Science.gov

Sample records for 1-10 nm range

  1. 110 nm versatile fiber optical parametric amplifier at 1.0 μm.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoming; Tan, Sisi; Mussot, Arnaud; Kudlinski, Alexandre; Tsia, Kevin K; Wong, Kenneth K Y

    2015-09-01

    The fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) has been well investigated and widely adopted at the telecommunication window, and outstanding progress has been achieved in areas such as high gain, wide bandwidths, and even flexible gain-spectrum shape. In contrast, a FOPA at the bio-favorable window, 1.0 μm, has been largely underexploited, especially for its relatively limited bandwidth. Here, we demonstrate an all-fiber single-pump FOPA at 1.0 μm with versatile performances, including ultrahigh gain (∼52  dB), wide bandwidth (∼110  nm), and good gain-spectrum flatness (∼3  dB). To showcase the practical applications, the FOPA is utilized to amplify the broadband optical image signal from a spectrally encoded microscopy, yielding a sensitivity enhancement of 47 dB. Thus, it is promising that this all-fiber versatile FOPA works well as an add-on module in boosting sensitivity for existing optical systems at a 1.0 μm window. PMID:26368719

  2. 1310nm VCSELs in 1-10Gb/s commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, Jack; Graham, Luke; Crom, Max; Maranowski, Kevin; Smith, Joseph; Fanning, Tom

    2006-02-01

    Beginning with 4 Gigabit/sec Fibre-Channel, 1310nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are now entering the marketplace. Such VCSELs perform like distributed feedback lasers but have drive currents and heat dissipation like 850nm VCSELs, making them ideal for today's high-performance interconnects and the only choice for the next step in increased interconnection density. Transceiver performances at 4 and 10 Gigabits/sec over fiber lengths 10-40km are presented. The active material is extremely robust, resulting in excellent reliability.

  3. An 810 nm diode laser in the treatment of small (< or = 1.0 mm) leg veins: a preliminary assessment.

    PubMed

    Trelles, M A; Allones, I; Trelles, O

    2004-01-01

    A consistently effective treatment for small leg veins (< or = 1.0 mm) is still being sought. The efficacy of an 810 nm diode laser in vein removal was assessed in a preliminary study. Fifteen females, skin types I to III, vein diameters 0.5-1 mm, aged from 25 to 42 years, participated in the study. An 810 nm diode laser (90 W, 20 ms/pulse, 10 Hz rep rate, 4.0 mm hand piece) was applied along the target veins. Biopsies were taken from two patients before and after the first treatment session. No compression was applied post-treatment. Four weeks later, a second treatment was given. Results were assessed subjectively from the patients' satisfaction index (SI) and objectively from clinical photography done by an independent clinician, who also judged the venous morphology before and 4 weeks after the second session. All patients completed the trial. Pain was moderate to severe at the time of treatment and erythema which was mild, which was seen in all 15 patients; oedema occurred in 12 patients and blistering in only one. No scarring was noticed. The overall satisfaction indices at the 4- and 8-week assessments were 20.7% and 55.1%, respectively. No patient got worse. The objective evaluations at the 4- and 8-week assessments showed increasing improvement in all aspects examined. Pain at the time of treatment was a problem for all patients, so epidermal cooling should be added. Despite this, the 810 laser diode was an interesting and promising device for treatment of small leg veins, warranting further study in larger patient cohorts with a longer-term follow up. PMID:15278720

  4. TCSPC FLIM in the wavelength range from 800 nm to 1700 nm (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Wolfgang; Shcheslavsky, Vladislav

    2016-03-01

    Excitation and detection in the wavelength range above 800nm is a convenient and relatively inexpensive way to increase the penetration depth in optical microscopy. Moreover, detection at long wavelength avoids the problem that tissue autofluorescence contaminates the signals from endogenous fluorescence probes. FLIM at NIR wavelength may therefore be complementary to multiphoton microscopy, especially if the lifetimes of NIR fluorophores report biological parameters of the tissue structures they are bound to. Unfortunately, neither the excitation sources nor the detectors of standard confocal and multiphoton laser scanning systems are directly suitable for excitation and detection of NIR fluorescence. Most of these problems can be solved, however, by using ps diode lasers or Ti:Sapphire lasers at their fundamental wavelength, and NIR-sensitive detectors. With NIR-sensitive PMTs the detection wavelength range can be extended up to 900 nm, with InGaAs SPAD detectors up to 1700 nm. Here, we demonstrate the use of a combination of laser scanning, multi-dimensional TCSPC, and advanced excitation sources and detectors for FLIM at up to 1700 nm. The performance was tested at tissue samples incubated with NIR dyes. The fluorescence lifetimes generally get shorter with increasing absorption and emission wavelengths of the dyes. For the cyanine dye IR1061, absorbing around 1060 nm, the lifetime was found to be as short as 70 ps. Nevertheless the fluorescence decay could still be clearly detected. Almost all dyes showed clear lifetime changes depending on the binding to different tissue constituents.

  5. Fast dispersion encoded full range OCT for retinal imaging at 800 nm and 1060 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, Bernd; Považay, Boris; Unterhuber, Angelika; Wang, Ling; Hermann, Boris; Rey, Sara; Matz, Gerald; Drexler, Wolfgang

    2011-03-01

    The dispersion mismatch between sample and reference arm in frequency-domain OCT can be used to iteratively suppress complex conjugate artifacts and thereby increase the imaging range. We propose a fast dispersion encoded full range (DEFR) algorithm that detects multiple signal components per iteration. The influence of different dispersion levels on the reconstruction quality is analyzed for in vivo retinal tomograms at 800 nm. Best results have been achieved with about 30 mm SF11, with neglectable resolution decrease due to finite resolution of the spectrometer. Our fast DEFR algorithm achieves an average suppression ratio of 55 dB and converges within 5 to 10 iterations. The processing time on non-dedicated hardware was 5 to 10 seconds for tomograms with 512 depth scans and 4096 sampling points per depth scan. Application of DEFR to the more challenging 1060 nm wavelength region is demonstrated by introducing an additional optical fibre in the sample arm.

  6. Photon Counting Detectors for the 1.0 - 2.0 Micron Wavelength Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    We describe results on the development of greater than 200 micron diameter, single-element photon-counting detectors for the 1-2 micron wavelength range. The technical goals include quantum efficiency in the range 10-70%; detector diameter greater than 200 microns; dark count rate below 100 kilo counts-per-second (cps), and maximum count rate above 10 Mcps.

  7. MaRIE 1.0: A briefing to Katherine Richardson-McDaniel, Staff Member for U. S. Senator Martin Heinrich (D-NM)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Cris William

    2015-02-24

    At the request of Katherine Richardson-McDaniel, Staff Member to U.S. Senator Martin Heinrich (D-NM), a high-level briefing was requested about MaRIE 1.0, the Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes effort at Los Alamos National Laboratory. What it would be, the mission need motivation, the scientific challenge, and the current favorable impact on both programs and people are shown in viewgraph form.

  8. Sub-nanosecond, 1-10 kHz, low-threshold, non-critical OPOs based on periodically poled KTP crystal pumped at 1,064 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchev, Georgi; Dallocchio, Paolo; Pirzio, Federico; Agnesi, Antonio; Reali, Giancarlo; Petrov, Valentin; Tyazhev, Aleksey; Pasiskevicius, Valdas; Thilmann, Nicky; Laurell, Fredrik

    2012-11-01

    We employed a 9-mm long periodically poled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP) crystal in an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) to generate sub-nanosecond idler pulses around 2.8 μm. With a 1-cm long OPO cavity in a singly resonant configuration and double pass pumping by 1-ns pulses at 1,064 nm, the maximum idler energy reached 110 μJ at 1 kHz. Pumping with 500 ps pulses at 1-10 kHz, resulted in an idler energy of ~50 μJ and the shortest pulse duration of ~250 ps, ever reported for an OPO. The corresponding quantum conversion efficiencies were 32.5 and 34.9 %, respectively.

  9. Laser enhancements for Lunar Laser Ranging at 532 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinot-Lagarde, G.; Aimar, M.; Albanèse, D.; Courde, C.; Exertier, P.; Fienga, A.; Mariey, H.; Métris, G.; Rigard-Cerison, R.; Samain, E.; Torre, J.-M.; Viot, H.

    This article exposes how we improved (by more than a factor of four) the green Lunar Laser Ranging instrumental sensitivity of the French telemetric station of the "Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur" in 2012. The primary reason for this success is the doubling of the pulse energy of our green Nd:YAG laser, reaching now 200 mJ at 10 Hz. This first gain is due to the replacement (inside our oscillator cavity) of the dye cell with a CR4+:YAG crystal saturable absorber. Complementary spatial beam profile improvements are also described, regarding polarisation, flashlamp geometry and specific lens arrangements (to exclude ghosts from focusing on the 8 m long amplification chain). Those combined laser enhancements pave the way to future science breakthrough linked to quasi-millimetric determination of the Earth-Moon dynamics (Murphy, 2013). Jointly, we propose an empirical thermal lensing model, varying with the cycle ratio of the flashlamps. Our model connects Koechner's (1970) continuous pumping to our intermittent pumping case, with a "normalised heating coefficient" equalling 0.05 only if the electrical lamp input power is equal to 6 kW and scaling as this [electrical input power into the lamps] to the power of [half the pumping cycle ratio].

  10. Single mode operation with mid-IR hollow fibers in the range 5.1-10.5 µm.

    PubMed

    Sampaolo, Angelo; Patimisco, Pietro; Kriesel, Jason M; Tittel, Frank K; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2015-01-12

    Single mode beam delivery in the mid-infrared spectral range 5.1-10.5 μm employing flexible hollow glass waveguides of 15 cm and 50 cm lengths, with metallic/dielectric internal layers and a bore diameter of 200 μm were demonstrated. Three quantum cascade lasers were coupled with the hollow core fibers. For a fiber length of 15 cm, we measured losses down to 1.55 dB at 5.4 μm and 0.9 dB at 10.5 μm. The influence of the launch conditions in the fiber on the propagation losses and on the beam profile at the waveguide exit was analyzed. At 10.5 µm laser wavelength we found near perfect agreement between measured and theoretical losses, while at ~5 µm and ~6 µm wavelengths the losses were higher than expected. This discrepancy can be explained considering an additional scattering loss effect, which scales as 1/λ(2) and is due to surface roughness of the metallic layer used to form the high-reflective internal layer structure of the hollow core waveguide. PMID:25835666

  11. High-resolution optical signatures of fresh and aged explosives in the 420nm to 620nm illumination range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunsford, Robert; Grun, Jacob; Gump, Jared

    2012-06-01

    Optical signatures of fresh and aged explosives are measured and compared to determine whether there exist differences in the signatures that can be exploited for detection. The explosives examined are RDX, TNT, and HMX, which have been heated for two weeks at 75 degrees centigrade or irradiated for two weeks with a 15-Watt ultraviolet lamp (254nm). The optical signatures are obtained by illuminating the samples with a sequence of laser wavelengths between 420nm and 620nm in 10 nm steps and measuring the spectra of light scattered from the sample at each laser wavelength. The measurements are performed on the Naval Research Laboratory's SWOrRD instrument. SWOrRD is capable of illuminating a sample with laser wavelength between 210nm and 2000nm, in steps of 0.1nm, and measuring the spectrum of light scattered from the sample at each wavelength. SWOrRD's broad tuning range, high average power (1- 300mW), narrow line width (< 4cm-1), and rapid wavelength tunability enable these measurements. Results, based on more than 80 measurements - each at 21 sequential laser wavelengths, indicate that the variation in spectral line amplitude observed when altering laser illumination wavelength differs between fresh and aged explosives. Thus, an instrument for rapid and reagent-less differentiation between aged and fresh explosives, based on illumination with a few appropriately chosen laser wavelengths appears feasible.

  12. 750 nm 1.5 W frequency-doubled semiconductor disk laser with a 44 nm tuning range.

    PubMed

    Saarinen, Esa J; Lyytikäinen, Jari; Ranta, Sanna; Rantamäki, Antti; Sirbu, Alexei; Iakovlev, Vladimir; Kapon, Eli; Okhotnikov, Oleg G

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate 1.5 W of output power at the wavelength of 750 nm by intracavity frequency doubling a wafer-fused semiconductor disk laser diode-pumped at 980 nm. An optical-to-optical efficiency of 8.3% was achieved using a bismuth borate crystal. The wavelength of the doubled emission could be tuned from 720 to 764 nm with an intracavity birefringent plate. The beam quality parameter M2 of the laser output was measured to be below 1.5 at all pump powers. The laser is a promising tool for biomedical applications that can take advantage of the large penetration depth of light in tissue in the 700-800 nm spectral range. PMID:26421536

  13. Absolute calibration of a photodiode array with the use of the synchrotron radiation in the range of 1-10 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, L.; Bizeuil, C.; Soullie, G.

    1995-02-01

    The silicon photodiode array Hamamatsu S3901 series (1024, 25 μm pixel) were primarily developed for the visible-UV spectral range, mainly for photon wavelengths between 200 and 1100 nm. By utilizing it without a quartz window, it is demonstrated that this sensor can be used for x rays, especially in the 1-10 keV range. Experimental measurements of the absolute detection efficiency of the photodiode array between 1.5 and 12 keV are presented. The experiments were performed on an x-ray tube-excited secondary targets and on the SB3 beamline at the Super ACO storage ring (LURE-Orsay). The measured spectral efficiency is compared with the results of a simple model calculation based on the data given in the Hamamatsu note. The simulation is in good agreement with the experimental data for a silicon active depth of 6 μm and a silicon dioxide passivation layer of 5 μm. The linearity is better than 1% and the spatial resolution is estimated to be 120 μm.

  14. Articular cartilage optical properties in the spectral range 300--850 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Daniel W.; Roberts, Cynthia J.; Farrar, Stuart K.; Johnston, William M.; Litsky, Alan S.; Bertone, Alicia L.

    1998-07-01

    Measurements of absolute total reflectance were recorded from weight-bearing (n equals 9) and nonweight-bearing (n equals 9) equine articular cartilage specimens from 300 to 850 nm using a spectrophotometer with integrating sphere attachment. Following correction of measured spectra for interfacial reflections and edge losses, Kubelka-Munk theory was applied to estimate absorption and scattering coefficient, 1D light intensity distribution, and light penetration depth. Kubelka-Munk absorption coefficients ranged from approximately 7 cm-1 at 330 nm to approximately 1 cm-1 at 850 nm. A localized absorption peak was noted at approximately 340 nm. Above 510 nm, weight-bearing cartilage demonstrated significantly higher absorption coefficients than nonweight-bearing tissue (paired t-test, p < 0.05). Kubelka-Munk scattering coefficients ranged from approximately 40 cm-1 at 360 nm to approximately 6 cm-1 at 850 nm. No statistical differences in scattering coefficient were noted between weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing tissue. Penetration depths predicted by Kubelka-Munk theory ranged from 0.6 mm at 350 nm to over 3 mm at 850 nm. Stronger absorption in weight-bearing cartilage compared to nonweight-bearing tissue resulted in lower light penetration depths in weight-bearing cartilage at all wavelengths longer than 510 nm.

  15. Megahertz FDML laser with up to 143nm sweep range for ultrahigh resolution OCT at 1050nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Jan Philip; Klein, Thomas; Eibl, Matthias; Pfeiffer, Tom; Wieser, Wolfgang; Huber, Robert

    2016-03-01

    We present a new design of a Fourier Domain Mode Locked laser (FDML laser), which provides a new record in sweep range at ~1μm center wavelength: At the fundamental sweep rate of 2x417 kHz we reach 143nm bandwidth and 120nm with 4x buffering at 1.67MHz sweep rate. The latter configuration of our system is characterized: The FWHM of the point spread function (PSF) of a mirror is 5.6μm (in tissue). Human in vivo retinal imaging is performed with the MHz laser showing more details in vascular structures. Here we could measure an axial resolution of 6.0μm by determining the FWHM of specular reflex in the image. Additionally, challenges related to such a high sweep bandwidth such as water absorption are investigated.

  16. Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 350-nm wavelength range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of ozone have been measured in the wavelength range 185-350 nm and in the temperature range 225-298 K. The absolute ozone concentrations were established by measuring the pressure of pure gaseous samples in the 0.08to 300-torr range, and the UV spectra were recorded under conditions where less than 1 percent of the sample decomposed. The temperature dependence is significant for wavelengths longer than about 280 nm. The absorption cross-section values around 210 nm were found to be about 10 percent larger than the previously accepted values.

  17. Research of the Additional Losses Occurring in Optical Fiber at its Multiple Bends in the Range Waves 1310nm, 1550nm and 1625nm Long

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, A. V.; Gorlov, N. I.; Alkina, A. D.; Mekhtiev, A. D.; Kovtun, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Article is devoted to research of the additional losses occurring in the optical fiber at its multiple bends in the range waves of 1310 nanometers, 1550 nanometers and 1625 nanometers long. Article is directed on creation of the external factors methods which allow to estimate and eliminate negative influence. The automated way of calculation of losses at a bend is developed. Results of scientific researches are used by engineers of “Kazaktelekom” AS for practical definition of losses service conditions. For modeling the Wolfram|Alpha environment — the knowledge base and a set of computing algorithms was chosen. The greatest losses are noted on wavelength 1310nm and 1625nm. All dependences are nonlinear. Losses with each following excess are multiplicative.

  18. Bi-doped fibre lasers operating in the range 1470-1550 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Dianov, Evgenii M; Firstov, S V; Medvedkov, O I; Bufetov, Igor' A; Khopin, V F; Gur'yanov, Aleksei N

    2009-04-30

    Lasing in bismuth-doped optical fibres in the range 1470-1550 nm has been demonstrated for the first time. The gain media were Bi-doped phosphogermanosilicate and, for the first time, germanosilicate glass fibres. The gain spectrum of the phosphogermanosilicate fibres extends from 1300 to 1550 nm, the range which can be used in next-generation optical fibre communication systems. (letters)

  19. A Sounding Rocket Mission Concept to Acquire High-Resolution Radiometric Spectra Spanning the 9 nm - 31 nm Wavelength Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, L. Habash; Cirtain, Jonathan; McGuirck, Michael; Pavelitz, Steven; Weber, Ed.; Winebarger, Amy

    2012-01-01

    When studying Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) emissions, both single-wavelength, two- dimensional (2D) spectroheliograms and multi-wavelength, one-dimensional (1D) line spectra are important, especially for a thorough understanding of the complex processes in the solar magnetized plasma from the base of the chromosphere through the corona. 2D image data are required for a detailed study of spatial structures, whereas radiometric (i.e., spectral) data provide information on relevant atomic excitation/ionization state densities (and thus temperature). Using both imaging and radiometric techniques, several satellite missions presently study solar dynamics in the EUV, including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), Hinode, and the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The EUV wavelengths of interest typically span 9 nm to 31 nm, with the shorter wavelengths being associated with the hottest features (e.g., intense flares and bright points) and the longer wavelengths associated with cooler features (e.g., coronal holes and filaments). Because the optical components of satellite instruments degrade over time, it is not uncommon to conduct sounding rocket underflights for calibration purposes. The authors have designed a radiometric sounding rocket payload that could serve as both a calibration underflight for and a complementary scientific mission to the upcoming Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI) mission aboard the GOES-R satellite (scheduled for a 2015 launch). The challenge to provide quality radiometric line spectra over the 9-31 nm range covered by SUVI was driven by the multilayer coatings required to make the optical components, including mirrors and gratings, reflective over the entire range. Typically, these multilayers provide useful EUV reflectances over bandwidths of a few nm. Our solution to this problem was to employ a three-telescope system in which the optical components were coated with multilayers that spanned three wavelength ranges to cover

  20. Optical properties of mucous membrane in the spectral range 350-2000 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkatov, A. N.; Genina, É. A.; Kochubey, V. I.; Tuchin, V. V.; Chikina, E. É.; Knyazev, A. B.; Mareev, O. V.

    2004-12-01

    The optical characteristics of the mucous membrane from the human maxillary sinus are studied experimentally. The experiments were carried out in vitro in the spectral range 350-2000 nm. On the basis of the measured total transmittance and diffuse reflectance spectra, the absorption and transport scattering coefficients are calculated in the entire range in terms of the inverse adding-doubling method.

  1. Double Brillouin frequency spaced multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser with 50 nm tuning range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. F.; Liao, T. Q.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, R. X.; Miao, C. Y.; Tong, Z. R.

    2012-09-01

    A 50 nm tuning range multiwavelength Brillouin-erbium fiber laser (MWBEFL) with double Brillouin frequency spacing is presented. Two separated gain blocks with symmetrical architecture, consisted by erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) and Brillouin gain media, are used to generate double Brillouin frequency spacing. The wider tuning range is realized by eliminating the self-lasing cavity modes existing in conventional MWBEFLs because of the absence of the physical mirrors at the ends of the linear cavity. The Brillouin pump (BP) is preamplified by the EDFA before entering the single-mode fiber (SMF), which leads to the reduction of threshold power and the generation enhancement of Brillouin Stokes (BS) signals. Four channels with 0.176 nm spacing are achieved at 2 mW BP power and 280 mW 980 nm pump power which can be tuned from 1525 to 1575 nm.

  2. Stark width measurements of Fe II lines with wavelengths in the range 230-260 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, J. A.; Manrique, J.; Aragón, C.

    2011-12-01

    The experimental Stark widths of 26 Fe II lines with wavelengths in the range 230-260 nm have been determined by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. These measurements complete the data reported previously for the wavelength range 260-300 nm. The laser-induced plasmas have been generated from Fe-Cu and Fe-Ni samples. The curve-of-growth methodology is used to determine the iron concentration required to avoid self-absorption. The electron density at the different instants of the plasma lifetime, determined from the Stark broadening of the Hα line, is in the range (1.6-7.4) × 1017 cm-3. The plasma temperature is in the range 12 900-15 200 K. The Stark widths obtained are compared with previous experimental and theoretical data.

  3. Optical properties of human colon tissues in the 350 - 2500 nm spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkatov, A. N.; Genina, E. A.; Kochubey, V. I.; Rubtsov, V. S.; Kolesnikova, E. A.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2014-08-01

    We present the optical characteristics of the mucosa and submucosa of human colon tissue. The experiments are performed in vitro using a LAMBDA 950 spectrophotometer in the 350 - 2500 nm spectral range. The absorption and scattering coefficients and the scattering anisotropy factor are calculated based on the measured diffuse reflectance and total and collimated transmittance spectra using the inverse Monte Carlo method.

  4. Evaluation of skin melanoma in spectral range 450-950 nm using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovels, D.; Lihacova, I.; Kuzmina, I.; Spigulis, J.

    2013-06-01

    Diagnostic potential of principal component analysis (PCA) of multi-spectral imaging data in the wavelength range 450- 950 nm for distant skin melanoma recognition is discussed. Processing of the measured clinical data by means of PCA resulted in clear separation between malignant melanomas and pigmented nevi.

  5. Universal grating design for pulse stretching and compression in the 800{endash}1100-nm range

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J.A.; Perry, M.D.; Shore, B.W.; Boyd, R.D.

    1996-04-01

    We have developed a holographically produced master metallic grating that achieves {approx_gt}91{percent} diffraction efficiency over the wavelength range 800{endash}1100 nm and a maximum diffraction efficiency at 1053 nm greater than 93{percent} when used with TM polarization near the Littrow angle. The near-uniform diffraction efficiency with laser wavelength makes this design attractive for use in chirped-pulse amplification systems employing Ti:sapphire, Cr:LiSAF, or Nd:glass and permits high-fidelity stretching and compression of extremely short (10-fs) pulses. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  6. Superconducting nanowire single photon detector at 532 nm and demonstration in satellite laser ranging.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Chen, Sijing; You, Lixing; Meng, Wengdong; Wu, Zhibo; Zhang, Zhongping; Tang, Kai; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Weijun; Yang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhen; Xie, Xiaoming

    2016-02-22

    Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) at a wavelength of 532 nm were designed and fabricated aiming to satellite laser ranging (SLR) applications. The NbN SNSPDs were fabricated on one-dimensional photonic crystals with a sensitive-area diameter of 42 μm. The devices were coupled with multimode fiber (ϕ = 50 μm) and exhibited a maximum system detection efficiency of 75% at an extremely low dark count rate of <0.1 Hz. An SLR experiment using an SNSPD at a wavelength of 532 nm was successfully demonstrated. The results showed a depth ranging with a precision of ~8.0 mm for the target satellite LARES, which is ~3,000 km away from the ground ranging station at the Sheshan Observatory. PMID:26907010

  7. Optical properties of human colon tissues in the 350 – 2500 nm spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Bashkatov, A N; Genina, E A; Kochubey, V I; Kolesnikova, E A; Tuchin, V V; Rubtsov, V S

    2014-08-31

    We present the optical characteristics of the mucosa and submucosa of human colon tissue. The experiments are performed in vitro using a LAMBDA 950 spectrophotometer in the 350 – 2500 nm spectral range. The absorption and scattering coefficients and the scattering anisotropy factor are calculated based on the measured diffuse reflectance and total and collimated transmittance spectra using the inverse Monte Carlo method. (laser biophotonics)

  8. Aperiodic normal-incidence antimony-based multilayer mirrors in the 8 - 13-nm spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnyakov, E A; Luginin, M S; Pirozhkov, A S; Ragozin, Evgenii N; Startsev, S A

    2011-01-31

    The optical properties of several materials were analysed from the standpoint of fabrication of broadband normal-incidence multilayer mirrors possessing maximal uniform reflectivity in the 8-13-nm range. By solving the inverse problem of multilayer optics we show that aperiodic Sb/(B{sub 4}C, Sc, Si) multilayer structures optimised for maximum uniform reflectivity in the 8-13-nm range are able to afford a normal-incidence reflectivity R{approx}10 % throughout this range. The best results are exhibited by the pair Sb/B{sub 4}C, for which the average reflection coefficient amounts to about 13%. The dependence of optimisation result on the programmable limitation on the minimal layer thickness in the multilayer structure was numerically investigated. An empirical rule was established whereby setting the lower bound for a layer thickness at a level {approx}{lambda}{sub min}/4 (in this case, {lambda}{sub min} = 8 nm) does not result in an appreciable lowering of attainable uniform reflectivity. (quantum electronic devices)

  9. Stable Gain-Switched Thulium Fiber Laser With 140-nm Tuning Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengqiu; Meng, Yafei; Kelleher, Edmund; Guo, Guoxiang; Li, Yao; Xu, Yongbing; Zhu, Shining

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a gain-switched thulium fiber laser that can be continuously tuned over 140 nm, while maintaining stable nanosecond single-pulse operation. To the best of our knowledge, this system represents the broadest tuning range for a gain-switched fiber laser. The system simplicity and wideband wavelength tunability combined with the ability to control the temporal characteristics of the gain-switched pulses mean this is a versatile source highly suited to a wide range of applications in the eye-safe region of the infrared, including spectroscopy, sensing and material processing, as well as being a practical seed source for pumping nonlinear processes.

  10. Accuracy of Linear Depolarisation Ratios in Clean Air Ranges Measured with POLIS-6 at 355 and 532 NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudenthaler, Volker; Seefeldner, Meinhard; Groß, Silke; Wandinger, Ulla

    2016-06-01

    Linear depolarization ratios in clean air ranges were measured with POLIS-6 at 355 and 532 nm. The mean deviation from the theoretical values, including the rotational Raman lines within the filter bandwidths, amounts to 0.0005 at 355 nm and to 0.0012 at 532 nm. The mean uncertainty of the measured linear depolarization ratio of clean air is about 0.0005 at 355 nm and about 0.0006 at 532 nm.

  11. Broadband semiconductor optical amplifiers of the spectral range 750 – 1100 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, E V; Il'chenko, S N; Lobintsov, A A; Shramenko, M V; Ladugin, M A; Marmalyuk, A A; Yakubovich, S D

    2013-11-30

    A line of travelling-wave semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) based on heterostructures used for production of broadband superluminescent diodes is developed. The pure small-signal gains of the developed SOA modules are about 25 dB, while the gain bandwidths at a level of –10 dB reach 50 – 100 nm. As a whole, the SOA modules cover the IR spectral range from 750 to 1100 nm. The SOAs demonstrate a high reliability at a single-mode fibre-coupled cw output power up to 50 mW. Examples of application of two of the developed SOA modules as active elements of broadband fast-tunable lasers are presented. (lasers)

  12. Stronger Limits on Hypothetical Yukawa Interactions in the 30-8000 nm Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Tham, W. K.; Krause, D. E.; López, D.; Fischbach, E.; Decca, R. S.

    2016-06-01

    We report the results of new differential force measurements between a test mass and rotating source masses of gold and silicon to search for forces beyond Newtonian gravity at short separations. The technique employed subtracts the otherwise dominant Casimir force at the outset and, when combined with a lock-in amplification technique, leads to a significant improvement (up to a factor of 103 ) over existing limits on the strength (relative to gravity) of a putative force in the 40-8000 nm interaction range.

  13. Optical properties of peritoneal biological tissues in the spectral range of 350-2500 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkatov, A. N.; Genina, E. A.; Kozintseva, M. D.; Kochubei, V. I.; Gorodkov, S. Yu.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    The optical characteristics of biological tissues sampled from the anterior abdominal wall of laboratory rats are for the first time experimentally studied in a wide wavelength range (350-2500 nm). The experiments have been performed in vitro using a LAMBDA 950 (PerkinElmer, United States) spectrophotometer. Inverse Monte Carlo simulation is used to restore the spectral dependences for scattering and absorption coefficients, as well as the scattering anisotropy factor for biological tissue based on the recorded spectra of diffuse reflection and total and collimated transmissions.

  14. High-power cw laser bars of the 750 - 790-nm wavelength range

    SciTech Connect

    Degtyareva, N S; Kondakov, S A; Mikayelyan, G T; Gorlachuk, P V; Ladugin, M A; Marmalyuk, Aleksandr A; Ryaboshtan, Yu L; Yarotskaya, I V

    2013-06-30

    We have developed the effective design of semiconductor heterostructures, which allow one to fabricate cw laser diodes emitting in the 750 - 790-nm spectral range. The optimal conditions for fabrication of GaAsP/AlGaInP/GaAs heterostructures by MOCVD have been determined. It is shown that the use of quantum wells with a precisely defined quantity mismatch reduces the threshold current density and increases the external differential efficiency. The results of studies of characteristics of diode laser bars fabricated from these heterostructures are presented. (lasers)

  15. Stronger Limits on Hypothetical Yukawa Interactions in the 30-8000 nm Range.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-J; Tham, W K; Krause, D E; López, D; Fischbach, E; Decca, R S

    2016-06-01

    We report the results of new differential force measurements between a test mass and rotating source masses of gold and silicon to search for forces beyond Newtonian gravity at short separations. The technique employed subtracts the otherwise dominant Casimir force at the outset and, when combined with a lock-in amplification technique, leads to a significant improvement (up to a factor of 10^{3}) over existing limits on the strength (relative to gravity) of a putative force in the 40-8000 nm interaction range. PMID:27314709

  16. Boron Nitride Nanotube Mat as a Low- k Dielectric Material with Relative Dielectric Constant Ranging from 1.0 to 1.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xinghua; Wang, Daojun; Chung, D. D. L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports that a boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) mat containing air and 1.4 vol.% BNNTs is a low- k dielectric material for microelectronic packaging, exhibiting relative dielectric constant of 1.0 to 1.1 (50 Hz to 2 MHz) and elastic modulus of 10 MPa. The mat is prepared by compacting BNNTs at 5.8 kPa. This paper also presents measurements of the dielectric properties of BNNTs (mostly multiwalled). The relative dielectric constant of the BNNT solid in the mat decreases with increasing frequency, with attractively low values ranging from 3.0 to 6.2; the alternating-current (AC) electrical conductivity increases with increasing frequency, with attractively low values ranging from 10-10 S/m to 10-6 S/m and an approximately linear relationship between log conductivity and log frequency. The specific contact capacitance of the interface between BNNTs and the electrical contact decreases with increasing frequency, with attractively high values ranging from 1.6 μF/m2 to 2.3 μF/m2. The AC electrical resistivity of the BNNT-contact interface decreases with increasing frequency, with high values ranging from 0.14 MΩ cm2 to 440 MΩ cm2.

  17. Optical properties of parietal peritoneum in the spectral range 350-2500 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozintseva, Marina D.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Genina, Elina A.; Gorodkov, Sergey Y.; Morozov, Dmitry A.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2014-01-01

    The wide application of optical methods in the areas of diagnostics, therapy and surgery of modern medicine has stimulated the investigation of optical properties of various biological tissues. Numerous investigations related to determination of tissue optical properties are available; however, the optical properties of many tissues have not been studied in a wide wavelength range. In this work the optical properties of parietal peritoneum in the wavelength range 350-2500 nm were measured. Measurement of the diffuse reflectance, total and collimated transmittance were performed using LAMBDA 950 (Perkin Elmer, USA) spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere, and values of absorption and scattering coefficients, and the scattering anisotropy factor were calculated by inverse Monte Carlo Method.

  18. Switching or triggering by light organic materials in the 100 nm size range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faramarzi, Vina; Dayen, Jean Francois; Doudin, Bernard; Dmons Team

    2011-03-01

    We investigate optoelectronic fabrication and characterization of organic electronics devices in the 100 nm range. This intermediate size has advantages in simplicity of device fabrication and robustness of observed properties. For this aim high aspect ratio lateral electrodes separated by a sub 100nm gap were produced by means of simple optical lithography techniques. The electrical measurements set-up is integrated with an inverted optical microscope, allowing simultaneous optical and electrical measurements followed by temperature and magnetic field studies. We demonstrate that electrical contacts are suitable for a wide range of current measurements going from 10-13 to 10-2 A. This versatility makes the nanotrench design compatible for studying a broad variety of nanoparticles and molecular systems. Electrical transport properties of different devices are presented, e.g molecular switches, Iron based spin-transition nanoparticles, Conductive molecular chains and 2D nanoparticle networks. The promising reproducible results reveal novel intrinsic transport properties and confirm the high interest and reliability of this approach for further studies in the field of molecular electronics and spin dependent transport in molecular structures.

  19. 21-nm-range wavelength-tunable L-band Er-doped fiber linear-cavity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shiquan; Zhao, Chunliu; Li, Zhaohui; Ding, Lei; Yuan, Shuzhong; Dong, Xiaoyi

    2001-10-01

    A novel method, which utilizes amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) as a secondary pump source, is presented for implanting a linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser operating in L-Band. The output wavelength tuned from 1566 nm to 1587 nm, about 21 nm tuning range, was obtained in the experiment and the stability of the laser is very good.

  20. A wide spectral range single-photon avalanche diode fabricated in an advanced 180 nm CMOS technology.

    PubMed

    Mandai, Shingo; Fishburn, Matthew W; Maruyama, Yuki; Charbon, Edoardo

    2012-03-12

    We present a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) with a wide spectral range fabricated in an advanced 180 nm CMOS process. The realized SPAD achieves 20 % photon detection probability (PDP) for wavelengths ranging from 440 nm to 820 nm at an excess bias of 4 V, with 30 % PDP at wavelengths from 520 nm to 720 nm. Dark count rates (DCR) are at most 5 kHz, which is 30 Hz/μm2, at an excess bias of 4V when we measure 10 μm diameter active area structure. Afterpulsing probability, timing jitter, and temperature effects on DCR are also presented. PMID:22418462

  1. Stark width measurements of Fe II lines with wavelengths in the range 260-300 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragón, C.; Vega, P.; Aguilera, J. A.

    2011-03-01

    The Stark widths of 21 Fe II lines with wavelengths in the range 260-300 nm have been measured using laser-induced plasmas as spectroscopic sources. A set of Fe-Cu samples has been employed to generate the plasmas. To reduce self-absorption, each line has been measured using a different sample, with an iron concentration determined by means of the curve-of-growth methodology. The remaining error due to self-absorption has been estimated to be lower than 10%. Different instants of the plasma evolution, from 0.84 to 2.5 µs, are included in the measurements. The electron density, in the range (1.6-7.3) × 1017 cm-3, is determined by the Stark broadening of the Hα line. Within this range, the Stark widths are found to be proportional to the electron density. The Boltzmann plot method is used to obtain the plasma temperature, which is in the range 12 900-15 200 K. The Stark widths obtained have been compared with available experimental and theoretical data.

  2. IC design of low power, wide tuning range VCO in 90 nm CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li; Zhigong, Wang; Zhiqun, Li; Qin, Li; Faen, Liu

    2014-12-01

    A low power VCO with a wide tuning range and low phase noise has been designed and realized in a standard 90 nm CMOS technology. A newly proposed current-reuse cross-connected pair is utilized as a negative conductance generator to compensate the energy loss of the resonator. The supply current is reduced by half compared to that of the conventional LC-VCO. An improved inversion-mode MOSFET (IMOS) varactor is introduced to extend the capacitance tuning range from 32.8% to 66%. A detailed analysis of the proposed varactor is provided. The VCO achieves a tuning range of 27-32.5 GHz, exhibiting a frequency tuning range (FTR) of 18.4% and a phase noise of -101.38 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset from a 30 GHz carrier, and shows an excellent FOM of -185 dBc/Hz. With the voltage supply of 1.5 V, the core circuit of VCO draws only 2.1 mA DC current.

  3. Final report on the key comparison CCPR-K2.c-2003: Spectral responsivity in the range of 200 nm to 400 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The CCPR K2.c key comparison of spectral power responsivity of detectors in the ultraviolet spectral range from 200 nm to 400 nm was carried out in the framework of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement by 14 participating national metrology institutes. The key comparison was piloted by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The comparison was carried out through the calibration of sets of transfer detectors. Three types of transfer detectors based on two types of photodiodes have been used to handle probable changes of the spectral responsivity of the detectors in the ultraviolet spectral range. The results of the key comparison in the wavelength range from 200 nm to 240 nm are based on single-element windowless PtSi/n-Si Schottky photodiodes while in the range from 250 nm to 400 nm the results are based on single-element photodiode detectors and three-element reflection trap detectors, both made up of windowless Si pn junction photodiodes. The comparison was organized in a star pattern and conducted in three groups of participants. The report describes the measurements made by the pilot laboratory, summarizes the reports submitted by the participants and describes the data analysis carried out to determine the key comparison reference values and degrees of equivalence. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCPR, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  4. The optical absorption of triatomic carbon C3 for the wavelength range 260 to 560 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The spectral absorption properties of C3 have been measured in a shock tube containing a test gas mixture of acetylene diluted with argon. The absorption of a pulsed xenon light source was measured by means of eight photomultiplier channels to a spectrograph and an accompanying drum camera. The postshock test gas temperature and pressure were varied over the range 3240 to 4300 K and 37 to 229 kPa, respectively. The results showed appreciable absorption by C3 for the wavelength range 300 to 540 nm. The various reported measurements of the heat of formation of C3 which are available in the open literature were reviewed, and a value of 198 kcal/mol is recommended. This value, along with best available values for other species, was used to calculate the number density of C3 for the conditions of the present experiments in order to compute absorption cross section or electronic oscillator strength. The computed electronic oscillator strength varied from a high of 0.062 at 3300 K to a low of 0.036 at 3900 K.

  5. Long-range pulselength scaling of 351nm laser damage thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foltyn, S. R.; Jolin, L. J.

    1986-12-01

    In a series of experiments incorporating 351nm pulselength of 9, 26, 54, and 625ns, it was found that laser damage thresholds increased as (pulselength)/sup x/, and that the exponent averaged 0.36 and ranged, for different samples, from 0.23 to 0.48. Similar results were obtained when only catastrophic damage was considered. Samples included Al2O3/SiO2 in both AR and HR multilayers, HR's of Sc2O3/SiO2 and HfO2/SiO2, and Al-on-pyrex mirror; 9ns thresholds were between 0.2 to 5.6 J/sq cm. When these data were compared with a wide range of other results - for wavelengths from 0.25 to 10.6 microns and pulselengths down to 4ps - a remarkably consistent picture emerged. Damage thresholds, on average, increase approximately as the cube-root of pulselength from picoseconds to nearly a microsecond, and do so regardless of wavelength or material under test.

  6. 780nm-range VCSEL array for laser printer system and other applications at Ricoh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jikutani, Naoto; Itoh, Akihiro; Harasaka, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Toshihide; Sato, Shunichi

    2016-03-01

    A 780 nm-range 40 channels vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array was developed as a writing light source for printers. A 15° off missoriented GaAs substrate, an aluminum-free GaInAsP/GaInP compressively-strained multiple quantum well and an anisotropic-shape transverse-mode filter were employed to control polarization characteristics. The anisotropic-shape transverse-mode filter also suppressed higher transverse-mode and enabled high-power single-mode operation. Thus, orthogonal-polarization suppression-ratio (OPSR) of over 22 dB and side-mode suppression-ratio (SMSR) of 30 dB were obtained at operation power of 3mW at same time for wide oxide-aperture range below 50 μm2. Moreover, a thermal resistance was reduced for 38% by increasing a thickness of high thermal conductivity layer (3λ/4-AlAs layer) near a cavity. By this structure, a peak-power increased to 1.3 times. Moreover, a power-fall caused by self-heating at pulse-rise was decreased to 10% and the one caused by a thermal-crosstalk between channels was decreased to 46%. The VCSEL array was mounted in a ceramic package with a tilted seal glass to prevent optical-crosstalk caused by other channels. Thus, we achieved stable-output and high-quality beam characteristics for long-duration pulse drive.

  7. Mitigating Phototoxicity during Multiphoton Microscopy of Live Drosophila Embryos in the 1.0–1.2 µm Wavelength Range

    PubMed Central

    Débarre, Delphine; Olivier, Nicolas; Supatto, Willy; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Light-induced toxicity is a fundamental bottleneck in microscopic imaging of live embryos. In this article, after a review of photodamage mechanisms in cells and tissues, we assess photo-perturbation under illumination conditions relevant for point-scanning multiphoton imaging of live Drosophila embryos. We use third-harmonic generation (THG) imaging of developmental processes in embryos excited by pulsed near-infrared light in the 1.0–1.2 µm range. We study the influence of imaging rate, wavelength, and pulse duration on the short-term and long-term perturbation of development and define criteria for safe imaging. We show that under illumination conditions typical for multiphoton imaging, photodamage in this system arises through 2- and/or 3-photon absorption processes and in a cumulative manner. Based on this analysis, we derive general guidelines for improving the signal-to-damage ratio in two-photon (2PEF/SHG) or THG imaging by adjusting the pulse duration and/or the imaging rate. Finally, we report label-free time-lapse 3D THG imaging of gastrulating Drosophila embryos with sampling appropriate for the visualisation of morphogenetic movements in wild-type and mutant embryos, and long-term multiharmonic (THG-SHG) imaging of development until hatching. PMID:25111506

  8. High power laser diodes at 14xx nm wavelength range for industrial and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telkkälä, Jarkko; Boucart, Julien; Krejci, Martin; Crum, Trevor; Lichtenstein, Norbert

    2014-03-01

    We report on the development of the latest generation of high power laser diodes at 14xx nm wavelength range suitable for industrial applications such as plastics welding and medical applications including acne treatment, skin rejuvenation and surgery. The paper presents the newest chip generation developed at II-VI Laser Enterprise, increasing the output power and the power conversion efficiency while retaining the reliability of the initial design. At an emission wavelength around 1440 nm we applied the improved design to a variety of assemblies exhibiting maximum power values as high as 7 W for broad-area single emitters. For 1 cm wide bars on conductive coolers and for bars on active micro channel coolers we have obtained 50 W and 72 W in continuous wave (cw) operation respectively. The maximum power measured for a 1 cm bar operated with 50 μs pulse width and 0.01% duty cycle was 184 W, demonstrating the potential of the chip design for optimized cooling. Power conversion efficiency values as high as 50% for a single emitter device and over 40% for mounted bars have been demonstrated, reducing the required power budget to operate the devices. Both active and conductive bar assembly configurations show polarization purity greater than 98%. Life testing has been conducted at 95 A, 50% duty cycle and 0.5 Hz hard pulsed operation for bars which were soldered to conductive copper CS mounts using our hard solder technology. The results after 5500 h, or 10 million "on-off" cycles show stable operation.

  9. The Secondary Organic Aerosol Processor (SOAP v1.0) model: a unified model with different ranges of complexity based on the molecular surrogate approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couvidat, F.; Sartelet, K.

    2014-01-01

    The Secondary Organic Aerosol Processor (SOAP v1.0) model is presented. This model is designed to be modular with different user options depending on the computing time and the complexity required by the user. This model is based on the molecular surrogate approach, in which each surrogate compound is associated with a molecular structure to estimate some properties and parameters (hygroscopicity, absorption on the aqueous phase of particles, activity coefficients, phase separation). Each surrogate can be hydrophilic (condenses only on the aqueous phase of particles), hydrophobic (condenses only on the organic phase of particles) or both (condenses on both the aqueous and the organic phases of particles). Activity coefficients are computed with the UNIFAC thermodynamic model for short-range interactions and with the AIOMFAC parameterization for medium and long-range interactions between electrolytes and organic compounds. Phase separation is determined by Gibbs energy minimization. The user can choose between an equilibrium and a dynamic representation of the organic aerosol. In the equilibrium representation, compounds in the particle phase are assumed to be at equilibrium with the gas phase. However, recent studies show that the organic aerosol (OA) is not at equilibrium with the gas phase because the organic phase could be semi-solid (very viscous liquid phase). The condensation or evaporation of organic compounds could then be limited by the diffusion in the organic phase due to the high viscosity. A dynamic representation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) is used with OA divided into layers, the first layer at the center of the particle (slowly reaches equilibrium) and the final layer near the interface with the gas phase (quickly reaches equilibrium).

  10. Bismuth-doped fibre amplifier for the range 1300 - 1340 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Dianov, Evgenii M; Mel'kumov, Mikhail A; Shubin, Aleksei V; Firstov, Sergei V; Bufetov, Igor' A; Khopin, V F; Gur'yanov, Aleksei N

    2009-12-31

    We demonstrate the first bismuth-doped fibre amplifier operating in the second transmission window of silica-based fibres. At a pump power of 460 mW and pump wavelength of 1230 nm, its gain reaches 24.5 dB at 1320 nm, with a gain bandwidth of 37 nm, saturation power near 10 mW, and noise figure of 5 dB. (letters)

  11. Spectral irradiance model for tungsten halogen lamps in 340-850 nm wavelength range.

    PubMed

    Ojanen, Maija; Kärhä, Petri; Ikonen, Erkki

    2010-02-10

    We have developed a physical model for the spectral irradiance of 1 kW tungsten halogen incandescent lamps for the wavelength range 340-850 nm. The model consists of the Planck's radiation law, published values for the emissivity of tungsten, and a residual spectral correction function taking into account unknown factors of the lamp. The correction function was determined by measuring the spectra of a 1000 W, quartz-halogen, tungsten coiled filament (FEL) lamp at different temperatures. The new model was tested with lamps of types FEL and 1000 W, 120 V quartz halogen (DXW). Comparisons with measurements of two national standards laboratories indicate that the model can account for the spectral irradiance values of lamps with an agreement better than 1% throughout the spectral region studied. We further demonstrate that the spectral irradiance of a lamp can be predicted with an expanded uncertainty of 2.6% if the color temperature and illuminance values for the lamp are known with expanded uncertainties of 20 K and 2%, respectively. In addition, it is suggested that the spectral irradiance may be derived from resistance measurements of the filament with lamp on and off. PMID:20154756

  12. Nonlinear optical effects on retinal damage thresholds in the 1200-1400 nm wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverria, Francesco Jozac

    Recent changes in the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) limits for near-infrared (NIR) laser exposures are analyzed in light of nonlinear optical phenomena. We have evaluated the thresholds for supercontinuum (SC) generation for ultra-short (femtosecond) laser exposures in the NIR region and compared these values with the MPEs listed in the American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers 2014 Edition (ANSI Z136.1-2014). Due to the strong increase in ocular absorption in the 1.2 to 1.4 micrometer (i.e. 1200-1400 nm) range, evaluation of the SC generation phenomenon is necessary because any shift in laser energy within the eye to shorter wavelengths (i.e. greater frequency) could lead to unforeseen increases in hazards to the retina. The findings of this research do in fact indicate a shift in laser energy to shorter wavelengths for femtosecond pulsed lasers. In addition, an analysis involving spectral measurements through a water cuvette leads to estimations involving the eye configuration that show radiant exposures exceeding the ANSI thresholds for visible wavelengths. The implications of these findings are such that enough NIR energy is converted to visible energy near the retina when dealing with femtosecond pulsed lasers, warranting further studies in examining what the effects caused by nonlinear optical phenomena due to ultrashort pulsed lasers have on MPE thresholds established for eye safety.

  13. Spectral irradiance model for tungsten halogen lamps in 340-850 nm wavelength range

    SciTech Connect

    Ojanen, Maija; Kaerhae, Petri; Ikonen, Erkki

    2010-02-10

    We have developed a physical model for the spectral irradiance of 1 kW tungsten halogen incandescent lamps for the wavelength range 340-850 nm. The model consists of the Planck's radiation law, published values for the emissivity of tungsten, and a residual spectral correction function taking into account unknown factors of the lamp. The correction function was determined by measuring the spectra of a 1000 W, quartz-halogen, tungsten coiled filament (FEL) lamp at different temperatures. The new model was tested with lamps of types FEL and 1000 W, 120 V quartz halogen (DXW). Comparisons with measurements of two national standards laboratories indicate that the model can account for the spectral irradiance values of lamps with an agreement better than 1% throughout the spectral region studied. We further demonstrate that the spectral irradiance of a lamp can be predicted with an expanded uncertainty of 2.6% if the color temperature and illuminance values for the lamp are known with expanded uncertainties of 20 K and 2%, respectively. In addition, it is suggested that the spectral irradiance may be derived from resistance measurements of the filament with lamp on and off.

  14. The Secondary Organic Aerosol Processor (SOAP v1.0) model: a unified model with different ranges of complexity based on the molecular surrogate approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couvidat, F.; Sartelet, K.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper the Secondary Organic Aerosol Processor (SOAP v1.0) model is presented. This model determines the partitioning of organic compounds between the gas and particle phases. It is designed to be modular with different user options depending on the computation time and the complexity required by the user. This model is based on the molecular surrogate approach, in which each surrogate compound is associated with a molecular structure to estimate some properties and parameters (hygroscopicity, absorption into the aqueous phase of particles, activity coefficients and phase separation). Each surrogate can be hydrophilic (condenses only into the aqueous phase of particles), hydrophobic (condenses only into the organic phases of particles) or both (condenses into both the aqueous and the organic phases of particles). Activity coefficients are computed with the UNIFAC (UNIversal Functional group Activity Coefficient; Fredenslund et al., 1975) thermodynamic model for short-range interactions and with the Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients (AIOMFAC) parameterization for medium- and long-range interactions between electrolytes and organic compounds. Phase separation is determined by Gibbs energy minimization. The user can choose between an equilibrium representation and a dynamic representation of organic aerosols (OAs). In the equilibrium representation, compounds in the particle phase are assumed to be at equilibrium with the gas phase. However, recent studies show that the organic aerosol is not at equilibrium with the gas phase because the organic phases could be semi-solid (very viscous liquid phase). The condensation-evaporation of organic compounds could then be limited by the diffusion in the organic phases due to the high viscosity. An implicit dynamic representation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) is available in SOAP with OAs divided into layers, the first layer being at the center of the particle (slowly

  15. Temperature dependence of the ozone obsorption spectrum over the wavelength range 410 to 760 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.; Talukdar, Ranajit K.

    1994-01-01

    The ozone, O3, absorption cross sections between 410 and 760 nm, the Chappuis band, were measured at 220, 240, 260, and 280 K relative to that at room temperature using a diode array spectrometer. The measured cross sections varied very slightly, less than 1%, with decreasing temperature between 550 and 660 nm, near the peak of the Chappuis band. At wavelengths away from the peak, the absorption cross sections decreased with decreasing temperature; e.g., about 40% at 420 nm between 298 and 220 K. These results are compared with previous measurements and the impact on atmospheric measurements are discussed.

  16. Semiconductor optical amplifiers for the 1000-1100-nm spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Lobintsov, A A; Shramenko, M V; Yakubovich, S D

    2008-07-31

    Two types of semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) based on a double-layer quantum-well (InGa)As/(GaAl)As/GaAs heterostructure are investigated. The optical gain of more than 30 dB and saturation output power of more than 30 mW are achived at 1060 nm in pigtailed SOA modules. These SOAs used as active elements of a tunable laser provide rapid continuous tuning within 85 nm and 45 nm at output powers of 0.5 mW and more than 30 mW, respectively. (active media, lasers, and amplifiers)

  17. Magnetic hard disk overcoats in the 3-5 nm thickness range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anoikin, E. V.; Yang, M. M.; Chao, J. L.; Russak, M. A.

    1999-04-01

    Protective properties of 3-5 nm thick carbon overcoat layers deposited on magnetic hard disks by ion beam deposition (IBD) and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) were investigated. It is found that these overcoats are superior to the sputtered carbon films at thicknesses below 5 nm. Low-stiction performance of 3-nm-thick IBD films without any detectable wear was observed during 50 000 contact start-stop cycles at 55 °C and 10% relative humidity. Surface concentration of cobalt ions is reduced by as much as an order of magnitude as compared to the media with sputtered overcoats. Polarization resistivity values for IBD and PECVD overcoats are by an order of magnitude higher. The results show that thickness of protective carbon overcoats on magnetic hard disks can be reduced to 3-5 nm without compromising media reliability requirements. This reduction is critical for the continuing growth of storage density.

  18. Spectral emission properties of a LPP light source in the sub-200nm range for wafer inspection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambino, Nadia; Rollinger, Bob; Hudgins, Duane; Abhari, Reza; Abreau, F.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the spectral emission proprieties of a droplet-based laser-produced plasma are investigated in the VUV range. These studies are performed with a spectrograph operating from 30 nm to 180 nm at a spectral resolution of 0.1 nm. The emission spectra are recorded for different droplet-based metal fuels such as tin, indium and gallium in the presence of different background gas pressure levels. The experimental results are relevant for alternative light sources that would be needed for future wafer inspection tools. In addition, the experimental results help to determine the Out- Of-Band (OOB) radiation emission of the EUV source. By tuning the type of fuel, the laser energies and the background gas, the LPP light source shows good capabilities to be operated as a tunable light source that covers a spectral emission range from the EUV to the sub-200 nm range.

  19. Satellite laser ranging using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors at 1064  nm wavelength.

    PubMed

    Xue, Li; Li, Zhulian; Zhang, Labao; Zhai, Dongsheng; Li, Yuqiang; Zhang, Sen; Li, Ming; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng; Xiong, Yaoheng

    2016-08-15

    Satellite laser ranging operating at 1064 nm wavelength using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) is successfully demonstrated. A SNSPD with an intrinsic quantum efficiency of 80% and a dark count rate of 100 cps at 1064 nm wavelength is developed and introduced to Yunnan Observatory in China. With improved closed-loop telescope systems (field of view of about 26''), satellites including Cryosat, Ajisai, and Glonass with ranges of 1600 km, 3100 km, and 19,500 km, respectively, are experimentally ranged with mean echo rates of 1200/min, 4200/min, and 320/min, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of laser ranging for satellites using SNSPDs at 1064 nm wavelength. Theoretical analysis of the detection efficiency and the mean echo rate for typical satellites indicate that it is possible for a SNSPD to range satellites from low Earth orbit to geostationary Earth orbit. PMID:27519105

  20. The use of hyperspectral imaging in the VNIR (400-1000nm) and SWIR range (1000-2500nm) for detecting counterfeit drugs with identical API composition.

    PubMed

    Wilczyński, Sławomir; Koprowski, Robert; Marmion, Mathieu; Duda, Piotr; Błońska-Fajfrowska, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    The risk of death from taking counterfeit drugs is now greater than the probability of dying from malaria and AIDS combined (at least half a million deaths each year). At the same time, counterfeit medicines are falsified more and more "skillfully". According to WHO about 10% of counterfeit drugs are copies of original products. The methods of hyperspectral imaging and image analysis and processing were used to detect counterfeit drugs. Original Viagra® (Pfizer) and counterfeit tablets were compared. Hyperspectral imaging was used to acquire hyperspectral data cubes from both original and counterfeit tablets in the spectral range of 400-2500nm. Spectral parameters for both the original Viagra® and counterfeit drugs were compared. Grey-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM) analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were performed. Hyperspectral analysis of the surface of the original Viagra® and counterfeit tablets demonstrates significant differences in reflectance (maximum difference for 1619.75nm). The GLCM contrast for the falsified drug is on average higher than for the original one 16±4%. GLCM contrast analysis enables to quantify homogeneity of distribution of tablet ingredients and enables to distinguish tablets with identical chemical composition. SWIR (1000-2500nm) hyperspectral imaging has a definite advantage over imaging in VNIR (400-1000nm) - higher wavelength is less sensitive to non-uniform illumination. PMID:27591580

  1. Optical heterodyning with a frequency difference of 1 THz in the 850-nm range.

    PubMed

    Acef, O; Nez, F; Rovera, G D

    1994-09-01

    We report our recent progress on detection of large frequency difference (up to 1.028 THz, Deltalambda = 2.5 nm) between two laser diodes at 852 nm, using a Schottky diode as harmonic mixer/detector. Using the 11th harmonic of a klystron operating at 93.5 GHz or the 991-GHz line of an optically pumped HCOOH far-infrared laser, we were able to observe a signal-to-noise ratio of 2 dB in a 1-MHz-resolution bandwidth. PMID:19855492

  2. Four-wavelength time-resolved optical mammography in the 680-980-nm range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pifferi, Antonio; Taroni, Paola; Torricelli, Alessandro; Messina, Fabrizio; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Danesini, Gianmaria

    2003-07-01

    What is to our knowledge the first instrument for time-resolved optical mammography operating at wavelengths longer than 900 nm has been developed. It is a scanning system that relies on the acquisition of time-resolved transmittance curves at 683, 785, 912, and 975 nm, with a total measurement time of ~5 min for an entire image. Breast structures and lesions can be discriminated based on the different absorption and scattering properties at the four wavelengths, which reflect different contributions of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, water, and lipids, as well as distinct structures. The system is currently used in a European clinical trial.

  3. Fabrication of Fiber-Optic Tilted Bragg Grating Filter in 40 nm Range with A Single Phase Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Joseph; Wang, Y.; Sharma, A.; Burdine, Robert V. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Fiber-optic Bragg grating filters are fabricated with a range of Bragg wavelength between 1296 and 1336 nm, using a single phase mask. 30 mW of continuous-wave light at 244 nm is used from a frequency-doubled argon-ion laser having an intracavity etalon. Gratings are fabricated by tilting the photosensitive fiber with respect to the phase mask up to an angle of 15 degrees. The variation of Bragg wavelength with the fiber-tilt is explained with a simple formula. High spatial coherence of 244 nm light makes it possible to displace the fiber as much as 6 mm in front of the phase mask and tilt the fiber by as much as 15 degrees. This results in nearly constant band-width and near 100% reflectively for all gratings throughout the 40 nm range.

  4. Ytterbium-doped fibre laser tunable in the range 1017 - 1040 nm with second-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Dontsova, E I; Kablukov, S I; Babin, Sergei A

    2013-05-31

    A cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped fibre laser has been tuned to shorter emission wavelengths (from 1040 to 1017 nm). The laser output power obtained has been compared to calculation results. We have studied frequency doubling of the laser in a KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) crystal with type II phase matching in the XY plane and demonstrated wavelength tuning in the range 510 - 520 nm. (lasers)

  5. Extended femtosecond laser wavelength range to 330 nm in a high power LBO based optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jintao; Gu, Chenglin; Wang, Chingyue; Hu, Minglie

    2016-06-13

    We experimentally demonstrate a compact tunable, high average power femtosecond laser source in the ultraviolet (UV) regime. The laser source is based on intra-cavity frequency doubling of a temperature-tuned lithium tribotate (LBO) optical parametric oscillator (OPO), synchronously pumped at 520 nm by a frequency-doubled, Yb-fiber femtosecond laser amplifier system. By adjusting crystal temperature, the OPO can provide tunable visible to near-infrared (NIR) signal pulse, which have a wide spectral tuning range from 660 to 884 nm. Using a β-barium borate (BBO) crystal for intra-cavity frequency doubling, tunable femtosecond UV pulse are generated across 330~442 nm with up to 364 mW at 402 nm. PMID:27410342

  6. Tunable semiconductor laser at 1025-1095 nm range for OCT applications with an extended imaging depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shramenko, Mikhail V.; Chamorovskiy, Alexander; Lyu, Hong-Chou; Lobintsov, Andrei A.; Karnowski, Karol; Yakubovich, Sergei D.; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2015-03-01

    Tunable semiconductor laser for 1025-1095 nm spectral range is developed based on the InGaAs semiconductor optical amplifier and a narrow band-pass acousto-optic tunable filter in a fiber ring cavity. Mode-hop-free sweeping with tuning speeds of up to 104 nm/s was demonstrated. Instantaneous linewidth is in the range of 0.06-0.15 nm, side-mode suppression is up to 50 dB and polarization extinction ratio exceeds 18 dB. Optical power in output single mode fiber reaches 20 mW. The laser was used in OCT system for imaging a contact lens immersed in a 0.5% intra-lipid solution. The cross-section image provided the imaging depth of more than 5mm.

  7. Mobility of Chromophores Absorbing Light in the 320-420 nm Range in Transparent and Cataract Lens Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halets-Bui, I. V.; Sukhodol, A. A.; Shcharbin, D. G.

    2014-11-01

    We have analyzed the spectral and kinetic characteristics of phosphorescence at room temperature on a millisecond time scale for transparent and cataract lens tissues. We have studied the nature of the change (with age and with cataract development in the lens tissues) in the molecular mobility of the products absorbing light in the 320-420 nm range.

  8. Air fluorescence measurements in the spectral range 300 420 nm using a 28.5 GeV electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Belov, K.; Belz, J.; Cao, Z.; Dalton, M.; Fedorova, Y.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Jones, B. F.; Jui, C. C. H.; Loh, E. C.; Manago, N.; Martens, K.; Matthews, J. N.; Maestas, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Smith, J.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Thomas, J.; Thomas, S.; Chen, P.; Field, C.; Hast, C.; Iverson, R.; Ng, J. S. T.; Odian, A.; Reil, K.; Walz, D.; Bergman, D. R.; Thomson, G.; Zech, A.; Chang, F.-Y.; Chen, C.-C.; Chen, C.-W.; Huang, M. A.; Hwang, W.-Y. P.; Lin, G.-L.

    2008-02-01

    Measurements are reported of the yield and spectrum of fluorescence, excited by a 28.5 GeV electron beam, in air at a range of pressures of interest to ultra-high energy cosmic ray detectors. The wavelength range was 300 420 nm. System calibration has been performed using Rayleigh scattering of a nitrogen laser beam. In atmospheric pressure dry air at 304 K the total yield is 20.8 ± 1.6 photons per MeV.

  9. A new bismuth-doped fibre laser, emitting in the range 1625 – 1775 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Dianov, E M; Firstov, S V; Alyshev, S V; Riumkin, K E; Shubin, A V; Medvedkov, O I; Mel'kumov, M A; Khopin, V F; Gur'yanov, A N

    2014-06-30

    CW lasing of a Bi-doped germanosilicate fibre in a wavelength range that covers the spectral region between the emission bands of Er and Tm fibre lasers has been demonstrated for the first time. (letters)

  10. Ion generation and CPC detection efficiency studies in sub 3-nm size range

    SciTech Connect

    Kangasluoma, J.; Junninen, H.; Sipilae, M.; Kulmala, M.; Petaejae, T.; Lehtipalo, K.; Mikkilae, J.; Vanhanen, J.; Attoui, M.; Worsnop, D.

    2013-05-24

    We studied the chemical composition of commonly used condensation particle counter calibration ions with a mass spectrometer and found that in our calibration setup the negatively charged ammonium sulphate, sodium chloride and tungsten oxide are the least contaminated whereas silver on both positive and negative and the three mentioned earlier in positive mode are contaminated with organics. We report cut-off diameters for Airmodus Particle Size Magnifier (PSM) 1.1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.6 and 1.6-1.8 nm for negative sodium chloride, ammonium sulphate, tungsten oxide, silver and positive organics, respectively. To study the effect of sample relative humidity on detection efficiency of the PSM we used different humidities in the differential mobility analyzer sheath flow and found that with increasing relative humidity also the detection efficiency of the PSM increases.

  11. Study of transitions in thulium atoms in the 410-420-nm range for laser cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Akimov, A V; Chebakov, K Yu; Tolstikhina, I Yu; Sokolov, A V; Rodionov, P B; Kanorsky, S I; Sorokin, V N; Kolachevsky, N N

    2008-10-31

    The possibility of laser cooling of thulium atoms is considered. The hyperfine structure of almost cyclic 4f{sup 13}6s{sup 2} (J{sub g} = 7/2) {r_reversible} 4f{sup 12}5d{sub 3/2}6s{sup 2} (J{sub e} = 9/2) and 4f{sup 13}6s{sup 2} (J{sub g} = 7/2) {r_reversible} 4f{sup 12}5d{sub 5/2}6s{sup 2} (J{sub e} = 9/2) transitions at 410.6 and 420.4 nm, respectively, is studied by the method of sub-Doppler saturation spectroscopy in counterpropagating laser beams. The hyperfine splitting of excited levels involved in these transitions is measured and the natural linewidths of these transitions are determined. The structure of the neighbouring 4f{sup 13}6s6p (J{sub e} = 5/2) and 4f{sup 12}5d{sub 5/2}6s{sup 2} (J{sub e} = 7/2) levels is studied for the first time by this method. The decay probabilities of the J{sub e} = 9/2 levels via channels removing atoms from the cooling cycle are calculated. It is found that the branching ratio for the strong transition at 410.6 nm (A = 6x10{sup 7} s{sup -1}) is smaller than 2x10{sup -5}, which makes this transition most promising for laser cooling. The laser cooling of atoms in a Zeeman cooler at this transition is simulated. The possibility of using a laser-cooled cloud of thulium atoms to study the metrological transition at 1.14 {mu}m is discussed. (laser cooling of atoms)

  12. Photoconductive response of type IIa diamond in the 222-353-nm range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Mahadevan; Lipatov, Evgenii E. I.; Parks, D.; Panchenko, Alexei N.; Schein, Jochen; Tarasenko, Victor F.; Thompson, J.

    2004-05-01

    Diamond radiation detectors (DRDs) operate on the principle of photoconductive response of the normally insulating, Type IIa diamond when dosed by electromagnetic radiation or high energy particles. As detectors, they offer fast response (~100 ps) and can handle high radiation doses (~1 GGy) without degradation. Diamond also offers significant advantages over semiconducting materials as a compact, bi-polar, high voltage switching medium because of its high dielectric strength and thermal conductivity. However, the wide band-gap of diamond and its normally insulating state impose stringent requirements on the trigger radiation that is used to make the diamond conductive. This paper describes a simple model for conduction in diamond, and compares this model with experimental conductivity as measured in a natural diamond Type IIa radiation detector that was irradiated by laser excitation at various wavelengths from 222-353 nm. The DRD geometry consisted of a 3x1x0.5 mm3 Type IIa diamond with metallization on the 3x0.5mm2 sides. The DRD was exposed to laser light in the orthogonal 3x1 mm2 plane. Agreement with the measured data is achieved by fitting a parameter (defined here as β) at the various irradiation wavelengths. This fitting parameter is itself a function of two physical quantities: α, the absorption coefficient of the diamond and ɛo, the ionization cost to produce a hole-pair. Using published values of α, we deduce values of ɛo and compare them with published values for Type IIa diamond in the deep UV to soft x-ray regions. This model also provides a basis for design of high voltage diamond switches that are triggered by near-bandgap (220-250 nm) UV radiation.

  13. The spectral opacity of triatomic carbon measured in a graphite tube furnace over the 280 to 600 nm wavelength range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, W. L.; Wells, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    The opacity of linear triatomic carbon (C3) was measured in a graphite tube furnace from 280 to 600 nm to supplement the earlier measurements of Brewer and Engelke. The spectral cross section was estimated from the opacities using temperature profiles determined pyrometrically and a revised heat of formation delta H = 198 kcal/mole). The cross section was found to be nonnegligible over the range 300 to 500 nm and the electronic oscillator strength based on the total cross section estimate was 0.02.

  14. Supercontinuum laser based optical characterization of Intralipid® phantoms in the 500-2250 nm range.

    PubMed

    Aernouts, Ben; Zamora-Rojas, Eduardo; Van Beers, Robbe; Watté, Rodrigo; Wang, Ling; Tsuta, Mizuki; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Saeys, Wouter

    2013-12-30

    A supercontinuum laser based double integrating sphere setup in combination with an unscattered transmittance measurement setup was developed and carefully validated for optical characterization of turbid samples in the 500-2250 nm wavelength range. A set of 57 liquid optical phantoms, covering a wide range of absorption and scattering properties, were prepared and measured at two sample thicknesses. The estimated bulk optical properties matched well for both thicknesses, and with theory and literature, without significant crosstalk between absorption and scattering. Equations were derived for the bulk scattering properties μ(s), μ(s)' and g of Intralipid® 20% which can be used to calculate the bulk scattering properties of intralipid-dilutions in the 500-2250 nm range. PMID:24514839

  15. Investigation of the lithium 670.7 nm wavelength range in the solar spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffau, Elisabetta; Mott, Alessandro; Harutyunyan, Gohar; Malherbe, Jean-Marie; Steffen, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Lithium is a key chemical element, with a chemical evolution that is different from that of most other elements. It is also very fragile, as it is destroyed by nuclear reactions with protons at temperatures higher than about 2.5 million K. According to standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis, only the isotope 7Li is produced in significant amounts, while the primordial abundance of the lighter isotope 6Li is negligible. Lithium is not produced by nucleosynthesis in normal stars, except in peculiar phases of stellar evolution (e.g. in AGB stars and Novae). Lithium may also be formed as a result of flares in the atmospheres of young, active stars. To investigate the history of Li production and depletion in the Galaxy, it is necessary to analyse stars of all ages, including those at solar metallicity. In this case, the spectroscopic determination of the Li abundance is complicated by the presence of other spectral lines overlapping with the Li doublet at 670.7 nm. The correct identification and knowledge of the atomic parameters of these blend lines is critical, especially if the 6LI/7Li isotopic ratio is to be derived. In this investigation, we consider several line lists of the blending components available in the literature and use them to compute synthetic spectra, performing the line formation computations both for the classical 1D Holweger-Mueller model and a CO5BOLD 3D hydrodynamical simulation of the solar atmosphere. The synthetic spectra are then compared to the solar spectrum observed at different limb angles. This allows us to check the quality of existing line lists, to find potentially misidentified blend lines, and to construct an optimized line list for solar-type stars.

  16. Preparation of aqueous colloidal mesostructured and mesoporous silica nanoparticles with controlled particle size in a very wide range from 20 nm to 700 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hironori; Urata, Chihiro; Ujiie, Hiroto; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2013-06-01

    Particle size control of colloidal mesoporous silica nanoparticles (CMPS) in a very wide range is quite significant for the design of CMPS toward various applications, such as catalysis and drug delivery. Various types of CMPS and their precursors (colloidal mesostructured silica nanoparticles (CMSS)) with different particle sizes (ca. 20-700 nm) were newly prepared from tetraalkoxysilanes with different alkoxy groups (Si(OR)4, R = Me, Et, Pr, and Bu) in the presence of alcohols (R'OH, R' = Me, Et, Pr, and Bu) as additives. CMSS with larger particle size were obtained by using tetrabutoxysilane (TBOS) and by increasing the amount of BuOH, which is explained by both the difference in the hydrolysis rates of tetraalkoxysilanes themselves and the effect of added alcohols on the hydrolysis rates of tetraalkoxysilanes. Larger amounts of alcohols with longer alkyl chains decrease the hydrolysis rates of tetraalkoxysilanes and the subsequent formation rates of silica species. Thus, the preferential particle growth of CMSS to nucleation occurs, and larger CMSS are formed. Highly dispersed CMPS were prepared by the removal of surfactants of CMSS by dialysis which can lead to the preparation of CMPS without aggregation. Therefore, the particle size control through the tuning of the hydrolysis rate of tetraalkoxysilanes can be conducted by a one-pot and easy approach. Even larger CMPS (ca. 700 nm in size) show relatively high dispersibility. This dispersibility will surely contribute to the design of materials both retaining nanoscale characteristics and avoiding various nanorisks.Particle size control of colloidal mesoporous silica nanoparticles (CMPS) in a very wide range is quite significant for the design of CMPS toward various applications, such as catalysis and drug delivery. Various types of CMPS and their precursors (colloidal mesostructured silica nanoparticles (CMSS)) with different particle sizes (ca. 20-700 nm) were newly prepared from tetraalkoxysilanes with

  17. ABSORPTION CROSS SECTION OF GASEOUS ACETYLENE AT 85 K IN THE WAVELENGTH RANGE 110-155 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Bing-Ming; Chen, Hui-Fen; Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Chen, Hong-Kai; Alam, M. S.; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Lin, Meng-Yeh

    2011-09-01

    Absorption spectra and absorption cross sections of gaseous acetylene, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, at 298 and 85 K were measured in the wavelength range 110-155 nm with a slit-jet system coupled to a synchrotron as a source of vacuum ultraviolet light. Using published spectral parameters of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, we simulated the absorption profile for the Rydberg transition to state 4R{sub 0} in the range 124.6-125.1 nm, according to which the temperature of the jet-expanded sample at stagnation pressure 200 Torr is 85 {+-} 5 K. Our cross sections of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} are applicable for determining properties sensitive to temperature for diagnostic work on Saturn and Titan.

  18. Differential and integral electron scattering cross sections from tetrahydrofuran (THF) over a wide energy range: 1-10 000 eV*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuss, Martina C.; Sanz, Ana G.; Blanco, Francisco; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Brunger, Michael J.; García, Gustavo

    2014-06-01

    Total, integral inelastic and integral and differential elastic cross sections have been calculated with the screening-corrected additivity rule (SCAR) method based on the independent atom model (IAM) for electron scattering from tetrahydrofuran (THF). Since the permanent dipole moment of THF enhances rotational excitation particularly at low energies and for small angles, an estimate of the rotational excitation cross section was also computed by assuming the interaction with a free electric dipole as an independent, additional process. Our theoretical results compare very favourably to the existing experimental data. Finally, a self-consistent set of integral and differential interaction CSs for the incident energy range 1 eV-10 keV is established for use in our low energy particle track simulation (LEPTS). All cross section data are supplied numerically in tabulated form.

  19. Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr2+:ZnS laser with ~300 nm tuning range.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won Bae; Choi, Sun Young; Zhu, Chunhui; Kim, Mi Hye; Kim, Jun Wan; Kim, Jin Sun; Park, Hyung Ju; Shin, Dong Ho; Jung, Moon Youn; Wang, Fengqiu; Rotermund, Fabian

    2016-09-01

    Graphene has proved to be an excellent broadband saturable absorber for mode-locked operation of ultrafast lasers. However, for the mid-infrared (mid-IR) range where broadly tunable sources are in great needs, graphene-based broadly tunable ultrafast mid-IR lasers have not been demonstrated so far. Here, we report on passive mode-locking of a mid-IR Cr:ZnS laser by utilizing a transmission-type monolayer graphene saturable absorber and broad spectral tunability between 2120 nm and 2408 nm, which is the broadest tuning bandwidth ever reported for graphene mode-locked mid-IR solid-state lasers. The recovery time of the saturable absorber is measured to be ~2.4 ps by pump-probe technique at a wavelength of 2350 nm. Stably mode-locked Cr:ZnS laser delivers Fourier transform-limited 220-fs pulses with a pulse energy of up to 7.8 nJ. PMID:27607680

  20. Background UV in the 300 to 400 nm region affecting the extended range detection of radioactive material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, William Carey

    The desire to find alternative methods for the detection of radioactive material at extended ranges has resulted in an increased interest in the detection of the air fluorescence resulting from the alpha or beta radioactive particle's interaction with molecules of air. Air fluorescence photons travel further than the radioactive particles, allowing for detections at longer distances. However, any detection of the ultraviolet (UV) air fluorescence is dependant on overcoming natural and man-made background UV to achieve favorable signal to noise ratios. This research describes laboratory and field experiments conducted to determine the background UV in the 300 to 400 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum for certain detection scenarios, and number of UV air fluorescence photons required to achieve detections with a certain confidence limit. The reflective, scintillation, and transmissive UV characteristics of some common materials are discussed and their contribution to a successful detection explored. Additionally, the contributions to the UV background from natural and man-made light sources are investigated. The successful outside optical detection of alpha and beta radioactive isotopes in the 300 to 400 nm region is possible in the lower part of the spectral region (i.e., near 316 nm), when there is no UV light from man-made sources in that band and only natural light exists. Alpha sources (i.e., 241Am) equal to or larger than 1.017 curies, theoretically can be detected with 95% confidence during nighttime scenarios with moonless overcast skies at a distances of 20 meters at 316 nm with the optical system assumed for these calculations. Additionally, where scintillators are available that can be employed near 90Sr radioactive sources, the detectable activities can be reduced by factors as high as 250. This allows for detections of sources in the millicuries. Tests results are presented for several common materials (e.g., polypropylene, high density

  1. Design concepts of monolithic metamorphic vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for the 1300–1550 nm spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, A. Yu. Karachinsky, L. Ya.; Novikov, I. I.; Babichev, A. V.; Nevedomskiy, V. N.; Bugrov, V. E.

    2015-11-15

    Possible design concepts for long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for the 1300–1550 nm spectral range on GaAs substrates are suggested. It is shown that a metamorphic GaAs–InGaAs heterostructure with a thin buffer layer providing rapid transition from the lattice constant of GaAs to that of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x}As with an indium fraction of x < 0.3 can be formed by molecular-beam epitaxy. Analysis by transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the effective localization of mismatch dislocations in the thin buffer layer and full suppression of their penetration into the overlying InGaAs metamorphic layer.

  2. Prediction of gasoline octane numbers from near-infrared spectral features in the range 660-1215 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.J.; Barlow, C.H.; Jinguji, T.M.; Callis, J.B.

    1989-02-15

    The feasibility of predicting the quality parameters of gasoline from its absorption spectrum in the wavelength range 660-1215 nm was investigated. In this spectral region, vibrational overtones and combination bands of CH groups of methyl, methylene, aromatic, and olefinic functions were observed. With the aid of multivariate statistics, the spectral features could be correlated to various quality parameters of gasoline such as octane number. As an example, multivariate analysis of the spectra of 43 unleaded gasoline samples yielded a three-wavelength prediction equation for pump octane that gave excellent correlations (R/sup 2/ = 0.95; standard error of estimate, 0.3-0.4 octane number; standard error of prediction, 0.4-0.5 octane number) with the ASTM motor determined octane numbers. Independent multivariate analysis using partial least-squares (PLS) regression yielded similar results. An additional set of nine samples from the Pacific Coast Exchange Group of the ASTM were examined for ten different quality parameters (research and motor octane numbers, Reid vapor pressure, API gravity, bromine number, lead, sulfur, aromatic, olefinic, and saturate contents). Regression analysis of the spectra results in correlation of nine of the ten properties with R/sup 2/ values ranging from 0.94 to 0.99 and standard errors near the independent reference test values.

  3. Full anterior segment biometry with extended imaging range spectral domain optical coherence tomography at 1340 nm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Johnstone, Murray; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We demonstrate an extended-imaging-range anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (eAS-OCT) system for the biometric assessment of full AS in human eye. This newly developed eAS-OCT operating at 1340-nm wavelength band is simultaneously capable of an imaging speed of 120 kHz A-line scan rate, an axial resolution of 7.2 μm, and an extended imaging range of up to 16 mm in air. Imaging results from three healthy subjects and one subject with a narrow-angle demonstrate the instrument’s utility. With this system, it can provide anatomical dimensions of AS, including central corneal thickness, anterior chamber width, anterior chamber depth, crystalline lens vault, crystalline lens thickness, angle opening distance (AOD500/AOD750), and the area described by the trabecular-iris space (TISA500/TISA750) at 500/750  μm. We also use eAS-OCT to image and quantify dynamic functional changes of the AS in response to a light stimulus that induces physiological pupillary changes as well as accommodative efforts that induce lens changes. The results show that the described eAS-OCT is able to provide full anatomical biometry for AS and is useful for the studies where the dynamic response of AS compartment to certain stimulus is required. PMID:24752381

  4. Third-harmonic generation with a more than 500 nm tunable spectral range in a step-index tellurite fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Weiqing; Cheng, Tonglei; Deng, Dinghuan; Xue, Xiaojie; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate third-harmonic generation (THG) with a tunable spectral range of more than 500 nm in a step-index tellurite fiber. Third-harmonic (TH) signals with a peak wavelength from 524 to 1043 nm are obtained in a 3 cm-long fiber when the fundamental wavelength shifts from 1560 to 3100 nm. To our knowledge, the tunable spectral range covering almost one octave is the widest tunable range of THG in fibers so far. The far-field patterns of the TH signals by 1560 nm to 2100 nm pumping are recorded by a charge coupled device camera, which are close to the fundamental mode profile. The THG in such a wide tunable range is attributable to the high nonlinearity of the tellurite fiber and the high pump peak power of the pump pulse.

  5. Indico 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Lopez, J. B.; Avilés, A.; Baron, T.; Ferreira, P.; Kolobara, B.; Pugh, M. A.; Resco, A.; Trzaskoma, J. P.

    2014-06-01

    Indico has evolved into the main event organization software, room booking tool and collaboration hub for CERN. The growth in its usage has only accelerated during the past 9 years, and today Indico holds more that 215,000 events and 1,100,000 files. The growth was also substantial in terms of functionalities and improvements. In the last year alone, Indico has matured considerably in 3 key areas: enhanced usability, optimized performance and additional features, especially those related to meeting collaboration. Along the course of 2012, much activity has centred around consolidating all this effort and investment into "version 1.0", recently released in 2013.Version 1.0 brings along new features, such as the Microsoft Exchange calendar synchronization for participants, many new and clean interfaces (badges and poster generation, list of contributions, abstracts, etc) and so forth. But most importantly, it brings a message: Indico is now stable, consolidated and mature after more than 10 years of non-stop development. This message is addressed not only to CERN users but also to the many organisations, in or outside HEP, which have already installed the software, and to others who might soon join this community. In this document, we describe the current state of the art of Indico, and how it was built. This does not mean that the Indico software is complete, far from it! We have plenty of new ideas and projects that we are working on and which we have shared during CHEP 2013.

  6. Radiance Temperatures (in the Wavelength Range 530 to 1500 nm) of Nickel at Its Melting Point by a Pulse-Heating Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaschnitz, E.; McClure, J. L.; Cezairliyan, A.

    1998-11-01

    The radiance temperatures (at seven wavelengths in the range 530 to 1500 nm) of nickel at its melting point were measured by a pulse-heating technique. The method is based on rapid resistive self-heating of the specimen from room temperature to its melting point in less than 1 s and on simultaneously measuring specimen radiance temperatures every 0.5 ms. Melting of the specimen was manifested by a plateau in the radiance temperature-versus-time function for each wavelength. The melting-point radiance temperatures for a given specimen were determined by averaging the measured temperatures along the plateau at each wavelength. The melting-point radiance temperatures for nickel, as determined by averaging the results at each wavelength for 25 specimens, are: 1641 K at 530 nm, 1615 K at 627 nm, 1606 K at 657 nm, 1589 K at 722 nm, 1564 K at 812 nm, 1538 K at 908 nm, and 1381 K at 1500 nm. Based on uncertainties arising from pyrometry and specimen conditions, the combined uncertainty (two standard-deviation level) is about ± 6 K for the reported values in the range 530 to 900 nm and is about ± 8 K for the reported value at 1500 nm.

  7. Analysis of the quasicontinuum band emitted by highly ionised tungsten atoms in the 4-7 nm range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madeira, Teresa Isabel; Amorim, Pedro; Parente, Fernando; Indelicato, Paul; Marques, José Pires

    2013-01-01

    Spectra emitted by highly ionized tungsten atoms from magnetically confined plasmas show a common feature: a narrow structured quasi-continuum emission band most prominent in the range 4-7 nm, which accounts for 40-80% of the radiated power. This band has been fairly well explained by unresolved transitions from groups 4 d-4 p, 4 f-4 d ( Δn = 0) and 5 d-4 f, 5 g-4 f and 5 p-4 d ( Δn = 1). In this work we use a Multi-Configuration Dirac-Fock code in Breit self-consistent field mode to compute level energies and transition probabilities for W27+ to W37+ ions contributing to this emission band. Intra-shell correlation was introduced in the calculation for both initial and final states and all dipole and quadrupole radiative transitions have been considered. The wavefunctions in the initial and final states are optimized separately and the resulting non-orthogonality effect is fully taken into account. The importance of some satellite lines was assessed. Together with the ionic distributions obtained by using the FLYCHK application and assuming that the initial states population depends statistically on the temperature we were able to synthesize plasma emission spectrum profiles for several electron temperatures.

  8. Optical properties of dental restorative materials in the wavelength range 400 to 700 nm for the simulation of color perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebel, Moritz; Povel, Kirsten; Cappius, Hans-Joachim; Helfmann, Jürgen; Meinke, Martina

    2009-09-01

    Aesthetic restorations require dental restorative materials to have optical properties very similar to those of the teeth. A method is developed to this end to determine the optical parameters absorption coefficient μa, scattering coefficient μs, anisotropy factor g, and effective scattering coefficient μs' of dental restorative materials. The method includes sample preparation and measurements of transmittance and reflectance in an integrating sphere spectrometer followed by inverse Monte Carlo simulations. Using this method the intrinsic optical parameters are determined for shade B2 of the light-activated composites TPH® Spectrum®, Esthet-X®, and the Ormocer® Definite® in the wavelength range 400 to 700 nm. By using the determined parameters μa, μs, and g together with an appropriate phase function, the reflectance of samples with 1-mm layer thickness and shade B2 could be predicted with a very high degree of accuracy using a forward Monte Carlo simulation. The color perception was calculated from the simulated reflectance according to the CIELAB system. We initiate the compilation of a data pool of optical parameters that in the future will enable calculation models to be used as a basis for optimization of the optical approximation of the natural tooth, and the composition of new materials and their production process.

  9. Optical absorption and scattering properties of bulk porcine muscle phantoms from interstitial radiance measurements in 650-900 nm range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabtchak, Serge; Montgomery, Logan G.; Whelan, William M.

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrated the application of relative radiance-based continuous wave (cw) measurements for recovering absorption and scattering properties (the effective attenuation coefficient, the diffusion coefficient, the absorption coefficient and the reduced scattering coefficient) of bulk porcine muscle phantoms in the 650-900 nm spectral range. Both the side-firing fiber (the detector) and the fiber with a spherical diffuser at the end (the source) were inserted interstitially at predetermined locations in the phantom. The porcine phantoms were prostate-shaped with ˜4 cm in diameter and ˜3 cm thickness and made from porcine loin or tenderloin muscles. The described method was previously validated using the diffusion approximation on simulated and experimental radiance data obtained for homogenous Intralipid-1% liquid phantom. The approach required performing measurements in two locations in the tissue with different distances to the source. Measurements were performed on 21 porcine phantoms. Spectral dependences of the effective attenuation and absorption coefficients for the loin phantom deviated from corresponding dependences for the tenderloin phantom for wavelengths <750 nm. The diffusion constant and the reduced scattering coefficient were very close for both phantom types. To quantify chromophore presence, the plot for the absorption coefficient was matched with a synthetic absorption spectrum constructed from deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin and water. The closest match for the porcine loin spectrum was obtained with the following concentrations: 15.5 µM (±30% s.d.) Hb, 21 µM (±30% s.d.) HbO2 and 0.3 (±30% s.d.) fractional volume of water. The tenderloin absorption spectrum was best described by 30 µM Hb (±30% s.d), 19 µM (±30% s.d.) HbO2 and 0.3 (±30% s.d.) fractional volume of water. The higher concentration of Hb in tenderloin was consistent with a dark-red appearance of the tenderloin phantom. The method can be applied to a number of biological

  10. SALINAS1.0

    2002-10-01

    Salinas isa general purpose finite element package for structural dynamics analysis, written pecifically for distributed memory computers. It has been used for the analysis of structures ranging MEMs, to weapons components to aircraft carriers. The package provides eigenanalysis, and implicit linear and nonlinear transient and static analysis of structures, and incorporates sensitivity analysis. A full range of structural elements is provided.

  11. Influence of oxygen saturation on the optical scattering properties of human red blood cells in the spectral range 250 to 2,000 nm.

    PubMed

    Friebel, Moritz; Helfmann, Jürgen; Netz, Uwe; Meinke, Martina

    2009-01-01

    The intrinsic optical parameters absorption coefficient mu(a), scattering coefficient micros, anisotropy factor g, and effective scattering coefficient micros were determined for human red blood cell (RBC) suspensions of hematocrit 33.2% dependent on the oxygen saturation (SAT O(2)) in the wavelength range 250 to 2,000 nm, including the range above 1,100 nm, about which there are no data available in the literature. Integrating sphere measurements of light transmittance and reflectance in combination with inverse Monte Carlo simulation were carried out for SAT O(2) levels of 100 and 0%. In the wavelength range up to 1,200 nm, the absorption behavior is determined by the hemoglobin absorption. The spectral range above the cells' absorption shows no dependence on SAT O(2) and approximates the absorption of water with values 20 to 30% below the respective values for water. Parameters micros and g are significantly influenced by the SAT O(2)-induced absorption changes. Above 600 nm, micros decreases continuously from values of 85 mm(-1) to values of 30 mm(-1) at 2,000 nm. The anisotropy factor shows a slight decrease with wavelengths above 600 nm. In the spectral regions of 1,450 and 1,900 nm where water has local absorption maxima, g shows a significant decrease down to 0.85, whereas micros increases. PMID:19566295

  12. Size-controlled synthesis of near-monodisperse gold nanoparticles in the 1-4 nm range using polymeric stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Irshad; Graham, Susan; Wang, Zhenxin; Tan, Bien; Sherrington, David C; Rannard, Steven P; Cooper, Andrew I; Brust, Mathias

    2005-11-30

    We report here a simple one-step protocol for the preparation of near-monodisperse gold hydrosols in the small size regime (<5 nm). The particle size can be controlled by varying the concentration of the stabilizing polymer, which can be readily displaced by thiol ligands to yield monolayer protected clusters of the usual type. PMID:16305218

  13. 10 GHz pulses generated across a ~100 nm tuning range using a gain-shifted mode-locked SOA ring laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, W. W.; Fok, M.; Shu, Chester

    2006-03-01

    Widely-tunable picosecond pulses have been generated from a harmonically mode-locked semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) ring laser with a center wavelength spanning from 1491 to 1588 nm. An intra-cavity birefringence loop mirror filter is used to define a 1.6 nm comb that governs the wavelength spacing of the tunable output pulses. The filter also serves to control the spectral gain profile of the laser cavity and thus extends the tuning range. By exploiting the spectral shift of the SOA gain with different amount of optical feedback, the output can be obtained over a wid wavelength range. Applying mode-locking together with the dispersion tuning approach, 10 GHz picosecond pulses have been successfully generated over a tuning range of 97 nm.

  14. Diode pumped Yb:CN laser at 1082 nm and intracavity doubling to the green spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Li, Y. L.; Jiang, H. L.

    2011-08-01

    A diode pumped Yb:CaNb2O6 (Yb:CN) laser at 1082 nm with a maximum output of 1.35 W at 13.3 W pump power has been demonstrated. The slope efficiency was 12.4%. Moreover, intracavity second-harmonic generation (SHG) has also been achieved with a maximum green power of 374 mW by using a LiB3O5 (LBO) nonlinear crystal. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on continuous wave (CW) green generation by intracavity frequency doubling Yb:CN laser.

  15. Photosensitivity of heavily GeO{sub 2}-doped fibres in the near UV range between 300 and 350 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Dianov, Evgenii M; Rybaltovsky, A A; Semenov, S L; Gur'yanov, A N; Khopin, V F

    2006-02-28

    The photosensitivity of a fibre doped with GeO{sub 2} with a molar concentration of 97% is studied in the near-UV region. It is found that the refractive index induced in this fibre exposed to low-intensity (150 W cm{sup 2}) radiation at wavelengths of 305.5 and 333.6 nm achieves a high value ({approx}1.5x10{sup 3}). It is shown that the photosensitivity increases with decreasing the irradiation wavelength. (optical fibres and waveguides)

  16. LASER COOLING OF ATOMS: Study of transitions in thulium atoms in the 410-420-nm range for laser cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimov, A. V.; Chebakov, K. Yu; Tolstikhina, I. Yu; Sokolov, A. V.; Rodionov, P. B.; Kanorsky, S. I.; Sorokin, V. N.; Kolachevsky, N. N.

    2008-10-01

    The possibility of laser cooling of thulium atoms is considered. The hyperfine structure of almost cyclic 4f136s2 (Jg = 7/2) <--> 4f125d3/26s2 (Je = 9/2) and 4f136s2 (Jg = 7/2) <--> 4f125d5/26s2 (Je = 9/2) transitions at 410.6 and 420.4 nm, respectively, is studied by the method of sub-Doppler saturation spectroscopy in counterpropagating laser beams. The hyperfine splitting of excited levels involved in these transitions is measured and the natural linewidths of these transitions are determined. The structure of the neighbouring 4f136s6p (Je = 5/2) and 4f125d5/26s2 (Je = 7/2) levels is studied for the first time by this method. The decay probabilities of the Je = 9/2 levels via channels removing atoms from the cooling cycle are calculated. It is found that the branching ratio for the strong transition at 410.6 nm (A = 6×107 s-1) is smaller than 2×10-5, which makes this transition most promising for laser cooling. The laser cooling of atoms in a Zeeman cooler at this transition is simulated. The possibility of using a laser-cooled cloud of thulium atoms to study the metrological transition at 1.14 μm is discussed.

  17. Metamorphic distributed Bragg reflectors for the 1440–1600 nm spectral range: Epitaxy, formation, and regrowth of mesa structures

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, A. Yu. Karachinsky, L. Ya.; Novikov, I. I.; Babichev, A. V.; Berezovskaya, T. N.; Nevedomskiy, V. N.

    2015-10-15

    It is shown that metamorphic In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/In{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.7}As distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) with a reflection band at 1440–1600 nm and a reflectance of no less than 0.999 can be fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on a GaAs substrate. It is demonstrated that mesa structures formed from metamorphic DBRs on a GaAs substrate can be regrown by MBE and microcavities can be locally formed in two separate epitaxial processes. The results obtained can find wide application in the fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with a buried tunnel junction.

  18. Heterogeneous quantum dot/silicon photonics-based wavelength-tunable laser diode with a 44 nm wavelength-tuning range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Yamada, Hirohito

    2016-04-01

    A heterogeneous wavelength-tunable laser diode combining quantum dot and silicon photonics technologies is proposed. A compact wavelength-tunable filter with two ring resonators was carefully designed and fabricated using silicon photonics technology. The tunable laser combining the wavelength-tunable filter and an optical amplifier, which includes InAs quantum dots, achieved a 44.0 nm wavelength-tuning range at around 1250 nm. The broadband optical gain of the quantum dot optical amplifier was effectively used by the optimized wavelength-tunable filter. This heterogeneous wavelength-tunable laser diode could become a breakthrough technology for high-capacity data transmission systems.

  19. Development of asymmetric epitaxial structures for 65% efficiency laser diodes in the 9xx-nm range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Moshe; Karni, Yoram; Rapaport, Noam; Don, Yaroslav; Berk, Yuri; Yanson, Dan; Cohen, Shalom; Oppenheim, Jacob

    2010-02-01

    High-power single emitters have recently become a viable alternative to laser diode bars for fiber pumping applications. Single emitters offer a tenfold increase in brightness over bars, and can be optically combined to scale the power towards 100 W with high brightness. Wall-plug efficiencies >60% are needed to warrant the use of fiber-coupled single emitters in fiber laser systems, which requires careful minimization of the optical loss, electrical resistance and operating voltage of the emitters. Epitaxial wafer design necessarily involves multiple trade-offs, since doping concentrations have opposing effects on the electrical resistance and optical losses. In this paper, we report asymmetric epitaxial waveguide designs for high-efficiency laser operation at 9xx nm. We present a simulation study of the influence of design parameters such as the number of quantum wells, doping profiles, and overlap integral of each epilayer. We also show that by introducing an auxiliary waveguide into the lower cladding, we can control the overlap of the optical mode with the doping profiles - as well as the vertical far-field - without compromising the electrical resistance. The optimized structures were grown and devices fabricated, with optical losses reduced to 0.5 cm-1, and resistivity to 6.5 Ohm×sq.cm. An optical power of 10 W with >60% efficiency was achieved from 100 μm stripe emitters.

  20. A new method to calculate the threshold temperature of a perfect blackbody to protect cornea and lens in the range of 780-3,000 nm.

    PubMed

    Madjidi, Faramarz; Mohammadi, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to IR-A and IR-B radiation, in the wavelength region of 780 nm to 3,000 nm, may lead to the development of cataractogenesis. Estimation of the exposure levels is the first step in controlling adverse health effects. In the present study, the irradiance of a hot blackbody emitter is replaced by its temperature in the exposure limit values for cornea and lens in the range of 780-3,000 nm. This paper explains the development and implementation of a computer code to predict a temperature, defined as Threshold Temperature, which satisfies the exposure limits already proposed by the ICNIRP. To this end, first an infinite series was created for the calculation of spectral radiance by integration with Planck's law. For calculation of irradiance, the initial terms of this infinite series were selected, and integration was performed in the wavelength region of 780 nm to 3,000 nm. Finally, using a computer code, an unknown source temperature that can emit the same irradiance was found. Exposure duration, source area, and observer distance from the hot source were entered as input data in this proposed code. Consequently, it is possible only by measurement of a Planckian emitter temperature and taking into account the distance from source and exposure time for an observer to decide whether the exposure to IR radiation in the range of 780 to 3,000 nm is permissible or not. It seems that the substitution of irradiance by the source temperature is an easier and more convenient way for hygienists to evaluate IR exposures. PMID:25437515

  1. Electron-impact excitation of argon: Optical emission cross sections in the range of 300-2500 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Boffard, John B. Chiaro, B.; Weber, Tobin; Lin, Chun C.

    2007-11-15

    We present measurements of optical emission cross sections for excitation from the ground state of the Ar atom into over 185 excited atomic and ionic levels. Measurements were made at electron energies of 25, 50, and 100 eV, at a gas pressure of 5 mTorr. Due to radiation trapping of resonance levels, many of the cross sections depend on the target pressure. Detailed pressure dependence for over 50 levels is also provided. The energy dependence of the excitation cross sections for over 175 levels in the energy range of 0-250 eV are provided as fitted parameters for a standard analytical function.

  2. Wide tuning range wavelength-swept laser with a single SOA at 1020 nm for ultrahigh resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Won; Song, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Moon-Youn; Kim, Seung-Hwan

    2011-10-24

    In this study, we demonstrated a wide tuning range wavelength-swept laser with a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) at 1020 nm for ultrahigh resolution, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (UHR, FD-OCT). The wavelength-swept laser was constructed with an external line-cavity based on a Littman configuration. An optical wavelength selection filter consisted of a grating, a telescope, and a polygon scanner. Before constructing the optical wavelength selection filter, we observed that the optical power, the spectrum bandwidth, and the center wavelength of the SOA were affected by the temperature of the thermoelectric (TE) cooler in the SOA mount as well as the applied current. Therefore, to obtain a wide wavelength tuning range, we adjusted the temperature of the TE cooler in the SOA mount. When the temperature in the TE cooler was 9 °C, our swept source had a tuning range of 142 nm and a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 121.5 nm at 18 kHz. The measured instantaneous spectral bandwidth (δλ) is 0.085 nm, which was measured by an optical spectrum analyzer with a resolution bandwidth of 0.06 nm. This value corresponds to an imaging depth of 3.1 mm in air. Additionally, the averaged optical power of our swept source was 8.2 mW. In UHR, FD/SS-OCT using our swept laser, the measured axial resolution was 4.0 μm in air corresponding to 2.9 μm in tissue (n = 1.35). The sensitivity was measured to be 93.1 dB at a depth of 100 μm. Finally, we obtained retinal images (macular and optic disk) and a corneal image. PMID:22108975

  3. Multispectral measurement of contrast in tissue-mimicking phantoms in near-infrared spectral range of 650 to 1600 nm

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Daniel; Zhang, Hairong; Kim, David M.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. In order to identify the optimal imaging conditions for the highest spatial contrast in biological tissue, we explored the properties of a tissue-mimicking phantom as a function of the wavelengths in a broad range of near-infrared spectra (650 to 1600 nm). Our customized multispectral hardware, which featured a scanning transmission microscope and imaging spectrographs equipped with silicon and InGaAs charge-coupled diode array detectors, allowed for direct comparison of the Michelson contrast obtained from a phantom composed of a honeycomb grid, Intralipid, and India ink. The measured contrast depended on the size of the grid, luminance, and the wavelength of measurements. We demonstrated that at low thickness of the phantom, a reasonable contrast of the objects can be achieved at any wavelength between 700 and 1400 nm and between 1500 and 1600 nm. At larger thicknesses, such contrast can be achieved mostly between 1200 and 1350 nm. These results suggest that distinguishing biological features in deep tissue and developing contrast agents for in vivo may benefit from imaging in this spectral range. PMID:25104414

  4. Chemical analyses of soil samples collected from the Sandia National Laboratories/NM, Tonopah Test Range environs, 1994-2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Deola, Regina Anne; Oldewage, Hans D.; Herrera, Heidi M.; Miller, Mark Laverne

    2006-05-01

    From 1994 through 2005, the Environmental Management Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), NV, has collected soil samples at numerous locations on-site, on the perimeter, and off-site for the purpose of determining potential impacts to the environs from operations at TTR. These samples were submitted to an analytical laboratory of metal-in-soil analyses. Intercomparisons of these results were then made to determine if there was any statistical difference between on-site, perimeter, and off-site samples, or if there were increasing or decreasing trends which indicated that further investigation may be warranted. This work provided the SNL Environmental Management Department with a sound baseline data reference against which to compare future operational impacts. In addition, it demonstrates the commitment that the Laboratories have to go beyond mere compliance to achieve excellence in its operations. This data is presented in graphical format with narrative commentaries on particular items of interest.

  5. Yb:CaGdAlO4 thin-disk laser with 70% slope efficiency and 90 nm wavelength tuning range.

    PubMed

    Beil, Kolja; Deppe, Bastian; Kränkel, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Thin-disk laser experiments with Yb:CaGdAlO(4) (Yb:CALGO) have been performed. A slope efficiency of 70% and an optical-to-optical efficiency of 57% could be achieved with a maximum output power of 30.7 W. These are so far the highest efficiencies obtained with this material. Furthermore, tuning experiments were carried out leading to a tuning range of 90 nm in total and 50 nm with more than 20 W of output power. This is to the best of our knowledge the widest wavelength tuning range of any material demonstrated at this power level. For all experiments the thermal evolution of the crystal surface temperature during laser operation was investigated. PMID:23722805

  6. Spectral emission properties of a laser-produced plasma light source in the sub-200 nm range for wafer inspection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambino, Nadia; Rollinger, Bob; Hudgins, Duane; Abhari, Reza S.

    2015-07-01

    The spectral emission properties of a droplet-based laser-produced plasma are investigated in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) range. Measurements are performed with a spectrograph that operates from 30 to 180 nm with a spectral resolution of 0.1 nm. The emission spectra are recorded for different metal droplet targets, namely tin, indium, and gallium. Measurements were performed at different pressure levels of the background gas. Several characteristic emission lines are observed. The spectra are also calibrated in intensity in terms of spectral radiance to allow absolute emission power estimations from the light source in the VUV region. The presented experimental results are relevant for alternative light sources that would be needed for future wafer inspection tools. In addition, the experimental results help to determine the out-of-band radiation emission of a tin-based extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. By tuning the type of fuel, the laser energies, and the background gas, the laser-produced plasma light source shows good capabilities to be operated as a light source that covers a spectral emission range from the EUV to the sub-200 nm range.

  7. Absolutely calibrated vacuum ultraviolet spectra in the 150-250-nm range from plasmas generated by the NIKE KrF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, J. F.; Feldman, Uri; Holland, G. E.; Weaver, J. L.; Mostovych, A. N.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Lehmberg, R.; Kjornarattanawanich, Benjawan; Back, C. A.

    2005-06-01

    High-resolution vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectra were recorded from plasmas generated by the NIKE KrF laser for the purpose of observing emission from the two-plasmon decay instability (TPDI) at 2/3 the NIKE wavelength (165nm). The targets were irradiated by up to 43 overlapping beams with intensity up to ≈1014W/cm2 and with beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence (ISI). The targets consisted of planar foils of CH, BN, Al, Si, S, Ti, Pd, and Au. Titanium-doped silica aerogels in Pyrex cylinders were also irradiated. The spectra of the target elements were observed from charge states ranging from the neutral atoms to five times ionized. The spectrometer was absolutely calibrated using synchrotron radiation, and absolute VUV plasma emission intensities were determined. Emission from the TPDI at 165-nm wavelength was not observed from any of the irradiated targets. An upper bound on the possible TPDI emission was less than 4×10-8 the incident NIKE laser energy. The NIKE laser radiation backscattered from the silica aerogel targets at 248nm was typically 6×10-6 the incident NIKE laser energy, and the spectral broadening corresponded to the 1-THz bandwidth of the ISI smoothing. The spectra from the moderately charged plasma ions (up to five times ionized), spectral linewidths, absolute continuum emission level, and slope of the continuum were consistent with plasma temperatures in the 100-300-eV range.

  8. Photoelectrons Escaping the Ionosphere During the WHI: An Alternative Method to Validate the Temporal and Spectral Variation of the Solar Irradiance in the 1-50 nm Range.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, W.; Stavros, E.; Richards, P.; Chamberlin, P.; Woods, T.

    2008-12-01

    We report observations of 10 eV to 1 keV photoelectrons produced by 1-50 nm solar irradiance during the Whole Heliosphere Interval (WHI). The observations were made from the FAST satellite at ~ 3,000 km. From March 20 to April 16, 2008 we found minimal (ie ~10%) variation in photoelectron flux at 25 eV, generated by EUV irradiance in the 27-31 nm range and large (i.e. >200%) variation in the photoelectron flux at 360 ev, generated by EUV irradiance in the 3 nm range. These variations are comparable to those found under more active solar conditions. We also compared the average photoelectron spectrum observed on April 14 with the solar irradiance observed from a rocket carrying a prototype of the SDO/EVE instrument on that day. The comparison was made using photoelectron fluxes calculated from the Field Line Interhemispheric Plasma (FLIP) code with the rocket spectrum as input. We found that the observed and calculated photoelectron spectra agree within 30% over all energies. This is a significant improvement from previous comparisons.

  9. Kayenta v. 1.0

    2009-06-09

    The Kayenta material model (previously named the Sandia GeoModel, see The Sandia GeoModel Theory and User's Guide, by A.F. Fossum and R.M. Brannon, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 2004, SAND2004-3226) is a unified general-purpose constitutive model that can predict material response over a wide range of material properties and strain rates. The model strikes a balance between first-principles micro-mechanics and phenomenological, homogenized, and semi-empirical modeling strategies. Being a unified theory, the model can simultaneously modelmore » multiple failure mechanisms, or it can duplicate simpler idealized yield models such as classic Von Mises plasticity and Mohr-Coulomb failure. Since publication of the GeoModel Theory and User's Guide the model has been extended to support material softening and failure, as well as thermodynamic effects. These extensions have generalized the application space of the model, and it is now capable of accurately modeling metals and metal-like materials in addition to rocks and rock-like materials.« less

  10. [Evaluation of the possibility of determining the maximum permissible intensity values for electromagnetic fields in the frequency range 0.1-10 MHz in accordance with the standards established by the COMECON Project 01.873.08.84].

    PubMed

    Aniołczyk, H; Koperski, A

    1987-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the requirements of the draft COMECON standard for 0.1-10 MHz frequencies with the hygienic regulations currently mandatory in Poland arouses some anxiety that certain groups of high-frequency devices, meeting national requirements, may not meet the requirements of the mentioned draft standard. To evaluate the possibilities of meeting the requirements of the mentioned draft by the high-frequency devices used in Poland, an analysis of real work conditions was carried out for approx. 450 industrial and electromedical appliances, as well as radio communication devices. The number of high-frequency devices which will not meet the COMECON standard requirements was estimated. In addition, the costs to be incurred for technological and organizational undertakings to meet the e-m working conditions pursuant to the COMECON standard requirements were calculated. PMID:3444423

  11. Rapid spectrum measurement at 3  μm over 100  nm wavelength range using mid-infrared difference frequency generation source.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masashi; Nishida, Yoshiki; Tadanaga, Osamu; Tokura, Akio; Takenouchi, Hirokazu

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate a broadband rapid scanning light source in the 3-μm region by using difference frequency generation (DFG). The DFG source consists of a module with quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides, a 1-μm-band wide swept range laser for the pump source, and a 1.5-μm continuous wave laser for the signal source. The sweep rate and the tuning bandwidth of this source are 20 kHz and 100 nm, respectively. This source enables us to evaluate the temperature dependence of absorbance of methane gas. PMID:27192241

  12. CCAIN, Version 1.0

    2005-05-26

    CCAIN, Version 1.0 Date: 06/15/2005 This software is an instantiation of Common Component Architecture (CCA) framework written in C. The framework is used to compose (create, register, destroy) C, C++, and Fortran components into a running CCA application. Language bindings are provided for F90 and F03 to allow codes in these languages to interface with the framework.

  13. Simulation of laser propagation through a three-layer human skin model in the spectral range from 1000 to 1900 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasouri, Babak; Murphy, Thomas E.; Berberoglu, Halil

    2014-07-01

    For understanding the mechanisms of low-level laser/light therapy (LLLT), accurate knowledge of light interaction with tissue is necessary. We present a three-dimensional, multilayer reduced-variance Monte Carlo simulation tool for studying light penetration and absorption in human skin. Local profiles of light penetration and volumetric absorption were calculated for uniform as well as Gaussian profile beams with different spreads over the spectral range from 1000 to 1900 nm. The results showed that lasers within this wavelength range could be used to effectively and safely deliver energy to specific skin layers as well as achieve large penetration depths for treating deep tissues, without causing skin damage. In addition, by changing the beam profile from uniform to Gaussian, the local volumetric dosage could increase as much as three times for otherwise similar lasers. We expect that this tool along with the results presented will aid researchers in selecting wavelength and laser power in LLLT.

  14. Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) Structures and Evolution analysis by Combination of Fractal Dimension of 3 Wavelength Lidar Signal and Range Correct Signal of 1064nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, L.; McCormick, M. P.; Su, J.

    2015-12-01

    Detection of the PBL heights and the PBL structure is very important for understanding the dynamic of the PBL since heat, water vapor and pollutions which come from the surface must transport through the PBL before they can affect the upper atmosphere. Fractal dimension (FD) retrieved from the three wavelengths lidar signals and the range- corrected signal (RCS) of 1064nm were used to analyses the PBL height and structure in Hampton University (HU, 37.02° N, 76.33° W). And the result shows that the new method has the potential to determine the top of different layer at same time. Combination of the FD and RCS signal also can be used to derive the structure of the PBL. Also the PBL evolution and the long time variety of the PBL in Hampton were analyzed. Wavelet covariance transform (WCT) was used to objectively determine the top and structure of the PBL from the FD signal and RCS signal.

  15. Optical absorption of carbon and hydrocarbon species from shock heated acetylene and methane in the 135-220 nm wavelength range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Absorption spectroscopy of carbon and hydrocarbon species has been performed in a shock tube at an incident shock condition for a wavelength range of 135-220 nm, in order to obtain information needed for calculating radiation blockage ahead of a planetary probe. Instrumentation consisted of high frequency response pressure transducers, thin-film heat transfer gages, or photomultipliers coupled by light pipes. Two test-gas mixtures, one with acetylene and the other with methane, both diluted with argon, were used to provide a reliable variation of C3 and C2H concentration ratio. Comparison of tests results of the two mixtures, in the temperature range of 3750 + or - 100 K, showed the main absorbing species to be C3. The wavelength for maximum absorption agrees well with the theoretical values of 7.68 eV and 8.03 eV for the vertical excitation energy, and a value of 0.90 for the electronic oscillator strength, obtained from the measured absorption band, is also in good agreement with the predicted value of 0.92.

  16. Gibraltar v 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    CURRY, MATTHEW LEON; WARD, H. LEE; & SKJELLUM, ANTHONY

    2009-11-18

    Gibraltar is a library and associated test suite which performs Reed-Solomon coding and decoding of data buffers using graphics processing units which support NVIDIA's CUDA technology. This library is used to generate redundant data allowing for recovery of lost information. For example, a user can generate m new blocks of data from n original blocks, distributing those pieces over n+m devices. If any m devices fail, the contents of those devices can be recovered from the contents of the other n devices, even if some of the original blocks are lost. This is a generalized description of RAID, a technique for increasing data storage speed and size.

  17. Gibraltar v 1.0

    2009-11-18

    Gibraltar is a library and associated test suite which performs Reed-Solomon coding and decoding of data buffers using graphics processing units which support NVIDIA's CUDA technology. This library is used to generate redundant data allowing for recovery of lost information. For example, a user can generate m new blocks of data from n original blocks, distributing those pieces over n+m devices. If any m devices fail, the contents of those devices can be recovered frommore » the contents of the other n devices, even if some of the original blocks are lost. This is a generalized description of RAID, a technique for increasing data storage speed and size.« less

  18. A laboratory study of the performance of the handheld diffusion size classifier (DiSCmini) for various aerosols in the 15-400 nm range.

    PubMed

    Bau, S; Zimmermann, B; Payet, R; Witschger, O

    2015-02-01

    In addition to chemical composition, particle concentration and size are among the main parameters used to characterize exposure to airborne ultrafine or nanoparticles. To assess occupational inhalation exposure, real-time instruments are recommended in recent strategies published. Among portable devices for personal exposure assessment in the workplace, DiSCmini (Matter Aerosol AG, Switzerland) has been identified as a potential candidate with its capacity to measure the airborne nanoparticle concentration and average particle size with good time-resolution. Monodisperse and polydisperse test nanoaerosols of varying compositions and morphologies were produced in the laboratory using the CAIMAN facility. These aerosols covered a range of particle sizes between 15 and 400 nm and number concentrations from 700 to 840,000 cm(-3). The aerosols were used to investigate the behavior of DiSCmini, comparing experimental data to reference data. In spite of a slight tendency to underestimate particle size, all particle diameters, number concentrations and surface area concentrations measured were in the same order of magnitude as reference data. Furthermore, no significant effect due to particle composition or morphology was noted. PMID:25366997

  19. Electrospray synthesis of monodisperse polymer particles in a broad (60 nm-2 μm) diameter range: guiding principles and formulation recipes.

    PubMed

    Almería, Begoña; Gomez, Alessandro

    2014-03-01

    This study reports on a methodology to control the size of polymer particles generated by the electrospray (ES) drying route, with emphasis on the generation of biodegradable polymer nanoparticles that are well suited for biomedical applications. The ability to produce spherical poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) particles with and without encapsulated active agent, with relative standard deviation not exceeding 15%, was demonstrated over a remarkably broad (60 nm-2 μm) diameter range. By judiciously choosing ES parameters and solution properties, we can control the monodispersity and the size of the obtained particles, tailoring it to a specific application. The main parameters affecting particle size include solution electrical conductivity, flow rate and initial polymer volume fraction. Quasi-monodispersity at both the micro- and the more challenging nano-scale was achieved by avoiding Coulomb fission in the spray droplets, via entanglement of the polymer chains within the droplets rather than by charge neutralization. Guiding principles in the formulation of the solutions to satisfy a multiplicity of constraints are provided along with an extensive database of "recipes". PMID:24407667

  20. Ultrafast laser with an average power of 120 W at 515 nm and a highly dynamic repetition rate in the MHz range for novel applications in micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harth, F.; Piontek, M. C.; Herrmann, T.; L'huillier, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    A new generation of resonant scanners in the kHz-range shows ultra-high deflection speeds of more than 1000m/s but suffer from an inherent nonlinear mirror oscillation. If this oscillation is not compensated, a typical bitmap, written point by point, would be strongly distorted because of the decreasing spot distance at the turning point of the scanning mirror. However, this can be avoided by a dynamic adaption of the repetition rate (RR) of the ultrafast laser. Since resonant scanners are operated in the 10 kHz-range, this means that the RR has to be continuously swept up to several 10 000 times per second between e.g. 5MHz and 10 MHz. High-speed continuous adaption of the RR could also optimize laser micromachining of narrow curved geometries, where nowadays a time consuming approximation with numerous vectors is required. We present a laser system, which is capable of sweeping the RR more than 32 000 times per second between 5MHz and 10MHz at an average output power of more than 120W at 515nm with a pulse duration of about 40 ps. The laser consists of a semiconductor oscillator, a 3-stage fiber pre-amplifier, a solid state InnoSlab power amplifier and a SHG stage. We systematically analyzed the dynamic of the laser system as well as the spectral and temporal behavior of the optical pulses. Switching the repetition rate typically causes a varying pulse energy, which could affect the machining quality over one scanning line. This effect will be analyzed and discussed. Possible techniques to compensate or avoid this effect will be considered.

  1. Optical absorption and scattering properties of bulk porcine muscle phantoms from interstitial radiance measurements in 650-900 nm range.

    PubMed

    Grabtchak, Serge; Montgomery, Logan G; Whelan, William M

    2014-05-21

    We demonstrated the application of relative radiance-based continuous wave (cw) measurements for recovering absorption and scattering properties (the effective attenuation coefficient, the diffusion coefficient, the absorption coefficient and the reduced scattering coefficient) of bulk porcine muscle phantoms in the 650-900 nm spectral range. Both the side-firing fiber (the detector) and the fiber with a spherical diffuser at the end (the source) were inserted interstitially at predetermined locations in the phantom. The porcine phantoms were prostate-shaped with ∼4 cm in diameter and ∼3 cm thickness and made from porcine loin or tenderloin muscles. The described method was previously validated using the diffusion approximation on simulated and experimental radiance data obtained for homogenous Intralipid-1% liquid phantom. The approach required performing measurements in two locations in the tissue with different distances to the source. Measurements were performed on 21 porcine phantoms. Spectral dependences of the effective attenuation and absorption coefficients for the loin phantom deviated from corresponding dependences for the tenderloin phantom for wavelengths <750 nm. The diffusion constant and the reduced scattering coefficient were very close for both phantom types. To quantify chromophore presence, the plot for the absorption coefficient was matched with a synthetic absorption spectrum constructed from deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin and water. The closest match for the porcine loin spectrum was obtained with the following concentrations: 15.5 µM (±30% s.d.) Hb, 21 µM (±30% s.d.) HbO2 and 0.3 (±30% s.d.) fractional volume of water. The tenderloin absorption spectrum was best described by 30 µM Hb (±30% s.d), 19 µM (±30% s.d.) HbO2 and 0.3 (±30% s.d.) fractional volume of water. The higher concentration of Hb in tenderloin was consistent with a dark-red appearance of the tenderloin phantom. The method can be applied to a number of

  2. White light tunable emissions from ZnS: Eu3+ nanophosphors over 330–465 nm excitation range for white LED applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahemen, I.; De, D. K.; Dejene, F. B.; Viana, B.

    2016-04-01

    (ZnS: Eu3+ - CMC) nanophosphors of cubic (zinc blende) structure were synthesized using a precipitation technique with doping concentrations of Eu3+ ions 1 mol% and 5 mol%. The crystal sizes were 2.56 nm and 2.91 nm respectively. Annealing at 300 °C in a sulfur-rich atmosphere altered the crystal size to 4.35 nm and 3.65 nm respectively and the band gap from 4.2 eV to 3.76 eV and 3.81 eV respectively. The as-synthesized samples gave pure orange-red emission when excited at wavelengths of 394 nm and 465 nm. After thermal annealing of the samples, a broad emission band in the blue-green region assigned to defect related states emerged or were enhanced. Also enhanced were the emission lines of Eu3+ ions in the orange-red region. A combination of these two transitions gave white light of different shades (recorded on the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram) from cool white through day-light to warm white light, depending on Eu3+ concentration and the excitation wavelengths (UV-330 to blue 465 nm), thus showing great potential of these nano-phosphors in the generation of high quality white light.

  3. Wavelength-resolved optical extinction measurements of aerosols using broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy over the spectral range of 445-480 nm.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weixiong; Dong, Meili; Chen, Weidong; Gu, Xuejun; Hu, Changjin; Gao, Xiaoming; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Weijun

    2013-02-19

    Despite the significant progress in the measurements of aerosol extinction and absorption using spectroscopy approaches such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), the widely used single-wavelength instruments may suffer from the interferences of gases absorption present in the real environment. A second instrument for simultaneous measurement of absorbing gases is required to characterize the effect of light extinction resulted from gases absorption. We present in this paper the development of a blue light-emitting diode (LED)-based incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) approach for broad-band measurements of wavelength-resolved aerosol extinction over the spectral range of 445-480 nm. This method also allows for simultaneous measurement of trace gases absorption present in the air sample using the same instrument. On the basis of the measured wavelength-dependent aerosol extinction cross section, the real part of the refractive index (RI) can be directly retrieved in a case where the RI does not vary strongly with the wavelength over the relevant spectral region. Laboratory-generated monodispersed aerosols, polystyrene latex spheres (PSL) and ammonium sulfate (AS), were employed for validation of the RI determination by IBBCEAS measurements. On the basis of a Mie scattering model, the real parts of the aerosol RI were retrieved from the measured wavelength-resolved extinction cross sections for both aerosol samples, which are in good agreement with the reported values. The developed IBBCEAS instrument was deployed for simultaneous measurements of aerosol extinction coefficient and NO(2) concentration in ambient air in a suburban site during two representative days. PMID:23320530

  4. Generation of high-power femtosecond supercontinua in the near-IR spectral range using broadband parametric frequency conversion in LBO and DCDA crystals pumped at λ = 620 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Podshivalov, A A; Sidorov-Biryukov, D A; Potemkin, F V

    2014-09-30

    The pump wavelength of parametric amplifiers based on CLBO, DCDA and LBO crystals and pumped by the second harmonic of a femtosecond Cr : forsterite laser (620 nm) is close to optimal for broadband amplification because of the proximity of group velocities of interacting pulses. Injection of a broadband continuum into the range of the signal-wave gain in LBO and DCDA parametric amplifiers, pumped at λ = 620 nm, leads to generation of broadband femtosecond pulses with a spectrum ranging from 1050 to 1600 nm and peak powers up to 20 MW. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  5. Generation of high-power femtosecond supercontinua in the near-IR spectral range using broadband parametric frequency conversion in LBO and DCDA crystals pumped at λ = 620 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podshivalov, A. A.; Potemkin, F. V.; Sidorov-Biryukov, D. A.

    2014-09-01

    The pump wavelength of parametric amplifiers based on CLBO, DCDA and LBO crystals and pumped by the second harmonic of a femtosecond Cr : forsterite laser (620 nm) is close to optimal for broadband amplification because of the proximity of group velocities of interacting pulses. Injection of a broadband continuum into the range of the signal-wave gain in LBO and DCDA parametric amplifiers, pumped at λ = 620 nm, leads to generation of broadband femtosecond pulses with a spectrum ranging from 1050 to 1600 nm and peak powers up to 20 MW.

  6. Poblano v 1.0

    2009-12-11

    Poblano is a Matlab toolbox of large-scale algorithms for nonlinear optimization. The algorithms in Poblano require only first-order derivative information (e.g., gradients for scalar-valued objective functions), and therefore can scale to very large problems [6].Poblano is a set of general purpose methods for solving unconstrained nonlinear optimization methods. It has been applied to standard test problems covering a range of application areas. The driving application for Poblano development has been tensor decompositions in data analysismore » applications (bibliometric analysis, social network analysis, chemometrics, etc.) [1].« less

  7. Simulation Method Linking Dense Microalgal Culture Spectral Properties in the 400-750 nm Range to the Physiology of the Cells.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Sarah; Bendoula, Ryad; Le Floc'h, Emilie; Carré, Claire; Mas, Sébastien; Vidussi, Francesca; Fouilland, Eric; Roger, Jean-Michel

    2016-06-01

    This work describes a method to model the optical properties over the (400-750 nm) spectral range of a dense microalgal culture using the chemical and physical properties of the algal cells. The method was based on a specific program called AlgaSim coupled with the adding-doubling method: at the individual cell scale, AlgaSim simulates the spectral properties of one model, three-layer spherical algal cell from its size and chemical composition. As a second step, the adding-doubling method makes it possible to retrieve the total transmittance of the algal medium from the optical properties of the individual algal cells. The method was tested by comparing the simulated total transmittance spectra for dense marine microalgal cultures of Isochrysis galbana (small flagellates) and Phaeodactylum tricornutum (diatoms) to spectra measured using an experimental spectrophotometric setup. Our study revealed that the total transmittance spectra simulated for the quasi-spherical cells of Isochrysis galbana were in good agreement with the measured spectra over the whole spectral range. For Phaeodactylum tricornutum, large differences between simulated and measured spectra were observed over the blue part of the transmittance spectra, probably due to non-spherical shape of the algal cells. Prediction of the algal cell density, mean size and pigment composition from the total transmittance spectra measured on algal samples was also investigated using the reversal of the method. Mean cell size was successfully predicted for both species. The cell density was also successfully predicted for spherical Isochrysis galbana, with a relative error below 7%, but not for elongated Phaeodactylum tricornutum with a relative error up to 26%. The pigments total quantity and composition, the carotenoids:chlorophyll ratio in particular, were also successfully predicted for Isochrysis galbana with a relative error below 8%. However, the pigment predictions and measurements for Phaeodactylum

  8. Fluorescent or not? Size-dependent fluorescence switching for polymer-stabilized gold clusters in the 1.1-1.7 nm size range.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Nicolas; Tan, Bien; Dickinson, Calum; Rosseinsky, Matthew J; Laromaine, Anna; McComb, David W; Stevens, Molly M; Wang, Yiqian; Petit, Laure; Barentin, Catherine; Spiller, David G; Cooper, Andrew I; Lévy, Raphaël

    2008-09-14

    The synthesis of fluorescent water-soluble gold nanoparticles by the reduction of a gold salt in the presence of a designed polymer ligand is described, the size and fluorescence of the particles being controlled by the polymer to gold ratio; the most fluorescent nanomaterial has a 3% quantum yield, a 1.1 nm gold core and a 6.9 nm hydrodynamic radius. PMID:18758601

  9. Effect of GaAsP barrier layers on the parameters of InGaAs/AlGaAs laser diodes emitting in the 1050-1100-nm spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Duraev, V P; Marmalyuk, Aleksandr A; Padalitsa, A A; Petrovskii, A V; Ryaboshtan, Yu L; Sumarokov, M A; Sukharev, A V

    2005-10-31

    To improve the parameters of laser diodes emitting in the 1000-1070-nm spectral range and develop highly efficient laser diodes emitting in the 1070-1100-nm range, it is proposed to introduce GaAsP barrier layers into the active region of the quantum-well InGaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure, which compensate for enhanced mechanical stresses. This considerably improves the luminescence characteristics of heterostructures and changes conditions for generating misfit dislocations. The long-wavelength lasing at 1100 nm becomes possible due to an increase in the thickness of quantum wells and in the molar fraction of InAs in them. The manufactured laser diodes emitting in the 1095-1100-nm range have low threshold currents, the high output power and high reliability. (lasers)

  10. UV spectroscopy of Titan's atmosphere, planetary organic chemistry and prebiological synthesis. II - Interpretation of new IUE observations in the 220-335 nm range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courtin, Regis; Wagener, Richard; Mckay, Christopher P.; Caldwell, John; Fricke, Karl-Heinrich

    1991-01-01

    The theoretical model developed by McKay et al. (1989) to characterize the size distribution, thermal structure, and chemical composition of the stratospheric haze of Titan is applied to new 220-335-nm albedo measurements obtained with the long-wavelength prime camera of the IUE during August 1987. Data and model predictions are presented in extensive graphs and discussed in detail. It is shown that a simple model with particles of one size at a given altitude does not accurately reproduce the observed features in all spectral regions, but that good general agreement is obtained using a model with a uniformly mixed layer at 150-600 km and a bimodal distribution of small 'polymer' haze particles (radius less than 20 nm) and larger haze particles (radius 100-500 nm). The number densities implied by this model require, however, a mechanism such as electrostatic charging or reaction kinetics to inhibit coagulation of the smaller particles.

  11. Broadband time-resolved diffuse optical spectrometer for clinical diagnostics: characterization and in-vivo measurements in the 600-1350 nm spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konugolu Venkata Sekar, Sanathana; Farina, Andrea; Martinenghi, Edoardo; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Taroni, Paola; Pifferi, Antonio; Durduran, Turgut; Pagliazzi, Marco; Lindner, Claus; Farzam, Parisa; Mora, Mireia; Squarcia, Mattia; Urbano-Ispizua, A.

    2015-07-01

    We report on the design, performance assessment, and first in vivo measurement of a Time-Resolved Diffuse Optical system for broadband (600-1350 nm) nm measurement of absorption and scattering spectra of biological tissues for non-invasive clinical diagnostics. Two strategies to reduce drift and enhance responsivity are adopted. The system was enrolled in a first in vivo test phase on healthy volunteers, carrying out non-invasive, in vivo quantification of key tissue constituents (oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, water, lipids, collagen) and tissue micro-structure (scatterer size and density).

  12. Tests of 250-nm pitch multilayer gratings in the XUV low-energy range on the Super-ACO Storage Ring at LURE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troussel, P.; Schirmann, D.; Dalmasso, J. M.; Malek, C. Khan; Berrouane, H.; Barchewitz, R.

    1992-04-01

    Two laminar amplitude multilayer gratings with 250-nm pitch were produced using UV holography and reactive ion etching. The diffraction properties of these structures were measured at 150 eV using synchrotron radiation. The experimental results, giving the position and absolute reflectivity of the various orders, are discussed within a kinematical model.

  13. 31 CFR 1.10 - Oral information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oral information. 1.10 Section 1.10... Disclosure Provisions § 1.10 Oral information. (a) Officers and employees of the Department may, in response to requests, orally provide information contained in records of the Department that are determined...

  14. 7 CFR 1.10 - Search services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Search services. 1.10 Section 1.10 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.10 Search services. Search services are services of agency personnel—clerical or professional—used in trying to find...

  15. 7 CFR 1.10 - Search services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Search services. 1.10 Section 1.10 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.10 Search services. Search services are services of agency personnel—clerical or professional—used in trying to find...

  16. 7 CFR 1.10 - Search services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Search services. 1.10 Section 1.10 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.10 Search services. Search services are services of agency personnel—clerical or professional—used in trying to find...

  17. 7 CFR 1.10 - Search services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Search services. 1.10 Section 1.10 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.10 Search services. Search services are services of agency personnel—clerical or professional—used in trying to find...

  18. 7 CFR 1.10 - Search services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Search services. 1.10 Section 1.10 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.10 Search services. Search services are services of agency personnel—clerical or professional—used in trying to find...

  19. Frequency doubled AlGaInP-VECSEL with high output power at 331 nm and a large wavelength tuning range in the UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzbäck, Thomas; Kahle, Hermann; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter

    2012-06-01

    We present a non-resonantly pumped vertical external cavity surface-emitting laser in a compact v-shaped cavity configuration. By using intra-cavity frequency doubling in combination with a birefringent filter, a tunable high power UV laser source with an emission wavelength around 335 nm is realized. The fundamental red laser emission is based on a metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy grown (GaxIn1-x)0.5P0.5/[(AlxGa1-x)yIn1-y]0.5P0.5 (abbr. GaInP/AlGaInP) multi-quantum-well structure. Five quantum well packages with four compressively strained quantum wells are placed in a separate confinement heterostructure in a resonant periodic gain design in strain-compensating quaternary AlGaInP barriers and cladding layers, respectively. The 3 λ cavity is fabricated on a 55 λ/4 pairs Al0.45Ga0.55As/AlAs distributed Bragg reflector. By using a beta barium borate non-linear crystal for second harmonic generation, output powers up to 150mWat a wavelength of 335 nm could be realized. Tuning of the laser resonance was accomplished with a birefringent filter. A tuning of 9 nm in the UV will be shown.

  20. Extractive spectrophotometry of the molybdenum (III) 1,10-phenanthroline thiocyanate and 2,2'-bipyridyl thiocyanate complexes.

    PubMed

    Bhadra, A K; Banerjee, S

    1973-03-01

    New extraction spectrophotometric methods for the determination of small amounts of molybdenum have been developed, using thiocyanate and 1,10-phenanthroline or 2,2'-bipyridyl as reagents in the presence of chlorostannous acid. Extracts of the ternary complexes of tervalent molybdenum in 1,2-dichloroethane obey Beer's law in the range 1-10 mug/ml at 525 nm. A 10-fold excess of iron and vanadium and 100-fold excess of tungsten, phosphorus and silicate do not interfere. PMID:18961283

  1. High-brightness diode pump sources for solid-state and fiber laser pumping across 8xx-9xx nm range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamant, Ronen; Berk, Yuri; Cohen, Shalom; Klumel, Genady; Levy, Moshe; Openhaim, Yaki; Peleg, Ophir; Yanson, Dan; Karni, Yoram

    2011-06-01

    Advanced solid state laser architectures place increasingly demanding requirements on high-brightness, low-cost QCW laser diode pump sources, with custom apertures both for side and end rod pumping configurations. To meet this need, a new series of scalable QCW pump sources at 808nm and 940nm was developed. The stacks, available in multiple output formats, allow for custom aperture filling by varying both the length and quantity of stacked laser bars. For these products, we developed next-generation laser bars based on improved epitaxial wafer designs delivering power densities of 20W/mm of emission aperture. With >200W of peak QCW power available from a full-length 1cm bar, we have demonstrated power scaling to over 2kW in 10-bar stacks with 55% wall plug efficiency. We also present the design and performance of several stack configurations using full-length and reduced-length (mini) bars that demonstrate the versatility of both the bar and packaging designs. We illustrate how the ROBUST HEAD packaging technology developed at SCD is capable of accommodating variable bar length, pitch and quantity for custom rod pumping geometries. The excellent all-around performance of the stacks is supported by reliability data in line with the previously reported 20 Gshot space-grade qualification of SCD's stacks.

  2. 36 CFR 1.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Symbolic signs. 1.10 Section... PROVISIONS § 1.10 Symbolic signs. (a) The signs pictured below provide general information and regulatory guidance in park areas. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either allowed or...

  3. 36 CFR 1.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Symbolic signs. 1.10 Section... PROVISIONS § 1.10 Symbolic signs. (a) The signs pictured below provide general information and regulatory guidance in park areas. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either allowed or...

  4. 36 CFR 1.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Symbolic signs. 1.10 Section... PROVISIONS § 1.10 Symbolic signs. (a) The signs pictured below provide general information and regulatory guidance in park areas. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either allowed or...

  5. 36 CFR 1.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbolic signs. 1.10 Section... PROVISIONS § 1.10 Symbolic signs. (a) The signs pictured below provide general information and regulatory guidance in park areas. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either allowed or...

  6. 36 CFR 1.10 - Symbolic signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Symbolic signs. 1.10 Section... PROVISIONS § 1.10 Symbolic signs. (a) The signs pictured below provide general information and regulatory guidance in park areas. Certain of the signs designate activities that are either allowed or...

  7. Linear and nonlinear transmission of Fe{sup 2+}-doped ZnSe crystals at a wavelength of 2940 nm in the temperature range 20–220 °C

    SciTech Connect

    Il'ichev, N N; Pashinin, P P; Gulyamova, E S; Bufetova, G A; Shapkin, P V; Nasibov, A S

    2014-03-28

    The linear and nonlinear transmission of Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe crystals is measured at a wavelength of 2940 nm in the temperature range 20 – 220 °C. It is found that, with increasing temperature from 20 °C to 150 – 220 °C, the transmission of Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe crystals decreases in the case of incident radiation with an intensity of ∼5.5 MW cm{sup -2} and increases in the case of radiation with an intensity of 28 kW cm{sup -2}. At a temperature of 220 °C, the linear transmission almost coincides with the nonlinear transmission. The transmission spectra of Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe crystals at temperatures of 22 and 220 °C in the wavelength range 500 – 7000 nm are presented. (active media)

  8. Enhancement of Spatial Thinking with Virtual Spaces 1.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauptman, Hanoch

    2010-01-01

    Developing a software environment to enhance 3D geometric proficiency demands the consideration of theoretical views of the learning process. Simultaneously, this effort requires taking into account the range of tools that technology offers, as well as their limitations. In this paper, we report on the design of Virtual Spaces 1.0 software, a…

  9. Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Robert

    2004-02-01

    Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version supports interactive selection and graphical display of data generated by the Sandia Cognitive Framework, which simulates the examination of security data by experts of various specialties. Insider Alert also encompasses the configuration and data files input to the Cognitive Framework for this application. Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version is a computer program for analyzing data indicative of possible espionage or improper handling of data by employees at Sandia National Laboratories (or other facilities with comparable policies and procedures for managing sensitive information) It prioritizes and displays information for review by security analysts.

  10. Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version

    2004-02-01

    Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version supports interactive selection and graphical display of data generated by the Sandia Cognitive Framework, which simulates the examination of security data by experts of various specialties. Insider Alert also encompasses the configuration and data files input to the Cognitive Framework for this application. Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version is a computer program for analyzing data indicative of possible espionage or improper handling of data by employees at Sandia National Laboratoriesmore » (or other facilities with comparable policies and procedures for managing sensitive information) It prioritizes and displays information for review by security analysts.« less

  11. L1(0)-FePd nanocluster wires by template-directed thermal decomposition and subsequent hydrogen reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, BZ; Marinescu, M; Liu, JF

    2013-12-14

    This paper reports the nanostructure, formation mechanism, and magnetic properties of tetragonal L1(0)-type Fe55Pd45 (at. %) nanocluster wires (NCWs) fabricated by thermal decomposition of metal nitrates and subsequent hydrogen reduction in nanoporous anodized aluminum oxide templates. The as-synthesized NCWs have diameters in the range of 80-300 nm, and lengths in the range of 0.5-10 mu m. The NCWs are composed of roughly round-shaped nanoclusters in the range of 3-30 nm in size and a weighted average size of 10 nm with a mixture of single-crystal and poly-crystalline structures. The obtained intrinsic coercivity H-i(c) of 3.32 kOe at room temperature for the tetragonal Fe55Pd45 NCWs is higher than those of electrodeposited Fe-Pd solid nanowires while among the highest values reported so far for L1(0)-type FePd nanoparticles. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  12. The LITHO1.0 Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M.; Masters, G.; Laske, G.; Ma, Z.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed LITHO1.0, a 1 degree model of the crust and uppermost mantle of the Earth which extends into the upper mantle to include the lithospheric lid and underlying asthenosphere. A description of the model and details of its construction were recently published in JGR (Pasyanos et al., 2014). The model is parameterized laterally by tessellated nodes and vertically as a series of geophysically identified layers, such as water, ice, sediments, crystalline crust, lithospheric lid, and asthenosphere. Model profiles are created by constructing an appropriate starting model and perturbing it to fit high-resolution surface wave dispersion maps (Love and Rayleigh, group and phase) over a wide frequency band (5-40 mHz). We will review the constructed model and compare it to a number of select studies at regional and global scales. We will also discuss avenues for future improvements if time and funding permit. The model and access tools are available to download at http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~gabi/litho1.0.html. Pasyanos, M.E., T.G. Masters, G. Laske, and Z. Ma (2014). LITHO1.0: An updated crust and lithospheric model of the earth, J. Geophys. Res., 119, doi:10.1002/2013JB010626.

  13. Design of a self-aligned, wide temperature range (300 mK-300 K) atomic force microscope/magnetic force microscope with 10 nm magnetic force microscope resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Karcı, Özgür; Dede, Münir

    2014-10-01

    We describe the design of a wide temperature range (300 mK-300 K) atomic force microscope/magnetic force microscope with a self-aligned fibre-cantilever mechanism. An alignment chip with alignment groves and a special mechanical design are used to eliminate tedious and time consuming fibre-cantilever alignment procedure for the entire temperature range. A low noise, Michelson fibre interferometer was integrated into the system for measuring deflection of the cantilever. The spectral noise density of the system was measured to be ~12 fm/√Hz at 4.2 K at 3 mW incident optical power. Abrikosov vortices in BSCCO(2212) single crystal sample and a high density hard disk sample were imaged at 10 nm resolution to demonstrate the performance of the system.

  14. Design of a self-aligned, wide temperature range (300 mK-300 K) atomic force microscope/magnetic force microscope with 10 nm magnetic force microscope resolution.

    PubMed

    Karcı, Özgür; Dede, Münir; Oral, Ahmet

    2014-10-01

    We describe the design of a wide temperature range (300 mK-300 K) atomic force microscope/magnetic force microscope with a self-aligned fibre-cantilever mechanism. An alignment chip with alignment groves and a special mechanical design are used to eliminate tedious and time consuming fibre-cantilever alignment procedure for the entire temperature range. A low noise, Michelson fibre interferometer was integrated into the system for measuring deflection of the cantilever. The spectral noise density of the system was measured to be ∼12 fm/√Hz at 4.2 K at 3 mW incident optical power. Abrikosov vortices in BSCCO(2212) single crystal sample and a high density hard disk sample were imaged at 10 nm resolution to demonstrate the performance of the system. PMID:25362401

  15. TSA RPM Simulator 1.0

    2009-12-02

    The software listed here is a simulator for TSA Radiation Portal Monitors with version 1.10.1A firmware. The simulator provides messages similar to those provided by this piece of equipment.To facilitate testing of the Second Line of Defense systems and similar software products from commercial software vendors, this software simulation application has been developed that simulate the TSA Radiation Portal Monitor that Second Line of Defense communications software systems must interface with. The primary use ofmore » this simulator is for testing of both Sandia developed and DOE contractor developed software.« less

  16. Amesos 1.0 reference guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, Marzio; Stanley, Ken D.

    2004-05-01

    This document describes the main functionalities of the Amesos package, version 1.0. Amesos, available as part of Trilinos 4.0, provides an object-oriented interface to several serial and parallel sparse direct solvers libraries, for the solution of the linear systems of equations A X = B where A is a real sparse, distributed matrix, defined as an EpetraRowMatrix object, and X and B are defined as EpetraMultiVector objects. Amesos provides a common look-and-feel to several direct solvers, insulating the user from each package's details, such as matrix and vector formats, and data distribution.

  17. TSA RPM Simulator 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Humphrey; & Johnson, ALfred

    2009-12-02

    The software listed here is a simulator for TSA Radiation Portal Monitors with version 1.10.1A firmware. The simulator provides messages similar to those provided by this piece of equipment.To facilitate testing of the Second Line of Defense systems and similar software products from commercial software vendors, this software simulation application has been developed that simulate the TSA Radiation Portal Monitor that Second Line of Defense communications software systems must interface with. The primary use of this simulator is for testing of both Sandia developed and DOE contractor developed software.

  18. Virtual planets atlas 1.0 freeware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, C.; Chevalley, P.

    2015-10-01

    Since 2002, we develop the "Virtual Moon Atlas -http://www.ap-i.net/avl/en/start" a freeware to help Moon observing and to improve interest for Moon in general public. VMA freeware has been downloaded near 900000 times all over the world and is or has been used by several professional organizations such as Kitt Peak Observatory, National Japan Observatory, Birkbeck College / University College London (K. Joy), BBC Sky at night, several French astronomy magazines and astronomy writers (P. Harrington, S. French...) . Recommended by ESA, registered as educational software by French ministry for education, it has also yet been presented at 2006 & 2007 LPSC and PCC2 in 2011 We have declined this freeware in a new tool with the same goals, but for the telluric planets and satellites, the "Virtual Planets Atlas (VPA / http://www.ap-i.net/avp/en/start") now in version 1.0.

  19. LAPACK users` guide: Release 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.; Bai, Z.; Bischof, C.; Demmel, J.; Dongarra, J.; Du Croz, J.; Greenbaum, A.; Hammarling, S.; McKenney, A.; Ostrouchov, S.; Sorensen, D.

    1992-01-31

    LAPACK is a transportable library of Fortran 77 subroutines for solving the most common problems in numerical linear algebra: systems of linear equations, linear least squares problems, eigenvalue problems and singular value problems. LAPACK is designed to supersede LINPACK and EISPACK, principally by restructuring the software to achieve much greater efficiency on vector processors, high-performance ``superscalar`` workstations, and shared-memory multi-processors. LAPACK also adds extra functionality, uses some new or improved algorithms, and integrates the two sets of algorithms into a unified package. The LAPACK Users` Guide gives an informal introduction to the design of the algorithms and software, summarizes the contents of the package, describes conventions used in the software and documentation, and includes complete specifications for calling the routines. This edition of the Users` guide describes Release 1.0 of LAPACK.

  20. Doppler-limited H2O and HF absorption spectroscopy by sweeping the 1,321-1,354 nm range at 55 kHz repetition rate using a single-mode MEMS-tunable VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, B. A.; Jayaraman, V.; Jiang, J. Y.; Cable, A.; Sanders, S. T.

    2012-09-01

    A single longitudinal mode micro-electro-mechanical system-tunable vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) was used to measure H2O and HF absorption spectra in the 1,321-1,354 nm range at 55 kHz repetition rate (˜ 740 MHz/ns tuning rate). Pulse delay referencing was used to achieve an absorbance noise level of 0.004 (RMS), within a factor of 2.6 of the shot noise limit. The measured linewidths approach the low-pressure feature linewidths (˜790 MHz) characteristic of the gases studied, highlighting the single-mode nature of the VCSEL throughout each rapid wavelength sweep. At even higher tuning rates, molecular features became asymmetric and broad, consistent with rapid passage and Fourier effects.

  1. Cpp Utility - Version 1.0

    2014-09-08

    A collection of general Umbra modules that are reused by other Umbra libraries. These capabilities include line segments, file utilities, color utilities, string utilities (for std::string), list utilities (for std ::vector ), bounding box intersections, range limiters, simple filters, cubic roots solvers and a few other utilities.

  2. Cpp Utility - Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    III, FredOppel; Rigdon, J. Brian

    2014-09-08

    A collection of general Umbra modules that are reused by other Umbra libraries. These capabilities include line segments, file utilities, color utilities, string utilities (for std::string), list utilities (for std ::vector ), bounding box intersections, range limiters, simple filters, cubic roots solvers and a few other utilities.

  3. 28 MHz swept source at 1.0 μm for ultrafast quantitative phase imaging.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoming; Lau, Andy K S; Xu, Yiqing; Tsia, Kevin K; Wong, Kenneth K Y

    2015-10-01

    Emerging high-throughput optical imaging modalities, in particular those providing phase information, necessitate a demanding speed regime (e.g. megahertz sweep rate) for those conventional swept sources; while an effective solution is yet to be demonstrated. We demonstrate a stable breathing laser as inertia-free swept source (BLISS) operating at a wavelength sweep rate of 28 MHz, particularly for the ultrafast interferometric imaging modality at 1.0 μm. Leveraging a tunable dispersion compensation element inside the laser cavity, the wavelength sweep range of BLISS can be tuned from ~10 nm to ~63 nm. It exhibits a good intensity stability, which is quantified by the ratio of standard deviation to the mean of the pulse intensity, i.e. 1.6%. Its excellent wavelength repeatability, <0.05% per sweep, enables the single-shot imaging at an ultrafast line-scan rate without averaging. To showcase its potential applications, it is applied to the ultrafast (28-MHz line-scan rate) interferometric time-stretch (iTS) microscope to provide quantitative morphological information on a biological specimen at a lateral resolution of 1.2 μm. This fiber-based inertia-free swept source is demonstrated to be robust and broadband, and can be applied to other established imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), of which an axial resolution better than 12 μm can be achieved. PMID:26504636

  4. 28 MHz swept source at 1.0 μm for ultrafast quantitative phase imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaoming; Lau, Andy K. S.; Xu, Yiqing; Tsia, Kevin K.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging high-throughput optical imaging modalities, in particular those providing phase information, necessitate a demanding speed regime (e.g. megahertz sweep rate) for those conventional swept sources; while an effective solution is yet to be demonstrated. We demonstrate a stable breathing laser as inertia-free swept source (BLISS) operating at a wavelength sweep rate of 28 MHz, particularly for the ultrafast interferometric imaging modality at 1.0 μm. Leveraging a tunable dispersion compensation element inside the laser cavity, the wavelength sweep range of BLISS can be tuned from ~10 nm to ~63 nm. It exhibits a good intensity stability, which is quantified by the ratio of standard deviation to the mean of the pulse intensity, i.e. 1.6%. Its excellent wavelength repeatability, <0.05% per sweep, enables the single-shot imaging at an ultrafast line-scan rate without averaging. To showcase its potential applications, it is applied to the ultrafast (28-MHz line-scan rate) interferometric time-stretch (iTS) microscope to provide quantitative morphological information on a biological specimen at a lateral resolution of 1.2 μm. This fiber-based inertia-free swept source is demonstrated to be robust and broadband, and can be applied to other established imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), of which an axial resolution better than 12 μm can be achieved. PMID:26504636

  5. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography of multi-MHz A-scan rates at 1310 nm range and real-time 4D-display up to 41 volumes/second

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dong-hak; Hiro-Oka, Hideaki; Shimizu, Kimiya; Ohbayashi, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    An ultrafast frequency domain optical coherence tomography system was developed at A-scan rates between 2.5 and 10 MHz, a B-scan rate of 4 or 8 kHz, and volume-rates between 12 and 41 volumes/second. In the case of the worst duty ratio of 10%, the averaged A-scan rate was 1 MHz. Two optical demultiplexers at a center wavelength of 1310 nm were used for linear-k spectral dispersion and simultaneous differential signal detection at 320 wavelengths. The depth-range, sensitivity, sensitivity roll-off by 6 dB, and axial resolution were 4 mm, 97 dB, 6 mm, and 23 μm, respectively. Using FPGAs for FFT and a GPU for volume rendering, a real-time 4D display was demonstrated at a rate up to 41 volumes/second for an image size of 256 (axial) × 128 × 128 (lateral) voxels. PMID:23243560

  6. EDM 1.0: electron direct methods.

    PubMed

    Kilaas, R; Marks, L D; Own, C S

    2005-02-01

    A computer program designed to provide a number of quantitative analysis tools for high-resolution imaging and electron diffraction data is described. The program includes basic image manipulation, both real space and reciprocal space image processing, Wiener-filtering, symmetry averaging, methods for quantification of electron diffraction patterns and two-dimensional direct methods. The program consists of a number of sub-programs written in a combination of C++, C and Fortran. It can be downloaded either as GNU source code or as binaries and has been compiled and verified on a wide range of platforms, both Unix based and PC's. Elements of the design philosophy as well as future possible extensions are described. PMID:15639355

  7. 16 CFR 1.10 - Advance notice of proposed rulemaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advance notice of proposed rulemaking. 1.10 Section 1.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Rules and Rulemaking Under Section 18(a)(1)(B) of the FTC Act § 1.10 Advance notice...

  8. A comparative assessment of solar thermal electric power plants in the 1-10 MWe range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, L. S.; Revere, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    The candidate power system technologies were ranked in terms of the cost of electric energy each system produces. In all cases, it was assumed that development programs would result in mature power plant systems that could be commercially manufactured. The results of the study, a brief description of the systems examined, and the methodologies used are presented.

  9. Spectrophotometric Determination of Labetalol and Lercanidipine in Pure Form and in Pharmaceutical Preparations Using Ferric-1,10-Phenanthroline

    PubMed Central

    Abu El-Enin, M. A.; El-Wasseef, D. R.; El-Sherbiny, D. T.; El-Ashry, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of labetalol HCl (LBT) and lercanidipine HCl (LER) in pure form and in dosage forms. The method was based upon oxidation of the LBT and LER with Fe+3 and the estimation of the produced Fe+2 with 1,10-phenanthroline. The absorbance of the tris(1,10-phenanthroline) Fe+2 complex was measured at 510 nm. Reaction conditions were optimized to obtain colored complex of higher sensitivity and longer stability. The absorbance concentration plots were rectilinear over the concentration rang of 5–90 and 1–20 μg/mL with lower detection limits of 0.74 and 0.01 μg/mL and quantification limits of 2.26 and 0.02 μg/mL for LBT and LER, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of LBT and LER in bulk drugs and dosage forms. The common excipients and additives did not interfere in their determinations. There was no significant difference between the results obtained by the proposed and the reference methods regarding Student t-test and the variance ratio F-test. PMID:23675146

  10. A novel 1,10-seco withanolide from Physalis peruviana.

    PubMed

    Fang, Sheng-Tao; Liu, Ji-Kai; Li, Bo

    2010-07-01

    A novel 1,10-seco withanolide, 1,10-seco withaperuvin C (1), together with four known withanolides, 4 beta-hydroxywithanolide E (2), visconolide (3), withanolide F (4), and withaphysanolide (5), was isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis peruviana. The structures of compounds 1-5 were determined on the basis of spectroscopic methods including extensive 1D and 2D NMR analysis. In addition, the possible biogenetic relationships among these five withanolides are discussed. PMID:20628942

  11. Photodissociation of van der Waals clusters of isoprene with oxygen, C{sub 5}H{sub 8}-O{sub 2}, in the wavelength range 213-277 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Vidma, Konstantin V.; Frederix, Pim W. J. M.; Parker, David H.; Baklanov, Alexey V.

    2012-08-07

    The speed and angular distribution of O atoms arising from the photofragmentation of C{sub 5}H{sub 8}-O{sub 2}, the isoprene-oxygen van der Waals complex, in the wavelength region of 213-277 nm has been studied with the use of a two-color dissociation-probe method and the velocity map imaging technique. Dramatic enhancement in the O atoms photo-generation cross section in comparison with the photodissociation of individual O{sub 2} molecules has been observed. Velocity map images of these 'enhanced' O atoms consisted of five channels, different in their kinetic energy, angular distribution, and wavelength dependence. Three channels are deduced to be due to the one-quantum excitation of the C{sub 5}H{sub 8}-O{sub 2} complex into the perturbed Herzberg III state ({sup 3}{Delta}{sub u}) of O{sub 2}. This excitation results in the prompt dissociation of the complex giving rise to products C{sub 5}H{sub 8}+O+O when the energy of exciting quantum is higher than the complex photodissociation threshold, which is found to be 41740 {+-} 200 cm{sup -1} (239.6{+-}1.2 nm). This last threshold corresponds to the photodissociation giving rise to an unexcited isoprene molecule. The second channel, with threshold shifted to the blue by 1480 {+-} 280 cm{sup -1}, corresponds to dissociation with formation of rovibrationally excited isoprene. A third channel was observed at wavelengths up to 243 nm with excitation below the upper photodissociation threshold. This channel is attributed to dissociation with the formation of a bound O atom C{sub 5}H{sub 8}-O{sub 2}+hv{yields} C{sub 5}H{sub 8}-O{sub 2}({sup 3}{Delta}{sub u}) {yields} C{sub 5}H{sub 8}O + O and/or to dissociation of O{sub 2} with borrowing of the lacking energy from incompletely cooled complex internal degrees of freedom C{sub 5}H{sub 8}{sup *}-O{sub 2}+hv{yields} C{sub 5}H{sub 8}{sup *}-O{sub 2}({sup 3}{Delta}{sub u}) {yields} C{sub 5}H{sub 8}+ O + O. The kinetic energy of the O atoms arising in two other observed channels

  12. UV - ALBUQUERQUE NM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brewer 109 is located in Albuquerque NM, measuring ultraviolet solar radiation. Irradiance and column ozone are derived from this data. Ultraviolet solar radiation is measured with a Brewer Mark IV, single-monochrometer, spectrophotometer manufactured by SCI-TEC Instruments, Inc....

  13. MULTIPLE PROJECTIONS SYSTEM (MPS) - USER'S MANUAL VERSION 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a user's manual for version 1.0 of the Multiple Projections Systems (MPS), a computer system that can perform "what if" scenario analysis and report the final results (i.e., Rate of Further Progress - ROP - inventories) to EPA (i.e., the Aerometric Information Retri...

  14. Quick Overview Scout 2008 Version 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Scout 2008 version 1.0 statistical software package has been updated from past DOS and Windows versions to provide classical and robust univariate and multivariate graphical and statistical methods that are not typically available in commercial or freeware statistical softwar...

  15. Scout 2008 Version 1.0 User Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Scout 2008 version 1.0 software package provides a wide variety of classical and robust statistical methods that are not typically available in other commercial software packages. A major part of Scout deals with classical, robust, and resistant univariate and multivariate ou...

  16. 27 CFR 1.10 - Meaning of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Meaning of terms. 1.10... Meaning of terms. As used in this part, unless the context otherwise requires, terms shall have the meaning ascribed in this part. Act. The Federal Alcohol Administration Act. Administrator....

  17. 27 CFR 1.10 - Meaning of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Meaning of terms. 1.10... Meaning of terms. As used in this part, unless the context otherwise requires, terms shall have the meaning ascribed in this part. Act. The Federal Alcohol Administration Act. Administrator....

  18. 27 CFR 1.10 - Meaning of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Meaning of terms. 1.10... Meaning of terms. As used in this part, unless the context otherwise requires, terms shall have the meaning ascribed in this part. Act. The Federal Alcohol Administration Act. Administrator....

  19. 27 CFR 1.10 - Meaning of terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of terms. 1.10... Meaning of terms. As used in this part, unless the context otherwise requires, terms shall have the meaning ascribed in this part. Act. The Federal Alcohol Administration Act. Administrator....

  20. 41 CFR 60-1.10 - Foreign government practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (see 41 CFR 60-1.5(a)(3)). Therefore, a contractor hiring workers in the United States for either... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foreign government... Clause; Compliance Reports § 60-1.10 Foreign government practices. Contractors shall not discriminate...

  1. IDC Use Case Model Survey Version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Dorthe B.; Harris, James M.

    2014-12-01

    This document contains the brief descriptions for the actors and use cases contained in the IDC Use Case Model Survey. REVISIONS Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Re- engineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  2. 26 CFR 2.1-10 - Withdrawals from fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MARITIME CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUND § 2.1-10 Withdrawals from fund. (a) Withdrawals for obligations or... the construction or acquisition of a new vessel or vessels or for the liquidation of existing or... contract for the construction or acquisition of a new vessel or vessels or for the liquidation of...

  3. 26 CFR 2.1-10 - Withdrawals from fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MARITIME CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUND § 2.1-10 Withdrawals from fund. (a) Withdrawals for obligations or... the construction or acquisition of a new vessel or vessels or for the liquidation of existing or... contract for the construction or acquisition of a new vessel or vessels or for the liquidation of...

  4. Synthesis and characterization of a new photoluminescent material, tris-[1-10 phenanthroline] aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rahul; Dvivedi, Avanish; Bhargava, Parag

    2016-05-01

    A new photoluminescent material namely tris-[1-10 Phenanthroline] Aluminium Al(Phen)3 has been synthesized and characterized. This material was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR),nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR),mass spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA),ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy(UV) and photoluminescence (PL). This material shows thermal stability up to 300°C. This material showed absorption maxima at 352nm which may be attributed to the moderate energy (π-π*) transition. Photoluminescence spectra for this material showed the most intense peak at 423 nm and the time resolved photoluminescence spectra showed two life time components. The decay times of the first and second component were 1.4ns and 4.8 ns respectively.

  5. A brief introduction to BNU-HESM1.0 and its earth surface temperature simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shili; Dong, Wenjie; Chou, Jieming; Feng, Jinming; Yan, Xiaodong; Wei, Zhigang; Yuan, Wenping; Guo, Yan; Tang, Yanli; Hu, Jiacong

    2015-12-01

    Integrated assessment models and coupled earth system models both have their limitations in understanding the interactions between human activity and the physical earth system. In this paper, a new human-earth system model, BNU-HESM1.0, constructed by combining the economic and climate damage components of the Dynamic Integrated Model of Climate Change and Economy to the BNU-ESM model, is introduced. The ability of BNU-HESM1.0 in simulating the global CO2 concentration and surface temperature is also evaluated. We find that, compared to observation, BNU-HESM1.0 underestimates the global CO2 concentration and its rising trend during 1965-2005, due to the uncertainty in the economic components. However, the surface temperature simulated by BNU-HESM1.0 is much closer to observation, resulting from the overestimates of surface temperature by the original BNU-ESM model. The uncertainty of BNU-ESM falls within the range of present earth system uncertainty, so it is the economic and climate damage component of BNU-HESM1.0 that needs to be improved through further study. However, the main purpose of this paper is to introduce a new approach to investigate the complex relationship between human activity and the earth system. It is hoped that it will inspire further ideas that prove valuable in guiding human activities appropriate for a sustainable future climate.

  6. Albuquerque, NM, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Albuquerque, NM (35.0N, 106.5W) is situated on the edge of the Rio Grande River and flood plain which cuts across the image. The reddish brown surface of the Albuquerque Basin is a fault depression filled with ancient alluvial fan and lake bed sediments. On the slopes of the Manzano Mountains to the east of Albuquerque, juniper and other timber of the Cibola National Forest can be seen as contrasting dark tones of vegetation.

  7. Visual Sample Plan Version 1.0 User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, James R.; Hassig, Nancy L.; Wilson, John E.; Gilbert, Richard O.

    2001-04-13

    This user's guide describes Visual Sample Plan (VSP) Version 1.0 and provides instructions for using the software. VSP selects the appropriate number and location of environmental samples to ensure that the results of statistical tests performed to provide input to environmental decisions have the required confidence and performance. VSP Version 1.0 provides sample-size equations or algorithms needed by specific statistical tests appropriate for specific environmental sampling objectives. The easy-to-use program is highly visual and graphic. VSP runs on personal computers with Microsoft Windows operating systems (95, 98, Millenium Edition, 2000, and Windows NT). Designed primarily for project managers and users without expertise in statistics, VSP is applicable to any two-dimensional geographical population to be sampled (e.g., surface soil, a defined layer of subsurface soil, building surfaces, water bodies, and other similar applications) for studies of environmental quality.

  8. Visual Sample Plan Version 1.0 User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Jim Jr.; Hassig, Nancy L; Gilbert, Richard O

    2001-04-13

    This user's guide describes Visual Sample Plan (VSP) Version 1.0 and provides instructions for using the software. VSP selects the appropriate number and location of environmental samples to ensure that the results of statistical tests performed to provide input to environmental decisions have the required confidence and performance. VSP Version 1.0 provides sample-size equations or algorithms needed by specific statistical tests appropriate for specific environmental sampling objectives. The easy-to-use program is highly visual and graphic. VSP runs on personal computers with Microsoft Windows operating systems (95, 98, Millenium Edition, 2000, and Windows NT). Designed primarily for project managers and users without expertise in statistics, VSP is applicable to any two-dimensional geographical population to be sampled (e.g., surface soil, a defined layer of subsurface soil, building surfaces, water bodies, and other similar applications) for studies of environmental quality .

  9. Bayesian Analysis Toolkit: 1.0 and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaujean, Frederik; Caldwell, Allen; Greenwald, D.; Kluth, S.; Kröninger, Kevin; Schulz, O.

    2015-12-01

    The Bayesian Analysis Toolkit is a C++ package centered around Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampling. It is used in high-energy physics analyses by experimentalists and theorists alike. The software has matured over the last few years. We present new features to enter version 1.0, then summarize some of the software-engineering lessons learned and give an outlook on future versions.

  10. Smov Fos/fgs Fine Alignment (1.0 Reference)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, Anne

    1994-01-01

    The goal is to measure the precise aperture locations and sizes of the 1.0 aperture. The analysis of the observations will result in database changes to the table of aperture locations. Precise aperture locations will be determined by performing a raster step and dwell sequence in the FOS apertures along the edges of the apertures. An aperture map is required at each step of the dwell sequence. This test has to be conducted for both the RED and BLUE detectors.

  11. Babel 1.0 Release Criteria: A Working Document

    SciTech Connect

    Kumfert, G; Dahlgren, T; Epperly, T; Leek, J

    2004-10-19

    In keeping with the Open Source tradition, we want our Babel 1.0 release to indicate a certain level of capability, maturity, and stability. From our first release (version 0.5.0) in July of 2001 to our current (18th) release (version 0.9.6) we have continued to add capabilities in response to customer feedback, our observations in the field, and a consistent vision for interoperability. The key to our maturity is without a doubt the ever-increasing demands of our growing user base... both in terms of sheer size and sophistication with the underlying technology. Stability is a special challenge for any research project. With our 1.0 release, we will branch and maintain a stable Babel 1.0 code line for at least a full year. This means no new features and no backward incompatible changes, only bug fixes. All continuing R&D will be performed on a separate development tree. Currently, Babel has a quarterly release cycle with no guarantee for backward compatibility from one release to the next (though we certainly try to make migration as painless as possible). Now is the time where we can see a good point for a Babel 1.0 release. But, seeing that point is different from being there. This list enumerates and explains the outstanding technical issues to be resolved to minimize volatility and help ensure stability for the 1.0 line. The first draft of this document was circulated internally in June 2003. A revised draft was then presented at the July 2003 CCA meeting. A third revision was made into the current working document form & circulated for general comment on the babel-users mailing list and Babel's homepage. The working document was intended to be an open record tracking progress in subsequent Babel releases. A major revision of the document (including adding new items and promoting/demoting items) was done in October 2004, well after the 0.9.6 release.

  12. Laser Ranging on Space Debris with the Changchun SLR Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengzhi

    2015-08-01

    The Changchun SLR station has upgraded to track space debris in 2014. The system operates with a 60mJ/10ns/500Hz 532.0nm laser (M2<1.5) and an optical camera for closed-loop tracking. With this configuration, 466 passes of 224 different space debris targets were obtained during 19 terminator sessions, each about 1.5h. Target distances are between 460 km and 1800 km, with RCS (radar cross sections) from >15 m2 down to <1.0 m2. Measured range had an average precision of about 1.0 m RMS. The system can be conveniently operated by one person. The presentation will introduce the technical developments and the observation results obtained. By analyzing the laser range data, range residual of about 1~2 meters is obtained.

  13. Fluorimetric determinations of nucleic acids using iron, osmium and samarium complexes of 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, A. A.

    2006-09-01

    New sensitive, reliable and reproducible fluorimetric methods for determining microgram amounts of nucleic acids based on their reactions with Fe(II), Os(III) or Sm(III) complexes of 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline are proposed. Two complementary single stranded synthetic DNA sequences based on calf thymus as well as their hybridized double stranded were used. Nucleic acids were found to react instantaneously at room temperature in Tris-Cl buffer pH 7, with the investigated complexes resulting in decreasing their fluorescence emission. Two fluorescence peaks around 388 and 567 nm were obtained for the three complexes using excitation λmax of 280 nm and were used for this investigation. Linear calibration graphs in the range 1-6 μg/ml were obtained. Detection limits of 0.35-0.98 μg/ml were obtained. Using the calibration graphs for the synthetic dsDNA, relative standard deviations of 2.0-5.0% were obtained for analyzing DNA in the extraction products from calf thymus and human blood. Corresponding Recovery% of 80-114 were obtained. Student's t-values at 95% confidence level showed insignificant difference between the real and measured values. Results obtained by these methods were compared with the ethidium bromide method using the F-test and satisfactory results were obtained. The association constants and number of binding sites of synthetic ssDNA and dsDNA with the three complexes were estimated using Rosenthanl graphic method. The interaction mechanism was discussed and an intercalation mechanism was suggested for the binding reaction between nucleic acids and the three complexes.

  14. Luminescent rhenium and ruthenium complexes of an amphoteric poly(amidoamine) functionalized with 1,10-phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Maggioni, Daniela; Fenili, Fabio; D'Alfonso, Laura; Donghi, Daniela; Panigati, Monica; Zanoni, Ivan; Marzi, Roberta; Manfredi, Amedea; Ferruti, Paolo; D'Alfonso, Giuseppe; Ranucci, Elisabetta

    2012-12-01

    A new amphoteric copolymer, PhenISA, has been obtained by copolymerization of 4-(4'-aminobutyl)-1,10-phenanthroline (BAP) with 2-methylpiperazine and bis(acrylamido)acetic acid (BAC) (6% of phenanthroline-containing repeating units). The copolymer showed excellent solubility in water, where it self-aggregated to give clear nanoparticle suspensions (hydrodynamic diameter = 21 ± 2 nm, by dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis). The phenanthroline pendants of the polymer stably coordinated either Re(CO)(3)(+) or Ru(phen)(2)(2+) fragments, affording luminescent Re-PhenISA, Re-Py-PhenISA, and Ru-PhenISA polymer complexes, emitting from triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((3)MLCT) excited states (with λ(em) = 608, 571, and 614 nm, respectively, and photoluminescence quantum yields Φ(em) = 0.7%, 4.8%, and 4.1%, in aerated water solution, respectively). DLS analyses indicated that the polymer complexes maintained the nanosize of PhenISA. All the complexes were stable under physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 0.15 M NaCl) in the presence of an excess of the ubiquitous competitor cysteine. In vitro viability assays showed no toxicity of Re-Py-PhenISA and Ru-PhenISA complexes, at concentrations in the range of 0.5-50 μM (calculated on the metal-containing unit), toward HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney) cells. A preliminary investigation of internalization in HEK-293 cells, by means of fluorescence confocal microscopy, showed that Ru-PhenISA enters cells via an endocytic pathway and, subsequently, homogeneously diffuse within the cytoplasm across the vesicle membranes. PMID:23151014

  15. Geometric structure of Be(10{bar 1}0)

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, P. |; Pohl, K. |; Stumpf, R.; Plummer, E.W. |

    1996-05-01

    The structure of clean Be(10{bar 1}0) was determined by low-energy electron-diffraction (LEED) {ital I}({ital V}) analysis and the result compared to first-principles calculations. Both theory and experiment indicate that from the two possible terminations of the truncated bulk, the one with the shorter first-interlayer spacing is realized. The values for the multilayer relaxations obtained by LEED essentially coincide with the theoretical prediction. Although the magnitude of the first- to second-layer relaxation fits well into the trend observed on other simple metal surfaces, the driving force is probably different for beryllium. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  16. SSEL1.0. Sandia Scalable Encryption Software

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, T.D.

    1996-08-29

    Sandia Scalable Encryption Library (SSEL) Version 1.0 is a library of functions that implement Sandia`s scalable encryption algorithm. This algorithm is used to encrypt Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) data traffic, and is capable of operating on an arbitrary number of bits at a time (which permits scaling via parallel implementations), while being interoperable with differently scaled versions of this algorithm. The routines in this library implement 8 bit and 32 bit versions of a non-linear mixer which is compatible with Sandia`s hardware-based ATM encryptor.

  17. Ultrasensitive and Rapid Determination of Folic Acid Using Ag Nanoparticles Enhanced 1, 10-Phenantroline-Terbium (III) Sensitized Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Robab; Lotfi, Ali; Bagheri, Nafiseh; Hassanzadeh, Javad

    2016-09-01

    A novel spectrofluorimetric probe based on Ag nanoparticle (AgNPs)-enhanced terbium (III) (Tb) fluorescence was introduced for the sensitive determination of folic acid (FA). The effect of gold and silver nanoparticles in different size was investigated on the well-known Tb sensitized fluorescence emission of 1, 10-phenantroline (Phen). The greatest fluorescence intensity was observed in the presence of AgNPs with a diameter of ~6 nm maybe due to their highest surface area. Furthermore, it's discovered that FA can form Tb-Phen -FA ternary complexes and cause a notable diminution in this enhanced fluorescence system. Based on this finding, a high sensitive and selective method was developed for the determination of FA. Effects of various parameters like Ag NPs, Phen and Tb(3+) concentration and pH of media were investigated. In the optimum circumstances, the fluorescence emission of AgNPs-Phen-Tb collection was declined linearly by increasing the concentration of FA in the range of 0.5 to 110 nmol L(-1). Limits of detection and quantification were achieved to be 0.21 and 0.62 nmol  L(-1), respectively. The method has good linearity, recovery, reproducibility and sensitivity, and was adequately exploited to follow FA content in pharmaceutical, fortified flour and human urine samples. PMID:27448225

  18. AREST-CT V1.0 software verification

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.; Engel, D.W.; McGrail, B.P.; Lessor, K.S.

    1995-07-01

    The Analyzer for Radionuclide Source-Term with Chemical Transport (AREST-CT) is a scientific computer code designed for performance assessments of engineered barrier system (EBS) concepts for the underground storage of nuclear waste, including high-level, intermediate, and low-level wastes. The AREST-CT code has features for analyzing the degradation of and release of radionuclides from the waste form, chemical reactions that depend on time and space, and transport of the waste and other products through the EBS. This document provides a description of the verification testing that has been performed on the initial version of ARESTCT (V1.0). Software verification is the process of confirming that the models and algorithms have been correctly implemented into a computer code. Software verification for V1.0 consisted of testing the individual modules (unit tests) and a test of the fully-coupled model (integration testing). The integration test was done by comparing the results from AREST-CT with the results from the reactive transport code CIRF.A. The test problem consisted of a 1-D analysis of the release, transport, and precipitation of {sup 99}{Tc} in an idealized LLW disposal system. All verification tests showed that AREST-CT works properly and in accordance with design specifications.

  19. Hydrogen File Capture v1.0.DLL

    2006-03-28

    Postprocessor for the use with GoldSim commercial software. The program is intended as a DLL for use with a GoldSim model simulation to copy input/output files created during the simulation to a central location on a local LAN. The software is used as part of a modeling package that consists of GoldSim.exe and other external codes linked and executed during a GoldSim model simulation. The FileCapture_v1.0.DLL is used to run Monte Carlo analyses with amore » GoldSim simulation that is executed using the distributed processing module. When distributed processing (i.e., multi-processor run) is used for a GoldSim Model simulation that is comprised of one or more codes linked with the GoldSim.exe, it is sometimes necessary to capture the default input and/or output files generated by the external codes linked with the GoldSim.exe program. Using the input file "FileCapture.In' to list the filenames and path, FileCapture_v1.0.DLL copies the files listed in 'FileCapture.in' from each node on the LAN to a folder called 'FCAP Files' created in the location gie as the path. The DLL will execute for each realization and append 00xxx a number indication which realization the file was generated from.« less

  20. CHEETAH 1.0 user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, L.E.

    1994-06-24

    CHEETAH is an effort to bring the TIGER thermochemical code into the 1990s. A wide variety of improvements have been made in Version 1.0, and a host of others will be implemented in the future. In CHEETAH 1.0 I have improved the robustness and ease of use of TIGER. All of TIGER`s solvers have been replaced by new algorithms. I find that CHEETAH solves a wider variety of problems with no user intervention (e.g. no guesses for the C-J state) than TIGER did. CHEETAH has been made simpler to use than TIGER; typical use of the code occurs with the new standard run command. I hope that CHEETAH makes the use of thermochemical codes more attractive to practical explosive formulators. In the future I plan to improve the underlying science in CHEETAH. More accurate equations of state will be used in the gas and the condensed phase. A kinetics capability will be added to the code that will predict reaction zone thickness. CHEETAH is currently a numerical implementation of C-J theory. It will,become an implementation of ZND theory. Further ease of use features will eventually be added; an automatic formulator that adjusts concentrations to match desired properties is planned.

  1. 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser intracavity pumped at 946 nm and sum-frequency mixing for an emission at 501 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Y. F.; Zhang, X. H.; Xia, J.; Jin, G. Y.; Wang, J. G.; Yin, X. D.; Zhang, A. F.

    2010-05-01

    We present for the first time a Nd:YAG laser emitting at 1064 nm intracavity pumped by a 946 nm diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser. A 809 nm laser diode is used to pump the first Nd:YAG crystal emitting at 946 nm, and the second Nd:YAG laser emitting at 1064 nm intracavity pumped at 946 nm. Intracavity sum-frequency mixing at 946 and 1064 nm was then realized in a LBO crystal to reach the cyan range. We obtained a continuous-wave output power of 485 mW at 501 nm with a pump laser diode emitting 25.4 W at 809 nm.

  2. NIMS Radiance Point Spectra of Gaspra V1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granahan, J. C.

    2014-10-01

    This data volume contains radiometrically corrected point spectra of asteroid 951 as acquired by the Galileo spacecraft Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on October 29, 1991. They record the spectra collected as the Galileo spacecraft approached the target asteroid. These data are products of the calibration of the raw data number files gap015tn.qub, gap035tn.qub, gap036tn.qub, gap037tn.qub, and gap038tn.qub (DATA SET ID ='GO-A-NIMS-3 TUBE-V1.0') with calibration factors acquired during the first Earth/Moon encounter of the Galileo mission. These raw data .qub files are archived in the Imaging Node of the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS). The calibrated spectra consist of radiance measurements for wavelengths between 0.7 - 5.2 micrometers.

  3. Verification and validation of RADMODL Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Kimball, K.D.

    1993-03-01

    RADMODL is a system of linked computer codes designed to calculate the radiation environment following an accident in which nuclear materials are released. The RADMODL code and the corresponding Verification and Validation (V&V) calculations (Appendix A), were developed for Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) by EGS Corporation (EGS). Each module of RADMODL is an independent code and was verified separately. The full system was validated by comparing the output of the various modules with the corresponding output of a previously verified version of the modules. The results of the verification and validation tests show that RADMODL correctly calculates the transport of radionuclides and radiation doses. As a result of this verification and validation effort, RADMODL Version 1.0 is certified for use in calculating the radiation environment following an accident.

  4. VIPAR - Vortex Inflation PARachute Code Ver. 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, James; Homicz, Greg; Porter, Vicki; Burns, Shawn; Gassler, Albert

    2001-11-01

    VIPAR is a 3-D fluid mechanics code for predicting flow past bluff bodies whose surfaces can be assumed to be made up of shell elements that are simply connected. Version 1.0 of the code contains several first order algorithms, which we are already in the process of replacing with higher order ones. These enhancements will appear in the next version of VIPAR. The present code contains a motion generator, which can be used to produce large class of rigid body motions. The present code has also been fully coupled to a structural dynamics code in which the geometry undergoes large time dependent deformations. Initial surface geometry is generated from triangular shell elements using a code such as Patran and is written into an Exodusll data base file for subsequent input into VIPAR. Surface and wake variable information is output into two Exodusll files which can be processed and viewed using software such as EnSight.

  5. caGrid 1.0: An Enterprise Grid Infrastructure for Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Scott; Langella, Stephen; Hastings, Shannon; Ervin, David; Madduri, Ravi; Phillips, Joshua; Kurc, Tahsin; Siebenlist, Frank; Covitz, Peter; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Foster, Ian; Saltz, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Objective To develop software infrastructure that will provide support for discovery, characterization, integrated access, and management of diverse and disparate collections of information sources, analysis methods, and applications in biomedical research. Design An enterprise Grid software infrastructure, called caGrid version 1.0 (caGrid 1.0), has been developed as the core Grid architecture of the NCI-sponsored cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG™) program. It is designed to support a wide range of use cases in basic, translational, and clinical research, including 1) discovery, 2) integrated and large-scale data analysis, and 3) coordinated study. Measurements The caGrid is built as a Grid software infrastructure and leverages Grid computing technologies and the Web Services Resource Framework standards. It provides a set of core services, toolkits for the development and deployment of new community provided services, and application programming interfaces for building client applications. Results The caGrid 1.0 was released to the caBIG community in December 2006. It is built on open source components and caGrid source code is publicly and freely available under a liberal open source license. The core software, associated tools, and documentation can be downloaded from the following URL: https://cabig.nci.nih.gov/workspaces/Architecture/caGrid. Conclusions While caGrid 1.0 is designed to address use cases in cancer research, the requirements associated with discovery, analysis and integration of large scale data, and coordinated studies are common in other biomedical fields. In this respect, caGrid 1.0 is the realization of a framework that can benefit the entire biomedical community. PMID:18096909

  6. Land-Use Portfolio Modeler, Version 1.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taketa, Richard; Hong, Makiko

    2010-01-01

    Natural hazards pose significant threats to the public safety and economic health of many communities throughout the world. Community leaders and decision-makers continually face the challenges of planning and allocating limited resources to invest in protecting their communities against catastrophic losses from natural-hazard events. Public efforts to assess community vulnerability and encourage loss-reduction measures through mitigation often focused on either aggregating site-specific estimates or adopting standards based upon broad assumptions about regional risks. The site-specific method usually provided the most accurate estimates, but was prohibitively expensive, whereas regional risk assessments were often too general to be of practical use. Policy makers lacked a systematic and quantitative method for conducting a regional-scale risk assessment of natural hazards. In response, Bernknopf and others developed the portfolio model, an intermediate-scale approach to assessing natural-hazard risks and mitigation policy alternatives. The basis for the portfolio-model approach was inspired by financial portfolio theory, which prescribes a method of optimizing return on investment while reducing risk by diversifying investments in different security types. In this context, a security type represents a unique combination of features and hazard-risk level, while financial return is defined as the reduction in losses resulting from an investment in mitigation of chosen securities. Features are selected for mitigation and are modeled like investment portfolios. Earth-science and economic data for the features are combined and processed in order to analyze each of the portfolios, which are then used to evaluate the benefits of mitigating the risk in selected locations. Ultimately, the decision maker seeks to choose a portfolio representing a mitigation policy that maximizes the expected return-on-investment, while minimizing the uncertainty associated with that return-on-investment. The portfolio model, now known as the Land-Use Portfolio Model (LUPM), provided the framework for the development of the Land-Use Portfolio Modeler, Version 1.0 software (LUPM v1.0). The software provides a geographic information system (GIS)-based modeling tool for evaluating alternative risk-reduction mitigation strategies for specific natural-hazard events. The modeler uses information about a specific natural-hazard event and the features exposed to that event within the targeted study region to derive a measure of a given mitigation strategy`s effectiveness. Harnessing the spatial capabilities of a GIS enables the tool to provide a rich, interactive mapping environment in which users can create, analyze, visualize, and compare different

  7. VIPAR - Vortex Inflation PARachute Code Ver. 1.0

    2001-11-01

    VIPAR is a 3-D fluid mechanics code for predicting flow past bluff bodies whose surfaces can be assumed to be made up of shell elements that are simply connected. Version 1.0 of the code contains several first order algorithms, which we are already in the process of replacing with higher order ones. These enhancements will appear in the next version of VIPAR. The present code contains a motion generator, which can be used to producemore » large class of rigid body motions. The present code has also been fully coupled to a structural dynamics code in which the geometry undergoes large time dependent deformations. Initial surface geometry is generated from triangular shell elements using a code such as Patran and is written into an Exodusll data base file for subsequent input into VIPAR. Surface and wake variable information is output into two Exodusll files which can be processed and viewed using software such as EnSight.« less

  8. The University of Tokyo Atacama 1.0-m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, Shigeyuki; Aoki, Tsutomu; Doi, Mamoru; Handa, Toshihiro; Kawara, Kimiaki; Kohno, Kotaro; Minezaki, Takeo; Mitani, Natsuko; Miyata, Takashi; Motohara, Kentaro; Soyano, Takao; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Masuo; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Bronfman, Leonard; Ruiz, Maria Teresa

    2008-07-01

    The current status of the University of Tokyo Atacama 1.0m telescope project being constructed at the summit of Co. Chajnantor (5,640m) in Atacama, Chile, will be presented. This is an optical/infrared telescope at the world's highest site. A precipitable water vapor (PWV) amount of 0.4 to 1.3 mm at the summit, much lower than that of 0.9 to 2.8 mm at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. provides excellent atmospheric transmission from the near- to the mid-infrared wavelength. Seeing and weather conditions are confirmed to be suitable for infrared observations at the summit. The telescope is an f/12 Ritchey-Chrétien type with a field of view of 10 arcmin. The telescope is installed in a 6-m dome and controlled from an operation room in a container separated from the dome. The operation room will be directly connected to a base support facility in San Pedro de Atacama by a wireless LAN and a satellite link. A power generator and solar panels are equipped for a main and a back-up power supply, respectively. The ANIR near-infrared camera and the MAX38 mid-infrared camera are equipped on the Cassegrain focus. This telescope will start operation at the beginning of 2009, and will be operated remotely from the base facility in the near future.

  9. EOS7C-ECBM Version 1.0

    2012-11-14

    EOS7C is an equation of state module for the TOUGH2 program for CO2 or N2 in Methane (CH4) Reservoirs. In the present work, additions have been made to the EOS7C Version 1.0 module to include the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane (ECBM) modifications developed by Webb (2003). In addition, the Dusty Gas Model for gas-phase diffusion (Webb 2001) has been included. The ECBM modification to the EOS7C equation of state incorporate the extended Langmuir isothem formore » sorbing gases, including the change in porosity associated with the sorbed gas mass. Comparison to hand calculations for pure gas and binary mixture shows very good agreement. Application to a CO2 well injection problem by Law et al. (2002). The Dusty Model modification add options to calculate gas diffusion using the Dusty-Gas Model including separate and coupled approaches. Comparison to low-permeability pure gas diffusion data shows excellent agreement. The results from the DGM are compared to the Fick's Law behavior for diffusion across a capillary fringe. The differences between the models are small due to the relatively high permeability (10-11 m2) of the problem.« less

  10. EOS7C-ECBM Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2012-11-14

    EOS7C is an equation of state module for the TOUGH2 program for CO2 or N2 in Methane (CH4) Reservoirs. In the present work, additions have been made to the EOS7C Version 1.0 module to include the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane (ECBM) modifications developed by Webb (2003). In addition, the Dusty Gas Model for gas-phase diffusion (Webb 2001) has been included. The ECBM modification to the EOS7C equation of state incorporate the extended Langmuir isothem for sorbing gases, including the change in porosity associated with the sorbed gas mass. Comparison to hand calculations for pure gas and binary mixture shows very good agreement. Application to a CO2 well injection problem by Law et al. (2002). The Dusty Model modification add options to calculate gas diffusion using the Dusty-Gas Model including separate and coupled approaches. Comparison to low-permeability pure gas diffusion data shows excellent agreement. The results from the DGM are compared to the Fick's Law behavior for diffusion across a capillary fringe. The differences between the models are small due to the relatively high permeability (10-11 m2) of the problem.

  11. NAS Parallel Benchmark Results 11-96. 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Bailey, David; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks have been developed at NASA Ames Research Center to study the performance of parallel supercomputers. The eight benchmark problems are specified in a "pencil and paper" fashion. In other words, the complete details of the problem to be solved are given in a technical document, and except for a few restrictions, benchmarkers are free to select the language constructs and implementation techniques best suited for a particular system. These results represent the best results that have been reported to us by the vendors for the specific 3 systems listed. In this report, we present new NPB (Version 1.0) performance results for the following systems: DEC Alpha Server 8400 5/440, Fujitsu VPP Series (VX, VPP300, and VPP700), HP/Convex Exemplar SPP2000, IBM RS/6000 SP P2SC node (120 MHz), NEC SX-4/32, SGI/CRAY T3E, SGI Origin200, and SGI Origin2000. We also report High Performance Fortran (HPF) based NPB results for IBM SP2 Wide Nodes, HP/Convex Exemplar SPP2000, and SGI/CRAY T3D. These results have been submitted by Applied Parallel Research (APR) and Portland Group Inc. (PGI). We also present sustained performance per dollar for Class B LU, SP and BT benchmarks.

  12. Laser damage database at 1064 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer, F.; Gonzales, R.P.; Morgan, A.J.

    1990-03-01

    In conjunction with our diversification of laser damage testing capabilities, we have expanded upon a database of threshold measurements and parameter variations at 1064 nm. This includes all tests at low pulse-repetition frequencies (PRF) ranging from single shots to 120 Hz. These tests were conducted on the Reptile laser facility since 1987 and the Variable Pulse Laser (VPL) facility since 1988. Pulse durations ranged from 1 to 16 ns. 10 refs., 14 figs.

  13. Water Network Tool for Resilience v. 1.0

    2015-12-09

    WNTR is a python package designed to simulate and analyze resilience of water distribution networks. The software includes: - Pressure driven and demand driven hydraulic simulation - Water quality simulation to track concentration, trace, and water age - Conditional controls to simulate power outages - Models to simulate pipe breaks - A wide range of resilience metrics - Analysis and visualization tools

  14. RealGasBrine v1.0 option of TOUGH+ v1.5

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, George

    2015-02-27

    RealGasBrine v1.0 is a numerical code that for the simulation of the behavior of gas-bearing porous and/fractured geologic media. It is an option of TOUGH+ v1.5 [Moridis, 2014], a successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1999; 2012] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase ?uid and heat ?ow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. RealGasBrine v1.0 needs the TOUGH+ v1.5 core code in order to compile and execute. It is written in standard FORTRAN 95/2003, and can be run on any computational platform (workstation, PC, Macintosh) for which such compilers are available. RealGasBrine v1.0 describes the non-isothermal two- (for pure water) or three-phase (for brine) flow of an aqueous phase and a real gas mixture in a gas-bearing medium, with a particular focus in ultra-tight (such as tight-sand and shale gas) systems. Up to 12 individual real gases can be tracked, and salt can precipitate as solid halite. The capabilities of the code include coupled flow and thermal effects, real gas behavior, Darcy and non-Darcy flow, several isotherm options of gas sorption onto the grains of the porous media, complex fracture descriptions, gas solubility into water, and geomechanical effects on flow properties. RealGasBrine v1.0 allows the study of flow and transport of fluids and heat over a wide range of time frames and spatial scales not only in gas reservoirs, but also in any problem involving the flow of gases in geologic media, including the geologic storage of greenhouse gas mixtures, the behavior of geothermal reservoirs with multi-component condensable (H2O and CO2) and non-condensable gas mixtures, the transport of water and released H2 in nuclear waste storage applications, etc.

  15. Optical extension at the 193-nm wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandbergen, Peter; McCallum, Martin; Amblard, Gilles R.; Domke, Wolf-Dieter; Smith, Bruce W.; Zavyalova, Lena; Petersen, John S.

    1999-07-01

    Lithography at 193nm is the first optical lithography technique that will be introduced for manufacturing of technology levels. where the required dimensions are smaller than the actual wavelength. This paper explores several techniques to extend 193nm to low k1 lithography. Most attention is given to binary mask solution in at 130nm dimensions, where k1 is 0.4. Various strong and Gaussian quadrupole illuminators were designed, manufactured and tested for this application. Strong quadrupoles show that largest DOF improvements. The drawback however, is that these strong quadrupoles are very duty cycle and dimensions specific, resulting in large proximity biases between different duty cycles. Due to their design, Gaussian quadrupoles sample much wider frequency ranges, resulting in less duty cycles specific DOF improvements and less proximity basis. At sub-130nm dimensions, strong phase shift masks provide significant latitude improvements, when compared to binary masks with quadrupole illumination. However, differences in dose to size for different duty cycles were up to 25 percent. For definition of contact holes, linewidth biasing through silylation, a key feature of the CARL bi-layer resist approach, demonstrated significant DOF latitude improvements compared to SLR at 140nm and 160nm contact holes.

  16. Electron-impact studies of atomic oxygen: II. Emission cross section measurements of the O I 3So→ 3P transition (130.4 nm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noren, C.; Kanik, I.; Johnson, P. V.; McCartney, P.; James, G. K.; Ajello, J. M.

    2001-07-01

    The optical excitation function of the O I 3So→ 3P transition (130.4 nm), produced by electron-impact excitation of atomic oxygen, has been measured over an extended energy range from threshold to 1.0 keV. Measurements were obtained in a crossed-beam experiment using both magnetically confined and electrostatically focused electrons in collision with atomic oxygen produced by a microwave discharge source. A 0.2 m vacuum ultraviolet monochromator system was used to measure the emitted O I radiation at 130.4 nm. The relative O I (130.4 nm) emission intensity corresponding to the 3So→ 3P transition was then put on the absolute scale by normalization to the O I (130.4 nm) cross section produced by dissociative excitation of O2 at 30 eV (Kanik et al 2000).

  17. Implementation of Rotational Raman Channel in Multiwavelength Aerosol Lidar to Improve Measurements of Particle Extinction and Backscattering at 532 NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselovskii, Igor; Whiteman, David N.; Korenskiy, Michael; Suvorina, A.; Perez-Ramirez, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    We describe a practical implementation of rotational Raman (RR) measurements in an existing Mie-Raman lidar to obtain measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering at 532 nm. A 2.3 nm width interference filter was used to select a spectral range characterized by low temperature sensitivity within the anti-Stokes branch of the RR spectrum. Simulations demonstrate that the temperature dependence of the scattering cross section does not exceed 1.0% in the 230-300K range making accurate correction for this dependence quite easy. With this upgrade, the NASA/GSFC multiwavelength Raman lidar has demonstrated useful α532 measurements and was used for regular observations. Examples of lidar measurements and inversion of optical data to the particle microphysics will be given in presentation.

  18. Super ACO FEL oscillation at 300 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutarelli, D.; Garzella, D.; Renault, E.; Nahon, L.; Couprie, M. E.

    2000-05-01

    Some recent improvements, involving both the optical cavity mirrors and the positron beam dynamics in the storage ring, have allowed us to achieve a laser oscillation at 300 nm on the Super ACO Storage Ring FEL. The Super ACO storage ring is operated at 800 MeV which is the nominal energy for the usual synchrotron radiation users, and the highest energy for a storage ring FEL. The lasing at 300 nm could be kept during 2 h per injection, with a stored current ranging between 30 and 60 mA. The FEL characteristics are presented here. The longitudinal stability and the FEL optics behaviour are also discussed.

  19. 1550-nm wavelength-tunable HCG VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Christopher; Rao, Yi; Huang, Michael; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate wavelength-tunable VCSELs using high contrast gratings (HCGs) as the top output mirror on VCSELs, operating at 1550 nm. Tunable HCG VCSELs with a ~25 nm mechanical tuning range as well as VCSELs with 2 mW output power were realized. Error-free operation of an optical link using directly-modulated tunable HCG VCSELs transmitting at 1.25 Gbps over 18 channels spaced by 100 GHz and transmitted over 20 km of single mode fiber is demonstrated, showing the suitability of the HCG tunable VCSEL as a low cost source for WDM communications systems.

  20. Rotation Manager Pro Version 1.0b1

    2002-02-01

    The Rotation Manager Pro Package maintains databases of instructions to replicate plate tectonic movements. The instructions are in the standard of tectonic plate rotations, including plate identification and location and angle of the rotation pole. Each database is accompanied by various metadata, including information about each rotation pole and the database itself. The package provides a range of tools to actively manage the database using methods specifically required for rotations: rotation pole addition and subtraction,more » viewing of a rotation chain through the rotation hierarchy, and the rotation of data points.« less

  1. Rotation Manager Pro Version 1.0b1

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Thomas L.; Scotese, Christopher

    2002-02-01

    The Rotation Manager Pro Package maintains databases of instructions to replicate plate tectonic movements. The instructions are in the standard of tectonic plate rotations, including plate identification and location and angle of the rotation pole. Each database is accompanied by various metadata, including information about each rotation pole and the database itself. The package provides a range of tools to actively manage the database using methods specifically required for rotations: rotation pole addition and subtraction, viewing of a rotation chain through the rotation hierarchy, and the rotation of data points.

  2. Chemical composition and mass size distribution of PM1.0 at an elevated site in central east China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. M.; Zhang, X. Y.; Sun, J. Y.; Hu, G. Y.; Shen, X. J.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, T. T.; Wang, D. Z.; Zhao, Y.

    2014-06-01

    Size-resolved aerosol chemical compositions were measured continuously for one and half years with an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to characterize the mass and size distributions (MSDs) of each component in bulk, fresh and aged submicron particles (approximately PM1.0) at Mountain Tai, an elevated site in Central East China (CEC) from June 2010 to January 2012. The majority of the regionally-dispersed aerosols were found to be contributed from short distance mixed aerosol, mostly from its south with organics and sulfate as the major components. The annual mean mass concentrations of organics, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and chloride were 11.2, 9.2, 7.2, 5.8 and 0.95 μg m-3, respectively, which are much lower for organics and sulfate, and slightly lower for nitrate, ammonium and chloride than those at the nearby surface rural sites. High organics were observed for all four seasons, and the relatively fresh organic aerosol (OA) containing high proportion of less-photo chemically OA, were found from long-range transported aerosol from northwest. Semi-volatile and low-volatile oxidized OAs together contributed approximately 49%, 55% in spring and 72% and 51% in winter of total OA, showing at least 50% of OA can be attributable to SOA. Seasonally, the chemical components at the elevated site showed a "winter high and autumn low" pattern, with organics, sulfate and ammonium peaking in summer. Though no obvious differences of MSDs were seen for various chemical components in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and free troposphere (FT), the concentrations were a factor of 5-7 higher in PBL than in FT. The averaged MSDs of particles between 30-1000 nm for organics, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium are approximately log-normal with similar mass median diameters (MMDs) of 539, 585, 542, and 545 nm, respectively, which were slightly larger than those in ground sites within North China Plain (NCP). Obvious differences in MMDs were found between fresh and aged aerosols for

  3. Sandia Particle Holography Processor v. 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Guildenbecher, Daniel

    2015-12-09

    HoloSand is a suite of MATLAB® functions for measurement of particle properties from digital holograms. Functions to read and display digital holograms are included along with scripts to extract three-dimensional particle positions, sizes, and velocities. This software is a research tool used to process experimental data. A user of this software would first record digital holograms of a particle field and then use this software to measure the three-dimensional particle information encoded in the hologram. Applications range from basic laboratory fluids research to applied particle measurements. The software has no known military applications. The software solves the diffraction integral equation to numerically refocus digital holograms and then applies the hybrid and cross-correlation methods described in the references to extract three-dimensional particle information. User input is required to read-in the hologram and select optimum settings for image segmentation.

  4. Sandia Particle Holography Processor v. 1.0

    2015-12-09

    HoloSand is a suite of MATLAB® functions for measurement of particle properties from digital holograms. Functions to read and display digital holograms are included along with scripts to extract three-dimensional particle positions, sizes, and velocities. This software is a research tool used to process experimental data. A user of this software would first record digital holograms of a particle field and then use this software to measure the three-dimensional particle information encoded in the hologram.more » Applications range from basic laboratory fluids research to applied particle measurements. The software has no known military applications. The software solves the diffraction integral equation to numerically refocus digital holograms and then applies the hybrid and cross-correlation methods described in the references to extract three-dimensional particle information. User input is required to read-in the hologram and select optimum settings for image segmentation.« less

  5. GridLab-D version 1.0

    2007-12-21

    A power system simulation that runs on all major platforms, provides open access to all functionality, and supports extended modeling of non-traditional components of the electric power system, such as buildings, distributed resources, and markets. GridLAB-D solution engine can determine the simultaneous state of millions of independent devices, each of which is described by multiple differential equations solved only locally for both state and time. The advantages of this algorithm over traditional finite difference-based simulatorsmore » are: (1) it is much more accurate; (2) it can handle widely disparate time scales, ranging from sub-seconds to many years; and 3) it is easy to integrate with new modules and third-party systems. The advantage over traditional differential-based solvers is that it is not necessary to integrate all the device's behaviors into a single set of equations that must be solved.« less

  6. Sim Track User's Manual (v 1.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.

    2010-01-27

    SimTrack is a simple c++ library designed for the numeric particle tracking in the high energy accelerators. It adopts the 4th order symplectic integrator for the optical transport in the magnetic elements. The 4-D and 6-D weak-strong beam-beam treatments are integrated in it for the beam-beam studies. SimTrack is written with c++ class and standard template library. It provides versatile functions to manage elements and lines. It supports a large range of types of elements. New type of element can be easily created in the library. SimTrack calculates Twiss, coupling and fits tunes, chromaticities and corrects closed orbits. AC dipole and AC multipole are available in this library. SimTrack allows change of element parameters during tracking.

  7. GridLab-D version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.

    2007-12-21

    A power system simulation that runs on all major platforms, provides open access to all functionality, and supports extended modeling of non-traditional components of the electric power system, such as buildings, distributed resources, and markets. GridLAB-D solution engine can determine the simultaneous state of millions of independent devices, each of which is described by multiple differential equations solved only locally for both state and time. The advantages of this algorithm over traditional finite difference-based simulators are: (1) it is much more accurate; (2) it can handle widely disparate time scales, ranging from sub-seconds to many years; and 3) it is easy to integrate with new modules and third-party systems. The advantage over traditional differential-based solvers is that it is not necessary to integrate all the device's behaviors into a single set of equations that must be solved.

  8. Imaging Nuclei of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells by Chiral Ruthenium(II) Complex Coordinated by 2-(4-Phenyacetylenephenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5f][1,10]phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhi-Ping; Wu, Qiong; Sun, Fen-Yong; Zheng, Kang-Di; Mei, Wen-Jie

    2016-06-01

    A pair of chiral ruthenium(II) complexes, Λ- and Δ-[Ru(bpy)2(p-BEPIP)](ClO4)2 [Λ- and Δ-RM0627; bpy = 2,2-bipyridine; p-BEPIP = 2-(4-phenyacetylenephenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5f][1,10]phenanthroline], were prepared using the Sonogashira coupling reaction under microwave irradiation. The study shows that Λ-RM0627 emitted strong phosphorescence in the range 500-700 nm with a maximum at 594 nm when excited at 365 nm (the Stokes shift is about 227 nm), which was mainly located in the cell nucleus with red phosphorescence. Further studies using real-time phosphorescence observation confirmed that Λ-RM0627 can be taken up quickly by MDA-MB-231 cells and enriched in the nucleus. The in vitro and in vivo toxicities of Λ-RM0627 were also evaluated, and it was found that Λ-RM0627 slightly inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and HaCaT normal human epidermal cells and had little influence on the development of Zebrafish embryos at low concentration. In conclusion, the levoisomer of chiral ruthenium complexes can act as a potential phosphorescent probe that targets nuclei of living cells with low toxicity. PMID:27191197

  9. Chromosomes without a 30-nm chromatin fiber

    PubMed Central

    Joti, Yasumasa; Hikima, Takaaki; Nishino, Yoshinori; Kamada, Fukumi; Hihara, Saera; Takata, Hideaki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Maeshima, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    How is a long strand of genomic DNA packaged into a mitotic chromosome or nucleus? The nucleosome fiber (beads-on-a-string), in which DNA is wrapped around core histones, has long been assumed to be folded into a 30-nm chromatin fiber, and a further helically folded larger fiber. However, when frozen hydrated human mitotic cells were observed using cryoelectron microscopy, no higher-order structures that included 30-nm chromatin fibers were found. To investigate the bulk structure of mitotic chromosomes further, we performed small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), which can detect periodic structures in noncrystalline materials in solution. The results were striking: no structural feature larger than 11 nm was detected, even at a chromosome-diameter scale (~1 μm). We also found a similar scattering pattern in interphase nuclei of HeLa cells in the range up to ~275 nm. Our findings suggest a common structural feature in interphase and mitotic chromatins: compact and irregular folding of nucleosome fibers occurs without a 30-nm chromatin structure. PMID:22825571

  10. Simple Line Access Protocol Version 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuna, Pedro; Salgado, Jesus; Guainazzi, Matteo; Barbarisi, Isa; Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Tody, Doug; Osuna, Pedro; Salgado, Jesus

    2010-12-01

    The Simple Line Access Protocol (SLAP) is an IVOA Data Access protocol which defines a protocol for retrieving spectral lines coming from various Spectral Line Data Collections through a uniform interface within the VO framework. These lines can be either observed or theoretical and will be typically used to identify emission or absorption features in astronomical spectra. It makes use of the Simple Spectral Line Data Model (SSLDM [1]) to characterize spectral lines through the use of uTypes [14]. Physical quantities of units are described by using the standard Units DM [15]. SLAP services can be registered in an IVOA Registry of Resources using the VOResource [12] Extension standard, having a unique ResourceIdentifier [13] in the Registry. The SLAP interface is meant to be reasonably simple to implement by service providers. A basic query will be done in a wavelength range for the different services. The service returns a list of spectral lines formatted as a VOTable. Thus, an implementation of the service may support additional search parameters (some which may be custom to that particular service) to more finely control the selection of spectral lines. The specification also describes how the search on extra parameters has to be done, making use of the support provided by the Simple Spectral Line Data Model (SSLDM [1])

  11. Structural and electronic properties of an ordered grain boundary formed by separated (1,0) dislocations in graphene.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chuanxu; Sun, Haifeng; Du, Hongjian; Wang, Jufeng; Zhao, Aidi; Li, Qunxiang; Wang, Bing; Hou, J G

    2015-02-21

    We present an investigation of the structural and electronic properties of an ordered grain boundary (GB) formed by separated pentagon-heptagon pairs in single-layer graphene/SiO2 using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS), coupled with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is observed that the pentagon-heptagon pairs, i.e., (1,0) dislocations, form a periodic quasi-one-dimensional chain. The (1,0) dislocations are separated by 8 transverse rows of carbon rings, with a period of ∼2.1 nm. The protruded feature of each dislocation shown in the STM images reflects its out-of-plane buckling structure, which is supported by the DFT simulations. The STS spectra recorded along the small-angle GB show obvious differential-conductance peaks, the positions of which qualitatively accord with the van Hove singularities from the DFT calculations. PMID:25603956

  12. Building Restoration Operations Optimization Model Beta Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2007-05-31

    The Building Restoration Operations Optimization Model (BROOM), developed by Sandia National Laboratories, is a software product designed to aid in the restoration of large facilities contaminated by a biological material. BROOM’s integrated data collection, data management, and visualization software improves the efficiency of cleanup operations, minimizes facility downtime, and provides a transparent basis for reopening the facility. Secure remote access to building floor plans Floor plan drawings and knowledge of the HVAC system are critical to the design and implementation of effective sampling plans. In large facilities, access to these data may be complicated by the sheer abundance and disorganized state they are often stored in. BROOM avoids potentially costly delays by providing a means of organizing and storing mechanical and floor plan drawings in a secure remote database that is easily accessed. Sampling design tools BROOM provides an array of tools to answer the question of where to sample and how many samples to take. In addition to simple judgmental and random sampling plans, the software includes two sophisticated methods of adaptively developing a sampling strategy. Both tools strive to choose sampling locations that best satisfy a specified objective (i.e. minimizing kriging variance) but use numerically different strategies to do so. Surface samples are collected early in the restoration process to characterize the extent of contamination and then again later to verify that the facility is safe to reenter. BROOM supports sample collection using a ruggedized PDA equipped with a barcode scanner and laser range finder. The PDA displays building floor drawings, sampling plans, and electronic forms for data entry. Barcodes are placed on sample containers for the purpose of tracking the specimen and linking acquisition data (i.e. location, surface type, texture) to laboratory results. Sample location is determined by activating the integrated laser

  13. Building Restoration Operations Optimization Model Beta Version 1.0

    2007-05-31

    The Building Restoration Operations Optimization Model (BROOM), developed by Sandia National Laboratories, is a software product designed to aid in the restoration of large facilities contaminated by a biological material. BROOM’s integrated data collection, data management, and visualization software improves the efficiency of cleanup operations, minimizes facility downtime, and provides a transparent basis for reopening the facility. Secure remote access to building floor plans Floor plan drawings and knowledge of the HVAC system are criticalmore » to the design and implementation of effective sampling plans. In large facilities, access to these data may be complicated by the sheer abundance and disorganized state they are often stored in. BROOM avoids potentially costly delays by providing a means of organizing and storing mechanical and floor plan drawings in a secure remote database that is easily accessed. Sampling design tools BROOM provides an array of tools to answer the question of where to sample and how many samples to take. In addition to simple judgmental and random sampling plans, the software includes two sophisticated methods of adaptively developing a sampling strategy. Both tools strive to choose sampling locations that best satisfy a specified objective (i.e. minimizing kriging variance) but use numerically different strategies to do so. Surface samples are collected early in the restoration process to characterize the extent of contamination and then again later to verify that the facility is safe to reenter. BROOM supports sample collection using a ruggedized PDA equipped with a barcode scanner and laser range finder. The PDA displays building floor drawings, sampling plans, and electronic forms for data entry. Barcodes are placed on sample containers for the purpose of tracking the specimen and linking acquisition data (i.e. location, surface type, texture) to laboratory results. Sample location is determined by activating the integrated

  14. 469nm Fiber Laser Source

    SciTech Connect

    Drobshoff, A; Dawson, J W; Pennington, D M; Payne, S A; Beach, R

    2005-01-20

    We have demonstrated 466mW of 469nm light from a frequency doubled continuous wave fiber laser. The system consisted of a 938nm single frequency laser diode master oscillator, which was amplified in two stages to 5 Watts using cladding pumped Nd{sup 3+} fiber amplifiers and then frequency doubled in a single pass through periodically poled KTP. The 3cm long PPKTP crystal was made by Raicol Crystals Ltd. with a period of 5.9 {micro}m and had a phase match temperature of 47 degrees Centigrade. The beam was focused to a 1/e{sup 2} diameter in the crystal of 29 {micro}m. Overall conversion efficiency was 11% and the results agreed well with standard models. Our 938nm fiber amplifier design minimizes amplified spontaneous emission at 1088nm by employing an optimized core to cladding size ratio. This design allows the 3-level transition to operate at high inversion, thus making it competitive with the 1088nm 4-level transition. We have also carefully chosen the fiber coil diameter to help suppress propagation of wavelengths longer than 938 nm. At 2 Watts, the 938nm laser had an M{sup 2} of 1.1 and good polarization (correctable with a quarter and half wave plate to >10:1).

  15. Quantitative comparison of the OCT imaging depth at 1300 nm and 1600 nm

    PubMed Central

    Kodach, V. M.; Kalkman, J.; Faber, D. J.; van Leeuwen, T. G.

    2010-01-01

    One of the present challenges in optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the visualization of deeper structural morphology in biological tissues. Owing to a reduced scattering, a larger imaging depth can be achieved by using longer wavelengths. In this work, we analyze the OCT imaging depth at wavelengths around 1300 nm and 1600 nm by comparing the scattering coefficient and OCT imaging depth for a range of Intralipid concentrations at constant water content. We observe an enhanced OCT imaging depth for 1600 nm compared to 1300 nm for Intralipid concentrations larger than 4 vol.%. For higher Intralipid concentrations, the imaging depth enhancement reaches 30%. The ratio of scattering coefficients at the two wavelengths is constant over a large range of scattering coefficients and corresponds to a scattering power of 2.8 ± 0.1. Based on our results we expect for biological tissues an increase of the OCT imaging depth at 1600 nm compared to 1300 nm for samples with high scattering power and low water content. PMID:21258456

  16. TARGET - TASK ANALYSIS REPORT GENERATION TOOL, VERSION 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Task Analysis Report Generation Tool, TARGET, is a graphical interface tool used to capture procedural knowledge and translate that knowledge into a hierarchical report. TARGET is based on VISTA, a knowledge acquisition tool developed by the Naval Systems Training Center. TARGET assists a programmer and/or task expert organize and understand the steps involved in accomplishing a task. The user can label individual steps in the task through a dialogue-box and get immediate graphical feedback for analysis. TARGET users can decompose tasks into basic action kernels or minimal steps to provide a clear picture of all basic actions needed to accomplish a job. This method allows the user to go back and critically examine the overall flow and makeup of the process. The user can switch between graphics (box flow diagrams) and text (task hierarchy) versions to more easily study the process being documented. As the practice of decomposition continues, tasks and their subtasks can be continually modified to more accurately reflect the user's procedures and rationale. This program is designed to help a programmer document an expert's task thus allowing the programmer to build an expert system which can help others perform the task. Flexibility is a key element of the system design and of the knowledge acquisition session. If the expert is not able to find time to work on the knowledge acquisition process with the program developer, the developer and subject matter expert may work in iterative sessions. TARGET is easy to use and is tailored to accommodate users ranging from the novice to the experienced expert systems builder. TARGET is written in C-language for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows version 3.0 or 3.1. No source code is supplied. The executable also requires 2Mb of RAM, a Microsoft compatible mouse, a VGA display and an 80286, 386 or 486 processor machine. The standard distribution medium for TARGET is one 5.25 inch 360K

  17. Preface: phys. stat. sol. (c) 1/10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Eun-Kyung; Yoon, Euijoon; Lee, Hyung Jae

    2004-09-01

    The Fifth International Symposium on Blue Laser and Light Emitting Diodes (ISBLLED-2004) was held in Gyeongju, Korea from 15-19 March 2004. Gyeongju, the ancient capital of the thousand-year Silla kingdom (57 B.C. to 935 A.D.) provided additional pleasure to the participants as an exceptional open-air museum with antique treasures scattered all around the city.During the last decade we have witnessed remarkable developments in wide-gap semiconductors and light emitting devices in the spectral range from the visible to deep UV. The purpose of the Symposium was to provide a forum for intensive discussion on the issues and main progress especially in optoelectronic devices, material growth and characterization, and quantum structures of wide bandgap semiconductors. A total of 243 papers including 220 contributed and 23 invited ones were presented and discussed by 487 participants from 17 countries world-wide. Among them, 154 manuscripts were submitted and reviewed by the usual evaluation process of physica status solidi. Some were rejected or withdrawn, and finally 139 papers are published in the special issues of physica status solidi (a), (b), and (c). We gratefully acknowledge the referees for their careful review. The papers are grouped into 7 categories. The subheadings and the number of papers in each are as follows: Optoelectronic devices, 43; Growth and characterization, 45; Nano and quantum structures, 21; Contacts, 8; Zinc oxide, 9; Indium nitride and indium rich InGaN, 6; Others, 7. The special session of the Symposium, The LED Highlight, designed partially to meet the challenging targets of the technology, i.e., energy savings and clean environment preservation, drew much attention and is edited as a special coloured section in this issue.The next symposium is scheduled for Montpellier, France, in 2006. We wish the organizers of that symposium the best of luck and hope to see all of the ISBLLED-2004 participants again at ISBLLED-2006.ISBLLED-2004 was

  18. MsSpec-1.0: A multiple scattering package for electron spectroscopies in material science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sébilleau, Didier; Natoli, Calogero; Gavaza, George M.; Zhao, Haifeng; Da Pieve, Fabiana; Hatada, Keisuke

    2011-12-01

    We present a multiple scattering package to calculate the cross-section of various spectroscopies namely photoelectron diffraction (PED), Auger electron diffraction (AED), X-ray absorption (XAS), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy (APECS). This package is composed of three main codes, computing respectively the cluster, the potential and the cross-section. In the latter case, in order to cover a range of energies as wide as possible, three different algorithms are provided to perform the multiple scattering calculation: full matrix inversion, series expansion or correlation expansion of the multiple scattering matrix. Numerous other small Fortran codes or bash/csh shell scripts are also provided to perform specific tasks. The cross-section code is built by the user from a library of subroutines using a makefile. Program summaryProgram title: MsSpec-1.0 Catalogue identifier: AEJT_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJT_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 504 438 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 14 448 180 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer: Any Operating system: Linux, MacOs RAM: Bytes Classification: 7.2 External routines: Lapack ( http://www.netlib.org/lapack/) Nature of problem: Calculation of the cross-section of various spectroscopies. Solution method: Multiple scattering. Running time: The test runs provided only take a few seconds to run.

  19. Suppression of high-order-harmonic intensities observed in aligned CO2 molecules with 1300-nm and 800-nm pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kosaku; Minemoto, Shinichirou; Sakai, Hirofumi

    2011-08-01

    High-order-harmonic generation from aligned N2, O2, and CO2 molecules is investigated by 1300-nm and 800-nm pulses. The harmonic intensities of 1300-nm pulses from aligned molecules show harmonic photon energy dependence similar to those of 800-nm pulses. Suppression of harmonic intensity from aligned CO2 molecules is observed for both 1300- and 800-nm pulses over the same harmonic photon energy range. As the dominant mechanism for the harmonic intensity suppression from aligned CO2 molecules, the present results support the two-center interference picture rather than the dynamical interference picture.

  20. 100-picosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption fine structure of FeII(1,10-phenanthroline)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tokushi; Nozawa, Shunsuke; Ichiyanagi, Kouhei; Tomita, Ayana; Ichikawa, Hirohiko; Chollet, Matthieu; Fujii, Hiroshi; Adachi, Shin-ichi; Koshihara, Shin-ya

    2009-02-01

    Studying photo-induced molecular dynamics in liquid with sub-nanosecond time-resolution and sub-Angstrom spatial resolution gives information for understanding fundamental chemical process in the photo-induced cooperative phenomena of molecular systems and also for developing new materials and devices. Here, we present time-resolved X-ray absorption fine structure on the spin-crossover complex FeII tris-(1,10-phenanthroline) dissolved in aqueous solution. We utilized femtosecond laser at 400nm pulse for excitation and 100ps X-ray pulse for probe.

  1. Electrical Mobility Spectrometer Using a Diethylene Glycol Condensation Particle Counter for Measurement of Aerosol Size Distributions Down to 1 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J.; Kuang, C.; Chen, M.; Attoui, M.; McMurry, P. H.

    2011-02-01

    We report a new scanning mobility particle spectrometer (SMPS) for measuring number size distributions of particles down to {approx}1 nm mobility diameter. This SMPS includes an aerosol charger, a TSI 3085 nano differential mobility analyzer (nanoDMA), an ultrafine condensation particle counter (UCPC) using diethylene glycol (DEG) as the working fluid, and a conventional butanol CPC (the 'booster') to detect the small droplets leaving the DEG UCPC. The response of the DEG UCPC to negatively charged sodium chloride particles with mobility diameters ranging from 1-6 nm was measured. The sensitivity of the DEG UCPC to particle composition was also studied by comparing its response to positively charged 1.47 and 1.70 nm tetra-alkyl ammonium ions, sodium chloride, and silver particles. A high resolution differential mobility analyzer was used to generate the test particles. These results show that the response of this UCPC to sub-2 nm particles is sensitive to particle composition. The applicability of the new SMPS for atmospheric measurement was demonstrated during the Nucleation and Cloud Condensation Nuclei (NCCN) field campaign (Atlanta, Georgia, summer 2009). We operated the instrument at saturator and condenser temperatures that allowed the efficient detection of sodium chloride particles but not of air ions having the same mobility. We found that particles as small as 1 nm were detected during nucleation events but not at other times. Factors affecting size distribution measurements, including aerosol charging in the 1-10 nm size range, are discussed. For the charger used in this study, bipolar charging was found to be more effective for sub-2 nm particles than unipolar charging. No ion induced nucleation inside the charger was observed during the NCCN campaign.

  2. Characterization of toll-like receptors 1-10 in spotted hyenas

    PubMed Central

    Flies, Andrew S.; Maksimoski, Matthew; Mansfield, Linda S.; Weldele, Mary L.; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) regularly survive exposure to deadly pathogens such as rabies, canine distemper virus, and anthrax, suggesting that they have robust immune defenses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize conserved molecular patterns and initiate a wide range of innate and adaptive immune responses. TLR genes are evolutionarily conserved, and assessing TLR expression in various tissues can provide insight into overall immunological organization and function. Studies of the hyena immune system have been minimal thus far due to the logistical and ethical challenges of sampling and preserving the immunological tissues of this and other long-lived, wild species. Tissue samples were opportunistically collected from captive hyenas humanely euthanized for a separate study. We developed primers to amplify partial sequences for TLRs 1-10, sequenced the amplicons, compared sequence identity to those in other mammals, and quantified TLR expression in lymph nodes, spleens, lungs, and pancreases. Results show that hyena TLR DNA and protein sequences are similar to TLRs in other mammals, and that TLRs 1-10 were expressed in all tissues tested. This information will be useful in the development of new assays to understand the interactions among the hyena immune system, pathogens, and the microbial communities that inhabit hyenas. PMID:24488231

  3. Characterization of Toll-like receptors 1-10 in spotted hyenas.

    PubMed

    Flies, Andrew S; Maksimoski, Matthew T; Mansfield, Linda S; Weldele, Mary L; Holekamp, Kay E

    2014-06-01

    Previous research has shown that spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) regularly survive exposure to deadly pathogens such as rabies, canine distemper virus, and anthrax, suggesting that they have robust immune defenses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize conserved molecular patterns and initiate a wide range of innate and adaptive immune responses. TLR genes are evolutionarily conserved, and assessing TLR expression in various tissues can provide insight into overall immunological organization and function. Studies of the hyena immune system have been minimal thus far due to the logistical and ethical challenges of sampling and preserving the immunological tissues of this and other long-lived, wild species. Tissue samples were opportunistically collected from captive hyenas humanely euthanized for a separate study. We developed primers to amplify partial sequences for TLRs 1-10, sequenced the amplicons, compared sequence identity to those in other mammals, and quantified TLR expression in lymph nodes, spleens, lungs, and pancreases. Results show that hyena TLR DNA and protein sequences are similar to TLRs in other mammals, and that TLRs 1-10 were expressed in all tissues tested. This information will be useful in the development of new assays to understand the interactions among the hyena immune system, pathogens, and the microbial communities that inhabit hyenas. PMID:24488231

  4. Observations and Light Curve Solutions of the Eclipsing Binaries USNO-B1.0 1395-0370184 and USNO-B1.0 1395-0370731

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, D.; Popov, V. A.; Vasileva, D.; Petrov, N.

    2016-07-01

    We present follow-up photometric observations in Sloan filters g', i' of the newly discovered eclipsing stars USNO-B1.0 1395-0370184 and USNO-B1.0 1395-0370731. Our data revealed that their orbital periods are considerably bigger than the previous values. This result changed the classification of USNO-B1.0 1395-0370184 from ultrashort-period binary (P=0.197 d) to short-period system (P=0.251 d). The light curve solutions of our observations revealed that USNO-B1.0 1395-0370184 and USNO-B1.0 1395-0370731 are overcontact binaries in which components are K dwarfs, close in masses and radii. The light curve distortions were reproduced by cool spots with angular radius of around 20°.

  5. Flow-injection chemiluminescent determination of estrogen benzoate using the tris(1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II)-permanganate system.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Cao, Wei; Qiao, Shuang; Liu, Wenwen; Yang, Jinghe

    2011-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) detection for the determination of estrogen benzoate, using the reaction of tris(1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II)-Na(2)SO(3)-permanganate, is described. This method is based on the CL reaction of estrogen benzoate (EB) with acidic potassium permanganate and tris(1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II). The CL intensity is greatly enhanced when Na(2)SO(3) is added. After optimization of the different experimental parameters, a calibration graph for estrogen benzoate is linear in the range 0.05-10 µg/mL. The 3 s limit of detection is 0.024 µg/mL and the relative standard deviation was 1.3% for 1.0 µg/mL estrogen benzoate (n = 11). This proposed method was successfully applied to commercial injection samples and emulsion cosmetics. The mechanism of CL reaction was also studied. PMID:21268228

  6. RealGasBrine v1.0 option of TOUGH+ v1.5

    2015-02-27

    RealGasBrine v1.0 is a numerical code that for the simulation of the behavior of gas-bearing porous and/fractured geologic media. It is an option of TOUGH+ v1.5 [Moridis, 2014], a successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1999; 2012] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase ?uid and heat ?ow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. RealGasBrine v1.0 needs the TOUGH+ v1.5 core code in order to compile and execute. It is written in standard FORTRANmore » 95/2003, and can be run on any computational platform (workstation, PC, Macintosh) for which such compilers are available. RealGasBrine v1.0 describes the non-isothermal two- (for pure water) or three-phase (for brine) flow of an aqueous phase and a real gas mixture in a gas-bearing medium, with a particular focus in ultra-tight (such as tight-sand and shale gas) systems. Up to 12 individual real gases can be tracked, and salt can precipitate as solid halite. The capabilities of the code include coupled flow and thermal effects, real gas behavior, Darcy and non-Darcy flow, several isotherm options of gas sorption onto the grains of the porous media, complex fracture descriptions, gas solubility into water, and geomechanical effects on flow properties. RealGasBrine v1.0 allows the study of flow and transport of fluids and heat over a wide range of time frames and spatial scales not only in gas reservoirs, but also in any problem involving the flow of gases in geologic media, including the geologic storage of greenhouse gas mixtures, the behavior of geothermal reservoirs with multi-component condensable (H2O and CO2) and non-condensable gas mixtures, the transport of water and released H2 in nuclear waste storage applications, etc.« less

  7. Measurement of 100 nm and 60 nm Particle Standards by Differential Mobility Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mulholland, George W.; Donnelly, Michelle K.; Hagwood, Charles R.; Kukuck, Scott R.; Hackley, Vincent A.; Pui, David Y. H.

    2006-01-01

    The peak particle size and expanded uncertainties (95 % confidence interval) for two new particle calibration standards are measured as 101.8 nm ± 1.1 nm and 60.39 nm ± 0.63 nm. The particle samples are polystyrene spheres suspended in filtered, deionized water at a mass fraction of about 0.5 %. The size distribution measurements of aerosolized particles are made using a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) system calibrated using SRM® 1963 (100.7 nm polystyrene spheres). An electrospray aerosol generator was used for generating the 60 nm aerosol to almost eliminate the generation of multiply charged dimers and trimers and to minimize the effect of non-volatile contaminants increasing the particle size. The testing for the homogeneity of the samples and for the presence of multimers using dynamic light scattering is described. The use of the transfer function integral in the calibration of the DMA is shown to reduce the uncertainty in the measurement of the peak particle size compared to the approach based on the peak in the concentration vs. voltage distribution. A modified aerosol/sheath inlet, recirculating sheath flow, a high ratio of sheath flow to the aerosol flow, and accurate pressure, temperature, and voltage measurements have increased the resolution and accuracy of the measurements. A significant consideration in the uncertainty analysis was the correlation between the slip correction of the calibration particle and the measured particle. Including the correlation reduced the expanded uncertainty from approximately 1.8 % of the particle size to about 1.0 %. The effect of non-volatile contaminants in the polystyrene suspensions on the peak particle size and the uncertainty in the size is determined. The full size distributions for both the 60 nm and 100 nm spheres are tabulated and selected mean sizes including the number mean diameter and the dynamic light scattering mean diameter are computed. The use of these particles for calibrating DMAs and for

  8. Infrared Luminescence at 1010 nm and 1500 nm in LiNbO3:Er3+ Excitted by Short Pulse Radiation at 980 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokanyan, E. P.; Demirkhanyan, G. G.; Steveler, E.; Rinnert, H.; Aillerie, M.

    Luminescence of LiNbO3:Er3+ crystal at a wavelength of 1010 nm and 1500 nm under pulsed excitation of different power at a wavelength of 980 nm are experimentally and theoretically studied. It is revealed, that the main part of the absorbed energy gives rise to the luminescence at 1500 nm. Considered concentrations of Er3+ impurity ions allow to exclude cooperative processes in the impurity subsystem. The experimental results are interpreted in the framework of a three electronic levels system, assuming that the population of the higher lasing level 4I13/2 in the crystal under study is caused by relaxation processes from the excited level. It is shown that for obtaining of a laser radiation at about 1500 nm one can effectively use a pulse-pumping at 980 nm with a power density in a range of 50 ÷ 60 MW/cm2.

  9. The gravitational resolving power of global seismic networks in the 0.1-10 Hz band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Kamenshchik, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Among the first attempts to detect gravitational waves, the seismic approach pre-dates the digital era. Major advances in computational power, seismic instrumentation and in the knowledge of seismic noise suggest to reappraise its potential. Using the whole earth as a detector, with the thousands of digital seismometers of seismic global networks as a single phased array, more than two decades of continuous seismic noise data are available and can be readily sifted at the only cost of (a pretty gigantic) computation. Using a subset of data, we show that absolute strains h ≲10-17 on burst gravitational pulses and h ≲10-21 on periodic signals may be feasibly resolved in the frequency range 0.1-10 Hz, only marginally covered by current advanced LIGO and future eLISA. However, theoretical predictions for the largest cosmic gravitational emissions at these frequencies are a few orders of magnitude lower.

  10. GridLAB-D Technical Support Document: Residential End-Use Module Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Zachary T.; Gowri, Krishnan; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2008-07-31

    1.0 Introduction The residential module implements the following end uses and characteristics to simulate the power demand in a single family home: • Water heater • Lights • Dishwasher • Range • Microwave • Refrigerator • Internal gains (plug loads) • House (heating/cooling loads) The house model considers the following four major heat gains/losses that contribute to the building heating/cooling load: 1. Conduction through exterior walls, roof and fenestration (based on envelope UA) 2. Air infiltration (based on specified air change rate) 3. Solar radiation (based on CLTD model and using tmy data) 4. Internal gains from lighting, people, equipment and other end use objects. The Equivalent Thermal Parameter (ETP) approach is used to model the residential loads and energy consumption. The following sections describe the modeling assumptions for each of the above end uses and the details of power demand calculations in the residential module.

  11. 551 nm Generation by sum-frequency mixing of intracavity pumped Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Y.; Li, S. T.; Zhang, X. H.

    2012-02-01

    We present for the first time a Nd:YAG laser emitting at 1319 nm intracavity pumped by a 946 nm diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser. A 809 nm laser diode is used to pump the first Nd:YAG crystal emitting at 946 nm, and the second Nd:YAG laser emitting at 1319 nm intracavity pumped at 946 nm. Intracavity sumfrequency mixing at 946 and 1319 nm was then realized in a LBO crystal to reach the yellow range. We obtained a continuous-wave output power of 158 mW at 551 nm with a pump laser diode emitting 18.7 W at 809 nm.

  12. 30 CFR 57.22236 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22236 Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines). If methane reaches 1.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other...

  13. 33 CFR 1.10-5 - Public availability of records and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and documents. 1.10-5 Section 1.10-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Public Availability of Information § 1.10-5 Public..., 2100 2nd St. SW., Stop 7101, Washington, DC 20593-7101. (b) Each person desiring to inspect a record...

  14. 33 CFR 1.10-5 - Public availability of records and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and documents. 1.10-5 Section 1.10-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Public Availability of Information § 1.10-5 Public..., 2100 2nd St. SW., Stop 7101, Washington, DC 20593-7101. (b) Each person desiring to inspect a record...

  15. 33 CFR 1.10-5 - Public availability of records and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and documents. 1.10-5 Section 1.10-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Public Availability of Information § 1.10-5 Public..., 2100 2nd St. SW., Stop 7101, Washington, DC 20593-7101. (b) Each person desiring to inspect a record...

  16. 33 CFR 1.10-5 - Public availability of records and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and documents. 1.10-5 Section 1.10-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Public Availability of Information § 1.10-5 Public..., 2100 2nd St. SW., Stop 7101, Washington, DC 20593-7101. (b) Each person desiring to inspect a record...

  17. 33 CFR 1.10-5 - Public availability of records and documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and documents. 1.10-5 Section 1.10-5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Public Availability of Information § 1.10-5 Public..., 2100 2nd St. SW., Stop 7101, Washington, DC 20593-7101. (b) Each person desiring to inspect a record...

  18. Optical diagnostic suite (schlieren, interferometry, and grid image refractometry) on OMEGA EP using a 10-ps, 263-nm probe beam

    SciTech Connect

    Froula, D. H.; Boni, R.; Bedzyk, M.; Craxton, R. S.; Ehrne, F.; Ivancic, S.; Jungquist, R.; Shoup, M. J.; Theobald, W.; Weiner, D.; Kugland, N. L.; Rushford, M. C.

    2012-10-15

    A 10-ps, 263-nm (4{omega}) laser is being built to probe plasmas produced on the OMEGA EP [J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. E. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory et al., J. Phys. IV France 133, 75-80 (2006)]. A suite of optical diagnostics (schlieren, interferometry, and grid image refractometry) has been designed to diagnose and characterize a wide variety of plasmas. Light scattered by the probe beam is collected by an f/4 catadioptric telescope and a transport system is designed to image with a near-diffraction-limited resolution ({approx}1 -{mu}m full width at half maximum) over a 5-mm field of view to a diagnostic table. The transport system provides a contrast greater than 1 : 10{sup 4} with respect to all wavelengths outside of the 263 {+-} 2 nm measurement range.

  19. Optical diagnostic suite (schlieren, interferometry, and grid image refractometry) on OMEGA EP using a 10-ps, 263-nm probe beam.

    PubMed

    Froula, D H; Boni, R; Bedzyk, M; Craxton, R S; Ehrne, F; Ivancic, S; Jungquist, R; Shoup, M J; Theobald, W; Weiner, D; Kugland, N L; Rushford, M C

    2012-10-01

    A 10-ps, 263-nm (4ω) laser is being built to probe plasmas produced on the OMEGA EP [J. H. Kelly, L. J. Waxer, V. Bagnoud, I. A. Begishev, J. Bromage, B. E. Kruschwitz, T. E. Kessler, S. J. Loucks, D. N. Maywar, R. L. McCrory et al., J. Phys. IV France 133, 75-80 (2006)]. A suite of optical diagnostics (schlieren, interferometry, and grid image refractometry) has been designed to diagnose and characterize a wide variety of plasmas. Light scattered by the probe beam is collected by an f/4 catadioptric telescope and a transport system is designed to image with a near-diffraction-limited resolution (~1 - μm full width at half maximum) over a 5-mm field of view to a diagnostic table. The transport system provides a contrast greater than 1 : 10(4) with respect to all wavelengths outside of the 263 ± 2 nm measurement range. PMID:23127030

  20. An instrument to measure the solar spectrum from 170 to 3200 nm on board Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thuiller, G.; Simon, P. C.; Pastiels, R.; Labs, D.; Meckel, H.

    1981-01-01

    This instrument, at the present time in development, will fly on board Spacelab I in May 1983. Other flights are foreseen during the following missions. The instrument is composed of three double monochromators covering the range 170 to 3200 nm. The spectrometers have bandpasses of 1 nm up to 900 nm and 20 nm from 850 to 3200 nm with an accuracy 1/100 nm. Calibration lamps are included in the instrument to monitor any change of its sensitivity and wavelength scale.

  1. Synthesis and Near IR Photoluminescence of Os(II) Bis(2,2'-bipyridine) (3,8-Diarylethynyl-1,10-phemanthroline) Complexes: Anomalous Behavior of the 3,8-Dinitrophenylethynyl-substituted Homologue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Jinhua; Dass, Amala; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia; Tyson, Daniel S.; Leventis, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    A large bathochromic shift (50 nm) and emission in the near infrared is observed by attaching arylethynyl groups at the 3,8-positions of the 1,10-phenanthroline ligand (phen) of [Os(bipy)2(phen)]2+ (where bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine). Thus [Os(bipy)2(3,8-di-4-methoxyphenylethynyl-1,10-phenathroline)]2+ emits at 795 nm, while [Os(bipy)2(3,8-diphenylethynyl-1,10-phenanthroline)]2+ emits at 815 nm. According to this trend it would have been expected that [Os(bipy)2(3,8-di-4-nitrophenylethynyl-1,10-phenathroline)]2+ emits farther in the near infrared. Nevertheless, this complex is not photoluminescent because of intramolecular electron transfer quenching of the MLCT excited state by the nitroaromatic group. These results set structural and redox potential standards in the design of near infrared emitters based on [Os(bipy)2(phen)]2+ type complexes.

  2. Characterization of LANDSAT Panels Using the NIST BRDF Scale from 1100 nm to 2500 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Tsai, Benjamin K.; Allen, David W.; Cooksey, Catherine; Yoon, Howard; Hanssen, Leonard; Zeng, Jinan; Fulton, Linda; Biggar, Stuart; Markham, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Many earth observing sensors depend on white diffuse reflectance standards to derive scales of radiance traceable to the St Despite the large number of Earth observing sensors that operate in the reflective solar region of the spectrum, there has been no direct method to provide NIST traceable BRDF measurements out to 2500 rim. Recent developments in detector technology have allowed the NIST reflectance measurement facility to expand the operating range to cover the 250 nm to 2500 nm range. The facility has been modified with and additional detector using a cooled extended range indium gallium arsenide (Extended InGaAs) detector. Measurements were made for two PTFE white diffuse reflectance standards over the 1100 nm to 2500 nm region at a 0' incident and 45' observation angle. These two panels will be used to support the OLI calibration activities. An independent means of verification was established using a NIST radiance transfer facility based on spectral irradiance, radiance standards and a diffuse reflectance plaque. An analysis on the results and associated uncertainties will be discussed.

  3. Photoionization of Nitromethane at 355nm and 266nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Denhi; Betancourt, Francisco; Poveda, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Alfonso; Cisneros, Carmen; Álvarez, Ignacio

    2014-05-01

    Nitromethane is one of the high-yield clean liquid fuels, i.e., thanks to the oxygen contained in nitromethane, much less atmospheric oxygen is burned compared to hydrocarbons such as gasoline, making the nitromethane an important prototypical energetic material, the understanding of its chemistry is relevant in other fields such as atmospheric chemistry or biochemistry. In this work we present the study of photoionization dynamics by multiphoton absorption with 355 nm and 266 nm wavelength photons, using time of flight spectrometry in reflectron mode (R-TOF). Some of the observed ion products appear for both wavelength and other only in one of them; both results were compared with preview observations and new ions were detected. This work is supported by CONACYT grant 165410 and DGAPA-UNAM grants IN-107-912 and IN-102-613.

  4. Magneto-optical trap for metastable helium at 389 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Koelemeij, J.C.J.; Stas, R.J.W.; Hogervorst, W.; Vassen, W.

    2003-05-01

    We have constructed a magneto-optical trap (MOT) for metastable triplet helium atoms utilizing the 2 {sup 3}S{sub 1}{yields}3 {sup 3}P{sub 2} line at 389 nm as the trapping and cooling transition. The far-red-detuned MOT (detuning {delta}=-41 MHz) typically contains few times 10{sup 7} atoms at a relatively high ({approx}10{sup 9} cm{sup -3}) density, which is a consequence of the large momentum transfer per photon at 389 nm and a small two-body loss rate coefficient (2x10{sup -10} cm{sup 3}/s<{beta}<1.0x10{sup -9} cm{sup 3}/s). The two-body loss rate is more than five times smaller than in a MOT on the commonly used 2 {sup 3}S{sub 1}{yields}2 {sup 3}P{sub 2} line at 1083 nm. Furthermore, laser cooling at 389 nm results in temperatures somewhat lower than those achieved using 1083 nm. The 389-nm MOT exhibits small losses due to two-photon ionization, which have been investigated as well.

  5. About the electronic and photophysical properties of iridium(III)-pyrazino[2,3-f][1,10]-phenanthroline based complexes for use in electroluminescent devices.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Arriagada, Diego; Sanhueza, Luis; González, Iván; Dreyse, Paulina; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro

    2016-01-14

    A family of cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes was studied through quantum chemistry calculations to get insights into their applicability in light electrochemical cells (LECs). The complexes are described as [Ir(R-C^N)2(ppl)](+), where ppl is the pyrazino[2,3-f][1,10]-phenanthroline ancillary ligand. The modification of the HOMO energy in all the complexes was achieved by means of different R-C^N cyclometalating ligands, with R-ppy (phenylpyridine), R-pyz (1-phenylpyrazole) or R-pypy (2,3'-bipyridine); in addition, inductive effects were taken into account by substitution with the R groups (R = H, F or CF3). Then, compounds with HOMO-LUMO energy gaps from 2.76 to 3.54 eV were obtained, in addition to emission energies in the range of 438 to 597 nm. The emission deactivation pathways confirm the presence of metal-to-ligand transitions in all the complexes, which allow the strong spin-orbit coupling effects, and then improving the luminescence performance. However, the coupling with ligand and metal centered excited states was observed for the blue-shifted emitters, which could result in a decrease of the luminescence efficiencies. Furthermore, ionization potentials, electron affinities and reorganization energies (for holes and electrons) were obtained to account for the injection and transport properties of all the complexes in electroluminescent devices. PMID:26449274

  6. Surface micromachined MEMS tunable VCSEL at 1550 nm with > 70 nm single mode tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierl, Christian; Gründl, Tobias; Debernardi, Pierluigi; Zogal, Karolina; Davani, Hooman A.; Grasse, Christian; Böhm, Gerhard; Meissner, Peter; Küppers, Franko; Amann, Markus-Christian

    2012-03-01

    We present surface micro-machined tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) operating around 1550nm with tuning ranges up to 100nm and side mode suppression ratios beyond 40 dB. The output power reaches 3.5mW at 1555 nm. The electro-thermal and the electro-statical actuation of a micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) movable distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) membrane increases/decreases the cavity length which shifts the resonant wavelength of the cavity to higher/lower values. The wavelength is modulated with 200 Hz/120 kHz. Both tuning mechanisms can be used simultaneously within the same device. The newly developed surface micro-machining technology uses competitive dielectric materials for the MEMS, deposited with low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), which is cost effective and capable for on wafer mass production.

  7. Picosecond laser texturization of mc-silicon for photovoltaics: A comparison between 1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm radiation wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binetti, Simona; Le Donne, Alessia; Rolfi, Andrea; Jäggi, Beat; Neuenschwander, Beat; Busto, Chiara; Frigeri, Cesare; Scorticati, Davide; Longoni, Luca; Pellegrino, Sergio

    2016-05-01

    Self-organized surface structures were produced by picosecond laser pulses on multi-crystalline silicon for photovoltaic applications. Three different laser wavelengths were employed (i.e. 1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm) and the resulting morphologies were observed to effectively reduce the reflectivity of the samples after laser irradiation. Besides, a comparative study of the laser induced subsurface damage generated by the three different wavelengths was performed by confocal micro-Raman, photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy. The results of both the structural and optical characterization showed that the mc-Si texturing performed with the laser at 355 nm provides surface reflectivity between 11% and 8% over the spectral range from 400 nm to 1 μm, while inducing the lowest subsurface damage, located above the depletion region of the p-n junction.

  8. Direct solar spectral irradiance and transmittance measurements from 350 to 2500 nm.

    PubMed

    Kindel, B C; Qu, Z; Goetz, A F

    2001-07-20

    A radiometrically stable, commercially available spectroradiometer was used in conjunction with a simple, custom-designed telescope to make spectrally continuous measurements of solar spectral transmittance and directly transmitted solar spectral irradiance. The wavelength range of the instrument is 350-2500 nm and the resolution is 3-11.7 nm. Laboratory radiometric calibrations show the instrument to be stable to better than 1.0% over a nine-month period. The instrument and telescope are highly portable, can be set up in a matter of minutes, and can be operated by one person. A method of absolute radiometric calibration that can be tied to published top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) solar spectra in valid Langley channels as well as regions of strong molecular absorption is also presented. High-altitude Langley plot calibration experiments indicate that this technique is limited ultimately by the current uncertainties in the TOA solar spectra, approximately 2-3%. Example comparisons of measured and modtran-modeled direct solar irradiance show that the model can be parameterized to agree with measurements over the large majority of the wavelength range to the 3% level for the two example cases shown. Side-by-side comparisons with a filter-based solar radiometer are in excellent agreement, with a mean absolute difference of tau = 0.0036 for eight overlapping wavelengths over three experiment days. PMID:18360373

  9. OISL transmitter at 985 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larose, Robert; Lauzon, Jocelyn; Mohrdiek, Stefan; Harder, Christoph S.; Changkakoti, Rupak; Park, Peter

    1999-04-01

    For high data rate (greater than 1 Gbps) Optical Inter- Satellite Link (OISL), a compact laser transmitter with high power and good efficiency is required. A trade-off analysis between the technologies such as the mature 840 nm laser diodes, 1064 nm diode-pumped solid state laser and the more recent 1550 nm Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) is used to find the optical solution. The Si-APDs are preferred for their large detector areas and good noise figures which reduce the tracking requirements and simplify optical design of the receiver. Because of significant amount of power needed to close the link distance up to 7000 km (LEO-LEO), use of 840 nm diodes is limited. In this paper, we present an alternative system based on a system concept denoted as the SLYB (Semiconductor Laser Ytterbium Booster). The SLYB uses a polarization maintaining double-clad ytterbium fiber as a power amplifier. The device houses two semiconductor diodes that are designed to meet telecom reliability: a broad-area 917 nm pump diode and a directly modulated FP laser for signal generation. The output signal is in a linearly polarized state with an extinction ratio of 20 dB. The complete module (15 X 12 X 4.3 cm3) weighs less than 0.9 kg and delivers up to 27 dBm average output power at 985 nm. Designed primarily for direct detection using Si APDs, the transmitter offers a modulation data rate of at least 1.5 Gb/s with a modulation extinction ratio better than 13 dB. Total power consumption is expected to be lower than 8 W by using an uncooled pump laser. Preliminary radiation testing of the fiber indicates output power penalty of 1.5 dB at the end of 10 years in operation. We are presently investigating the fabrication of an improved radiation-hardened Yb-fiber for the final prototype to reduce this penalty. For higher data rate the design can be extended to a Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) scheme adding multiple channels.

  10. Rotational level-dependent collisional broadening and line shift of the A2Sigma(+)-X2Pi (1,0) band of OH in hydrogen-air combustion gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, W. J.; Allen, M. G.; Davis, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the collisional broadening and line shift of the (1,0) band of the A2Sigma(+)-X2Pi system of OH are reported in atmospheric pressure hydrogen-air combustion gases. The measurements were made using a single-mode, narrow linewidth, frequency-doubled ring dye laser operating near 283 nm. The OH was generated in the combustion gases of a flat flame H2-air burner. Collisional broadening parameters for equilibrium mixtures of H2, O2, H2O, and N2 were obtained spanning a range of fuel/air equivalence ratios from 0.6 to 1.6 and temperatures from 1500 to 2050 K. Measurements were obtained spanning rotational quantum numbers from 4.5 to 16.5. The collision induced frequency shift was determined to be 0.1 that of the collisional broadening.

  11. High power diode lasers emitting from 639 nm to 690 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, L.; Grimshaw, M.; DeVito, M.; Kanskar, M.; Dong, W.; Guan, X.; Zhang, S.; Patterson, J.; Dickerson, P.; Kennedy, K.; Li, S.; Haden, J.; Martinsen, R.

    2014-03-01

    There is increasing market demand for high power reliable red lasers for display and cinema applications. Due to the fundamental material system limit at this wavelength range, red diode lasers have lower efficiency and are more temperature sensitive, compared to 790-980 nm diode lasers. In terms of reliability, red lasers are also more sensitive to catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD) due to the higher photon energy. Thus developing higher power-reliable red lasers is very challenging. This paper will present nLIGHT's released red products from 639 nm to 690nm, with established high performance and long-term reliability. These single emitter diode lasers can work as stand-alone singleemitter units or efficiently integrate into our compact, passively-cooled Pearl™ fiber-coupled module architectures for higher output power and improved reliability. In order to further improve power and reliability, new chip optimizations have been focused on improving epitaxial design/growth, chip configuration/processing and optical facet passivation. Initial optimization has demonstrated promising results for 639 nm diode lasers to be reliably rated at 1.5 W and 690nm diode lasers to be reliably rated at 4.0 W. Accelerated life-test has started and further design optimization are underway.

  12. Risk Knowledge in Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis (RIKNO 1.0) - Development of an Outcome Instrument for Educational Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Heesen, C.; Kasper, J.; Fischer, K.; Köpke, S.; Rahn, A.; Backhus, I.; Poettgen, J.; Vahter, L.; Drulovic, J.; Van Nunen, A.; Beckmann, Y.; Liethmann, K.; Giordano, A.; Solari, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adequate risk knowledge of patients is a prerequisite for shared decision making but few attempts have been made to develop assessment tools. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of young adults with an increasing number of partially effective immunotherapies and therefore a paradigmatic disease to study patient involvement. Objective/methods Based on an item bank of MS risk knowledge items and patient feedback including perceived relevance we developed a risk knowledge questionnaire for relapsing remitting (RR) MS (RIKNO 1.0) which was a primary outcome measure in a patient education trial (192 early RRMS patients). Results Fourteen of the RIKNO 1.0 multiple-choice items were selected based on patient perceived relevance and item difficulty indices, and five on expert opinion. Mean item difficulty was 0.58, ranging from 0.14 to 0.79. Mean RIKNO 1.0 score increased after the educational intervention from 10.6 to 12.4 (p = 0.0003). Selected items were particularly difficult (e.g. those on absolute risk reductions of having a second relapse) and were answered correctly in only 30% of the patients, even after the intervention. Conclusion Despite its high difficulty, RIKNO 1.0 is a responsive instrument to assess risk knowledge in RRMS patients participating in educational interventions. PMID:26430887

  13. 248nm silicon photoablation: Microstructuring basics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poopalan, P.; Najamudin, S. H.; Wahab, Y.; Mazalan, M.

    2015-05-01

    248nm pulses from a KrF excimer laser was used to ablate a Si wafer in order to ascertain the laser pulse and energy effects for use as a microstructuring tool for MEMS fabrication. The laser pulses were varied between two different energy levels of 8mJ and 4mJ while the number of pulses for ablation was varied. The corresponding ablated depths were found to range between 11 µm and 49 µm, depending on the demagnified beam fluence.

  14. 248nm silicon photoablation: Microstructuring basics

    SciTech Connect

    Poopalan, P.; Najamudin, S. H.; Wahab, Y.; Mazalan, M.

    2015-05-15

    248nm pulses from a KrF excimer laser was used to ablate a Si wafer in order to ascertain the laser pulse and energy effects for use as a microstructuring tool for MEMS fabrication. The laser pulses were varied between two different energy levels of 8mJ and 4mJ while the number of pulses for ablation was varied. The corresponding ablated depths were found to range between 11 µm and 49 µm, depending on the demagnified beam fluence.

  15. TUNABLE DIODE LASER MEASUREMENTS OF NO2 NEAR 670 NM AND 395 NM. (R823933)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two single-mode diode lasers were used to record high-resolution absorption spectra of NO2 (dilute in Ar) near 670.2 and 394.5 nm over a range of temperatures (296 to 774 K) and total pressures (2.4 x 10(-2) to 1 atm). A commercial InGaAsP laser was tuned 1.3 cm(-1) at a repetiti...

  16. Bi-doped fiber lasers and amplifiers for a spectral region of 1300-1470 nm.

    PubMed

    Bufetov, Igor A; Firstov, Sergey V; Khopin, Vladimir F; Medvedkov, Oleg I; Guryanov, Alexey N; Dianov, Evgeny M

    2008-10-01

    Bismuth-doped fiber lasers operating in the range 1300-1470 nm have been demonstrated for the first time, to our knowledge. It has been shown that Bi-doped alumina-free phosphogermanosilicate fibers reveal optical gain in a wavelength range of 1240-1485 nm with pumping at 1205, 1230, or 808 nm. PMID:18830360

  17. 40nm tunable multi-wavelength fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Qingsong; Wang, Tianshu; Zhang, Peng; Dong, Keyan; Jiang, Huilin

    2014-12-01

    A Brillouin-Erbium multi-wavelength tunable fiber laser at C-band is demostrated. A 10 km long singlemode fiber(SMF), a 6 m long Erbium-doped fiber, two couplers, a wavelength division multiplexer, a isolator, an optical circulator, a 980nm pump laser and a narrow linewidth tunable laser are included in the structure. A segment of 10 km-long single-mode fiber (SMF) between the two ports of a 1×2 coupler is used as Brillouin gain. Ebiumdoped fiber amplifier (EDFA) consists of a segment of 6m er-doped fiber pumped by 980nm laser dioder . A narrow linewidth tunable laser from 1527 to 1607 nm as Brillouin bump, At the Brillouin pump power of 8mW and the 980 nm pump power of 400 mw, 16 output channels with 0.08 nm spacing and tuning range of 40 nm from 1527 nm to 1567 nm are achieved. We realize the tunable output of wavelength by adjusting the 980 nm pump power and the Brillouin pump wavelength. Stability of the multiwavelength fiber laser is also observed.

  18. Comparison of 885 nm pumping and 808 nm pumping in Nd:CNGG laser operating at 1061 nm and 935 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yuxian; Li, Qinan; Zhang, Dongxiang; Feng, Baohua; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Jiyang

    2010-07-01

    A Nd:CNGG laser operated at 935 nm and 1061 nm pumped at 885 nm and 808 nm, respectively, is demonstrated. The 885 nm direct pumping scheme shows some advantages over the 808 nm traditional pumping scheme. It includes higher slope efficiency, lower threshold, and better beam quality at high output power. With the direct pumping, the slope efficiency increases by 43% and the threshold decreases by 10% compared with traditional pumping in the Nd:CNGG laser operated at 935 nm. When the Nd:CNGG laser operates at 1061 nm, the direct pumping increases the slope efficiency by 14% with a 20% reduction in the oscillation threshold.

  19. 30 CFR 57.22236 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines). 57.22236 Section 57.22236 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... percent methane (VI mines). If methane reaches 1.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22236 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines). 57.22236 Section 57.22236 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... percent methane (VI mines). If methane reaches 1.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other...

  1. 30 CFR 57.22236 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines). 57.22236 Section 57.22236 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... percent methane (VI mines). If methane reaches 1.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other...

  2. 30 CFR 57.22236 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (VI mines). 57.22236 Section 57.22236 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... percent methane (VI mines). If methane reaches 1.0 percent in the mine atmosphere, all persons other...

  3. 17 CFR 1.10 - Financial reports of futures commission merchants and introducing brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial reports of futures commission merchants and introducing brokers. 1.10 Section 1.10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Minimum Financial and Related Reporting Requirements §...

  4. 45 CFR 1206.1-10 - Modification of procedures by consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modification of procedures by consent. 1206.1-10 Section 1206.1-10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination...

  5. Effect of Yttrium on the Fracture Strength of the Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyelim; Kaplan, Wayne D.; Choe, Heeman

    2016-04-01

    This is a preliminary investigation on the mechanical properties of Pb-free Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu solder joints containing 0.02 wt.% to 0.1 wt.% Y under a range of thermal aging and reflow conditions. Despite the significantly thicker intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the solder joint, the 0.1 wt.% Y-doped joint exhibited a higher fracture strength than its baseline Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu counterpart under most aging and reflow conditions. This may be associated with the formation of Y-Cu IMCs formed at the interface between the solder and the Cu substrate, because the Y-Cu IMCs have recently been referred to as relatively `ductile' IMCs.

  6. Effect of Yttrium on the Fracture Strength of the Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyelim; Kaplan, Wayne D.; Choe, Heeman

    2016-07-01

    This is a preliminary investigation on the mechanical properties of Pb-free Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu solder joints containing 0.02 wt.% to 0.1 wt.% Y under a range of thermal aging and reflow conditions. Despite the significantly thicker intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the solder joint, the 0.1 wt.% Y-doped joint exhibited a higher fracture strength than its baseline Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu counterpart under most aging and reflow conditions. This may be associated with the formation of Y-Cu IMCs formed at the interface between the solder and the Cu substrate, because the Y-Cu IMCs have recently been referred to as relatively `ductile' IMCs.

  7. The implementation of NEMS GFS Aerosol Component (NGAC) Version 1.0 for global dust forecasting at NOAA/NCEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cheng-Hsuan; da Silva, Arlindo; Wang, Jun; Moorthi, Shrinivas; Chin, Mian; Colarco, Peter; Tang, Youhua; Bhattacharjee, Partha S.; Chen, Shen-Po; Chuang, Hui-Ya; Juang, Hann-Ming Henry; McQueen, Jeffery; Iredell, Mark

    2016-05-01

    The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) implemented the NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) Global Forecast System (GFS) Aerosol Component (NGAC) for global dust forecasting in collaboration with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). NGAC Version 1.0 has been providing 5-day dust forecasts at 1° × 1° resolution on a global scale, once per day at 00:00 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), since September 2012. This is the first global system capable of interactive atmosphere aerosol forecasting at NCEP. The implementation of NGAC V1.0 reflects an effective and efficient transitioning of NASA research advances to NCEP operations, paving the way for NCEP to provide global aerosol products serving a wide range of stakeholders, as well as to allow the effects of aerosols on weather forecasts and climate prediction to be considered.

  8. EXTRAORDINARY MAGNIFICATION OF THE ORDINARY TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PS1-10afx

    SciTech Connect

    Quimby, Robert M.; Werner, Marcus C.; Oguri, Masamune; More, Surhud; More, Anupreeta; Tanaka, Masayuki; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Moriya, Takashi J.; Folatelli, Gaston; Maeda, Keiichi; Bersten, Melina

    2013-05-01

    Recently, Chornock and co-workers announced the Pan-STARRS discovery of a transient source reaching an apparent peak luminosity of {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}. We show that the spectra of this transient source are well fit by normal Type Ia supernova (SNIa) templates. The multi-band colors and light-curve shapes are also consistent with normal SNeIa at the spectroscopically determined redshift of z = 1.3883; however, the observed flux is a constant factor of {approx}30 times too bright in each band over time as compared to the templates. At minimum, this shows that the peak luminosities inferred from the light-curve widths of some SNeIa will deviate significantly from the established, empirical relation used by cosmologists. We argue on physical grounds that the observed fluxes do not reflect an intrinsically luminous SNIa, but rather PS1-10afx is a normal SNIa whose flux has been magnified by an external source. The only known astrophysical source capable of such magnification is a gravitational lens. Given the lack of obvious lens candidates, such as galaxy clusters, in the vicinity, we further argue that the lens is a supermassive black hole or a comparatively low-mass dark matter halo. In this case, the lens continues to magnify the underlying host galaxy light. If confirmed, this discovery could impact a broad range of topics including cosmology, gamma-ray bursts, and dark matter halos.

  9. Safety assessment comparison methodology for toxic and radioactive wastes (SACO version 1.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, C.; Simon, I.; Agueero, A.; Little, R.H.; Smith, G.M.

    1993-12-31

    As part of a research contract jointly funded by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) and Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos S.A. (Enresa, Spain), the Instituto de Medioambiente of the CIEMAT Research Centre and Intera (UK) are developing and testing a general methodology (SACO) to assess the post-disposal environmental impact produced by waste disposal practices. The scope of the methodology includes toxic, radioactive and mixed hazardous wastes. The term toxic is interpreted broadly to include any kind of liquid or solid non-radioactive waste which could give rise to some detrimental environmental effects post-disposal. Radioactive wastes considered include the full range from low to high level solid wastes arising inside and outside the nuclear power industry. Mixed hazardous waste is taken to be waste presenting both radioactive and other toxic hazard potential. In this paper SACO version 1.0 methodology is presented and it is applied to the assessment of the impact of shallow and deep disposal of waste.

  10. Independent validation testing of the FLAME computer code, Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Martian, P.; Chung, J.N.

    1992-07-01

    Independent testing of the FLAME computer code, Version 1.0, was conducted to determine if the code is ready for use in hydrological and environmental studies at Department of Energy sites. This report describes the technical basis, approach, and results of this testing. Validation tests, (i.e., tests which compare field data to the computer generated solutions) were used to determine the operational status of the FLAME computer code and were done on a qualitative basis through graphical comparisons of the experimental and numerical data. These tests were specifically designed to check: (1) correctness of the FORTRAN coding, (2) computational accuracy, and (3) suitability to simulating actual hydrologic conditions. This testing was performed using a structured evaluation protocol which consisted of: (1) independent applications, and (2) graduated difficulty of test cases. Three tests ranging in complexity from simple one-dimensional steady-state flow field problems under near-saturated conditions to two-dimensional transient flow problems with very dry initial conditions.

  11. MatMix 1.0: Using optical mixing to probe visual material perception.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; de Ridder, Huib; Fleming, Roland W; Pont, Sylvia

    2016-04-01

    MatMix 1.0 is a novel material probe we developed for quantitatively measuring visual perception of materials. We implemented optical mixing of four canonical scattering modes, represented by photographs, as the basis of the probe. In order to account for a wide range of materials, velvety and glittery (asperity and meso-facet scattering) were included besides the common matte and glossy modes (diffuse and forward scattering). To test the probe, we conducted matching experiments in which inexperienced observers were instructed to adjust the modes of the probe to match its material to that of a test stimulus. Observers were well able to handle the probe and match the perceived materials. Results were robust across individuals, across combinations of materials, and across lighting conditions. We conclude that the approach via canonical scattering modes and optical mixing works well, although the image basis of our probe still needs to be optimized. We argue that the approach is intuitive, since it combines key image characteristics in a "painterly" approach. We discuss these characteristics and how we will optimize their representations. PMID:27089066

  12. The metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline affects Schistosoma mansoni motor activity, egg laying and viability.

    PubMed

    Day, T A; Chen, G Z

    1998-04-01

    The Zn(2+)-chelating metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline (phenanthroline, 5-150 microM) elicited dose-dependent contraction of the longitudinal and circular (transverse) musculature of adult male schistosomes. At the same concentrations, phenanthroline did not cause contraction of dispersed individual muscle fibres. The phenanthroline-induced contractions were reduced by the inclusion of 100 or 300 microM Zn2+ in the extracellular medium. Phenanthroline (0.5-150 microM) also inhibited the egg production of adult worm pairs in vitro, with a 98% reduction at 50 microM. When worm pairs were exposed to phenanthroline, the males detached from the dish and released the females, resulting in unpaired worms. At the higher concentrations (50 and 150 microM), the worms were killed in vitro. Worm burdens were reduced by over 50% in infected mice injected with phenanthroline (20 mg/kg/day for 4 days), but twice the dose resulted in only a 25% reduction. Phenanthroline injections also induced an hepatic shift and an unpairing of adult worms in infected mice, and the female worms appeared degenerate and lacked gut pigmentation. Mice fed a diet containing 0.3% phenanthroline received significant protection from infection when challenged with schistosome cercaria, where phenanthroline-fed mice had 94% fewer adult worms than control mice. The broad range of phenanthroline effects on schistosomes suggests broad and important functions for metalloproteases in these worms. PMID:9585934

  13. Microstructure and magnetic properties of (001) textured L1(0) FePt films on amorphous glass substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Speliotis, T; Varvaro, G; Testa, AM; Giannopoulos, G; Agostinelli, E; Li, W; Hadjipanayis, G; Niarchos, D

    2015-05-15

    L1(0) FePt thin films with an island-like morphology and magnetic perpendicular anisotropy were grown at low temperature (300 < T-dep< 375 degrees C) by magnetron sputtering on Hoya glass substrates using a 30-nm thick Cr (2 0 0) underlayer. An MgO buffer layer with a thickness of 2 nm was used to inhibit the diffusion from the Cr underlayer and promote the growth of (0 0 1) oriented L1(0) FePt films by inducing an in-plane lattice distortion. By varying the substrate temperature and the Ar sputter pressure (3.5 < P-Ar< 15 mTorr) during the deposition, the degree of chemical order, the microstructure and the magnetic properties were tuned and the best properties in term of squareness ratio (M-r/M-s similar to 0.95) and coercive field (H-c similar to 14 kOe) were observed for films deposited at T-dep = 350 degrees C and P-Ar= 5 mTorr, due to the appearance of a tensile strain, which favors the perpendicular anisotropy. The analysis of the angular dependence of remanent magnetization curves on the optimized sample suggests that the magnetization reversal is highly incoherent due to the inter-island interactions. Our results provide useful information on the low temperature growth of FePt films with perpendicular anisotropy onto glass substrates, which are relevant for a variety of technological applications, such as magnetic recording and spintronic devices. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tailoring 10 nm scale suspended graphene junctions and quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Tayari, Vahid; McRae, Andrew C; Yiğen, Serap; Island, Joshua O; Porter, James M; Champagne, Alexandre R

    2015-01-14

    The possibility to make 10 nm scale, and low-disorder, suspended graphene devices would open up many possibilities to study and make use of strongly coupled quantum electronics, quantum mechanics, and optics. We present a versatile method, based on the electromigration of gold-on-graphene bow-tie bridges, to fabricate low-disorder suspended graphene junctions and quantum dots with lengths ranging from 6 nm up to 55 nm. We control the length of the junctions, and shape of their gold contacts by adjusting the power at which the electromigration process is allowed to avalanche. Using carefully engineered gold contacts and a nonuniform downward electrostatic force, we can controllably tear the width of suspended graphene channels from over 100 nm down to 27 nm. We demonstrate that this lateral confinement creates high-quality suspended quantum dots. This fabrication method could be extended to other two-dimensional materials. PMID:25490053

  15. 75 FR 11194 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ..., for Group 1096 NM. The plat representing the dependent resurvey and survey, in Township 11 ] South, Range 22 East, of the New Mexico Principal Meridian, accepted January 15, 2010, for Group 1096 NM. If...

  16. Range Ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After more than two hundred years, grazing remains California’s most extensive land use. The ‘Range Ecosystems’ chapter in the ‘Ecosystems of California’ sourcebook provides an integrated picture of the biophysical, social, and economic aspects of lands grazed by livestock in the state. Grazing mana...

  17. Photodissociation of the hydroxyl radical (OH) at 157 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cody, R. J.; Moralejo, C.; Allen, J. E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The photodissociation of the OH radical was studied at 157 nm via the detection of the product H atoms with the resonance fluorescence technique. OH radicals were produced in a fast-flow cell from the reaction between H and NO2 and subsequently photodissociated by an excimer laser operating on the F2 emission. The quantum yield for photodissociation of OH was measured to be 1.10 + or - 0.28. The photodissociation cross section was calculated to be 6.6 x 10 to the -18th sq cm (+ or - 25 percent).

  18. Structural properties of platinum(II) biphenyl complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rillema, D. Paul; Cruz, Arvin J.; Tasset, Brandon J.; Moore, Curtis; Siam, Khamis; Huang, Wei

    2013-06-01

    Seven platinum(II) complexes formulated as Pt(bph)L, where bph is the 2,2'-biphenyl dianion and L = 4-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline (4-Mephen), 5-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline (5-Mephen), 5-chloro-1,10-phenanthroline (5-Clphen), 5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (5,6-Me2phen), 4,7-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (4,7-Me2phen), 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (4,7-Ph2phen) and 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (3,4,7,8-Me4phen) are reported. Protons attached to the phen ligand resonate downfield from those attached to the bph ligand and two proton signals are split by interaction with 195Pt. Pt(bph)(3,4,7,8-Me4phen), Pt(bph)(4,7-Me2phen), Pt(bph)(5,6-Me2phen), Pt(bph)(4,7-Ph2phen) and Pt(bph)(5-Mephen) crystallize in the space groups Pna21, P21/n, P21/c, P - 1 and Pca21, respectively. The structures of the complexes deviate from true planarity and divide themselves into two groups where the bph and phen ligands cross in an X configuration or bow out in a butterfly (B) configuration. Circular dichroism revealed two different spectra with respect to the X and B configurations.

  19. All-fibre ytterbium laser tunable within 45 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullina, S R; Babin, S A; Vlasov, A A; Kablukov, S I; Shelemba, I S; Kurkov, A S

    2007-12-31

    A tunable ytterbium-doped fibre laser is fabricated. The laser is tuned by using a tunable fibre Bragg grating (FBG) as a selecting intracavity element. The laser is tunable within 45 nm (from 1063 to 1108 nm) and emits {approx}6 W in the line of width {approx}0.15 nm, the output power and linewidth being virtually invariable within the tuning range. The method is proposed for synchronous tuning the highly reflecting and output FBGs, and a tunable ytterbium all-fibre laser is built. (lasers)

  20. Laser-induced damage measurements with 266-nm pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deaton, T. F.; Smith, W. L.

    1980-07-01

    Results of a survey of laser-induced damage thresholds for optical components at 266-nm are reported. The thresholds were measured at two pulse durations; 0.150 ns and 1.0 ns. The 30 samples tested include four commercial dielectric reflectors, three metallic reflectors, two anti-reflection films, a series of eight half-wave oxide and fluoride films, and twelve bare surfaces (fluoride crystals, silica, sapphire, BK-7 glass, cesium dideuterium arsenate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate). The 266-nm pulses were obtained by frequency-quadrupling a Nd:YAG, glass laser. Equivalent plane imagery and calorimetry were used to measure the peak fluence of each of the UV pulses with an accuracy of + or - of 15%; the uncertainty in the threshold determinations is typically + or - 30%.

  1. Constraints on new gravitylike forces in the nanometer range.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Y; Itagaki, K; Tani, M; Kim, G N; Komamiya, S

    2015-04-24

    We report on a new constraint on gravitylike short-range forces, in which the interaction charge is mass, obtained by measuring the angular distribution of 5 Å neutrons scattering off atomic xenon gas. Around 10^{7} scattering events were collected at the 40 m small angle neutron scattering beam line located at the HANARO research reactor of the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute. The extracted coupling strengths of new forces in the Yukawa-type parametrization are g[over ^]^{2}=(0.2±6.8±2.0)×10^{-15}  GeV^{-2} and g[over ^]^{2}=(-5.3±9.0_{-2.8}^{+2.7})×10^{-17}  GeV^{-2} for interaction ranges of 0.1 and 1.0 nm, respectively. These strengths correspond to 95% confidence level limits of g^{2}<(1.4±0.2)×10^{-14}  GeV^{-2} and g^{2}<(1.3±0.2)×10^{-16}  GeV^{-2}, improving the current limits for interaction ranges between 4 and 0.04 nm by a factor of up to 10. PMID:25955041

  2. High-efficiency high-brightness diode lasers at 1470 nm/1550 nm for medical and defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallup, Kendra; Ungar, Jeff; Vaissie, Laurent; Lammert, Rob; Hu, Wentao

    2012-03-01

    Diode lasers in the 1400 nm to 1600 nm regime are used in a variety of applications including pumping Er:YAG lasers, range finding, materials processing, aesthetic medical treatments and surgery. In addition to the compact size, efficiency, and low cost advantages of traditional diode lasers, high power semiconductor lasers in the eye-safe regime are becoming widely used in an effort to minimize the unintended impact of potentially hazardous scattered optical radiation from the laser source, the optical delivery system, or the target itself. In this article we describe the performance of high efficiency high brightness InP laser bars at 1470nm and 1550nm developed at QPC Lasers for applications ranging from surgery to rangefinding.

  3. Insights Into the Mode of Action of the Anti-Candida Activity of 1,10-Phenanthroline and its Metal Chelates

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, Majella; Devereux, Michael; O'Shea, Denis; Mason, James; O'Sullivan, Luzveminda

    2000-01-01

    Metal complexes of malonie acid (metal = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Ag(I)) were prepared and only the Ag(I) complex inhibited the growth of Candida albicans. Malonate complexes incorporating the chelating 1,10-phenanthroline (1,10-phen) ligand showed a range of activities: good (Mn(II), Cu(II), Ag(I)); moderate (Zn(II)); poor (Co(II), Ni(II)). Metal-free 1,10-phen and Ag(CH3CO2) were also highly active. The metal-free non-chelating ligands 1,7- phenanthroline and 4,7-phenanthroline were inactive and the Cu(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II) complexs of 1,7-phen displayed only marginal activity. Whereas the Cu(II) malonate/1,10-phen complex induces significant cellular oxidative stress the Zn(II) analogue does not. PMID:18475944

  4. Si-Ge-Sn alloys with 1.0 eV gap for CPV multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Roucka, Radek Clark, Andrew; Landini, Barbara

    2015-09-28

    Si-Ge-Sn ternary group IV alloys offer an alternative to currently used 1.0 eV gap materials utilized in multijunction solar cells. The advantage of Si-Ge-Sn is the ability to vary both the bandgap and lattice parameter independently. We present current development in fabrication of Si-Ge-Sn alloys with gaps in the 1.0 eV range. Produced material exhibits excellent structural properties, which allow for integration with existing III-V photovoltaic cell concepts. Time dependent room temperature photoluminescence data demonstrate that these materials have long carrier lifetimes. Absorption tunable by compositional changes is observed. As a prototype device set utilizing the 1 eV Si-Ge-Sn junction, single junction Si-Ge-Sn device and triple junction device with Si-Ge-Sn subcell have been fabricated. The resulting I-V and external quantum efficiency data show that the Si-Ge-Sn junction is fully functional and the performance is comparable to other 1.0 eV gap materials currently used.

  5. 32 CFR 1636.5 - Exclusion from Class 1-A-0 and Class 1-0.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be excluded from Class 1-A-0 or Class 1-0: (a) Who asserts beliefs which are of a religious, moral or... participation in war does not rest at all upon moral, ethical, or religious principle, but instead rests...

  6. 32 CFR 1636.5 - Exclusion from Class 1-A-0 and Class 1-0.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be excluded from Class 1-A-0 or Class 1-0: (a) Who asserts beliefs which are of a religious, moral or... participation in war does not rest at all upon moral, ethical, or religious principle, but instead rests...

  7. 32 CFR 1636.5 - Exclusion from Class 1-A-0 and Class 1-0.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be excluded from Class 1-A-0 or Class 1-0: (a) Who asserts beliefs which are of a religious, moral or... participation in war does not rest at all upon moral, ethical, or religious principle, but instead rests...

  8. 32 CFR 1636.5 - Exclusion from Class 1-A-0 and Class 1-0.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be excluded from Class 1-A-0 or Class 1-0: (a) Who asserts beliefs which are of a religious, moral or... participation in war does not rest at all upon moral, ethical, or religious principle, but instead rests...

  9. 32 CFR 1636.5 - Exclusion from Class 1-A-0 and Class 1-0.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be excluded from Class 1-A-0 or Class 1-0: (a) Who asserts beliefs which are of a religious, moral or... participation in war does not rest at all upon moral, ethical, or religious principle, but instead rests...

  10. Iron(III) oxidized nucleophilic coupling of catechol with o-tolidine/p-toluidine followed by 1,10-phenanthroline as new and sensitivity improved spectrophotometric methods for iron present in chemicals, pharmaceutical, edible green leaves, nuts and lake water samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyla, B.; Bhaskar, C. Vijaya; Nagendrappa, G.

    2012-02-01

    A nucleophile formed from iron(III) oxidized catechol in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid couple with o-tolidine, system 1/p-toluidine, system 2 to produce dye product, λ max 520 nm. The system 1/2 obeys Beer's law in the range 0.08-8.0 μg ml -1 with molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity and regression coefficient values, 4.225 × 10 3/3.140 × 10 3 l mol -1 cm -1, 0.0132/0.0178 μg cm -2 and 0.9987/0.9981. Iron(II) formed from iron(III) in system 1/2 reacts with 1,10-phenanthroline, λ max 510 nm, will constitute sensitivity improved iron determinations with values 0.08-1.6 μg ml -1, 2.4136 × 10 4/2.2511 × 10 4 l mol -1 cm -1, 0.0023/0.0025 μg cm -2 and 0.9980/0.9997 corresponding to range, molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity and regression coefficient. The results of the systems for iron present in chemicals, pharmaceutical, edible green leaves, nuts and lake water samples are satisfactory since they are comparable with the results of iron determined separately from 1,10-phenanthroline method.

  11. Results of 1.0-L sample bottle pressurization tests for the pit burst experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Veirs, K.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Harradine, D.M.; McFarlan, J.T.

    1997-02-01

    Pressurization tests were performed on a 1.0-L sample bottle to verify operational aspects of the pit burst experimental test apparatus. The 1.0-L sample bottle was selected because of its known geometry, certified performance and ready availability. Redundant strain gage instrumentation was installed on the test sample enabling evaluation of the repeatability and consistency of data acquisition. Test results were compared with analytical model predictions to evaluate instrumentation accuracy.

  12. Rb-stabilized laser at 1572 nm for CO2 monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthey, R.; Moreno, W.; Gruet, F.; Brochard, P.; Schilt, S.; Mileti, G.

    2016-06-01

    We have developed a compact rubidium-stabilized laser system to serve as optical frequency reference in the 1.55-μm wavelength region, in particular for CO2 monitoring at 1572 nm. The light of a fiber-pigtailed distributed feedback (DFB) laser emitting at 1560 nm is frequency-doubled and locked to a sub-Doppler rubidium transition at 780 nm using a 2-cm long vapor glass cell. Part of the DFB laser light is modulated with an electro-optical modulator enclosed in a Fabry-Perot cavity, generating an optical frequency comb with spectral coverage extending from 1540 nm to 1580 nm. A second slave DFB laser emitting at 1572 nm and offset-locked to one line of the frequency comb shows a relative frequency stability of 1.10-11 at 1 s averaging time and <4.10-12 from 1 hour up to 3 days.

  13. Properties of continuous-wave 1123 nm laser with diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, F.; Wang, Q. P.; Liu, Z. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Sun, W. J.

    2010-11-01

    Laser properties of diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at 1123 nm are demonstrated. A 1.0 at % Nd-doped Nd:YAG rod with a size of Ø3 × 63 mm2 is used as the active medium. Both radial and tangential thermal focal lengths of this side-pumped Nd:YAG rod are determined under lasing condition. The results show that the bifocusing strength of 1123 nm laser is larger than that of 1164 nm laser, and 1123-nm thermal focal lengths are shorter than those of 1064-nm laser due to higher quantum defect. Laser output performances of 1123 nm in terms of stability, output power and beam quality influenced by pump power at different cavity lengths are also discussed with a convex-piano cavity.

  14. (12)CO (3-2) & (1-0) emission line observations of nearby starburst galaxy nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereux, Nicholas; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki; Sanders, D. B.; Nakai, N.; Young, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    New measurements of the (12)CO (1-0) and (12)CO (3-2) line emission are presented for the nuclei of seven nearby starburst galaxies selected from a complete sample of 21 nearby starburst galaxies for which the nuclear star formation rates are measured to be comparable to the archetype starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253. The new observations capitalize on the coincidence between the beam size of the 45 m Nobeyama telescope at 115 GHz and that of the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope at 345 GHz to measure the value of the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio in a 15 sec (less than or equal to 2.5 kpc) diameter region centered on the nuclear starburst. In principle, the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio provides a measure of temperature and optical depth for the (12)CO gas. The error weighted mean value of the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the seven starburst galaxy nuclei is -0.64 +/- 0.06. The (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the starburst galaxy nuclei is significantly higher than the average value measured for molecular gas in the disk of the Galaxy, implying warmer temperatures for the molecular gas in starburst galaxy nuclei. On the other hand, the (12)CO (3-2)/(1-0) emission line ratio measured for the starburst galaxy nuclei is not as high as would be expected if the molecular gas were hot, greater than 20 K, and optically thin, tau much less than 1. The total mass of molecular gas contained within the central 1.2-2.8 kpc diameter region of the starburst galaxy nuclei ranges from 10(exp 8) to 10(exp 9) solar mass. While substantial, the molecular gas mass represents only a small percentage, approximately 9%-16%, of the dynamical mass in the same region.

  15. Application of the MASH v1.0 Code System to radiological warfare radiation threats

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.O.; Santoro, R.T.; Smith, M.S.

    1994-03-01

    Nuclear hardening capabilities of US and foreign ground force systems is a primary concern of the Department of Defense (DoD) and US Army. The Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding Code System -- MASH v1.0 was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to analyze these capabilities, i.e. the shielding effectiveness, for prompt radiation from a nuclear weapon detonation. Rapidly changing world events and the proliferation of nuclear weapons related technology have increased the kinds of nuclear threats to include intentionally dispersed radiation sources and fallout from tactical nuclear weapons used in the modern AirLand battlefield scenario. Consequently, a DoD area of increasing interest focuses on determining the shielding effectiveness of foreign and US armored vehicles to radiological warfare and fallout radiation threats. To demonstrate the applicability of MASH for analyzing dispersed radiation source problems, calculations have been completed for two distributed sources; a dispersed radiation environment simulated by a uniformly distributed {sup 60}Co source, and a {sup 235}U fission weapon fallout source. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the free-field, the inside of a steel-walled two-meter box, in a phantom standing in the free-field, and in a phantom standing in the two-meter box. The results indicate substantial radiation protection factors for the {sup 60}Co dispersed radiation source and the fallout source compared to the prompt radiation protection factors. The dose protection factors ranged from 40 to 95 for the two-meter box and from 55 to 123 for the mid-gut position of the phantom standing in the box. The results further indicate that a {sup 60}Co source might be a good first order approximation for a tactical fission weapon fallout protection factor analysis.

  16. The M2 Internal Tide Simulated by a 1/10° OGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhuhua; von Storch, Jin-Song; Müller, Malte

    2015-04-01

    Using a concurrent simulation of the ocean general circulation and tides with the 1/10° STORMTIDE model, this study provides a first global quantification of the low-mode M2 internal tides. The quantification is based on wavelengths and their global distributions obtained by applying spectral analysis to STORMTIDE velocities and on comparisons of the distributions with those derived by solving the Sturm-Liouville and the WKB-simplified eigenvalue problems. The simulated wavelengths of mode 1 and 2 range within 100-150 km and 45-75 km, respectively. Their distributions reveal, to different degrees for both modes, a zonal asymmetry and a tendency of poleward increase. As both features are by and large reproduced by solutions of the two eigenvalue problems, the STORMTIDE internal waves are, to a first approximation, linear waves determined by local dispersion relations, with stratification N being responsible for the zonal asymmetry and the Coriolis parameter f for the poleward increase. Distributions of mode-1 wavelengths are found to be determined by both N and f, but those of mode 2 are determined by and large by N only. In the tropical and subtropical oceans, the difference between the STORMTIDE wavelengths and those of the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem is small but systematic, and can be attributed to refractions of remotely generated waves by the equatorward increase of N. In high-latitude oceans and the Kuroshio and Gulf Stream and their extensions, larger differences are found. There, non-linear wave-current interactions are important and the pictures of linear waves are much less accurate.

  17. Generation and use of high power 213 nm and 266 nm laser radiation and tunable 210-400 nm laser radiation with BBO crystal matrix array

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    2000-01-01

    A 213 nm laser beam is capable of single photon ablative photodecomposition for the removal of a polymer or biological material substrate. Breaking the molecular bonds and displacing the molecules away from the substrate in a very short time period results in most of the laser photon energy being carried away by the displaced molecules, thus minimizing thermal damage to the substrate. The incident laser beam may be unfocussed and is preferably produced by quintupling the 1064 nm radiation from a Nd:YAG solid state laser, i.e., at 213 nm. In one application, the 213 nm laser beam is expanded in cross section and directed through a plurality of small beta barium borate (BBO) crystals for increasing the energy per photon of the laser radiation directed onto the substrate. The BBO crystals are arranged in a crystal matrix array to provide a large laser beam transmission area capable of accommodating high energy laser radiation without damaging the BBO crystals. The BBO crystal matrix array may also be used with 266 nm laser radiation for carrying out single or multi photon ablative photodecomposition. The BBO crystal matrix array may also be used in an optical parametric oscillator mode to generate high power tunable laser radiation in the range of 210-400 nm.

  18. Sub-180 nm generation with borate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Chen; Yoshimura, Masashi; Tsunoda, Jun; Kaneda, Yushi; Imade, Mamoru; Sasaki, Takatomo; Mori, Yusuke

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrated a new scheme for the generation of 179 nm vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) light with an all-solid-state laser system. It was achieved by mixing the deep-ultraviolet (DUV) of 198.8 nm and the infrared (IR) of 1799.9 nm. While CsB3O5 (CBO) did not satisfy the phase-matching at around 180 nm, 179 nm output was generated with LiB3O5 (LBO) for the first time. The phase-matching property of LBO at around 180 nm was also investigated. There was small deviation from theoretical curve in the measurement, which is still considered reasonable.

  19. 147-nm photolysis of disilane

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, G.G.A.; Lampe, F.W.

    1980-05-21

    The photodecomposition of Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ at 147 nm results in the formation of H/sub 2/, SiH/sub 4/, Si/sub 3/H/sub 8/, Si/sub 4/H/sub 10/, Si/sub 5/H/sub 12/, and a solid film of amorphous silicon hydride (a-Si:H). Three primary processes are proposed to account for the results, namely, (a) Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ + h..nu.. ..-->.. SiH/sub 2/ + SiH/sub 3/ + H (phi/sub a/ = 0.61); (b) Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ + h..nu.. ..-->.. SiH/sub 3/SiH + 2H (phi/sub b/ = 0.18); (c) Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ + h..nu.. ..-->.. Si/sub 2/H/sub 5/ + H (phi/sub c/ = 0.21). The overall quantum yields depend on the pressure but at 1 Torr partial pressure of Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ are PHI(-Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/) = 4.3 +- 0.2, PHI(SiH/sub 4/) = 1.2 +- 0.4, PHI(Si/sub 3/H/sub 8/) = 0.91 +- 0.08, PHI(Si/sub 4/H/sub 10/) = 0.62 +- 0.03, PHI(Si,wall) = 2.2. Quantum yields for H/sub 2/ formation were not measured. A mechanism is proposed which is shown to be in accord with the experimental facts.

  20. Magnetic properties of spray-formed Fe-6.5%Si and Fe-6.5%Si-1.0%Al after rolling and heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolfarini, Claudemiro; Silva, Mário Cézar Alves; Jorge, Alberto Moreira; Kiminami, Claudio Shyinti; Botta, Walter José

    The maximum silicon content in commercial Fe-Si steels is limited to about 3.5 wt%Si, since the ductility declines sharply as this maximum is exceeded, hindering the production of thin sheets by cold/hot rolling. However, the best magnetic properties are attained at about 6.5 wt%Si, a silicon content that renders magnetostriction practically null and minimizes magnetic losses. Using spray-forming, our research group has successfully produced this type of high silicon alloy in thin sheet form by carefully controlling the many variables of the process and subsequent rolling operations. In the present study, we investigated the magnetic properties and the microstructure of spray-formed Fe-6.5 wt%Si and Fe-6.5 wt%Si-1.0 wt%Al alloys after warm rolling and heat treatment. The main cause for the brittleness of Fe-6.5 wt%Si alloy has been attributed to the B2 phase long-range ordering, which leads to premature fractures. The presence of aluminum could avoid B2 formation and improve the alloy's ductility. The binary Fe-6.5 wt% Si alloy showed the best magnetic properties, which were ascribed to a recrystallized, coarse grain size (˜500 μm; and 340 μm for the Al-containing alloy). TEM analysis showed that a well-developed B2 domain structure (about 50-300 nm in size) was formed in the binary alloy when low cooling rates are prevailing after heat treatment. This structure contributed to improve additionally the magnetic properties, but its effect was not so strong as that of the grain size. The addition of Al to the binary alloy suppressed B2 formation, as indicated by Mossbauer spectroscopy, and apparently hindered excessive grain growth, which may explain the slightly poorer magnetic properties when compared with the binary alloy.

  1. Range and range rate system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Olin L. (Inventor); Russell, Jim K. (Inventor); Epperly, Walter L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A video controlled solid state range finding system which requires no radar, high power laser, or sophisticated laser target is disclosed. The effective range of the system is from 1 to about 200 ft. The system includes an opto-electric camera such as a lens CCD array device. A helium neon laser produces a source beam of coherent light which is applied to a beam splitter. The beam splitter applies a reference beam to the camera and produces an outgoing beam applied to a first angularly variable reflector which directs the outgoing beam to the distant object. An incoming beam is reflected from the object to a second angularly variable reflector which reflects the incoming beam to the opto-electric camera via the beam splitter. The first reflector and the second reflector are configured so that the distance travelled by the outgoing beam from the beam splitter and the first reflector is the same as the distance travelled by the incoming beam from the second reflector to the beam splitter. The reference beam produces a reference signal in the geometric center of the camera. The incoming beam produces an object signal at the camera.

  2. Trends in nanosecond melanosome microcavitation up to 1540 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Morgan S.; Kennedy, Paul K.; Noojin, Gary D.; Vincelette, Rebecca L.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2015-09-01

    Thresholds for microcavitation of bovine and porcine melanosomes were previously reported, using single nanosecond (ns) laser pulses in the visible (532 nm) and the near-infrared (NIR) from 1000 to 1319 nm. Here, we report average radiant exposure thresholds for bovine melanosome microcavitation at additional NIR wavelengths up to 1540 nm, which range from ˜0.159 J/cm2 at 800 nm to 4.5 J/cm2 at 1540 nm. Melanosome absorption coefficients were also estimated, and decreased with increasing wavelength. These values were compared to retinal pigment epithelium coefficients, and to water absorption, over the same wavelength range. Corneal total intraocular energy retinal damage threshold values were estimated and compared to the previous (2007) and recently changed (2014) maximum permissible exposure (MPE) safe levels. Results provide additional data that support the recent changes to the MPE levels, as well as the first microcavitation data at 1540 nm, a wavelength for which melanosome microcavitation may be an ns-pulse skin damage mechanism.

  3. Analysis of multi-mode to single-mode conversion at 635 nm and 1550 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, Vanessa; Bogatzki, Angelina; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Hofmann, Jens; Schröder, Henning

    2016-03-01

    We propose two low-cost and robust optical fiber systems based on the photonic lantern (PL) technology for operating at 635 nm and 1550 nm. The PL is an emerging technology that couples light from a multi-mode (MM) fiber to several single-mode (SM) fibers via a low-loss adiabatic transition. This bundle of SM fibers is observed as a MM fiber system whose spatial modes are the degenerate supermodes of the bundle. The adiabatic transition allows that those supermodes evolve into the modes of the MM fiber. Simulations of the MM fiber end structure and its taper transition have been performed via functional mode solver tools in order to understand the modal evolution in PLs. The modelled design consists of 7 SM fibers inserted into a low-index capillary. The material and geometry of the PLs are chosen such that the supermodes match to the spatial modes of the desired step-index MM fiber in a moderate loss transmission. The dispersion of materials is also considered. These parameters are studied in two PL systems in order to reach a spectral transmission from 450 nm to 1600 nm. Additionally, an analysis of the geometry and losses due to the mismatching of modes is presented. PLs are typically used in the fields of astrophotonics and space photonics. Recently, they are demonstrated as mode converters in telecommunications, especially focusing on spatial division multiplexing. In this study, we show the use of PLs as a promising interconnecting tool for the development of miniaturized spectrometers operating in a broad wavelength range.

  4. Efficient laser operation of Nd3+:Lu2O3 at various wavelengths between 917 nm and 1463 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Brunn, P.; Heuer, A. M.; Fornasiero, L.; Huber, G.; Kränkel, C.

    2016-08-01

    Even though the first Nd3+-doped sesquioxide lasers have been realized more than 50 years ago, up to now no reports on efficient laser operation of Nd3+:doped sesquioxides can be found. In this work, we review the favorable spectroscopic properties of the sesquioxide Nd3+:Lu2O3 in terms of ground state absorption, stimulated emission, and excited state absorption cross sections as well as the upper level lifetime. Making use of these properties, we achieved efficient laser performance on eight different laser transitions in the wavelength range between 917 nm and 1463 nm under Ti:sapphire laser pumping using state-of-the-art HEM-grown Nd3+:Lu2O3 crystals with good optical quality. At the strongest transition around 1076 nm we determined a slope efficiency of 69%, which represents the highest efficiency ever obtained for a Nd3+-doped sesquioxide. Furthermore, we could generate watt level output powers and high slope efficiencies for seven other transitions. Lasers at 917 nm, 1053 nm, 1108 nm and 1463 nm were realized for the first time and the latter represents one of the longest laser wavelengths obtained on the 4F3/2  →  4I13/2 transition in Nd3+-doped materials.

  5. The Spectrum of Th-Ar Hollow Cathode Lamps in the 691nm to 5804nm region Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 161 The Spectrum of Th-Ar Hollow Cathode Lamps in the 691nm to 5804nm region Database (Web, free access)   This atlas presents observations of the infra-red (IR) spectrum of a low current Th-Ar hollow cathode lamp with the 2-m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at NIST. These observations establish more than 2400 lines that are suitable for use as wavelength standards in the range 691 nm to 5804 nm. The observations were made in collaboration with the European Southern Observatory (ESO), in order to provide calibration reference data for new high-resolution Echelle spectrographs, such as the Cryogenic High-Resolution IR Echelle Spectrograph ([CRIRES]), ESO's new IR spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope in Chile.

  6. A new quaternary photoluminescence enhancement system of Eu-N-(o-vanillin)-1,8-diaminonaphthalene-1,10-phenanthroline-Zn and its application in determining trace amounts of europium and zinc.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yunshan; Ahmad, Waqar; An, Yugang; Zhang, Lijuan; Zheng, Xiaorui

    2014-08-01

    A new sensitive quaternary photoluminescence enhancement system has been successfully developed to determine trace amounts of Eu(3+) and Zn(2+). The photoluminescence intensity of Eu - N-(o-vanilin)-1,8-diaminonaphthalene systems was greatly increased by the addition of specific concentrations of 1, 10-phenanthroline and Zn(2+). The excitation and emission wavelengths were 274 and 617 nm, respectively. Under optimal system conditions, the photoluminescence intensity showed a linear response toward Eu(3+) in the range of 5.0 × 10(-6)  ~ 2.0 × 10(-5)  M with a limit of detection (= 2.2 × 10(-9)  M) and the photoluminescence intensity of the system decreased linearly by increasing the Zn(2+) concentration in the range of 5.0 × 10(-8)  ~ 1.0 × 10(-6)  M with a limit of detection (= 8.8 × 10(-11)  M). This system was successfully applied for the determination of trace amounts of Eu(3+) in a high purity La2O3 matrix and in the synthetic rare earth oxide mixture, and of Zn(2+) in a high purity Mg(NO3)2 · 6H2O matrix and in synthetic coexisting ionic matrixes. The energy transfer mechanism, photoluminescence enhancement of the system and interference of other lanthanide ions and common coexisting ions were also studied in detail. PMID:24123974

  7. Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Breadboard (PLSS 1.0) Development and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Matt R.; Watts, Carly

    2011-01-01

    A multi-year effort has been carried out at NASA-JSC to develop an advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) PLSS design intended to further the current state of the art by increasing operational flexibility, reducing consumables, and increasing robustness. Previous efforts have focused on modeling and analyzing the advanced PLSS architecture, as well as developing key enabling technologies. Like the current International Space Station (ISS) Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) PLSS, the advanced PLSS comprises of three subsystems required to sustain the crew during EVA including the Thermal, Ventilation, and Oxygen Subsystems. This multi-year effort has culminated in the construction and operation of PLSS 1.0, a test rig that simulates full functionality of the advanced PLSS design. PLSS 1.0 integrates commercial off the shelf hardware with prototype technology development components, including the primary and secondary oxygen regulators, ventilation loop fan, Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swingbed, and Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME). Testing accumulated 239 hours over 45 days, while executing 172 test points. Specific PLSS 1.0 test objectives assessed during this testing include: confirming key individual components perform in a system level test as they have performed during component level testing; identifying unexpected system-level interactions; operating PLSS 1.0 in nominal steady-state EVA modes to baseline subsystem performance with respect to metabolic rate, ventilation loop pressure and flow rate, and environmental conditions; simulating nominal transient EVA operational scenarios; simulating contingency EVA operational scenarios; and further evaluating individual technology development components. Successful testing of the PLSS 1.0 provided a large database of test results that characterize system level and component performance. With the exception of several minor anomalies, the PLSS 1.0 test rig performed as expected; furthermore, many system responses trended in accordance with pre-test predictions.

  8. Magnetic and electronic properties of bulk and clusters of FePt L1(0).

    PubMed

    Barreteau, Cyrille; Spanjaard, Daniel

    2012-10-10

    An efficient tight-binding model including magnetism and spin-orbit interactions is extended to metallic alloys. The tight-binding parameters are determined from a fit to bulk ab initio calculations of each metal and rules are given to obtain the heteroatomic parameters. The spin and orbital magnetic moments as well as the magneto-crystalline anisotropy are derived. We apply this method to bulk FePt L1(0) and the results are compared with success to ab initio results where available. Finally this model is applied to a set of FePt L1(0) clusters and physical trends are derived. PMID:22987868

  9. caGrid 1.0: a Grid enterprise architecture for cancer research.

    PubMed

    Oster, Scott; Langella, Stephen; Hastings, Shannon; Ervin, David; Madduri, Ravi; Kurc, Tahsin; Siebenlist, Frank; Covitz, Peter; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Foster, Ian; Saltz, Joel

    2007-01-01

    caGrid is the core Grid architecture of the NCI-sponsored cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) program. The current release, caGrid version 1.0, is developed as the production Grid software infrastructure of caBIG. Based on feedback from adopters of the previous version (caGrid 0.5), it has been significantly enhanced with new features and improvements to existing components. This paper presents an overview of caGrid 1.0, its main components, and enhancements over caGrid 0.5. PMID:18693901

  10. CRUST1.0: An Updated Global Model of Earth's Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laske, G.; Masters, G.; Ma, Z.; Pasyanos, M. E.

    2012-04-01

    We present an updated global model of Earth's crustal structure. The new model, CRUST1.0, serves as starting model in a more comprehensive effort to compile a global model of Earth's crust and lithosphere, LITHO1.0. CRUST1.0 is defined on a 1-degree grid and is based on a new database of crustal thickness data from active source seismic studies as well as from receiver function studies. In areas where such constraints are still missing, for example in Antarctica, crustal thicknesses are estimated using gravity constraints. The compilation of the new crustal model initially follows the philosophy of the widely used crustal model CRUST2.0 (Bassin et al., 2000; http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~gabi/crust2.html). Crustal types representing properties in the crystalline crust are assigned according to basement age or tectonic setting. The classification of the latter loosely follows that of an updated map by Artemieva and Mooney (2001) (http://www.lithosphere.info). Statistical averages of crustal properties in each of these crustal types are extrapolated to areas with no local seismic or gravity constraint. In each 1-degree cell, boundary depth, compressional and shear velocity as well as density is given for 8 layers: water, ice, 3-layer sediment cover and upper, middle and lower crystalline crust. Topography, bathymetry and ice cover are taken from ETOPO1. The sediment cover is essentially that of our sediment model (Laske and Masters, 1997; http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~sediment.html), with several near-coastal updates. In the sediment cover and the crystalline crust, updated scaling relationships are used to assign compressional and shear velocity as well as density. In an initial step toward LITHO1.0, the model is then validated against our new global group velocity maps for Rayleigh and Love waves, particularly at frequencies between 30 and 40 mHz. CRUST1.0 is then adjusted in areas of extreme misfit where we suspect deficiencies in the crustal model. These currently include some near-coastal areas with thick sediment cover and several larger orogenic belts. Some remaining discrepancies, such as in backarc basins, may result from variations in the deeper uppermost mantle and remain unchanged in CRUST1.0 but will likely be modified in LITHO1.0. CRUST1.0 is available for download.

  11. Practical PERCIST: A Simplified Guide to PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.0.

    PubMed

    O, Joo Hyun; Lodge, Martin A; Wahl, Richard L

    2016-08-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (PERCIST 1.0) describes in detail methods for controlling the quality of fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET imaging conditions to ensure the comparability of PET images from different time points to allow quantitative expression of the changes in PET measurements and assessment of overall treatment response in PET studies. The steps for actual application of PERCIST are summarized. Several issues from PERCIST 1.0 that appear to require clarification, such as measurement of size and definition of unequivocal progression, also are addressed. (©) RSNA, 2016. PMID:26909647

  12. Dibromido(2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline-κ2 N,N′)zinc

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani, Ali; M. Amini, Mostafa; Najafi, Ezzatollah; Tadjarodi, Azadeh; Notash, Behrouz

    2012-01-01

    The reaction of equimolar amounts of zinc bromide and 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline in dry methanol provided the title compound, [ZnBr2(C14H12N2)], in good yield. The ZnII ion is coordinated in a distorted tetra­hedral environment by two N atoms from the chelating 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline ligand and two bromide ions. There is inter­molecular π–π stacking between adjacent phenanthroline units, with centroid–centroid distances of 3.594 (3) and 3.652 (3) Å. PMID:22719356

  13. Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Breadboard (PLSS 1.0) Development and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Carly A.; Vogel, Matt

    2012-01-01

    A multi-year effort has been carried out at the Johnson Space Center to develop an advanced EVA PLSS design intended to further the current state of the art by increasing operational flexibility, reducing consumables, and increasing robustness. This multi-year effort has culminated in the construction and operation of PLSS 1.0, a test rig that simulates full functionality of the advanced PLSS design. PLSS 1.0 integrates commercial off-the-shelf hardware with prototype technology development components, including the primary and secondary oxygen regulators, ventilation loop fan, Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swingbed, and Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME). PLSS 1.0 was tested from June 17th through September 30th, 2011. Testing accumulated 233 hours over 45 days, while executing 119 test points. An additional 164 hours of operational time were accrued during the test series, bringing the total operational time for PLSS 1.0 testing to 397 hours. Specific PLSS 1.0 test objectives assessed during this testing include: (1) Confirming prototype components perform in a system level test as they have performed during component level testing, (2) Identifying unexpected system-level interactions (3) Operating PLSS 1.0 in nominal steady-state EVA modes to baseline subsystem performance with respect to metabolic rate, ventilation loop pressure and flow rate, and environmental conditions (4) Simulating nominal transient EVA operational scenarios (5) Simulating contingency EVA operational scenarios (6) Further evaluating prototype technology development components Successful testing of the PLSS 1.0 provided a large database of test results that characterize system level and component performance. With the exception of several minor anomalies, the PLSS 1.0 test rig performed as expected. Documented anomalies and observations include: (1) Ventilation loop fan controller issues at high fan speeds (near 70,000 rpm, whereas the fan speed during nominal operations would be closer to 35,000 rpm) (2) RCA performance at boundary conditions, including carbon dioxide and water vapor saturation events, as well as reduced vacuum quality (3) SWME valve anomalies (4 documented cases where the SWME failed to respond to a control signal or physically jammed, preventing SWME control) (4) Reduction of SWME hollow fiber hydrophobicity and significant reduction of the SWME degassing capability after significant accumulated test time.

  14. DNA-binding, photocleavage studies of ruthenium(II) complexes with 2-(2-quinolinyl) imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue-Wen; Chen, Zhen-gan; Li, Lin; Chen, Yuan-Dao; Lu, Ji-Lin; Zhang, Da-Shun

    2013-02-01

    Two new ruthenium complexes with [Ru(L)2(qip)]2+ (L = bpy (2,2'- bipyridine), phen (1,10-phenanthroline); qip = 2-(2-quinolinyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, ES-MS, 1H NMR. The binding properties of two complexes towards CT-DNA were investigated by various optical methods and viscosity measurements. The experiment results suggested that both Ru(II) complexes can intercalate into DNA base pairs. Strong quenching in emission intensity of two Ru(II) complexes were observed upon addition of Ag+ in the absence and presence of CT-DNA. Furthermore, the two complexes can promote cleavage of pBR322 DNA under irradiation at 365 nm, and complex 2 exhibits a stronger DNA-photocleavage efficiency than complex 1. The mechanism of DNA cleavage suggests that singlet oxygen (1O2) is likely to be the cleaving agent.

  15. The Missing Solar Irradiance Spectrum: 1 to 7 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, J. J.; Lewis, M.; David, M.; Schunk, R. W.; Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F. G.; Warren, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    During large X-class flares the Earth's upper atmospheric E-region responds immediately to solar photons in the 1 to 7 nm range. The response can change the E-region density by factors approaching 10, create large changes in conductivity, and plague HF communications. GOES-XRS provide 0.1 to 0.8 nm and a 0.05 to 0.4 nm integral channels; SOHO-SEM provided a 0 to 50 nm irradiance; TIMED and SORCE-XPS diode measurements also integrated down to 0.1 nm; and most recently SDO-EVE provided a 0.1 to 7 nm irradiance. For atmospheric response to solar flares the cadence is also crucial. Both GOES and SDO provided integral measurements at 10 seconds or better. Unfortunately these measurements have failed to capture the 1 to 7 nm spectral changes that occur during flares. It is these spectral changes that create the major impact since the ionization cross-section of the dominant atmospheric species, N2 and O2, both contain step function changes in the cross-sections. Models of the solar irradiance over this critical wavelength regime have suffered from the need to model the spectral variability based on incomplete measurements. The most sophisticated empirical model FISM [Chamberlin et al., 2008] used 1 nm spectral binning and various implementations of the above integral measurements to describe the 1 to 7 nm irradiance. Since excellent solar observations exist at other wavelengths it is possible to construct an empirical model of the solar atmosphere and then use this model to infer the spectral distribution at wavelengths below 5 nm. This differential emission measure approach has been used successfully in other contexts [e.g., Warren, 2005, Chamberlin et al., 2009]. This paper contrasts the broadband versus spectrally resolved descriptions of the incoming irradiance that affects the upper atmospheric E-layer. The results provide a prescription of what wavelength resolution would be needed to adequately measure the incoming solar irradiance in the 1 to 7 nm range.

  16. Aerosol Extinction and Single Scattering Albedo Downwind of the Summer 2008 California Wildfires Measured With Photoacoustic Spectrometers and Sunphotometers From 355 nm to 1047 nm.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, W. P.; Gyawali, M. S.; Arnold, I. J.

    2008-12-01

    Hundreds of wildfires in Northern California were sparked by lightning during the summer of 2008, resulting in downwind smoke for much of June and July associated with the flaming and smoldering stages of the fires. These fires are consistent with a growing trend towards increasing biomass burning worldwide. Climate impacts from the smoke depend critically on the smoke amount and aerosol optical properties. We report comparison of aerosol optics measurements in Reno Nevada made during the very smoky summer month of July with the relatively clean, average month of August. Photoacoustic instruments equipped with integrating nephelometers were used to measure aerosol light scattering and absorption at wavelengths of 355 nm, 405 nm, 532 nm, 870 nm, and 1047 nm. Total aerosol optical depth was measured with a sun photometer operating at 430nm, 470nm, 530nm, 660nm, 870nm and 950nm. A spectrometer based sun photometer with an operating range from 390nm to 880 nm was also used for a few days as well. These measurements document the intensity of the smoke optical impacts downwind. They are processed further to reveal a strong variation of the aerosol light absorption on wavelength, indicating the presence of light absorbing organic material and perhaps wavelength dependent absorption caused by black carbon particles coated with organic and inorganic particulate matter. On the day with most smoke in Reno (July 10, 2008) Angstrom coefficients for absorption as high as 3.6 were found for wavelengths of 405 nm and 870 nm, with the corresponding single scattering albedo near 0.92 at 405 nm. Aerosol optical depths of 3.5 were found for 430 nm on July 10th from the sun photometer measurements. A roughly fourfold increase in aerosol optical quantities was observed between the months of July and August 2008, attesting to the large average effects of biomass aerosols from the California wildfires.

  17. Ruthenium Bis-diimine Complexes with a Chelating Thioether Ligand: Delineating 1,10-Phenanthrolinyl and 2,2'-Bipyridyl Ligand Substituent Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Rawashdeh, Nathir A. F.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Krause, Jeanette A.; Connick, William B.

    2014-01-06

    A new series of ruthenium(II) bis-diimine complexes with a chelating thioether donor ligand has been prepared: Ru(diimine)2(dpte)2+ (diimine=1,10-phenanthroline (phen) (1); 5-CH3-phen (2), 5-Cl-phen (3); 5-Br-phen (4); 5-NO2-phen (5); 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-phen (6); 4,7-diphenyl-phen (7); 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (8); 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine (9)). Crystal structures of 2, 5, 7 and 9 show that the complexes form 2 of the 12 possible conformational/configurational isomers, adopting compact C2-symmetric structures with short intramolecular transannular interactions between the diimine ligands and dpte phenyl groups; crystals of 2 and 5 contain non-statistical distributions of geometric isomers. In keeping with the π-acidity of the dpte, the Ru(III/II) couple, E°'(Ru3+/2+), occurs at relatively high potentials (1.4-1.7 V vs Ag/AgCl), and the lowest spin-allowed MLCT absorption band occurs near 400 nm. Surprisingly, the complexes also exhibit fluid-solution luminescence originating from a lowest MLCT excited state with lifetimes in the 140-750 ns time range; in acetonitrile, compound 8 undergoes photo-induced solvolysis. Variations in the MLCT energies and redox potentials are quantitatively described using a summative Hammett parameter (σT), as well as using Lever's electrochemical parameters (EL). Recommended parameterizations for 2,2'-bipyridyl and 1,10-phenanthrolinyl ligands were derived from analysis of correlations based on 199 measurements of E°'(Ru3+/2+) for 99 homo- and heteroleptic ruthenium(II) tris-diimine complexes. Variations in E°'(Ru3+/2+) due to substituents at the 4- and 4'-positions of bipyridyl ligands and 4- and 7-positions of phenanthrolinyl ligands are significantly more strongly correlated with σp+ than either σm or σp. Substituents at the 5- and 6-positions of phenanthrolinyl ligands are best described by σm and have effects comparable to those of substituents at the 3- and 8-positions. Correlations of EL with σT for 20

  18. Simultaneous three-wavelength continuous wave laser at 946 nm, 1319 nm and 1064 nm in Nd:YAG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Yanfei; Zhao, Lianshui; Zhai, Pei; Xia, Jing; Fu, Xihong; Li, Shutao

    2013-01-01

    A continuous-wave (cw) diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG laser that generates simultaneous laser at the wavelengths 946 nm, 1319 nm and 1064 nm is demonstrated. The optimum oscillation condition for the simultaneous three-wavelength operation has been derived. Using the separation of the three output couplers, we obtained the maximum output powers of 0.24 W at 946 nm, 1.07 W at 1319 nm and 1.88 W at 1064 nm at the absorbed pump power of 11.2 W. A total output power of 3.19 W for the three-wavelength was achieved at the absorbed pump power of 11.2 W with optical conversion efficiency of 28.5%.

  19. PMMA microreactor for chemiluminescence detection of Cu (II) based on 1,10-Phenanthroline-hydrogen peroxide reaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueye; Shen, Jienan; Li, Tiechuan

    2016-01-01

    A microreactor for the chemiluminescence detection of copper (II) in water samples, based on the measurement of light emitted from the copper (II) catalysed oxidation of 1,10-phenanthroline by hydrogen peroxide in basic aqueous solution, is presented. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was chose as material for fabricating the microreactor with mill and hot bonding method. Optimized reagents conditions were found to be 6.3 × 10(-5)mol/L 1,10-phenanthroline, 1.5 × 10(-3)mol/L hydrogen peroxide, 7.0 × 10(-2)mol/L sodium hydroxide and 2.4 × 10(-5)mol/L Hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium Bromide (CTMAB). In the continuous flow injection mode the system can perform fully automated detection with a reagent consumption of only 3.5 μL each time. The linear range of the Cu (II) ions concentration was 1.5 × 10(-8) mol/L to 1.0 × 10(-4) mol/L, and the detection limit was 9.4 × 10(-9)mol/L with the S/N ratio of 4. The relative standard deviation was 3.0 % for 2.0 × 10(-6) mol/L Cu (II) ions (n = 10). The most obvious features of the detection method are simplicity, rapidity and easy fabrication of the microreactor. PMID:26788016

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VCC 2062 CO(1-0) data cubes (Lisenfeld+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenfeld, U.; Braine, J.; Duc, P. A.; Boquien, M.; Brinks, E.; Bournaud, F.; Lelli, F.; Charmandaris, V.

    2016-04-01

    The two fits files contain the data cube of CO(1-0) observed with Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Both cubes were obtained with natural weighting and with different taperings. The velocity resolution is 1.8km/s. More details about the data acquisition and reduction are in the paper. (2 data files).

  1. SAGE FOR MACINTOSH (MSAGE) VERSION 1.0 SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE - USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The guide provides instructions for using the Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE) for Macintosh, version 1.0. The guide assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating a
    Macintosh personal computer under the System 7.0 (or higher) operating system. SAGE for ...

  2. SAGE FOR WINDOWS (WSAGE) VERSION 1.0 SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE - USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The guide provides instructions for using the Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE) for Windows, version 1.0. The guide assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating Windows 3.1 (or higher) on a personal computer under the DOS 5.0 (or higher) operating system. ...

  3. 1.0 Mm Maps and Radial Density Distributions of Southern Hii/molecular Cloud Complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, L. H.; Frogel, J. A.; Gezar, D. Y.; Hauser, M. G.

    1980-01-01

    Several 1.0 continuum mapping observations were made of seven southern hemisphere h12/molecular cloud complexes with 65 arcsec resolution. The radial density distribution of the clouds with central luminosity sources was determined observationally. Strong similarities in morphology and general physical conditions were found to exist among all of the southern clouds in the sample.

  4. HAP-PRO USER'S MANUAL (FOR USE WITH VERSION 1.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is a user's manual for Version 1.0 of EPA's Hazardous Air Pollutant Program (HAP-PRO), and was prepared to assist permit engineers in reviewing applications for control of air toxics by calculating the capital and annual costs for six volatile organic compound (VOC) ...

  5. STATE ACID RAIN RESEARCH AND SCREENING SYSTEM - VERSION 1.0 USER'S MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a user's manual that describes Version 1.0 of EPA's STate Acid Rain Research and Screening System (STARRSS), developed to assist utility regulatory commissions in reviewing utility acid rain compliance plans. It is a screening tool that is based on scenario analysis...

  6. 17 CFR 1.10 - Financial reports of futures commission merchants and introducing brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Financial reports of futures... FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Minimum Financial and Related Reporting Requirements § 1.10 Financial reports of futures commission merchants and...

  7. 17 CFR 1.10 - Financial reports of futures commission merchants and introducing brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Financial reports of futures... FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Minimum Financial and Related Reporting Requirements § 1.10 Financial reports of futures commission merchants and...

  8. 17 CFR 1.10 - Financial reports of futures commission merchants and introducing brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Financial reports of futures... FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Minimum Financial and Related Reporting Requirements § 1.10 Financial reports of futures commission merchants and...

  9. Benchmark Dose Software (BMDS) Development and Maintenance Toxicodiffusion Model (External Review Draft, Version 1.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is intended to provide an overview of beta version 1.0 of the implementation of a model of repeated measures data referred to as the Toxicodiffusion model. The implementation described here represents the first steps towards integration of the Toxicodiffusion model in...

  10. A Review of DIMPACK Version 1.0: Conditional Covariance-Based Test Dimensionality Analysis Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Nina; Han, Kyung T.; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    2013-01-01

    DIMPACK Version 1.0 for assessing test dimensionality based on a nonparametric conditional covariance approach is reviewed. This software was originally distributed by Assessment Systems Corporation and now can be freely accessed online. The software consists of Windows-based interfaces of three components: DIMTEST, DETECT, and CCPROX/HAC, which…

  11. 17 CFR 1.10 - Financial reports of futures commission merchants and introducing brokers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... financial records and make its monthly formal computation of its adjusted net capital, as required by § 1.18....) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 1.10, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Financial reports of...

  12. Space Suit Portable Life Support System Test Bed (PLSS 1.0) Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Carly; Campbell, Colin; Vogel, Matthew; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    A multi-year effort has been carried out at NASA-JSC to develop an advanced extra-vehicular activity Portable Life Support System (PLSS) design intended to further the current state of the art by increasing operational flexibility, reducing consumables, and increasing robustness. Previous efforts have focused on modeling and analyzing the advanced PLSS architecture, as well as developing key enabling technologies. Like the current International Space Station Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit PLSS, the advanced PLSS comprises three subsystems required to sustain the crew during extra-vehicular activity including the Thermal, Ventilation, and Oxygen Subsystems. This multi-year effort has culminated in the construction and operation of PLSS 1.0, a test bed that simulates full functionality of the advanced PLSS design. PLSS 1.0 integrates commercial off the shelf hardware with prototype technology development components, including the primary and secondary oxygen regulators, Ventilation Subsystem fan, Rapid Cycle Amine swingbed carbon dioxide and water vapor removal device, and Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator heat rejection device. The overall PLSS 1.0 test objective was to demonstrate the capability of the Advanced PLSS to provide key life support functions including suit pressure regulation, carbon dioxide and water vapor removal, thermal control and contingency purge operations. Supplying oxygen was not one of the specific life support functions because the PLSS 1.0 test was not oxygen rated. Nitrogen was used for the working gas. Additional test objectives were to confirm PLSS technology development components performance within an integrated test bed, identify unexpected system level interactions, and map the PLSS 1.0 performance with respect to key variables such as crewmember metabolic rate and suit pressure. Successful PLSS 1.0 testing completed 168 test points over 44 days of testing and produced a large database of test results that characterize system level and component performance. With the exception of several minor anomalies, the PLSS 1.0 test rig performed as expected; furthermore, many system responses trended in accordance with pre-test predictions.

  13. High-brightness 800nm fiber-coupled laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Yuri; Levy, Moshe; Rappaport, Noam; Tessler, Renana; Peleg, Ophir; Shamay, Moshe; Yanson, Dan; Klumel, Genadi; Dahan, Nir; Baskin, Ilya; Shkedi, Lior

    2014-03-01

    Fiber-coupled laser diodes have become essential sources for fiber laser pumping and direct energy applications. Single emitters offer reliable multi-watt output power from a 100 m lateral emission aperture. By their combination and fiber coupling, pump powers up to 100 W can be achieved from a low-NA fiber pigtail. Whilst in the 9xx nm spectral range the single emitter technology is very mature with <10W output per chip, at 800nm the reliable output power from a single emitter is limited to 4 W - 5 W. Consequently, commercially available fiber coupled modules only deliver 5W - 15W at around 800nm, almost an order of magnitude down from the 9xx range pumps. To bridge this gap, we report our advancement in the brightness and reliability of 800nm single emitters. By optimizing the wafer structure, laser cavity and facet passivation process we have demonstrated QCW device operation up to 19W limited by catastrophic optical damage to the 100 μm aperture. In CW operation, the devices reach 14 W output followed by a reversible thermal rollover and a complete device shutdown at high currents, with the performance fully rebounded after cooling. We also report the beam properties of our 800nm single emitters and provide a comparative analysis with the 9xx nm single emitter family. Pump modules integrating several of these emitters with a 105 μm / 0.15 NA delivery fiber reach 35W in CW at 808 nm. We discuss the key opto-mechanical parameters that will enable further brightness scaling of multi-emitter pump modules.

  14. Laminar burning velocities of lean hydrogen-air mixtures at pressures up to 1.0 MPa

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.; Lawes, M.; Liu, Kexin; Woolley, R.; Verhelst, S.

    2007-04-15

    Values of laminar burning velocity, u{sub l}, and the associated strain rate Markstein number, Ma{sub sr}, of H{sub 2}-air mixtures have been obtained from measurements of flame speeds in a spherical explosion bomb with central ignition. Pressures ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 MPa, with values of equivalence ratio between 0.3 and 1.0. Many of the flames soon became unstable, with an accelerating flame speed, due to Darrieus-Landau and thermodiffusive instabilities. This effect increased with pressure. The flame wrinkling arising from the instabilities enhanced the flame speed. A method is described for allowing for this effect, based on measurements of the flame radii at which the instabilities increased the flame speed. This enabled u{sub l} and Ma{sub sr} to be obtained, devoid of the effects of instabilities. With increasing pressure, the time interval between the end of the ignition spark and the onset of flame instability, during which stable stretched flame propagation occurred, became increasingly small and very high camera speeds were necessary for accurate measurement. Eventually this time interval became so short that first Ma{sub sr} and then u{sub l} could not be measured. Such flame instabilities throw into question the utility of u{sub l} for high pressure, very unstable, flames. The measured values of u{sub l} are compared with those predicted by detailed chemical kinetic models of one-dimensional flames. (author)

  15. BasinVis 1.0: A MATLAB®-based program for sedimentary basin subsidence analysis and visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun Young; Novotny, Johannes; Wagreich, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Stratigraphic and structural mapping is important to understand the internal structure of sedimentary basins. Subsidence analysis provides significant insights for basin evolution. We designed a new software package to process and visualize stratigraphic setting and subsidence evolution of sedimentary basins from well data. BasinVis 1.0 is implemented in MATLAB®, a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment, and employs two numerical methods: interpolation and subsidence analysis. Five different interpolation methods (linear, natural, cubic spline, Kriging, and thin-plate spline) are provided in this program for surface modeling. The subsidence analysis consists of decompaction and backstripping techniques. BasinVis 1.0 incorporates five main processing steps; (1) setup (study area and stratigraphic units), (2) loading well data, (3) stratigraphic setting visualization, (4) subsidence parameter input, and (5) subsidence analysis and visualization. For in-depth analysis, our software provides cross-section and dip-slip fault backstripping tools. The graphical user interface guides users through the workflow and provides tools to analyze and export the results. Interpolation and subsidence results are cached to minimize redundant computations and improve the interactivity of the program. All 2D and 3D visualizations are created by using MATLAB plotting functions, which enables users to fine-tune the results using the full range of available plot options in MATLAB. We demonstrate all functions in a case study of Miocene sediment in the central Vienna Basin.

  16. Planar Defect Energies and Stability of Superdislocation Core Configurations in L1(0) Titanium Aluminide (L1(0), Titanium Aluminide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen-Chuan

    1992-01-01

    The (111) planar defect energies at the ground state in L1_0 TiAl were calculated by pair potential models(PPM) and the embedded atom method (EAM). The results by the EAM show that the magnitudes of the defect energies in a (111) plane are in descending order: APB, CSF and ISF. The APB energy varies depending on its habit. The APB energy decreases when the APB undergoes cross-slip from (111) plane onto either (101) plane or (010) plane. The calculated APB energies in (111) plane, (101) plane and (010) plane were found to be 322, 237 and 131 mJ/m^2, respectively. The planar defects in the (113) plane of L1 _0 TiAl were created by a shear model using various displacement vectors; The geometries of these defects were studied and compared with those of the (111) planar defects, and their energies were also determined by the PPM and the EAM. The (113) gamma -surface calculated by the EAM shows that the metastable ISF and APB exist in the (113) plane, but the metastable CSF does not. The energies of ISF, ESF and APB were found to be 1413, 1340 and 1446 mJ/m^2, respectively. By and large, the higher energies of the planar defects in (113) plane than in (111) plane indicate that these defects in the (113) plane may be formed only at high temperatures. The energies of the dissociated super-dislocations with Burgers vector of <101) in various configurations were calculated based on the balance between the repulsive force among the partial dislocations and the attractive force originating from the planar defect energy. The results show that the obtuse stair-rod configuration without an APB possesses the lowest energy, the obtuse extended K-W type configuration, the second lowest, and the obtuse Kear-Wilsdorf type configuration, the third lowest energy among the considered configurations. In the study, the thermodynamic hierarchy of the most probable configurations of <101) type super-dislocations in L1_0 TiAl has been established.

  17. Broadband fiber-optical parametric amplification for ultrafast time-stretch imaging at 1.0 μm.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoming; Lau, Andy K S; Xu, Yiqing; Zhang, Chi; Mussot, Arnaud; Kudlinski, Alexandre; Tsia, Kevin K; Wong, Kenneth K Y

    2014-10-15

    We demonstrate a broadband all-fiber-optical parametric amplifier for ultrafast time-stretch imaging at 1.0 μm, featured by its compact design, alignment-free, high efficiency, and flexible gain spectrum through fiber nonlinearity- and dispersion-engineering: specifically on a dispersion-stabilized photonic-crystal fiber (PCF) to achieve a net gain over 20 THz (75 nm) and a highest gain of ~6000 (37.5 dB). Another unique feature of the parametric amplifier, over other optical amplifiers, is the coherent generation of a synchronized signal replica (called idler) that can be exploited to offer an extra 3-dB gain by optically superposing the signal and idler. It further enhances signal contrast and temporal stability. For proof-of-concept purpose, ultrahigh speed and diffraction-limited time-stretch microscopy is demonstrated with a single-shot line-scan rate of 13 MHz based on the dual-band (signal and idler) detection. Our scheme can be extended to other established bioimaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography, near infrared fluorescence, and photoacoustic imaging, where weak signal detection at high speed is required. PMID:25361137

  18. Space-Based Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Space-Based Range (SBR), previously known as Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS), is a multicenter NASA proof-of-concept project to determine if space-based communications using NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) can support the Range Safety functions of acquiring tracking data and generating flight termination signals, while also providing broadband Range User data such as voice, video, and vehicle/payload data. There was a successful test of the Range Safety system at Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on December 20, 2005, on a two-stage Terrier-Orion spin-stabilized sounding rocket. SBR transmitted GPS tracking data and maintained links with two TDRSS satellites simultaneously during the 10-min flight. The payload section deployed a parachute, landed in the Atlantic Ocean about 90 miles downrange from the launch site, and was successfully recovered. During the Terrier-Orion tests flights, more than 99 percent of all forward commands and more than 95 percent of all return frames were successfully received and processed. The time latency necessary for a command to travel from WFF over landlines to White Sands Complex and then to the vehicle via TDRSS, be processed onboard, and then be sent back to WFF was between 1.0 s and 1.1 s. The forward-link margins for TDRS-10 (TDRS East [TDE]) were 11 dB to 12 dB plus or minus 2 dB, and for TDRS-4 (TDRS Spare [TDS]) were 9 dB to 10 dB plus or minus 1.5 dB. The return-link margins for both TDE and TDS were 6 dB to 8 dB plus or minus 3 dB. There were 11 flights on an F-15B at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) between November 2006 and February 2007. The Range User system tested a 184-element TDRSS Ku-band (15 GHz) phased-array antenna with data rates of 5 Mbps and 10 Mbps. This data was a combination of black-and-white cockpit video, Range Safety tracking and transceiver data, and aircraft and antenna controller data streams. IP data formatting was used.

  19. Radiation hardness assessment of the charge-integrating hybrid pixel detector JUNGFRAU 1.0 for photon science.

    PubMed

    Jungmann-Smith, J H; Bergamaschi, A; Brückner, M; Cartier, S; Dinapoli, R; Greiffenberg, D; Jaggi, A; Maliakal, D; Mayilyan, D; Medjoubi, K; Mezza, D; Mozzanica, A; Ramilli, M; Ruder, Ch; Schädler, L; Schmitt, B; Shi, X; Tinti, G

    2015-12-01

    JUNGFRAU (adJUstiNg Gain detector FoR the Aramis User station) is a two-dimensional hybrid pixel detector for photon science applications in free electron lasers, particularly SwissFEL, and synchrotron light sources. JUNGFRAU is an automatic gain switching, charge-integrating detector which covers a dynamic range of more than 10(4) photons of an energy of 12 keV with a good linearity, uniformity of response, and spatial resolving power. The JUNGFRAU 1.0 application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) features a 256 × 256 pixel matrix of 75 × 75 μm(2) pixels and is bump-bonded to a 320 μm thick Si sensor. Modules of 2 × 4 chips cover an area of about 4 × 8 cm(2). Readout rates in excess of 2 kHz enable linear count rate capabilities of 20 MHz (at 12 keV) and 50 MHz (at 5 keV). The tolerance of JUNGFRAU to radiation is a key issue to guarantee several years of operation at free electron lasers and synchrotrons. The radiation hardness of JUNGFRAU 1.0 is tested with synchrotron radiation up to 10 MGy of delivered dose. The effect of radiation-induced changes on the noise, baseline, gain, and gain switching is evaluated post-irradiation for both the ASIC and the hybridized assembly. The bare JUNGFRAU 1.0 chip can withstand doses as high as 10 MGy with minor changes to its noise and a reduction in the preamplifier gain. The hybridized assembly, in particular the sensor, is affected by the photon irradiation which mainly shows as an increase in the leakage current. Self-healing of the system is investigated during a period of 11 weeks after the delivery of the radiation dose. Annealing radiation-induced changes by bake-out at 100 °C is investigated. It is concluded that the JUNGFRAU 1.0 pixel is sufficiently radiation-hard for its envisioned applications at SwissFEL and synchrotron beam lines. PMID:26724009

  20. Radiation hardness assessment of the charge-integrating hybrid pixel detector JUNGFRAU 1.0 for photon science

    SciTech Connect

    Jungmann-Smith, J. H. Bergamaschi, A.; Brückner, M.; Dinapoli, R.; Greiffenberg, D.; Jaggi, A.; Maliakal, D.; Mayilyan, D.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Ramilli, M.; Ruder, Ch.; Schädler, L.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Tinti, G.; Cartier, S.; Medjoubi, K.

    2015-12-15

    JUNGFRAU (adJUstiNg Gain detector FoR the Aramis User station) is a two-dimensional hybrid pixel detector for photon science applications in free electron lasers, particularly SwissFEL, and synchrotron light sources. JUNGFRAU is an automatic gain switching, charge-integrating detector which covers a dynamic range of more than 10{sup 4} photons of an energy of 12 keV with a good linearity, uniformity of response, and spatial resolving power. The JUNGFRAU 1.0 application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) features a 256 × 256 pixel matrix of 75 × 75 μm{sup 2} pixels and is bump-bonded to a 320 μm thick Si sensor. Modules of 2 × 4 chips cover an area of about 4 × 8 cm{sup 2}. Readout rates in excess of 2 kHz enable linear count rate capabilities of 20 MHz (at 12 keV) and 50 MHz (at 5 keV). The tolerance of JUNGFRAU to radiation is a key issue to guarantee several years of operation at free electron lasers and synchrotrons. The radiation hardness of JUNGFRAU 1.0 is tested with synchrotron radiation up to 10 MGy of delivered dose. The effect of radiation-induced changes on the noise, baseline, gain, and gain switching is evaluated post-irradiation for both the ASIC and the hybridized assembly. The bare JUNGFRAU 1.0 chip can withstand doses as high as 10 MGy with minor changes to its noise and a reduction in the preamplifier gain. The hybridized assembly, in particular the sensor, is affected by the photon irradiation which mainly shows as an increase in the leakage current. Self-healing of the system is investigated during a period of 11 weeks after the delivery of the radiation dose. Annealing radiation-induced changes by bake-out at 100 °C is investigated. It is concluded that the JUNGFRAU 1.0 pixel is sufficiently radiation-hard for its envisioned applications at SwissFEL and synchrotron beam lines.

  1. Radiation hardness assessment of the charge-integrating hybrid pixel detector JUNGFRAU 1.0 for photon science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Bergamaschi, A.; Brückner, M.; Cartier, S.; Dinapoli, R.; Greiffenberg, D.; Jaggi, A.; Maliakal, D.; Mayilyan, D.; Medjoubi, K.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Ramilli, M.; Ruder, Ch.; Schädler, L.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Tinti, G.

    2015-12-01

    JUNGFRAU (adJUstiNg Gain detector FoR the Aramis User station) is a two-dimensional hybrid pixel detector for photon science applications in free electron lasers, particularly SwissFEL, and synchrotron light sources. JUNGFRAU is an automatic gain switching, charge-integrating detector which covers a dynamic range of more than 104 photons of an energy of 12 keV with a good linearity, uniformity of response, and spatial resolving power. The JUNGFRAU 1.0 application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) features a 256 × 256 pixel matrix of 75 × 75 μm2 pixels and is bump-bonded to a 320 μm thick Si sensor. Modules of 2 × 4 chips cover an area of about 4 × 8 cm2. Readout rates in excess of 2 kHz enable linear count rate capabilities of 20 MHz (at 12 keV) and 50 MHz (at 5 keV). The tolerance of JUNGFRAU to radiation is a key issue to guarantee several years of operation at free electron lasers and synchrotrons. The radiation hardness of JUNGFRAU 1.0 is tested with synchrotron radiation up to 10 MGy of delivered dose. The effect of radiation-induced changes on the noise, baseline, gain, and gain switching is evaluated post-irradiation for both the ASIC and the hybridized assembly. The bare JUNGFRAU 1.0 chip can withstand doses as high as 10 MGy with minor changes to its noise and a reduction in the preamplifier gain. The hybridized assembly, in particular the sensor, is affected by the photon irradiation which mainly shows as an increase in the leakage current. Self-healing of the system is investigated during a period of 11 weeks after the delivery of the radiation dose. Annealing radiation-induced changes by bake-out at 100 °C is investigated. It is concluded that the JUNGFRAU 1.0 pixel is sufficiently radiation-hard for its envisioned applications at SwissFEL and synchrotron beam lines.

  2. A 1.5-W frequency doubled semiconductor disk laser tunable over 40 nm at around 745 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarinen, Esa J.; Lyytikäinen, Jari; Ranta, Sanna; Rantamäki, Antti; Saarela, Antti; Sirbu, Alexei; Iakovlev, Vladimir; Kapon, Eli; Okhotnikov, Oleg G.

    2016-03-01

    We report on a semiconductor disk laser emitting 1.5 W of output power at the wavelength of 745 nm via intracavity frequency doubling. The high power level and the < 40 nm tuning range make the laser a promising tool for medical treatments that rely on photosensitizing agents and biomarkers in the transmission window of tissue between 700 and 800 nm. The InP-based gain structure of the laser was wafer-fused with a GaAs-based bottom mirror and thermally managed with an intracavity diamond heat spreader. The structure was pumped with commercial low-cost 980 nm laser diode modules. Laser emission at 1490 nm was frequency-doubled with a bismuth borate crystal that was cut for type I critical phase matching. At the maximum output power, we achieved an optical-to-optical efficiency of 8.3% with beam quality parameter M2 below 1.5. The laser wavelength could be tuned with an intracavity birefringent plate from 720 to 764 nm.

  3. Efficient diode-pumped acousto-optic Q-switched Er:Yb:GdAl(3)(BO(3))(4) pulse laser at 1522  nm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y J; Lin, Y F; Huang, J H; Gong, X H; Luo, Z D; Huang, Y D

    2015-11-01

    End-pumped by a continuous-wave 976 nm diode laser, efficient 1522 nm laser operation was demonstrated in an Er:Yb:GdAl(3)(BO(3))(4) crystal when a sapphire crystal was used as a heat diffuser. A continuous-wave 1522 nm laser with a maximum output power of 750 mW and slope efficiency of 36% was realized at an absorbed pump power of 4.1 W. The pulse performances of an acousto-optic Q-switched laser with various repetition frequencies were investigated in detail. In a repetition frequency range of 1-10 kHz, 1522 nm pulse lasers with a slope efficiency of about 10%, peak output power at the kilowatt level, and width of about 50 ns were first obtained in an Er:Yb:GdAl(3)(BO(3))(4) crystal pumped by a continuous-wave diode laser. The results indicate that the crystal is a promising gain medium for an actively Q-switched 1.5 μm laser. PMID:26512485

  4. Pseudomorphic Single-Quantum-Well Lasers Emit At 980 Nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsson, Anders; Forouhar, Siamak; Cody, Jeffrey G.; Lang, Robert J.; Andrekson, Peter A.

    1992-01-01

    Narrow-stripe semiconductor lasers emitting at 980 nm include pseudomorphic In0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs graded-index-of-refraction, separate-confinement-heterostructure single quantum well(GRINSCH SQW) with overlaid ridge waveguide. 980 nm chosen as one that yields most efficient pumping because there is no absorption in excited states at this wavelength. Suitable for pumping Er(Sup3+)-doped optical-fiber amplifiers in optical-fiber communication systems and optical phased-array ranging systems.

  5. Soft X-Ray (1-7 nm) Solar Spectrometer based on novel Nanowriter Electron-Beam Nanofabrication Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didkovsky, L. V.; Wieman, S. R.; Chao, W.

    2015-12-01

    A new soft X-ray (SXR) spectrometer combines proven detector technology demonstrated on the SOHO Solar EUV Monitor (SOHO/SEM) and SDO EUV SpectroPhotometer (SDO/EVE/ESP) instruments with novel technology for X-ray optics nanofabrication developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The new spectrometer will provide solar SXR measurements of absolute irradiance in the 1.0 to 7.0 nm range spectrally resolved into bands narrower than 1 nm - measurements that are not available from existing solar-observing instruments but are important for studying and modeling coronal dynamics and the Sun-Earth's connection, e.g. the Earth's Ionosphere. For the proposed SXR spectrometer we will introduce a transmission grating based on novel Nanowriter Electron-Beam Nanofabrication technology developed at the Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The CXRO technology has been used in the fabrication of X-ray zone plates with feature sizes as small as 25 nm in optical elements with overall sizes on the order of 1 cm. The CXRO technology has significant flexibility in terms of pattern geometry, and is thus capable of producing linear transmission gratings with aperture sizes similar to SEM and ESP but with four times the dispersion. With such dispersion, reasonable spectral resolution (< 1nm) can be obtained using commercial off-the shelf (COTS) X-ray sensitive AXUV type silicon photodiodes from the Optodiode Corp. in an instrument with overall size and mass similar to that of SEM or ESP.

  6. Measurements of Photoabsorpton Cross Sections and their Temperature Dependence for CO2 in the 170nm to 200nm Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, W. H.; Yoshino, K.

    2001-11-01

    All the photochemical models for the predominately CO2 Martian atmosphere ar e very sensitive to the amount of CO2 and to the values and spectral details of the absorpton cross sections of CO2 in the region 170nm-200nm. Earlier we had measured and published absolute cross sections of CO2 in the region 118.0 nm-175.5 nm at 295K and 195K. We have recently extended these measurements from 170 nm to 200 nm at 300K and 1 95K. The new measurements have been carried out at high resolution with our 6.65 -m normal incidence , photoelectric spectrometer. To measure the weak photoabsorption of the CO2 bands in the wavelength region 170 --200 nm, we required a high column density of the gas. We obtained this by using a multi pass technique, a White cell. The White cell was designed to have a distance of 1.50 m between two main mirrors, and was set for four, double pas ses making a path length of 12.0 m. CO2 gas was frozen in a stainless cylinder immersed in liquid nitrogen, and t he frozen product (dryice) was pumped by the diffusion pump for purification. The CO2 was warmed up slowly and kept in the cylinder at high pressure. The CO2 pressure used in the White cell was varied from 1 to 1000 Torr depend ing on the wavelength region, and was measured with a a capacitance manometer (M KS Baratron, 10 Torr and 1000 Torr). We divided the spectral region into twenty sections of about 1.5 nm extent. At each scan range, another scan was obtained from the emission spectrum of the fourth positive bands of CO for wavelength calibration. We acknowledge funding from NASA, grant NAGS-7859 to Harvard College Observatory.

  7. Development of a temperature-variable magnetic resonance imaging system using a 1.0 T yokeless permanent magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Y.; Tamada, D.; Kose, K.

    2011-10-01

    A temperature variable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system has been developed using a 1.0 T permanent magnet. A permanent magnet, gradient coils, radiofrequency coil, and shim coil were installed in a temperature variable thermostatic bath. First, the variation in the magnetic field inhomogeneity with temperature was measured. The inhomogeneity has a specific spatial symmetry, which scales linearly with temperature, and a single-channel shim coil was designed to compensate for the inhomogeneity. The inhomogeneity was drastically reduced by shimming over a wide range of temperature from -5 °C to 45 °C. MR images of an okra pod acquired at different temperatures demonstrated the high potential of the system for visualizing thermally sensitive properties.

  8. Contamination assessment report, site 1-10, south tank farm. Phase 1. Version 3.2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1987-04-01

    This final report documents the phase I contamination survey of site 1-10, a storage tank farm constructed in 1942. 30 samples from 13 borings were analyzed for volatile and semivolatile organics and metal with separate analyses for As, Hg, and DBCP. C6H6, DCPD, Ch2Cl2, Cu, Zn, and Hg were detected at or above their respective indicator ranges. However, the concentrations of Cu and Zn appear to be consistent with the natural levels of these metals. A phase II program consisting of 22 additional borings and soil gas sampling is recommended to (1) determine the extent of contamination and (2) discover whether potential contaminants have leaked from the tanks. The volume of whether potentially contaminated soil present is estimated at 74,000 cubic yards. Appendices includes chemical names, Phase I chemical data, and comments and responses.

  9. Flux-calibration of medium-resolution spectra from 300 nm to 2500 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moehler, Sabine; Modigliani, Andrea; Freudling, Wolfram; Giammichele, Noemi; Gianninas, Alexandros; Gonneau, Anais; Kausch, Wolfgang; Lançon, Ariane; Noll, Stefan; Rauch, Thomas; Vinther, Jakob

    2014-08-01

    While the near-infrared wavelength regime is becoming more and more important for astrophysics there are few spectrophotometric standard star data available to flux calibrate such data. On the other hand flux calibrating high-resolution spectra is a challenge even in the optical wavelength range, because the available flux standard data are often too coarsely sampled. We describe a method to obtain reference spectra derived from stellar model atmospheres, which allow users to derive response curves from 300 nm to 2500 nm also for high-resolution spectra. We verified that they provide an appropriate description of the observed standard star spectra by checking for residuals in line cores and line overlap regions in the ratios of observed spectra to model spectra. The finally selected model spectra are then empirically corrected for remaining mismatches and photometrically calibrated using independent observations. In addition we have defined an automatic method to correct for moderate telluric absorption using telluric model spectra with very high spectral resolution, that can easily be adapted to the observed data. This procedure eliminates the need to observe telluric standard stars, as long as some knowledge on the target spectrum exists.

  10. RGUI 1.0, New Graphical User Interface for RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Mesina, George Lee; Galbraith, James Andrew

    1999-04-01

    With the advent of three-dimensional modeling in nuclear safety analysis codes, the need has arisen for a new display methodology. Currently, analysts either sort through voluminous numerical displays of data at points in a region, or view color coded interpretations of the data on a two-dimensional rendition of the plant. RGUI 1.0 provides 3D capability for displaying data. The 3D isometric hydrodynamic image is built automatically from the input deck without additional input from the user. Standard view change features allow the user to focus on only the important data. Familiar features that are standard to the nuclear industry, such as run, interact, and monitor, are included. RGUI 1.0 reduces the difficulty of analyzing complex three dimensional plants.

  11. RGUI 1.0, New Graphical User Interface for RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect

    G. L. Mesina; J. Galbraith

    1999-04-01

    With the advent of three-dimensional modeling in nuclear safety analysis codes, the need has arisen for a new display methodology. Currently, analysts either sort through voluminous numerical displays of data at points in a region, or view color coded interpretations of the data on a two-dimensional rendition of the plant. RGUI 1.0 provides 3D capability for displaying data. The 3D isometric hydrodynamic image is built automatically from the input deck without additional input from the user. Standard view change features allow the user to focus on only the important data. Familiar features that are standard to the nuclear industry, such as run, interact, and monitor, are included. RGUI 1.0 reduces the difficulty of analyzing complex three-dimensional plants.

  12. The Titan -1:0 Nodal Bending Wave in Saturn's Ring C.

    PubMed

    Rosen, P A; Lissauer, J J

    1988-08-01

    The most prominent oscillatory feature observed in the Voyager 1 radio occultation of Saturn's rings is identified as a one-armed spiral bending wave excited by Titan's -1:0 nodal inner vertical resonance. Ring partides in a bending wave move in coherently inclined orbits, warping the local mean plane of the rings. The Titan -1:0 wave is the only known bending wave that propagates outward, away from Saturn, and the only spiral wave yet observed in which the wave pattern rotates opposite to the orbital direction of the ring particles. It is also the first bending wave identified in ring C. Modeling the observed feature with existing bending wave theory gives a surface mass density of approximately 0.4 g/cm(2) outside the wave region and a local ring thickness of [unknown]5 meters, and suggests that surface mass density is not constant in the wave region. PMID:17839081

  13. The Titan-1:0 nodal bending wave in Saturn's Ring C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.; Lissauer, Jack J.

    1988-01-01

    The most prominent oscillatory feature observed in the Voyager 1 radio occultation of Saturn's rings is identified as a one-armed spiral bending wave excited by Titan's-1:0 nodal inner vertical resonance. Ring particles in a bending wave move in coherently inclined orbits, warping the local mean plane of the rings. The Titan-1:0 wave is the only known bending wave that propagates outward, away from Saturn, and the only spiral wave yet observed in which the wave pattern rotates opposite to the orbital direction of the ring particles. It is also the first bending wave identified in ring C. Modeling the observed feature with existing bending wave theory gives a surface mass density of about 0.4 g/sq cm outside the wave region and a local ring thickness of less than about 5 meters, and suggests that surface mass density is not constant in the wave region.

  14. Detecting the lowest-energy structures of CAu16q(q=-1,0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fa, Wei; Yang, Aping

    2008-10-01

    Using scalar relativistic density-functional simulations, we have performed a detailed study of the structural and electronic properties of CAu16q(q=-1,0). We have discovered that the most stable configurations of both the neutral and anionic C-doped gold clusters are not endohedral structures but distorted close-flat cages, in which the carbon atom prefers forming covalent bonds with its four nearest-neighboring gold atoms. Despite the geometrical similarity between the CAu 4 and SiAu 4, the lowest-energy CAu16q(q=-1,0) show a square-pyramid local structure around the dopant carbon just like the cases of GeAu16- and SnAu16-, displaying different photoelectron spectroscopy with those of isomers with a dangling gold atom atop carbon.

  15. CO (v = 1-0) emission in the molecular shock regions of OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasdalen, G. L.; Hackwell, John A.; Lynch, David K.; Russell, Ray W.

    1992-01-01

    Using the new Aerospace spectrometer on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, we have obtained observations of the molecular shocks associated with OMC-1. Unexpectedly these observations reveal (b = 1-0) emission from CO at 4.6 microns superposed on a strong continuum. Our observations strongly suggest that both the emission feature and the continuum are produced in molecular shocks. Since the (v = 1-0) band of CO is only excited in high-velocity shocks, we may be observing for the first time the primary driving mechanism in these regions. Even if these features are produced by scattering, the characteristics will provide new constraints on the conditions in and the geometry of the shock regions.

  16. Building the Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER) Smoke Emissions Inventory Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, Luke; Ichoku, Charles; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER) group's new coefficient of emission global gridded product at 1x1 resolution that directly relates fire readiative energy (FRE) to smoke aerosol release, FEERv1.0 Ce, made its public debut in August 2013. Since then, steps have been taken to generate corresponding maps and totals of total particulate matter (PM) emissions using different sources of FRE, and subsequently to simulate the resulting PM(sub 2.5) in the WRF-Chem 3.5 model using emission rates from FEERv1.0 as well as other standard biomass burning emission inventories. An flowchart of the FEER algorithm to calculate Ce is outlined here along with a display of the resulting emissions of total PM globally and also regionally. The modeling results from the WRF-Chem3.5 simulations are also shown.

  17. Medusa-1.0: a new intermediate complexity plankton ecosystem model for the global domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yool, A.; Popova, E. E.; Anderson, T. R.

    2011-05-01

    The ongoing, anthropogenically-driven changes to the global ocean are expected to have significant consequences for plankton ecosystems in the future. Because of the role that plankton play in the ocean's "biological pump", changes in abundance, distribution and productivity will likely have additional consequences for the wider carbon cycle. Just as in the terrestrial biosphere, marine ecosystems exhibit marked diversity in species and functional types of organisms. Predicting potential change in plankton ecosystems therefore requires the use of models that are suited to this diversity, but whose parameterisation also permits robust and realistic functional behaviour. In the past decade, advances in model sophistication have attempted to address diversity, but have been criticised for doing so inaccurately or ahead of a requisite understanding of underlying processes. Here we introduce MEDUSA-1.0 (Model of Ecosystem Dynamics, nutrient Utilisation, Sequestration and Acidification), a new "intermediate complexity" plankton ecosystem model that expands on traditional nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) models, and remains amenable to global-scale evaluation. MEDUSA-1.0 includes the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, silicon and iron, broadly structured into "small" and "large" plankton size classes, of which the "large" phytoplankton class is representative of a key phytoplankton group, the diatoms. A full description of MEDUSA-1.0's state variables, differential equations, functional forms and parameter values is included, with particular attention focused on the submodel describing the export of organic carbon from the surface to the deep ocean. MEDUSA-1.0 is used here in a multi-decadal hindcast simulation, and its biogeochemical performance evaluated at the global scale.

  18. Transferable Output ASCII Data (TOAD) gateway: Version 1.0 user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingel, Bradford D.

    1991-01-01

    The Transferable Output ASCII Data (TOAD) Gateway, release 1.0 is described. This is a software tool for converting tabular data from one format into another via the TOAD format. This initial release of the Gateway allows free data interchange among the following file formats: TOAD; Standard Interface File (SIF); Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST) input; Comma Separated Value (TSV); and a general free-form file format. As required, additional formats can be accommodated quickly and easily.

  19. Intrinsic magnetic properties of L1(0) FeNi obtained from meteorite NWA 6259

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, E; Pinkerton, FE; Kubic, R; Mishra, RK; Bordeaux, N; Mubarok, A; Lewis, LH; Goldstein, JI; Skomski, R; Barmak, K

    2015-05-07

    FeNi having the tetragonal L1(0) crystal structure is a promising new rare-earth-free permanent magnet material. Laboratory synthesis is challenging, however, tetragonal L1(0) FeNi-the mineral "tetrataenite"-has been characterized using specimens found in nickel-iron meteorites. Most notably, the meteorite NWA 6259 recovered from Northwest Africa is 95 vol.% tetrataenite with a composition of 43 at.% Ni. Hysteresis loops were measured as a function of sample orientation on a specimen cut from NWA 6259 in order to rigorously deduce the intrinsic hard magnetic properties of its L1(0) phase. Electron backscatter diffraction showed that NWA 6259 is strongly textured, containing L1(0) grains oriented along any one of the three equivalent cubic directions of the parent fcc structure. The magnetic structure was modeled as a superposition of the three orthonormal uniaxial variants. By simultaneously fitting first-quadrant magnetization data for 13 different orientations of the sample with respect to the applied field direction, the intrinsic magnetic properties were estimated to be saturation magnetization 4 pi M-s = 14.7 kG and anisotropy field H-a = 14.4 kOe. The anisotropy constant K = 0.84 MJ/m(3) is somewhat smaller than the value K = 1.3 MJ/m(3) obtained by earlier researchers from nominally equiatomic FeNi prepared by neutron irradiation accompanied by annealing in a magnetic field, suggesting that higher Ni content (fewer Fe antisite defects) may improve the anisotropy. The fit also indicated that NWA 6259 contains one dominant variant (62% by volume), the remainder of the sample being a second variant, and the third variant being absent altogether. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  20. Poblano v1.0 : a Matlab toolbox for gradient-based optimization.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Acar, Evrim; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2010-03-01

    We present Poblano v1.0, a Matlab toolbox for solving gradient-based unconstrained optimization problems. Poblano implements three optimization methods (nonlinear conjugate gradients, limited-memory BFGS, and truncated Newton) that require only first order derivative information. In this paper, we describe the Poblano methods, provide numerous examples on how to use Poblano, and present results of Poblano used in solving problems from a standard test collection of unconstrained optimization problems.

  1. 38 CFR 1.10 - Eligibility for and disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes. 1.10 Section 1.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS The United States Flag for Burial Purposes § 1.10 Eligibility for and disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes. (a) Eligibility...

  2. 38 CFR 1.10 - Eligibility for and disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes. 1.10 Section 1.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS The United States Flag for Burial Purposes § 1.10 Eligibility for and disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes. (a) Eligibility...

  3. 38 CFR 1.10 - Eligibility for and disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes. 1.10 Section 1.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS The United States Flag for Burial Purposes § 1.10 Eligibility for and disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes. (a) Eligibility...

  4. 38 CFR 1.10 - Eligibility for and disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes. 1.10 Section 1.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS The United States Flag for Burial Purposes § 1.10 Eligibility for and disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes. (a) Eligibility...

  5. 11 CFR 1.10 - Disclosure of record to person other than the individual to whom it pertains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosure of record to person other than the individual to whom it pertains. 1.10 Section 1.10 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.10 Disclosure of record to person other than the individual to whom it pertains. (a)...

  6. 11 CFR 1.10 - Disclosure of record to person other than the individual to whom it pertains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of record to person other than the individual to whom it pertains. 1.10 Section 1.10 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.10 Disclosure of record to person other than the individual to whom it pertains. (a)...

  7. 38 CFR 1.10 - Eligibility for and disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligibility for and disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes. 1.10 Section 1.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS The United States Flag for Burial Purposes § 1.10 Eligibility for and disposition of...

  8. IVSPlat 1.0: an integrated virtual screening platform with a molecular graphical interface

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The virtual screening (VS) of lead compounds using molecular docking and pharmacophore detection is now an important tool in drug discovery. VS tasks typically require a combination of several software tools and a molecular graphics system. Thus, the integration of all the requisite tools in a single operating environment could reduce the complexity of running VS experiments. However, only a few freely available integrated software platforms have been developed. Results A free open-source platform, IVSPlat 1.0, was developed in this study for the management and automation of VS tasks. We integrated several VS-related programs into a molecular graphics system to provide a comprehensive platform for the solution of VS tasks based on molecular docking, pharmacophore detection, and a combination of both methods. This tool can be used to visualize intermediate and final results of the VS execution, while also providing a clustering tool for the analysis of VS results. A case study was conducted to demonstrate the applicability of this platform. Conclusions IVSPlat 1.0 provides a plug-in-based solution for the management, automation, and visualization of VS tasks. IVSPlat 1.0 is an open framework that allows the integration of extra software to extend its functionality and modified versions can be freely distributed. The open source code and documentation are available at http://kyc.nenu.edu.cn/IVSPlat/. PMID:22222098

  9. RoboNet-1.0: A Prototype Global Network of Large Robotic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bode, M. F.; Cardiff U. Collaboration; U. Hertfordshire Collaboration; U. Leicester Collaboration; St Andrews U. Collaboration; Queens U., Belfast Collaboration; Mullard Space Science Lab. Collaboration; U. Exeter Collaboration; U. Southampton Collaboration; U. Manchester Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    Involving a consortium of 10 UK universities, RoboNet-1.0 comprises the Liverpool Telescope (LT, La Palma), plus specially allocated time on the Faulkes Telescope North (FTN, Maui) and Faulkes Telescope South (FTS, Siding Spring, Australia). All three are essentially identical 2m telescopes equipped for both optical photometry and spectroscopy and operated from a common centre in Liverpool. The LT is primarily for research use whereas the FTs are mainly dedicated to education. Software developed by the eSTAR GRID project is being applied and enhanced to enable efficient and effective operation of the network. The primary scientific projects being addressed by RoboNet-1.0 are (a) rapid follow-up of Gamma Ray Burst sources detected by missions such as Swift, and (b) the detection of extra-solar planets via microlensing. Observations with the network began in August 2004. This is a pre-cursor project to the establishment of the full RoboNet global network of six dedicated telescopes which would greatly enhance work in several important branches of time domain astrophysics. Operation of the Liverpool Telescope and RoboNet-1.0 are funded by the UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council. The Faulkes Telescopes are funded by the Dill Faulkes Educational Trust.

  10. Pantheon 1.0, a manually verified dataset of globally famous biographies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Amy Zhao; Ronen, Shahar; Hu, Kevin; Lu, Tiffany; Hidalgo, César A

    2016-01-01

    We present the Pantheon 1.0 dataset: a manually verified dataset of individuals that have transcended linguistic, temporal, and geographic boundaries. The Pantheon 1.0 dataset includes the 11,341 biographies present in more than 25 languages in Wikipedia and is enriched with: (i) manually verified demographic information (place and date of birth, gender) (ii) a taxonomy of occupations classifying each biography at three levels of aggregation and (iii) two measures of global popularity including the number of languages in which a biography is present in Wikipedia (L), and the Historical Popularity Index (HPI) a metric that combines information on L, time since birth, and page-views (2008-2013). We compare the Pantheon 1.0 dataset to data from the 2003 book, Human Accomplishments, and also to external measures of accomplishment in individual games and sports: Tennis, Swimming, Car Racing, and Chess. In all of these cases we find that measures of popularity (L and HPI) correlate highly with individual accomplishment, suggesting that measures of global popularity proxy the historical impact of individuals. PMID:26731133

  11. Pantheon 1.0, a manually verified dataset of globally famous biographies

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Amy Zhao; Ronen, Shahar; Hu, Kevin; Lu, Tiffany; Hidalgo, César A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the Pantheon 1.0 dataset: a manually verified dataset of individuals that have transcended linguistic, temporal, and geographic boundaries. The Pantheon 1.0 dataset includes the 11,341 biographies present in more than 25 languages in Wikipedia and is enriched with: (i) manually verified demographic information (place and date of birth, gender) (ii) a taxonomy of occupations classifying each biography at three levels of aggregation and (iii) two measures of global popularity including the number of languages in which a biography is present in Wikipedia (L), and the Historical Popularity Index (HPI) a metric that combines information on L, time since birth, and page-views (2008–2013). We compare the Pantheon 1.0 dataset to data from the 2003 book, Human Accomplishments, and also to external measures of accomplishment in individual games and sports: Tennis, Swimming, Car Racing, and Chess. In all of these cases we find that measures of popularity (L and HPI) correlate highly with individual accomplishment, suggesting that measures of global popularity proxy the historical impact of individuals. PMID:26731133

  12. Transition metal ion capture using functional mesoporous carbon made with 1,10-phenanthroline☆

    PubMed Central

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Yantasee, Wassana; Shin, Yongsoon; Grudzien, Rafal M.; Fryxell, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    Functional mesoporous carbon has been built using 1,10-phenanthroline as the fundamental building block, resulting in a nanoporous, high surface area sorbent capable of selectively binding transition metal ions. This material had a specific surface area of 870 m2/g, an average pore size of about 30 Å, and contained as much as 8.2 wt% N. Under acidic conditions, where the 1,10-phenanthroline ligand is protonated, this material was found to be an effective anion exchange material for transition metal anions like PdCl42- and H2VO41-. 1,10-Phenanthroline functionalized mesoporous carbon (“Phen-FMC”) was found to have a high affinity for Cu(II), even down to a pH of 1. At pHs above 5, Phen-FMC was found to bind a variety of transition metal cations (e.g. Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), etc.) from filtered ground water, river water and seawater. Phen-FMC displayed rapid sorption kinetics with Co(II) in filtered river water, reaching equilibrium in less than an hour, and easily lowering the [Co(II)] to sub-ppb levels. Phen-FMC was found to be more effective for transition metal ion capture than ion-exchange resin or activated carbon. PMID:23762013

  13. Seasonal changes, identification and source apportionment of PAH in PM1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana Milena; Teixeira, Elba Calesso

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the seasonal variation of PAHs in PM1.0, as well as to identify and quantify the contributions of each source profile using the PMF receptor model. PM1.0 samples were collected on PTFE filters from August 2011 to July 2013 in the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The samples were extracted using the EPA method TO-13A and 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using a gaseous chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Also, the data discussed in this study were analyzed to identify the relations of the PAHs concentrations with NOx, NO, O3 and meteorological parameters (temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, relative humidity). The results showed that in winter, concentrations of total PAHs were significantly higher than in summer, thus showing their seasonal variation. The identification of emission sources by applying diagnostic ratios confirmed that PAHs in the study area originate from mobile sources, especially, from diesel and gasoline emissions. The analysis by PMF receptor model showed the contribution of these two main sources of emissions, too, followed by coal combustion, incomplete combustion/unburned petroleum and wood combustion. The toxic equivalent factors were calculated to characterize the risk of cancer from PAH exposure to PM1.0 samples, and BaP and DahA dominated BaPeq levels.

  14. Transition metal ion capture using functional mesoporous carbon made with 1,10-phenanthroline

    SciTech Connect

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Yantasee, Wassana; Shin, Yongsoon; Grudzien, Rafal M.; Fryxell, Glen E.

    2009-11-01

    Functional mesoporous carbon has been built using 1,10-phenanthroline as the fundamental building block, resulting in a nanoporous, high surface area sorbent capable of selectively binding transition metal ions. This material had a specific surface area of 870 m2/g, an average pore size of about 30Å, and contained as much as 8.2 weight percent N. Under acidic conditions, where the 1,10-phenanthroline ligand is protonated, this material was found to be an effective anion exchange material for transition metal anions like PdCl4-2 and H2VO4-1. 1,10-phenanthroline functionalized mesoporous carbon (“Phen-FMC”) was found to have a high affinity for Cu(II), even down to a pH of 1. At pHs above 5, Phen-FMC was found to bind a variety of transition metal cations (e.g. Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), etc.) from filtered ground water, river water and seawater. Phen-FMC displayed rapid sorption kinetics with Co(II) in filtered river water, reaching equilibrium in less than an hour, and easily lowering the [Co(II)] to sub-ppb levels. Phen-FMC was found to be more effective for transition metal ion capture than ion exchange resin or activated carbon.

  15. Magnetic field directional discontinuities - Characteristics between 0.46 and 1.0 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Behannon, K. W.

    1986-01-01

    Based on Mariner 10 data, a statistical survey and an application of the Sonnerup-Cahill variance procedure to a visual identification with 1.2-s averages for time intervals corresponding to the equally spaced heliocentric distances of 1.0, 0.72 and 0.46 AU, are employed to study the characteristics of directional discontinuities (DDs) in the interplanetary magnetic field. Analysis using two methods demonstrated that the ratio of tangential discontinuities (TDs) to rotational discontinuities (RDs) decreased with decreasing radial distance. Decreases in average discontinuity thickness of 41 percent between 1.0 and 0.72 AU, and 56 percent between 1.0 and 0.46 AU, were found for both TDs and RDs, in agreement with Pioneer 10 data between 1 and 5 AU. Normalization of the individual DD thicknesses with respect to the estimated local proton gyroradius (R sub L) gave a nearly constant average thickness at the three locations, 36 + or - 5 R sub L, for both RDs and TDs.

  16. Porcine dermal lesions produced by 1540-nm laser radiation pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, William P.; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2001-07-01

    Completion of recent studies within our group indicates a breed-based difference in dermal response to 1540 nm 0.8 millisecond laser pulses. Laser exposure to Yucatan Mini- Pigs (highly pigmented skin) and Yorkshire pigs (lightly pigmented skin) demonstrate statistical differences between the ED50's of the two breeds. Laser delivery is accomplished using an Er:Glass system producing 1540 nm of light at millisecond exposure times and in the range of 5 to 95 J/cm2. Dermal lesion development was evaluated for acute, 1 hour, and 24-hour post exposure presentation. Our data contradicts the theory that water absorption is the sole mechanism of dermal tissue damage observed from 1540 nm laser exposures, as skin chromophores appear to play a role in lesion development.

  17. Segmentation of the macular choroid in OCT images acquired at 830nm and 1060nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sieun; Beg, Mirza F.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2013-06-01

    Retinal imaging with optical coherence tomography (OCT) has rapidly advanced in ophthalmic applications with the broad availability of Fourier domain (FD) technology in commercial systems. The high sensitivity afforded by FD-OCT has enabled imaging of the choroid, a layer of blood vessels serving the outer retina. Improved visualization of the choroid and the choroid-sclera boundary has been investigated using techniques such as enhanced depth imaging (EDI), and also with OCT systems operating in the 1060-nm wavelength range. We report on a comparison of imaging the macular choroid with commercial and prototype OCT systems, and present automated 3D segmentation of the choroid-scleral layer using a graph cut algorithm. The thickness of the choroid is an important measurement to investigate for possible correlation with severity, or possibly early diagnosis, of diseases such as age-related macular degeneration.

  18. Coronal Diagnostics from Narrowband Images Around 30.4 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andretta, V.; Telloni, D.; Del Zanna, G.

    2012-07-01

    Images taken in the band centered at 30.4 nm are routinely used to map the radiance of the He ii Ly α line on the solar disk. That line is one of the strongest, if not the strongest, line in the EUV observed in the solar spectrum, and one of the few lines in that wavelength range providing information on the upper chromosphere or lower transition region. However, when observing the off-limb corona, the contribution from the nearby Si xi 30.3 nm line can become significant. In this work we aim at estimating the relative contribution of those two lines in the solar corona around the minimum of solar activity. We combine measurements from CDS taken in August 2008 with temperature and density profiles from semiempirical models of the corona to compute the radiances of the two lines, and of other representative coronal lines ( e.g. Mg x 62.5 nm, Si xii 52.1 nm). Considering both diagnosed quantities from line ratios (temperatures and densities) and line radiances in absolute units, we obtain a good overall match between observations and models. We find that the Si xi line dominates the He ii line from just above the limb up to ≈ 2 R ⊙ in streamers, while its contribution to narrowband imaging in the 30.4 nm band is expected to become smaller, even negligible in the corona beyond ≈ 2 - 3 R ⊙, the precise value being strongly dependent on the coronal temperature profile.

  19. Simultaneous triple 914 nm, 1084 nm, and 1086 nm operation of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Yanfei; Xia, Jing; Liu, Huilong; Pu, Xiaoyun

    2014-10-01

    We report a diode-pumped continuous-wave (cw) triple-wavelength Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 914, 1084, and 1086 nm. A theoretical analysis has been introduced to determine the threshold conditions for simultaneous triple-wavelength laser. Using a T-shaped cavity, we realized an efficient triple-wavelength operation at 4F3/2→4I9/2 and 4F3/2→4I11/2 transitions for Nd:YVO4 crystal, simultaneously. At an absorbed pump power of 16 W (or 25 W of incident pump power), the maximum output power was 2.3 W, which included 914 nm, 1084 nm, and 1086 nm three wavelengths, and the optical conversion efficiency with respect to the absorbed pump power was 14.4%.

  20. Microvessel reactivity changes in light-diode irradiation of blood (470 to 980 nm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrishchev, Nikolai N.; Yantareva, Ludmila I.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of distant light diode irradiation with various spectrums of the trunk vessels on reactivity of microvessels in the small intestine mesentery treated with threshold doses of norepinephrine (NoE) are compared. The character of changes in reactivity of microvessels to NoE was found to depend on the wave length and irradiation dose. Ultraviolet irradiation (470 nm, 0.03 J/sm2) was noticed to increase reactivity of the vessels to NoE (vasoconstriction increase). In green light irradiation (540 nm, 0.3 J/sm2 sm2) no changes in reactivity were observed. Red light irradiation (670 nm, 2.0 J/sm2), infrared particular (980 nm, 1.0 J/sm2), lowered reactivity to NoE. Thus, noninvasive light-diode irradiation of the blood results in different systemic changes of endothelial dependent reactivity of microcirculation due to specify of photochemical processes involved.

  1. Comparison of modeled NmE with NmE measured by the Boulder ionosonde near the spring equinox.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, Anatoli; Pavlova, Nadezhda

    We present a comparison of the E-layer peak electron number densities, NmE, measured by the Boulder ionosonde during geomagnetically quiet conditions on 10 April 1996 at low solar activity, 2 April 1993 and 9 April 1978 during moderate solar activity conditions, and 10 April 1991 at high solar activity with numerical theoretical model calculations of NmE. Based on this comparison, the modified EUVAC model solar flux is necessary to increase by a factor of 2 at moderate and high solar activity in the wavelength range of 3.2-7.0 nm. If O (+) ( (4) S), O (+) ( (2) D), O (+) ( (2) P), and N (+) ions are not calculated, the value of NmE is decreased up to a factor of 1.12 at solar minimum and up to a factor of 1.23 for the moderate and high solar activity conditions. The production of N _{2} (+) ions by photoelectron-impact ionization of N _{2} increases the value of NmE up to a factor of 1.18 at low solar activity and up to a factor of 1.33 for the moderate and high solar activity levels. The increase in NmE due to the production of O _{2} (+) ions by photoelectron-impact ionization of O _{2} does not exceed 4 percent. A difference between the calculated electron, T _{e}, and neutral, T _{n}, temperatures is less than 1, 4, 20, 70, and 145 K at 105, 110, 120, 130, and 140 km altitude, respectively. Changes in NmE caused by this difference between T _{e} and T _{n} are negligible.

  2. Sub-10 nm nanopantography

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Siyuan Donnelly, Vincent M. E-mail: economou@uh.edu; Economou, Demetre J. E-mail: economou@uh.edu; Ruchhoeft, Paul

    2015-11-09

    Nanopantography, a massively parallel nanopatterning method over large areas, was previously shown to be capable of printing 10 nm features in silicon, using an array of 1000 nm-diameter electrostatic lenses, fabricated on the substrate, to focus beamlets of a broad area ion beam on selected regions of the substrate. In the present study, using lens dimensional scaling optimized by computer simulation, and reduction in the ion beam image size and energy dispersion, the resolution of nanopantography was dramatically improved, allowing features as small as 3 nm to be etched into Si.

  3. CMOS downsizing toward sub-10 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, Hiroshi

    2004-04-01

    Recently, CMOS downsizing has been accelerated very aggressively in both production and research level, and even transistor operation of a 6 nm gate length p-channel MOSFET was reported in a conference. However, many serious problems are expected for implementing such small-geometry MOSFETs into large scale integrated circuits, and it is still questionable whether we can successfully introduce sub-10 nm CMOS LSIs into the market or not. In this paper, limitation and its possible causes for the downscaling of CMOS towards sub-10 nm are discussed with consideration of past CMOS predictions for the limitation.

  4. Fabrication of 10nm diameter carbon nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Radenovic, Aleksandra; Trepagnier, Eliane; Csencsits, Roseann; Downing, Kenneth H; Liphardt, Jan

    2008-09-25

    The addition of carbon to samples, during imaging, presents a barrier to accurate TEM analysis, the controlled deposition of hydrocarbons by a focused electron beam can be a useful technique for local nanometer-scale sculpting of material. Here we use hydrocarbon deposition to form nanopores from larger focused ion beam (FIB) holes in silicon nitride membranes. Using this method, we close 100-200nm diameter holes to diameters of 10nm and below, with deposition rates of 0.6nm per minute. I-V characteristics of electrolytic flow through these nanopores agree quantitatively with a one dimensional model at all examined salt concentrations.

  5. Laser Damage Growth in Fused Silica with Simultaneous 351 nm and 1053 nm irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, M A; Carr, A V; Carr, C W; Donohue, E E; Feit, M D; Hollingsworth, W G; Liao, Z; Negres, R A; Rubenchik, A M; Wegner, P J

    2008-10-24

    Laser-induced growth of optical damage often determines the useful lifetime of an optic in a high power laser system. We have extended our previous work on growth of laser damage in fused silica with simultaneous 351 nm and 1053 nm laser irradiation by measuring the threshold for growth with various ratios of 351 nm and 1053 nm fluence. Previously we reported that when growth occurs, the growth rate is determined by the total fluence. We now find that the threshold for growth is dependent on both the magnitude of the 351 nm fluence as well as the ratio of the 351 nm fluence to the 1053 nm fluence. Furthermore, the data suggests that under certain conditions the 1053 nm fluence does not contribute to the growth.

  6. Update on CRUST1.0 - A 1-degree Global Model of Earth's Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laske, Gabi; Masters, Guy; Ma, Zhitu; Pasyanos, Mike

    2013-04-01

    Our new 1-by-1 degree global crustal model, CRUST1.0, was introduced last year and serves as starting model in a comprehensive effort to compile a global model of Earth's crust and lithosphere, LITHO1.0 (Pasyanos et al., 2012). The Moho depth in CRUST1.0 is based on 1-degree averages of a recently updated database of crustal thickness data from active source seismic studies as well as from receiver function studies. In areas where such constraints are still missing, for example in Antarctica, crustal thicknesses are estimated using gravity constraints. The compilation of the new crustal model initially followed the philosophy of the widely used crustal model CRUST2.0 (Bassin et al., 2000; http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~gabi/crust2.html) to assign elastic properties in the crystalline crust according to basement age or tectonic setting (loosely following an updated map by Artemieva and Mooney (2001; http://www.lithosphere.info). For cells with no local seismic or gravity constraints, statistical averages of crustal properties, including crustal thickness, were extrapolated. However, in places with constraints the depth to basement and mantle are given explicitly and no longer assigned by crustal type. This allows for much smaller errors in both. In each 1-degree cell, boundary depth, compressional and shear velocity as well as density is given for 8 layers: water, ice, 3 sediment layers and upper, middle and lower crystalline crust. Topography, bathymetry and ice cover are taken from ETOPO1. The sediment cover is based on our sediment model (Laske and Masters, 1997; http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~sediment.html), with some near-coastal updates. In an initial step toward LITHO1.0, the model is then validated against new global surface wave disperison maps and adjusted in areas of extreme misfit. This poster presents the next validation step: compare the new Moho depths with in-situ active source and receiver function results. We also present comparisons with CRUST2.0. CRUST1.0 is available for download. References: Pasyanos, M.E., Masters, G., Laske, G. and Ma, Z., LITHO1.0 - An Updated Crust and Lithospheric Model of the Earth Developed Using Multiple Data Constraints, Abstract T11D-09 presented at 2012 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, Calif., 3-7 Dec, 2012. Artemieva, I.M. and Mooney, W.D., Thermal thickness and evolution of Precambrian lithosphere: A global study, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 16,387-16,414, 2001. Bassin, C., Laske, G. and Masters, G., The Current Limits of Resolution for Surface Wave Tomography in North America, EOS Trans AGU, 81, F897, 2000. Laske, G. and Masters, G., A Global Digital Map of Sediment Thickness, EOS Trans. AGU, 78, F483, 1997. URL: http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~gabi/crust1.html

  7. Insights into tidal disruption of stars from PS1-10jh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strubbe, Linda E.; Murray, Norman

    2015-12-01

    Was PS1-10jh, an optical/ultraviolet transient discovered by the Pan-STARRS Medium Deep Survey, the tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole (BH)? We address two aspects of the problem: the composition of the putative disrupted object (using the spectroscopic data), and the energetics of the observed gas and radiation (using the photometric data). We perform photoionization calculations and compare with the observed lower limit of the line ratio L_{He II 4686}/L_{Hα }>5 to argue that this event was not the disruption of a solar-type star, and instead was likely the disruption of a helium core (as first proposed by Gezari et al.). Disruption of such a dense object requires a relatively small central BH, MBH ≲ 2 × 105 M⊙. We use the photometric data to infer that PS1-10jh comprised an outflow of ˜0.01 M⊙ of gas, escaping from the BH at ˜1000 km s-1, and we propose that this outflow was driven primarily by radiation pressure trapped by Thomson and resonance line scattering. The large ratio of radiated energy to kinetic energy, Erad/EK ˜ 104, together with the large value of Erad ˜ 2 × 1051 erg, suggests that the outflow was shocked at large radius (perhaps similar to superluminous supernovae or the internal shock model for gamma-ray bursts). We describe puzzles in the physics of PS1-10jh, and discuss how this event may help us understand future tidal disruptions and super-Eddington accretion events as well.

  8. Generation of Thermospheric OI 845 nm Emission by Bowen Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huestis, D. L.; Sharpee, B. D.; Cosby, P. C.; Slanger, T. G.

    2006-12-01

    777 and 845 nm emissions from the 3p-3s multiplets of atomic oxygen are commonly observed at non-auroral latitudes in the terrestrial nightglow. By studying the relative strengths of these emissions we can learn something about the mechanisms that produce them and what they can teach us about the atmosphere. Recently [1] we have used intensity-calibrated sky spectra from the Keck telescopes to investigate the relative strengths of a wide range of O-atom Rydberg lines and have confirmed that electron-ion radiative recombination is a primary source of excitation for both the triplet and quintet systems. Following the intensity of the 777 and 845 nm lines during the night, we find that for most of the night the quintet 777 nm line is consistently stronger than the triplet 845 nm line, with a nearly constant intensity ratio I(777)/I(845) near 2.3, although both intensities fall rapidly as the night progresses. However, late in the night the 845 nm intensity levels off, while the 777 nm intensity continues to fall, and the I(777)/I(845) ratio plunges by a factor of 5-10. We interpret these observations as indicating that the O-atom quintet states are still being excited by the same mechanism as earlier in the night, i.e. radiative recombination, but some triplet states are also being excited by an additional mechanism. Such a mechanism has been proposed before [2-6] but not previously observed directly in the terrestrial nightglow. The oxygen triplet 3d-2p transition at 102.576 nm is in close coincidence with the solar hydrogen Lyman-β line at 102.572 nm. Radiative transport in the hydrogen geocorona will deliver Lyman-β intensity into the Earth's shadow and will produce triplet O(3d 3D) high in the atmosphere, even prior to direct solar illumination. The result is observable in a radiative cascade sequence 3d-3p(1129 nm) → 3p- 3s(845 nm) → 3s-2p(130 nm). A similar effect is observed in the H-α emission, which is also excited by Lyman-β absorption. This process

  9. 1 W of 261 nm cw generation in a Pr 3+:LiYF 4 laser pumped by an optically pumped semiconductor laser at 479 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostroumov, Vasiliy; Seelert, Wolf

    2008-02-01

    The lack of blue pump sources for Pr-doped materials has been overcome with the recent progress in optically pumped semiconductor lasers (OPS) operating at 479 nm. The availability of reliable high power OPS pump lasers, makes Pr 3+-doped crystals ideal gain media for compact and efficient ultraviolet solid-state lasers with output power in the Watt range. We report on the scalability of a 522/261 nm Pr:YLF cw laser that is dual-end-pumped by two OPS lasers at 479 nm. At 9.6 W of incident pump power more than 4 W were obtained at 522 nm with a slope efficiency of 45%. Intracavity frequency doubling of 522 nm resulted in 1 Watt of cw UV output at 261 nm.

  10. Sub-Doppler Stark Spectroscopy in the A−X (1,0) Band of CN

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, G.E.; Hause, M.L.; Sears, T.J.

    2009-11-26

    The effect of external electric fields has been measured in hyperfine-resolved sub-Doppler transitions in the A {sup 2}{Pi}-X {sup 2}{Sigma} (1,0) band of the CN radical near 10900 cm{sup -1}. Static electric fields less than 1 kV/cm are sufficient to mix the most closely spaced {Lambda}-dpublets in the A state, leading to Stark spectra with both new and shifted resonances. Simulations of the saturation-dip Stark spectral line profiles allow extraction of the A-state permanent electric dipole moment with a magnitude of 0.06 {+-} 0.02 D.

  11. Measurement of velocity deficit at the downstream of a 1:10 axial hydrokinetic turbine model

    SciTech Connect

    Gunawan, Budi; Neary, Vincent S; Hill, Craig; Chamorro, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Wake recovery constrains the downstream spacing and density of turbines that can be deployed in turbine farms and limits the amount of energy that can be produced at a hydrokinetic energy site. This study investigates the wake recovery at the downstream of a 1:10 axial flow turbine model using a pulse-to-pulse coherent Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP). In addition, turbine inflow and outflow velocities were measured for calculating the thrust on the turbine. The result shows that the depth-averaged longitudinal velocity recovers to 97% of the inflow velocity at 35 turbine diameter (D) downstream of the turbine.

  12. Observation of J = 1-0 emission from H/N-15/C. [in radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. D.; Godfrey, P. D.; Gunn, H. I.; Blackman, G. L.; Storey, J. W. V.

    1977-01-01

    Emission from the J = 1-0 transition of H(N-15)C has been detected in the direction of DR21(OH). The transition frequency of 88,865.69 MHz was measured in the laboratory by microwave absorption spectroscopy. The computed N-15/C-13 isotopic abundance ratio of 1.01 for DR21(OH) is larger than those calculated from isotopes of HCN in other interstellar clouds, perhaps implying a localized enrichment in N-15 in DR21(OH).

  13. Data appendix: F-number=1.0 EMR with a flexible back electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihora, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    A 12.5 micron Tedlar low f-number electrostatic membrane reflector was tested. The antenna reflector was designed to achieve a spherical reflector surface with a focal length to diameter ratio f(sub n) of one and a potential accuracy of 1.0 over its 4.88 m diameter. The configuration required the cutting and joining of twelve pie-shaped panels to form the reflector surface. Electrostatic forces are used to tension this preformed membrane reflector. The test data is spare-only three sets of measurements were taken due to lack of funds.

  14. [1,10-phenantroline europium complexes: their inclusion in liposomes and cytotoxicity].

    PubMed

    Boldyrev, I A; Gaenko, G P; Moiseeva, E V; Deligeorgiev, T; Kaloianova, S; Lesev, N; Vasilev, A; Molotkovskiĭ, Iu G

    2011-01-01

    For a series of 1,10-phenantroline tris-beta-diketonate europium complexes (EuC), cytotoxic activity on the HBL-100 human breast carcinoma cells was determined. Liposomal preparation of the most active EuC, V12, was also tested for cytotoxicity. Testing of this preparation in vivo on starting lethal murine model of T cell leukemic lymphoma ASF-LL showed that the inclusion of V12 in liposomes did not increase its antitumour activity in a local mode of administration. PMID:21899057

  15. A miniature Rotary Compressor with a 1:10 compression ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Olly; Tabota, Eugene; Arbon EurIng, Ian; FIMechE, CEng

    2015-08-01

    Micro compressors have applications in medical devices, robotics and “nanosatellites”. The problem of active cooling for photo detectors in “nano-satellites” becomes more important because the majority of space missions target Earth observation, and passive cooling does not provide the required temperatures to achieve the desired SNR levels. Reciprocating compressors used in cryocoolers cause vibrations. VERT Rotors has built an ultralow-vibration rotary compressor with 40mm-long screws, and our prototype delivered 1:10 compression ratio. This “nano” compressor is a non-conventional conical type consisting of an Inner conical screw rotor revolving inside an Outer screw rotor.

  16. The SeaFlux Turbulent Flux Dataset Version 1.0 Documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayson, Carol Anne; Roberts, J. Brent; Bogdanoff, Alec S.

    2012-01-01

    Under the auspices of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Global Energy and Water cycle EXperiment (GEWEX) Data and Assessment Panel (GDAP), the SeaFlux Project was created to investigate producing a high-resolution satellite-based dataset of surface turbulent fluxes over the global oceans. The most current release of the SeaFlux product is Version 1.0; this represents the initial release of turbulent surface heat fluxes, associated near-surface variables including a diurnally varying sea surface temperature.

  17. Evolution of the fraction of clumpy galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0 in the cosmos field

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, K. L.; Kajisawa, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Kobayashi, M. A. R.; Shioya, Y.; Capak, P.; Ilbert, O.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Salvato, M.; Scoville, N. Z.

    2014-05-01

    Using the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys data in the COSMOS field, we systematically searched clumpy galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0 and investigated the fraction of clumpy galaxies and its evolution as a function of stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), and specific SFR (SSFR). The fraction of clumpy galaxies in star-forming galaxies with M {sub star} > 10{sup 9.5} M {sub ☉} decreases with time from ∼0.35 at 0.8 < z < 1.0 to ∼0.05 at 0.2 < z < 0.4, irrespective of the stellar mass, although the fraction tends to be slightly lower for massive galaxies with M {sub star} > 10{sup 10.5} M {sub ☉} at each redshift. On the other hand, the fraction of clumpy galaxies increases with increasing both SFR and SSFR in all the redshift ranges we investigated. In particular, we found that the SSFR dependences of the fractions are similar among galaxies with different stellar masses, and the fraction at a given SSFR does not depend on the stellar mass in each redshift bin. The evolution of the fraction of clumpy galaxies from z ∼ 0.9 to z ∼ 0.3 seems to be explained by such SSFR dependence of the fraction and the evolution of SSFRs of star-forming galaxies. The fraction at a given SSFR also appears to decrease with time, but this can be due to the effect of the morphological k correction. We suggest that these results are understood by the gravitational fragmentation model for the formation of giant clumps in disk galaxies, where the gas mass fraction is a crucial parameter.

  18. 308nm excimer laser in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Mehraban, Shadi; Feily, Amir

    2014-01-01

    308nm xenon-chloride excimer laser, a novel mode of phototherapy, is an ultraviolet B radiation system consisting of a noble gas and halide. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the literature and summarize all the experiments, clinical trials and case reports on 308-nm excimer laser in dermatological disorders. 308-nm excimer laser has currently a verified efficacy in treating skin conditions such as vitiligo, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, alopecia areata, allergic rhinitis, folliculitis, granuloma annulare, lichen planus, mycosis fungoides, palmoplantar pustulosis, pityriasis alba, CD30+ lympho proliferative disorder, leukoderma, prurigo nodularis, localized scleroderma and genital lichen sclerosus. Although the 308-nm excimer laser appears to act as a promising treatment modality in dermatology, further large-scale studies should be undertaken in order to fully affirm its safety profile considering the potential risk, however minimal, of malignancy, it may impose. PMID:25606333

  19. Scattering matrices of martian dust analogs at 488 nm and 647 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowska, Dominika D.; Muñoz, Olga; Moreno, Fernando; Ramos, José L.; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Wurm, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    We present measurements of the complete scattering matrix as a function of the scattering angle of five martian dust analogs, namely montmorillonite, two palagonite (JSC-1) samples, basalt, and calcite. The measurements are performed at 488 and 647 nm, covering the scattering angle range from 3° to 177°. The experimental scattering matrices are compared with results of Lorenz-Mie calculations performed for the same size distributions and refractive indices as our analog samples. As expected, we find that scattering matrices of realistic polydispersions of dust particles cannot be replaced by such calculated matrices. In contrast, the measured phase functions for our martian dust analogs may be considered a good approximation for martian dust at the studied wavelengths. Further, because of the sensitivity of polarimetry to particle microphysics, spectro-polarimetric observations from the martian surface appear to be a powerful diagnostic tool to infer the composition of the dust in the martian atmosphere. To facilitate the use of the experimental matrices for multiple-scattering calculations with polarization included, we compute the corresponding synthetic scattering matrices based on the measurements and defined in the full angle range from 0° to 180°.

  20. Sequence characterization of river buffalo Toll-like receptor genes 1-10 reveals distinct relationship with cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Dubey, P K; Goyal, S; Kathiravan, P; Mishra, B P; Gahlawat, S K; Kataria, R S

    2013-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to characterize the full-length transcripts of Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes 1-10 of river buffalo. The conceptualized amino acid identity of bubaline TLRs ranged between 86% to 100% with ruminants, while it ranged between 45% to 91% with other vertebrate species. Simple modular architecture tool (SMART) analysis revealed the presence of TIR domains and varying numbers of leucine-rich repeat motifs in all the buffalo TLRs. With respect to TIR domains, TLRs 1, 2 and 3 of river buffalo were found to have 99.3% identity with cattle and 100% identity of TLRs 4, 6 and 10 with sheep. Phylogenetic analysis of TLRs of buffalo and different vertebrate species revealed the clustering of major TLR gene subfamilies with high bootstrap values. The evolutionary relationship between buffalo and other ruminant species was found to vary among different TLRs. In order to understand the relationship between TLRs of different ruminant species, multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis of pairwise amino acid differences between different species within each TLR was performed. Buffalo and cattle were found to be closely related only with respect to TLRs 1, 2 and 7, while buffalo and sheep were found to be clustering together with respect to TLRs 3, 6, 8 and 10. The distinct relationship of bubaline TLRs with cattle and sheep revealed the possible differences in the pathogen recognition receptor systems in these animals and consequently the differences in their susceptibility/resistance to various invading organisms. PMID:22694123

  1. Geoacoustic inversion techniques (GAIT) Version 1.0 global search (GS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Peter; Muncill, Gregory

    2003-04-01

    Geoacoustic Inversion Techniques (GAIT) Version 1.0 is a PEO (C4I and Space) PMW 155 funded product that accepts measured acoustic data and produces an optimized estimate of the bottom environment that produced the observed acoustic data. The Global Search (GS) segment of GAIT pairs the Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) algorithm with a variety of Navy standard propagation loss models (PE, ASTRAL and Nautilus) and an active sonar performance prediction model (ASPM). The goal of the GS segment of GAIT is to provide a best estimate of the geoacoustic properties of the ocean bottom that, when paired with a selected model, result in the observed acoustic data. An overview of the GS segment of GAIT 1.0 will be presented with details on the ASA algorithm, component models, cost functions and geoacoustic parametrizations. Inversion results will be shown for synthetic test cases from the Inversion Technique Workshop (ITW) held in May 2001 and from both narrowband and broadband measured data test cases. [Work supported by PEO (C4I and Space) PMW 155 and uses the products of a Phase I and II SBIR from the ONR (Code 321US).

  2. Opioid-like properties of seven dynorphin (1-10) analogs.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, A; Muller, J; Kadambi, S R; Chang, J K; Lee, N M; Way, E L

    1984-12-01

    In order to disassociate the k action of dynorphin from its other actions, seven analogs were synthesized and evaluated for pharmacologic activity in comparison with dynorphin (1-13) and dynorphin amide (1-10). Dynorphin (1-10) was modified by protecting the terminal carboxy group, incorporating thioproline at position 10 and substituting methionine for leucine at position 5. All analogs exhibited the ability to inhibit electrically-induced twitches of the guinea pig ileum and mouse vas deferens in a manner that was dose dependent and naloxone reversible. The decapeptide terminating with a pyrrolidine group showed the highest potency in the ilea and mouse vas deferens. None of the analogs showed analgetic activity by the mouse tail flick test. Binding studies using mouse brain synaptosomes showed that all seven analogs can displace the binding of tritiated dihydromorphine (DHM), ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) and D-Ala-D-Leucine enkephalin (DADL). The alterations in chemical structure affected affinity of the analogs to the opiate receptor and their pharmacologic properties differently, suggesting that different opiate subtypes may be involved. PMID:6152318

  3. Design and performance of a 4He-evaporator at <1.0 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, N. K.; Pradhan, J.; Naser, Md. Z. A.; Roy, A.; Mandal, B. Ch.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2012-12-01

    A helium evaporator for obtaining 1 K temperature has been built and tested in laboratory. This will function primarily as the precooling stage for the circulating helium isotopic gas mixture. This works on evaporative cooling by way of pumping out the vapour from the top of the pot. A precision needle valve is used initially to fill up the pot and subsequently a permanent flow impedance maintains the helium flow from the bath into the pot to replenish the evaporative loss of helium. Considering the cooling power of 10 mW @1.0 K, a 99.0 cm3 helium evaporator was designed, fabricated from OFE copper and tested in the laboratory. A pumping station comprising of a roots pump backed by a dry pump was used for evacuation. The calibrated RuO thermometer and kapton film heater were used for measuring the temperature and cooling power of the system respectively. The continuously filled 1 K bath is tested in the laboratory and found to offer a temperature less than 1.0 K by withdrawing vapour from the evaporator. In order to minimize the heat load and to prevent film creep across the pumping tube, size optimization of the pumping line and pump-out port has been performed. The results of test run along with relevant analysis, mechanical fabrication of flow impedance are presented here.

  4. Intrinsic Properties of Fe-Substituted L1(0) Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Manchanda, P; Kumar, P; Kashyap, A; Lucis, MJ; Shield, JE; Mubarok, A; Goldstein, JI; Constantinides, S; Barmak, K; Lewis, LH; Sellmyer, DJ; Skomski, R

    2013-10-01

    First-principle supercell calculations are used to determine how 3d elemental additions, especially Fe additions, modify the magnetization, exchange and anisotropy of L1(0)-ordered ferromagnets. Calculations are performed using the VASP code and partially involve configurational averaging over site disorder. Three isostructural systems are investigated: Fe-Co-Pt, Mn-Al-Fe, and transition metal-doped Fe-Ni. In all three systems the iron strongly influences the magnetic properties of these compounds, but the specific effect depends on the host. In CoPt(Fe) iron enhances the magnetization, with subtle changes in the magnetic moments that depend on the distribution of the Fe and Co atoms. The addition of Fe to MnAl is detrimental to the magnetization, because it creates antiferromagnetic exchange interactions, but it enhances the magnetic anisotropy. The replacement of 50% of Mn by Fe in MnFeAl2 enhances the anisotropy from 1.77 to 2.5 MJ/m(3). Further, the substitution of light 3d elements such as Ti, V, Cr into L1(0)-ordered FeNi is shown to substantially reduce the magnetization.

  5. A Primary Dead-Weight Tester for Pressures (0.05–1.0) MPa

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Kamlesh; Bowers, Walt; Schmidt, James W.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in technology on two fronts, 1) the fabrication of large-diameter pistons and cylinders with good geometry, and 2) the ability to measure the dimensions of these components with high accuracy, have allowed dead-weight testers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to generate pressures that approach total relative uncertainties previously obtained only by manometers. This paper describes a 35 mm diameter piston/cylinder assembly (known within NIST as PG-39) that serves as a pressure standard in which both the piston and the cylinder have been accurately dimensioned by Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Both artifacts (piston and cylinder) appeared to be round within ±30 nm and straight within ±100 nm over a substantial fraction of their heights. Based on the diameters at 20 °C provided by PTB (±15 nm) and on the good geometry of the artifact, the relative uncertainties for the effective area were estimated to be about 2.2 × 10−6 (1σ).

  6. Flat Supercontinuum Generation at 1550 nm in a Dispersion-Flattened Microstructure Fibre Using Picosecond Pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yong-Zhao; Ren, Xiao-Min; Wang, Zi-Nan; Zhang, Xia; Huang, Yong-Qing

    2007-03-01

    The generation of a flat supercontinuum of over 80 nm in the 1550 nm region by injecting 1.6 ps 10 GHz repetition rate optical pulses into an 80-m-long dispersion-flattened microstructure fibre is demonstrated. The fibre has small normal dispersion with a variation smaller than 1.5 (ps.nm-1.km-1) between 1500 and 1650 nm. The generated supercontinuum ranging from 1513 to 1591 nm has the flatness of +/-1.5 dB and it is not so flat in the range of several nanometres around the pump wavelength 1552 nm. Numerical simulation is also used to study the effect of optical loss, fibre parameters and pumping conditions on supercontinuum generation in the dispersion-flattened microstructure fibre, and can be used for further optimization to generate flat broad spectra.

  7. Versatile 1 W narrow band 976 nm and 1064 nm light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrdiek, S.; Pfeiffer, H.-U.; Zibik, E. A.; Sverdlov, B.; Pliska, T.; Lichtenstein, N.

    2011-02-01

    We report on development of novel curved waveguide (CWG) laser devices, where the emission wavelength centered at ~976 nm is stabilized to a 20 dB bandwidth of less than 100 picometer by using fiber Bragg gratings (FBG). Radiation from the curved waveguide laser is coupled using an anamorphic fiber lens into a single mode polarization maintaining fiber containing the FBG, the latter acting as a front reflector. The high power gain chip is based on Oclaro's InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum well laser. Use of the curved waveguide geometry allows to eliminate residual reflections in the optical path of the cavity, which is formed by the rear chip facet and the FBG. It is well known that additional reflections lead to significant deterioration of the spectral and power stability. The devices, assembled in telecom type housings, provide up to 1 W of low-noise and kink-free CW power. In addition pulse operation in nanosecond range is also investigated. The spectral stabilization time to the wavelength of the FBG is limited by the external cavity roundtrip of ~2 ns. A side mode suppression ratio of about 40 dB and higher is achieved for pulsed and CW operation. Results are also presented for a device at 1064 nm. Numerous applications can be envisioned for these devices. For instance devices with high power and ultranarrow spectral bandwidth allow greater flexibility in the choice of parameters for frequency conversion applications. In pulsed mode the device can be used in the special sensing applications where spectral stability is crucial.

  8. The Double-ended 750 nm and 532 nm Laser Output from PPLN-FWM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Li, Yu-Xiang; Yao, Jian-Quan; Guo, Ling; Wang, Zhuo; Han, Sha-Sha; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Zhong, Kai

    2013-06-01

    We investigate 750 nm and 532 nm dual-wavelength laser for applications in the internet of things. A kind of optical maser is developed, in which the semiconductor module outputs the 808 nm pump light and then it goes into a double-clad Nd3+ :YAG monocrystal optical fiber through the intermediate coupler and forms a 1064 nm laser. The laser outputs come from both left and right terminals. In the right branch, the laser goes into the right cycle polarization LinNbO3 (PPLN) crystal through the right coupler, produces the optical parametric oscillation and forms the signal light λ1 (1500 nm), the idle frequency light λ2 (3660.55 nm), and the second-harmonic of the signal light λ3 (750 nm). These three kinds of light and the pump light λ4 together form the frequency matching and the quasi-phase matching, then the four-wave mixing occurs to create the high-gain light at wavelength 750 nm. Meanwhile, in the left branch, the laser goes into the left PPLN crystal through the left coupler, engenders frequency doubling and forms the light at wavelength 532 nm. That is to say, the optical maser provides 750 nm and 532 nm dual-wavelength laser outputting from two terminals, which is workable.

  9. Electronic and photophysical properties of platinum(II) biphenyl complexes containing 2,2'-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline ligands.

    PubMed

    Rillema, D Paul; Cruz, Arvin J; Moore, Curtis; Siam, Khamis; Jehan, A; Base, Derek; Nguyen, T; Huang, Wei

    2013-01-18

    Pt(bph)(bpy) and Pt(bph)(phen), where bph is the 2,2'-biphenyl dianion, bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, and phen is 1,10-phenanthroline, crystallize in the space groups I4(1)/a and P2(1)/c, respectively, in two different configurations as X-shaped and bowed (B). The distance between Pt centers is 3.5 Å indicative of π-π stacking. The complexes are optically active, absorb light at 440 nm, and emit in the solid state at room temperature and in the solid glass phase at 77 K. The emission maxima for both in the glass occur near 581 nm but are red-shifted to ∼700 nm in the solid state. Both complexes exhibit solvatochromism in nitrile-based solvents with the Pt(bph)(phen) complex showing greater excited state dipole character compared to the Pt(bph)(bpy) derivative. Frontier orbitals for the HOMO determined by DFT calculations contain electronic contributions from the biphenyl ligand and the platinum center. The LUMO orbitals primarily reside on the diimine ligands. TDDFT calculations indicate the low-energy transitions occur from the metal/bph combination to the diimine ligand. PMID:23270541

  10. 2 nm continuously tunable 488nm micro-integrated diode-laser-based SHG light source for Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braune, M.; Maiwald, M.; Sumpf, B.; Tränkle, G.

    2016-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy in the visible spectral range is of great interest due to resonant Raman effects. Nevertheless, fluorescence and ambient light can mask the weak Raman lines. Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy is a demonstrated tool to overcome this drawback. To apply this method, a light source with two alternating wavelengths is necessary. The spectral distance between these two wavelengths has to be adapted to the width of the Raman signal. According to the sample under investigation the width of the Raman signal could be in the range of 3 cm-1 - 12 cm-1. In this work, a micro-integrated light source emitting at 488 nm with a continuous wavelength tuning range up to 2 nm (83 cm-1) is presented. The pump source, a DFB laser emitting at 976 nm, and a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) ridge waveguide crystal is used for the second harmonic generation (SHG). Both components are mounted on a μ-Peltier-element for temperature control. Here, a common wavelength tuning of the pump wavelength and the acceptance bandwidth of the SHG crystal via temperature is achieved. With the results the light source is suitable for portable Raman and SERDS experiments with a flexible spectral distance between both excitation wavelengths for SERDS with respect to the sample under investigation.

  11. Imaging challenges in 20nm and 14nm logic nodes: hot spots performance in Metal1 layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoshkov, V.; Rio, D.; Liu, H.; Gillijns, W.; Wang, J.; Wong, P.; Van Den Heuvel, D.; Wiaux, V.; Nikolsky, P.; Finders, J.

    2013-10-01

    The 20nm Metal1 layer, based on ARM standard cells, has a 2D design with minimum pitch of 64nm. This 2D design requires a Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch (LELE) double patterning. The whole design is divided in 2 splits: Me1A and Me1B. But solution of splitting conflicts needs stitching at some locations, what requires good Critical Dimension (CD) and overlay control to provide reliable contact between 2 stitched line ends. ASML Immersion NXT tools are aimed at 20 and 14nm logic production nodes. Focus control requirements become tighter, as existing 20nm production logic layouts, based on ARM, have about 50-60nm focus latitude and tight CD Uniformity (CDU) specifications, especially for line ends. IMEC inspected 20nm production Metal1 ARM standard cells with a Negative Tone Development (NTD) process using the Process Window Qualification-like technique experimentally and by Brion Tachyon LMC by simulations. Stronger defects were found thru process variations. A calibrated Tachyon model proved a good overall predictability capability for this process. Selected defects are likely to be transferred to hard mask during etch. Further, CDU inspection was performed for these critical features. Hot spots showed worse CD uniformity than specifications. Intra-field CDU contribution is significant in overall CDU budget, where reticle has major impact due to high MEEF of hot spots. Tip-to-Tip and tip-to-line hot spots have high MEEF and its variation over the field. Best focus variation range was determined by best focus offsets between hot spots and its variation within the field.

  12. Observation of Quiet Limb in He I 1083.0 nm, H Paschen alpha1281.8 nm and H Brackett gamma 2166.1 nm lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Choudhary, Debi

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we shall present the results of an observational study of the quiet solar limb in the near infrared lines using the New IR Array Camera (NAC) and the vertical spectrograph at the focal plane of McMath-Pierce telescope. The NAC, at the exit port of the spectrograph, was used to record the limb spectrum in HeI 1083.0 nm, Hydrogen Paschen 1281.8 nm and Brackett 2165.5 nm wavelength regions. The NAC is a 1024x1024 InSb Alladin III Detector operating over 1-5 micron range with high density sampling at 0.018 arc second/pixel. The all-reflective optical train minimizes number of surfaces and eliminates ghosts leading to low scatter, ghost-free optics. The close-cycle cryogenic provides a stable cooling environment over six hour period with an accuracy of 0.01K leading to low dark current. The low read out noise combined with low scattered light and dark current makes NAC an ideal detector for making high quality infrared spectral observations of solar limb. The limb spectrums were obtained by placing the spectrograph slit perpendicular to the limb at an interval of 10 degrees around the solar disk. We shall report the intensity profile, line-of-sight velocity and line width distribution around the sun derived from the spectra along the slit.

  13. Simulating supersymmetry with ISAJET 7.0/ISASUSY 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, H.; Paige, F. E.; Protopopescu, S. D.; Tata, X.

    1993-04-01

    This document reviews the physics assumptions and input embedded in ISAJET 7.0/ISASUSY 1.0 which is relevant for simulating fundamental processes within the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Model (MSSM) at p(bar p) and pp colliders. After a brief discussion of the underlying MSSM framework, the authors discuss event simulation and list the particle production processes and decay modes that have been incorporated into the calculations. They then describe how to set up and run an ISAJET/ISASUSY job, as well as the user input and output formats. The ISAJET program is sufficiently flexible that some non-miminal supersymmetry scenarios may be simulated as well. Finally, plans for future upgrades which include the extension to e(sup +)e(sup -) collisions are listed.

  14. Design document for the Surface Currents Data Base (SCDB) Management System (SCDBMS), version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisnnamagaru, Ramesh; Cesario, Cheryl; Foster, M. S.; Das, Vishnumohan

    1994-01-01

    The Surface Currents Database Management System (SCDBMS) provides access to the Surface Currents Data Base (SCDB) which is maintained by the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO). The SCDBMS incorporates database technology in providing seamless access to surface current data. The SCDBMS is an interactive software application with a graphical user interface (GUI) that supports user control of SCDBMS functional capabilities. The purpose of this document is to define and describe the structural framework and logistical design of the software components/units which are integrated into the major computer software configuration item (CSCI) identified as the SCDBMS, Version 1.0. The preliminary design is based on functional specifications and requirements identified in the governing Statement of Work prepared by the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) and distributed as a request for proposal by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  15. LANDSAT multispectral scanner computer-compatible tape format, version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Unlike previous LANDSAT computer compatible tape (CCT) formats, the standard format of CCT's now includes a comprehensive field location and data description information superstructure composed of four records. The volume descriptor record, the text record, and the file pointer record reside in a volume directory file, which generally describes the data configuration and provides pointers to each data file. The file descriptor record for each data file describes the data structure within the file and provides pointers to certain fields within the file. These superstructure records primarily supply information about the data on the CCT as opposed to carrying the data themselves. The EROS Data Center's LANDSAT CCT version 1.0 product is presented which conforms to the concepts of the standard format as much as is possible with existing EDC systems.

  16. Detection of CO (J=1-0) in the dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 185

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiklind, Tommy; Rydbeck, Gustaf

    1987-01-01

    The detection of CO (J = 1-0) emission in the dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 185 is reported. The presence of massive molecular clouds in this early-type galaxy supports the idea of recent or ongoing stellar formation indicated by the population of blue stars in the center. The CO was detected in two positions in the galaxy, the center, and a prominent dustcloud. The emission profile has two peaks, roughly centered around the systemic velocity. It is found that NGC 185 is overluminous in blue light for its CO luminosity compared with Sc galaxies. This might indicate a higher star-formation efficiency for NGC 185 than for the late-type galaxies.

  17. Hardening of the surface layers of commercial pure titanium VT1-0 under combined treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashchenko, Lyudmila P.; Gromov, Viktor E.; Budovskikh, Evgenii A.; Ivanov, Yurii F.; Soskova, Nina A.

    2015-10-01

    The treatment of VT1-0 titanium samples was carried out by concentrated energy fluxes. The combined treatment included surface carburizing with the joint use of powder samples of compounds with high physical and mechanical properties (namely, titanium diboride TiB2, silicon carbide SiC and zirconium oxide ZrO2) and subsequent electron beam treatment of surface layers formed in electroexplosive treatment. The combined treatment of surface layers resulted in the multifold increase in microhardness, which reduces depending on the depth of hardening zone. After electron-beam treatment, the depth of hardening zone is increased. During electron-beam treatment, the two-layer hardening zone forms.

  18. Hyperon vector coupling f{sub 1}(0) from 2+1 flavor lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Shoichi

    2011-10-21

    We present results for the hyperon vector form factor f{sub 1} for {Xi}{sup 0}{yields}{Sigma}{sup +}l{nu}-bar and {Sigma}{sup -}{yields}nl{nu}-bar semileptonic decays from dynamical lattice QCD with domain-wall quarks. Simulations are performed on the 2+1 flavor gauge configurations generated by the RBC and UKQCD Collaborations with a lattice cutoff of a{sup -1} = 1.7 GeV. Our preliminary results, which are calculated at the lightest sea quark mass (pion mass down to approximately 330 MeV), show that a sign of the second-order correction of SU(3) breaking on hyperon vector coupling f{sub 1}(0) is likely negative.

  19. Interoperability with Moby 1.0--it's better than sharing your toothbrush!

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Mark D; Senger, Martin; Kawas, Edward; Bruskiewich, Richard; Gouzy, Jerome; Noirot, Celine; Bardou, Philippe; Ng, Ambrose; Haase, Dirk; Saiz, Enrique de Andres; Wang, Dennis; Gibbons, Frank; Gordon, Paul M K; Sensen, Christoph W; Carrasco, Jose Manuel Rodriguez; Fernández, José M; Shen, Lixin; Links, Matthew; Ng, Michael; Opushneva, Nina; Neerincx, Pieter B T; Leunissen, Jack A M; Ernst, Rebecca; Twigger, Simon; Usadel, Bjorn; Good, Benjamin; Wong, Yan; Stein, Lincoln; Crosby, William; Karlsson, Johan; Royo, Romina; Párraga, Iván; Ramírez, Sergio; Gelpi, Josep Lluis; Trelles, Oswaldo; Pisano, David G; Jimenez, Natalia; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Rosset, Roman; Zamacola, Leire; Tarraga, Joaquin; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Carazo, Jose María; Dopazo, Joaquin; Guigo, Roderic; Navarro, Arcadi; Orozco, Modesto; Valencia, Alfonso; Claros, M Gonzalo; Pérez, Antonio J; Aldana, Jose; Rojano, M Mar; Fernandez-Santa Cruz, Raul; Navas, Ismael; Schiltz, Gary; Farmer, Andrew; Gessler, Damian; Schoof, Heiko; Groscurth, Andreas

    2008-05-01

    The BioMoby project was initiated in 2001 from within the model organism database community. It aimed to standardize methodologies to facilitate information exchange and access to analytical resources, using a consensus driven approach. Six years later, the BioMoby development community is pleased to announce the release of the 1.0 version of the interoperability framework, registry Application Programming Interface and supporting Perl and Java code-bases. Together, these provide interoperable access to over 1400 bioinformatics resources worldwide through the BioMoby platform, and this number continues to grow. Here we highlight and discuss the features of BioMoby that make it distinct from other Semantic Web Service and interoperability initiatives, and that have been instrumental to its deployment and use by a wide community of bioinformatics service providers. The standard, client software, and supporting code libraries are all freely available at http://www.biomoby.org/. PMID:18238804

  20. South plants, site 1-10, task 2, draft final source report. Final draft report

    SciTech Connect

    1986-10-01

    This draft final report documents the Phase I contamination survey of site 1-10, a storage tank farm constructed in 1942. 30 samples from 13 borings were analyzed for volatile and semivolatile organics and metals with separate analyses for Hg, As, and DBCP. C6H6, DCPD, Dieldrin, Ch2Cl2, Cu, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Zn were detected in the samples. A Phase II program consisting of 15 additional sampling points is recommended. A soil gas program is also proposed for the site. The volume of potentially contaminated soil present is estimated at 88,142 cubic feet. Appendices contain Phase I analytical parameters and a summary of chemical data.

  1. Power, Avionics and Software - Phase 1.0:. [Subsystem Integration Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sands, Obed S.; Bakula, Casey J.; Oldham, Daniel R.; Wright, Ted; Bradish, Martin A.; Klebau, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes Power, Avionics and Software (PAS) 1.0 subsystem integration testing and test results that occurred in August and September of 2013. This report covers the capabilities of each PAS assembly to meet integration test objectives for non-safety critical, non-flight, non-human-rated hardware and software development. This test report is the outcome of the first integration of the PAS subsystem and is meant to provide data for subsequent designs, development and testing of the future PAS subsystems. The two main objectives were to assess the ability of the PAS assemblies to exchange messages and to perform audio testing of both inbound and outbound channels. This report describes each test performed, defines the test, the data, and provides conclusions and recommendations.

  2. Transition-metal and metalloid substitutions in L1(0)-ordered FeNi

    SciTech Connect

    Manchanda, P; Skomski, R; Bordeaux, N; Lewis, LH; Kashyap, A

    2014-05-07

    The effect of atomic substitutions on the magnetization, exchange, and magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy of L1(0)-ordered FeNi (tetrataenite) is computationally investigated. The compound naturally occurs in meteorites but has attracted renewed attention as a potential material for permanent magnets, and elemental additives will likely be necessary to facilitate the phase formation. Our density functional theory calculations use the Vienna ab-initio simulation package, applied to 4-atom unit cells of Fe2XNi and 32-atom supercells (X = Al, P, S, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co). While it is found that most additives deteriorate the magnetic properties, there are exceptions: excess substitutional Fe and Co additions improve the magnetization, whereas Cr, S, and interstitial B additions improve the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  3. Global Deployment of Geothermal Energy Using a New Characterization in GCAM 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Hannam, Phil; Kyle, G. Page; Smith, Steven J.

    2009-09-01

    This report documents modeling of geothermal energy in GCAM 1.0 (formerly MiniCAM) from FY2008 to FY2009, from the inputs to the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program report (Clarke et al., 2008a) to the present representation, which will be used in future work. To demonstrate the newest representation, we describe the procedure and outcome of six model runs that illustrate the potential role of geothermal energy in the U.S. and global regions through different futures climate policy, development and deployment of engineered, or enhanced, geothermal systems (EGS), and availability of other low-cost, low-carbon electricity generation technologies such as nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage (CCS).

  4. 1,10-Phenanthroline as an accelerator for Ag nanoparticle-catalysed electroless copper deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chia-Ru; Chou, Nan-Kuang; Li, Cheng-Hsing; Chen, Ho-Rei; Lee, Chien-Liang

    2014-10-01

    1,10-Phenanthroline (phen) can be successfully used as an accelerator for Ag-catalysed electroless copper deposition (ECD) processes. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance analyses indicate that the mass activity in terms of thickness of deposited Cu layer and average ECD rate within a deposition time of 110 s for Ag nanoparticles activated by phen are 7.86 × 10-3 μm μg-1 and 1.43 × 10-4 μm μg-1 s-1, respectively, whereas Ag nanoparticles without phen cannot catalyse the reaction. Furthermore, Tafel and cyclic voltammetric results show that the addition of phen to the ECD bath significantly enhances the ability of the Ag nanoparticles to catalyse the oxidation of HCHO and suppresses the formation of CuO.

  5. Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA), version 1.0 user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Scott S.; Davis, John S.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA) computer program, Version 1.0 is described. SODA is a spaceflight mission planning system which consists of five program modules integrated around a common database and user interface. SODA runs on a VAX/VMS computer with an EVANS & SUTHERLAND PS300 graphics workstation. BOEING RIM-Version 7 relational database management system performs transparent database services. In the current version three program modules produce an interactive three dimensional (3D) animation of one or more satellites in planetary orbit. Satellite visibility and sensor coverage capabilities are also provided. One module produces an interactive 3D animation of the solar system. Another module calculates cumulative satellite sensor coverage and revisit time for one or more satellites. Currently Earth, Moon, and Mars systems are supported for all modules except the solar system module.

  6. ADS: A FORTRAN program for automated design synthesis: Version 1.10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.

    1985-01-01

    A new general-purpose optimization program for engineering design is described. ADS (Automated Design Synthesis - Version 1.10) is a FORTRAN program for solution of nonlinear constrained optimization problems. The program is segmented into three levels: strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search. At each level, several options are available so that a total of over 100 possible combinations can be created. Examples of available strategies are sequential unconstrained minimization, the Augmented Lagrange Multiplier method, and Sequential Linear Programming. Available optimizers include variable metric methods and the Method of Feasible Directions as examples, and one-dimensional search options include polynomial interpolation and the Golden Section method as examples. Emphasis is placed on ease of use of the program. All information is transferred via a single parameter list. Default values are provided for all internal program parameters such as convergence criteria, and the user is given a simple means to over-ride these, if desired.

  7. Hardening of the surface layers of commercial pure titanium VT1-0 under combined treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bashchenko, Lyudmila P. Gromov, Viktor E. Budovskikh, Evgenii A. Soskova, Nina A.; Ivanov, Yurii F.

    2015-10-27

    The treatment of VT1-0 titanium samples was carried out by concentrated energy fluxes. The combined treatment included surface carburizing with the joint use of powder samples of compounds with high physical and mechanical properties (namely, titanium diboride TiB{sub 2}, silicon carbide SiC and zirconium oxide ZrO{sub 2}) and subsequent electron beam treatment of surface layers formed in electroexplosive treatment. The combined treatment of surface layers resulted in the multifold increase in microhardness, which reduces depending on the depth of hardening zone. After electron-beam treatment, the depth of hardening zone is increased. During electron-beam treatment, the two-layer hardening zone forms.

  8. Design document for the MOODS Data Management System (MDMS), version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The MOODS Data Management System (MDMS) provides access to the Master Oceanographic Observation Data Set (MOODS) which is maintained by the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO). The MDMS incorporates database technology in providing seamless access to parameter (temperature, salinity, soundspeed) vs. depth observational profile data. The MDMS is an interactive software application with a graphical user interface (GUI) that supports user control of MDMS functional capabilities. The purpose of this document is to define and describe the structural framework and logical design of the software components/units which are integrated into the major computer software configuration item (CSCI) identified as MDMS, Version 1.0. The preliminary design is based on functional specifications and requirements identified in the governing Statement of Work prepared by the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) and distributed as a request for proposal by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  9. 810nm, 980nm, 1470nm and 1950nm diode laser comparison: a preliminary "ex vivo" study on oral soft tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaini, Carlo; Merigo, Elisabetta; Sozzi, Michele; Selleri, Stefano; Vescovi, Paolo; Cucinotta, Annamaria

    2015-02-01

    The introduction of diode lasers in dentistry has several advantages, mainly consisting on the reduced size, reduced cost and possibility to beam delivering by optical fibers. At the moment the two diode wavelengths normally utilized in the dental field are 810 and 980 nm for soft tissues treatments. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of four different diode wavelengths: 810, 980, 1470 and 1950 nm diode laser for the ablation of soft tissues. Several samples of veal tongue were exposed to the four different wavelengths, at different fluences. The internal temperature of the soft tissues, in the area close to the beam, was monitored with thermocouple during the experiment. The excision quality of the exposed samples have been characterized by means of an optical microscope. Tissue damages and the cut regularity have been evaluated on the base of established criteria. The lowest thermal increase was recorded for 1950 nm laser. Best quality and speed of incision were obtained by the same wavelength. By evaluating epithelial, stromal and vascular damages for all the used wavelengths, the best result, in terms of "tissue respect", have been obtained for 1470 and 1950 nm exposures. From the obtained results 1470 and 1950 nm diode laser showed to be the best performer wavelengths among these used in this "ex vivo" study, probably due to their greatest affinity to water.

  10. Radiation Failures in Intel 14nm Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossev, Dobrin P.; Duncan, Adam R.; Gadlage, Matthew J.; Roach, Austin H.; Kay, Matthew J.; Szabo, Carl; Berger, Tammy J.; York, Darin A.; Williams, Aaron; LaBel, K.; Ingalls, James D.

    2016-01-01

    In this study the 14 nm Intel Broadwell 5th generation core series 5005U-i3 and 5200U-i5 was mounted on Dell Inspiron laptops, MSI Cubi and Gigabyte Brix barebones and tested with Windows 8 and CentOS7 at idle. Heavy-ion-induced hard- and catastrophic failures do not appear to be related to the Intel 14nm Tri-Gate FinFET process. They originate from a small (9 m 140 m) area on the 32nm planar PCH die (not the CPU) as initially speculated. The hard failures seem to be due to a SEE but the exact physical mechanism has yet to be identified. Some possibilities include latch-ups, charge ion trapping or implantation, ion channels, or a combination of those (in biased conditions). The mechanism of the catastrophic failures seems related to the presence of electric power (1.05V core voltage). The 1064 nm laser mimics ionization radiation and induces soft- and hard failures as a direct result of electron-hole pair production, not heat. The 14nm FinFET processes continue to look promising for space radiation environments.

  11. Aqueous glucose measurement using differential absorption-based frequency domain optical coherence tomography at wavelengths of 1310 nm and 1625 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Pauline; Manoj, Murali; Sujatha, N.; Vasa, Nilesh J.; Rao, Suresh R.

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a combination of differential absorption technique and frequency domain optical coherence tomography for detection of glucose, which is an important analyte in medical diagnosis of diabetes. Differential absorption technique is used to detect glucose selectively in the presence of interfering species especially water and frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) helps to obtain faster acquisition of depth information. Two broadband super-luminescent diode (SLED) sources with centre wavelengths 1586 nm (wavelength range of 1540 to 1640 nm) and 1312 nm (wavelength range of 1240 to 1380 nm) and a spectral width of ≍ 60 nm (FWHM) are used. Preliminary studies on absorption spectroscopy using various concentrations of aqueous glucose solution gave promising results to distinguish the absorption characteristics of glucose at two wavelengths 1310 nm (outside the absorption band of glucose) and 1625 nm (within the absorption band of glucose). In order to mimic the optical properties of biological skin tissue, 2% and 10% of 20% intralipid with various concentrations of glucose (0 to 4000 mg/dL) was prepared and used as sample. Using OCT technique, interference spectra were obtained using an optical spectrum analyzer with a resolution of 0.5 nm. Further processing of the interference spectra provided information on reflections from the surfaces of the cuvette containing the aqueous glucose sample. Due to the absorption of glucose in the wavelength range of 1540 nm to 1640 nm, a trend of reduction in the intensity of the back reflected light was observed with increase in the concentration of glucose.

  12. The dynamics of femtosecond pulsed laser removal of 20 nm Ni films from an interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrider, Keegan J.; Torralva, Ben; Yalisove, Steven M.

    2015-09-01

    The dynamics of femtosecond laser removal of 20 nm Ni films on glass substrates was studied using time-resolved pump-probe microscopy. 20 nm thin films exhibit removal at two distinct threshold fluences, removal of the top 7 nm of Ni above 0.14 J/cm2, and removal of the entire 20 nm film above 0.36 J/cm2. Previous work shows the top 7 nm is removed through liquid spallation, after irradiation the Ni melts and rapidly expands leading to tensile stress and cavitation within the Ni film. This work shows that above 0.36 J/cm2 the 20 nm film is removed in two distinct layers, 7 nm and 13 nm thick. The top 7 nm layer reaches a speed 500% faster than the bottom 13 nm layer at the same absorbed fluence, 500-2000 m/s and 300-700 m/s in the fluence ranges studied. Significantly different velocities for the top 7 nm layer and bottom 13 nm layer indicate removal from an interface occurs by a different physical mechanism. The method of measuring film displacement from the development of Newton's rings was refined so it could be shown that the 13 nm layer separates from the substrate within 70 ps and accelerates to its final velocity within several hundred picoseconds. We propose that removal of the bottom 13 nm is consistent with heterogeneous nucleation and growth of vapor at the Ni-glass interface, but that the rapid separation and acceleration of the 13 nm layer from the Ni-glass interface requires consideration of exotic phases of Ni after excitation.

  13. Diode laser (980nm) cartilage reshaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kharbotly, A.; El Tayeb, T.; Mostafa, Y.; Hesham, I.

    2011-03-01

    Loss of facial or ear cartilage due to trauma or surgery is a major challenge to the otolaryngologists and plastic surgeons as the complicated geometric contours are difficult to be animated. Diode laser (980 nm) has been proven effective in reshaping and maintaining the new geometric shape achieved by laser. This study focused on determining the optimum laser parameters needed for cartilage reshaping with a controlled water cooling system. Harvested animal cartilages were angulated with different degrees and irradiated with different diode laser powers (980nm, 4x8mm spot size). The cartilage specimens were maintained in a deformation angle for two hours after irradiation then released for another two hours. They were serially measured and photographed. High-power Diode laser irradiation with water cooling is a cheep and effective method for reshaping the cartilage needed for reconstruction of difficult situations in otorhinolaryngologic surgery. Key words: cartilage,diode laser (980nm), reshaping.

  14. Comparative study of Nd:KGW lasers pumped at 808 nm and 877 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ke; Ge, Wen-Qi; Zhao, Tian-Zhuo; He, Jian-Guo; Feng, Chen-Yong; Fan, Zhong-Wei

    2015-10-01

    The laser performance and thermal analysis of Nd:KGW laser continuously pumped by 808 nm and 877 nm are comparatively investigated. Output power of 670 mW and 1587 mW, with nearly TEM00 mode, are achieved respectively at 808 nm pump and 877 nm pump. Meanwhile, a high-power passively Q-switched Nd:KGW/Cr4+:YAG laser pumped at 877 nm is demonstrated. An average output power of 1495 mW is obtained at pump power of 5.22 W while the laser is operating at repetition of 53.17 kHz. We demonstrate that 877 nm diode laser is a more potential pump source for Nd:KGW lasers.

  15. Hardening by ion implantation of VT1-0 alloy having different grain size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonenko, Alisa; Popova, Natalya; Nikonenko, Elena; Kalashnikov, Mark; Kurzina, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of the structural and phase state of commercially pure titanium implanted by aluminum ions. TEM study has been carried out for two types of grains, namely coarse (0.4 µm) and small (0.5 µm). This paper presents details of the yield stress calculations and the analysis of strength components for the both grain types in two areas of the modified layer: at a distance of 0-150 nm (surface area I) and ˜300 nm (central area II) from the irradiated surface. It is shown that the ion implantation results in a considerable hardening of the entire thickness of the implanted layer in the both grain types. The grain size has, however, a different effect on the yield stress in areas I and II. Thus, near the ion-alloyed layer, the yield stress decreases with the increase of the grain size, whilst area II demonstrates its increase. Moreover, the contribution to the general hardening of the alloy made by certain hardening mechanisms differs from contributions made by each of these mechanisms in each certain case.

  16. Ambient Observations of Sub-1.0 Hygroscopic Growth Factor and f(RH) Values: Case Studies from Surface and Airborne Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, A. M.; Shingler, T.; Crosbie, E.; Wonaschutz, A.; Froyd, K. D.; Adler, G.; Gao, R. S.; Schwarz, J. P.; Perring, A. E.; Brock, C. A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Ziemba, L. D.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Wisthaler, A.; Sorooshian, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hygroscopic growth occurs when particles take up water vapor and grow when exposed to elevated relative humidity (RH), and is controlled largely by chemical composition. Previous laboratory studies of biomass burning and combustion particles observed particle size shrinkage as soot aerosols, especially those with coatings, were exposed to increasing RH levels, which resulted in sub-1.0 hygroscopicity parameter values (i.e., ratio of humidified-to-dry diameter g(RH) and ratio of humidified-to-dry scattering coefficients f(RH)). To investigate the potential for sub-1.0 hygroscopicity in ambient aerosol, we utilized data from (i) a ship-board HTDMA during E-PEACE 2011, (ii) multiple instruments on the DC8 during SEAC4RS-2013, as well as (iii) the DASH-SP during measurement intensives in Summer 2014 and Winter 2015 in Tucson, Arizona. Suppressed hygroscopicity, including sub-1.0 g(RH), was observed during smoke-influenced periods in SEAC4RS, episodic events in the winter season in Arizona, and smoke-influenced air during E-PEACE. Across the range of RH investigated (75-95%), sub-1.0 g(RH) was lowest at the highest RH values probed (~95%). These sub-1.0 g(RH) observations are consistent with elevated black carbon and organic aerosol concentration in both E-PEACE and SEAC4RS. Collocated measurements during SEAC4RS indicate elevated spikes in black carbon concentrations are coincident with both sub-1.0 f(RH) and g(RH) observations, as well as elevated organic aerosol- and gas-phase fire tracers such as AMS f60 and PTR-MS acetonitrile concentration. This is the first set of ambient observations of sub-1.0 hygroscopicity factors g(RH) and f(RH), with consistency across different instruments, regions, and platforms. Although particle restructuring has been demonstrated in laboratory experiments, field observations are complex as soot coating, secondary chemistry, and heterogeneous processing can occur on the same time scale as measurements. This work motivates continued

  17. 76 FR 23630 - Office of New Reactors; Proposed Revision 2 to Standard Review Plan, Section 1.0 on Introduction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... COMMISSION Office of New Reactors; Proposed Revision 2 to Standard Review Plan, Section 1.0 on Introduction...), Section 1.0, ``Introduction and Interfaces'' (Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS...: Cindy Bladey, Chief, Rules, Announcements, and Directives Branch (RADB), Office of Administration,...

  18. Static and dynamic magnetic characteristics of BaCo 0.5Mn 0.5Ti 1.0Fe 10O 19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choopani, Saeed; Keyhan, Neda; Ghasemi, Ali; Sharbathi, Ali; Maghsoudi, Iman; Eghbali, Mohammad

    2009-07-01

    The effect of Mn 2+Co 2+Ti 4+ substitution on microwave absorption has been studied for BaCo 0.5Mn 0.5Ti 1.0Fe 10O 19 ferrite-acrylic resin composites in frequency range from 12 to 20 GHz. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer, AC susceptometer and vector network analyzer were used to analyze the structural, magnetic and microwave absorption properties. The results showed that the magnetoplumbite structures for all samples have been formed. Based on microwave measurement on reflectivity, BaCo 0.5Mn 0.5Ti 1.0Fe 10O 19 may be a good candidate for electromagnetic compatibility and other practical applications at high frequency.

  19. Development of a high dynamic range spectroscopic system for observation of neutral hydrogen atom density distribution in Large Helical Device core plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, K. Atsumi, S.; Watanabe, S.; Shikama, T.; Hasuo, M.; Goto, M.; Morita, S.

    2014-02-15

    We report development of a high dynamic range spectroscopic system comprising a spectrometer with 30% throughput and a camera with a low-noise fast-readout complementary metal-oxide semiconductor sensor. The system achieves a 10{sup 6} dynamic range (∼20 bit resolution) and an instrumental function approximated by a Voigt profile with Gauss and Lorentz widths of 31 and 0.31 pm, respectively, for 656 nm light. The application of the system for line profile observations of the Balmer-α emissions from high temperature plasmas generated in the Large Helical Device is also presented. In the observed line profiles, emissions are detected in far wings more than 1.0 nm away from the line center, equivalent to neutral hydrogen atom kinetic energies above 1 keV. We evaluate atom density distributions in the core plasma by analyzing the line profiles.

  20. Synthesis and copper-dependent antimycoplasmal activity of amides and amidines derived from 2-amino-1,10-phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    de Zwart, M A; Bastiaans, H M; van der Goot, H; Timmerman, H

    1991-03-01

    A series of both aliphatic and aromatic amides and aromatic amidines derived from 2-amino-1,10-phenanthroline (3) according to the Topliss scheme were synthesized and subsequently tested for antimycoplasmal potency. Although the compounds themselves showed no activity, in the presence of a nontoxic copper concentration of 40 microM all compounds appeared to be very active against Mycoplasma gallisepticum K154. The most active compounds were found in the amide series and show growth inhibition in the nanomolar range. These compounds are 4 times more active than tylosin, a macrolide antibiotic, which is used therapeutically in veterinary practice. In the presence of copper, amides derived from 3 are more active than corresponding amidines. Increased activity following derivatization of 3 may be due to the presence of a third coordination site for copper in the title compounds. Evaluation of biological data revealed that antimycoplasmal activity of amides derived from 3 is dependent on lipophilicity. For these amides a good linear correlation was found between antimycoplasmal activity and hydrophobic fragmental values for substituents considered. This quantitative structure-activity relationship study indicated that antimycoplasmal activity was increased upon a decrease of these hydrophobic fragmental values. PMID:2002460

  1. Prediction of Turbulence-Generated Noise in Unheated Jets. Part 2; JeNo Users' Manual (Version 1.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Wolter, John D.; Koch, L. Danielle

    2009-01-01

    JeNo (Version 1.0) is a Fortran90 computer code that calculates the far-field sound spectral density produced by axisymmetric, unheated jets at a user specified observer location and frequency range. The user must provide a structured computational grid and a mean flow solution from a Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) code as input. Turbulence kinetic energy and its dissipation rate from a k-epsilon or k-omega turbulence model must also be provided. JeNo is a research code, and as such, its development is ongoing. The goal is to create a code that is able to accurately compute far-field sound pressure levels for jets at all observer angles and all operating conditions. In order to achieve this goal, current theories must be combined with the best practices in numerical modeling, all of which must be validated by experiment. Since the acoustic predictions from JeNo are based on the mean flow solutions from a RANS code, quality predictions depend on accurate aerodynamic input.This is why acoustic source modeling, turbulence modeling, together with the development of advanced measurement systems are the leading areas of research in jet noise research at NASA Glenn Research Center.

  2. Characterizing long period (1--10 sec) ground motions for base isolated structures located in sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, R.W.; Somerville, P.G.

    1995-12-01

    Many urban regions, including Los Angeles, Portland and Seattle in the United States and Tokyo in Japan, are located above deep sedimentary basins. The conventional approach of estimating ground motions in these environments is to assume that the geology can be characterized by a horizontally stratified medium, and that only the shallowest few tens of meters influence the ground motion characteristics. However, the trapping and amplification of long period (1-10 sec) waves by sedimentary basins can generate amplitudes that are significantly larger than those calculated from simple 1D models of site resonance. This may be of particular concern for base isolated structures which are most sensitive to ground motions in this period range. The recent development of efficient computational methods for modeling seismic wave, propagation in laterally varying geological structure enable the authors to model the effects of sedimentary basins on earthquake generated ground motions. They are now applying this calculation procedure to characterize the ground motions that may be generated in the Puget Trough and the Portland Basin due to large earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone, and in the Los Angeles region due to large earthquakes on blind thrust faults beneath the Los Angeles basin.

  3. Open-source modular solutions for isostasy and flexure of the lithosphere: gFlex v1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickert, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    In convergent margin settings, flexural subsidence of sedimentary basins is initiated by tectonically-induced stresses, and continues with a combination of (1) sediment loading, (2) concurrent erosional unloading of the surrounding mountain ranges, and (3) water loading and/or unloading. These stresses and the implicit positive feedback -- that sediment loading helps to maintain a topographic low into which more sediments are deposited -- has long been recognized and deserves explicit treatment in numerical models. Here I present the newly-released version 1.0 of the open-source model gFlex, simulates isostasy and flexure of the lithosphere. gFlex can compute flexural isostasy along one-dimensional transects and across two-dimensional surfaces with either constant or variable lithospheric effective elastic thickness. Variable elastic thickness is an especially important component to modeling convergent margins, where active tectonics can produce an underlying lithosphere with nonuniform rheology. gFlex can be run as a standalone model, as part of the GRASS GIS environment (for straightforward integration with data and to take advantage of the GRASS GIS graphical user interface), or as a coupled component of a larger model simulation as part of the Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS). The source code is freely available from the University of Minnesota Earth-surface science GitHub repository at https://github.com/umn-earth-surface/gFlex, and potential users are encouraged to download and run the model and to suggest possible future improvements.

  4. Advanced modelling of the multiphase DMS chemistry with the CAPRAM DMS module 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Erik Hans; Tilgner, Andreas; Schrödner, Roland; Wolke, Ralf; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    Oceans are the general emitter of dimethyl sulphide (DMS), the major natural sulphur source (Andreae, 1990), and cover approximately 70 % of earth's surface. The main DMS oxidation products are SO2, H2SO4 and methyl sulfonic acid (MSA). Hence, DMS is very important for formation of non-sea salt sulphate (nss SO42-) aerosols and secondary particulate matter and thus global climate. Despite many previous model studies, there are still important knowledge gaps, especially in aqueous phase DMS chemistry, of its atmospheric fate (Barnes et al., 2006). Therefore, a comprehensive multiphase DMS chemistry mechanism, the CAPRAM DMS module 1.0 (DM1.0), has been developed. The DM1.0 includes 103 gas phase reactions, 5 phase transfers and 54 aqueous phase reactions. It was coupled with the multiphase chemistry mechanism MCMv3.2/CAPRAM4.0α (Rickard et al., 2015; Bräuer et al., 2016) and the extended CAPRAM halogen module 2.1 (HM2.1, Bräuer et al., 2013) for investigation of multiphase DMS oxidation in the marine boundary layer. Then, a pristine ocean scenario was simulated using the air parcel model SPACCIM (Wolke et al., 2005) including 8 non-permanent cloud passages - 4 at noon and 4 at midnight. This allows the investigation of the influence of deliquesced particles and clouds on multiphase DMS chemistry during both daytime and nighttime conditions as well as under cloud formation and evaporation. To test the influence of various subsystems on multiphase DMS chemistry different sensitivity runs were performed. Investigations of multiphase chemistry of DMS and its important oxidation products were done using concentration-time profiles and detailed time-resolved reaction flux analyses. The model studies revealed the importance of aqueous phase chemistry for DMS and its oxidation products. Overall about 7.0% of DMS is effectively oxidised by O3 in the aqueous phase of clouds. The simulations revealed the importance of halogen and aqueous phase chemistry for DMS and its oxidation products. Overall halogen compounds contribute with 71% to DMS oxidation with gaseous Cl (23.6%) and BrO (46.1%) as main oxidants. The conversion efficiency of DMS to SO2 in the gas phase was simulated between 0.2, 0.27 and 0.6 for the full pristine ocean scenario run, a simulation without considered halogen chemistry and a simulation without treated aqueous phase DMS chemistry, respectively. Furthermore, the studies indicate that the conversion efficiency of DMS to MSA is strongly related to DMS oxidation by BrO and treating of aqueous-phase DMS chemistry. The MSA yield for different sensitivity runs was simulated between 0.01 and 0.47. The lowest yield is reached treating only gas phase chemistry of DMS. Moreover, the simulation with the whole mechanism indicate that multiphase DMS oxidation produce as much MSA as sulphate leading to strong implications for nss-SO42‑ aerosol formation, activation to cloud condensation nuclei and cloud albedo. Andreae, M. O., Mar. Chem., 30, 1-29, 1990. Barnes, I., et al., Chem. Rev., 106, 940-975, 2006. Bräuer, P., et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., in preparation, 2016. Bräuer, P., et al., J. Atmos. Chem., 70, 19-52, 2013. Rickard, A., et al., The Master Chemical Mechanism Version MCM v3.2, available at: http://mcm.leeds.ac.uk/MCMv3.2/ (last access: 05 Mai 2015)„ 2015. Wolke, R., et al., Atmos. Environ., 39, 4375-4388, 2005.

  5. BADGER v1.0: A Fortran equation of state library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heltemes, T. A.; Moses, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The BADGER equation of state library was developed to enable inertial confinement fusion plasma codes to more accurately model plasmas in the high-density, low-temperature regime. The code had the capability to calculate 1- and 2-T plasmas using the Thomas-Fermi model and an individual electron accounting model. Ion equation of state data can be calculated using an ideal gas model or via a quotidian equation of state with scaled binding energies. Electron equation of state data can be calculated via the ideal gas model or with an adaptation of the screened hydrogenic model with ℓ-splitting. The ionization and equation of state calculations can be done in local thermodynamic equilibrium or in a non-LTE mode using a variant of the Busquet equivalent temperature method. The code was written as a stand-alone Fortran library for ease of implementation by external codes. EOS results for aluminum are presented that show good agreement with the SESAME library and ionization calculations show good agreement with the FLYCHK code. Program summaryProgram title: BADGERLIB v1.0 Catalogue identifier: AEND_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEND_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 41 480 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 904 451 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90. Computer: 32- or 64-bit PC, or Mac. Operating system: Windows, Linux, MacOS X. RAM: 249.496 kB plus 195.630 kB per isotope record in memory Classification: 19.1, 19.7. Nature of problem: Equation of State (EOS) calculations are necessary for the accurate simulation of high energy density plasmas. Historically, most EOS codes used in these simulations have relied on an ideal gas model. This model is inadequate for low-temperature, high-density plasma conditions; the gaseous and liquid phases; and the solid phase. The BADGER code was developed to give more realistic EOS data in these regimes. Solution method: BADGER has multiple, user-selectable models to treat the ions, average-atom ionization state and electrons. Ion models are ideal gas and quotidian equation of state (QEOS), ionization models are Thomas-Fermi and individual accounting method (IEM) formulation of the screened hydrogenic model (SHM) with l-splitting, electron ionization models are ideal gas and a Helmholtz free energy minimization method derived from the SHM. The default equation of state and ionization models are appropriate for plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The code can calculate non-LTE equation of state (EOS) and ionization data using a simplified form of the Busquet equivalent-temperature method. Restrictions: Physical data are only provided for elements Z=1 to Z=86. Multiple solid phases are not currently supported. Liquid, gas and plasma phases are combined into a generalized "fluid" phase. Unusual features: BADGER divorces the calculation of average-atom ionization from the electron equation of state model, allowing the user to select ionization and electron EOS models that are most appropriate to the simulation. The included ion ideal gas model uses ground-state nuclear spin data to differentiate between isotopes of a given element. Running time: Example provided only takes a few seconds to run.

  6. 28SiO v = 0 J = 1-0 emission from evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vicente, P.; Bujarrabal, V.; Díaz-Pulido, A.; Albo, C.; Alcolea, J.; Barcia, A.; Barbas, L.; Bolaño, R.; Colomer, F.; Diez, M. C.; Gallego, J. D.; Gómez-González, J.; López-Fernández, I.; López-Fernández, J. A.; López-Pérez, J. A.; Malo, I.; Moreno, A.; Patino, M.; Serna, J. M.; Tercero, F.; Vaquero, B.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: Observations of 28SiO v = 0J = 1-0 line emission (7-mm wavelength) from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars show in some cases peculiar profiles, composed of a central intense component plus a wider plateau. Very similar profiles have been observed in CO lines from some AGB stars and most post-AGB nebulae and, in these cases, they are clearly associated with the presence of conspicuous axial symmetry and bipolar dynamics. We aim to systematically study the profile shape of 28SiO v = 0J = 1-0 lines in evolved stars and to discuss the origin of the composite profile structure. Methods: We present observations of 28SiO v = 0J = 1-0 emission in 28 evolved stars, including O-rich, C-rich, and S-type Mira-type variables, OH/IR stars, semiregular long-period variables, red supergiants and one yellow hypergiant. Most objects were observed in several epochs, over a total period of time of one and a half years. The observations were performed with the 40 m radio telescope of the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) in Yebes, Spain. Results: We find that the composite core plus plateau profiles are systematically present in O-rich Miras, OH/IR stars, and red supergiants. They are also found in one S-type Mira (χ Cyg) and in two semiregular variables (X Her and RS Cnc) that are known to show axial symmetry. In the other objects, the profiles are simpler and similar to those observed in other molecular lines. The composite structure appears in the objects in which SiO emission is thought to come from the very inner circumstellar layers, prior to dust formation. The central spectral feature is found to be systematically composed of a number of narrow spikes, except for X Her and RS Cnc, in which it shows a smooth shape that is very similar to that observed in CO emission. These spikes show a significant (and mostly chaotic) time variation, while in all cases the smooth components remain constant within the uncertainties. The profile shape could come from the superposition of standard wide profiles and a group of weak maser spikes confined to the central spectral regions because of tangential amplification. Alternatively, we speculate that the very similar profiles detected in objects that are known to be conspicuously axisymmetric, such as X Her and RS Cnc, and in O-rich Mira-type stars, such as IK Tau and TX Cam, may be indicative of the systematic presence of a significant axial symmetry in the very inner circumstellar shells around AGB stars; such symmetry would be independent of the presence of weak maser effects in the central spikes.

  7. Multi-functional ion-sensor based on a photochromic diarylethene with a 1H-imidazo [4,5-f][1,10] phenanthroline unit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Renjie; Dong, Xiaorong; Liu, Gang; Ren, Panpan; Pu, Shouzhi

    2015-12-01

    A new asymmetrical diarylethene containing a 1H-imidazo [4,5-f][1,10] phenanthroline unit was synthesized. The compound showed typical photochromism and functioned as a notable fluorescence switch upon alternating irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) and visible light. Its closed-ring isomer could be used as a selective 'naked-eye' colorimetric sensor for Cu(2+), accompanied by a notable color change from blue to colorless. Furthermore, the compound was found to be selective towards Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Sr(2+) with significant fluorescence changes. On the basis of this characteristic, a logic circuit was constructed by utilizing both light and chemical stimuli as inputs and fluorescence intensity at 487 nm as output. PMID:25847126

  8. V-SUIT Model Validation Using PLSS 1.0 Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olthoff, Claas

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic portable life support system (PLSS) simulation software Virtual Space Suit (V-SUIT) has been under development at the Technische Universitat Munchen since 2011 as a spin-off from the Virtual Habitat (V-HAB) project. The MATLAB(trademark)-based V-SUIT simulates space suit portable life support systems and their interaction with a detailed and also dynamic human model, as well as the dynamic external environment of a space suit moving on a planetary surface. To demonstrate the feasibility of a large, system level simulation like V-SUIT, a model of NASA's PLSS 1.0 prototype was created. This prototype was run through an extensive series of tests in 2011. Since the test setup was heavily instrumented, it produced a wealth of data making it ideal for model validation. The implemented model includes all components of the PLSS in both the ventilation and thermal loops. The major components are modeled in greater detail, while smaller and ancillary components are low fidelity black box models. The major components include the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) CO2 removal system, the Primary and Secondary Oxygen Assembly (POS/SOA), the Pressure Garment System Volume Simulator (PGSVS), the Human Metabolic Simulator (HMS), the heat exchanger between the ventilation and thermal loops, the Space Suit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) and finally the Liquid Cooling Garment Simulator (LCGS). Using the created model, dynamic simulations were performed using same test points also used during PLSS 1.0 testing. The results of the simulation were then compared to the test data with special focus on absolute values during the steady state phases and dynamic behavior during the transition between test points. Quantified simulation results are presented that demonstrate which areas of the V-SUIT model are in need of further refinement and those that are sufficiently close to the test results. Finally, lessons learned from the modelling and validation process are given in combination with implications for the future development of other PLSS models in V-SUIT.

  9. Near-Infrared and CO (J=1-0) Observations of Photodissociation Regions in M17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Minoru; Nagata, Tetsuya; Sato, Shuji; Mizuno, Norikazu; Mizuno, Akira; Kawai, Toshihide; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Glass, Ian S.

    2002-07-01

    We have carried out near-infrared mapping observations of photodissociation regions in M17 with the Wide Field Cryogenic Telescope and CO (J=1-0) observations in three isotope lines with the ``NANTEN'' telescope. The observations covered an area of 20'×20' with a spatial resolution of 5.6" for near-infrared wavelengths and with a half-power beamwidth of 2.7‧ for millimeter wavelengths. We detected 38 sources brighter than 7 mag at 3.67 μm (Ln band), five of which show signs of young stellar objects. We have detected two emission bars (the N bar and the S bar) in all four near-infrared bands (J, K, Ln, and 3.3 μm). Their spatial distributions differ considerably from band to band, and we have compared them with the radio continuum, the mid-infrared data, and the CO molecular line emission. The different brightness and spectral energy distributions at near-infrared wavelengths can be well explained by emission from hot dust and ionized gas together with obscuration by local cold dust with a steep gradient from north to south. In the N bar, the free-free emission from ionized gas dominates at shorter wavelengths (J and K) and there is little extinction, whereas in the S bar, the free-free emission is attenuated at shorter wavelengths by the heavy local extinction. In both the N and S bars, the thermal emission from hot dust at around 1000 K dominates in the Ln band. The 3.3 μm unidentified infrared (UIR) emission delineates photodissociation regions between the H II regions and the surrounding molecular clouds. The UIR intensity decreases exponentially from the UIR peak toward the molecular clouds, with scale lengths of 88" and 100", or 0.9 and 1.0 pc, at the N and the S bars, respectively. Far-ultraviolet photons, which excite UIR emission, penetrate into the molecular clouds for ~1 pc, in the nearly edge-on geometry. The 12CO contours are elongated in the direction northwest-southeast, while the C18O contours are round. Far-ultraviolet photons erode the tenuous portions (as seen in 12CO) of the surface of the cloud and penetrate deeply toward the denser inside, forming complex structures in the photodissociation regions bordering the molecular cloud.

  10. Radiation Tolerance of 65nm CMOS Transistors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Krohn, M.; Bentele, B.; Christian, D. C.; Cumalat, J. P.; Deptuch, G.; Fahim, F.; Hoff, J.; Shenai, A.; Wagner, S. R.

    2015-12-11

    We report on the effects of ionizing radiation on 65 nm CMOS transistors held at approximately -20°C during irradiation. The pattern of damage observed after a total dose of 1 Grad is similar to damage reported in room temperature exposures, but we observe less damage than was observed at room temperature.

  11. Negative-tone 193-nm resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sungseo; Vander Heyden, Anthony; Byers, Jeff D.; Willson, C. Grant

    2000-06-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in the design of single layer positive tone resists for 193 nm lithography. Commercial samples of such materials are now available from many vendors. The patterning of certain levels of devices profits from the use of negative tone resists. There have been several reports of work directed toward the design of negative tones resists for 193 nm exposure but, none have performed as well as the positive tone systems. Polymers with alicyclic structures in the backbone have emerged as excellent platforms from which to design positive tone resists for 193 nm exposure. We now report the adaptation of this class of polymers to the design of high performance negative tone 193 nm resists. New systems have been prepared that are based on a polarity switch mechanism for modulation of the dissolution rate. The systems are based on a polar, alicyclic polymer backbone that includes a monomer bearing a glycol pendant group that undergoes the acid catalyzed pinacol rearrangement upon exposure and bake to produce the corresponding less polar ketone. This monomer was copolymerized with maleic anhydride and a norbornene bearing a bis-trifluoromethylcarbinol. The rearrangement of the copolymer was monitored by FT-IR as a function of temperature. The synthesis of the norbornene monomers will be presented together with characterization of copolymers of these monomers with maleic anhydride. The lithographic performance of the new resist system will also be presented.

  12. White Sands, Carrizozo Lava Beds, NM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A truly remarkable view of White Sands and the nearby Carrizozo Lava Beds in southeast NM (33.5N, 106.5W). White Sands, site of the WW II atomic bomb development and testing facility and later post war nuclear weapons testing that can still be seen in the cleared circular patterns on the ground.

  13. Eddington Ratio Distribution of X-Ray-selected Broad-line AGNs at 1.0 < z < 2.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Hyewon; Hasinger, Günther; Steinhardt, Charles; Silverman, John D.; Schramm, Malte

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the Eddington ratio distribution of X-ray-selected broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the redshift range 1.0 < z < 2.2, where the number density of AGNs peaks. Combining the optical and Subaru/Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph near-infrared spectroscopy, we estimate black hole masses for broad-line AGNs in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDF-S), and the XMM-Newton Lockman Hole (XMM-LH) surveys. AGNs with similar black hole masses show a broad range of AGN bolometric luminosities, which are calculated from X-ray luminosities, indicating that the accretion rate of black holes is widely distributed. We find a substantial fraction of massive black holes accreting significantly below the Eddington limit at z ≲ 2, in contrast to what is generally found for luminous AGNs at high redshift. Our analysis of observational selection biases indicates that the “AGN cosmic downsizing” phenomenon can be simply explained by the strong evolution of the comoving number density at the bright end of the AGN luminosity function, together with the corresponding selection effects. However, one might need to consider a correlation between the AGN luminosity and the accretion rate of black holes, in which luminous AGNs have higher Eddington ratios than low-luminosity AGNs, in order to understand the relatively small fraction of low-luminosity AGNs with high accretion rates in this epoch. Therefore, the observed downsizing trend could be interpreted as massive black holes with low accretion rates, which are relatively fainter than less-massive black holes with efficient accretion. Based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  14. NEAR-Solidus Phase Relationships in Metapelites to 1.0 GPa: Influence of K2O Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, F.

    2003-04-01

    The transition from amphibolite to granulite facies conditions in metasediments at intermediate pressure is still poorly defined and contradictions persist in currently available petrogenetic grids. Phase relationships in metapelites are investigated on four synthetic compositions (M-P-H-L) in the model system K2O-CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O. Experiments were carried out in a piston cylinder apparatus at pressures and temperatures up to 1.0 GPa and to 730^o, and in an internally heated pressure vessel at 0.8 GPa at temperatures up to 730^o. In order to monitor the effect of H2O saturation and fluid speciation, three different charges were loaded for each bulk composition, two at fluid saturated conditions and fO2 buffered by graphite, Ni-NiO and hematite-magnetite respectively. Experiments were characterized by XRD, BSE images and EMPA. All assemblages contain quartz and anorthite. Garnet + biotite ± staurolite + muscovite are stable in compositions M and P while orthoamphibole replaces muscovite in compositions H and L, where the K2O content is lower. Orthoamphibole is of gedrite type containing 2.0 a.p.f.u. (23 O) of Al at 650^o and 2.5 a.p.f.u. at 700^o . At 700^o and 1.0 GPa and 680^o and 0.8 GPa cordierite is also present in composition L. Garnet has grossular and pyrope fractions of 0.1 and 0.2 respectively all over the pressure-temperature range. In agreement with phase relations experimentally determined by Poli and Schmidt (2002), our results revealed that the stability field of staurolite + biotite and orthoamphibole + staurolite pairs extend to higher pressures and temperatures if compared with calculated equilibria in analogous systems (Worley and Powell, 1998; Gouwei et al., 1994). At near-solidus conditions a variety of hydrous phases may be directly involved in the production of melt through fluid present or fluid absent melting reactions. X. Gowei, T. M. Will and R. Powell, J. Metamorphic Geol., 12: 99-119, 1994 S. Poli &M. W. Schmidt, Annu. Rev

  15. VALDRIFT 1.0: A valley atmospheric dispersion model with deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K.J.; Bian, X.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1995-05-01

    VALDRIFT version 1.0 is an atmospheric transport and diffusion model for use in well-defined mountain valleys. It is designed to determine the extent of ddft from aedal pesticide spraying activities, but can also be applied to estimate the transport and diffusion of various air pollutants in valleys. The model is phenomenological -- that is, the dominant meteorological processes goveming the behavior of the valley atmosphere are formulated explicitly in the model, albeit in a highly parameterized fashion. The key meteorological processes treated are: (1) nonsteady and nonhomogeneous along-valley winds and turbulent diffusivities, (2) convective boundary layer growth, (3) inversion descent, (4) noctumal temperature inversion breakup, and (5) subsidence. The model is applicable under relatively cloud-free, undisturbed synoptic conditions and is configured to operate through one diumal cycle for a single valley. The inputs required are the valley topographical characteristics, pesticide release rate as a function of time and space, along-valley wind speed as a function of time and space, temperature inversion characteristics at sunrise, and sensible heat flux as a function of time following sunrise. Default values are provided for certain inputs in the absence of detailed observations. The outputs are three-dimensional air concentration and ground-level deposition fields as a function of time.

  16. NIMS Radiance Point Spectra of Ida and Dactyl V1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granahan, J. C.

    2013-08-01

    This data volume contains radiometrically corrected point spectra of asteroid 243 Ida and a spectrum of the asteroid satellite Dactyl (Ida I) as acquired by the Galileo spacecraft Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on August 28, 1993. They record the spectra collected as the Galileo spacecraft approached the 243 Ida system. These data are products of the calibration of the raw data number files idu002tn.qub, idu005tn.qub, idu006tn.qub, idu007tn.qub, idu019tn.qub, idu020tn.qub, idu022tn.qub, idu028tn.qub, idu032tn.qub, idu033tn.qub, and idu035tn.qub (DATA SET ID ='GO-A-NIMS-3-TUBE-V1.0') with calibration factors acquired during the Jovian tour of the Galileo mission. These raw data .qub files are archived in the Imaging Node of the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS). The calibrated spectra consist of radiance and incidence/flux measurements for wavelengths between 0.7 - 5.2 micrometers.

  17. Motivation and Design of the Sirocco Storage System Version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, Matthew Leon; Ward, H. Lee; Danielson, Geoffrey Charles

    2015-07-01

    Sirocco is a massively parallel, high performance storage system for the exascale era. It emphasizes client-to-client coordination, low server-side coupling, and free data movement to improve resilience and performance. Its architecture is inspired by peer-to-peer and victim- cache architectures. By leveraging these ideas, Sirocco natively supports several media types, including RAM, flash, disk, and archival storage, with automatic migration between levels. Sirocco also includes storage interfaces and support that are more advanced than typical block storage. Sirocco enables clients to efficiently use key-value storage or block-based storage with the same interface. It also provides several levels of transactional data updates within a single storage command, including full ACID-compliant updates. This transaction support extends to updating several objects within a single transaction. Further support is provided for con- currency control, enabling greater performance for workloads while providing safe concurrent modification. By pioneering these and other technologies and techniques in the storage system, Sirocco is poised to fulfill a need for a massively scalable, write-optimized storage system for exascale systems. This is version 1.0 of a document reflecting the current and planned state of Sirocco. Further versions of this document will be accessible at http://www.cs.sandia.gov/Scalable_IO/ sirocco .

  18. Spectroscopic studies on the binding of holmium-1,10-phenanthroline complex with DNA.

    PubMed

    Niroomand, Sona; Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Moodi, Asieh

    2012-12-01

    Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) as well as viscosity experiment have been used to characterize the DNA binding of [Ho(Phen)(2)Cl(3)]·H(2)O, where phen stand for 1,10-phanathroline. This complex exhibits the marked decrease in the emission intensity and some hypochromism in UV-Vis spectrum in the presence of DNA. For characterization of the binding mode between the Ho(III) complex and DNA various procedures such as: absorption and emission titration and EB quenching experiments, viscosity measurements, CD study, iodide quenching assay, salt effect and thermodynamical investigation are used. The intrinsic binding constant of [Ho(Phen)(2)Cl(3)]·H(2)O with DNA is calculated by UV-Vis and florescence spectroscopy. The value of binding constants in 296, 299 and 303 are 1.99 ± 0.07 × 10(4), 1.07 ± 0.09 × 10(4) and 0.84 ± 0.06 × 10(4), respectively. The thermodynamic studies show that the reaction is entropically driven. The above-mentioned physical measurements indicate that the Ho(III) complex binds to fish salmon DNA, presumably via groove binding mode. PMID:23123592

  19. catena-Poly[[(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt]-μ-2,4′-oxydibenzoato

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hai-Kang; Fu, Feng; Tang, Long; Hou, Xiang-Yang; Cao, Jia

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, [Co(C14H8O5)(C12H8N2)]n, the CoII atom is six-coordinated in a distorted octa­hedral coordination geometry by four O atoms from two chelating carboxyl­ate groups from different 2,4′-oxydibenzoate anions and by two N atoms from a 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligand. The two benzene rings of the 2,4′-oxydibenzoate ligand form a dihedral angle of 77.14 (16)°. Adjacent CoII atoms are bridged by 2,4′-oxydibenzoate anions to form a helical chain that propagates along the b-axis direction. Neighboring chains are further assembled by inter­molecular π–π stacking inter­actions between inversion-related phen ligands [centroid-to-centroid distance = 4.0869 (8) Å] to form a two-dimensional supra­molecular architecture. PMID:22904743

  20. Operation of a 1/10 scale mixed water incinerator air pollution control system

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.B.; Wong, A.; Walker, W.

    1996-08-01

    The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at the Savannah River Site is designed to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes generated by site operations and clean-up activities. The technologies selected for use in the CIF air pollution control system (APCS) were based on reviews of existing commercial and DOE incinerators, on-site air pollution control experience, and recommendations from contracted consultants. In order to study the CIF APCS prior to operation, a 1/10 scale pilot facility, known as the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF) was constructed and has been in operation since late 1994. Its current mission is to demonstrate the design integrity of the CIF APCS and optimize equipment/instrument performance of the full scale production facility. Due to the nature of the wastes to be incinerated at the CIF, High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are used to remove hazardous and radioactive particulates from the exhaust gas stream before being released into the atmosphere. The HEPA filter change-out frequency has been a potential issue and was the first technical issue to be studied at the OCTF. Tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of HEPA filters under different operating conditions. These tests included evaluating the impact on HEPA life of scrubber operating parameters and the type of HEPA prefilter used. This pilot-scale testing demonstrated satisfactory HEPA filter life when using cleanable metal prefilters and high flows of steam and water in the offgas scrubber.

  1. Photon-counting 1.0 GHz-phase-modulation fluorometer

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, T.; Nakao, S.; Mizutani, Y.; Iwata, T.

    2015-04-15

    We have constructed an improved version of a photon-counting phase-modulation fluorometer (PC-PMF) with a maximum modulation frequency of 1.0 GHz, where a phase domain measurement is conducted with a time-correlated single-photon-counting electronics. While the basic concept of the PC-PMF has been reported previously by one of the authors, little attention has been paid to its significance, other than its weak fluorescence measurement capability. Recently, we have recognized the importance of the PC-PMF and its potential for fluorescence lifetime measurements. One important aspect of the PC-PMF is that it enables us to perform high-speed measurements that exceed the frequency bandwidths of the photomultiplier tubes that are commonly used as fluorescence detectors. We describe the advantages of the PC-PMF and demonstrate its usefulness based on fundamental performance tests. In our new version of the PC-PMF, we have used a laser diode (LD) as an excitation light source rather than the light-emitting diode that was used in the primary version. We have also designed a simple and stable LD driver to modulate the device. Additionally, we have obtained a sinusoidal histogram waveform that has multiple cycles within a time span to be measured, which is indispensable for precise phase measurements. With focus on the fluorescence intensity and the resolution time, we have compared the performance of the PC-PMF with that of a conventional PMF using the analogue light detection method.

  2. FT-MW and Millimeter Wave Spectroscopy of PANHs: Phenanthridine, Acridine, and 1,10-Phenanthroline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNaughton, Don; Godfrey, Peter D.; Brown, Ronald D.; Thorwirth, Sven; Grabow, Jens-Uwe

    2008-05-01

    The pure rotational spectra of phenanthridine, acridine, and 1,10-phenanthroline, small polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycle molecules (PANHs), have been measured and assigned from 2 to 85 GHz. An initial spectral assignment, guided by ab initio molecular orbital predictions, employed broadband Stark modulated millimeter wave absorption spectroscopy of a supersonic rotationally cold molecular beam, yielding a preliminary set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants. Subsequent spectral analysis employed Fourier transform microwave (FT-MW) spectroscopy of a supersonic rotationally cold molecular beam. The extremely high spectral resolution of the FT-MW instrument yielded improved rotational constants and centrifugal distortion constants, together with nitrogen quadrupole coupling constants, for all three species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP level of theory employing the cc-pVTZ and 6-311+G** basis sets are shown to closely predict rotational constants and to be useful in predicting quadrupole coupling constants and dipole moments for such PANH species. The data presented here will be useful for deep radio astronomical searches for PANHs employing large radio telescopes.

  3. FR database 1.0: a resource focused on fruit development and ripening

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Junyang; Ma, Xiaojing; Ban, Rongjun; Huang, Qianli; Wang, Wenjie; Liu, Jia; Liu, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Fruits form unique growing period in the life cycle of higher plants. They provide essential nutrients and have beneficial effects on human health. Characterizing the genes involved in fruit development and ripening is fundamental to understanding the biological process and improving horticultural crops. Although, numerous genes that have been characterized are participated in regulating fruit development and ripening at different stages, no dedicated bioinformatic resource for fruit development and ripening is available. In this study, we have developed such a database, FR database 1.0, using manual curation from 38 423 articles published before 1 April 2014, and integrating protein interactomes and several transcriptome datasets. It provides detailed information for 904 genes derived from 53 organisms reported to participate in fleshy fruit development and ripening. Genes from climacteric and non-climacteric fruits are also annotated, with several interesting Gene Ontology (GO) terms being enriched for these two gene sets and seven ethylene-related GO terms found only in the climacteric fruit group. Furthermore, protein–protein interaction analysis by integrating information from FR database presents the possible function network that affects fleshy fruit size formation. Collectively, FR database will be a valuable platform for comprehensive understanding and future experiments in fruit biology. Database URL: http://www.fruitech.org/ PMID:25725058

  4. Design of reimaging F/1.0 long-wavelength infrared optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Bo; Jia, Hong-guang

    2011-08-01

    A reimaging F/1.0 long-wavelength infrared optical system is proposed. The design has a flexible opto-mechanical layout. The design process is as follows. Firstly, the catadioptric reimaging system consists of two reflecting mirrors and a relay lenses. Two reflecting mirrors make up of the first imaging system and are therefore free of chromatic aberrations, while low dispersion lenses were used in the reimaging system, so the optical system do not need achromatic design for a high image quality. Then, to correct high-order aberrations resulting from large relative aperture, more parameters need to be used with aspheric or diffractive surfaces due to modern optic technology development. Here, aspheric is selected for easily manufacture. Finally, the design is completed with the help of ZEMAX software. The effective focal length of the objective is 120mm and the field of view (FOV) is 4°. The simulated final design shows adequate image quality and the modulation transfer function (MTF) is close to diffraction limit. The effect of the surrounding environmental temperature is analyzed using the concept of thermal defocusing, and the thermal compensation is discussed.

  5. FPLUME-1.0: An integrated volcanic plume model accounting for ash aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folch, A.; Costa, A.; Macedonio, G.

    2015-09-01

    Eruption Source Parameters (ESP) characterizing volcanic eruption plumes are crucial inputs for atmospheric tephra dispersal models, used for hazard assessment and risk mitigation. We present FPLUME-1.0, a steady-state 1-D cross-section averaged eruption column model based on the Buoyant Plume Theory (BPT). The model accounts for plume bent over by wind, entrainment of ambient moisture, effects of water phase changes, particle fallout and re-entrainment, a new parameterization for the air entrainment coefficients and a model for wet aggregation of ash particles in presence of liquid water or ice. In the occurrence of wet aggregation, the model predicts an "effective" grain size distribution depleted in fines with respect to that erupted at the vent. Given a wind profile, the model can be used to determine the column height from the eruption mass flow rate or vice-versa. The ultimate goal is to improve ash cloud dispersal forecasts by better constraining the ESP (column height, eruption rate and vertical distribution of mass) and the "effective" particle grain size distribution resulting from eventual wet aggregation within the plume. As test cases we apply the model to the eruptive phase-B of the 4 April 1982 El Chichón volcano eruption (México) and the 6 May 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption phase (Iceland).

  6. Geometric engineering, mirror symmetry and 6{d}_{(1,0)}to 4{d}_{(N=2)}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Zotto, Michele; Vafa, Cumrun; Xie, Dan

    2015-11-01

    We study compactification of 6 dimensional (1,0) theories on T 2. We use geometric engineering of these theories via F-theory and employ mirror symmetry technology to solve for the effective 4d N=2 geometry for a large number of the (1 ,0) theories including those associated with conformal matter. Using this we show that for a given 6d theory we can obtain many inequivalent 4d N=2 SCFTs. Some of these respect the global symmetries of the 6d theory while others exhibit SL(2 , ℤ) duality symmetry inherited from global diffeomorphisms of the T 2. This construction also explains the 6d origin of moduli space of 4d affine ADE quiver theories as flat ADE connections on T 2. Among the resulting 4 d N=2 CFTs we find theories whose vacuum geometry is captured by an LG theory (as opposed to a curve or a local CY geometry). We obtain arbitrary genus curves of class S with punctures from toroidal compactification of (1 , 0) SCFTs where the curve of the class S theory emerges through mirror symmetry. We also show that toroidal compactification of the little string version of these theories can lead to class S theories with no punctures on arbitrary genus Riemann surface.

  7. Structural/aerodynamic Blade Analyzer (SAB) User's Guide, Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morel, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    The structural/aerodynamic blade (SAB) analyzer provides an automated tool for the static-deflection analysis of turbomachinery blades with aerodynamic and rotational loads. A structural code calculates a deflected blade shape using aerodynamic loads input. An aerodynamic solver computes aerodynamic loads using deflected blade shape input. The two programs are iterated automatically until deflections converge. Currently, SAB version 1.0 is interfaced with MSC/NASTRAN to perform the structural analysis and PROP3D to perform the aerodynamic analysis. This document serves as a guide for the operation of the SAB system with specific emphasis on its use at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). This guide consists of six chapters: an introduction which gives a summary of SAB; SAB's methodology, component files, links, and interfaces; input/output file structure; setup and execution of the SAB files on the Cray computers; hints and tips to advise the user; and an example problem demonstrating the SAB process. In addition, four appendices are presented to define the different computer programs used within the SAB analyzer and describe the required input decks.

  8. GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J.

    2006-11-01

    This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.

  9. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 Software Validation and Verification.

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, David

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve stores crude oil in caverns solution-mined in salt domes along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas. The CaveMan software program has been used since the late 1990s as one tool to analyze pressure mea- surements monitored at each cavern. The purpose of this monitoring is to catch potential cavern integrity issues as soon as possible. The CaveMan software was written in Microsoft Visual Basic, and embedded in a Microsoft Excel workbook; this method of running the CaveMan software is no longer sustainable. As such, a new version called CaveMan Enter- prise has been developed. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 does not have any changes to the CaveMan numerical models. CaveMan Enterprise represents, instead, a change from desktop-managed work- books to an enterprise framework, moving data management into coordinated databases and porting the numerical modeling codes into the Python programming language. This document provides a report of the code validation and verification testing.

  10. spads 1.0: a toolbox to perform spatial analyses on DNA sequence data sets.

    PubMed

    Dellicour, Simon; Mardulyn, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    SPADS 1.0 (for 'Spatial and Population Analysis of DNA Sequences') is a population genetic toolbox for characterizing genetic variability within and among populations from DNA sequences. In view of the drastic increase in genetic information available through sequencing methods, spads was specifically designed to deal with multilocus data sets of DNA sequences. It computes several summary statistics from populations or groups of populations, performs input file conversions for other population genetic programs and implements locus-by-locus and multilocus versions of two clustering algorithms to study the genetic structure of populations. The toolbox also includes two MATLAB and r functions, GDISPAL and GDIVPAL, to display differentiation and diversity patterns across landscapes. These functions aim to generate interpolating surfaces based on multilocus distance and diversity indices. In the case of multiple loci, such surfaces can represent a useful alternative to multiple pie charts maps traditionally used in phylogeography to represent the spatial distribution of genetic diversity. These coloured surfaces can also be used to compare different data sets or different diversity and/or distance measures estimated on the same data set. PMID:24215429

  11. The mGA1.0: A common LISP implementation of a messy genetic algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, David E.; Kerzic, Travis

    1990-01-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) are finding increased application in difficult search, optimization, and machine learning problems in science and engineering. Increasing demands are being placed on algorithm performance, and the remaining challenges of genetic algorithm theory and practice are becoming increasingly unavoidable. Perhaps the most difficult of these challenges is the so-called linkage problem. Messy GAs were created to overcome the linkage problem of simple genetic algorithms by combining variable-length strings, gene expression, messy operators, and a nonhomogeneous phasing of evolutionary processing. Results on a number of difficult deceptive test functions are encouraging with the mGA always finding global optima in a polynomial number of function evaluations. Theoretical and empirical studies are continuing, and a first version of a messy GA is ready for testing by others. A Common LISP implementation called mGA1.0 is documented and related to the basic principles and operators developed by Goldberg et. al. (1989, 1990). Although the code was prepared with care, it is not a general-purpose code, only a research version. Important data structures and global variations are described. Thereafter brief function descriptions are given, and sample input data are presented together with sample program output. A source listing with comments is also included.

  12. A 3-D Vortex Code for Parachute Flow Predictions: VIPAR Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    STRICKLAND, JAMES H.; HOMICZ, GREGORY F.; PORTER, VICKI L.; GOSSLER, ALBERT A.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes a 3-D fluid mechanics code for predicting flow past bluff bodies whose surfaces can be assumed to be made up of shell elements that are simply connected. Version 1.0 of the VIPAR code (Vortex Inflation PARachute code) is described herein. This version contains several first order algorithms that we are in the process of replacing with higher order ones. These enhancements will appear in the next version of VIPAR. The present code contains a motion generator that can be used to produce a large class of rigid body motions. The present code has also been fully coupled to a structural dynamics code in which the geometry undergoes large time dependent deformations. Initial surface geometry is generated from triangular shell elements using a code such as Patran and is written into an ExodusII database file for subsequent input into VIPAR. Surface and wake variable information is output into two ExodusII files that can be post processed and viewed using software such as EnSight{trademark}.

  13. Modulation of keratin 1, 10 and involucrin expression as part of the complex response of the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT to ultraviolet radiation

    PubMed Central

    Moravcová, Martina; Libra, Antonín; Dvořáková, Jana; Víšková, Alena; Muthný, Tomáš; Velebný, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light evokes a complex stress response in keratinocytes. Keratin filament organization provides structural stability and mechanical integrity of keratinocytes. Involucrin is a transglutaminase substrate protein contributing to the formation of insoluble cornified envelopes. However, a more complex role for keratins and involucrin has been proposed, including the regulation of cell stress response. The aim was to evaluate modulations of keratin 1, 10 and involucrin expression in HaCaT in the light of the complex response of these cells to UV-B radiation, including effects on c-Jun and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) gene expression and production of interleukin (IL) 6 and 8. A UV-B (300±5 nm) dose of 10 mJ/cm2 was selected since this dose resulted in a partial decrease in cell viability in contrast to higher UV-B doses, which induced complete cell death 48 h after treatment. The UV-B radiation induced significant expression of keratin 1 and 10 and decreased expression of involucrin. This was accompanied by increased expression of c-Jun and MMP-1 and IL-6 and IL-8 production. The data suggest that the expression of keratin 1, 10 and involucrin is modulated in HaCaT keratinocytes as a part of the complex stress response to UV radiation. PMID:24678259

  14. Research and primary results of SLR experiment with 1064nm wavelength using Si detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Wendong; Zhang, Haifeng; Tang, Kai; Deng, Huarong; Li, Pu; Zhang, Zhongping; Prochazka, Ivan; Zhu, Nenghong

    2015-05-01

    SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging) is the common satellite observation technology with the highest single shot precision. The 532nm wavelength laser signal derived from 1064nm wavelength laser system is generally adopted to laser measurement to satellites. The 1064nm wavelength laser signal has better performances than 532nm ones in atmospheric attenuation, photon number, laser power, development and price, and so on, which is beneficial to enhance the detection ability of measuring system, and carry out the goal of weak signal detection. In this paper, the relevant techniques are presented in building up SLR system with 1064nm wavelength, and the corresponding solutions are put forward. With these techniques, the 1064nm wavelength high precise SLR measurement was successfully carried out by using si-detector for the first time in Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO) and the experimental foundations have been laid for the further development and applications in the field of far distance and weak signal space targets observation.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Thorium spectrum from 250nm to 5500nm (Redman+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redman, S. L.; Nave, G.; Sansonetti, C. J.

    2014-04-01

    We observed the spectrum of a commercial sealed Th/Ar HCL running at 25mA for almost 15hr starting on 2011 November 2. The region of observation was limited to between 8500/cm and 28000/cm (360nm and 1200nm) by the sensitivity of the silicon photodiode detector. (5 data files).

  16. Evaluation of SCAA mask technology as a pathway to the 65-nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, James V.; Petersen, John S.; Maslow, Mark J.; Gerold, David J.; McCafferty, Diane C.

    2003-06-01

    This study takes an integrated approach utilizing a combination of high NA 193 nm lithography, a sidewall chrome alternating aperture (SCAA) phase shift mask, optical proximity correction (OPC) and customized illumination in an attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of using 193 nm lithography to support the 65 nm node. A SCAA mask was designed and built with line/space patterns ranging in pitch from 300 nm down to 140 nm. A range of mask biases were applied to the zero and pi spaces in order to examine to response of the lithography to a combination of the SCAA approach and asymmetric biasing. In combination to the asymmetric biasing, overlay bracketing was applied in order to measure the chrome overlay tolerances of the mask. Simulations suggested that an unconventionally small sigma of 0.15 would be the optimum coherence for a high 193 nm optical system. A custom 0.15 sigma partial coherence illuminator was, therefore, built and installed in the experimental ASML Micrascan V 0.75 NA 193 nm scanner. Wafers were exposed using 190 nm of 193 nm resist and an organic BARC. The 70 nm 1:1 line/space patterns resolved with a depth of focus of about 0.2 μm. The 75 nm 1:1 line/space patterns showed a 0.3-0.4 μm depth of focus. Both of these process windows were limited by pattern collapse. Addressing the pattern collapse may improve the depth of focus. Comparing mask measurements to wafer measurements show that little or no asymmetric biasing in necessary to balance the pitch. Moreover, the measured pitch was stable over a focus range of at least 0.4 microns demonstrating that any phase imbalance present was not significantly affecting the observed lithography.

  17. FPLUME-1.0: An integral volcanic plume model accounting for ash aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folch, A.; Costa, A.; Macedonio, G.

    2016-02-01

    Eruption source parameters (ESP) characterizing volcanic eruption plumes are crucial inputs for atmospheric tephra dispersal models, used for hazard assessment and risk mitigation. We present FPLUME-1.0, a steady-state 1-D (one-dimensional) cross-section-averaged eruption column model based on the buoyant plume theory (BPT). The model accounts for plume bending by wind, entrainment of ambient moisture, effects of water phase changes, particle fallout and re-entrainment, a new parameterization for the air entrainment coefficients and a model for wet aggregation of ash particles in the presence of liquid water or ice. In the occurrence of wet aggregation, the model predicts an effective grain size distribution depleted in fines with respect to that erupted at the vent. Given a wind profile, the model can be used to determine the column height from the eruption mass flow rate or vice versa. The ultimate goal is to improve ash cloud dispersal forecasts by better constraining the ESP (column height, eruption rate and vertical distribution of mass) and the effective particle grain size distribution resulting from eventual wet aggregation within the plume. As test cases we apply the model to the eruptive phase-B of the 4 April 1982 El Chichón volcano eruption (México) and the 6 May 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption phase (Iceland). The modular structure of the code facilitates the implementation in the future code versions of more quantitative ash aggregation parameterization as further observations and experiment data will be available for better constraining ash aggregation processes.

  18. FPLUME-1.0: An integral volcanic plume model accounting for ash aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folch, Arnau; Costa, Antonio; Macedonio, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Eruption Source Parameters (ESP) characterizing volcanic eruption plumes are crucial inputs for atmospheric tephra dispersal models, used for hazard assessment and risk mitigation. We present FPLUME-1.0, a steady-state 1D cross-section averaged eruption column model based on the Buoyant Plume Theory (BPT). The model accounts for plume bending by wind, entrainment of ambient moisture, effects of water phase changes, particle fallout and re-entrainment, a new parameterization for the air entrainment coefficients and a model for wet aggregation of ash particles in presence of liquid water or ice. In the occurrence of wet aggregation, the model predicts an "effective" grain size distribution depleted in fines with respect to that erupted at the vent. Given a wind profile, the model can be used to determine the column height from the eruption mass flow rate or vice-versa. The ultimate goal is to improve ash cloud dispersal forecasts by better constraining the ESP (column height, eruption rate and vertical distribution of mass) and the "effective" particle grain size distribution resulting from eventual wet aggregation within the plume. As test cases we apply the model to the eruptive phase-B of the 4 April 1982 El Chichón volcano eruption (México) and the 6 May 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption phase (Iceland). The modular structure of the code facilitates the implementation in the future code versions of more quantitative ash aggregation parameterization as further observations and experiments data will be available for better constraining ash aggregation processes.

  19. The structure of T6 human insulin at 1.0 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Smith, G David; Pangborn, Walter A; Blessing, Robert H

    2003-03-01

    The structure of T(6) human insulin has been determined at 120 K at a resolution of 1.0 A and refined to a residual of 0.183. As a result of cryofreezing, the first four residues of the B chain in one of the two crystallographically independent AB monomers in the hexameric [Zn(1/3)(AB)(2)Zn(1/3)](3) complex undergo a conformational shift that displaces the C(alpha) atom of PheB1 by 7.86 A relative to the room-temperature structure. A least-squares superposition of all backbone atoms of the room-temperature and low-temperature structures yielded a mean displacement of 0.422 A. Omitting the first four residues of the B chain reduced the mean displacement to 0.272 A. At 120 K, nine residues were found to exhibit two discrete side-chain conformations, but only two of these residues are in common with the seven residues found to have disordered side chains in the room-temperature structure. As a result of freezing, the disorder observed at room temperature in both ArgB22 side chains is eliminated. The close contact between pairs of O( epsilon 2) atoms in GluB13 observed at room temperature is maintained at cryotemperature and suggests that a carboxylate-carboxylic acid centered hydrogen bond exists [-C(=O)-O.H.O-C(=O)-] such that the H atom is equally shared between the two partially charged O atoms. PMID:12595704

  20. NST and IRIS multi-wavelength observations of an M1.0 class solar flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas Domínguez, Santiago; Sadykov, Viacheslav; Kosovichev, Alexander; Sharykin, Ivan; Struminsky, Alexei; Zimovets, Ivan

    2015-08-01

    Although solar flares are the most energetic events in the Solar System and have direct impact in the interplanetary space and ultimately in our planet, there are still many unresolved issues concerning their generation, the underlying processes of particle acceleration involved, the effect at different layer in the solar atmosphere, among others. This work presents new coordinated observations from the New Solar Telescope (NST) and the space telescope IRIS that acquired simultaneous observations of an M1.0 class flare occurred on 12 June, 2014 in active region NOAA 12087. NST filtergrams using the TiO filter, together with chromospheric data from the Halpha line allow us to study the evolution of the event from the first signs of the intensification of the intensity in the region. We focused on a small portion where the intensity enhancement in Halpha (blue and red wings) seems to be triggered, and discovered a rapid expansion of a flux-rope structure near the magnetic neutral line, in the sequence of high-resolution photospheric images. IRIS observations evidenced strong emission of the chromospheric and transition region lines during the flare. Jet-like structures are detected before the initiation of the flare in chromospheric lines and strong non-thermal emission in the transition region at the beginning of the impulsive phase. Evaporation flows with velocities up to 50 km/s occurred in the hot chromospheric plasma. We interpreted the result in terms of the “gentle” evaporation that occurs after accelerated particles heat the chromosphere.