.; Pandian, S.; Chattopadhyay, Kamanio

    2016-04-01

    Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.95 alloy was directionally solidified by using a modified Bridgman technique at a wide range of growth rates of 5 to 100 cm/h. The directionally grown samples exhibited plane front solidification morphology up to a growth rate of 90 cm/h. Typical island banding feature was observed closer to the chilled end, which eventually gave rise to irregular peritectic coupled growth (PCG). The PCG gained prominence with an increase in the growth rate. The texture study revealed formation of strong <311> texture in a lower growth rate regime, <110> and "rotated <110>" in an intermediate growth regime, and <112> in a higher growth rate regime. In-depth analysis of the atomic configuration of a solid-liquid interface revealed that the growth texture is influenced by the kinetics of atomic attachment to the solid-liquid interface, which is intimately related to a planar packing fraction and an atomic stacking sequence of the interfacial plane. The mechanism proposed in this article is novel and will be useful in addressing the orientation selection mechanism of topologically closed packed intermetallic systems. The samples grown at a higher growth rate exhibit larger magnetostriction ( λ) and dλ/dH owing to the absence of pro-peritectic (Tb,Dy)Fe3 and formation of <112> texture, which lies closer to the easy magnetization direction (EMD).

  2. CD28/CTLA-4 ligands: the gene encoding CD86 (B70/B7.2) maps to the same region as CD80 (B7/B7.1) gene in human chromosome 3q13-q23.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ruiz, E; Somoza, C; Sánchez-Madrid, F; Lanier, L L

    1995-05-01

    CD86 (B70/B7.2) is an antigen of the immunoglobulin superfamily expressed on monocytes, dendritic cells and activated B, T, and natural killer cells. CD86 was recently identified as a second ligand for the T cell antigens CD28 and CTLA-4, and plays an important role in the co-stimulation of T cells in a primary immune response. We report here the assignment of the CD86 gene to human chromosome 3 using Southern blot analysis on a panel of hamster x human somatic cell hybrid genomic DNA. Fluorescence hybridization in situ on metaphase chromosomes coupled with GTG banding (G-bands by trypsin using Giemsa staining) confirmed this assignment and localized the CD86 gene to 3q13-q23 region. The CD86 gene is, therefore, located in the proximity of the CD80 (B7/B7.1) gene, the first identified ligand for CD28 and CTLA-4, previously mapped to chromosome 3q13.3-q21. Deletions, inversions and insertions of chromosome 3q21-q26, as well as translocations of 3q21 with other chromosomes have been described in many cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and myelodisplastic syndromes (MDS), suggesting that this region contains several genes involved in the leukemic process.

  3. Effects of Huang Bai (Phellodendri Cortex) and Three Other Herbs on GnRH and GH Levels in GT17 and GH3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun Haeng; Kwak, Sung Chul; Kim, Dong Kwan; Park, Sang Woug; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Young-Sik; Lee, Donghun; Lee, Ju Won; Lee, Chang Gon; Lee, Hae Kyung; Cho, Sung-Min; Shin, Yu Jeong; Lee, Jin Yong; Kim, Hocheol; Chang, Gyu Tae

    2016-01-01

    The present study was to evaluate the effects of Huang Bai, Zhi Mu, Mai Ya, and Xia Ku Cao on hormone using the GT17 and GH3 cells. The GT17 and GH3 cell lines were incubated with DW; DMSO; and 30, 100, or 300 μg/mL of one of the four extract solutions in serum-free media for 24 hours. The MTT assay was performed to determine the cytotoxicity of the four herbs. The GT17 and GH3 cells were incubated in DW, estradiol (GT17 only), or noncytotoxic herb solutions in serum-free medium for 24 hours. A quantitative RT-PCR and western blot were performed to measure the GnRH expression in GT17 cells and GH expression in GH3 cells. Huang Bai, Zhi Mu, Xia Ku Cao, and Mai Ya inhibited the GnRH mRNA expression in GT17 cells, whereas Huang Bai enhanced GH mRNA expression in GH3 cells. Additionally, Xia Ku Cao inhibited GnRH protein expression in GT17 cells and Huang Bai promoted GH protein expression in GH3 cells. The findings suggest that Huang Bai can delay puberty by inhibiting GnRH synthesis in the hypothalamus while also accelerating growth by promoting GH synthesis and secretion in the pituitary. PMID:26925153

  4. Annealing influence on the magnetostructural transition in Gd5Si1.3Ge2.7 thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Pires, A. L.; Belo, J. H.; Gomes, I. T.; Hadimani, R. L.; Jiles, D. C.; Fernandes, L.; Tavares, P. B.; Araújo, J. P.; Lopes, A. M. L.; Pereira, A. M.

    2015-05-19

    Due to the emerging cooling possibilities at the micro and nanoscale, such as the fast heat exchange rate, the effort to synthesize and optimize the magnetocaloric materials at these scales is rapidly growing. Here, we report the effect of different thermal treatments on Gd5Si1.3Ge2.7 thin film in order to evaluate the correlation between the crystal structure, magnetic phase transition and magnetocaloric effect. For annealing temperatures higher than 500ºC, the samples showed a typical paramagnetic behavior. On the other hand, thermal treatments below 500ºC promoted the suppression of the magnetostructural transition at 190 K, while the magnetic transition around 249 Kmore » is not affected. This magnetostructural transition extinction was reflected in the magnetocaloric behavior and resulted in a drastic decrease in the entropy change peak value (of about 68%). An increase in TC was reported, proving that at the nanoscale, heat treatments may be a useful tool to optimize the magnetocaloric properties in Gd5(SixGe1-x)4 thin films.« less

  5. Nonivamide Enhances miRNA let‐7d Expression and Decreases Adipogenesis PPARγ Expression in 3T3‐L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rohm, Barbara; Holik, Ann‐Katrin; Kretschy, Nicole; Somoza, Mark M.; Ley, Jakob P.; Widder, Sabine; Krammer, Gerhard E.; Marko, Doris

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Red pepper and its major pungent principle, capsaicin (CAP), have been shown to be effective anti‐obesity agents by reducing energy intake, enhancing energy metabolism, decreasing serum triacylglycerol content, and inhibiting adipogenesis via activation of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1). However, the binding of CAP to the TRPV1 receptor is also responsible for its pungent sensation, strongly limiting its dietary intake. Here, the effects of a less pungent structural CAP‐analog, nonivamide, on adipogenesis and underlying mechanisms in 3T3‐L1 cells were studied. Nonivamide was found to reduce mean lipid accumulation, a marker of adipogenesis, to a similar extent as CAP, up to 10.4% (P < 0.001). Blockage of the TRPV1 receptor with the specific inhibitor trans‐tert‐butylcyclohexanol revealed that the anti‐adipogenic activity of nonivamide depends, as with CAP, on TRPV1 receptor activation. In addition, in cells treated with nonivamide during adipogenesis, protein levels of the pro‐adipogenic transcription factor peroxisome‐proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) decreased. Results from miRNA microarrays and digital droplet PCR analysis demonstrated an increase in the expression of the miRNA mmu‐let‐7d‐5p, which has been associated with decreased PPARγ levels. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 1153–1163, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25704235

  6. Cytochrome P450 Allele CYP3A7*1C Associates with Adverse Outcomes in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Breast, and Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nichola; De Ieso, Paolo; Migliorini, Gabriele; Orr, Nick; Broderick, Peter; Catovsky, Daniel; Matakidou, Athena; Eisen, Timothy; Goldsmith, Christy; Dudbridge, Frank; Peto, Julian; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Ashworth, Alan; Ross, Gillian; Houlston, Richard S; Fletcher, Olivia

    2016-03-15

    CYP3A enzymes metabolize endogenous hormones and chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer, thereby potentially affecting drug effectiveness. Here, we refined the genetic basis underlying the functional effects of a CYP3A haplotype on urinary estrone glucuronide (E1G) levels and tested for an association between CYP3A genotype and outcome in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), breast, or lung cancers. The most significantly associated SNP was rs45446698, an SNP that tags the CYP3A7*1C allele; this SNP was associated with a 54% decrease in urinary E1G levels. Genotyping this SNP in 1,008 breast cancer, 1,128 lung cancer, and 347 CLL patients, we found that rs45446698 was associated with breast cancer mortality (HR, 1.74; P = 0.03), all-cause mortality in lung cancer patients (HR, 1.43; P = 0.009), and CLL progression (HR, 1.62; P = 0.03). We also found borderline evidence of a statistical interaction between the CYP3A7*1C allele, treatment of patients with a cytotoxic agent that is a CYP3A substrate, and clinical outcome (Pinteraction = 0.06). The CYP3A7*1C allele, which results in adult expression of the fetal CYP3A7 gene, is likely to be the functional allele influencing levels of circulating endogenous sex hormones and outcome in these various malignancies. Further studies confirming these associations and determining the mechanism by which CYP3A7*1C influences outcome are required. One possibility is that standard chemotherapy regimens that include CYP3A substrates may not be optimal for the approximately 8% of cancer patients who are CYP3A7*1C carriers. PMID:26964624

  7. Cytochrome P450 allele CYP3A7*1C associates with adverse outcomes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, breast and lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Nick; Broderick, Peter; Catovsky, Daniel; Matakidou, Athena; Eisen, Timothy; Goldsmith, Christy; Dudbridge, Frank; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Ashworth, Alan; Ross, Gillian; Houlston, Richard S; Fletcher, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    CYP3A enzymes metabolize endogenous hormones and chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer, thereby potentially impacting drug effectiveness. Here we refined the genetic basis underlying the functional effects of a CYP3A haplotype on urinary estrone glucuronide (E1G) levels and tested for an association between CYP3A genotype and outcome in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), breast, or lung cancers. The most significantly associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was rs45446698, a SNP that tags the CYP3A7*1C allele; this SNP was associated with a 54% decrease in urinary E1G levels. Genotyping this SNP in 1,008 breast cancer, 1,128 lung cancer, and 347 CLL patients, we found that rs45446698 was associated with breast cancer mortality (hazard ratio [HR]=1.74, P=0.03), all-cause mortality in lung cancer patients (HR=1.43, P=0.009), and CLL progression (HR=1.62, P=0.03). We also found borderline evidence of a statistical interaction between the CYP3A7*1C allele, treatment of patients with a cytotoxic agent that is a CYP3A substrate and clinical outcome (Pinteraction=0.06). The CYP3A7*1C allele, which results in adult expression of the fetal CYP3A7 gene, is likely to be the functional allele influencing levels of circulating endogenous sex hormones and outcome in these various malignancies. Further studies confirming these associations and determining the mechanism by which CYP3A7*1C influences outcome are required. One possibility is that standard chemotherapy regimens that include CYP3A substrates may not be optimal for the approximately 8% of cancer patients who are CYP3A7*1C carriers. PMID:26964624

  8. The PI3K signaling-mediated nitric oxide contributes to cardiovascular effects of angiotensin-(1-7) in the nucleus tractus solitarii of rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhao-Tang; Ren, Chang-Zhen; Yang, Ya-Hong; Zhang, Ru-Wen; Sun, Jia-Cen; Wang, Yang-Kai; Su, Ding-Feng; Wang, Wei-Zhong

    2016-01-30

    Angiotensin-1-7 [Ang-(1-7)], acting via the Mas receptor in the central nervous system, is involved in the regulation of cardiovascular activity. Nitric oxide (NO) is implicated as an important modulator in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), a key region involved in control of cardiovascular activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in mediating the effect of Ang-(1-7) on NO generation in the NTS. In Sprague-Dawley rats, acute injection of Ang-(1-7) into the NTS significantly increased NO generation and neuronal/endothelial NO synthase (n/eNOS) activity, which were abolished by the selective Mas receptor antagonist d-Alanine-[Ang-(1-7)] (A-779), the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, or the Akt inhibitor triciribine (TCN). Western blotting analysis further demonstrated that Ang-(1-7) significantly increased levels of Akt/NOS phosphorylation in the NTS, and Ang-(1-7)-induced e/nNOS phosphorylation was antagonized by LY294002 or TCN. Furthermore, gene knockdown of PI3K by lentivirus containing small hairpin RNA in the NTS prevented the Ang-(1-7)-induced increases in NOS/Akt phosphorylation and NO production. The physiological (in vivo) experiments showed that pretreatment with the NOS inhibitor l-NAME, LY294002, or TCN abolished the decreases in blood pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity induced by Ang-(1-7) injected into the NTS. Our findings suggest that nitric oxide release meditated by the Mas-PI3K-NOS signaling pathway is involved in the cardiovascular effects of Ang-(1-7) in the NTS.

  9. CYP1A2 IS NOT REQUIRED FOR 2, 3, 7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN-INDUCED IMMUNOSUPPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    One of the most sensitive and reproducible immunotoxic endpoints of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure is suppression of the antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) in mice. Immunosuppression occurs in concert with hepatomegaly and associ...

  10. Soft ferromagnet GdFe{sub 7.7}Si{sub 1.3} with a CaCu{sub 5}-to-Th{sub 2}(Ni/Zn){sub 17} transitional structure

    SciTech Connect

    Svitlyk, Volodymyr; Cheung, Yan Yin Janice; Mozharivskyj, Yurij

    2009-09-15

    GdFe{sub 7.7}Si{sub 1.3} was synthesized by arc-melting with subsequent annealing at 1000 deg. C for 4 weeks. The basic structure of GdFe{sub 7.7}Si{sub 1.3} is similar to that of CaCu{sub 5} but features random substitution of Gd atoms by Fe{sub 2} dumbbells along the z-axis. This random Gd/Fe{sub 2} distribution makes the GdFe{sub 7.7}Si{sub 1.3} structure an intermediate between the CaCu{sub 5} (no dumbbells) and Th{sub 2}(Ni/Zn){sub 17} (full ordering of dumbbells) structures. Single crystal X-ray diffraction also points at the formation of a superstructure of a lower symmetry and diffuse scattering between the superstructure spots. GdFe{sub 7.7}Si{sub 1.3} orders ferromagnetically at 640 K and exhibits a soft magnetic behavior. - Abstract: The basic structure of the soft ferromagnet GdFe{sub 7.7}Si{sub 1.3} is derived from that of CaCu{sub 5} through random substitution of Gd atoms by Fe{sub 2} dumbbells. Display Omitted

  11. Influence of microstructure and AlPO4 secondary-phase on the ionic conductivity of Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 solid-state electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shicheng; Mertens, Andreas; Gao, Xin; Gunduz, Deniz Cihan; Schierholz, Roland; Benning, Svenja; Hausen, Florian; Mertens, Josef; Kungl, Hans; Tempel, Hermann; Eichel, Rüdiger-A.

    2016-09-01

    A ceramic solid-state electrolyte of lithium aluminum titanium phosphate with the composition of Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP) was synthesized by a sol-gel method using a pre-dissolved Ti-source. The annealed LATP powders were subsequently processed in a binder-free dry forming method and sintered under air for the pellet preparation. Phase purity, density, microstructure as well as ionic conductivity of the specimen were characterized. The highest density (2.77gṡcm‑3) with an ionic conductivity of 1.88×10‑4 Sṡcm‑1 (at 30∘C) was reached at a sintering temperature of 1100∘C. Conductivity of LATP ceramic electrolyte is believed to be significantly affected by both, the AlPO4 secondary phase content and the ceramic electrolyte microstructure. It has been found that with increasing sintering temperature, the secondary-phase content of AlPO4 increased. For sintering temperatures above 1000∘C, the secondary phase has only a minor impact, and the ionic conductivity is predominantly determined by the microstructure of the pellet, i.e. the correlation between density, porosity and particle size. In that respect, it has been demonstrated, that the conductivity increases with increasing particle size in this temperature range and density.

  12. Ultra-low field T1 vs. T1rho at 3T and 7T: study of rotationally immobilized protein gels and animal brain tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hui; Inglis, Ben; Barr, Ian; Clarke, John

    2015-03-01

    Clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines operating in static fields of typically 1.5 T or 3 T can capture information on slow molecular dynamics utilizing the so-called T1rho technique. This technique, in which a radiofrequency (RF) spin-lock field is applied with microtesla amplitude, has been used, for example, to determine the onset time of stroke in studies on rats. The long RF pulse, however, may exceed the specific absorption rate (SAR) limit, putting subjects at risk. Ultra-low-field (ULF) MRI, based on Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), directly detects proton signals at a static magnetic field of typically 50-250 μT. Using our ULF MRI system with adjustable static field of typically 55 to 240 μT, we systematically measured the T1 and T2 dispersion profiles of rotationally immobilized protein gels (bovine serum albumin), ex vivo pig brains, and ex vivo rat brains with induced stroke. Comparing the ULF results with T1rho dispersion obtained at 3 T and 7 T, we find that the degree of protein immobilization determines the frequency-dependence of both T1 and T1rho. Furthermore, T1rho and ULF T1 show similar results for stroke, suggesting that ULF MRI may be used to image traumatic brain injury with negligible SAR. This research was supported by the Henry H. Wheeler, Jr. Brain Imaging Center and the Donaldson Trust.

  13. The deposition of Sm1Ba2Cu3O7-δ on SrTiO3 using co-evaporation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. S.; Ha, H. S.; Kim, T. H.; Yang, J. S.; Ko, R. K.; Song, K. J.; Ha, D. W.; Lee, N. J.; Oh, S. S.; Youm, D. J.; Park, Chan

    2007-09-01

    The SmBCO(Sm 1Ba 2Cu 3O 7- δ) films were deposited on SrTiO 3 substrates using co-evaporation method. The deposition system was specially designed, that is named evaporation using drum in dual chambers, as the following features. The deposition system consists of reaction chamber and evaporation one. The role of reaction chamber is for the deposited materials to react with oxygen gas, and that of the evaporation chamber is to evaporate the composing elements of SmBCO, respectively. The composition ratio of SmBCO is controlled by the deposition rate of each element. The drum of 50 cm of diameter and 72 cm of length is located between the reaction chamber and the evaporation chamber. By rotating the drum, deposition and reaction process are repeated. In this system, SmBCO films were deposited on SrTiO 3 single crystal substrates. We obtained Ic and Jc results of 83.3 A/cm and 2.1 MA/cm 2 at 77 K in self-field.

  14. 4-[(3-Benzamido­methyl-6-phenyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thia­diazin-7-yl)carbon­yl]-3-phenyl-1,2,3-oxadiazol-3-ium-5-olate 0.06-hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Hemamalini, Madhukar; Nithinchandra; Kalluraya, Balakrishna

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C27H21N7O4S·0.06H2O, contains four syndone mol­ecules and a water mol­ecule with a site occupancy of 0.25. In two of the syndone mol­ecules, three atoms in a terminal phenyl ring are disordered over two sets of sites, with occupancy ratios of 0.500 (18):0.500 (18) and 0.512 (17):0.488 (17). The dihedral angles between terminal phenyl rings for the syndone mol­ecules are 23.3 (4), 45.57 (16), 68.46 (16) and 56.5 (3)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are connected via N—H⋯N, N—H⋯O, O—H⋯O, O—H⋯N and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:21522639

  15. Identification of 1-{2-[4-chloro-1'-(2,2-dimethylpropyl)-7-hydroxy-1,2-dihydrospiro[indole-3,4'-piperidine]-1-yl]phenyl}-3-{5-chloro-[1,3]thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl}urea, a potent, efficacious and orally bioavailable P2Y(1) antagonist as an antiplatelet agent.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yoon T; Yang, Wu; Qiao, Jennifer X; Li, Ling; Ruel, Rejean; Thibeault, Carl; Hiebert, Sheldon; Wang, Tammy C; Wang, Yufeng; Liu, Yajun; Clark, Charles G; Wong, Henry S; Zhu, Juliang; Wu, Dauh-Rurng; Sun, Dawn; Chen, Bang-Chi; Mathur, Arvind; Chacko, Silvi A; Malley, Mary; Chen, Xue-Qing; Shen, Hong; Huang, Christine S; Schumacher, William A; Bostwick, Jeffrey S; Stewart, Anne B; Price, Laura A; Hua, Ji; Li, Danshi; Levesque, Paul C; Seiffert, Dietmar A; Rehfuss, Robert; Wexler, Ruth R; Lam, Patrick Y S

    2014-03-01

    Spiropiperidine indoline-substituted diaryl ureas had been identified as antagonists of the P2Y1 receptor. Enhancements in potency were realized through the introduction of a 7-hydroxyl substitution on the spiropiperidinylindoline chemotype. SAR studies were conducted to improve PK and potency, resulting in the identification of compound 3e, a potent, orally bioavailable P2Y1 antagonist with a suitable PK profile in preclinical species. Compound 3e demonstrated a robust antithrombotic effect in vivo and improved bleeding risk profile compared to the P2Y12 antagonist clopidogrel in rat efficacy/bleeding models. PMID:24513044

  16. Strain-mediated voltage control of magnetism in multiferroic Ni77Fe23/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ya; Hu, Jiamian; Shu, Li; Nan, C. W.

    2014-04-01

    Using voltage-modified anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) measurement, we demonstrated a strain-mediated voltage control of magnetism in multiferroic Ni77Fe23(NiFe, 10 nm)/Pb (Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3(PMN-PT, bulk crystal) heterostructure, even assuming a very small magnetostriction (˜0.3 ppm) for the NiFe film which has a composition close to bulk permalloy (Ni80Fe20). Influence of the magnitude of the rotating magnetic field used for AMR tests is studied. Combined AMR and theoretical analysis indicate the voltage-modified change in the magnetoresistance of the NiFe film arises from the reduced free energy barrier between the magnetic easy axis and hard axis via voltage-induced strains in the PMN-PT.

  17. Experimental and theoretical study on diethyl-(Z)-2-(5,7-diphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazepin-2-yl)-2-butenedioate using different levels of computational methods.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Z; Asnaashariisfahani, M B; Vessally, E; Esrafili, M D

    2015-04-01

    In this research work, diethyl-(Z)-2-(5,7-diphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazepin-2-yl)-2-butenedioate, 7, was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analyses and mass spectra. The reliabilities of various ab initio methods including HF and B3LYP were evaluated. The bond lengths, bond angles, dihedral angles, charge density on atoms at 7 were calculated. The ab initio calculations indicated that the B3LYP method with a 6-311++G(d,p) basis set can give accurate results. The 13C NMR and 1H NMR chemical shifts of 7 calculated and compared with the related experimental data. The HOMO, LUMO, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) of 7 were investigated. The thermodynamic parameters and physico-chemical properties were calculated.

  18. Thermodynamical properties of (Pr{sub 1−y}Sm{sub y}){sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}CoO{sub 3} (0 ≤ y ≤ 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, Rasna; Thakur, Rajesh K.; Gaur, N.K.

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: Computed specific heat of (Pr{sub 1−y}Sm{sub y}){sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}CoO{sub 3} (0 ≤ y ≤ 1) for the temperature range 1 K ≤ T ≤ 300 K. The curves of higher doping are shifted upward by 10 J each from the preceding curve for clarity. Highlights: ► The negative values of cohesive energy show the stability of (Pr{sub 1−y}Sm{sub y}){sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}CoO{sub 3} (0 ≤ y ≤ 1) compounds. ► Our results on specific heat are in good agreement with the experimental data. ► The stability of (Pr{sub 1−y}Sm{sub y}){sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}CoO{sub 3} (0 ≤ y ≤ 1) perovskite increases with the Sm substitution. - Abstract: The thermodynamical and allied properties of (Pr{sub 1−y}Sm{sub y}){sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}CoO{sub 3} (0 ≤ y ≤ 1) were investigated in this paper by means of a modified rigid ion model (MRIM) with pair wise interatomic interaction potential. The calculated specific heat, bulk modulus, and other thermal properties reproduce well with the available experimental data, implying that MRIM represents properly the nature of the perovskite type cobaltates. The specific heats are found to increase with temperature and decrease with concentration (y) for the present cobaltates. The increase in Debye temperature (θ{sub D}) indicates an anomalous softening of the lattice specific heat due to increase in T{sup 3}-term in the specific heat occurs with the decrease of y.

  19. High -- Resolution Laser Spectroscopy of the a 3Π1 ← X 1σ+ System of ICl in 0.7 μm Region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimiya, Nobuo; Yukiya, Tokio; Suzuki, Masao; Le Roy, Robert J.

    2015-06-01

    Spectroscopic data for the A 3Π1 and X 1σ+ states of I35/37Cl have been obtained by many researchers using grating spectrometers and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers. In a previous paper we reported the measurement of doppler limited electronic vib-rotational absorption lines of the A 3Π1 ← X 1σ+ system of I35/37Cl using a source modulation method, and new Mass-reduced Dunham coefficients were reported for the X-state. However, it is becoming increasingly common to analyse diatomic molecule spectroscopic data using the ``direct-potential-fit'' (DPF) method in which observed transition energies are fitted to simulated spectra generated from analyic models for the potential energy function(s). This method tends to require fewer fitting parameters than traditional Dunham analyses, as well as having more robust extrapolation properties in both the v and J domains. The present work combines all available previously reported data for the A 3Π1 and X 1σ+ states with new measurements up to v'=10 in the 0.7μm region obtained with a tone burst method using a Ti:Sapphire Ring Laser (M Squared Ltd SolsTis CW with Tera scan) in the the first DPF analysis reported for this system. The results of this study and our new fully analytic potential energy functions for the A 3Π1 and X 1σ+ states of ICl will be presented. J.A. Coxon, R.M. Gordon and M.A. Wickramaaratchi, J. Mol. Spectr. 79 (1983) 363, 380. H. Hedderich P.F. Bernath and G.A. McRae J. Mol. Spectr. 155 (1992) 384. T.Yukiya, N. Nishimiya and M. Suzuki, J. Mol. Spectr. 269 (2011) 193.

  20. A CANDELS-3D-HST synergy: Resolved star formation patterns at 0.7 < z < 1.5

    SciTech Connect

    Wuyts, Stijn; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Genzel, Reinhard; Lutz, Dieter; Rosario, David; Nelson, Erica J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Momcheva, Ivelina; Brammer, Gabe; Chang, Yu-Yen; Faber, Sandra M.; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Kocevski, Dale D.; Lundgren, Britt; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; and others

    2013-12-20

    We analyze the resolved stellar populations of 473 massive star-forming galaxies at 0.7 < z < 1.5, with multi-wavelength broadband imaging from CANDELS and Hα surface brightness profiles at the same kiloparsec resolution from 3D-HST. Together, this unique data set sheds light on how the assembled stellar mass is distributed within galaxies, and where new stars are being formed. We find the Hα morphologies to resemble more closely those observed in the ACS I band than in the WFC3 H band, especially for the larger systems. We next derive a novel prescription for Hα dust corrections, which accounts for extra extinction toward H II regions. The prescription leads to consistent star formation rate (SFR) estimates and reproduces the observed relation between the Hα/UV luminosity ratio and visual extinction, on both a pixel-by-pixel and a galaxy-integrated level. We find the surface density of star formation to correlate with the surface density of assembled stellar mass for spatially resolved regions within galaxies, akin to the so-called 'main sequence of star formation' established on a galaxy-integrated level. Deviations from this relation toward lower equivalent widths are found in the inner regions of galaxies. Clumps and spiral features, on the other hand, are associated with enhanced Hα equivalent widths, bluer colors, and higher specific SFRs compared to the underlying disk. Their Hα/UV luminosity ratio is lower than that of the underlying disk, suggesting that the ACS clump selection preferentially picks up those regions of elevated star formation activity that are the least obscured by dust. Our analysis emphasizes that monochromatic studies of galaxy structure can be severely limited by mass-to-light ratio variations due to dust and spatially inhomogeneous star formation histories.

  1. Phosphate Tether-Mediated Ring-Closing Metathesis for the Generation of P-Stereogenic, Z-Configured Bicyclo[7.3.1]- and Bicyclo[8.3.1]phosphates.

    PubMed

    Markley, Jana L; Maitra, Soma; Hanson, Paul R

    2016-02-01

    A phosphate tether-mediated ring-closing metathesis (RCM) study to the synthesis of Z-configured, P-stereogenic bicyclo[7.3.1]- and bicyclo[8.3.1]phosphates is reported. Investigations suggest that C3-substitution, olefin substitution, and proximity of the forming olefin to the bridgehead carbon of the bicyclic affect the efficiency and stereochemical outcome of the RCM event. This study demonstrates the utility of phosphate tether-mediated desymmetrization of C2-symmetric, 1,3-anti-diol-containing dienes in the generation of macrocyclic phosphates with potential synthetic and biological utility.

  2. Phosphate Tether-Mediated Ring-Closing Metathesis for the Generation of P-Stereogenic, Z-Configured Bicyclo[7.3.1]- and Bicyclo[8.3.1]phosphates.

    PubMed

    Markley, Jana L; Maitra, Soma; Hanson, Paul R

    2016-02-01

    A phosphate tether-mediated ring-closing metathesis (RCM) study to the synthesis of Z-configured, P-stereogenic bicyclo[7.3.1]- and bicyclo[8.3.1]phosphates is reported. Investigations suggest that C3-substitution, olefin substitution, and proximity of the forming olefin to the bridgehead carbon of the bicyclic affect the efficiency and stereochemical outcome of the RCM event. This study demonstrates the utility of phosphate tether-mediated desymmetrization of C2-symmetric, 1,3-anti-diol-containing dienes in the generation of macrocyclic phosphates with potential synthetic and biological utility. PMID:26794367

  3. Electron-impact excitation of the Rb 7 2S1/2, 8 2S1/2, 5 2D3/2, and 6 2D3/2 states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zuyi; Flynn, Connor; Redd, Aaron; Stumpf, Bernhard

    1993-03-01

    Electron-impact cross sections for excitation of the 7 2S1/2, 8 2S1/2, 5 2D3/2, and 6 2D3/2 states of rubidium have been measured from threshold to 1000 eV. The optical-excitation-function method has been employed in a crossed atom- and electron-beam apparatus. Relative, total (cascade including) experimental cross sections are made absolute by comparison with the known total cross section of the Rb D1 line. Total excitation cross sections are compared with theoretical calculations employing first Born approximation and theoretical branching ratios. Born cross sections for the 7 2S1/2 and 8 2S1/2 states are obtained from the literature, while Born cross sections for the 5 2D3/2, 6 2D3/2, and all cascading states are calculated in this paper. At high energies, the measured total 2D3/2 state cross sections show 1/E behavior and converge to first Born theory; for E>100 eV, experiment and theory agree within 6.7% for 5 2D3/2 and within 3.7% for 6 2D3/2. The total cross sections for the 2S1/2 states do not converge to Born theory even at 1000 eV, and it is shown that this cannot be attributed to cascading. At low energies, 2S1/2 and 2D3/2 state total excitation cross sections have similar shapes with sharply peaked maxima at about 0.9 eV above threshold. After cascading is corrected using first Born theory, estimated experimental cross sections for direct excitation of higher fine-structure states of rubidium are given.

  4. Neutron and magnetic studies of L a0.7S r0.3M n1 -xC rxO3 (x ≤0.7 ) : A homogeneous charge-ordered system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creel, Thomas F.; Yang, Jinbo; Malik, Satish K.; Quezado, S.; Pringle, O. A.; Yelon, William B.; James, William J.

    2016-02-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of L a0.7S r0.3M n1 -xC rxO3(0 7 ) have been studied in order to determine the effect of substitution of C r3 + for M n3 + . The data consist of neutron and x-ray powder-diffraction and magnetization measurements. We previously suggested these systems transition from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic ordering with the intermediate concentrations containing coexisting ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic domains. Upon further detailed examination, we find that the neutron data can be fit using a single homogeneous long-range magnetically ordered state and compositionally dependent charge ordering. The magnetic structures are controlled by the competition between Mn-Mn, Mn-Cr, and Cr-Cr interactions (double exchange and superexchange). The metal to semimetal and semimetal to insulator transitions can be quantitatively described as due to the localization effect of superexchange. The presence of charge ordered states in the insulating region arises from the favorable energetics of M n4 +-O -C r3 + superexchange bonds relative to M n3 +-O -C r3 + bonds.

  5. Onset of spermatogenesis is accelerated by gestational administration of 1,2,3,4,6,7-hexachlorinated naphthalene in male rat offspring.

    PubMed Central

    Omura, M; Masuda, Y; Hirata, M; Tanaka, A; Makita, Y; Ogata, R; Inoue, N

    2000-01-01

    We treated pregnant rats with 1 microg/kg body weight/day 1,2,3,4,6,7-hexachlorinated naphthalene (1,2,3,4,6,7-HxCN) on days 14-16 of gestation and examined the effects on the reproductive systems of their male offspring at various phases of sexual maturation. Sperm count in the cauda epididymidis did not change in 1,2,3,4,6, 7-HxCN-treated rats on postnatal day 89, the age of sexual maturity, but the sperm count in the cauda epididymidis did increase to approximately 180% of the control value on postnatal day 62. In addition, homogenization-resistant testicular spermatids increased to approximately 160% of the control value on postnatal day 48, and the percent of postmeiotic tubules increased to approximately 190% of the control value on postnatal day 31 in this group. These results indicate that the onset of spermatogenesis was accelerated in the 1,2,3,4,6,7-HxCN rats. Serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) had already reached the maximum level on postnatal day 31 in the 1,2,3,4,6, 7-HxCN group, suggesting that the onset of LH and FSH secretions from the pituitary gland was also accelerated and that this endocrine disruption was the cause of early onset of spermatogenesis in this group. In the fat of 1,2,3,4,6,7-HxCN-treated dams, 5.75+/-2.81 ppb 1,2,3,4,6,7-HxCN was detected when offspring were weaned. This concentration was 5-10 times higher than that found in human adipose tissue. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10856028

  6. Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression: Related yet Unique Language Systems in Grades 1, 3, 5, and 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Age-normed tests of listening comprehension, oral expression, reading comprehension, and written expression were administered in Grades 1 (n = 128), 3, and 5, or 3 (n = 113), 5, and 7. Confirmatory factor analyses compared 1- and 4-factor models at each grade level and supported a 4-factor model of language by ear, mouth, eye, and hand. Multiple…

  7. Crystal Structural Analyses of Ferrielectric Tetragonal (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-7%BaTiO3 Powders and Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitanaka, Yuuki; Ogino, Motohiro; Hirano, Kiyotaka; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru; Kagawa, Yutaka; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro; Torii, Shuki; Kamiyama, Takeshi

    2013-09-01

    We have investigated the crystal structure of (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-7%BaTiO3 (BNT-7%BT) by high-resolution neutron powder diffraction (NPD) and high-energy synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) analyses. The NPD study revealed that the BNT-7%BT crystals have a single-phase tetragonal structure with P4bm symmetry. The crystal structure refined by the Rietveld method was found to be similar to the ferrielectric P4bm phase reported for BNT at a high temperature of 673 K. The SR-XRD analyses for single crystals of BNT-7%BT demonstrated that the P4bm phase remains as a stable phase in the crystals even after a high electric field is applied for poling, which is different from the structural analysis of ceramics by Ma et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 (2012) 107602].

  8. The antidepressant-like effect of 7-fluoro-1,3-diphenylisoquinoline-1-amine in the mouse forced swimming test is mediated by serotonergic and dopaminergic systems.

    PubMed

    Pesarico, Ana Paula; Sampaio, Tuane Bazanella; Stangherlin, Eluza Curte; Mantovani, Anderson C; Zeni, Gilson; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of monoaminergic system in the antidepressant-like action of 7-fluoro-1,3-diphenylisoquinoline-1-amine (FDPI), a derivative of isoquinoline class, in Swiss mice. The antidepressant-like effect of FDPI was characterized in the modified forced swimming test (FST) and the possible mechanism of action was investigated by using serotonergic, dopaminergic and noradrenergic antagonists. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and [(3)H]serotonin (5-HT) uptake were determined in prefrontal cortices of mice. The results showed that FDPI (1, 10 and 20mg/kg, i.g.) reduced the immobility time and increased the swimming time but did not alter climbing time in the modified FST. These effects were similar to those of paroxetine (8mg/kg, i.p.), a positive control. Pretreatments with p-chlorophenylalanine (100mg/kg, i.p., an inhibitor of 5-HT synthesis), WAY100635 (0.1mg/kg, s.c., 5-HT1A antagonist), ondansetron (1mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist), haloperidol (0.2mg/kg, i.p., a non-selective D2 receptor antagonist) and SCH23390 (0.05mg/kg, s.c., a D1 receptor antagonist) were effective to block the antidepressant-like effect of FDPI at a dose of 1mg/kg in the FST. Ritanserin (1mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist), sulpiride (50mg/kg, i.p., a D2 and D3 receptor antagonist), prazosin (1mg/kg, i.p., an α1 receptor antagonist), yohimbine (1mg/kg, i.p., an α2 receptor antagonist) and propranolol (2mg/kg, i.p., a β receptor antagonist) did not modify the effect of FDPI in the FST. FDPI did not change synaptosomal [(3)H]5-HT uptake. At doses of 10 and 20mg/kg FDPI inhibited MAO-A and MAO-B activities. These results suggest that antidepressant-like effect of FDPI is mediated mostly by serotonergic and dopaminergic systems.

  9. Oncogenic kinase NPM/ALK induces through STAT3 expression of immunosuppressive protein CD274 (PD-L1, B7-H1).

    PubMed

    Marzec, Michal; Zhang, Qian; Goradia, Ami; Raghunath, Puthiyaveettil N; Liu, Xiaobin; Paessler, Michele; Wang, Hong Yi; Wysocka, Maria; Cheng, Mangeng; Ruggeri, Bruce A; Wasik, Mariusz A

    2008-12-30

    The mechanisms of malignant cell transformation caused by the oncogenic, chimeric nucleophosmin (NPM)/anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) remain only partially understood, with most of the previous studies focusing mainly on the impact of NPM/ALK on cell survival and proliferation. Here we report that the NPM/ALK-carrying T cell lymphoma (ALK+TCL) cells strongly express the immunosuppressive cell-surface protein CD274 (PD-L1, B7-H1), as determined on the mRNA and protein level. The CD274 expression is strictly dependent on the expression and enzymatic activity of NPM/ALK, as demonstrated by inhibition of the NPM/ALK function in ALK+TCL cells by the small molecule ALK inhibitor CEP-14083 and by documenting CD274 expression in IL-3-depleted BaF3 cells transfected with the wild-type NPM/ALK, but not the kinase-inactive NPM/ALK K210R mutant or empty vector alone. NPM/ALK induces CD274 expression by activating its key signal transmitter, transcription factor STAT3. STAT3 binds to the CD274 gene promoter in vitro and in vivo, as shown in the gel electromobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, and is required for the PD-L1 gene expression, as demonstrated by siRNA-mediated STAT3 depletion. These findings identify an additional cell-transforming property of NPM/ALK and describe a direct link between an oncoprotein and an immunosuppressive cell-surface protein. These results also provide an additional rationale to therapeutically target NPM/ALK and STAT3 in ALK+TCL. Finally, they suggest that future immunotherapeutic protocols for this type of lymphoma may need to include the inhibition of NPM/ALK and STAT3 to achieve optimal clinical efficacy.

  10. Supramolecular hydrogen-bonding patterns in two cocrystals of the N(7)-H tautomeric form of N(6)-benzoyladenine: N(6)-benzoyladenine-3-hydroxypyridinium-2-carboxylate (1/1) and N(6)-benzoyladenine-DL-tartaric acid (1/1).

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Ammasai; Swinton Darious, Robert; Thomas Muthiah, Packianathan; Perdih, Franc

    2015-11-01

    Two novel cocrystals of the N(7)-H tautomeric form of N(6)-benzoyladenine (BA), namely N(6)-benzoyladenine-3-hydroxypyridinium-2-carboxylate (3HPA) (1/1), C12H9N5O·C6H5NO3, (I), and N(6)-benzoyladenine-DL-tartaric acid (TA) (1/1), C12H9N5O·C4H6O6, (II), are reported. In both cocrystals, the N(6)-benzoyladenine molecule exists as the N(7)-H tautomer, and this tautomeric form is stabilized by intramolecular N-H···O hydrogen bonding between the benzoyl C=O group and the N(7)-H hydrogen on the Hoogsteen site of the purine ring, forming an S(7) motif. The dihedral angle between the adenine and phenyl planes is 0.94 (8)° in (I) and 9.77 (8)° in (II). In (I), the Watson-Crick face of BA (N6-H and N1; purine numbering) interacts with the carboxylate and phenol groups of 3HPA through N-H···O and O-H···N hydrogen bonds, generating a ring-motif heterosynthon [graph set R2(2)(6)]. However, in (II), the Hoogsteen face of BA (benzoyl O atom and N7; purine numbering) interacts with TA (hydroxy and carbonyl O atoms) through N-H···O and O-H···O hydrogen bonds, generating a different heterosynthon [graph set R2(2)(4)]. Both crystal structures are further stabilized by π-π stacking interactions. PMID:26524172

  11. Electric field mediated non-volatile tuning magnetism at the single-crystalline Fe/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Wang, Fenglong; Dong, Chunhui; Gao, Cunxu; Jia, Chenglong; Jiang, Changjun; Xue, Desheng

    2015-02-01

    We report non-volatile electric-field control of magnetism modulation in Fe/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) heterostructure by fabricating an epitaxial Fe layer on a PMN-PT substrate using a molecular beam epitaxy technique. The remnant magnetization with a different electric field shows a non-symmetric loop-like shape, which demonstrates a change of interfacial chemistry and a large magnetoelectric coupling in Fe/PMN-PT at room temperature to realize low loss multistate memory under an electric field. Fitting with the angular-dependence of the in-plane magnetization reveals that the magnetoelectric effect is dominated by the direct electric-field effect rather than the strain effect at the interface. The magnetoelectric effect and the induced surface anisotropy are found to be dependent on the Fe film thickness and are linear with respect to the applied electric field.

  12. Electric field tuning of non-volatile three-state magnetoelectric memory in FeCo-NiFe2O4/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Changjun; Zhang, Chao; Dong, Chunhui; Guo, Dangwei; Xue, Desheng

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate electric field impulse-induced reversible tristable magnetization switching in FeCo-NiFe2O4/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) heterostructures at room temperature. The magnetic properties of the FeCo-NiFe2O4 film can be changed reversibly by the strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling effect. Three piezostrain-mediated reversible and stable electric resistance states were obtained in the FeCo-NiFe2O4 film when different electric field impulses were applied, including large positive and negative fields and an impulse that was smaller than the electric coercive field. Consequently, reversible electric field impulse tuning of the tristable resistance state, which is related to the different magnetization switching properties of the materials, was realized. These results provide a promising approach for low loss multistate magnetoelectric memory devices for information storage applications.

  13. Electric field mediated non-volatile tuning magnetism at the single-crystalline Fe/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 interface.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Wang, Fenglong; Dong, Chunhui; Gao, Cunxu; Jia, Chenglong; Jiang, Changjun; Xue, Desheng

    2015-03-01

    We report non-volatile electric-field control of magnetism modulation in Fe/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) heterostructure by fabricating an epitaxial Fe layer on a PMN-PT substrate using a molecular beam epitaxy technique. The remnant magnetization with a different electric field shows a non-symmetric loop-like shape, which demonstrates a change of interfacial chemistry and a large magnetoelectric coupling in Fe/PMN-PT at room temperature to realize low loss multistate memory under an electric field. Fitting with the angular-dependence of the in-plane magnetization reveals that the magnetoelectric effect is dominated by the direct electric-field effect rather than the strain effect at the interface. The magnetoelectric effect and the induced surface anisotropy are found to be dependent on the Fe film thickness and are linear with respect to the applied electric field.

  14. Postseismic relaxation following the 1992 M7.3 Landers and 1999 M7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Svarc, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Postseismic relaxation (measured postseismic deformation less the deformation that would have occurred at the preseismic rate) has been monitored at the same 10 monuments over ???6 years following both the 1992 Landers and the 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes. For both earthquakes the displacement components of the observed relaxation are well described by ??i + ??if1(t), where ??i and ??i are constants peculiar to each component at each monument, t is the time after the earthquake, and f1(t) is a temporal function common to all components and all monuments for that earthquake. The temporal fanction f1(t) can be approximated by bt + c loge(1 + t /??), where ?? = 38.7 ?? 15.2 days and 25.6 ?? 7.7 days for the Landers and Hector Mine relaxations, respectively. Because the estimated values of ?? do not differ significantly, the transient term loge(1 + t/??) in the temporal function may be the same for both earthquakes. The asymptotic (t ??? ???) relaxation rates ??ib are only a few mm/a and do not appear to be significantly different following the two earthquakes. The asymptotic deformation rates appear to be slightly greater than the preseismic deformation rates, but the preseismic rates were not measured directly. Thus, the deformations of the Landers array measured over the first 5.6 years following the Landers earthquake and over the first 6.4 years following the Hector Mine earthquake are generally consistent with a simple model in which the transient postearthquake relaxation depends upon time as loge(1 + t/??) with ?? = 28 ?? 5 days and the asymptotic postseismic speeds of the monuments exceed the preseismic speeds by at most only a few millimeters per annum.

  15. 7 CFR 632.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibilities. 632.3 Section 632.3 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL ABANDONED MINE PROGRAM General § 632.3 Responsibilities. (a) The Rural... accordance with the delegation of responsibility contained in § 601.1(h) of this chapter. (1) The Chief...

  16. 7 CFR 632.3 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibilities. 632.3 Section 632.3 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL ABANDONED MINE PROGRAM General § 632.3 Responsibilities. (a) The Rural... accordance with the delegation of responsibility contained in § 601.1(h) of this chapter. (1) The Chief...

  17. X-ray Mapping in Heterocyclic Design: XIV. Tricyclic Heterocycles Based on 2-Oxo-1,2,5,6,7,8-Hexahydroquinoline-3-Carbonitrile

    SciTech Connect

    Mazina, O.S.; Rybakov, V.B.; Chernyshev, V.V.; Babaev, E.V.; Aslanov, L.A.

    2004-11-01

    The structures of four compounds are studied using single-crystal X-ray diffraction: 1-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-oxoethyl]-2-oxo-1,2,5,6,7,8-hexahydroquinoline -3-carbonitrile [a = 4.908(4) A, b = 11.644(10) A, c = 13.587(2) A, {beta} = 94.31(5) deg., Z = 2, space group P2{sub 1}]; 2-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-oxoethoxy]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinoline -3-carbonitrile [a = 7.6142(8) A, b = 14.778(2) A, c = 14.132(2) A, {beta} = 100.38(1) deg., Z = 4, space group P2{sub 1}/c]; 4-(aminocarbonyl)-2-(chlorophenyl)-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro[1.3]oxazolo[3,2-a] quinolin-3-ium perchlorate [a = 5.589(7) A, b = 24.724(15) A, c = 13.727(5) A, {beta} = 97.66(9) deg., Z = 4, space group P2{sub 1}/n]; and (3-amino-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofuro[2,3-b]quinolin-2-yl)-(4-chlorophenyl) methanone [a = 7.150(2) A, b = 7.4288(10) A, c = 15.314(3) A, {alpha} = 98.030(10) deg., {beta} = 99.21(2) deg., {gamma} = 105.34(2) deg., Z = 2, space group P1-bar]. The structures are solved by direct methods and refined by the full-matrix least-squares procedure in the anisotropic approximation to R = 0.0728, 0.0439, 0.1228, and 0.0541, respectively. The structure of 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-piperidin-1-yl-8,9-dihydro-7H-pyrrolo[3.2.1-ij] quinoline-5-carboxamide [a = 23.9895(9) A, b = 5.1557(3) A, c = 17.0959(9) A, {beta} = 106.43 deg., Z = 4, space group P{sub 1}/c] is investigated by X-ray powder diffraction. This structure is solved using the grid search procedure and refined by the Rietveld method to R{sub wp} = 0.0773, R{sub exp} = 0.0540, R{sub p} = 0.0585, R{sub b} = 0.1107, and {chi}{sup 2} = 1.78.

  18. Improved electrochemical properties of Li(Ni0.6Mn0.2Co0.2)O2 by surface coating with Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ji-won; Lee, Jae-won

    2016-03-01

    LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 (C622) is one of the Ni-rich layer-structured cathode materials with a high capacity, but it suffers from a poor cycling stability and rate capability. In this study, Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP), a NASICON-type lithium-conductor, is coated on C622 by a sol-gel process to overcome the shortcomings of C622. We find that a 0.5 wt% coating of LATP on C622 significantly improves the cell performance including the discharge capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability. The pristine and LATP-coated samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). In addition, various electrochemical analyses such as cyclic-voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are conducted to determine the reason for the improvement of the cell performance. The cell performance of C622 is enhanced by a coating amount of less than 1.0 wt% and the overall performance degrades with the increase of the coating amount. The electrochemical analyses reveal that a high lithium-ion diffusion coefficient and a low interfacial resistance are the reasons for the improved cell performance; however, our study demonstrates that an excessive coating may degrade the cell performance, thereby acting as a barrier against the movement of lithium ions.

  19. PI3K-delta mediates double-stranded RNA-induced upregulation of B7-H1 in BEAS-2B airway epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kan-o, Keiko; Matsumoto, Koichiro; Asai-Tajiri, Yukari; Fukuyama, Satoru; Hamano, Saaka; Seki, Nanae; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2013-05-31

    Highlights: •Double-stranded RNA upregulates B7-H1 on BEAS-2B airway epithelial cells. •The upregulation of B7-H1 is attenuated by inhibition of PI3Kδ isoform. •PI3Kδ-mediated upregulation of B7-H1 is independent of NF-κB activation. •Inhibition of PI3Kδ may prevent persistent viral infection induced by B7-H1. -- Abstract: Airway viral infection disturbs the health-related quality of life. B7-H1 (also known as PD-L1) is a coinhibitory molecule associated with the escape of viruses from the mucosal immunity, leading to persistent infection. Most respiratory viruses generate double-stranded (ds) RNA during replication. The stimulation of cultured airway epithelial cells with an analog of viral dsRNA, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly IC) upregulates the expression of B7-H1 via activation of the nuclear factor κB(NF-κB). The mechanism of upregulation was investigated in association with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks). Poly IC-induced upregulation of B7-H1 was profoundly suppressed by a pan-PI3K inhibitor and partially by an inhibitor or a small interfering (si)RNA for PI3Kδ in BEAS-2B cells. Similar results were observed in the respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells. The expression of p110δ was detected by Western blot and suppressed by pretreatment with PI3Kδ siRNA. The activation of PI3Kδ is typically induced by oxidative stress. The generation of reactive oxygen species was increased by poly IC. Poly IC-induced upregulation of B7-H1 was attenuated by N-acetyl-L-cysteine, an antioxidant, or by oxypurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. Poly IC-induced activation of NF-κB was suppressed by a pan-PI3K inhibitor but not by a PI3Kδ inhibitor. These results suggest that PI3Kδ mediates dsRNA-induced upregulation of B7-H1 without affecting the activation of NF-κB.

  20. ACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN DESATURASE2 and 3 Are Responsible for Making Omega-7 Fatty Acids in the Arabidopsis Aleurone1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Fiona M.; Munoz-Azcarate, Olaya; Kurup, Smita; Eastmond, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Omega-7 monounsaturated fatty acids (ω-7s) are specifically enriched in the aleurone of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. We found significant natural variation in seed ω-7 content and used a Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross population to fine-map a major quantitative trait loci to a region containing ACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN DESATURASE1 (AAD1) and AAD3. We found that AAD3 expression is localized to the aleurone where mutants show an approximately 50% reduction in ω-7 content. By contrast, AAD1 is localized to the embryo where mutants show a small reduction in ω-9 content. Enzymatic analysis has previously shown that AAD family members possess both stearoyl- and palmitoyl-ACP Δ9 desaturase activity, including the predominant isoform SUPPRESSOR OF SALICYLIC ACID INSENSITIVE2. However, aad3 ssi2 aleurone contained the same amount of ω-7s as aad3. Within the AAD family, AAD3 shares the highest degree of sequence similarity with AAD2 and AAD4. Mutant analysis showed that AAD2 also contributes to ω-7 production in the aleurone, and aad3 aad2 exhibits an approximately 85% reduction in ω-7s. Mutant analysis also showed that FATTY ACID ELONGASE1 is required for the production of very long chain ω-7s in the aleurone. Together, these data provide genetic evidence that the ω-7 pathway proceeds via Δ9 desaturation of palmitoyl-ACP followed by elongation of the product. Interestingly, significant variation was also identified in the ω-7 content of Brassica napus aleurone, with the highest level detected being approximately 47% of total fatty acids. PMID:27462083

  1. 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-4-yl-labeled phospholipids in lipid membranes: differences in fluorescence behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Mazères, S; Schram, V; Tocanne, J F; Lopez, A

    1996-01-01

    Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence properties of the 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1, 3-diazole-4-yl (NBD) fluorophore attached either to the sn-2 acyl chain of various phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidic acid) or to the polar headgroup of phosphatidylethanolamine were studied after insertion of these NBD-labeled lipid probes into unilamellar vesicles of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylserine. The fluorescence response of the NBD group was observed to strongly depend on the chemical structure and physical state of the host phospholipids and on the chemical structure of the lipid probe itself. Among the various fluorescence parameters studied, i.e., Stokes' shifts, lifetimes, and quantum yields, the quantum yields were by far the most affected by these structural and environmental factors, whereas the Stokes' shifts were practically unaffected. Thus, depending on the phospholipid probe and the host phospholipid, the fluorescence emission of the NBD group was found to vary by a factor of up to 5. Careful analysis of the data shows that for the various couples of probe and host lipid molecules studied, deexcitation of the fluorophore was dominated by nonradiative deactivation processes. This great sensitivity of the NBD group to environmental factors originates from its well-known solvatochromic properties, and comparison of these knr values with those obtained for n-propylamino-NBD in a set of organic solvents covering a large scale of polarity indicates that in phospholipids, the NBD fluorophore experiences a dielectric constant of around 27-41, corresponding to a medium of relatively high polarity. From these epsilon values and on the basis of models of the dielectric transition that characterizes any water-phospholipid interface, it can be inferred that for all of the phospholipid probes and host phospholipids tested, the NBD group is located in the region of

  2. 1-Ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-quinoline-3-carb oxylic acid, a new fluorinated compounds of oxacin family with high broad-spectrum antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Stefancich, G; Artico, M; Corelli, F; Massa, S; Panico, S; Simonetti, N

    1985-04-01

    The synthesis of 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)quinoline-3-carboxy lic acid, a new fluorinated high broad-spectrum antibacterial agent related to nalidixic acid is described. The title compound has been prepared by the reaction of 4-fluoro-3-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)aniline with diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate, cyclization of the malonate obtained to the quinolinecarboxylate ester, ethylation of the ester, followed by hydrolysis with aqueous sodium hydroxide. The new derivative proved very active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Its activities in comparison with those of nalidixic acid, pipemidic acid, piromidic acid and enoxacin were found to be greatly superior with regard to the unfluorinated compounds and somewhat superior also to enoxacin. The known 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)quinoline-3- carboxylic acid, here prepared by catalytic hydrogenation of the pyrrole moiety of the title compound, has been found to be less active as an antibacterial agent. PMID:3926533

  3. Hopping and band mobilities of pentacene, rubrene, and 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) from first principle calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hajime; Kobayashi, Norihito; Hosoi, Shizuka; Koshitani, Naoki; Murakami, Daisuke; Shirasawa, Raku; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Hobara, Daisuke; Tokita, Yuichi; Itabashi, Masao

    2013-07-01

    Hopping and band mobilities of holes in organic semiconductors at room temperature were estimated from first principle calculations. Relaxation times of charge carriers were evaluated using the acoustic deformation potential model. It is found that van der Waals interactions play an important role in determining accurate relaxation times. The hopping mobilities of pentacene, rubrene, and 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) in bulk single crystalline structures were found to be smaller than 4 cm2/Vs, whereas the band mobilities were estimated between 36 and 58 cm2/Vs, which are close to the maximum reported experimental values. This strongly suggests that band conductivity is dominant in these materials even at room temperature.

  4. Hopping and band mobilities of pentacene, rubrene, and 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) from first principle calculations.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hajime; Kobayashi, Norihito; Hosoi, Shizuka; Koshitani, Naoki; Murakami, Daisuke; Shirasawa, Raku; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Hobara, Daisuke; Tokita, Yuichi; Itabashi, Masao

    2013-07-01

    Hopping and band mobilities of holes in organic semiconductors at room temperature were estimated from first principle calculations. Relaxation times of charge carriers were evaluated using the acoustic deformation potential model. It is found that van der Waals interactions play an important role in determining accurate relaxation times. The hopping mobilities of pentacene, rubrene, and 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) in bulk single crystalline structures were found to be smaller than 4 cm(2)∕Vs, whereas the band mobilities were estimated between 36 and 58 cm(2)∕Vs, which are close to the maximum reported experimental values. This strongly suggests that band conductivity is dominant in these materials even at room temperature. PMID:23822320

  5. Prenatal 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl exposure modulates induction of rat hepatic CYP 1A1, 1B1, and AhR by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene

    SciTech Connect

    Wakui, Shin . E-mail: wakui@azabu-u.ac.jp; Yokoo, Kiyofumi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Muto, Tomoko; Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Hano, Hiroshi; Furusato, Masakuni; Endou, Hitoshi

    2006-02-01

    We previously reported the finding that prenatal exposure to a relatively low dose of PCB126 increases the rate of DMBA-induced rat mammary carcinoma, while a high dose decreased it. One of the most important factors determining the sensitivity to mammary carcinogenesis is the metabolic stage at administration of the carcinogenic agent. DMBA is a procarcinogen that recruits the host metabolism to yield its ultimate carcinogenic form, and CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 (CYP1) conduct this metabolism. We investigated the hepatic expression of CYP1 and AhR following oral administration of DMBA (100 mg/kg b.w.) (i.g.) to 50-day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats whose dams had been treated (i.g.) with 2.5 ng, 250 ng, 7.5 {mu}g of PCB126/kg or the vehicle on days 13 to 19 post-conception. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the prenatal exposure to a relatively low dose of PCB126 (the 250 ng group) prolonged the higher expression of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and AhR mRNA, while prenatal exposure to a high dose of PCB126 (the 7.5 {mu}g group) prolonged the higher expression of CYP1A1 and AhR mRNA. Western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses were consistent with mRNAs changes. Because DMBA oxidation produces a highly mutagenic metabolite and is finally catalyzed by CYP1B1, a relatively low PCB126 dose might produce the biological character to potentially increase the risk of DMBA-induced mammary carcinoma.

  6. Sulforaphane inhibits CYP1A1 activity and promotes genotoxicity induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Fangxing; Zhuang, Shulin; Zhang, Chao; Dai, Heping; Liu, Weiping

    2013-06-15

    Increasing environmental pollution by carcinogens such as some of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has prompted growing interest in searching for chemopreventive compounds which are readily obtainable. Sulforaphane (SFN) is isolated from cruciferous vegetables and has the potentials to reduce carcinogenesis through various pathways. In this study, we studied the effects of SFN on CYP1A1 activity and genotoxicity induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The results showed that SFN inhibited TCDD-induced CYP1A1 activity in H4IIE cells by directly inhibiting CYP1A1 activity, probably through binding to aryl hydrocarbon receptor and/or CYP1A1 revealed by molecular docking. However, SFN promoted TCDD-induced DNA damage in yeast cells and reduced the viability of initiated yeast cells. Besides, it is surprising that SFN also failed to reduce genotoxicity induced by other genotoxic reagents which possess different mechanisms to lead to DNA damage. Currently, it is difficult to predict whether SFN has the potentials to reduce the risk of TCDD based on the conflicting observations in the study. Therefore, further studies should be urgent to reveal the function and mechanism of SFN in the stress of such POPs on human health. - Highlights: • Sulforaphane inhibited TCDD-induced CYP1A1 activity in H4IIE cells. • Sulforaphane may bind to aryl hydrocarbon receptor and/or CYP1A1. • Sulforaphane promoted TCDD-induced DNA damage in yeast cells. • Sulforaphane may promote DNA damage by DNA strand breaks or DNA alkylation.

  7. (S,Z)-3-Phenyl-2-[(1,1,1-tri­chloro-7-meth­oxy-2,7-dioxohept-3-en-4-yl)amino]­propanoic acid monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Alex Fabiani Claro; Vicenti, Juliano Rosa de Menezes; Pizzuti, Lucas; Campos, Patrick Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C17H18Cl3NO5·H2O, intra­molecular N—H⋯O and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds form S(6) and S(5) ring motifs, respectively. The chiral organic mol­ecule is connected to the solvent water mol­ecule by a short O—H⋯O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, a weak C—H⋯Cl inter­action connects the organic mol­ecules along [100] while the water mol­ecules act as bridges between the organic mol­ecules in both the [100] and [010] directions, generating layers parallel to the ab plane. PMID:24764886

  8. In Silico Exploration of 1,7-Diazacarbazole Analogs as Checkpoint Kinase 1 Inhibitors by Using 3D QSAR, Molecular Docking Study, and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaodong; Han, Liping; Ren, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is an important serine/threonine kinase with a self-protection function. The combination of Chk1 inhibitors and anti-cancer drugs can enhance the selectivity of tumor therapy. In this work, a set of 1,7-diazacarbazole analogs were identified as potent Chk1 inhibitors through a series of computer-aided drug design processes, including three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) modeling, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulations. The optimal QSAR models showed significant cross-validated correlation q² values (0.531, 0.726), fitted correlation r² coefficients (higher than 0.90), and standard error of prediction (less than 0.250). These results suggested that the developed models possess good predictive ability. Moreover, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were applied to highlight the important interactions between the ligand and the Chk1 receptor protein. This study shows that hydrogen bonding and electrostatic forces are key interactions that confer bioactivity. PMID:27164065

  9. Independent action between DvSnf7 RNA and Cry3Bb1 protein in southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi and Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Levine, Steven L; Tan, Jianguo; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Bachman, Pamela M; Jensen, Peter D; Uffman, Joshua P

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, corn rootworm (CRW)-resistant maize events producing two or more CRW-active Bt proteins have been commercialized to enhance efficacy against the target pest(s) by providing multiple modes of action (MoA). The maize hybrid MON 87411 has been developed that produces the CRW-active Cry3Bb1 Bt protein (hereafter Cry3Bb1) and expresses a RNAi-mediated MoA that also targets CRW. As part of an environmental risk assessment for MON 87411, the potential for an interaction between the CRW-active DvSnf7 RNA (hereafter DvSnf7) and Cry3Bb1 was assessed in 12-day diet incorporation bioassays with the southern corn rootworm (SCR, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi). The potential for an interaction between DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 was evaluated with two established experimental approaches. The first approach evaluated each substance alone and in combination over three different response levels. For all three response levels, observed responses were shown to be additive and not significantly different from predicted responses under the assumption of independent action. The second approach evaluated the potential for a fixed sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 to decrease the median lethal concentration (LC50) of DvSnf7 and vice-versa. With this approach, the LC50 value of DvSnf7 was not altered by a sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 and vice-versa. In addition, the potential for an interaction between the Cry3Bb1 and DvSnf7 was tested with Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata), which is sensitive to Cry3Bb1 but not DvSnf7. CPB assays also demonstrated that DvSnf7 does not alter the activity of Cry3Bb1. The results from this study provide multiple lines of evidence that DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 produced in MON 87411 have independent action. PMID:25734482

  10. Independent Action between DvSnf7 RNA and Cry3Bb1 Protein in Southern Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi and Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Steven L.; Tan, Jianguo; Mueller, Geoffrey M.; Bachman, Pamela M.; Jensen, Peter D.; Uffman, Joshua P.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, corn rootworm (CRW)-resistant maize events producing two or more CRW-active Bt proteins have been commercialized to enhance efficacy against the target pest(s) by providing multiple modes of action (MoA). The maize hybrid MON 87411 has been developed that produces the CRW-active Cry3Bb1 Bt protein (hereafter Cry3Bb1) and expresses a RNAi-mediated MoA that also targets CRW. As part of an environmental risk assessment for MON 87411, the potential for an interaction between the CRW-active DvSnf7 RNA (hereafter DvSnf7) and Cry3Bb1 was assessed in 12-day diet incorporation bioassays with the southern corn rootworm (SCR, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi). The potential for an interaction between DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 was evaluated with two established experimental approaches. The first approach evaluated each substance alone and in combination over three different response levels. For all three response levels, observed responses were shown to be additive and not significantly different from predicted responses under the assumption of independent action. The second approach evaluated the potential for a fixed sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 to decrease the median lethal concentration (LC50) of DvSnf7 and vice-versa. With this approach, the LC50 value of DvSnf7 was not altered by a sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 and vice-versa. In addition, the potential for an interaction between the Cry3Bb1 and DvSnf7 was tested with Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata), which is sensitive to Cry3Bb1 but not DvSnf7. CPB assays also demonstrated that DvSnf7 does not alter the activity of Cry3Bb1. The results from this study provide multiple lines of evidence that DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 produced in MON 87411 have independent action. PMID:25734482

  11. Independent action between DvSnf7 RNA and Cry3Bb1 protein in southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi and Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Levine, Steven L; Tan, Jianguo; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Bachman, Pamela M; Jensen, Peter D; Uffman, Joshua P

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, corn rootworm (CRW)-resistant maize events producing two or more CRW-active Bt proteins have been commercialized to enhance efficacy against the target pest(s) by providing multiple modes of action (MoA). The maize hybrid MON 87411 has been developed that produces the CRW-active Cry3Bb1 Bt protein (hereafter Cry3Bb1) and expresses a RNAi-mediated MoA that also targets CRW. As part of an environmental risk assessment for MON 87411, the potential for an interaction between the CRW-active DvSnf7 RNA (hereafter DvSnf7) and Cry3Bb1 was assessed in 12-day diet incorporation bioassays with the southern corn rootworm (SCR, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi). The potential for an interaction between DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 was evaluated with two established experimental approaches. The first approach evaluated each substance alone and in combination over three different response levels. For all three response levels, observed responses were shown to be additive and not significantly different from predicted responses under the assumption of independent action. The second approach evaluated the potential for a fixed sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 to decrease the median lethal concentration (LC50) of DvSnf7 and vice-versa. With this approach, the LC50 value of DvSnf7 was not altered by a sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 and vice-versa. In addition, the potential for an interaction between the Cry3Bb1 and DvSnf7 was tested with Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata), which is sensitive to Cry3Bb1 but not DvSnf7. CPB assays also demonstrated that DvSnf7 does not alter the activity of Cry3Bb1. The results from this study provide multiple lines of evidence that DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 produced in MON 87411 have independent action.

  12. We are Family: the Conformations of 1-FLUOROALKANES, C_nH2n+1F (n = 2,3,4,5,6,7,8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obenchain, Daniel A.; Orellana, W.; Cooke, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    he pure rotational spectra of the n = 5, 6, 7, and 8 members of the 1-fluoroalkane family have been recorded between 7 GHz and 14 GHz using chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. The spectra have been analyzed and results will be presented and compared with previous work on the n= 2, 3, and 4 members. The lowest energy conformer for all family members has the common feature that the fluorine is in a gauche position relative to the alkyl tail for which all other heavy atom dihedral angles, where appropriate, are 180 degrees. For the n = 3 and higher family members the second lowest energy conformer has all heavy atom dihedral angles equal to 180 degrees. For each family member transitions carried by both low energy conformers were observed in the collected rotational spectra. Quantum chemical calculations were performed and trends in the energy separations between these two common conformers will be presented as a function of chain length. Furthermore, longer chain lengths have been examined using only quantum chemical calculations and results will be presented. M. Hayashi, M. Fujitake, T. Inagusa, S. Miyazaki, J.Mol.Struct., 216, 9-26, 1990 W. Caminati, A. C. Fantoni, F. Manescalchi, F. Scappini, Mol.Phys., 64, 1089 ,1988 L. B. Favero, A. Maris, A. Degli Esposti, P. G. Favero, W. Caminati, G. Pawelke, Chem.Eur.J., 6(16), 3018-3025, 2000

  13. Persistent activation by constitutive Ste7 promotes Kss1-mediated invasive growth but fails to support Fus3-dependent mating in yeast.

    PubMed

    Maleri, Seth; Ge, Qingyuan; Hackett, Elizabeth A; Wang, Yuqi; Dohlman, Henrik G; Errede, Beverly

    2004-10-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase-Ste11 (MAPKKK-Ste11), MAPKK-Ste7, and MAPK-Kss1 mediate pheromone-induced mating differentiation and nutrient-responsive invasive growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mating pathway also requires the scaffold-Ste5 and the additional MAPK-Fus3. One contribution to specificity in this system is thought to come from stimulus-dependent recruitment of the MAPK cascade to upstream activators that are unique to one or the other pathway. To test this premise, we asked if stimulus-independent signaling by constitutive Ste7 would lead to a loss of biological specificity. Instead, we found that constitutive Ste7 promotes invasion without supporting mating responses. This specificity occurs because constitutive Ste7 activates Kss1, but not Fus3, in vivo and promotes filamentation gene expression while suppressing mating gene expression. Differences in the ability of constitutive Ste7 variants to bind the MAPKs and Ste5 account for the selective activation of Kss1. These findings support the model that Fus3 activation in vivo requires binding to both Ste7 and the scaffold-Ste5 but that Kss1 activation is independent of Ste5. This scaffold-independent activation of Kss1 by constitutive Ste7 and the existence of mechanisms for pathway-specific promoter discrimination impose a unique developmental fate independently of any distinguishing external stimuli. PMID:15456892

  14. Effect of YBa2Cu3O7-δ film thickness on the dielectric properties of Ba0.1Sr0.9TiO3 in Ag /Ba0.1Sr0.9TiO3/YBa2Cu3O7-δ/LaAlO3 multilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaohong; Peng, Wei; Li, Jie; Chen, Yingfei; Tian, Haiyan; Xu, Xiaoping; Zheng, Dongning

    2005-01-01

    Ferroelectric and superconductor bilayers of Ba0.1Sr0.9TiO3 (BSTO)/YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO), with different YBCO film thicknesses, have been fabricated in situ by pulsed-laser deposition on 1.2° vicinal LaAlO3 substrates. The dielectric properties of BSTO thin films were measured with a parallel-plate capacitor configuration in the temperature range of 77-300K. We observed a strong dependence of the dielectric properties of BSTO thin films on the thickness of the YBCO layer. As the YBCO-film thickness increases, the temperature of the dielectric permittivity maximum of BSTO thin films shifts to higher values, and the leakage current and dielectric loss increase drastically, while the dielectric constant and dielectric tunability decrease remarkably. The results are explained in terms of the transformation in the growth mode of the YBCO layer from two-dimensional step flow to three-dimensional island that leads to significant deterioration in the dielectric properties of BSTO thin films. We propose that improved dielectric properties could be obtained by reasonably manipulating the growth mode of the YBCO layer in the multilayer structures.

  15. A new one-dimensional coordination polymer of 5-(1,3-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetraphenylisoindolin-2-yl)isophthalic acid with manganese.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Jia, Chunmei; Feng, Xiao; Yuan, Wenbing

    2015-09-01

    The coordination polymer catena-poly[[(dimethylformamide-κO)[μ3-5-(1,3-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetraphenylisoindolin-2-yl)isophthalato-κ(4)O(1),O(1'):O(3):O(3')](methanol-κO)manganese(III)] dimethylformamide monosolvate], {[Mn(C40H23NO6)(CH3OH)(C3H7NO)]·C3H7NO}n, has been synthesized from the reaction of 5-(1,3-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetraphenylisoindolin-2-yl)isophthalic acid and manganese(II) acetate tetrahydrate in a glass tube at room temperature by solvent diffusion. The Mn(II) centre is hexacoordinated by two O atoms from one chelating carboxylate group, by two O atoms from two monodentate carboxylate groups and by one O atom each from a methanol and a dimethylformamide (DMF) ligand. The single-crystal structure crystallizes in the triclinic space group P\\overline{1}. Moreover, the coordination polymer shows one-dimensional 2-connected {0} uninodal chain networks, and free DMF molecules are connected to the chains by O-H···O hydrogen bonds. The thermogravimetric and photoluminescent properties of the compound have also been investigated.

  16. A new one-dimensional coordination polymer of 5-(1,3-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetraphenylisoindolin-2-yl)isophthalic acid with manganese.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Jia, Chunmei; Feng, Xiao; Yuan, Wenbing

    2015-09-01

    The coordination polymer catena-poly[[(dimethylformamide-κO)[μ3-5-(1,3-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetraphenylisoindolin-2-yl)isophthalato-κ(4)O(1),O(1'):O(3):O(3')](methanol-κO)manganese(III)] dimethylformamide monosolvate], {[Mn(C40H23NO6)(CH3OH)(C3H7NO)]·C3H7NO}n, has been synthesized from the reaction of 5-(1,3-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetraphenylisoindolin-2-yl)isophthalic acid and manganese(II) acetate tetrahydrate in a glass tube at room temperature by solvent diffusion. The Mn(II) centre is hexacoordinated by two O atoms from one chelating carboxylate group, by two O atoms from two monodentate carboxylate groups and by one O atom each from a methanol and a dimethylformamide (DMF) ligand. The single-crystal structure crystallizes in the triclinic space group P\\overline{1}. Moreover, the coordination polymer shows one-dimensional 2-connected {0} uninodal chain networks, and free DMF molecules are connected to the chains by O-H···O hydrogen bonds. The thermogravimetric and photoluminescent properties of the compound have also been investigated. PMID:26322606

  17. A-site deficient Ba 1- xCo 0.7Fe 0.2Ni 0.1O 3- δ cathode for intermediate temperature SOFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ze; Cheng, Ling-zhi; Han, Min-Fang

    A-site cation-deficient Ba 1- xCo 0.7Fe 0.2Nb 0.1O 3- δ (B 1- xCFN, x = 0.00-0.15) oxides are synthesized and evaluated as cathode materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). The reactivity between B 1- xCFN and gadolinia doped ceria (GDC) is observed at different temperature, and no second phase is detected under 1050 °C. The increasing in A-site cation deficiency results in a steady decrease in cathode polarization resistance. Among the various B 1- xCFN oxides test, GDC based anode supported cells with B 0.9CFN cathode possess the smallest interfacial polarization resistance (R p). The R p is as low as 0.283 and 0.046 Ω cm 2 at 500 and 600 °C, respectively. The anode supported cell with B 0.9CFN provides maximum power densities of 1062 and 1139 mW cm -2 at 600 and 650 °C, respectively. The results suggest that B 0.9CFN is a great potential cathode material for IT-SOFCs.

  18. Modeling, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Potential Retinoid-X-Receptor (RXR) Selective Agonists: Novel Analogs of 4-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-Pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)ethynyl]benzoic Acid (Bexarotene) and (E)-3-(3-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,1,4,4,6-pentamethylnaphthalen-7-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylic acid (CD3254)

    PubMed Central

    Jurutka, Peter W.; Kaneko, Ichiro; Yang, Joanna; Bhogal, Jaskaran S.; Swierski, Johnathon C.; Tabacaru, Christa R.; Montano, Luis A.; Huynh, Chanh C.; Jama, Rabia A.; Mahelona, Ryan D.; Sarnowski, Joseph T.; Marcus, Lisa M.; Quezada, Alexis; Lemming, Brittney; Tedesco, Maria A.; Fischer, Audra J.; Mohamed, Said A.; Ziller, Joseph W.; Ma, Ning; Gray, Geoffrey M.; van der Vaart, Arjan; Marshall, Pamela A.; Wagner, Carl E.

    2014-01-01

    Three unreported analogs of 4-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5-6-7-8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)ethynyl]benzoic acid (1), otherwise known as bexarotene, as well as four novel analogs of (E)-3-(3-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,1,4,4,6-pentamethylnaphthalen-7-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylic acid (CD3254) are described, and evaluated for their retinoid-X-receptor (RXR)-selective agonism. Compound 1 has FDA approval as a treatment for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL); though, treatment with 1 can elicit side-effects by disrupting other RXR-heterodimer receptor pathways. Of the 7 modeled novel compounds, all analogs stimulate RXR-regulated transcription in mammalian-2-hybrid and RXRE-mediated assays, possess comparable or elevated biological activity based on EC50 profiles, and retain similar or improved apoptotic activity in CTCL assays compared to 1. All novel compounds demonstrate selectivity for RXR and minimal crossover onto the retinoic-acid-receptor (RAR) compared to all-trans-retinoic acid, with select analogs also reducing inhibition of other RXR-dependent pathways (e.g., VDR-RXR). Our results demonstrate that further improvements in biological potency and selectivity of bexarotene can be achieved through rational drug design. PMID:24180745

  19. 40 CFR 721.8350 - 2-Propenoic acid, 7-oxa-bi-cy-clo[4.1.0]hept-3-ylmethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-3-ylmethyl ester. 721.8350 Section 721.8350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance 2-propenoic acid, 7-oxabicyclo hept-3-ylmethyl ester (PMN P-89-31) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.8350 - 2-Propenoic acid, 7-oxa-bi-cy-clo[4.1.0]hept-3-ylmethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-3-ylmethyl ester. 721.8350 Section 721.8350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance 2-propenoic acid, 7-oxabicyclo hept-3-ylmethyl ester (PMN P-89-31) is subject to reporting...

  1. 1 CFR 304.7 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... this section and in accordance with Executive Order 12,600, 3 CFR part 235 (1988). (b) Definitions. For... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Business information. 304.7 Section 304.7... Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 304.7 Business information....

  2. 1 CFR 304.7 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... this section and in accordance with Executive Order 12,600, 3 CFR part 235 (1988). (b) Definitions. For... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business information. 304.7 Section 304.7... Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 304.7 Business information....

  3. 1 CFR 304.7 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... this section and in accordance with Executive Order 12,600, 3 CFR part 235 (1988). (b) Definitions. For... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Business information. 304.7 Section 304.7... Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 304.7 Business information....

  4. Novel GluN2B selective NMDA receptor antagonists: relative configuration of 7-meth-oxy-2-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-1H-3-benzazepin-1-ols.

    PubMed

    Tewes, Bastian; Frehland, Bastian; Fröhlich, Roland; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    The title compounds, C22H29NO2 (3) and C22H29NO2 (4) [systematic names: (1S*,2R*)-7-meth-oxy-2-methyl-3-(4-phenyl-but-yl)-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-1H-3-benzazepin-1-ol and (1R*,2R*)-7-meth-oxy-2-methyl-3-(4-phenyl-but-yl)-2,3,4,5-tetra-hydro-1H-3-benzazepin-1-ol, are diastereomers with the relative configuration of the adjacent hydroxyl and methyl groups at the seven-membered azepine ring being trans in (3) and cis in (4). In the crystals the orientation of these groups is -anti-periplanar (3) and +syn-clinal (4). In both cases, the crystals studied proved to be of a racemic mixture, with relative configurations (R*,S*)-3 and (R*,R*)-4. In both compounds, the seven-membered azepine ring has a chair-like conformation, and the 4-phenyl-butyl side chain adopts a extended conformation in (R*,S*)-3, but a twisted conformation in (R*,R*)-4. In the crystal of (S*,R*)-3, mol-ecules are linked via C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming slabs parallel to the ac plane. In the crystal of (R*,R*)-4, mol-ecules are linked via O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along the c-axis direction. The chains are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming slabs parallel to the ac plane. PMID:27308019

  5. Thermochemistry of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3} solid solutions (01)

    SciTech Connect

    Kemik, Nihan; Takamura, Yayoi; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2011-08-15

    The structure, the energetics and the internal redox reactions of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Fe{sub x}Mn{sub 1-x}O{sub 3} have been studied in the complete solid solution range 0.01.0. High temperature oxide melt drop solution calorimetry was performed to determine the enthalpies of formation from binary oxides and the enthalpy of mixing. There is a noticeable change in the energetics of the solid solution near x=0.7, which is due to the growing concentration of Fe{sup 4+} at higher Fe/(Fe+Mn) ratio. The balance between different valences of the transition metals, Mn and Fe, is the main factor in determining the energetics of the La{sub 0.70}Sr{sub 0.30}Fe{sub x}Mn{sub 1-x}O{sub 3} solid solution. - Graphical abstract: Enthalpy of mixing ({Delta}H{sub mix}) of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3-{gamma}} solid solution at room temperature as a function of Fe/(Fe+Mn) ratio, x. Linear fits for the two regions at low and high x are shown as solid lines. The inset shows the content of Mn{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 4+}, Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} as a function of x based on the work by Jonker. The redox reactions between different valence states of Fe and Mn dominate the energetic behavior of the solid solution. Highlights: > Investigated the structure, the energetics and the internal redox reactions of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3}. > Determined the formation and mixing enthalpy by high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. > Symmetry of the perovskite, transition metal valence and energetics are interdependent. > Thermochemical data shows convincing evidence of the interplay between the Mn{sup 4+} and the Fe{sup 4+} ions. > Balance between different valences of Mn and Fe dominates the energetics of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Fe{sub x}Mn{sub 1-x}O{sub 3}.

  6. Synthesis, molecular structure, and catalytic potential of the tetrairon complex [Fe4(N3O2-L)4(mu-O)2]4+ (L = 1-carboxymethyl-4,7-dimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane).

    PubMed

    Romakh, Vladimir B; Therrien, Bruno; Süss-Fink, Georg; Shul'pin, Georgiy B

    2007-04-16

    The reaction of iron sulfate with 1-carboxymethyl-4,7-dimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (L) and hydrogen peroxide in aqueous ethanol gives a brown dinuclear complex considered to be [Fe2(N3O-L)2(mu-O)(mu-OOCCH3)] + (1), which converts upon standing in acetonitrile solution into the green tetranuclear complex [Fe4(N3O2-L)4(mu-O)2]4+ (2). A single-crystal X-ray structure analysis of [2][PF6]4.5MeCN reveals 2 to contain four iron(III) centers, each of which is coordinated to three nitrogen atoms of a triazacyclononane ligand and is bridged by one oxo and two carboxylato bridges, a structural feature known from the active center of methane monooxygenase. Accordingly, complex 2 was found to catalyze the oxidative functionalization of methane with hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solution to give methanol, methyl hydroperoxide, and formic acid; the total turnover numbers attain 24 catalytic cycles within 4 h. To gain more insight into the catalytic process, the catalytic potential of 2 was also studied for the oxidation of higher alkanes, cycloalkanes, and isopropanol in acetonitrile, as well as in aqueous solution. The bond selectivities of the oxidation of linear and branched alkanes suggest a ferroxy radical pathway.

  7. 5-Demethylnobiletin and 5-Acetoxy-6,7,8,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone Suppress Lipid Accumulation by Activating the LKB1-AMPK Pathway in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes and High Fat Diet-Fed C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Tung, Yen-Chen; Li, Shiming; Huang, Qingrong; Hung, Wei-Lun; Ho, Chi-Tang; Wei, Guor-Jien; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2016-04-27

    Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) and hydroxylated polymethoxyflavones (HPMFs), such as nobiletin (Nob) and 5-demethylnobiletin (5-OH-Nob), are unique flavonoids that are found exclusively in citrus peels. Nobiletin has been shown to suppress adipogenesis in vitro, but the antiadipogenic activity of 5-OH-Nob has not been investigated. Both nobiletin and 5-OH-Nob have poor aqueous solubility and low oral bioavailability. We employed chemical modification to produce the acetyl derivative of 5-OH-Nob, that is, 5-acetyloxy-6,7,8,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone (5-Ac-Nob), to improve its bioavailability and bioactive efficiency. We found that 5-Ac-Nob reduced triacylglycerol (TG) content to a greater extent than 5-OH-Nob in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Orally administered 5-Ac-Nob resulted in a significant reduction in body weight, intra-abdominal fat, plasma and liver TG levels, and plasma cholesterol level in high fat diet-induced obese male C57BL/6J mice. The 5-Ac-Nob treatment decreased lipid accumulation by triggering the adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway to alter transcriptional factors or lipogenesis-related enzymes in vivo and in vitro. PMID:27041493

  8. Crystal structure of (1R,3S,8R,11R)-11-acetyl-3,7,7-trimethyl-10-oxatri­cyclo­[6.4.0.01,3]dodecan-9-one

    PubMed Central

    Bismoussa, Abdoullah; Ait Itto, My Youssef; Daran, Jean-Claude; Auhmani, Abdelwahed; Auhmani, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C16H24O3, is built up from three fused rings, a six-membered, a seven-membered and a three-membered ring. The absolute configuration of the title compound was determined as (1R,3S,8R,11R) based on the synthetic pathway. The six-membered ring has an half-chair conformation whereas the seven-membered ring displays a boat conformation. In the cyrstal, C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds build up a two-dimensional network parallel to (0 0 1). The crystal studied was an inversion twin with a minor twin component of 34%. PMID:26870471

  9. X-ray absorption study of the ferromagnetic Cu moment at the YBa2Cu3O7/La2 /3Ca1 /3MnO3 interface and variation of its exchange interaction with the Mn moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, K.; Perret, E.; Alberca, A.; Uribe-Laverde, M. A.; Marozau, I.; Yazdi-Rizi, M.; Mallett, B. P. P.; Marsik, P.; Piamonteze, C.; Khaydukov, Y.; Döbeli, M.; Keller, T.; Biškup, N.; Varela, M.; Vašátko, J.; Munzar, D.; Bernhard, C.

    2016-05-01

    With x-ray absorption spectroscopy and polarized neutron reflectometry we studied how the magnetic proximity effect at the interface between the cuprate high-TC superconductor YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) and the ferromagnet La2 /3Ca1 /3MnO3 (LCMO) is related to the electronic and magnetic properties of the LCMO layers. In particular, we explored how the magnitude of the ferromagnetic Cu moment on the YBCO side depends on the strength of the antiferromagnetic (AF) exchange coupling with the Mn moment on the LCMO side. We found that the Cu moment remains sizable if the AF coupling with the Mn moments is strongly reduced or even entirely suppressed. The ferromagnetic order of the Cu moments thus seems to be intrinsic to the interfacial CuO2 planes and related to a weakly ferromagnetic intraplanar exchange interaction. The latter is discussed in terms of the partial occupation of the Cu 3 d3 z2-r2 orbitals, which occurs in the context of the so-called orbital reconstruction of the interfacial Cu ions.

  10. 7 CFR 3.71 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 3.71 Section 3.71 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.71 Definitions. As used in this subpart the following definitions shall apply: Agency means an executive department or agency; a...

  11. 7 CFR 3.71 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 3.71 Section 3.71 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.71 Definitions. As used in this subpart the following definitions shall apply: Agency means an executive department or agency; a...

  12. 7 CFR 17.3 - Purchase authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase authorizations. 17.3 Section 17.3 Agriculture... THE AGRICULTURAL TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED § 17.3 Purchase authorizations. (a) Issuance. After an agreement is signed, the GSM will issue a purchase authorization to...

  13. 7 CFR 1208.3 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop year. 1208.3 Section 1208.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... § 1208.3 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period from April 1 to March 31 or such other...

  14. 7 CFR 996.3 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop year. 996.3 Section 996.3 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.3 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning with July 1 of any year and ending with June 30 of the following...

  15. 7 CFR 1208.3 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop year. 1208.3 Section 1208.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... § 1208.3 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period from April 1 to March 31 or such other...

  16. 7 CFR 996.3 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop year. 996.3 Section 996.3 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.3 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning with July 1 of any year and ending with June 30 of the following...

  17. 7 CFR 996.3 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop year. 996.3 Section 996.3 Agriculture Regulations... DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.3 Crop year. Crop year means the 12-month period beginning with July 1 of any year and ending with June 30 of the following...

  18. 7 CFR 12.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability. 12.3 Section 12.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION General Provisions § 12.3... actions and determinations regarding wetlands and converted wetlands. Actions taken and...

  19. 7 CFR 12.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicability. 12.3 Section 12.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION General Provisions § 12.3..., 1990, for certain actions and determinations regarding wetlands and converted wetlands. Actions...

  20. 7 CFR 12.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicability. 12.3 Section 12.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION General Provisions § 12.3..., 1990, for certain actions and determinations regarding wetlands and converted wetlands. Actions...

  1. 7 CFR 12.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicability. 12.3 Section 12.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION General Provisions § 12.3..., 1990, for certain actions and determinations regarding wetlands and converted wetlands. Actions...

  2. 7 CFR 12.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicability. 12.3 Section 12.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION General Provisions § 12.3... actions and determinations regarding wetlands and converted wetlands. Actions taken and...

  3. 7 CFR 274.3 - Retailer management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retailer management. 274.3 Section 274.3 Agriculture... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM ISSUANCE AND USE OF PROGRAM BENEFITS § 274.3 Retailer management. (a) Retailer participation. (1) All authorized retailers must be afforded the opportunity...

  4. 7 CFR 14.3 - Objective.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Objective. 14.3 Section 14.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINING THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF CERTAIN PAYMENTS FOR FEDERAL TAX PURPOSES § 14.3 Objective. The objective of the determinations made under part 14 is to provide maximum...

  5. 7 CFR 3.87 - Agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency regulations. 3.87 Section 3.87 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.87 Agency regulations. USDA agencies may issue regulations or policies not inconsistent with OPM regulations (5 CFR part...

  6. 7 CFR 3.87 - Agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency regulations. 3.87 Section 3.87 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.87 Agency regulations. USDA agencies may issue regulations or policies not inconsistent with OPM regulations (5 CFR part...

  7. 7 CFR 3.87 - Agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency regulations. 3.87 Section 3.87 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.87 Agency regulations. USDA agencies may issue regulations or policies not inconsistent with OPM regulations (5 CFR part...

  8. 7 CFR 3.87 - Agency regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agency regulations. 3.87 Section 3.87 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.87 Agency regulations. USDA agencies may issue regulations or policies not inconsistent with OPM regulations (5 CFR part...

  9. 7 CFR 370.3 - Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Index. 370.3 Section 370.3 Agriculture Regulations of... AGRICULTURE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION § 370.3 Index. Pursuant to the regulations in § 1.4(b) of this title, APHIS will maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current index...

  10. 7 CFR 370.3 - Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Index. 370.3 Section 370.3 Agriculture Regulations of... AGRICULTURE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION § 370.3 Index. Pursuant to the regulations in § 1.4(b) of this title, APHIS will maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current index...

  11. 7 CFR 370.3 - Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Index. 370.3 Section 370.3 Agriculture Regulations of... AGRICULTURE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION § 370.3 Index. Pursuant to the regulations in § 1.4(b) of this title, APHIS will maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current index...

  12. 7 CFR 370.3 - Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Index. 370.3 Section 370.3 Agriculture Regulations of... AGRICULTURE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION § 370.3 Index. Pursuant to the regulations in § 1.4(b) of this title, APHIS will maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current index...

  13. 7 CFR 370.3 - Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Index. 370.3 Section 370.3 Agriculture Regulations of... AGRICULTURE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION § 370.3 Index. Pursuant to the regulations in § 1.4(b) of this title, APHIS will maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current index...

  14. Nitrate-Dependent Control of Shoot K Homeostasis by the Nitrate Transporter1/Peptide Transporter Family Member NPF7.3/NRT1.5 and the Stelar K+ Outward Rectifier SKOR in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Drechsler, Navina; Zheng, Yue; Nobmann, Barbara; Rausch, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Root-to-shoot translocation and shoot homeostasis of potassium (K) determine nutrient balance, growth, and stress tolerance of vascular plants. To maintain the cation-anion balance, xylem loading of K+ in the roots relies on the concomitant loading of counteranions, like nitrate (NO3−). However, the coregulation of these loading steps is unclear. Here, we show that the bidirectional, low-affinity Nitrate Transporter1 (NRT1)/Peptide Transporter (PTR) family member NPF7.3/NRT1.5 is important for the NO3−-dependent K+ translocation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Lack of NPF7.3/NRT1.5 resulted in K deficiency in shoots under low NO3− nutrition, whereas the root elemental composition was unchanged. Gene expression data corroborated K deficiency in the nrt1.5-5 shoot, whereas the root responded with a differential expression of genes involved in cation-anion balance. A grafting experiment confirmed that the presence of NPF7.3/NRT1.5 in the root is a prerequisite for proper root-to-shoot translocation of K+ under low NO3− supply. Because the depolarization-activated Stelar K+ Outward Rectifier (SKOR) has previously been described as a major contributor for root-to-shoot translocation of K+ in Arabidopsis, we addressed the hypothesis that NPF7.3/NRT1.5-mediated NO3− translocation might affect xylem loading and root-to-shoot K+ translocation through SKOR. Indeed, growth of nrt1.5-5 and skor-2 single and double mutants under different K/NO3− regimes revealed that both proteins contribute to K+ translocation from root to shoot. SKOR activity dominates under high NO3− and low K+ supply, whereas NPF7.3/NRT1.5 is required under low NO3− availability. This study unravels nutritional conditions as a critical factor for the joint activity of SKOR and NPF7.3/NRT1.5 for shoot K homeostasis. PMID:26508776

  15. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin increases Bovine Herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) replication in Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fiorito, F; Pagnini, U; De Martino, L; Montagnaro, S; Ciarcia, R; Florio, S; Pacilio, M; Fucito, A; Rossi, A; Iovane, G; Giordano, A

    2008-01-01

    Dioxin-2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a common environmental toxin of current interest. In the last years, higher levels of TCDD than those permitted in UE [European Commission. 2002. European Commission Recommendation 2002/201/CE. Official Gazette, L 67/69] were detected in milk samples from cow, water buffalo, goat, and sheep raised on some areas of Campania Region (South Italy). Dioxin often causes immunosuppression and might render the animal liable to viral infections. In addition, viral infections are able to alter the pattern of dioxin distribution in different organs of the exposed animals. Bovine Herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) is a widespread pathogen, which causes infectious rhinotracheitis and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in cattle. Herein, we have studied the effects of TCDD and BHV-1 infection, in Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells, alone as well as in association, so as cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and virus replication. We have observed an increase in cell viability of confluent monolayers at low TCDD concentrations. TCDD treated cells demonstrated increased viability compared to controls as evaluated by MTT test. TCDD exposure increased cell proliferation but induced no changes on apoptosis. Cells exposed to TCDD along with BHV-1 showed a dose-dependent increase in cytopathy, represented by ample syncytia formation with the elimination of the cellular sheets and increased viral titer. These results suggest that TCDD increases viral replication in MDBK cells while BHV-1 further decreases viability of TCDD exposed cells. Since very low concentrations (0.01 pg/ml) are sufficient to augment BHV-1 titer, TCDD may contribute to reactivate BHV-1 from latency, leading to recurrent disease and increase virus transmission. PMID:17516555

  16. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin increases Bovine Herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) replication in Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fiorito, F; Pagnini, U; De Martino, L; Montagnaro, S; Ciarcia, R; Florio, S; Pacilio, M; Fucito, A; Rossi, A; Iovane, G; Giordano, A

    2008-01-01

    Dioxin-2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a common environmental toxin of current interest. In the last years, higher levels of TCDD than those permitted in UE [European Commission. 2002. European Commission Recommendation 2002/201/CE. Official Gazette, L 67/69] were detected in milk samples from cow, water buffalo, goat, and sheep raised on some areas of Campania Region (South Italy). Dioxin often causes immunosuppression and might render the animal liable to viral infections. In addition, viral infections are able to alter the pattern of dioxin distribution in different organs of the exposed animals. Bovine Herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) is a widespread pathogen, which causes infectious rhinotracheitis and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in cattle. Herein, we have studied the effects of TCDD and BHV-1 infection, in Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells, alone as well as in association, so as cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and virus replication. We have observed an increase in cell viability of confluent monolayers at low TCDD concentrations. TCDD treated cells demonstrated increased viability compared to controls as evaluated by MTT test. TCDD exposure increased cell proliferation but induced no changes on apoptosis. Cells exposed to TCDD along with BHV-1 showed a dose-dependent increase in cytopathy, represented by ample syncytia formation with the elimination of the cellular sheets and increased viral titer. These results suggest that TCDD increases viral replication in MDBK cells while BHV-1 further decreases viability of TCDD exposed cells. Since very low concentrations (0.01 pg/ml) are sufficient to augment BHV-1 titer, TCDD may contribute to reactivate BHV-1 from latency, leading to recurrent disease and increase virus transmission.

  17. Breast cancer cell line MCF7 escapes from G1/S arrest induced by proteasome inhibition through a GSK-3β dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Gavilán, Elena; Giráldez, Servando; Sánchez-Aguayo, Inmaculada; Romero, Francisco; Ruano, Diego; Daza, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Targeting the ubiquitin proteasome pathway has emerged as a rational approach in the treatment of human cancers. Autophagy has been described as a cytoprotective mechanism to increase tumor cell survival under stress conditions. Here, we have focused on the role of proteasome inhibition in cell cycle progression and the role of autophagy in the proliferation recovery. The study was performed in the breast cancer cell line MCF7 compared to the normal mammary cell line MCF10A. We found that the proteasome inhibitor MG132 induced G1/S arrest in MCF10A, but G2/M arrest in MCF7 cells. The effect of MG132 on MCF7 was reproduced on MCF10A cells in the presence of the glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) inhibitor VII. Similarly, MCF7 cells overexpressing constitutively active GSK-3β behaved like MCF10A cells. On the other hand, MCF10A cells remained arrested after MG132 removal while MCF7 recovered the proliferative capacity. Importantly, this recovery was abolished in the presence of the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA). Thus, our results support the relevance of GSK-3β and autophagy as two targets for controlling cell cycle progression and proliferative capacity in MCF7, highlighting the co-treatment of breast cancer cells with 3-MA to synergize the effect of the proteasome inhibition. PMID:25941117

  18. Strain and Ferroelectric-Field Effects Co-mediated Magnetism in (011)-CoFe2O4/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 Multiferroic Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Jin, Chao; Zheng, Dongxing; Li, Dong; Gong, Junlu; Li, Peng; Bai, Haili

    2016-09-14

    Electric-field mediated magnetism was investigated in CoFe2O4 (CFO, deposited by reactive cosputtering under different oxygen flow rates) films fabricated on (011)-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) substrates. Ascribed to the volatile strain effect of PMN-PT, the magnetization of the CFO films decreases along the [01-1] direction whereas it increases along the [100] direction under the electric field, which is attributed to the octahedron distortion in the spinel ferrite. Moreover, a nonvolatile mediation was obtained in the CFO film with low oxygen flow rate (4 sccm), deriving from the ferroelectric-field effect, in which the magnetization is different after removing the positive and negative fields. The cooperation of the two effects produces four different magnetization states in the CFO film with low oxygen flow rate (4 sccm), compared to the only two different states in the CFO film with high oxygen flow rate (10 sccm). It is suggested that the ferroelectric-field effect is related to the oxygen vacancies in CFO films. PMID:27540866

  19. Strain and Ferroelectric-Field Effects Co-mediated Magnetism in (011)-CoFe2O4/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 Multiferroic Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Jin, Chao; Zheng, Dongxing; Li, Dong; Gong, Junlu; Li, Peng; Bai, Haili

    2016-09-14

    Electric-field mediated magnetism was investigated in CoFe2O4 (CFO, deposited by reactive cosputtering under different oxygen flow rates) films fabricated on (011)-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) substrates. Ascribed to the volatile strain effect of PMN-PT, the magnetization of the CFO films decreases along the [01-1] direction whereas it increases along the [100] direction under the electric field, which is attributed to the octahedron distortion in the spinel ferrite. Moreover, a nonvolatile mediation was obtained in the CFO film with low oxygen flow rate (4 sccm), deriving from the ferroelectric-field effect, in which the magnetization is different after removing the positive and negative fields. The cooperation of the two effects produces four different magnetization states in the CFO film with low oxygen flow rate (4 sccm), compared to the only two different states in the CFO film with high oxygen flow rate (10 sccm). It is suggested that the ferroelectric-field effect is related to the oxygen vacancies in CFO films.

  20. Development of DANDYs, new 3,5-diaryl-7-azaindoles demonstrating potent DYRK1A kinase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Gourdain, Stéphanie; Dairou, Julien; Denhez, Clément; Bui, Linh Chi; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Janel, Nathalie; Delabar, Jean M; Cariou, Kevin; Dodd, Robert H

    2013-12-12

    A series of 3,5-diaryl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines were synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of DYRKIA kinase in vitro. Derivatives having hydroxy groups on the aryl moieties (2c, 2j-l) demonstrated high inhibitory potencies with Kis in the low nanomolar range. Their methoxy analogues were up to 100 times less active. Docking studies at the ATP binding site suggested that these compounds bind tightly to this site via a network of multiple H-bonds with the peptide backbone. None of the active compounds were cytotoxic to KB cells at 10(-6) M. Kinase profiling revealed that compound 2j showed 2-fold selectivity for DYRK1A with respect to DYRK2 and DYRK3. PMID:24188002

  1. 4-(8-Quinolyl)amino-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole as a new colorimetric probe for rapid and visual detection of Hg2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Yang, Lixue; Zhao, Chuan; Ma, Huimin

    2013-03-01

    4-Amino-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (ANBD) usually serves as a scaffold for developing fluorescent probes. In this paper, however, ANBD has been used as a chromogenic unit to design a new colorimetric probe, 4-(8-quinolyl)amino-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (1), for rapid and visual detection of Hg2+. The reaction of 1 with Hg2+ in NaH2PO4-Na2HPO4 buffer (pH 7.0) containing 70% (v/v) acetonitrile forms a 1:1 complex, accompanying a red shift of the absorption maximum from 482 nm to 557 nm and a distinct color change from orange to violet. Moreover the color reaction exhibits a high selectivity and sensitivity to Hg2+ only, instead of other common metal ions. This behavior may be ascribed to the formation of a specific 1-Hg2+ complex, which is supported by 1H NMR titration experiments. The present study is not only a supplement to the detection method of Hg2+, but also a merit to the chemistry of 4-amino-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole.

  2. Sr7Co4(CO3)O(13-δ) (δ = 1.64), an original cobaltite derivative of the Ruddlesden-Popper series.

    PubMed

    Demont, A; Pelloquin, D; Hébert, S; Hervieu, M; Höwing, J; Maignan, A

    2013-05-01

    The oxycarbonate Sr7Co4(CO3)O11.36 exhibits a peculiar structure that has been characterized by combining transmission electron microscopy analyses and neutron diffraction. It consists of a regular intergrowth between the m = 2 and carbonated m = 3 members of the Sr(m+1)Co(m)O3(m+1) Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) series, Sr3Co2O5.87 and Sr4Co2(CO3)O5.49, respectively. A description of the structure is proposed to provide identification of the different building blocks. This material is semiconducting and presents a complex magnetic behavior, characteristic of what is observed for the RP(2) or RP(3) series, with a cobalt valency close to 2.7.

  3. Effect of sol-gel process parameters on the properties of a Li1.3Ti1.7Al0.3(PO4)3 solid electrolyte for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seoung Soo; Lee, Jing; Jung, Yeon-Gil; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Youngsik

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the influence of the processing parameters, such as the synthesis temperature and the lithium sources on the structure, particle size, morphology and ionic conductivity of Li1+ x Ti2- x Al x (PO4)3 (LTAPO) was investigated. LiNO3, LiCl, and Li acetate were employed as lithium sources for investigating the effects of Li sources on the properties of the solid electrolyte. The morphologies and the particle size distribution of the prepared LTAPO samples were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a laser particle size analyzer. Their crystallinities were measured by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD). An increase in the synthesis temperature caused a pronounced growth in the particle size without any impurities, especially at temperatures above 700 °C. In addition, LiCl lithium sources showed the highest particles size. The effect of the processing parameters on the ionic conductivity of the prepared LTAPO was investigated by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The ionic conductivities of the LTAPO prepared by using an optimized synthesis temperature with different lithium sources were 8.36 × 10-4, 5.73 × 10-4, and 7.18 × 10-4 S/cm for C-LTAPO, A-LTAPO, and N-LTAPO, respectively. The properties of the ceramic solid electrolyte were shown to be affected by the choice of the synthesis temperature and the Li source material.

  4. COEXISTENCE OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRANSVERSE CONDUCTIVITY IN Y1-xPrxBa2Cu3 O7-δ SINGLE CRYSTALS WITH DIFFERENT PRASEODYMIUM CONCENTRATIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovk, R. V.; Vovk, N. R.; Goulatis, I. L.; Chroneos, A.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, the influence of praseodymium doping on the conductivity across (transverse) the basal plane of high-temperature superconducting Y1-xPrxBa2Cu3O7-δ single crystals is investigated. It is determined that an increase of praseodymium doping leads to increased localization effects and the implementation of a metal-insulator transition Y1-xPrxBa2Cu3O7-δ, which always precedes the superconducting transition. The increase of the praseodymium concentration also leads to a significant displacement of the point of the metal-insulator transition to the low temperature region.

  5. Molecular metals based on 1,2,7,8-tetrahydrodicyclopenta[cd:lm]perylene and iodine, (CPP){sub 2}(I{sub 3}){sub 1-{delta}}

    SciTech Connect

    Morgado, J. |; Santos, I.C.; Henriques, R.T.; Almeida, M.; Fourmigue, M.; Matias, P.; Veiros, L.F.; Duarte, M.T.; Alcacer, L.; Calhorda, M.J. |

    1994-12-01

    The synthesis and characterization of molecular metals derived from 1,2,7,8-tetrahydrodicyclopenta[cd:lm]perylene (CPP) by partial oxidation with iodine and with general formula (CPP){sub 2}(I{sub 3}){sub 1-{delta}}, {delta} = 0-0.13, are reported. Single crystals, obtained either by electrocrystallization or by diffusion-controlled iodine oxidation of CPP, present two types of morphologies, elongated diamond or thinner needle-shaped crystals, both with a monoclinic cell, space group P2{sub 1}/a, a = 4.3757(9), b = 19.3681(11), c = 10.0860(11) {angstrom}, {beta} = 98.050(8){degrees}, V = 846.4(2) {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 2. The structure of the diamond-shaped crystal was solved by X-ray diffraction to a final R(F) = 0.096, R{sub w}(F) = 0.069. It consists of regular stacks of CPP molecules along a with a 3.41 {angstrom} spacing and uncorrected one-dimensional chains of I{sub 3}{sup {minus}} located in channels between four CPP stacks corresponding to (CPP){sub 2}(I{sub 3}){sub 0.892}. The thin needle crystals have the same unit cell but an unspecified and slightly different iodine content. Band structure calculations in this structure by the extended Hueckel method indicate a one-dimensional conduction band 0.55 eV wide. These thin needle crystals present, at room temperature, an electrical conductivity along the a axis {alpha}{sub a}(RT) = 200 S/cm and thermopower S{sub a}(RT) = 30 {mu}V/K, while for the diamond-shaped crystals {alpha}{sub a}(RT) = 2 S/cm and S{sub a}(RT) = -8 {mu}V/K. These transport coefficients for both types of crystals indicate a metallic behavior from room temperature down to {approx_equal}63 K, where a metal-to-insular (M-I) transition takes place. EPR studies in single crystals show an almost isotropic line at g = 2.0044 and with a width of {approx_equal}6 G in the range 80-300 K and without significant differences between the two types of crystals. 53 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Single-Step Synthesis of 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydroindolizines via Annulation of 2-Formylpiperidine and 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds.

    PubMed

    Capomolla, Simona S; Lim, Ngiap-Kie; Zhang, Haiming

    2015-07-17

    An expedient single-step synthesis of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroindolizines has been achieved via the annulation of commercially available 2-formylpiperidine hydrochloride and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in THF in the presence of pyrrolidine and 4 Å molecular sieves. A variety of β-ketoesters, ketones, and amides participated in this annulation chemistry, affording the desired 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroindolizines in moderate to good yields.

  7. Effect of Mg-DOPING on Magnetic and Transport Behaviour of Nd0.7Sr0.3Mn1-yMgyO3 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Khiem, Nguyen; Hoai Nam, Dao Nguyen; Phuc, Nguyen Xuan

    2001-04-01

    The ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition temperature, TC, of Nd0.7Sr0.3Mn1-yMgyO3 monotonically decreases from -235 K to -180 K with increasing Mg-doping concentration y from 0 to 0.1. Transport measurements show that Mg-doping does not significantly influence the resistivity in the paramagnetic phase in contrast to that in the ferromagnetic phase below TC. Interestingly, the magnetoresistance ratio near TC, in applied fields up to 5 T, increases from 180% for y = 0 to 480% for.y = 0.1. The compounds become spin-glass-like insulators with y ≥ 0.2.

  8. Giant energy harvesting potential in (100)-oriented 0.68PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.32PbTiO3 with Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3/PbOx buffer layer and (001)-oriented 0.67PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33PbTiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vats, Gaurav; Kushwaha, Himmat Singh; Vaish, Rahul; Madhar, Niyaz Ahamad; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Parakkandy, Jafar M.; Batoo, Khalid Mujasam

    2014-11-01

    This work emphasis on the competence of (100)-oriented PMN-PT buffer layered (0.68PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.32PbTiO3 with Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3/PbOx buffer layer) and (001)-oriented PMN-PT (0.67PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33PbTiO3) for low grade thermal energy harvesting using Olsen cycle. Our analysis (based on well-reported experiments in literature) reveals that these films show colossal energy harnessing possibility. Both the films are found to have maximum harnessable energy densities (PMN-PT buffer layered: 8 MJ/m3; PMN-PT: 6.5 MJ/m3) in identical ambient conditions of 30-150°C and 0-600 kV/cm. This energy harnessing plausibility is found to be nearly five times higher than the previously reported values to date.

  9. Biosynthetic Origin of Gibberellins A3 and A7 in Cell-Free Preparations from Seeds of Marah macrocarpus and Malus domestica1

    PubMed Central

    Albone, Kumyul S.; Gaskin, Paul; MacMillan, Jake; Phinney, Bernard O.; Willis, Christine L.

    1990-01-01

    Cell-free preparations from seeds of Marah macrocarpus L. and Malus domestica L. catalyzed the conversion of gibberellin A9 (GA9) and 2,3-dehydroGA9 to GA7; GA9 was also metabolized to GA4 in a branch pathway. The preparation from Marah seeds also metabolized GA5 to GA3 in high yield; GA6 was a minor product and was not metabolized to GA3. Using substrates stereospecifically labeled with deuterium, it was shown that the metabolism of GA5 to GA3 and of 2,3-dehydroGA9 to GA7 occurs with the loss of the 1β-hydrogen. In cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, mutant B1-41a, [1β,2β-2H2]GA4, was metabolized to [1,2-2H2]GA3 with the loss of the 1α- and 2α-hydrogens. These results provide further evidence that the biosynthetic origin of GA3 and GA7 in higher plants is different from that in the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. PMID:16667680

  10. Synthesis, characterization, biological evaluation and docking studies of 2‧-[(2″,4″-difluorobiphenyl-4-yl)carbonyl]-1‧-aryl-1‧,2‧,5‧,6‧,7‧,7a‧-hexahydrospiro[indole-3,3‧-pyrrolizin]-2(1H)-ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathimunnisa, M.; Manikandan, H.; Neelakandan, K.; Rajendra Prasad, N.; Selvanayagam, S.; Sridhar, B.

    2016-10-01

    A series of novel 2‧-[(2″,4″-difluorobiphenyl-4-yl)carbonyl]-1‧-aryl-1‧,2‧,5‧,6‧,7‧,7a‧-hexahydrospiro[indole-3,3‧-pyrrolizin]-2(1H)-ones were regioselectively synthesized by multicomponent reaction with excellent yield. They were characterized by elemental analysis and various spectral techniques. Sensing ability of the compound to different metal ions was investigated. To ascertain the inhibitory activity of the compounds they were subjected to in vitro antimicrobial studies against various microbes and cytotoxic studies against Hep-2 cell line. The ligand-receptor interaction of the compounds was explored by molecular docking and the human folate receptor (4LRH) was identified as the potential target protein. DFT calculations were incorporated in the study to compare the molecular structure and geometrical parameters of 2‧-[(2″,4″-difluorobiphenyl-4-yl)carbonyl]-1‧-phenyl-1‧,2‧,5‧,6‧,7‧,7a‧-hexahydrospiro[indole-3,3‧-pyrrolizin]-2(1H)-one with experimental data.

  11. The Human Host Defense Ribonucleases 1, 3 and 7 Are Elevated in Patients with Sepsis after Major Surgery—A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lukas; Koczera, Patrick; Simons, Nadine; Zechendorf, Elisabeth; Hoeger, Janine; Marx, Gernot; Schuerholz, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is the most common cause of death in intensive care units and associated with widespread activation of host innate immunity responses. Ribonucleases (RNases) are important components of the innate immune system, however the role of RNases in sepsis has not been investigated. We evaluated serum levels of RNase 1, 3 and 7 in 20 surgical sepsis patients (Sepsis), nine surgical patients (Surgery) and 10 healthy controls (Healthy). RNase 1 and 3 were elevated in Sepsis compared to Surgery (2.2- and 3.1-fold, respectively; both p < 0.0001) or compared to Healthy (3.0- and 15.5-fold, respectively; both p < 0.0001). RNase 1 showed a high predictive value for the development of more than two organ failures (AUC 0.82, p = 0.01). Patients with renal dysfunction revealed higher RNase 1 levels than without renal dysfunction (p = 0.03). RNase 1 and 3 were higher in respiratory failure than without respiratory failure (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.02, respectively). RNase 7 was not detected in Healthy patients and only in two patients of Surgery, however RNase 7 was detected in 10 of 20 Sepsis patients. RNase 7 was higher in renal or metabolic failure than without failure (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively). In conclusion, RNase 1, 3 and 7 are secreted into serum under conditions with tissue injury, such as major surgery or sepsis. Thus, RNases might serve as laboratory parameters to diagnose and monitor organ failure in sepsis. PMID:26927088

  12. A facile environment-friendly one-pot two-step regioselective synthetic strategy for 3,7-diarylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines related to zaleplon and 3,6-diarylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-7-amines assisted by KHSO[Formula: see text] in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Devi, Asem Satyapati; Kaping, Shunan; Vishwakarma, Jai Narain

    2015-11-01

    3-Aminopyrazoles required for the synthesis of pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines were obtained by the reaction of enaminonitriles with hydrazine hydrate. The resulting aminopyrazoles are reacted with formylated acetophenones under reflux at [Formula: see text] assisted by KHSO[Formula: see text] in aqueous media to form regioselectively 3,7-diarylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines and 3,6-diarylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-7-amines. X-ray crystallography of selected compounds 5b and 7i further confirmed the regioselective formation of these products.

  13. The polycyclic musk 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthaline lacks liver tumor initiating and promoting activity in rats exposed to human-relevant doses.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, P; Zschaler, I; Thom, E; Kuna, M; Wüst, G; Schäfer-Schwebel, A; Müller, R; Kramer, P J; Weisse, G

    2001-11-01

    7-Acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl- 1,2,3,4-tetra-hydronaphthaline (AHTN) is one of the two most widely used fragrances of a group of substances known collectively as the polycyclic musks. In the last few years evidence has been accumulating that AHTN is hepatotoxic when administered at high doses. In the present study the subchronic hepatotoxicity of AHTN administered to rats at doses within the human exposure range was evaluated. For this purpose female and male juvenile Wistar rats were exposed to AHTN (300 microg/kg body weight per day, i.p.) alone or to a single dose of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) (100 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) followed by AHTN (1, 10, 100 or 300 microg/kg body weight per day, i.p.) for 90 days. Thereafter the liver architecture as well as the presence of placental glutathione S-transferase (GST-P)-positive hepatic lesions was assessed. In male animals receiving AHTN alone or in combination with DEN the number of GST-P-positive single hepatocytes was similar to that in untreated rats, while GST-P-positive mini-foci and foci were not observed. In the case of female rats the number of GST-P-positive single hepatocytes and mini-foci in AHTN-treated rats was similar to that in untreated animals, whereas in those animals receiving AHTN either alone or in combination with DEN, GST-P-positive foci could not be detected or were present in a number as similar to that in untreated rats. In conclusion, in the present study it has been shown that AHTN administered over a 90-day period in concentrations similar to those taken up daily by humans does not lead to hepatotoxicity.

  14. Domain characterization of Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-(6%-7%)PbTiO3 single crystals using scanning electron acoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Meng Fei; Heng, Xiangxin; Zeng, Kaiyang

    2008-10-01

    Domain structures of [001]T and [011]T-cut Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-(6%-7%)PbTiO3 (PZN-PT) single crystals are studied using scanning electron acoustic microscope (SEAM) technique. The observation of the orientation of domain walls agree reasonably well with the trigonometric projection of rhombohedral and orthorhombic dipoles on the (001) and (011) surfaces, respectively. After mechanical loading with microindentation, domain switching is also observed to form a hyperbolic butterfly shape and extend preferentially along four diagonal directions, i.e., ⟨110⟩ on (001) surface and ⟨111¯⟩ on (011) surface. The critical shear stress to cause domain switching for PZN-PT crystal is estimated to be approximately 49 MPa for both {110} and {111¯} planes based on theoretical analysis. Generally, the SEAM technique has been successfully demonstrated to be a valid technique for observation of domain structures in single crystal PZN-PTs.

  15. Electric field mediated non-volatile tuning magnetism at the single-crystalline Fe/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 interface.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Wang, Fenglong; Dong, Chunhui; Gao, Cunxu; Jia, Chenglong; Jiang, Changjun; Xue, Desheng

    2015-03-01

    We report non-volatile electric-field control of magnetism modulation in Fe/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) heterostructure by fabricating an epitaxial Fe layer on a PMN-PT substrate using a molecular beam epitaxy technique. The remnant magnetization with a different electric field shows a non-symmetric loop-like shape, which demonstrates a change of interfacial chemistry and a large magnetoelectric coupling in Fe/PMN-PT at room temperature to realize low loss multistate memory under an electric field. Fitting with the angular-dependence of the in-plane magnetization reveals that the magnetoelectric effect is dominated by the direct electric-field effect rather than the strain effect at the interface. The magnetoelectric effect and the induced surface anisotropy are found to be dependent on the Fe film thickness and are linear with respect to the applied electric field. PMID:25669896

  16. Giant electrical modulation of magnetization in Co40Fe40B20/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3(011) heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sen; Zhao, Yonggang; Xiao, Xia; Wu, Yizheng; Rizwan, Syed; Yang, Lifeng; Li, Peisen; Wang, Jiawei; Zhu, Meihong; Zhang, Huiyun; Jin, Xiaofeng; Han, Xiufeng

    2014-01-01

    We report a giant electric-field control of magnetization (M) as well as magnetic anisotropy in a Co40Fe40B20(CoFeB)/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3(PMN-PT) structure at room temperature, in which a maximum relative magnetization change (ΔM/M) up to 83% with a 90° rotation of the easy axis under electric fields were observed by different magnetic measurement systems with in-situ electric fields. The mechanism for this giant magnetoelectric (ME) coupling can be understood as the combination of the ultra-high value of anisotropic in-plane piezoelectric coefficients of (011)-cut PMN-PT due to ferroelectric polarization reorientation and the perfect soft ferromagnetism without magnetocrystalline anisotropy of CoFeB film. Besides the giant electric-field control of magnetization and magnetic anisotropy, this work has also demonstrated the feasibility of reversible and deterministic magnetization reversal controlled by pulsed electric fields with the assistance of a weak magnetic field, which is important for realizing strain-mediated magnetoelectric random access memories. PMID:24430913

  17. Spin glass behavior in the Dy{sub 3-x}Y{sub x}TaO{sub 7} (0≤x≤1) system

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Garcia, J. Francisco; Escudero, Roberto; Tavizon, Gustavo

    2014-09-15

    Several x-compositions of the polycrystalline Dy{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}TaO{sub 7} system, crystallizing in the weberite-type structure, were synthesized and structurally characterized using Rietveld refinements based on X-ray diffraction data. In previous magnetic characterization of Dy{sub 3}TaO{sub 7} (x=0), with the same crystal structure, an antiferromagnetic transition at T=2.3 K has been assigned to this compound. On the basis of DC and AC magnetic susceptibilities analyses, we show in this work that all compounds in the range of 0≤x≤1.0 exhibit a spin glass behavior. The nature of the spin glass behavior in Dy{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}TaO{sub 7}, can be attributed to the highly frustrated antiferromagnetic interaction of the Dy{sup 3+} sublattice and to the Dy{sup 3+}–Dy{sup 3+} distorted tetrahedra array in the weberite-type structure of this system. By fitting AC susceptibility data, using dynamical scaling theory equations, we conclude that a cluster spin glass is present in Dy{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}TaO{sub 7} in the low temperature range. Depending on the x-composition, T{sub g}∼2.2–3.2 K. In the range 15–300 K the system obeys a Curie–Weiss magnetic behavior. - Graphical abstract: Weberite-type crystal structure of the Dy{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}TaO{sub 7} compounds. In this structure the magnetic sublattice is formed by Dy{sup 3+} cations in an arrangement of distorted tetrahedra at the second-nearest neighbor site; this arrangement suggests geometric frustration that leads to a spin glass behavior. - Highlights: • Spin glass of Dy{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}TaO{sub 7} is associated to highly frustrated AFM interaction. • Quasi-one-dimensional feature of the crystal structure. • Suggest the existence of a cluster spin glass in Dy{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}TaO{sub 7}. • Dy{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}TaO{sub 7} system (x=0.33, 0.66, and 1.0) also display spin glass behavior.

  18. Material Specific Rational Design of A1B2C3O7 High-Tc Superconductors without Copper [A, B, C = Cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isikaku-Ironkwe, O'paul; Schaffer, Michael J.

    Soon after the discovery of YBa2Cu3O7 with Tc = 93K, a similar structured system with Ag replacing Cu was discovered with a Tc = 50K. Also, the discovery of Ba0 . 6 K0 . 4 BiO3 with Tc = 30K indicated that Cu was not indispensable for high temperature superconductivity (HTSC). Latter, the discoveries of the Pnictide and Chalcogenide high-Tc superconductors confirmed those earlier experimental indications. Using our recently developed Material Specific Characterization Dataset (MSCD) model for analysis and design of superconductors, we have computed many designs that satisfy the MSCD characteristics of YBa2Cu3O7 as a design model. Our design recognizes the valence state characteristics that make YBa2Cu3O6 a semiconductor, while YBa2Cu3O7is a superconductor. Here we present ten material specific rational design examples of potential A1B2C3O7 HTSCs without Cu, using the YBa2Cu3O7 design model. This MSCD design model opens the possibility for search and discovery of high-Tc oxide superconductor systems without copper.

  19. Comparison of CD28-B7.1 and B7.2 functional interaction in resting human T cells: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase association to CD28 and cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Ghiotto-Ragueneau, M; Battifora, M; Truneh, A; Waterfield, M D; Olive, D

    1996-01-01

    CD28 is a 44kDa homodimer present on T cells providing an important costimulatory signal for T cell proliferation, cytokine production and cytokine receptor expression. CD28 activation is mediated by interaction with its counter-receptors, B7.1/CD80 and B7.2/B70/CD86. The biochemical basis of these co-stimulatory signals are still poorly understood, particularly in resting T cells. However, various biochemical pathways such as tyrosine phosphorylation, phospholipase C, sphingomyelinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) activation have been reported to play a role in CD28 signaling in tumor T cell lines and CD28-transfected cells or pre-activated T cells. In addition, recent reports propose that CD28-B7.1 and B7.2 interaction could be involved in the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, respectively, but the putative biochemical basis for these different functions is still unknown. We have analyzed the functional and molecular consequences of CD28 activation by B7.1 and B7.2 in human resting T cells. We demonstrate in this report that both CD28-B7.1 and CD28-B7.2 interactions induce the association of PI3-K to CD28 in the CD4 subpopulation, whereas it was barely detectable in CD8 cells. This association involves the binding of the src homology domain 2 (SH2) of p85 to tyrosine-phosphorylated CD28 and does not require pre-activation by CD3-T cell receptor. Worthmannin, a specific inhibitor of PI3-K enzymatic activity within the nanomolar range also inhibits the interleukin-2 production induced by costimulation mediated by either the B7.1- and B7.2-transfected cells or CD28 monoclonal antibodies. The only slight difference between B7.1 and B7.2 costimulation is the IC50 of worthmannin being 25 and 110 nM, respectively, which could suggest differences in their activation of the T cell PI3-K.

  20. Optical and scintillation properties of ce-doped (Gd2Y1)Ga2.7Al2.3O12 single crystal grown by Czochralski method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Wu, Yuntao; Ding, Dongzhou; Li, Huanying; Chen, Xiaofeng; Shi, Jian; Ren, Guohao

    2016-06-01

    Multicomponent garnets, due to their excellent light yield and energy resolution, become one of the most promising scintillators used for homeland security and nuclear non-proliferation applications. This work focuses on the optimization of Ce-doped (Gd,Y)3(Ga,Al)5O12 scintillators using a combination strategy of pre-screening and scale-up. Ce-doped GdxY1-xGayAl5-yO12 (x=1, 2 and y=2, 2.2, 2.5, 2.7, 3) polycrystalline powders were prepared by high-temperature solid state reaction method. The desired garnet phase in all the samples was confirmed using X-ray diffraction measurement. By comparing the radioluminescence intensity, the highest scintillation efficiency was achieved at a component of Gd2Y1Ga2.7Al2.3O12:Ce powders. A (Gd2Y1)Ga2.7Al2.3O12 doped with 1% Ce single crystal with dimensions of Ø35×40 mm was grown by Czochralski method using a <111> oriented seed. Luminescence and scintillation properties were measured. An optical transmittance of 84% was achieved in the concerned wavelength from 500 to 800 nm. Its 5d-4f emission of Ce3+ is at 530 nm. The light yield of a Ce1%: Gd2Y1Ga2.7Al2.3O12 single crystal slab at a size of 5×5×1 mm3 can reach about 65,000±3000 Ph/MeV along with two decay components of 94 and 615 ns under 137Cs source irradiation.

  1. Biodegradation of Nitro-Substituted Explosives 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene, Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine, and Octahydro-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5-Tetrazocine by a Phytosymbiotic Methylobacterium sp. Associated with Poplar Tissues (Populus deltoides × nigra DN34)

    PubMed Central

    Van Aken, Benoit; Yoon, Jong Moon; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2004-01-01

    A pink-pigmented symbiotic bacterium was isolated from hybrid poplar tissues (Populus deltoides × nigra DN34). The bacterium was identified by 16S and 16S-23S intergenic spacer ribosomal DNA analysis as a Methylobacterium sp. (strain BJ001). The isolated bacterium was able to use methanol as the sole source of carbon and energy, which is a specific attribute of the genus Methylobacterium. The bacterium in pure culture was shown to degrade the toxic explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazene (RDX), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5-tetrazocine (HMX). [U-ring-14C]TNT (25 mg liter−1) was fully transformed in less than 10 days. Metabolites included the reduction derivatives amino-dinitrotoluenes and diamino-nitrotoluenes. No significant release of 14CO2 was recorded from [14C]TNT. In addition, the isolated methylotroph was shown to transform [U-14C]RDX (20 mg liter−1) and [U-14C]HMX (2.5 mg liter−1) in less than 40 days. After 55 days of incubation, 58.0% of initial [14C]RDX and 61.4% of initial [14C]HMX were mineralized into 14CO2. The radioactivity remaining in solution accounted for 12.8 and 12.7% of initial [14C]RDX and [14C]HMX, respectively. Metabolites detected from RDX transformation included a mononitroso RDX derivative and a polar compound tentatively identified as methylenedinitramine. Since members of the genus Methylobacterium are distributed in a wide diversity of natural environments and are very often associated with plants, Methylobacterium sp. strain BJ001 may be involved in natural attenuation or in situ biodegradation (including phytoremediation) of explosive-contaminated sites. PMID:14711682

  2. (7aS)-(–)-Dimeth­yl(1-oxido-3-oxo-5,6,7,7a-tetra­hydro-3H-pyrrolizin-2-yl)sulfonium

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Lazcano, Leonardo; Terán, Joel L.; Juárez, Jorge R.; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; Mendoza, Angel

    2012-01-01

    In the zwitterionic title compound, C9H13NO2S, the pyrrolidine heterocycle adopts an envelope conformation (with the C atom in the 7-position as the flap). The negative charge is delocalized over the two carbonyl groups and the C atom connecting them. The positive charge is located on the S atom. Two inter­molecular C—H⋯O inter­actions are observed. The molecular geometry at the S atom is trigonal pyramidal. PMID:22412630

  3. Matrix metalloproteinases -1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -12, and -13 in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement: a longitudinal randomized split-mouth study.

    PubMed

    Canavarro, Cristiane; Teles, Ricardo Palmier; Capelli Júnior, Jonas

    2013-10-01

    This randomized split-mouth study aimed to examine the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -12, and -13 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) at different time points during orthodontic tooth movement. A total of 16 healthy orthodontic subjects (7 females, 9 males; mean age, 17.7 years) who needed their first upper premolars extracted were enrolled. One randomly chosen maxillary canine was subjected to a distalizing force and was considered to be the test side. The contralateral canine, which was not subjected to any force but was included in the orthodontic appliance, was used as a control side. GCF sampling was performed at both the mesial (tension) and distal (pressure) test and control sites at baseline, immediately before applying the orthodontic appliance, and after 1 and 24 hours and 7, 14, and 21 days. A multiplexed bead immunoassay was used to analyse the GCF samples. The mean levels of the MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -12, and -13 were not significantly different between the test and control groups in each time showed. The comparisons between the tension and pressure sites were also not significantly different at each individual time. A few variations focused on MMP-1 and -3, but the expression of MMP-8 was higher than that of the other MMPs. MMPs are released in sufficient quantities such that tooth movement occurs but with no significant increase in GCF levels.

  4. Construction and characterization of an inductive superconducting current limiting device based on ceramic Y 1Ba 2Cu 3O 7 - δ O-rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currás, S. R.; Santos, R.; Domarco, G.; Díaz, A.; Veira, J. A.; Maza, J.; François, M. X.; Vidal, F.

    Experimental results about the response of a small-scale superconducting inductive device as current limiter are reported. The device is based on ring-shaped samples of bulk Y 1Ba 2Cu 3O 7 - δ coupled to a primary coil through a magnetic core. The samples were obtained by pressing into an O-ring shape Y 1Ba 2Cu 3O 7 - δ powders, which reacted following the standard ceramic process. The size of the O-rings was 1 cm internal diameter, 1.6 cm external diameter, and 0.3 cm height. The response of the device was measured at liquid nitrogen temperature as a function of the type of magnetic core, the critical current of each individual superconducting O-ring, the number of O-rings used simultaneously, the frequency of the a.c. current and the number of turns of the primary coil.

  5. Gene structure and chromosome localization to 7q21.3 of the human rod photoreceptor transducin {gamma}-subunit gene (GNGT1)

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, S.W.; Tsui, Lap-Chee |; Feinstein, D.S.

    1996-07-01

    The transducin {gamma}-subunit gene (GNGT1) encodes a member ({gamma}{sub 1}) of the family of heterotrimeric G-protein {gamma}-subunits that is specific to rod photoreceptors. In this report we have determined the complete structure of the GNGT1 gene and have localized it to human chromosome 7q21.3 using somatic cell hybrid and yeast artificial chromosome analysis. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  6. [Zn 3+ xV 2- xO 7-3 x(OH) 2+3 x]ṡ2H 2O and M[Zn 3- xV 2O 7(OH) 2]Cl 1-2 xṡ( 1+2x)H 2O two families of zinc vanadates with structures related to the hexagonal structure of [Zn 3V 2O 7(OH) 2]ṡ2H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos, Dora; Palacio, Luz Amparo; Paillaud, Jean-Louis; Simon-Masseron, Angélique; Guth, Jean-Louis

    2004-11-01

    [Zn 3+ xV 2- xO 7-3 x(OH) 2+3 x]ṡ2H 2O ( I), with 03- xV 2O 7(OH) 2]Cl 1-2 xṡ(1+2x)H 2O ( II), with 0.153V 2O 7(OH) 2]ṡ2H 2O. Their Zn/V molar ratio can be determined from to the unit-cell parameter a by the linear relations Zn/V=4.896a-28.124 ( R=0.988) for ( I) and Zn/V=15.302a-91.027 (with R=0.992) for ( II). In ( I) the negative charges created by the substitution of vanadium with zinc in the tetrahedra of the pyrovanadate pillars connecting the octahedral sheets containing the zinc, are compensated by protonation of framework oxygen atoms. In ( II) the negative charges, created by the removal of zinc in the octahedral sheet, are compensated by cations ( NH4+ or Rb +) located between the pyrovanadate pillars. But in order to fill more completely the space, additional cations ( NH4+ or Rb +) are incorporated in form of the chloride salt.

  7. Theoretical and experimental investigations on molecular structure of 7-Chloro-9-phenyl-2,3-dihydroacridin-4(1H)-one with cytotoxic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satheeshkumar, Rajendran; Shankar, Ramasamy; Kaminsky, Werner; Kalaiselvi, Sivalingam; Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya; Rajendra Prasad, Karnam Jayarampillai

    2016-04-01

    7-Chloro-9-phenyl-2,3-dihydroacridin-4(1H)-one (3) is synthesized from 2-amino-5-chlorobenzophenone (1) and 1,2-cyclohexanedione (2) in the presence of catalyst InCl3. FT-IR, FT-Raman and FT-NMR spectra of molecule 3 have been recorded and the structure was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. CDCl3 and DMSO-d6 FT-NMR spectra and 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts have been measured in molecule 3 and calculated at the B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) and MO6-2x/6-311G (d,p) levels of theory. Similarly calculated vibrational frequencies were found in good agreement with experimental findings. The optimized geometry of molecule 3 was compared with experimental XRD values. DFT calculations of the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and HOMO - LUMO frontier orbitals identified chemically active sites of molecule 3 responsible for its bioactivity. The title compound, 3 exhibits higher cytotoxicity in Human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) compared to human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549).

  8. Surface impedance of R 1(Nd xBa 2- x)Cu 3O 7- δ (R=Nd, Y) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salluzzo, M.; Andreone, A.; Cassinese, A.; Di Capua, R.; Di Gennaro, E.; Iavarone, M.; Maglione, M. G.; Vaglio, R.

    2002-08-01

    We have studied the effect of Nd/Ba substitution on the superconducting properties of R 1(Nd xBa 2- x)Cu 3O 7 (R=Nd, Y) thin films by using microwave penetration depth and surface resistance measurements. Data on samples characterised by a Nd-excess of 4-5% have been collected by using a microstrip resonator at frequencies of 1.44 and 9.7 GHz and a symmetric dielectric resonator technique in TE 0 1 1 mode at 19.8 GHz. A quadratic bT2 low temperature dependence of the penetration depth is observed for the Nd-rich samples, with the coefficient b decreasing with the frequency. The data can be reasonably explained in a d-wave framework supposing that Nd at Ba site behaves, both in Nd 1+ x Ba 2- xCu 3O 7 and Y 1(Nd xBa 2- x)Cu 3O 7, as a resonant impurity, as confirmed by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. The changes of the temperature dependence of the penetration depth with the frequency can be explained with a two fluid approach taking into account the frequency dependence of the complex conductivity.

  9. Control of Co content and SOFC cathode performance in Y1-ySr2+yCu3-xCoxO7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimo, F.; Payne, J. L.; Demont, A.; Sayers, R.; Li, Ming; Collins, C. M.; Pitcher, M. J.; Claridge, J. B.; Rosseinsky, M. J.

    2014-11-01

    The electrochemical performance of the layered perovskite YSr2Cu3-xCoxO7+δ, a potential solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode, is improved by increasing the Co content from x = 1.00 to a maximum of x = 1.30. Single phase samples with x > 1.00 are obtained by tuning the Y/Sr ratio, yielding the composition Y1-ySr2+yCu3-xCoxO7+δ (where y ≤ 0.05). The high temperature structure of Y0.95Sr2.05Cu1.7Co1.3O7+δ at 740 °C is characterised by powder neutron diffraction and the potential of this Co-enriched material as a SOFC cathode is investigated by combining AC impedance spectroscopy, four-probe DC conductivity and powder XRD measurements to determine its electrochemical properties along with its thermal stability and compatibility with a range of commercially available electrolytes. The material is shown to be compatible with doped ceria electrolytes at 900 °C.

  10. Identification of New Regions in HIV-1 gp120 Variable 2 and 3 Loops that Bind to α4β7 Integrin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Peachman, Kristina K.; Karasavvas, Nicos; Chenine, Agnes-Laurence; McLinden, Robert; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Jaranit, Kaewkungwal; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Michael, Nelson L.; Kim, Jerome H.; Alving, Carl R.; Rao, Mangala

    2015-01-01

    Background The gut mucosal homing integrin receptor α4β7 present on activated CD4+ T cells interacts with the HIV-1 gp120 second variable loop (V2). Case control analysis of the RV144 phase III vaccine trial demonstrated that plasma IgG binding antibodies specific to scaffolded proteins expressing the first and second variable regions (V1V2) of HIV envelope protein gp120 containing the α4β7 binding motif correlated inversely with risk of infection. Subsequently antibodies to the V3 region were also shown to correlate with protection. The integrin receptor α4β7 was shown to interact with the LDI/V motif on V2 loop but recent studies suggest that additional regions of V2 loop could interact with the α4β7. Thus, there may be several regions on the V2 and possibly V3 loops that may be involved in this binding. Using a cell line, that constitutively expressed α4β7 receptors but lacked CD4, we examined the contribution of V2 and V3 loops and the ability of V2 peptide-, V2 integrin-, V3-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and purified IgG from RV144 vaccinees to block the V2/V3-α4β7 interaction. Results We demonstrate that α4β7 on RPMI8866 cells bound specifically to its natural ligand mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) as well as to cyclic-V2 and cyclic-V3 peptides. This binding was inhibited by anti-α4β7-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) ACT-1, mAbs specific to either V2 or V3 loops, and by purified primary virions or infectious molecular clones expressing envelopes from acute or chronic subtypes A, C, and CRF01_AE viruses. Plasma from HIV-1 infected Thai individuals as well as purified IgG from uninfected RV144 vaccinees inhibited (0–50%) the binding of V2 and V3 peptides to α4β7. Conclusion Our results indicate that in addition to the tripeptide LDI/V motif, other regions of the V2 and V3 loops of gp120 were involved in binding to α4β7 receptors and this interaction was blocked by anti-V2 peptide, anti-V2 integrin, and anti

  11. Four-component intergrowth structures of the metal-ion cage complexes fac-(1,5,9,13,20-pentamethyl-3,7,11,15,18,22-hexaazabicyclo

    PubMed

    Haller; Rae; Bygott; Hockless; Ralph; Geue; Sargeson

    1999-06-01

    The crystal structures of (1,5,9,13,20-pentamethyl-3,7,11,15,18,22-hexaazabicyclo[7.7.7]tricosane-kappa(6)N,N',N",N"',N",N"')nickel(II) diperchlorate-x(water) (x = 0.530), [Ni(C(22)H(48)N(6))](ClO(4))(2).0.530H(2)O, and (1,5,9,13,20-pentamethyl-3,7,11,15,18,22-hexaazabicyclo[7.7.7]tricosane-kappa(6)N,N',N",N"',N",N"')zinc(II) diperchlorate-x(water) (x = 0.608), [Zn(C(22)H(48)N(6))](ClO(4))(2).0.608H(2)O, are isomorphic and each is described as an intergrowth of four substructures, consistent with different modulations of an idealized parent structure of space group C2/c. Two substructures correspond to alternative orientations of a C1; structure for which x = 0 in the general formula [M(C(22)H(48)N(6))](ClO(4))(2).xH(2)O, and two substructures correspond to alternative origins of a P2(1)/n structure for which x = 1. Twinning also occurs. An analysis of the pseudosymmetry, a description of the refinement and a description of the refined structures are presented. The MN(6) coordination geometry is essentially octahedral, in contrast to the trigonal-prismatic geometry observed for the Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes of the same ligand. PMID:10927381

  12. (R)-3'-(3-methylbenzo[b]thiophen-5-yl)spiro[1-azabicyclo[2,2,2]octane-3,5'-oxazolidin]-2'-one, a novel and potent alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist displays cognitive enhancing properties.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Ryo; Fujio, Masakazu; Takanashi, Shin-ichi; Numata, Atsushi; Katayama, Jiro; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Shiigi, Yasuyuki; Maeda, Jun-ichi; Kuriyama, Makoto; Horikawa, Takashi; Murozono, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Kenji; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2006-07-13

    Recent studies have suggested that the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors play important roles in learning and memory. Herein, we describe our research of the structure-activity relationships (SAR) in a series of (S)-spiro[1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-3,5'-oxazolidin]-2'-ones bearing various bicyclic moieties to discover novel alpha7 receptor agonists. Through a number of SAR studies on the series, we have found out that inhibition of CYP 2D6 isozyme, which was a primary obstacle for the previously identified compound, was avoidable by the introduction of bicyclic moieties. Chemical optimization of the series led to the identification of a novel and potent alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist 23. This compound not only possessed high binding affinity (K(i) = 3 nmol/L) toward the alpha7 receptor but also showed agonistic activity even at a concentration of 0.1 micromol/L. In addition, compound 23 improved cognition in several rat models, which might suggest the potential of the alpha7 receptor partial agonist for the treatment of neurological disorders including cognitive dysfunction.

  13. Microbiological degradation of bile acids. Metabolites formed from 3-(3a alpha-hexahydro-7a beta-methyl-1,5-dioxoindan-4 alpha-yl) propionic acid by Streptomyces rubescens.

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, S; Hayakawa, S

    1977-01-01

    1. The metabolism of 3-(3a alpha-hexahydro-7a beta-methyl-1,5-dioxoindan-4 alpha-yl)propionic acid (III), which is a possible precursor of 2,3,4,6,6a beta, 7,8,9,9a alpha,9b beta-decahydro-6a beta-methyl-1H-cyclopenta[f]quinoline-3,7-dione (II) formed from cholic acid (I) by streptomyces rubescens, was investigated by using the same organism. 2. This organism effected amide bond formation, reduction of the carbonyl groups, trans alpha beta-desaturation and R-oriented beta-hydroxylation of the propionic acid side chain and skeleton cleavage, and the following metabolites were isolated as these forms or their derivatives: compound (II), 1,2,3,4 a beta,-5,6,6a beta,7,8,9a alpha,9b beta-dodecahydro-6a beta -methylcyclopental[f][1]benzopyran-3,7-dione (IVa), (1R)-1,2,3,4a beta,5,6,6a beta,7,8,9.9a alpha,9b beta-dodecahydro-1-hydroxy-6a beta-methylcyclopenta[f][1]benzopyran-3,7-dione (IVb), (E)-3-(3aalpha-hexahydro-5 alpha-hydroxy-7a beta-methyl-l-oxo-indan-4 alpha-yl)prop-2-enoic acid (V), (+)-(5R)-5-methyl-4-oxo-octane-1,8-dioic acid (VI), 3-(4-hydroxy-5-methyl-2-oxo-2H-pyran-6-yl)propionic acid (VII) and 3-(3a alpha-hexahydro-1 beta-hydroxy-7a beta-methyl-5-oxoindan-4 alpha-yl)propionic acid (VIII). The metabolites (IVb), (V), (VI) and (VII) were new compounds, and their structures were established by chemical synthesis. 3. The question of whether these metabolites are true degradative intermediates is discussed, and a degradative pathway of compound (III) to the possible precursor of compound (VII), 7-carboxy-4-methyl-3,5-dioxoheptanoyl-CoA (IX), is tentatively proposed. The further degradation of compound (IX) to small fragments is also considered. PMID:883963

  14. Superconducting order parameter fluctuations above Tc in polycrystalline Ho 1Ba 2Cu 3O 7-δ compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Félix; Veira, J. A.; Maza, J.; Ponte, J. J.; Amador, J.; Cascales, C.; Casais, M. T.; Rasines, I.

    1988-08-01

    We report measurements of the excess electrical conductivity, Δσ, above Tc in polycrystalline HoBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ single-phase 0 (within 4%) compounds. The relative temperature resolution is of the order of 10 -2 K which, in spite of the broadening of the transition by nonintrinsic effects, should probably make accessible the whole mean-field regime for Δσ and also to penetrate inside the full critical dynamic region. The general behavior of Δσ(ɛ) in these Ho-based samples is very similar to that previously observed in our laboratory for Y-based high-temperature superconductors. In particular, when analyzed in terms of the Aslamazov-Larkin theory and by using some dynamic scaling ideas, the Δσ(ɛ) data are compatible with a superconducting order parameter of two components fluctuating in three dimensions. No influence of the magnetic Ho ions on Δσ is observed in the whole reduced-temperature range studied.

  15. Spin glass freezing and superconductivity in YBa2(Cu(1-x)Fe(x))3O7 alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirebeau, I.; Hennion, M.; Dianoux, J.; Caignaert, V.; Phillips, T. E.; Moorjani, K.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamics were studied of the iron spins in superconducting YBa2(Cu(0.94)Fe(0.06))3O7 by neutron time of flight measurements. Two samples were studied with slightly different characteristics, as shown by resistivity and neutron diffraction measurements. The same dynamical anomalies are observed by neutrons in both samples. Differences appear qualitative but not quantitative. In the whole temperature range, the q-dependence of the magnetic intensity mainly reflects the magnetic form factor of iron which shows that the iron spins are almost uncorrelated. The elastic and quasielastic intensities strongly vary with temperature. A spin glass like freezing is revealed at low temperature by a sharp decrease of the quasielastic intensity, an increase of the 'elastic' or resolution limited intensity and a minimum in the quasielastic width. The freezing temperature (T sub f - 18 K) corresponds to that already determined by a magnetic splitting in Mossbauer experiments. Above T sub f, the relaxation of the iron spins in the paramagnetic state is modified by the occurrence of superconductivity. An increase was observed of the quasielastic intensity and of the quasielastic width at the superconducting transition.

  16. Further studies on conformationally constrained tricyclic tropane analogues and their uptake inhibition at monoamine transporter sites: synthesis of (Z)-9-(substituted arylmethylene)-7-azatricyclo[4.3.1.0(3,7)]decanes as a novel class of serotonin transporter inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ao; Zhou, Guochun; Hoepping, Alexander; Mukhopadhyaya, Jayanta; Johnson, Kenneth M; Zhang, Mei; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2002-04-25

    A novel series of conformationally constrained tricyclic tropane analogues, (Z)-9-(substituted arylmethylene)-7-azatricyclo[4.3.1.0(3,7)]decanes, were prepared, and their abilities to inhibit high-affinity uptake of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and norepinephrine (NE) into rat brain nerve endings (synaptosomes) were evaluated. First, a systematic screening of a variety of different substituents on the phenyl ring indicated that the substitution pattern plays an important role in the monoamine transporter activity. Most compounds in this series possessed a very low activity at the DA transporter (DAT) but a good to excellent affinity for the 5-HT transporter (SERT). In the case of para-substituted phenyl analogues, the electronic character of the substituent did not affect uptake inhibition as dramatically as observed in some benztropine analogues. Among these compounds, the 4-bromophenyl and 4-isopropylphenyl analogues 8d and 8j exhibited the highest potency at the SERT with a K(i) value of 10 nM. In the 3,4-disubstituted phenyl series, even more potent and highly selective compounds were discovered. Compound 8o has a K(i) value of 2.3 nM for uptake inhibition at the SERT, a DAT/SERT uptake ratio of 2360, and a NET/SERT uptake ratio of 200. Compound 8p exhibited a K(i) value of 1.8 nM for uptake inhibition at the SERT, a DAT/SERT uptake ratio of 1740, and a NET/SERT uptake ratio of 151. These compounds are 3-4-fold more potent than the antidepressant medication fluoxetine, and the selectivities for SERT over DAT and NET are also better than those of fluoxetine. Second, a variety of functional modifications on the ester moiety were investigated. Substitution by other esters or amides as well as alkenes did not increase potency, while most of the acetates or benzoates (16-21, 23, and 24) and the ketone 28 exhibited significantly improved activity. A good hydrogen-bonding ability of the substituent is believed to be required for high activity. The most potent and

  17. Using Extended Huckel Theory as a Platform to Introduce Jahn-Teller Distortion: The Spontaneous Distortion of 1,3,5,7-Cyclooctatetraene from a Perfect Octagon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohlberg, Karl; Liu, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Herein, a slightly enhanced version of extended Huckel molecular orbital theory is applied to demonstrate the spontaneous distortion of 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene from a perfect octagon, a consequence of the Jahn-Teller effect. The exercise is accessible to students who have been introduced to basic quantum mechanics and extended Huckel molecular…

  18. Inhibition of Tpl2 kinase and TNF-alpha production with 1,7-naphthyridine-3-carbonitriles: synthesis and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Gavrin, Lori Krim; Green, Neal; Hu, Yonghan; Janz, Kristin; Kaila, Neelu; Li, Huan-Qiu; Tam, Steve Y; Thomason, Jennifer R; Gopalsamy, Ariamala; Ciszewski, Greg; Cuozzo, John W; Hall, J Perry; Hsu, Sang; Telliez, Jean-Baptiste; Lin, Lih-Ling

    2005-12-01

    The synthesis and structure-activity studies of a series of 6-substituted-4-anilino-[1,7]-naphthyridine-3-carbonitriles as inhibitors of Tpl2 kinase are described. The early exploratory work described here may lead to the discovery of compounds with significant therapeutic potential for treating rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:16165349

  19. Protein Expression for Novel Prognostic Markers (Cyclins D1, D2, D3, B1, B2, ITGβ7, FGFR3, PAX5) Correlate With Previously Reported Gene Expression Profile Patterns in Plasma Cell Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Adnan; Akhter, Ariz; Pournazari, Payam; Mahe, Etienne; Shariff, Sami; Farooq, Fahad; Elyamany, Ghaleb; Shahbani-Rad, Meer-Taher; Rashid-Kolvear, Fariborz

    2015-01-01

    Among plasma cell myeloma (PCM) patients, gene expression profiling (GEP)-based molecular classification has proven to be an independent predictor of survival, after autologous stem cell transplantation. However, GEP has limited routine clinical applicability given its complex methodology, high cost, and limited availability in clinical laboratories. In this study, we have evaluated biomarkers identified from GEP discoveries, utilizing immunohistochemistry (IHC) platform in a cohort of PCM patients. IHC staining for cyclins B1, B2, D1, D2, D3, FGFR3, PAX5, and integrin β7 (ITGβ7) was performed on the bone marrow biopsies of 93 newly diagnosed PCM patients. Expression of FGFR3 was noted in 10 (11%) samples correlating completely with t(4;14)(p16;q32) results (P<0.001); however, the association between FGFR3 and cyclin D2 expression was not significant (P=0.14). ITGβ7 expression was present in 9/93 (9%) patients and all these samples also demonstrated upregulated expression of cyclin D2 (P=0.014). Expression of cyclins D1, D2, and D3 was variable in this cohort. Positive protein expression of cyclin D1 was noted in 30/93 (32%), D2 in 17/93 (18%), and D3 in 5/93 (5%) samples. Coexpression of cyclins D1 and D2 was observed in 13/93 (14%) samples, whereas 28 (30%) samples were negative for all the 3 cyclin D proteins. Cyclin B1 was not expressed in any sample, despite adequate staining in positive controls. Cyclin B2 was expressed in 33/93 (35%) and PAX5 protein was noted in 7/93 (8%) samples. In summary, we have demonstrated that mRNA-based prognostic markers can be detected by routine IHC in decalcified bone marrow samples. This approach may provide a useful tool for the wider adoption of prognostic makers for risk stratification of PCM patients. We anticipate that such an approach might allow patients with high-risk immunoprofiles to be considered for other potential novel therapeutic agents, potentially sparing some patients the toxicity of stem cell transplant.

  20. Preparation of 1,7- and 3,9-dideazapurines from 2-amino-3-iodo- and 3-amino-4-iodopyridines and activated acetylenes by conjugate addition and copper-catalyzed intramolecular arylation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Back, Thomas G

    2014-11-21

    The conjugate addition of N-formyl derivatives of 2-amino-3-iodo- and 3-amino-4-iodopyridines to acetylenes activated by sulfone, ester, or ketone groups, followed by intramolecular arylation, affords variously substituted 1,7- and 3,9-dideazapurines. The method employs DMF-water as the solvent and copper(II) acetate as the catalyst for the cyclization step. Neither added ligands nor the exclusion of oxygen is necessary. The process therefore provides a simple, convenient, and inexpensive route to this biologically interesting class of products. PMID:25333726

  1. ZSTK474, a specific class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, induces G1 arrest and autophagy in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaochen; Liu, Jing; Qiu, Yuling; Jin, Meihua; Chen, Xi; Fan, Guanwei; Wang, Ran; Kong, Dexin

    2016-01-01

    Multifaceted activities of class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor ZSTK474 were investigated on human breast cancer cell MCF-7. ZSTK474 inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 cells potently. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that ZSTK474 induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, but no obvious apoptosis occurred. Western blot analysis suggested that blockade of PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/cyclin D1/p-Rb pathway might contribute to the G1 arrest induced. Moreover, we demonstrated that ZSTK474 induced autophagy in MCF-7 cells by use of various assays including monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tandem mRFP-GFP-LC3 fluorescence microscopy, and western blot detection of the autophagy protein markers of LC3B II, p62 and Atg 5. Inhibition of class I PI3K and the downstream mTOR might be involved in the autophagy-inducing effect. Combinational use of ZSTK474 and autophagy inhibitors enhanced cell viability, suggesting ZSTK474-induced autophagy might contribute to the antitumor activity. Our report supports the application of ZSTK474, which is being evaluated in clinical trials, for breast cancer therapy. PMID:26918351

  2. Fine mapping of the autosomal dominant split hand/split foot locus on chromosome 7, band q21. 3-q. 22. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, S.W.; Tsui, L.C. ); Allen, T.; Kim, J.; Soder, S. ); Poorkaj, P.; Geshuri, D.; Nunes, M.; Stephens, K.; Pagon, R.A. )

    1994-07-01

    Split hand/split foot (SHFD) is a human developmental defect characterized by missing digits, fusion of remaining digits, and a deep median cleft in the hands and feet. Cytogenetic studies of deletions and translocations associated with this disorder have indicated that an autosomal dominant split hand/split foot locus (gene SHFD1) maps to 7q21-q22. To characterize the SHFD1 locus, somatic cell hybrid lines were constructed from cytogenetically abnormal individuals with SHFD. Molecular analysis resulted in the localization of 93 DNA markers to one of 10 intervals surrounding the SHFD1 locus. The translocation breakpoints in four SHFD patients were encompassed by the smallest region of overlap among the SHFD-associated deletions. The order of DNA markers in the SHFD1 critical region has been defined as PON-D7S812-SHFD1-D7S811-ASNS. One DNA marker, D7S811, detected altered restriction enzyme fragments in three patients with translocations when examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). These data map SHFD1, a gene that is crucial for human limb differentiation, to a small interval in the q21.3-q.22.1 region of human chromosome 7. 54 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Synthesis and antitubercular activity of 7-(R)- and 7-(S)-methyl-2-nitro-6-(S)-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzyloxy)-6,7-dihydro-5H-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazines, analogues of PA-824

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojin; Manjunatha, Ujjini H.; Goodwin, Michael B.; Knox, John E.; Lipinski, Christopher A.; Keller, Thomas H.; Barry, Clifton E.; Dowd, Cynthia S.

    2008-01-01

    Nitroimidazoles such as PA-824 and OPC-67683 are currently in clinical development as members of a promising new class of therapeutics for tuberculosis. While the antitubercular activity of these compounds is high, they both suffer from poor water solubility thus complicating development. We determined the single-crystal X-ray structure of PA-824 and found a close packing of the nitroimidazoles facilitated by a pseudoaxial conformation of the p-trifluoromethoxybenzyl ether. To attempt to disrupt this tight packing by destabilizing the axial preference of this side chain, we prepared the two diastereomers of the 7-methyl-nitroimidazo-oxazine. Determination of the crystal structure of the 7-(S)-methyl derivative (5, cis) revealed that the benzylic side chain remained pseudoaxial while the 7-(R)-methyl derivative (6, trans) adopted the desired pseudoequatorial conformation. Both derivatives displayed similar activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but neither showed improved aqueous solubility, suggesting that inherent lattice stability is not likely to be a major factor in limiting solubility. Conformational analysis revealed that all three compounds have similar energetically accessible conformations in solution. Additionally, these results suggest that the nitroreductase that initially recognizes PA-824 is somewhat insensitive to substitutions at the 7-position. PMID:18358721

  4. Epstein-Barr virus BRLF1 inhibits transcription of IRF3 and IRF7 and suppresses induction of interferon-{beta}

    SciTech Connect

    Bentz, Gretchen L.; Liu Renshui; Hahn, Angela M.; Shackelford, Julia; Pagano, Joseph S.

    2010-06-20

    Activation of interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) 3 and 7 is essential for the induction of Type I interferons (IFN) and innate antiviral responses, and herpesviruses have evolved mechanisms to evade such responses. We previously reported that Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1, an immediate-early (IE) protein, inhibits the function of IRF7, but the role of BRLF1, the other IE transactivator, in IRF regulation has not been examined. We now show that BRLF1 expression decreased induction of IFN-{beta}, and reduced expression of IRF3 and IRF7; effects were dependent on N- and C-terminal regions of BRLF1 and its nuclear localization signal. Endogenous IRF3 and IRF7 RNA and protein levels were also decreased during cytolytic EBV infection. Finally, production of IFN-{beta} was decreased during lytic EBV infection and was associated with increased susceptibility to superinfection with Sendai virus. These data suggest a new role for BRLF1 with the ability to evade host innate immune responses.

  5. Oxidative stress in female B6C3F1 mice following acute and subchronic exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).

    PubMed

    Slezak, B P; Hatch, G E; DeVito, M J; Diliberto, J J; Slade, R; Crissman, K; Hassoun, E; Birnbaum, L S

    2000-04-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a highly persistent trace environmental contaminant and is one of the most potent toxicants known to man. Hassoun et al. (1998, Toxicol. Sci. 42, 23-27) reported an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain of female B6C3F1 mice following subchronic exposure to TCDD at doses as low as 0.45 ng/kg/day. In the present study, oxidative stress was characterized in liver, spleen, lung, and kidney following subchronic (0.15-150 ng/kg; 5 days/week for 13 weeks, po) or acute exposure (0.001-100 microg/kg, po) to TCDD in order to investigate the interaction between tissue concentration and time for production of ROS. Seven days following acute administration of TCDD, mice were sacrificed; they demonstrated increases in liver superoxide anion production (SOAP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) at doses of 10 and 100 microg/kg, associated with hepatic TCDD concentrations of 55 and 321 ng/g, respectively. Liver obtained from mice following subchronic TCDD exposure demonstrated an increase in SOAP and TBARS above controls at doses of 150 ng/kg/day with liver TCDD concentration of only 12 ng/g. Interestingly, glutathione (GSH) levels in lung and kidney following sub-chronic TCDD exposure were decreased at the low dose of 0.15 ng/kg/day. This effect disappeared at higher TCDD doses. The data suggest that higher tissue TCDD concentrations are required to elicit oxidative stress following acute dosing than with subchronic TCDD exposure. Therefore, the mechanism of ROS production following TCDD exposure does not appear to be solely dependent upon the concentration of TCDD within the tissue. In addition, very low doses of TCDD that result in tissue concentrations similar to the background levels found in the human population produced an effect on an oxidative stress endogenous defense system. The role of this effect in TCDD-mediated toxicity is not known and warrants further investigation.

  6. The structure, magnetostriction, and hysteresis of (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9)1-x(Tb0.15Ho0.85Fe1.9)x alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bowen; Lv, Yan; Li, Guolu; Huang, Wenmei; Weng, Ling; Cui, Baozhi

    2015-05-01

    The (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9)1-x(Tb0.15Ho0.85Fe1.9)x alloys were prepared in an arc furnace under high purity argon. The as-cast samples wrapped in Mo foil were sealed in a silica tube filled with high purity argon and were homogenized at 1000 °C for 1 day and at 950 °C for 5 days. Then, the homogenized specimens with 5 mm in diameter and 8 mm in length were annealed under the magnetic field of 320 kA/m. The static measurement of magnetostriction (λ//, λ⊥) was made by standard strain gauge, and the magnetization M was measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer. It is found that the main phase of annealed (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9)1-x(Tb0.15Ho0.85Fe1.9)x alloys is the (Tb,Dy,Ho)Fe2 phase with the MgCu2-type structure. The magnetostriction λ// and magnetization M of (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9)1-x(Tb0.15Ho0.85Fe1.9)x alloys increases with increasing x from x = 0.1 to x = 0.3 when H < 240 kA/m. The hysteresis becomes small with increasing x when x ≤ 0.3. For magnetically annealed rod alloys, the magnetostriction markedly increases and reaches 1080 × 10-6 for x = 0.3 when H = 240 kA/m.

  7. Lithium1.3Aluminum0.3Titanium1.7Phosphate as a solid state Li-ion conductor: Issues with microcracking and stability in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackman, Spencer D.

    Lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (LATP) with formula Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 was analyzed and tested to better understand its applicability as a solid state ion conducting ceramic material for electrochemical applications. Sintered samples were obtained from Ceramatec, Inc. in Salt Lake City and characterized in terms of density, phase-purity, fracture toughness, Young's modulus, thermal expansion behavior, mechanical strength, a.c. and d.c. ionic conductivity, and susceptibility to static and electrochemical corrosion in aqueous Li salt solutions. It was shown that LATP is prone to microcrack generation because of high thermal expansion anisotropy. A.c. impedance spectra of high-purity LATP of varying grain sizes showed that microcracking had a negative impact on the ionic conduction of Li along grain boundaries, with fine-grained (1.7±0.7 µm) LATP having twice the ionic conductivity of the same purity of coarse-grained (4.8±1.9 µm) LATP at 50°C. LATP with detectible secondary phases had lower ionic conductivity for similar grain sizes, as would be expected. The Young's modulus of fine-grained LATP was measured to be 115 GPa, and the highest biaxial strength was 191±11 MPa when tested in mineral oil, 144±13 MPa as measured in air, and 26±7 MPa after exposure to deionized water, suggesting that LATP undergoes stress-corrosion cracking. After exposure to LiOH, the strength was 76±19 MPa. This decrease in strength was observed despite there being no measureable change in a.c. impedance spectra, X-ray diffraction, or sample mass, suggesting phosphate glasses at grain boundaries. The chemical and electrochemical stability of high-purity LATP in aqueous electrochemical cells was evaluated using LiOH, LiCl, LiNO3, and LiCOOCH3 salts as the Li source. LATP was found to be most stable between pH 8-9, with the longest cell operating continuously at 25 mA cm-2 for 625 hours at 40°C in LiCOOCH3. At pH values outside of the 7-10 range, eventual membrane degradation

  8. Sulfur-based redox reactions in Mo3S7(4+) and Mo3S4(4+) clusters bearing halide and 1,2-dithiolene ligands: a mass spectrometric and density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Llusar, Rosa; Polo, Victor; Velez, Ederley; Vicent, Cristian

    2010-09-01

    The gas phase fragmentation reactions of sulfur-rich [Mo(3)S(7)Br(6)](2-) (1(2-)), [Mo(3)S(7)(bdt)(3)](2-) (2(2-)), and [Mo(3)S(4)(bdt)(3)](2-) (3(2-)) (bdt = benzenedithiolate) complexes have been investigated by electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry and theoretical calculations at the density functional theory level. Upon collision induced dissociation (CID) conditions, the brominated 1(2-) dianion dissociates through two sequential steps that involves a heterolytic Mo-Br cleavage to give [Mo(3)S(7)Br(5)](-) plus Br(-) followed by a two-electron redox process that affords [Mo(3)S(5)Br(5)](-) and diatomic S(2) sulfur. Dianion [Mo(3)S(7)(bdt)(3)](2-) (2(2-)) dissociates through two sequential redox processes evolving diatomic S(2) sulfur and neutral bdt to yield [Mo(3)S(5)(bdt)(3)](2-) and [Mo(3)S(5)(bdt)(2)](2-), respectively. Conversely, dianion [Mo(3)S(4)(bdt)(3)](2-) (3(2-)), with sulfide instead of disulfide S(2)(2-) bridged ligands, remains intact under identical fragmentation conditions, thus highlighting the importance of disulfide ligands (S(2)(2-)) as electron reservoirs to trigger redox reactions. Regioselective incorporation of (34)S and Se at the equatorial position of the Mo(3)S(7) cluster core in 1(2-) and 2(2-) have been used to identify the product ions along the fragmentation pathways. Reaction mechanisms for the gas-phase dissociation pathways have been elucidated by means of B3LYP calculations, and a comparison with the solution reactivity of Mo(3)S(7) and Mo(3)S(4) clusters as well as closely related Mo/S/dithiolene systems is also discussed.

  9. 7 CFR 1710.1 - General statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... forth elsewhere: (1) For guaranteed loans in 7 CFR part 1712 and RUS Bulletins 20-22, 60-10, 86-3, 105-5, and 111-3, or the successors to these bulletins; and (2) For insured loans in 7 CFR part 1714 and in... supersedes those portions of the following RUS Bulletins and supplements that are in conflict....

  10. Localization of a gene for autosomal dominant Larsen syndrome to chromosome region 3p21.1-14.1 in the proximity of, but distinct from the COL7A1 locus

    SciTech Connect

    Vujic, M.; Hallstensson, K.; Wahlstroem, J.

    1995-11-01

    Larsen syndrome (LS) is a skeletal dysplasia (osteochondrodysplasia) in which multiple dislocations of the large joints are the major feature. Nosology in this group of diseases, which constitutes 8% of Mendelian disorders in man, is primarily based on clinical and radiographic features. Hopes for more accurate classification grounds are currently being met by progress in elucidation of underlying genetic defects. We have performed linkage analysis in a large Swedish kindred with autosomal dominant LS and found the gene (LAR1) to be strongly linked to chromosome 3p markers (Z{sub max} = 13.4 at {theta} = .00). Recombination analysis indicates that the LAR1 locus is located in a region defined distally by D3S1581 and proximally by D3S1600, which cytogenetically maps to chromosome region 3p21.1-14.1. Linkage and recombination analysis of a COL7A1 PvuII intragenic polymorphism versus LS and chromosome 3 markers indicate that COL7A1 is located close to, but distinct from, the LAR1 locus. 33 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. (3-Methyl-3a,4,7,7a-tetra­hydro-5H-4,7-methano­isoxazolo[4,5-d][1,2]oxazin-5-yl)(phen­yl)methanone

    PubMed Central

    Lough, Alan J.; Nagireddy, Jaipal R.; Tam, William

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C14H14N2O3, is the exo isomer with a syn arrangement of two O atoms in the isoxazole and oxazine rings. The dihedral angle between the isoxazole and phenyl rings is 60.38 (4)°. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules, forming a three-dimensional network. The isoxazole O atom is an acceptor for three of these hydrogen bonds. PMID:24860351

  12. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene is located at region q21. 3-q22 of chromosome 7 and genetically linked with cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, K.W.; Winqvist, R.; Riccio, A.; Andreasen, P.A.; Sartorio, R.; Nielsen, L.S.; Stuart, N.; Stanislovitis, P.; Watkins, P.; Douglas, R.

    1987-12-01

    The regional chromosomal location of the human gene for plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI1) was determined by three independent methods of gene mapping. PAI1 was localized first to 7cen-q32 and then to 7q21.3-q22 by Southern blot hybridization analysis of a panel of human and mouse somatic cell hybrids with a PAI1 cDNA probe and in situ hybridization, respectively. The authors frequent HindIII restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the PAI1 gene with an information content of 0.369. In family studies using this polymorphism, genetic linkage was found between PAI1 and the loci for erythropoietin (EPO), paraoxonase (PON), the met protooncogene (MET), and cystic fibrosis (CF), all previously assigned to the middle part of the long arm of chromosome 7. The linkage with EPO was closest with an estimated genetic distance of 3 centimorgans, whereas that to CF was 20 centimorgans. A three-point genetic linkage analysis and data from previous studies showed that the most likely order of these loci is EPO, PAI1, PON, (MET, CF), with PAI1 being located centromeric to CF. The PAI1 RFLP may prove to be valuable in ordering genetic markers in the CF-linkage group and may also be valuable in genetic analysis of plasminogen activation-related diseases, such as certain thromboembolic disorders and cancer.

  13. The Arabidopsis nitrate transporter NPF7.3/NRT1.5 is involved in lateral root development under potassium deprivation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yue; Drechsler, Navina; Rausch, Christine; Kunze, Reinhard

    2016-05-01

    Plants have evolved a large array of transporters and channels that are responsible for uptake, source-to-sink distribution, homeostasis and signaling of nitrate (NO3(-)), which is for most plants the primary nitrogen source and a growth-limiting macronutrient. To optimize NO3(-) uptake in response to changing NO3(-) concentrations in the soil, plants are able to modify their root architecture. Potassium is another macronutrient that influences the root architecture. We recently demonstrated that the Arabidopsis NO3(-) transporter NPF7.3/NRT1.5, which drives root-to-shoot transport of NO3(-), is also involved in root-to-shoot translocation of K(+) under low NO3(-) nutrition. Here, we show that K(+) shortage, but not limiting NO3(-) supply, causes in nrt1.5 mutant plants an altered root architecture with conspicuously reduced lateral root density. Since lateral root development is influenced by auxin, we discuss a possible involvement of NPF7.3/NRT1.5 in auxin homeostasis in roots under K(+) deprivation. PMID:27089248

  14. Coaction and distinguishment of converse piezoelectric and field effects in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/SrTiO3/0.68Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.32PbTiO3 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tao; Yang, Shengwei; Liu, Yukuai; Yin, Yuewei; Dong, Sining; Zhao, Wenbo; Li, Xiaoguang

    2013-07-01

    The volatile and nonvolatile electroresistances related to the converse piezoelectric induced strain and ferroelectric field effects are improved in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/SrTiO3/0.68Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.32PbTiO3 heterostructures by inserting a SrTiO3 buffer layer. Due to the coaction of the strain and field effects, the tri-resistance states are observed, and the relative contributions of the two effects on the resistance changes can be quantitatively distinguished by a programmable control of the polarization electric fields in "ON" and "OFF" modes, respectively. Our results indicate that the well-designed heterostructure exhibits potential for application in multifunctional devices.

  15. Nanoscale domains and preferred cracking planes in Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-(6-7)% PbTiO3 single crystals studied by piezoresponse force microscopy and fractography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Meng Fei; Zeng, Kaiyang

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents recent studies on surface and cross-sectional domain structures of Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-(6-7)%PbTiO3 (PZN-PT) single crystals using piezoresponse force microscopy and three-point bending technique. The surface domain structures for the rhombohedral-based single crystals in (001) orientation are found to be influenced by polishing process, whereas the surface domains on the (011)-oriented single crystals are aligned along [011¯] direction, unaffected by the polishing process. On the other hand, the domain structures on the cross-sectional fracture surface show preferential alignment which agrees reasonably with the rhombohedral dipoles on the {100} and {110} planes. The differences between the surface and cross-sectional domain structures could be attributed to stress compensation between the surface strain effect and the minimization of elastic energy. In addition, both surface and cross-sectional surface demonstrate nanoscale domains, about 100-200 nm in size. Further fractography observation suggests that the preferred cracking planes for the PZN-PT single crystals are {110} and {100} planes. The {110} planes may be the slip planes along which material pile up is observed upon indentation loading. The pile up results in tensile hoop stress, producing radial cracks along the {100} cleavage planes. To accommodate the localized stress change, new ferroelastic domains by mechanical stress are then formed without interrupting the out-of-plane piezoelectric response. Since the material pile up is thought to cause enhanced toughness along {110} planes, the PZN-PT single crystal in [011]-poled orientation exhibits more superior piezoelectric properties compared to that of the [001]-poled counterpart.

  16. Thalamic nuclei segmentation in clinical 3T T1-weighted Images using high-resolution 7T shape models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuan; D'Haese, Pierre-François; Newton, Allen T.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2015-03-01

    Accurate and reliable identification of thalamic nuclei is important for surgical interventions and neuroanatomical studies. This is a challenging task due to their small sizes and low intra-thalamic contrast in standard T1-weighted or T2- weighted images. Previously proposed techniques rely on diffusion imaging or functional imaging. These require additional scanning and suffer from the low resolution and signal-to-noise ratio in these images. In this paper, we aim to directly segment the thalamic nuclei in standard 3T T1-weighted images using shape models. We manually delineate the structures in high-field MR images and build high resolution shape models from a group of subjects. We then investigate if the nuclei locations can be inferred from the whole thalamus. To do this, we hierarchically fit joint models. We start from the entire thalamus and fit a model that captures the relation between the thalamus and large nuclei groups. This allows us to infer the boundaries of these nuclei groups and we repeat the process until all nuclei are segmented. We validate our method in a leave-one-out fashion with seven subjects by comparing the shape-based segmentations on 3T images to the manual contours. Results we have obtained for major nuclei (dice coefficients ranging from 0.57 to 0.88 and mean surface errors from 0.29mm to 0.72mm) suggest the feasibility of using such joint shape models for localization. This may have a direct impact on surgeries such as Deep Brain Stimulation procedures that require the implantation of stimulating electrodes in specific thalamic nuclei.

  17. 7 CFR 301.1-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 301.1-1 Section 301.1-1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Preemption and Special Need Requests §...

  18. 7 CFR 301.1-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions. 301.1-1 Section 301.1-1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Preemption and Special Need Requests §...

  19. Syntheses of 3-[(Alkylamino)methylene]-6-methylpyridine-2,4(1H,3H)-diones, 3-Substituted 7-Methyl-2H-pyrano[3,2-c]pyridine-2,5(6H)-dione Fluorescence Probes, and Tetrahydro-1H,9H-2,10-dioxa-9-azaanthracen-1-ones

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Allan M.; Gunaratna, Medha J.; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Desper, John; Kim, Yunjeong; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Maezawa, Izumi; Jin, Lee-Way; Hua, Duy H.

    2014-01-01

    Various condensation and ring-closing reactions were used for the syntheses of 3-[(alkylamino)methylene]-6-methylpyri-dine-2,4(1H,3H)-diones, bicyclic pyridinones, and tricyclic morpholinopyrones. For instance, 3-[(dialkylamino)methylene]-6-methylpyridine-2,4(1H,3H)-diones were synthesized from the condensation of dialkylamines and 3-formyl-4-hydroxy-6-methylpyridin-2(1H)-one. 3-Formyl-4-hydroxy-6-methylpyridin-2(1H)-one, derived from 3-formyl-4-hydroxy-6-methylpyridin-2(1H)-one, was used to construct a number of bicyclic pyridinones via a one-pot Knoevenagal and intramolecular lactonization reaction. Tricyclic morpholinopyrones were assembled from a dialkylation reaction involving a dinucleophile, 3-amino-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one, and a dielectrophile, trans-3,6-dibromocyclohexene. Depending on the reaction conditions, isomers of the tricyclic molecules can be selectively produced, and their chemical structures were unequivocally determined using single-crystal X-ray analyses and 2D COSY spectroscopy. The fluorescently active bicyclic pyridinone compounds show longer absorption (368–430 nm; maximum) and emission wavelengths (450–467 nm) than those of 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (AMC; λabs,max = 350 nm; λem = 430 nm) suggesting these molecules, such as 3-(2-aminoacetyl)-7-methyl-2H-pyrano[3,2-c]pyridine-2,5(6H)-dione, can be employed as fluorescence activity based probes for tracing biological pathways. PMID:25177061

  20. Down-Regulation of miR-129-5p and the let-7 Family in Neuroendocrine Tumors and Metastases Leads to Up-Regulation of Their Targets Egr1, G3bp1, Hmga2 and Bach1

    PubMed Central

    Døssing, Kristina B. V.; Binderup, Tina; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Jacobsen, Anders; Rossing, Maria; Winther, Ole; Federspiel, Birgitte; Knigge, Ulrich; Kjær, Andreas; Friis-Hansen, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Expression of miRNAs in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms (NEN) is poorly characterized. We therefore wanted to examine the miRNA expression in Neuroendocrine Tumors (NETs), and identify their targets and importance in NET carcinogenesis. miRNA expression in six NEN primary tumors, six NEN metastases and four normal intestinal tissues was characterized using miRNA arrays, and validated by in-situ hybridization and qPCR. Among the down-regulated miRNAs miR-129-5p and the let-7f/let-7 family, were selected for further characterization. Transfection of miR-129-5p inhibited growth of a pulmonary and an intestinal carcinoid cell line. Analysis of mRNA expression changes identified EGR1 and G3BP1 as miR-129-5p targets. They were validated by luciferase assay and western blotting, and found robustly expressed in NETs by immunohistochemistry. Knockdown of EGR1 and G3BP1 mimicked the growth inhibition induced by miR-129-5p. let-7 overexpression inhibited growth of carcinoid cell lines, and let-7 inhibition increased protein content of the transcription factor BACH1 and its targets MMP1 and HMGA2, all known to promote bone metastases. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that let-7 targets are highly expressed in NETs and metastases. We found down-regulation of miR-129-5p and the let-7 family, and identified new neuroendocrine specific targets for these miRNAs, which contributes to the growth and metastatic potential of these tumors. PMID:25546138

  1. Absolute rate constants of Mo 2 (X 1Σg+) and Mo (a 7S 3) with O 2 at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Tomohiro; Ishikawa, Yo-ichi; Arai, Shigeyoshi

    1996-07-01

    The gas phase reactivities of ground-state molybdenum dimers and atoms for oxygen molecule have been investigated in a mass-flow controlled cell. Transient concentration of Mo 2 (X 1Σg+, ν = 0) or Mo (a 7S 3) produced by 355 nm multiphoton dissociation (MPD) of Mo(CO) 6 was monitored by a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The predictable disturbance caused by free electrons inevitably produced in the MPD of metal carbonyls was examined by an appropriate addition of SF 6 as an electron scavenger. The pseudo-first order decay rates of these molybdenum species were found to depend linearly on O 2 pressure both in the absence and in the presence of SF 6, giving the bimolecular rate constants of (1.1 ± 0.1) × 10 -11 for Mo 2 (X 1Σg+, ν = 0) + O 2 and (1.2 ± 0.1) × 10 -10 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 for Mo (a 7S 3) + O 2 under the 6.5 Torr total pressure with balance Ar at room temperature.

  2. Suppression of superconductivity with Pr substitution in Nd 1- xPr xBaCaCu 3O 7 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awana, V. P. S.; Cardoso, Claudio A.; de Lima, O. F.; Singh, Rajvir; Narlikar, A. V.; Yelon, W. B.; Malik, S. K.

    1999-05-01

    The structural, superconducting and magnetic properties of Nd 1- xPr xBaCaCu 3O 7 system with x=0.0, 0.10, 0.25, 0.35, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 have been investigated. X-ray diffraction results reveal that Pr substitutes isostructurally in NdBaCaCu 3O 7 (Nd:1113) superconductor with complete solubility. The superconducting transition temperature ( Tc), measured by ac susceptibility technique, decreases with increasing x. However, suppression of Tc with increasing Pr substitution is less in Nd:1113 superconductor compared to that reported for Nd 1- xPr xBa 2Cu 3O 7 system. Interestingly, in the fully Pr substituted compounds of the above series, i.e., in PrBaCaCu 3O 7 and PrBa 2Cu 3O 7, the Pr moments order antiferromagnetically with TN of 10 and 17 K, respectively. The present results along those reported earlier [V.P.S. Awana, J. Horvat, S.X. Dou, A. Sedky, A.V. Narlikar, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 182 (1998) L280; V.P.S. Awana, S.X. Dou, S.K. Malik, Rajvir Singh, A.V. Narlikar, D.A. Landinez Tellez, J.M. Ferreira, J. Albino Aguiar, S. Uma, E. Gmelin, W.B. Yelon, J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 187 (1998) 192], clearly suggest that there is a correlation between the Tc suppression due to Pr and the magnetic ordering temperature of the fully substituted Pr moments in these systems. The TN may be taken to be a measure of the strength of hybridization between the Pr-4f electrons with Cu-O conduction band, and hence a lower TN may imply a less deleterious effect on superconductivity.

  3. 7 CFR 1.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 1.1 Section 1.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.1 Purpose and scope... process. This subpart also serves as the implementing regulations (referred to in § 1.3,...

  4. 7 CFR 1.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 1.1 Section 1.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.1 Purpose and scope... process. This subpart also serves as the implementing regulations (referred to in § 1.3,...

  5. 7 CFR 1.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 1.1 Section 1.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.1 Purpose and scope... process. This subpart also serves as the implementing regulations (referred to in § 1.3,...

  6. 7 CFR 1.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 1.1 Section 1.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.1 Purpose and scope... process. This subpart also serves as the implementing regulations (referred to in § 1.3,...

  7. 7 CFR 1.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 1.1 Section 1.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.1 Purpose and scope... process. This subpart also serves as the implementing regulations (referred to in § 1.3,...

  8. RECEPTOR AFFINITY AND PHOSPHODIESTERASES 4B AND 10A ACTIVITY OF OCTAHYDRO- AND 6,7-DIMETHOXY-3,4-DIHYDRO- ISOQUINOLIN-2(1H)-YL-ALKYL DERIVATIVES OF IMIDAZO- AND PYRIMIDINO[2,1-f]PURINES.

    PubMed

    Zagórska, Agnieszka; Gryzło, Beata; Satała, Grzegorz; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Mordyl, Barbara; Kazek, Grzegorz; Pawłowski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    A series of octahydro- and 6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydro- isoquinolin-2(1H)-yl-alkyl derivatives of imidazo- and pyrimidino[2,1-f]purines were synthesized and biologically evaluated in in vitro competition binding experiments for serotonin 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(6), 5-HT(7), and dopamine D2 receptors and inhibitory potencies for phosphodiesterases - PDE4B1 and PDE10A. The structure-activity relationships allowed to determine the structural features responsible for receptor and enzyme activity. Compound 5 (8-(4-(6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydroiso- quinolin-2(1H)butyl)1,3-dimethyl-H-imidazo[2,1-f]purine-2,4(3H,8H)-dione) could be regarded as promising structure for further modification and detailed mechanistic study for obtained hybrid ligands.

  9. Discovery of WQ-3810: Design, synthesis, and evaluation of 7-(3-alkylaminoazetidin-1-yl)fluoro-quinolones as orally active antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kenji; Kuramoto, Yasuhiro; Amano, Hirotaka; Kazamori, Daichi; Yazaki, Akira

    2015-10-20

    Novel 7-(3-alkylaminoazetidin-1-yl)fluoroquinolones were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their antibacterial activities and oral absorption rates. Against Gram-negative bacteria, 10a-e, which have various alkyl groups containing different numbers of carbon atoms (C0-C3) at the C-7 alkylaminoazetidine position, showed potent and similar antibacterial activities, whereas the activity of 10f (C4, t-Bu) was significantly lower than those of 10a-e. Conversely, the oral absorption rates of 10a-e in rats increased depending on the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl groups; 10d (C3, n-Pr) and 10e (C3, i-Pr) had high oral absorption rates (>90% at 10 mg/kg). These results demonstrated that the introduction of alkyl groups onto C-7 aminoazetidine is useful for the improvement of the oral absorption rates of these drugs while maintaining their antibacterial activities. As a conclusion, from this series of fluoroquinolones, WQ-3810 (10e), having 3-isopropylaminoazetidine as the C-7 substituent, was identified as an orally active antibacterial agent with a potent in vitro activity.

  10. Examination of halogen substituent effects on HIV-1 integrase inhibitors derived from 2,3-dihydro-6,7-dihydroxy-1H-isoindol-1-ones and 4,5-dihydroxy-1H-isoindole-1,3(2H)-diones

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xue Zhi; Maddali, Kasthuraiah; Vu, B. Christie; Marchand, Christophe; Hughes, Stephen H.; Pommier, Yves; Burke, Terrence R.

    2009-01-01

    Using 2,3-dihydro-6,7-dihydroxy-1H-isoindol-1-one and 4,5-dihydroxy-1H-isoindole-1,3(2H)-dione based HIV-1 integrase inhibitors as display platforms, we undertook a thorough examination of the effects of modifying the halogen substituents on a key benzyl ring that is hypothesized to bind in a hydrophobic pocket of the integrase•DNA complex. Data from this study suggest that in general dihalo – substituted analogues have higher potency than monohalo – substituted compounds, but that further addition of halogens is not beneficial. PMID:19364649

  11. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin increases reactive oxygen species production in human endothelial cells via induction of cytochrome P4501A1

    SciTech Connect

    Kopf, P.G.; Walker, M.K.

    2010-05-15

    Studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that subchronic 2,3,7,8,-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure of adult mice results in hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and reduced nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation. Moreover, increased superoxide anion production was observed in cardiovascular organs of TCDD-exposed mice and this increase contributed to the reduced NO-mediated vasodilation. Since cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) can contribute to some TCDD-induced toxicity, we tested the hypothesis that TCDD increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) in endothelial cells by the induction of CYP1A1. A concentration-response to 24 h TCDD exposure (10 pM-10 nM) was performed in confluent primary human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Oxidant-sensitive fluorescent probes dihydroethidium (DHE) and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA), were used to measure superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical, respectively. NO was also measured using the fluorescent probe diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate (DAF-2DA). These assessments were conducted in HAECs transfected with siRNA targeting the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), CYP1A1, or CYP1B1. TCDD concentration-dependently increased CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity. Moreover, 1 nM TCDD maximally increased DHE (Cont = 1.0 +- 0.3; TCDD = 5.1 +- 1.0; p = 0.002) and DCFH-DA (Cont = 1.0 +- 0.2; TCDD = 4.1 +- 0.5; p = 0.002) fluorescence and maximally decreased DAF-2DA fluorescence (Cont = 1.0 +- 0.4; TCDD = 0.68 +- 0.1). siRNA targeting AhR and CYP1A1 significantly decreased TCDD-induced DHE (siAhR: Cont = 1.0 +- 0.1; TCDD = 1.3 +- 0.2; p = 0.093) (siCYP1A1: Cont = 1.0 +- 0.1; TCDD = 1.1 +- 0.1; p = 0.454) and DCFH-DA (siAhR: Cont = 1.0 +- 0.2; TCDD = 1.3 +- 0.3; p = 0.370) (siCYP1A1: Cont = 1.0 +- 0.1; TCDD = 1.3 +- 0.2; p = 0.114) fluorescence and increased DAF-2DA fluorescence (siAhR: Cont = 1.00 +- 0.03; TCDD = 0.97 +- 0.03; p = 0.481) (siCYP1A1: Cont = 1.00 +- 0.03; TCDD = 0.92 +- 0

  12. Structural changes and superconducting properties of Gd1-2xPrxCaxBa2Cu3O7-δ HTSCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomkan, N.; Winotai, P.; Suryanarayanan, R.; Charoenthai, N.

    2005-10-01

    We report on structural changes and the properties of Gd1-2xPrxCaxBa2Cu3O7-δ (0<=x<=0.3) high temperature superconductors which were prepared and characterized. The transition temperature (Tc) was found to decrease roughly linearly with respect to the Pr and Ca concentration x. 65Cu2+(3d9) and 63Cu2+(3d9) ions from impurity phase BaCuO2 give rise to X-band electron spin resonant (ESR) two-quartet absorption peaks centred at ~310 mT (g~2.020) which are superposed by the broad ESR peak of Gd3+(4f7) at g~2.000 in the undoped Gd123. Both sets of ESR peaks shift towards low fields as the temperature is lowered, which is due to the change in crystal field experienced by the ions. It should be noted here that even at 77 K there still is no magnetic ordering from Gd3+ ions. However, at x = 0.025 doping, a new six-peak hyperfine multiplet ESR signal arising from 141Pr4+ (4f1,S = 1/2,I = 5/2) appears at ~323 mT (g~2.029). Typical simulated ESR parameters of Gd3+ in Gd1-2xPrxCaxBa2Cu3O7-δ at x = 0.025, are gx = 2.4879, gy = 2.3921 and gz = 2.2590, Axx = 12.50, Ayy = 23.50, Azz = 32.00 G and the zero-field splitting parameter (D) of 66.0 G, respectively. This signal arises from some Pr ions entering the Gd site with a valence of four, thus lending support to the hole-filling and pair-breaking models.

  13. Isomerisation and controlled condensation in an aqueous medium of allyl alcohol catalysed by new water-soluble rhodium complexes with 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA).

    PubMed

    Smoleński, Piotr; Kirillova, Marina V; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2013-08-14

    New aqua-soluble rhodium(I) [Rh(CO)(PTA)4]Cl (1) (PTA = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane) and rhodium(III) [RhCl2(PTA)4]Cl (2) complexes have been synthesized via the reaction of [{Rh(CO)2(μ-Cl)}2] or RhCl3·3H2O, respectively, with stoichiometric amounts of PTA in ethanol. Compound 1 is also obtained upon reduction of 2 in an H2/CO atmosphere. They have been characterized by IR, (1)H and (31)P{H} NMR spectroscopies, elemental and single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. While compound 1 shows distorted square-pyramid geometry (τ5 = 0.09) with a P3C-type basal plane, compound 2 is octahedral with the chloro ligands in the cis position. The hydride rhodium(I) complex [RhH(PTA)4] (3) is formed upon the addition of NaBH4 to an aqueous solution of 1 or 2. Compounds 1-3 (in the case of 2 upon reduction by H2) act as homogeneous catalysts, or catalyst precursors, in the isomerisation and condensation of allyl alcohol at room temperature and in an aqueous medium. The product selectivity is easily controlled by changing the concentration of the base in the reaction mixture, thus resulting in the exclusive formation of either 3-hydroxy-2-methylpentanal (HP) or 2-methyl-2-pentenal (MP) in quantitative yields. PMID:23793921

  14. An experimental study on use of 7T MRI for evaluation of myocardial infarction in SD rats transfected with pcDNA 3.1(+)/VEGF121 plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Tian, Ruiqing; Shen, Xiangchun; Chen, Yushu; Chen, Wei; Gan, Lu; Shen, Guiquan; Ju, Haiyue; Yang, Li; Gao, Fabao

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to build the myocardial infarction model in SD rats transfected with pcDNA 3.1(+)/VEGF121 plasmid and study the effect of the transfection using 7T MRI. Twenty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, pcDNA 3.1(+)/VEGF121 plasmid transfection group (with improved coronary perfusion delivery) and myocardial infarction model group. Cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging (Cine-MRI), T2-mapping and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac imaging were performed at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 7 d after myocardial infarction, respectively. The signal intensity, area at risk (AAR), myocardium infarction core (MIC) and salvageable myocardial zone (SMZ) were compared. The hearts were harvested for anatomic characterization, which was related to pathological examination (TTC staining, HE staining, Masson staining and immunohistochemical staining). The Cine-MRI results showed that pcDNA 3.1(+)/VEGF121 plasmid transfection group had higher end-diastolic volume (EDV) with a reduction in MIC and SMZ, as compared with the myocardial infarction model group. MIC, SMZ and AAR of the plasmid transfection declined over time. At 7 d, the two groups did not differ significantly in AAR and T2 value. According to Western Blotting, VEGF was up-regulated, while CaSR and caspase-3 were downregulated in the plasmid transfection group, as compared with the model group. In conclusion, a good treatment effect was achieved by coronary perfusion of pcDNA 3.1(+)/VEGF121 plasmid. 7T CMR sequences provide a non-invasive quantification of the treatment efficacy. However, the assessment of myocardial injury using T2 value and AAR in the presence of edema is less accurate. The myocardial protection of the plasmid transfection group may be related to the inhibition of myocardial apoptosis, vascular endothelial cell (VEC) proliferation and collagen proliferation. The CaSR signaling pathway may contribute to reversing the apoptosis. PMID:27648128

  15. An experimental study on use of 7T MRI for evaluation of myocardial infarction in SD rats transfected with pcDNA 3.1(+)/VEGF121 plasmid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Tian, Ruiqing; Shen, Xiangchun; Chen, Yushu; Chen, Wei; Gan, Lu; Shen, Guiquan; Ju, Haiyue; Yang, Li; Gao, Fabao

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to build the myocardial infarction model in SD rats transfected with pcDNA 3.1(+)/VEGF121 plasmid and study the effect of the transfection using 7T MRI. Twenty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, pcDNA 3.1(+)/VEGF121 plasmid transfection group (with improved coronary perfusion delivery) and myocardial infarction model group. Cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging (Cine-MRI), T2-mapping and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac imaging were performed at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 7 d after myocardial infarction, respectively. The signal intensity, area at risk (AAR), myocardium infarction core (MIC) and salvageable myocardial zone (SMZ) were compared. The hearts were harvested for anatomic characterization, which was related to pathological examination (TTC staining, HE staining, Masson staining and immunohistochemical staining). The Cine-MRI results showed that pcDNA 3.1(+)/VEGF121 plasmid transfection group had higher end-diastolic volume (EDV) with a reduction in MIC and SMZ, as compared with the myocardial infarction model group. MIC, SMZ and AAR of the plasmid transfection declined over time. At 7 d, the two groups did not differ significantly in AAR and T2 value. According to Western Blotting, VEGF was up-regulated, while CaSR and caspase-3 were downregulated in the plasmid transfection group, as compared with the model group. In conclusion, a good treatment effect was achieved by coronary perfusion of pcDNA 3.1(+)/VEGF121 plasmid. 7T CMR sequences provide a non-invasive quantification of the treatment efficacy. However, the assessment of myocardial injury using T2 value and AAR in the presence of edema is less accurate. The myocardial protection of the plasmid transfection group may be related to the inhibition of myocardial apoptosis, vascular endothelial cell (VEC) proliferation and collagen proliferation. The CaSR signaling pathway may contribute to reversing the apoptosis. PMID:27648128

  16. An experimental study on use of 7T MRI for evaluation of myocardial infarction in SD rats transfected with pcDNA 3.1(+)/VEGF121 plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Tian, Ruiqing; Shen, Xiangchun; Chen, Yushu; Chen, Wei; Gan, Lu; Shen, Guiquan; Ju, Haiyue; Yang, Li; Gao, Fabao

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to build the myocardial infarction model in SD rats transfected with pcDNA 3.1(+)/VEGF121 plasmid and study the effect of the transfection using 7T MRI. Twenty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, pcDNA 3.1(+)/VEGF121 plasmid transfection group (with improved coronary perfusion delivery) and myocardial infarction model group. Cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging (Cine-MRI), T2-mapping and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac imaging were performed at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 7 d after myocardial infarction, respectively. The signal intensity, area at risk (AAR), myocardium infarction core (MIC) and salvageable myocardial zone (SMZ) were compared. The hearts were harvested for anatomic characterization, which was related to pathological examination (TTC staining, HE staining, Masson staining and immunohistochemical staining). The Cine-MRI results showed that pcDNA 3.1(+)/VEGF121 plasmid transfection group had higher end-diastolic volume (EDV) with a reduction in MIC and SMZ, as compared with the myocardial infarction model group. MIC, SMZ and AAR of the plasmid transfection declined over time. At 7 d, the two groups did not differ significantly in AAR and T2 value. According to Western Blotting, VEGF was up-regulated, while CaSR and caspase-3 were downregulated in the plasmid transfection group, as compared with the model group. In conclusion, a good treatment effect was achieved by coronary perfusion of pcDNA 3.1(+)/VEGF121 plasmid. 7T CMR sequences provide a non-invasive quantification of the treatment efficacy. However, the assessment of myocardial injury using T2 value and AAR in the presence of edema is less accurate. The myocardial protection of the plasmid transfection group may be related to the inhibition of myocardial apoptosis, vascular endothelial cell (VEC) proliferation and collagen proliferation. The CaSR signaling pathway may contribute to reversing the apoptosis.

  17. Complexing mechanism of the lanthanide cations Eu3+, Gd3+, and Tb3+ with 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (dota)-characterization of three successive complexing phases: study of the thermodynamic and structural properties of the complexes by potentiometry, luminescence spectroscopy, and EXAFS.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Juliette; Guillon, Emmanuel; Pierrard, Jean-Claude; Rimbault, Jean; Port, Marc; Aplincourt, Michel

    2004-10-11

    Complexation of the lanthanides Eu3+, Gd3+, and Tb3+ with 1,4,7,10-tetrakis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (dota) has been studied in solution by using potentiometry, luminescence spectrometry, and EXAFS. Three series of successive complexes were characterized by at least two of these methods: the immediate [LnHn(dota)](n-1)+** and intermediate [LnHn(dota)](n-1)+* complexes with 0 1)+** complexes that are instantaneously formed, the lanthanide is bound to four oxygen atoms of the carboxylate groups and to five water molecules. These species evolve rapidly: the lanthanide moves into the macrocycle cavity, two new bonds are formed with two nitrogen atoms diametrically opposed in the tetraaza cycle and only three water molecules remain bound to the lanthanide in the [LnHn(dota)](n-1)+* (0

  18. 7 CFR 215.3 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... administration of the Program in the State in accordance with the provisions of this part, 7 CFR parts 235, 245, 15, 15a, 15b and, as applicable, 7 CFR part 3015, 7 CFR part 3016 and 7 CFR part 3019, and with FNS... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administration. 215.3 Section 215.3...

  19. 7 CFR 220.3 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the State in accordance with the provisions of this part, 7 CFR parts 235, 245, 15, 15a, 15b and, as applicable, 7 CFR part 3015, 7 CFR part 3016 and 7 CFR part 3019, and with FNS Instructions. Such agreement... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 220.3 Section 220.3...

  20. Strain assisted electrocaloric effect in PbZr0.95Ti0.05O3 films on 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 substrate

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Zhenghu; Chen, Bin; Wang, Baomin; Yang, Huali; Zhan, Qingfeng; Liu, Yiwei; Wang, Junling; Li, Run-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Solid state cooling technologies based on electrocaloric, magnetocaloric and mechanocaloric effects have received much attention during the past decade. To further improve the cooling efficiency and reduce the driving field, it is desirable to combine multiple effects in a single system. Here, we report on the caloric effects induced by both electric field and strain in PbZr0.95Ti0.05O3 films deposited on 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 substrate. The isothermal entropy change (ΔS) induced by the antiferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition of PbZr0.95Ti0.05O3 films is calculated to be 6.78 J K−1 kg−1. Furthermore, the strain from 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 substrate can reduce the electric field where ΔS reaches the maximum by as much as 50 kV/cm. The electrocaloric efficiency is also increased from 0.366 to 0.378 by the strain effect. The electrocaloric effect in an antiferroelectric material assisted by strain may lead to more efficient solid state cooling technology. PMID:26530132

  1. Strain assisted electrocaloric effect in PbZr0.95Ti0.05O3 films on 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Zhenghu; Chen, Bin; Wang, Baomin; Yang, Huali; Zhan, Qingfeng; Liu, Yiwei; Wang, Junling; Li, Run-Wei

    2015-11-01

    Solid state cooling technologies based on electrocaloric, magnetocaloric and mechanocaloric effects have received much attention during the past decade. To further improve the cooling efficiency and reduce the driving field, it is desirable to combine multiple effects in a single system. Here, we report on the caloric effects induced by both electric field and strain in PbZr0.95Ti0.05O3 films deposited on 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 substrate. The isothermal entropy change (ΔS) induced by the antiferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition of PbZr0.95Ti0.05O3 films is calculated to be 6.78 J K-1 kg-1. Furthermore, the strain from 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 substrate can reduce the electric field where ΔS reaches the maximum by as much as 50 kV/cm. The electrocaloric efficiency is also increased from 0.366 to 0.378 by the strain effect. The electrocaloric effect in an antiferroelectric material assisted by strain may lead to more efficient solid state cooling technology.

  2. 9 CFR 3.7 - Compatible grouping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.7 Compatible grouping. Dogs and cats that are housed...; (b) Any dog or cat exhibiting a vicious or overly aggressive disposition must be housed separately... adult dogs or cats other than their dams or foster dams, except when permanently maintained in...

  3. 9 CFR 3.7 - Compatible grouping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.7 Compatible grouping. Dogs and cats that are housed...; (b) Any dog or cat exhibiting a vicious or overly aggressive disposition must be housed separately... adult dogs or cats other than their dams or foster dams, except when permanently maintained in...

  4. 9 CFR 3.7 - Compatible grouping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.7 Compatible grouping. Dogs and cats that are housed...; (b) Any dog or cat exhibiting a vicious or overly aggressive disposition must be housed separately... adult dogs or cats other than their dams or foster dams, except when permanently maintained in...

  5. 9 CFR 3.7 - Compatible grouping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.7 Compatible grouping. Dogs and cats that are housed...; (b) Any dog or cat exhibiting a vicious or overly aggressive disposition must be housed separately... adult dogs or cats other than their dams or foster dams, except when permanently maintained in...

  6. 9 CFR 3.7 - Compatible grouping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.7 Compatible grouping. Dogs and cats that are housed...; (b) Any dog or cat exhibiting a vicious or overly aggressive disposition must be housed...

  7. DFT studies on a high-energy density cage compound 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11-hexo(N(CH3)NO2)-2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12-hexaazatetracyclo[5, 5, 0, 0, 0] dodecane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Yong, Yong-Liang; Zhang, Xian-Zhou

    2014-04-01

    The infrared and Raman spectra, heat of formation (HOF) and thermodynamic properties were investigated by B3LYP/6-31G** method for a new designed polynitro cage compound 1,3,5,7,9,11-hexo(N(CH3)NO2)-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo[5,5,0,0,0]dodecane. The detonation velocity (D) and pressure (P) were predicted by the Kamlet-Jacobs equations based on the theoretical density and condensed HOF. The bond dissociation energies and bond orders for the weakest bonds were analysed to investigate the thermal stability of the title compound. The computational result shows that the detonation velocity and pressure of the title compound are superior to those of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), but inferior to those of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (HMX) and hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW). And the analysis of thermal stability shows that the first step of pyrolysis is the rupture of the N7-NO2 bond. The crystal structure obtained by molecular mechanics belongs to the P21 space group, with the lattice parameters Z = 2, a = 11.8246 Å, b = 10.4632 Å, c = 15.9713 Å, ρ = 1.98 g cm-3.

  8. Magneto-transport studies in (1-X) YBa2Cu3O7-δ+X BaTiO3 superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujur, A.; Behera, D.

    2015-03-01

    The magneto-resistance of bulk polycrystalline (1-x) YBCO+x BaTiO3 superconductor is reported. The onset of global superconductivity and transition temperature decreases with BaTiO3 incorporation as well as on magnetic field application. Below the onset of superconductivity (T3/2 and t=(T/Tc). The upper critical field values were calculated employing Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg formula. The field independent metallic region above 100 K follows weak localization effect with a decrease of psuedogap temperature after BaTiO3 insertion.

  9. Excess conductivity in Y 1-2xCa xTb xBa 2Cu 3O 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Shun-Hui; Lundqvist, P.; Rapp, Ö.

    1997-08-01

    Superconducting fluctuations have been studied in zero magnetic field in sintered samples of Y 1-2xCa xTb xBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ by electrical resistivity measurements for x=0, 0.025, and 0.05. The excess conductivity Δσ was analysed as a function of reduced temperature ɛ=ln(T/T c) in the range -5 < ln ɛ < -1.5. With decreasing temperature, characteristic cross-overs were found in all samples from 2D to 3D behavior, and at a lower temperature to a critical regime, with characteristic exponents in Δσ∝ ɛα of α1=-1, α2=-0.5 and α3 ≈ -0.4 respectively.

  10. Effects of 1α,25-(OH)2D3 on the formation and activity of osteoclasts in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jianhong; Tong, Xi-Shuai; Chen, Guo-Hong; Wang, Dong; Chen, Yang; Yuan, Yan; Liu, Xue-Zhong; Bian, Jian-Chun; Liu, Zong-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The hormonally active form of vitamin D3, 1α,25-(OH)2D3, has an important role in bone metabolism. This study examined the effects of 1α,25-(OH)2D3 on the ability of two cytokines, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), to induce RAW 264.7 cells to form osteoclasts. A TRAP histochemical staining assay and bone resorption analysis were used to identify the rate of formation and activity of osteoclasts. The numbers of osteoclasts formed, and their bone resorption activity, was enhanced by the addition of 1α,25-(OH)2D3. The expression levels of osteoclast-specific proteins that are essential for bone resorption, integrin β3, V-ATPase, CAII, CTSK, TRAP and MMP-9, were detected by western blotting. During 48 h, the expression levels of all these proteins significantly increased. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the expression levels of the transcription factors, c-Fos and NFATcl. The expression levels of c-Fos and NFATc1 also increased 24h after treatment with 1α,25-(OH)2D3. These results suggest that 1α,25-(OH)2D3 can regulate bone metabolism by directly enhancing the formation and maturation of osteoclasts.

  11. Hidden phases revealed at the surface of double-layered S r3(Ru1-xM nx) 2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Kim, Jisun; Nascimento, V. B.; Diao, Zhenyu; Teng, Jing; Hu, Biao; Li, Guorong; Liu, Fangyang; Zhang, Jiandi; Jin, Rongying; Plummer, E. W.

    2016-08-01

    Double-layered S r3R u2O7 has received phenomenal consideration because it exhibits a plethora of exotic phases when perturbed. New phases emerge with the application of pressure, magnetic field, or doping. Here, we show that creating a surface is an alternative and effective way to reveal hidden phases that are different from those seen in the bulk by investigating the surface properties of S r3(Ru1-xM nx) 2O7 . Driven by the tilt distortion of Ru O6 octahedra, the surface of S r3R u2O7 is less metallic than the bulk. In contrast, because of the vanishing of tilt and enhanced rotation with Mn doping, the surface of S r3(Ru0.84Mn0.16 ) 2O7 is metallic, while the bulk is insulating. Our result demonstrates that the electronic and structural properties at the surface are intimately coupled and consistent with quasitwo-dimensional character.

  12. Functional properties of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors co-expressed with RIC-3 in a stable recombinant CHO-K1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Roncarati, Renza; Seredenina, Tamara; Jow, Brian; Jow, Flora; Papini, Silvia; Kramer, Angela; Bothmann, Hendrick; Dunlop, John; Terstappen, Georg C

    2008-04-01

    Heterologous functional expression of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is difficult to achieve in mammalian cell lines, and the reasons have been associated with a lack of expression of the putative chaperone factor RIC-3. Here, we describe the generation and functional and pharmacological characterization of a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cell line co-expressing the human alpha7 nAChR and RIC-3. Stable recombinant cells expressing alpha7 nAChR on the plasma membrane were selected by binding of fluorochrome-conjugated alpha-bungarotoxin and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The presence of functional alpha7 channels was demonstrated by whole cell patch clamp recordings. Nicotine and acetylcholine induced rapid desensitizing currents with 50% effective concentration values of 14 and 37 microM, respectively, with agonist-evoked currents detected in approximately 75% of the cell population. Surprisingly, when tested in a FLIPR (Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA) Ca(2+) assay, activation of alpha7 nAChRs was measured only when nicotinic agonists were applied either in the presence of the positive allosteric modulator (PAM) PNU-120596 or after pretreatment of cells with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. No Ca(2+) influx was measured upon addition of agonists alone or together with allosteric potentiators such as 5-hydroxyindole that predominantly increase the apparent peak amplitude without robustly affecting the current desensitization rate, as exemplified by PNU-120596. These results show that functional alpha7 nAChRs can stably be expressed in the non-neuronal CHO-K1 cell line. This recombinant cell system is useful for characterization of alpha7 nAChRs and to study the mechanism of action of chemical modulators, in particular the detection of PAMs capable of slowing receptor desensitization kinetics.

  13. Demonstration of Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor device fabrication on the same sapphire substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, M. J.; De La Houssaye, P. R.; Russell, S. D.; Garcia, G. A.; Clayton, S. R.; Ruby, W. S.; Lee, L. P.

    1993-01-01

    We report the first fabrication of active semiconductor and high-temperature superconducting devices on the same substrate. Test structures of complementary MOS transistors were fabricated on the same sapphire substrate as test structures of Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) flux-flow transistors, and separately, Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) superconducting quantum interference devices utilizing both biepitaxial and step-edge Josephson junctions. Both semiconductor and superconductor devices were operated at 77 K. The cofabrication of devices using these disparate yet complementary electronic technologies on the same substrate opens the door for the fabrication of true semiconductive/superconductive hybrid integrated circuits capable of exploiting the best features of each of these technologies.

  14. The thermodynamic properties of 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene. [Tetrahydropyrene and hexahydropyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Smith, N.K.; Steele, W.V.

    1992-12-01

    Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties are reported for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene. Experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, vibrating-tube densitometry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). Critical properties were estimated for both materials based on the measurement results. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gases for selected temperatures between 380 K and 700 K. The property-measurement results reported here for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene are the first for these important intermediates in the pyrene/H[sub 2] hydrogenation reaction network.

  15. Electron backscatter diffraction analysis of gold nanoparticles on Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ}

    SciTech Connect

    Bochmann, A.; Teichert, S.; Katzer, C.; Schmidl, F.

    2015-06-07

    It has been shown recently that the incorporation of gold nanoparticles into Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} enhances the superconducting properties of this material in a significant way. Previous XRD and TEM investigations suggest different crystallographic relations of the gold nanoparticles with respect to the epitaxial Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ}. Here, detailed investigations of the crystal orientations for a large ensemble of gold nanoparticles with electron backscatter diffraction are reported. The average size of the gold nanoparticles is in the range of 60 nm–80 nm. We identified five different types of heteroepitaxial relationships between the gold nanoparticles and the superconductor film, resulting in complex pole figures. The observed different types of crystallographic orientations are discussed based on good lattice matching and the formation of low energy interfaces.

  16. Synthesis of 4-((1E, 6E)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3, 5-dioxohepta-1, 6-dienyl)-2-methoxyphenyl 4-fluorobenzoate, a novel monoester derivative of curcumin, its experimental and theoretical (DFT) studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Sangeeta; Gupta, Preeti; Amandeep; Singh, Ranvijay Pratap

    2016-04-01

    Curcumin (1), isolated as a major component from the chloroform extract of Curcuma longa was converted to its ester derivative 4-((1E, 6E)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3,5-dioxohepta-1,6-dienyl)-2-methoxyphenyl 4-fluorobenzoate (2). The compound has been characterized with the help of 1H, 13C NMR, UV, IR and mass spectrometry. The molecular geometry of synthesized compound was calculated in ground state by Density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) using 6-31G (d,p) basis set. 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts were calculated in ground state by using Gauge-Including Atomic Orbital (GIAO) approach and these values were correlated with experimental observations. The electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies were calculated using time dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT). Stability of the molecule as a result of hyper conjugative interactions and electron delocalization were analysed using Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Intramolecular interactions were analysed by AIM (Atom in molecule) approach. Global reactivity descriptors were calculated to study the reactive site within molecule. The vibrational wavenumbers were calculated using DFT method and assigned with the help of potential energy distribution (PED). First hyperpolarizability values have been calculated to describe the nonlinear optical (NLO) property of the synthesized compounds. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) analysis has also been carried out.

  17. Serological comparison of antibodies to avian influenza viruses, subtypes H5N2, H6N1, H7N3 and H7N9 between poultry workers and non-poultry workers in Taiwan in 2012.

    PubMed

    Huang, S Y; Yang, J R; Lin, Y J; Yang, C H; Cheng, M C; Liu, M T; Wu, H S; Chang, F Y

    2015-10-01

    In Taiwan, avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5N2, H6N1 and H7N3 have been identified in domestic poultry, and several strains of these subtypes have become endemic in poultry. To evaluate the potential of avian-to-human transmission due to occupational exposure, an exploratory analysis of AIV antibody status in poultry workers was conducted. We enrolled 670 poultry workers, including 335 live poultry vendors (LPVs), 335 poultry farmers (PFs), and 577 non-poultry workers (NPWs). Serum antibody titres against various subtypes of viruses were analysed and compared. The overall seropositivity rates in LPVs and PFs were 2·99% (10/335) and 1·79% (6/335), respectively, against H5N2; and 0·6% (2/335) and 1·19% (4/335), respectively, for H7N3 virus. Of NPWs, 0·35% (2/577) and 0·17% (1/577) were seropositive for H5N2 and H7N3, respectively. Geographical analysis revealed that poultry workers whose workplaces were near locations where H5N2 outbreaks in poultry have been reported face greater risks of being exposed to viruses that result in elevated H5N2 antibody titres. H6N1 antibodies were detected in only one PF, and no H7N9 antibodies were found in the study subjects. Subclinical infections caused by H5N2, H6N1 and H7N3 viruses were thus identified in poultry workers in Taiwan. Occupational exposure is associated with a high risk of AIV infection, and the seroprevalence of particular avian influenza strains in humans reflects the endemic strains in poultry in this region.

  18. Angiotensin(1-7) attenuated Angiotensin II-induced hepatocyte EMT by inhibiting NOX-derived H2O2-activated NLRP3 inflammasome/IL-1β/Smad circuit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Li; Huang, Shan; Ma, Xiao-Xin; Zhang, Wen-Yong; Wang, Dan; Jin, Si-Yi; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Li, Yang; Li, Xu

    2016-08-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is correlated with NAPDH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS-induced NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a novel mechanism of EMT. Angiotensin II (AngII) induces EMT by regulating intracellular ROS. Nevertheless, it has not been reported whether AngII could induce hepatocyte EMT. Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] can inhibit the effects of AngII via a counter-regulatory mechanism. However, whether Ang-(1-7) attenuated the effects of AngII on hepatocyte EMT remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether Ang-(1-7) attenuated AngII-induced hepatocyte EMT by inhibiting the NOX-derived ROS-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome/IL-1ß/Smad circuit. In vivo, two animal models were established. In the first model, rats were infused AngII. In the second model, Ang-(1-7) was constantly infused into double bile duct ligated (BDL) rats. In vitro, hepatocytes were pretreated with antioxidant, NLRP3 siRNA, NOX4 siRNA, or Ang-(1-7) before exposure to AngII. In vitro, AngII induced hepatocyte EMT, which was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), diphenylene iodonium (DPI), and NOX4 siRNA. NLRP3 inflammasome, which was activated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), mediated AngII-induced hepatocyte EMT. Ang-(1-7) suppressed AngII-induced EMT by inhibiting the NOX-derived H2O2-activated NLRP3 inflammasome/IL-1ß/Smad circuit. In vivo, infusion of AngII induced activation of H2O2-correlated NLRP3 inflammasome in rat livers and accumulation of α-collagen I (Col1A1) in hepatocytes. Infusion of Ang-(1-7) alleviated BDL-induced liver fibrosis and inhibited the expression of Col1A1 and the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in hepatocytes. Ang-(1-7) attenuated AngII-induced hepatocyte EMT by inhibiting the NOX-derived H2O2-activated NLRP3 inflammasome/IL-1ß/Smad circuit.

  19. 7,9-Diaryl-1,6,8-trioxaspiro[4.5]dec-3-en-2-ones: readily accessible and highly potent anticancer compounds.

    PubMed

    D'Erasmo, Michael P; Smith, William B; Munoz, Alberto; Mohandas, Poornima; Au, Andrew S; Marineau, Jason J; Quadri, Luis E N; Bradner, James E; Murelli, Ryan P

    2014-08-15

    7,9-Diaryl-1,6,8-trioxaspiro[4.5]dec-3-en-2-ones are a recently described group of spirocyclic butenolides that can be generated rapidly and as a single diastereomer through a cascade process between γ-hydroxybutenolides and aromatic aldehydes. The following outlines our findings that these spirocycles are potently cytotoxic and have a dramatic structure-function profile that provides excellent insight into the structural features required for this potency.

  20. The M3 Phosphorylation Site Is Required for Trafficking and Biological Roles of PIN-FORMED1, 2, and 7 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ki, Daeeun; Sasayama, Daisuke; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetrically localized PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers play key roles in regulating directional intercellular auxin movement, generating local auxin gradients, and diverse auxin-mediated growth and development. The polar localization of PINs is controlled by phosphorylation in the central hydrophilic loop (HL) of PINs. Although the M3 phosphorylation site, including phosphorylatable 5 Ser/Thr residues, is conserved among long HL-PINs, its native role has only been characterized in PIN3. In this study, we examined the role of M3 phosphorylation site of PIN1, PIN2, and PIN7 in intracellular trafficking, phosphorylation, and biological functions of those PINs in their native expressing tissues. Phosphorylation-defective mutations of the phosphorylatable residues in the M3 site of PIN1-HL led to alteration in subcellular polarity of PIN1 and caused defects in PIN1-mediated biological functions such as cotyledon development, phyllotaxy of vegetative leaves, and development of reproductive organs. The M3 mutations of PIN7 interfered with its polar recycling in the root columella cell in response to gravity stimulus and partially disrupted root gravitropism. On the other hand, the M3 site of PIN2 was shown to be necessary for its targeting to the plasma membrane. In vitro phosphorylation assay showed that the M3 phosphorylation residues of PIN1 are the partial targets by PINOID kinase. Our data suggest that the M3 phosphorylation site is functionally conserved among long HL-PINs by playing roles for their subcellular trafficking and auxin-mediated developmental processes. PMID:27733863