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Sample records for 1-0 s1 line

  1. Excitation of the S-1(0) State of Trivalent Praseodymium in Insulating Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levey, Christopher Gerrit

    In this dissertation we present an investigation of the fluorescence and two-photon absorption properties of the ('1)S(,0) state of Pr('3+) in LaF(,3) and several other crystal hosts. The high-lying (4f('2)) ('1)S(,0) state of Pr('3+) is of particular interest because it is the closest of the meta-stable rare earth levels to the next configuration of opposite parity (the 4f5d band), and this proximity varies from host to host. However, the ('1)S(,0) state has received relatively little attention because its energy is beyond the range of dye lasers and frequency doubling crystals. We excite the ('1)S(,0) state directly, through a two-photon excited state absorption process, and indirectly, through pumping the 4f5d band. In most host materials the ('1)S(,0) level of Pr('3+) lies above the lowest 4f5d band component, and consequently only 4f5d band emission is observed. In LaF(,3), however, the ('1)S(,0) state lies below the band, and only the ('1)S(,0) emission is observed. In Pr('3+):CaF(,2) there are sites with each of these properties, and both ('1)S(,0) and 4f5d emission are observed, with a relative strength that is concentration dependent. Two-photon absorption from the ('3)H(,4) ground state into the ('1)S(,0) state is doubly forbidden by the two-photon spin and J selection rules ((DELTA)S = 0 and (DELTA)J <= 2), and we have not observed this transition. However, we do observe a two-photon absorption into the ('1)S(,0) state from each of the lowest two Stark components of the meta-stable ('1)D(,2) state. These transitions are allowed by all two-photon selection rules, though not for all polarizations, and we observe a strong polarization dependence. We also observe line narrowing of this transition as a smaller subset of the ('1)D(,2) population is excited, and we see homogeneous broadening of the transition as the temperature is raised to 77K. The ('1)S(,0) lifetime is much shorter than that predicted by the Judd-Ofelt theory, and is only weakly concentration

  2. Simple Line Access Protocol Version 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuna, Pedro; Salgado, Jesus; Guainazzi, Matteo; Barbarisi, Isa; Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Tody, Doug; Osuna, Pedro; Salgado, Jesus

    2010-12-01

    The Simple Line Access Protocol (SLAP) is an IVOA Data Access protocol which defines a protocol for retrieving spectral lines coming from various Spectral Line Data Collections through a uniform interface within the VO framework. These lines can be either observed or theoretical and will be typically used to identify emission or absorption features in astronomical spectra. It makes use of the Simple Spectral Line Data Model (SSLDM [1]) to characterize spectral lines through the use of uTypes [14]. Physical quantities of units are described by using the standard Units DM [15]. SLAP services can be registered in an IVOA Registry of Resources using the VOResource [12] Extension standard, having a unique ResourceIdentifier [13] in the Registry. The SLAP interface is meant to be reasonably simple to implement by service providers. A basic query will be done in a wavelength range for the different services. The service returns a list of spectral lines formatted as a VOTable. Thus, an implementation of the service may support additional search parameters (some which may be custom to that particular service) to more finely control the selection of spectral lines. The specification also describes how the search on extra parameters has to be done, making use of the support provided by the Simple Spectral Line Data Model (SSLDM [1])

  3. A linear correlation between H2 v = 1-0 S(1) and forbidden O I 6300 emission in Seyfert and starburst galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Mouri, H.; Taniguchi, Y.; Kawara, K.; Nishida, M. Kiso Observatory, Mitake National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka Kyoto Univ. )

    1989-11-01

    A good linear correlation is found between the H2 v = 1-0 S(1)/Br-gamma and the forbidden O I 6300/H-alpha emission-line ratios on a sample of 28 galaxies containing an AGN or a starburst nucleus (SBN). In the SBNs, the observed relation between the line ratios concerned matches the relation for SNRs. Thus the dominant excitation mechanism of molecular hydrogen is shock heating. In the AGNs, X-ray heating is the dominant mechanism because the model of Lepp and McCray (1983) reasonably explains the observed correlation. 48 refs.

  4. (12)CO (3-2) & (1-0) emission line observations of nearby starburst galaxy nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereux, Nicholas; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Sanders, D. B.; Nakai, N.; Young, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    New measurements of the (12)CO (1-0) and (12)CO (3-2) line emission are presented for the nuclei of seven nearby starburst galaxies selected from a complete sample of 21 nearby starburst galaxies for which the nuclear star formation rates are measured to be comparable to the archetype starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253. The new observations capitalize on the coincidence between the beam size of the 45 m Nobeyama telescope at 115 GHz and that of the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope at 345 GHz to measure the value of the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio in a 15 sec (less than or equal to 2.5 kpc) diameter region centered on the nuclear starburst. In principle, the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio provides a measure of temperature and optical depth for the (12)CO gas. The error weighted mean value of the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the seven starburst galaxy nuclei is -0.64 +/- 0.06. The (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the starburst galaxy nuclei is significantly higher than the average value measured for molecular gas in the disk of the Galaxy, implying warmer temperatures for the molecular gas in starburst galaxy nuclei. On the other hand, the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the starburst galaxy nuclei is not as high as would be expected if the molecular gas were hot, greater than 20 K, and optically thin, tau much less than 1. The total mass of molecular gas contained within the central 1.2-2.8 kpc diameter region of the starburst galaxy nuclei ranges from 10(exp 8) to 10(exp 9) solar mass. While substantial, the molecular gas mass represents only a small percentage, approximately 9%-16%, of the dynamical mass in the same region.

  5. Crystallographic analysis of the intact metal centres [3Fe-4S](1+/0) and [4Fe-4S](2+/1+) in a Zn(2+) -containing ferredoxin.

    PubMed

    Frazão, Carlos; Aragão, David; Coelho, Ricardo; Leal, Sónia S; Gomes, Cláudio M; Teixeira, Miguel; Carrondo, Maria Arménia

    2008-03-01

    Detailed structural models of di-cluster seven-iron ferredoxins constitute a valuable resource for folding and stability studies relating the metal cofactors' role in protein stability. The here reported, hemihedric twinned crystal structure at 2.0 A resolution from Acidianus ambivalens ferredoxin, shows an integral 103 residues, physiologically relevant native form composed by a N-terminal extension comprising a His/Asp Zn(2+) site and the ferredoxin (betaalphabeta)(2) core, which harbours intact clusters I and II, a [3Fe-4S](1+/0) and a [4Fe-4S](2+/1+) centres. This is in contrast with the previously available ferredoxin structure from Sulfolofus tokodai, which was obtained from an artificial oxidative conversion with two [3Fe-4S](1+/0) centres and poor definition around cluster II. PMID:18258200

  6. A mapping study of massive cores with 13CO J = 1 0 line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esimbek, Jarken; Wu, Yuefang; Wang, Yang

    2008-04-01

    Using 13.7 m telescope of Qinghai station of Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO) at Delingha, 27 sources were observed with 12CO J = 1-0 and mapped with 13CO J = 1-0 lines. Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) images and IRAS point source catalogue (PSC) were used to identify stellar objects embedded in the detected cores. Forty-one 13CO cores were obtained. The sizes of these cores is from 0.4 pc to 7 pc. Their average excitation temperatures and masses are 23.4 K and 3.1 × 10 4M⊙, which shows that these cores are massive and relatively cold. The line widths are much wider than those of low-mass cores. The correlation between line widths and core sizes is weak. According to the radio, IRAS and MSX data, there are three kinds of cores in the entire sample: group A has 21 cores whose Tex and Δ V are 15.5 K and 3.2 km/s on the average. The cores in group A are not associated with infrared sources. Group B contains 17 cores, of which five are associated with IRAS sources, the remaining 12 are associated with MSX sources. All the 17 cores are not associated with UC HII regions. Group C contains three cores which are associated with UC HII regions. All these physical parameters indicate that there could be an evolutionary development from group A to group C. The bolometric luminosities of groups B and C are also investigated. The reason for the displacement of the cores and the infrared sources in group A was discussed.

  7. Line shape studies in the 03(1)0 - 01(1)0 Q branch of nitrous oxide using a mid-infrared difference-frequency spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitcu, Adrian

    We have constructed an infrared difference-frequency spectrometer, with a tuning range between 7 and 9 mum, to complement the already existing one at 2--5 mum. The characteristics of this high resolution (1.5 MHz or 5 x 10-5 cm-1), high signal-to-noise (2000:1) spectrometer have been tested on the very weak and very dense, double-sided, 0310 ← 0110 Q branch of N2O. Lines Q18F to Q12E have been recorded in a single scan, at 297 K and at pressures ranging from I to 130 torr. At pressures lower than 11 torr (1.5 kPa), we analyzed our data on a line-by-line basis, using asymmetric Voigt and hard collision profiles (Ciurylo, 1998), to account for the asymmetry induced by line mixing. This analysis allowed us to obtain accurate values for the broadening coefficients and for the relative line centers of the transitions composing the Q branch. The broadening coefficients that we have determined for these spectral lines are the first ever to be reported in the literature. The medium pressure results, ranging from 23 to I30 torr (3.1 to 17.3 kPa), were analyzed by treating the band as a whole, through the relaxation matrix formalism. This approach provides a more physically realistic picture by relating the band's behavior at higher pressures with the molecular dynamics that takes place at a microscopic level. The elements of the relaxation matrix were evaluated based on the rotational relaxation rates, given through a semi-empirical formula known as the "energy power gap" (EPG) law. A value F = 0.26, found for the coupling factor describing the interference effects of the lines, suggests that the line broadening does not arise solely from the inelastic collisions coupling the rotational levels of the molecule. The frequency shift of the Q branch was also determined using a low-pressure reference cell in parallel with the main absorption cell. A red shift of delta = -5.8 x 10-3 cm-1/atm was found for the band and was interpreted as a systematic stretch of the molecule

  8. A search for the H2 /3, 0/ S1 line in the spectrum of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muench, G.; Trauger, J. T.; Roesler, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    Results are reported for measurements of the quadrupole S1 line of the (3, 0) absorption band of H2 in spectra of Titan, which were performed at an effective resolution of 0.09 A by scanning with a PEPSIOS spectrometer over a range of 0.85 A centered at the expected position of the investigated line and sampling in 80 contiguous channels. No statistically significant H2 (3, 0) S1 feature is found in the spectra, but a three-sigma upper limit of 3 mA is set for the equivalent width of the S1 line that might be present in a co-added spectrum. It is concluded that these measurements do not provide any evidence for the presence of H2 in the atmosphere of Titan.

  9. Size Effect on Deformation Mode in Micron-Sized Ti-5Al Single Crystal Loaded Along [2 /line 1 /line 1 0] and [0001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Lin; Yu, Qian; Sun, Qiaoyan; Sun, Jun

    Free-standing sub-micron Ti-5Al single crystal square pillars were fabricated along [2 /line 1 /line 1 0] double slip and [0001] twinning orientations using FIB fabrication processes. Samples in range of 0.4 to 2.0µm were compressed. The yield stress increases much higher than their bulk counterpart as the specimen width decreases. The tendency of "smaller is stronger" is displayed in Ti-5Al single crystals loaded along [2 /line 1 /line 1 0] and [0001] orientations. The number of slip systems is restricted by specimen physical size as it declines from 2µm to 0.5µm, when the specimens were subjected to double slip loading. Meanwhile, when sample size is less than 1.0µm, micro-pillars along twinning orientation have to compensate the incomplete twinning deformation via shearing due to geometrical restriction and dislocation starvation effects. This variation of deformation mode could be attributed to the starvation effect of dislocations.

  10. Eddington Ratio Distribution of X-Ray-selected Broad-line AGNs at 1.0 < z < 2.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Hyewon; Hasinger, Günther; Steinhardt, Charles; Silverman, John D.; Schramm, Malte

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the Eddington ratio distribution of X-ray-selected broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the redshift range 1.0 < z < 2.2, where the number density of AGNs peaks. Combining the optical and Subaru/Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph near-infrared spectroscopy, we estimate black hole masses for broad-line AGNs in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDF-S), and the XMM-Newton Lockman Hole (XMM-LH) surveys. AGNs with similar black hole masses show a broad range of AGN bolometric luminosities, which are calculated from X-ray luminosities, indicating that the accretion rate of black holes is widely distributed. We find a substantial fraction of massive black holes accreting significantly below the Eddington limit at z ≲ 2, in contrast to what is generally found for luminous AGNs at high redshift. Our analysis of observational selection biases indicates that the “AGN cosmic downsizing” phenomenon can be simply explained by the strong evolution of the comoving number density at the bright end of the AGN luminosity function, together with the corresponding selection effects. However, one might need to consider a correlation between the AGN luminosity and the accretion rate of black holes, in which luminous AGNs have higher Eddington ratios than low-luminosity AGNs, in order to understand the relatively small fraction of low-luminosity AGNs with high accretion rates in this epoch. Therefore, the observed downsizing trend could be interpreted as massive black holes with low accretion rates, which are relatively fainter than less-massive black holes with efficient accretion. Based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  11. Vertical Distributions of PH3 in Saturn from Observations of Its 1-0 and 3-2 Rotational Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orton, G. S.; Serabyn, E.; Lee, Y. T.

    2000-01-01

    Far-infrared Fourier-transform spectrometer measurements of the 1-0 and 3-2 PH3 transitions in Saturn's disk near 267 and 800 GHz (8.9 and 26.7/cm), respectively, were analyzed simultaneously to derive a global mean profile for the PH3 vertical mixing ratio between 100 and 600 mbar total pressure. The far-infrared spectrum is relatively free from spectral interlopers, suffers minimal absorption or scattering by atmospheric particulates, and contains intrinsically weak PH3 lines that are sensitive to a range of atmospheric depths. The combined spectra are inconsistent with a uniform tropospheric mixing ratio, even with a stratospheric cut-off. They are consistent with a volume mixing ratio of PH3 that drops from 1.2 x 10(exp -5) at 645 mbar pressure to a value of 4.1 x 10(exp -7) at 150 mbar pressure, a decrease that is linear is log abundance vs log pressure. The mixing ratio could drop even more quickly at atmospheric pressures below 150 mbar and still be consistent with the data. The mixing ratio may well remain constant with depth for pressures above 630 mbar. The maximum PH3 mixing ratio in this model is consistent with a [P]/[H] ratio in the deep atmosphere that is about a factor of 10 higher than solar composition. Such a model is consistent with rapid mixing up to the radiative-convective boundary and transport by, for example, vertical waves just above this boundary. In the best fitting model, the eddy diffusion coefficient is approximately 10(exp 4) sq cm near 630 mbar, and it must increase with altitude. The predominant PH3 loss mechanisms are direct photolysis by UV radiation and scavenging by H atoms produced by the photolysis.

  12. Docetaxel/S-1 Versus Docetaxel/Capecitabine as First-Line Treatment for Advanced Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinyu; You, Junhao; Si, Wen; Zhu, Yanyun; Chen, Yi; Yang, Bo; Han, Chun; Linghu, Ruixia; Zhang, Xingyang; Jiao, Shunchang; Yang, Junlan

    2015-10-01

    The treatment efficacy of advanced breast cancer is still not promising. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of docetaxel/S-1 (DS1) versus docetaxel/capecitabine (DX) as the first-line treatment for advanced breast cancer.From June 2008 to June 2013, 22 patients with advanced breast cancer were treated with the DS1 regimen. Another 26 age- and disease status-matched patients treated with the DX regimen served as controls. The 2 groups were compared in terms of time to progression (TTP), objective response rate, disease control rate, clinical benefit rate, and safety profiles.Median TTP did not differ significantly between the DS1 group and the DX group (9.04 vs 10.94 months, P = 0.473). There were no significant differences in objective response rate, disease control rate, and clinical benefit rate between the 2 groups. Both the DS1 and the DX regimens showed good tolerability. The 2 regimens showed no significant difference in adverse events except degree III hand-foot syndrome (DS1 0 vs DX 23.1%, P = 0.025).For the first-line treatment of advanced breast cancer, the DS1 and the DX regimens showed similar efficacy and safety. The DS1 regimen had less severe hand-foot syndrome than the DX regimen. PMID:26469889

  13. Improved line parameters for the Chi 2Pi-Chi 2Pi (1-0) bands of (35)ClO and (37)ClO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Aaron; Gillis, James R.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Burkholder, James B.

    1994-01-01

    Improved line parameters at 296 K for the Chi 2Pi-Chi 2Pi (1-0) bands of (35)ClO and (37)ClO have been calculated with J up to 43.5. The integrated intensity for the 2048 lines in the main and satellite bands has been normalized to 9.68-sq cm/atm at 296K.

  14. The Zeeman Effect on Lines in the (1,0) Band of the F4Δ-X4Δ Transition of the FeH Radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy J.; Brown, John M.; Chen, Jinhai; Steimle, Timothy C.; Sears, Trevor J.

    2008-05-01

    We report measurements of the magnetic tuning and broadening of single rotational lines in the (1,0) band of the F4Δ-X4Δ transition of FeH. Since the Zeeman effect of FeH in the lowest rotational levels of the ground X4Δ state has been measured previously, the present measurements provide information on g-factors for two upper state rotational levels. The Zeeman splitting in the Q(7/2) line of the (1,0) band of the F4Δ7/2-X4Δ7/2 transition was successfully modeled using a phenomenological approach. The observation of Zeeman broadening in the corresponding R(7/2) line has also made it possible to extract an approximate g-factor for the J = 9/2 level of the F4Δ7/2(v = 1) vibronic state. The g-factors determined have been used to predict spectral patterns for numerous rotational lines in the F4Δ7/2-X4Δ7/2 system; these are compared with observed features in the sunspot umbral spectrum.

  15. Are Boltzmann plots of hydrogen Balmer lines a tool for identifying a subclass of S1 AGN?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafanelli, P.; Ciroi, S.; Cracco, V.; Di Mille, F.; Ilić, D.; La Mura, G.; Popović, L. Č.

    2014-10-01

    It is becoming clear that we can define two different types of nearby AGN belonging to the Seyfert 1 class (S1), on the basis of the match of the intensities of their Broad Balmer Lines (BBL) with the Boltzmann Plots (BP). These two types of S1 galaxies, that we call BP-S1 and NoBP-S1, are characterized, in first approximation, by Broad Line Regions (BLR) with different structural and physical properties. In this communication, we show that these features can be well pointed out by a multi-wavelength analysis of the continuum and of the broad recombination Hydrogen lines, that we carry out on a sample of objects detected at optical and X-ray frequencies. The investigation is addressed to verify whether BP-S1 are the ideal candidates for the study of the kinematical and structural properties of the BLR, in order to derive reliable estimates of the mass of their central engine and to constrain the properties of their nuclear continuum spectrum.

  16. CO J = 1-0 AND J = 2-1 LINE OBSERVATIONS OF THE MOLECULAR-CLOUD-BLOCKED SUPERNOVA REMNANT 3C434.1

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Il-Gyo; Koo, Bon-Chul; Cho, Wan-Kee; Kramer, Carsten; Stutzki, Juergen; Byun, Do-Young E-mail: koo@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2013-06-20

    We present the results of CO emission line observations toward the semicircular Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) 3C434.1 (G94.0+1.0). We mapped an area covering the whole SNR in the {sup 12}CO J = 1-0 emission line using the Seoul Radio Astronomy Observatory 6 m telescope and found a large molecular cloud superposed on the faint western part of the SNR. The cloud was elongated along the north-south direction and showed a very good spatial correlation with the radio features of the SNR. We carried out {sup 12}CO J = 2-1 line observations of this cloud using the Koelner Observatorium fuer Sub-Millimeter Astronomie 3 m telescope and found a region in which the {sup 12}CO J = 2-1 to J = 1-0 ratio was high ({approx}1.6). This higher excitation, together with the morphological relation, strongly suggested that the molecular cloud was interacting with the SNR. The systemic velocity of the molecular cloud (-13 km s{sup -1}) gave a kinematic distance of 3.0 kpc to the SNR-molecular cloud system. We derived the physical parameters of the SNR based on this new distance. We examined the variation of the radio spectral index over the remnant and found that it was flatter in the western part, wherein the SNR was interacting with the molecular cloud. We therefore propose that 3C434.1 is the remnant of a supernova explosion that occurred just outside the boundary of a relatively thin, sheet-like molecular cloud. We present a hydrodynamic model showing that its asymmetric radio morphology can result from its interaction with this blocking molecular cloud.

  17. CH+(1-0) Line Detection in a High-z Hyper-Luminous Galaxy SDP17b: the First Probe of a Massive Turbulent Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falgarone, E.; Zwaan, M.; Godard, B.; Bussmann, S.; Bergin, E.; Omont, A.; Bournaud, F.; Elbaz, D.; Andreani, P.

    2015-12-01

    We illustrate the power of CH+ spectroscopy at high spectral resolution with the first detection by ALMA of a CH+(J=1-0) line in an hyper-luminous galaxy, SDP17b at z=2.3. Unlike other molecular tracers, the unique chemical and spectroscopic properties of the CH+ cation make it a tracer of the turbulent energy trail, from its scale of injection to that of dissipation at which CH+ forms. In SDP17b, CH+ emission and absorption are detected. The emission line is broad and the absorption is seen against the dust continuum and the emission. The absorption probes a massive turbulent region of low density, while the emission may arise in a large number of irradiated shocks that could be located in the large turbulent region or in the star-forming disk.

  18. A possible detection of Jupiter's northern auroral S1(1) H2 quadrupole line emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trafton, L.; Carr, J.; Lester, D.; Harvey, P.

    1988-01-01

    An upper limit is presently determined for the mean intensity of the Jupiter northern Auroral UV/thermal hot spot's S1(1) H2 quadrupole emission, over an 8 sq arcsec illuminated beam; the value obtained is 4.2 X 10 to the -6th W/sq m per sr. It is suggested that the nonradiative deexitation of the H2 molecules via collisions with H may have been underestimated by Kim and Maguire (1986), due to uncertainties concerning auroral H density.

  19. Line strength and self-broadening coefficient of the pure rotational S(1) quadrupole line in H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Dennis C.; Sirota, J. Marcos

    1994-01-01

    The absolute intensity, S(sub 1), and self-broadening coefficient, gamma(sub L), for H2 S(sub zero)(1) pure rotational line at 17.0348 micrometers (587.032 cm(exp -1)) have been measured for the first time using a tunable diode laser spectrometer with a resolution of approximately 1 x 10(exp -3) cm(exp -1). By fitting a Galatry line shape convolved with a 1 x 10(exp -3) cm(exp -1) Gaussian instrument profile to absorption profiles, for H2 pressures ranging from 0.34 to 1.30 atm, values of s(sub 1) = (7.0 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp -8) cm(exp -2) atm(exp -1) and gamma(sub L) = (1.73 +/- 0.12) x 10(exp -3) cm(exp -1) atm(exp -1) were obtained.

  20. 26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillerkuss, D.; Schmogrow, R.; Schellinger, T.; Jordan, M.; Winter, M.; Huber, G.; Vallaitis, T.; Bonk, R.; Kleinow, P.; Frey, F.; Roeger, M.; Koenig, S.; Ludwig, A.; Marculescu, A.; Li, J.; Hoh, M.; Dreschmann, M.; Meyer, J.; Ben Ezra, S.; Narkiss, N.; Nebendahl, B.; Parmigiani, F.; Petropoulos, P.; Resan, B.; Oehler, A.; Weingarten, K.; Ellermeyer, T.; Lutz, J.; Moeller, M.; Huebner, M.; Becker, J.; Koos, C.; Freude, W.; Leuthold, J.

    2011-06-01

    Optical transmission systems with terabit per second (Tbit s-1) single-channel line rates no longer seem to be too far-fetched. New services such as cloud computing, three-dimensional high-definition television and virtual-reality applications require unprecedented optical channel bandwidths. These high-capacity optical channels, however, are fed from lower-bitrate signals. The question then is whether the lower-bitrate tributary information can viably, energy-efficiently and effortlessly be encoded to and extracted from terabit per second data streams. We demonstrate an optical fast Fourier transform scheme that provides the necessary computing power to encode lower-bitrate tributaries into 10.8 and 26.0 Tbit s-1 line-rate orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) data streams and to decode them from fibre-transmitted OFDM data streams. Experiments show the feasibility and ease of handling terabit per second data with low energy consumption. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest line rate ever encoded onto a single light source.

  1. Second-Line Irinotecan, Leucovorin, and 5-Fluorouracil for Gastric Cancer Patients after Failed Docetaxel and S-1

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Joo Young; Ryu, Min-Hee; Ryoo, Baek-Yeol; Han, Boram; Cho, Ji Woong; Lim, Man Sup; Lim, Hyun; Kang, Ho Suk; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ha, Hong Il; Song, Hunho; Kim, Jung Han; Kim, Hyeong Su; Kang, Yoon-Koo; Zang, Dae Young

    2016-01-01

    Background. This retrospective study aimed to assess the efficacy and toxicities of second-line chemotherapy with irinotecan, leucovorin, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in metastatic gastric cancer (MGC) patients previously treated with docetaxel and S-1 with or without oxaliplatin (DS/DOS). Patients and Methods. We reviewed the data of patients who had previously been treated with first-line DS/DOS and received biweekly irinotecan-based chemotherapy (FOLFIRI/IFL) between October 2004 and November 2011. Results. A total of 209 cycles were administered to 35 patients, with a median of 4 (range, 1–22) cycles each. The overall response rate in 29 response-assessable patients was 17.2%, including 2 complete and 3 partial responses. The median progression-free and overall survivals were 3.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.82–5.80) months and 6.24 (95% CI, 1.44–11.04) months, respectively. The major grade 3/4 toxicity was neutropenia (8.6%). Conclusion. FOLFIRI/IFL chemotherapy showed modest antitumour activity and tolerable toxicities in DS/DOS-treated MGC patients. PMID:26839542

  2. Second-Line Irinotecan, Leucovorin, and 5-Fluorouracil for Gastric Cancer Patients after Failed Docetaxel and S-1.

    PubMed

    Jung, Joo Young; Ryu, Min-Hee; Ryoo, Baek-Yeol; Han, Boram; Cho, Ji Woong; Lim, Man Sup; Lim, Hyun; Kang, Ho Suk; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ha, Hong Il; Song, Hunho; Kim, Jung Han; Kim, Hyeong Su; Kang, Yoon-Koo; Zang, Dae Young

    2016-01-01

    Background. This retrospective study aimed to assess the efficacy and toxicities of second-line chemotherapy with irinotecan, leucovorin, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in metastatic gastric cancer (MGC) patients previously treated with docetaxel and S-1 with or without oxaliplatin (DS/DOS). Patients and Methods. We reviewed the data of patients who had previously been treated with first-line DS/DOS and received biweekly irinotecan-based chemotherapy (FOLFIRI/IFL) between October 2004 and November 2011. Results. A total of 209 cycles were administered to 35 patients, with a median of 4 (range, 1-22) cycles each. The overall response rate in 29 response-assessable patients was 17.2%, including 2 complete and 3 partial responses. The median progression-free and overall survivals were 3.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.82-5.80) months and 6.24 (95% CI, 1.44-11.04) months, respectively. The major grade 3/4 toxicity was neutropenia (8.6%). Conclusion. FOLFIRI/IFL chemotherapy showed modest antitumour activity and tolerable toxicities in DS/DOS-treated MGC patients. PMID:26839542

  3. Registration of high-oleic peanut germplasm line ARSOK-S1 (TX996784) with enhanced resistance to Sclerotinia blight and pod rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high oleic Spanish peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. subsp. fastigiata var. vulgaris) germplasm line ARSOK-S1 was developed cooperatively between the USDA Agricultural Research Service, Texas AgriLife Research, and Oklahoma State University, and was released in 2013. ARSOK-S1 (tested early as TX99678...

  4. Neutropenia as a prognostic factor and safety of second-line therapy with S-1 for advanced or recurrent pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ikagawa, Makiko; Kimura, Michio; Iwai, Mina; Usami, Eiseki; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Yasuda, Kimio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the safety of S-1 as second-line therapy and to evaluate the association between neutropenia occurring during first-line gemcitabine (GEM) therapy and survival for advanced or recurrent pancreatic cancer (APC). Between January, 2010 and December, 2014, 123 APC patients received chemotherapy at the Ogaki Municipal Hospital (Ogaki, Japan). Of those, 37 received GEM as first-line and S-1 as a second-line therapy (GEM→S-1 group). A further 60 patients received GEM as first-line therapy, but did not receive second-line therapy (GEM group). The median overall survival in the GEM→S-1 (n=37) and GEM (n=60) groups was 323 days [95% confidence interval (CI): 138–218.9 days] and 172 days (95% CI: 105–184.4 days), respectively (P=0.0004). The median overall survival in the mild (grade ≤2; n=63) and severe (grade ≥3; n=34) neutropenia groups was 178 days (95% CI: 182–275 days) and 330 days (95% CI: 297–514 days), respectively (log-rank test, P=0.0023). The severe non-haematological toxicities associated with S-1 as second-line therapy were nausea (2.7%) and hand-foot syndrome (2.7%). Second-line S-1 treatment was discontinued due to adverse events in 5.4% (2/37) of the cases. In conclusion, neutropenia occurring during GEM therapy administered as first-line treatment to APC patients was strongly associated with a better prognosis. S-1 therapy as second-line treatment was associated with a low incidence of severe adverse events and the patients were able to successfully continue treatment.

  5. Gemcitabine plus S-1 versus cetuximab as a third-line therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer: an observational trial

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ming; Deng, Ting; Han, Rubing; Zhou, Likun; Ba, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim: After failure of oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), there is no effective and low-cost therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine plus S-1 (GS) versus cetuximab as a third-line chemotherapy for mCRC patients. Methods: Patients with previous failure of oxaliplatin, 5-FU, and irinotecan chemotherapy were included. The patients received GS or cetuximab until disease progression or intolerable toxicity occurred. The regimen that was selected by the patient depended on their economic ability. Results: In all, 38 patients were enrolled between October 2009 and October 2012, and the patients were divided into 2 groups of 19 patients each. The median overall survival (OS) was 10 months for the GS group and 6.9 months for the cetuximab group (P = 0.047). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 79 days and 78 days (P = 0.344), respectively. The disease control rate (DCR) was 42.11% and 47.37%, respectively (P = 0.985). The overall response rate was 0% and 10.52%, respectively (P = 0.169). Adverse events related to chemotherapy were mild to moderate. Only grade 3-4 neutropenia was found in the GS group at a rate of 21.1%. In the cetuximab group, the rash incidence rate was 89.6%, with 1 patient reaching grade 3. Conclusions: GS has benefits in OS compared with cetuximab, and is a promising and safe regimen as a third-line chemotherapy for oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-refractory mCRC with good performance status for mCRC patients. PMID:26885049

  6. Broken (1, 0) supergraphity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helayël-Neto, J. A.; Smith, A. William

    1987-10-01

    The usual (1, 0) supergraph techniques are extended to account for supersymmetry breaking terms. Several possible breaking lagrangians are contemplated and the consistency of our modified super-Feynman rules is checked through a number of explicit supergraph evaluations. They might be of practical relevance in dealing with non-linear σ-models whenever supersymmetry is broken.

  7. Indico 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Lopez, J. B.; Avilés, A.; Baron, T.; Ferreira, P.; Kolobara, B.; Pugh, M. A.; Resco, A.; Trzaskoma, J. P.

    2014-06-01

    Indico has evolved into the main event organization software, room booking tool and collaboration hub for CERN. The growth in its usage has only accelerated during the past 9 years, and today Indico holds more that 215,000 events and 1,100,000 files. The growth was also substantial in terms of functionalities and improvements. In the last year alone, Indico has matured considerably in 3 key areas: enhanced usability, optimized performance and additional features, especially those related to meeting collaboration. Along the course of 2012, much activity has centred around consolidating all this effort and investment into "version 1.0", recently released in 2013.Version 1.0 brings along new features, such as the Microsoft Exchange calendar synchronization for participants, many new and clean interfaces (badges and poster generation, list of contributions, abstracts, etc) and so forth. But most importantly, it brings a message: Indico is now stable, consolidated and mature after more than 10 years of non-stop development. This message is addressed not only to CERN users but also to the many organisations, in or outside HEP, which have already installed the software, and to others who might soon join this community. In this document, we describe the current state of the art of Indico, and how it was built. This does not mean that the Indico software is complete, far from it! We have plenty of new ideas and projects that we are working on and which we have shared during CHEP 2013.

  8. Measurement of the 3s1/2-3p3/2 resonance line of sodiumlike Eu52+

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Träbert, E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Hell, N.; Brown, G. V.

    2015-08-20

    We have measured the 3s1/2-3p3/2 transition in sodiumlike Eu52+ situated at 41.232 Å with an uncertainty of 73 ppm. Our measurement extends previous high-precision measurements into the 56< Z< 78 range of atomic numbers. We also present measurements of 3s1/2-3p3/2 and 3p1/2-3d3/2 transitions in the neighboring magnesiumlike, aluminumlike, and siliconlike europium ions.

  9. The optical depth of the 158 micron forbidden C-12 II line - Detection of the F = 1 - 0 forbidden C-13 II hyperfine-structure component. [in Orion nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, G. J.; Townes, C. H.; Geis, N.; Madden, S. C.; Herrmann, F.; Genzel, R.; Poglitsch, A.; Jackson, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The detection of the F = 1 - 0 hyperfine component of the 158-micron forbidden C-13 II fine-structure line in the interstellar medium is reported. A 12-point intensity map was obtained of the forbidden C-13 distribution over the inner 190-arcsec (R.A.) X 190-arcsec (decl.) regions of the Orion Nebula using an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer. The forbidden C-12 II/C-13 II line intensity ratio varies significantly over the region mapped. It is highest (86 +/-0) in the core of the Orion H II region, and significantly lower (62 +/-7) in the outer regions of the map, reflecting higher optical depth in the forbidden C-12 II line here. It is suggested that this enhanced optical depth is the result of limb brightening of the optically thin forbidden C-13 II line at the edges of the bowl-shaped H II region blister.

  10. Upregulation of CYP2S1 by oxaliplatin is associated with p53 status in colorectal cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao; Zhou, Qian; Li, Minle; Tong, Xuemei; Sun, Jiayi; Qing, Yin; Sun, Liya; Yang, Xuhan; Hu, Xiaowen; Jiang, Jie; Yan, Xiaomei; He, Lin; Wan, Chunling

    2016-01-01

    Oxaliplatin displays a wide spectrum of antitumor activities and is widely used in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). However, tumor responses to this agent are variable, and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, oxaliplatin was found to strongly inhibit the growth of HCT116 cells harboring wild-type p53 but to only weakly inhibit SW480 cells, HT29 cells or p53−/− HCT116 cells, which all lack p53 expression. Administration of oxaliplatin significantly induced p53 accumulation and enhanced expression of CYP2S1 in HCT116 cells with wild-type p53. CYP2S1 knockdown conferred a cell survival advantage after oxaliplatin treatment to cells harboring wild-type p53 in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, enzyme immunoassays, TOPFlash/FOPFlash reporter activity assays and western blotting analysis demonstrated oxaliplatin-mediated downregulation of PGE2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in a manner dependent on p53. Moreover, oxaliplatin treatment of mice with subcutaneous tumor xenografts drastically reduced the volume of wild-type p53 HCT116 tumors but had no effect on isogenic p53−/− HCT116 tumors. These results suggest that oxaliplatin exerts its inhibitory effects in human CRC cells via upregulation of CYP2S1 expression in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:27609465

  11. Upregulation of CYP2S1 by oxaliplatin is associated with p53 status in colorectal cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Zhou, Qian; Li, Minle; Tong, Xuemei; Sun, Jiayi; Qing, Yin; Sun, Liya; Yang, Xuhan; Hu, Xiaowen; Jiang, Jie; Yan, Xiaomei; He, Lin; Wan, Chunling

    2016-01-01

    Oxaliplatin displays a wide spectrum of antitumor activities and is widely used in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). However, tumor responses to this agent are variable, and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, oxaliplatin was found to strongly inhibit the growth of HCT116 cells harboring wild-type p53 but to only weakly inhibit SW480 cells, HT29 cells or p53-/- HCT116 cells, which all lack p53 expression. Administration of oxaliplatin significantly induced p53 accumulation and enhanced expression of CYP2S1 in HCT116 cells with wild-type p53. CYP2S1 knockdown conferred a cell survival advantage after oxaliplatin treatment to cells harboring wild-type p53 in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, enzyme immunoassays, TOPFlash/FOPFlash reporter activity assays and western blotting analysis demonstrated oxaliplatin-mediated downregulation of PGE2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in a manner dependent on p53. Moreover, oxaliplatin treatment of mice with subcutaneous tumor xenografts drastically reduced the volume of wild-type p53 HCT116 tumors but had no effect on isogenic p53-/- HCT116 tumors. These results suggest that oxaliplatin exerts its inhibitory effects in human CRC cells via upregulation of CYP2S1 expression in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:27609465

  12. Mitomycin C plus S-1 as second-line therapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer: a noncomparative phase II study.

    PubMed

    Park, Se Hoon; Kim, Young Saing; Hong, Junshik; Park, Jinny; Nam, Eunmi; Cho, Eun Kyung; Shin, Dong Bok; Lee, Jae Hoon; Lee, Woon Kee; Chung, Min

    2008-03-01

    S-1 is an oral fluoropyrimidine consisting of the 5-fluorouracil prodrug tegafur combined with two modulating substances, gimeracil and potassium oxonate. On the basis of the potential additive effect between mitomycin C (MMC) and 5-fluorouracil as a continuous infusion, we conducted a phase II study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of the combination of S-1 and MMC as second-line chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Patients with measurable AGC, progressive after one prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease, received MMC (7 mg/m2) on day 1 and S-1 (40 mg/m2) twice daily as an intermittent regimen of 4 weeks of treatment followed by a 2-week rest. Treatment was repeated every 6 weeks. The primary objective was the response rate. For 43 patients registered, 42 patients were treated with MMC plus S-1. A total of 121 chemotherapy cycles were delivered (median: 2; range: 1-6). The patients' median age was 53 years (range: 31-75) and nine (21%) had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2. In an intent-to-treat analysis, nine patients (21%) achieved an objective response, which was maintained for 4.1 months. The median progression-free and overall survivals were 3.4 months (95% confidence interval: 2.3-4.5) and 8.0 months (95% confidence interval: 6.1-9.9), respectively. Although fatigue was the most frequently encountered toxicity safety profiles were generally predictable and manageable. One patient developed hemolytic anemia, which was resolved spontaneously. Grade > or = 2 hand-foot syndrome was observed in only three patients. Second-line chemotherapy with MMC and S-1 is an active and tolerable regimen for AGC patients with good performance status. PMID:18510177

  13. In-situ determination of astro-comb calibrator lines to better than 10 cm s(-1).

    PubMed

    Li, Chih-Hao; Glenday, Alexander G; Benedick, Andrew J; Chang, Guoqing; Chen, Li-Jin; Cramer, Claire; Fendel, Peter; Furesz, Gabor; Kärtner, Franz X; Korzennik, Sylvain; Phillips, David F; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald L

    2010-06-01

    Improved wavelength calibrators for high-resolution astrophysical spectrographs will be essential for precision radial velocity (RV) detection of Earth-like exoplanets and direct observation of cosmological deceleration. The astro-comb is a combination of an octave-spanning femtosecond laser frequency comb and a Fabry-Pérot cavity used to achieve calibrator line spacings that can be resolved by an astrophysical spectrograph. Systematic spectral shifts associated with the cavity can be 0.1-1 MHz, corresponding to RV errors of 10-100 cm/s, due to the dispersive properties of the cavity mirrors over broad spectral widths. Although these systematic shifts are very stable, their correction is crucial to high accuracy astrophysical spectroscopy. Here, we demonstrate an in-situ technique to determine the systematic shifts of astro-comb lines due to finite Fabry-Pérot cavity dispersion. The technique is practical for implementation at a telescope-based spectrograph to enable wavelength calibration accuracy better than 10 cm/s. PMID:20588453

  14. [A Case of Gemcitabine Refractory Lung Metastasis after Distal Pancreatectomy for Pancreatic Cancer, Effectively Treated with S -1 as Second Line Chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Omori, Keita; Wakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Suematsu, Yuki; Suda, Hiroshi; Hiratsuka, Miyuki; Takahashi, Miyuki; Saito, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi, Yuji; Morita, Akihiko; Ito, Yutaka

    2015-11-01

    A 64-year-old man was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer by abdominal computed tomography (CT). The examination showed a pancreatic tail cancer and a distal pancreatectomy was performed in 2010. Histopathologically, this tumor was a moderately-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma. He received gemcitabine adjuvant chemotherapy for a year. In 2012, a chest CT scan revealed 4 nodules in the lower left lobe. We diagnosed gemcitabine-refractory lung metastases after distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer. S-1 chemotherapy was administered as a second line chemotherapy for metastatic pancreatic cancer. After 2 courses of this regimen, the lung metastases were reduced. After 6 courses, a clinical complete response was obtained. Four years and 6 months after the operation, the patient is well without any signs of recurrence, and S-1 chemotherapy is still ongoing. PMID:26805103

  15. Generation of polarized 4He ion beam by optical pumping using circularly and linearly polarized radiation tuned to D0 line (He metastables 2S1→2P0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, T.; Yamauchi, Y.

    2007-06-01

    It is demonstrated that simultaneous optical pumping (OP) by circularly and linearly polarized 1083 nm radiation tuned to the D0 line (He metastables 23S1→23P0 transition) substantially improves the polarization of the He+ ion beam, compared with conventional OP by the circularly polarized D1 ( 23S1→23P1) or D2 ( 23S1→23P2) line.

  16. Rotational level-dependent collisional broadening and line shift of the A2Sigma(+)-X2Pi (1,0) band of OH in hydrogen-air combustion gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, W. J.; Allen, M. G.; Davis, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the collisional broadening and line shift of the (1,0) band of the A2Sigma(+)-X2Pi system of OH are reported in atmospheric pressure hydrogen-air combustion gases. The measurements were made using a single-mode, narrow linewidth, frequency-doubled ring dye laser operating near 283 nm. The OH was generated in the combustion gases of a flat flame H2-air burner. Collisional broadening parameters for equilibrium mixtures of H2, O2, H2O, and N2 were obtained spanning a range of fuel/air equivalence ratios from 0.6 to 1.6 and temperatures from 1500 to 2050 K. Measurements were obtained spanning rotational quantum numbers from 4.5 to 16.5. The collision induced frequency shift was determined to be 0.1 that of the collisional broadening.

  17. Frequency metrology on the Mg3s2S1→3s4pP1 line for comparison with quasar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannemann, S.; Salumbides, E. J.; Witte, S.; Zinkstok, R. Th.; van Duijn, E.-J.; Eikema, K. S. E.; Ubachs, W.

    2006-07-01

    We report a frequency metrology study on the Mg3s2S1→3s4pP1 transition near 202.5nm . For this purpose, the fourth harmonic of the output from an injection-seeded Ti:sapphire pulsed laser is employed in a Mg atomic beam experiment with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Absolute frequency calibration with a frequency comb laser is performed on the cw seeding radiation, while the chirp-induced frequency shift between the pulsed output and the seed light is monitored on line. The resulting transition frequency for the main isotope Mg24 is determined at 49346.756809(35)m-1 . This value is three orders of magnitude more precise than the best value in the literature. The line positions of the other isotopes Mg25 and Mg26 are also measured at comparable accuracy, giving rise to very exact values for the isotopic shifts. The achieved precision for the transition frequency at the 7×10-10 level makes this second resonance line of MgI an additional candidate for inclusion in many-multiplet methods, aimed at detecting a possible temporal variation of the fine-structure constant α from comparison with quasar spectra. The isotopic shifts obtained are also important to correct for possible systematic shifts due to evolution of isotopic abundances, which may mimic α -variation effects.

  18. Kendall-Theil Robust Line (KTRLine--version 1.0)-A Visual Basic Program for Calculating and Graphing Robust Nonparametric Estimates of Linear-Regression Coefficients Between Two Continuous Variables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.

    2006-01-01

    The Kendall-Theil Robust Line software (KTRLine-version 1.0) is a Visual Basic program that may be used with the Microsoft Windows operating system to calculate parameters for robust, nonparametric estimates of linear-regression coefficients between two continuous variables. The KTRLine software was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration, for use in stochastic data modeling with local, regional, and national hydrologic data sets to develop planning-level estimates of potential effects of highway runoff on the quality of receiving waters. The Kendall-Theil robust line was selected because this robust nonparametric method is resistant to the effects of outliers and nonnormality in residuals that commonly characterize hydrologic data sets. The slope of the line is calculated as the median of all possible pairwise slopes between points. The intercept is calculated so that the line will run through the median of input data. A single-line model or a multisegment model may be specified. The program was developed to provide regression equations with an error component for stochastic data generation because nonparametric multisegment regression tools are not available with the software that is commonly used to develop regression models. The Kendall-Theil robust line is a median line and, therefore, may underestimate total mass, volume, or loads unless the error component or a bias correction factor is incorporated into the estimate. Regression statistics such as the median error, the median absolute deviation, the prediction error sum of squares, the root mean square error, the confidence interval for the slope, and the bias correction factor for median estimates are calculated by use of nonparametric methods. These statistics, however, may be used to formulate estimates of mass, volume, or total loads. The program is used to read a two- or three-column tab-delimited input file with variable names in the first row and

  19. CCAIN, Version 1.0

    2005-05-26

    CCAIN, Version 1.0 Date: 06/15/2005 This software is an instantiation of Common Component Architecture (CCA) framework written in C. The framework is used to compose (create, register, destroy) C, C++, and Fortran components into a running CCA application. Language bindings are provided for F90 and F03 to allow codes in these languages to interface with the framework.

  20. Prognostic impact of KRAS mutant type and MET amplification in metastatic and recurrent gastric cancer patients treated with first-line S-1 plus cisplatin chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Matsusaka, Satoshi; Kobunai, Takashi; Yamamoto, Noriko; Chin, Keisho; Ogura, Mariko; Tanaka, Gotaro; Matsuoka, Kazuaki; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Mizunuma, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-related genes, including HER2, EGFR, MET, FGFR2 and KRAS, are target molecules that are clinically beneficial in gastric cancer (GC). We investigated the correlation between RTK-related genes and the curative effect of first-line S-1 plus cisplatin (SP) combination chemotherapy in metastatic and recurrent GC. We enrolled 150 patients with histopathologically confirmed metastatic and recurrent GC treated with SP. KRAS mutation was detected using direct sequencing. DNA copy number was measured by real-time PCR. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens were examined immunohistochemically for HER2, EGFR, FGFR2 and MET. Among 144 patients, KRAS mutation was detected in five (3.5%) at codon 12 and one (0.7%) at codon 13. FGFR2, EGFR, HER2, MET and KRAS gene amplification was suggested in 4.4%, 5.9%, 9%, 3.7% and 10.3% of patients, respectively. KRAS mutation, but not KRAS amplification, was associated with significantly shorter overall and progression-free survival. MET membranous overexpression was associated with a significantly higher tumor response. MET amplification was associated with significantly shorter overall survival. We show for the first time that KRAS mutation and MET amplification are promising predictive markers in metastatic and recurrent GC patients treated with SP. KRAS status may be a useful prognostic marker in patients treated with SP. PMID:27014419

  1. NII Simulator 1.0

    2009-12-02

    The software listed here is a simulator for SAIC P7500 VACIS non intrusive inspection system. The simulator provides messages similar to those provided by this piece of equipment.To facilitate testing of the Second Line of Defense systems and similar software products from commercial software vendors, this software simulation application has been developed to simulate the P7500 that the Second Line of Defense communications software system must interface with. The primary use of this simulator ismore » for testing of both Sandia developed and DOE contractor developed software.« less

  2. NII Simulator 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Craig; Salazar, Anthony; Humphrey, Walter; & Johnson, ALfred

    2009-12-02

    The software listed here is a simulator for SAIC P7500 VACIS non intrusive inspection system. The simulator provides messages similar to those provided by this piece of equipment.To facilitate testing of the Second Line of Defense systems and similar software products from commercial software vendors, this software simulation application has been developed to simulate the P7500 that the Second Line of Defense communications software system must interface with. The primary use of this simulator is for testing of both Sandia developed and DOE contractor developed software.

  3. Piro v. 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Salinger, Andrew; & Phipps, Eric

    2010-02-24

    The Piro library is a new package that is part of the Trilinos framework. Piro is a convenience package provides a simple and unified interface to many of the solver and analysis packages in Trilinos. The Piro package wraps many of the common usages of other existing Trilinos packages (e.g. NOX, Rythmos, TriKota) and provides a simple interface. In this way, a computer simulation code that wants to use Trilinos analysis tools can access them with just and handful of lines of Piro code. This saves much effort in interfacing their code to each of the other codes one at a time.

  4. Piro v. 1.0

    2010-02-24

    The Piro library is a new package that is part of the Trilinos framework. Piro is a convenience package provides a simple and unified interface to many of the solver and analysis packages in Trilinos. The Piro package wraps many of the common usages of other existing Trilinos packages (e.g. NOX, Rythmos, TriKota) and provides a simple interface. In this way, a computer simulation code that wants to use Trilinos analysis tools can access themmore » with just and handful of lines of Piro code. This saves much effort in interfacing their code to each of the other codes one at a time.« less

  5. Dependence of the bit error rate on the signal power and length of a single-channel coherent single-span communication line (100 Gbit s-1) with polarisation division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurkin, N. V.; Konyshev, V. A.; Nanii, O. E.; Novikov, A. G.; Treshchikov, V. N.; Ubaydullaev, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied experimentally and using numerical simulations and a phenomenological analytical model the dependences of the bit error rate (BER) on the signal power and length of a coherent single-span communication line with transponders employing polarisation division multiplexing and four-level phase modulation (100 Gbit s-1 DP-QPSK format). In comparing the data of the experiment, numerical simulations and theoretical analysis, we have found two optimal powers: the power at which the BER is minimal and the power at which the fade margin in the line is maximal. We have derived and analysed the dependences of the BER on the optical signal power at the fibre line input and the dependence of the admissible input signal power range for implementation of the communication lines with a length from 30 - 50 km up to a maximum length of 250 km.

  6. Phase II trial of carboplatin, S-1, and gefitinib as first-line triplet chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations.

    PubMed

    Tamiya, Akihiro; Tamiya, Motohiro; Shiroyama, Takayuki; Saijo, Nobuhiko; Nakatani, Takeshi; Minomo, Shojiro; Tsuji, Taisuke; Takeuchi, Naoko; Omachi, Naoki; Kurata, Kanako; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Okamoto, Norio; Okishio, Kyoichi; Hirashima, Tomonori; Atagi, Shinji

    2015-03-01

    Gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), is an effective treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients with activating EGFR mutations. However, there have been little evidence-based studies of gefitinib in combination with platinum-doublet therapy in these patients. We performed a phase II trial to determine the efficacy and safety of triplet chemotherapy with gefitinib, carboplatin, and S-1 as a first-line treatment. This was a multicentre, single-arm, phase II trial of carboplatin, S-1, and gefitinib in advanced NSCLC patients with activating EGFR mutations. Patients received four courses of these drugs in 3-4 week cycles. In each cycle, carboplatin (area under curve = 5) was administered on day 1, S-1 (80 mg/m(2)) on days 1-14, and gefitinib (250 mg) every day. Subsequently, the same regimen without carboplatin was administered until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred. The 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) was the primary endpoint, while response rate (RR), PFS, overall survival (OS), and safety were secondary endpoints. Thirty-five patients were enrolled into this study. The 1-year PFS was 74.3% and the overall RR was 85.7%. The median PFS for all patients was 17.6 months (95% confidence interval 15.5-∞), but the median OS was not reached, because 28 patients were still alive after a median follow-up time of 21.4 months. Haematological adverse events (grade 3 or higher) included neutropaenia (17.1%), thrombocytopenia (14.3%), and anaemia (5.7%), while non-haematological adverse events (grade 3 or higher) included elevated aminotransferase (20.0%), diarrhoea (14.3%), and febrile neutropaenia (2.9%). No interstitial lung disease or treatment-related deaths occurred. Combination chemotherapy with carboplatin, S-1, and gefitinib is efficacious and well tolerated as a first-line treatment in advanced NSCLC patients with activating EGFR mutations. PMID:25616723

  7. Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Robert

    2004-02-01

    Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version supports interactive selection and graphical display of data generated by the Sandia Cognitive Framework, which simulates the examination of security data by experts of various specialties. Insider Alert also encompasses the configuration and data files input to the Cognitive Framework for this application. Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version is a computer program for analyzing data indicative of possible espionage or improper handling of data by employees at Sandia National Laboratories (or other facilities with comparable policies and procedures for managing sensitive information) It prioritizes and displays information for review by security analysts.

  8. Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version

    2004-02-01

    Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version supports interactive selection and graphical display of data generated by the Sandia Cognitive Framework, which simulates the examination of security data by experts of various specialties. Insider Alert also encompasses the configuration and data files input to the Cognitive Framework for this application. Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version is a computer program for analyzing data indicative of possible espionage or improper handling of data by employees at Sandia National Laboratoriesmore » (or other facilities with comparable policies and procedures for managing sensitive information) It prioritizes and displays information for review by security analysts.« less

  9. The LITHO1.0 Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M.; Masters, G.; Laske, G.; Ma, Z.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed LITHO1.0, a 1 degree model of the crust and uppermost mantle of the Earth which extends into the upper mantle to include the lithospheric lid and underlying asthenosphere. A description of the model and details of its construction were recently published in JGR (Pasyanos et al., 2014). The model is parameterized laterally by tessellated nodes and vertically as a series of geophysically identified layers, such as water, ice, sediments, crystalline crust, lithospheric lid, and asthenosphere. Model profiles are created by constructing an appropriate starting model and perturbing it to fit high-resolution surface wave dispersion maps (Love and Rayleigh, group and phase) over a wide frequency band (5-40 mHz). We will review the constructed model and compare it to a number of select studies at regional and global scales. We will also discuss avenues for future improvements if time and funding permit. The model and access tools are available to download at http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~gabi/litho1.0.html. Pasyanos, M.E., T.G. Masters, G. Laske, and Z. Ma (2014). LITHO1.0: An updated crust and lithospheric model of the earth, J. Geophys. Res., 119, doi:10.1002/2013JB010626.

  10. Amesos 1.0 reference guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, Marzio; Stanley, Ken D.

    2004-05-01

    This document describes the main functionalities of the Amesos package, version 1.0. Amesos, available as part of Trilinos 4.0, provides an object-oriented interface to several serial and parallel sparse direct solvers libraries, for the solution of the linear systems of equations A X = B where A is a real sparse, distributed matrix, defined as an EpetraRowMatrix object, and X and B are defined as EpetraMultiVector objects. Amesos provides a common look-and-feel to several direct solvers, insulating the user from each package's details, such as matrix and vector formats, and data distribution.

  11. Methanethiolate structural phases on Cu(1 0 0) and Cu(4 1 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driver, S. M.; Woodruff, D. P.

    2001-08-01

    Scanning tunnelling microscopy has been used to study the interaction of dimethyl disulphide and methanethiol with Cu(1 0 0) and Cu(4 1 0) surfaces at room temperature, conditions believed to lead to the formation of adsorbed methanethiolate CH 3S-. On Cu(1 1 1) these interactions are known to produce a pseudo-(1 0 0) reconstruction of the surface, but with a periodicity some 14% larger than on the ideal Cu(1 0 0) surface. On Cu(1 0 0) there is no evidence of adsorbate-induced substrate reconstruction, with commensurate (2×2) and (defected) c(2×2) overlayers being formed, although at the highest coverages the surface appears to be characterised by a c(2×6) phase which is sometimes poorly ordered. On Cu(4 1 0) the structure formed on the (1 0 0) terraces appears to be c(2×2), although characteristic patterns of kink formation on the steps may be explained in terms of relief of adsorbate-induced compressive surface stress as may be expected if a larger lattice parameter is preferred. The c(2×6) phase on the extended (1 0 0) surface is explained in terms of a buckled c(2×2) structure, also a consequence of compressive surface stress relief.

  12. TSA RPM Simulator 1.0

    2009-12-02

    The software listed here is a simulator for TSA Radiation Portal Monitors with version 1.10.1A firmware. The simulator provides messages similar to those provided by this piece of equipment.To facilitate testing of the Second Line of Defense systems and similar software products from commercial software vendors, this software simulation application has been developed that simulate the TSA Radiation Portal Monitor that Second Line of Defense communications software systems must interface with. The primary use ofmore » this simulator is for testing of both Sandia developed and DOE contractor developed software.« less

  13. TSA RPM Simulator 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Humphrey; & Johnson, ALfred

    2009-12-02

    The software listed here is a simulator for TSA Radiation Portal Monitors with version 1.10.1A firmware. The simulator provides messages similar to those provided by this piece of equipment.To facilitate testing of the Second Line of Defense systems and similar software products from commercial software vendors, this software simulation application has been developed that simulate the TSA Radiation Portal Monitor that Second Line of Defense communications software systems must interface with. The primary use of this simulator is for testing of both Sandia developed and DOE contractor developed software.

  14. Cpp Utility - Version 1.0

    2014-09-08

    A collection of general Umbra modules that are reused by other Umbra libraries. These capabilities include line segments, file utilities, color utilities, string utilities (for std::string), list utilities (for std ::vector ), bounding box intersections, range limiters, simple filters, cubic roots solvers and a few other utilities.

  15. Cpp Utility - Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    III, FredOppel; Rigdon, J. Brian

    2014-09-08

    A collection of general Umbra modules that are reused by other Umbra libraries. These capabilities include line segments, file utilities, color utilities, string utilities (for std::string), list utilities (for std ::vector ), bounding box intersections, range limiters, simple filters, cubic roots solvers and a few other utilities.

  16. Virtual planets atlas 1.0 freeware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, C.; Chevalley, P.

    2015-10-01

    Since 2002, we develop the "Virtual Moon Atlas -http://www.ap-i.net/avl/en/start" a freeware to help Moon observing and to improve interest for Moon in general public. VMA freeware has been downloaded near 900000 times all over the world and is or has been used by several professional organizations such as Kitt Peak Observatory, National Japan Observatory, Birkbeck College / University College London (K. Joy), BBC Sky at night, several French astronomy magazines and astronomy writers (P. Harrington, S. French...) . Recommended by ESA, registered as educational software by French ministry for education, it has also yet been presented at 2006 & 2007 LPSC and PCC2 in 2011 We have declined this freeware in a new tool with the same goals, but for the telluric planets and satellites, the "Virtual Planets Atlas (VPA / http://www.ap-i.net/avp/en/start") now in version 1.0.

  17. LAPACK users' guide: Release 1. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.; Bai, Z.; Bischof, C.; Demmel, J.; Dongarra, J.; Du Croz, J.; Greenbaum, A.; Hammarling, S.; McKenney, A.; Ostrouchov, S.; Sorensen, D.

    1992-01-31

    LAPACK is a transportable library of Fortran 77 subroutines for solving the most common problems in numerical linear algebra: systems of linear equations, linear least squares problems, eigenvalue problems and singular value problems. LAPACK is designed to supersede LINPACK and EISPACK, principally by restructuring the software to achieve much greater efficiency on vector processors, high-performance superscalar'' workstations, and shared-memory multi-processors. LAPACK also adds extra functionality, uses some new or improved algorithms, and integrates the two sets of algorithms into a unified package. The LAPACK Users' Guide gives an informal introduction to the design of the algorithms and software, summarizes the contents of the package, describes conventions used in the software and documentation, and includes complete specifications for calling the routines. This edition of the Users' guide describes Release 1.0 of LAPACK.

  18. LAPACK users` guide: Release 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.; Bai, Z.; Bischof, C.; Demmel, J.; Dongarra, J.; Du Croz, J.; Greenbaum, A.; Hammarling, S.; McKenney, A.; Ostrouchov, S.; Sorensen, D.

    1992-01-31

    LAPACK is a transportable library of Fortran 77 subroutines for solving the most common problems in numerical linear algebra: systems of linear equations, linear least squares problems, eigenvalue problems and singular value problems. LAPACK is designed to supersede LINPACK and EISPACK, principally by restructuring the software to achieve much greater efficiency on vector processors, high-performance ``superscalar`` workstations, and shared-memory multi-processors. LAPACK also adds extra functionality, uses some new or improved algorithms, and integrates the two sets of algorithms into a unified package. The LAPACK Users` Guide gives an informal introduction to the design of the algorithms and software, summarizes the contents of the package, describes conventions used in the software and documentation, and includes complete specifications for calling the routines. This edition of the Users` guide describes Release 1.0 of LAPACK.

  19. GlobiPack v. 1.0

    2010-03-31

    GlobiPack contains a small collection of optimization globalization algorithms. These algorithms are used by optimization and various nonlinear equation solver algorithms.Used as the line-search procedure with Newton and Quasi-Newton optimization and nonlinear equation solver methods. These are standard published 1-D line search algorithms such as are described in the book Nocedal and Wright Numerical Optimization: 2nd edition, 2006. One set of algorithms were copied and refactored from the existing open-source Trilinos package MOOCHO where themore » linear search code is used to globalize SQP methods. This software is generic to any mathematical optimization problem where smooth derivatives exist. There is no specific connection or mention whatsoever to any specific application, period. You cannot find more general mathematical software.« less

  20. VISAR2KV1.0Beta

    2001-01-01

    The software provides a rapid and robust method for reducing fringe records obtained using eithe a line-imaging optically recording velocity interferometry system (ORVIS) or stop-motion imaging of the moving fringe field. The reduced records result in spatially resolved velocity profiles of rapidly accelerating objects. Complex, time-dependent fringe motion (corresponding to local velocity variations) can be evaluated and interpreted using this program.

  1. EM3DAVer1.0

    2000-07-13

    Software simulates low-frequency (~1 to 10^6 Hz) electromagnetic induction in an anisotropic conducting medium. Induction is stimulated by an arbitrary superposition of electric and magnetic dipoles as well as line sources. The anisotropic nature of the conducting medium is described by a fully generalized 3X3 conductivity tensor. Upon completion, software computes in-phrase and quadrature components of magnetic and electric fields at user-specified points. Values are further decomposed in terms of primary, background and total fields.more » Software also includes a graphical user interface for building anisotropy models and provides plotting capability for simulation output.« less

  2. GreenArrow version 1.0

    2006-03-29

    GreenArrow is a visualization program for displaying directed graphs that can use text in place of lines to represent the edges between nodes. This text can be animated to show the link direction, and allow for more text to be displayed then would normally be allowed. The text is also tapered and arced to show direction. The node labels can be wrapped around the node to avoid label crossing as well. The program is interactive,more » and allows the user to zoom, pan and rotate a graph, as well as manipulate the individual nodes.« less

  3. CYP2S1: A short review

    SciTech Connect

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T. . E-mail: sirkku.saarikoski@ktl.fi; Rivera, Steven P.; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation.

  4. CYP2S1: a short review.

    PubMed

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T; Rivera, Steven P; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation. PMID:16054184

  5. Babel 1.0 Release Criteria: A Working Document

    SciTech Connect

    Kumfert, G; Dahlgren, T; Epperly, T; Leek, J

    2004-10-19

    In keeping with the Open Source tradition, we want our Babel 1.0 release to indicate a certain level of capability, maturity, and stability. From our first release (version 0.5.0) in July of 2001 to our current (18th) release (version 0.9.6) we have continued to add capabilities in response to customer feedback, our observations in the field, and a consistent vision for interoperability. The key to our maturity is without a doubt the ever-increasing demands of our growing user base... both in terms of sheer size and sophistication with the underlying technology. Stability is a special challenge for any research project. With our 1.0 release, we will branch and maintain a stable Babel 1.0 code line for at least a full year. This means no new features and no backward incompatible changes, only bug fixes. All continuing R&D will be performed on a separate development tree. Currently, Babel has a quarterly release cycle with no guarantee for backward compatibility from one release to the next (though we certainly try to make migration as painless as possible). Now is the time where we can see a good point for a Babel 1.0 release. But, seeing that point is different from being there. This list enumerates and explains the outstanding technical issues to be resolved to minimize volatility and help ensure stability for the 1.0 line. The first draft of this document was circulated internally in June 2003. A revised draft was then presented at the July 2003 CCA meeting. A third revision was made into the current working document form & circulated for general comment on the babel-users mailing list and Babel's homepage. The working document was intended to be an open record tracking progress in subsequent Babel releases. A major revision of the document (including adding new items and promoting/demoting items) was done in October 2004, well after the 0.9.6 release.

  6. Molecular hydrogen line ratios in four regions of shock-excited gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, M. G.; Brand, P. W. J. L.; Geballe, T. R.; Webster, A. S.

    1989-01-01

    Five emission lines of molecular hydrogen, with wavelengths in the ranges of 2.10-2.25 and 3.80-3.85 microns, have been observed in four objects of different type in which the line emission is believed to be excited by shocks. The relative intensities of the lines 1 - 0 S(1):1 - 0 S(O):2 - 1 S(1) are approximately 10.5:2.5:1.0 in all four objects. The 0 - 0 S(13):1 - 0 O(7) line ratio, however, varies from 1.05 in OMC-1 to about 2.3 in the Herbig-Haro object HH 7. The excitation temperature derived from the S(13) and O(7) lines is higher than that derived from the 1 - 0 and 2 - 1 S(1) lines in all four objects, so the shocked gas in these objects cannot be characterized by a single temperature. The constancy of the (1-0)/(2-1) S(1) line ratio between sources suggests that the post-shock gas is 'thermalized' in each source. The S(13)/O(7) ratio is particularly sensitive to the density and temperature conditions in the gas.

  7. Interaction of copper with the rhenium(1 0\\bar {1}0) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przyrembel, Daniel; Messahel, Lyria; Christmann, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    We have studied the adsorption of copper on the clean Re(1 0\\bar {1}0) surface between 300 and 900 K by means of low- and medium-energy electron diffraction (LEED and MEED) and temperature-programmed thermal desorption (TPD). The persistence of a (1 × 1) LEED pattern during Cu deposition suggests the formation of pseudomorphic Cu islands. Accordingly, the intensity-voltage behaviour of the (1 × 1) LEED beams can be quantitatively superimposed by the coverage-weighed fractions of the I(V)-curves of uncovered Re areas and of Cu-covered (1 × 1) islands. At a coverage of 1.625 × 1019 Cu atoms m-2 dynamical LEED I(V) calculations suggest a full hcp-oriented Cu bilayer (BL). Within this first BL, Cu wets the Re surface completely, while all following layers exhibit remnant roughness due to small Cu nuclei, as confirmed by in situ grazing-incidence MEED experiments. The completion of the first BL coincides with the saturation of a single β TPD state at 1180 K, whilst higher coverages produce an additional zero-order α state, which peaks at 1080 K at 2.6 BL. The energy of desorption rises from 320 kJ mol-1 at small coverages to ˜360 kJ mol-1 for a bilayer Cu film, pointing to attractive lateral Cu-Cu interactions. An analysis of the leading edge of the multilayer α state yields a desorption energy of ˜305 kJ mol-1, somewhat lower than the sublimation enthalpy of bulk Cu. Our data are discussed and compared with previous results on related systems.

  8. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  9. Newly Installed S-1 Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts. This is a view of the newly installed S1 Truss as photographed during the mission's first scheduled EVA. The Station's Canadarm2 is in the foreground. Visible are astronauts Piers J. Sellers (lower left) and David A. Wolf (upper right), both STS-112 mission specialists.

  10. The infrastructure MESSy submodels GRID (v1.0) and IMPORT (v1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerkweg, A.; Jöckel, P.

    2015-10-01

    The coupling of Earth system model components, which work on different grids, into an Earth System Model (ESM) provokes the necessity to transfer data from one grid to another. Additionally, each of these model components might require data import onto its specific grid. Usually, one of two approaches is used: Either all input data is preprocessed to the employed grid, or the imported data is interpolated on-line, i.e. during model integration to the required grid. For the former, each change in the model resolution requires the re-preprocessing of all data. The latter option implies that in each model integration computing time is required for the grid mapping. If all components of an ESM use only one single point of import and the same mapping software, only one software package needs to be changed for code optimisation, inclusion of additional interpolation methods or the implementation of new data formats. As the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) is mainly used for research purposes which require frequent changes of the model setup including the model resolution or the application of different sets of input data (e.g., different emission scenarios), the idea of a common procedure for data import was implemented in MESSy in form of the infrastructure submodel IMPORT. Currently, IMPORT consists of two submodels: IMPORT_TS for reading and processing abstract time series data and IMPORT_GRID, utilising the infrastructure submodel GRID which provides procedures for grid transformations using the remapping software packages NREGRID (Jöckel, 2006) and SCRIP (Jones, 1999). Grid information is stored in a standardised structure as geo-hybrid grids. Based on this unified definition a standardised interface for the grid transformations is provided, thus simplifying the implemention of grid transformations in the model code. This article describes the main functionalities of the two MESSy infrastructure submodels GRID and IMPORT. The Supplement of this article

  11. Chromospheric Evaporation in an X1.0 Flare on 2014 March 29 Observed with IRIS and EIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Qiu, J.; Cheng, J. X.

    2015-09-01

    Chromospheric evaporation refers to dynamic mass motions in flare loops as a result of rapid energy deposition in the chromosphere. These motions have been observed as blueshifts in X-ray and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectral lines corresponding to upward motions at a few tens to a few hundreds of km s-1. Past spectroscopic observations have also revealed a dominant stationary component, in addition to the blueshifted component, in emission lines formed at high temperatures (˜10 MK). This is contradictory to evaporation models predicting predominant blueshifts in hot lines. The recently launched Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) provides high-resolution imaging and spectroscopic observations that focus on the chromosphere and transition region in the UV passband. Using the new IRIS observations, combined with coordinated observations from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer, we study the chromospheric evaporation process from the upper chromosphere to the corona during an X1.0 flare on 2014 March 29. We find evident evaporation signatures, characterized by Doppler shifts and line broadening, at two flare ribbons that are separating from each other, suggesting that chromospheric evaporation takes place in successively formed flaring loops throughout the flare. More importantly, we detect dominant blueshifts in the high-temperature Fe xxi line (˜10 MK), in agreement with theoretical predictions. We also find that, in this flare, gentle evaporation occurs at some locations in the rise phase of the flare, while explosive evaporation is detected at some other locations near the peak of the flare. There is a conversion from gentle to explosive evaporation as the flare evolves.

  12. Noncollinear magnetism of Mn nanowires on Fe(1 1 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, R. N.; Miranda, I. P.; Eleno, L. T. F.; Klautau, A. B.; Petrilli, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic properties of Mn linear nanochains on a bcc Fe(1 1 0) surface have been studied using the first-principles real space-linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation (RS–LMTO–ASA) method. We have considered up to nine Mn atoms deposited on bcc Fe(1 1 0). Our ab initio calculations reveal the competition between the antiferromagnetic Mn–Mn and Mn–Fe couplings, presenting a behavior which is very different from Mn nanowires on Fe(0 0 1), as shown in a previous publication. Due to this competition and non-negligible Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction, noncollinear magnetic structures are stabilized as ground states for the Mn nanochains on Fe(1 1 0).

  13. Noncollinear magnetism of Mn nanowires on Fe(1 1 0).

    PubMed

    Igarashi, R N; Miranda, I P; Eleno, L T F; Klautau, A B; Petrilli, H M

    2016-08-17

    Magnetic properties of Mn linear nanochains on a bcc Fe(1 1 0) surface have been studied using the first-principles real space-linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation (RS-LMTO-ASA) method. We have considered up to nine Mn atoms deposited on bcc Fe(1 1 0). Our ab initio calculations reveal the competition between the antiferromagnetic Mn-Mn and Mn-Fe couplings, presenting a behavior which is very different from Mn nanowires on Fe(0 0 1), as shown in a previous publication. Due to this competition and non-negligible Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, noncollinear magnetic structures are stabilized as ground states for the Mn nanochains on Fe(1 1 0). PMID:27346457

  14. MULTIPLE PROJECTIONS SYSTEM (MPS) - USER'S MANUAL VERSION 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a user's manual for version 1.0 of the Multiple Projections Systems (MPS), a computer system that can perform "what if" scenario analysis and report the final results (i.e., Rate of Further Progress - ROP - inventories) to EPA (i.e., the Aerometric Information Retri...

  15. Quick Overview Scout 2008 Version 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Scout 2008 version 1.0 statistical software package has been updated from past DOS and Windows versions to provide classical and robust univariate and multivariate graphical and statistical methods that are not typically available in commercial or freeware statistical softwar...

  16. Scout 2008 Version 1.0 User Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Scout 2008 version 1.0 software package provides a wide variety of classical and robust statistical methods that are not typically available in other commercial software packages. A major part of Scout deals with classical, robust, and resistant univariate and multivariate ou...

  17. Specifications for Version 1. 0 of the Army Data Encyclopedia

    SciTech Connect

    Gey, F.; Holmes, H.

    1988-09-30

    This document provides a more detailed description of the Army Data Encyclopedia (ADE) Version 1.0, in accordance with the Data Encyclopedia Architecture for Army Information Management. The software and contents of the ADE are key mechanisms that are necessary to achieve interoperability, integration and synchronization of Army information systems. The ADE architecture is intended to provide a global view, long-term direction, and the conceptual foundation for further development. In accord with the architecture, the ADE will develop through a sequence of increasingly powerful versions, supporting a series of Army-wide Information Mission Area (IMA) efforts, such as data element standardization. The major components of the ADE Version 1.0 are an ANSI-FIPS Standard Information Resource Dictionary System (IRDS) framework, which is implemented using a relational DBMS, a user interface for schema and data maintenance, a user interface for the Data Element search/retrieval/approval process, and the loading of the actual data of the ADE. This paper assumes the reader is familiar with the Data Encyclopedia Architecture document. It provides background for ADE Version 1.0 and a brief status report of ADE related activities in progress. It outlines a software structure for the ADE, functionality to be implemented within the ADE 1.0, structure of the data element approval process and user interface, initial data content of the ADE, documentation needs of the ADE, and remote user access strategies for the ADE. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Enhancement of Spatial Thinking with Virtual Spaces 1.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauptman, Hanoch

    2010-01-01

    Developing a software environment to enhance 3D geometric proficiency demands the consideration of theoretical views of the learning process. Simultaneously, this effort requires taking into account the range of tools that technology offers, as well as their limitations. In this paper, we report on the design of Virtual Spaces 1.0 software, a…

  19. IDC Use Case Model Survey Version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Dorthe B.; Harris, James M.

    2014-12-01

    This document contains the brief descriptions for the actors and use cases contained in the IDC Use Case Model Survey. REVISIONS Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Re- engineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  20. Crystal growth mechanisms of the (0 1 0) face of α-lactose monohydrate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, T. D.; Ogden, M. I.; Parkinson, G. M.

    2009-04-01

    The growth rates of the (0 1 0) face of α-lactose monohydrate crystals were measured at 30, 40 and 50 °C in the relative supersaturation range 0.55-2.33 in aqueous solutions. The mechanisms of growth were investigated. Spiral growth was found to be the mechanism of growth up to a critical relative supersaturation ( s-1) crit=1.9 at 30 °C. Above the critical relative supersaturation, the crystal growth mechanisms were predicted to change. All growth models fit equally well to the growth rates. No two-dimensional nucleation was observed above critical supersaturation by AFM. On the other hand increased step height and roughness on the edges of steps were observed. It was concluded that the growth mechanism of the (0 1 0) face of α-lactose monohydrate crystal is spiral growth. A parabolic relationship was obtained below critical supersaturation followed by a linear relationship with relative supersaturation.

  1. Magic-angle spinning NMR study of deuterium site occupancy and dynamics in ZrNiD1.0 and ZrNiD3.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolphi, Natalie L.; Badola, Sharwari; Browder, Lisa A.; Bowman, R. C.

    2002-01-01

    Both static and magic-angle spinning (MAS) 2H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicate that two inequivalent sites are occupied in ZrNiD3.0, in a 2:1 ratio, in agreement with previous work. The sites occupied in the trihydride phase have been previously identified as Zr3Ni and Zr3Ni2. In ZrNiD1.0, two well-resolved lines of equal intensity are observed in the MAS spectrum at temperatures<220 K, indicating that two other inequivalent sites are occupied in a 1:1 ratio, in contrast with previous reports that only one type of site (Zr4Ni2) is occupied in the monohydride (β) phase at room temperature and above. The temperature dependences of both MAS and static ZrNiD1.0 spectra indicate that no phase transitions occur over the entire temperature range studied, 160-500 K. The deuterium hopping rate in ZrNiD1.0 is determined from characteristic changes in the MAS spectra as a function of temperature; the motion is consistent with an activation energy Ea≅0.44 eV assuming a rate prefactor 1/τ0~1013 s-1. In ZrNiD3.0, the rate of deuterium motion is determined from signatures of motion in the static and MAS spectra. The motion in ZrNiD3.0 is consistent with an activation energy Ea≅0.62 eV assuming a rate prefactor of ~1013 s-1.

  2. Velocity profiles of high-excitation molecular hydrogen lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhouse, A.; Brand, P. W. J. L.; Geballe, T. R.; Burton, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    Profiles of three lines of molecular hydrogen near 2.2 microns, originating from widely spaced energy levels, have been measured at a resolution of 32 km/s at Peak 1 in the Orion molecular outflow. The three lines, 1 - 0 S(1), 2 - 1 S(1), and 3 - 2 S(3), are found to have identical profiles. This result rules out any significant contribution to the population of the higher energy levels of molecular hydrogen at Peak 1 by fluorescence, and is generally consistent with emission from multiple J-type shocks.

  3. Visual Sample Plan Version 1.0 User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, James R.; Hassig, Nancy L.; Wilson, John E.; Gilbert, Richard O.

    2001-04-13

    This user's guide describes Visual Sample Plan (VSP) Version 1.0 and provides instructions for using the software. VSP selects the appropriate number and location of environmental samples to ensure that the results of statistical tests performed to provide input to environmental decisions have the required confidence and performance. VSP Version 1.0 provides sample-size equations or algorithms needed by specific statistical tests appropriate for specific environmental sampling objectives. The easy-to-use program is highly visual and graphic. VSP runs on personal computers with Microsoft Windows operating systems (95, 98, Millenium Edition, 2000, and Windows NT). Designed primarily for project managers and users without expertise in statistics, VSP is applicable to any two-dimensional geographical population to be sampled (e.g., surface soil, a defined layer of subsurface soil, building surfaces, water bodies, and other similar applications) for studies of environmental quality.

  4. Visual Sample Plan Version 1.0 User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Jim Jr.; Hassig, Nancy L; Gilbert, Richard O

    2001-04-13

    This user's guide describes Visual Sample Plan (VSP) Version 1.0 and provides instructions for using the software. VSP selects the appropriate number and location of environmental samples to ensure that the results of statistical tests performed to provide input to environmental decisions have the required confidence and performance. VSP Version 1.0 provides sample-size equations or algorithms needed by specific statistical tests appropriate for specific environmental sampling objectives. The easy-to-use program is highly visual and graphic. VSP runs on personal computers with Microsoft Windows operating systems (95, 98, Millenium Edition, 2000, and Windows NT). Designed primarily for project managers and users without expertise in statistics, VSP is applicable to any two-dimensional geographical population to be sampled (e.g., surface soil, a defined layer of subsurface soil, building surfaces, water bodies, and other similar applications) for studies of environmental quality .

  5. Structure of CO2 monolayer on KCl(1 0 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Taiquan; Cao, Dan; Wang, Xinyan; Jiao, Zhiwei; Jiang, Zhouting; Chen, Miaogen; Luo, Honglei; Zhu, Ping

    2015-06-01

    The first-principle technique has been employed to determine the structure of carbon dioxide (CO2) dimers, molecular chains, monolayers and the CO2/KCl(1 0 0) system. Their potential structures have been proposed. CASTEP calculation shows that CO2 molecular chains and monolayers based on two stable dimers by the electric interaction are all self-assembly system. At the coverage of 1.00 ML, two stable structures have been proposed when CO2 monolayer on the KCl(1 0 0) surface. The best one is the monolayer adsorbed on the surface with the C atom in the bridge site, the angle α between the molecular bond and the surface is 24°. The better one is the monolayer horizontally adsorbed on the surface with the C atom in the top-Cl site. The structural parameters in the adsorption system are similar to those in the monolayer.

  6. Bayesian Analysis Toolkit: 1.0 and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaujean, Frederik; Caldwell, Allen; Greenwald, D.; Kluth, S.; Kröninger, Kevin; Schulz, O.

    2015-12-01

    The Bayesian Analysis Toolkit is a C++ package centered around Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampling. It is used in high-energy physics analyses by experimentalists and theorists alike. The software has matured over the last few years. We present new features to enter version 1.0, then summarize some of the software-engineering lessons learned and give an outlook on future versions.

  7. Smov Fos/fgs Fine Alignment (1.0 Reference)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, Anne

    1994-01-01

    The goal is to measure the precise aperture locations and sizes of the 1.0 aperture. The analysis of the observations will result in database changes to the table of aperture locations. Precise aperture locations will be determined by performing a raster step and dwell sequence in the FOS apertures along the edges of the apertures. An aperture map is required at each step of the dwell sequence. This test has to be conducted for both the RED and BLUE detectors.

  8. Oxygen induced facet formation on Rh(2 1 0) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govind; Chen, Wenhua; Wang, Hao; Madey, T. E.

    2009-10-01

    Oxygen induced nanometer-scale faceting of the atomically rough Rh(2 1 0) surface has been studied using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The Rh(2 1 0) surface completely covered with nanometer-scale facets when annealed at ≥550 K in the presence of oxygen. LEED studies reveal that the pyramidal faceted surface is characterized by three-sided nanoscale pyramids exposing (7 3 1), (7 3 -1) and (1 1 0) faces. A clean faceted surface was prepared through the use of low temperature surface cleaning method using the reaction with H 2 while preserving ("freezing") the pyramidal facet structure. The resulting clean faceted surface remains stable for T ˜ 600 K and for higher temperatures; the faceted surface irreversibly relaxes to the planar surface. STM measurements confirms the formation of nanopyramids with average pyramid size ranging from 12 to 21 nm depending upon the annealing temperature. The nanopyramidal faceted Rh surface may be used as a potential template for the growth of metallic nanoclusters and for structure sensitive reactions.

  9. Geometric structure of Be(10{bar 1}0)

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, P. |; Pohl, K. |; Stumpf, R.; Plummer, E.W. |

    1996-05-01

    The structure of clean Be(10{bar 1}0) was determined by low-energy electron-diffraction (LEED) {ital I}({ital V}) analysis and the result compared to first-principles calculations. Both theory and experiment indicate that from the two possible terminations of the truncated bulk, the one with the shorter first-interlayer spacing is realized. The values for the multilayer relaxations obtained by LEED essentially coincide with the theoretical prediction. Although the magnitude of the first- to second-layer relaxation fits well into the trend observed on other simple metal surfaces, the driving force is probably different for beryllium. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  10. SSEL1.0. Sandia Scalable Encryption Software

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, T.D.

    1996-08-29

    Sandia Scalable Encryption Library (SSEL) Version 1.0 is a library of functions that implement Sandia`s scalable encryption algorithm. This algorithm is used to encrypt Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) data traffic, and is capable of operating on an arbitrary number of bits at a time (which permits scaling via parallel implementations), while being interoperable with differently scaled versions of this algorithm. The routines in this library implement 8 bit and 32 bit versions of a non-linear mixer which is compatible with Sandia`s hardware-based ATM encryptor.

  11. Temperatures of the Jovian auroral zone inferred from 2-micron H2 quadrupole line observations

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Drossart, P.; Caldwell, J.; Maillard, J. Paris Observatoire, Meudon York Univ., North York CNRS, Institut d'Astrophysique, Paris )

    1990-03-01

    On the basis of the observed intensities of the S1(0), S1(1), and S1(2) 2-micron H2 quadrupole lines in the southern auroral zone of Jupiter, a rotational temperature of 730 (+ 490/-200) K in the 0.01-1.0 microbar range is derived which is judged to represent the local neutral kinetic temperature. Although the dominance of nonthermal emission is indicated for these lines by the factor-of-500 predominance of the H2(nu = 1) auroral zone population over the normal Boltzmann population, a calculation of both thermal and nonthermal intensities of the pure H2 rotational quadrupole lines yields the opposite results in the greater-than-5 micron wavelength region. 21 refs.

  12. AREST-CT V1.0 software verification

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Engel, D.W.; McGrail, B.P.; Lessor, K.S.

    1995-07-01

    The Analyzer for Radionuclide Source-Term with Chemical Transport (AREST-CT) is a scientific computer code designed for performance assessments of engineered barrier system (EBS) concepts for the underground storage of nuclear waste, including high-level, intermediate, and low-level wastes. The AREST-CT code has features for analyzing the degradation of and release of radionuclides from the waste form, chemical reactions that depend on time and space, and transport of the waste and other products through the EBS. This document provides a description of the verification testing that has been performed on the initial version of ARESTCT (V1.0). Software verification is the process of confirming that the models and algorithms have been correctly implemented into a computer code. Software verification for V1.0 consisted of testing the individual modules (unit tests) and a test of the fully-coupled model (integration testing). The integration test was done by comparing the results from AREST-CT with the results from the reactive transport code CIRF.A. The test problem consisted of a 1-D analysis of the release, transport, and precipitation of {sup 99}{Tc} in an idealized LLW disposal system. All verification tests showed that AREST-CT works properly and in accordance with design specifications.

  13. Hydrogen File Capture v1.0.DLL

    2006-03-28

    Postprocessor for the use with GoldSim commercial software. The program is intended as a DLL for use with a GoldSim model simulation to copy input/output files created during the simulation to a central location on a local LAN. The software is used as part of a modeling package that consists of GoldSim.exe and other external codes linked and executed during a GoldSim model simulation. The FileCapture_v1.0.DLL is used to run Monte Carlo analyses with amore » GoldSim simulation that is executed using the distributed processing module. When distributed processing (i.e., multi-processor run) is used for a GoldSim Model simulation that is comprised of one or more codes linked with the GoldSim.exe, it is sometimes necessary to capture the default input and/or output files generated by the external codes linked with the GoldSim.exe program. Using the input file "FileCapture.In' to list the filenames and path, FileCapture_v1.0.DLL copies the files listed in 'FileCapture.in' from each node on the LAN to a folder called 'FCAP Files' created in the location gie as the path. The DLL will execute for each realization and append 00xxx a number indication which realization the file was generated from.« less

  14. CHEETAH 1.0 user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, L.E.

    1994-06-24

    CHEETAH is an effort to bring the TIGER thermochemical code into the 1990s. A wide variety of improvements have been made in Version 1.0, and a host of others will be implemented in the future. In CHEETAH 1.0 I have improved the robustness and ease of use of TIGER. All of TIGER`s solvers have been replaced by new algorithms. I find that CHEETAH solves a wider variety of problems with no user intervention (e.g. no guesses for the C-J state) than TIGER did. CHEETAH has been made simpler to use than TIGER; typical use of the code occurs with the new standard run command. I hope that CHEETAH makes the use of thermochemical codes more attractive to practical explosive formulators. In the future I plan to improve the underlying science in CHEETAH. More accurate equations of state will be used in the gas and the condensed phase. A kinetics capability will be added to the code that will predict reaction zone thickness. CHEETAH is currently a numerical implementation of C-J theory. It will,become an implementation of ZND theory. Further ease of use features will eventually be added; an automatic formulator that adjusts concentrations to match desired properties is planned.

  15. What sort of standard candle is Orion for studying molecular hydrogen line emission in galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Michael; Puxley, Phil J.

    1990-01-01

    The total shocked and fluorescent molecular hydrogen 1-0 S(1) line luminosities from Orion have been measured to be about 2.5 solar luminosity and about 2.0 solar luminosity, respectively. The implications for using Orion to study the interstellar medium in galaxies is discussed.

  16. INDEX OF WATERSHED INDICATORS (IWI) VERSION 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Index of Watershed Indicators (the IWI or Index) is the EPAs first national picture of watershed health. The Index organizes and presents aquatic resource information on a watershed basis. Watersheds are those land areas bounded by ridge lines that catch rain and snow, and d...

  17. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 signaling regulates receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) expression in rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, Harunori; Kitano, Masayasu; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sato, Chieri; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Azuma, Naoto; Miyazawa, Keiji; Hla, Timothy; Sano, Hajime

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of S1P in MH7A cells was inhibited by specific Gi/Go inhibitors. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) signaling plays an important role in synovial cell proliferation and inflammatory gene expression by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synoviocytes. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of S1P/S1P1 signaling in the expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) in RA synoviocytes and CD4{sup +} T cells. We demonstrated MH7A cells, a human RA synovial cell line, and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Surprisingly, S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, S1P enhanced RANKL expression induced by stimulation with TNF-{alpha} in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. These effects of S1P in MH7A cells were inhibited by pretreatment with PTX, a specific Gi/Go inhibitor. These findings suggest that S1P/S1P1 signaling may play an important role in RANKL expression by MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. S1P/S1P1 signaling of RA synoviocytes is closely connected with synovial hyperplasia, inflammation, and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RA. Thus, regulation of S1P/S1P1 signaling may become a novel therapeutic target for RA.

  18. NIMS Radiance Point Spectra of Gaspra V1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granahan, J. C.

    2014-10-01

    This data volume contains radiometrically corrected point spectra of asteroid 951 as acquired by the Galileo spacecraft Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on October 29, 1991. They record the spectra collected as the Galileo spacecraft approached the target asteroid. These data are products of the calibration of the raw data number files gap015tn.qub, gap035tn.qub, gap036tn.qub, gap037tn.qub, and gap038tn.qub (DATA SET ID ='GO-A-NIMS-3 TUBE-V1.0') with calibration factors acquired during the first Earth/Moon encounter of the Galileo mission. These raw data .qub files are archived in the Imaging Node of the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS). The calibrated spectra consist of radiance measurements for wavelengths between 0.7 - 5.2 micrometers.

  19. Verification and validation of RADMODL Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Kimball, K.D.

    1993-03-01

    RADMODL is a system of linked computer codes designed to calculate the radiation environment following an accident in which nuclear materials are released. The RADMODL code and the corresponding Verification and Validation (V&V) calculations (Appendix A), were developed for Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) by EGS Corporation (EGS). Each module of RADMODL is an independent code and was verified separately. The full system was validated by comparing the output of the various modules with the corresponding output of a previously verified version of the modules. The results of the verification and validation tests show that RADMODL correctly calculates the transport of radionuclides and radiation doses. As a result of this verification and validation effort, RADMODL Version 1.0 is certified for use in calculating the radiation environment following an accident.

  20. Nanomechanical behavior of (1 0 0) oriented titanium thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasu, Kuraganti; Ghanashyam Krishna, Mamidipudi; Padmanabhan, Kuppuswamy Anantha

    2014-03-01

    Titanium thin films were deposited on single crystal Si (3 1 1) and polycrystalline 316 LN nuclear grade stainless steel substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction revealed that, irrespective of substrate type, films exhibit preferential growth along the (1 0 0) plane. The microstructure of the films corresponds to the zone-I type in structure zone model on both substrates. The hardness and Young's modulus of the films were extracted from load-displacement curves. The maximum values of hardness and Young's modulus were 12 and 132 GPa respectively for 220 nm thin film on SS substrate. The electrical resistivity data revealed that the films are metallic in nature and the resistivity is lower in the case of the 220 nm thickness film, on both substrates. The observed changes in mechanical and electrical properties can be correlated with variations in the microstructure of Ti films.

  1. Hybridization Schemes for Ag Films on V(1 0 0)

    SciTech Connect

    Kralj,M.

    2005-01-01

    The electronic structure of ultra thin silver films deposited on a V(1 0 0) substrate is investigated by means of angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We focus on the details of the electronic structure related to the hybridization between the quantized film states of s-p origin and substrate electronic states. Two distinct regions of the surface Brillouin zone (SBZ) are found to be of particular importance: the SBZ center and the region that is typically more than 0.2 Angstroms {sup -1} outside the zone center. In relation to these SBZ parts two different hybridization schemes are identified and discussed. The first one influences the parabolic curvature of the quantum well state dispersion in the proximity of SBZ center, i.e., the effective mass. The second one relates to prominent changes of the quantum well state dispersion due to the interaction with the particular substrate bulk band and dramatically affects the photoemission intensity.

  2. VIPAR - Vortex Inflation PARachute Code Ver. 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, James; Homicz, Greg; Porter, Vicki; Burns, Shawn; Gassler, Albert

    2001-11-01

    VIPAR is a 3-D fluid mechanics code for predicting flow past bluff bodies whose surfaces can be assumed to be made up of shell elements that are simply connected. Version 1.0 of the code contains several first order algorithms, which we are already in the process of replacing with higher order ones. These enhancements will appear in the next version of VIPAR. The present code contains a motion generator, which can be used to produce large class of rigid body motions. The present code has also been fully coupled to a structural dynamics code in which the geometry undergoes large time dependent deformations. Initial surface geometry is generated from triangular shell elements using a code such as Patran and is written into an Exodusll data base file for subsequent input into VIPAR. Surface and wake variable information is output into two Exodusll files which can be processed and viewed using software such as EnSight.

  3. Hybridization schemes for Ag films on V(1 0 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralj, Marko

    2005-12-01

    The electronic structure of ultra thin silver films deposited on a V(1 0 0) substrate is investigated by means of angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We focus on the details of the electronic structure related to the hybridization between the quantized film states of s-p origin and substrate electronic states. Two distinct regions of the surface Brillouin zone (SBZ) are found to be of particular importance: the SBZ center and the region that is typically more than 0.2 Å -1 outside the zone center. In relation to these SBZ parts two different hybridization schemes are identified and discussed. The first one influences the parabolic curvature of the quantum well state dispersion in the proximity of SBZ center, i.e., the effective mass. The second one relates to prominent changes of the quantum well state dispersion due to the interaction with the particular substrate bulk band and dramatically affects the photoemission intensity.

  4. Magnetic flux conversion and relaxation toward a minimum-energy state in S-1 spheromak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Janos, A.

    1985-09-01

    S-1 Spheromak currents and magnetic fluxes have been measured with Rogowski coils and flux loops external to the plasma. Toroidal plasma currents up to 350 kA and spheromak configuration lifetimes over 1.0 msec have been achieved at moderate power levels. The plasma formation in the S-1 Spheromak device is based on an inductive transfer of poloidal and toroidal magnetic flux from a toroidal ''flux core'' to the plasma. Formation is programmed to guide the configuration into a force-free, minimum-energy Taylor state. Properly detailed programming of the formation process is found not to be essential since plasmas adjust themselves during formation to a final equilibrium near the Taylor state. After formation, if the plasma evolves away from the stable state, then distinct relaxation oscillation events occur which restore the configuration to that stable state. The relaxation process involves reconnection of magnetic field lines, and conversion of poloidal to toroidal magnetic flux (and vice versa) has been observed and documented. The scaling of toroidal plasma current and toroidal magnetic flux in the plasma with externally applied currents is consistent with the establishment of a Taylor state after formation. In addition, the magnetic helicity is proportional to that injected from the flux core, independent of how that helicity is generated.

  5. High resolution analysis of the rotational levels of the (0 0 0), (0 1 0), (1 0 0), (0 0 1), (0 2 0), (1 1 0) and (0 1 1) vibrational states of 34S16O2

    SciTech Connect

    Lafferty, Walter; Flaud, Jean-marie; Sams, Robert L.; Ngom, El Hadji A.

    2008-11-01

    A high resolution (0.0018 cm-1) Fourier transform instrument has been used to record the spectrum of an enriched 34S (95.3 %) sample of sulfur dioxide. A thorough analysis of the ν2, 2ν2 - ν2 , ν1, ν1 + ν2 - ν2, ν3, ν2 + ν3 - ν2, ν1 + ν2 and ν2 + ν3 bands has been carried out leading to a large set of assigned lines. From these lines ground state combination differences were obtained and fitted together with the existing microwave, millimeter, and terahertz rotational lines. An improved set of ground state rotational constants were obtained. Next, the upper state rotational levels were fitted. For the (010), (110), (011) states, a simple Watson type Hamilton sufficed. However, it was necessary to include explicitly interacting terms in the Hamiltonian matrix in order to fit the rotational levels of the (020), (100) and (101) states to within their experimental accuracy. More explicitly, it was necessary to use a ΔK=2 term to model the Fermi interaction between the (020) and (100) levels and a ΔK=3 term to model the Coriolis interaction between the (100) and (001) levels. Precise Hamiltonian constants were derived for the (000), (010), (100), (001), (020), (110) and (011) vibrational states.

  6. CO J = 1-0 SPECTROSCOPY OF FOUR SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES WITH THE ZPECTROMETER ON THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, A. I.; Zonak, S. G.; Rauch, K.; Baker, A. J.; Sharon, C. E.; Genzel, R.; Watts, G.; Creager, R. E-mail: szonak@astro.umd.ed E-mail: ajbaker@physics.rutgers.ed E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.d E-mail: rcreager@nrao.ed

    2010-11-10

    We report detections of three z {approx} 2.5 submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs; SMM J14011+0252, SMM J14009+0252, SMM J04431+0210) in the lowest rotational transition of the carbon monoxide molecule (CO J = 1-0) and one nondetection (SMM J04433+0210). For the three galaxies we detected, we find a line-integrated brightness temperature ratio of the J = 3-2 and 1-0 lines of 0.68 {+-} 0.08; the 1-0 line is stronger than predicted by the frequent assumption of equal brightnesses in the two lines and by most single-component models. The observed ratio suggests that mass estimates for SMGs based on J = 3-2 observations and J = 1-0 column density or mass conversion factors are low by a factor of 1.5. Comparison of the 1-0 line intensities with intensities of higher-J transitions indicates that single-component models for the interstellar media in SMGs are incomplete. The small dispersion in the ratio, along with published detections of CO lines with J{sub upper}>3 in most of the sources, indicates that the emission is from multi-component interstellar media with physical structures common to many classes of galaxies. This result tends to rule out the lowest scaling factors between CO luminosity and molecular gas mass, and further increases molecular mass estimates calibrated against observations of galaxies in the local universe. We also describe and demonstrate a statistically sound method for finding weak lines in broadband spectra that will find application in searches for molecular lines from sources at unknown redshifts.

  7. Land-Use Portfolio Modeler, Version 1.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taketa, Richard; Hong, Makiko

    2010-01-01

    -on-investment. The portfolio model, now known as the Land-Use Portfolio Model (LUPM), provided the framework for the development of the Land-Use Portfolio Modeler, Version 1.0 software (LUPM v1.0). The software provides a geographic information system (GIS)-based modeling tool for evaluating alternative risk-reduction mitigation strategies for specific natural-hazard events. The modeler uses information about a specific natural-hazard event and the features exposed to that event within the targeted study region to derive a measure of a given mitigation strategy`s effectiveness. Harnessing the spatial capabilities of a GIS enables the tool to provide a rich, interactive mapping environment in which users can create, analyze, visualize, and compare different

  8. VIPAR - Vortex Inflation PARachute Code Ver. 1.0

    2001-11-01

    VIPAR is a 3-D fluid mechanics code for predicting flow past bluff bodies whose surfaces can be assumed to be made up of shell elements that are simply connected. Version 1.0 of the code contains several first order algorithms, which we are already in the process of replacing with higher order ones. These enhancements will appear in the next version of VIPAR. The present code contains a motion generator, which can be used to producemore » large class of rigid body motions. The present code has also been fully coupled to a structural dynamics code in which the geometry undergoes large time dependent deformations. Initial surface geometry is generated from triangular shell elements using a code such as Patran and is written into an Exodusll data base file for subsequent input into VIPAR. Surface and wake variable information is output into two Exodusll files which can be processed and viewed using software such as EnSight.« less

  9. The University of Tokyo Atacama 1.0-m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, Shigeyuki; Aoki, Tsutomu; Doi, Mamoru; Handa, Toshihiro; Kawara, Kimiaki; Kohno, Kotaro; Minezaki, Takeo; Mitani, Natsuko; Miyata, Takashi; Motohara, Kentaro; Soyano, Takao; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Masuo; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Bronfman, Leonard; Ruiz, Maria Teresa

    2008-07-01

    The current status of the University of Tokyo Atacama 1.0m telescope project being constructed at the summit of Co. Chajnantor (5,640m) in Atacama, Chile, will be presented. This is an optical/infrared telescope at the world's highest site. A precipitable water vapor (PWV) amount of 0.4 to 1.3 mm at the summit, much lower than that of 0.9 to 2.8 mm at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. provides excellent atmospheric transmission from the near- to the mid-infrared wavelength. Seeing and weather conditions are confirmed to be suitable for infrared observations at the summit. The telescope is an f/12 Ritchey-Chrétien type with a field of view of 10 arcmin. The telescope is installed in a 6-m dome and controlled from an operation room in a container separated from the dome. The operation room will be directly connected to a base support facility in San Pedro de Atacama by a wireless LAN and a satellite link. A power generator and solar panels are equipped for a main and a back-up power supply, respectively. The ANIR near-infrared camera and the MAX38 mid-infrared camera are equipped on the Cassegrain focus. This telescope will start operation at the beginning of 2009, and will be operated remotely from the base facility in the near future.

  10. EOS7C-ECBM Version 1.0

    2012-11-14

    EOS7C is an equation of state module for the TOUGH2 program for CO2 or N2 in Methane (CH4) Reservoirs. In the present work, additions have been made to the EOS7C Version 1.0 module to include the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane (ECBM) modifications developed by Webb (2003). In addition, the Dusty Gas Model for gas-phase diffusion (Webb 2001) has been included. The ECBM modification to the EOS7C equation of state incorporate the extended Langmuir isothem formore » sorbing gases, including the change in porosity associated with the sorbed gas mass. Comparison to hand calculations for pure gas and binary mixture shows very good agreement. Application to a CO2 well injection problem by Law et al. (2002). The Dusty Model modification add options to calculate gas diffusion using the Dusty-Gas Model including separate and coupled approaches. Comparison to low-permeability pure gas diffusion data shows excellent agreement. The results from the DGM are compared to the Fick's Law behavior for diffusion across a capillary fringe. The differences between the models are small due to the relatively high permeability (10-11 m2) of the problem.« less

  11. Computerized Risk and Bioaccumulation System (Version 1. 0)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Winsor, M.; Pelletier, J.; Randall, R.; Bertling, J.

    1991-11-01

    The Computerized Risk And Bioaccumulation System (CRABS, Version 1.0) is an expert system that predicts tissue residues of fifteen neutral organic pollutants in sediment-dwelling organisms and the human cancer risk from consumption of the contaminated shellfish. Bioaccumulation from bedded sediment can be predicted from the thermodynamic partitioning, first-order kinetic, or toxicokinetic model. All the models can predict steady-state tissue residues while the two kinetic models can predict non-steady-state uptake or elimination. CRABS then predicts the lifetime human cancer risk from consumption of clams and other non-mobile sediment-dwelling organisms containing the predicted (or measured) tissue residue. The linearized multistage model is used to predict cancer risk for a single pollutant from a single species diet. The program guides the user in estimating shellfish consumption rates if no site-specific rates are available. CRABS is designed to promote thorough documentation of the assumptions and data as well as to error check the entered values.

  12. EOS7C-ECBM Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2012-11-14

    EOS7C is an equation of state module for the TOUGH2 program for CO2 or N2 in Methane (CH4) Reservoirs. In the present work, additions have been made to the EOS7C Version 1.0 module to include the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane (ECBM) modifications developed by Webb (2003). In addition, the Dusty Gas Model for gas-phase diffusion (Webb 2001) has been included. The ECBM modification to the EOS7C equation of state incorporate the extended Langmuir isothem for sorbing gases, including the change in porosity associated with the sorbed gas mass. Comparison to hand calculations for pure gas and binary mixture shows very good agreement. Application to a CO2 well injection problem by Law et al. (2002). The Dusty Model modification add options to calculate gas diffusion using the Dusty-Gas Model including separate and coupled approaches. Comparison to low-permeability pure gas diffusion data shows excellent agreement. The results from the DGM are compared to the Fick's Law behavior for diffusion across a capillary fringe. The differences between the models are small due to the relatively high permeability (10-11 m2) of the problem.

  13. NAS Parallel Benchmark Results 11-96. 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Bailey, David; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks have been developed at NASA Ames Research Center to study the performance of parallel supercomputers. The eight benchmark problems are specified in a "pencil and paper" fashion. In other words, the complete details of the problem to be solved are given in a technical document, and except for a few restrictions, benchmarkers are free to select the language constructs and implementation techniques best suited for a particular system. These results represent the best results that have been reported to us by the vendors for the specific 3 systems listed. In this report, we present new NPB (Version 1.0) performance results for the following systems: DEC Alpha Server 8400 5/440, Fujitsu VPP Series (VX, VPP300, and VPP700), HP/Convex Exemplar SPP2000, IBM RS/6000 SP P2SC node (120 MHz), NEC SX-4/32, SGI/CRAY T3E, SGI Origin200, and SGI Origin2000. We also report High Performance Fortran (HPF) based NPB results for IBM SP2 Wide Nodes, HP/Convex Exemplar SPP2000, and SGI/CRAY T3D. These results have been submitted by Applied Parallel Research (APR) and Portland Group Inc. (PGI). We also present sustained performance per dollar for Class B LU, SP and BT benchmarks.

  14. Spectropolarimetry of the molecular hydrogen line emission from OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Michael G.; Hough, J. H.; Axon, David J.; Hasegawa, T.; Tamura, M.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of the H2 v = 1-0 S(1) line at 35 km/s velocity resolution were obtained at several locations within OMC-1, including the molecular hydrogen reflection nebula. All line profiles are smooth and show no evidence for being composed of discrete components. The data are discussed with respect to a model for the H2 line formation in which the emission originates in discrete clumps moving at different velocities. It is suggested that the extended blue wing may come from fast-moving clumps embedded in a wind.

  15. Safety assessment for the S-1 Spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R. Jr.; Stencel, J.R.

    1984-02-01

    The S-1 machine is part of the Magnetic Fusion Program. The goal of the Magnetic Fusion Program is to develop and demonstrate the practical application of fusion. S-1 is an experimental device which will provide an essential link in the research effort aiming at the realization of fusion power.

  16. Sub-Doppler Stark Spectroscopy in the A−X (1,0) Band of CN

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, G.E.; Hause, M.L.; Sears, T.J.

    2009-11-26

    The effect of external electric fields has been measured in hyperfine-resolved sub-Doppler transitions in the A {sup 2}{Pi}-X {sup 2}{Sigma} (1,0) band of the CN radical near 10900 cm{sup -1}. Static electric fields less than 1 kV/cm are sufficient to mix the most closely spaced {Lambda}-dpublets in the A state, leading to Stark spectra with both new and shifted resonances. Simulations of the saturation-dip Stark spectral line profiles allow extraction of the A-state permanent electric dipole moment with a magnitude of 0.06 {+-} 0.02 D.

  17. Describing Simple Data Access Services Version 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, Raymond; Delago, Jesus; Harrison, Paul; Tody, Doug; IVOA Registry Working Group; Plante, Raymond

    2013-11-01

    An application that queries or consumes descriptions of VO resources must be able to recognize a resource's support for standard IVOA protocols. This specification describes how to describe a service that supports any of the four fundamental data access protocols Simple Cone Search (SCS), Simple Image Access (SIA), Simple Spectral Access (SSA), Simple Line Access (SLA) using the VOResource XML encoding standard. A key part of this specification is the set of VOResource XML extension schemas that define new metadata that are specific to those protocols. This document describes in particular rules for describing such services within the context of IVOA Registries and data discovery as well as the VO Standard Interface (VOSI) and service selfdescription. In particular, this document spells out the essential markup needed to identify support for a standard protocol and the base URL required to access the interface that supports that protocol.

  18. User's Manual for FEMOM3DR. Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    FEMoM3DR is a computer code written in FORTRAN 77 to compute radiation characteristics of antennas on 3D body using combined Finite Element Method (FEM)/Method of Moments (MoM) technique. The code is written to handle different feeding structures like coaxial line, rectangular waveguide, and circular waveguide. This code uses the tetrahedral elements, with vector edge basis functions for FEM and triangular elements with roof-top basis functions for MoM. By virtue of FEM, this code can handle any arbitrary shaped three dimensional bodies with inhomogeneous lossy materials; and due to MoM the computational domain can be terminated in any arbitrary shape. The User's Manual is written to make the user acquainted with the operation of the code. The user is assumed to be familiar with the FORTRAN 77 language and the operating environment of the computers on which the code is intended to run.

  19. Sim Track User's Manual (v 1.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.

    2010-01-27

    SimTrack is a simple c++ library designed for the numeric particle tracking in the high energy accelerators. It adopts the 4th order symplectic integrator for the optical transport in the magnetic elements. The 4-D and 6-D weak-strong beam-beam treatments are integrated in it for the beam-beam studies. SimTrack is written with c++ class and standard template library. It provides versatile functions to manage elements and lines. It supports a large range of types of elements. New type of element can be easily created in the library. SimTrack calculates Twiss, coupling and fits tunes, chromaticities and corrects closed orbits. AC dipole and AC multipole are available in this library. SimTrack allows change of element parameters during tracking.

  20. An in situ photoemission study of the dehydrogenation reaction of methanol on Ni( 1 0 0 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, R.; Whelan, C. M.; Denecke, R.; Steinrück, H.-P.

    2002-06-01

    Making use of the high intensity and resolution of synchrotron radiation at MAX-II (Sweden) we studied the dehydrogenation reaction of methanol on Ni(1 0 0) as a function of temperature by core level photoelectron spectroscopy. The temperature was increased linearly from 105 to 425 K with a heating rate of 0.06 K s -1. Measurement times of 60 s per C 1s spectrum allowed the dehydrogenation reaction to be monitored in situ. The different binding energies of the core level characteristic of different adsorbed species are reported. After exposure at 105 K, the C 1s spectra exhibit two peaks, representing methanol in multilayer and monolayer states. Above 160 K the multilayer is completely desorbed and methanol from the monolayer starts to dehydrogenate to form a methoxy species which decomposes above 240 K to carbon monoxide adsorbed in the bridge site. The onset of the on-top site occupation is observed at 270 K. The data suggests conversion from bridge to on-top site CO around 290 K. Our results show good agreement with literature values from temperature programmed desorption and Fourier transform infra-red experiments and provide new information in the form of quantitative data on the decomposition pathway of methanol adsorbed on Ni(1 0 0).

  1. Is the addition of cisplatin to S-1 better than S-1 alone for patients with advanced gastroesophageal cancer?

    PubMed

    Ajani, Jaffer A

    2008-09-01

    The investigators of the recent phase III SPIRITS trial found that the addition of cisplatin to S-1 (a fourth generation oral fluoropyrimidine) provided a significant overall survival advantage (P = 0.04) over treatment with S-1 alone among previously untreated patients with advanced gastric cancer. In addition, the combination had an acceptable safety profile. This trial establishes a new first-line standard treatment for patients with advanced gastric cancer in Japan. Level 1 evidence for prolonged survival of patients with advanced gastroesophageal cancer has been established for docetaxel (V-325 trial) and cisplatin (SPIRITS trial) but not for S-1. Fluoropyrimidines (S-1 included) have been considered part of standard front-line therapy without the establishment of level 1 evidence for prolonging survival. The future lies in the rapid incorporation of biologic agents in combination with cytotoxics, with a continued focus on safety and convenience, and efforts to individualize therapy for each patient. Individualized therapy may be defined as the selection of optimum treatment for a specific patient on the basis of knowledge of the cancer's genetic and epigenetic alterations and the patient's genotype. PMID:18628737

  2. Sandia Compact Sensor Node (SCSN) v. 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    HARRINGTON, JOHN

    2009-01-07

    The SCSN communication protocol is implemented in software and incorporates elements of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), and Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) to reduce radio message collisions, latency, and power consumption. Alarm messages are expeditiously routed to a central node as a 'star' network with minimum overhead. Other messages can be routed along network links between any two nodes so that peer-to-peer communication is possible. Broadcast messages can be composed that flood the entire network or just specific portions with minimal radio traffic and latency. Two-way communication with sensor nodes, which sleep most of the time to conserve battery life, can occur at seven second intervals. SCSN software also incorporates special algorithms to minimize superfluous radio traffic that can result from excessive intrusion alarm messages. A built-in seismic detector is implemented with a geophone and software that distinguishes between pedestrian and vehicular targets. Other external sensors can be attached to a SCSN using supervised interface lines that are controlled by software. All software is written in the ANSI C language for ease of development, maintenance, and portability.

  3. Sandia Compact Sensor Node (SCSN) v. 1.0

    2009-01-07

    The SCSN communication protocol is implemented in software and incorporates elements of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), and Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) to reduce radio message collisions, latency, and power consumption. Alarm messages are expeditiously routed to a central node as a 'star' network with minimum overhead. Other messages can be routed along network links between any two nodes so that peer-to-peer communication is possible. Broadcast messages can bemore » composed that flood the entire network or just specific portions with minimal radio traffic and latency. Two-way communication with sensor nodes, which sleep most of the time to conserve battery life, can occur at seven second intervals. SCSN software also incorporates special algorithms to minimize superfluous radio traffic that can result from excessive intrusion alarm messages. A built-in seismic detector is implemented with a geophone and software that distinguishes between pedestrian and vehicular targets. Other external sensors can be attached to a SCSN using supervised interface lines that are controlled by software. All software is written in the ANSI C language for ease of development, maintenance, and portability.« less

  4. Hypothalamic S1P/S1PR1 axis controls energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vagner R R; Micheletti, Thayana O; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Katashima, Carlos K; Lenhare, Luciene; Morari, Joseane; Mendes, Maria Carolina S; Razolli, Daniela S; Rocha, Guilherme Z; de Souza, Claudio T; Ryu, Dongryeol; Prada, Patrícia O; Velloso, Lício A; Carvalheira, José B C; Pauli, José Rodrigo; Cintra, Dennys E; Ropelle, Eduardo R

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) is a G-protein-coupled receptor for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) that has a role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. Here we show that the S1P/S1PR1 signalling pathway in hypothalamic neurons regulates energy homeostasis in rodents. We demonstrate that S1PR1 protein is highly enriched in hypothalamic POMC neurons of rats. Intracerebroventricular injections of the bioactive lipid, S1P, reduce food consumption and increase rat energy expenditure through persistent activation of STAT3 and the melanocortin system. Similarly, the selective disruption of hypothalamic S1PR1 increases food intake and reduces the respiratory exchange ratio. We further show that STAT3 controls S1PR1 expression in neurons via a positive feedback mechanism. Interestingly, several models of obesity and cancer anorexia display an imbalance of hypothalamic S1P/S1PR1/STAT3 axis, whereas pharmacological intervention ameliorates these phenotypes. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the neuronal S1P/S1PR1/STAT3 signalling axis plays a critical role in the control of energy homeostasis in rats. PMID:25255053

  5. Millimeter-wave Molecular Line Observations of the Tornado Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, D.; Oka, T.; Tanaka, K.; Matsumura, S.; Miura, K.; Takekawa, S.

    2014-08-01

    We report the results of millimeter-wave molecular line observations of the Tornado Nebula (G357.7-0.1), which is a bright radio source behind the Galactic center region. A 15' × 15' area was mapped in the J = 1-0 lines of CO, 13CO, and HCO+ with the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope. The Very Large Array archival data of OH at 1720 MHz were also reanalyzed. We found two molecular clouds with separate velocities, V LSR = -14 km s-1 and +5 km s-1. These clouds show rough spatial anti-correlation. Both clouds are associated with OH 1720 MHz emissions in the area overlapping with the Tornado Nebula. The spatial and velocity coincidence indicates violent interaction between the clouds and the Tornado Nebula. Modestly excited gas prefers the position of the Tornado "head" in the -14 km s-1 cloud, also suggesting the interaction. Virial analysis shows that the +5 km s-1 cloud is more tightly bound by self-gravity than the -14 km s-1 cloud. We propose a formation scenario for the Tornado Nebula; the +5 km s-1 cloud collided into the -14 km s-1 cloud, generating a high-density layer behind the shock front, which activates a putative compact object by Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion to eject a pair of bipolar jets.

  6. The Global S$_1$ Ocean Tide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Egbert, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    The small S$_1$ ocean tide is caused primarily by diurnal atmospheric pressure loading. Its excitation is therefore unlike any other diurnal tide. The global character of $S-1$ is here determined by numerical modeling and by analysis of Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeter data. The two approaches yield reasonably consistent results, and large ( $ greater than $l\\cm) amplitudes in several regions are further confirmed by comparison with coastal tide gauges. Notwithstanding their excitation differences, S$-1$ and other diurnal tides are found to share several common features, such as relatively large amplitudes in the Arabian Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Gulf of Alaska. The most noticeable difference is the lack of an S$-1$ Antarctic Kelvin wave. These similarities and differences can be explained in terms of the coherences between near-diurnal oceanic normal modes and the underlying tidal forcings. While gravitational diurnal tidal forces excite primarily a 28-hour Antarctic-Pacific mode, the S$_1$ air tide excites several other near-diurnal modes, none of which has large amplitudes near Antarctica.

  7. Molecular structure of Si_xS_(1-x) glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Boolchand, P.

    2000-03-01

    Bulk Si_xS_1-x glasses in the 0.15line, reveal modes of corner-sharing and edge-sharing Si(S_1/2)4 tetrahedra, S_8-ring and Sn chains. The observed lineshapes change systematically with x, in a manner qualitatively similar to the case of corresponding Selenide glasses( D. Selvanathan, W. J. Bresser, P. Boolchand, B. Goodman Solid State Comm. 111, 619(1999)). Glass transition temperatures established by T-modulated DSC show an increase with x. Results of Raman and MDSC will be correlated, and discussed in relation to the nature of stiffness transitions anticipated in this binary glass system near x ~0.20.

  8. Comparative study of electrical characteristics in (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) surface-oriented nMOSFETs with direct contact La-silicate/Si interface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawanago, T.; Kakushima, K.; Ahmet, P.; Kataoka, Y.; Nishiyama, A.; Sugii, N.; Tsutsui, K.; Natori, K.; Hattori, T.; Iwai, H.

    2013-06-01

    This study reports on the electrical characteristics of (1 1 0)-oriented nMOSFETs with a direct contact La-silicate/Si interface structure and the detailed comparison with (1 0 0)-oriented nMOSFETs. Precise control of oxygen partial pressure can provide the scaled EOT down to 0.73 nm on (1 1 0) orientation in common with (1 0 0) orientation. No frequency dispersion in Cgc-V characteristic for (1 1 0)-oriented nMOSFETs is successfully demonstrated at scaled EOT region, while higher amount of available bonds on (1 1 0) surface results in a larger interface state density, leading to the degradation of sub-threshold slope. High breakdown voltages of 2.85 V and 2.9 V for (1 0 0)- and (1 1 0)-oriented nMOSFETs are considered to be due to superior interfacial property. The electron mobility on (1 1 0) orientation is lower than that on (1 0 0) orientation because of the smaller energy split between fourfold valleys and twofold valleys as well as the larger density of states for lower-energy valleys in the (1 1 0) surface. Moreover, electron mobility is reduced with decreasing EOT in both (1 0 0)- and (1 1 0)-oriented nMOSFETs. It is found that threshold voltage instability by positive bias stress is mainly responsible for bulk trapping of electron even with a larger interface state density in (1 1 0) orientation and influence of surface orientation on threshold voltage instability is negligibly small.

  9. MsSpec-1.0: A multiple scattering package for electron spectroscopies in material science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sébilleau, Didier; Natoli, Calogero; Gavaza, George M.; Zhao, Haifeng; Da Pieve, Fabiana; Hatada, Keisuke

    2011-12-01

    We present a multiple scattering package to calculate the cross-section of various spectroscopies namely photoelectron diffraction (PED), Auger electron diffraction (AED), X-ray absorption (XAS), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy (APECS). This package is composed of three main codes, computing respectively the cluster, the potential and the cross-section. In the latter case, in order to cover a range of energies as wide as possible, three different algorithms are provided to perform the multiple scattering calculation: full matrix inversion, series expansion or correlation expansion of the multiple scattering matrix. Numerous other small Fortran codes or bash/csh shell scripts are also provided to perform specific tasks. The cross-section code is built by the user from a library of subroutines using a makefile. Program summaryProgram title: MsSpec-1.0 Catalogue identifier: AEJT_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJT_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 504 438 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 14 448 180 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer: Any Operating system: Linux, MacOs RAM: Bytes Classification: 7.2 External routines: Lapack ( http://www.netlib.org/lapack/) Nature of problem: Calculation of the cross-section of various spectroscopies. Solution method: Multiple scattering. Running time: The test runs provided only take a few seconds to run.

  10. Electron-beam-induced reactions at O 2/GaAs(1 0 0) interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomares, F. J.; Alonso, M.; Jiménez, I.; Avila, J.; Sacedón, J. L.; Soria, F.

    2001-06-01

    We present a high resolution core-level photoemission study with synchrotron radiation, which illustrates the induced chemical reactions at O 2/GaAs(1 0 0) interfaces upon irradiation with a 150 eV electron beam, for different current densities. A detailed line shape analysis of As(3d) and Ga(3d) levels allows us to identify the oxide phases formed, and to follow their evolution up to coverages of 10 Å. Equivalent amounts of Ga and As oxides are produced. The distribution of As oxides, in particular the As 2O 3/As 2O 5 oxide ratio, is found to depend on the electronic current density, whereas no differences are observed for Ga oxides. These changes are discussed in terms of the kinetic constraints introduced by the electron beam and the instability of the As 2O 5 species upon electron bombardment in vacuum.

  11. Design and performance of a 4He-evaporator at <1.0 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, N. K.; Pradhan, J.; Naser, Md. Z. A.; Roy, A.; Mandal, B. Ch.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2012-12-01

    A helium evaporator for obtaining 1 K temperature has been built and tested in laboratory. This will function primarily as the precooling stage for the circulating helium isotopic gas mixture. This works on evaporative cooling by way of pumping out the vapour from the top of the pot. A precision needle valve is used initially to fill up the pot and subsequently a permanent flow impedance maintains the helium flow from the bath into the pot to replenish the evaporative loss of helium. Considering the cooling power of 10 mW @1.0 K, a 99.0 cm3 helium evaporator was designed, fabricated from OFE copper and tested in the laboratory. A pumping station comprising of a roots pump backed by a dry pump was used for evacuation. The calibrated RuO thermometer and kapton film heater were used for measuring the temperature and cooling power of the system respectively. The continuously filled 1 K bath is tested in the laboratory and found to offer a temperature less than 1.0 K by withdrawing vapour from the evaporator. In order to minimize the heat load and to prevent film creep across the pumping tube, size optimization of the pumping line and pump-out port has been performed. The results of test run along with relevant analysis, mechanical fabrication of flow impedance are presented here.

  12. Discovery of an Energetic Pulsar Associated with SNR G76.9+1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gotthelf, E. V.; Ransom, S. M.; Safi-Harb, S.; Kothes, R.; Landecker, T. L.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of PSR J2022-<-3842, a 24 ms radio and X-ray pulsar in the supernova remnant G76.9+i.0, in observations with the Chandra X-ray telescope, the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Radio Telescope, and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The pulsar's spin-down rate implies a rotation-powered luminosity E = 1.2 X 10(exp 38) erg/s, a surface dipole magnetic field strength B(sub S), = 1.0 X 10(exp 12) G, and a characteristic age of 8.9 kyr. PSR J2022+3842 is thus the second-most energetic Galactic pulsar known, after the Crab, as well as the most rapidly-rotating young, radio-bright pulsar known. The radio pulsations are highly dispersed and broadened by interstellar scattering, and we find that a large (delta f/f approximates 1.9 x 10(exp -6)) spin glitch must have occurred between our discovery and confirmation observations. The X-ray pulses are narrow (0.06 cycles FWHM) and visible up to 20 keV, consistent with magnetospheric emission from a rotation-powered pulsar. The Chandra X-ray image identifies the pulsar with a hard, unresolved source at the midpoint of the double-lobed radio morphology of G76.9+ 1.0 and embedded within faint, compact X-ray nebulosity. The spatial relationship of the X-ray and radio emissions is remarkably similar to extended structure seen around the Vela pulsar. The combined Chandra and RXTE pulsar spectrum is well-fitted by an absorbed power-law model with column density N(sub H) = (1.7 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp 22) / sq cm and photon index Gamma = 1.0 +/- 0.2; it implies that the Chandra point-source flux is virtually 100% pulsed. For a distance of 10 kpc, the X-ray luminosity of PSR J2022+3842 is L(sub x){2-1O keV) = 7.0 x 10(exp 33) erg/s. Despite being extraordinarily energetic, PSR J2022+3842 lacks a bright X-ray wind nebula and has an unusually low conversion efficiency of spin-down power to X-ray luminosity, Lx/E = 5.9 X 10(exp-5).

  13. NST and IRIS multi-wavelength observations of an M1.0 class solar flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas Domínguez, Santiago; Sadykov, Viacheslav; Kosovichev, Alexander; Sharykin, Ivan; Struminsky, Alexei; Zimovets, Ivan

    2015-08-01

    Although solar flares are the most energetic events in the Solar System and have direct impact in the interplanetary space and ultimately in our planet, there are still many unresolved issues concerning their generation, the underlying processes of particle acceleration involved, the effect at different layer in the solar atmosphere, among others. This work presents new coordinated observations from the New Solar Telescope (NST) and the space telescope IRIS that acquired simultaneous observations of an M1.0 class flare occurred on 12 June, 2014 in active region NOAA 12087. NST filtergrams using the TiO filter, together with chromospheric data from the Halpha line allow us to study the evolution of the event from the first signs of the intensification of the intensity in the region. We focused on a small portion where the intensity enhancement in Halpha (blue and red wings) seems to be triggered, and discovered a rapid expansion of a flux-rope structure near the magnetic neutral line, in the sequence of high-resolution photospheric images. IRIS observations evidenced strong emission of the chromospheric and transition region lines during the flare. Jet-like structures are detected before the initiation of the flare in chromospheric lines and strong non-thermal emission in the transition region at the beginning of the impulsive phase. Evaporation flows with velocities up to 50 km/s occurred in the hot chromospheric plasma. We interpreted the result in terms of the “gentle” evaporation that occurs after accelerated particles heat the chromosphere.

  14. [Stable and efficient expression of hepatitis B virus S antigen and preS1 epitope fusion protein (S/preS1) in CHO cells].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenxi; Li, Shichong; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Miao; Ye, Lingling; Wu, Yanzhuo; Xu, Mingbo; Chen, Zhaolie

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrying preS sequences could be an ideal candidate for a new hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine with higher efficacy. Here we report the success in achieving efficient and stable expression of hepatitis B virus S antigen and preS1 epitope fusion protein (S/preS1) in CHO cells. The HMRCHEF53u/Neo-S/preS1 expression vector carrying S/preS1 gene was constructed and transfected into CHO-S cells. A stable and high-expression CHO cell line, named 10G6, was selected by ELISA and limiting dilution analysis. Western blotting analysis showed S/preS1 expressed from 10G6 cells possessed both S and preS1 antigenicity. 10G6 cells displayed characters of favorable growth and stable S/preS1 expression in repeated batch cultures as evaluated by viable cell density, viability and S/preS1 concentration. And cultivation of 10G6 cells in fed-batch mode resulted in S/preS1 production at 17-20 mg/L with viable cell density at 7 x 10(6)-10 x 10(6) cells/mL. PMID:24660628

  15. Ultraviolet spectroscopy of comet ISON (2012 S1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, H.; A'Hearn, M.; Feldman, P.; Bodewits, D.; Combi, M.; Dello Russo, N.; McCandliss, S.

    2014-07-01

    We performed ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy of Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to monitor the evolution of CO production with heliocentric distance, search for compositional changes associated with the intense heating episode near perihelion, and measure the D/H ratio. We observed C/ISON with Hubble at four different epochs: May 2.5 (r=3.8 au, Δ=4.3 au), Oct 8.8 (r=1.5 au, Δ= 1.9 au), Oct 21.9 (r=1.23 au, Δ = 1.53 au), and Nov 1.5 (r=1.0 au, Δ =1.2 au). No molecular or atomic emissions were detected in May, but a stringent upper limit on the CO production rate was obtained (Q[CO] ≤ 1.0 × 10^{27} molecules s^{-1}, 3 σ). OH emission was detected during all the later observations and showed strong temporal variations on Nov 1. CO was clearly detected on Oct 21.9 and Nov 1.5, from which we derive CO/H_{2}O ˜0.015. Both atomic carbon and sulfur emissions were detected on Nov 1. No atomic deuterium emission was detected during the attempts to measure it on Nov 1, as the comet's gas production rates were significantly smaller than some early predictions suggested. A lightcurve derived from HST optical imaging observations on Nov 1, contemporaneous with the UV spectroscopy, suggests a nucleus rotational period of ˜10.4 hr, but the range of plausible values is fairly broad.

  16. Single phase, single orientation Cu2O (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) thin films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstova, Yulia; Wilson, Samantha S.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2015-01-01

    Epitaxial growth of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) has been achieved on (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) orientations of MgO by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Growth was investigated using a pure oxygen plasma as well as a 90%Ar/10%O2 plasma. Cu2O films grown using pure oxygen on MgO (1 0 0) have a limited growth window and typically exhibit multiple phases and orientations. Films grown on MgO (1 1 0) using pure oxygen are phase stable and predominantly (1 1 0) oriented, with some (2 0 0) orientation present. Films grown using an Ar/O2 plasma on MgO (1 0 0) have improved phase stability and a single (1 1 0) orientation. Growth on MgO (1 1 0) using an Ar/O2 plasma yields highly reproducible (1 1 0) oriented single phase Cu2O films with a much wider growth window, suggesting that this substrate orientation is preferable for Cu2O phase stability.

  17. Evaluation of the change in sphingolipids in the human multiple myeloma cell line U266 and gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 treated with arsenic trioxide.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jianhua; Ma, Xiaoqiong; Zhang, Guangji; Shen, Li; Zhou, Liting; Yu, Yu; Zhu, Fanfan; Chen, Zhe

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been found to display anticancer activity against many types of tumors and has been developed into an anticancer drug in clinical treatments. Sphingolipids are membrane lipids that participate in many signal transduction pathways. In this paper, the changes in sphingolipids of the human multiple myeloma cell line U266 and the gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 treated with arsenic trioxide were investigated using an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method. Analytes were separated by an XBridge BEH C8 column used for Cer, HexCer, LacCer and SM chromatographic separation, and a Capcell PAK MG II C18 column was used for Sph, dhSph, S1P and dhS1P chromatographic separation and gradient elution with acetonitrile-water containing 0.1% formic acid as a mobile phase. A tandem mass spectrometer QTrap in SRM mode was employed in combination with RPLC as a detector for quantitative analysis. The ceramide/sphingolipid internal standard (IS) mixture was used to quantify the levels of sphingolipids. The distributions of sphingolipids were found to be different in the human multiple myeloma cell line U266 and the gastric cancer cell line MGC-803. Ceramide (Cer), hexosylceramide (HexCer) and dihexosylceramide (Hex2Cer) levels in U266 cell line are higher than those in MGC-803 cell line. Additionally, sphingomyelin (SM), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and sphinganine-1-phosphate (dhS1P) levels in the MGC-803 cell line are higher than those in the U266 cell line. When treated with arsenic trioxide (1-5μM iAs(III)(As(III) ions)), the levels of Hex2Cer in the human multiple myeloma cell line U266 decreased, and the levels of S1P and dhS1P in the human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 decreased. The decrease of Hex2Cer, S1P and dhS1P in the human multiple myeloma cell line U266 and gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 were observed when the concentration of iAs(III) is 1.0μM. Therefore, arsenic trioxide exhibits anti-cancer activity by altering the sphingolipid pathway in the

  18. The Clinically-tested S1P Receptor Agonists, FTY720 and BAF312, Demonstrate Subtype-Specific Bradycardia (S1P1) and Hypertension (S1P3) in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Fryer, Ryan M.; Muthukumarana, Akalushi; Harrison, Paul C.; Nodop Mazurek, Suzanne; Chen, Rong Rhonda; Harrington, Kyle E.; Dinallo, Roger M.; Horan, Joshua C.; Patnaude, Lori; Modis, Louise K.; Reinhart, Glenn A.

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phospate (S1P) and S1P receptor agonists elicit mechanism-based effects on cardiovascular function in vivo. Indeed, FTY720 (non-selective S1PX receptor agonist) produces modest hypertension in patients (2–3 mmHg in 1-yr trial) as well as acute bradycardia independent of changes in blood pressure. However, the precise receptor subtypes responsible is controversial, likely dependent upon the cardiovascular response in question (e.g. bradycardia, hypertension), and perhaps even species-dependent since functional differences in rodent, rabbit, and human have been suggested. Thus, we characterized the S1P receptor subtype specificity for each compound in vitro and, in vivo, the cardiovascular effects of FTY720 and the more selective S1P1,5 agonist, BAF312, were tested during acute i.v. infusion in anesthetized rats and after oral administration for 10 days in telemetry-instrumented conscious rats. Acute i.v. infusion of FTY720 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 mg/kg/20 min) or BAF312 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/20 min) elicited acute bradycardia in anesthetized rats demonstrating an S1P1 mediated mechanism-of-action. However, while FTY720 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/d) elicited dose-dependent hypertension after multiple days of oral administration in rat at clinically relevant plasma concentrations (24-hr mean blood pressure = 8.4, 12.8, 16.2 mmHg above baseline vs. 3 mmHg in vehicle controls), BAF312 (0.3, 3.0, 30.0 mg/kg/d) had no significant effect on blood pressure at any dose tested suggesting that hypertension produced by FTY720 is mediated S1P3 receptors. In summary, in vitro selectivity results in combination with studies performed in anesthetized and conscious rats administered two clinically tested S1P agonists, FTY720 or BAF312, suggest that S1P1 receptors mediate bradycardia while hypertension is mediated by S1P3 receptor activation. PMID:23285242

  19. The clinically-tested S1P receptor agonists, FTY720 and BAF312, demonstrate subtype-specific bradycardia (S1P₁) and hypertension (S1P₃) in rat.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Ryan M; Muthukumarana, Akalushi; Harrison, Paul C; Nodop Mazurek, Suzanne; Chen, Rong Rhonda; Harrington, Kyle E; Dinallo, Roger M; Horan, Joshua C; Patnaude, Lori; Modis, Louise K; Reinhart, Glenn A

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phospate (S1P) and S1P receptor agonists elicit mechanism-based effects on cardiovascular function in vivo. Indeed, FTY720 (non-selective S1P(X) receptor agonist) produces modest hypertension in patients (2-3 mmHg in 1-yr trial) as well as acute bradycardia independent of changes in blood pressure. However, the precise receptor subtypes responsible is controversial, likely dependent upon the cardiovascular response in question (e.g. bradycardia, hypertension), and perhaps even species-dependent since functional differences in rodent, rabbit, and human have been suggested. Thus, we characterized the S1P receptor subtype specificity for each compound in vitro and, in vivo, the cardiovascular effects of FTY720 and the more selective S1P₁,₅ agonist, BAF312, were tested during acute i.v. infusion in anesthetized rats and after oral administration for 10 days in telemetry-instrumented conscious rats. Acute i.v. infusion of FTY720 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 mg/kg/20 min) or BAF312 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/20 min) elicited acute bradycardia in anesthetized rats demonstrating an S1P₁ mediated mechanism-of-action. However, while FTY720 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/d) elicited dose-dependent hypertension after multiple days of oral administration in rat at clinically relevant plasma concentrations (24-hr mean blood pressure = 8.4, 12.8, 16.2 mmHg above baseline vs. 3 mmHg in vehicle controls), BAF312 (0.3, 3.0, 30.0 mg/kg/d) had no significant effect on blood pressure at any dose tested suggesting that hypertension produced by FTY720 is mediated S1P₃ receptors. In summary, in vitro selectivity results in combination with studies performed in anesthetized and conscious rats administered two clinically tested S1P agonists, FTY720 or BAF312, suggest that S1P₁ receptors mediate bradycardia while hypertension is mediated by S1P₃ receptor activation. PMID:23285242

  20. 28 MHz swept source at 1.0 μm for ultrafast quantitative phase imaging.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoming; Lau, Andy K S; Xu, Yiqing; Tsia, Kevin K; Wong, Kenneth K Y

    2015-10-01

    Emerging high-throughput optical imaging modalities, in particular those providing phase information, necessitate a demanding speed regime (e.g. megahertz sweep rate) for those conventional swept sources; while an effective solution is yet to be demonstrated. We demonstrate a stable breathing laser as inertia-free swept source (BLISS) operating at a wavelength sweep rate of 28 MHz, particularly for the ultrafast interferometric imaging modality at 1.0 μm. Leveraging a tunable dispersion compensation element inside the laser cavity, the wavelength sweep range of BLISS can be tuned from ~10 nm to ~63 nm. It exhibits a good intensity stability, which is quantified by the ratio of standard deviation to the mean of the pulse intensity, i.e. 1.6%. Its excellent wavelength repeatability, <0.05% per sweep, enables the single-shot imaging at an ultrafast line-scan rate without averaging. To showcase its potential applications, it is applied to the ultrafast (28-MHz line-scan rate) interferometric time-stretch (iTS) microscope to provide quantitative morphological information on a biological specimen at a lateral resolution of 1.2 μm. This fiber-based inertia-free swept source is demonstrated to be robust and broadband, and can be applied to other established imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), of which an axial resolution better than 12 μm can be achieved. PMID:26504636

  1. 28 MHz swept source at 1.0 μm for ultrafast quantitative phase imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaoming; Lau, Andy K. S.; Xu, Yiqing; Tsia, Kevin K.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging high-throughput optical imaging modalities, in particular those providing phase information, necessitate a demanding speed regime (e.g. megahertz sweep rate) for those conventional swept sources; while an effective solution is yet to be demonstrated. We demonstrate a stable breathing laser as inertia-free swept source (BLISS) operating at a wavelength sweep rate of 28 MHz, particularly for the ultrafast interferometric imaging modality at 1.0 μm. Leveraging a tunable dispersion compensation element inside the laser cavity, the wavelength sweep range of BLISS can be tuned from ~10 nm to ~63 nm. It exhibits a good intensity stability, which is quantified by the ratio of standard deviation to the mean of the pulse intensity, i.e. 1.6%. Its excellent wavelength repeatability, <0.05% per sweep, enables the single-shot imaging at an ultrafast line-scan rate without averaging. To showcase its potential applications, it is applied to the ultrafast (28-MHz line-scan rate) interferometric time-stretch (iTS) microscope to provide quantitative morphological information on a biological specimen at a lateral resolution of 1.2 μm. This fiber-based inertia-free swept source is demonstrated to be robust and broadband, and can be applied to other established imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), of which an axial resolution better than 12 μm can be achieved. PMID:26504636

  2. 28SiO v = 0 J = 1-0 emission from evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vicente, P.; Bujarrabal, V.; Díaz-Pulido, A.; Albo, C.; Alcolea, J.; Barcia, A.; Barbas, L.; Bolaño, R.; Colomer, F.; Diez, M. C.; Gallego, J. D.; Gómez-González, J.; López-Fernández, I.; López-Fernández, J. A.; López-Pérez, J. A.; Malo, I.; Moreno, A.; Patino, M.; Serna, J. M.; Tercero, F.; Vaquero, B.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: Observations of 28SiO v = 0J = 1-0 line emission (7-mm wavelength) from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars show in some cases peculiar profiles, composed of a central intense component plus a wider plateau. Very similar profiles have been observed in CO lines from some AGB stars and most post-AGB nebulae and, in these cases, they are clearly associated with the presence of conspicuous axial symmetry and bipolar dynamics. We aim to systematically study the profile shape of 28SiO v = 0J = 1-0 lines in evolved stars and to discuss the origin of the composite profile structure. Methods: We present observations of 28SiO v = 0J = 1-0 emission in 28 evolved stars, including O-rich, C-rich, and S-type Mira-type variables, OH/IR stars, semiregular long-period variables, red supergiants and one yellow hypergiant. Most objects were observed in several epochs, over a total period of time of one and a half years. The observations were performed with the 40 m radio telescope of the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) in Yebes, Spain. Results: We find that the composite core plus plateau profiles are systematically present in O-rich Miras, OH/IR stars, and red supergiants. They are also found in one S-type Mira (χ Cyg) and in two semiregular variables (X Her and RS Cnc) that are known to show axial symmetry. In the other objects, the profiles are simpler and similar to those observed in other molecular lines. The composite structure appears in the objects in which SiO emission is thought to come from the very inner circumstellar layers, prior to dust formation. The central spectral feature is found to be systematically composed of a number of narrow spikes, except for X Her and RS Cnc, in which it shows a smooth shape that is very similar to that observed in CO emission. These spikes show a significant (and mostly chaotic) time variation, while in all cases the smooth components remain constant within the uncertainties. The profile shape could come from the superposition

  3. The dehydrogenation of CH4 on Rh(1 1 1), Rh(1 1 0) and Rh(1 0 0) surfaces: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baojun; Song, Luzhi; Zhang, Riguang

    2012-02-01

    CH4 dehydrogenation on Rh(1 1 1), Rh(1 1 0) and Rh(1 0 0) surfaces has been investigated by using density functional theory (DFT) slab calculations. On the basis of energy analysis, the preferred adsorption sites of CHx (x = 0-4) and H species on Rh(1 1 1), Rh(1 1 0) and Rh(1 0 0) surfaces are located, respectively. Then, the stable co-adsorption configurations of CHx (x = 0-3) and H are obtained. Further, the kinetic results of CH4 dehydrogenation show that on Rh(1 1 1) and Rh(1 0 0) surfaces, CH is the most abundant species for CH4 dissociation; on Rh(1 1 0) surface, CH2 is the most abundant species, our results suggest that Rh catalyst can resist the carbon deposition in the CH4 dehydrogenation. Finally, results of thermodynamic and kinetic show that CH4 dehydrogenation on Rh(1 0 0) surface is the most preferable reaction pathway in comparison with that on Rh(1 1 1) and Rh(1 1 0) surfaces.

  4. The Pt2 (1,0) band of System VI in the near infrared by intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Leah C.; O'Brien, James J.

    2011-05-01

    Intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy has been used to record rotationally resolved electronic spectra of Pt2 in the near infrared. The metal dimers were created using a 50 mm-long, platinum-lined hollow cathode plasma discharge. The observed transition at 12 937 cm-1 is identified as the (1,0) band of System VI, with state symmetries Ω = 0 - X Ω = 0.

  5. Observations and Light Curve Solutions of the Eclipsing Binaries USNO-B1.0 1395-0370184 and USNO-B1.0 1395-0370731

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, D.; Popov, V. A.; Vasileva, D.; Petrov, N.

    2016-07-01

    We present follow-up photometric observations in Sloan filters g', i' of the newly discovered eclipsing stars USNO-B1.0 1395-0370184 and USNO-B1.0 1395-0370731. Our data revealed that their orbital periods are considerably bigger than the previous values. This result changed the classification of USNO-B1.0 1395-0370184 from ultrashort-period binary (P=0.197 d) to short-period system (P=0.251 d). The light curve solutions of our observations revealed that USNO-B1.0 1395-0370184 and USNO-B1.0 1395-0370731 are overcontact binaries in which components are K dwarfs, close in masses and radii. The light curve distortions were reproduced by cool spots with angular radius of around 20°.

  6. Near-Infrared and CO (J=1-0) Observations of Photodissociation Regions in M17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Minoru; Nagata, Tetsuya; Sato, Shuji; Mizuno, Norikazu; Mizuno, Akira; Kawai, Toshihide; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Glass, Ian S.

    2002-07-01

    We have carried out near-infrared mapping observations of photodissociation regions in M17 with the Wide Field Cryogenic Telescope and CO (J=1-0) observations in three isotope lines with the ``NANTEN'' telescope. The observations covered an area of 20'×20' with a spatial resolution of 5.6" for near-infrared wavelengths and with a half-power beamwidth of 2.7‧ for millimeter wavelengths. We detected 38 sources brighter than 7 mag at 3.67 μm (Ln band), five of which show signs of young stellar objects. We have detected two emission bars (the N bar and the S bar) in all four near-infrared bands (J, K, Ln, and 3.3 μm). Their spatial distributions differ considerably from band to band, and we have compared them with the radio continuum, the mid-infrared data, and the CO molecular line emission. The different brightness and spectral energy distributions at near-infrared wavelengths can be well explained by emission from hot dust and ionized gas together with obscuration by local cold dust with a steep gradient from north to south. In the N bar, the free-free emission from ionized gas dominates at shorter wavelengths (J and K) and there is little extinction, whereas in the S bar, the free-free emission is attenuated at shorter wavelengths by the heavy local extinction. In both the N and S bars, the thermal emission from hot dust at around 1000 K dominates in the Ln band. The 3.3 μm unidentified infrared (UIR) emission delineates photodissociation regions between the H II regions and the surrounding molecular clouds. The UIR intensity decreases exponentially from the UIR peak toward the molecular clouds, with scale lengths of 88" and 100", or 0.9 and 1.0 pc, at the N and the S bars, respectively. Far-ultraviolet photons, which excite UIR emission, penetrate into the molecular clouds for ~1 pc, in the nearly edge-on geometry. The 12CO contours are elongated in the direction northwest-southeast, while the C18O contours are round. Far-ultraviolet photons erode the

  7. Resolving the Bright HCN(1-0) Emission toward the Seyfert 2 Nucleus of M51: Shock Enhancement by Radio Jets and Weak Masing by Infrared Pumping?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Satoki; Trung, Dinh-V.-; Boone, Frédéric; Krips, Melanie; Lim, Jeremy; Muller, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    We present high angular resolution observations of the HCN(1-0) emission (at ~1'' or ~34 pc), together with CO J = 1-0, 2-1, and 3-2 observations, toward the Seyfert 2 nucleus of M51 (NGC 5194). The overall HCN(1-0) distribution and kinematics are very similar to that of the CO lines, which have been indicated as the jet-entrained molecular gas in our past observations. In addition, high HCN(1-0)/CO(1-0) brightness temperature ratio of about unity is observed along the jets, similar to that observed at the shocked molecular gas in our Galaxy. These results strongly indicate that both diffuse and dense gases are entrained by the jets and outflowing from the active galactic nucleus. The channel map of HCN(1-0) at the systemic velocity shows a strong emission right at the nucleus, where no obvious emission has been detected in the CO lines. The HCN(1-0)/CO(1-0) brightness temperature ratio at this region reaches >2, a value that cannot be explained considering standard physical/chemical conditions. Based on our calculations, we suggest infrared pumping and possibly weak HCN masing, but still requiring an enhanced HCN abundance for the cause of this high ratio. This suggests the presence of a compact dense obscuring molecular gas in front of the nucleus of M51, which remains unresolved at our ~1'' (~34 pc) resolution, and consistent with the Seyfert 2 classification picture.

  8. 30 CFR 57.22236 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22236 Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines). If methane reaches 1.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other...

  9. GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J.

    2006-11-01

    This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.

  10. Superposed epoch analysis of CIRs at 0. 3 and 1. 0 AU: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, A.K.; Luttrell, A.H.

    1986-05-01

    Applying the superposed epoch analysis technique to 16 and to 31 well-defined, nonshock-associated stream-stream interaction regions observed by the Helios spacecraft in the distance ranges 0.3 to 0.4 AU and 0.9 to 1.0 AU, respectively, we obtain the average azimuthal variation in the solar wind density, velocity and temperature, in the magnetic field strength, and in the total proton plasma plus magnetic field pressure across CIRs at these two radial distances separately. For the radial evolution of these interaction regions we find by comparison: (1) due to compressional and rarefactional effects the amplitudes of all parameters in question taken along the leading as well as along the trailing part of the CIR are steadily increasing with the most pronounced increase in the pressure; (2) at the same time even the leading portion of the velocity profile steepens; (3) simultaneously, the positions in azimuth of the overall maximum values of the solar wind density and temperature, of the magnetic field strength and of the plasma plus magnetic field pressure are getting steadily lined up in longitude; (4) at the same time the leading portions of all profiles are steepening into discontinuous, shocklike structures. Thus, this analysis provides observational evidence for the following results obtained earlier from numerical simulation studies. Stream steepening does occur within 1 AU, and the probability of corotating shocks to form is, on average, much higher beyond than at or within 1 AU.

  11. S1PR1-mediated IFNAR1 degradation modulates plasmacytoid dendritic cell interferon-α autoamplification

    PubMed Central

    Teijaro, John R.; Studer, Sean; Leaf, Nora; Kiosses, William B.; Nguyen, Nhan; Matsuki, Kosuke; Negishi, Hideo; Taniguchi, Tadatsugu; Oldstone, Michael B. A.; Rosen, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    Blunting immunopathology without abolishing host defense is the foundation for safe and effective modulation of infectious and autoimmune diseases. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) agonists are effective in treating infectious and multiple autoimmune pathologies; however, mechanisms underlying their clinical efficacy are yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we uncover an unexpected mechanism of convergence between S1PR1 and interferon alpha receptor 1 (IFNAR1) signaling pathways. Activation of S1PR1 signaling by pharmacological tools or endogenous ligand sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) inhibits type 1 IFN responses that exacerbate numerous pathogenic conditions. Mechanistically, S1PR1 selectively suppresses the type I IFN autoamplification loop in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), a specialized DC subset, for robust type I IFN release. S1PR1 agonist suppression is pertussis toxin-resistant, but inhibited by an S1PR1 C-terminal–derived transactivating transcriptional activator (Tat)-fusion peptide that blocks receptor internalization. S1PR1 agonist treatment accelerates turnover of IFNAR1, suppresses signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation, and down-modulates total STAT1 levels, thereby inactivating the autoamplification loop. Inhibition of S1P-S1PR1 signaling in vivo using the selective antagonist Ex26 significantly elevates IFN-α production in response to CpG-A. Thus, multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that S1PR1 signaling sets the sensitivity of pDC amplification of IFN responses, thereby blunting pathogenic immune responses. These data illustrate a lipid G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-IFNAR1 regulatory loop that balances effective and detrimental immune responses and elevated endogenous S1PR1 signaling. This mechanism will likely be advantageous in individuals subject to a range of inflammatory conditions. PMID:26787880

  12. Growth of rhodococcus S1 on anthracene.

    PubMed

    Tongpim, S; Pickard, M A

    1996-03-01

    Three slow-growing bacteria were isolated from a mixed culture enriched for growth on anthracene, using creosote-contaminated soil as the inoculum. Organisms were shown to use anthracene by the production of a clear zone around the colony after a mineral salts agar plate was sprayed with anthracene. All three bacteria were nonmotile, nonsporulating, gram-positive rods and stained acid-fast. Physiological and biochemical tests, GC content, and cell wall lipid patterns of whole cell methanolysates indicated that they belonged to the Nocardia-Mycobacterium-Rhodococcus group. On the basis of these characteristics and pyrolysis gas chromatography, they were assigned to the genus Rhodococcus. Growth of the isolates was slow on crystalline anthracene, giving a doubling time of 1.5-3 days, and they grew mainly on the crystal surface. When anthracene was supplied by precipitation from a solvent, doubling time was reduced to 1 day. All three isolates mineralized anthracene but not phenanthrene or naphthalene, nor could they grow on naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene, fluoranthene, acenaphthene, pyrene, chrysene, or naphthacene as sole carbon source. One isolate, Rhodococcus S1, was able to use 2-methylanthracene or 2-chloroanthracene as carbon source but not 1- or 9-substituted analogs. These results suggest that the initial enzyme attacking anthracene in these isolates has a narrow substrate specificity. PMID:8868237

  13. [Ci](1-0) observations in M33 A study of CO dark H2 gas in M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glück, C.; Mookerjea, B.; Okada, Y.; Buchbender, C.; Röllig, M.; Stutzki, J.

    2016-05-01

    Based on [Ci] (1-0) observations and complementary Hi, 12/13CO (1-0), 12CO (2-1) and [Cii] data we estimated the column density and fraction of molecular hydrogen in GMCs along the major axis of the galaxy M33. We found that on average 75%± 14% of the hydrogen is in molecular form. Roughly 40-45% of the H2 is both traced by [Cii] and CO, while ˜ 15% by the [Ci] lines. The found CO-dark H2 gas fractions are within the predictions by Wolfire et al. (2010) for a half solar metallicity, Z = 0.5 Z⊙, as in M33.

  14. Positron annihilation 2D-ACAR study of semi-coherent Li nanoclusters in MgO( 1 0 0 ) and MgO( 1 1 0 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falub, C. V.; Mijnarends, P. E.; Eijt, S. W. H.; van Huis, M. A.; van Veen, A.; Schut, H.

    2002-05-01

    Depth selective positron annihilation two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) is used to determine the electronic structure of Li nanoclusters formed by implantation of 10 16 cm -26Li ions (with an energy of 30 keV) in MgO(1 0 0) and (1 1 0) crystals, and subsequently annealed at 950 K. The 2D-ACAR spectra of Li-implanted MgO obtained with 4 keV positrons reveal the semi-coherent ordering state of the embedded metallic Li nanoclusters. The results agree with ab initio Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker calculations.

  15. Shock-excited OH maser emission outlining the galactic center supernova remnant G359.1-0.05.

    PubMed

    Yusef-Zadeh, F; Uchida, K I; Roberts, D

    1995-12-15

    A search using the Very Large Array was performed for 1720-megahertz OH maser line emission from a number of nonthermal radio continuum sources in the galactic center region. The 1720-megahertz transition has recently been noted for its potential as a tracer of shock activity. The most striking result was the detection of extended 1720-megahertz OH maser emission, as well as a number of compact OH maser features, along the interface between a large-scale continuum shell (G359.1-0.5) and its surrounding ring of high-velocity molecular gas. The morphological correlation among the neutral gas, the nonthermal shell, and the maser features provides strong support for the hypothesis that the 1720-megahertz maser line of OH arises from gas shocked by the impact of the expanding supernova remnant into the molecular material. However, the radial velocities of the molecular cloud surrounding G359.1-0.5 are more negative than that of the OH maser spots by more than 50 kilometers per second. Here it is suggested that only the low-radial-velocity component of the carbon monoxide material at the limb of the remnant satisfies the physical conditions required for collisional pumping of the OH 1720-megahertz line behind the expanding shock front. PMID:8525369

  16. Predicting microRNA modulation in human prostate cancer using a simple String IDentifier (SID1.0).

    PubMed

    Albertini, Maria C; Olivieri, Fabiola; Lazzarini, Raffaella; Pilolli, Francesca; Galli, Francesco; Spada, Giorgio; Accorsi, Augusto; Rippo, Maria R; Procopio, Antonio D

    2011-08-01

    To make faster and efficient the identification of mRNA targets common to more than one miRNA, and to identify new miRNAs modulated in specific pathways, a computer program identified as SID1.0 (simple String IDentifier) was developed and successfully applied in the identification of deregulated miRNAs in prostate cancer cells. This computationally inexpensive Fortran program is based on the strategy of exhaustive search and specifically designed to screen shared data (target genes, miRNAs and pathways) available from PicTar and DIANA-MicroT 3.0 databases. As far as we know this is the first software designed to filter data retrieved from available miRNA databases. SID1.0 takes advantage of the standard Fortran intrinsic functions for manipulating text strings and requires ASCII input files. In order to demonstrate SID1.0 applicability, some miRNAs expected from the literature to associate with cancerogenesis (miR-125b, miR-148a and miR-141), were randomly identified as main entries for SID1.0 to explore matching sequences of mRNA targets and also to explore KEGG pathways for the presence of ID codes of targeted genes. Besides genes and pathways already described in the literature, SID1.0 has proven to useful for predicting other genes involved in prostate carcinoma. These latter were used to identify new deregulated miRNAs: miR-141, miR-148a, miR-19a and miR-19b. Prediction data were preliminary confirmed by expression analysis of the identified miRNAs in androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and independent (PC3) prostate carcinoma cell lines and in normal prostatic epithelial cells (PrEC). PMID:21334455

  17. BADGER v1.0: A Fortran equation of state library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heltemes, T. A.; Moses, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The BADGER equation of state library was developed to enable inertial confinement fusion plasma codes to more accurately model plasmas in the high-density, low-temperature regime. The code had the capability to calculate 1- and 2-T plasmas using the Thomas-Fermi model and an individual electron accounting model. Ion equation of state data can be calculated using an ideal gas model or via a quotidian equation of state with scaled binding energies. Electron equation of state data can be calculated via the ideal gas model or with an adaptation of the screened hydrogenic model with ℓ-splitting. The ionization and equation of state calculations can be done in local thermodynamic equilibrium or in a non-LTE mode using a variant of the Busquet equivalent temperature method. The code was written as a stand-alone Fortran library for ease of implementation by external codes. EOS results for aluminum are presented that show good agreement with the SESAME library and ionization calculations show good agreement with the FLYCHK code. Program summaryProgram title: BADGERLIB v1.0 Catalogue identifier: AEND_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEND_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 41 480 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 904 451 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90. Computer: 32- or 64-bit PC, or Mac. Operating system: Windows, Linux, MacOS X. RAM: 249.496 kB plus 195.630 kB per isotope record in memory Classification: 19.1, 19.7. Nature of problem: Equation of State (EOS) calculations are necessary for the accurate simulation of high energy density plasmas. Historically, most EOS codes used in these simulations have relied on an ideal gas model. This model is inadequate for low

  18. Growth of 3C-SiC( 1 0 0 ) thin films on Si( 1 0 0 ) by the molecular ion beam deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Kiuchi, Masato; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Goto, Seiichi

    2001-11-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) thin films were produced on Si(1 0 0) at low growth temperatures of 750-1000°C, using the molecular ion beam deposition (IBD) technique with a precursor of organosilicon ions. The ions extracted at 25 keV were mass selected, and decelerated to 100 eV. The precursor of methylsilicenium ions (SiCH 3+), which has a Si-C bond in the molecular structure, was generated from dimethylsilane (SiH 2(CH 3) 2). The energy distribution of SiCH 3+ ions was measured by a PPM421 plasma process monitor. It was confirmed that the energy distributions were 100±1 eV. The chemical bondings and surface structures of SiC thin films were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). In the Raman spectrum, a peak at 796 cm -1 was assigned to transverse optic phonon scattering in 3C-SiC. As a result of the analysis of RHEED patterns, 3C-SiC(1 0 0) were formed on Si(1 0 0) substrates. Using the molecular IBD technique with the precursor of methylsilicenium ions, the formation of SiC thin films is available on Si(1 0 0) at low temperature (750°C).

  19. Galaxy Zoo: Are Bars Responsible for the Feeding of Active Galactic Nuclei at 0.2 < z < 1.0?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Edmond; Trump, Jonathan; Athanassoula, Lia; Bamford, Steven; Bell, Eric F.; Bosma, Albert; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Casteels, Kevin; Faber, Sandra M.; Fang, Jerome J.; Fortson, Lucy; Kocevski, Dale; Koo, David C.; Laine, Seppo J.; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen; Melvin, Tom; Nichol, Robert; Schawinski, Kevin; Simmons, Brooke D.; Smethurst, Rebecca; Willett, Kyle; Galaxy Zoo, Aegis, Cosmos, Goods

    2015-01-01

    We present a new study investigating whether active galactic nuclei (AGN) beyond the local universe are preferentially fed via large-scale bars. Our investigation combines data from Chandra and Galaxy Zoo: Hubble (GZH) in the AEGIS, COSMOS, and GOODS-S surveys to create samples of face-on, disk galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0. We use a novel method to robustly compare a sample of 120 AGN host galaxies, defined to have 1042 erg s-1 < LX < 1044erg s-1, with inactive control galaxies matched in stellar mass, rest-frame color, size, Sérsic index, and redshift. Using the GZH bar classifications of each sample, we demonstrate that AGN hosts show no statistically significant enhancement in bar fraction or average bar likelihood compared to closely-matched inactive galaxies. In detail, we find that the AGN bar fraction cannot be enhanced above the bar fraction in the control sample by more than a factor of two, at 99.7% confidence. We similarly find no significant difference in the AGN fraction among barred and non-barred galaxies. Thus we find no compelling evidence that large-scale bars directly fuel AGN at 0.2 < z < 1.0. This result, coupled with previous results at z = 0, implies that moderate-luminosity AGN have not been preferentially fed by large-scale bars since z = 1. Furthermore, given the low bar fractions at z > 1, our findings suggest that large-scale bars have likely never directly been a dominant fueling mechanism for supermassive black hole growth.

  20. Galaxy Zoo: Are bars responsible for the feeding of active galactic nuclei at 0.2 < z < 1.0?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Edmond; Trump, Jonathan R.; Athanassoula, E.; Bamford, Steven P.; Bell, Eric F.; Bosma, A.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Casteels, Kevin R. V.; Faber, S. M.; Fang, Jerome J.; Fortson, Lucy F.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; Laine, Seppo; Lintott, Chris; Masters, Karen L.; Melvin, Thomas; Nichol, Robert C.; Schawinski, Kevin; Simmons, Brooke; Smethurst, Rebecca; Willett, Kyle W.

    2015-02-01

    We present a new study investigating whether active galactic nuclei (AGN) beyond the local universe are preferentially fed via large-scale bars. Our investigation combines data from Chandra and Galaxy Zoo: Hubble (GZH) in the AEGIS (All-wavelength Extended Groth strip International Survey), COSMOS (Cosmological Evolution Survey), and (Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South) GOODS-S surveys to create samples of face-on, disc galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0. We use a novel method to robustly compare a sample of 120 AGN host galaxies, defined to have 1042 erg s-1 < LX < 1044 erg s-1, with inactive control galaxies matched in stellar mass, rest-frame colour, size, Sérsic index, and redshift. Using the GZH bar classifications of each sample, we demonstrate that AGN hosts show no statistically significant enhancement in bar fraction or average bar likelihood compared to closely-matched inactive galaxies. In detail, we find that the AGN bar fraction cannot be enhanced above the control bar fraction by more than a factor of 2, at 99.7 per cent confidence. We similarly find no significant difference in the AGN fraction among barred and non-barred galaxies. Thus we find no compelling evidence that large-scale bars directly fuel AGN at 0.2 < z < 1.0. This result, coupled with previous results at z = 0, implies that moderate-luminosity AGN have not been preferentially fed by large-scale bars since z = 1. Furthermore, given the low bar fractions at z > 1, our findings suggest that large-scale bars have likely never directly been a dominant fuelling mechanism for supermassive black hole growth.

  1. Decorin in human oral cancer: A promising predictive biomarker of S-1 neoadjuvant chemosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Ishige, Shunsaku; Kasama, Hiroki; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • DCN is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. • DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. • DCN predicts the clinical responses to S-1 NAC for patients with oral cancer. - Abstract: We reported previously that decorin (DCN) is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. DCN is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that exists and functions in stromal and epithelial cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that DCN affects the biology of several types of cancer by directly/indirectly targeting the signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis, however, the molecular mechanisms of DCN in chemoresistance and its clinical relevance are still unknown. Here we assumed that DCN silencing cells increase chemosusceptibility to S-1, consisted of tegafur, prodrug of 5-fluorouracil. We first established DCN knockdown transfectants derived from oral cancer cells for following experiments including chemosusceptibility assay to S-1. In addition to the in vitro data, DCN knockdown zenografting tumors in nude mice demonstrate decreasing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis with dephosphorylation of AKT after S-1 chemotherapy. We also investigated whether DCN expression predicts the clinical responses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using S-1 (S-1 NAC) for oral cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry data in the preoperative biopsy samples was analyzed to determine the cut-off point for status of DCN expression by receiver operating curve analysis. Interestingly, low DCN expression was observed in five (83%) of six cases with complete responses to S-1 NAC, and in one (10%) case of 10 cases with stable/progressive disease, indicating that S-1 chemosensitivity is dramatically effective in oral cancer patients with low DCN expression compared with high DCN expression. Our findings suggest that DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms, and

  2. Observations of the supernova remnant G54.1+0.3: X-ray spectrum and evidence for an X-ray jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, F. J.; Aschenbach, B.; Song, L. M.

    2001-05-01

    We present analyses of the ROSAT PSPC and the ASCA SIS and GIS observations of the Crab-like supernova remnant (SNR) G54.1+0.3. The spectrum is best fitted by a power law model with a photon index of -1.9+0.2-0.2, absorbed energy flux of 6.8 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 0.7-10 keV band, and a column density of 17.9+2.8-2.5 1021 cm-2. The high absorption column density indicates a distance close to the radius of the galaxy. The 0.7-10.0 keV X-ray luminosity of G54.1+0.3 is 1.4 1035d102 erg s-1, where d10 is the distance in 10 kpc. With an image restoration method, we have deconvolved the X-ray image of the remnant. There is evidence for an X-ray jet pointing to the north-east with a length of about 40arcsec measured from the center of the nebula. Its X-ray luminosity in the 0.1-2.4 keV range is about 2.1 1034d102 erg s-1. The X-ray jet is consistent with the radio extension of G54.1+0.3 to the north-east in both direction and position.

  3. Unidirectional growth of <1 1 0> ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate single crystal by Sankaranarayanan Ramasamy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethuraman, K.; Ramesh Babu, R.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Ramasamy, P.

    2006-09-01

    Unidirectional <1 1 0> ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate single crystal was grown by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method. <1 1 0>orientational seed was mounted at the bottom of the glass crucible and the crystal of diameter 20 mm and length 60 mm was successfully grown by this novel SR method. Almost 100% solute-crystal conversion efficiency was achieved.

  4. 30 CFR 57.22236 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines). 57.22236 Section 57.22236 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... percent methane (VI mines). If methane reaches 1.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22236 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines). 57.22236 Section 57.22236 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... percent methane (VI mines). If methane reaches 1.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22236 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines). 57.22236 Section 57.22236 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... percent methane (VI mines). If methane reaches 1.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22236 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines). 57.22236 Section 57.22236 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... percent methane (VI mines). If methane reaches 1.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other...

  8. 26 CFR 1.0-1 - Internal Revenue Code of 1954 and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... identified in each instance. The regulations in 26 CFR (1939) part 39 (Regulations 118) are continued in... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Internal Revenue Code of 1954 and regulations. 1.0-1 Section 1.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME...

  9. Exogenous S1P Exposure Potentiates Ischemic Stroke Damage That Is Reduced Possibly by Inhibiting S1P Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eunjung; Han, Jeong Eun; Jeon, Sejin; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Choi, Ji Woong; Chun, Jerold

    2015-01-01

    Initial and recurrent stroke produces central nervous system (CNS) damage, involving neuroinflammation. Receptor-mediated S1P signaling can influence neuroinflammation and has been implicated in cerebral ischemia through effects on the immune system. However, S1P-mediated events also occur within the brain itself where its roles during stroke have been less well studied. Here we investigated the involvement of S1P signaling in initial and recurrent stroke by using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (M/R) model combined with analyses of S1P signaling. Gene expression for S1P receptors and involved enzymes was altered during M/R, supporting changes in S1P signaling. Direct S1P microinjection into the normal CNS induced neuroglial activation, implicating S1P-initiated neuroinflammatory responses that resembled CNS changes seen during initial M/R challenge. Moreover, S1P microinjection combined with M/R potentiated brain damage, approximating a model for recurrent stroke dependent on S1P and suggesting that reduction in S1P signaling could ameliorate stroke damage. Delivery of FTY720 that removes S1P signaling with chronic exposure reduced damage in both initial and S1P-potentiated M/R-challenged brain, while reducing stroke markers like TNF-α. These results implicate direct S1P CNS signaling in the etiology of initial and recurrent stroke that can be therapeutically accessed by S1P modulators acting within the brain. PMID:26576074

  10. Distance and Evolutionary State of the Supernova Remnant 3C 397 (G41.1-0.3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, D. A.; Ranasinghe, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze 1420 MHz continuum and H i observations of the supernova remnant (SNR) 3C 397 (G41.1-0.3). The H i absorption spectra show clear absorption up to the tangent point velocity and also the absence of absorption at 50-60 km s-1. This yields lower and upper limits to the distances of 6.3 ± 0.1 and 9.7 ± 0.3 kpc, which are better and more robust than previous estimates. We apply generalized SNR models to 3C 397, including the ejecta-dominated phase and the transition-to-Sedov phase. Using emission measures from the X-ray and mean gas density from the infrared, we show that the hard X-ray component has the dominant filling factor and the soft X-ray component has a very small filling factor. The models are required to be consistent with 3C 397's measured properties, including the observed shock temperatures and shock radii. Consistent models are found if 3C 397 has a distance in the range of ≃8-9.7 kpc. For an 8 kpc distance, the estimated age is ≃1350 years and the explosion energy is 1.0 × 1051 erg, while for 9.7 kpc, the the most probable age is ≃1750 years and the energy 1.5 × 1051 erg.

  11. Detection of the 267 GHz J = 1-0 rotational transition of PH3 in Saturn with a new Fourier transform spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisstein, Eric W.; Serabyn, E.

    1994-01-01

    In recent observations at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, the highly pressure-broadened (FWHM = 11.2 GHz) J = 1-0 rotational transition of PH3 (phosphine) was detected on Saturn. By modeling the Saturnian atmosphere with a radiative transfer code, the observed line profile was consistent with a constant PH3 mole fraction of 3.0 plus or minus 1.0 ppm in the upper troposphere. A best-fit to the depth of the line implies a cutoff at high altitudes, with no PH3 present at pressures approximately less than 100 mbar. The observed line depth, combined with the lack of a detectable emission core, implies that a cutoff in the PH3 abundance occurs at a pressure between 13 and 140 mbar. PH3 in Jupiter was not detected, nor any other molecular lines between 195 and 295 GHz (1.54 mm and 1.02 mm, respectively) in either Jupiter or Saturn.

  12. A High Resolution Spectroscopic Study of the Nu2 Band of Hydrogen Sulfide and the 1-0 Band of Hydrogen Iodide. Ph.D. Thesis - Maryland Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strow, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    A tunable diode laser spectrometer was constructed and used to study: (1) the effects of centrifugal distortion on the transition frequencies and strengths of the nu sub 2 band of H2S, and (2) nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure in the 1-0 band of HI. A total of 126 line frequencies and 94 line strengths in the nu sub 2 band of H2S were measured. The average accuracy of the line frequency measurements was + or - 0.0016 cm. The line strengths were measured to an average accuracy of about 3 percent. The effect of the finite spectral width of the diode laser on the measurement of line strengths is discussed. The observed H2S line frequencies were fit to Watson's AS and NS reduced Hamiltonian in both the Ir and IIIr coordinate representations in order to determine the best set of rotation distortion constants for the upper state of the nu sub 2 band. Comparisons of the observed line strengths in this band to rigid rotor line strengths are also presented. Nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure in the low J lines of the 1-0 band of HI was observed. The upper vibrational state nuclear quadrupole coupling constant, determined from the observed splittings, was -1850 MHz + or - 12 MHz or 1.2 percent + or - 0.7 percent larger than the ground state coupling constant.

  13. 13CO 1-0 imaging of the Medusa merger, NGC 4194. Large scale variations in molecular cloud properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, S.; Beswick, R.; Jütte, E.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: Studying molecular gas properties in merging galaxies gives important clues to the onset and evolution of interaction-triggered starbursts. The frac{12CO}{13CO} line intensity ratio can be used as a tracer of how dynamics and star formation processes impact the gas properties. The Medusa merger (NGC 4194) is particularly interesting to study since its {L_FIRover L_CO} ratio rivals that of ultraluminous galaxies (ULIRGs), despite the comparatively modest luminosity, indicating an exceptionally high star formation efficiency (SFE) in the Medusa merger. Methods: High resolution OVRO (Owens Valley Radio Observatory) observations of the 13CO 1-0 have been obtained and compared with matched resolution OVRO 12CO 1-0 data to investigate the molecular gas cloud properties in the Medusa merger. Results: Interferometric observations of 12CO and 13CO 1-0 in the Medusa (NGC 4194) merger show the {{12CO} over {13CO}} 1-0 intensity ratio ({\\cal R}) increases from normal, quiescent values (7-10) in the outer parts (r > 2 kpc) of the galaxy to high (16 to > 40) values in the central (r < 1 kpc) starburst region. In the central two kpc there is an east-west gradient in {\\cal R} where the line ratio changes by more than a factor of three over 5” (945 pc). The integrated 13CO emission peaks in the north-western starburst region while the central 12CO emission is strongly associated with the prominent crossing dust-lane. Conclusions: We discuss the central east-west gradient in {\\cal R} in the context of gas properties in the starburst and the central dust lane. We suggest that the central gradient in {\\cal R} is mainly caused by diffuse gas in the dust lane. In this scenario, the actual molecular mass distribution is better traced by the 13CO 1-0 emission than the 12CO. The possibilities of temperature and abundance gradients are also discussed. We compare the central gas properties of the Medusa to those of other minor mergers and suggest that the extreme and transient

  14. Blocking S1P interaction with S1P{sub 1} receptor by a novel competitive S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist inhibits angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Yasuji; Ohtake, Hidenori; Ono, Naoya; Takayama, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of a newly developed S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist on angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vitro activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vivo activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The efficacy of S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist for anti-cancer therapies. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P{sub 1}) was shown to be essential for vascular maturation during embryonic development and it has been demonstrated that substantial crosstalk exists between S1P{sub 1} and other pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor. We developed a novel S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist, TASP0277308, which is structurally unrelated to S1P as well as previously described S1P{sub 1} antagonists. TASP0277308 inhibited S1P- as well as VEGF-induced cellular responses, including migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, TASP0277308 effectively blocked a VEGF-induced tube formation in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. These findings revealed that S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses and also provide evidence for the efficacy of TASP0277308 for anti-cancer therapies.

  15. Dramatic Response of S-1 Administration to Chemorefractory Advanced Thymic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaira, Kyoichi; Naruse, Ichiro; Imai, Hisao; Sunaga, Noriaki; Hisada, Takeshi; Motegi, Masahiko; Asao, Takayuki; Yamada, Masanobu

    2014-01-01

    Thymic cancer (TC) is a rare malignancy in thoracic tumors, and there has been no standard therapeutics for advanced or relapsed patients. The clinical significance of second-line or beyond chemotherapy for platinum refractory advanced TC remains unclear. Here, we present the experience of a patient with TC showing a complete response to S-1 as third-line chemotherapy. A 54-year-old female with TC was treated with carboplatin plus paclitaxel and thoracic radiotherapy as first-line chemoradiotherapy and amrubicin as second-line chemotherapy. After 3 cycles of amrubicin administration, the metastatic hepatic lesions revealed a markedly progressive disease. A single agent of S-1 was administered as sequencing chemotherapy. After 2 cycles of S-1, the patient achieved a complete remission of multiple metastatic sites. There was evidence of immunohistochemical staining of a low thymidylate synthase (TS) expression. The expression of TS may be closely associated with the efficacy of S-1 in patients with TC. PMID:26389778

  16. Airborne imagery of a disintegrating Sargassum drift line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmorino, George O.; Miller, W. D.; Smith, Geoffrey B.; Bowles, Jeffrey H.

    2011-03-01

    Airborne hyperspectral and thermal infrared imagery collected over the Florida Current provide a view of the disintegration of a Sargassum drift line in 5 m s -1 winds. The drift line consists mostly of rafts 20-80 m 2 in size, though aggregations larger than 1000 m 2 also occur. Rafts tend to be elongated, curved in the upwind direction, and 0.1-0.5 °C warmer than the surrounding ocean surface. Long weed 'trails' extending upwind from the rafts are evidence of plants dropping out and being left behind more rapidly drifting rafts. The raft line may be a remnant of an earlier Sargassum frontal band, which is detectible as an upwind thermal front and areas of submerged weed. Issues are identified that require future field measurements.

  17. Conformationally Constrained, Stable, Triplet Ground State (S = 1) Nitroxide Diradicals. Antiferromagnetic Chains of S = 1 Diradicals

    SciTech Connect

    Rajca, Andrzej; Takahashi, Masahiro; Pink, Maren; Spagnol, Gaelle; Rajca, Suchada

    2008-06-30

    Nitroxide diradicals, in which nitroxides are annelated to m-phenylene forming tricyclic benzobisoxazine-like structures, have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, magnetic resonance (EPR and {sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy, as well as magnetic studies in solution and in solid state. For the octamethyl derivative of benzobisoxazine nitroxide diradical, the conformationally constrained nitroxide moieties are coplanar with the m-phenylene, leading to large values of 2J (2J/k > 200 K in solution and 2J/k >> 300 K in the solid state). For the diradical, in which all ortho and para positions of the m-phenylene are sterically shielded, distortion of the nitroxide moieties from coplanarity is moderate, such that the singlet-triplet gaps remain large in both solution (2J/k > 200 K) and the solid state (2J/k {approx} 400-800 K), though an onset of thermal depopulation of the triplet ground state is detectable near room temperature. These diradicals have robust triplet ground states with strong ferromagnetic coupling and good stability at ambient conditions. Magnetic behavior of the nitroxide diradicals at low temperature is best fit to the model of one-dimensional S = 1 Heisenberg chains with intrachain antiferromagnetic coupling. The antiferromagnetic coupling between the S = 1 diradicals may be associated with the methyl nitroxide C-H {hor_ellipsis} O contacts, including nonclassical hydrogen bonds. These unprecedented organic S = 1 antiferromagnetic chains are highly isotropic, compared to those of the extensively studied Ni(II)-based chains.

  18. Regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation in endothelial cells by S1P1 and S1P3.

    PubMed

    Tölle, M; Klöckl, L; Wiedon, A; Zidek, W; van der Giet, M; Schuchardt, M

    2016-08-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays a crucial role in vascular homeostasis. Lysophospholipid interaction with sphingosine 1-phosphat (S1P) receptors results in eNOS activation in different cells. In endothelial cells, eNOS activation via S1P1 or S1P3 was shown controversially. The aim of this study is to investigate the meaning of both S1P receptors for eNOS activation in human endothelial cells. Therefore, several S1P1 and S1P3 agonists in combination with antagonists and specific RNAi approach were used. eNOS activation was measured in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) via DAF2-DA-based fluorescence microscopy. For investigation of the signaling pathway, agonists/antagonist studies, RNAi approach, Luminex™ multiplex, and Western Blot were used. In HUVEC, both the S1P1 agonist AUY954 as well as the S1P1,3 agonist FTY720P induced eNOS activation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Other S1P1 agonists activated eNOS to a lesser extent. The AUY954-induced eNOS activation was blocked by the S1P1 antagonist W146, the combination of W146 and the S1P3 antagonist CAY10444 and the S1P1,3 antagonist VPC23019, but not by CAY10444 indicating the meaning of S1P1 for the AUY954-induced eNOS activation. The FTY720P-induced eNOS activation was blocked only by the combination of W146 and CAY10444 and the combined S1P1,3 antagonist VPC23019, but not by W146 or CAY10444 indicating the importance of both S1P1 and S1P3 for FTY720-induced eNOS activation. These results were confirmed using specific siRNA against S1P1 and S1P3. The S1P1,3 activation results in Akt phosphorylation and subsequent activation of eNOS via phosphorylation at serine(1177) and dephosphorylation at threonine(495). Beside former investigations with rather unspecific S1P receptor activation these data show potent selective S1P1 activation by using AUY954 and with selective S1P receptor inhibition evidence was provided that both S1P1 and S1P3 lead to downstream activation of eNOS in

  19. Optical, dielectric and microhardness studies on <1 0 0> directed ADP crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2009-09-01

    <1 0 0> directed ammonium dihydrogen phosphate single crystal has been grown using the uniaxially solution-crystallization method of Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR). The size of the grown crystal is 40 mm in diameter and 50 mm in thickness. The grown crystals were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Vickers hardness and dielectric studies. Comparing the <1 0 0> plane of the conventional method grown ADP crystal with <1 0 0> directed SR method grown ADP crystal, optical transparency, dielectric constant and Vickers hardness number are increased and dielectric loss is decreased in SR method grown crystal.

  20. Vscape V1.1.0. An interactive tool for metastable vacua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Broek, Korneel

    2008-01-01

    Vscape is an interactive tool for studying the one-loop effective potential of an ungauged supersymmetric model of chiral multiplets. The program allows the user to define a supersymmetric model by specifying the superpotential. The F-terms and the scalar and fermionic mass matrices are calculated symbolically. The program then allows you to search numerically for (meta)stable minima of the one-loop effective potential. Additional commands enable you to further study specific minima, by, e.g., computing the mass spectrum for those vacua. Vscape combines the flexibility of symbolic software, with the speed of a numerical package. Program summaryProgram title:Vscape 1.1.1 Catalogue identifier: ADZW_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 80 507 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6 708 938 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Pentium 4 PC Computers: need (GNU) C++ compiler, Linux standard GNU installation (./configure; make; make install). A precompiled Windows XP version is included in the distribution package Operating system: Linux, Windows XP using cygwin RAM: 10 MB Word size: 32 bits Classification: 11.6 External routines: GSL ( http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/), CLN ( http://www.ginac.de/CLN/), GiNaC ( http://directory.fsf.org/GiNaC.html) Nature of problem:Vscape is an interactive tool for studying the one-loop effective potential of an ungauged supersymmetric model of chiral multiplets. The program allows the user to define a supersymmetric model by specifying the superpotential. The F-terms and the scalar and fermionic mass matrices are calculated symbolically. The program then allows you to search numerically for (meta)stable minima of

  1. Pan-STARRS 1 observations of the unusual active Centaur P/2011 S1(Gibbs)

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, H. W.; Ip, W. H.; Chen, W. P.; Chen, Y. T.; Lacerda, P.; Holman, M.; Protopapas, P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, P. A.

    2014-05-01

    P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is an outer solar system comet or active Centaur with a similar orbit to that of the famous 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has been observed by the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) sky survey from 2010 to 2012. The resulting data allow us to perform multi-color studies of the nucleus and coma of the comet. Analysis of PS1 images reveals that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has a small nucleus <4 km radius, with colors g {sub P1} – r {sub P1} = 0.5 ± 0.02, r {sub P1} – i {sub P1} = 0.12 ± 0.02, and i {sub P1} – z {sub P1} = 0.46 ± 0.03. The comet remained active from 2010 to 2012, with a model-dependent mass-loss rate of ∼100 kg s{sup –1}. The mass-loss rate per unit surface area of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is as high as that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, making it one of the most active Centaurs. The mass-loss rate also varies with time from ∼40 kg s{sup –1} to 150 kg s{sup –1}. Due to its rather circular orbit, we propose that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1-like outbursts that control the outgassing rate. The results indicate that it may have a similar surface composition to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. Our numerical simulations show that the future orbital evolution of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is more similar to that of the main population of Centaurs than to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. The results also demonstrate that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is dynamically unstable and can only remain near its current orbit for roughly a thousand years.

  2. 32 CFR 1636.5 - Exclusion from Class 1-A-0 and Class 1-0.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be excluded from Class 1-A-0 or Class 1-0: (a) Who asserts beliefs which are of a religious, moral or... participation in war does not rest at all upon moral, ethical, or religious principle, but instead rests...

  3. 32 CFR 1636.5 - Exclusion from Class 1-A-0 and Class 1-0.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be excluded from Class 1-A-0 or Class 1-0: (a) Who asserts beliefs which are of a religious, moral or... participation in war does not rest at all upon moral, ethical, or religious principle, but instead rests...

  4. 32 CFR 1636.5 - Exclusion from Class 1-A-0 and Class 1-0.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be excluded from Class 1-A-0 or Class 1-0: (a) Who asserts beliefs which are of a religious, moral or... participation in war does not rest at all upon moral, ethical, or religious principle, but instead rests...

  5. 32 CFR 1636.5 - Exclusion from Class 1-A-0 and Class 1-0.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be excluded from Class 1-A-0 or Class 1-0: (a) Who asserts beliefs which are of a religious, moral or... participation in war does not rest at all upon moral, ethical, or religious principle, but instead rests...

  6. 32 CFR 1636.5 - Exclusion from Class 1-A-0 and Class 1-0.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be excluded from Class 1-A-0 or Class 1-0: (a) Who asserts beliefs which are of a religious, moral or... participation in war does not rest at all upon moral, ethical, or religious principle, but instead rests...

  7. Results of 1.0-L sample bottle pressurization tests for the pit burst experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Veirs, K.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Harradine, D.M.; McFarlan, J.T.

    1997-02-01

    Pressurization tests were performed on a 1.0-L sample bottle to verify operational aspects of the pit burst experimental test apparatus. The 1.0-L sample bottle was selected because of its known geometry, certified performance and ready availability. Redundant strain gage instrumentation was installed on the test sample enabling evaluation of the repeatability and consistency of data acquisition. Test results were compared with analytical model predictions to evaluate instrumentation accuracy.

  8. Dissociative chemisorption of methylsilane and methylchloride on the Si(1 0 0) surface from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestrelli, Pier Luigi; Sbraccia, Carlo; Romero, Aldo H.; Ancilotto, Francesco

    2003-06-01

    The chemisorption process of methylsilane and methylchloride on the Si(1 0 0) surface is studied from first principles. Both the molecules are found to chemisorb dissociatively. The most stable adsorption structures are described. Moreover, the detailed adsorption processes are investigated by considering different possible reaction paths and evaluating the corresponding energy barriers that the molecules must overcome to dissociatively chemisorb on Si(1 0 0). Our results are compared with recent experimental observations.

  9. G54.1 + 0.3 - A new Crab-like supernova remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velusamy, T.; Becker, R. H.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution multifrequency observations with the VLA and OSRT of the small-diameter flat-spectrum radio source G54.1 + 0.3 are presented. The filled-center brightness distribution, strong polarization at 6 cm, and flat radio spectrum (alpha of about -0.13) from 0.327 to 5 GHz confirm that G54.1 + 0.3 is a Crab-like supernova remnant.

  10. Roles for lysophospholipid S1P receptors in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Kyoko; Chun, Jerold

    2011-02-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been highlighted by the efficacy of FTY720 (fingolimod), which upon phosphorylation can modulate S1P receptor activities. FTY720 has become the first oral treatment for relapsing MS that was approved by the FDA in September 2010. Phosphorylated FTY720 modulates four of the five known S1P receptors (S1P(1), S1P(3), S1P(4), and S1P(5)) at high affinity. Studies in human MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have revealed that FTY720 exposure alters lymphocyte trafficking via sequestration of auto-aggressive lymphocytes within lymphoid organs, representing the current understanding of its mechanism of action. These effects primarily involve S1P(1), which is thought to attenuate inflammatory insults in the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, FTY720's actions may involve direct effects on S1P receptor-mediated signaling in CNS cells, based upon the known expression of S1P receptors in CNS cell types relevant to MS, access to the CNS through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and in vitro studies. These data implicate lysophospholipid signaling--via S1P(1) and perhaps other lysophospholipid receptors--in therapeutic approaches to MS and potentially other diseases with immunological and/or neurological components. PMID:20979571

  11. Computer simulation of sputtering at the low index (1 0 0), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) surfaces of Ni3Al in a STEM

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Wenshen; Yu, J. J.; Gao, Fei; Bacon, David J.

    2009-09-15

    The present study is relevant to the preferential Al sputtering and/or enhancement of the Ni/Al ratio in Ni3Al observed by the scanning transmission electron microscopy fitted with a field emission gun (FEG STEM). Atomic recoil events at the low index (1 0 0), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) surfaces of Ni3Al through elastic collisions between electrons and atoms are simulated using molecular dynamics (MD) methods. The threshold energy for sputtering, Esp, and adatom creation, Ead, are determined as a function of recoil direction. Based on the MD determined Esp, the sputtering cross-sections for Ni and Al atoms in these surfaces are calculated with the previous proposed model. It is found that the sputtering cross-section for Al atoms is about 7–8 times higher than that for Ni, indicating the preferential sputtering of Al in Ni3Al, in good agreement with experiments. It is also found that the sputtering cross-sections for Ni atoms are almost the same in these three surfaces, suggesting that they are independent of surface orientation. Thus, the sputtering process is almost independent of the surface orientation in Ni3Al, as it is controlled by the sputtering of Ni atoms with a lower sputtering rate.

  12. Selective epitaxial growth of Ge(1 1 0) in trenches using the aspect ratio trapping technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destefanis, V.; Hartmann, J. M.; Baud, L.; Delaye, V.; Billon, T.

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of aspect ratio trapping in improving the crystalline quality of relaxed Ge(1 1 0) layers selectively grown in trenches surrounded by SiO 2. The 400 °C growth of a few hundreds of nanometers thick Ge layers has first been studied on blanket Si(1 1 0) surfaces then in recessed areas of Si(1 1 0) patterned wafers. The influence of 1 min H 2 anneals (in-between 600 and 850 °C) on the surface morphology, crystalline quality and strain state of blanket Ge(1 1 0) layers has notably been quantified. Intermediate annealing temperatures (750 °C) have improved the crystalline quality and increased the macroscopic strain relaxation of those layers, without too high a surface roughening. (1 1 0) Si windows (surrounded by shallow trench isolation) of patterned wafers have then been recessed by ≈300 nm using gaseous HCl, with a definite faceting and a slight roughening of the resulting cavities. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of Ge has then been implemented in those trenches, followed by 1' H 2 bakes at 750 °C. Chemical mechanical polishing has been used afterwards to get rid of the several hundreds of nm thick Ge layer overflowing on the SiO 2 areas (very reduced dishing and flat Ge(1 1 0) surfaces obtained in the end). The efficiency of aspect ratio trapping in reducing the defect density in those Ge(1 1 0) layers is not obvious. Indeed, some trapping of inclined defects in the SiO 2 sidewalls of narrow Ge(1 1 0) patterns (˜80 nm long) has been evidenced. However, the theoretically unexpected appearance of defects at 90° to the surface (i.e. normal to (1 1 0)) that were consequently not trapped was detrimental to defect density reduction. Those 90° defects may have arisen from interactions of inclined defects with one another. The reduction of the high defect density in relaxed (1 1 0) layers is thus still challenging and requires further investigations.

  13. A Sensitive CO(1-0) Survey in Pegasus-Pisces; Reducing the Dark Gas Inventory the Old-Fashioned Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnani, Loris A.; Donate, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The idea that substantial molecular gas is present in the ISM but is not detectable by the CO(1-0) emission line at 115 GHz has become fairly prevalent in the last decade. This component has come to be known as “dark gas” in the sense that it is hard to trace using the standard spectral line tracers. It is usually identified by gamma-ray or infrared emission, or via the C+ spectral line at 158 microns. However, in determining the dark gas component and comparing it to the molecular gas traced by the CO(1-0) line, existing CO surveys of varying sensitivity are employed. Even the most sensitive CO surveys typically employed in this fashion have at best 1-sigma rms values of about 0.1 K in antenna temperature. We surveyed a small region in the vicinity of the high-latitude molecular cloud MBM 55 in the CO(1-0) line using the Arizona Radio Observatory 12-meter telescope. The 1-sigma rms of our survey (0.02 – 0.03 K) was significantly better than that of typical CO surveys. We detected more CO emission than previous work had found and increased the known H2 in the region by nearly 80%, thereby reducing significantly the contribution from dark gas.

  14. EMPOWER-1.0: an Efficient Model of Planktonic ecOsystems WrittEn in R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T. R.; Gentleman, W. C.; Yool, A.

    2015-01-01

    Modelling marine ecosystems requires insight and judgement when it comes to deciding upon appropriate model structure, equations and parameterisation. Many processes are relatively poorly understood and tough decisions must be made as to how to mathematically simplify the real world. Here, we present an efficient plankton modelling testbed, EMPOWER-1.0, coded in the freely available language R. The testbed uses simple two-layer "slab" physics whereby a seasonally varying mixed layer which contains the planktonic marine ecosystem is positioned above a deep layer that contains only nutrient. As such, EMPOWER-1.0 provides a readily available and easy to use tool for evaluating model structure, formulations and parameterisation. The code is transparent and modular such that modifications and changes to model formulation are easily implemented allowing users to investigate and familiarise themselves with the inner workings of their models. It can be used either for preliminary model testing to set the stage for further work, e.g., coupling the ecosystem model to 1-D or 3-D physics, or for undertaking front line research in its own right. EMPOWER-1.0 also serves as an ideal teaching tool. In order to demonstrate the utility of EMPOWER-1.0, we carried out both a parameter tuning exercise and structural sensitivity analysis. Parameter tuning was demonstrated for four contrasting ocean sites, focusing on Station India in the North Atlantic (60° N, 20° W), highlighting both the utility of undertaking a planned sensitivity analysis for this purpose, yet also the subjectivity which nevertheless surrounds the choice of which parameters to tune. Structural sensitivity tests were then performed comparing different equations for calculating daily depth-integrated photosynthesis, as well as mortality terms for both phytoplankton and zooplankton. Regarding the calculation of daily photosynthesis, for example, results indicated that the model was relatively insensitive to the

  15. EMPOWER-1.0: an Efficient Model of Planktonic ecOsystems WrittEn in R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T. R.; Gentleman, W. C.; Yool, A.

    2015-07-01

    Modelling marine ecosystems requires insight and judgement when it comes to deciding upon appropriate model structure, equations and parameterisation. Many processes are relatively poorly understood and tough decisions must be made as to how to mathematically simplify the real world. Here, we present an efficient plankton modelling testbed, EMPOWER-1.0 (Efficient Model of Planktonic ecOsystems WrittEn in R), coded in the freely available language R. The testbed uses simple two-layer "slab" physics whereby a seasonally varying mixed layer which contains the planktonic marine ecosystem is positioned above a deep layer that contains only nutrient. As such, EMPOWER-1.0 provides a readily available and easy to use tool for evaluating model structure, formulations and parameterisation. The code is transparent and modular such that modifications and changes to model formulation are easily implemented allowing users to investigate and familiarise themselves with the inner workings of their models. It can be used either for preliminary model testing to set the stage for further work, e.g. coupling the ecosystem model to 1-D or 3-D physics, or for undertaking front line research in its own right. EMPOWER-1.0 also serves as an ideal teaching tool. In order to demonstrate the utility of EMPOWER-1.0, we implemented a simple nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) ecosystem model and carried out both a parameter tuning exercise and structural sensitivity analysis. Parameter tuning was demonstrated for four contrasting ocean sites, focusing on station BIOTRANS in the North Atlantic (47° N, 20° W), highlighting both the utility of undertaking a planned sensitivity analysis for this purpose, yet also the subjectivity which nevertheless surrounds the choice of which parameters to tune. Structural sensitivity tests were then performed comparing different equations for calculating daily depth-integrated photosynthesis, as well as mortality terms for both phytoplankton and

  16. High-Dispersion Spectroscopic Observations of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with the Subaru Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Nagashima, Masayoshi; Hitomi, Kobayashi; Decock, Alice; Jehin, Emmanuel; Boice, Daniel C.

    2014-11-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) was one of the Oort cloud comets and dynamically new. This comet was broken at its perihelion passage on UT 2013 November 28.1 (at Rh ~ 17 solar radius). We observed the comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) on UT 2013 November 15 with the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) mounted on the Subaru Telescope atop Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Its heliocentric and geocentric distances were 0.601 and 0.898 AU, respectively. We selected the slit size of 0”.5 x 9”.0 on the sky to achieve the spectral resolution of R = 72,000 from 550 to 830 nm. The total exposure time of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) was 1200 seconds. We detected many emission lines caused from radicals (e.g., CN, C2, NH2), ions (H2O+), atoms ([OI] and Na I) and also many unidentified lines in the spectra. We report the (1) the ortho-to-para abundance ratios (OPRs) of water and ammonia estimated from the high-dispersion spectra of H2O+ and NH2, (2) the green-to-red line ratio of forbidden oxygen emissions, (3) the isotopic ratios of C2 (the carbon isotopic ratio from Swan band) and CN (the carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios from red band), (4) the sodium-to-continuum ratio of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON).

  17. Planar Defect Energies and Stability of Superdislocation Core Configurations in L1(0) Titanium Aluminide (L1(0), Titanium Aluminide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen-Chuan

    1992-01-01

    The (111) planar defect energies at the ground state in L1_0 TiAl were calculated by pair potential models(PPM) and the embedded atom method (EAM). The results by the EAM show that the magnitudes of the defect energies in a (111) plane are in descending order: APB, CSF and ISF. The APB energy varies depending on its habit. The APB energy decreases when the APB undergoes cross-slip from (111) plane onto either (101) plane or (010) plane. The calculated APB energies in (111) plane, (101) plane and (010) plane were found to be 322, 237 and 131 mJ/m^2, respectively. The planar defects in the (113) plane of L1 _0 TiAl were created by a shear model using various displacement vectors; The geometries of these defects were studied and compared with those of the (111) planar defects, and their energies were also determined by the PPM and the EAM. The (113) gamma -surface calculated by the EAM shows that the metastable ISF and APB exist in the (113) plane, but the metastable CSF does not. The energies of ISF, ESF and APB were found to be 1413, 1340 and 1446 mJ/m^2, respectively. By and large, the higher energies of the planar defects in (113) plane than in (111) plane indicate that these defects in the (113) plane may be formed only at high temperatures. The energies of the dissociated super-dislocations with Burgers vector of <101) in various configurations were calculated based on the balance between the repulsive force among the partial dislocations and the attractive force originating from the planar defect energy. The results show that the obtuse stair-rod configuration without an APB possesses the lowest energy, the obtuse extended K-W type configuration, the second lowest, and the obtuse Kear-Wilsdorf type configuration, the third lowest energy among the considered configurations. In the study, the thermodynamic hierarchy of the most probable configurations of <101) type super-dislocations in L1_0 TiAl has been established.

  18. A brief introduction to BNU-HESM1.0 and its earth surface temperature simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shili; Dong, Wenjie; Chou, Jieming; Feng, Jinming; Yan, Xiaodong; Wei, Zhigang; Yuan, Wenping; Guo, Yan; Tang, Yanli; Hu, Jiacong

    2015-12-01

    Integrated assessment models and coupled earth system models both have their limitations in understanding the interactions between human activity and the physical earth system. In this paper, a new human-earth system model, BNU-HESM1.0, constructed by combining the economic and climate damage components of the Dynamic Integrated Model of Climate Change and Economy to the BNU-ESM model, is introduced. The ability of BNU-HESM1.0 in simulating the global CO2 concentration and surface temperature is also evaluated. We find that, compared to observation, BNU-HESM1.0 underestimates the global CO2 concentration and its rising trend during 1965-2005, due to the uncertainty in the economic components. However, the surface temperature simulated by BNU-HESM1.0 is much closer to observation, resulting from the overestimates of surface temperature by the original BNU-ESM model. The uncertainty of BNU-ESM falls within the range of present earth system uncertainty, so it is the economic and climate damage component of BNU-HESM1.0 that needs to be improved through further study. However, the main purpose of this paper is to introduce a new approach to investigate the complex relationship between human activity and the earth system. It is hoped that it will inspire further ideas that prove valuable in guiding human activities appropriate for a sustainable future climate.

  19. The growth and structure of titanium dioxide films on a Re(1 0 -1 0) surface: Rutile(0 1 1)-(2 × 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, D.; Zizak, I.; Darowski, N.; Magkoev, T. T.; Christmann, K.

    2006-07-01

    Titanium dioxide films were grown on Re(1 0 -1 0) by Ti vapor deposition in oxygen at T = 830 K and studied by means of low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The Ti oxide stoichiometry was determined by XPS as Ti:O = 1:2, with the Ti oxidation state (4+). The TiO 2 growth was monitored by means of LEED as a function of film thickness. Extending the coverage from the submonolayer into the multilayer regime gives rise to a p(2 × 2) pattern, a (poorly ordered) (1 × 1), and, finally, a stable (2 × 2) structure, the latter being associated with a homogeneous TiO 2 phase. For normal electron incidence, the (2 × 2) LEED pattern exhibits systematically extinguished beams at ( n ± 1/2, 0) positions, indicating a glide mirror plane. The pg(2 × 2) structure could be explained by both a rutile(0 1 1)-(2 × 1) reconstructed surface and a bulk truncated brookite(0 0 1) surface. Faceting phenomena, i.e. running LEED spots, observed with thin TiO 2 films point to the formation of a rutile(0 1 1)-(2 × 1) surface with two domains and {0 1 1}-(2 × 1) facets and rule out the brookite alternative. Confirmation of this assignment was obtained by an XRD analysis performed at the Berlin synchrotron facility BESSY.

  20. Synthesis and Chemistry of Bicyclo[4.1.0]hept-1,6-ene.

    PubMed

    Billups, W. E.; Luo, Weimei; Lee, Gon-Ann; Chee, Jennifer; Arney, Benny E.; Wiberg, K. B.; Artis, Dean R.

    1996-01-26

    Bicyclo[4.1.0]hept-1,6-ene has been generated by elimination of 1-chloro-2-(trimethysilyl)bicyclo[4.1.0]heptane in the gas phase over solid fluoride at 25 degrees C. The cyclopropene dimerizes by a rapid ene reaction forming two diastereomeric cyclopropenes. In tetrahydrofuran or chloroform the ene dimers couple to form a single crystalline triene tetramer, whereas a mixture of tricyclohexane tetramers is formed when the neat dimers are allowed to warm to room temperature. Oxidation by dimethyldioxirane or dioxygen gives carbonyl products. Quantum mechanical calculations yielded an increase in strain of approximately 17 kcal/mol over that for 1,2-dimethylcyclopropene. The potential enegy barrier to flexing (folding) along the fused double bond of bicyclo[4.1.0]hept-1,6-ene is only approximately 1 kcal/mol at the highest level of theory investigated. PMID:11667002

  1. Hydrogen adsorption and diffusion around Si(0 0 1)/Si(1 1 0) corners in nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard; Brázdová, Veronika; Bowler, David R

    2014-07-23

    While the diffusion of hydrogen on silicon surfaces has been relatively well characterized, both experimentally and theoretically, diffusion around corners between surfaces, as will be found on nanowires and nanostructures, has not been studied. Motivated by nanostructure fabrication by Patterned Atomic Layer Epitaxy, we present a density functional theory study of the diffusion of hydrogen around the edge formed by the orthogonal (0 0 1) and (1 1 0) surfaces in silicon. We find that the barrier from (0 0 1) to (1 1 0) is approximately 0.3 eV lower than from (1 1 0) to (0 0 1), and that it is comparable to diffusion between rows on a clean surface, with no significant effect on the hydrogen patterns at the growth temperatures used. PMID:24957137

  2. Ultrathin films of Cu on Ru(1 0 1bar 0): Flat bilayers and mesa islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brona, J.; Wasielewski, R.; Ciszewski, A.

    2012-10-01

    The Cu/Ru(1 0 1bar 0) adsorption system was investigated by STM, LEED and AES. Cu was deposited at room temperature (RT) and 800 K, with the coverage ranging from a fraction up to 4 bilayers (BL). The first two Cu BL grow in the bilayer-by-bilayer mode. Their structure is pseudomorphic and does not depend on the temperature. For coverage higher than 2 BL, Cu deposited at elevated temperature forms three-dimensional islands in mesa shape with Cu(1 1 1) facets on their tops. The facets and the substrate are epitaxially oriented with Cu(1 1 1)||Ru(1 0 1bar 0) and Cu[0 1 1bar]||Ru[1 2bar 1 0]. Obtained results can be helpful in search for an optimal method of Cu deposition onto Ru in the damascene process in microelectronics, and could be also of interest to catalysis.

  3. Resonating Valence Bond states for low dimensional S=1 antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng-Xin; Zhou, Yi; Ng, Tai-Kai

    2014-03-01

    We study S = 1 spin liquid states in low dimensions. We show that the resonating-valence-bond (RVB) picture of S = 1 / 2 spin liquid state can be generalized to S = 1 case. For S = 1 system, a many-body singlet (with even site number) can be decomposed into superposition of products of two-body singlets. In other words, the product states of two-body singlets, called the singlet pair states (SPSs), are over complete to span the Hilbert space of many-body singlets. Furthermore, we generalized fermionic representation and the corresponding mean field theory and Gutzwiller projected stats to S = 1 models. We applied our theory to study 1D anti-ferromagnetic bilinear-biquadratic model and show that both the ground states (including the phase transition point) and the excited states can be understood excellently well within the framework. Our method can be applied to 2D S = 1 antiferromagnets.

  4. Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Breadboard (PLSS 1.0) Development and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Matt R.; Watts, Carly

    2011-01-01

    A multi-year effort has been carried out at NASA-JSC to develop an advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) PLSS design intended to further the current state of the art by increasing operational flexibility, reducing consumables, and increasing robustness. Previous efforts have focused on modeling and analyzing the advanced PLSS architecture, as well as developing key enabling technologies. Like the current International Space Station (ISS) Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) PLSS, the advanced PLSS comprises of three subsystems required to sustain the crew during EVA including the Thermal, Ventilation, and Oxygen Subsystems. This multi-year effort has culminated in the construction and operation of PLSS 1.0, a test rig that simulates full functionality of the advanced PLSS design. PLSS 1.0 integrates commercial off the shelf hardware with prototype technology development components, including the primary and secondary oxygen regulators, ventilation loop fan, Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swingbed, and Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME). Testing accumulated 239 hours over 45 days, while executing 172 test points. Specific PLSS 1.0 test objectives assessed during this testing include: confirming key individual components perform in a system level test as they have performed during component level testing; identifying unexpected system-level interactions; operating PLSS 1.0 in nominal steady-state EVA modes to baseline subsystem performance with respect to metabolic rate, ventilation loop pressure and flow rate, and environmental conditions; simulating nominal transient EVA operational scenarios; simulating contingency EVA operational scenarios; and further evaluating individual technology development components. Successful testing of the PLSS 1.0 provided a large database of test results that characterize system level and component performance. With the exception of several minor anomalies, the PLSS 1.0 test rig performed as expected; furthermore, many system

  5. Magnetic and electronic properties of bulk and clusters of FePt L1(0).

    PubMed

    Barreteau, Cyrille; Spanjaard, Daniel

    2012-10-10

    An efficient tight-binding model including magnetism and spin-orbit interactions is extended to metallic alloys. The tight-binding parameters are determined from a fit to bulk ab initio calculations of each metal and rules are given to obtain the heteroatomic parameters. The spin and orbital magnetic moments as well as the magneto-crystalline anisotropy are derived. We apply this method to bulk FePt L1(0) and the results are compared with success to ab initio results where available. Finally this model is applied to a set of FePt L1(0) clusters and physical trends are derived. PMID:22987868

  6. caGrid 1.0: a Grid enterprise architecture for cancer research.

    PubMed

    Oster, Scott; Langella, Stephen; Hastings, Shannon; Ervin, David; Madduri, Ravi; Kurc, Tahsin; Siebenlist, Frank; Covitz, Peter; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Foster, Ian; Saltz, Joel

    2007-01-01

    caGrid is the core Grid architecture of the NCI-sponsored cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) program. The current release, caGrid version 1.0, is developed as the production Grid software infrastructure of caBIG. Based on feedback from adopters of the previous version (caGrid 0.5), it has been significantly enhanced with new features and improvements to existing components. This paper presents an overview of caGrid 1.0, its main components, and enhancements over caGrid 0.5. PMID:18693901

  7. CRUST1.0: An Updated Global Model of Earth's Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laske, G.; Masters, G.; Ma, Z.; Pasyanos, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    We present an updated global model of Earth's crustal structure. The new model, CRUST1.0, serves as starting model in a more comprehensive effort to compile a global model of Earth's crust and lithosphere, LITHO1.0. CRUST1.0 is defined on a 1-degree grid and is based on a new database of crustal thickness data from active source seismic studies as well as from receiver function studies. In areas where such constraints are still missing, for example in Antarctica, crustal thicknesses are estimated using gravity constraints. The compilation of the new crustal model initially follows the philosophy of the widely used crustal model CRUST2.0 (Bassin et al., 2000; http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~gabi/crust2.html). Crustal types representing properties in the crystalline crust are assigned according to basement age or tectonic setting. The classification of the latter loosely follows that of an updated map by Artemieva and Mooney (2001) (http://www.lithosphere.info). Statistical averages of crustal properties in each of these crustal types are extrapolated to areas with no local seismic or gravity constraint. In each 1-degree cell, boundary depth, compressional and shear velocity as well as density is given for 8 layers: water, ice, 3-layer sediment cover and upper, middle and lower crystalline crust. Topography, bathymetry and ice cover are taken from ETOPO1. The sediment cover is essentially that of our sediment model (Laske and Masters, 1997; http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~sediment.html), with several near-coastal updates. In the sediment cover and the crystalline crust, updated scaling relationships are used to assign compressional and shear velocity as well as density. In an initial step toward LITHO1.0, the model is then validated against our new global group velocity maps for Rayleigh and Love waves, particularly at frequencies between 30 and 40 mHz. CRUST1.0 is then adjusted in areas of extreme misfit where we suspect deficiencies in the crustal model. These currently include

  8. Practical PERCIST: A Simplified Guide to PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.0.

    PubMed

    O, Joo Hyun; Lodge, Martin A; Wahl, Richard L

    2016-08-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (PERCIST 1.0) describes in detail methods for controlling the quality of fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET imaging conditions to ensure the comparability of PET images from different time points to allow quantitative expression of the changes in PET measurements and assessment of overall treatment response in PET studies. The steps for actual application of PERCIST are summarized. Several issues from PERCIST 1.0 that appear to require clarification, such as measurement of size and definition of unequivocal progression, also are addressed. (©) RSNA, 2016. PMID:26909647

  9. Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Breadboard (PLSS 1.0) Development and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Carly A.; Vogel, Matt

    2012-01-01

    A multi-year effort has been carried out at the Johnson Space Center to develop an advanced EVA PLSS design intended to further the current state of the art by increasing operational flexibility, reducing consumables, and increasing robustness. This multi-year effort has culminated in the construction and operation of PLSS 1.0, a test rig that simulates full functionality of the advanced PLSS design. PLSS 1.0 integrates commercial off-the-shelf hardware with prototype technology development components, including the primary and secondary oxygen regulators, ventilation loop fan, Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swingbed, and Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME). PLSS 1.0 was tested from June 17th through September 30th, 2011. Testing accumulated 233 hours over 45 days, while executing 119 test points. An additional 164 hours of operational time were accrued during the test series, bringing the total operational time for PLSS 1.0 testing to 397 hours. Specific PLSS 1.0 test objectives assessed during this testing include: (1) Confirming prototype components perform in a system level test as they have performed during component level testing, (2) Identifying unexpected system-level interactions (3) Operating PLSS 1.0 in nominal steady-state EVA modes to baseline subsystem performance with respect to metabolic rate, ventilation loop pressure and flow rate, and environmental conditions (4) Simulating nominal transient EVA operational scenarios (5) Simulating contingency EVA operational scenarios (6) Further evaluating prototype technology development components Successful testing of the PLSS 1.0 provided a large database of test results that characterize system level and component performance. With the exception of several minor anomalies, the PLSS 1.0 test rig performed as expected. Documented anomalies and observations include: (1) Ventilation loop fan controller issues at high fan speeds (near 70,000 rpm, whereas the fan speed during nominal operations would be closer

  10. 26 CFR 1.414(s)-1 - Definition of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prior regulation provisions of § 1.414(s)-1T. (See § 1.414(s)-1T as contained in the CFR edition revised... to the extent necessary to satisfy the requirements of 29 CFR 2530.204-2(d) (regarding double... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of compensation. 1.414(s)-1 Section...

  11. Initial clinical experience with a radiation oncology dedicated open 1.0T MR-simulation.

    PubMed

    Glide-Hurst, Carri K; Wen, Ning; Hearshen, David; Kim, Joshua; Pantelic, Milan; Zhao, Bo; Mancell, Tina; Levin, Kenneth; Movsas, Benjamin; Chetty, Indrin J; Siddiqui, M Salim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe our experience with 1.0T MR-SIM including characterization, quality assurance (QA) program, and features necessary for treatment planning. Staffing, safety, and patient screening procedures were developed. Utilization of an external laser positioning system (ELPS) and MR-compatible couchtop were illustrated. Spatial and volumetric analyses were conducted between CT-SIM and MR-SIM using a stereotactic QA phantom with known landmarks and volumes. Magnetic field inhomogeneity was determined using phase difference analysis. System-related, in-plane distortion was evaluated and temporal changes were assessed. 3D distortion was characterized for regions of interest (ROIs) 5-20 cm away from isocenter. American College of Radiology (ACR) recommended tests and impact of ELPS on image quality were analyzed. Combined ultrashort echotime Dixon (UTE/Dixon) sequence was evaluated. Amplitude-triggered 4D MRI was implemented using a motion phantom (2-10 phases, ~ 2 cm excursion, 3-5 s periods) and a liver cancer patient. Duty cycle, acquisition time, and excursion were evaluated between maximum intensity projection (MIP) datasets. Less than 2% difference from expected was obtained between CT-SIM and MR-SIM volumes, with a mean distance of < 0.2 mm between landmarks. Magnetic field inhomogeneity was < 2 ppm. 2D distortion was < 2 mm over 28.6-33.6 mm of isocenter. Within 5 cm radius of isocenter, mean 3D geometric distortion was 0.59 ± 0.32 mm (maximum = 1.65 mm) and increased 10-15 cm from isocenter (mean = 1.57 ± 1.06 mm, maximum = 6.26 mm). ELPS interference was within the operating frequency of the scanner and was characterized by line patterns and a reduction in signal-to-noise ratio (4.6-12.6% for TE = 50-150 ms). Image quality checks were within ACR recommendations. UTE/Dixon sequences yielded detectability between bone and air. For 4D MRI, faster breathing periods had higher duty cycles than slow (50.4% (3 s) and 39.4% (5 s), p

  12. Geometric modeling of homoepitaxial CVD diamond growth: I. The {1 0 0}{1 1 1}{1 1 0}{1 1 3} system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, F.; Bonnin, X.; Achard, J.; Brinza, O.; Michau, A.; Gicquel, A.

    2008-01-01

    Plasma-assisted CVD homoepitaxial diamond growth is a process that must satisfy many stringent requirements to meet industrial applications, particularly in high-power electronics. Purity control and crystalline quality of the obtained samples are of paramount importance and their optimization is a subject of active research. In the process of such studies, we have obtained high purity CVD diamond monocrystals with unusual morphologies, namely with apparent {1 1 3} stable faces. This phenomenon has led us to examine the process of CVD diamond growth and build up a 3D geometrical model, presented here, describing the film growth as a function of time. The model has been able to successfully describe the morphology of our obtained crystals and can be used as a predictive tool to predetermine the shape and size of a diamond crystal grown in a given process configuration. This renders accessible control of desirable properties such as largest usable diamond surface area and/or film thickness, before the cutting and polishing manufacture steps take place. The two latter steps are more sensitive to the geometry of the growth sectors, which will be addressed in a companion paper. Our model, applicable to the growth of any cubic lattice material, establishes a complete mapping of the final morphology state of growing diamond, as a function of the growth rates of the crystalline planes considered, namely {1 0 0}, {1 1 1}, {1 1 0}, and {1 1 3} planes, all of which have been observed experimentally in diamond films. The model makes no claim as to the stability of the obtained faces, such as the occurrence of non-epitaxial crystallites or twinning. It is also possible to deduce transient behavior of the crystal morphology as growth time is increased. The model conclusions are presented in the form of a series of diagrams, which trace the existence (and dominance) boundaries of each face type, in presence of the others, and where each boundary crossing represent a topology

  13. Patriot Script 1.0.13 User Guide for PEM 1.3.2

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, Timothy James; Kubicek, Deborah Ann; Stroud, Phillip David; Cuellar-Hengartner, Leticia; Mathis, Mark

    2015-11-02

    This document provides an updated user guide for Patriot Script Version 1.0.13, for release with PEM 1.3.1 (LAUR-1422817) that adds description and instructions for the new excursion capability (see section 4.5.1).

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VCC 2062 CO(1-0) data cubes (Lisenfeld+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenfeld, U.; Braine, J.; Duc, P. A.; Boquien, M.; Brinks, E.; Bournaud, F.; Lelli, F.; Charmandaris, V.

    2016-04-01

    The two fits files contain the data cube of CO(1-0) observed with Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Both cubes were obtained with natural weighting and with different taperings. The velocity resolution is 1.8km/s. More details about the data acquisition and reduction are in the paper. (2 data files).

  15. SAGE FOR MACINTOSH (MSAGE) VERSION 1.0 SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE - USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The guide provides instructions for using the Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE) for Macintosh, version 1.0. The guide assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating a
    Macintosh personal computer under the System 7.0 (or higher) operating system. SAGE for ...

  16. SAGE FOR WINDOWS (WSAGE) VERSION 1.0 SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE - USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The guide provides instructions for using the Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE) for Windows, version 1.0. The guide assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating Windows 3.1 (or higher) on a personal computer under the DOS 5.0 (or higher) operating system. ...

  17. 1.0 Mm Maps and Radial Density Distributions of Southern Hii/molecular Cloud Complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, L. H.; Frogel, J. A.; Gezar, D. Y.; Hauser, M. G.

    1980-01-01

    Several 1.0 continuum mapping observations were made of seven southern hemisphere h12/molecular cloud complexes with 65 arcsec resolution. The radial density distribution of the clouds with central luminosity sources was determined observationally. Strong similarities in morphology and general physical conditions were found to exist among all of the southern clouds in the sample.

  18. HAP-PRO USER'S MANUAL (FOR USE WITH VERSION 1.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is a user's manual for Version 1.0 of EPA's Hazardous Air Pollutant Program (HAP-PRO), and was prepared to assist permit engineers in reviewing applications for control of air toxics by calculating the capital and annual costs for six volatile organic compound (VOC) ...

  19. STATE ACID RAIN RESEARCH AND SCREENING SYSTEM - VERSION 1.0 USER'S MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a user's manual that describes Version 1.0 of EPA's STate Acid Rain Research and Screening System (STARRSS), developed to assist utility regulatory commissions in reviewing utility acid rain compliance plans. It is a screening tool that is based on scenario analysis...

  20. Benchmark Dose Software (BMDS) Development and Maintenance Toxicodiffusion Model (External Review Draft, Version 1.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is intended to provide an overview of beta version 1.0 of the implementation of a model of repeated measures data referred to as the Toxicodiffusion model. The implementation described here represents the first steps towards integration of the Toxicodiffusion model in...

  1. A Review of DIMPACK Version 1.0: Conditional Covariance-Based Test Dimensionality Analysis Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Nina; Han, Kyung T.; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    2013-01-01

    DIMPACK Version 1.0 for assessing test dimensionality based on a nonparametric conditional covariance approach is reviewed. This software was originally distributed by Assessment Systems Corporation and now can be freely accessed online. The software consists of Windows-based interfaces of three components: DIMTEST, DETECT, and CCPROX/HAC, which…

  2. Space Suit Portable Life Support System Test Bed (PLSS 1.0) Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Carly; Campbell, Colin; Vogel, Matthew; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    A multi-year effort has been carried out at NASA-JSC to develop an advanced extra-vehicular activity Portable Life Support System (PLSS) design intended to further the current state of the art by increasing operational flexibility, reducing consumables, and increasing robustness. Previous efforts have focused on modeling and analyzing the advanced PLSS architecture, as well as developing key enabling technologies. Like the current International Space Station Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit PLSS, the advanced PLSS comprises three subsystems required to sustain the crew during extra-vehicular activity including the Thermal, Ventilation, and Oxygen Subsystems. This multi-year effort has culminated in the construction and operation of PLSS 1.0, a test bed that simulates full functionality of the advanced PLSS design. PLSS 1.0 integrates commercial off the shelf hardware with prototype technology development components, including the primary and secondary oxygen regulators, Ventilation Subsystem fan, Rapid Cycle Amine swingbed carbon dioxide and water vapor removal device, and Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator heat rejection device. The overall PLSS 1.0 test objective was to demonstrate the capability of the Advanced PLSS to provide key life support functions including suit pressure regulation, carbon dioxide and water vapor removal, thermal control and contingency purge operations. Supplying oxygen was not one of the specific life support functions because the PLSS 1.0 test was not oxygen rated. Nitrogen was used for the working gas. Additional test objectives were to confirm PLSS technology development components performance within an integrated test bed, identify unexpected system level interactions, and map the PLSS 1.0 performance with respect to key variables such as crewmember metabolic rate and suit pressure. Successful PLSS 1.0 testing completed 168 test points over 44 days of testing and produced a large database of test results that characterize system level

  3. Orientation relationships of copper crystals on sapphire (1 0 1¯ 0) m-plane and (1 0 1¯ 2) r-plane substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatain, Dominique; Curiotto, Stefano; Wynblatt, Paul; Meltzman, Hila; Kaplan, Wayne D.; Rohrer, Gregory S.

    2015-05-01

    Copper films deposited on m- and r-plane sapphire substrates have been dewetted in either the solid or the liquid state, and equilibrated at 1253 K. The orientation relationships (ORs) between the dewetted copper crystals and the sapphire substrates have been investigated by electron backscatter diffraction. In addition, the shape of the copper/sapphire interface has been studied by scanning electron microscopy. Although the as-deposited films develop {1 1 1} surfaces parallel to both substrates, after solid state dewetting the copper crystals on the m-plane substrate are found to change their interface plane from Cu{1 1 1}||Al2O3(m-plane) to Cu{1 1 1}|| Al2O3 (a-plane), and after liquid state dewetting the preferred OR of copper on both m- and r-plane substrates may be expressed as: Cu{1 1 1}<1 1 0> || Al2O3 {1 1 2bar 0}<0 0 0 1>. This OR is identical to that previously observed for copper on the sapphire a-plane.

  4. Radiation hardness assessment of the charge-integrating hybrid pixel detector JUNGFRAU 1.0 for photon science.

    PubMed

    Jungmann-Smith, J H; Bergamaschi, A; Brückner, M; Cartier, S; Dinapoli, R; Greiffenberg, D; Jaggi, A; Maliakal, D; Mayilyan, D; Medjoubi, K; Mezza, D; Mozzanica, A; Ramilli, M; Ruder, Ch; Schädler, L; Schmitt, B; Shi, X; Tinti, G

    2015-12-01

    JUNGFRAU (adJUstiNg Gain detector FoR the Aramis User station) is a two-dimensional hybrid pixel detector for photon science applications in free electron lasers, particularly SwissFEL, and synchrotron light sources. JUNGFRAU is an automatic gain switching, charge-integrating detector which covers a dynamic range of more than 10(4) photons of an energy of 12 keV with a good linearity, uniformity of response, and spatial resolving power. The JUNGFRAU 1.0 application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) features a 256 × 256 pixel matrix of 75 × 75 μm(2) pixels and is bump-bonded to a 320 μm thick Si sensor. Modules of 2 × 4 chips cover an area of about 4 × 8 cm(2). Readout rates in excess of 2 kHz enable linear count rate capabilities of 20 MHz (at 12 keV) and 50 MHz (at 5 keV). The tolerance of JUNGFRAU to radiation is a key issue to guarantee several years of operation at free electron lasers and synchrotrons. The radiation hardness of JUNGFRAU 1.0 is tested with synchrotron radiation up to 10 MGy of delivered dose. The effect of radiation-induced changes on the noise, baseline, gain, and gain switching is evaluated post-irradiation for both the ASIC and the hybridized assembly. The bare JUNGFRAU 1.0 chip can withstand doses as high as 10 MGy with minor changes to its noise and a reduction in the preamplifier gain. The hybridized assembly, in particular the sensor, is affected by the photon irradiation which mainly shows as an increase in the leakage current. Self-healing of the system is investigated during a period of 11 weeks after the delivery of the radiation dose. Annealing radiation-induced changes by bake-out at 100 °C is investigated. It is concluded that the JUNGFRAU 1.0 pixel is sufficiently radiation-hard for its envisioned applications at SwissFEL and synchrotron beam lines. PMID:26724009

  5. Radiation hardness assessment of the charge-integrating hybrid pixel detector JUNGFRAU 1.0 for photon science

    SciTech Connect

    Jungmann-Smith, J. H. Bergamaschi, A.; Brückner, M.; Dinapoli, R.; Greiffenberg, D.; Jaggi, A.; Maliakal, D.; Mayilyan, D.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Ramilli, M.; Ruder, Ch.; Schädler, L.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Tinti, G.; Cartier, S.; Medjoubi, K.

    2015-12-15

    JUNGFRAU (adJUstiNg Gain detector FoR the Aramis User station) is a two-dimensional hybrid pixel detector for photon science applications in free electron lasers, particularly SwissFEL, and synchrotron light sources. JUNGFRAU is an automatic gain switching, charge-integrating detector which covers a dynamic range of more than 10{sup 4} photons of an energy of 12 keV with a good linearity, uniformity of response, and spatial resolving power. The JUNGFRAU 1.0 application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) features a 256 × 256 pixel matrix of 75 × 75 μm{sup 2} pixels and is bump-bonded to a 320 μm thick Si sensor. Modules of 2 × 4 chips cover an area of about 4 × 8 cm{sup 2}. Readout rates in excess of 2 kHz enable linear count rate capabilities of 20 MHz (at 12 keV) and 50 MHz (at 5 keV). The tolerance of JUNGFRAU to radiation is a key issue to guarantee several years of operation at free electron lasers and synchrotrons. The radiation hardness of JUNGFRAU 1.0 is tested with synchrotron radiation up to 10 MGy of delivered dose. The effect of radiation-induced changes on the noise, baseline, gain, and gain switching is evaluated post-irradiation for both the ASIC and the hybridized assembly. The bare JUNGFRAU 1.0 chip can withstand doses as high as 10 MGy with minor changes to its noise and a reduction in the preamplifier gain. The hybridized assembly, in particular the sensor, is affected by the photon irradiation which mainly shows as an increase in the leakage current. Self-healing of the system is investigated during a period of 11 weeks after the delivery of the radiation dose. Annealing radiation-induced changes by bake-out at 100 °C is investigated. It is concluded that the JUNGFRAU 1.0 pixel is sufficiently radiation-hard for its envisioned applications at SwissFEL and synchrotron beam lines.

  6. Radiation hardness assessment of the charge-integrating hybrid pixel detector JUNGFRAU 1.0 for photon science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Bergamaschi, A.; Brückner, M.; Cartier, S.; Dinapoli, R.; Greiffenberg, D.; Jaggi, A.; Maliakal, D.; Mayilyan, D.; Medjoubi, K.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Ramilli, M.; Ruder, Ch.; Schädler, L.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Tinti, G.

    2015-12-01

    JUNGFRAU (adJUstiNg Gain detector FoR the Aramis User station) is a two-dimensional hybrid pixel detector for photon science applications in free electron lasers, particularly SwissFEL, and synchrotron light sources. JUNGFRAU is an automatic gain switching, charge-integrating detector which covers a dynamic range of more than 104 photons of an energy of 12 keV with a good linearity, uniformity of response, and spatial resolving power. The JUNGFRAU 1.0 application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) features a 256 × 256 pixel matrix of 75 × 75 μm2 pixels and is bump-bonded to a 320 μm thick Si sensor. Modules of 2 × 4 chips cover an area of about 4 × 8 cm2. Readout rates in excess of 2 kHz enable linear count rate capabilities of 20 MHz (at 12 keV) and 50 MHz (at 5 keV). The tolerance of JUNGFRAU to radiation is a key issue to guarantee several years of operation at free electron lasers and synchrotrons. The radiation hardness of JUNGFRAU 1.0 is tested with synchrotron radiation up to 10 MGy of delivered dose. The effect of radiation-induced changes on the noise, baseline, gain, and gain switching is evaluated post-irradiation for both the ASIC and the hybridized assembly. The bare JUNGFRAU 1.0 chip can withstand doses as high as 10 MGy with minor changes to its noise and a reduction in the preamplifier gain. The hybridized assembly, in particular the sensor, is affected by the photon irradiation which mainly shows as an increase in the leakage current. Self-healing of the system is investigated during a period of 11 weeks after the delivery of the radiation dose. Annealing radiation-induced changes by bake-out at 100 °C is investigated. It is concluded that the JUNGFRAU 1.0 pixel is sufficiently radiation-hard for its envisioned applications at SwissFEL and synchrotron beam lines.

  7. caGrid 1.0: An Enterprise Grid Infrastructure for Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Scott; Langella, Stephen; Hastings, Shannon; Ervin, David; Madduri, Ravi; Phillips, Joshua; Kurc, Tahsin; Siebenlist, Frank; Covitz, Peter; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Foster, Ian; Saltz, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Objective To develop software infrastructure that will provide support for discovery, characterization, integrated access, and management of diverse and disparate collections of information sources, analysis methods, and applications in biomedical research. Design An enterprise Grid software infrastructure, called caGrid version 1.0 (caGrid 1.0), has been developed as the core Grid architecture of the NCI-sponsored cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG™) program. It is designed to support a wide range of use cases in basic, translational, and clinical research, including 1) discovery, 2) integrated and large-scale data analysis, and 3) coordinated study. Measurements The caGrid is built as a Grid software infrastructure and leverages Grid computing technologies and the Web Services Resource Framework standards. It provides a set of core services, toolkits for the development and deployment of new community provided services, and application programming interfaces for building client applications. Results The caGrid 1.0 was released to the caBIG community in December 2006. It is built on open source components and caGrid source code is publicly and freely available under a liberal open source license. The core software, associated tools, and documentation can be downloaded from the following URL: https://cabig.nci.nih.gov/workspaces/Architecture/caGrid. Conclusions While caGrid 1.0 is designed to address use cases in cancer research, the requirements associated with discovery, analysis and integration of large scale data, and coordinated studies are common in other biomedical fields. In this respect, caGrid 1.0 is the realization of a framework that can benefit the entire biomedical community. PMID:18096909

  8. Precision polarizability measurements of atomic cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Hannah; Kortyna, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    We report hyperfine-resolved scalar polarizabilities for cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states using resonant two-photon spectroscopy. Two single-mode, external-cavity diode lasers drive the 6 s 2S1 / 2 --> 6 p 2P1 / 2 --> ns 2S1 / 2 transition (n = 8 or 9). Both laser beams are split and counter-propagate through an effusive beam and a vapor cell. An electric field applied across two parallel plates imposes Stark shifts on the ns 2S1 / 2 levels in the effusive beam. Electric-field strengths are measured in situ. The laser frequency is calibrated in the vapor cell using a phase modulation technique, with the modulation frequency referenced to the ground-state hyperfine splitting of atomic rubidium. Our measured 8 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 38370 +/- 380 a03, agrees with previous theory and experiments. Our measured 9 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 150700 +/- 1100 a03, agrees within two sigma of theory, but we are unaware of previous measurements. We also verify that these polarizabilities are independent of the hyperfine levels, placing upper limits on the differential polarizabilities of 200 +/- 260 a03 for the 8 s 2S1 / 2 state and 490 +/- 450 a03 for the 9 s 2S1 / 2 state. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-0653107.

  9. Raman spectrum of bacteriochlorophyll a in the S1 state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Ei-ichi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Koyama, Yasushi

    1991-07-01

    The S 1 Raman spectrum of bacteriochlorophyll a is reported for the first time. A one-color experiment using the 351 nm picosecond pulses (duration 50 ps and repetition 1 kHz) for tetrahydrofuran solution detected a transient species, which showed distinct Raman lines at 1567, 1409 and 1320 cm -1 and weak profiles around 1169, 1092, 1051 and 794 cm -1. The other one-color experiment using the 355 nm nanosecond pulses (duration 12 ns and repetition 10 Hz) detected the T 1 species reported previously showing Raman lines at 1578 and 1330 cm -1. Thus, the newly identified transient species, which was pumped and probed within 50 ps, is assigned to S 1.

  10. A density functional study of NO2 adsorption on perfect and defective MgO (1 0 0) and Li/MgO (1 0 0) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eid, Kh. M.; Ammar, H. Y.

    2012-07-01

    The density functional theory (DFT) in combination with embedded cluster model have been used to study the adsorption of nitrogen dioxide molecule (NO2) on Li atom deposited on the surfaces of metal oxide MgO (1 0 0) on both anionic (O2-) and defect (Fs and Fs+-centers) sites. The adsorption energy (Eads) of NO2 molecule (N-down as well as O-down) in different positions on O-2, Fs and Fs+-sites is considered. The geometrical optimizations have been done for the additive materials and MgO substrate surfaces. The formation energies have been evaluated for Fs and Fs+ of MgO substrate surfaces. The ionization potential (IP) and electron affinity (eA) for defect free and defect containing surfaces have been calculated. The adsorption properties of NO2 are analyzed in terms of the adsorption energy, the electron donation (basicity), the elongation of Nsbnd O bond length and the atomic charges on adsorbed materials. The densities of states (DOS) have been calculated and used for examining the adsorption properties. The NO2 molecule is dissociated due to the interaction with the defective substrate surface (Fs-site) producing an oxygen atom strongly chemisorbed to the vacancy of the substrate and gaseous NO far away from the surface. The presence of the Li atom increases the surface chemistry of the anionic O2--site of MgO substrate surfaces (converted from physisorption to chemisorption). On the other hand, the presence of the Li atom decreases the surface chemistry of the Fs and Fs+-sites of MgO substrate surfaces. Generally, the NO2 molecule is strongly adsorbed (chemisorption) on the MgO substrate surfaces containing Fs and Fs+-centers.

  11. Discovery of a pre-existing molecular filament associated with supernova remnant G127.1+0.5

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xin; Yang, Ji; Fang, Min; Su, Yang

    2014-08-20

    We performed millimeter observations in CO lines toward the supernova remnant (SNR) G127.1+0.5. We found a molecular filament at 4-13 km s{sup –1} consisting of two distinct parts: a straight part coming out of the remnant region and a curved part in the remnant region. The curved part is coincides well with the bright SNR shell detected in 1420 MHz radio continuum and mid-infrared observations in the northeastern region. In addition, redshifted line wing broadening is found only in the curved part of the molecular filament, which indicates a physical interaction. These provide strong evidences, for the first time, to confirm the association between an SNR and a pre-existing long molecular filament. Multi-band observations in the northeastern remnant shell could be explained by the interaction between the remnant shock and the dense molecular filament. RADEX radiative transfer modeling of the quiet and shocked components yield physical conditions consistent with the passage of a non-dissociative J-type shock. We argue that the curved part of the filament is fully engulfed by the remnant's forward shock. A spatial correlation between aggregated young stellar objects (YSOs) and the adjacent molecular filament close to the SNR is also found, which could be related to the progenitor's activity.

  12. RGUI 1.0, New Graphical User Interface for RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Mesina, George Lee; Galbraith, James Andrew

    1999-04-01

    With the advent of three-dimensional modeling in nuclear safety analysis codes, the need has arisen for a new display methodology. Currently, analysts either sort through voluminous numerical displays of data at points in a region, or view color coded interpretations of the data on a two-dimensional rendition of the plant. RGUI 1.0 provides 3D capability for displaying data. The 3D isometric hydrodynamic image is built automatically from the input deck without additional input from the user. Standard view change features allow the user to focus on only the important data. Familiar features that are standard to the nuclear industry, such as run, interact, and monitor, are included. RGUI 1.0 reduces the difficulty of analyzing complex three dimensional plants.

  13. RGUI 1.0, New Graphical User Interface for RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect

    G. L. Mesina; J. Galbraith

    1999-04-01

    With the advent of three-dimensional modeling in nuclear safety analysis codes, the need has arisen for a new display methodology. Currently, analysts either sort through voluminous numerical displays of data at points in a region, or view color coded interpretations of the data on a two-dimensional rendition of the plant. RGUI 1.0 provides 3D capability for displaying data. The 3D isometric hydrodynamic image is built automatically from the input deck without additional input from the user. Standard view change features allow the user to focus on only the important data. Familiar features that are standard to the nuclear industry, such as run, interact, and monitor, are included. RGUI 1.0 reduces the difficulty of analyzing complex three-dimensional plants.

  14. The Titan -1:0 Nodal Bending Wave in Saturn's Ring C.

    PubMed

    Rosen, P A; Lissauer, J J

    1988-08-01

    The most prominent oscillatory feature observed in the Voyager 1 radio occultation of Saturn's rings is identified as a one-armed spiral bending wave excited by Titan's -1:0 nodal inner vertical resonance. Ring partides in a bending wave move in coherently inclined orbits, warping the local mean plane of the rings. The Titan -1:0 wave is the only known bending wave that propagates outward, away from Saturn, and the only spiral wave yet observed in which the wave pattern rotates opposite to the orbital direction of the ring particles. It is also the first bending wave identified in ring C. Modeling the observed feature with existing bending wave theory gives a surface mass density of approximately 0.4 g/cm(2) outside the wave region and a local ring thickness of [unknown]5 meters, and suggests that surface mass density is not constant in the wave region. PMID:17839081

  15. The Titan-1:0 nodal bending wave in Saturn's Ring C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.; Lissauer, Jack J.

    1988-01-01

    The most prominent oscillatory feature observed in the Voyager 1 radio occultation of Saturn's rings is identified as a one-armed spiral bending wave excited by Titan's-1:0 nodal inner vertical resonance. Ring particles in a bending wave move in coherently inclined orbits, warping the local mean plane of the rings. The Titan-1:0 wave is the only known bending wave that propagates outward, away from Saturn, and the only spiral wave yet observed in which the wave pattern rotates opposite to the orbital direction of the ring particles. It is also the first bending wave identified in ring C. Modeling the observed feature with existing bending wave theory gives a surface mass density of about 0.4 g/sq cm outside the wave region and a local ring thickness of less than about 5 meters, and suggests that surface mass density is not constant in the wave region.

  16. Detecting the lowest-energy structures of CAu16q(q=-1,0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fa, Wei; Yang, Aping

    2008-10-01

    Using scalar relativistic density-functional simulations, we have performed a detailed study of the structural and electronic properties of CAu16q(q=-1,0). We have discovered that the most stable configurations of both the neutral and anionic C-doped gold clusters are not endohedral structures but distorted close-flat cages, in which the carbon atom prefers forming covalent bonds with its four nearest-neighboring gold atoms. Despite the geometrical similarity between the CAu 4 and SiAu 4, the lowest-energy CAu16q(q=-1,0) show a square-pyramid local structure around the dopant carbon just like the cases of GeAu16- and SnAu16-, displaying different photoelectron spectroscopy with those of isomers with a dangling gold atom atop carbon.

  17. High resolution core level spectroscopy of hydrogen-terminated (1 0 0) diamond.

    PubMed

    Schenk, A K; Rietwyk, K J; Tadich, A; Stacey, A; Ley, L; Pakes, C I

    2016-08-01

    Synchrotron-based photoelectron spectroscopy experiments are presented that address a long standing inconsistency in the treatment of the C1s core level of hydrogen terminated (1 0 0) diamond. Through a comparison of surface and bulk sensitive measurements we show that there is a surface related core level component to lower binding energy of the bulk diamond component; this component has a chemical shift of [Formula: see text] eV which has been attributed to carbon atoms which are part of the hydrogen termination. Additionally, our results indicate that the asymmetry of the hydrogen terminated (1 0 0) diamond C1s core level is an intrinsic aspect of the bulk diamond peak which we have attributed to sub-surface carbon layers. PMID:27299369

  18. CO (v = 1-0) emission in the molecular shock regions of OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasdalen, G. L.; Hackwell, John A.; Lynch, David K.; Russell, Ray W.

    1992-01-01

    Using the new Aerospace spectrometer on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, we have obtained observations of the molecular shocks associated with OMC-1. Unexpectedly these observations reveal (b = 1-0) emission from CO at 4.6 microns superposed on a strong continuum. Our observations strongly suggest that both the emission feature and the continuum are produced in molecular shocks. Since the (v = 1-0) band of CO is only excited in high-velocity shocks, we may be observing for the first time the primary driving mechanism in these regions. Even if these features are produced by scattering, the characteristics will provide new constraints on the conditions in and the geometry of the shock regions.

  19. High resolution core level spectroscopy of hydrogen-terminated (1 0 0) diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, A. K.; Rietwyk, K. J.; Tadich, A.; Stacey, A.; Ley, L.; Pakes, C. I.

    2016-08-01

    Synchrotron-based photoelectron spectroscopy experiments are presented that address a long standing inconsistency in the treatment of the C1s core level of hydrogen terminated (1 0 0) diamond. Through a comparison of surface and bulk sensitive measurements we show that there is a surface related core level component to lower binding energy of the bulk diamond component; this component has a chemical shift of -0.16+/- 0.05 eV which has been attributed to carbon atoms which are part of the hydrogen termination. Additionally, our results indicate that the asymmetry of the hydrogen terminated (1 0 0) diamond C1s core level is an intrinsic aspect of the bulk diamond peak which we have attributed to sub-surface carbon layers.

  20. Building the Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER) Smoke Emissions Inventory Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, Luke; Ichoku, Charles; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER) group's new coefficient of emission global gridded product at 1x1 resolution that directly relates fire readiative energy (FRE) to smoke aerosol release, FEERv1.0 Ce, made its public debut in August 2013. Since then, steps have been taken to generate corresponding maps and totals of total particulate matter (PM) emissions using different sources of FRE, and subsequently to simulate the resulting PM(sub 2.5) in the WRF-Chem 3.5 model using emission rates from FEERv1.0 as well as other standard biomass burning emission inventories. An flowchart of the FEER algorithm to calculate Ce is outlined here along with a display of the resulting emissions of total PM globally and also regionally. The modeling results from the WRF-Chem3.5 simulations are also shown.

  1. Medusa-1.0: a new intermediate complexity plankton ecosystem model for the global domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yool, A.; Popova, E. E.; Anderson, T. R.

    2011-05-01

    The ongoing, anthropogenically-driven changes to the global ocean are expected to have significant consequences for plankton ecosystems in the future. Because of the role that plankton play in the ocean's "biological pump", changes in abundance, distribution and productivity will likely have additional consequences for the wider carbon cycle. Just as in the terrestrial biosphere, marine ecosystems exhibit marked diversity in species and functional types of organisms. Predicting potential change in plankton ecosystems therefore requires the use of models that are suited to this diversity, but whose parameterisation also permits robust and realistic functional behaviour. In the past decade, advances in model sophistication have attempted to address diversity, but have been criticised for doing so inaccurately or ahead of a requisite understanding of underlying processes. Here we introduce MEDUSA-1.0 (Model of Ecosystem Dynamics, nutrient Utilisation, Sequestration and Acidification), a new "intermediate complexity" plankton ecosystem model that expands on traditional nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) models, and remains amenable to global-scale evaluation. MEDUSA-1.0 includes the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, silicon and iron, broadly structured into "small" and "large" plankton size classes, of which the "large" phytoplankton class is representative of a key phytoplankton group, the diatoms. A full description of MEDUSA-1.0's state variables, differential equations, functional forms and parameter values is included, with particular attention focused on the submodel describing the export of organic carbon from the surface to the deep ocean. MEDUSA-1.0 is used here in a multi-decadal hindcast simulation, and its biogeochemical performance evaluated at the global scale.

  2. Transferable Output ASCII Data (TOAD) gateway: Version 1.0 user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingel, Bradford D.

    1991-01-01

    The Transferable Output ASCII Data (TOAD) Gateway, release 1.0 is described. This is a software tool for converting tabular data from one format into another via the TOAD format. This initial release of the Gateway allows free data interchange among the following file formats: TOAD; Standard Interface File (SIF); Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST) input; Comma Separated Value (TSV); and a general free-form file format. As required, additional formats can be accommodated quickly and easily.

  3. Intrinsic magnetic properties of L1(0) FeNi obtained from meteorite NWA 6259

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, E; Pinkerton, FE; Kubic, R; Mishra, RK; Bordeaux, N; Mubarok, A; Lewis, LH; Goldstein, JI; Skomski, R; Barmak, K

    2015-05-07

    FeNi having the tetragonal L1(0) crystal structure is a promising new rare-earth-free permanent magnet material. Laboratory synthesis is challenging, however, tetragonal L1(0) FeNi-the mineral "tetrataenite"-has been characterized using specimens found in nickel-iron meteorites. Most notably, the meteorite NWA 6259 recovered from Northwest Africa is 95 vol.% tetrataenite with a composition of 43 at.% Ni. Hysteresis loops were measured as a function of sample orientation on a specimen cut from NWA 6259 in order to rigorously deduce the intrinsic hard magnetic properties of its L1(0) phase. Electron backscatter diffraction showed that NWA 6259 is strongly textured, containing L1(0) grains oriented along any one of the three equivalent cubic directions of the parent fcc structure. The magnetic structure was modeled as a superposition of the three orthonormal uniaxial variants. By simultaneously fitting first-quadrant magnetization data for 13 different orientations of the sample with respect to the applied field direction, the intrinsic magnetic properties were estimated to be saturation magnetization 4 pi M-s = 14.7 kG and anisotropy field H-a = 14.4 kOe. The anisotropy constant K = 0.84 MJ/m(3) is somewhat smaller than the value K = 1.3 MJ/m(3) obtained by earlier researchers from nominally equiatomic FeNi prepared by neutron irradiation accompanied by annealing in a magnetic field, suggesting that higher Ni content (fewer Fe antisite defects) may improve the anisotropy. The fit also indicated that NWA 6259 contains one dominant variant (62% by volume), the remainder of the sample being a second variant, and the third variant being absent altogether. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  4. RealGasBrine v1.0 option of TOUGH+ v1.5

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, George

    2015-02-27

    RealGasBrine v1.0 is a numerical code that for the simulation of the behavior of gas-bearing porous and/fractured geologic media. It is an option of TOUGH+ v1.5 [Moridis, 2014], a successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1999; 2012] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase ?uid and heat ?ow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. RealGasBrine v1.0 needs the TOUGH+ v1.5 core code in order to compile and execute. It is written in standard FORTRAN 95/2003, and can be run on any computational platform (workstation, PC, Macintosh) for which such compilers are available. RealGasBrine v1.0 describes the non-isothermal two- (for pure water) or three-phase (for brine) flow of an aqueous phase and a real gas mixture in a gas-bearing medium, with a particular focus in ultra-tight (such as tight-sand and shale gas) systems. Up to 12 individual real gases can be tracked, and salt can precipitate as solid halite. The capabilities of the code include coupled flow and thermal effects, real gas behavior, Darcy and non-Darcy flow, several isotherm options of gas sorption onto the grains of the porous media, complex fracture descriptions, gas solubility into water, and geomechanical effects on flow properties. RealGasBrine v1.0 allows the study of flow and transport of fluids and heat over a wide range of time frames and spatial scales not only in gas reservoirs, but also in any problem involving the flow of gases in geologic media, including the geologic storage of greenhouse gas mixtures, the behavior of geothermal reservoirs with multi-component condensable (H2O and CO2) and non-condensable gas mixtures, the transport of water and released H2 in nuclear waste storage applications, etc.

  5. Poblano v1.0 : a Matlab toolbox for gradient-based optimization.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Acar, Evrim; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2010-03-01

    We present Poblano v1.0, a Matlab toolbox for solving gradient-based unconstrained optimization problems. Poblano implements three optimization methods (nonlinear conjugate gradients, limited-memory BFGS, and truncated Newton) that require only first order derivative information. In this paper, we describe the Poblano methods, provide numerous examples on how to use Poblano, and present results of Poblano used in solving problems from a standard test collection of unconstrained optimization problems.

  6. IVSPlat 1.0: an integrated virtual screening platform with a molecular graphical interface

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The virtual screening (VS) of lead compounds using molecular docking and pharmacophore detection is now an important tool in drug discovery. VS tasks typically require a combination of several software tools and a molecular graphics system. Thus, the integration of all the requisite tools in a single operating environment could reduce the complexity of running VS experiments. However, only a few freely available integrated software platforms have been developed. Results A free open-source platform, IVSPlat 1.0, was developed in this study for the management and automation of VS tasks. We integrated several VS-related programs into a molecular graphics system to provide a comprehensive platform for the solution of VS tasks based on molecular docking, pharmacophore detection, and a combination of both methods. This tool can be used to visualize intermediate and final results of the VS execution, while also providing a clustering tool for the analysis of VS results. A case study was conducted to demonstrate the applicability of this platform. Conclusions IVSPlat 1.0 provides a plug-in-based solution for the management, automation, and visualization of VS tasks. IVSPlat 1.0 is an open framework that allows the integration of extra software to extend its functionality and modified versions can be freely distributed. The open source code and documentation are available at http://kyc.nenu.edu.cn/IVSPlat/. PMID:22222098

  7. RoboNet-1.0: A Prototype Global Network of Large Robotic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bode, M. F.; Cardiff U. Collaboration; U. Hertfordshire Collaboration; U. Leicester Collaboration; St Andrews U. Collaboration; Queens U., Belfast Collaboration; Mullard Space Science Lab. Collaboration; U. Exeter Collaboration; U. Southampton Collaboration; U. Manchester Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    Involving a consortium of 10 UK universities, RoboNet-1.0 comprises the Liverpool Telescope (LT, La Palma), plus specially allocated time on the Faulkes Telescope North (FTN, Maui) and Faulkes Telescope South (FTS, Siding Spring, Australia). All three are essentially identical 2m telescopes equipped for both optical photometry and spectroscopy and operated from a common centre in Liverpool. The LT is primarily for research use whereas the FTs are mainly dedicated to education. Software developed by the eSTAR GRID project is being applied and enhanced to enable efficient and effective operation of the network. The primary scientific projects being addressed by RoboNet-1.0 are (a) rapid follow-up of Gamma Ray Burst sources detected by missions such as Swift, and (b) the detection of extra-solar planets via microlensing. Observations with the network began in August 2004. This is a pre-cursor project to the establishment of the full RoboNet global network of six dedicated telescopes which would greatly enhance work in several important branches of time domain astrophysics. Operation of the Liverpool Telescope and RoboNet-1.0 are funded by the UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council. The Faulkes Telescopes are funded by the Dill Faulkes Educational Trust.

  8. Pantheon 1.0, a manually verified dataset of globally famous biographies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Amy Zhao; Ronen, Shahar; Hu, Kevin; Lu, Tiffany; Hidalgo, César A

    2016-01-01

    We present the Pantheon 1.0 dataset: a manually verified dataset of individuals that have transcended linguistic, temporal, and geographic boundaries. The Pantheon 1.0 dataset includes the 11,341 biographies present in more than 25 languages in Wikipedia and is enriched with: (i) manually verified demographic information (place and date of birth, gender) (ii) a taxonomy of occupations classifying each biography at three levels of aggregation and (iii) two measures of global popularity including the number of languages in which a biography is present in Wikipedia (L), and the Historical Popularity Index (HPI) a metric that combines information on L, time since birth, and page-views (2008-2013). We compare the Pantheon 1.0 dataset to data from the 2003 book, Human Accomplishments, and also to external measures of accomplishment in individual games and sports: Tennis, Swimming, Car Racing, and Chess. In all of these cases we find that measures of popularity (L and HPI) correlate highly with individual accomplishment, suggesting that measures of global popularity proxy the historical impact of individuals. PMID:26731133

  9. Pantheon 1.0, a manually verified dataset of globally famous biographies

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Amy Zhao; Ronen, Shahar; Hu, Kevin; Lu, Tiffany; Hidalgo, César A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the Pantheon 1.0 dataset: a manually verified dataset of individuals that have transcended linguistic, temporal, and geographic boundaries. The Pantheon 1.0 dataset includes the 11,341 biographies present in more than 25 languages in Wikipedia and is enriched with: (i) manually verified demographic information (place and date of birth, gender) (ii) a taxonomy of occupations classifying each biography at three levels of aggregation and (iii) two measures of global popularity including the number of languages in which a biography is present in Wikipedia (L), and the Historical Popularity Index (HPI) a metric that combines information on L, time since birth, and page-views (2008–2013). We compare the Pantheon 1.0 dataset to data from the 2003 book, Human Accomplishments, and also to external measures of accomplishment in individual games and sports: Tennis, Swimming, Car Racing, and Chess. In all of these cases we find that measures of popularity (L and HPI) correlate highly with individual accomplishment, suggesting that measures of global popularity proxy the historical impact of individuals. PMID:26731133

  10. Quantum states of hydrogen atom on Pd(1 1 0) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padama, Allan Abraham B.; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Kasai, Hideaki

    2015-12-01

    The quantum states of adsorbed hydrogen atom on Pd(1 1 0) surface are investigated in this work. From the calculated potential energy surface (PES) of hydrogen atom on Pd(1 1 0), the wave functions and eigenenergies in the ground and few excited states of protium (H) and deuterium (D) are calculated. Localized wave functions of hydrogen atom exist on pseudo-threefold and long bridge sites of Pd(1 1 0). The short bridge site is a local minimum from the result of PES, however, quantum behavior of hydrogen revealed that its vibration would allow it to hop to other pseudo-threefold site (that crosses the short bridge site) than to stay on the short bridge site. Exchange of ordering of the wave functions between H and D is attributed to the difference in their masses. The calculated eigenenergies are found to be in fair agreement with experimental data based from the identified vibrations of hydrogen with component perpendicular to the surface. The activation barriers measured from the eigenenergies are in better agreement with experimental findings in comparison to the data gathered from PES.

  11. Optical in situ monitoring of MOVPE GaSb(1 0 0) film growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, K.; Kollonitsch, Z.; Giesen, Ch.; Heuken, M.; Willig, F.; Hannappel, T.

    2003-02-01

    Epitaxial GaSb(1 0 0) semiconductor films were prepared in an AIX200 reactor using triethylantimony and triethylgallium as precursors. MOVPE growth of (1 0 0) surfaces was investigated and monitored in situ with reflectance anisotropy/difference spectroscopy (RDS). RDS signals helped in improving the growth parameters, i.e. growth temperature, growth rate, and Sb/Ga ratio. Using unfavourable growth parameters (high flow rates or adverse Sb/Ga ratio) promoted the growth of 3D islands with micrometer diameters as monitored by in situ RDS and imaged by scanning electron microscopy. There was a concomitant increase in the RDS intensities by more than one order of magnitude. This effect was used to obtain improved growth parameters for preparing high quality films with specular surfaces and state-of-the-art carrier concentration ( Np<3×10 16 cm -3). For the first time, MOVPE-prepared GaSb(1 0 0) surfaces were measured by RDS in the spectral range from 0.8 to 5.0 eV.

  12. Geometric engineering, mirror symmetry and 6{d}_{(1,0)}to 4{d}_{(N=2)}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Zotto, Michele; Vafa, Cumrun; Xie, Dan

    2015-11-01

    We study compactification of 6 dimensional (1,0) theories on T 2. We use geometric engineering of these theories via F-theory and employ mirror symmetry technology to solve for the effective 4d N=2 geometry for a large number of the (1 ,0) theories including those associated with conformal matter. Using this we show that for a given 6d theory we can obtain many inequivalent 4d N=2 SCFTs. Some of these respect the global symmetries of the 6d theory while others exhibit SL(2 , ℤ) duality symmetry inherited from global diffeomorphisms of the T 2. This construction also explains the 6d origin of moduli space of 4d affine ADE quiver theories as flat ADE connections on T 2. Among the resulting 4 d N=2 CFTs we find theories whose vacuum geometry is captured by an LG theory (as opposed to a curve or a local CY geometry). We obtain arbitrary genus curves of class S with punctures from toroidal compactification of (1 , 0) SCFTs where the curve of the class S theory emerges through mirror symmetry. We also show that toroidal compactification of the little string version of these theories can lead to class S theories with no punctures on arbitrary genus Riemann surface.

  13. Seasonal changes, identification and source apportionment of PAH in PM1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana Milena; Teixeira, Elba Calesso

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the seasonal variation of PAHs in PM1.0, as well as to identify and quantify the contributions of each source profile using the PMF receptor model. PM1.0 samples were collected on PTFE filters from August 2011 to July 2013 in the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The samples were extracted using the EPA method TO-13A and 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using a gaseous chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Also, the data discussed in this study were analyzed to identify the relations of the PAHs concentrations with NOx, NO, O3 and meteorological parameters (temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, relative humidity). The results showed that in winter, concentrations of total PAHs were significantly higher than in summer, thus showing their seasonal variation. The identification of emission sources by applying diagnostic ratios confirmed that PAHs in the study area originate from mobile sources, especially, from diesel and gasoline emissions. The analysis by PMF receptor model showed the contribution of these two main sources of emissions, too, followed by coal combustion, incomplete combustion/unburned petroleum and wood combustion. The toxic equivalent factors were calculated to characterize the risk of cancer from PAH exposure to PM1.0 samples, and BaP and DahA dominated BaPeq levels.

  14. Silicon quantum wires on Ag(1 1 0): Fermi surface and quantum well states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valbuena, M. A.; Avila, J.; Dávila, M. E.; Leandri, C.; Aufray, B.; Le Lay, G.; Asensio, M. C.

    2007-10-01

    One-dimensional Si quantum wires have been grown on silver single crystals upon deposition of ˜0.25 monolayer of Si on Ag(1 1 0) surfaces. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) clearly shows parallel 1D Si chains along the [-1 1 0] Ag crystallographic direction. Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) confirms the massively parallel assembly of these selforganized Nanowires (NWs). We have characterized these nano-objects by measuring the dispersion of the NWs valence band at room temperature using Angle-Resolved PhotoEmission Spectroscopy (ARPES). Also, the Fermi Surface (FS) of the Ag(1 1 0) substrate has been mapped before and after the silicon deposition, trying to put in evidence the metallic or semiconductor character of the NWs silicon's states close to the Fermi level. Our results show the existence of well-defined quantum states associated to the silicon super-structure. Both LEED and ARUPS results confirm that the NWs have typical 1D features, however their metallic or semiconductor character could not be confirmed.

  15. Magnetic field directional discontinuities - Characteristics between 0.46 and 1.0 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Behannon, K. W.

    1986-01-01

    Based on Mariner 10 data, a statistical survey and an application of the Sonnerup-Cahill variance procedure to a visual identification with 1.2-s averages for time intervals corresponding to the equally spaced heliocentric distances of 1.0, 0.72 and 0.46 AU, are employed to study the characteristics of directional discontinuities (DDs) in the interplanetary magnetic field. Analysis using two methods demonstrated that the ratio of tangential discontinuities (TDs) to rotational discontinuities (RDs) decreased with decreasing radial distance. Decreases in average discontinuity thickness of 41 percent between 1.0 and 0.72 AU, and 56 percent between 1.0 and 0.46 AU, were found for both TDs and RDs, in agreement with Pioneer 10 data between 1 and 5 AU. Normalization of the individual DD thicknesses with respect to the estimated local proton gyroradius (R sub L) gave a nearly constant average thickness at the three locations, 36 + or - 5 R sub L, for both RDs and TDs.

  16. Carbon-monoxide adsorption and dissociation on Nb(1 1 0) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Hua; Lan, Zhi-Qiang; Guo, Jin; Tan, Ming-Qiu

    2015-02-01

    The adsorption of CO on the Nb(1 1 0) surface has been studied by using the density-functional theory with total-energy calculations. In addition to the adsorption geometries, the vibrational properties, surface electronic structures, and dissociation pathways of CO adsorption on the Nb(1 1 0) surface have been investigated. The Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE), meta generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA), and hybrid functional (HSE06) functionals were applied to discuss the site preference in the Nb-p(1 × 1) surface. Results showed that the inclined CO adsorbed on the hollow sites is the most stable structure from total-energies using different functionals. Furthermore, at lower coverage, CO molecules adsorbed on the Nb(1 1 0)-p(2 × 2) surface are easy to dissociate to forming the atomic adsorption from NBE calculations. PDOS showed that in the cases of CO adsorbed on hollow and bridge sites, the σ orbitals of CO molecule hybridize with d orbitals of Nb atom apparently, while on top sites, the 2π* orbitals of CO molecule interact with Nb d orbitals intensely.

  17. 110 nm versatile fiber optical parametric amplifier at 1.0 μm.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoming; Tan, Sisi; Mussot, Arnaud; Kudlinski, Alexandre; Tsia, Kevin K; Wong, Kenneth K Y

    2015-09-01

    The fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) has been well investigated and widely adopted at the telecommunication window, and outstanding progress has been achieved in areas such as high gain, wide bandwidths, and even flexible gain-spectrum shape. In contrast, a FOPA at the bio-favorable window, 1.0 μm, has been largely underexploited, especially for its relatively limited bandwidth. Here, we demonstrate an all-fiber single-pump FOPA at 1.0 μm with versatile performances, including ultrahigh gain (∼52  dB), wide bandwidth (∼110  nm), and good gain-spectrum flatness (∼3  dB). To showcase the practical applications, the FOPA is utilized to amplify the broadband optical image signal from a spectrally encoded microscopy, yielding a sensitivity enhancement of 47 dB. Thus, it is promising that this all-fiber versatile FOPA works well as an add-on module in boosting sensitivity for existing optical systems at a 1.0 μm window. PMID:26368719

  18. Data-driven Radiative Hydrodynamic Modeling of the 2014 March 29 X1.0 Solar Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio da Costa, Fatima; Kleint, Lucia; Petrosian, Vahé; Liu, Wei; Allred, Joel C.

    2016-08-01

    Spectroscopic observations of solar flares provide critical diagnostics of the physical conditions in the flaring atmosphere. Some key features in observed spectra have not yet been accounted for in existing flare models. Here we report a data-driven simulation of the well-observed X1.0 flare on 2014 March 29 that can reconcile some well-known spectral discrepancies. We analyzed spectra of the flaring region from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) in Mg ii h&k, the Interferometric BIdimensional Spectropolarimeter at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST/IBIS) in Hα 6563 Å and Ca ii 8542 Å, and the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager (RHESSI) in hard X-rays. We constructed a multithreaded flare loop model and used the electron flux inferred from RHESSI data as the input to the radiative hydrodynamic code RADYN to simulate the atmospheric response. We then synthesized various chromospheric emission lines and compared them with the IRIS and IBIS observations. In general, the synthetic intensities agree with the observed ones, especially near the northern footpoint of the flare. The simulated Mg ii line profile has narrower wings than the observed one. This discrepancy can be reduced by using a higher microturbulent velocity (27 km s‑1) in a narrow chromospheric layer. In addition, we found that an increase of electron density in the upper chromosphere within a narrow height range of ≈800 km below the transition region can turn the simulated Mg ii line core into emission and thus reproduce the single peaked profile, which is a common feature in all IRIS flares.

  19. Degenerative Sacrolisthesis of S1-S2: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rajendra, Thakre Kunwar; Issac, Thomas; Swamy, B Mallikarjuna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) is usually seen at L4-L5 level and less frequently at L5-S1 level. This is a rare case report of spondylolisthesis of S1 over S2 with lumbarization of S1. Lumbarization of S1 is seen in just 1-2% of the population and to have spondylolisthesis in this segment is even rarer. The purpose is to report a rare case of DS at S1-S2 level. Case Report: This is a single case report of a 66-year-old gentleman who presented with complains of lower backache for 2 years and acute retention of urine to the emergency department. Detailed clinical and radiological evaluation of the spine was done which revealed lumbarization of S1 with spondylolisthesis at S1-S2 and facetal hypertrophy at L5, S1, and S2. He underwent decompression and stabilization at L5, S1, and S2 along with placement of autologous bone graft. The bladder symptoms disappeared after 3 weeks. At 1-year follow-up, patient’s clinical symptoms were relieved, and he improved clinically. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is probably the first case of DS of sacral vertebrae to be reported in English literature. The prevalence of complete lumbarization is around 1.8% and to get spondylolisthesis in this segment is even rarer, hence the lack of literature in this regard. Since this is the first of its kind of case, further case series or longitudinal studies of such cases may help understand better the pathomechanics related to spondylolisthesis at this level. PMID:27299082

  20. Synthesis, EPR and luminescent properties of YAlO3:Fe3+ (0.1-0.9 mol%) nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premkumar, H. B.; Nagabhushana, H.; Sharma, S. C.; Daruka Prasad, B.; Nagabhushana, B. M.; Rao, J. L.; Chakradhar, R. P. S.

    A simple and inexpensive combustion method was used to prepare Fe3+ doped YAlO3 perovskite within few minutes at low temperature (400 ± 10 °C). This might be useful in lowering the cost of the material. The final products were well characterized by various spectroscopic techniques such as PXRD, SEM, TEM, FTIR and UV-Visible. The average crystallite size was estimated from the broadening of the PXRD peaks and found to be in the range 45-90 nm, the results were in good agreement with the W-H plots and TEM. The crystallites show dumbbell shape, agglomerated particles with different size. The TL glow curves of 1-5 kGy γ-irradiated YAlO3:Fe3+ (0.1 mol%) nanopowder warmed at a heating rate of 3 °C s-1 records a single glow peak at ∼260 °C. The kinetic parameters namely activation energy (E), order of kinetics (b) and frequency factor (s) were determined at different gamma doses using the Chens glow peak shape method and the results were discussed in detail. The photoluminescence spectra for Fe3+ (0.1-0.9 mol%) doped YAlO3 records the lower energy band at 720 nm (4T1 (4G) → 6A1 (6S)) and the intermediate band located at 620 nm (4T2 (4G) → 6A1 (6S)) with the excitation of 378 nm. The higher energy band located at 514 nm was associated to 4E + 4A1 (4G) → 6A1 (6S) transition. The resonance signals at g values 7.6, 4.97, 4.10, 2.94, 2.33 and 1.98 were observed in EPR spectra of Fe3+ (0.1-0.9 mol%) doped YAlO3 recorded at room temperature. The g values indicate that the iron ions were in trivalent state and distorted octahedral site symmetry was observed.

  1. 7S(1/2) ? 9S(1/2) two-photon spectroscopy of trapped francium.

    PubMed

    Simsarian, J E; Shi, W; Orozco, L A; Sprouse, G D; Zhao, W Z

    1996-12-01

    We report on the spectroscopic measurement of the (210)Fr 9S(1/2) energy obtained by two-photon excitation of atoms confined and cooled in a magneto-optic trap. The resonant intermediate level 7P(3/2) is the upper state of the trapping transition. We have measured the energy difference between the 9S(1/2) state and the 7S(1/2) ground state to be 25 671.021 +/- 0.006 cm(-1). PMID:19881852

  2. Spectroscopic study on deuterated benzenes. III. Vibronic structure and dynamics in the S(1) state.

    PubMed

    Kunishige, Sachi; Katori, Toshiharu; Kawabata, Megumi; Yamanaka, Takaya; Baba, Masaaki

    2015-12-28

    We observed the fluorescence excitation spectra and mass-selected resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) excitation spectra for the 6(0)(1), 6(0)(1)1(0)(1), and 6(0)(1)1(0)(2) bands of the S1←S0 transition of jet-cooled deuterated benzene and assigned the vibronic bands of C6D6 and C6HD5. The 6(0)(1)1(0)(n) (n = 0, 1, 2) and 0(0)(0) transition energies were found to be dependent only on the number of D atoms (ND), which was reflected by the zero-point energy of each H/D isotopomer. In some isotopomers some bands, such as those of out-of-plane vibrations mixed with 6(1)1(n), make the spectra complex. These included the 6(1)10(2)1(n) level or combination bands with ν12 which are allowed because of reduced molecular symmetry. From the lifetime measurements of each vibronic band, some enhancement of the nonradiative intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) process was observed. It was also found that the threshold excess energy of "channel three" was higher than the 6(1)1(2) levels, which were similar for all the H/D isotopomers. We suggest that the channel three nonradiative process could be caused mainly by in-plane processes such as IVR and internal conversion at the high vibrational levels in the S1 state of benzene, although the out-of-plane vibrations might contribute to some degree. PMID:26723668

  3. Update on CRUST1.0 - A 1-degree Global Model of Earth's Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laske, Gabi; Masters, Guy; Ma, Zhitu; Pasyanos, Mike

    2013-04-01

    Our new 1-by-1 degree global crustal model, CRUST1.0, was introduced last year and serves as starting model in a comprehensive effort to compile a global model of Earth's crust and lithosphere, LITHO1.0 (Pasyanos et al., 2012). The Moho depth in CRUST1.0 is based on 1-degree averages of a recently updated database of crustal thickness data from active source seismic studies as well as from receiver function studies. In areas where such constraints are still missing, for example in Antarctica, crustal thicknesses are estimated using gravity constraints. The compilation of the new crustal model initially followed the philosophy of the widely used crustal model CRUST2.0 (Bassin et al., 2000; http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~gabi/crust2.html) to assign elastic properties in the crystalline crust according to basement age or tectonic setting (loosely following an updated map by Artemieva and Mooney (2001; http://www.lithosphere.info). For cells with no local seismic or gravity constraints, statistical averages of crustal properties, including crustal thickness, were extrapolated. However, in places with constraints the depth to basement and mantle are given explicitly and no longer assigned by crustal type. This allows for much smaller errors in both. In each 1-degree cell, boundary depth, compressional and shear velocity as well as density is given for 8 layers: water, ice, 3 sediment layers and upper, middle and lower crystalline crust. Topography, bathymetry and ice cover are taken from ETOPO1. The sediment cover is based on our sediment model (Laske and Masters, 1997; http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~sediment.html), with some near-coastal updates. In an initial step toward LITHO1.0, the model is then validated against new global surface wave disperison maps and adjusted in areas of extreme misfit. This poster presents the next validation step: compare the new Moho depths with in-situ active source and receiver function results. We also present comparisons with CRUST2.0. CRUST1.0 is

  4. Kinetics of epitaxial growth of Si and SiGe films on (1 1 0) Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, N.; Moriyama, Y.; Nakaharai, S.; Tezuka, T.; Mizuno, T.; Takagi, S.

    2004-03-01

    The epitaxial growth of Si and SiGe layers on (1 1 0) Si substrates using UHV-CVD is studied with comparing that on (1 0 0) substrates. It is revealed that, while the growth rate on (1 1 0) surfaces is quite lower than that on (1 0 0) surfaces, the Ge content of SiGe is the same between (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) surfaces, meaning that the ratio of decomposition yields of source molecules for Si and Ge are same in both the (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) substrates. This characteristic is expected to lead to the epitaxial growth of SiGe films with uniform Ge content over the three-dimensional patterned structure, which can be utilized for vertical FET and Fin-FETs. Actually, it has been experimentally confirmed that the SiGe films grown over trench structures has a uniform Ge content.

  5. High coverage hydrogen adsorption on the Fe3O4(1 1 0) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaohu; Zhang, Xuemei; Wang, Shengguang

    2015-10-01

    Hydrogen adsorption on the A and B termination layers of the Fe3O4(1 1 0) surface at different coverage has been systematically studied by density functional theory calculations including an on-site Hubbard term (GGA + U). The adsorption of hydrogen prefers surface oxygen atoms on both layers. The more stable A layer has stronger adsorption energy than the less stable B layer. The saturation coverage has two dissociatively adsorbed H2 on the A layer, and one dissociatively adsorbed H2 on the B layer. The adsorption mechanism has been analyzed on the basis of projected density of states (PDOS).

  6. Synthesis of anthracene derivatives of 1,3-diazabicyclo[3.1.0]hex-3-ene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoodi, Nosrat O.; Mirkhaef, Safoura; Ghavidast, Atefeh

    2015-02-01

    Novel mono- and bis-photochromic compounds of 1,3-diazabicyclo[3.1.0]hex-3-enes based on anthracene moiety were synthesized efficiently. Photochromic compounds were synthesized through the reaction of 10-(hydroxymethyl)anthracene-9-carbaldehyde and anthracene-9-carbaldehyde or 9,10-anthracenedicarbaldehyde as bis-aldehydes with ketoaziridines in dry DMF at room temperature. Photochromic compounds exhibited photochromic behavior both in solution and in solid state by irradiation under UV light at 254 nm. Compounds bearing 4-NO2 on aziridine moiety showed intensive color change. Compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and UV-Vis.

  7. Synthesis of new pyrazolyl-1,3-diazabicyclo[3.1.0]hexe-3-ene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyani, Hamzeh; Albooyeh, Fereshteh; Fallahnezhad, Saied

    2015-07-01

    A series of new of photochromic 1,3-diazabicyclo[3.1.0]hex-3-ene derivatives based on the skeleton of five-membered pyrazole moiety have been synthesized and characterized by spectral techniques, as well as their photochromic properties were examined under UV light irradiation in various solutions. All these newly synthesized compounds showed good photochromic properties in the both solution and solid states. The UV-Visible spectral analysis of the corresponding pyrazolyl bicyclic aziridines established structure-photochromic behavior relationships.

  8. An XPD and LEED study of highly strained ultrathin Ni films on Pd(1 0 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petukhov, M.; Rizzi, G. A.; Sambi, M.; Granozzi, G.

    2003-05-01

    The epitaxial growth of ultrathin Ni films on the Pd(1 0 0) surface was studied by means of X-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) and LEED experiments. In excellent numerical agreement with the predictions of elasticity theory, the data indicate the formation of tetragonally strained Ni epitaxial layers, which subsequently turns into a bulk-like Ni structure as the thickness of approximately 12 MLE is exceeded. This study demonstrates that LEED and XPD methodologies are rather complementary in order to have a detailed picture of the evolution of the overlayer structure in different thickness regimes.

  9. Solid waste projection model: Database version 1. 0 technical reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, F.; Bowman, A.

    1990-11-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The SWPM system provides a modeling and analysis environment that supports decisions in the process of evaluating various solid waste management alternatives. This document, one of a series describing the SWPM system, contains detailed information regarding the software and data structures utilized in developing the SWPM Version 1.0 Database. This document is intended for use by experienced database specialists and supports database maintenance, utility development, and database enhancement. Those interested in using the SWPM database should refer to the SWPM Database User's Guide. 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. RealGasBrine v1.0 option of TOUGH+ v1.5

    2015-02-27

    RealGasBrine v1.0 is a numerical code that for the simulation of the behavior of gas-bearing porous and/fractured geologic media. It is an option of TOUGH+ v1.5 [Moridis, 2014], a successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1999; 2012] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase ?uid and heat ?ow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. RealGasBrine v1.0 needs the TOUGH+ v1.5 core code in order to compile and execute. It is written in standard FORTRANmore » 95/2003, and can be run on any computational platform (workstation, PC, Macintosh) for which such compilers are available. RealGasBrine v1.0 describes the non-isothermal two- (for pure water) or three-phase (for brine) flow of an aqueous phase and a real gas mixture in a gas-bearing medium, with a particular focus in ultra-tight (such as tight-sand and shale gas) systems. Up to 12 individual real gases can be tracked, and salt can precipitate as solid halite. The capabilities of the code include coupled flow and thermal effects, real gas behavior, Darcy and non-Darcy flow, several isotherm options of gas sorption onto the grains of the porous media, complex fracture descriptions, gas solubility into water, and geomechanical effects on flow properties. RealGasBrine v1.0 allows the study of flow and transport of fluids and heat over a wide range of time frames and spatial scales not only in gas reservoirs, but also in any problem involving the flow of gases in geologic media, including the geologic storage of greenhouse gas mixtures, the behavior of geothermal reservoirs with multi-component condensable (H2O and CO2) and non-condensable gas mixtures, the transport of water and released H2 in nuclear waste storage applications, etc.« less

  11. Observation of J = 1-0 emission from H/N-15/C. [in radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. D.; Godfrey, P. D.; Gunn, H. I.; Blackman, G. L.; Storey, J. W. V.

    1977-01-01

    Emission from the J = 1-0 transition of H(N-15)C has been detected in the direction of DR21(OH). The transition frequency of 88,865.69 MHz was measured in the laboratory by microwave absorption spectroscopy. The computed N-15/C-13 isotopic abundance ratio of 1.01 for DR21(OH) is larger than those calculated from isotopes of HCN in other interstellar clouds, perhaps implying a localized enrichment in N-15 in DR21(OH).

  12. Data appendix: F-number=1.0 EMR with a flexible back electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihora, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    A 12.5 micron Tedlar low f-number electrostatic membrane reflector was tested. The antenna reflector was designed to achieve a spherical reflector surface with a focal length to diameter ratio f(sub n) of one and a potential accuracy of 1.0 over its 4.88 m diameter. The configuration required the cutting and joining of twelve pie-shaped panels to form the reflector surface. Electrostatic forces are used to tension this preformed membrane reflector. The test data is spare-only three sets of measurements were taken due to lack of funds.

  13. Charged Pion Multiplicity Below 1.0 GeV/c from the MIPP Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Andrew; MIPP Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    The MIPP experiment is designed to study particle production from several targets, using various beam species and momenta. Using beams of +/- 58 GeV / c pions, kaons, and protons, we present multiplicities of 0 . 1 - 1 . 0 GeV / c charged pions versus target atomic weight (A) for the following targets: liquid hydrogen, beryllium, carbon, aluminum, copper, bismuth, and uranium. We fit Aα to these results and present α for each case. In addition, for liquid hydrogen, we present charged pion multiplicities for +/- 20 and +/- 85 GeV / c pion, kaon, and proton beam particles, illustrating the dependence on beam momentum.

  14. The SeaFlux Turbulent Flux Dataset Version 1.0 Documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayson, Carol Anne; Roberts, J. Brent; Bogdanoff, Alec S.

    2012-01-01

    Under the auspices of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Global Energy and Water cycle EXperiment (GEWEX) Data and Assessment Panel (GDAP), the SeaFlux Project was created to investigate producing a high-resolution satellite-based dataset of surface turbulent fluxes over the global oceans. The most current release of the SeaFlux product is Version 1.0; this represents the initial release of turbulent surface heat fluxes, associated near-surface variables including a diurnally varying sea surface temperature.

  15. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant S1 domain of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus spike protein.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jongsuk; Lee, Kyung-Won; Choi, Hwan-Won; Lee, Changhee

    2014-11-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious enteric pathogen of swine. Acute PEDV outbreaks have continually emerged in most swine-producing Asian countries and, recently, in the United States, causing significant economic losses in the pig industry. The spike (S) protein of PEDV is a type 1 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein and consists of the S1 and S2 domains, which are responsible for virus binding and fusion, respectively. Since the S1 domain is involved in a specific high-affinity interaction with the cellular receptor and induction of neutralizing antibody in the natural host, it is a primary target for the development of effective vaccines against PEDV. In this study, a codon-optimized PEDV S1 gene containing amino acid residues 25-738 was synthesized based on a multiple alignment of the S amino acid sequences of PEDV field isolates and used to establish a stable porcine cell line constitutively expressing the PEDV S1 protein. The purified recombinant S1 protein was found to mediate highly potent antibody responses in immunized rabbits. The antibodies strongly recognized the recombinant S1 protein from cell lysates and supernatants of S1-expressing cells, whereas they bound weakly to the authentic S protein of PEDV vaccine strain SM98-1. Furthermore, a serum neutralization test revealed that the rabbit antisera completely inhibit infection of the PEDV vaccine strain at a serum dilution of 1:16. We then tested the ability of vaccination with the recombinant S1 protein to protect piglets against PEDV. Late-term pregnant sows were inoculated intramuscularly with the purified S1 protein, and the outcome was investigated in passively immunized suckling piglets after a virulent PEDV challenge. The results showed that vaccination with S1 protein efficiently protected neonatal piglets against PEDV. Our data suggest that the recombinant S1 protein shows potential as an effective and safe subunit vaccine for PED prevention. PMID:25008896

  16. Detection of the 267 GHz J = 1-0 rotational transition of PH3 in Saturn with a new fourier transfer spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisstein, Eric W.; Serabyn, E.

    1994-01-01

    In recent observations with the Fourier transform spectrometer at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO), we have detected the highly pressure-broadened (Full width at half maximum (FWHM) = 11.2 GHz) J = 1-0 rotational transition of PH3 (phosphine) on Saturn. By modeling the saturnian atmosphere with a radiative transfer code, we find that the observed line profile is consistent with a constant PH3 mole fraction of 0.3 +/- 1.0 ppm in the upper troposphere. A best fit to the depth of the line implies a cutoff at high altitudes, with no PH3 present at pressures less than and about 100 mbar. The observed line depth, combined with the lack of a detectable emission core, implies that a cutoff in the PH3 abundance occurs at a pressure between 13 and 140 mbar. We did not detect PH3 in Jupiter or any other molecular lines between 195 and 295 GHz (1.54 mm and 2.02 mm, respectively) in either Jupiter or Saturn.

  17. Geoacoustic inversion techniques (GAIT) Version 1.0 global search (GS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Peter; Muncill, Gregory

    2003-04-01

    Geoacoustic Inversion Techniques (GAIT) Version 1.0 is a PEO (C4I and Space) PMW 155 funded product that accepts measured acoustic data and produces an optimized estimate of the bottom environment that produced the observed acoustic data. The Global Search (GS) segment of GAIT pairs the Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) algorithm with a variety of Navy standard propagation loss models (PE, ASTRAL and Nautilus) and an active sonar performance prediction model (ASPM). The goal of the GS segment of GAIT is to provide a best estimate of the geoacoustic properties of the ocean bottom that, when paired with a selected model, result in the observed acoustic data. An overview of the GS segment of GAIT 1.0 will be presented with details on the ASA algorithm, component models, cost functions and geoacoustic parametrizations. Inversion results will be shown for synthetic test cases from the Inversion Technique Workshop (ITW) held in May 2001 and from both narrowband and broadband measured data test cases. [Work supported by PEO (C4I and Space) PMW 155 and uses the products of a Phase I and II SBIR from the ONR (Code 321US).

  18. Adsorption and thermal dissociation of pyrrole on Si(1 0 0)-2 × 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Ming-Hua; Tao, Feng; Cao, Yong; Xu, Guo-Qin

    2003-10-01

    The adsorption and thermal reaction of pyrrole on Si(1 0 0)-2 × 1 have been studied using X-ray and ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS and UPS) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). At low exposures, Pyrrole chemisorbs molecularly at 120 K with its ring parallel to the surface via the π-interaction. The increase in coverage causes tilting of chemisorbed molecules towards the surface normal, attributable to the adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. At ˜350 K, the N-H bond scission of the π-bonded species occurs, resulting in Si-H and vertically N-bonded pyrrolyl on the surface. The pyrrolyl species is thermally stable to 700 K. Compared to furan or thiophene on Si(1 0 0), this higher thermal stability is ascribed to the passivation effect of the H-atoms from N-H bond dissociation and the less strain within the pyrrolyl-substrate complex. Further annealing to 900 K results in the formation of silicon carbide and silicon nitride on the substrate.

  19. Ethyl radical ejection during photodecomposition of butanone on TiO 2(1 1 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Michael A.

    2008-10-01

    The photodecomposition of acetone and butanone were examined on the (1 1 0) surface of rutile TiO 2 using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and photon stimulated desorption (PSD). In both cases, photodecomposition was preceded by a required thermal reaction between the adsorbed ketone and coadsorbed oxygen resulting in an adsorbed diolate species. The diolate photodecomposed by ejection of an organic radical from the surface leaving behind a carboxylate species. In the acetone case, only methyl radical PSD was detected and acetate was left on the surface. In the butanone case there was a possibility of either methyl or ethyl radical ejection, with propionate or acetate left behind, respectively. However, only ethyl radical PSD was detected and the species left on the surface (acetate) was the same as in the acetone case. The preference for ethyl radical ejection is linked to the greater stability of the C-CH 3 bond in butanone over that of the C-C 2H 5 bond. Unlike in the acetone case, where the ejected methyl radicals did not participate in thermal chemistry on the TiO 2(1 1 0) surface after photoactivation of the acetone diolate, ethyl radicals photodesorbing at 100 K from butanone diolate showed preference for dehydrogenation to ethene on the surface through the influence of coadsorbed oxygen. These results reemphasize the mechanistic importance of organic radical production during photooxidation reactions on TiO 2 surface.

  20. Intrinsic Properties of Fe-Substituted L1(0) Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Manchanda, P; Kumar, P; Kashyap, A; Lucis, MJ; Shield, JE; Mubarok, A; Goldstein, JI; Constantinides, S; Barmak, K; Lewis, LH; Sellmyer, DJ; Skomski, R

    2013-10-01

    First-principle supercell calculations are used to determine how 3d elemental additions, especially Fe additions, modify the magnetization, exchange and anisotropy of L1(0)-ordered ferromagnets. Calculations are performed using the VASP code and partially involve configurational averaging over site disorder. Three isostructural systems are investigated: Fe-Co-Pt, Mn-Al-Fe, and transition metal-doped Fe-Ni. In all three systems the iron strongly influences the magnetic properties of these compounds, but the specific effect depends on the host. In CoPt(Fe) iron enhances the magnetization, with subtle changes in the magnetic moments that depend on the distribution of the Fe and Co atoms. The addition of Fe to MnAl is detrimental to the magnetization, because it creates antiferromagnetic exchange interactions, but it enhances the magnetic anisotropy. The replacement of 50% of Mn by Fe in MnFeAl2 enhances the anisotropy from 1.77 to 2.5 MJ/m(3). Further, the substitution of light 3d elements such as Ti, V, Cr into L1(0)-ordered FeNi is shown to substantially reduce the magnetization.

  1. Structural determination and magnetic properties for Co-rubrene composite films on Si(1 0 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yong-Jhih; Chang, Cheng-Hsun-Tony; Yang, Chun-Kai; Hsu, Chih-Yu; Jhou, Yen-Wei; Tsay, Jyh-Shen

    2015-11-01

    Because of the potential uses toward low-cost and flexible-substrate-based electronics, semiconducting organic materials have attracted much attention. In this contribution, structures and magnetic properties of Co-rubrene composite films on Si(1 0 0) have been studied by employing atomic force microscopy (AFM) and magneto-optic Kerr effect techniques. For composite films prepared by co-depositions of Co and rubrene on Si(1 0 0), the surface is smooth while a layered distribution of Co atoms is detected. For thick composite films, surfactant effects of rubrene molecules cause smooth surfaces and reduced interaction at the film/Si interface. For thin composite films, the formation of separated Co clusters in the films results in a larger coercive force due to the imperfection introduced by rough interface to impede the magnetization reversal. By increasing the rubrene concentration, more Co/rubrene interfaces are introduced in the composite films and the more rubrene served as a surfactant enhances the quality of the films. These information are valuable for future applications combining organic semiconductor and spintronics.

  2. Economic Decision Making Model for Geothermal Sludge Disposal alternatives (EDM-GSD): Version 1. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The Economic Decision Making Model for Geothermal Sludge Disposal Alternatives-Version 1.0'' (EDM-GSD 1.0) is a microcomputer-based dynamic model developed to assist in determining the benefits and costs of various geothermal solid waste treatment procedures. It is intended for use by geothermal managers in dealing with geothermal waste and treatment process issues as a means to assist in overcoming the technical and economic barriers to expanded geothermal energy utilization. The model is based on a 50MW flash plant. However, it is designed to provide the user with sufficient flexibility when inputing data to analyze all types of geothermal plants. Default values for economic and technical parameters can be overridden by the user through the input of specific data. In addition, data can be changed for any year of an analysis to account for desired changes in input parameters such as costs and distance to disposal sites. The results of the model will allow the user to: Determine current geothermal plant disposal costs; Evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternative treatment techniques; and Evaluate the economic effects of changes in disposal regulations.

  3. Adsorption, ordering, and chemistry of nitrobenzene on Si(1 0 0)-2 × 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocharov, Semyon; Teplyakov, Andrew V.

    2004-12-01

    Surface chemistry of nitrobenzene on Si(1 0 0)-2 × 1 has been investigated using multiple internal reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (MIR-FTIR), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and thermal desorption mass spectrometry. Molecular adsorption of nitrobenzene at submonolayer coverages is dominating at cryogenic temperatures (100 K). As the surface temperature is increased to 160 K, chemical reaction involving nitro group occurs, while the phenyl entity remains intact. Thus, a barrier of approximately 40.8 kJ/mol is established for the interaction of the nitro group of nitrobenzene with the Si(1 0 0)-2 × 1 surface. Further annealing of the silicon surface leads to the decomposition of nitrobenzene. The concentration of nitrogen and oxygen remains constant on a surface within the temperature interval studied here. AES studies also suggest that the majority of carbon-containing products remain bound to the surface at temperatures as high as 1000 K. The only chemical reaction leading to the release of the gaseous products is benzene formation around 670 K. The amount of benzene accounts only for a few percent of the surface species, while the rest of the phenyl groups connected to the silicon surface via a nitrogen linker remain stable even at elevated temperatures, opening an opportunity for stable surface coatings.

  4. Coadsorption of lanthanum with boron and gadolinium with boron on Mo(1 1 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magkoev, Tamerlan T.; Vladimirov, Georgij G.; Rump, Gennadij A.

    2008-05-01

    Submonolayer to multilayer coadsorption of lanthanum (La) with boron (B) and gadolinium (Gd) with boron on the surface of Mo(1 1 0) has been studied by means of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and work function ( ϕ) measurements. The equilibrium state of double adsorbate systems achieved either by adsorption of rare-earth metal (REM) on boron precovered Mo(1 1 0) surface held at room temperature or after moderate annealing of the system with opposite order of adsorption (B on REM films) is the layer which is the inhomogeneous mixture of boron and REM atoms with preferential concentration of boron in the surface area of the mixed film. The work function of such films even at REM to boron concentration ratio much higher than 1/6 are very close to the values of corresponding bulk LaB 6 and GdB 6, favoring assumption of surface rearrangement as the dominant reason of high electron emission efficiency of hexaborides. Almost total similarity of the results for La-B and Gd-B systems can be viewed as the consequence of weak participation of Gd f-electrons in determining the thermionic properties of corresponding double layers.

  5. The 1.0-4.5 GHz Zebras in the June 6, 2000 Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, H. S.; Karlický, M.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Cecatto, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    For the first time we are reporting harmonically related zebra structures above 1000 MHz, having ratio of 1:2. Zebra structures show up to 8 zebra lines. In individual zebra patterns the frequency ratio of the neighbouring zebra lines are less than 1.03 and these ratios decrease with the frequency decrease. The zebra patterns are analyzed and interpreted assuming double plasma resonance instability as the cause for their generation. The longitudinal upper hybrid waves are excited at positions of cyclotron resonances and then transformed into electromagnetic ones. Using this model the magnetic field strengths in the flaring loops are estimated in the range of 110-230 G.

  6. EPIC Study of Two Enigmatic Sources: The Mouse and SNR 359.1-0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlov, George

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the original proposal was to observe the Mouse pulsar wind nebula (associated with PSR J1744-2958) and the nearby supernova remnant G359.1-0.5, where the pulsar was probably born, with the XMM-Newton observatory to study the properties of these objects. SNR G359.1-0.5 was accepted as a Category C target and has not been observed. The Mouse was observed on April 27,2003 for 52 ks. The image analysis has shown that the Mouse is extended in the East-West direction, possibly along the direction of the pulsar's proper motion. The spectrum of this pulsar wind nebula can be described as an absorbed power law with the photon index GAMMA = 1.9 plus or minus 0.1, effective hydrogen column density n(sub H) = (2.6 plus or minus 0.1) x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter, and flux F = 1.8 x 10(exp -11) erg per square centimeter per second in the 1-10 keV energy range. Based on the n(sub H) value, the distance to the source is about 5 kpc, which results in the luminosity 3.7 x 10(exp 34) erg per second. We conclude that PSR J1744-2958 and the Mouse are not physically associated with G359.1-0.5, which lies at a larger distance. In addition to the Mouse, we also detected two Low-Mass X-ray Binaries, SLX 1744-299 and 1744-300, in the EPIC MOS and PN fields of view. The latter of these objects showed a Type I X-ray burst during our observation, with a rise time of 5 s and decay time of 60 s. A very strong pileup during the burst made the analysis of the burst properties unreliable. The spectral analysis of the persistent radiation from SLX 1744-299 and 1744-300 yields the hydrogen column densities of 3.2 plus or minus 0.1 and (3.6 plus or minus 0.2) x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter, respectively, which suggests that the sources are close to the Galactic center (d = 8-9 kpc). The spectra can be reasonably well fitted with a blackbody plus thin disk model, with the blackbody temperatures of 1.7 plus or minus 0.2 and 1.8 plus or minus 0.2 keV, respectively.

  7. Development of a variational flux inversion system (INVICAT v1.0) using the TOMCAT chemical transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Gloor, M.; Chevallier, F.

    2014-10-01

    We present a new variational inverse transport model, named INVICAT (v1.0), which is based on the global chemical transport model TOMCAT, and a new corresponding adjoint transport model, ATOMCAT. The adjoint model is constructed through manually derived discrete adjoint algorithms, and includes subroutines governing advection, convection and boundary layer mixing, all of which are linear in the TOMCAT model. We present extensive testing of the adjoint and inverse models, and also thoroughly assess the accuracy of the TOMCAT forward model's representation of atmospheric transport through comparison with observations of the atmospheric trace gas SF6. The forward model is shown to perform well in comparison with these observations, capturing the latitudinal gradient and seasonal cycle of SF6 to within acceptable tolerances. The adjoint model is shown, through numerical identity tests and novel transport reciprocity tests, to be extremely accurate in comparison with the forward model, with no error shown at the level of accuracy possible with our machines. The potential for the variational system as a tool for inverse modelling is investigated through an idealised test using simulated observations, and the system demonstrates an ability to retrieve known fluxes from a perturbed state accurately. Using basic off-line chemistry schemes, the inverse model is ready and available to perform inversions of trace gases with relatively simple chemical interactions, including CH4, CO2 and CO.

  8. Development of a variational flux inversion system (INVICAT v1.0) within the TOMCAT chemical transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Gloor, M.; Chevallier, F.

    2013-12-01

    We present a new variational inverse transport model, named INVICAT (v1.0), which is based upon the global chemical transport model TOMCAT, and a new corresponding adjoint transport model, ATOMCAT. The adjoint model is constructed through manually derived discrete adjoint algorithms, and includes subroutines governing advection, convection and boundary layer mixing. We present extensive testing of the adjoint and inverse models, and also thoroughly assess the accuracy of the TOMCAT forward model's representation of atmospheric transport through comparison with observations of the atmospheric trace gas SF6. The forward model is shown to perform well in comparison with these observations, capturing the latitudinal gradient and seasonal cycle of SF6 to within acceptable tolerances. The adjoint model is shown, through numerical identity tests and novel transport reciprocity tests, to be extremely accurate in comparison with the forward model, with no error shown at the level of accuracy possible with our machines. The potential for the variational system as a tool for inverse modelling is investigated through an idealised test using simulated observations, and the system demonstrates an ability to retrieve known fluxes from a perturbed state accurately. Using basic off-line chemistry schemes, the inverse model is ready and available to perform inversions of trace gases with relatively simple chemical interactions, including CH4, CO2 and CO.

  9. Broadband fiber-optical parametric amplification for ultrafast time-stretch imaging at 1.0 μm.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoming; Lau, Andy K S; Xu, Yiqing; Zhang, Chi; Mussot, Arnaud; Kudlinski, Alexandre; Tsia, Kevin K; Wong, Kenneth K Y

    2014-10-15

    We demonstrate a broadband all-fiber-optical parametric amplifier for ultrafast time-stretch imaging at 1.0 μm, featured by its compact design, alignment-free, high efficiency, and flexible gain spectrum through fiber nonlinearity- and dispersion-engineering: specifically on a dispersion-stabilized photonic-crystal fiber (PCF) to achieve a net gain over 20 THz (75 nm) and a highest gain of ~6000 (37.5 dB). Another unique feature of the parametric amplifier, over other optical amplifiers, is the coherent generation of a synchronized signal replica (called idler) that can be exploited to offer an extra 3-dB gain by optically superposing the signal and idler. It further enhances signal contrast and temporal stability. For proof-of-concept purpose, ultrahigh speed and diffraction-limited time-stretch microscopy is demonstrated with a single-shot line-scan rate of 13 MHz based on the dual-band (signal and idler) detection. Our scheme can be extended to other established bioimaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography, near infrared fluorescence, and photoacoustic imaging, where weak signal detection at high speed is required. PMID:25361137

  10. Structural biology of the S1P1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Michael A; Peach, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The sphingosine 1 phosphate receptor family has been studied widely since the initial discovery of its first member, endothelium differentiation gene 1. Since this initial discovery, the family has been renamed and the primary member of the family, the S1P1 receptor, has been targeted for a variety of disease indications and successfully drugged for the treatment of patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. Recently, the three-dimensional structure of the S1P1 receptor has been determined by X-ray crystallography and the specifics of the sphingosine 1 phosphate ligand binding pocket mapped. Key structural features for the S1P1 receptor will be reviewed and the potential binding modes of additional pharmacologically active agents against the receptor will be analyzed in an effort to better understand the structural basis of important receptor-ligand interactions. PMID:24728592

  11. S1-hypersensitive sites in eukaryotic promoter regions.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, T; Schon, E; Gora-Maslak, G; Patterson, J; Efstratiadis, A

    1984-01-01

    We have examined by fine mapping the S1 nuclease-hypersensitivity of the 5' flanking regions of the human beta-globin and rat preproinsulin II genes and of the SV40 origin/enhancer region. In all cases S1-hypersensitive sites are located in known or presumed promoter/regulatory regions. Though a consensus DNA sequence is not evident, all of these sites reside in predominantly homopurine-homopyrimidine stretches. The alternate (non-B) DNA structure which is revealed by the enzymatic probe is a sequence-dependent feature of a short stretch of DNA, which is retained upon transplantation into a foreign environment. The alternate structure exhibits S1-nicking patterns uniquely different from those associated with the presence of Z-DNA. Images PMID:6095186

  12. S-1-based vs non-S-1-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Zhou, Yan; Min, Ke; Yao, Qiang; Xu, Chun-Ni

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of S-1-based vs non-S-1-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). METHODS: We extracted reported endpoints, including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), time-to-treatment failure (TTF), objective response rate (ORR) and adverse effects, from randomized controlled trials identified in PubMed, the Cochrane library, Science Direct, EMBASE and American Society of Clinical Oncology meetings. Stata software was used to calculate the pooled values. RESULTS: Seven randomized controlled trials involving 2176 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Compared to non-S-1-based regimens, the use of S-1-based regimens were associated with an increase in ORR (RR = 1.300; 95%CI: 1.028-1.645); OS (HR = 0.89; 95%CI: 0.81-0.99; P = 0.025), TTF (HR = 0.83; 95%CI: 0.75-0.92; P = 0.000), and a lower risk of febrile neutropenia (RR = 0.225; P = 0.000) and stomatitis (RR = 0.230; P = 0.032). OS, PFS and TTF were prolonged, especially in the Asian population. In subgroup analysis, statistically significant increases in ORR (RR = 1.454; P = 0.029), OS (HR = 0.895; P = 0.041) and TTF (HR = 0.832; P = 0.000) were found when S-1-based chemotherapy was compared to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. The incidence of leukopenia (RR = 0.584; P = 0.002) and stomatitis (RR = 0.230; P = 0.032) was higher in the 5-FU-based arm. S-1-based regimens had no advantage in ORR, OS, PFS, TTF and grade 3 or 4 adverse events over capecitabine-based regimens. CONCLUSION: S-1-based chemotherapy may be a good choice for AGC because of longer survival times, better tolerance and more convenient use. PMID:25206296

  13. Simulating supersymmetry with ISAJET 7.0/ISASUSY 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, H.; Paige, F. E.; Protopopescu, S. D.; Tata, X.

    1993-04-01

    This document reviews the physics assumptions and input embedded in ISAJET 7.0/ISASUSY 1.0 which is relevant for simulating fundamental processes within the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Model (MSSM) at p(bar p) and pp colliders. After a brief discussion of the underlying MSSM framework, the authors discuss event simulation and list the particle production processes and decay modes that have been incorporated into the calculations. They then describe how to set up and run an ISAJET/ISASUSY job, as well as the user input and output formats. The ISAJET program is sufficiently flexible that some non-miminal supersymmetry scenarios may be simulated as well. Finally, plans for future upgrades which include the extension to e(sup +)e(sup -) collisions are listed.

  14. Design document for the Surface Currents Data Base (SCDB) Management System (SCDBMS), version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisnnamagaru, Ramesh; Cesario, Cheryl; Foster, M. S.; Das, Vishnumohan

    1994-01-01

    The Surface Currents Database Management System (SCDBMS) provides access to the Surface Currents Data Base (SCDB) which is maintained by the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO). The SCDBMS incorporates database technology in providing seamless access to surface current data. The SCDBMS is an interactive software application with a graphical user interface (GUI) that supports user control of SCDBMS functional capabilities. The purpose of this document is to define and describe the structural framework and logistical design of the software components/units which are integrated into the major computer software configuration item (CSCI) identified as the SCDBMS, Version 1.0. The preliminary design is based on functional specifications and requirements identified in the governing Statement of Work prepared by the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) and distributed as a request for proposal by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  15. HyRAM (Hydrogen Risk Assessment Models) v. 1.0 (alpha)

    SciTech Connect

    Groth, Katrina M.; Hecht, Ethan; Reynolds, John T.; Ekoto, Isaac W.; Walkup, Gregory W.

    2014-12-19

    HyRAM is a software toolkit that integrates data and methods relevant to assessing the safety of hydrogen fueling and storage infrastructure. The HyRAM toolkit integrates deterministic and probabilistic models for quantifying accident scenarios, predicting physical effects, and characterizing the impact of hydrogen hazards (thermal effects from jet fires, thermal pressure effects from deflagrations) on people and structures. HyRAM incorporates generic probabilities for equipment failures for nine types of components, and probabilistic models for the impact of heat flux on humans and structures, with computationally and experimentally validated models of hydrogen release and flame physics. Version 1.0.0.280 can be used to quantify the likelihood and thermal consequences associated with gaseous hydrogen releases from user-defined hydrogen installations.

  16. LANDSAT multispectral scanner computer-compatible tape format, version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Unlike previous LANDSAT computer compatible tape (CCT) formats, the standard format of CCT's now includes a comprehensive field location and data description information superstructure composed of four records. The volume descriptor record, the text record, and the file pointer record reside in a volume directory file, which generally describes the data configuration and provides pointers to each data file. The file descriptor record for each data file describes the data structure within the file and provides pointers to certain fields within the file. These superstructure records primarily supply information about the data on the CCT as opposed to carrying the data themselves. The EROS Data Center's LANDSAT CCT version 1.0 product is presented which conforms to the concepts of the standard format as much as is possible with existing EDC systems.

  17. Physics of the Be(10{bar 1} 0) Surface Core Level Spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Lizzit, S.; Pohl, K. |; Baraldi, A.; Comelli, G.; Fritzsche, V.; Plummer, E.W. |; Stumpf, R.; Hofmann, P. ||

    1998-10-01

    Photoelectron diffraction has been utilized to confirm the theoretical prediction that the surface core level shifts observed for Be(10{bar 1}0) have been improperly assigned. The original assignment based upon the relative intensity of the shifted components was intuitively obvious: the peak with the largest shift of {minus}0.7 eV with respect to the bulk was associated with the surface plane, the next peak shifted by {minus}0.5 eV stems from the second layer, and the third peak at {minus}0.22 eV from the third and fourth layers. First-principles theory and our experimental data show that the largest shift is associated with the second plane, not the first plane. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society }

  18. Interplay between electronic and structural properties in the Pb/Ag(1 0 0) interface.

    PubMed

    Crepaldi, A; Zhan, R R; Moser, S; Sheverdyaeva, P M; Carbone, C; Papagno, M; Moras, P; Baraldi, A; Grioni, M

    2015-11-18

    We report an investigation of the structural and electronic properties of a Pb monolayer (ML) grown on Ag(1 0 0), by combining x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) and angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). The Pb atoms are found to arrange in a pseudo-hexagonal adlayer commensurate to the underlying square Ag substrate, resulting in a coincidence cell with c([Formula: see text]) periodicity. The electronic structure of the Pb ML in proximity of the Fermi level consists in three p-derived bands, which show different degrees of hybridization with the substrate for their different orbital characters. In particular, we report that the p xy states disperse without forming energy gap, in contrast to previous ARPES studies of the Pb ML on different metallic substrates. We attribute the absence of energy gap to the commensurability between substrate and adlayer, resulting in a higher two-dimensionality of the Pb ML. PMID:26490303

  19. Characterization of <0 1 0> directed KAP single crystals grown by Sankaranarayanan Ramasamy (SR) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Pandian, M.; Balamurugan, N.; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Ramasamy, P.

    2008-08-01

    Single crystals of potassium acid phthalate (KAP), a semi-organic compound, have been grown at an average growth rate of 4 mm/day from aqueous solution by using the uniaxial crystal growth method of Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR). Transparent, cylindrical KAP crystal of size 70 mm length and 15 mm diameter was grown. The grown crystals were characterized by etching and UV-vis NIR analysis. HRXRD analysis indicates that the crystalline perfection of SR method-grown KAP is good. The KAP crystals grown by SR method have 9% higher transmittance than conventional method-grown crystal. The microhardness test was carried out on the (0 1 0) face and a load-dependent hardness was observed. TG-DTA evaluated the thermal properties of the grown crystal. KAP was found to be thermally stable up to 290 °C. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the crystal were studied as function of frequency and temperature.

  20. Chemisorption of NCO on Cu(1 0 0): A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garda, Graciela R.; Ferullo, Ricardo M.; Castellani, Norberto J.

    2005-12-01

    The isocyanate group adsorption on sites of different coordination of Cu(1 0 0) was theoretically studied considering the cluster approach. The site of four-fold symmetry is the most favored. When NCO adsorbs on Cu, it charges negatively. This electron transfer from the substrate is greater for the site of lowest coordination. The projected DOS curves for the most important valence molecular orbitals of isocyanate group indicate a strong mixing between its 2π orbital and 3d xz and 3d yz AOs of Cu. The predicted asymmetric mode at 2187 cm -1 for NCO adsorbed on the hollow site agrees very well with the experimental observed values of 2162-65 cm -1.

  1. Theoretical study of SO2 adsorption on goethite (1 1 0) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubieta, Carolina E.; Fortunato, Leandro F.; Belelli, Patricia G.; Ferullo, Ricardo M.

    2014-09-01

    Adsorption of SO2 on fully hydrated and partially dehydrated (1 1 0) surface of goethite (α-FeOOH) has been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and periodic conditions. Different degrees of dehydration were modeled by eliminating one or two water molecules from the fully hydrated surface. Calculations indicate that SO2 shows preference to adsorb on dehydrated surface and the transformation to surface sulfite, bisulfite and sulfate was observed. In particular, surface sulfite can be formed over a variety of different dehydrated surfaces as monodentate and bidentate complexes. Theoretical vibrational frequencies of all the species have also been computed. Taking into account all the structures, we found frequency values within the 650-1030 cm-1 region due to Ssbnd OFe stretching, and between 1010 and 1190 cm-1 due to Ssbnd O stretching. Furthermore, monodentate mononuclear and bidentate binuclear sulfite complexes present distinctive features at low frequencies (600-700 cm-1).

  2. Galactic Conformity from z=0.2-1.0 with PRIMUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, Angela; Coil, Alison L.

    2016-06-01

    We test for galactic conformity from z=0.2-1.0 to a projected distance of 5 Mpc using spectroscopic redshifts from the PRism MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS). Our sample consists of ~60,000 galaxies in five separate fields covering a total of ~5.5 square degrees, which allows us to account for cosmic variance. Dividing our sample into star-forming and quiescent galaxies using a cut in specific star formation rate, we identify star-forming and quiescent “isolated primary” galaxies. We match the redshift and stellar mass distributions of these samples, to control for correlations between quiescent fraction and redshift and stellar mass. We detect a significant conformity signal (>3 sigma) of ~5% on scales of 0-1 Mpc and a 2.5-sigma signal of ~1% on scales of 1-3 Mpc. We also test for redshift and stellar mass dependence of the conformity signal within our sample.

  3. Detection of CO (J=1-0) in the dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 185

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiklind, Tommy; Rydbeck, Gustaf

    1987-01-01

    The detection of CO (J = 1-0) emission in the dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 185 is reported. The presence of massive molecular clouds in this early-type galaxy supports the idea of recent or ongoing stellar formation indicated by the population of blue stars in the center. The CO was detected in two positions in the galaxy, the center, and a prominent dustcloud. The emission profile has two peaks, roughly centered around the systemic velocity. It is found that NGC 185 is overluminous in blue light for its CO luminosity compared with Sc galaxies. This might indicate a higher star-formation efficiency for NGC 185 than for the late-type galaxies.

  4. Measurement of small angle based on a (1 0 0) silicon wafer and heterodyne interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Meng-Chang; Lin, Jiun-You; Chen, Yu-Fong; Chang, Chia-Ou

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a new optical material application and a heterodyne interferometer are proposed for measuring small angles. In the proposed interferometer, the optical material is a (1 0 0) silicon wafer applied to compose a new architecture of small angle sensor. The small angle measurement used the phase difference which is dependent on the incident angle at the silicon wafer surface to deduce the angular variation. The proposed architecture is simple and uses the common path method to compare test and reference signals; thus, small angles can be easily and accurately measured by estimating the phase difference. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of this method. The angular resolution and sensitivity levels superior to 7 × 10-5° (1.3 × 10-6 rad) and 150 (deg/deg), respectively, were attainable in a dynamic range of 0.45°.

  5. Hardening of the surface layers of commercial pure titanium VT1-0 under combined treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashchenko, Lyudmila P.; Gromov, Viktor E.; Budovskikh, Evgenii A.; Ivanov, Yurii F.; Soskova, Nina A.

    2015-10-01

    The treatment of VT1-0 titanium samples was carried out by concentrated energy fluxes. The combined treatment included surface carburizing with the joint use of powder samples of compounds with high physical and mechanical properties (namely, titanium diboride TiB2, silicon carbide SiC and zirconium oxide ZrO2) and subsequent electron beam treatment of surface layers formed in electroexplosive treatment. The combined treatment of surface layers resulted in the multifold increase in microhardness, which reduces depending on the depth of hardening zone. After electron-beam treatment, the depth of hardening zone is increased. During electron-beam treatment, the two-layer hardening zone forms.

  6. Hyperon vector coupling f{sub 1}(0) from 2+1 flavor lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Shoichi

    2011-10-21

    We present results for the hyperon vector form factor f{sub 1} for {Xi}{sup 0}{yields}{Sigma}{sup +}l{nu}-bar and {Sigma}{sup -}{yields}nl{nu}-bar semileptonic decays from dynamical lattice QCD with domain-wall quarks. Simulations are performed on the 2+1 flavor gauge configurations generated by the RBC and UKQCD Collaborations with a lattice cutoff of a{sup -1} = 1.7 GeV. Our preliminary results, which are calculated at the lightest sea quark mass (pion mass down to approximately 330 MeV), show that a sign of the second-order correction of SU(3) breaking on hyperon vector coupling f{sub 1}(0) is likely negative.

  7. Structure and composition of the NiPd(1 1 0) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derry, G. N.; Wan, R.; Krueger, E.; Waldt, J.; English, C.

    2009-07-01

    The NiPd(1 1 0) alloy surface was studied using low energy electron diffraction to measure the structure and composition of the first three atomic layers. The surface layer is highly enriched in Pd and has a significantly buckled structure. The second layer is also buckled, with displacements even larger than the surface layer. The second layer also exhibits intralayer segregation (chemical ordering), with alternate close-packed rows of atoms being Ni enriched and Pd enriched. The third layer has a structure and composition close to that of the bulk alloy. These results are compared with results for the other low index faces of NiPd, the extensive literature on NiPt alloy surfaces, and the growing body of theoretical literature for NiPd alloy surfaces.

  8. Interoperability with Moby 1.0--it's better than sharing your toothbrush!

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Mark D; Senger, Martin; Kawas, Edward; Bruskiewich, Richard; Gouzy, Jerome; Noirot, Celine; Bardou, Philippe; Ng, Ambrose; Haase, Dirk; Saiz, Enrique de Andres; Wang, Dennis; Gibbons, Frank; Gordon, Paul M K; Sensen, Christoph W; Carrasco, Jose Manuel Rodriguez; Fernández, José M; Shen, Lixin; Links, Matthew; Ng, Michael; Opushneva, Nina; Neerincx, Pieter B T; Leunissen, Jack A M; Ernst, Rebecca; Twigger, Simon; Usadel, Bjorn; Good, Benjamin; Wong, Yan; Stein, Lincoln; Crosby, William; Karlsson, Johan; Royo, Romina; Párraga, Iván; Ramírez, Sergio; Gelpi, Josep Lluis; Trelles, Oswaldo; Pisano, David G; Jimenez, Natalia; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Rosset, Roman; Zamacola, Leire; Tarraga, Joaquin; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Carazo, Jose María; Dopazo, Joaquin; Guigo, Roderic; Navarro, Arcadi; Orozco, Modesto; Valencia, Alfonso; Claros, M Gonzalo; Pérez, Antonio J; Aldana, Jose; Rojano, M Mar; Fernandez-Santa Cruz, Raul; Navas, Ismael; Schiltz, Gary; Farmer, Andrew; Gessler, Damian; Schoof, Heiko; Groscurth, Andreas

    2008-05-01

    The BioMoby project was initiated in 2001 from within the model organism database community. It aimed to standardize methodologies to facilitate information exchange and access to analytical resources, using a consensus driven approach. Six years later, the BioMoby development community is pleased to announce the release of the 1.0 version of the interoperability framework, registry Application Programming Interface and supporting Perl and Java code-bases. Together, these provide interoperable access to over 1400 bioinformatics resources worldwide through the BioMoby platform, and this number continues to grow. Here we highlight and discuss the features of BioMoby that make it distinct from other Semantic Web Service and interoperability initiatives, and that have been instrumental to its deployment and use by a wide community of bioinformatics service providers. The standard, client software, and supporting code libraries are all freely available at http://www.biomoby.org/. PMID:18238804

  9. CF interaction with Si(1 0 0)-(2 × 1): Molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, F.; Gleeson, M. A.; Kleyn, A. W.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the interaction of CF with the clean Si(1 0 0)-(2 × 1) surface at normal incidence and room temperature was investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. Incident energies of 2, 12 and 50 eV were simulated. C atoms, arising from dissociation, preferentially react with Si to form Si-C bonds. A Si xC yF z interfacial layer is formed, but no etching is observed. The interfacial layer thickness increases with increasing incident energy, mainly through enhanced penetration of the silicon lattice. Silicon carbide and fluorosilyl species are formed at 50 eV, which is in good agreement with available experimental data. The level of agreement between the simulated and experimental results is discussed.

  10. Power, Avionics and Software - Phase 1.0:. [Subsystem Integration Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sands, Obed S.; Bakula, Casey J.; Oldham, Daniel R.; Wright, Ted; Bradish, Martin A.; Klebau, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes Power, Avionics and Software (PAS) 1.0 subsystem integration testing and test results that occurred in August and September of 2013. This report covers the capabilities of each PAS assembly to meet integration test objectives for non-safety critical, non-flight, non-human-rated hardware and software development. This test report is the outcome of the first integration of the PAS subsystem and is meant to provide data for subsequent designs, development and testing of the future PAS subsystems. The two main objectives were to assess the ability of the PAS assemblies to exchange messages and to perform audio testing of both inbound and outbound channels. This report describes each test performed, defines the test, the data, and provides conclusions and recommendations.

  11. Transition-metal and metalloid substitutions in L1(0)-ordered FeNi

    SciTech Connect

    Manchanda, P; Skomski, R; Bordeaux, N; Lewis, LH; Kashyap, A

    2014-05-07

    The effect of atomic substitutions on the magnetization, exchange, and magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy of L1(0)-ordered FeNi (tetrataenite) is computationally investigated. The compound naturally occurs in meteorites but has attracted renewed attention as a potential material for permanent magnets, and elemental additives will likely be necessary to facilitate the phase formation. Our density functional theory calculations use the Vienna ab-initio simulation package, applied to 4-atom unit cells of Fe2XNi and 32-atom supercells (X = Al, P, S, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co). While it is found that most additives deteriorate the magnetic properties, there are exceptions: excess substitutional Fe and Co additions improve the magnetization, whereas Cr, S, and interstitial B additions improve the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  12. Low cost anisotropic etching of monocrystalline Si (1 0 0): Optimization using response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Khuram; Khan, Sohail Aziz; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat

    2012-10-01

    Reduced surface reflectance and enhanced light trapping is required by any high efficiency solar cell. Anisotropic etching was done on silicon (1 0 0) by using tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide TMAH, (CH3)4NOH, solution at 85 °C. Process variables considered were solution concentration and time proposed by response surface methodology (RSM). An effective surface texture was resulted with reflectance less than 8% without antireflection coating. The antireflection mechanism was also co-related with the etch rate of Si. Optimized values predicted by RSM for time and TMAH concentration were 5 min and 3.50% respectively. The technique and optimization of parameters by using response surface methodology (RSM) could be valuable in the texturization process for high-efficiency Si solar cells.

  13. Global Deployment of Geothermal Energy Using a New Characterization in GCAM 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Hannam, Phil; Kyle, G. Page; Smith, Steven J.

    2009-09-01

    This report documents modeling of geothermal energy in GCAM 1.0 (formerly MiniCAM) from FY2008 to FY2009, from the inputs to the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program report (Clarke et al., 2008a) to the present representation, which will be used in future work. To demonstrate the newest representation, we describe the procedure and outcome of six model runs that illustrate the potential role of geothermal energy in the U.S. and global regions through different futures climate policy, development and deployment of engineered, or enhanced, geothermal systems (EGS), and availability of other low-cost, low-carbon electricity generation technologies such as nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage (CCS).

  14. A low temperature surface preparation method for STM nano-lithography on Si(1 0 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mol, J. A.; Beentjes, S. P. C.; Rogge, S.

    2010-06-01

    Registration markers are crucial in connecting scanning tunneling microscope (STM) lithographed nano- and atomic-scale devices to the outside world. In this paper we revisit an ultra high vacuum annealing method with a low thermal budget that is fully compatible with etched registration markers and results in clean 2 × 1 reconstructed Si(1 0 0) surfaces required for STM lithography. Surface contamination is prevented by chemically stripping and reforming a protective silicon oxide layer before transferring the sample to the vacuum system. This allows for annealing temperatures of only 900 °C, where normally carbon contaminants result in the formation of SiC clusters on the surface at annealing temperatures below 950 °C. Reactive ion etched marker structures with an etch depth of 60 nm and a typical lateral dimension of only 150 nm survive a 900 °C flash anneal.

  15. Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA), version 1.0 user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Scott S.; Davis, John S.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA) computer program, Version 1.0 is described. SODA is a spaceflight mission planning system which consists of five program modules integrated around a common database and user interface. SODA runs on a VAX/VMS computer with an EVANS & SUTHERLAND PS300 graphics workstation. BOEING RIM-Version 7 relational database management system performs transparent database services. In the current version three program modules produce an interactive three dimensional (3D) animation of one or more satellites in planetary orbit. Satellite visibility and sensor coverage capabilities are also provided. One module produces an interactive 3D animation of the solar system. Another module calculates cumulative satellite sensor coverage and revisit time for one or more satellites. Currently Earth, Moon, and Mars systems are supported for all modules except the solar system module.

  16. First-principles investigation of helium dissolution and clustering at a tungsten (1 1 0) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinlong; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Hong-Bo; Jin, Shuo; Lu, Guang-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Using a first-principles method, we have investigated dissolution, self-trapping and clustering of He at a W(1 1 0) surface. We found that the He atom is not energetically favorable at both the surface and the subsurface, but it becomes stable under the second atomic layer from the surface. The He is easier to be self-trapped to form an He cluster at the near surface in comparison with the bulk due to the larger self-trapping range and the stronger binding energy. With the formation of such He cluster, the vacancy and thus the He-vacancy complex are able to form at the near surface. The results will provide a useful reference for understanding formation of the He bubble at the W surface.

  17. HyRAM (Hydrogen Risk Assessment Models) v. 1.0 (alpha)

    2014-12-19

    HyRAM is a software toolkit that integrates data and methods relevant to assessing the safety of hydrogen fueling and storage infrastructure. The HyRAM toolkit integrates deterministic and probabilistic models for quantifying accident scenarios, predicting physical effects, and characterizing the impact of hydrogen hazards (thermal effects from jet fires, thermal pressure effects from deflagrations) on people and structures. HyRAM incorporates generic probabilities for equipment failures for nine types of components, and probabilistic models for the impactmore » of heat flux on humans and structures, with computationally and experimentally validated models of hydrogen release and flame physics. Version 1.0.0.280 can be used to quantify the likelihood and thermal consequences associated with gaseous hydrogen releases from user-defined hydrogen installations.« less

  18. GridLAB-D Technical Support Document: Residential End-Use Module Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Zachary T.; Gowri, Krishnan; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2008-07-31

    1.0 Introduction The residential module implements the following end uses and characteristics to simulate the power demand in a single family home: • Water heater • Lights • Dishwasher • Range • Microwave • Refrigerator • Internal gains (plug loads) • House (heating/cooling loads) The house model considers the following four major heat gains/losses that contribute to the building heating/cooling load: 1. Conduction through exterior walls, roof and fenestration (based on envelope UA) 2. Air infiltration (based on specified air change rate) 3. Solar radiation (based on CLTD model and using tmy data) 4. Internal gains from lighting, people, equipment and other end use objects. The Equivalent Thermal Parameter (ETP) approach is used to model the residential loads and energy consumption. The following sections describe the modeling assumptions for each of the above end uses and the details of power demand calculations in the residential module.

  19. Self-aligned silicon quantum wires on Ag(1 1 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leandri, C.; Lay, G. Le; Aufray, B.; Girardeaux, C.; Avila, J.; Dávila, M. E.; Asensio, M. C.; Ottaviani, C.; Cricenti, A.

    2005-01-01

    Upon deposition of silicon onto the (1 1 0) surface of a silver crystal we have grown massively parallel one-dimensional Si nanowires. They are imaged in scanning tunnelling microscopy as straight, high aspect ratio, nanostructures, all with the same characteristic width of 16 Å, perfectly aligned along the atomic troughs of the bare surface. Low energy electron diffraction confirms the massively parallel assembly of these self-organized nanowires. Photoemission reveals striking quantized states dispersing only along the length of the nanowires, and extremely sharp, two-components, Si 2p core levels. This demonstrates that in the large ensemble each individual nanowire is a well-defined quantum object comprising only two distinct silicon atomic environments. We suggest that this self-assembled array of highly perfect Si nanowires provides a simple, atomically precise, novel template that may impact a wide range of applications.

  20. Solid waste projection model: Model version 1. 0 technical reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, M.L.; Crow, V.L.; Buska, D.E. ); Ouderkirk, S.J. )

    1990-11-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The SWPM system provides a modeling and analysis environment that supports decisions in the process of evaluating various solid waste management alternatives. This document, one of a series describing the SWPM system, contains detailed information regarding the software utilized in developing Version 1.0 of the modeling unit of SWPM. This document is intended for use by experienced software engineers and supports programming, code maintenance, and model enhancement. Those interested in using SWPM should refer to the SWPM Model User's Guide. This document is available from either the PNL project manager (D. L. Stiles, 509-376-4154) or the WHC program monitor (B. C. Anderson, 509-373-2796). 8 figs.

  1. Hardening of the surface layers of commercial pure titanium VT1-0 under combined treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bashchenko, Lyudmila P. Gromov, Viktor E. Budovskikh, Evgenii A. Soskova, Nina A.; Ivanov, Yurii F.

    2015-10-27

    The treatment of VT1-0 titanium samples was carried out by concentrated energy fluxes. The combined treatment included surface carburizing with the joint use of powder samples of compounds with high physical and mechanical properties (namely, titanium diboride TiB{sub 2}, silicon carbide SiC and zirconium oxide ZrO{sub 2}) and subsequent electron beam treatment of surface layers formed in electroexplosive treatment. The combined treatment of surface layers resulted in the multifold increase in microhardness, which reduces depending on the depth of hardening zone. After electron-beam treatment, the depth of hardening zone is increased. During electron-beam treatment, the two-layer hardening zone forms.

  2. Design document for the MOODS Data Management System (MDMS), version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The MOODS Data Management System (MDMS) provides access to the Master Oceanographic Observation Data Set (MOODS) which is maintained by the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO). The MDMS incorporates database technology in providing seamless access to parameter (temperature, salinity, soundspeed) vs. depth observational profile data. The MDMS is an interactive software application with a graphical user interface (GUI) that supports user control of MDMS functional capabilities. The purpose of this document is to define and describe the structural framework and logical design of the software components/units which are integrated into the major computer software configuration item (CSCI) identified as MDMS, Version 1.0. The preliminary design is based on functional specifications and requirements identified in the governing Statement of Work prepared by the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) and distributed as a request for proposal by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  3. Temperature- and coverage-dependent evolution of the Au/Pd(1 1 0) surface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralj, M.; Bailly, A.; Saint-Lager, M.-C.; Degen, S.; Krupski, A.; Becker, C.; Dolle, P.; De Santis, M.; Wandelt, K.

    2006-06-01

    The morphology and the atomic scale structure of thin gold films (up to 2.5 ML) on Pd(1 1 0) were studied by means of scanning tunneling microscopy and surface X-ray diffraction. At room temperature the films exhibit a multilayer growth mode accompanied by the formation of highly anisotropic islands. Annealing above 500 K significantly increases the smoothness of the gold films, which are in registry with the substrate. Above a critical threshold of two monolayers a (1 × 2) missing-row reconstructed film is found. This reconstructed surface is well ordered after annealing at temperatures above 580 K. The specific gold film morphology is envisaged as a way to relax the strain caused by the mismatch between gold and palladium.

  4. Rearrangement as a probe for radical formation: bromomethylcyclopropane on oxygen-covered Mo(1 1 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, J. A.; Kretzschmar, I.; Sheehy, M. A.; Deiner, L. J.; Friend, C. M.

    2001-05-01

    The reactions of bromomethylcyclopropane on oxygen-covered Mo(1 1 0) were studied in order to investigate the lifetimes of radical intermediates, which are important in heterogeneous oxidation catalysis. The methylcyclopropyl radical is known to rearrange on the nanosecond time scale, providing us with a means of probing for radical formation. Surprisingly, no rearrangement occurs subsequent to C-Br bond dissociation, which commences at ˜220 K. Instead, displacement of bromine by oxygen occurs to yield adsorbed methylcyclopropoxide, which is identified using infrared spectroscopy. The C-O bond of methylcyclopropoxide is cleaved at ˜400 K to yield a transient methylcyclopropyl radical. As shown previously, the methylcyclopropyl radical rearranges and the ring-opened butenyl species is trapped on the surface. Addition to oxygen yields 3-buten-1-oxy and addition to the metal affords the butenyl-Mo moiety. Infrared spectroscopy is used to identify these intermediates. The same linear species are formed from the reaction of 4-bromo-1-butene. The 3-buten-1-oxy species is also formed from reactions of 3-buten-1-ol on O-covered Mo(1 1 0). Upon further heating, the 3-buten-1-oxy reacts to form 1,3-butadiene, 1-butene, water, and dihydrogen between 450 and 600 K. Ethene is also evolved at ˜560 K. The primary mechanism for ethene evolution is elimination from metal-bound butenyl. Carbon monoxide is also formed above 900 K, due to reaction of surface carbon and oxygen. The implications of our results for studies where alkyl halides are used as models for radical reactions on surfaces are discussed.

  5. Pd(1 1 0) surface oxide structures investigated by STM and DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralj, M.; Pertram, T.; Seriani, N.; Mittendorfer, F.; Krupski, A.; Becker, C.; Wandelt, K.

    2008-12-01

    The adsorption of oxygen on a Pd(1 1 0) surface has been studied with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The particular emphasis was given to the preparation of low oxygen coverages with the well known c(2 × 4)-O oxygen phase as a starting structure in the experiments. The oxygen content, surface morphology and structure were changed by annealing the sample to temperatures below the onset of oxygen desorption. The surface was characterized after cool-down to room temperature or temperatures in the range 100-140 K. At low temperatures we found a new oxygen adsorption structure characterized by a (3 × 2) periodicity. We also calculate the O/Pd(1 1 0) surface phase diagram by first-principles thermodynamics. For small coverages, near the low-coverage end of the large stability region of the c(2 × 4)-O structure it was found that a (2 × 3)-deep-O and a (2 × 3)-1D-O structures, which are degenerate in energy, are most stable. Conversely, at high chemical potentials, i.e. high coverages, a (7 × √3)-O structure becomes more stable. The formation of the metastable (3 × 2)-O phase is explained in terms of partial deoxidation via the interaction with residual hydrogen and by quenching of other types of restructuring at low temperatures since the (3 × 2)-O phase can be derived from the c(2 × 4)-O phase by slight rearrangement of oxygen atoms after the oxygen content was lowered from 1/2 to 1/3 of a monolayer. This is not the case with more stable structures of the same coverage which require an additional rearrangement of palladium atoms.

  6. The S=1 Underscreened Anderson Lattice model for Uranium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Simões, A. S. R.; Iglesias, J. R.; Lacroix, C.; Perkins, N. B.; Coqblin, B.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic properties of uranium and neptunium compounds showing coexistence of the Kondo effect and ferromagnetic order are investigated within the degenerate Anderson Lattice Hamiltonian, describing a 5f2 electronic configuration with S = 1 spins. Through the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, both an exchange Kondo interaction for the S = 1 f-spins and an effective f-band term are obtained, allowing to describe the coexistence of Kondo effect and ferromagnetic ordering and a weak delocalization of the 5f-electrons. We calculate the Kondo and Curie temperatures and we can account for the pressure dependence of the Curie temperature of UTe.

  7. Winding Hopfions on R2×S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Michikazu; Nitta, Muneto

    2013-11-01

    We study Hopfions in the Faddeev-Skyrme model with potential terms on R2×S1. Apart from the conventional Hopfions, there exist winding Hopfions, that is, the lump (baby Skyrmion) strings with the lump charge Q with the U(1) modulus twisted P times along S1, having the Hopf charge PQ. We consider two kinds of potential terms, that is, the potential linear in the field and the ferromagnetic potential with two easy axes, and present stable solutions numerically. We also point out that a Q-lump carries the unit Hopf charge per the period in d=2+1.

  8. Bacterial versus human sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (S1PL) in the design of potential S1PL inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sanllehí, Pol; Abad, José-Luis; Casas, Josefina; Bujons, Jordi; Delgado, Antonio

    2016-09-15

    A series of potential active-site sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (S1PL) inhibitors have been designed from scaffolds 1 and 2, arising from virtual screening using the X-ray structures of the bacterial (StS1PL) and the human (hS1PL) enzymes. Both enzymes are very similar at the active site, as confirmed by the similar experimental kinetic constants shown by the fluorogenic substrate RBM13 in both cases. However, the docking scoring functions used probably overestimated the weight of electrostatic interactions between the ligands and key active-site residues in the protein environment, which may account for the modest activity found for the designed inhibitors. In addition, the possibility that the inhibitors do not reach the enzyme active site should not be overlooked. Finally, since both enzymes show remarkable structural differences at the access channel and in the proximity to the active site cavity, caution should be taken when designing inhibitors acting around that area, as evidenced by the much lower activity found in StS1PL for the potent hS1PL inhibitor D. PMID:27475537

  9. Satellite Data Processing System (SDPS) users manual V1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, Michael; Dunn, Chris

    1989-01-01

    SDPS is a menu driven interactive program designed to facilitate the display and output of image and line-based data sets common to telemetry, modeling and remote sensing. This program can be used to display up to four separate raster images and overlay line-based data such as coastlines, ship tracks and velocity vectors. The program uses multiple windows to communicate information with the user. At any given time, the program may have up to four image display windows as well as auxiliary windows containing information about each image displayed. SDPS is not a commercial program. It does not contain complete type checking or error diagnostics which may allow the program to crash. Known anomalies will be mentioned in the appropriate section as notes or cautions. SDPS was designed to be used on Sun Microsystems Workstations running SunView1 (Sun Visual/Integrated Environment for Workstations). It was primarily designed to be used on workstations equipped with color monitors, but most of the line-based functions and several of the raster-based functions can be used with monochrome monitors. The program currently runs on Sun 3 series workstations running Sun OS 4.0 and should port easily to Sun 4 and Sun 386 series workstations with SunView1. Users should also be familiar with UNIX, Sun workstations and the SunView window system.

  10. Human alpha s1-casein: purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, L K; Due, H A; Petersen, T E

    1995-05-01

    The human counterpart of alpha s1-casein has been purified by a combination of gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography under denaturing conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed the presence of a diffuse ladder with a high molecular mass which upon reduction was replaced by several closely spaced bands of lower molecular masses and a broad diffuse band corresponding to kappa-casein. Amino acid sequence analysis of the closely spaced bands all resulted in the same N-terminal sequence which was found to be homologous with alpha s1-casein from other species. Sequence analysis of a major radiolabelled tryptic peptide from purified 14C-carboxymethylated alpha s1-casein demonstrated that the protein contains at least two cysteine residues. As judged by SDS-PAGE in the presence or absence of a reducing agent, the molecular structure of the polymers constituting the ladder is composed of heteropolymers of alpha s1- and kappa-casein cross-linked by disulfide bonds. PMID:7749638

  11. Advanced modelling of the multiphase DMS chemistry with the CAPRAM DMS module 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Erik Hans; Tilgner, Andreas; Schrödner, Roland; Wolke, Ralf; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    Oceans are the general emitter of dimethyl sulphide (DMS), the major natural sulphur source (Andreae, 1990), and cover approximately 70 % of earth's surface. The main DMS oxidation products are SO2, H2SO4 and methyl sulfonic acid (MSA). Hence, DMS is very important for formation of non-sea salt sulphate (nss SO42-) aerosols and secondary particulate matter and thus global climate. Despite many previous model studies, there are still important knowledge gaps, especially in aqueous phase DMS chemistry, of its atmospheric fate (Barnes et al., 2006). Therefore, a comprehensive multiphase DMS chemistry mechanism, the CAPRAM DMS module 1.0 (DM1.0), has been developed. The DM1.0 includes 103 gas phase reactions, 5 phase transfers and 54 aqueous phase reactions. It was coupled with the multiphase chemistry mechanism MCMv3.2/CAPRAM4.0α (Rickard et al., 2015; Bräuer et al., 2016) and the extended CAPRAM halogen module 2.1 (HM2.1, Bräuer et al., 2013) for investigation of multiphase DMS oxidation in the marine boundary layer. Then, a pristine ocean scenario was simulated using the air parcel model SPACCIM (Wolke et al., 2005) including 8 non-permanent cloud passages - 4 at noon and 4 at midnight. This allows the investigation of the influence of deliquesced particles and clouds on multiphase DMS chemistry during both daytime and nighttime conditions as well as under cloud formation and evaporation. To test the influence of various subsystems on multiphase DMS chemistry different sensitivity runs were performed. Investigations of multiphase chemistry of DMS and its important oxidation products were done using concentration-time profiles and detailed time-resolved reaction flux analyses. The model studies revealed the importance of aqueous phase chemistry for DMS and its oxidation products. Overall about 7.0% of DMS is effectively oxidised by O3 in the aqueous phase of clouds. The simulations revealed the importance of halogen and aqueous phase chemistry for DMS and its

  12. Near-infrared Spectroscopy of Infrared-excess Stellar Objects in the Young Supernova Remnant G54.1+0.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Koo, Bon-Chul; Moon, Dae-Sik

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of broadband near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the recently discovered mysterious stellar objects in the young supernova remnant G54.1+0.3. These objects, which show significant mid-infrared-excess emission, are embedded in a diffuse loop structure of ~1' in radius. Their near-infrared spectra reveal characteristics of late O- or early B-type stars with numerous H and He I absorption lines, and we classify their spectral types to be between O9 and B2 based on an empirical relation derived here between the equivalent widths of the H lines and stellar photospheric temperatures. The spectral types, combined with the results of spectral energy distribution fits, constrain the distance to the objects to be 6.0 ± 0.4 kpc. The photometric spectral types of the objects are consistent with those from the spectroscopic analyses, and the extinction distributions indicate a local enhancement of matter in the western part of the loop. If these objects originate via triggered formation by the progenitor star of G54.1+0.3, then their formations likely began during the later evolutionary stages of the progenitor, although a rather earlier formation may still be possible. If the objects and the progenitor belong to the same cluster of stars, then our results constrain the progenitor mass of G54.1+0.3 to be between 18 and ~35 M ⊙ and suggest that G54.1+0.3 was either a Type IIP supernova or, with a relatively lower possibility, Type Ib/c from a binary system.

  13. NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF INFRARED-EXCESS STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE YOUNG SUPERNOVA REMNANT G54.1+0.3

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Koo, Bon-Chul; Moon, Dae-Sik E-mail: koo@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of broadband near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the recently discovered mysterious stellar objects in the young supernova remnant G54.1+0.3. These objects, which show significant mid-infrared-excess emission, are embedded in a diffuse loop structure of {approx}1' in radius. Their near-infrared spectra reveal characteristics of late O- or early B-type stars with numerous H and He I absorption lines, and we classify their spectral types to be between O9 and B2 based on an empirical relation derived here between the equivalent widths of the H lines and stellar photospheric temperatures. The spectral types, combined with the results of spectral energy distribution fits, constrain the distance to the objects to be 6.0 {+-} 0.4 kpc. The photometric spectral types of the objects are consistent with those from the spectroscopic analyses, and the extinction distributions indicate a local enhancement of matter in the western part of the loop. If these objects originate via triggered formation by the progenitor star of G54.1+0.3, then their formations likely began during the later evolutionary stages of the progenitor, although a rather earlier formation may still be possible. If the objects and the progenitor belong to the same cluster of stars, then our results constrain the progenitor mass of G54.1+0.3 to be between 18 and {approx}35 M{sub Sun} and suggest that G54.1+0.3 was either a Type IIP supernova or, with a relatively lower possibility, Type Ib/c from a binary system.

  14. Late-stage optimization of a tercyclic class of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Horan, Joshua C; Kuzmich, Daniel; Liu, Pingrong; DiSalvo, Darren; Lord, John; Mao, Can; Hopkins, Tamara D; Yu, Hui; Harcken, Christian; Betageri, Raj; Hill-Drzewi, Melissa; Patenaude, Lori; Patel, Monica; Fletcher, Kimberly; Terenzzio, Donna; Linehan, Brian; Xia, Heather; Patel, Mita; Studwell, Debbie; Miller, Craig; Hickey, Eugene; Levin, Jeremy I; Smith, Dustin; Kemper, Raymond A; Modis, Louise K; Bannen, Lynne C; Chan, Diva S; Mac, Morrison B; Ng, Stephanie; Wang, Yong; Xu, Wei; Lemieux, René M

    2016-01-15

    Poor solubility and cationic amphiphilic drug-likeness were liabilities identified for a lead series of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 agonists originally developed from a high-throughput screening campaign. This work describes the subsequent optimization of these leads by balancing potency, selectivity, solubility and overall molecular charge. Focused SAR studies revealed favorable structural modifications that, when combined, produced compounds with overall balanced profiles. The low brain exposure observed in rat suggests that these compounds would be best suited for the potential treatment of peripheral autoimmune disorders. PMID:26687487

  15. V-SUIT Model Validation Using PLSS 1.0 Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olthoff, Claas

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic portable life support system (PLSS) simulation software Virtual Space Suit (V-SUIT) has been under development at the Technische Universitat Munchen since 2011 as a spin-off from the Virtual Habitat (V-HAB) project. The MATLAB(trademark)-based V-SUIT simulates space suit portable life support systems and their interaction with a detailed and also dynamic human model, as well as the dynamic external environment of a space suit moving on a planetary surface. To demonstrate the feasibility of a large, system level simulation like V-SUIT, a model of NASA's PLSS 1.0 prototype was created. This prototype was run through an extensive series of tests in 2011. Since the test setup was heavily instrumented, it produced a wealth of data making it ideal for model validation. The implemented model includes all components of the PLSS in both the ventilation and thermal loops. The major components are modeled in greater detail, while smaller and ancillary components are low fidelity black box models. The major components include the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) CO2 removal system, the Primary and Secondary Oxygen Assembly (POS/SOA), the Pressure Garment System Volume Simulator (PGSVS), the Human Metabolic Simulator (HMS), the heat exchanger between the ventilation and thermal loops, the Space Suit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) and finally the Liquid Cooling Garment Simulator (LCGS). Using the created model, dynamic simulations were performed using same test points also used during PLSS 1.0 testing. The results of the simulation were then compared to the test data with special focus on absolute values during the steady state phases and dynamic behavior during the transition between test points. Quantified simulation results are presented that demonstrate which areas of the V-SUIT model are in need of further refinement and those that are sufficiently close to the test results. Finally, lessons learned from the modelling and validation process are given in combination

  16. Comparison of the RECIST 1.0 and RECIST 1.1 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Cytotoxic Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyun Chang; Kim, Jung Han; Kim, Hyeong Su; Jung, Soong Goo; Hwang, Sang Muk; Ju, Sung Bae; Yang, Ik

    2015-01-01

    Background : The impact of the RECIST 1.1 on the selection of target lesions and assessment of tumor response was not evaluated in patients with advanced NSCLC who received cytotoxic chemotherapy. Methods: We reviewed medical records of patients with advanced NSCLC who received first-line chemotherapy between January 2004 and December 2013 and compared the selection of target lesions and tumor responses using the two RECIST versions. Results: A total of 88 patients who had at least one target lesion according to the RECIST 1.0 were included in the study. The number of target lesions by the RECIST 1.1 was significantly lower than that by the RECIST 1.0. When adopting the RECIST 1.1 instead of the RECIST 1.0, 40 patients (45.4%) showed a decrease in the number of target lesions. Three patients no longer had target lesion because of the new lymph node (LN) criteria of the RECIST 1.1. Tumor responses showed a high level of concordance between the RECIST 1.0 and RECIST 1.1, with a kappa value of 0.912. Four patients (4.5%) showed disagreement of tumor responses between the two criteria, which were all due to the change of the LN criteria. Conclusion: The RECIST 1.1 showed a high level of concordance with the RECIST 1.0 in the assessment of tumor response in advanced NSCLC patients treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy. The new LN criteria were the major cause of the reduction of target lesions and reclassification of the tumor response. PMID:26078796

  17. Light-induced magnetization in a spin S =1 easy-plane antiferromagnetic chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbrych, J.; Zotos, X.

    2016-04-01

    The time evolution of magnetization induced by circularly polarized light in an S =1 Heisenberg chain with large easy-plane anisotropy is studied numerically and analytically. Results at constant light frequency Ω =Ω0 are interpreted in terms of absorption lines of the electronic spin resonance spectrum. The application of time-dependent frequency Ω =Ω (t ) light, so called chirping, is shown to be an efficient procedure in order to obtain within a short time a large, controlled value of the magnetization Mz. Furthermore, comparison with a two-level model provides a qualitative understanding of the induced magnetization process.

  18. VALDRIFT 1.0: A valley atmospheric dispersion model with deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.; Bian, X.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1995-05-01

    VALDRIFT version 1.0 is an atmospheric transport and diffusion model for use in well-defined mountain valleys. It is designed to determine the extent of ddft from aedal pesticide spraying activities, but can also be applied to estimate the transport and diffusion of various air pollutants in valleys. The model is phenomenological -- that is, the dominant meteorological processes goveming the behavior of the valley atmosphere are formulated explicitly in the model, albeit in a highly parameterized fashion. The key meteorological processes treated are: (1) nonsteady and nonhomogeneous along-valley winds and turbulent diffusivities, (2) convective boundary layer growth, (3) inversion descent, (4) noctumal temperature inversion breakup, and (5) subsidence. The model is applicable under relatively cloud-free, undisturbed synoptic conditions and is configured to operate through one diumal cycle for a single valley. The inputs required are the valley topographical characteristics, pesticide release rate as a function of time and space, along-valley wind speed as a function of time and space, temperature inversion characteristics at sunrise, and sensible heat flux as a function of time following sunrise. Default values are provided for certain inputs in the absence of detailed observations. The outputs are three-dimensional air concentration and ground-level deposition fields as a function of time.

  19. NIMS Radiance Point Spectra of Ida and Dactyl V1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granahan, J. C.

    2013-08-01

    This data volume contains radiometrically corrected point spectra of asteroid 243 Ida and a spectrum of the asteroid satellite Dactyl (Ida I) as acquired by the Galileo spacecraft Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on August 28, 1993. They record the spectra collected as the Galileo spacecraft approached the 243 Ida system. These data are products of the calibration of the raw data number files idu002tn.qub, idu005tn.qub, idu006tn.qub, idu007tn.qub, idu019tn.qub, idu020tn.qub, idu022tn.qub, idu028tn.qub, idu032tn.qub, idu033tn.qub, and idu035tn.qub (DATA SET ID ='GO-A-NIMS-3-TUBE-V1.0') with calibration factors acquired during the Jovian tour of the Galileo mission. These raw data .qub files are archived in the Imaging Node of the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS). The calibrated spectra consist of radiance and incidence/flux measurements for wavelengths between 0.7 - 5.2 micrometers.

  20. Motivation and Design of the Sirocco Storage System Version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, Matthew Leon; Ward, H. Lee; Danielson, Geoffrey Charles

    2015-07-01

    Sirocco is a massively parallel, high performance storage system for the exascale era. It emphasizes client-to-client coordination, low server-side coupling, and free data movement to improve resilience and performance. Its architecture is inspired by peer-to-peer and victim- cache architectures. By leveraging these ideas, Sirocco natively supports several media types, including RAM, flash, disk, and archival storage, with automatic migration between levels. Sirocco also includes storage interfaces and support that are more advanced than typical block storage. Sirocco enables clients to efficiently use key-value storage or block-based storage with the same interface. It also provides several levels of transactional data updates within a single storage command, including full ACID-compliant updates. This transaction support extends to updating several objects within a single transaction. Further support is provided for con- currency control, enabling greater performance for workloads while providing safe concurrent modification. By pioneering these and other technologies and techniques in the storage system, Sirocco is poised to fulfill a need for a massively scalable, write-optimized storage system for exascale systems. This is version 1.0 of a document reflecting the current and planned state of Sirocco. Further versions of this document will be accessible at http://www.cs.sandia.gov/Scalable_IO/ sirocco .

  1. Safety assessment comparison methodology for toxic and radioactive wastes (SACO version 1.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, C.; Simon, I.; Agueero, A.; Little, R.H.; Smith, G.M.

    1993-12-31

    As part of a research contract jointly funded by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) and Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos S.A. (Enresa, Spain), the Instituto de Medioambiente of the CIEMAT Research Centre and Intera (UK) are developing and testing a general methodology (SACO) to assess the post-disposal environmental impact produced by waste disposal practices. The scope of the methodology includes toxic, radioactive and mixed hazardous wastes. The term toxic is interpreted broadly to include any kind of liquid or solid non-radioactive waste which could give rise to some detrimental environmental effects post-disposal. Radioactive wastes considered include the full range from low to high level solid wastes arising inside and outside the nuclear power industry. Mixed hazardous waste is taken to be waste presenting both radioactive and other toxic hazard potential. In this paper SACO version 1.0 methodology is presented and it is applied to the assessment of the impact of shallow and deep disposal of waste.

  2. Chemisorption of isocyanate (NCO) on the Pd(1 0 0) surface at different coverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belelli, Patricia G.; Branda, María M.; Garda, Graciela R.; Ferullo, Ricardo M.; Castellani, Norberto J.

    2010-02-01

    The chemisorption of isocyanate (NCO) species on Pd(1 0 0) was studied within the density functional formalism (DFT) using a periodic slab model. The NCO was adsorbed on top, bridge and hollow sites of the metal surface at different coverages. At low coverages, the adsorption energies are in the range of -2.5/-3.0 eV, indicating an important adsorbate-substrate interaction for the three sites studied. The lateral repulsive interaction between neighboring NCO species is almost negligible or weak at lower and intermediate coverages, and very strong at complete monolayer. At low coverages, both bridge and hollow sites are energetically preferred; yet the bridge site becomes the only favoured site at intermediate and complete coverages. Work function and dipole moment calculations can be interpreted by an important charge transfer from the metal surface to NCO. Interestingly, while on hollow site the charge taken by NCO is essentially the same over all the range of coverage, an increasing depolarization is observed on bridge and top sites as the coverage increases. Symmetric and asymmetric NCO stretching modes were also calculated and compared with recent infrared spectroscopy measurements.

  3. Aspects of native oxides etching on n-GaSb(1 0 0) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotirlan, C.; Ghita, R. V.; Negrila, C. C.; Logofatu, C.; Frumosu, F.; Lungu, G. A.

    2016-02-01

    Gallium antimonide (GaSb) is the basis of the most photovoltaic and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems and its innovative technological aspects based on modern ultra-high vacuum techniques are in trend for device achievement. The real surface of GaSb is modified by technological processes that can conduce to problems related to the reproducible control of its surface properties. The GaSb surface is reactive in atmosphere due to oxygen presence and exhibits a native oxide layer. The evolution of native oxides during the ion sputtering, chemical etching and thermal annealing processes for preparing the surface is presented in detailed way. Ratios of surface constituents are obtained by Angle Resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS). Moreover, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Low-Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) are used for characterization. The surface stoichiometry is changed using a specific etchant (e.g. citric acid) at different etching time and is analyzed by ARXPS, SEM, EDS and AFM methods. The experimental results provide useful information regarding surface native oxides characteristics on n-GaSb(1 0 0) to be taken into account for development of low resistance contacts for TPV devices based on GaSb alloy.

  4. Independent validation testing of the FLAME computer code, Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Martian, P.; Chung, J.N.

    1992-07-01

    Independent testing of the FLAME computer code, Version 1.0, was conducted to determine if the code is ready for use in hydrological and environmental studies at Department of Energy sites. This report describes the technical basis, approach, and results of this testing. Validation tests, (i.e., tests which compare field data to the computer generated solutions) were used to determine the operational status of the FLAME computer code and were done on a qualitative basis through graphical comparisons of the experimental and numerical data. These tests were specifically designed to check: (1) correctness of the FORTRAN coding, (2) computational accuracy, and (3) suitability to simulating actual hydrologic conditions. This testing was performed using a structured evaluation protocol which consisted of: (1) independent applications, and (2) graduated difficulty of test cases. Three tests ranging in complexity from simple one-dimensional steady-state flow field problems under near-saturated conditions to two-dimensional transient flow problems with very dry initial conditions.

  5. Independent validation testing of the FLAME computer code, Version 1. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Martian, P.; Chung, J.N. . Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering)

    1992-07-01

    Independent testing of the FLAME computer code, Version 1.0, was conducted to determine if the code is ready for use in hydrological and environmental studies at Department of Energy sites. This report describes the technical basis, approach, and results of this testing. Validation tests, (i.e., tests which compare field data to the computer generated solutions) were used to determine the operational status of the FLAME computer code and were done on a qualitative basis through graphical comparisons of the experimental and numerical data. These tests were specifically designed to check: (1) correctness of the FORTRAN coding, (2) computational accuracy, and (3) suitability to simulating actual hydrologic conditions. This testing was performed using a structured evaluation protocol which consisted of: (1) independent applications, and (2) graduated difficulty of test cases. Three tests ranging in complexity from simple one-dimensional steady-state flow field problems under near-saturated conditions to two-dimensional transient flow problems with very dry initial conditions.

  6. Regional stochastic generation of streamflows using an ARIMA (1,0,1) process and disaggregation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armbruster, Jeffrey T.

    1979-01-01

    An ARIMA (1,0,1) model was calibrated and used to generate long annual flow sequences at three sites in the Juniata River basin, Pennsylvania. The model preserves the mean, variance, and cross correlations of the observed station data. In addition, it has a desirable blend of both high and low frequency characteristics and therefore is capable of preserving the Hurst coefficient, h. The generated annual flows are disaggregated into monthly sequences using a modification of the Valencia-Schaake model. The low-flow frequency and flow duration characteristics of the generated monthly flows, with length equal to the historical data, compare favorably with the historical data. Once the models were verified, 100-year sequences were generated and analyzed for their low flow characteristics. One-, three- and six- month low-flow frequencies at recurrence intervals greater than 10 years are generally found to be lower than flow computed from the historical flows. A method is proposed for synthesizing flows at ungaged sites. (Kosco-USGS)

  7. The Star Formation History of read and dead galaxies at z=[1.0--1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Sánchez, H.; Pérez González, P.; Esquej, P.; Eliche Moral, C.; Alcalde Pampliega, B.; SHARDS Team

    2015-05-01

    We analyse the star formation histories (SFH) of M > 10^{10} M_⊙ read and dead galaxies at intermediate redshift (z=1.0-1.5). Current hierarchical models of galaxy formation predict many less massive high-z systems than observed. By combining SHARDS deep spectro-photometric optical data (25 contiguous OSIRIS/GTC medium band filters with R ˜ 50 at 4500-900 nm) with HST-WFC3 grism in the NIR (G141, 1.1-1.6 μm) and broad-band photometry (from FUV to FIR) we construct well-sampled optical SEDs with up to 150 photometric points and sufficient spectral resolution to obtain reliable stellar population parameters such as ages, star formation timescales, dust extinctions and metallicities. We define a complete and uncontaminated sample of red & dead galaxies by combining the color-color UVJ selection with a cut in sSFR (SFR/Mass). We check the robustness of the results depending on different stellar population models (Bruzual & Charlot 2003, Maraston 2005), SED fitting-codes (synthesizer, FAST) or star formation histories (exp{-t/τ}, t exp{-t/τ}). Finally, the dependence of the SFH with the galaxy stellar mass will be studied, to actually measure if more massive galaxies are formed earlier and more rapidly as downsizing suggests.

  8. Photon-counting 1.0 GHz-phase-modulation fluorometer

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, T.; Nakao, S.; Mizutani, Y.; Iwata, T.

    2015-04-15

    We have constructed an improved version of a photon-counting phase-modulation fluorometer (PC-PMF) with a maximum modulation frequency of 1.0 GHz, where a phase domain measurement is conducted with a time-correlated single-photon-counting electronics. While the basic concept of the PC-PMF has been reported previously by one of the authors, little attention has been paid to its significance, other than its weak fluorescence measurement capability. Recently, we have recognized the importance of the PC-PMF and its potential for fluorescence lifetime measurements. One important aspect of the PC-PMF is that it enables us to perform high-speed measurements that exceed the frequency bandwidths of the photomultiplier tubes that are commonly used as fluorescence detectors. We describe the advantages of the PC-PMF and demonstrate its usefulness based on fundamental performance tests. In our new version of the PC-PMF, we have used a laser diode (LD) as an excitation light source rather than the light-emitting diode that was used in the primary version. We have also designed a simple and stable LD driver to modulate the device. Additionally, we have obtained a sinusoidal histogram waveform that has multiple cycles within a time span to be measured, which is indispensable for precise phase measurements. With focus on the fluorescence intensity and the resolution time, we have compared the performance of the PC-PMF with that of a conventional PMF using the analogue light detection method.

  9. FR database 1.0: a resource focused on fruit development and ripening

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Junyang; Ma, Xiaojing; Ban, Rongjun; Huang, Qianli; Wang, Wenjie; Liu, Jia; Liu, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Fruits form unique growing period in the life cycle of higher plants. They provide essential nutrients and have beneficial effects on human health. Characterizing the genes involved in fruit development and ripening is fundamental to understanding the biological process and improving horticultural crops. Although, numerous genes that have been characterized are participated in regulating fruit development and ripening at different stages, no dedicated bioinformatic resource for fruit development and ripening is available. In this study, we have developed such a database, FR database 1.0, using manual curation from 38 423 articles published before 1 April 2014, and integrating protein interactomes and several transcriptome datasets. It provides detailed information for 904 genes derived from 53 organisms reported to participate in fleshy fruit development and ripening. Genes from climacteric and non-climacteric fruits are also annotated, with several interesting Gene Ontology (GO) terms being enriched for these two gene sets and seven ethylene-related GO terms found only in the climacteric fruit group. Furthermore, protein–protein interaction analysis by integrating information from FR database presents the possible function network that affects fleshy fruit size formation. Collectively, FR database will be a valuable platform for comprehensive understanding and future experiments in fruit biology. Database URL: http://www.fruitech.org/ PMID:25725058

  10. MatMix 1.0: Using optical mixing to probe visual material perception.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; de Ridder, Huib; Fleming, Roland W; Pont, Sylvia

    2016-04-01

    MatMix 1.0 is a novel material probe we developed for quantitatively measuring visual perception of materials. We implemented optical mixing of four canonical scattering modes, represented by photographs, as the basis of the probe. In order to account for a wide range of materials, velvety and glittery (asperity and meso-facet scattering) were included besides the common matte and glossy modes (diffuse and forward scattering). To test the probe, we conducted matching experiments in which inexperienced observers were instructed to adjust the modes of the probe to match its material to that of a test stimulus. Observers were well able to handle the probe and match the perceived materials. Results were robust across individuals, across combinations of materials, and across lighting conditions. We conclude that the approach via canonical scattering modes and optical mixing works well, although the image basis of our probe still needs to be optimized. We argue that the approach is intuitive, since it combines key image characteristics in a "painterly" approach. We discuss these characteristics and how we will optimize their representations. PMID:27089066

  11. Design of reimaging F/1.0 long-wavelength infrared optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Bo; Jia, Hong-guang

    2011-08-01

    A reimaging F/1.0 long-wavelength infrared optical system is proposed. The design has a flexible opto-mechanical layout. The design process is as follows. Firstly, the catadioptric reimaging system consists of two reflecting mirrors and a relay lenses. Two reflecting mirrors make up of the first imaging system and are therefore free of chromatic aberrations, while low dispersion lenses were used in the reimaging system, so the optical system do not need achromatic design for a high image quality. Then, to correct high-order aberrations resulting from large relative aperture, more parameters need to be used with aspheric or diffractive surfaces due to modern optic technology development. Here, aspheric is selected for easily manufacture. Finally, the design is completed with the help of ZEMAX software. The effective focal length of the objective is 120mm and the field of view (FOV) is 4°. The simulated final design shows adequate image quality and the modulation transfer function (MTF) is close to diffraction limit. The effect of the surrounding environmental temperature is analyzed using the concept of thermal defocusing, and the thermal compensation is discussed.

  12. FPLUME-1.0: An integrated volcanic plume model accounting for ash aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folch, A.; Costa, A.; Macedonio, G.

    2015-09-01

    Eruption Source Parameters (ESP) characterizing volcanic eruption plumes are crucial inputs for atmospheric tephra dispersal models, used for hazard assessment and risk mitigation. We present FPLUME-1.0, a steady-state 1-D cross-section averaged eruption column model based on the Buoyant Plume Theory (BPT). The model accounts for plume bent over by wind, entrainment of ambient moisture, effects of water phase changes, particle fallout and re-entrainment, a new parameterization for the air entrainment coefficients and a model for wet aggregation of ash particles in presence of liquid water or ice. In the occurrence of wet aggregation, the model predicts an "effective" grain size distribution depleted in fines with respect to that erupted at the vent. Given a wind profile, the model can be used to determine the column height from the eruption mass flow rate or vice-versa. The ultimate goal is to improve ash cloud dispersal forecasts by better constraining the ESP (column height, eruption rate and vertical distribution of mass) and the "effective" particle grain size distribution resulting from eventual wet aggregation within the plume. As test cases we apply the model to the eruptive phase-B of the 4 April 1982 El Chichón volcano eruption (México) and the 6 May 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption phase (Iceland).

  13. Structural/aerodynamic Blade Analyzer (SAB) User's Guide, Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morel, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    The structural/aerodynamic blade (SAB) analyzer provides an automated tool for the static-deflection analysis of turbomachinery blades with aerodynamic and rotational loads. A structural code calculates a deflected blade shape using aerodynamic loads input. An aerodynamic solver computes aerodynamic loads using deflected blade shape input. The two programs are iterated automatically until deflections converge. Currently, SAB version 1.0 is interfaced with MSC/NASTRAN to perform the structural analysis and PROP3D to perform the aerodynamic analysis. This document serves as a guide for the operation of the SAB system with specific emphasis on its use at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). This guide consists of six chapters: an introduction which gives a summary of SAB; SAB's methodology, component files, links, and interfaces; input/output file structure; setup and execution of the SAB files on the Cray computers; hints and tips to advise the user; and an example problem demonstrating the SAB process. In addition, four appendices are presented to define the different computer programs used within the SAB analyzer and describe the required input decks.

  14. Nano-pits on GaAs (1 0 0) surface: Preferential sputtering and diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Tanuj; Panchal, Vandana; Kumar, Ashish; Kanjilal, D.

    2016-07-01

    Self organized nano-structure array on the surfaces of semiconductors have potential applications in photonics, magnetic devices, photovoltaics, and surface-wetting tailoring etc. Therefore, the control over their dimensions is gaining scientific interest in last couple of decades. In this work, fabrication of pits of nano-dimensions is carried out on the GaAs (1 0 0) surface using 50 keV Ar+ at normal incidence. Variation in fluence from 3 × 1017 ions/cm2 to 5 × 1018 ions/cm2 does not make a remarkable variation in the dimension of pits such as size and depth, which is confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). However the simultaneous dots formation is observed along with the pits at higher fluences. Average size of pits is found to be of 22 nm with depth of 1-5 nm for the used fluences. The importance of preferential sputtering of 'As' as compared to 'Ga' is estimated using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The observed alteration in near surface composition shows the Ga enrichment of surface, which is not being much affected by variation in fluence. The growth evolution of pits and dots for the used experimental conditions is explained on the basis of ion beam induced preferential sputtering and surface diffusion.

  15. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 Software Validation and Verification.

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, David

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve stores crude oil in caverns solution-mined in salt domes along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas. The CaveMan software program has been used since the late 1990s as one tool to analyze pressure mea- surements monitored at each cavern. The purpose of this monitoring is to catch potential cavern integrity issues as soon as possible. The CaveMan software was written in Microsoft Visual Basic, and embedded in a Microsoft Excel workbook; this method of running the CaveMan software is no longer sustainable. As such, a new version called CaveMan Enter- prise has been developed. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 does not have any changes to the CaveMan numerical models. CaveMan Enterprise represents, instead, a change from desktop-managed work- books to an enterprise framework, moving data management into coordinated databases and porting the numerical modeling codes into the Python programming language. This document provides a report of the code validation and verification testing.

  16. spads 1.0: a toolbox to perform spatial analyses on DNA sequence data sets.

    PubMed

    Dellicour, Simon; Mardulyn, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    SPADS 1.0 (for 'Spatial and Population Analysis of DNA Sequences') is a population genetic toolbox for characterizing genetic variability within and among populations from DNA sequences. In view of the drastic increase in genetic information available through sequencing methods, spads was specifically designed to deal with multilocus data sets of DNA sequences. It computes several summary statistics from populations or groups of populations, performs input file conversions for other population genetic programs and implements locus-by-locus and multilocus versions of two clustering algorithms to study the genetic structure of populations. The toolbox also includes two MATLAB and r functions, GDISPAL and GDIVPAL, to display differentiation and diversity patterns across landscapes. These functions aim to generate interpolating surfaces based on multilocus distance and diversity indices. In the case of multiple loci, such surfaces can represent a useful alternative to multiple pie charts maps traditionally used in phylogeography to represent the spatial distribution of genetic diversity. These coloured surfaces can also be used to compare different data sets or different diversity and/or distance measures estimated on the same data set. PMID:24215429

  17. The mGA1.0: A common LISP implementation of a messy genetic algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, David E.; Kerzic, Travis

    1990-01-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) are finding increased application in difficult search, optimization, and machine learning problems in science and engineering. Increasing demands are being placed on algorithm performance, and the remaining challenges of genetic algorithm theory and practice are becoming increasingly unavoidable. Perhaps the most difficult of these challenges is the so-called linkage problem. Messy GAs were created to overcome the linkage problem of simple genetic algorithms by combining variable-length strings, gene expression, messy operators, and a nonhomogeneous phasing of evolutionary processing. Results on a number of difficult deceptive test functions are encouraging with the mGA always finding global optima in a polynomial number of function evaluations. Theoretical and empirical studies are continuing, and a first version of a messy GA is ready for testing by others. A Common LISP implementation called mGA1.0 is documented and related to the basic principles and operators developed by Goldberg et. al. (1989, 1990). Although the code was prepared with care, it is not a general-purpose code, only a research version. Important data structures and global variations are described. Thereafter brief function descriptions are given, and sample input data are presented together with sample program output. A source listing with comments is also included.

  18. A 3-D Vortex Code for Parachute Flow Predictions: VIPAR Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    STRICKLAND, JAMES H.; HOMICZ, GREGORY F.; PORTER, VICKI L.; GOSSLER, ALBERT A.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes a 3-D fluid mechanics code for predicting flow past bluff bodies whose surfaces can be assumed to be made up of shell elements that are simply connected. Version 1.0 of the VIPAR code (Vortex Inflation PARachute code) is described herein. This version contains several first order algorithms that we are in the process of replacing with higher order ones. These enhancements will appear in the next version of VIPAR. The present code contains a motion generator that can be used to produce a large class of rigid body motions. The present code has also been fully coupled to a structural dynamics code in which the geometry undergoes large time dependent deformations. Initial surface geometry is generated from triangular shell elements using a code such as Patran and is written into an ExodusII database file for subsequent input into VIPAR. Surface and wake variable information is output into two ExodusII files that can be post processed and viewed using software such as EnSight{trademark}.

  19. Increased mRNA Levels of Sphingosine Kinases and S1P Lyase and Reduced Levels of S1P Were Observed in Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Association with Poorer Differentiation and Earlier Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Kurano, Makoto; Enooku, Kenichiro; Sato, Masaya; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Although sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) has been reported to play an important role in cancer pathophysiology, little is known about S1P and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To clarify the relationship between S1P and HCC, 77 patients with HCC who underwent surgical treatment were consecutively enrolled in this study. In addition, S1P and its metabolites were quantitated by LC-MS/MS. The mRNA levels of sphingosine kinases (SKs), which phosphorylate sphingosine to generate S1P, were increased in HCC tissues compared with adjacent non-HCC tissues. Higher mRNA levels of SKs in HCC were associated with poorer differentiation and microvascular invasion, whereas a higher level of SK2 mRNA was a risk factor for intra- and extra-hepatic recurrence. S1P levels, however, were unexpectedly reduced in HCC compared with non-HCC tissues, and increased mRNA levels of S1P lyase (SPL), which degrades S1P, were observed in HCC compared with non-HCC tissues. Higher SPL mRNA levels in HCC were associated with poorer differentiation. Finally, in HCC cell lines, inhibition of the expression of SKs or SPL by siRNA led to reduced proliferation, invasion and migration, whereas overexpression of SKs or SPL enhanced proliferation. In conclusion, increased SK and SPL mRNA expression along with reduced S1P levels were more commonly observed in HCC tissues compared with adjacent non-HCC tissues and were associated with poor differentiation and early recurrence. SPL as well as SKs may be therapeutic targets for HCC treatment. PMID:26886371

  20. Successful curative resection of gallbladder cancer following S-1 chemotherapy: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Einama, Takahiro; Uchida, Koichiro; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Ota, Yu; Watanabe, Kenji; Imai, Koji; Karasaki, Hidenori; Chiba, Atsushi; Oikawa, Kensuke; Miyokawa, Naoyuki; Furukawa, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-01

    The symptoms of gallbladder cancer (GBC) are vague and non-specific. Therefore, GBC is often detected at an advanced or metastatic stage. The most effective treatment for GBC is surgical resection, however the majority of GBC cases are unresectable at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, numerous GBC patients undergo chemotherapy. This study reports the case of a 60-year-old female with GBC who underwent successful surgical curative resection following a single dose of the chemotherapeutic agent, S-1, twice daily for 4 weeks followed by a 14-day rest period for 36 months. S-1 is a novel orally administered drug composed of a combination of the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) prodrug, tegafur, 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine (CDHP) and oteracil potassium in a 1:0.4:1 molar concentration ratio. The focus of the present study was the candidate factors that affect the therapeutic efficacy of S-1-based chemotherapy. In particular, the gene expression involved in the S-1 metabolic pathway was investigated by assessing the intratumoral dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), thymidylate synthase (TS) and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase gene expression. The surgical specimen exhibited high intratumoral DPD gene expression levels compared with those observed in previously reported non S-1 responsive cases of biliary tract cancer. Due to the results obtained in the current study, we hypothesize that CDHP enhanced the antitumor efficacy of 5-FU by inhibiting the excess DPD protein produced by the tumor. PMID:25360167

  1. Successful curative resection of gallbladder cancer following S-1 chemotherapy: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    EINAMA, TAKAHIRO; UCHIDA, KOICHIRO; TANIGUCHI, MASAHIKO; OTA, YU; WATANABE, KENJI; IMAI, KOJI; KARASAKI, HIDENORI; CHIBA, ATSUSHI; OIKAWA, KENSUKE; MIYOKAWA, NAOYUKI; FURUKAWA, HIROYUKI

    2014-01-01

    The symptoms of gallbladder cancer (GBC) are vague and non-specific. Therefore, GBC is often detected at an advanced or metastatic stage. The most effective treatment for GBC is surgical resection, however the majority of GBC cases are unresectable at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, numerous GBC patients undergo chemotherapy. This study reports the case of a 60-year-old female with GBC who underwent successful surgical curative resection following a single dose of the chemotherapeutic agent, S-1, twice daily for 4 weeks followed by a 14-day rest period for 36 months. S-1 is a novel orally administered drug composed of a combination of the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) prodrug, tegafur, 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine (CDHP) and oteracil potassium in a 1:0.4:1 molar concentration ratio. The focus of the present study was the candidate factors that affect the therapeutic efficacy of S-1-based chemotherapy. In particular, the gene expression involved in the S-1 metabolic pathway was investigated by assessing the intratumoral dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), thymidylate synthase (TS) and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase gene expression. The surgical specimen exhibited high intratumoral DPD gene expression levels compared with those observed in previously reported non S-1 responsive cases of biliary tract cancer. Due to the results obtained in the current study, we hypothesize that CDHP enhanced the antitumor efficacy of 5-FU by inhibiting the excess DPD protein produced by the tumor. PMID:25360167

  2. Fluorine substituent effect on the adsorption of acetic acid derivatives (CH3-n FnCO2H) on anatase TiO2 (1 0 0) and (1 0 1) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Masoume; Najafi Chermahini, Alireza; Dabbagh, Hossein A.; Teimouri, Abbas

    2015-12-01

    A density functional theory method was used to investigate the adsorption of acetic acid and its fluorinated derivatives on (1 0 0) and (1 0 1) surfaces of anatase TiO2. It was found that while the adsorption of acetic acid and its fluorinated derivatives on the (1 0 0) surface of TiO2 does not proceeds via a proton transfer process but surprisingly adsorption on (1 0 1) surface occurred via a complete proton transfer reaction. The calculated interaction energies for adsorption on (1 0 0) surface are -19.22, -18.36, -15.73, and -60.68 kcal/mol for acetic, fluoroacetic, difluoroacetic, and trifluoroacetic acid, respectively. Similar trend observed for absorption on (1 0 1) surface and calculated interaction energies are -25.35, -23.16, -23.02, and -69.47 kcal/mol, respectively. Structurally, calculations show that when the number of fluorine substituent increases, the length of hydrogen bonding between OH group and neighboring oxygen positioned 2c (O2c) atom is diminished. The HOMO, LUMO and HOMO-LUMO energy gap varies for the adsorption of acetic acid derivatives on both (1 0 0) and (1 0 1) surfaces changed in comparison with clean TiO2 surface. The Fermi levels were also changed after adsorption of acetic acid derivatives.

  3. GRIDGEN Version 1.0: a computer program for generating unstructured finite-volume grids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lien, Jyh-Ming; Liu, Gaisheng; Langevin, Christian D.

    2015-01-01

    GRIDGEN is a computer program for creating layered quadtree grids for use with numerical models, such as the MODFLOW–USG program for simulation of groundwater flow. The program begins by reading a three-dimensional base grid, which can have variable row and column widths and spatially variable cell top and bottom elevations. From this base grid, GRIDGEN will continuously divide into four any cell intersecting user-provided refinement features (points, lines, and polygons) until the desired level of refinement is reached. GRIDGEN will then smooth, or balance, the grid so that no two adjacent cells, including overlying and underlying cells, differ by more than a user-specified level tolerance. Once these gridding processes are completed, GRIDGEN saves a tree structure file so that the layered quadtree grid can be quickly reconstructed as needed. Once a tree structure file has been created, GRIDGEN can then be used to (1) export the layered quadtree grid as a shapefile, (2) export grid connectivity and cell information as ASCII text files for use with MODFLOW–USG or other numerical models, and (3) intersect the grid with shapefiles of points, lines, or polygons, and save intersection output as ASCII text files and shapefiles. The GRIDGEN program is demonstrated by creating a layered quadtree grid for the Biscayne aquifer in Miami-Dade County, Florida, using hydrologic features to control where refinement is added.

  4. Change of the kinetics of shock-wave deformation and fracture of VT1-0 titanium as a result of annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanel, G. I.; Razorenov, S. V.; Garkushin, G. V.; Pavlenko, A. V.; Malyugina, S. N.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the results of measurements of shock-wave compression profiles of VT1-0 titanium samples after rolling and in the annealed state. In the experiments, the pressure of shock compression and distance passed by the wave before emerging to the sample surface were varied. From measurements of the elastic precursor decay and compression rate in a plastic shock wave of different amplitudes, the plastic strain and the corresponding shear stresses in the initial and subsequent stages of high-rate deformation in an elastoplastic shock wave are determined. It is found that the reduction in the dislocation density as a result of annealing reduces the hardness of the material but significantly increases its dynamic yield strengh, corresponding to the strain rate above 104 s-1. With a reduction in the strain rate, this anomalous difference in the flow stresses is leveled off.

  5. Ultraviolet Absorption Spectra, AB Initio Calculations, and Carbonyl Wagging Potential Energy Functions of Cyclobutanone, Cyclopentanone, BICYCLO[3.1.0]HEXAN-3-ONE, and TETRAHYDROFURAN-3-ONE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soono; Dakkouri, Marwan; Choo, Jaebum; Laane, Jaan

    2000-03-01

    The electronic absorption spectra of cyclobutanone, cyclopentanone, bicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-3-one, and tetrahydrofuran-3-one were recorded and analyzed in the 28,000 - 44,000 cm-1 region. Several dozen absorption bands were assigned for each molecule. These arise from combinations of the ring vibrations and the C=O wagging vibrations. Assigned bands were compared with previously recorded jet-cooled fluorescence excitation spectra. Additional C=O out-of-plane wagging bands were found for cyclopentanone and tetrahydrofuran-3-one, and the potential energy functions for this vibration in these molecules were recalculated. These potential energy functions have barriers to inversion reflecting the fact that the carbonyl group is bent out of the ring plane in the S1(n, π*) excited electronic state.

  6. Beyond k1=0.25 lithography: 70-nm L/S patterning using KrF scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Takeaki; Levenson, Marc D.; Liu, Wei; He, Jim; Yeh, Wendy; Ahn, Sang; Oga, Toshihiro; Shen, Meihua; M'saad, Hichem

    2003-12-01

    The extendibility of optical lithography using KrF and ArF exposure tools is still being investigated, even, being demanded strongly now, due to the unforeseen issues, high cost, and general difficulty of NGLs - including F2 and immersion lithography. In spite of these challenges Moore's Law requires continued shrinks and the ITRS roadmap still keeps its aggressive timetable. In order to follow the ITRS roadmap, the resolution must keep improving by increasing the lens NA for optical exposure tools. However, the conventional limit of optical resolution (kpitch=0.5) is very close for the current technologies, perhaps limiting progress unless NGL becomes available quickly. Therefore we need to find a way to overcome this seemingly fundamental limit of optical resolution. In this paper, we propose two practical two-mask /double-exposure schemes for doubling resolution in future lithography. One method uses a Si-containing bi-layer resist, and the other method uses Applied Materials' APF (a removable hard mask). The basic ideas of both methods are similar: The first exposure forms 1:3 ratio L/S patterns in one resist/hard mask layer, then the second exposure images another 1:3 ratio L/S pattern in-between the two lines (or two spaces) formed by the first exposure. The combination of these two exposures can form, in theory, kpitch=0.25 patterns. In this paper, we will demonstrate 70nm L/S pattern (140nm pitch) or smaller by using a NA0.68 KrF Scanner and a strong-RET reticle, which corresponds to kpitch = 0.38 (k1=0.19). We will also investigate the critical alignment and CD control issues for these two-mask/dual-exposure schemes.

  7. FPLUME-1.0: An integral volcanic plume model accounting for ash aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folch, A.; Costa, A.; Macedonio, G.

    2016-02-01

    Eruption source parameters (ESP) characterizing volcanic eruption plumes are crucial inputs for atmospheric tephra dispersal models, used for hazard assessment and risk mitigation. We present FPLUME-1.0, a steady-state 1-D (one-dimensional) cross-section-averaged eruption column model based on the buoyant plume theory (BPT). The model accounts for plume bending by wind, entrainment of ambient moisture, effects of water phase changes, particle fallout and re-entrainment, a new parameterization for the air entrainment coefficients and a model for wet aggregation of ash particles in the presence of liquid water or ice. In the occurrence of wet aggregation, the model predicts an effective grain size distribution depleted in fines with respect to that erupted at the vent. Given a wind profile, the model can be used to determine the column height from the eruption mass flow rate or vice versa. The ultimate goal is to improve ash cloud dispersal forecasts by better constraining the ESP (column height, eruption rate and vertical distribution of mass) and the effective particle grain size distribution resulting from eventual wet aggregation within the plume. As test cases we apply the model to the eruptive phase-B of the 4 April 1982 El Chichón volcano eruption (México) and the 6 May 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption phase (Iceland). The modular structure of the code facilitates the implementation in the future code versions of more quantitative ash aggregation parameterization as further observations and experiment data will be available for better constraining ash aggregation processes.

  8. FPLUME-1.0: An integral volcanic plume model accounting for ash aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folch, Arnau; Costa, Antonio; Macedonio, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Eruption Source Parameters (ESP) characterizing volcanic eruption plumes are crucial inputs for atmospheric tephra dispersal models, used for hazard assessment and risk mitigation. We present FPLUME-1.0, a steady-state 1D cross-section averaged eruption column model based on the Buoyant Plume Theory (BPT). The model accounts for plume bending by wind, entrainment of ambient moisture, effects of water phase changes, particle fallout and re-entrainment, a new parameterization for the air entrainment coefficients and a model for wet aggregation of ash particles in presence of liquid water or ice. In the occurrence of wet aggregation, the model predicts an "effective" grain size distribution depleted in fines with respect to that erupted at the vent. Given a wind profile, the model can be used to determine the column height from the eruption mass flow rate or vice-versa. The ultimate goal is to improve ash cloud dispersal forecasts by better constraining the ESP (column height, eruption rate and vertical distribution of mass) and the "effective" particle grain size distribution resulting from eventual wet aggregation within the plume. As test cases we apply the model to the eruptive phase-B of the 4 April 1982 El Chichón volcano eruption (México) and the 6 May 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption phase (Iceland). The modular structure of the code facilitates the implementation in the future code versions of more quantitative ash aggregation parameterization as further observations and experiments data will be available for better constraining ash aggregation processes.

  9. The structure of T6 human insulin at 1.0 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Smith, G David; Pangborn, Walter A; Blessing, Robert H

    2003-03-01

    The structure of T(6) human insulin has been determined at 120 K at a resolution of 1.0 A and refined to a residual of 0.183. As a result of cryofreezing, the first four residues of the B chain in one of the two crystallographically independent AB monomers in the hexameric [Zn(1/3)(AB)(2)Zn(1/3)](3) complex undergo a conformational shift that displaces the C(alpha) atom of PheB1 by 7.86 A relative to the room-temperature structure. A least-squares superposition of all backbone atoms of the room-temperature and low-temperature structures yielded a mean displacement of 0.422 A. Omitting the first four residues of the B chain reduced the mean displacement to 0.272 A. At 120 K, nine residues were found to exhibit two discrete side-chain conformations, but only two of these residues are in common with the seven residues found to have disordered side chains in the room-temperature structure. As a result of freezing, the disorder observed at room temperature in both ArgB22 side chains is eliminated. The close contact between pairs of O( epsilon 2) atoms in GluB13 observed at room temperature is maintained at cryotemperature and suggests that a carboxylate-carboxylic acid centered hydrogen bond exists [-C(=O)-O.H.O-C(=O)-] such that the H atom is equally shared between the two partially charged O atoms. PMID:12595704

  10. Application of the MASH v1.0 Code System to radiological warfare radiation threats

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.O.; Santoro, R.T.; Smith, M.S.

    1994-03-01

    Nuclear hardening capabilities of US and foreign ground force systems is a primary concern of the Department of Defense (DoD) and US Army. The Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding Code System -- MASH v1.0 was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to analyze these capabilities, i.e. the shielding effectiveness, for prompt radiation from a nuclear weapon detonation. Rapidly changing world events and the proliferation of nuclear weapons related technology have increased the kinds of nuclear threats to include intentionally dispersed radiation sources and fallout from tactical nuclear weapons used in the modern AirLand battlefield scenario. Consequently, a DoD area of increasing interest focuses on determining the shielding effectiveness of foreign and US armored vehicles to radiological warfare and fallout radiation threats. To demonstrate the applicability of MASH for analyzing dispersed radiation source problems, calculations have been completed for two distributed sources; a dispersed radiation environment simulated by a uniformly distributed {sup 60}Co source, and a {sup 235}U fission weapon fallout source. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the free-field, the inside of a steel-walled two-meter box, in a phantom standing in the free-field, and in a phantom standing in the two-meter box. The results indicate substantial radiation protection factors for the {sup 60}Co dispersed radiation source and the fallout source compared to the prompt radiation protection factors. The dose protection factors ranged from 40 to 95 for the two-meter box and from 55 to 123 for the mid-gut position of the phantom standing in the box. The results further indicate that a {sup 60}Co source might be a good first order approximation for a tactical fission weapon fallout protection factor analysis.

  11. The structure of CO2 hydrate between 0.7 and 1.0 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulk, C. A.; Machida, S.; Klug, D. D.; Lu, H.; Guthrie, M.; Molaison, J. J.

    2014-11-01

    A deuterated sample of CO2 structure I (sI) clathrate hydrate (CO2.8.3 D2O) has been formed and neutron diffraction experiments up to 1.0 GPa at 240 K were performed. The sI CO2 hydrate transformed at 0.7 GPa into the high pressure phase that had been observed previously by Hirai et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 133, 124511 (2010)] and Bollengier et al. [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 119, 322 (2013)], but which had not been structurally identified. The current neutron diffraction data were successfully fitted to a filled ice structure with CO2 molecules filling the water channels. This CO2+water system has also been investigated using classical molecular dynamics and density functional ab initio methods to provide additional characterization of the high pressure structure. Both models indicate the water network adapts a MH-III "like" filled ice structure with considerable disorder of the orientations of the CO2 molecule. Furthermore, the disorder appears to be a direct result of the level of proton disorder in the water network. In contrast to the conclusions of Bollengier et al., our neutron diffraction data show that the filled ice phase can be recovered to ambient pressure (0.1 MPa) at 96 K, and recrystallization to sI hydrate occurs upon subsequent heating to 150 K, possibly by first forming low density amorphous ice. Unlike other clathrate hydrate systems, which transform from the sI or sII structure to the hexagonal structure (sH) then to the filled ice structure, CO2 hydrate transforms directly from the sI form to the filled ice structure.

  12. The structure of CO2 hydrate between 0.7 and 1.0 GPa

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tulk, Chris A.; Machida, Shinichi; Klug, Dennis D.; Lu, H.; Guthrie, Malcolm; Molaison, Jamie J.

    2014-11-05

    A deuterated sample of CO2 structure I (sI) clathrate hydrate (CO2 ∙ 8.3 D2O) has been formed and neutron diffraction experiments up to 1.0 GPa at 240 K were performed. The sI CO2 hydrate transformed at 0.7 GPa into the high pressure phase that had been observed previously by Hirai, et al. (J. Phys. Chem. 133, 124511 (2010)) and O. Bollengier et al. (Geochim. Cosmochim. AC. 119, 322 (2013)), but which had not been structurally identified. The current neutron diffraction data were successfully fitted to a filled ice structure with CO2 molecules filling the water channels. This CO2+water system hasmore » also been investigated using classical molecular dynamics and density functional ab initio methods to provide additional characterization of the high pressure structure. Both models indicate the water network adapts an MH-III ‘like’ filled ice structure with considerable disorder of the orientations of the CO2molecule. Furthermore, the disorder appears be a direct result of the level of proton disorder in the water network. In contrast to the conclusions of Bollengier et al. our neutron diffraction data shows that the filled ice phase can be recovered to ambient pressure (0.1 MPa) at 96 K, and recrystallization to sI hydrate occurs upon subsequent heating to 150 K, possibly by first forming low density amorphous ice. Unlike other clathrate hydrate systems, which transform from the sI or sII structure to the hexagonal structure (sH) then to the filled ice structure, CO2 hydrate transforms directly from the sI form to the filled ice structure.« less

  13. Phase diagram of S= 1 /2 two-leg XXZ spin-ladder systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijii, Keigo; Kitazawa, Atsuhiro; Nomura, Kiyohide

    2005-07-01

    We investigate the ground-state phase diagram of the S=(1)/(2) two-leg XXZ spin-ladder system with an isotropic interchain coupling. In this model, there is the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition which occurs at the XY -Haldane and XY -rung singlet phase boundaries. It was difficult to determine the transition line using traditional methods. We overcome this difficulty using the level spectroscopy method combined with the twisted boundary condition method, and we check the consistency. We find out that the phase boundary between XY phase and Haldane phase lies on Δ=0 line. And we show that there exist two different XY phases, which we can distinguish investigating a XX correlation function.

  14. Development History and Concept of an Oral Anticancer Agent S-1 (TS-1®): Its Clinical Usefulness and Future Vistas

    PubMed Central

    Shirasaka, Tetsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    Dushinsky et al. left a great gift to human beings with the discovery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Approximately 50 years have elapsed from that discovery to the development of S-1 (TS-1®). The concept of developing an anticancer agent that simultaneously possesses both efficacy-enhancing and adverse reaction-reducing effects could be achieved only with a three-component combination drug. S-1 is an oral anticancer agent containing two biochemical modulators for 5-FU and tegafur (FT), a metabolically activated prodrug of 5-FU. The first modulator, 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine (CDHP), enhances the pharmacological actions of 5-FU by potently inhibiting its degradation. The second modulator, potassium oxonate (Oxo), localizing in mucosal cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract after oral administration, reduces the incidence of GI toxicities by suppressing the activation of 5-FU in the GI tract. Thus, S-1 combines FT, CDHP and Oxo at a molar ratio of 1:0.4:1. In 1999–2007, S-1 was approved for the treatment of the following seven cancers: gastric, head and neck, colorectal, non-small cell lung, breast, pancreatic and biliary tract cancers. ‘S-1 and low-dose cisplatin therapy’ without provoking Grade 3 non-hematologic toxicities was proposed to enhance its clinical usefulness. Furthermore, ‘alternate-day S-1 regimen’ may improve the dosing schedule for 5-FU by utilizing its strongly time-dependent mode of action; the former is characterized by the low incidences of myelotoxicity and non-hematologic toxicities (e.g. ≤Grade 1 anorexia, fatigue, stomatitis, nausea, vomiting and taste alteration). These two approaches are considered to allow long-lasting therapy with S-1. PMID:19052037

  15. The Global S_1 Tide in Earth's Nutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Einšpigel, David; Salstein, David; Böhm, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    Diurnal S_1 tidal oscillations in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system induce small perturbations of Earth's prograde annual nutation, but matching geophysical model estimates of this Sun-synchronous rotation signal with the observed effect in geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data has thus far been elusive. The present study assesses the problem from a geophysical model perspective, using four modern-day atmospheric assimilation systems and a consistently forced barotropic ocean model that dissipates its energy excess in the global abyssal ocean through a parameterized tidal conversion scheme. The use of contemporary meteorological data does, however, not guarantee accurate nutation estimates per se; two of the probed datasets produce atmosphere-ocean-driven S_1 terms that deviate by more than 30 μ as (microarcseconds) from the VLBI-observed harmonic of -16.2+i113.4 μ as. Partial deficiencies of these models in the diurnal band are also borne out by a validation of the air pressure tide against barometric in situ estimates as well as comparisons of simulated sea surface elevations with a global network of S_1 tide gauge determinations. Credence is lent to the global S_1 tide derived from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and the operational model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). When averaged over a temporal range of 2004 to 2013, their nutation contributions are estimated to be -8.0+i106.0 μ as (MERRA) and -9.4+i121.8 μ as (ECMWF operational), thus being virtually equivalent with the VLBI estimate. This remarkably close agreement will likely aid forthcoming nutation theories in their unambiguous a priori account of Earth's prograde annual celestial motion.

  16. Angular momentum budget of the radiational S1 ocean tide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Dobslaw, Henryk; Poropat, Lea; Salstein, David; Böhm, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    The balance of diurnal S1 oceanic angular momentum (OAM) variations through torques at the sea surface and the bottom topography is validated using both a barotropic and a baroclinic numerical tide model. This analysis discloses the extent to which atmosphere-driven S1 forward simulations are reliable for use in studies of high-frequency polar motion and changes in length-of-day. Viscous and dissipative torques associated with wind stress, bottom friction, as well as internal tidal energy conversion are shown to be small, and they are overshadowed by gravitational and pressure-related interaction forces. In particular, the zonal OAM variability of S1 is almost completely balanced by the water pressure torque on the local bathymetry, whereas in the prograde equatorial case also the air pressure torque on the seafloor as well as ellipsoidal contributions from the non-spherical atmosphere and solid Earth must be taken into account. Overall, the OAM budget is well closed in both the axial and the equatorial directions, thus allowing for an identification of the main diurnal angular momentum sinks in the ocean. The physical interaction forces are found to be largest at shelf breaks and continental slopes in low latitudes, with the most dominant contribution coming from the Indonesian archipelago.

  17. S1P metabolism in cancer and other pathological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Weng In

    2010-01-01

    Nearly two decades ago, the sphingolipid metabolite sphingosine 1-phosphate was discovered to function as a lipid mediator and regulator of cell proliferation. Since that time, sphingosine 1-phosphate has been shown to mediate a diverse array of fundamental biological processes including cell proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, vascular maturation and lymphocyte trafficking. Sphingosine 1-phosphate acts primarily via signaling through five ubiquitously expressed G protein-coupled receptors. Intracellular sphingosine 1-phosphate molecules are transported extracellularly and gain access to its cognate receptors for autocrine and paracrine fashion and for signaling at distant sites reached through blood and lymphatic circulation systems. Intracellular pools of sphingosine 1-phosphate available for signaling are tightly regulated by three enzymes that include sphinosine kinase, S1P lyase and S1P phosphatase. Alterations in S1P levels as well as the enzymes involved in its synthesis and catabolism have been observed in many types of malignancy. These enzymes are being evaluated for their role in mediating cancer formation and progression, as well as their potential to serve as targets of anti-cancer therapeutics. In this review, the impact of sphingosine 1-phosphate, its cognate receptors, and the enzymes of sphingosine 1-phosphate metabolism on cell survival, apoptosis, autophagy, cellular transformation, invasion, angiogenesis and hypoxia in relation to cancer biology and treatment are discussed. PMID:20167244

  18. Search for ammonia in comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggi, S.; Codella, C.; Tozzi, G. P.; Comoretto, G.; Crovisier, J.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Boissier, J.; Brucato, J. R.; Bolli, P.; Massi, F.; Tofani, G.

    2015-12-01

    Comets are uniquely pristine bodies providing unique insights about the formation of our Solar System. In this work, we focus on a dynamically new comet as it enters the inner Solar System for the first time after residing for billion of years in the Oort Cloud. Such comets are particularly important because they are thought to be not differentiated by solar radiation and they are supposed to have a large quantity of organic matter close to the surface. Here we report the results of a search for NH3(1,1) emission at 23.7 GHz towards comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) using a new dual-feed K band receiver mounted on the Medicina 32-m antenna. We observed the comet close to its perihelion, from 25 to 29 November 2013, when its heliocentric distance changed from 0.25 AU to 0.03 AU. We derive an upper limit of Q(NH3) of about 2.5×1029 mol s-1 on 26 November, that is consistent with the last peak of water production rate of ∼2×1030 mol s-1 within the last few days before the perihelion.

  19. Transferable Output ASCII Data (TOAD) editor version 1.0 user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingel, Bradford D.; Shea, Anne L.; Hofler, Alicia S.

    1991-01-01

    The Transferable Output ASCII Data (TOAD) editor is an interactive software tool for manipulating the contents of TOAD files. The TOAD editor is specifically designed to work with tabular data. Selected subsets of data may be displayed to the user's screen, sorted, exchanged, duplicated, removed, replaced, inserted, or transferred to and from external files. It also offers a number of useful features including on-line help, macros, a command history, an 'undo' option, variables, and a full compliment of mathematical functions and conversion factors. Written in ANSI FORTRAN 77 and completely self-contained, the TOAD editor is very portable and has already been installed on SUN, SGI/IRIS, and CONVEX hosts.

  20. Software Development Plan for DESCARTES and CIDER. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, P.W.

    1992-12-08

    This Software Development Plan (SDP) outlines all software activities required to obtain functional environmental accumulation and individual dose codes for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) project. The modeling activities addressed use the output of the air transport-code HATCHET to compute radionuclide concentrations in environmental pathways, and continue on through calculations of dose for individuals. The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project has a deliverable in the June 1993 time frame to be able to start computing doses to individuals from nuclear-related activities on the Hanford Site during and following World War II. The CIDER code will compute doses and their uncertainties for individuals living in the contaminated environment computed by DESCARTES. The projected size of the code is 3000 lines.

  1. Pipe Axial Flaw Failure Criteria (PAFFC): Version 1.0 user`s manual and software

    SciTech Connect

    Leis, B.N.; Ghadiali, N.D.

    1994-05-04

    This topical report is the technical manual and basis for delivery of the software tided Pipe Axial Flaw Failure Criterion. This criterion was developed under SI Task 1. 13 for the Line Pipe Research Supervisory Committee of the Pipeline Research Committee. This software has been given the acronym PAFFC, which follows from the underlined letters in the title for this code. The purpose of PAFFC is to determine the failure conditions associated with a single external axial flaw in a gas transmission pipeline. Failure is determined concurrently in terms of two independent failure processes - fracture and/or net-section (plastic) collapse of the ligament between the flaw and the inside surface of the pipe.

  2. SHARP pre-release v1.0 - Current Status and Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevan, Vijay S.; Rahaman, Ronald O.

    2015-09-30

    The NEAMS Reactor Product Line effort aims to develop an integrated multiphysics simulation capability for the design and analysis of future generations of nuclear power plants. The Reactor Product Line code suite’s multi-resolution hierarchy is being designed to ultimately span the full range of length and time scales present in relevant reactor design and safety analyses, as well as scale from desktop to petaflop computing platforms. In this report, building on a several previous report issued in September 2014, we describe our continued efforts to integrate thermal/hydraulics, neutronics, and structural mechanics modeling codes to perform coupled analysis of a representative fast sodium-cooled reactor core in preparation for a unified release of the toolkit. The work reported in the current document covers the software engineering aspects of managing the entire stack of components in the SHARP toolkit and the continuous integration efforts ongoing to prepare a release candidate for interested reactor analysis users. Here we report on the continued integration effort of PROTEUS/Nek5000 and Diablo into the NEAMS framework and the software processes that enable users to utilize the capabilities without losing scientific productivity. Due to the complexity of the individual modules and their necessary/optional dependency library chain, we focus on the configuration and build aspects for the SHARP toolkit, which includes capability to autodownload dependencies and configure/install with optimal flags in an architecture-aware fashion. Such complexity is untenable without strong software engineering processes such as source management, source control, change reviews, unit tests, integration tests and continuous test suites. Details on these processes are provided in the report as a building step for a SHARP user guide that will accompany the first release, expected by Mar 2016.

  3. 76 FR 23630 - Office of New Reactors; Proposed Revision 2 to Standard Review Plan, Section 1.0 on Introduction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... COMMISSION Office of New Reactors; Proposed Revision 2 to Standard Review Plan, Section 1.0 on Introduction...), Section 1.0, ``Introduction and Interfaces'' (Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS...: Cindy Bladey, Chief, Rules, Announcements, and Directives Branch (RADB), Office of Administration,...

  4. Observations of sodium in the coma of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) during outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Carl A.; Johnson, Robert E.; Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Mendillo, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Prior to disintegration near its 2.7 R⊙ perihelion, the dynamically new Comet C/2012 S1(ISON) briefly exhibited resonantly scattered sodium emission at the 5890 Å and 5896 Å D lines. In this work, we report a rapid increase in sodium production of >3× between observations made only one day apart and the first observations of cometary sodium during an outburst. Mean Na production is estimated at 1.6 ± 0.3 × 1023 atoms s-1 on UT 19.5 Nov 2013 and 5.8 ± 1 × 1023 atoms s-1 on UT 20.5. At a heliocentric distance of 0.44 AU, the anti-sunward Na tail was detected >106 km from the nucleus. Surprisingly, these production rates are well below those of any previously determined when Na is seen from a comet. Accurately reproducing the emission in the Na tail on UT 20.5 Nov 2013 requires a source near the nucleus that varies with time due to the outburst. Data prior to outburst one day earlier can be reproduced if nearly half of total sodium production is attributed to an extended source such as dust grains. This suggests sources of sodium vapor in cometary coma are sensitive to the dust to gas ratio.

  5. Optimal combination of gemcitabine, sorafenib, and S-1 shows increased efficacy in treating cholangiocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Zhengyun; Zhou, Zunqiang; Ding, Xianting; Zhou, Guangwen

    2016-08-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is one of the most difficult cancers to treat and lacks an established standard chemotherapy regimen. This study evaluated the effects of different combinations of gemcitabine, sorafenib, and S-1 on CCA cells to identify the optimal drug combination. A fractional factorial design method was applied in drug combination experiments to determine the optimal combination of these three drugs (gemcitabine=1.4 mmol/l, sorafenib=0.03 mmol/l, S-1=0.185 mmol/l). We constructed a mathematical model with a small number of runs (Y=1.14-0.377A-23.0B-1.81C+0.084A+109B+6.06C+3.83AB+0.175AC-40.4BC) to predict the efficacy of combinations of the drugs. The optimal combination can significantly inhibit the AKT/mTOR pathway, and thus CCA cell proliferation, and can induce cell apoptosis. In vivo, this combination (gemcitabine=1.4 mmol/l, sorafenib=0.03 mmol/l, S-1=0.185 mmol/l) can significantly inhibit tumor growth. The present study showed that the mathematical model was reliable and could predict the efficacy of the different drug combinations. The optimal combination of these drugs may aid the development of a promising standard chemotherapy regimen for CCA. PMID:27035747

  6. TEJAS - TELEROBOTICS/EVA JOINT ANALYSIS SYSTEM VERSION 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drews, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    The primary objective of space telerobotics as a research discipline is the augmentation and/or support of extravehicular activity (EVA) with telerobotic activity; this allows increased emplacement of on-orbit assets while providing for their "in situ" management. Development of the requisite telerobot work system requires a well-understood correspondence between EVA and telerobotics that to date has been only partially established. The Telerobotics/EVA Joint Analysis Systems (TEJAS) hypermedia information system uses object-oriented programming to bridge the gap between crew-EVA and telerobotics activities. TEJAS Version 1.0 contains twenty HyperCard stacks that use a visual, customizable interface of icon buttons, pop-up menus, and relational commands to store, link, and standardize related information about the primitives, technologies, tasks, assumptions, and open issues involved in space telerobot or crew EVA tasks. These stacks are meant to be interactive and can be used with any database system running on a Macintosh, including spreadsheets, relational databases, word-processed documents, and hypermedia utilities. The software provides a means for managing volumes of data and for communicating complex ideas, relationships, and processes inherent to task planning. The stack system contains 3MB of data and utilities to aid referencing, discussion, communication, and analysis within the EVA and telerobotics communities. The six baseline analysis stacks (EVATasks, EVAAssume, EVAIssues, TeleTasks, TeleAssume, and TeleIssues) work interactively to manage and relate basic information which you enter about the crew-EVA and telerobot tasks you wish to analyze in depth. Analysis stacks draw on information in the Reference stacks as part of a rapid point-and-click utility for building scripts of specific task primitives or for any EVA or telerobotics task. Any or all of these stacks can be completely incorporated within other hypermedia applications, or they can be

  7. Polarity driven morphology of CeO2(1 0 0) islands on Cu(1 1 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetsovych, O.; Beran, J.; Dvořák, F.; Mašek, K.; Mysliveček, J.; Matolín, V.

    2013-11-01

    Thin ceria films supported by metal substrates represent important model systems for reactivity studies in heterogeneous catalysis. Here we report the growth study of the polar CeO2(1 0 0) phase as part of a mixed CeO2(1 1 1)-CeO2(1 0 0) thin film supported by Cu(1 1 1). The two ceria phases grow on different areas of the substrate, what allows a reliable growth characterization of the CeO2(1 0 0) islands on Cu(1 1 1). Scanning tunneling microscopy measurements reveal CeO2(1 0 0) to grow in the form of highly dispersed three dimensional (3D) islands on a CeO2(1 0 0) interfacial layer. The CeO2(1 0 0) islands exhibit a 2 × 2 surface reconstruction. The presence of the surface reconstruction together with the highly dispersed growth of CeO2(1 0 0) islands corresponds to the requirement for compensation of the surface dipole moment on the CeO2(1 0 0). CeO2(1 0 0) islands are further characterized by reflection high energy electron diffraction yielding their epitaxial relations with respect to the Cu(1 1 1) substrate. The growth of well characterized CeO2(1 0 0) islands supported by Cu(1 1 1) represents a starting point for developing a novel template for structure-related reactivity studies of ceria based model catalysts.

  8. ALMA Multi-line Observations of the IR-bright Merger VV 114

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Toshiki; Iono, Daisuke; Yun, Min S.; Ueda, Junko; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Sugai, Hajime; Espada, Daniel; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Motohara, Kentaro; Hagiwara, Yosiaki; Tateuchi, Ken; Lee, Minju; Kawabe, Ryohei

    2015-04-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array cycle 0 observations of the molecular gas and dust in the IR-bright mid-stage merger VV 114 obtained at 160-800 pc resolution. The main aim of this study is to investigate the distribution and kinematics of the cold/warm gas and to quantify the spatial variation of the excitation conditions across the two merging disks. The data contain 10 molecular lines, including the first detection of extranuclear CH3OH emission in interacting galaxies, as well as continuum emission. We map the 12CO(3-2)/12CO(1-0) and the 12CO(1-0)/13CO(1-0) line ratio at 800 pc resolution (in the units of K km s-1), and find that these ratios vary from 0.2-0.8 and 5-50, respectively. Conversely, the 200 pc resolution HCN(4-3)/HCO+(4-3) line ratio shows low values (<0.5) at a filament across the disks except for the unresolved eastern nucleus which is three times higher (1.34 ± 0.09). We conclude from our observations and a radiative transfer analysis that the molecular gas in the VV 114 system consists of five components with different physical and chemical conditions, i.e., (1) dust-enshrouded nuclear starbursts and/or active galactic nuclei, (2) widespread star-forming dense gas, (3) merger-induced shocked gas, (4) quiescent tenuous gas arms without star formation, and (5) H2 gas mass of (3.8 ± 0.7) × 107 {{M}⊙ } (assuming a conversion factor of αCO = 0.8 {{M}⊙ } {{(K km {{s}-1} p{{c}2})}-1}) at the tip of the southern tidal arm, as a potential site of tidal dwarf galaxy formation.

  9. Technical documentation and user's guide for City-County Allocation Model (CCAM). Version 1. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, L.T. Jr.; Scott, M.J.; Hammer, P.

    1986-05-01

    The City-County Allocation Model (CCAM) was developed as part of the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Program. The CCAM model was designed to allocate population changes forecasted by the MASTER model to specific local communities within commuting distance of the MRS facility. The CCAM model was designed to then forecast the potential changes in demand for key community services such as housing, police protection, and utilities for these communities. The CCAM model uses a flexible on-line data base on demand for community services that is based on a combination of local service levels and state and national service standards. The CCAM model can be used to quickly forecast the potential community service consequence of economic development for local communities anywhere in the country. The remainder of this document is organized as follows. The purpose of this manual is to assist the user in understanding and operating the City-County Allocation Model (CCAM). The annual explains the data sources for the model and code modifications as well as the operational procedures.

  10. A theoretical study of stability and vacancy replenishing of MoO3(0 1 0) surfaces in oxygen atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yan-Hua; Chen, Zhao-Xu

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen vacancies on transition metal oxide surfaces are catalytically very important. The stability, shape and replenishing process of the vacancies are critical to understanding reactions happening on the surfaces. In this paper we investigate the stability of various defective MoO3(0 1 0) surfaces and examine the influence of environmental oxygen on the stability as well as the active sites for the replenishing process. Our calculations reveal that the line oxygen defect along a (asymmetric oxygen) direction is thermodynamically most favorable at higher defect concentration whereas point defect surfaces are unfavorable. Under normal experimental conditions the perfect surface dominates the MoO3(0 1 0). We show that for stoichiometric surfaces of any oxides (AxOy) the formation energy per vacancy controls the favorable defect shape (line or point defects). Calculations indicate that O2 can dissociate readily on the surfaces that double vacancies share one Mo atom. The replenishing process of the oxygen vacancies through O2 dissociation most likely occurs on the double-vacancy containing one terminal and one asymmetrical oxygen vacancies.

  11. SPLICER - A GENETIC ALGORITHM TOOL FOR SEARCH AND OPTIMIZATION, VERSION 1.0 (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, L.

    1994-01-01

    SPLICER is a genetic algorithm tool which can be used to solve search and optimization problems. Genetic algorithms are adaptive search procedures (i.e. problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural selection and Darwinian "survival of the fittest." SPLICER provides the underlying framework and structure for building a genetic algorithm application. These algorithms apply genetically-inspired operators to populations of potential solutions in an iterative fashion, creating new populations while searching for an optimal or near-optimal solution to the problem at hand. SPLICER 1.0 was created using a modular architecture that includes a Genetic Algorithm Kernel, interchangeable Representation Libraries, Fitness Modules and User Interface Libraries, and well-defined interfaces between these components. The architecture supports portability, flexibility, and extensibility. SPLICER comes with all source code and several examples. For instance, a "traveling salesperson" example searches for the minimum distance through a number of cities visiting each city only once. Stand-alone SPLICER applications can be used without any programming knowledge. However, to fully utilize SPLICER within new problem domains, familiarity with C language programming is essential. SPLICER's genetic algorithm (GA) kernel was developed independent of representation (i.e. problem encoding), fitness function or user interface type. The GA kernel comprises all functions necessary for the manipulation of populations. These functions include the creation of populations and population members, the iterative population model, fitness scaling, parent selection and sampling, and the generation of population statistics. In addition, miscellaneous functions are included in the kernel (e.g., random number generators). Different problem-encoding schemes and functions are defined and stored in interchangeable representation libraries. This allows the GA kernel to be used with any

  12. Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Cherbas, Lucy; Gong, Lei

    2014-01-01

    We review the properties and uses of cell lines in Drosophila research, emphasizing the variety of lines, the large body of genomic and transcriptional data available for many of the lines, and the variety of ways the lines have been used to provide tools for and insights into the developmental, molecular, and cell biology of Drosophila and mammals. PMID:24434506

  13. MERADGEN 1.0: Monte Carlo generator for the simulation of radiative events in parity conserving doubly-polarized Møller scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasev, Andrei; Chudakov, Eugene; Ilyichev, Alexander; Zykunov, Vladimir

    2007-02-01

    The Monte Carlo generator MERADGEN 1.0 for the simulation of radiative events in parity conserving doubly-polarized Møller scattering has been developed. Analytical integration wherever it is possible provides rather fast and accurate generation. Some numerical tests and histograms are presented. Program summaryProgram title: MERADGEN 1.0 Catalogue identifier:ADYM_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADYM_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: none Programming language: FORTRAN 77 Computer(s) for which the program has been designed: all Operating system(s) for which the program has been designed: Linux RAM required to execute with typical data: 1 MB No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:2196 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:23 501 Distribution format:tar.gz Has the code been vectorized or parallelized? : no Number of processors used: 1 Supplementary material: none External routines/libraries used: none CPC Program Library subprograms used: none Nature of problem: Simulation of radiative events in parity conserving doubly-polarized Møller scattering. Solution method: Monte Carlo method for simulation within QED, analytical integration wherever it is possible that provides rather fast and accurate generation. Restrictions: none Unusual features: none Additional comments: none Running time: The simulation of 10 8 radiative events for itest:=1 takes up to 45 seconds on AMD Athlon 2.80 GHz processor.

  14. Observation Data Model Core Components, its Implementation in the Table Access Protocol Version 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tody, Doug; Micol, Alberto; Durand, Daniel; Louys, Mireille; Bonnarel, Francois; Schade, David; Dowler, Patrick; Michel, Laurent; Salgado, Jesus; Chilingarian, Igor; Rino, Bruno; de Dios Santander, Juan; Skoda, Petr; Tody, Doug; Micol, Alberto; Durand, Daniel; Louys, Mireille

    2011-10-01

    This document defines the core components of the Observation data model that are necessary to perform data discovery when querying data centers for observations of interest. It exposes use-cases to be carried out, explains the model and provides guidelines for its implementation as a data access service based on the Table Access Protocol (TAP). It aims at providing a simple model easy to understand and to implement by data providers that wish to publish their data into the Virtual Observatory. This interface integrates data modeling and data access aspects in a single service and is named ObsTAP. It will be referenced as such in the IVOA registries. There will be a separate document to cover the full Observation data model. In this document, the Observation Data Model Core Components (ObsCoreDM) defines the core components of queryable metadata required for global discovery of observational data. It is meant to allow a single query to be posed to TAP services at multiple sites to perform global data discovery without having to understand the details of the services present at each site. It defines a minimal set of basic metadata and thus allows for a reasonable cost of implementation by data providers. The combination of the ObsCoreDM with TAP is referred to as an ObsTAP service. As with most of the VO Data Models, ObsCoreDM makes use of STC, Utypes, Units and UCDs. The ObsCoreDM can be serialized as a VOTable. ObsCoreDM can make reference to more complete data models such as ObsProvDM (the Observation Provenance Data Model, to come), Characterisation DM, Spectrum DM or Simple Spectral Line Data Model (SSLDM).

  15. Beam Simulation Tools for GEANT4 (BT-V1.0). User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Elvira, V. Daniel; Lebrum, P.; Spentzouris, P.

    2002-12-02

    Geant4 is a tool kit developed by a collaboration of physicists and computer professionals in the high energy physics field for simulation of the passage of particles through matter. The motivation for the development of the Beam Tools is to extend the Geant4 applications to accelerator physics. The Beam Tools are a set of C++ classes designed to facilitate the simulation of accelerator elements: r.f. cavities, magnets, absorbers, etc. These elements are constructed from Geant4 solid volumes like boxes, tubes, trapezoids, or spheers. There are many computer programs for beam physics simulations, but Geant4 is ideal to model a beam through a material or to integrate a beam line with a complex detector. There are many such examples in the current international High Energy Physics programs. For instance, an essential part of the R&D associated with the Neutrino Source/Muon Collider accelerator is the ionization cooling channel, which is a section of the system aimed to reduce the size of the muon beam in phase space. The ionization cooling technique uses a combination of linacs and light absorbers to reduce the transverse momentum and size of the beam, while keeping the longitudinal momentum constant. The MuCool/MICE (muon cooling) experiments need accurate simulations of the beam transport through the cooling channel in addition to a detailed simulation of the detectors designed to measure the size of the beam. The accuracy of the models for physics processes associated with muon ionization and multiple scattering is critical in this type of applications. Another example is the simulation of the interaction region in future accelerators. The high luminosity and background environments expected in the Next Linear Collider (NLC) and the Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) pose great demand on the detectors, which may be optimized by means of a simulation of the detector-accelerator interface.

  16. Strong and weak adsorption of CO2 on PuO2 (1 1 0) surfaces from first principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H. L.; Deng, X. D.; Li, G.; Lai, X. C.; Meng, D. Q.

    2014-10-01

    The CO2 adsorption on plutonium dioxide (PuO2) (1 1 0) surface was studied using projector-augmented wave (PAW) method based on density-functional theory corrected for onsite Coulombic interactions (GGA + U). It is found that CO2 has several different adsorption features on PuO2 (1 1 0) surface. Both weak and strong adsorptions exist between CO2 and the PuO2 (1 1 0) surface. Further investigation of partial density of states (PDOS) and charge density difference on two typical absorption sites reveal that electrostatic interactions were involved in the weak interactions, while covalent bonding was developed in the strong adsorptions.

  17. Argyres-Douglas theories, S 1 reductions, and topological symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buican, Matthew; Nishinaka, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper, we proposed closed-form expressions for the superconformal indices of the ({A}1,{A}2n-3) and ({A}1,{D}2n) Argyres-Douglas (AD) superconformal field theories (SCFTs) in the Schur limit. Following up on our results, we turn our attention to the small S 1 regime of these indices. As expected on general grounds, our study reproduces the S 3 partition functions of the resulting dimensionally reduced theories. However, we show that in all cases—with the exception of the reduction of the ({A}1,{D}4) SCFT—certain imaginary partners of real mass terms are turned on in the corresponding mirror theories. We interpret these deformations as R symmetry mixing with the topological symmetries of the direct S 1 reductions. Moreover, we argue that these shifts occur in any of our theories whose four-dimensional { N }=2 superconformal U{(1)}R symmetry does not obey an SU(2) quantization condition. We then use our R symmetry map to find the four-dimensional ancestors of certain three-dimensional operators. Somewhat surprisingly, this picture turns out to imply that the scaling dimensions of many of the chiral operators of the four-dimensional theory are encoded in accidental symmetries of the three-dimensional theory. We also comment on the implications of our work on the space of general { N }=2 SCFTs.

  18. A Unified Geodetic Vertical Velocity Field (UGVVF), Version 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalzle, G.; Wdowinski, S.

    2014-12-01

    become available. A database and scripts to access the database will be available through the University of Miami (http://www.geodesy.miami.edu) website. Figure 1. Vertical velocity comparisons between processing groups (blue dots). Red line indicates equal velocities. Weighted Root Mean Square (WRMS) is shown.

  19. Mxi1 and Mxi1-0 Antagonize N-Myc Function and Independently Mediate Apoptosis in Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Erichsen, David A.; Armstrong, Michael B.; Wechsler, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the third most common malignancy of childhood, and outcomes for children with advanced disease remain poor; amplification of the MYCN gene portends a particularly poor prognosis. Mxi1 antagonizes N-Myc by competing for binding to Max and E-boxes. Unlike N-Myc, Mxi1 mediates transcriptional repression and suppresses cell proliferation. Mxi1 and Mxi1-0 (an alternatively transcribed Mxi1 isoform) share identical Max and DNA binding domains but differ in amino-terminal sequences. Because of the conservation of these critical binding domains, we hypothesized that Mxi1-0 antagonizes N-Myc activity similar to Mxi1. SHEP NB cells and SHEP cells stably transfected with MYCN (SHEP/MYCN) were transiently transfected with vectors containing full-length Mxi1, full-length Mxi1-0, or the common Mxi domain encoded by exons 2 to 6 (ex2-6). After incubation in low serum, parental SHEP/MYCN cell numbers were reduced compared with SHEP cells. Activated caspase-3 staining and DNA fragmentation ELISA confirmed that SHEP/MYCN cells undergo apoptosis in low serum, while SHEP/MYCN cells transfected with Mxi1 or Mxi1-0 do not. However, SHEP/MYCN cells transfected with Mxi1 or Mxi1-0 and grown in normal serum showed proliferation rates similar to SHEP cells. Mxi ex2-6 did not affect cell number in low or normal serum, suggesting that amino terminal domains of Mxi1 and Mxi1-0 are critical for antagonism. In the absence of N-Myc, Mxi1 and Mxi1-0 induce apoptosis independently through the caspase-8–dependent extrinsic pathway, while N-Myc activates the caspase-9–dependent intrinsic pathway. Together, these data indicate that Mxi1 and Mxi1-0 antagonize N-Myc but also independently impact NB cell survival. PMID:25749179

  20. Buffer effects of Ag layers on magneto-optical Co/Ge(1 0 0) ultrathin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, C. W.; Tsay, J. S.; Yao, Y. D.

    2006-09-01

    Magnetic properties of the Co/Ag/Ge(1 0 0) films grown at room temperature and 200 K were studied by the surface magneto-optical Kerr effect (SMOKE). More than 1.5 monolayer Ag buffer layers not only effectively block the interdiffusion between the capped Co layers and the Ge(1 0 0) substrate but also stabilize the magnetic phase. The temperature and thickness dependence on coercivity measurements show that interactions upon the interfaces are strongly correlated to the microstructures.

  1. Potential of MuS1 Transgenic Tobacco for Phytoremediation of the Urban Soils Contaminated with Cadmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Kim, Y. N.; Kim, S. H.

    2010-05-01

    Urban soils are prone to contamination by trace elements such as Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Phytoremediation is one of the attractive remediation methods for soils contaminated with trace elements due to its non-destructive and environmentally-friendly characteristic. Scientists have tried to find hyper-accumulator plants in nature or to develop transgenic plant through genetic engineering. This study was carried out to identify a potential of MuS1 transgenic tobacco for phytoremediation of the urban soils contaminated with Cd. MuS1 is known as a multiple stress related gene with several lines. The previous study using RT-PCR showed that the expression of MuS1 gene in tobacco plant induced tolerance to Cd stress. For this study, MuS1 transgenic tobacco and wild-type tobacco (control) were cultivated in a hydroponic system treated with Cd (0, 50, 100 and 200μM Cd) for 3 weeks. At harvest, both tobacco and nutrient solution were collected and were analyzed for Cd. Effect of Cd treatment on morphological change of the tobacco leaves was also observed by variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). The tolerance of MuS1 transgenic tobacco to Cd stress was better than that of wild-type tobacco at all Cd levels. Especially, wild-type tobacco showed chlorosis and withering with 200μM Cd treatment, whereas MuS1 transgenic tobacco gradually recovered from Cd damage. Wild-type tobacco accumulated more Cd (4.65mg per plant) than MuS1 transgenic tobacco (2.37mg per plant) with 200μM Cd treatment. Cd translocation rate from root to leaves was 81.8 % for wild-type tobacco compared to 37.1 % for MuS1 transgenic tobacco. Result of VP-SEM showed that the number of trichome in the leaves for wild-type tobacco increased in comparison with that for untreated samples after 3 weeks, while that for MuS1 transgenic tobacco was not changed by Cd treatment. Results showed that the mechanism of the recovery of the MuS1 tobacco plant was not by high level of Cd uptake and accumulation

  2. Spectral Synthesis of TiO Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenti, Jeff A.; Piskunov, Nikolai; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.

    1998-05-01

    We explore the extent to which current titanium oxide (TiO) line data and M dwarf model atmospheres can be used to reproduce an R = 120,000 optical spectrum of the relatively inactive star Gliese 725B (M3.5 V). We find that tabulated TiO wavelengths have errors large enough to complicate line identification, especially for transitions involving higher vibrational states. We determine empirical wavelength corrections for 12 strong γ-bands near 6680 and 7090 Å. For the sequence of orbital quantum numbers, J, within any one of these bands, our observations confirm the predicted line spacing, thereby validating the rotational constants for low vibrational levels. However, the predicted wavelengths have zero-point errors that differ for each overlapping band. Next, we compare observed and synthetic spectra near 8463 Å, where an ε Q3 0-0 band head is expected, demonstrating that the electronic oscillator strength of 0.014 advocated by Jørgensen is too large by at least a factor of 5. This has a minor effect on the structure of theoretical model atmospheres. Using our empirically corrected TiO wavelengths, we compute a grid of synthetic spectra for Allard & Hauschildt models spanning a range in effective temperature (Teff), surface gravity (log g), and metallicity ([M/H]). Interpolating in this grid of synthetic spectra, we simultaneously fit observations of the TiO band head region near 7088 Å and five Ti I and Fe I lines near 8683 Å. For Gl 725B, we find Teff = 3170 +/- 71 K, log g = 4.77 +/- 0.14, [M/H] = -0.92 +/- 0.07, and vmac = 1.1 +/- 0.7 km s-1. We show that by using both atomic and molecular lines as constraints, systematic uncertainties in derived stellar parameters can be reduced. These parameters are consistent with published values obtained by other means, but more stringent tests would be useful. In the Appendix, we tabulate wavelengths, identifications, relative line strengths, and other properties of the strongest band heads in the α, β, γ,

  3. Dynamical instability in the S =1 Bose-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaoka, Rui; Tsuchiura, Hiroki; Yamashita, Makoto; Toga, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamical instabilities of superfluid flows in the S =1 Bose-Hubbard model. The time evolution of each spin component in a condensate is calculated based on the dynamical Gutzwiller approximation for a wide range of interactions, from a weakly correlated regime to a strongly correlated regime near the Mott-insulator transition. Owing to the spin-dependent interactions, the superfluid flow of the spin-1 condensate decays at a different critical momentum from a spinless case when the interaction strength is the same. We furthermore calculate the dynamical phase diagram of this model and clarify that the obtained phase boundary has very different features depending on whether the average number of particles per site is even or odd. Finally, we analyze the density and spin modulations that appear in association with the dynamical instability. We find that spin modulations are highly sensitive to the presence of a uniform magnetic field.

  4. Effect of anisotropy in the S=1 underscreened Kondo lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christopher; da Rosa Simões, Acirete S.; Lacroix, Claudine; Iglesias, José Roberto; Coqblin, Bernard

    2014-12-01

    We study the effect of crystal field anisotropy in the underscreened S=1 Kondo lattice model. Starting from the two orbital Anderson lattice model and including a local anisotropy term, we show, through Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, that local anisotropy is equivalent to an anisotropic Kondo interaction (J∥≠J⊥). The competition and coexistence between ferromagnetism and Kondo effect in this effective model is studied within a generalized mean-field approximation. Several regimes are obtained, depending on the parameters, exhibiting or not coexistence of magnetic order and Kondo effect. Particularly, we show that a re-entrant Kondo phase at low temperature can be obtained. We are also able to describe phases where the Kondo temperature is smaller than the Curie temperature (TK

  5. Confinement and power balance in the S-1 spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Levinton, F.M.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Mayo, R.M.; Janos, A.C.; Ono, Y.; Ueda, Y.; Yamada, M.

    1989-07-01

    The confinement and scaling features of the S-1 spheromak have been investigated using magnetic, spectroscopic, and Thomson scattering data in conjunction with numerical modeling. Results from the multipoint Thomson scattering diagnostic shows that the central beta remains constant (/beta//sub to/ /approximately/ 5%) as the plasma current density increases from 0.68--2.1 MA/m/sup 2/. The density is observed to increase slowly over this range, while the central electron temperature increases much more rapidly. Analysis of the global plasma parameters shows a decrease in the volume average beta and energy confinement as the total current is increased. The power balance has been modeled numerically with a 0-D non-equilibrium time-dependent coronal model and is consistent with the experimental observations. 20 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Regulation of human cerebro-microvascular endothelial baso-lateral adhesion and barrier function by S1P through dual involvement of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wiltshire, Rachael; Nelson, Vicky; Kho, Dan Ting; Angel, Catherine E.; O’Carroll, Simon J.; Graham, E. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Herein we show that S1P rapidly and acutely reduces the focal adhesion strength and barrier tightness of brain endothelial cells. xCELLigence biosensor technology was used to measure focal adhesion, which was reduced by S1P acutely and this response was mediated through both S1P1 and S1P2 receptors. S1P increased secretion of several pro-inflammatory mediators from brain endothelial cells. However, the magnitude of this response was small in comparison to that mediated by TNFα or IL-1β. Furthermore, S1P did not significantly increase cell-surface expression of any key cell adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte recruitment, included ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Finally, we reveal that S1P acutely and dynamically regulates microvascular endothelial barrier tightness in a manner consistent with regulated rapid opening followed by closing and strengthening of the barrier. We hypothesise that the role of the S1P receptors in this process is not to cause barrier dysfunction, but is related to controlled opening of the endothelial junctions. This was revealed using real-time measurement of barrier integrity using ECIS ZΘ TEER technology and endothelial viability using xCELLigence technology. Finally, we show that these responses do not occur simply though the pharmacology of a single S1P receptor but involves coordinated action of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors. PMID:26813587

  7. The preS1 antigen of hepatitis B virus is highly immunogenic at the T cell level in man.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, C; Penna, A; Bertoletti, A; Cavalli, A; Valli, A; Schianchi, C; Fiaccadori, F

    1989-01-01

    14 hepatitis B vaccine recipients who showed high titers of anti-hepatitis B surface antibodies in serum after booster immunization with a polyvalent hepatitis B surface antigen vaccine that contained trace amounts of hepatitis B virus (HBV) preS1 and preS2 envelope antigens were studied for their in vitro T cell response to these antigens. All 14 subjects displayed a significant proliferative T cell response to the S/p25 envelope region encoded polypeptide; 8 also responded to preS1, while only 1 showed a significant level of T cell proliferation to preS2. Limiting dilution analysis demonstrated that the frequency of preS-specific T cells in two of these vaccine recipients was higher than that of S/p25-specific T cells. T cell cloning was then performed and a total of 29 HBV envelope antigen-reactive CD4+ cloned lines were generated from two preS-responsive vaccines. 21 of these lines were S/p25 specific, 7 preS1 specific, and 1 preS2 specific. Taken together, all these results suggest that the preS1 antigen may function as a strong T cell immunogen in man. PMID:2529268

  8. Characterizing double-resonance optical-pumping spectra of cesium 6P3/2 - 8S1/2 excited-state transition and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Baodong; Liang, Qiangbing; Zhang, Tiancai; Wang, Junmin

    2010-11-01

    The spectra of cesium 6P3/2 - 8S1/2 excited-state transition have been obtained using double resonance optical-pumping (DROP) technique in a room-temperature vapor cell, and have shown a much better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared with that using the traditional optical-optical double resonance (OODR) method. Furthermore, the line-width of DROP spectra is obviously narrowed by electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) effect in cesium 6S1/2 F=4 - 6P3/2 F'=5 - 8S1/2 F''=4 transitions. Finally, such DROP spectrum of 6P3/2 F'=5 - 8S1/2 F''=4 transition with a high SNR and a narrow line-width is applied into frequency stabilization of a 795 nm external-cavity diode laser, and the residual frequency fluctuation is ~ 600 kHz within 500 s.

  9. Measure Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissman, Sally

    2011-01-01

    One tool for enhancing students' work with data in the science classroom is the measure line. As a coteacher and curriculum developer for The Inquiry Project, the author has seen how measure lines--a number line in which the numbers refer to units of measure--help students not only represent data but also analyze it in ways that generate…

  10. Localization of cytochrome P450 CYP2S1 expression in human tissues by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T; Wikman, Harriet A-L; Smith, Gillian; Wolff, C Henrik J; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-05-01

    CYP2S1 is a recently discovered dioxin-inducible member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily. It has been shown to be involved in the metabolism of some aromatic hydrocarbons as well as retinoic acid, suggesting a role in biotransformation of both exogenous and endogenous compounds. In this study, we used mRNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to investigate the cellular localization of CYP2S1 in various human tissues using tissue microarrays. High expression levels were observed mainly in epithelial cell types, especially in the epithelia frequently exposed to xenobiotics. In the respiratory tract, the expression was strong in nasal cavity, bronchi, and bronchioli, whereas it was low in the alveolar lining cells. Similarly, CYP2S1 was highly expressed in the epithelial cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Strong epithelial expression was also observed in uterine cervix, urinary bladder, and skin. In many exocrine glands (e.g., adrenal gland and pancreas), secretory epithelial cells showed moderate to strong expression levels. In the liver, the expression was low. CYP2S1 was highly expressed in epithelial cells that are major targets for carcinogen exposure and common progenitor cells to tumor development. Indeed, we found strong CYP2S1 expression in many tumors of epithelial origin. PMID:15872048

  11. A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s(-1).

    PubMed

    Li, Chih-Hao; Benedick, Andrew J; Fendel, Peter; Glenday, Alexander G; Kärtner, Franz X; Phillips, David F; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald L

    2008-04-01

    Searches for extrasolar planets using the periodic Doppler shift of stellar spectral lines have recently achieved a precision of 60 cm s(-1) (ref. 1), which is sufficient to find a 5-Earth-mass planet in a Mercury-like orbit around a Sun-like star. To find a 1-Earth-mass planet in an Earth-like orbit, a precision of approximately 5 cm s(-1) is necessary. The combination of a laser frequency comb with a Fabry-Pérot filtering cavity has been suggested as a promising approach to achieve such Doppler shift resolution via improved spectrograph wavelength calibration, with recent encouraging results. Here we report the fabrication of such a filtered laser comb with up to 40-GHz (approximately 1-A) line spacing, generated from a 1-GHz repetition-rate source, without compromising long-term stability, reproducibility or spectral resolution. This wide-line-spacing comb, or 'astro-comb', is well matched to the resolving power of high-resolution astrophysical spectrographs. The astro-comb should allow a precision as high as 1 cm s(-1) in astronomical radial velocity measurements. PMID:18385734

  12. Analysis Of The California Molecular Cloud Through CS J(2-1), HCN J(1-0), And C18O J(2-1)molecular Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasso, Steven; Shirley, Y.; Bieging, J.; Rudolph, A.; Lada, C.; Forbrich, J.; Roman, C.

    2012-01-01

    The California Molecular Cloud (CMC) is a nearby (D 450 pc) complex cloud with a total mass similar to the Orion Molecular Cloud but with only one-tenth the star formation rate. Studies of the CMC therefore provide a unique opportunity to probe the conditions of dense molecular gas in a quiescent star forming environment. We provide CS J(2-1) and HCN J(1-0) spectra taken with the Arizona Radio Observatory 12m telescope at Kitt Peak, as well as C18O J(2-1) spectra from the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope on Mt. Graham, AZ, for 37 high opacity cores chosen from a near-infrared extinction map of the CMC. Analysis of the line properties were made through Gaussian fits to the line profiles. We present a statistical comparison of the line properties for sources in the CMC with a sample of 36 cores in Orion A from Tatematsu et al. and a larger sample of 150 intermediate and high-mass cores from Plume et al. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. AST-0847170, a PAARE Grant for the Calfornia-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE).

  13. Molecular dynamics study on surface structure and surface energy of rutile TiO 2 (1 1 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dai-Ping; Liang, Ying-Chun; Chen, Ming-Jun; Bai, Qing-Shun

    2009-03-01

    The formula for surface energy was modified in accordance with the slab model of molecular dynamics (MDs) simulations, and MD simulations were performed to investigate the relaxed structure and surface energy of perfect and pit rutile TiO 2(1 1 0). Simulation results indicate that the slab with a surface more than four layers away from the fixed layer expresses well the surface characteristics of rutile TiO 2 (1 1 0) surface; and the surface energy of perfect rutile TiO 2 (1 1 0) surface converges to 1.801±0.001 J m -2. The study on perfect and pit slab models proves the effectiveness of the modified formula for surface energy. Moreover, the surface energy of pit surface is higher than that of perfect surface and exhibits an upper-concave parabolic increase and a step-like increase with increasing the number of units deleted along [0 0 1] and [1 1 0], respectively. Therefore, in order to obtain a higher surface energy, the direction along which atoms are cut out should be chosen in accordance with the pit sizes: [ 1¯10] direction for a small pit size and [0 0 1] direction for a big pit size; or alternatively the odd units of atoms along [1 1 0] direction are removed.

  14. Targeted Proteomics-Driven Computational Modeling of Macrophage S1P Chemosensing.

    PubMed

    Manes, Nathan P; Angermann, Bastian R; Koppenol-Raab, Marijke; An, Eunkyung; Sjoelund, Virginie H; Sun, Jing; Ishii, Masaru; Germain, Ronald N; Meier-Schellersheim, Martin; Nita-Lazar, Aleksandra

    2015-10-01

    Osteoclasts are monocyte-derived multinuclear cells that directly attach to and resorb bone. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)(1) regulates bone resorption by functioning as both a chemoattractant and chemorepellent of osteoclast precursors through two G-protein coupled receptors that antagonize each other in an S1P-concentration-dependent manner. To quantitatively explore the behavior of this chemosensing pathway, we applied targeted proteomics, transcriptomics, and rule-based pathway modeling using the Simmune toolset. RAW264.7 cells (a mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line) were used as model osteoclast precursors, RNA-seq was used to identify expressed target proteins, and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry using internal peptide standards was used to perform absolute abundance measurements of pathway proteins. The resulting transcript and protein abundance values were strongly correlated. Measured protein abundance values, used as simulation input parameters, led to in silico pathway behavior matching in vitro measurements. Moreover, once model parameters were established, even simulated responses toward stimuli that were not used for parameterization were consistent with experimental findings. These findings demonstrate the feasibility and value of combining targeted mass spectrometry with pathway modeling for advancing biological insight. PMID:26199343

  15. S1 domain-containing STF modulates plastid transcription and chloroplast biogenesis in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Young; Jung, Hyun Ju; Kang, Hunseung; Park, Youn-Il; Lee, Soon Hee; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2012-01-01

    • In this study, we examined the biochemical and physiological functions of Nicotiana benthamiana S1 domain-containing Transcription-Stimulating Factor (STF) using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), cosuppression, and overexpression strategies. • STF : green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein colocalized with sulfite reductase (SiR), a chloroplast nucleoid-associated protein also present in the stroma. Full-length STF and its S1 domain preferentially bound to RNA, probably in a sequence-nonspecific manner. • STF silencing by VIGS or cosuppression resulted in severe leaf yellowing caused by disrupted chloroplast development. STF deficiency significantly perturbed plastid-encoded multimeric RNA polymerase (PEP)-dependent transcript accumulation. Chloroplast transcription run-on assays revealed that the transcription rate of PEP-dependent plastid genes was reduced in the STF-silenced leaves. Conversely, the exogenously added recombinant STF protein increased the transcription rate, suggesting a direct role of STF in plastid transcription. Etiolated seedlings of STF cosuppression lines showed defects in the light-triggered transition from etioplasts to chloroplasts, accompanied by reduced light-induced expression of plastid-encoded genes. • These results suggest that STF plays a critical role as an auxiliary factor of the PEP transcription complex in the regulation of plastid transcription and chloroplast biogenesis in higher plants. PMID:22050604

  16. Possible Dust Models for C/2012 S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) provided a great opportunity to study a dynamically new Oort-cloud comet on its initial and only passage through the inner solar system. Contrary to expectations, the comet's activity fluctuated from high through a quiescent phase, and a major outburst days before its perihelion passage, ending in a dramatic race to complete disintegration on perihelion day, 28 November 2013. Amateur observations to professional ground-based, sub-orbital telescopes indicate the various changes of visible factors such as Afrho, a proxy for dust activity, and the measured production rates for water, consistent with the disintegration of the nucleus. Hines et al. (2013; ApJ Lett. 780) detected positive polarization in the inner coma and negative polarization in the outer coma, indicative of a jet, independently confirmed by Li et al. (2013, ApJ Lett., 779). Thermal emission observations of the comet pre-perihelion from NAOJ/Subaru/COMICS, a mid-infrared spectrometer, indicated a body with an equivalent brightness temperature of 265K (Ootsubo et al., 2013, ACM, Helsinki,FI); thermal observations acquired at the NASA/Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) with The Aerospace Corporation spectrometer (BASS, PI. R. Russell), before and after the November 12, 2013 outburst observed by the CIOC_ISON amateur network, indicates a brightness temperature of 330K and the presence, albeit weak, of the 11.3-micron crystalline silicate feature (Sitko et al., 2014, LPI abstract 1537). A Monte Carlo comet dust tail model, applied to extract the dust environment parameters of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) from both Earth-based and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) calibrated observations, performed from about 6 AU (inbound), to right after perihelion passage, when just a small portion of the original comet nucleus survived in the form of a cloud of tiny particles, indicates that particles underwent disintegration and fragmentation (Moreno et al., 2014, ApJ Lett., 791). Ongoing work

  17. Sphingosine kinase-1, S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 and S1P2 mRNA expressions are increased in liver with advanced fibrosis in human

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Masaya; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Kurano, Makoto; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Maki, Harufumi; Kudo, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The role of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in liver fibrosis or inflammation was not fully examined in human. Controversy exists which S1P receptors, S1P1 and S1P3 vs S1P2, would be importantly involved in its mechanism. To clarify these matters, 80 patients who received liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma and 9 patients for metastatic liver tumor were enrolled. S1P metabolism was analyzed in background, non-tumorous liver tissue. mRNA levels of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) but not SK2 were increased in livers with fibrosis stages 3–4 compared to those with 0–2 and to normal liver. However, S1P was not increased in advanced fibrotic liver, where mRNA levels of S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2) but not S1P-degrading enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, mRNA levels of S1P2 but not S1P1 or S1P3 were increased in advanced fibrotic liver. These increased mRNA levels of SK1, SPNS2 and S1P2 in fibrotic liver were correlated with α-smooth muscle actin mRNA levels in liver, and with serum ALT levels. In conclusion, S1P may be actively generated, transported to outside the cells, and bind to its specific receptor in human liver to play a role in fibrosis or inflammation. Altered S1P metabolism in fibrotic liver may be their therapeutic target. PMID:27562371

  18. Sphingosine kinase-1, S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 and S1P2 mRNA expressions are increased in liver with advanced fibrosis in human.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masaya; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Kurano, Makoto; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Maki, Harufumi; Kudo, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The role of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in liver fibrosis or inflammation was not fully examined in human. Controversy exists which S1P receptors, S1P1 and S1P3 vs S1P2, would be importantly involved in its mechanism. To clarify these matters, 80 patients who received liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma and 9 patients for metastatic liver tumor were enrolled. S1P metabolism was analyzed in background, non-tumorous liver tissue. mRNA levels of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) but not SK2 were increased in livers with fibrosis stages 3-4 compared to those with 0-2 and to normal liver. However, S1P was not increased in advanced fibrotic liver, where mRNA levels of S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2) but not S1P-degrading enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, mRNA levels of S1P2 but not S1P1 or S1P3 were increased in advanced fibrotic liver. These increased mRNA levels of SK1, SPNS2 and S1P2 in fibrotic liver were correlated with α-smooth muscle actin mRNA levels in liver, and with serum ALT levels. In conclusion, S1P may be actively generated, transported to outside the cells, and bind to its specific receptor in human liver to play a role in fibrosis or inflammation. Altered S1P metabolism in fibrotic liver may be their therapeutic target. PMID:27562371

  19. Self-absorption theory applied to rocket measurements of the nitric oxide (1, 0) gamma band in the daytime thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eparvier, F. G.; Barth, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of the UV fluorescent emissions of the NO (1, 0) and (0, 1) gamma bands in the lower-thermospheric dayglow, made with a sounding rocket launched on March 7, 1989 from Poker Flat, Alaska, were analyzed. The resonant (1, 0) gamma band was found to be attenuated below an altitude of about 120 km. A self-absorption model based on Holstein transmission functions was developed for the resonant (1, 0) gamma band under varying conditions of slant column density and temperature and was applied for the conditions of the rocket flight. The results of the model agreed with the measured attenuation of the band, indicating the necessity of including self-absorption theory in the analysis of satellite and rocket limb data of NO.

  20. Epitaxial growth and anisotropic strain relaxation of Ge1-xSnx layers on Ge(1 1 0) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Takanori; Shimura, Yosuke; Taoka, Noriyuki; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2013-05-01

    We have investigated the strain relaxation behavior and dislocation structures of Ge1-xSnx epitaxial layers on Ge(1 1 0) substrates. We found that the anisotropic strain relaxation of a Ge0.966Sn0.034 layer along the [0 0 1] direction preferentially occurs during postdeposition annealing over 500 °C. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that the anisotropic strain relaxation is attributed to the propagation of misfit dislocations along the two directions of [1¯ 1 0] and <1 1 2> at the Ge1-xSnx/Ge(1 1 0) interface. We found that the propagation of 60° dislocations preferentially occurs, which contributes to the strain relaxation only for the [0 0 1] direction.

  1. Evidence for charged B meson decays to a1+/-(1260)pi0 and a1(0)(1260)pi+/-.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Panduro Vazquez, W; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Zheng, Y; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Neal, H

    2007-12-31

    We present measurements of the branching fractions for the decays B;{+/-}-->a_{1};{+/-}(1260)pi;{0} and B;{+/-}-->a_{1};{0}(1260)pi;{+/-} from a data sample of 232x10;{6} BB[over ] pairs produced in e;{+}e;{-} annihilation through the Upsilon(4S) resonance. We measure the branching fraction B(B;{+/-}-->a_{1};{+/-}(1260)pi;{0})xB(a_{1};{+/-}(1260)-->pi;{-}pi;{+}pi;{+/-})=(13.2+/-2.7+/-2.1)x10;{-6} with a significance of 4.2sigma, and the branching fraction B(B;{+/-}-->a_{1};{0}(1260)pi;{+/-})xB(a_{1};{0}(1260)-->pi;{-}pi;{+}pi;{0})=(20.4+/-4.7+/-3.4)x10;{-6} with a significance of 3.8sigma, where the first error quoted is statistical and the second is systematic. PMID:18233566

  2. A national FFQ for the Netherlands (the FFQ-NL 1.0): validation of a comprehensive FFQ for adults.

    PubMed

    Sluik, Diewertje; Geelen, Anouk; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Eussen, Simone J P M; Brants, Henny A M; Meijboom, Saskia; van Dongen, Martien C J M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Wijckmans-Duysens, Nicole E G; van 't Veer, Pieter; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Ocké, Marga C; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-09-01

    A standardised, national, 160-item FFQ, the FFQ-NL 1.0, was recently developed for Dutch epidemiological studies. The objective was to validate the FFQ-NL 1.0 against multiple 24-h recalls (24hR) and recovery and concentration biomarkers. The FFQ-NL 1.0 was filled out by 383 participants (25-69 years) from the Nutrition Questionnaires plus study. For each participant, one to two urinary and blood samples and one to five (mean 2·7) telephone-based 24hR were available. Group-level bias, correlation coefficients, attenuation factors, de-attenuated correlation coefficients and ranking agreement were assessed. Compared with the 24hR, the FFQ-NL 1.0 estimated the intake of energy and macronutrients well. However, it underestimated intakes of SFA and trans-fatty acids and alcohol and overestimated intakes of most vitamins by >5 %. The median correlation coefficient was 0·39 for energy and macronutrients, 0·30 for micronutrients and 0·30 for food groups. The FFQ underestimated protein intake by an average of 16 % and K by 5 %, relative to their urinary recovery biomarkers. Attenuation factors were 0·44 and 0·46 for protein and K, respectively. Correlation coefficients were 0·43-0·47 between (fatty) fish intake and plasma EPA and DHA and 0·24-0·43 between fruit and vegetable intakes and plasma carotenoids. In conclusion, the overall validity of the newly developed FFQ-NL 1.0 was acceptable to good. The FFQ-NL 1.0 is well suited for future use within Dutch cohort studies among adults. PMID:27452894

  3. Photometry of distant active comet C/2010 S1 (LINEAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubina, O.; Kulyk, I.; Korsun, P.; Romanjuk, Ya.

    2014-12-01

    We present the results of photometric observations of a dynamically new comet C/2010 S1 (LINEAR), conducted on June 18, 2012. The comet demonstrated a considerable level of physical activity at a heliocentric distance of 6.3 AU. The brightness, measured under a phase angle of 8.9 degrees, was equal to 14.55^{m}±0.06^{m} and 14.21^{m}±0.04^{m} in V- and R-bands, respectively. The brightness distribution over the coma was found to be inversely proportional to the projected onto the sky plane nucleocentric distance, with a slope of approximately -1. Therefore, the calculated Afρ parameter, approximately 8400 cm and 8200 cm for V and R filters, respectively, was used to estimate the dust production rate. Assuming a steady outflow of dust particles from the nucleus, the dust production rate was estimated to be between 20 and 60 kg/s, depending on the assumed value of the grain's albedo. The V-R colour index obtained from the near-nucleus region of the coma is in agreement with the solar V-R colour index, and does not indicate significant reddening of the reflected solar radiation in the spectral region of 540-683 nm.

  4. Outgassing and chemical evolution of C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dello Russo, Neil; Vervack, Ronald J.; Kawakita, Hideyo; Cochran, Anita; McKay, Adam J.; Harris, Walter M.; Weaver, Harold A.; Lisse, Carey M.; DiSanti, Michael A.; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Biver, Nicolas; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Crovisier, Jacques; Opitom, Cyrielle; Jehin, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Volatile production rates, relative abundances, rotational temperatures, and spatial distributions in the coma were measured in C/2012 S1 (ISON) using long-slit high-dispersion (λ/Δλ ~ 25,000) infrared spectroscopy as part of a worldwide observing campaign. Spectra were obtained on UT 2013 October 26 and 28 with NIRSPEC at the W. M. Keck Observatory, and UT 2013 November 19 and 20 with CSHELL at the NASA IRTF. H2O was detected on all dates, with production rates increasing by about a factor of 40 between October 26 (Rh = 1.12 AU) and November 20 (Rh = 0.43 AU). Short-term variability of H2O was also seen as the production rate increased by nearly a factor of two during observations obtained over a period of about six hours on November 19. C2H6, CH3OH and CH4 abundances were slightly depleted relative to H2O in ISON compared to mean values for comets measured at infrared wavelengths. On the November dates, C2H2, HCN and OCS abundances relative to H2O appear to be close to the range of mean values, whereas H2CO and NH3 were significantly enhanced. We will compare derived chemical abundances in ISON to other comets measured with infrared spectroscopy.

  5. A Relativistic Fe Kα Emission Line in the Intermediate-Luminosity BeppoSAX Spectrum of the Galactic Microquasar V4641 Sgr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. M.; Fabian, A. C.; in't Zand, J. J. M.; Reynolds, C. S.; Wijnands, R.; Nowak, M. A.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    2002-09-01

    Broad Fe Kα emission lines have recently been reported in a number of Galactic black holes. Such lines are useful accretion flow diagnostics because they may be produced at the inner accretion disk and shaped by relativistic effects, but in general they have been observed only at luminosities of LX~1037-1038 ergs s-1 in soft X-rays. The Galactic microquasar V4641 Sgr-widely known for its 12.2 Crab (1.5-12 keV) outburst in 1999 September-displayed low-level activity in 1999 March. BeppoSAX observed the source in this state, and Fe Kα line emission was found by in 't Zand et al. In reanalyzing these data, we find strong evidence that the Fe Kα line profile is broadened. For the most likely values of the source distance and black hole mass measured by Orosz et al., our fits to the total spectrum indicate that the source was observed at a luminosity of LX=1.9+1.0-0.8×1036 ergs s-1 (2-10 keV), or LX/LEdd=1.8+0.9- 0.8×10-3. Advection-dominated accretion flow models predict a radially recessed disk in this regime. In contrast, fits to the observed Fe Kα emission-line profile with a relativistic line model constrain the inner disk to be consistent with the marginally stable circular orbit of a Schwarzschild black hole.

  6. Assessment of agreement between the AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR test versions 1.0 and 1.5.

    PubMed

    Hill, Charles E; Green, Alicia M; Ingersoll, Jessica; Easley, Kirk A; Nolte, Frederick S; Caliendo, Angela M

    2004-01-01

    The agreement of the microwell plate AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR version 1.0 (MWP 1.0), the microwell plate AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR version 1.5 (MWP 1.5), and the COBAS AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR version 1.5 (COBAS 1.5) tests was evaluated using clinical specimens and well-characterized control material. Two hundred patient plasma specimens and a panel of known human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes were tested. All data were log(10) transformed prior to analysis. The 95% limits of agreement for the three tests at the average of 3.66 log(10) copies/ml were +/- 0.28 log(10), +/- 0.34 log(10), and +/- 0.34 log(10) copies/ml for MWP 1.0-MWP 1.5, MWP 1.0-COBAS 1.5, and MWP 1.5-COBAS 1.5, respectively. Ten specimens (6.1%) had differences exceeding the limits of agreement for the MWP 1.0 and MWP 1.5 tests. Correlation coefficients among the three tests were high (r >or=0.96). The viral-load values obtained with the MWP 1.0 test were only 2.1% higher on average than those measured with the MWP 1.5 test and 1.6% higher than those seen with the COBAS 1.5 test. The MWP 1.5 test values were 0.8% higher than the COBAS 1.5 test values. Overall, there was less agreement among the different tests for viral-load values near the lower limit of quantification. The MWP 1.0 test underquantified subtypes A, E, F, G, and H by 1.0 to 2.0 log(10) copies/ml; this problem was not observed with the MWP 1.5 test. The close agreement among the results obtained with the different test versions and formats suggests that it is not necessary to reestablish a baseline viral load when changing AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR tests, unless the patient is known to be infected with a non-B subtype. PMID:14715766

  7. Induced low-energy effective action in the 6D, N = (1 , 0) hypermultiplet theory on the vector multiplet background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchbinder, I. L.; Merzlikin, B. S.; Pletnev, N. G.

    2016-08-01

    We consider the six dimensional N = (1 , 0) hypermultiplet model coupled to an external field of the Abelian vector multiplet in harmonic superspace approach. Using the superfield proper-time technique we find the divergent part of the effective action and derive the complete finite induced low-energy superfield effective action. This effective action depends on external field and contains in bosonic sector all the powers of the constant Maxwell field strength. The obtained result can be treated as the 6D, N = (1 , 0) supersymmetric Heisenberg-Euler type effective action.

  8. Solwnd: A 3D Compressible MHD Code for Solar Wind Studies. Version 1.0: Cartesian Coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deane, Anil E.

    1996-01-01

    Solwnd 1.0 is a three-dimensional compressible MHD code written in Fortran for studying the solar wind. Time-dependent boundary conditions are available. The computational algorithm is based on Flux Corrected Transport and the code is based on the existing code of Zalesak and Spicer. The flow considered is that of shear flow with incoming flow that perturbs this base flow. Several test cases corresponding to pressure balanced magnetic structures with velocity shear flow and various inflows including Alfven waves are presented. Version 1.0 of solwnd considers a rectangular Cartesian geometry. Future versions of solwnd will consider a spherical geometry. Some discussions of this issue is presented.

  9. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. XII. DISTANCE CATALOG EXPANSION USING KINEMATIC ISOLATION OF DENSE MOLECULAR CLOUD STRUCTURES WITH {sup 13}CO(1-0)

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.; Glenn, Jason; Rosolowsky, Erik; Ginsburg, Adam; Evans II, Neal J.; Battersby, Cara; Shirley, Yancy L.; Svoboda, Brian

    2015-01-20

    We present an expanded distance catalog for 1710 molecular cloud structures identified in the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) version 2, representing a nearly threefold increase over the previous BGPS distance catalog. We additionally present a new method for incorporating extant data sets into our Bayesian distance probability density function (DPDF) methodology. To augment the dense-gas tracers (e.g., HCO{sup +}(3-2), NH{sub 3}(1,1)) used to derive line-of-sight velocities for kinematic distances, we utilize the Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) {sup 13}CO(1-0) data to morphologically extract velocities for BGPS sources. The outline of a BGPS source is used to select a region of the GRS {sup 13}CO data, along with a reference region to subtract enveloping diffuse emission, to produce a line profile of {sup 13}CO matched to the BGPS source. For objects with a HCO{sup +}(3-2) velocity, ≈95% of the new {sup 13}CO(1-0) velocities agree with that of the dense gas. A new prior DPDF for kinematic distance ambiguity (KDA) resolution, based on a validated formalism for associating molecular cloud structures with known objects from the literature, is presented. We demonstrate this prior using catalogs of masers with trigonometric parallaxes and H II regions with robust KDA resolutions. The distance catalog presented here contains well-constrained distance estimates for 20% of BGPS V2 sources, with typical distance uncertainties ≲ 0.5 kpc. Approximately 75% of the well-constrained sources lie within 6 kpc of the Sun, concentrated in the Scutum-Centaurus arm. Galactocentric positions of objects additionally trace out portions of the Sagittarius, Perseus, and Outer arms in the first and second Galactic quadrants, and we also find evidence for significant regions of interarm dense gas.

  10. The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey. XII. Distance Catalog Expansion Using Kinematic Isolation of Dense Molecular Cloud Structures with 13CO(1-0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.; Rosolowsky, Erik; Glenn, Jason; Ginsburg, Adam; Evans, Neal J., II; Battersby, Cara; Shirley, Yancy L.; Svoboda, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We present an expanded distance catalog for 1710 molecular cloud structures identified in the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) version 2, representing a nearly threefold increase over the previous BGPS distance catalog. We additionally present a new method for incorporating extant data sets into our Bayesian distance probability density function (DPDF) methodology. To augment the dense-gas tracers (e.g., HCO^+(3-2), NH3(1,1)) used to derive line-of-sight velocities for kinematic distances, we utilize the Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) 13CO(1-0) data to morphologically extract velocities for BGPS sources. The outline of a BGPS source is used to select a region of the GRS 13CO data, along with a reference region to subtract enveloping diffuse emission, to produce a line profile of 13CO matched to the BGPS source. For objects with a HCO^+(3-2) velocity, ≈95% of the new 13CO(1-0) velocities agree with that of the dense gas. A new prior DPDF for kinematic distance ambiguity (KDA) resolution, based on a validated formalism for associating molecular cloud structures with known objects from the literature, is presented. We demonstrate this prior using catalogs of masers with trigonometric parallaxes and H II regions with robust KDA resolutions. The distance catalog presented here contains well-constrained distance estimates for 20% of BGPS V2 sources, with typical distance uncertainties <~ 0.5 kpc. Approximately 75% of the well-constrained sources lie within 6 kpc of the Sun, concentrated in the Scutum-Centaurus arm. Galactocentric positions of objects additionally trace out portions of the Sagittarius, Perseus, and Outer arms in the first and second Galactic quadrants, and we also find evidence for significant regions of interarm dense gas.

  11. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate (S1P) Receptor Agonists Mediate Pro-fibrotic Responses in Normal Human Lung Fibroblasts via S1P2 and S1P3 Receptors and Smad-independent Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, Katrin; Menyhart, Katalin; Killer, Nina; Renault, Bérengère; Bauer, Yasmina; Studer, Rolf; Steiner, Beat; Bolli, Martin H.; Nayler, Oliver; Gatfield, John

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 modulators constitute a new class of drugs for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling, however, is also involved in the development of fibrosis. Using normal human lung fibroblasts, we investigated the induction of fibrotic responses by the S1P receptor (S1PR) agonists S1P, FTY720-P, ponesimod, and SEW2871 and compared them with the responses induced by the known fibrotic mediator TGF-β1. In contrast to TGF-β1, S1PR agonists did not induce expression of the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin. However, TGF-β1, S1P, and FTY720-P caused robust stimulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and increased pro-fibrotic marker gene expression including connective tissue growth factor. Ponesimod showed limited and SEW2871 showed no pro-fibrotic potential in these readouts. Analysis of pro-fibrotic signaling pathways showed that in contrast to TGF-β1, S1PR agonists did not activate Smad2/3 signaling but rather activated PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling to induce ECM synthesis. The strong induction of ECM synthesis by the nonselective agonists S1P and FTY720-P was due to the stimulation of S1P2 and S1P3 receptors, whereas the weaker induction of ECM synthesis at high concentrations of ponesimod was due to a low potency activation of S1P3 receptors. Finally, in normal human lung fibroblast-derived myofibroblasts that were generated by TGF-β1 pretreatment, S1P and FTY720-P were effective stimulators of ECM synthesis, whereas ponesimod was inactive, because of the down-regulation of S1P3R expression in myofibroblasts. These data demonstrate that S1PR agonists are pro-fibrotic via S1P2R and S1P3R stimulation using Smad-independent pathways. PMID:23589284

  12. Observation of an exotic baryon with S=+1 in photoproduction from the proton.

    PubMed

    Kubarovsky, V; Guo, L; Weygand, D P; Stoler, P; Battaglieri, M; DeVita, R; Adams, G; Li, Ji; Nozar, M; Salgado, C; Ambrozewicz, P; Anciant, E; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Audit, G; Auger, T; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Ball, J P; Barrow, S; Beard, K; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Benmouna, N; Berman, B L; Bianchi, N; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Bouchigny, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Carman, D S; Carnahan, B; Cetina, C; Chen, S; Ciciani, L; Cole, P L; Connelly, J; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Cummings, J P; De Sanctis, E; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Dharmawardane, K V; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Eugenio, P; Farhi, L; Fatemi, R; Feuerbach, R J; Ficenec, J; Forest, T A; Frolov, V; Funsten, H; Gaff, S J; Garçon, M; Gavalian, G; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girard, P; Gothe, R; Gordon, C I O; Griffioen, K; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hakobyan, R S; Hancock, D; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Heimberg, P; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Ilieva, Y; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Joo, K; Juengst, H G; Kelley, J H; Khandaker, M; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, W; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kuhn, S E; Kuhn, J; Lachniet, J; Laget, J M; Langheinrich, J; Lawrence, D; Longhi, A; Lukashin, K; Major, R W; Manak, J J; Marchand, C; McAleer, S; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mehrabyan, S; Melone, J J; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Minehart, R; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Morand, L; Morrow, S A; Mozer, M U; Muccifora, V; Mueller, J; Mutchler, G S; Napolitano, J; Nasseripour, R; Nelson, S O; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niyazov, R A; O'Brien, J T; O'Rielly, G V; Opper, A K; Osipenko, M; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Peterson, G; Philips, S A; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Polli, E; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabatié, F; Sabourov, K; Santoro, J P; Sapunenko, V; Sargsyan, M; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Shafi, A; Sharabian, Y G; Shaw, J; Simionatto, S; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, T; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Spraker, M; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Thoma, U; Thompson, R; Todor, L; Tur, C; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Weisberg, A; Whisnant, C S; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J

    2004-01-23

    The reaction gamma p-->pi(+)K(-)K(+)n was studied at Jefferson Laboratory using a tagged photon beam with an energy range of 3-5.47 GeV. A narrow baryon state with strangeness S=+1 and mass M=1555+/-10 MeV/c(2) was observed in the nK(+) invariant mass spectrum. The peak's width is consistent with the CLAS resolution (FWHM=26 MeV/c(2)), and its statistical significance is (7.8+/-1.0)sigma. A baryon with positive strangeness has exotic structure and cannot be described in the framework of the naive constituent quark model. The mass of the observed state is consistent with the mass predicted by the chiral soliton model for the Theta(+) baryon. In addition, the pK(+) invariant mass distribution was analyzed in the reaction gamma p-->K(-)K(+)p with high statistics in search of doubly charged exotic baryon states. No resonance structures were found in this spectrum. PMID:14753864

  13. Observation of an Exotic Baryon with S=+1 in Photoproduction from the Proton

    SciTech Connect

    Valery Kubarovsky; Lei Guo; Dennis Weygand; Paul Stoler; Marco Battaglieri; Raffaella De Vita; Gary Adams; Ji Li; Mina Nozar; Carlos Salgado; Pawel Ambrozewicz; Eric Anciant; Marco Anghinolfi; Burin Asavapibhop; Gerard Audit; Thierry Auger; Harutyun AVAKIAN; Hovhannes Baghdasaryan; Jacques Ball; Steve Barrow

    2004-01-01

    The reaction {gamma}p {yields} {pi}{sup +} K{sup -} K{sup +}n was studied at Jefferson Lab using a tagged photon beam with an energy range of 3-5.47 GeV. A narrow baryon state with strangeness S = +1 and mass M = 1555 {+-} 10 MeV/c{sup 2} was observed in the nK{sup +} invariant mass spectrum. The peak's width is consistent with the CLAS resolution (FWHM = 26 MeV/c{sup 2}), and its statistical significance is 7.8 {+-} 1.0 {sigma}. A baryon with positive strangeness has exotic structure and cannot be described in the framework of the naive constituent quark model. The mass of the observed state is consistent with the mass predicted by a chiral soliton model for the {Theta}{sup +} baryon. In addition, the pK{sup +} invariant mass distribution was analyzed in the reaction {gamma} p {yields} K{sup -} K{sup +}p with high statistics in search of doubly-charged exotic baryon states. No resonance structures were found in this spectrum.

  14. CLAROV1.0

    2004-06-01

    CLARO is a highly customizable graphical user interface package built on QT and Python. It has basic functions useful for the generation, display and manipulation of geometry and mesh data. This includes picking and CAD-like graphics and rotations. The menus presented to the user can be quickly customized and modules that use CLARO dynamically loaded at runtime.

  15. GBS 1.0

    2010-09-30

    The Umbra gbs (Graph-Based Search) library provides implementations of graph-based search/planning algorithms that can be applied to legacy graph data structures. Unlike some other graph algorithm libraries, this one does not require your graph class to inherit from a specific base class. Implementations of Dijkstra's Algorithm and A-Star search are included and can be used with graphs that are lazily-constructed.

  16. CABRAKAN1.0

    2007-05-15

    Cabrakan is a software framework designed for cognitive modeling, machine learning, and pattern recognition. This software has a graphical user interface that can be used to visualize graphical structures and build models graphically. Cabrakan models are created using with a collection of application-specific modules, which can be reused from previous applications or designed for a particular algorithm to incorporate.

  17. SALINAS1.0

    2002-10-01

    Salinas isa general purpose finite element package for structural dynamics analysis, written pecifically for distributed memory computers. It has been used for the analysis of structures ranging MEMs, to weapons components to aircraft carriers. The package provides eigenanalysis, and implicit linear and nonlinear transient and static analysis of structures, and incorporates sensitivity analysis. A full range of structural elements is provided.

  18. DENSIFYV1.0

    2000-02-02

    This code is for the prediction of microstructural evolution during solid state sintering. The mechanism simulated in this code are curvature-driven grain growth, pore migration by surface diffusion, vacancy formation, grain boundary migration of vacancies and vacancy annihilation.

  19. MAUIV1.0

    2002-04-01

    MAUI is a software system that allows design analysts to access computational services through a graphical user interface. Services that may be made accessible through MAUI could include tools for design space exploration and optimization. Additionally, existing simulation codes may be integrated into the MAUI system such that input to the simulation code would be entered through the graphical user interface, and the input data would be propagated to the simulation code on a localmore » or remote machine. MAUI automatically produces a graphical user interface from an XML description of both the graphical user interface formatting, and the input data objects required by the underlying software service. This allows for simple generation of a common look-and-feel interface to a variety of simulation and analysis software. The graphical user interface is generated from Java Swing components.« less

  20. GOSOV1.0

    2000-08-16

    The Genetic Optimization Software Object is a 32-bit object. It is delivered as a Dynamic Link Library (DLL) and runs under all 32-bit versions of Microsoft Windows. Genetic Optimization refers to an optimization scheme used to solve large combinatorial problems using "genetic" algorithms. The DLL is a software object, which means that it must be instantiated by a host application before it's properties and methods can be used. to perform an optimization analysis, the hostmore » application must also include a user-supplied process model.« less

  1. CHARICE1.0

    2007-10-25

    CHARICE analyzes velcity waveform data from ramp-wave experiments to determine a sample material's quasi-isentropic loading response in stress and density. A graphical interface handles all user interaction. CHARICE uses a generalized ASCII file format for input waveform data, obviating the need for pre-processing of these data. Capabilities include calculation of uncertainty bounds, correction for non-uniform baseplate thickness, and user-provided ramp-wave loading response for interferometer window materials. Output consists of particle velocity, lagrangian wave speed, density,more » and stress along the loading quasi-isentrope, as well as in-situ time istory for any of these variables at the front or back surface of each sample.« less

  2. BABELV1.0

    2001-11-26

    Babel reads binary data representing a wave-propagation signal in a drill pipe generated by the Sandia National Laboratories, Acoustic Telemetry Tool. Babel then processes that data to extract, display, and store the information modulated on that signal.

  3. Search for ammonia in comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggi, S.; Codella, C.; Tozzi, G.; Comoretto, G.; Crovisier, J.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Boissier, J.; Bolli, P.; Brucato, J.; Massi, F.; Tofani, G.

    2014-07-01

    Comets are pristine bodies of the Solar System and their studies can give precious hints on the formation of the Solar System itself. New comets, coming form the Oort Colud at their first passage close to the Sun, are particularly important, because they are not differentiated by the Solar radiation and they are supposed to have a large quantity of organic matter close to the surface. Here we report the results of a search for NH_3(1,1) emission at 23.7 GHz in comet C/2012 S1 ISON using a new dual-feed K-band receiver mounted on the Medicina 32-m antenna. We observed the comet once close to its perihelion, from 2013 Nov. 25 to Nov. 28, when its heliocentric distance changed from 0.25 au to 0.03 au. We integrated about 6 hrs per day, obtaining high-spectral-resolution (1 km/s) spectra with a typical rms noise of 10 mK. Such sensitivity allowed us to derive an upper limit of Q(NH_3) of about 2.5 ×10^{29} mol/s on November 26. This upper limit would correspond to a Q(H_2O) of about 2.5 ×10^{31} mol/s, assuming the typical Q(H_2O)/Q(NH_3) ratio of 100. These findings confirm that no significant Q(H_2O) enhancement happened near the perihelion, consistent with a definitive decrease of molecules production rate.

  4. Ultraviolet Observations Of C/2012 S1 (ISON) By MAVEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crismani, Matteo; Schneider, N.; Stewart, I.; Combi, M.; Fougere, N.

    2013-10-01

    On its journey to Mars, MAVEN has been serendipitously positioned to study the anticipated sungrazing comet C/2012 S1(ISON) and offers important scientific observations. The MAVEN mission is the first to attempt to understand the evolution of the Martian atmosphere by determining the effects of atmospheric loss to space. The IUVS instrument has two large field of regard(55x11 and 24x11 degrees) and observes in the mid and far ultraviolet (115-340 nm). It was designed to be able to map the atmosphere in several neutral and some ionized species. These performance characteristics make IUVS ideal to study ISON, as it can take both two dimensional spatial scans as well as spectral data. Tentative plans indicate the comet can be acquired on Dec 8th, assuming that the comet survives the near sun encounter. If observations prove possible, IUVS will be able to study ISON shortly after perihelion, and from a different vantage point from Earth. Science goals include UV observations of D/H, morphology & time evolution of the hydrogen coma and UV spectroscopy of the inner coma. IUVS can potentially make a major contribution to the international community by measuring D/H, thus contributing to our understanding of the origin of Earth’s water. IUVS will also make MUV and FUV observations of molecular species in the inner coma, valuable for understanding the chemical evolution of cometary molecular gases. The poster will present provisional observation plans as well as simulated spectra and spatial profiles. We welcome input from the community on these plans, in the spirit of maximizing the scientific return of the international campaign. The work has been supported by the MAVEN project and NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX09AB59G.

  5. WILL COMET ISON (C/2012 S1) SURVIVE PERIHELION?

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Matthew M.; Walsh, Kevin J.

    2013-10-10

    On 2013 November 28 Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) will pass by the Sun with a perihelion distance of 2.7 solar radii. Understanding the possible outcomes for the comet's response to such a close passage by the Sun is important for planning observational campaigns and for inferring ISON's physical properties. We present new numerical simulations and interpret them in context with the historical track record of comet disruptions and of sungrazing comet behavior. Historical data suggest that sizes below ∼200 m are susceptible to destruction by sublimation driven mass loss, while we find that for ISON's perihelion distance, densities lower than 0.1 g cm{sup –3} are required to tidally disrupt a retrograde or non-spinning body. Such low densities are substantially below the range of the best-determined comet nucleus densities, though dynamically new comets such as ISON have few measurements of physical properties. Disruption may occur for prograde rotation at densities up to 0.7 g cm{sup –3}, with the chances of disruption increasing for lower density, faster prograde rotation, and increasing elongation of the nucleus. Given current constraints on ISON's nucleus properties and the typically determined values for these properties among all comets, we find tidal disruption to be unlikely unless other factors (e.g., spin-up via torquing) affect ISON substantially. Whether or not disruption occurs, the largest remnant must be big enough to survive subsequent mass loss due to sublimation in order for ISON to remain a viable comet well after perihelion.

  6. Gravitational dynamics in s+1+1 dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Gergely, Laszlo A.; Kovacs, Zoltan

    2005-09-15

    We present the concomitant decomposition of an (s+2)-dimensional space-time both with respect to a timelike and a spacelike direction. The formalism we develop is suited for the study of the initial value problem and for canonical gravitational dynamics in braneworld scenarios. The bulk metric is replaced by two sets of variables. The first set consists of one tensorial (the induced metric g{sub ij}), one vectorial (M{sup i}) and one scalar (M) dynamical quantity, all defined on the s space. Their time evolutions are related to the second fundamental form (the extrinsic curvature K{sub ij}), the normal fundamental form (K{sup i}) and normal fundamental scalar (K), respectively. The nondynamical set of variables is given by the lapse function and the shift vector, which however has one component less. The missing component is due to the externally imposed constraint, which states that physical trajectories are confined to the (s+1)-dimensional brane. The pair of dynamical variables (g{sub ij}, K{sub ij}), well known from the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner decomposition is supplemented by the pairs (M{sup i}, K{sup i}) and (M, K) due to the bulk curvature. We give all projections of the junction condition across the brane and prove that for a perfect fluid brane neither of the dynamical variables has jump across the brane. Finally we complete the set of equations needed for gravitational dynamics by deriving the evolution equations of K{sub ij}, K{sup i} and K on a brane with arbitrary matter.

  7. Enhancement of CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratios and star formation efficiencies in supergiant H II regions

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Rie E.; Espada, Daniel; Komugi, Shinya; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Sawada, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Kosuke; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Tosaki, Tomoka; Hirota, Akihiko; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Okumura, Sachiko K.; Kuno, Nario; Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Onodera, Sachiko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-20

    We present evidence that super giant H II regions (GHRs) and other disk regions of the nearby spiral galaxy, M33, occupy distinct locations in the correlation between molecular gas, Σ{sub H{sub 2}}, and the star formation rate surface density, Σ{sub SFR}. This result is based on wide-field and high-sensitivity CO(3-2) observations at 100 pc resolution. Star formation efficiencies (SFEs), defined as Σ{sub SFR}/Σ{sub H{sub 2}}, in GHRs are found to be ∼1 dex higher than in other disk regions. The CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) integrated intensity ratio, R {sub 3-2/1-0}, is also higher than the average over the disk. Such high SFEs and R {sub 3-2/1-0} can reach the values found in starburst galaxies, which suggests that GHRs may be the elements building up a larger-scale starburst region. Three possible contributions to high SFEs in GHRs are investigated: (1) the I {sub CO}-N(H{sub 2}) conversion factor, (2) the dense gas fraction traced by R {sub 3-2/1-0}, and (3) the initial mass function (IMF). We conclude that these starburst-like properties in GHRs can be interpreted by a combination of both a top-heavy IMF and a high dense gas fraction, but not by changes in the I {sub CO}-N(H{sub 2}) conversion factor.

  8. Reactivity of persulfides toward strained bicyclo[6.1.0]nonyne derivatives: relevance to chemical tagging of proteins.

    PubMed

    Galardon, Erwan; Padovani, Dominique

    2015-06-17

    Persulfides are an emerging class of cysteine oxidative post-translational modification. They react with the bioconjugation reagents bicyclo[6.1.0]nonynes (BCNs) to engender thioethers and/or disulfides. This new reactivity of BCNs with a biologically important redox-signaling species efficiently interferes with the recent usage of strained cycloalkynes to specifically trap protein sulfenic acids. PMID:26011436

  9. MyPyramid equivalents database for USDA survey food codes, 1994-2002, version 1.0.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The MyPyramid Equivalents Database for USDA Food Codes, 1994-2002 Version 1.0 (MyPyrEquivDB_v1) is based on USDA’s MyPyramid Food Guidance System (2005) and provides equivalents data on the five major food groups and selected subgroups (32 groups in all) for all USDA survey food codes available for ...

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: J=1-0 transitions of argonium (ArH+) (Bizzocchi+,

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzocchi, L.; Dore, L.; Degli Esposti, C.; Tamassia, F.

    2016-06-01

    The J=1-0 pure rotational transition of the argonium ion was observed in absorption with a frequency-modulated millimeter-wave spectrometer equipped with a negative glow discharge cell. See section 2 for the experimental details. (1 data file).

  11. Risk Knowledge in Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis (RIKNO 1.0) - Development of an Outcome Instrument for Educational Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Heesen, C.; Kasper, J.; Fischer, K.; Köpke, S.; Rahn, A.; Backhus, I.; Poettgen, J.; Vahter, L.; Drulovic, J.; Van Nunen, A.; Beckmann, Y.; Liethmann, K.; Giordano, A.; Solari, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adequate risk knowledge of patients is a prerequisite for shared decision making but few attempts have been made to develop assessment tools. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of young adults with an increasing number of partially effective immunotherapies and therefore a paradigmatic disease to study patient involvement. Objective/methods Based on an item bank of MS risk knowledge items and patient feedback including perceived relevance we developed a risk knowledge questionnaire for relapsing remitting (RR) MS (RIKNO 1.0) which was a primary outcome measure in a patient education trial (192 early RRMS patients). Results Fourteen of the RIKNO 1.0 multiple-choice items were selected based on patient perceived relevance and item difficulty indices, and five on expert opinion. Mean item difficulty was 0.58, ranging from 0.14 to 0.79. Mean RIKNO 1.0 score increased after the educational intervention from 10.6 to 12.4 (p = 0.0003). Selected items were particularly difficult (e.g. those on absolute risk reductions of having a second relapse) and were answered correctly in only 30% of the patients, even after the intervention. Conclusion Despite its high difficulty, RIKNO 1.0 is a responsive instrument to assess risk knowledge in RRMS patients participating in educational interventions. PMID:26430887

  12. FLUORESCENCE DEPOLARIZATION STUDIES OF RED CELL MEMBRANE FLUIDITY. THE EFFECT OF EXPOSURE TO 1.0-GHZ MICROWAVE RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The internal viscosity of human red blood cell membranes was investigated during exposure to continuous wave 1.0-GHz microwave radiation using fluorescence measurements of a lipid seeking molecular probe, diphenylhexatriene. Samples were exposed in a Crowford cell arranged so tha...

  13. Becoming Critical Consumers and Producers of Text: Teaching Literacy with Web 1.0 and Web 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handsfield, Lara J.; Dean, Tami R.; Cielocha, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    Although wired classrooms are now commonplace, the online tools available to teachers and students are changing more rapidly than ever. However, not all online tools are alike. With the proliferation of the World Wide Web and the advent of Web 2.0, which unlike Web 1.0 enables collaboration and manipulation of online texts, teachers must…

  14. Search for stopped gluinos from pp collisions at square root s = 1.96 TeV.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Jesus, A C S Assis; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clément, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, P; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J M; Kalk, J R; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kothari, B; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lellouch, J; Lesne, V; Leveque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Michaut, M; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Noeding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'dell, V; O'neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Y Garzón, G J Otero; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Perea, P M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Pompos, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; da Silva, W L Prado; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schliephake, T; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sengupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, R P; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; van Eijk, B; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Von Toerne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, C; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2007-09-28

    Long-lived, heavy particles are predicted in a number of models beyond the standard model of particle physics. We present the first direct search for such particles' decays, occurring up to 100 h after their production and not synchronized with an accelerator bunch crossing. We apply the analysis to the gluino (g), predicted in split supersymmetry, which after hadronization can become charged and lose enough momentum through ionization to come to rest in dense particle detectors. Approximately 410 pb(-1) of pp collisions at square root(s) = 1.96 TeV collected with the D0 detector during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider are analyzed in search of such "stopped gluinos" decaying into a gluon and a neutralino (chi(1)(0)). Limits are placed on the (gluino cross section) x (probability to stop) x [BR(g --> g chi(1)(0))] as a function of the gluino and chi(1)(0) masses, for gluino lifetimes from 30 micros-100 h. PMID:17930574

  15. Observing Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) With Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisse, Carey M.; Vervack, R. J.; Weaver, H. A.; Bauer, J. M.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Kelley, M. S.; Knight, M. M.; Hines, D. C.; Li, J.; Reach, W. T.; Sitko, M. L.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Meech, K. J.; Rayner, J. T.

    2013-10-01

    In this talk we discuss the design, implementation, and reduction of observations of Comet ISON from space using the Spitzer Space Telescope on 13.00 - 13.96 Jun UT and from the ground at Lowell Observatory on Jun 11.16 UT and from APO on 14.13 Jun UT. The comet was at distance rh = 3.34 AU from the Sun, distance ΔSpitzer = 3.29 AU and 17.4o phase from SST, and distance ΔEarth = 4.25 AU and 6.8 - 7.3o phase at the time of observation. Preliminary analyses show ISON's Spitzer coma morphology was relatively compact and simple, with a linear anti-solar dust tail > 3x105 km in length and a 1/p profile gas coma extending > 105 km from the nucleus. Afp values in an 18,200 km radius aperture of 840, 890, and 840 ± 80 cm were found at VRI, and 650 ± 100 cm were found at 3.6 micron. Together, the ground-based and Spitzer photometry imply near-neutral dust scattering from the visual through the infrared. An excess at 4.5 µm due to emission from a neutral gas coma is clearly found both morphologically and photometrically. The gas coma total flux and spatial profile and ISON’s discovery distance imply a coma dominated by the stronger CO_2 line emission at 4.67 μm, but we cannot rule out a preponderance of CO emission at 4.26 μm. No variability in our Spitzer photometry at the 0.03 mag level over 24 hrs was seen. We present our imagery, spectrophotometry, and lightcurves, and discuss the physical implications of these measurements of the comet made well outside the ice line.

  16. A role of the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)–S1P receptor 2 pathway in epithelial defense against cancer (EDAC)

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Sayaka; Yako, Yuta; Fujioka, Yoichiro; Kajita, Mihoko; Kameyama, Takeshi; Kon, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Susumu; Ohba, Yusuke; Ohno, Yusuke; Kihara, Akio; Fujita, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    At the initial step of carcinogenesis, transformation occurs in single cells within epithelia, where the newly emerging transformed cells are surrounded by normal epithelial cells. A recent study revealed that normal epithelial cells have an ability to sense and actively eliminate the neighboring transformed cells, a process named epithelial defense against cancer (EDAC). However, the molecular mechanism of this tumor-suppressive activity is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated a role for the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)–S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2) pathway in EDAC. First, we show that addition of the S1PR2 inhibitor significantly suppresses apical extrusion of RasV12-transformed cells that are surrounded by normal cells. In addition, knockdown of S1PR2 in normal cells induces the same effect, indicating that S1PR2 in the surrounding normal cells plays a positive role in the apical elimination of the transformed cells. Of importance, not endogenous S1P but exogenous S1P is involved in this process. By using FRET analyses, we demonstrate that S1PR2 mediates Rho activation in normal cells neighboring RasV12-transformed cells, thereby promoting accumulation of filamin, a crucial regulator of EDAC. Collectively these data indicate that S1P is a key extrinsic factor that affects the outcome of cell competition between normal and transformed epithelial cells. PMID:26631556

  17. Hot water emission spectra: Rotational energy levels of the (0 0 0) and (0 1 0) states of HD17O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellau, Georg Ch.; Mikhailenko, Semen N.; Tyuterev, Vladimir G.

    2015-02-01

    The rotational transitions of the HD17O water isotopologue have been assigned in a high temperature emission spectrum between 320 and 520 cm-1 of water vapor enriched by deuterium and 17O. We assigned 169 emission lines to 189 partly overlapping transitions of pure rotational and the ν2-ν2 rotational bands. A new extended set of 390 rotational energy levels for the (0 0 0) and (0 1 0) vibration states of HD17O up to J = 17 and Ka = 13 was obtained by combination of the new line transitions with those reported in previous studies. We constructed an effective rotational Hamiltonian based on the generation function approach. For this Hamiltonian the deviation between calculated and measured eigenenergies is in the order of 0.001 cm-1. We report a new calculated linelist based on our new energy level list. Our linelist supersedes the IUPAC linelist for the HD17O water isotopologue as it is based on a substantially extended set of accurate transition wavenumbers.

  18. Search for pair production of scalar bottom quarks in pp collisions at square root of s = 1.96 TeV.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Jesus, A C S Assis; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Blumenschein, U; Boehnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clément, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Cousinou, M-C; Cox, B; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De, K; de Jong, P; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fatakia, S N; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J M; Kalk, J R; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A-C; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lesne, V; Leveque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Magnan, A-M; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martens, M; McCarthy, R; Meder, D; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Michaut, M; Miettinen, H; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Monk, J; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundim, L; Mutaf, Y D; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Noeding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Oshima, N; Otec, R; Y Garzón, G J Otero; Owen, M; Padley, P; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Perea, P M; Perez, E; Peters, K; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Pompos, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Rud, V I; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sengupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shephard, W D; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Sidwell, R A; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smith, R P; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vlimant, J-R; Von Toerne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xuan, N; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, C; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2006-10-27

    A search for direct production of scalar bottom quarks (b) is performed with 310 pb(-1) of data collected by the D0 experiment in pp collisions at square root s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The topology analyzed consists of two b jets and an imbalance in transverse momentum due to undetected neutralinos (chi(1)0), with chi(1)0 assumed to be the lightest supersymmetric particle. We find the data consistent with standard model expectations, and set a 95% C.L. exclusion domain in the (m(b), m(chi(1)0)) mass plane, improving significantly upon the results from run I of the Tevatron. PMID:17155465

  19. VLA H53α and H92α line observations of the central region of NGC 253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Rico, C. A.; Goss, W. M.; Zhao, J.-H.; Gomez, Y.; Anantharamaiah, K. R.

    2006-06-01

    We present new Very Large Array (VLA) observations toward NGC 253 of the recombination line H53α (43 GHz) at an angular resolution of 1.5" × 1.0". The free-free emission at 43 GHz is estimated to be ˜ 100 mJy, implying a star formation rate of ˜ 1.3 M⊙ yr-1 in the nuclear region of this starburst galaxy. A reanalysis is made for previously reported H92α observations carried out with angular resolution of 1.5" × 1.5" (Anantharamaiah & Goss) and 0." × 0.21" (Mohan et al.). Based on the line and continuum emission models used for the 1.5" × 1.0" angular resolution observations, the RRLs H53α and H92α are tracers of the high-density ( ˜ 105 cm-3) and low-density ( ˜ 103 cm-3) thermally ionized gas components in NGC 253, respectively. The velocity fields observed in the H53α and H92α lines (1.5" × 1.0") are consistent. The velocity gradient in the central ˜ 18 pc of the NE component, as observed in both the H53α and H92α lines, is in the opposite direction to the velocity gradient determined from the CO observations. The enclosed virial mass, as deduced from the H53α velocity gradient over the NE component, is ˜ 5 × 106 M⊙ in the central ˜ 18 pc region. The H92α line observations at high angular resolution (⪉ 0.36" × 0.21") reveal a larger velocity gradient, along a P.A. ˜ 45o on the NE component, of ˜ 110 km s-1 arcsec-1. The dynamical mass estimated using the high angular resolution H92α data ( ˜ 7 × 106 M⊙) supports the existence of an accreted massive object in the nuclear region of NGC 253.

  20. Aberrant expression of the S1P regulating enzymes, SPHK1 and SGPL1, contributes to a migratory phenotype in OSCC mediated through S1PR2

    PubMed Central

    Patmanathan, Sathya Narayanan; Johnson, Steven P.; Lai, Sook Ling; Panja Bernam, Suthashini; Lopes, Victor; Wei, Wenbin; Ibrahim, Maha Hafez; Torta, Federico; Narayanaswamy, Pradeep; Wenk, Markus R.; Herr, Deron R.; Murray, Paul G.; Yap, Lee Fah; Paterson, Ian C.

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a lethal disease with a 5-year mortality rate of around 50%. Molecular targeted therapies are not in routine use and novel therapeutic targets are required. Our previous microarray data indicated sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) metabolism and signalling was deregulated in OSCC. In this study, we have investigated the contribution of S1P signalling to the pathogenesis of OSCC. We show that the expression of the two major enzymes that regulate S1P levels were altered in OSCC: SPHK1 was significantly upregulated in OSCC tissues compared to normal oral mucosa and low levels of SGPL1 mRNA correlated with a worse overall survival. In in vitro studies, S1P enhanced the migration/invasion of OSCC cells and attenuated cisplatin-induced death. We also demonstrate that S1P receptor expression is deregulated in primary OSCCs and that S1PR2 is over-expressed in a subset of tumours, which in part mediates S1P-induced migration of OSCC cells. Lastly, we demonstrate that FTY720 induced significantly more apoptosis in OSCC cells compared to non-malignant cells and that FTY720 acted synergistically with cisplatin to induce cell death. Taken together, our data show that S1P signalling promotes tumour aggressiveness in OSCC and identify S1P signalling as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27160553

  1. Ligand-binding pocket shape differences between S1P1 and S1P3 determine efficiency of chemical probe identification by uHTS

    PubMed Central

    Schürer, Stephan C.; Brown, Steven J.; Cabrera, Pedro Gonzales; Schaeffer, Marie-Therese; Chapman, Jacqueline; Jo, Euijung; Chase, Peter; Spicer, Tim; Hodder, Peter; Rosen, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor system to better understand why certain molecular targets within a closely related family are much more tractable when identifying compelling chemical leads. Five medically important G protein-coupled receptors for S1P regulate heart rate, coronary artery caliber, endothelial barrier integrity, and lymphocyte trafficking. Selective S1P receptor agonist probes would be of great utility to study receptor subtype-specific function. Through systematic screening of the same libraries, we identified novel selective agonists chemotypes for each of the S1P1 and S1P3 receptors. uHTS for S1P1 was more effective than for S1P3, with many selective, low nanomolar hits of proven mechanism emerging for. Receptor structure modeling and ligand docking reveal differences between the receptor binding pockets, which are the basis for sub-type selectivity. Novel selective agonists interact primarily in the hydrophobic pocket of the receptor in the absence of head-group interactions. Chemistry-space and shape-based analysis of the screening libraries in combination with the binding models explain the observed differential hit rates and enhanced efficiency for lead discovery for S1P1 vs. S1P3 in this closely related receptor family. PMID:18590333

  2. Aberrant expression of the S1P regulating enzymes, SPHK1 and SGPL1, contributes to a migratory phenotype in OSCC mediated through S1PR2.

    PubMed

    Patmanathan, Sathya Narayanan; Johnson, Steven P; Lai, Sook Ling; Panja Bernam, Suthashini; Lopes, Victor; Wei, Wenbin; Ibrahim, Maha Hafez; Torta, Federico; Narayanaswamy, Pradeep; Wenk, Markus R; Herr, Deron R; Murray, Paul G; Yap, Lee Fah; Paterson, Ian C

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a lethal disease with a 5-year mortality rate of around 50%. Molecular targeted therapies are not in routine use and novel therapeutic targets are required. Our previous microarray data indicated sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) metabolism and signalling was deregulated in OSCC. In this study, we have investigated the contribution of S1P signalling to the pathogenesis of OSCC. We show that the expression of the two major enzymes that regulate S1P levels were altered in OSCC: SPHK1 was significantly upregulated in OSCC tissues compared to normal oral mucosa and low levels of SGPL1 mRNA correlated with a worse overall survival. In in vitro studies, S1P enhanced the migration/invasion of OSCC cells and attenuated cisplatin-induced death. We also demonstrate that S1P receptor expression is deregulated in primary OSCCs and that S1PR2 is over-expressed in a subset of tumours, which in part mediates S1P-induced migration of OSCC cells. Lastly, we demonstrate that FTY720 induced significantly more apoptosis in OSCC cells compared to non-malignant cells and that FTY720 acted synergistically with cisplatin to induce cell death. Taken together, our data show that S1P signalling promotes tumour aggressiveness in OSCC and identify S1P signalling as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27160553

  3. A bio-inspired real-time capable artificial lateral line system for freestream flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Abels, C; Qualtieri, A; De Vittorio, M; Megill, W M; Rizzi, F

    2016-06-01

    To enhance today's artificial flow sensing capabilities in aerial and underwater robotics, future robots could be equipped with a large number of miniaturized sensors distributed over the surface to provide high resolution measurement of the surrounding fluid flow. In this work we show a linear array of closely separated bio-inspired micro-electro-mechanical flow sensors whose sensing mechanism is based on a piezoresistive strain-gauge along a stress-driven cantilever beam, mimicking the biological superficial neuromasts found in the lateral line organ of fishes. Aiming to improve state-of-the-art flow sensing capability in autonomously flying and swimming robots, our artificial lateral line system was designed and developed to feature multi-parameter freestream flow measurements which provide information about (1) local flow velocities as measured by the signal amplitudes from the individual cantilevers as well as (2) propagation velocity, (3) linear forward/backward direction along the cantilever beam orientation and (4) periodicity of pulses or pulse trains determined by cross-correlating sensor signals. A real-time capable cross-correlation procedure was developed which makes it possible to extract freestream flow direction and velocity information from flow fluctuations. The computed flow velocities deviate from a commercial system by 0.09 m s(-1) at 0.5 m s(-1) and 0.15 m s(-1) at 1.0 m s(-1) flow velocity for a sampling rate of 240 Hz and a sensor distance of 38 mm. Although experiments were performed in air, the presented flow sensing system can be applied to underwater vehicles as well, once the sensors are embedded in a waterproof micro-electro-mechanical systems package. PMID:27257144

  4. Line-Profile Analysis of K{I} 7699 in the Sun and in Procyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Yoichi; Kato, Ken-Ichi; Watanabe, Yoshiya; Sadakane, Kozo

    1996-06-01

    The profiles of the resonance line of potassium (KI 7698.98) in the flux spectrum of the Sun and Procyon were studied in detail using the multi-parameter fitting method, in order to extract information regarding the fundamental atomic parameters responsible for the formation of this line as well as to diagnose the nature of the velocity fields in their atmospheres. It was concluded from an analysis of the solar KI 7699 profil e that neutral-hydrogen collisions are practically negligible compared to electron collisions in the rate equation of statistical equilibrium, and that an empirical correcti on to the Uns{o}ld's standard (van der Waals effect) damping constant is Delta log C6 =~ +1.0 with the most consistent microturbulent velocity of xi =~ 0.8 km s(-1) . Based upon these results, the atmospheric-velocity parameters of Procyon were determined to be xi =~ 1.4 km s(-1) , zeta_RT =~ 6.7 km s(-1) (the radial-tangential macroturbulence), and v_esin i =~ 3.3 km s(-1) (the projected rotational velocity). The potassium abundances of the Sun and Procyon derived from this resonance lin e, which are significantly affected by the non-LTE effect amounting to ~ 0.4 dex (Sun) and ~ 0.7 dex (Procyon), turned out to be nearly the same and log epsilon_K =~ 5.1. It also appears that the microturbulence tends to decrease with an increase in the atmospheric height of the Sun as well as of Procyon.

  5. Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in 1.0 M HCl by Amino Compound: Electrochemical and DFT Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, Ahmed Y.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Takriff, Mohd Sobri

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the inhibitory effect of 4-amino-5-methyl-4H-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-thiol (AMTT) on the corrosion of mild steel in 1.0 M HCl solution using weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and potentiodynamic polarization. The results indicate that AMTT performed as a good mixed-type inhibitor for mild steel corrosion in a 1.0 M HCl solution, and the inhibition efficiencies increased and tend to saturate with inhibitor concentration. Potentiodynamic polarization results showed that AMTT is a mixed-type inhibitor. Adsorption of AMTT molecules is a spontaneous process, and its adsorption behavior obeys Langmuir's adsorption isotherm model. The reactivity of AMTT was analyzed through theoretical calculations based on density functional theory. Results showed that the reactive sites were located on the nitrogen and sulfur (N1, N2, and S) atoms.

  6. Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in 1.0 M HCl by Amino Compound: Electrochemical and DFT Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, Ahmed Y.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Takriff, Mohd Sobri

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the inhibitory effect of 4-amino-5-methyl-4H-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-thiol (AMTT) on the corrosion of mild steel in 1.0 M HCl solution using weight loss, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and potentiodynamic polarization. The results indicate that AMTT performed as a good mixed-type inhibitor for mild steel corrosion in a 1.0 M HCl solution, and the inhibition efficiencies increased and tend to saturate with inhibitor concentration. Potentiodynamic polarization results showed that AMTT is a mixed-type inhibitor. Adsorption of AMTT molecules is a spontaneous process, and its adsorption behavior obeys Langmuir's adsorption isotherm model. The reactivity of AMTT was analyzed through theoretical calculations based on density functional theory. Results showed that the reactive sites were located on the nitrogen and sulfur (N1, N2, and S) atoms.

  7. Effect of Yttrium on the Fracture Strength of the Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyelim; Kaplan, Wayne D.; Choe, Heeman

    2016-04-01

    This is a preliminary investigation on the mechanical properties of Pb-free Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu solder joints containing 0.02 wt.% to 0.1 wt.% Y under a range of thermal aging and reflow conditions. Despite the significantly thicker intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the solder joint, the 0.1 wt.% Y-doped joint exhibited a higher fracture strength than its baseline Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu counterpart under most aging and reflow conditions. This may be associated with the formation of Y-Cu IMCs formed at the interface between the solder and the Cu substrate, because the Y-Cu IMCs have recently been referred to as relatively `ductile' IMCs.

  8. Effect of Yttrium on the Fracture Strength of the Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyelim; Kaplan, Wayne D.; Choe, Heeman

    2016-07-01

    This is a preliminary investigation on the mechanical properties of Pb-free Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu solder joints containing 0.02 wt.% to 0.1 wt.% Y under a range of thermal aging and reflow conditions. Despite the significantly thicker intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the solder joint, the 0.1 wt.% Y-doped joint exhibited a higher fracture strength than its baseline Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu counterpart under most aging and reflow conditions. This may be associated with the formation of Y-Cu IMCs formed at the interface between the solder and the Cu substrate, because the Y-Cu IMCs have recently been referred to as relatively `ductile' IMCs.

  9. Structural and electronic properties of an ordered grain boundary formed by separated (1,0) dislocations in graphene.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chuanxu; Sun, Haifeng; Du, Hongjian; Wang, Jufeng; Zhao, Aidi; Li, Qunxiang; Wang, Bing; Hou, J G

    2015-02-21

    We present an investigation of the structural and electronic properties of an ordered grain boundary (GB) formed by separated pentagon-heptagon pairs in single-layer graphene/SiO2 using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS), coupled with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is observed that the pentagon-heptagon pairs, i.e., (1,0) dislocations, form a periodic quasi-one-dimensional chain. The (1,0) dislocations are separated by 8 transverse rows of carbon rings, with a period of ∼2.1 nm. The protruded feature of each dislocation shown in the STM images reflects its out-of-plane buckling structure, which is supported by the DFT simulations. The STS spectra recorded along the small-angle GB show obvious differential-conductance peaks, the positions of which qualitatively accord with the van Hove singularities from the DFT calculations. PMID:25603956

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of influenza A viral neuraminidase candidate inhibitors based on a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane scaffold.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Cinzia; Pinto, B Mario; Bernardi, Anna; Bennet, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    This manuscript describes a novel class of derivatives based on a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane scaffold, proposed as mimics of sialic acid in a distorted boat conformation that is on the catalytic pathway of neuraminidases (sialidases). A general synthetic route for these constrained-ring molecules was developed using a photochemical reaction followed by a Johnson-Corey-Chaykovsky cyclopropanation. Functionalization with the goal of occupying the 150-cavity was also exploited. Inhibition assays demonstrated low micromolar inhibition against both group-1 (H5N1) and group-2 (H9N2) influenza neuraminidase subtypes, indicating good affinity for the alpha and beta sialic acid mimics and 150-cavity-targeted derivatives. These results provide a validation of a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane scaffold as a mimic of a distorted sialic acid bound in the neuraminidase active site during catalysis. PMID:27305457

  11. The implementation of NEMS GFS Aerosol Component (NGAC) Version 1.0 for global dust forecasting at NOAA/NCEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cheng-Hsuan; da Silva, Arlindo; Wang, Jun; Moorthi, Shrinivas; Chin, Mian; Colarco, Peter; Tang, Youhua; Bhattacharjee, Partha S.; Chen, Shen-Po; Chuang, Hui-Ya; Juang, Hann-Ming Henry; McQueen, Jeffery; Iredell, Mark

    2016-05-01

    The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) implemented the NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) Global Forecast System (GFS) Aerosol Component (NGAC) for global dust forecasting in collaboration with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). NGAC Version 1.0 has been providing 5-day dust forecasts at 1° × 1° resolution on a global scale, once per day at 00:00 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), since September 2012. This is the first global system capable of interactive atmosphere aerosol forecasting at NCEP. The implementation of NGAC V1.0 reflects an effective and efficient transitioning of NASA research advances to NCEP operations, paving the way for NCEP to provide global aerosol products serving a wide range of stakeholders, as well as to allow the effects of aerosols on weather forecasts and climate prediction to be considered.

  12. DCPT v1.0 - New particle tracker for modeling transport in dual-continuum - User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Lehua; Liu, Hui Hai; Cushey, Mark; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur

    2001-04-01

    DCPT (Dual-Continuum Particle Tracker) V1.0 is a new software for simulating solute transport in the subsurface. It is based on the random-walk method for modeling transport processes such as advection, dispersion/diffusion, linear sorption, radioactive decay, and fracture-matrix mass exchange (in fractured porous media). The user shall provide flow-field and other parameters in the form of input files. In Comparison to several analytical and numerical solutions for a number of test cases, DCPT shows excellent performance in both accuracy and efficiency. This report serves as a user's manual of DCPT V1.0. It includes theoretical basis, numerical methods, software structure, input/output description, and examples.

  13. Photodetectors of IR radiation on the basis of CdS1-xSex films deposited from solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdinov, Ahmed S.; Jafarov, Maarif A.; Mechtiyev, Nemat M.; Nasirov, Elshan F.; Mamedov, Huseyn M.

    2000-11-01

    In this work the results on the investigation of the photosensitivity near the IR region, of CdS1-xSex (0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.4) films 8 divided by 9 micrometers thick prepared on glass-ceramic substrates by precipitation from aqueous solutions are presented. The temperature dependence of dark and light conductivity, spectrum and optical quenching of primary and impurity photoconductivity are investigated. The obtained results show that when controlling ionic composition and heat-treatment (HT) conditions, one can purposely control the properties of CdS1-xSex (0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.4) films, achieve the appropriate degree of compensation of different recombination levels and traps attributed to intrinsic defects or impurities, which result in high level of photoelectrical parameters near the IR region. Just after deposition the photoconductivity spectrum maximum of CdS1-xSex (0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.4) films is observed at (lambda)1=0.495 divided by 0.545 micrometers versus the film composition. Subsequent to HT, the photoconductivity spectrum considerably widens and appears the impurity maximums at (lambda)2=0.58 divided by 0.69 micrometers and (lambda)3=0.95 divided by 1.05 micrometers. At (lambda)=0.88 divided by 1.56 micrometers wavelength region, the primary photocurrent optical quenching (POQ) of the films takes place. The POQ spectrum in photosensitive CdS1-xSex films consists band with the maximum at (lambda)max-1.28 divided by 1.38 micrometers, versus the film composition and HT conditions. At optimum conditions, the degree of quenching attains to 12%. The quenching of the primary photoconductivity by infrared light, leads to the occupation of the r-centers by holes.

  14. National Assessment of Educational Progress: 1985-86 Public-Use Data Tapes, Version 1.0. Users' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eugene G.; And Others

    This document is the users' guide for Version 1.0 of the Public-Use data tapes compiled by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 1985-86. The Public-Use tapes are produced to allow outside researchers access to the NAEP data. The tapes accompanying this guide, one for grade 3/age 9, one for grade 7/age 13, and one for grade…

  15. Unstabilized azomethine ylides for the stereoselective synthesis of substituted piperidines, tropanes and azabicyclo[3.1.0] systems

    PubMed Central

    Ischay, Michael A.; Takase, Michael K.; Bergman, Robert G.; Ellman, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Acid treatment of densely substituted 2-silyl-1,2-dihydropyridines provides a new and convenient entry to reactive azomethine ylides that can (1) be protonated and reduced with high stereoselectivity to give piperidines, (2) participate in [3+2] dipolar cycloaddition to give tropanes, and (3) undergo a Nazarov-like 6-π electrocyclization that upon reduction give 2-azabicyclo[3.1.0] systems. PMID:23398467

  16. AN XMM-NEWTON STUDY OF THE BRIGHT, NEARBY SUPERNOVA REMNANT G296.1-0.5

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, D.; Slane, P. O.; Patnaude, D. J.; Gaensler, B. M.; Hughes, J. P.

    2011-06-20

    We present a detailed study of the supernova remnant (SNR) G296.1-0.5, performed using observations with the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) and Reflection Grating Spectrometer instruments of the XMM-Newton satellite. G296.1-0.5 is a bright remnant that displays an incomplete multiple-shell morphology in both its radio and X-ray images. We use a set of observations toward G296.1-0.5, from three distinct pointings of EPIC, in order to perform a thorough spatial and spectral analysis of this remnant, and hence determine what type of progenitor gave rise to the supernova explosion, and describe the evolutionary state of the SNR. Our XMM-Newton observations establish that the spectral characteristics are consistent across the X-ray bright regions of the object and are best described by a model of the emission from a nonequilibrium ionization collisional plasma. The study reveals that the emission from the shell is characterized by an excess of N and an underabundance of O, which is typical of wind material from red supergiant and Wolf-Rayet stars. Additionally, we have detected transient X-ray source 2XMMi J115004.8-622442 at the edge of the SNR whose properties suggest that it is the result of stellar flare, and we discuss its nature in more detail.

  17. Thermal behaviour of ultra-thin Co overlayers on rutile TiO 2(1 0 0) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, J. W.; Pan, J. S.; Wang, S. J.; Huan, C. H. A.; Lau, G. S.; Zheng, Y. B.; Xu, S.

    2005-09-01

    Thermal behaviour of ultra-thin Co overlayers on rutile TiO 2(1 0 0) surface has been studied by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Metal Co overlayers of about 30 Å have been deposited at room temperature on rutile TiO 2(1 0 0) surfaces, followed by annealing to different temperatures. It was found that the interfacial reaction between the Co overlayers and TiO 2(1 0 0) surfaces occurred upon annealing to temperatures above 400 °C. Above these temperatures, all metallic Co atoms were oxidized into the Co 2+ state, while some Ti 4+ were reduced to Ti 3+ with increasing temperature. Ex situ surface morphology studies by atomic force microscopy (AFM) suggest that thermal annealing resulted in the agglomeration of the metal film deposited at room temperature and the formation of islands. Annealing to higher temperature led to the dissociation of the small Co islands due to Co oxidation while the larger islands remained and grew continuously. Two types of island nanostructures were observed by ex situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM).

  18. Si-Ge-Sn alloys with 1.0 eV gap for CPV multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Roucka, Radek Clark, Andrew; Landini, Barbara

    2015-09-28

    Si-Ge-Sn ternary group IV alloys offer an alternative to currently used 1.0 eV gap materials utilized in multijunction solar cells. The advantage of Si-Ge-Sn is the ability to vary both the bandgap and lattice parameter independently. We present current development in fabrication of Si-Ge-Sn alloys with gaps in the 1.0 eV range. Produced material exhibits excellent structural properties, which allow for integration with existing III-V photovoltaic cell concepts. Time dependent room temperature photoluminescence data demonstrate that these materials have long carrier lifetimes. Absorption tunable by compositional changes is observed. As a prototype device set utilizing the 1 eV Si-Ge-Sn junction, single junction Si-Ge-Sn device and triple junction device with Si-Ge-Sn subcell have been fabricated. The resulting I-V and external quantum efficiency data show that the Si-Ge-Sn junction is fully functional and the performance is comparable to other 1.0 eV gap materials currently used.

  19. Reconstructions of MOVPE-prepared group-V-rich GaAsSb(1 0 0) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollonitsch, Z.; Möller, K.; Willig, F.; Hannappel, T.

    2004-12-01

    GaAsSb was grown lattice matched on InP(1 0 0) by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The surfaces of the samples were observed in the MOVPE reactor with reflectance anisotropy (RA) spectroscopy during and after growth. RA spectra taken during growth were similar to RA spectra of surfaces stabilized with TESb. However, the RA spectrum changed significantly and led to an As-rich surface with a higher degree of atomic order while supplying only TBAs. As- and Sb-rich GaAsSb surfaces were transferred into ultrahigh vacuum without any contamination and subsequently characterized with low-energy electron diffraction. There was great similarity of the different group-V-rich surface reconstructions of GaAsSb to the reconstructions known from their related binary compounds: As-rich GaAs 0.51Sb 0.49 showed a clear c(4×4) reconstruction well known from GaAs(1 0 0), whereas Sb-rich GaAs 0.51Sb 0.49 showed a (1×3) reconstruction, which was observed on GaSb(1 0 0) surfaces.

  20. Carbon-doped high-mobility hole gases on (0 0 1) and (1 1 0) GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerl, C.; Schmult, S.; Wurstbauer, U.; Tranitz, H.-P.; Mitzkus, C.; Wegscheider, W.

    2006-05-01

    Since Stormer and Tsang have introduced the first two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) in the GaAs/AlGaAs heterosystem, the choice of suitable dopants was limited to beryllium and silicon over the last 20 years. Both acceptor atoms have significant disadvantages, i.e. either high-diffusion rates or a limitation to specific growth directions. Utilizing a carbon filament-doping source, we prepared high-quality 2DHGs in the (0 0 1) and the nonpolar (1 1 0) crystal plane with carrier mobilies beyond 10 6 cm 2/Vs in quantum well and single interface structures. Low-temperature magnetoresistance measurements recover a large number of fractional QHE states and show a pronounced beating pattern from which the Rashba induced spin-splitting has been determined. In addition, 2DHGs have been grown on cleaved edges of (1 1 0) and (0 0 1) wafers with transport features in qualitative agreement to our findings on (1 1 0) substrates.

  1. Insights into the effect of coverage on CO adsorption and dissociation over Rh(1 0 0) surface: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Riguang; Ling, Lixia; Wang, Baojun

    2014-11-01

    The adsorption, dissociation and desorption of CO at different coverage over Rh(1 0 0) surface have been systematically investigated using density functional theory method together with the periodic slab model. Our results show that at the coverage less than or equal to 4/12 ML, CO favored the most stable bridge site adsorption, and the adsorption energies of CO have little difference; while at the coverage greater than or equal to 5/12 ML, the lateral repulsive interaction begins to affect the adsorption structures and the corresponding adsorption energies of adsorbed CO molecules, and the interaction will be stronger with the increasing of CO coverage, which leads to CO migration over Rh(1 0 0) surface when CO coverage is greater than or equal to 10/12 ML. The adsorption energies of these CO molecules will decrease successively until the saturated adsorption with the CO coverage of 12/12 ML. Further calculations on CO dissociation indicate that when CO coverage is greater than or equal to 3/12 ML, the dissociation of adsorbed CO molecules will be unfavorable both kinetically and thermodynamically, suggesting that only molecule CO adsorption are favored. Considering the catalytic activity of Rh(1 0 0) surface toward CO dissociation and the higher CO coverage under the continuous supply of CO in syngas conversion, it is to be expected that only molecule CO adsorption exist on Rh catalyst.

  2. Synthesis of conformationally locked L-deoxythreosyl phosphonate nucleosides built on a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane template.

    PubMed

    Saneyoshi, Hisao; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Marquez, Victor E

    2010-11-19

    Two conformationally locked versions of l-deoxythreosyl phosphonate nucleosides (2 and 3) were synthesized to investigate the preference of HIV reverse transcriptase for a conformation displaying either a fully diaxial or fully diequatorial disposition of substituents. Synthesis of the enantiomeric 4-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)bicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-2-ol carbocyclic nucleoside precursors (diaxially disposed) proceeded straightforwardly from commercially available (1R,4S)-4-hydroxy-2-cyclopent-2-enyl-1-yl acetate employing a hydroxyl-directed Simmons-Smith cyclopropanation that culminated with a Mitsunobu coupling of the purine base. For the more complicated 1-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)bicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-3-ol carbocyclic nucleoside precursors (diequatorially disposed), the obligatory linear approach required the syntheses of key 1-aminobicyclo[3.1.0.]hexan-3-yl benzoate precursors that were assembled via the amide variant of the Kulinkovich reaction involving the intramolecular cyclopropanation of a substituted δ-vinylamide. Completion of the purine ring was achieved by conventional approaches but with much improved yields through the use of a microwave reactor. The syntheses of the phosphonates and the corresponding diphosphates were achieved by conventional means. None of the diphosphates, which were supposed to act as nucleoside triphosphate mimics, could compete with dATP even when present in a 10-fold excess. PMID:20964394

  3. FTIR analysis and evaluation of carcinogenic and mutagenic risks of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM1.0.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ismael Luís; Teixeira, Elba Calesso; Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana Milena; Silva e Silva, Gabriel; Balzaretti, Naira; Braga, Marcel Ferreira; Oliveira, Luís Felipe Silva

    2016-01-15

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) represent a group of organic compounds of significant interest due to their presence in airborne particulates of urban centers, wide distribution in the environment, and mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. These compounds, associated with atmospheric particles of size < 1 μm, have been reported as a major risk to human health. This study aims at identifying the spectral features of NPAHs (1-nitropyrene, 2-nitrofluorene, and 6-nitrochrysene) in emissivity and transmittance spectra of samples of particulate matter < 1 μm (PM1.0) using infrared spectrometry. Carcinogenic and mutagenic risks of the studied NPAHs associated with PM1.0 samples were also determined for two sampling sites: Canoas and Sapucaia do Sul. The results showed that NPAH standard spectra can effectively identify NPAHs in PM1.0 samples. The transmittance and emissivity sample spectra showed broader bands and lower relative intensity than the standard NPAH spectra. The carcinogenic risk and the total mutagenic risk were calculated using the toxic equivalent factors and mutagenic potency factors, respectively. Canoas showed the highest total carcinogenic risk, while Sapucaia do Sul had the highest mutagenic risk. The seasonal analysis suggested that in the study area the ambient air is more toxic during the cold periods. These findings might of significant importance for the decision and policy making authorities. PMID:26473715

  4. Bottom-up fabrication of graphene nanostructures on Ru\\left(10\\bar{1}0\\right)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Junjie; Zhang, Han-jie; Cai, Yiliang; Zhang, Yuxi; Bao, Shining; He, Pimo

    2016-02-01

    Investigations on the bottom-up fabrication of graphene nanostructures with 10, 10’-dibromo-9, 9’-bianthryl (DBBA) as a precursor on Ru≤ft(10\\bar{1}0\\right) were carried out using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Upon annealing the sample at submonolayer DBBA coverage, N = 7 graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) aligned along the ≤ft[1\\bar{2}10\\right] direction form. Higher DBBA coverage and higher annealing temperature lead to the merging of GNRs into ribbon-like graphene nanoflakes with multiple orientations. These nanoflakes show different Moiré patterns, and their structures were determined by DFT simulations. The results showed that GNRs possess growth preference on the Ru≤ft(10\\bar{1}0\\right) substrate with a rectangular unit cell, and GNRs with armchair and zigzag boundaries are obtainable. Further DFT calculations suggest that the interaction between graphene and the substrate controls the orientations of the graphene overlayer and the growth of graphene on Ru≤ft(10\\bar{1}0\\right).

  5. Influence of the tensile strain on CH4 dissociation on Cu(1 0 0) surface: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Feng; Li, Kai; Xie, Guangyou; Wang, Ying; Jiao, Menggai; Tang, Hao; Wu, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Tensile strain is widespread on the catalyst surface due to the lattice mismatch between the catalyst and substrate, such as Cu/MgO in this work. Thus, it is important to investigate the influence of tensile strain on the catalytic properties. In this study, we have investigated the CH4 dissociation on Cu(1 0 0) surface by considering the tensile strain. Our results showed that compared with the unstrained Cu(1 0 0) surface, the most stable sites for dissociation species CHx (x = 0-3) and H adsorption on strained surface remain unchanged. The surface strain strengthens CHx (x = 0-3) adsorption, while weakens H adsorption. The elementary reaction for CH4 dissociation with the largest electronic energy barrier changes from CH → C + H on the unstrained surface to CH4 → CH3 + H on the strained surface (for strain equal to and larger than 3%), in agreement with the experimental observation that CH4 dissociation into CH3 and H is the most difficult reaction. The tensile strain accelerates C migration while has no obvious influence for C polymerization. Both DFT calculations and microkinetic model demonstrated that the strain hinders the CH4 dissociation process on Cu(1 0 0) surface. CH4 dissociation rate depends sensitively on the magnitude of the surface tensile strain.

  6. Adsorption and dehydrogenation mechanism of methane on clean and oxygen-covered Pd (1 0 0) surfaces: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhao; Wang, Bin; Fang, Tao

    2014-11-01

    Using density functional theory (DFT) together with periodic slab models, the adsorption and dehydrogenation mechanisms of methane on clean and oxygen-covered Pd (1 0 0) surfaces have been studied systematically. Different adsorption geometries were investigated for CH4 and related intermediates (CH3, CH2, CH, C, H, O and OH). It was found that CH4 and CH3 prefer to adsorb on the top site, CH2 and OH are favorable on the bridge site, while CH, C, O and H species adsorb preferentially on the hollow site. In addition, this work identified the stable co-adsorption configurations for the relevant co-adsorption groups. It was concluded that the effect of co-adsorbed oxygen atom tends to weaken the adsorbate-substrate interaction on the Pd (1 0 0) surface. Finally, transition states, energy barriers and reaction energies were determined to confirm the mechanism of dehydrogenation of CH4 on clean and oxygen-covered Pd (1 0 0) surfaces. The existence of oxygen atom increases the energy barriers obviously and inhibits the dissociation of CHx (x = 1, 2 and 4) except for CH3 group.

  7. Magnetic field directional discontinuities. 2: Characteristics between 0.46 and 1.0 AU. [interplanetary magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Benhannon, K. W.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of directional discontinuities (DD's) in the interplanetary magnetic field are studied using data from the Mariner 10 primary mission between 1.0 and 0.46 AU. Statistical and visual survey methods for DD identification resulted in a total of 644 events. Two methods were used to estimate the ratio of the number of tangential discontinuities (TD's) to the number of rotational discontinuities (RD's). Both methods show that the ratio of TD's to RD's varied with time and decreased with decreasing radial distance. A decrease in average discontinuity thickness of approx. 40 percent was found between 1.0 and 0.72 AU and approx. 54 percent between 1.0 and 0.46 AU, independent of type (TD or RD). This decrease in thickness for decreasing r is in qualitative agreement with Pioneer 10 observations between 1 and 5 AU. When the individual DD thickness are normalized with respect to the estimated local proton gyroradius (RA sub L), the average thickness at the three locations is nearly constant, 43 + or - 6 R sub L. This also holds true for both RD's and TD's separately. Statistical distributions of other properties, such as normal components and discontinuity plane angles, are presented.

  8. Genetic characterization of three qnrS1-harbouring multidrug-resistance plasmids and qnrS1-containing transposons circulating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Le, Vien; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Cerdeno-Tarraga, Ana; Campbell, James I.; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Schultsz, Constance; Thwaites, Guy; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) refers to a family of closely related genes that confer decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. PMQR genes are generally associated with integrons and/or plasmids that carry additional antimicrobial resistance genes active against a range of antimicrobials. In Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, we have previously shown a high frequency of PMQR genes within commensal Enterobacteriaceae. However, there are limited available sequence data detailing the genetic context in which the PMQR genes reside, and a lack of understanding of how these genes spread across the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic background facilitating the spread and maintenance of qnrS1, the dominant PMQR gene circulating in HCMC. We sequenced three qnrS1-carrying plasmids in their entirety to understand the genetic context of these qnrS1-embedded plasmids and also the association of qnrS1-mediated quinolone resistance with other antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Annotation of the three qnrS1-containing plasmids revealed a qnrS1-containing transposon with a closely related structure. We screened 112 qnrS1-positive commensal Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the community and in a hospital in HCMC to detect the common transposon structure. We found the same transposon structure to be present in 71.4 % (45/63) of qnrS1-positive hospital isolates and in 36.7 % (18/49) of qnrS1-positive isolates from the community. The resulting sequence analysis of the qnrS1 environment suggested that qnrS1 genes are widely distributed and are mobilized on elements with a common genetic background. Our data add additional insight into mechanisms that facilitate resistance to multiple antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam. PMID:26272054

  9. Assessment of radionuclide databases in CAP88 mainframe version 1.0 and Windows-based version 3.0.

    PubMed

    LaBone, Elizabeth D; Farfán, Eduardo B; Lee, Patricia L; Jannik, G Timothy; Donnelly, Elizabeth H; Foley, Trevor Q

    2009-09-01

    In this study the radionuclide databases for two versions of the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 (CAP88) computer model were assessed in detail. CAP88 estimates radiation dose and the risk of health effects to human populations from radionuclide emissions to air. This program is used by several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants regulations. CAP88 Mainframe, referred to as version 1.0 on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Web site (http://www.epa.gov/radiation/assessment/CAP88/), was the very first CAP88 version released in 1988. Some DOE facilities including the Savannah River Site still employ this version (1.0) while others use the more user-friendly personal computer Windows-based version 3.0 released in December 2007. Version 1.0 uses the program RADRISK based on International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 30 as its radionuclide database. Version 3.0 uses half-life, dose, and risk factor values based on Federal Guidance Report 13. Differences in these values could cause different results for the same input exposure data (same scenario), depending on which version of CAP88 is used. Consequently, the differences between the two versions are being assessed in detail at Savannah River National Laboratory. The version 1.0 and 3.0 database files contain 496 and 838 radionuclides, respectively, and though one would expect the newer version to include all the 496 radionuclides, 35 radionuclides are listed in version 1.0 that are not included in version 3.0. The majority of these has either extremely short or long half-lives or is no longer in production; however, some of the short-lived radionuclides might produce progeny of great interest at DOE sites. In addition, 122 radionuclides were found to have different half-lives in the two versions, with 21 over 3 percent different and 12 over 10 percent different. PMID:19667807

  10. MEGAHIT v1.0: A fast and scalable metagenome assembler driven by advanced methodologies and community practices.

    PubMed

    Li, Dinghua; Luo, Ruibang; Liu, Chi-Man; Leung, Chi-Ming; Ting, Hing-Fung; Sadakane, Kunihiko; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Lam, Tak-Wah

    2016-06-01

    The study of metagenomics has been much benefited from low-cost and high-throughput sequencing technologies, yet the tremendous amount of data generated make analysis like de novo assembly to consume too much computational resources. In late 2014 we released MEGAHIT v0.1 (together with a brief note of Li et al. (2015) [1]), which is the first NGS metagenome assembler that can assemble genome sequences from metagenomic datasets of hundreds of Giga base-pairs (bp) in a time- and memory-efficient manner on a single server. The core of MEGAHIT is an efficient parallel algorithm for constructing succinct de Bruijn Graphs (SdBG), implemented on a graphical processing unit (GPU). The software has been well received by the assembly community, and there is interest in how to adapt the algorithms to integrate popular assembly practices so as to improve the assembly quality, as well as how to speed up the software using better CPU-based algorithms (instead of GPU). In this paper we first describe the details of the core algorithms in MEGAHIT v0.1, and then we show the new modules to upgrade MEGAHIT to version v1.0, which gives better assembly quality, runs faster and uses less memory. For the Iowa Prairie Soil dataset (252Gbp after quality trimming), the assembly quality of MEGAHIT v1.0, when compared with v0.1, has a significant improvement, namely, 36% increase in assembly size and 23% in N50. More interestingly, MEGAHIT v1.0 is no slower than before (even running with the extra modules). This is primarily due to a new CPU-based algorithm for SdBG construction that is faster and requires less memory. Using CPU only, MEGAHIT v1.0 can assemble the Iowa Prairie Soil sample in about 43h, reducing the running time of v0.1 by at least 25% and memory usage by up to 50%. MEGAHIT v1.0, exhibiting a smaller memory footprint, can process even larger datasets. The Kansas Prairie Soil sample (484Gbp), the largest publicly available dataset, can now be assembled using no more than 500GB

  11. ASSESSMENT OF RADIONUCLIDES DATABASES IN CAP88 MAINFRAME VERSION 1.0 AND WINDOWS-BASED VERSION 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Lee, P.; Jannik, T.; Donnelly, E.

    2008-09-16

    In this study the radionuclide databases for two versions of the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 (CAP88) computer model were assessed in detail. CAP88 estimates radiation dose and the risk of health effects to human populations from radionuclide emissions to air. This program is used by several Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations. CAP88 Mainframe, referred to as Version 1.0 on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website (http://www.epa.gov/radiation/assessment/CAP88/), was the very first CAP88 version released in 1988. Some DOE facilities including the Savannah River Site still employ this version (1.0) while others use the more user-friendly personal computer Windows-based Version 3.0 released in December 2007. Version 1.0 uses the program RADRISK based on International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30 as its radionuclide database. Version 3.0 uses half-life, dose and risk factor values based on Federal Guidance Report 13. Differences in these values could cause different results for the same input exposure data (same scenario), depending on which version of CAP88 is used. Consequently, the differences between the two versions are being assessed in detail at Savannah River National Laboratory. The version 1.0 and 3.0 database files contain 496 and 838 radionuclides, respectively, and though one would expect the newer version to include all the 496 radionuclides, thirty-five radionuclides are listed in version 1.0 that are not included in version 3.0. The majority of these has either extremely short or long half-lives or is no longer in production; however, some of the short-lived radionuclides might produce progeny of great interest at DOE sites. In addition, one hundred and twenty-two radionuclides were found to have different half-lives in the two versions, with 21 over 3 percent different and 12 over 10 percent different.

  12. CYP2S1 depletion enhances colorectal cell proliferation is associated with PGE2-mediated activation of β-catenin signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chao; Li, Changyuan; Li, Minle; Tong, Xuemei; Hu, Xiaowen; Yang, Xuhan; Yan, Xiaomei; He, Lin; Wan, Chunling

    2015-02-15

    Colorectal epithelial cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and its 5-year survival rate is still relatively low. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in epithelial cells lining the alimentary tract play an important role in the oxidative metabolism of a wide range of xenobiotics, including (pro-)carcinogens and endogenous compounds. Although CYP2S1, a member of CYP family, strongly expressed in many extrahepatic tissues, the role of CYP2S1 in cancer remains unclear. To investigate whether CYP2S1 involves in colorectal carcinogenesis, cell proliferation was analyzed in HCT116 cells depleted of CYP2S1 using small hairpin interfering RNA. Our data show that CYP2S1 knockdown promotes cell proliferation through increasing the level of endogenous prostaglandin E2(PGE2). PGE2, in turn, reduces phosphorylation of β-catenin and activates β-catenin signaling, which contributes to the cell proliferation. Furthermore, CYP2S1 knockdown increase tumor growth in xenograft mouse model. In brief, these results demonstrate that CYP2S1 regulates colorectal cancer growth through associated with PGE2-mediated activation of β-catenin signaling. - Highlights: • Knockdown of CYP2S1 expression improve HCT116 cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. • Elevate PGE2 production in CYP2S1 knockdown cell is associated with its proliferation. • Elevate PGE2 level in CYP2S1 knockdown cells enhance β-catenin accumulation. • β-catenin activate TCF/LEF and target gene expression thus promote cell proliferation.

  13. High expression of sphingosine kinase 1 and S1P receptors in chemotherapy-resistant prostate cancer PC3 cells and their camptothecin-induced up-regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Akao, Yukihiro . E-mail: yakao@giib.or.jp; Banno, Yoshiko; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Hasegawa, Nobuko; Kim, Tack-Joong; Murate, Takashi; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Nozawa, Yoshinori

    2006-04-21

    Although most of pharmacological therapies for cancer utilize the apoptotic machinery of the cells, the available anti-cancer drugs are limited due to the ability of prostate cancer cells to escape from the anti-cancer drug-induced apoptosis. A human prostate cancer cell line PC3 is resistant to camptothecin (CPT). To elucidate the mechanism of this resistance, we have examined the involvement of sphingosine kinase (SPHK) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor in CPT-resistant PC3 and -sensitive LNCaP cells. PC3 cells exhibited higher activity accompanied with higher expression levels of protein and mRNA of SPHK1, and also elevated expression of S1P receptors, S1P{sub 1} and S1P{sub 3}, as compared with those of LNCaP cells. The knockdown of SPHK1 by small interfering RNA and inhibition of S1P receptor signaling by pertussis toxin in PC3 cells induced significant inhibition of cell growth, suggesting implication of SPHK1 and S1P receptors in cell proliferation in PC3 cells. Furthermore, the treatment of PC3 cells with CPT was found to induce up-regulation of the SPHK1/S1P signaling by induction of both SPHK1 enzyme and S1P{sub 1}/S1P{sub 3} receptors. These findings strongly suggest that high expression and up-regulation of SPHK1 and S1P receptors protect PC3 cells from the apoptosis induced by CPT.

  14. Effect of CSN1S1-CSN3 (α(S1)-κ-casein) composite genotype on milk production traits and milk coagulation properties in Mediterranean water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Giantin, M; Gervaso, M; Coletta, A; Dacasto, M; Carnier, P

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate effects of CSN1S1-CSN3 (α(S1)-κ-casein) composite genotypes on milk production traits and milk coagulation properties (MCP) in Mediterranean water buffalo. Genotypes at CSN1S1 and CSN3 and coagulation properties [rennet clotting time (RCT), curd firming time (K₂₀), and curd firmness (A₃₀)] were assessed by reversed-phase HPLC and computerized renneting meter analysis, respectively, using single test-day milk samples of 536 animals. Alternative protein variants of α(S1)-CN and κ-CN were detected by HPLC, and identification of the corresponding genetic variants was carried out by DNA analysis. Two genetic variants were detected at CSN1S1 (A and B variants) and 2 at CSN3 (X1 and X2 variants). Statistical inference was based on a linear model including the CSN1S1-CSN3 composite genotype effect (7 genotypes), the effects of herd-test-day (8 levels), and a combined days in milk (DIM)-parity class. Composite genotype AB-X2X2 was associated with decreased test-day milk yield [-0.21 standard deviation (SD) units of the trait] relative to genotype BB-X2X2. Genotypes did not affect milk protein content, but genotype AB-X1X1 was associated with increased fat content compared with genotype BB-X2X2 (+0.28 SD units of the trait) and AB-X1X1 (+0.43 SD units of the trait). For RCT, the largest difference (+1.91 min; i.e., 0.61 SD units of the trait) was observed between genotype AA-X1X2 and AB-X1X1. Direction of genotype effects on K(20) was consistent with that for RCT. The maximum variation in K₂₀ due to genotype effects (between AA-X1X2 and AB-X1X1 genotypes) was almost 0.9 SD units of the trait. Magnitude of genotype effects was smaller for A₃₀ than for RCT and K₂₀, with a maximum difference of 0.5 SD units of the trait between genotype AA-X1X2 and AA-X1X1. The B allele at CSN1S1 was associated with increased RCT and K₂₀ and with weaker curds compared with allele A. Allele X2 at CSN3 exerted opposite effects on

  15. The S1P/S1PR2 axis regulates early airway T cell infiltration in murine mast cell-dependent acute allergic responses

    PubMed Central

    Oskeritzian, Carole A.; Hait, Nitai C.; Wedman, Piper; Chumanevich, Alena; Kolawole, Elizabeth M.; Price, Megan M.; Falanga, Yves T.; Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B.; Ryan, John J.; Milstien, Sheldon; Sabbadini, Roger; Spiegel, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid produced by mast cells (MC) upon cross-linking of their high affinity receptors for IgE by antigen (Ag) that can amplify MC responses by binding to its S1P receptors. Acute MC-dependent allergic reaction can lead to systemic shock but the early events of its development in lung tissues have not been investigated, and S1P functions in the onset of allergic processes remain to be examined. Objective We used a highly specific neutralizing anti-S1P antibody (mAb) and an S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2) antagonist, JTE-013, to study S1P and S1PR2 signaling contributions to MC- and IgE-dependent airway allergic responses in mice within minutes after Ag challenge. Methods Allergic reaction was triggered by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of Ag in sensitized mice pre-treated i.p. with anti-S1P or isotype control mAb, or JTE-013 or vehicle prior to Ag challenge. Results Kinetics experiments revealed early pulmonary infiltration of mostly T cells around blood vessels of sensitized mice 20 minutes post-Ag exposure. Pre-treatment with anti-S1P mAb inhibited in vitro MC activation, as well as in vivo development of airway infiltration and MC activation, reducing serum levels of histamine, cytokines and the chemokines MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3 and RANTES/CCL5. S1PR2 antagonism or deficiency, or MC deficiency recapitulated these results. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated MC S1PR2 dependency for chemokine release and the necessity for signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) activation. Conclusion Activation of S1PR2 by S1P and downstream Stat3 signaling in MC regulate early T cell recruitment to antigen-challenged lungs by chemokine production. PMID:25512083

  16. Potential Link between the Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P) System and Defective Alveolar Macrophage Phagocytic Function in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    Barnawi, Jameel; Tran, Hai; Jersmann, Hubertus; Pitson, Stuart; Roscioli, Eugene; Hodge, Greg; Meech, Robyn; Haberberger, Rainer; Hodge, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We previously reported that alveolar macrophages from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are defective in their ability to phagocytose apoptotic cells, with a similar defect in response to cigarette smoke. The exact mechanisms for this defect are unknown. Sphingolipids including ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are involved in diverse cellular processes and we hypothesised that a comprehensive analysis of this system in alveolar macrophages in COPD may help to delineate the reasons for defective phagocytic function. Methods We compared mRNA expression of sphingosine kinases (SPHK1/2), S1P receptors (S1PR1-5) and S1P-degrading enzymes (SGPP1, SGPP2, SGPL1) in bronchoalveolar lavage-derived alveolar macrophages from 10 healthy controls, 7 healthy smokers and 20 COPD patients (10 current- and 10 ex-smokers) using Real-Time PCR. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells was investigated using flow cytometry. Functional associations were assessed between sphingosine signalling system components and alveolar macrophage phagocytic ability in COPD. To elucidate functional effects of increased S1PR5 on macrophage phagocytic ability, we performed the phagocytosis assay in the presence of varying concentrations of suramin, an antagonist of S1PR3 and S1PR5. The effects of cigarette smoking on the S1P system were investigated using a THP-1 macrophage cell line model. Results We found significant increases in SPHK1/2 (3.4- and 2.1-fold increases respectively), S1PR2 and 5 (4.3- and 14.6-fold increases respectively), and SGPL1 (4.5-fold increase) in COPD vs. controls. S1PR5 and SGPL1 expression was unaffected by smoking status, suggesting a COPD “disease effect” rather than smoke effect per se. Significant associations were noted between S1PR5 and both lung function and phagocytosis. Cigarette smoke extract significantly increased mRNA expression of SPHK1, SPHK2, S1PR2 and S1PR5 by THP-1 macrophages, confirming the results in

  17. Variability of Phenology and Fluxes of Water and Carbon with Observed and Simulated Soil Moisture in the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (Ent TBM Version 1.0.1.0.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Y.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Aleinov, Igor; Puma, M. J.; Kiang, N. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (Ent TBM) is a mixed-canopy dynamic global vegetation model developed specifically for coupling with land surface hydrology and general circulation models (GCMs). This study describes the leaf phenology submodel implemented in the Ent TBM version 1.0.1.0.0 coupled to the carbon allocation scheme of the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model. The phenology submodel adopts a combination of responses to temperature (growing degree days and frost hardening), soil moisture (linearity of stress with relative saturation) and radiation (light length). Growth of leaves, sapwood, fine roots, stem wood and coarse roots is updated on a daily basis. We evaluate the performance in reproducing observed leaf seasonal growth as well as water and carbon fluxes for four plant functional types at five Fluxnet sites, with both observed and prognostic hydrology, and observed and prognostic seasonal leaf area index. The phenology submodel is able to capture the timing and magnitude of leaf-out and senescence for temperate broadleaf deciduous forest (Harvard Forest and Morgan- Monroe State Forest, US), C3 annual grassland (Vaira Ranch, US) and California oak savanna (Tonzi Ranch, US). For evergreen needleleaf forest (Hyytiäla, Finland), the phenology submodel captures the effect of frost hardening of photosynthetic capacity on seasonal fluxes and leaf area. We address the importance of customizing parameter sets of vegetation soil moisture stress response to the particular land surface hydrology scheme. We identify model deficiencies that reveal important dynamics and parameter needs.

  18. Variability of phenology and fluxes of water and carbon with observed and simulated soil moisture in the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (Ent TBM version 1.0.1.0.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Aleinov, I.; Puma, M. J.; Kiang, N. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (Ent TBM) is a mixed-canopy dynamic global vegetation model developed specifically for coupling with land surface hydrology and general circulation models (GCMs). This study describes the leaf phenology submodel implemented in the Ent TBM version 1.0.1.0.0 coupled to the carbon allocation scheme of the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model. The phenology submodel adopts a combination of responses to temperature (growing degree days and frost hardening), soil moisture (linearity of stress with relative saturation) and radiation (light length). Growth of leaves, sapwood, fine roots, stem wood and coarse roots is updated on a daily basis. We evaluate the performance in reproducing observed leaf seasonal growth as well as water and carbon fluxes for four plant functional types at five Fluxnet sites, with both observed and prognostic hydrology, and observed and prognostic seasonal leaf area index. The phenology submodel is able to capture the timing and magnitude of leaf-out and senescence for temperate broadleaf deciduous forest (Harvard Forest and Morgan-Monroe State Forest, US), C3 annual grassland (Vaira Ranch, US) and California oak savanna (Tonzi Ranch, US). For evergreen needleleaf forest (Hyytiäla, Finland), the phenology submodel captures the effect of frost hardening of photosynthetic capacity on seasonal fluxes and leaf area. We address the importance of customizing parameter sets of vegetation soil moisture stress response to the particular land surface hydrology scheme. We identify model deficiencies that reveal important dynamics and parameter needs.

  19. Creep rupture behavior due to molybdenum rich M{sub 6}C carbide in 1.0Cr-1.0Mo-0.25V bainitic steel weldment

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Y.K.; Kim, G.S.; Indacochea, J.E.

    1999-06-04

    Some reports show that Cr-Mo-V steel structures fabricated by welding has a high percent of failures in the microstructurally altered and inhomogeneous heat affected zone (HAZ). The failure usually takes place either at the coarse grain HAZ (CGHAZ) or intercritical HAZ (ICHAZ). Failure at creep condition is related to either cracking at grain boundary triple junctions or the formation of cavities (or voids) on grain boundaries that are approximately normal to the applied stress. Cavities are normally formed by grain boundary sliding causing stress concentrations at precipitates in the grain boundaries. Cavities will then develop at the precipitates whenever plastic flow or diffusion is not fast enough to prevent it. The precipitates that provide cavity nucleation sites are mostly sulfides and carbides. The carbides that provide cavity sites are usually M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and M{sub 6}C. Although considerable researchers have been carried out in the carbides that provide cavitation, the mechanism governs creep behavior during welding remains uncertain. Therefore, the objective of this study is to correlate carbide morphology and its effect on creep rupture behavior in 1.0 Cr-1.0Mo-0.25V bainitic steel weldment.

  20. HDL-S1P: cardiovascular functions, disease-associated alterations, and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Levkau, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid contained in High-density lipoproteins (HDL) and has drawn considerable attention in the lipoprotein field as numerous studies have demonstrated its contribution to several functions inherent to HDL. Some of them are partly and some entirely due to the S1P contained in HDL (HDL-S1P). Despite the presence of over 1000 different lipids in HDL, S1P stands out as it possesses its own cell surface receptors through which it exercises key physiological functions. Most of the S1P in human plasma is associated with HDL, and the amount of HDL-S1P influences the quality and quantity of HDL-dependent functions. The main binding partner of S1P in HDL is apolipoprotein M but others may also exist particularly under conditions of acute S1P elevations. HDL not only exercise functions through their S1P content but have also an impact on genuine S1P signaling by influencing S1P bioactivity and receptor presentation. HDL-S1P content is altered in human diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. Low HDL-S1P has also been linked to impaired HDL functions associated with these disorders. Although the pathophysiological and molecular reasons for such disease-associated shifts in HDL-S1P are little understood, there have been successful approaches to circumvent their adverse implications by pharmacologically increasing HDL-S1P as means to improve HDL function. This mini-review will cover the current understanding of the contribution of HDL-S1P to physiological HDL function, its alteration in disease and ways for its restoration to correct HDL dysfunction. PMID:26539121