Science.gov

Sample records for 1-2 class periods

  1. A New Class of Jeff = 1 / 2 Mott Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birol, Turan; Haule, Kristjan

    2015-03-01

    We predict a novel class of Jeff=1/2 Mott insulators in a family of Ir and Rh fluoride compounds with the K2GeF6 crystal structure that are previously synthesized, but not characterized extensively. First principles calculations in the level of all electron Density Functional Theory + Dynamical Mean Field Theory (DFT+DMFT) indicate that these compounds have large Mott gaps and some of them exhibit unprecedented proximity to the ideal, SU(2) symmetric Jeff=1/2 limit.

  2. Resistance integrons: class 1, 2 and 3 integrons.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yang; Bao, Xuerui; Ji, Lili; Chen, Lei; Liu, Junyan; Miao, Jian; Chen, Dingqiang; Bian, Huawei; Li, Yanmei; Yu, Guangchao

    2015-01-01

    As recently indiscriminate abuse of existing antibiotics in both clinical and veterinary treatment leads to proliferation of antibiotic resistance in microbes and poses a dilemma for the future treatment of such bacterial infection, antimicrobial resistance has been considered to be one of the currently leading concerns in global public health, and reported to widely spread and extended to a large variety of microorganisms. In China, as one of the currently worst areas for antibiotics abuse, the annual prescription of antibiotics, including both clinical and veterinary treatment, has approaching 140 gram per person and been roughly estimated to be 10 times higher than that in the United Kingdom, which is considered to be a potential area for the emergence of "Super Bugs". Based on the integrons surveillance in Guangzhou, China in the past decade, this review thus aimed at summarizing the role of integrons in the perspective of both clinical setting and environment, with the focus on the occurrence and prevalence of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons. PMID:26487554

  3. Three classes of newtonian three-body planar periodic orbits.

    PubMed

    Šuvakov, Milovan; Dmitrašinović, V

    2013-03-15

    We present the results of a numerical search for periodic orbits of three equal masses moving in a plane under the influence of Newtonian gravity, with zero angular momentum. A topological method is used to classify periodic three-body orbits into families, which fall into four classes, with all three previously known families belonging to one class. The classes are defined by the orbits' geometric and algebraic symmetries. In each class we present a few orbits' initial conditions, 15 in all; 13 of these correspond to distinct orbits. PMID:25166541

  4. Mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2 regulates the class II transactivator.

    PubMed

    Voong, Lilien N; Slater, Allison R; Kratovac, Sebila; Cressman, Drew E

    2008-04-01

    The expression of major histocompatibility class II genes is necessary for proper antigen presentation and induction of an immune response. This expression is initiated by the class II transactivator, CIITA. The establishment of the active form of CIITA is controlled by a series of post-translational events, including GTP binding, ubiquitination, and dimerization. However, the role of phosphorylation is less clearly defined as are the consequences of phosphorylation on CIITA activity and the identity of the kinases involved. In this study we show that the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) interact directly with CIITA, targeting serine residues in the amino terminus of the protein, including serine 288. Inhibition of this phosphorylation by dominant-negative forms of ERK or by treatment of cells with the ERK inhibitor PD98059 resulted in the increase in CIITA-mediated gene expression from a class II promoter, enhanced the nuclear concentration of CIITA, and impaired its ability to bind to the nuclear export factor, CRM1. In contrast, inhibition of ERK1/2 activity had little effect on serine-to-alanine mutant forms of CIITA. These data suggest a model whereby ERK1/2-mediated phosphorylation of CIITA down-regulates CIITA activity by priming it for nuclear export, thus providing a means for cells to tightly regulate the extent of antigen presentation. PMID:18245089

  5. Poly(1,2,3-triazolium)s: a new class of functional polymer electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Obadia, Mona M; Drockenmuller, Eric

    2016-02-11

    Poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) are a unique class of polyelectrolytes having properties suited for modern technological applications such as electrochemical devices (batteries, supercapacitors, light-emitting electrochemical cells), ion-gated field effect transistors, electrochromic devices, fuel cells, dye sensitized solar cells, catalysis, or soft robotics. Their structure and properties can be finely tuned by unlimited combinations issued from extended pools of cationic and anionic building blocks. In a constant quest for the development of solid polymer electrolytes with enhanced physical, mechanical and (electro)chemical properties, a new class of PILs based on 1,2,3-triazolium cations has been recently developed. Their preparation takes advantage of the beneficial features of the multiple combinations between the Click chemistry philosophy with macromolecular engineering techniques to afford tunable and highly functional ion conducting materials thus stretching out the actual boundaries of PILs macromolecular design. This feature article summarizes the different strategies developed so far for the synthesis of 1,2,3-triazolium-based PILs (TPILs) since their first introduction in 2013. PMID:26732341

  6. Quasilocal conservation laws in XXZ spin-1/2 chains: Open, periodic and twisted boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosen, Tomaž

    2014-09-01

    A continuous family of quasilocal exact conservation laws is constructed in the anisotropic Heisenberg (XXZ) spin-1/2 chain for periodic (or twisted) boundary conditions and for a set of commensurate anisotropies densely covering the entire easy plane interaction regime. All local conserved operators follow from the standard (Hermitian) transfer operator in fundamental representation (with auxiliary spin s=1/2), and are all even with respect to a spin flip operation. However, the quasilocal family is generated by differentiation of a non-Hermitian highest weight transfer operator with respect to a complex auxiliary spin representation parameter s and includes also operators of odd parity. For a finite chain with open boundaries the time derivatives of quasilocal operators are not strictly vanishing but result in operators localized near the boundaries of the chain. We show that a simple modification of the non-Hermitian transfer operator results in exactly conserved, but still quasilocal operators for periodic or generally twisted boundary conditions. As an application, we demonstrate that implementing the new exactly conserved operator family for estimating the high-temperature spin Drude weight results, in the thermodynamic limit, in exactly the same lower bound as for almost conserved family and open boundaries. Under the assumption that the bound is saturating (suggested by agreement with previous thermodynamic Bethe ansatz calculations) we propose a simple explicit construction of infinite time averages of local operators such as the spin current.

  7. Flexible nonlinear periodization in a beginner college weight training class.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Stearne, David J

    2010-01-01

    McNamara, JM and Stearne, DJ. Flexible nonlinear periodization in a beginner college weight training class. J Strength Cond Res 24(1): 17-22, 2010-The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a flexible nonlinear (FNL) periodized weight training program compared to a nonlinear (NL) periodized weight training program on strength and power. Sixteen beginner weight training students were randomly assigned to an FNL group (n = 8) or an NL group (n = 8). The exercise program included a combination of machines and free weights completed in 30 minutes, twice per week, for 12 consecutive weeks. Both groups were assigned the same total training volume of 3,680 repetitions and the same total training repetition maximum assignments of 10, 15, and 20. The FNL group, however, was allowed to choose which day they completed the 10-, 15-, or 20-repetition workout. This was the only difference between the groups. Pre- and post-test measures included chest press, leg press, and standing long jump. The FNL group significantly improved by an average increase of 62 kg (p < 0.05), whereas the NL group only increased by an average of 16 kg in the leg press. The FNL group did not significantly differ in chest press or standing long jump performance when compared to the NL group. The conclusion from this study is that an FNL periodization program may be a highly effective method of training for improving leg strength. Coaches can immediately implement an FNL program by evaluating the readiness of an athlete immediately before his or her training session, then adjusting the assigned exercise intensity accordingly. PMID:20042923

  8. SDO Captures Release of X1.2 Class Solar Flare

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie shows imagery from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory as the sun emitted an X-class flare on Jan. 7, 2014. The movie shows light in the 1600 Angstrom wavelength showing both sunspots visi...

  9. Triazolines XIII: delta 2-1,2,3-triazolines, a new class of anticonvulsants.

    PubMed

    Kadaba, P K

    1984-06-01

    A series of 1,5-diaryl-delta 2-1,2,3-triazolines has been synthesized and evaluated for the first time as potential anticonvulsant agents using the standard subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol seizure threshold and maximal electroshock seizure tests. Out of the 31 triazolines that were screened, 11 exhibited moderate anticonvulsant activity; 9 of the compounds afforded protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures, while two antagonized electrically induced convulsions. PMID:6737279

  10. Study of multi-periodic coronal pulsations during an X-class solar flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Partha; Srivastava, A. K.; Dwivedi, B. N.; Sych, Robert; Moon, Y.-J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate quasi-periodic coronal pulsations during the decay phase of an X 3.2 class flare on 14 May 2013, using soft X-ray data from the RHESSI satellite. Periodogram analyses of soft X-ray light curves show that ∼ 53 s and ∼ 72 s periods co-exist in the 3-6 keV, 6-12 keV and 12-25 keV energy bands. Considering the typical length of the flaring loop system and observed periodicities, we find that they are associated with multiple (first two harmonics) of fast magnetoacoustic sausage waves. The phase relationship of soft X-ray emissions in different energy bands using cross-correlation technique show that these modes are standing in nature as we do not find the phase lag. Considering the period ratio, we diagnose the local plasma conditions of the flaring region by invoking MHD seismology. The period ratio P1/2P2 is found to be ∼ 0.65, which indicates that such oscillations are most likely excited in longitudinal density stratified loops.

  11. Dynamical universality class of Brownian motion and exact results for a single-impurity s=1/2 XY chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Surajit

    1996-03-01

    Relaxation phenomena in a class of nondissipative systems with two highly disparate time scales (i.e., Brownian systems) have unique commonalities quantifiable via two scalars. It is shown that the exactly solvable problem of the dynamics of a weakly linked impurity spin in a s=1/2 XY chain belongs to this dynamical universality class and so does that of a heavy mass in an infinite harmonic oscillator chain and a spinless quasi two-dimensional attractive Fermi gas in the long-wavelength limit. The case of the strongly linked impurity in the XY chain is also discussed along with the corresponding limits in the harmonic oscillator chain and the electron-gas problems.

  12. Solar flare count periodicities in different X-ray flare classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peng-Xin; Xu, Jing-Chen

    2016-04-01

    Using the Morlet wavelet transform and the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), we investigate the periodic behaviours of C, M and X-class flare counts, respectively, recorded by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) from 1983 May to 2014 December, which cover the two complete solar cycles (SCs) 22 and 23 as well as the part of declining phase of SC 21 and rise and maximum phases of SC 24. Analyses show that the periodic behaviours of various class flare counts are different. (1) Not all periods of various class flare counts appear dominant during the cycle maxima. For C-class flares, during SC 23, periods appear dominant during the maximum phase, however, compared to those during SC 23, there are more periods during the declining phase of SC 22; for M-class flares, during SCs 22 and 23, periods appear dominant during the cycle maxima; for X-class flares, during SC 22, almost all periods appear during the maximum phase; however, during SC 23, there are more periods during the declining phase compared to those during SC 22. (2) For C-class flares, the appearance of periods do not follow the amplitude of C-class flare cycles; while, for M and X-class flares, the appearance of periods follows the amplitude of the investigated corresponding class flare cycles. (3) From the overall trends, the 10 yr and longer time-scale trends of the monthly numbers of M and X-class flares, we can infer that the maximum values of the monthly M and X-class flare numbers would increase during SC 25.

  13. Flexible nonlinear periodization in a beginner college weight training class.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Stearne, David J

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a flexible nonlinear (FNL) periodized weight training program compared to a nonlinear (NL) periodized weight training program on strength and power. Sixteen beginner weight training students were randomly assigned to an FNL group (n = 8) or an NL group (n = 8). The exercise program included a combination of machines and free weights completed in 30 minutes, twice per week, for 12 consecutive weeks. Both groups were assigned the same total training volume of 3,680 repetitions and the same total training repetition maximum assignments of 10, 15, and 20. The FNL group, however, was allowed to choose which day they completed the 10, 15, or 20 repetition workout. This was the only difference between the groups. Pre- and post-test measures included chest press, leg press, and standing long jump. The FNL group significantly improved by an average increase of 62 kg (p < 0.05), whereas the NL group only increased by an average of 16 kg in the leg press. The FNL group did not significantly differ in chest press or standing long jump performance when compared to the NL group. The conclusion from this study is that an FNL periodization program may be a highly effective method of training for improving leg strength. Coaches can immediately implement an FNL program by evaluating the readiness of an athlete immediately before his or her training session, then adjusting the assigned exercise intensity accordingly. PMID:19858756

  14. Best M-term trigonometric approximations of Besov classes of periodic functions of several variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, A. S.

    2003-04-01

    We obtain order-exact estimates for the best M-term trigonometric approximations of the Besov classes B_{p,\\theta}^r of periodic functions of several variables in L_q with certain relations between p and q.

  15. Various regimes of quantum behavior in an S=(1)/(2) Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain with fourfold periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Okubo, T.; Iwase, K.; Ono, T.; Kono, Y.; Kittaka, S.; Sakakibara, T.; Matsuo, A.; Kindo, K.; Hosokoshi, Y.

    2013-11-01

    We have succeeded in synthesizing single crystals of the verdazyl radical β-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-1,5-diphenylverdazyl. The ab initio molecular orbital calculation indicates the formation of an S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain with fourfold magnetic periodicity consisting of three types of exchange interactions. We successfully explain the magnetic and thermodynamic properties based on the expected spin model by using the quantum Monte Carlo method. Furthermore, we reveal that the alternating and unique Ising ferromagnetic chains become effective in the specific field regions and observe a cooperative phenomenon caused by the magnetic order and quantum fluctuations. These results demonstrate that the verdazyl radical could form an unconventional spin model with interesting quantum behavior and provide a way to study a variety of quantum spin systems.

  16. Pyrrolo[1,2-b][1,2,5]benzothiadiazepines (PBTDs): A new class of agents with high apoptotic activity in chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells and in cells from patients at onset and who were imatinib-resistant.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Romano; Marfè, Gabriella; Artico, Marino; La Regina, Giuseppe; Lavecchia, Antonio; Novellino, Ettore; Morgante, Emanuela; Morgante, Manuela; Di Stefano, Carla; Catalano, Gianfranco; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Abruzzese, Elisabetta; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Russo, Matteo Antonio; Amadori, Sergio; Cirilli, Roberto; La Torre, Francesco; Sinibaldi Salimei, Paola

    2006-09-21

    Pyrrolo[1,2-b][1,2,5]benzothiadiazepine 5,5-dioxides (PBTDs) induced apoptosis in human BCR-ABL-expressing leukemia cells. The apoptotic activity was also observed in primary leukemic blasts, obtained from chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients at onset or from patients in blast crisis and who were imatinib-resistant. Compounds 5 and 14 induced apoptosis before BCR-ABL protein expression and tyrosin phosphorylation were affected and activated different caspases in the apoptotic pathway. PBTDs are a new class of valid candidates for the treatment of CML. PMID:16970408

  17. On the Maximum Number of Periodical Solutions of a Class of Autonomous Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Raeva, M.

    2008-10-30

    The autonomous systems are investigated on a certain condition, assuming the existence of inner resonances. Nonlinear parts are polynomials of a certain class. The present article is a continuation of the last one, which was published by American Institute of Physics, New York in 2007. We are interested both in the existence and the number of periodical trajectories of the system with initial conditions.

  18. Orbital stability of periodic waves in the class of reduced Ostrovsky equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Edward R.; Pelinovsky, Dmitry E.

    2016-09-01

    Periodic travelling waves are considered in the class of reduced Ostrovsky equations that describe low-frequency internal waves in the presence of rotation. The reduced Ostrovsky equations with either quadratic or cubic nonlinearities can be transformed to integrable equations of the Klein-Gordon type by means of a change of coordinates. By using the conserved momentum and energy as well as an additional conserved quantity due to integrability, we prove that small-amplitude periodic waves are orbitally stable with respect to subharmonic perturbations, with period equal to an integer multiple of the period of the wave. The proof is based on construction of a Lyapunov functional, which is convex at the periodic wave and is conserved in the time evolution. We also show numerically that convexity of the Lyapunov functional holds for periodic waves of arbitrary amplitudes.

  19. Quasi-periodic pulsations with varying period in multi-wavelength observations of an X-class flare

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jing; Tan, Baolin; Zhang, Yin; Karlický, Marian; Mészárosová, Hana

    2014-08-10

    This work presents an interesting phenomenon of the period variation in quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) observed during the impulsive phase of a coronal mass ejection-related X1.1 class flare on 2012 July 6. The period of QPPs was changed from 21 s at soft X-rays (SXR) to 22-23 s at microwaves, to ∼24 s at extreme ultraviolet emissions (EUV), and to 27-32 s at metric-decimetric waves. The microwave, EUV, and SXR QPPs, emitted from flare loops of different heights, were oscillating in phase. Fast kink mode oscillations were proposed to be the modulation mechanism, which may exist in a wide region in the solar atmosphere from the chromosphere to the upper corona or even to the interplanetary space. Changed parameters of flare loops through the solar atmosphere could result in the varying period of QPPs at different wavelengths. The first appearing microwave QPPs and quasi-periodic metric-decimetric type III bursts were generated by energetic electrons. This may imply that particle acceleration or magnetic reconnection were located between these two non-thermal emission sources. Thermal QPPs (in SXR and EUV emissions) occurred later than the nonthermal ones, which would suggest a some time for plasma heating or energy dissipation in flare loops during burst processes. At the beginning of flare, a sudden collapse and expansion of two separated flare loop structures occurred simultaneously with the multi-wavelength QPPs. An implosion in the corona, including both collapse and expansion of flare loops, could be a trigger of loop oscillations in a very large region in the solar atmosphere.

  20. The Synthesis of 1-Phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines: An Undergraduate Organic Laboratory Experiment and Class Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letcher, R. M.; Sammes, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate organic chemistry experiment (requiring three/four 3-hour laboratory sessions) involving a four-stage synthesis of 1-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines via the Pictet-Spengler route. In addition, the experiment allows students to study the spectra and properties of aklaloid-like materials while completing several…

  1. A novel role for integrin-linked kinase in periodic mechanical stress-mediated ERK1/2 mitogenic signaling in rat chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Song, Huanghe; Liang, Wenwei; Xu, Shun; Li, Zeng; Chen, Zhefeng; Cui, Weiding; Zhou, Jinchun; Wang, Qing; Liu, Feng; Fan, Weimin

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, a variety of studies have been performed to investigate the cellular responses of periodic mechanical stress on chondrocytes. Integrin β1-mediated ERK1/2 activation was proven to be indispensable in periodic mechanical stress-induced chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis. However, other signal proteins responsible for the mitogenesis of chondrocytes under periodic mechanical stress remain incompletely understood. In the current investigation, we probed the roles of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) signaling in periodic mechanical stress-induced chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis. We found that upon periodic mechanical stress induction, ILK activity increased significantly. Depletion of ILK with targeted shRNA strongly inhibited periodic mechanical stress-induced chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis. In addition, pretreatment with a blocking antibody against integrin β1 resulted in a remarkable decrease in ILK activity in cells exposed to periodic mechanical stress. Furthermore, inhibition of ILK with its target shRNA significantly suppressed ERK1/2 activation in relation to periodic mechanical stress. Based on the above results, we identified ILK as a crucial regulator involved in the integrin β1-ERK1/2 signal cascade responsible for periodic mechanical stress-induced chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis. PMID:27154044

  2. Periodic Disk Eclipsing Stars: A New Class of Variable Young Stellar Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavchan, Peter; Laohakunakorn, N.; Seifahrt, A.; Staplefeldt, K.; Gee, A. H.

    2010-01-01

    We present the discovery of 92.6 day periodic near-infrared flu variability for the Class I T Tauri star YLW 16A. Our data are from the 2MASS Calibration Point Source Working Database and constitute 1582 observations in J, H and Ks of a field in Rho Ophiuchus used to calibrate the 2MASS All-Sky Survey. We identify a light curve that brightens from a quiescent faint state by 0.4 mag for only 20% of the period. The long period cannot be explained by stellar rotation. We propose that YLW 16A is a triple YSO system, with an inner binary orbital period of 92.6 days. We postulate that we are observing a component of the binary being eclipsed by a circumbinary disk with respect to our line of site. YLW 16A joins WL 4 and KH-15D as a third member of a new class of disk-eclipsing young stars. Both YLW 16A and WL 4 have been identified to have tertiary companions with projected separations of 20--50 AU. We propose that the tertiary companion can warp the inner circumbinary disk to produce the disk eclipses. We present NIRSPEC observations of WL 4 that suggest three distinct radial velocity components, and present a model SED for YLW 16A. These systems will be useful in investigating terrestrial-zone YSO disk properties and dynamics at 1 Myr.

  3. Discovery of periodic class II methanol masers associated with G339.986-0.425 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maswanganye, J. P.; van der Walt, D. J.; Goedhart, S.; Gaylard, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    10 new class II methanol masers from the 6.7-GHz Methanol Multibeam survey catalogues III and IV were selected for a monitoring programme at both 6.7 and 12.2 GHz with the 26-m Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory radio telescope for 2 yr and 9 months, from 2012 August to 2015 May. In the sample, only masers associated with G339.986-0.425 were found to show periodic variability at both 6.7 and 12.2 GHz. The existence of periodic variation was tested with four independent methods. The analytical method gave the best estimation of the period, which was 246 ± 1 d. The time series of G339.986-0.425 show strong correlations across velocity channels and between the 6.7- and 12.2-GHz masers. The time delay was also measured across channels and shows structure across the spectrum which is continuous between different maser components.

  4. Mars exploration, Venus swingby and conjunction class mission modes, time period 2000 to 2045

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, A. C.; Mulqueen, J. A.; Skinner, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Trajectory and mission requirement data are presented for Earth-Mars opposition class and conjunction class round trip stopover mission opportunities available during the time period year 2000 to year 2045. The opposition class mission employs the gravitational field of Venus to accelerate the space vehicle on either the outbound or inbound leg. The gravitational field of Venus was used to reduce the propulsion requirement associated with the opposition class mission. Representative space vehicle systems are sized to compare the initial mass required in low Earth orbit of one mission opportunity with another mission opportunity. The interplanetary space vehicle is made up of the spacecraft and the space vehicle acceleration system. The space vehicle acceleration system consists of three propulsion stages. The first propulsion stage performs the Earth escape maneuver; the second stage brakes the spacecraft and Earth braking stage into the Mars elliptical orbit and effects the escape maneuver from the Mars elliptical orbit. The third propulsion stage brakes the mission module into an elliptical orbit at Earth return. The interplanetary space vehicle was assumed to be assembled in and depart from the space station circular orbit.

  5. Class II Division 1 in New Dimension: Role of Posterior Transverse Interarch Discrepancy in Class II Division 1 Malocclusion During the Mixed Dentition Period

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Deepanshu; Mahajan, Neeraj; Bansal, Samriti; Sawhney, Anshul; Kaur, Jasvir; Tripathi, Shashank; Malaviya, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Posterior transverse discrepancy as seen in some cases of Class II Division 1 malocclusion in mixed dentition period can be related to typical skeletofacial characteristics. These features when studied early in the mixed dentition period give a clear view of the desired appropriate treatment plan in a particular case. Aim The purpose of this study was to establish a simple method to determine the posterior (intermolar) transverse discrepancy and craniofacial skeletal features between the dental arches during the mixed dentition in a sample of Class II Division 1 patients to provide diagnostic and therapeutic guidance in the early approach. Materials and Methods A sample of 60 Class II Division 1 patients in mixed dention that were divided into 30 Class II Division 1 patients with posterior transverse interarch discrepancy {Class II (I) PTID group} and 30 Class II Division 1 patients without posterior transverse interarch discrepancy {Class II (I) NPTID group}. Thirty Class I subjects in mixed dentition were included as control. Results The skeletal features of the Class II group without PTID are those of the skeletal Class II associated with ‘anatomic’ mandibular retrusion (due to a micrognathic mandible) and those of the Class II group with PTID as skeletal Class II associated with only a ‘functional’ mandibular retrusion (due to a posteriorly displaced mandible of normal size). Conclusion This study confirmed the role of occlusion in the control of maxillomandibular skeletal relationships.The treatment strategies could be planned on the basis of the transverse component of Class II Division 1 groups in the mixed dentition period. PMID:26417555

  6. Recovery of partial differential operators on classes of periodic functions with mixed smoothness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balgimbayeva, Sholpan

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of optimal linear recovery for mixed partial differential operator A on the unit ball SBpθ r(Tn) of the Nikol'skii-Besov space of periodic functions with mixed smoothness. We find error bounds sharp in order for optimal linear recovery of operator A on class SBpθ r(Tn) . As information IMδ(f ) about the functions f from class SBpθ r(Tn) we shall use Fourier coefficients with numbers from step "hyperbolic" cross. As the linear method using the information about Fourier coefficients, we shall consider action of the mixed partial differential operator A on the special "private" sum of decomposition on system (type as wavelets) trigonometric polynomials.

  7. Structural crossover from nonmodulated to long-period modulated tetragonal phase and anomalous change in ferroelectric properties in the lead-free piezoelectric N a1 /2B i1 /2Ti O3-BaTi O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Badari Narayana; Khatua, Dipak Kumar; Garg, Rohini; Senyshyn, Anatoliy; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2015-06-01

    The highly complex structure-property interrelationship in the lead-free piezoelectric (x )N a1 /2B i1 /2Ti O3- (1 -x ) BaTi O3 is a subject of considerable contemporary debate. Using comprehensive x-ray, neutron diffraction, dielectric, and ferroelectric studies, we have shown the existence of a new criticality in this system at x =0.80 , i.e., well within the conventional tetragonal phase field. This criticality manifests as a nonmonotonic variation of the tetragonality and coercivity and is shown to be associated with a crossover from a nonmodulated tetragonal phase (for x <0.8 ) to a long-period modulated tetragonal phase (for x >0.80 ). It is shown that the stabilization of long-period modulation introduces a characteristic depolarization temperature in the system. While differing qualitatively from the two-phase model often suggested for the critical compositions of this system, our results support the view with regard to the tendency in perovskites to stabilize long-period modulated structures as a result of complex interplay of antiferrodistortive modes [Bellaiche and Iniguez, Phys. Rev. B 88, 014104 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.014104; Prosandeev, Wang, Ren, Iniguez, ands Bellaiche, Adv. Funct. Mater. 23, 234 (2013), 10.1002/adfm.201201467].

  8. Pyrazolo[4,3-c][1,2]benzothiazines 5,5-dioxide: a promising new class of Staphylococcus aureus NorA efflux pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Stefano; Gosetto, Francesca; Serritella, Serena; Manfroni, Giuseppe; Tabarrini, Oriana; Iraci, Nunzio; Brincat, Jean Pierre; Carosati, Emanuele; Villarini, Milena; Kaatz, Glenn W; Cecchetti, Violetta

    2012-04-12

    The increasing resistance to antibacterials commonly employed in the clinic and the growth of multidrug resistant strains suggest that the development of new therapeutic approaches should be of primary concern. In this context, EPIs may restore life to old drugs. In the present work, the EPI activity of the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib was confirmed and a new class of pyrazolo[4,3-c][1,2]benzothiazine 5,5-dioxide analogues acting as inhibitors of the Staphylococcus aureus NorA multidrug efflux pump was identified. PMID:22432682

  9. 1+1+2 gravitational perturbations on LRS class II spacetimes: II. Decoupling gravito-electromagnetic 2-vector and scalar harmonic amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burston, R. B.

    2008-12-01

    This is the second paper in a series that considers first-order, gauge-invariant and covariant, gravitational perturbations to locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) class II vacuum spacetimes. Focusing on the 1+1+2 gravito-electromagnetic (GEM) formalism, the first paper used linear algebra techniques to derive four decoupled equations that govern four specific combinations of the GEM 2-tensor harmonic amplitudes. This paper completes the decoupling of the 1+1+2 GEM system by showing how to derive seven new decoupled quantities. Four of these arise when considering the GEM 2-vector harmonic amplitudes and it is found that decoupling is achieved by combining these with the (2/3-sheet) shear 2-tensor harmonic amplitudes. The remaining three arise from the 1+1+2 GEM scalars. Two of which concern the 2-gradient of the gravito-electric scalar that must also be combined with shear 2-tensor amplitudes, whereas the other involves the gravito-magnetic scalar only.

  10. Observations of a new class of upstream waves with periods near 3 seconds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, G.; Russell, C. T.; Thomsen, M. F.; Gosling, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    A new class of ULF waves with periods near 3 s in the earth's upstream region is found by examining the high time resolution magnetic field data from the ISEE spacecraft. These waves are observed in the part of the upstream region which is magnetically connected to the bow shock, but only when the solar wind plasma beta is high (greater than 1). The waves are always right-handed, nearly circularly polarized in the spacecraft frame. The directions of the wave vectors are in the general direction of the average magnetic field, and the waves are convected downstream in the spacecraft frame. This study of these waves has shown that they appear to be intrinsically left-handed ion cyclotron waves in the plasma rest frame.

  11. Heart-cutting two-dimensional liquid chromatography methods for quantification of 2-acetyl-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole in Class III caramel colours.

    PubMed

    Moretton, Cédric; Crétier, Gérard; Nigay, Henri; Rocca, Jean-Louis

    2008-07-11

    Heart-cutting two-dimensional liquid chromatography/UV detection methods were developed to determine 2-acetyl-4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole (noted as THI) in Class III caramel colours. In the first dimension, the caramel sample diluted in water was fractionated either by reversed-phase chromatography on C18 silica packing or by ion-exchange chromatography using strong cationic exchanger (SCX) stationary phase. In each case, THI elution domain was recovered in a loop and transferred to a second column packed with porous graphitic carbon (PGC) for the selective separation of THI. From the accuracy profiles with acceptance limit fixed at 20% and beta-expectation tolerance interval fixed at 90%, the two methods, C18-PGC and SCX-PGC, were validated for THI/caramel ratios included between 5-50 and 10-50 ppm, respectively. Finally, the two methods were compared for the analysis of numerous caramel samples. PMID:18538331

  12. 1+1+2 electromagnetic perturbations on non-vacuum LRS class II spacetimes: decoupling scalar and 2-vector harmonic amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burston, R. B.

    2008-04-01

    We use the covariant and gauge-invariant 1+1+2 formalism of Clarkson and Barrett [1] to analyze electromagnetic (EM) perturbations on non-vacuum locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) class II spacetimes. Ultimately, we show how to derive six real decoupled equations governing the total of six EM scalar and 2-vector harmonic amplitudes. Four of these are new, and result from expanding the complex EM 2-vector which we defined in [2] in terms of EM 2-vector harmonic amplitudes. We are then able to show that there are four precise combinations of the amplitudes that decouple, two of these are polar perturbations whereas the remaining two are axial. The remaining two decoupled equations are the generalized Regge Wheeler equations which were developed previously in [3], and these govern the two EM scalar harmonic amplitudes. However, our analysis generalizes this by including a full description and classification of energy momentum sources, such as charges and currents.

  13. The study of nonlinear almost periodic differential equations without recourse to the H-classes of these equations

    SciTech Connect

    Slyusarchuk, V. E. E-mail: V.Ye.Slyusarchuk@NUWM.rv.ua

    2014-06-01

    The well-known theorems of Favard and Amerio on the existence of almost periodic solutions to linear and nonlinear almost periodic differential equations depend to a large extent on the H-classes and the requirement that the bounded solutions of these equations be separated. The present paper provides different conditions for the existence of almost periodic solutions. These conditions, which do not depend on the H-classes of the equations, are formulated in terms of a special functional on the set of bounded solutions of the equations under consideration. This functional is used, in particular, to test whether solutions are separated. Bibliography: 24 titles. (paper)

  14. [Investigation of the presence of class 1, 2, 3 integrons and their relationships with antibiotic resistance in clinical Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates].

    PubMed

    Usta, Egemen; Eroğlu, Cafer; Yanık, Keramettin; Karadağ, Adil; Güney, Akif Koray; Günaydın, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic emergent pathogen causing hospital-acquired infections. It is resistant to majority of the broad spectrum antibiotics due to several mechanisms which significantly limit the treatment options. Although the relationship between integrons, mobile genetic elements which play role in transferring resistance genes, and the antibiotic resistance in different gram-negative bacteria have been investigated, the data are limited in Turkey especially for S.maltophilia. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of different classes of integrons and plasmids in clinical isolates of S.maltophilia and to investigate the antibiotic resistance profiles of those isolates. One hundred S.maltophilia strains isolated from various clinical samples (32 sputum, 25 tracheal aspirates, 9 urine and blood, 7 exudates and catheters, 4 sterile body fluids and wounds, 2 CSF, 1 conjunctiva) in our microbiology laboratory during January 2011-September 2012, were included in the study. The isolates were identified by VITEK2 Compact (BioMerieux, France) or Phoenix 100 (BD, USA) automatized systems, and the susceptibilities of the strains to levofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ceftazidime and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazol (SXT) were evaluated via broth microdilution method according to the CLSI recommendations. Class 1 (intI-1), class 2 (intI-2), class 3 (intI-3) integron gene cassettes and integron 5'-3' conserved gene regions (intI-5'-3'CS) were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers in all of the strains. Nucleotide sequence analysis of PCR products was performed in case of positive result, and the presence and size of plasmids were further investigated. The susceptibility rates of S.maltophilia strains to ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, SXT and levofloxacin were found as 24%, 66%, 93% and 95%, respectively, while MIC(50) and MIC(90) values were 64-128 µg/ml, 8-16 µg/ml, 1/19-2/38 µg/ml and 1-2 µg

  15. Existence of dark solitons in a class of stationary nonlinear Schroedinger equations with periodically modulated nonlinearity and periodic asymptotics

    SciTech Connect

    Belmonte-Beitia, J.; Cuevas, J.

    2011-03-15

    In this paper, we give a proof of the existence of stationary dark soliton solutions or heteroclinic orbits of nonlinear equations of Schroedinger type with periodic inhomogeneous nonlinearity. The result is illustrated with examples of dark solitons for cubic and photorefractive nonlinearities.

  16. Triazolines. 14. 1,2,3-Triazolines and triazoles, a new class of anticonvulsants. Drug design and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Kadaba, P K

    1988-01-01

    Pioneering studies in our laboratories have led to the emergence of the delta 2-1,2,3-triazolines (4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,3-triazoles) and the closely related 1H-1,2,3-triazoles as a unique family of anticonvulsant agents hitherto unknown. Unlike the traditional anticonvulsants, the dicarboximide moiety is absent from the traiazoline ring system. This paper examines the results of evaluation of several groups of 1-aryl-5-pyridyl-substituted triazolines and triazoles with particular reference to structure-activity relationships in each compound group as well as between compounds in the different groups and the 1,5-diaryl compounds. The Topliss manual approach for application fo the Hansch method is employed for the rational design of triazoline/triazole anticonvulsants. Anticonvulsant activity was determined, after intraperitoneal administration, in two standard seizure models in the mouse, the MES and scMet tests. Central nervous system toxicity was evaluated in the rotorod ataxia test. Analysis of structure-activity relationships using the Topliss scheme indicated a clear pi + sigma dependency in the 1-aryl-5-(4-pyridyl)triazolines while an adverse steric effect (Es) from 4-substitution appeared to be present in the 1-aryl-5-(3-pyridyl) compounds. A similar but strong steric effect dominated the structure-activity pattern of the 1-aryl-5-(4-pyridyl)triazoles, although a sigma dependency was more evident in the 1-aryl-5-(3-pyridyl)- and the 1,5-diaryltriazole series. No significant activity was observed among the 1-aryl-5-(2-pyridyl)triazolines, and although the respective triazoles were active, the parameter dependency was not clearly defined. Similarly, the 1,5-diaryltriazolines, as a group, showed no pronounced anticonvulsant activity. However, replacement of the 5-aryl with a pyridyl group, particularly a 4-pyridyl, led to highly enhanced anticonvulsant activity. In addition, oxidation of triazolines with no anticonvulsant activity yielded, as a rule, triazoles

  17. New periodic 6.7 GHz class II methanol maser associated with G358.460-0.391

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maswanganye, J. P.; Gaylard, M. J.; Goedhart, S.; Walt, D. J. van der; Booth, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    Eight new class II methanol masers selected from the 6.7 GHz Methanol Multibeam survey catalogues I and II were monitored at 6.7 GHz with the 26 m Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory radio telescope for three years and seven months, from 2011 February to 2014 September. The sources were also observed at 12.2 GHz and two were sufficiently bright to permit monitoring. One of the eight sources, namely G358.460-0.391, was found to show periodic variations at 6.7 GHz. The period was determined and tested for significance using the Lomb-Scargle, epoch-folding and Jurkevich methods, and by fitting a simple analytic function. The best estimate for the period of the 6.7 GHz class II methanol maser line associated with G358.460-0.391 is 220.0 ± 0.2 d.

  18. Sensitive periods differentiate processing of open- and closed-class words: an ERP study of bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Weber-Fox, C; Neville, H J

    2001-12-01

    The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that neural processes for language are heterogeneous in their adaptations to maturation and experience. This study examined whether the neural processes for open- and closed-class words are differentially affected by delays in second-language immersion. In English, open-class words primarily convey referential meaning, whereas closed-class words are primarily related to grammatical information in sentence processing. Previous studies indicate that event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by these word classes display nonidentical distributions and latencies, show different developmental time courses, and are differentially affected by early language experience in Deaf individuals. In this study, ERPs were recorded from 10 monolingual English speakers and 53 Chinese-English bilingual speakers who were grouped according to their age of immersion in English: 1-3, 4-6, 7-10, 11-13, and >15 years of age. Closed-class words elicited an N280 that was largest over left anterior electrode sites for all groups. However, the peak latency was later (>35 ms) in bilingual speakers immersed in English after 7 years of age. In contrast, the latencies and distributions of the N350 elicited by open-class words were similar in all groups. In addition, the N400, elicited by semantic anomalies (open-class words that violated semantic expectation), displayed increased peak latencies for only the later-learning bilingual speakers (>11 years). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that language subprocesses are differentially sensitive to the timing of second-language experience. PMID:11776369

  19. Providing Students with Foundational Field Instruction within a 50 Minute Class Period: A Practical Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, M.

    2014-12-01

    There is a growing recognition among secondary educators and administrators that students need to have a science education that provides connections between familiar classes like biology, chemistry, and physics. Because of this waxing interest in an integrative approach to the sciences, there is a broader push for school districts to offer classes geared towards the earth sciences, a field that incorporates knowledge and skills gleaned from the three core science subjects. Within the contexts of a regular secondary school day on a traditional schedule (45- to 50-minute long classes), it is challenging to engage students in rigorous field-based learning, critical for students to develop a deeper understanding of geosciences content, without requiring extra time outside of the regular schedule. We suggest instruction using common, manmade features like drainage retention ponds to model good field practices and provide students with the opportunity to calculate basic hydrologic budgets, take pH readings, and, if in an area with seasonal rainfall, make observations regarding soils by way of trenching, and near-surface processes, including mass wasting and the effects of vegetation on geomorphology. Gains in student understanding are discussed by analyzing the difference in test scores between exams provided to the students after they had received only in-class instruction, and after they had received field instruction in addition to the in-class lectures. In an advanced setting, students made measurements regarding ion contents and pollution that allowed the classes to practice lab skills while developing a data set that was analyzed after field work was completed. It is posited that similar fieldwork could be an effective approach at an introductory level in post-secondary institutions.

  20. Exploring the scope of a novel ligand class: synthesis and catalytic examination of metal complexes with 'normal' 1,2,3-triazolylidene ligands.

    PubMed

    Schaper, Lars-Arne; Graser, Lilian; Wei, Xuhui; Zhong, Rui; Öfele, Karl; Pöthig, Alexander; Cokoja, Mirza; Bechlars, Bettina; Herrmann, Wolfgang A; Kühn, Fritz E

    2013-05-20

    Using new 'normal'-substituted 1,2,3-triazolylidene silver compounds as starting materials allowed for preparation of a series of molybdenum, ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium transition metal complexes bound to the new 1,2,3-triazolylidene ligand system. In this work, the first triazolylidene Mo compound is presented as well as the first structural investigation of a silver complex with a monodentate 1,2,3-triazolylidene. Furthermore, the triazolylidene Pd complex and the Mo complex were tested as precatalysts in Suzuki-Miyaura coupling and epoxidation catalysis, respectively. PMID:23646929

  1. Rational drug design and the discovery of the delta2-1,2,3-triazolines, a unique class of anticonvulsant and antiischemic agents.

    PubMed

    Kadaba, Pankaja K

    2003-10-01

    The delta(2)- 1,2,3- triazoline anticonvulsants (TRs) may be considered as representing a unique class of "built-in" heterocyclic prodrugs where the active "structure element" is an integral part of the ring system and can be identified only by a knowledge of their chemical reactivity and metabolism. Investigations on the metabolism and pharmacology of a lead triazoline, ADD17014 suggest that the triazolines function as "prodrugs" and exert their anticonvulsant activity by impairing excitatory amino acid (EAA) L-Glutamate (L-Glu) neurotransmission via a unique "dual-action" mechanism. While an active primary beta-amino alcohol metabolite from the parent prodrug acts as an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)/MK -801 receptor antagonist, the parent triazoline impairs the presynaptic release of L-Glu. Various pieces of theoretical reasoning and experimental evidence have led to the clucidation of the dual-action mechanism. Based on the unique chemistry of the triazolines, and their metabolic pathways, biotransformation products of TRs were predicted to be the beta-amino alcohols V and VA, the alpha-amino acid VI, the triazole VII, the aziridine VIII and the ketimine IX. In vivo and in vitro pharmacological studies of the TR and potential metabolites, along with a full quantitative urinary metabolic profiling of TR indicated the primary beta-amino alcohol V as the active species. It was the only compound that inhibited the specific binding of [3H]MK-801 to the MK-801 site, 56% at 10 micro M drug concentration, but itself had no anticonvulsant activity, suggesting TR acted as a prodrug. Three metabolites were identified; V was the most predominant (45.7 +/- 7.6) % of administered drug, with lesser amounts of VA, (17.3 +/- 5.1) % and very minor amounts of aziridine VIII (4.0 +/- 0.02)%. Since only VIII can yield VA, its formation indicated that the biotransformation of TR occurred, at least in part, through aziridine. No amino acid metabolite was detected, which implied that no

  2. Bilinear and trigonometric approximations of periodic functions of several variables of Besov classes B_{p, \\theta}^r

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, A. S.

    2006-04-01

    We obtain order-sharp estimates for bilinear approximations of periodic functions of 2d variables of the form f(x,y)=f(x-y), x, y\\in \\pi_d = \\prod_{j=1}^d\\lbrack-\\pi, \\pi\\rbrack , obtained from functions f(x)\\in B_{p, \\theta}^r, 1\\le p<\\infty, by translating the argument x\\in \\pi_d by vectors y\\in \\pi_d. We also study the deviations of step hyperbolic Fourier sums on the classes B_{1,\\theta}^r and the best orthogonal trigonometric approximations in L_q, 1, of functions belonging to these classes.

  3. N zooming into the Mediterranean outflow fossil moat during the 1.2-1.8 million years period (Early-Pleistocene) - An approach by radiogenic and stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreiro, Susana M.; Antón, Laura; Reguera, M. Isabel; Fernández, Marta; Conde, Estefanía; Barrado, Ana I.; Yllera, Abel

    2015-12-01

    The fossil Alvarez Cabral erosive Moat contains hemipelagite, contourite and turbidite facies where oceanography changes in the Mediterranean outflow are archived over the 1.2-1.8 Myr time period. Here we used Pb and Sr radiogenic isotopes to trace water masses and sediment source changes, for the first time in twenty glacial-interglacial (G-I) cycles of the Early-Pleistocene interval, and the last Glacial Maximum through Holocene cycle (including the Younger Dryas and Heinrich Stadial-1). A mixing line of Pb isotopes gives reliable low radiogenic 208Pb/204Pb, 206Pb/204Pb, and 206Pb/207Pb typical of Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) in one end-member and the signature of high radiogenic isotopes of Atlantic Waters (AW) towards the second end-member. The 87Sr/86Sr isotopes also display two end-members of the mixing line between eolian transport/dust source (0.71) and fluvial transport/weathering source (0.73) previously proposed in the Gulf of Cadiz. Combination of Pb and Sr radiogenic isotopes with O and C stable isotopes of planktonic and benthic foraminifera, and the response of foraminifera benthos over the Early-Pleistocene interval, reveals a direct link between water masses circulation and shifts in G-I. We found a persistent cyclic pattern of MOW circulation and fluvial deposition during glaciations and AW and aeolian influence during interglaciations. On site U1386B/C, the upper-MOW was less ventilated but productive and with high flux of organic flux matter during glacials, while Atlantic Waters were better ventilated, enriched in O, but less productive during interglacials. We infer that shifts in ocean and atmospheric processes in the Gulf of Cadiz were strongly controlled by Earth's obliquity (41 kyr-cycle) and 35°NH insolation during the Early-Pleistocene. We propose a correlation in changes in phase-relationship between precession and obliquity. In general terms, physical properties of fine sediments (glacials) show lower NGR, low reflectance and

  4. Quasi-periodic Pulsations during the Impulsive and Decay phases of an X-class Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, L. A.; Gallagher, P. T.; Dennis, B. R.; Ireland, J.; Inglis, A. R.; Ryan, D. F.

    2016-08-01

    Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) are often observed in X-ray emission from solar flares. To date, it is unclear what their physical origins are. Here, we present a multi-instrument investigation of the nature of QPP during the impulsive and decay phases of the X1.0 flare of 2013 October 28. We focus on the character of the fine structure pulsations evident in the soft X-ray (SXR) time derivatives and compare this variability with structure across multiple wavelengths including hard X-ray and microwave emission. We find that during the impulsive phase of the flare, high correlations between pulsations in the thermal and non-thermal emissions are seen. A characteristic timescale of ∼20 s is observed in all channels and a second timescale of ∼55 s is observed in the non-thermal emissions. SXR pulsations are seen to persist into the decay phase of this flare, up to 20 minutes after the non-thermal emission has ceased. We find that these decay phase thermal pulsations have very small amplitude and show an increase in characteristic timescale from ∼40 s up to ∼70 s. We interpret the bursty nature of the co-existing multi-wavelength QPPs during the impulsive phase in terms of episodic particle acceleration and plasma heating. The persistent thermal decay phase QPPs are most likely connected with compressive magnetohydrodynamic processes in the post-flare loops such as the fast sausage mode or the vertical kink mode.

  5. Quasi-periodic Pulsations during the Impulsive and Decay phases of an X-class Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, L. A.; Gallagher, P. T.; Dennis, B. R.; Ireland, J.; Inglis, A. R.; Ryan, D. F.

    2016-08-01

    Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) are often observed in X-ray emission from solar flares. To date, it is unclear what their physical origins are. Here, we present a multi-instrument investigation of the nature of QPP during the impulsive and decay phases of the X1.0 flare of 2013 October 28. We focus on the character of the fine structure pulsations evident in the soft X-ray (SXR) time derivatives and compare this variability with structure across multiple wavelengths including hard X-ray and microwave emission. We find that during the impulsive phase of the flare, high correlations between pulsations in the thermal and non-thermal emissions are seen. A characteristic timescale of ˜20 s is observed in all channels and a second timescale of ˜55 s is observed in the non-thermal emissions. SXR pulsations are seen to persist into the decay phase of this flare, up to 20 minutes after the non-thermal emission has ceased. We find that these decay phase thermal pulsations have very small amplitude and show an increase in characteristic timescale from ˜40 s up to ˜70 s. We interpret the bursty nature of the co-existing multi-wavelength QPPs during the impulsive phase in terms of episodic particle acceleration and plasma heating. The persistent thermal decay phase QPPs are most likely connected with compressive magnetohydrodynamic processes in the post-flare loops such as the fast sausage mode or the vertical kink mode.

  6. Synthesis and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of New Compounds from Hydrazinecarbothioamide and 1,2,4-Triazole Class Containing Diarylsulfone and 2,4-Difluorophenyl Moieties

    PubMed Central

    Barbuceanu, Stefania-Felicia; Ilies, Diana Carolina; Saramet, Gabriel; Uivarosi, Valentina; Draghici, Constantin; Radulescu, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    In the present investigation, new hydrazinecarbothioamides 4–6 were synthesized by reaction of 4-(4-X-phenylsulfonyl)benzoic acids hydrazides (X= H, Cl, Br) 1–3 with 2,4-difluorophenyl isothiocyanate and further these were treated with sodium hydroxide to obtain 1,2,4-triazole-3-thione derivatives 7–9. The reaction of 7–9 with α-halogenated ketones, in basic media, afforded new S-alkylated derivatives 10–15. The structures of the synthesized compounds have been established on the basis of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR, mass spectral studies and elemental analysis. The antioxidant activity of all compounds has been screened. Hydrazinecarbothioamides 4–6 showed excellent antioxidant activity and 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones 7–9 showed good antioxidant activity using the DPPH method. PMID:24941252

  7. Influence of dietary cholesterol on the relative synthesis of hepatic glycerides and molecular classes of 1,2-diglycerides and phospholipids in the gerbil in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, D.B.; Holub, B.J.

    1985-03-01

    The influence of dietary cholesterol on the relative rates of synthesis of hepatic lipids in the male Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus, was studied. The semi-purified starch-based diet used lard as the dietary fat and was fed with or without a 0.5% (by wt.) cholesterol supplement. Each animal received 300 microCi (2-/sup 3/H)-glycerol i.p. after 3 or 7 days on the dietary regimens. Relative rates of (2-/sup 3/H)-glycerol incorporation into the major hepatic glycerides in vivo was not affected significantly by dietary cholesterol (0.5% level), suggesting that alteration in the relative biosynthesis of these lipids could not readily account for the higher triglyceride (TG) to phospholipid (PL) mass ratio in liver with cholesterol feeding. However, there was evidence for an increased formation of 1,2-diglyceride (1,2-DG). The complement of molecular species of hepatic 1,2-DG, phosphatidylcholine (PC), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) formed de novo, as measured using isotopic glycerol, was not influenced greatly by dietary cholesterol, although lower mean rates of synthesis of tetraenoic relative to dienoic species of phospholipids were indicated in cholesterol-fed gerbils.

  8. Optimization of pyrazole-containing 1,2,4-triazolo-[3,4-b]thiadiazines, a new class of STAT3 pathway inhibitors.

    PubMed

    LaPorte, Matthew G; Wang, Zhuzhu; Colombo, Raffaele; Garzan, Atefeh; Peshkov, Vsevolod A; Liang, Mary; Johnston, Paul A; Schurdak, Mark E; Sen, Malabika; Camarco, Daniel P; Hua, Yun; Pollock, Netanya I; Lazo, John S; Grandis, Jennifer R; Wipf, Peter; Huryn, Donna M

    2016-08-01

    Structure-activity relationship studies of a 1,2,4-triazolo-[3,4-b]thiadiazine scaffold, identified in an HTS campaign for selective STAT3 pathway inhibitors, determined that a pyrazole group and specific aryl substitution on the thiadiazine were necessary for activity. Improvements in potency and metabolic stability were accomplished by the introduction of an α-methyl group on the thiadiazine. Optimized compounds exhibited anti-proliferative activity, reduction of phosphorylated STAT3 levels and effects on STAT3 target genes. These compounds represent a starting point for further drug discovery efforts targeting the STAT3 pathway. PMID:27381083

  9. Polar tongue of ionization (TOI) and associated Joule heating intensification investigated during the magnetically disturbed period of 1-2 October 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate storm-enhanced density (SED) and polar tongue of ionization (TOI) over North America under southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field conditions. We focus on the 30 September to 1 October 2001 medium magnetic storm's recovery phase (Period 1) and on the last substorm (Period 2) of the following 2 October substorm series. We aim to study the SED-TOI structure in the time frame of solar wind energy input to the magnetosphere-ionosphere system and in terms of Joule heating. We utilize GPS total electron content maps tracking SED plume and polar TOI, and spectrogram images detecting polar rain and precipitation void and thus evidencing dayside merging. The variations of merging electric (E) field (EM) and its mapped-down polar equivalent (EP), energy input efficiency (EIeff), and modeled Joule heating rate (QJoule) are monitored. Results show multiple Joule heating intensification points implying multiple energy deposition points at high latitudes where the magnetic pole was one of the preferred locations. During the higher EIeff (~1.5%) Period 2, the polar TOI was associated with a well-defined strong QJoule intensification and with polar rain (or void) on the dayside (or nightside). During the lower EIeff (~0.5%) Period 1, only weak QJoule intensification occurred in the absence of both polar TOI and polar rain. We highlight the polar TOI's potential impact on the thermosphere. We conclude that (i) strong (EM ≈ 5 mV/m during Period 2) or weak (EM ≈ 0.5-2 mV/m during Period 1) EM facilitated energy deposition close to the magnetic pole and (ii) EIeff could be used as a diagnostic of the polar TOI's intensity.

  10. Tephrochronology of core PRAD 1-2 from the Adriatic Sea: insights into Italian explosive volcanism for the period 200-80 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourne, A. J.; Albert, P. G.; Matthews, I. P.; Trincardi, F.; Wulf, S.; Asioli, A.; Blockley, S. P. E.; Keller, J.; Lowe, J. J.

    2015-05-01

    Core PRAD 1-2, located on the western flank of the Mid-Adriatic Deep, was investigated for tephra content within the part of the sequence assigned on biostratigraphic and sapropel-layer stratigraphy to MIS 5 and 6 (ca. 80-200 ka BP). A total of 11 discrete tephra layers are identified, 8 visible and 3 cryptotephra layers. 235 geochemical measurements obtained from individual glass shards using WDS-EPMA enabled 8 of the 11 tephras to be correlated to known eruption events, 5 of which are represented in the Lago Grande di Monticchio (LGdM) regional tephra archive sequence. Three of these layers are recognised ultra-distally for the first time, extending their known distributions approximately 210 km further north. The results provide an independent basis for establishing an age-depth profile for the MIS 5-6 interval in the PRAD 1-2 marine record. This approach allowed age estimates to be interpolated for the tephra layers that could not be correlated to known events. It also provides an independent test of, and support for, the broad synchroneity of sapropel-equivalent (S-E) events in the Adriatic Sea with the better-developed sapropel layers of the eastern Mediterranean, proposed by Piva et al. (2008a).

  11. DOE/RL Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Annual Compliance Certification Report for the Period July 2 2001 through December 31 2001 [SEC 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    GREEN, W.E.

    2002-05-22

    The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit (AOP), Number 00-05-006, became effective on July 2, 2001. The AOP, Section 4.3.4, ''Annual Compliance Certification'', requires submittal of an annual compliance certification report no later than 12 months following the effective date of the permit. This report is to be certified for truth, accuracy, and completeness by a Responsible Official. This first annual compliance certification report contains information for the period from July 2, 2001 through December 31, 2001. Hereafter, the annual compliance certification report will contain information for the period from January 1 through December 31, as required by the AOP Section 4.3, ''Submittals''. Copies of the annual compliance certification reports are transmitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), the Benton Clean Air Authority (BCAA), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. For the applicable reporting period, Section 4.3.3, ''Annual Compliance Certification'', requires the following content for the annual compliance certification report: (1) The identification of each term or condition of the permit that is the basis of the certification; (2) The compliance status; (3) Whether compliance was continuous or intermittent; (4) The method(s) used to determine the compliance status of the source over the reporting period consistent with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173401 -61 5(3)(a); and (5) Such other facts as Ecology, WDOH, or BCAA might be required to determine the compliance status of the source. According to WAC 173-401-630(5), no certification is required for insignificant emission units. The specific terms and conditions for this annual compliance certification report consist of all emission point specific terms and conditions contained in the AOP Attachment 1 and Attachment 2 tables, plus Attachment 3 for asbestos and open burning.

  12. Kolmogorov and trigonometric widths of the Besov classes B^r_{p,\\theta} of multivariate periodic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, A. S.

    2006-02-01

    Precise (in order) estimates of the Kolmogorov widths in the space L_q, 1, of the classes B^r_{1,\\theta} and B^r_{\\infty,\\theta} and also of the trigonometric widths of the classes B^r_{p,\\theta} in L_q for p and q satisfying certain relations are obtained.

  13. Approximation of Periodic Functions of Several Variables by Trigonometric Polynomials, and Widths of Some Classes of Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temlyakov, V. N.

    1986-04-01

    The author investigates questions of the approximation of functions of several variables with a bounded mixed derivative or difference. He finds the orders of the Kolmogorov widths and of other widths of these classes. He obtains embedding theorems and estimates for the best approximations by trigonometric polynomials to functions in these classes. Bibliography: 33 titles.

  14. B cell TLR1/2, TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 interact in induction of class switch DNA recombination: modulation by BCR and CD40, and relevance to T-independent antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Pone, Egest J; Lou, Zheng; Lam, Tonika; Greenberg, Milton L; Wang, Rui; Xu, Zhenming; Casali, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    Ig class switch DNA recombination (CSR) in B cells is crucial to the maturation of antibody responses. It requires IgH germline IH-CH transcription and expression of AID, both of which are induced by engagement of CD40 or dual engagement of a Toll-like receptor (TLR) and B cell receptor (BCR). Here, we have addressed cross-regulation between two different TLRs or between a TLR and CD40 in CSR induction by using a B cell stimulation system involving lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS-mediated long-term primary class-switched antibody responses and memory-like antibody responses in vivo and induced generation of class-switched B cells and plasma cells in vitro. Consistent with the requirement for dual TLR and BCR engagement in CSR induction, LPS, which engages TLR4 through its lipid A moiety, triggered cytosolic Ca2+ flux in B cells through its BCR-engaging polysaccharidic moiety. In the presence of BCR crosslinking, LPS synergized with a TLR1/2 ligand (Pam3CSK4) in CSR induction, but much less efficiently with a TLR7 (R-848) or TLR9 (CpG) ligand. In the absence of BCR crosslinking, R-848 and CpG, which per se induced marginal CSR, virtually abrogated CSR to IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG3 and/or IgA, as induced by LPS or CD154 (CD40 ligand) plus IL-4, IFN-γ or TGF-β, and reduced secretion of class-switched Igs, without affecting B cell proliferation or IgM expression. The CSR inhibition by TLR9 was associated with the reduction in AID expression and/or IgH germline IH-S-CH transcription, and required co-stimulation of B cells by CpG with LPS or CD154. Unexpectedly, B cells also failed to undergo CSR or plasma cell differentiation when co-stimulated by LPS and CD154. Overall, by addressing the interaction of TLR1/2, TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 in the induction of CSR and modulation of TLR-dependent CSR by BCR and CD40, our study suggests the complexity of how different stimuli cross-regulate an important B cell differentiation process and an important role of TLRs in inducing

  15. Neuron class-specific requirements for Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in critical period development of calcium signaling in learning and memory circuitry.

    PubMed

    Doll, Caleb A; Broadie, Kendal

    2016-05-01

    Neural circuit optimization occurs through sensory activity-dependent mechanisms that refine synaptic connectivity and information processing during early-use developmental critical periods. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), the gene product lost in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), acts as an activity sensor during critical period development, both as an RNA-binding translation regulator and channel-binding excitability regulator. Here, we employ a Drosophila FXS disease model to assay calcium signaling dynamics with a targeted transgenic GCaMP reporter during critical period development of the mushroom body (MB) learning/memory circuit. We find FMRP regulates depolarization-induced calcium signaling in a neuron-specific manner within this circuit, suppressing activity-dependent calcium transients in excitatory cholinergic MB input projection neurons and enhancing calcium signals in inhibitory GABAergic MB output neurons. Both changes are restricted to the developmental critical period and rectified at maturity. Importantly, conditional genetic (dfmr1) rescue of null mutants during the critical period corrects calcium signaling defects in both neuron classes, indicating a temporally restricted FMRP requirement. Likewise, conditional dfmr1 knockdown (RNAi) during the critical period replicates constitutive null mutant defects in both neuron classes, confirming cell-autonomous requirements for FMRP in developmental regulation of calcium signaling dynamics. Optogenetic stimulation during the critical period enhances depolarization-induced calcium signaling in both neuron classes, but this developmental change is eliminated in dfmr1 null mutants, indicating the activity-dependent regulation requires FMRP. These results show FMRP shapes neuron class-specific calcium signaling in excitatory vs. inhibitory neurons in developing learning/memory circuitry, and that FMRP mediates activity-dependent regulation of calcium signaling specifically during the early

  16. Synthesis and pharmacological investigation of novel 4-(2-methylphenyl)-1-substituted-4H-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]quinazolin-5-ones as new class of H(1)-antihistaminic agents.

    PubMed

    Alagarsamy, V; Rupeshkumar, M; Kavitha, K; Meena, S; Shankar, D; Siddiqui, A A; Rajesh, R

    2008-11-01

    A series of novel 1-substituted-4-(2-methylphenyl)-4H-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]quinazolin-5-ones were synthesized by the cyclization of 2-hydrazino-3-(2-methylphenyl)-3H-quinazolin-4-one with various one carbon donors. The starting material 2-hydrazino-3-(2-methylphenyl)-3H-quinazolin-4-one was synthesized from 2-methyl aniline by a novel innovative route. The title compounds were tested for their in vivo H(1)-antihistaminic activity on guinea pigs; all the tested compounds protected the animals from histamine-induced bronchospasm significantly. Compound 1-methyl-4-(2-methylphenyl)-4H-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]quinazolin-5-one (II) emerged as the most active compound of the series and it is more potent (72.45%) when compared to the reference standard chlorpheniramine maleate (71%). Compound II showed negligible sedation (11%) when compared to chlorpheniramine maleate (30%). Hence it could serve as the prototype molecule for further development as a new class of H(1)-antihistaminic agents. PMID:18031870

  17. Analysis of global O(t(-α)) stability and global asymptotical periodicity for a class of fractional-order complex-valued neural networks with time varying delays.

    PubMed

    Rakkiyappan, R; Sivaranjani, R; Velmurugan, G; Cao, Jinde

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the problem of the global O(t(-α)) stability and global asymptotic periodicity for a class of fractional-order complex-valued neural networks (FCVNNs) with time varying delays is investigated. By constructing suitable Lyapunov functionals and a Leibniz rule for fractional differentiation, some new sufficient conditions are established to ensure that the addressed FCVNNs are globally O(t(-α)) stable. Moreover, some sufficient conditions for the global asymptotic periodicity of the addressed FCVNNs with time varying delays are derived, showing that all solutions converge to the same periodic function. Finally, numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of our theoretical results. PMID:26922720

  18. Fabrications and characterizations of high performance 1.2 kV, 3.3 kV, and 5.0 kV class 4H–SiC power SBDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing-Wen, Song; Xiao-Yan, Tang; Hao, Yuan; Yue-Hu, Wang; Yi-Meng, Zhang; Hui, Guo; Ren-Xu, Jia; Hong-Liang, Lv; Yi-Men, Zhang; Yu-Ming, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, 1.2 kV, 3.3 kV, and 5.0 kV class 4H–SiC power Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) are fabricated with three N-type drift layer thickness values of 10 μm, 30 μm, and 50 μm, respectively. The avalanche breakdown capabilities, static and transient characteristics of the fabricated devices are measured in detail and compared with the theoretical predictions. It is found that the experimental results match well with the theoretical calculation results and are very close to the 4H–SiC theoretical limit line. The best achieved breakdown voltages (BVs) of the diodes on the 10 μm, 30 μm, and 50 μm epilayers are 1400 V, 3320 V, and 5200 V, respectively. Differential specific-on resistances (R on‑sp) are 2.1 mΩ ·cm2, 7.34 mΩ·cm2, and 30.3 mΩ·cm2, respectively. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61404098, 61176070, and 61274079), the Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. 20110203110010 and 20130203120017), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB759600), and the Key Specific Projects of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 625010101).

  19. Electronic structure of HgBa{sub 2}Ca{sub n-1}Cu{sub n}O{sub 2n+2} (n= 1, 2, 3) superconductor parent compounds from periodic hybrid density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, Iberio de P. R.; Rivero, Pablo; Illas, Francesc

    2011-02-21

    The electronic structure of HgBa{sub 2}Ca{sub n-1}Cu{sub n}O{sub 2n+2} (n= 1, 2, and 3) high T{sub c} superconductor parent compounds has been investigated by means of periodic hybrid density functional theory. Similar to other cuprates, these materials are predicted to exhibit an antiferromagnetic ground state with well localized S= 1/2 magnetic centers at the Cu{sup 2+} sites. However, the presence of the HgO{sub 2} structural units largely defines the nature of states dominating the energy range around Fermi energy. This results in a complex charge transfer character of the insulating gap which decreases when increasing the number of CuO{sub 2} planes in the unit cell, to the point that in the HgBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8} compound it becomes so small that one can claim that the resulting material is metallic. Nevertheless, the metallic character arises from the HgO{sub 2} structural units and coexists with the antiferromagnetic order arising from the localized spins at the Cu{sup 2+} sites.

  20. Estimating survival of precocial chicks during the prefledging period using a catch-curve analysis and count-based age-class data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, C.P.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Ryan, M.R.; Kruse, C.D.; Pavelka, G.

    2009-01-01

    Estimating reproductive success for birds with precocial young can be difficult because chicks leave nests soon after hatching and individuals or broods can be difficult to track. Researchers often turn to estimating survival during the prefledging period and, though effective, mark-recapture based approaches are not always feasible due to cost, time, and animal welfare concerns. Using a threatened population of Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) that breeds along the Missouri River, we present an approach for estimating chick survival during the prefledging period using long-term (1993-2005), count-based, age-class data. We used a modified catch-curve analysis, and data collected during three 5-day sampling periods near the middle of the breeding season. The approach has several ecological and statistical assumptions and our analyses were designed to minimize the probability of violating those assumptions. For example, limiting the sampling periods to only 5 days gave reasonable assurance that population size was stable during the sampling period. Annual daily survival estimates ranged from 0.825 (SD = 0.03) to 0.931 (0.02) depending on year and sampling period, with these estimates assuming constant survival during the prefledging period and no change in the age structure of the population. The average probability of survival to fledging ranged from 0.126 to 0.188. Our results are similar to other published estimates for this species in similar habitats. This method of estimating chick survival may be useful for a variety of precocial bird species when mark-recapture methods are not feasible and only count-based age class data are available. ?? 2009 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  1. Simulations of table-top watt-class 1 THz radiation sources with two-section periodic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Weihao Xu, Zhengyuan

    2014-01-07

    Two types of terahertz sources with two-section periodical waveguide structure are studied by simulations. The operation frequency of the rear section (section-II) is the fourth harmonic of that of the front section (section-I), and section-II can operate both in the forward wave region and backward wave region. The critical factor that may affect the proper functioning of this kind of sources—overbunching—is discussed, and the corresponding solutions are proposed. These sources, with millimeter in length, can generate 1 THz wave radiation with power over 1 W, so, they are promising table-top and relatively high power terahertz sources.

  2. Search for solar neutrons at Mount Chacaltaya associated with M- and X-class flares during the rising period of solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Diego; Matsubara, Yutaka

    2015-04-01

    To better understand the acceleration mechanism of high-energy particles that are driven by solar flares, we examined solar neutron signals. We have performed a statistical analysis by reviewing the data collected by a neutron monitor during the period of January 2010 to August 2013. This detector operates at Mount Chacaltaya in Bolivia at 5,200 m above sea level. Our aim is to search for solar neutron events in association with large solar flares observed by the GOES satellite. We report that our analysis did not yield any positive excess due to solar neutrons that are statistically significant. Hence, we calculated the upper limit of the number of solar neutrons for the X2.8-class solar flare which occurred on 13 May 2013. We performed a similar calculation with a solar neutron event that occurred on 7 September 2005. Our upper limit is seven times less than the one produced by the real signal.

  3. 1,2-Dichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichloropropane ; CASRN 78 - 87 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  4. 1,2-Dichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichloroethane ; CASRN 107 - 06 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  5. 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Diphenylhydrazine ; CASRN 122 - 66 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  6. 1,2-Dichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 50 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  7. 1,2-Dibromoethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dibromoethane ; CASRN 106 - 93 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  8. 6-amino-4-oxo-1,3-diphenyl-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carbonyl derivatives as a new class of potent inhibitors of Interleukin-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Cesarini, Sara; Spallarossa, Andrea; Ranise, Angelo; Bruno, Olga; Arduino, Nicoletta; Bertolotto, Maria; Dallegri, Franco; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Gobbetti, Thomas; Barocelli, Elisabetta

    2009-05-15

    A series of 6-amino-4-oxo-1,3-diphenyl-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carbonyl derivatives was synthesized. The compounds demonstrated to be novel, potent and selective inhibitors of Interleukin-8-induced human neutrophil chemotaxis. A SAR study was performed by varying the carbonyl function at position 5 and the chain linked to the amino group at position 6 of the scaffold. All the compounds of the series displayed inhibitory activity at nano- or picomolar concentrations against Interleukin-8-driven migration and no activity against fMLP- and C5a-induced chemotaxis. The binding tests of selected compounds on CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors were negative. The most potent derivative showed in vivo efficacy in a mouse model of Zymosan-induced peritonitis. PMID:19394230

  9. LOW-FREQUENCY (11 mHz) OSCILLATIONS IN H1743-322: A NEW CLASS OF BLACK HOLE QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS?

    SciTech Connect

    Altamirano, D.; Strohmayer, T.

    2012-08-01

    We report the discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) at {approx}11 mHz in two RXTE and one Chandra observations of the black hole candidate H1743-322. The QPO is observed only at the beginning of the 2010 and 2011 outbursts at similar hard color and intensity, suggestive of an accretion state dependence for the QPO. Although its frequency appears to be correlated with X-ray intensity on timescales of a day, in successive outbursts eight months apart, we measure a QPO frequency that differs by less than Almost-Equal-To 2.2 mHz while the intensity had changed significantly. We show that this {approx}11 mHz QPO is different from the so-called Type C QPOs seen in black holes and that the mechanisms that produce the two flavors of variability are most probably independent. After comparing this QPO with other variability phenomena seen in accreting black holes and neutron stars, we conclude that it best resembles the so-called 1 Hz QPOs seen in dipping neutron star systems, although having a significantly lower (1-2 orders of magnitude) frequency. If confirmed, H1743-322 is the first black hole showing this type of variability. Given the unusual characteristics and the hard-state dependence of the {approx}11 mHz QPO, we also speculate whether these oscillations could instead be related to the radio jets observed in H1743-322. A systematic search for this type of low-frequency QPOs in similar systems is needed to test this speculation. In any case, it remains unexplained why these QPOs have only been seen in the last two outbursts of H1743-322.

  10. Structural Basis of the CD8[alpha beta]/MHC Class I Interaction: Focused Recognition Orients CD8[beta] to a T Cell Proximal Position[superscript 1,2

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Rui; Natarajan, Kannan; Margulies, David H.

    2009-09-18

    In the immune system, B cells, dendritic cells, NK cells, and T lymphocytes all respond to signals received via ligand binding to receptors and coreceptors. Although the specificity of T cell recognition is determined by the interaction of T cell receptors with MHC/peptide complexes, the development of T cells in the thymus and their sensitivity to Ag are also dependent on coreceptor molecules CD8 (for MHC class I (MHCI)) and CD4 (for MHCII). The CD8{alpha}{beta} heterodimer is a potent coreceptor for T cell activation, but efforts to understand its function fully have been hampered by ignorance of the structural details of its interactions with MHCI. In this study we describe the structure of CD8{alpha}{beta} in complex with the murine MHCI molecule H-2D{sup d} at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. The focus of the CD8{alpha}{beta} interaction is the acidic loop (residues 222-228) of the {alpha}3 domain of H-2D{sup d}. The {beta} subunit occupies a T cell membrane proximal position, defining the relative positions of the CD8{alpha} and CD8{beta} subunits. Unlike the CD8{alpha}{alpha} homodimer, CD8{alpha}{beta} does not contact the MHCI {alpha}{sub 2}- or {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin domains. Movements of the CD8{alpha} CDR2 and CD8{beta} CDR1 and CDR2 loops as well as the flexibility of the H-2D{sup d} CD loop facilitate the monovalent interaction. The structure resolves inconclusive data on the topology of the CD8{alpha}{beta}/MHCI interaction, indicates that CD8{beta} is crucial in orienting the CD8{alpha}{beta} heterodimer, provides a framework for understanding the mechanistic role of CD8{alpha}{beta} in lymphoid cell signaling, and offers a tangible context for design of structurally altered coreceptors for tumor and viral immunotherapy.

  11. KOLMOGOROV WIDTHS IN THE SPACE {\\tilde L}_q OF THE CLASSES {\\tilde W}_p^{\\overline \\alpha} AND {\\tilde H}_p^{\\overline \\alpha} OF PERIODIC FUNCTIONS OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeev, È. M.

    1986-04-01

    The author finds the order of the Kolmogorov widths d_N({\\tilde W}_p^{\\overline \\alpha} = \\bigcap_{i=1}^m {\\tilde W}_p^{\\alpha^i}, {\\tilde L}_q) for all 1 < p,q < \\infty, where {\\tilde W}_p^\\alpha is the class of periodic functions of several variables determined by a Weyl mixed fractional derivative, and d_N({\\tilde H}_p^{\\overline \\alpha} = \\bigcap_{i=1}^m {\\tilde H}_p^{\\alpha^i},{\\tilde L}_q) for p \\ge 2 or q \\ge 2, where {\\tilde H}_p^\\alpha is the class determined by a mixed difference. Bibliography: 28 titles.

  12. Effect of feeder space during the growing and laying periods and the rate of feed increase at the onset of lay on broiler breeder female reproductive function1 2

    PubMed Central

    Leksrisompong, N.; Romero-Sanchez, H.; Oviedo-Rondón, E. O.; Brake, J.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine how 2 feeder space allocations during the rearing period followed by 2 feeder space allocations after photostimulation and 2 female feeding to peak programs (fast or slow) affected female broiler breeder reproductive performance and mortality. Sixteen pens of 76 breeder females each were equipped with either 4 tube feeders with a 132 cm circumference pan (7.0 cm/female) or 6 feeders (10.4 cm/female) to 21 wk of age. Thereafter, 64 females were moved to breeding pens, photostimulated, and fed sex-separate from either 3 (6.2 cm/female) or 5 (10.3 cm/female) feeders with either fast or slow feeding to peak feeding programs applied to complete a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. Seven males that were separately reared in a similar manner were added per pen. Individual female BW was determined at 6, 20, and 32 wk of age and BW uniformity assessed. Greater feeder space during rearing increased BW at 32 wk of age, whereas greater feeder space during lay or slow feeding to peak decreased BW at 32 wk. There were no differences in BW uniformity. Hens from the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination produced a significantly greater number of eggs as compared with the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female and 10.4 to 6.2 cm/female combinations with the 7.0 to 6.2 cm/female combination intermediate. Percentage hen-day egg production of the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination hens was significantly greater than all other combinations. Livability was improved in the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination relative to the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female combination with the others intermediate. The fast feeding to peak program increased yolk weight as well as yolk:albumen ratio at 28 and 30 wk of age, but egg weight did not differ. These data indicated that increased or decreased feeder space between the growing and laying periods did not affect broiler breeder female BW, uniformity, egg weight, fertility, or hatchability. The 10.3 cm/female laying feeder space exhibited the best hen

  13. A new class of aperiodic, long-range ordered artificial spin ices based upon Fibonacci distortions of 2D periodic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Justin; Bhat, Vinayak; Farmer, Barry; Sklenar, Joseph; Teipel, Eric; Ketterson, John; Hastings, J. Todd; de Long, Lance

    2015-03-01

    Artificial spin ice (ASI) systems are composed of nanoscale ferromagnetic segments whose shape anisotropy dictates they behave as mesoscopic Ising spins. Most ASI have segments patterned on periodic lattices and a single vertex topology. We have continuously distorted 2D honeycomb and square lattices such that the pattern vertex spacings follow a Fibonacci chain sequence along primitive lattice directions. The Fibonacci distortion is related to the aperiodic translational symmetry of 2D artificial quasicrystals1 that cannot be viewed as continuous distortions of periodic lattices due to their forbidden (e.g., fivefold) rotational symmetries. In contrast, Fibonacci distortions of 2D periodic lattices can be ``turned on'' by control of the ratio of two lattice parameters d1 and d2. Distortions alter film segments such that pattern vertices are no longer equivalent and traditional spin ice rules are no longer strictly valid. We have performed OOMMF simulations of magnetization reversal for samples having different levels of distortion, and found the magnetic reversal to be dramatically slowed by small distortions (d1/d2 ~ 1). Research at Kentucky is supported by U.S. DoE Grant DE-FG02-97ER45653 and NSF Grant EPS-0814194.

  14. "Racializing" Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatt-Echeverria, Beth; Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to explore how racial and class oppressions intersect, the authors use their autobiographical narratives to depict cultural and experiential continuity and discontinuity in growing up white working class versus Chicano working class. They specifically focus on "racializing class" due to the ways class is often used as a copout by…

  15. Around the World in Six Class Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Keith

    2012-01-01

    A music educator opens the classroom door one September morning, and there they are. Another group of new students. But this year, there's a different mix: a student from Cambodia, another from Mali, two students from Peru, five Mexicans, two Taiwanese, and an American Indian. Maybe it's happened gradually; maybe not. But this is what America…

  16. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  17. Synthesis of Naphtho[1',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and Imidazo[5,1,2-cd]indolizines Through Pd-Catalyzed Cycloaromatization of 2-Phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines with Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyuan; Zhang, Xinying; Fan, Xuesen

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, palladium-catalyzed oxidative cycloaromatization of 2-phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine (PIP) with internal alkyne is studied. From this reaction, two classes of fused N-heterocycle, naphtho[1',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine (NIP) and imidazo[5,1,2-cd]indolizine (IID), were formed through dehydrogenative coupling featured with cleavage of the C-H bonds located on different moiety of the PIP substrates. Moreover, when 5-methyl-2-phenylimidazo [1,2-a]pyridine or 2-mesitylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine was used, either NIP or IID could be obtained as an exclusive product with good efficiency. Intriguingly, Pd(II) showed different action mode in promoting this reaction compared with Rh(III) and led to the formation of NIP with reversed regio-selectivity for the reaction of asymmetrical alkyne. PMID:26168267

  18. 1,2,4-Tribromobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4 - Tribromobenzene ; CASRN 615 - 54 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  19. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,3 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 96 - 18 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several program offices , regional offices , and the Office of Research and Development

  20. trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    trans - 1,2 - Dichloroethylene ; CASRN 156 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  1. 1,1,2-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 598 - 77 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  2. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloroethane ; CASRN 79 - 00 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  3. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4 - Trichlorobenzene ; CASRN 120 - 82 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  4. cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    cis - 1,2 - Dichloroethylene ; CASRN 156 - 59 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  5. 1,2-Epoxybutane (EBU)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Epoxybutane ( EBU ) ; CASRN 106 - 88 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  6. Class Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Siobhan; Lumsden, Linda S.

    1994-01-01

    The items featured in this annotated bibliography touch on several aspects of the multifaceted class-size debate. Allen Odden reviews the literature and contends that class-size reduction should be used "sparingly and strategically." C. M. Achilles and colleagues examines two different class-size situations and find student test performance in the…

  7. Class Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Holly R.

    Exploring the class-size issue, this paper focuses on the primary grades and asks questions such as "does a reduction in class size promote an increase in academic achievement?" and "how substantial does the reduction in numbers have to be in order for a significant increase to occur?" The paper surveys debates on class size and the social factors…

  8. Class Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdata, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Ever since George Washington opted for the title of president rather than king, Americans have been uncomfortable with the idea of class distinctions. This article presents an interview with Dr. Janet Galligani Casey regarding the idea of class distinctions. Galligani Casey, who grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Somerville, Massachusetts,…

  9. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, George; Hammond, Peter R.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  10. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.; Hammond, P.R.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  11. Metabolism of 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,3,5-, and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene in the squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Benoit, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of three tetrachlorobenzene isomers (TeCB) was investigated in the squirrel monkey. The animals were administered orally 6 single doses of /sup 14/C-labeled 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,4,5-, or 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene over a 3-wk period at levels ranging from 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w) and kept in individual metabolism cages to collect urine and feces for radioassay. Approximately 38% (1,2,3,4-TeCB), 36% (1,2,3,5-TeCB), and 18% (1,2,4,5-TeCB) of the doses were excreted respectively in the feces 48 h post administration. In monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,4-TeCB, unchanged compound accounted for 50% of the fecal radioactivity. Unchanged compound accounted for more than 50% of the fecal radioactivity found in the monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,5-TeCB. The fecal metabolites were identified in both groups. No metabolites were detected in the feces of monkeys dosed with 1,2,4,5-TeCB. While the fecal route represented the major route of excretion for 1,2,3,4-TeCB, the other two isomers were eliminated exclusively in the feces. The above data in the squirrel monkey are different from those obtained with the rat and the rabbit, and demonstrate the different metabolic pathways for the isomers.

  12. Problem Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ Home Body Getting your period Problem periods Problem periods It’s common to have cramps or feel ... doctor Some common period problems Signs of period problems top One way to know if you may ...

  13. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  14. A Synchronous Distance Discussion Procedure with Reinforcement Mechanism: Designed for Elementary School Students to Achieve the Attending and Responding Stages of the Affective Domain Teaching Goals within a Class Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Kuo-An; Yang, Chia-Hao

    2008-01-01

    Distance education courses must cope with the difficulties imposed by delivering a class at a distance. As most courses only emphasize the cognitive aspects of the class and neglect the course's effect on the students, this gives no help for reaching the affective domain teaching goals. Especially for younger students, in distance education, when…

  15. Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan, 1/2 Floor Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan - Jack's Mill Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  16. 39 CFR 3055.55 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.55 Section 3055.55 Postal... Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.55 Periodicals. (a) Within County Periodicals. For the Within County Periodicals product within the Periodicals class, report the: (1)...

  17. 39 CFR 3055.55 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.55 Section 3055.55 Postal... Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.55 Periodicals. (a) Within County Periodicals. For the Within County Periodicals product within the Periodicals class, report the: (1)...

  18. 39 CFR 3055.55 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.55 Section 3055.55 Postal... Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.55 Periodicals. (a) Within County Periodicals. For the Within County Periodicals product within the Periodicals class, report the: (1)...

  19. 39 CFR 3055.55 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.55 Section 3055.55 Postal... Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.55 Periodicals. (a) Within County Periodicals. For the Within County Periodicals product within the Periodicals class, report the: (1)...

  20. Project CLASS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBain, Susan L.; And Others

    Project CLASS (Competency-Based Live-Ability Skills) uses a series of 60 modules to teach life survival skills to adults with low-level reading ability--especially Adult Basic Education/English as a Second Language students. Two versions of the modules have been developed: one for use with teacher-directed instruction and another for independent…

  1. Class Trash.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity in which students calculate the amount and types of trash thrown out by their class at school to investigate how much trash is generated, where it goes, and speculate about alternatives. Students need to be familiar with the concepts of weight, volume, and numbers. (MCO)

  2. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  3. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  4. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  5. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  6. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  7. 16 CFR 1.2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedure. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.2 Procedure. (a) Application. The request for advice...

  8. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  9. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  10. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  11. 11 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.2 Definitions. As defined in the Privacy Act of 1974 and for the purposes of this part, unless otherwise required by the context, the following terms shall have these meanings: Act means the...

  12. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2008-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2008-10-01 2008-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT.... and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  13. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    1996-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 1996-10-01 1996-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of any unincorporated association which...

  14. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2000-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2000-10-01 2000-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT,DEPARTMENT OF... Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of any...

  15. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2002-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2002-10-01 2002-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  16. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2006-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  17. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    1997-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of any unincorporated association which...

  18. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  19. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  20. 16 CFR 1.2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedure. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.2 Procedure. (a) Application. The request for advice...

  1. 45 CFR 1210.1-2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope. 1210.1-2 Section 1210.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES General § 1210.1-2 Scope. (a) This part applies to all Trainees and...

  2. 45 CFR 1211.1-2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability. 1211.1-2 Section 1211.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-2 Applicability. This part applies to all volunteers enrolled under part A of title I of the...

  3. 16 CFR 1.2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedure. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.2 Procedure. (a) Application. The request for advice...

  4. 16 CFR 1.2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.2 Procedure. (a) Application. The request for advice...

  5. 16 CFR 1.2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedure. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.2 Procedure. (a) Application. The request for advice...

  6. Frustrated mixed spin-1/2 and spin-1 Ising ferrimagnets on a triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žukovič, M.; Bobák, A.

    2015-05-01

    Mixed spin-1/2 and spin-1 Ising ferrimagnets on a triangular lattice with sublattices A, B, and C are studied for two spin-value distributions (SA,SB,SC) =(1 /2 ,1 /2 ,1 ) and (1 /2 ,1 ,1 ) by Monte Carlo simulations. The nonbipartite character of the lattice induces geometrical frustration in both systems, which leads to the critical behavior rather different from their ferromagnetic counterparts. We confirm second-order phase transitions belonging to the standard Ising universality class occurring at higher temperatures, however, in both models these change at tricritical points (TCP) to first-order transitions at lower temperatures. In the model (1 /2 ,1 /2 ,1 ) , TCP occurs on the boundary between paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic (±1 /21 /2 ,∓1 ) phases. The boundary between two ferrimagnetic phases (±1 /21 /2 ,∓1 ) and (±1 /2 ,∓1 /2 ,0 ) at lower temperatures is always first order and it is joined by a line of second-order phase transitions between the paramagnetic and the ferrimagnetic (±1 /2 ,∓1 /2 ,0 ) phases at a critical endpoint. The tricritical behavior is also confirmed in the model (1 /2 ,1 ,1 ) on the boundary between the paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic (0 ,±1 ,∓1 ) phases.

  7. Class distinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. Catherine

    Typical 101 courses discourage many students from pursuing higher level science and math courses. Introductory classes in science and math serve largely as a filter, screening out all but the most promising students, and leaving the majority of college graduates—including most prospective teachers—with little understanding of how science works, according to a study conducted for the National Science Foundation. Because few teachers, particularly at the elementary level, experience any collegiate science teaching that stresses skills of inquiry and investigation, they simply never learn to use those methods in their teaching, the report states.

  8. 44 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., appliances, services, or allowances therefor or to valuations, costs or accounting, or practices relating to... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  9. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  10. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  11. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  12. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  13. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  14. 44 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Emergency Management Agency. (e) Major rule means any regulation that is likely to result in: (1) An...

  15. 44 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Emergency Management Agency. (e) Major rule means any regulation that is likely to result in: (1) An...

  16. 44 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Emergency Management Agency. (e) Major rule means any regulation that is likely to result in: (1) An...

  17. Meat Cutting Classes--Popular with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostad, James; Carpentier, Dale

    1976-01-01

    Presents a session by session description of a "meats" class, which is offered to high school students (9-week period) and adults (8-week period). The classes cover identification of cuts (beef, sheep, hogs, and veal; grades and grading of live animals and carcasses; economics of butchering and cutting your own meat; actual slaughtering; and the…

  18. Positive periodic solutions of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei; Chen, Tianping

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, for a general class of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems, we prove some new results on the existence of positive periodic solutions by Schauder's fixed point theorem. The global asymptotical stability of positive periodic solutions is discussed further, and conditions for exponential convergence are given. The conditions we obtained are weaker than the previously known ones and can be easily reduced to several special cases.

  19. Periodic orbits near heteroclinic cycles in a cyclic replicator system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanshi; Wu, Hong; Ruan, Shigui

    2012-04-01

    A species is semelparous if every individual reproduces only once in its life and dies immediately after the reproduction. While the reproduction opportunity is unique per year and the individual's period from birth to reproduction is just n years, the individuals that reproduce in the ith year (modulo n) are called the ith year class, i = 1, 2, . . . , n. The dynamics of the n year-class system can be described by a differential equation system of Lotka-Volterra type. For the case n = 4, there is a heteroclinic cycle on the boundary as shown in previous works. In this paper, we focus on the case n = 4 and show the existence, growth and disappearance of periodic orbits near the heteroclinic cycle, which is a part of the conjecture by Diekmann and van Gils (SIAM J Appl Dyn Syst 8:1160-1189, 2009). By analyzing the Poincaré map near the heteroclinic cycle and introducing a metric to measure the size of the periodic orbit, we show that (i) when the average competitive degree among subpopulations (year classes) in the system is weak, there exists an asymptotically stable periodic orbit near the heteroclinic cycle which is repelling; (ii) the periodic orbit grows in size when some competitive degree increases, and converges to the heteroclinic cycle when the average competitive degree tends to be strong; (iii) when the average competitive degree is strong, there is no periodic orbit near the heteroclinic cycle which becomes asymptotically stable. Our results provide explanations why periodic solutions expand and disappear and why all but one subpopulation go extinct. PMID:21656008

  20. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  1. AC conductivity and relaxation mechanism in (Nd1/2Li1/2)(Fe1/2V1/2)O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Susmita; Barik, Subrat Kumar; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study we have synthesized polycrystalline sample of (Nd1/2Li1/2)(Fe1/2V1/2)O3 ceramic by a standard high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. Studies of dielectric and electrical properties of the compound have been carried out in a wide range of temperature (RT - 400 °C) and frequency (1kHz - 1MHz) using complex impedance spectroscopic technique. The imaginary vs. real component of the complex impedance plot (Nyquist plot) of the prepared sample exhibits the existence of grain, grain boundary contributions in the complex electrical parameters and negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) type behavior like semiconductor. Details study of ac conductivity plot reveals that the material obeys universal Jonscher's power law.

  2. Cisplatin inhibits MEK1/2

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tetsu; Tsigelny, Igor F.; Götz, Andreas W.; Howell, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin (cDDP) is known to bind to the CXXC motif of proteins containing a ferrodoxin-like fold but little is known about its ability to interact with other Cu-binding proteins. MEK1/2 has recently been identified as a Cu-dependent enzyme that does not contain a CXXC motif. We found that cDDP bound to and inhibited the activity of recombinant MEK1 with an IC50 of 0.28 μM and MEK1/2 in whole cells with an IC50 of 37.4 μM. The inhibition of MEK1/2 was relieved by both Cu+1 and Cu+2 in a concentration-dependent manner. cDDP did not inhibit the upstream pathways responsible for activating MEK1/2, and did not cause an acute depletion of cellular Cu that could account for the reduction in MEK1/2 activity. cDDP was found to bind MEK1/2 in whole cells and the extent of binding was augmented by supplementary Cu and reduced by Cu chelation. Molecular modeling predicts 3 Cu and cDDP binding sites and quantum chemistry calculations indicate that cDDP would be expected to displace Cu from each of these sites. We conclude that, at clinically relevant concentrations, cDDP binds to and inhibits MEK1/2 and that both the binding and inhibitory activity are related to its interaction with Cu bound to MEK1/2. This may provide the basis for useful interactions of cDDP with other drugs that inhibit MAPK pathway signaling. PMID:26155939

  3. Periodic cages.

    PubMed

    Diudea, Mircea V; Nagy, Csaba L; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Ioan; Graovac, Ante; Janezic, Dusanka; Vikić-Topić, Drazen

    2005-01-01

    Various cages are constructed by using three types of caps: f-cap (derived from spherical fullerenes by deleting zones of various size), kf-cap (obtainable by cutting off the polar ring, of size k), and t-cap ("tubercule"-cap). Building ways are presented, some of them being possible isomerization routes in the real chemistry of fullerenes. Periodic cages with ((5,7)3) covering are modeled, and their constitutive typing enumeration is given. Spectral data revealed some electronic periodicity in fullerene clusters. Semiempirical and strain energy calculations complete their characterization. PMID:15807490

  4. Local conservation laws in spin-\\frac{1}{2} XY chains with open boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagotti, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    We revisit the conserved quantities of the spin-\\frac{1}{2} XY model with open boundary conditions. In the absence of a transverse field, we find new families of local charges and show that half of the seeming conservation laws are conserved only if the number of sites is odd. In even chains the set of noninteracting charges is abelian, like in the periodic case when the number of sites is odd. In odd chains the set is doubled and becomes non-abelian, like in even periodic chains. The dependence of the charges on the parity of the chain’s size undermines the common belief that the thermodynamic limit of diagonal ensembles exists. We consider also the transverse-field Ising chain, where the situation is more ordinary. The generalization to the XY model in a transverse field is not straightforward and we propose a general framework to carry out similar calculations. We conjecture the form of the bulk part of the local charges and discuss the emergence of quasilocal conserved quantities. We provide evidence that in a region of the parameter space there is a reduction of the number of quasilocal conservation laws invariant under chain inversion. As a by-product, we study a class of block-Toeplitz-plus-Hankel operators and identify the conditions that their symbols satisfy in order to commute with a given block-Toeplitz.

  5. 76 FR 30045 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Columbus Lawson AAF, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR 71.1... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Columbus...

  6. 77 FR 38227 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The incorporation by...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to modify Class D and Class E airspace at Bozeman Yellowstone...

  7. 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dibromo - 3 - chloropropane ( DBCP ) ; CASRN 96 - 12 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessm

  8. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2,2 - Tetrachloroethane ; CASRN 79 - 34 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  9. 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4,5 - Tetrachlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 94 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  10. 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,1,2 - Tetrachloroethane ; CASRN 630 - 20 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  11. 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,1,2 - Tetrafluoroethane ; CASRN 811 - 97 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  12. 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

  13. Looking Backward: Reflections on the Study of Class in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealey, Gregory

    1981-01-01

    Examines Canadian historians' treatment of social class and the working class. Working class studies can be classified into three types--the academic, governmental, and political--and three periods--the 1880s to 1929, 1929 to the end of World War II, and the Cold War. A renaissance in working class studies characterizes the 1960s. (Author/KC)

  14. 39 CFR 3055.45 - First-Class Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false First-Class Mail. 3055.45 Section 3055.45 Postal... Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.45 First-Class Mail. (a) Single-Piece Letters... Letters/Postcards, Flats, and Parcels products within the First-Class Mail class, report the: (1)...

  15. A New Family of Ionic Liquids 1-amino-3-alkyl-1,2,3-Triazolium Nitrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Greg; Kaplan, Greg; Hall, Leslie; Hawkins, Tommy; Larue, Joann

    2004-01-01

    A new class of ionic liquids based upon 1-amino-3-alkyl-1,2,3-triazolium nitrates (alkyl = methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, 2-propeny1, and n-butyl) have been synthesized and characterized by vibrational spectra, multinuclear NMR, elemental analysis, and DSC studies. A single crystal x-ray study was carried out for 1-amino-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazolium nitrate and the details will be presented.

  16. Internal rotation for predicting conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane and 1,2-dichloroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venâncio, Mateus F.; Dos Santos, Hélio F.; De Almeida, Wagner B.

    2016-06-01

    The contribution of internal rotation to the thermal correction of Gibbs free energy (ΔG) is estimated using the quantum pendulum model (QPM) to solve the characteristic Schrödinger equation. The procedure is applied to theoretical prediction of conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane (1,2-DFE) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) molecules. The predicted population for the anti form was 37% and 75%, for 1,2-DFE and 1,2-DCE respectively, in excellent agreement with experimental gas phase data available, 37 ± 5% and 78 ± 5%. These results provide great support to the use of the QPM model to account for the low vibrational frequency modes effect on the calculation of thermodynamic properties.

  17. Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanorice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Paritosh; Landskron, Kai

    2009-02-01

    A periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) with nanorice morphology was successfully synthesized by a template assisted sol-gel method using a chain-type precursor. The PMO is composed of D and T sites in the ratio 1:2. The obtained mesoporous nanorice has a surface area of 753 m2 g-1, one-dimensional channels, and a narrow pore size distribution centered at 4.3 nm. The nanorice particles have a length of ca. 600 nm and width of ca. 200 nm.

  18. Teachers in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Galen, Jane

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I argue for a closer read of the daily "class work" of teachers, as posited by Reay, 1998. In developing exploratory class portraits of four teachers who occupy distinctive social positions (two from working-class homes now teaching upper-middle-class children and two from upper-middle-class homes now teaching poor children), I…

  19. Kinetics of 1,2-Dichloroethane and 1,2-Dibromoethane Biodegradation in Anaerobic Enrichment Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rong; Peethambaram, Hari S.; Falta, Ronald W.; Verce, Matthew F.; Henderson, James K.; Bagwell, Christopher E.; Brigmon, Robin L.

    2013-01-01

    1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) and 1,2-dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide [EDB]) contaminate groundwater at many hazardous waste sites. The objectives of this study were to measure yields, maximum specific growth rates (μ̂), and half-saturation coefficients (KS) in enrichment cultures that use 1,2-DCA and EDB as terminal electron acceptors and lactate as the electron donor and to evaluate if the presence of EDB has an effect on the kinetics of 1,2-DCA dehalogenation and vice versa. Biodegradation was evaluated at the high concentrations found at some industrial sites (>10 mg/liter) and at lower concentrations found at former leaded-gasoline sites (1.9 to 3.7 mg/liter). At higher concentrations, the Dehalococcoides yield was 1 order of magnitude higher when bacteria were grown with 1,2-DCA than when they were grown with EDB, while μ̂'s were similar for the two compounds, ranging from 0.19 to 0.52 day−1 with 1,2-DCA to 0.28 to 0.36 day−1 for EDB. KS was larger for 1,2-DCA (15 to 25 mg/liter) than for EDB (1.8 to 3.7 mg/liter). In treatments that received both compounds, EDB was always consumed first and adversely impacted the kinetics of 1,2-DCA utilization. Furthermore, 1,2-DCA dechlorination was interrupted by the addition of EDB at a concentration 100 times lower than that of the remaining 1,2-DCA; use of 1,2-DCA did not resume until the EDB level decreased close to its maximum contaminant level (MCL). In lower-concentration experiments, the preferential consumption of EDB over 1,2-DCA was confirmed; both compounds were eventually dehalogenated to their respective MCLs (5 μg/liter for 1,2-DCA, 0.05 μg/liter for EDB). The enrichment culture grown with 1,2-DCA has the advantage of a more rapid transition to 1,2-DCA after EDB is consumed. PMID:23263950

  20. Nitrone Cycloadditions of 1,2-Cyclohexadiene

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Joyann S.; Styduhar, Evan D.; Pham, Hung V.; McMahon, Travis C.; Houk, K. N.; Garg, Neil K.

    2016-01-01

    We report the first 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of 1,2-cyclohexadiene, a rarely exploited strained allene. 1,2-Cyclohexadiene is generated in situ under mild conditions and trapped with nitrones to give isoxazolidine products in synthetically useful yields. The reactions occur regioselectively and exhibit a notable endo preference, thus resulting in the controlled formation of two new bonds and two stereogenic centers. DFT calculations of stepwise and concerted reaction pathways are used to rationalize the observed selectivities. Moreover, the strategic manipulation of nitrone cycloadducts demonstrates the utility of this methodology for the assembly of compounds bearing multiple heterocyclic units. These studies showcase the exploitation of a traditionally avoided reactive intermediate in chemical synthesis. PMID:26854652

  1. Positive periodic solutions of periodic neutral Lotka-Volterra system with state dependent delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongkun

    2007-06-01

    By using a fixed point theorem of strict-set-contraction, some new criteria are established for the existence of positive periodic solutions of the following periodic neutral Lotka-Volterra system with state dependent delays where (i,j=1,2,...,n) are [omega]-periodic functions and (i=1,2,...,n) are [omega]-periodic functions with respect to their first arguments, respectively.

  2. Does Class Size Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Brewer, Dominic J.; Gamoran, Adam; Willms, J. Douglas

    2001-01-01

    Reports on the significance of class size to student learning. Includes an overview of class size in various countries, the importance of teacher adaptability, and the Asian paradox of large classes allied to high test scores. (MM)

  3. Equilibria of 1,1,2,-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, S.Y.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1995-07-01

    ChloroFluoroCarbons (CFCs) are now considered to be the prime contribution to stratospheric ozone depletion. As a result, the use of activated carbons to adsorb specific CFCs has received great attention. In this paper, the equilibrium adsorption characteristics of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane vapor on different-shaped carbons were studied. Adsorption isotherms of 1,2,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on an activated carbon pellet and an activated carbon felt were measured. The equilibria of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on the activated carbon pellet having a dual pore structure were expressed by the Redlich-Peterson equation, and equilibrium constants were expressed as functions of temperature from 298 to 393 K. On the other hand, the equilibria of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on the activated carbon felt having a relatively uniform pore structure were interpreted by the Dubinin-Radushkevich correlation based on the micropore volume filling theory. The affinity coefficient was correlated by the molar polarization.

  4. 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloro - 1,2,2 - trifluoroethane ( CFC - 113 ) ; CASRN 76 - 13 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health

  5. 39 CFR 3055.22 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.22 Section 3055.22 Postal... Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.22 Periodicals. For each product within the Periodicals class, report the on-time service performance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place)....

  6. 39 CFR 3055.22 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.22 Section 3055.22 Postal... Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.22 Periodicals. For each product within the Periodicals class, report the on-time service performance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place)....

  7. 39 CFR 3055.22 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.22 Section 3055.22 Postal... Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.22 Periodicals. For each product within the Periodicals class, report the on-time service performance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place)....

  8. 39 CFR 3055.22 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.22 Section 3055.22 Postal... Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.22 Periodicals. For each product within the Periodicals class, report the on-time service performance (as a percentage rounded to one decimal place)....

  9. 77 FR 38799 - Draft Toxicological Review of 1,2,3-, 1,2,4-, and 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene: In Support of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ...EPA is announcing a 60-day public comment period and a public listening session for the external review draft human health assessment titled ``Toxicological Review of 1,2,3-, 1,2,4-, and 1,3,5- Trimethylbenzene: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)'' (EPA/635/R-11/012A). The draft assessment was prepared by the National Center for Environmental......

  10. [Periodic abstinence: its possibilities].

    PubMed

    1981-05-01

    Experience with family planning mehods requiring periodic sexual abstinence has been varied. During the last decade interest has centered on 2 methods, the cervical mucus and the sympto-thermal, which are based on identifying the onset of the fertile period. During the 1970s, the Australian physicians John and Evelyn Billings developed the cervical mucus method, in which changes in the quanitity and characteristics of cervical mucus are used to determine the moment of ovulation. The sympto-thermal method depends on identification of the slight rise in basal body temperature that occurs in the latter part of the menstrual cycle as well as cervical mucus changes and sometimes the calendar to determine the fertile period. The Catholic Church has been the main proponent of periodic abstinence methods, but since 1973 the World Health Organization has invested US$3.3 million on research in such methods. The Billings method requires differentiating between dry, wet, and very wet mucus in the vagina and between different consistencies of mucus. The method ususally requires 1-3 months for instruction and sexual abstinence is usually recommended for the 1st month. The average number of days of required abstinence was 9 in a study of 66 women and 15-18 in a study of 870 women. Many women with short menstrual cycles do not experience postmenstrual dry days, in which case abstinence may be required as many as 13 days out of 23. 18.8% of users of periodic abstinence methods in 1 North American study became pregnant in the 1st year, but most were using the calendar method. Women who desired to terminate childbearing had only about 1/2 as many failures with periodic abstinence methods as did women wishing to postpone a birth. PMID:12311397

  11. Stereodynamics of small 1,2-dialkyldiaziridines.

    PubMed

    Kamuf, Matthias; Trapp, Oliver

    2013-04-01

    Diaziridines are very interesting representatives of organic compounds containing stereogenic nitrogen atoms. In particular, 1,2-dialkyldiaziridines show extraordinarily high stereointegrity. The lone electron pairs of the nitrogen atoms are in trans configuration, avoiding a four-electron repulsive interaction. Furthermore, the trans configuration of the substituents at the nitrogen atoms is energetically favored because of reduced steric interactions. Therefore only two stereoisomers (enantiomers) are observed. At elevated temperatures the enantiomers are interconverting because of the limited stereointegrity of the chirotopic nitrogen atoms. The enantiomerization rate constants and the activation parameters of interconversion are of great interest. Here, we investigated the stereodynamics of a set of small 1,2-dialkyldiaziridines bearing short substituents (Me, Et, iPr, tBu), using enantioselective dynamic gas chromatography (DGC). Separation of enantiomers of all compounds, including the highly volatile 1,2-dimethyldiaziridine, was achieved using heptakis(2,3-di-O-ethyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-β-cyclodextrin in 50% PS086 (w/w) as chiral stationary phase in fused silica capillaries with a length of up to 50 m. Measurements at variable temperatures were performed and reaction rate constants were determined using the unified equation of chromatography implemented in the software DCXplorer. The activation barriers at room temperature for 1-(tert-butyl)-2-ethyldiaziridine, ΔG(╪)(298K) = 123.8 kJ mol(-1) (ΔH(╪) = 115.5±2.9 kJ mol(-1), ΔS(╪) = -28±1 J mol(-1) K(-1)), and 1-ethyl-2-isopropyldiaziridine, ΔG(╪)(298K) = 124.2 kJ mol(-1) (ΔH(╪) = 113.1±2.4 kJ mol(-1), ΔS(╪) = -37±2 J mol(-1) K(-1)), were determined, representing some of the highest values observed for nitrogen inversion in diaziridines. PMID:23401088

  12. (1+2)-dimensional strongly nonlocal solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang Shigen; Guo Qi

    2007-11-15

    Approximate solutions of (1+2)-dimensional strongly nonlocal solitons (SNSs) are presented. It is shown that the power of a SNS in a nematic liquid crystal is in direct proportion to the second power of the degree of nonlocality, the power of a SNS in a nonlocal medium with a logarithmic nonlocal response is in inverse proportion to the second power of its beamwidth, and the power of a SNS in a nonlocal medium with an sth-power decay nonlocal response is in direct proportion to the (s+2)th power of the degree of nonlocality.

  13. Spin-1/2 Optical Lattice Clock

    SciTech Connect

    Lemke, N. D.; Ludlow, A. D.; Barber, Z. W.; Fortier, T. M.; Diddams, S. A.; Jiang, Y.; Jefferts, S. R.; Heavner, T. P.; Parker, T. E.; Oates, C. W.

    2009-08-07

    We experimentally investigate an optical clock based on {sup 171}Yb (I=1/2) atoms confined in an optical lattice. We have evaluated all known frequency shifts to the clock transition, including a density-dependent collision shift, with a fractional uncertainty of 3.4x10{sup -16}, limited principally by uncertainty in the blackbody radiation Stark shift. We measured the absolute clock transition frequency relative to the NIST-F1 Cs fountain clock and find the frequency to be 518 295 836 590 865.2(0.7) Hz.

  14. 49 CFR 174.105 - Routing shipments, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Routing shipments, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive... CARRIAGE BY RAIL Class I (Explosive) Materials § 174.105 Routing shipments, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials. Before a shipment of Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials destined to a point beyond...

  15. 49 CFR 174.105 - Routing shipments, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Routing shipments, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive... CARRIAGE BY RAIL Class I (Explosive) Materials § 174.105 Routing shipments, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials. Before a shipment of Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials destined to a point beyond...

  16. 75 FR 75655 - Periodic Reporting Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... 39 CFR Part 3055 Periodic Reporting Rules AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of... rules concerning service performance for First-Class Mail Flats at the District level or, in the... performance measurement for First-Class Mail Flats at the District level from the Commission's rules...

  17. Hardware Counter Multiplexing V1.2

    2000-10-13

    The Hardware Counter Multiplexer works with the built-in counter registers on computer processors. These counters record varius low-level events as software runs, but they can cannot record all possible events at the same time. This software helps work around that limitation by counting a series of different events in sequence over a period of time. This in turn allows programmers to measure interesting combinations of events, rather than single events. The software is designed tomore » work with multithreaded or single-threaded programs.« less

  18. Weapon container catalog. Volumes 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.A.; Higuera, M.C.

    1998-02-01

    The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required for loading) used for weapon programs and for special use containers. When completed, the catalog will contain five volumes. Volume 1 for enduring stockpile programs (B53, B61, B83, W62, W76, W78, W80, W84, W87, and W88) and Volume 2, Special Use Containers, are being released. The catalog is intended as a source of information for weapon program engineers and also provides historical information. The catalog also will be published on the SNL Internal Web and will undergo periodic updates.

  19. Dehalogenimonas spp. can Reductively Dehalogenate High Concentrations of 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,2-Dichloropropane, and 1,1,2-Trichloroethane

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The contaminant concentrations over which type strains of the species Dehalogenimonas alkenigignens and Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens were able to reductively dechlorinate 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) were evaluated. Although initially isolated from an environment with much lower halogenated solvent concentrations, D. alkenigignens IP3-3T was found to reductively dehalogenate chlorinated alkanes at concentrations comparable to D. lykanthroporepellens BL-DC-9T. Both species dechlorinated 1,2-DCA, 1,2-DCP, and 1,1,2-TCA present at initial concentrations at least as high as 8.7, 4.0, and 3.5 mM, respectively. The ability of Dehalogenimonas spp. to carry out anaerobic reductive dechlorination even in the presence of high concentrations of chlorinated aliphatic alkanes has important implications for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. PMID:23046725

  20. Dehalogenimonas spp. can Reductively Dehalogenate High Concentrations of 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,2-Dichloropropane, and 1,1,2-Trichloroethane.

    PubMed

    Maness, Andrew D; Bowman, Kimberly S; Yan, Jun; Rainey, Fred A; Moe, William M

    2012-01-01

    The contaminant concentrations over which type strains of the species Dehalogenimonas alkenigignens and Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens were able to reductively dechlorinate 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) were evaluated. Although initially isolated from an environment with much lower halogenated solvent concentrations, D. alkenigignens IP3-3T was found to reductively dehalogenate chlorinated alkanes at concentrations comparable to D. lykanthroporepellens BL-DC-9T. Both species dechlorinated 1,2-DCA, 1,2-DCP, and 1,1,2-TCA present at initial concentrations at least as high as 8.7, 4.0, and 3.5 mM, respectively. The ability of Dehalogenimonas spp. to carry out anaerobic reductive dechlorination even in the presence of high concentrations of chlorinated aliphatic alkanes has important implications for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. PMID:23046725

  1. Complete Reductive Dechlorination of 1,2-Dichloropropane by Anaerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Loffler, F. E.; Champine, J. E.; Ritalahti, K. M.; Sprague, S. J.; Tiedje, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    The transformation of 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-D) was observed in anaerobic microcosms and enrichment cultures derived from Red Cedar Creek sediment. 1-Chloropropane (1-CP) and 2-CP were detected after an incubation period of 4 weeks. After 4 months the initial amount of 1,2-D was stoichiometrically converted to propene, which was not further transformed. Dechlorination of 1,2-D was not inhibited by 2-bromoethanesulfonate. Sequential 5% (vol/vol) transfers from active microcosms yielded a sediment-free, nonmethanogenic culture, which completely dechlorinated 1,2-D to propene at a rate of 5 nmol min(sup-1) mg of protein(sup-1). No intermediate formation of 1-CP or 2-CP was detected in the sediment-free enrichment culture. A variety of electron donors, including hydrogen, supported reductive dechlorination of 1,2-D. The highest dechlorination rates were observed between 20(deg) and 25(deg)C. In the presence of 1,2-D, the hydrogen threshold concentration was below 1 ppm by volume (ppmv). In addition to 1,2-D, the enrichment culture transformed 1,1-D, 2-bromo-1-CP, tetrachloroethene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, and 1,2-dichloroethane to less halogenated compounds. These findings extend our knowledge of the reductive dechlorination process and show that halogenated propanes can be completely dechlorinated by anaerobic bacteria. PMID:16535654

  2. Periodic Table Target: A Game that Introduces the Biological Significance of Chemical Element Periodicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; McGinty, Ragan L.; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    Periodic Table Target, a game for middle school or high school students, familiarizes students with the form of the periodic table and the biological significance of different elements. The Periodic Table Target game board is constructed as a class project, and the game is played to reinforce the content. Students are assigned several elements…

  3. Substrate interactions in dehalogenation of 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and 1,1,2-trichloroethane mixtures by Dehalogenimonas spp.

    PubMed

    Dillehay, Jacob L; Bowman, Kimberly S; Yan, Jun; Rainey, Fred A; Moe, William M

    2014-04-01

    When chlorinated alkanes are present as soil or groundwater pollutants, they often occur in mixtures. This study evaluated substrate interactions during the anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of chlorinated alkanes by the type strains of two Dehalogenimonas species, D. lykanthroporepellens and D. alkenigignens. Four contaminant mixtures comprised of combinations of the chlorinated solvents 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) were assessed for each species. Chlorinated solvent depletion and daughter product formation determined as a function of time following inoculation into anaerobic media revealed preferential dechlorination of 1,1,2-TCA over both 1,2-DCA and 1,2-DCP for both species. 1,2-DCA in particular was not dechlorinated until 1,1,2-TCA reached low concentrations. In contrast, both species concurrently dechlorinated 1,2-DCA and 1,2-DCP over a comparably large concentration range. This is the first report of substrate interactions during chlorinated alkane dehalogenation by pure cultures, and the results provide insights into the chlorinated alkane transformation processes that may be expected for contaminant mixtures in environments where Dehalogenimonas spp. are present. PMID:23990262

  4. Chiefs' Pocket Guide to Class Size: A Research Synthesis to Inform State Class Size Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Chief State School Officers, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Few questions in public education discourse benefit as much from research-based evidence as the question of class size--the pursuit of the ideal number of students that should be co-located for any particular period of instruction. But for policymakers, research on class size can be an embarrassment of riches, and much of the research appears to…

  5. X-1-2 on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 aircraft on the ramp at NACA High Speed Flight Research Station located on the South Base of Muroc Army Air Field in 1947. The X-1-2 flew until October 23, 1951, completing 74 glide and powered flights with nine different pilots. The aircraft has white paint and the NACA tail band. The black Xs are reference markings for tracking purposes. They were widely used on NACA aircraft in the early 1950s. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On Oct. 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager

  6. Generation and characterization of 1,2-diaryl-1,1,2,2-tetramethyldisilane cation radicals.

    PubMed

    Guirado, Gonzalo; Haze, Olesya; Dinnocenzo, Joseph P

    2010-05-21

    Nanosecond laser flash photolysis methods were used to generate and spectrally characterize the cation radicals of 1,2-diaryl-1,1,2,2,-tetramethyldisilanes (Ar = p-X-Ph, X = H, CH(3), OCH(3)) in hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) at room temperature. The disilane cation radicals rapidly reacted with methanol, with bimolecular rate constants ranging from 0.63 to 2.1 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1). The cation radicals were found to react with tert-butanol 4-5 times more slowly than methanol, consistent with a small steric effect for nucleophile-assisted fragmentation of the Si-Si bond. The standard potentials for oxidation of the disilanes in HFIP were determined by two different methods: first, by measuring equilibrium constants for electron exchange between the disilanes and the cation radical of hexaethylbenzene and, second, by combining electrochemical data from cyclic voltammetry with the lifetimes of the disilane cation radicals measured by laser flash photolysis in the same media. Agreement between the two methods was excellent (1,2-di-p-methoxyphenyl-1,1,2,2,-tetramethyldisilane by slow scan cyclic voltammetry in acetonitrile was not found to be reversible, in contrast to prior literature reports. Possible explanations for the prior results are proposed. PMID:20405871

  7. Class Notes for "Class-Y-News."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Judy L.

    1991-01-01

    A self-contained class of students with mild to moderate disabilities published a monthly newsletter which was distributed to students' families. Students became involved in writing, typing, drawing, folding, basic editing, and disseminating. (JDD)

  8. Increasing Low-Responding Students' Participation in Class Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Lisa N.; Krohn, Katherine R.; McCleary, Daniel F.; Aspiranti, Kathleen B.; Nalls, Meagan L.; Quillivan, Colin C.; Taylor, Cora M.; Williams, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in six sections of a large undergraduate class were asked to record their class comments on notecards in all course units. Additionally, in some units, they received points toward their course grade based on their reported comments in class discussion. The study was conducted over a two-semester period, with slight variation in both the…

  9. Optimal Class Length in Marketing Undergraduate Classes: An Examination of Preference, Instructor Evaluations, and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, James; Payan, Janice; Miller, Chip; Alexander, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Some believe that the longer the face to face classroom meeting time, the more effective the learning experience. Others point out disadvantages of lengthier classes (e.g., student attention problems). The authors assess which of three class formats (i.e., 1 hour/three times a week, 1 1/2 hours/twice a week, or 3 hours/one time a week) is optimal…

  10. Girls' Class, Infinite Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ost, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    The co-director of a small independent school describes Girls' Class, which she created in order to have a special time together with the girls in grades 6 through 8. The class provides guidance and celebrates spirituality and the beginning of menses for the young women. To end the class, each person says a positive self-affirmation and gives…

  11. First-Class Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesser, Kathi; Buck, Gayle; Dopp, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    In the activity described in this article, students will explore how variables in a first-class lever, specifically arm length, position of the fulcrum, and placement of the load, affect the effort needed to lift the load. To begin the lesson, demonstrate to the class how a first-class lever works and review what is meant by the terms fulcrum,…

  12. An alternating GluN1-2-1-2 subunit arrangement in mature NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Riou, Morgane; Stroebel, David; Edwardson, J Michael; Paoletti, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    NMDA receptors (NMDARs) form glutamate-gated ion channels that play a critical role in CNS physiology and pathology. Together with AMPA and kainate receptors, NMDARs are known to operate as tetrameric complexes with four membrane-embedded subunits associating to form a single central ion-conducting pore. While AMPA and some kainate receptors can function as homomers, NMDARs are obligatory heteromers composed of homologous but distinct subunits, most usually of the GluN1 and GluN2 types. A fundamental structural feature of NMDARs, that of the subunit arrangement around the ion pore, is still controversial. Thus, in a typical NMDAR associating two GluN1 and two GluN2 subunits, there is evidence for both alternating 1/2/1/2 and non-alternating 1/1/2/2 arrangements. Here, using a combination of electrophysiological and cross-linking experiments, we provide evidence that functional GluN1/GluN2A receptors adopt the 1/2/1/2 arrangement in which like subunits are diagonal to one another. Moreover, based on the recent crystal structure of an AMPA receptor, we show that in the agonist-binding and pore regions, the GluN1 subunits occupy a "proximal" position, closer to the central axis of the channel pore than that of GluN2 subunits. Finally, results obtained with reducing agents that differ in their membrane permeability indicate that immature (intracellular) and functional (plasma-membrane inserted) pools of NMDARs can adopt different subunit arrangements, thus stressing the importance of discriminating between the two receptor pools in assembly studies. Elucidating the quaternary arrangement of NMDARs helps to define the interface between the subunits and to understand the mechanism and pharmacology of these key signaling receptors. PMID:22493736

  13. Using a Virtual Class to Demonstrate Computer-Mediated Group Dynamics Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Timothy M.; Vicker, Lauren A.

    2010-01-01

    We report about an active learning demonstration designed to use a virtual class to present computer-mediated group communication course concepts to show that students can learn about these concepts in a virtual class. We designated 1 class period as a virtual rather than face-to-face class, when class members "attended" virtually using…

  14. David's Understanding of Functions and Periodicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerson, Hope

    2008-01-01

    This is a study of David, a senior enrolled in a high school precalculus course. David's understandings of functions and periodicity was explored, through clinical interviews and contextualized through classroom observations. Although David's precalculus class was traditional his understanding of periodic functions was unconventional David engaged…

  15. 12 CFR 1075.106 - Allocating funds to classes of victims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the most recently concluded six-month period, of all victims in that class to whom it is practicable... classes of victims as follows: (1) Priority to classes of victims from the most recent six-month period... concluded six-month period, as determined under paragraph (b)(2) of this section. If funds remain...

  16. Jeff=1 /2 Mott-Insulating State in Rh and Ir Fluorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birol, Turan; Haule, Kristjan

    2015-03-01

    Discovery of new transition metal compounds with large spin orbit coupling coexisting with strong electron-electron correlation among the d electrons is essential for understanding the physics that emerges from the interplay of these two effects. In this study, we predict a novel class of Jeff=1 /2 Mott insulators in a family of fluoride compounds that are previously synthesized, but not characterized extensively. First principles calculations in the level of all electron density functional theory +dynamical mean field theory indicate that these compounds have large Mott gaps and some of them exhibit unprecedented proximity to the ideal, S U (2 ) symmetric Jeff=1 /2 limit.

  17. Attention Reorients Periodically.

    PubMed

    Dugué, Laura; Roberts, Mariel; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-06-20

    Reorienting of voluntary attention enables the processing of stimuli at previously unattended locations. Although studies have identified a ventral fronto-parietal network underlying attention [1, 2], little is known about whether and how early visual areas are involved in involuntary [3, 4] and even less in voluntary [5] reorienting, and their temporal dynamics are unknown. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the occipital cortex to interfere with attentional reorienting and study its role and temporal dynamics in this process. Human observers performed an orientation discrimination task, with either valid or invalid attention cueing, across a range of stimulus contrasts. Valid cueing induced a behavioral response gain increase, higher asymptotic performance for attended than unattended locations. During subsequent TMS sessions, observers performed the same task, with high stimulus contrast. Based on phosphene mapping, TMS double pulses were applied at one of various delays to a consistent brain location in retinotopic areas (V1/V2), corresponding to the evoked signal of the target or distractor, in a valid or invalid trial. Thus, the stimulation was identical for the four experimental conditions (valid/invalid cue condition × target/distractor-stimulated). TMS modulation of the target and distractor were both periodic (5 Hz, theta) and out of phase with respect to each other in invalid trials only, when attention had to be disengaged from the distractor and reoriented to the target location. Reorientation of voluntary attention periodically involves V1/V2 at the theta frequency. These results suggest that TMS probes theta phase-reset by attentional reorienting and help link periodic sampling in time and attention reorienting in space. PMID:27265395

  18. 75 FR 12166 - Class E Airspace; Beatrice, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    .... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Beatrice, NE AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Class E airspace at Beatrice, NE. Decommissioning of the Shaw non-directional beacon (NDB) at...

  19. Progress towards measuring the 2S1 / 2 to 2P1 / 2 interval in hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vutha, A. C.; Bezginov, N.; Ferchichi, I.; Hessels, E. A.

    2015-05-01

    There is a large discrepancy between the CODATA value for the proton charge radius, and its determinations from muonic hydrogen measurements. This discrepancy is referred to as the proton radius puzzle. Improved measurements on atomic hydrogen can elucidate the origins of this discrepancy. We have constructed an experiment to measure the Lamb shift (n = 2 ,S1 / 2 -->P1 / 2) in a fast beam of atomic hydrogen. Using a novel separated-oscillatory-fields method and high signal-to-noise ratio detection, we can measure the center of this transition with a statistical uncertainty approaching 10-5 of its natural linewidth. We report on our studies of systematic effects, and on our progress towards a new measurement of the proton charge radius. We acknowledge funding from NSERC, CFI, CRC, ORF, and NIST.

  20. Electrical properties of Ba(Dy1/2Nb1/2)O3 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, K. Amar; Chandra, K. P.; Dubey, K.; Prasad, K.

    2016-05-01

    Polycrystalline Ba(Dy1/2Nb1/2)O3 was prepared using a high-temperature solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the formation of a single-phase cubic structure having space group Pm3m. AC impedance plots as a function of frequency at different temperatures were used to analyse the electrical behaviour of the sample, which indicated the negative temperature coefficient of resistance character. Complex impedance analysis targeted non-Debye type dielectric relaxation. Frequency dependent ac conductivity data obeyed Jonscher's power law. The apparent activation energy was estimated to be 0.97 eV at 1 kHz.

  1. ERK1/2 can feedback-regulate cellular MEK1/2 levels.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung-Keun; Wu, Pui-Kei; Karkhanis, Mansi; Park, Jong-In

    2015-10-01

    Signal transduction of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway is regulated by various feedback mechanisms. Given the greater molar ratio between Raf-MEK than between MEK-ERK in cells, it may be possible that MEK1/2 levels are regulated to modulate Raf/MEK/ERK activity upon pathway stimulation. Nevertheless, it has not been reported whether MEK1/2 expression can be subject to a feedback regulation. Here, we report that the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway can feedback-regulate cellular MEK1 and MEK2 levels. In different cell types, ΔRaf-1:ER- or B-Raf(V600E)-mediated MEK/ERK activation increased MEK1 but decreased MEK2 levels. These regulations were abrogated by ERK1/2 knockdown mediated by RNA interference, suggesting the presence of a feedback mechanism that regulates MEK1/2 levels. Subsequently, analyses using qPCR and luciferase reporters of the DNA promoter and 3' untranslated region revealed that the feedback MEK1 upregulation was in part attributed to increased transcription. However, the feedback MEK2 downregulation was only observed at protein levels, which was blocked by the proteasome inhibitors, MG132 and bortezomib, suggesting that the MEK2 regulation is mediated at a post-translational level. These results suggest that the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway can feedback-regulate cellular levels of MEK1 and MEK2, wherein MEK1 levels are upregulated at transcriptional level whereas MEK2 levels are downregulated at posttranslational level. PMID:26163823

  2. Copper-catalyzed 1,2-addition of α-carbonyl iodides to alkynes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Hu, Xile

    2015-01-19

    β,γ-Unsaturated ketones are an important class of organic molecules. Herein, copper catalysis has been developed for the synthesis of β-γ-unsaturated ketones through 1,2-addition of α-carbonyl iodides to alkynes. The reactions exhibit wide substrate scope and high functional group tolerance. The reaction products are versatile synthetic intermediates to complex small molecules. The method was applied for the formal synthesis of (±)-trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor. PMID:25470461

  3. 1,2,3-Triazoles from carbonyl azides and alkynes: filling the gap.

    PubMed

    Haldón, Estela; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Nicasio, M Carmen; Pérez, Pedro J

    2014-08-18

    Electron deficient azides are challenging substrates in CuAAC reactions. Particularly, when N-carbonyl azides are applied the formation of N-carbonyl triazoles has not yet been observed. We report herein the first example of this class of reaction, with a copper-based system that efficiently enables the synthesis of N-carbamoyl 1,2,3-triazoles by [3+2] cycloaddition of N-carbamoyl azides and alkynes. PMID:24980244

  4. Class network routing

    DOEpatents

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  5. Inositol 1,2,3-trisphosphate and inositol 1,2- and/or 2,3-bisphosphate are normal constituents of mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, C J; French, P J; Moore, A J; Nilsson, T; Berggren, P O; Bunce, C M; Kirk, C J; Michell, R H

    1995-01-01

    1. An inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) distinct from Ins(1,4,5)P3 and Ins(1,3,4)P3, which we previously observed in myeloid and lymphoid cells [French, Bunce, Stephens, Lord, McConnell, Brown, Creba and Michell (1991) Proc R. Soc. London B 245, 193-201; Bunce, French, Allen, Mountford, Moore, Greaves, Michell and Brown (1993) Biochem. J. 289, 667-673], is present in WRK1 rat mammary tumour cells and pancreatic endocrine beta-cells. 2. It has been identified as Ins(1,2,3)P3 by a combination of oxidation to ribitol, a structurally diagnostic polyol, and ammoniacal hydrolysis to identified inositol monophosphates. 3. Ins(1,2,3)P3 concentration in HL60 cells changed little during stimulation by ATP or fMetLeuPhe or during neutrophilic or monocytic differentiation, and Ins(1,2,3)P3 was unresponsive to vasopressin in WRK1 cells. 4. Ins(1,2,3)P3 was usually more abundant than Ins(1,4,5)P3, often being present at concentrations between approximately 1 microM and approximately 10 microM. 5. HL60, WRK-1 and lymphoid cells also contain Ins(1,2)P2 or Ins(2,3)P2, or a mixture of these two enantiomers, as a major InsP2 species. 6. Ins(1,2,3)P3 and Ins(1,2)P2/Ins(2,3)P2 are readily detected in cells labelled for long periods, but not in acutely labelled cells. This behaviour resembles that of InsP6, the most abundant cellular inositol polyphosphate that includes the 1,2,3-trisphosphate motif, which also achieves isotopic equilibrium with inositol only slowly. 7. Ins(1,2,3)P3 is the major InsP3 that accumulates during metabolism of InsP6 by WRK-1 cell homogenates. 8. Possible metabolic relationships between Ins(1,2,3)P3, Ins(1,2)P2/Ins(2,3)P2 and other inositol polyphosphates in cells, and a possible role for Ins(1,2,3)P3 in cellular iron handling, are considered. PMID:7887911

  6. Crystalline 1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidenes

    DOEpatents

    Bertrand, Guy; Gulsado-Barrios, Gregorio; Bouffard, Jean; Donnadieu, Bruno

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides novel and stable crystalline 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of making 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of using 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes in catalytic reactions.

  7. Class and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mechthild

    2005-01-01

    Everyone is dependent on caring labor. Because women's labor is financially beneficial to global capitalism, gender is inseparable from class, regardless of the specific national or cultural contexts.

  8. Online, Bigger Classes May Be Better Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Marc

    2010-01-01

    In his work as a professor, Stephen Downes used to feel that he was helping those who least needed it. His students at places like the University of Alberta already had a leg up in life and could afford the tuition. When a colleague suggested they co-teach an online class in learning theory at the University of Manitoba, in 2008, Downes welcomed…

  9. Candida albicans β-1,2 mannosyl transferase Bmt3: Preparation and evaluation of a β (1,2), α (1,2)-tetramannosyl fluorescent substrate.

    PubMed

    Cattiaux, Laurent; Mée, Anaïs; Pourcelot, Marilyne; Sfihi-Loualia, Ghenima; Hurtaux, Thomas; Maes, Emmanuel; Fradin, Chantal; Sendid, Boualem; Poulain, Daniel; Fabre, Emeline; Delplace, Florence; Guérardel, Yann; Mallet, Jean-Maurice

    2016-03-15

    We describe for the first time the chemical synthesis of a tetramannoside, containing both α (1→2) and β (1→2) linkages. Dodecylthio (lauryl) glycosides were prepared from odorless dodecyl thiol and used as donors for the glycosylation steps. This tetramannoside, was coupled to a mantyl group, and revealed to be a perfect substrate of β-mannosyltransferase Bmt3, confirming the proposed specificity and allowing the preparation of a pentamannoside sequence (β Man (1,2) β Man (1,2) α Man (1,2) α Man (1,2) α Man) usable as a novel substrate for further elongation studies. PMID:26895658

  10. Limits to Open Class Performance?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the limits to open class performance. The contents include: 1) Standard Class; 2) 15m/Racing Class; 3) Open Class; and 4) Design Solutions associated with assumptions, limiting parameters, airfoil performance, current trends, and analysis.

  11. Bragg interactions in periodic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of electromagnetic waves of wavelength lambda with periodic structures of spatial period lambda are studied. The emphasis of the work is on Bragg interactions where lambda approximately equal to 2 lambda/N and the Bragg order N takes on the values 1, 2,.... An extended coupled waves (ECW) theory is developed for the case N greater or equal to 2 and the results of the theory are found to compare favorably with the exact results of Floquet theory. Numerous numerical results are displayed as Brillouin diagrams for the first few Bragg orders. Moreover, explicit expressions for coupling coefficients, bandgap shifts and bandgap widths are derived for singly periodic media. Particular note is taken of phase speeding effects.

  12. The spin- {1}/{2} transverse XX chain with regularly alternating bonds and fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derzhko, Oleg; Richter, Johannes; Zaburannyi, Oles'

    1999-11-01

    We use continued fractions for a study of the thermodynamic properties of the periodic nonuniform spin- {1}/{2} isotropic XY chain in a non-random/random (Lorentzian) transverse field. The obtained results permit to examine the influence of a magnetic field and randomness on the spin-Peierls dimerization.

  13. Class Scheduling Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Irving E.; And Others

    In order to ascertain students' preferences for the number of times a class should meet each week, 375 questionnaires administered to students during the 1989 summer session at Cuyahoga Community College, Western Campus (Ohio) were evaluated. Results indicated that 49% of respondents preferred classes meeting twice each week, and 29% preferred…

  14. Bayesian Hierarchical Classes Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenen, Iwin; Van Mechelen, Iven; Gelman, Andrew; De Knop, Stijn

    2008-01-01

    Hierarchical classes models are models for "N"-way "N"-mode data that represent the association among the "N" modes and simultaneously yield, for each mode, a hierarchical classification of its elements. In this paper we present a stochastic extension of the hierarchical classes model for two-way two-mode binary data. In line with the original…

  15. The Question of Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorski, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    For too long, educators' approach to understanding the relationships between poverty, class and education has been framed by studying the behaviors and cultures of poor students and their families. If only we--in the middle and upper-middle classes--can understand "their" culture, why "those people" don't value education, why "those parents" don't…

  16. The Question of Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorski, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    For too long, educators' approach to understanding the relationships between poverty, class and education has been framed by studying the behaviors and cultures of poor students and their families. If only people--in the middle and upper-middle classes--can understand "their" culture, why "those people" do not value education, why "those parents"…

  17. The Last Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhl, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    The last class of the semester is like a goodbye. It can be cold and perfunctory or warm and heartfelt. For many years, I erred on the side of "cold and perfunctory." No more. Now my last classes are a time of celebration and ritual as I invite students to focus on qualities such as acceptance and gratitude.

  18. The Class Size Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishel, Lawrence, Ed.; Rothstein, Richard, Ed.

    This collection of papers debates the merits of smaller class sizes and research methods used to evaluate the efficacy of this education reform measure. Four chapters focus on (1) "Understanding the Magnitude and Effect of Class Size on Student Achievement" (Alan B. Krueger), which discusses expenditures per student and economic criterion; (2)…

  19. Teaching Large Evening Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wambuguh, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    High enrollments, conflicting student work schedules, and the sheer convenience of once-a-week classes are pushing many colleges to schedule evening courses. Held from 6 to 9 pm or 7 to 10 pm, these classes are typically packed, sometimes with more than 150 students in a large lecture theater. How can faculty effectively teach, control, or even…

  20. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  1. Teaching Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tablante, Courtney B.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Discussing socioeconomic status in college classes can be challenging. Both teachers and students feel uncomfortable, yet social class matters more than ever. This is especially true, given increased income inequality in the United States and indications that higher education does not reduce this inequality as much as many people hope. Resources…

  2. McIntosh active-region class similarities and suggestions for mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bornmann, P. L.; Kalmbach, D.; Kulhanek, D.

    1994-01-01

    McIntosh active-region classifications reported during a five-year period were examined to determine similarities among the classes. Two methods were used extensively to determine these similarities. The number of transitions among classes were used to determine the most frequent transitions out of each class, and the alternative classes reported for the same region by different sites were used to establish which classes were neighboring classes. These transition frequencies and neighboring classes were used to identify classes that could be eliminated or merged with other classes. Class similarities were used to investigate the relative importance of several pairs of decisions that occur within a single McIntosh parameter. In particular, the redundancy of parameters in some classes was examined, and the class similarities were used to identify which of these parameters could be eliminated. Infrequently reported classes were also considered, and suggestions for mergers were made when similarities between classes could be identified.

  3. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  4. 43 CFR 4170.1-2 - Failure to use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Failure to use. 4170.1-2 Section 4170.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 4170.1-2 Failure to use. If a permittee or lessee has, for 2 consecutive grazing fee years, failed...

  5. 43 CFR 4170.1-2 - Failure to use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Failure to use. 4170.1-2 Section 4170.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 4170.1-2 Failure to use. If a permittee or lessee has, for 2 consecutive grazing fee years, failed...

  6. 43 CFR 4170.1-2 - Failure to use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Failure to use. 4170.1-2 Section 4170.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 4170.1-2 Failure to use. If a permittee or lessee has, for 2 consecutive grazing fee years, failed...

  7. 43 CFR § 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2015-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2015-10-01 2015-10-01 false Contents. § 2812.1-2 Section § 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  8. Acyl migration kinetics of vegetable oil 1,2-diacylglycerols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acyl migration kinetics of long-chain 1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DAG) to form 1,3-diacylglycerol (1,3-DAG) over the temperature range of 25 to 80 degrees Celsius were examined using proton NMR spectroscopy. The 1,2-DAG mole fraction of 0.32 at equilibrium was found to be insensitive to temperature...

  9. 43 CFR 8365.1-2 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.1-2 Section 8365.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.1-2 Occupancy and...

  10. 43 CFR 1784.1-2 - Duration, termination, and renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration, termination, and renewal. 1784.1-2 Section 1784.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) COOPERATIVE RELATIONS Advisory Committees § 1784.1-2 Duration,...

  11. 43 CFR 8365.1-2 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.1-2 Section 8365.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.1-2 Occupancy and...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1-2 - Limitation on tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Limitation on tax. 1.1-2 Section 1.1-2 Internal... Surtaxes § 1.1-2 Limitation on tax. (a) Taxable years ending before January 1, 1971. For taxable years ending before January 1, 1971, the tax imposed by section 1 (whether by subsection (a) or subsection...

  13. 43 CFR 4170.1-2 - Failure to use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Failure to use. 4170.1-2 Section 4170.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 4170.1-2 Failure to use. If a permittee or lessee has, for 2 consecutive grazing fee years, failed...

  14. 36 CFR 1.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability and scope. 1.2 Section 1.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1.2 Applicability and scope. (a) The regulations contained in this chapter apply to all...

  15. 36 CFR 1.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability and scope. 1.2 Section 1.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1.2 Applicability and scope. (a) The regulations contained in this chapter apply to all...

  16. 36 CFR 1.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability and scope. 1.2 Section 1.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1.2 Applicability and scope. (a) The regulations contained in this chapter apply to all persons entering, using, visiting,...

  17. 45 CFR 1216.1-2 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1216.1-2 Section 1216.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISPLACEMENT OF EMPLOYED WORKERS AND NONIMPAIRMENT OF CONTRACTS FOR SERVICE § 1216.1-2 Applicability of this part. (a)...

  18. Class 1 integron in staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhenbo; Li, Lin; Shi, Lei

    2011-01-01

    As a major concern in public health, methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) still remains one of the most prevalent pathogens that cause nosocomial infections throughout the world and has been recently labeled as a “super bug” in antibiotic resistance. Thus, surveillance and investigation on antibiotic resistance mechanisms involved in clinical MRS strains may raise urgent necessity and utmost significance. As a novel antibiotic resistance mechanism, class 1 integron has been identified as a primary source of antimicrobial resistance genes in Gram-negative organisms. However, most available studies on integrons had been limited within Gram-negative microbes, little is known for clinical Gram-positive bacteria. Based on series studies of systematic integrons investigation in hundreds of staphylococci strains during 2001–2006, this review concentrated on the latest development of class 1 integron in MRS isolates, including summary of prevalence and occurrence of class 1 integron, analysis of correlation between integron and antibiotic resistance, further demonstration of the role integrons play as antibiotic determinants, as well as origin and evolution of integron-associated gene cassettes during this study period. PMID:21258866

  19. 47 CFR 73.25 - Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. 73.25 Section 73.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.25 Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. The frequencies in...

  20. 47 CFR 73.25 - Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. 73.25 Section 73.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.25 Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. The frequencies in...

  1. 47 CFR 73.25 - Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. 73.25 Section 73.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.25 Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. The frequencies in...

  2. 47 CFR 73.25 - Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. 73.25 Section 73.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.25 Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. The frequencies in...

  3. 47 CFR 73.25 - Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. 73.25 Section 73.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.25 Clear channels; Class A, Class B and Class D stations. The frequencies in...

  4. On a mechanism of 1/2<110> and 1/2<112> dislocation pinning in {gamma}-TiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Inkson, B.J.

    1996-10-15

    A new mechanism for 1/2<110> and 1/2<112> dislocation pinning in TiAl is discussed. This mechanism is based on the inability of 1/2<110> perfect dislocations and 1/2<112> superdislocations to propagate through small {gamma} order-domains where the two {gamma}-grains are related by an order relationship equivalent to a 120{degree} rotation about <111>.

  5. Benzyl-1,2,4-triazoles as CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor Ligands: Preparation and In Vitro Pharmacological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Folgado, Laura; Decara, Juan; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Goya, Pilar; Jagerovic, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we have identified 3-alkyl-1,5-diaryl-1H-1,2,4-triazoles to be a novel class of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) antagonists. In order to expand the number of cannabinoid ligands with a central 1,2,4-triazole scaffold, we have synthesized a novel series of 1-benzyl-1H-1,2,4-triazoles, and some of them were evaluated by CB1R radioligand binding assays. Compound 12a showed the most interesting pharmacological properties, possessing a CB1R affinity in the nanomolar range. PMID:27127651

  6. Active Learning in American History Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Janice

    1996-01-01

    Describes the activities of a high school class that discovered the joy of history through experiential learning. Students learned traditional military tactics for their unit on the French and Indian Wars, and tried to apply them to a nearby woods. Includes similar activities for other historic periods. (MJP)

  7. Luminescent Iridium(III) Cyclometalated Complexes with 1,2,3-Triazole "Click" Ligands.

    PubMed

    Connell, Timothy U; White, Jonathan M; Smith, Trevor A; Donnelly, Paul S

    2016-03-21

    A series of cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes with either 4-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,3-triazole or 1-(2-picolyl)-1,2,3-triazole ancillary ligands to give complexes with either 5- or 6-membered chelate rings were synthesized and characterized by a combination of X-ray crystallography, electron spin ionization-high-resolution mass spectroscopy (ESI-HRMS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The electronic properties of the complexes were probed using absorption and emission spectroscopy, as well as cyclic voltammetry. The relative stability of the complexes formed from each ligand class was measured, and their excited-state properties were compared. The emissive properties are, with the exception of complexes that contain a nitroaromatic substituent, insensitive to functionalization of the ancillary pyridyl-1,2,3-triazole ligand but tuning of the emission maxima was possible by modification of the cyclometalating ligands. It is possible to prepare a wide range of optimally substituted pyridyl-1,2,3-triazoles using copper Cu(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition, which is a commonly used "click" reaction, and this family of ligands represent an useful alternative to bipyridine ligands for the preparation of luminescent iridium(III) complexes. PMID:26938838

  8. Social Class Dialogues and the Fostering of Class Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    How do critical pedagogies promote undergraduate students' awareness of social class, social class identity, and social class inequalities in education? How do undergraduate students experience class consciousness-raising in the intergroup dialogue classroom? This qualitative study explores undergraduate students' class consciousness-raising in an…

  9. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...

  10. 49 CFR 174.105 - Routing shipments, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Routing shipments, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials. 174.105 Section 174.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Class I...

  11. Teaching Heterogeneous Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millrood, Radislav

    2002-01-01

    Discusses an approach to teaching heterogeneous English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classes. Draws on classroom research data to describe the features of a success-building lesson context. (Author/VWL)

  12. Universality classes of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Roest, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate all single-field, slow-roll inflationary models whose slow-roll parameters scale as 1/N in the limit of a large number of e-folds N. We proof that all such models belong to two universality classes, characterised by a single parameter. One class contains small field models like hilltop inflation, while the other class consists of large field models like chaotic inflation. We give the leading expressions for the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio r, which are universal for each class, plus subleading corrections for a number of models. This predicts r either to be unobservably small, r < 0.01, or close to the present observational limit, r ≈ 0.07.

  13. Aerobic Conditioning Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil R.

    1980-01-01

    An aerobic exercise class that focuses on the conditioning of the cardiovascular and muscular systems is presented. Students complete data cards on heart rate, pulse, and exercises to be completed during the forty minute course. (CJ)

  14. Functional Analysis of Nuclear Localization Signals in VP1-2 Homologues from All Herpesvirus Subfamilies

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, T.; Abaitua, F.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The herpes simplex virus (HSV) tegument protein VP1-2 contains an N-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS) that is critical for capsid routing to the nuclear pore. Here we analyzed positionally conserved determinants in VP1-2 homologues from each of the alpha, beta, and gamma classes of human herpesviruses. The overall architectures of the VP1-2s were similar, with a conserved N-terminal ubiquitin-specific protease domain separated from an internal region by a linker that was quite poorly conserved in length and sequence. Within this linker region all herpesviruses contained a conserved, highly basic motif which nevertheless exhibited distinct class-specific features. The motif in HSV functioned as a monopartite NLS, while in varicella-zoster virus (VZV) activity required an adjacent basic section defining the motif as a bipartite NLS. Neither the beta- nor gammaherpesvirus VP1-2 motifs were identified by prediction algorithms, but they nevertheless functioned as efficient NLS motifs both in heterologous transfer assays and in HSV VP1-2. Furthermore, though with different efficiencies and with the exception of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), these chimeric variants rescued the replication defect of an HSV mutant lacking its NLS motif. We demonstrate that the lysine at position 428 of HSV is critical for replication, with a single alanine substitution being sufficient to abrogate NLS function and virus growth. We conclude that the basic motifs of each of the VP1-2 proteins are likely to confer a similar function in capsid entry in the homologous setting and that while there is flexibility in the exact type of motif employed, specific individual residues are critical for function. IMPORTANCE To successfully infect cells, all herpesviruses, along with many other viruses, e.g., HIV, hepatitis B virus, and influenza virus, must navigate through the cytoplasmic environment and dock with nuclear pores for transport of their genomes into the nucleus. However, we

  15. ERBB activation modulates sensitivity to MEK1/2 inhibition in a subset of driver-negative melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Katherine E.; Johnson, Douglas B.; Johnson, Adam S.; Sanchez, Violeta; Kuba, Maria; Lu, Pengcheng; Chen, Xi; Kelley, Mark C.; Wang, Qingguo; Zhao, Zhongming; Kris, Mark; Berger, Michael F.; Sosman, Jeffrey A.; Pao, William

    2015-01-01

    Melanomas are characterized by activating “driver” mutations in BRAF, NRAS, KIT, GNAQ, and GNA11. Resultant mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signaling makes some melanomas susceptible to BRAF (BRAF V600 mutations), MEK1/2 (BRAF V600, L597, fusions; NRAS mutations), or other kinase inhibitors (KIT), respectively. Among driver-negative (“pan-negative”) patients, an unexplained heterogeneity of response to MEK1/2 inhibitors has been observed. Analysis of 16 pan-negative melanoma cell lines revealed that 8 (50%; termed Class I) are sensitive to the MEK1/2 inhibitor, trametinib, similar to BRAF V600E melanomas. A second set (termed Class II) display reduced trametinib sensitivity, paradoxical activation of MEK1/2 and basal activation of ERBBs 1, 2, and 3 (4 lines, 25%). In 3 of these lines, PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathway signaling is abrogated using the ERBB inhibitor, afatinib, and proliferation is even further reduced upon the addition of trametinib. A potential mechanism of ERBB activation in Class II melanomas is minimal expression of the ERK1/2 phosphatase, DUSP4, as ectopic restoration of DUSP4 attenuated ERBB signaling through potential modulation of the ERBB ligand, amphiregulin (AREG). Consistent with these data, immunohistochemical analysis of patient melanomas revealed a trend towards lower overall DUSP4 expression in pan-negative versus BRAF- and NRAS-mutant tumors. This study is the first to demonstrate that differential ERBB activity in pan-negative melanoma may modulate sensitivity to clinically-available MEK1/2 inhibitors and provides rationale for the use of ERBB inhibitors, potentially in combination with MEK1/2 inhibitors, in subsets of this disease. PMID:26084293

  16. X-1-2 on Ramp with Boeing B-29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 sitting on the ramp at NACA High- Speed Flight Research Station with the Boeing B-29 launch ship behind. The B-29 was fondly referred to as 'Fertile Myrtle.' The painting near the nose depicts a stork carrying a bundle which is symbolic of the Mothership launching her babe (X-1-2). The pilot access door is open to the cockpit of the X-1-2 aircraft.

  17. 15 CFR 1.2 - Description and design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Description and design. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce THE SEAL OF THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE § 1.2 Description and design. (a) The Act of February 14, 1903 (32 Stat. 825, as amended) (15 U.S.C. 1501), which established the Department...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1-2 - Limitation on tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Limitation on tax. 1.1-2 Section 1.1-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.1-2 Limitation on tax. (a) Taxable years ending before January 1, 1971. For taxable years ending before January 1, 1971, the tax...

  19. Dielectric properties of Ba(Ga1/2Nb1/2)0.25Ti0.75O3 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, K. P.; Kulkarni, A. R.; Prasad, K.

    2016-05-01

    Lead-free perovskite Ba(Ga1/2Nb1/2)0.25Ti0.75O3 was prepared using conventional ceramic technique at 1450°C/5h in air atmosphere and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, dielectric and impedance studies. The crystal symmetry, space group and unit cell dimensions were derived from the experimental results using FullProf software. XRD analysis of the compound indicated the formation of a single-phase cubic structure with the space groupPm3m(221). EDX and SEM studies were carried to study the quality and purity of the compound. Partial replacement of Ti4+ with pseudo-cation((Ga1/23 +Nb1/2 5 +) 4 + ) significantly reduces the dielectric constant as well as loss tangent values and improves the frequency and temperature stability of the dielectric properties and exhibited a low value of temperature coefficient of capacitance (<±7%) in the working temperature range (up to +125°C), which meets the specifications for `Z5R' of Class I dielectrics of Electronic Industries Association. Hence, this compound might be a suitable candidate for capacitor applications.

  20. Precision polarizability measurements of atomic cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Hannah; Kortyna, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    We report hyperfine-resolved scalar polarizabilities for cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states using resonant two-photon spectroscopy. Two single-mode, external-cavity diode lasers drive the 6 s 2S1 / 2 --> 6 p 2P1 / 2 --> ns 2S1 / 2 transition (n = 8 or 9). Both laser beams are split and counter-propagate through an effusive beam and a vapor cell. An electric field applied across two parallel plates imposes Stark shifts on the ns 2S1 / 2 levels in the effusive beam. Electric-field strengths are measured in situ. The laser frequency is calibrated in the vapor cell using a phase modulation technique, with the modulation frequency referenced to the ground-state hyperfine splitting of atomic rubidium. Our measured 8 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 38370 +/- 380 a03, agrees with previous theory and experiments. Our measured 9 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 150700 +/- 1100 a03, agrees within two sigma of theory, but we are unaware of previous measurements. We also verify that these polarizabilities are independent of the hyperfine levels, placing upper limits on the differential polarizabilities of 200 +/- 260 a03 for the 8 s 2S1 / 2 state and 490 +/- 450 a03 for the 9 s 2S1 / 2 state. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-0653107.

  1. Exponentially localized Wannier functions in periodic zero flux magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Nittis, G.; Lein, M.

    2011-11-01

    In this work, we investigate conditions which ensure the existence of an exponentially localized Wannier basis for a given periodic hamiltonian. We extend previous results [Panati, G., Ann. Henri Poincare 8, 995-1011 (2007), 10.1007/s00023-007-0326-8] to include periodic zero flux magnetic fields which is the setting also investigated by Kuchment [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 42, 025203 (2009), 10.1088/1751-8113/42/2/025203]. The new notion of magnetic symmetry plays a crucial rôle; to a large class of symmetries for a non-magnetic system, one can associate "magnetic" symmetries of the related magnetic system. Observing that the existence of an exponentially localized Wannier basis is equivalent to the triviality of the so-called Bloch bundle, a rank m hermitian vector bundle over the Brillouin zone, we prove that magnetic time-reversal symmetry is sufficient to ensure the triviality of the Bloch bundle in spatial dimension d = 1, 2, 3. For d = 4, an exponentially localized Wannier basis exists provided that the trace per unit volume of a suitable function of the Fermi projection vanishes. For d > 4 and d ⩽ 2m (stable rank regime) only the exponential localization of a subset of Wannier functions is shown; this improves part of the analysis of Kuchment [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 42, 025203 (2009), 10.1088/1751-8113/42/2/025203]. Finally, for d > 4 and d > 2m (unstable rank regime) we show that the mere analysis of Chern classes does not suffice in order to prove triviality and thus exponential localization.

  2. Almost periodic solutions for Lotka-Volterra systems with delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yanlai; Li, Lijie; Chen, Lansun

    2009-09-01

    This paper studies a general class of delayed almost periodic Lotka-Volterra system with time-varying delays and distributed delays. By using the definition of almost periodic function, the sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of globally exponentially stable almost periodic solution are obtained. The conditions can be easily reduced to special cases of cooperative systems and competitive systems.

  3. Fibonacci family of dynamical universality classes

    PubMed Central

    Popkov, Vladislav; Schadschneider, Andreas; Schmidt, Johannes; Schütz, Gunter M.

    2015-01-01

    Universality is a well-established central concept of equilibrium physics. However, in systems far away from equilibrium, a deeper understanding of its underlying principles is still lacking. Up to now, a few classes have been identified. Besides the diffusive universality class with dynamical exponent z=2, another prominent example is the superdiffusive Kardar−Parisi−Zhang (KPZ) class with z=3/2. It appears, e.g., in low-dimensional dynamical phenomena far from thermal equilibrium that exhibit some conservation law. Here we show that both classes are only part of an infinite discrete family of nonequilibrium universality classes. Remarkably, their dynamical exponents zα are given by ratios of neighboring Fibonacci numbers, starting with either z1=3/2 (if a KPZ mode exist) or z1=2 (if a diffusive mode is present). If neither a diffusive nor a KPZ mode is present, all dynamical modes have the Golden Mean z=(1+5)/2 as dynamical exponent. The universal scaling functions of these Fibonacci modes are asymmetric Lévy distributions that are completely fixed by the macroscopic current density relation and compressibility matrix of the system and hence accessible to experimental measurement. PMID:26424449

  4. theories of class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaiotto, Davide; Razamat, Shlomo S.

    2015-07-01

    We construct classes of superconformal theories elements of which are labeled by punctured Riemann surfaces. Degenerations of the surfaces correspond, in some cases, to weak coupling limits. Different classes are labeled by two integers ( N, k). The k = 1 case coincides with A N - 1 theories of class and simple examples of theories with k > 1 are orbifolds of some of the A N - 1 class theories. For the space of theories to be complete in an appropriate sense we find it necessary to conjecture existence of new strongly coupled SCFTs. These SCFTs when coupled to additional matter can be related by dualities to gauge theories. We discuss in detail the A 1 case with k = 2 using the supersymmetric index as our analysis tool. The index of theories in classes with k > 1 can be constructed using eigenfunctions of elliptic quantum mechanical models generalizing the Ruijsenaars-Schneider integrable model. When the elliptic curve of the model degenerates these eigenfunctions become polynomials with coefficients being algebraic expressions in fugacities, generalizing the Macdonald polynomials with rational coefficients appearing when k = 1.

  5. Lightcurve Analysis of Five Taxonomic A-class Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Michael P.; Ryan, Jeffrey G.; Fauerbach, Michael; Grasso, Salvatore

    2011-10-01

    We report lightcurve rotational periods for five taxonomic A-class asteroids observed at the Evelyn L. Egan Observatory: 246 Asporina, 289 Nenetta, 446 Aeternitas, 1600 Vyssotsky, and the Mars-crosser 1951 Lick.

  6. Between School and Work: Perspectives of Working Class Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane; Lazerson, Marvin

    1980-01-01

    This study is based on data gathered from previous studies concerning the transition period between school and work for adolescents. A group of working class youth is followed from school to their first jobs. (JN)

  7. Punk and Middle-Class Values: A Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamy, Philip; Levin, Jack

    1985-01-01

    Compares periodical articles representing the "Punk" movement with articles from the "Reader's Digest" and the 1960s hippie movement. Concludes that the punk movement is more expressive and less instrumental than its middle-class counterpart. (KH)

  8. The estimates of approximations classes in the Lorentz space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akishev, Gabdolla

    2015-09-01

    Exact order estimates are obtained for the best orthogonal trigonometric approximations of the Nikol'skii-Besov classes of periodic functions of many variables in the Lorentz space with the mixed norm.

  9. Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program, Annual Report, Class of 2012

    SciTech Connect

    McMakin, Andrea H.

    2013-09-23

    This 32-pp annual report/brochure describes the accomplishments of the Class of 2012 of the Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program (the last class of this program), which PNNL administers for the National Nuclear Security Administration. The time period covers Sept 2011 through June 2013.

  10. Class Attendance and Performance in Principles of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Elchanan; Johnson, Eric

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 347 students, enrolled in principles of economics classes during the period 1997-2001, is used to examine the relation between class attendance and student performance on examinations. Among the questions examined are: Is attendance related to performance, with and without controls for other factors? Do only substantial levels of…

  11. 39 CFR 3055.45 - First-Class Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false First-Class Mail. 3055.45 Section 3055.45 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.45 First-Class Mail. (a) Single-Piece...

  12. 39 CFR 3055.45 - First-Class Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false First-Class Mail. 3055.45 Section 3055.45 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.45 First-Class Mail. (a) Single-Piece...

  13. 39 CFR 3055.45 - First-Class Mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false First-Class Mail. 3055.45 Section 3055.45 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.45 First-Class Mail. (a) Single-Piece...

  14. 1,2-Dialkyl-4-pyrazolidinethiols as potential antiradiation agents.

    PubMed

    Kornet, M J; Daniels, R

    1979-10-01

    The reaction between 3-chloropropylene sulfide and the 1,2-dialkylhydrazines was employed to prepare a series of 1,2-dialkyl-4-pyrazolidinethiols. Evidence is presented to support the structure proposed for the product. These mercaptoheterocycles are related to the beta-mercaptoethylamines and were prepared as potential radiation protective agents. No significant activity was observed. PMID:512875

  15. 43 CFR 3101.1-2 - Surface use rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface use rights. 3101.1-2 Section 3101... § 3101.1-2 Surface use rights. A lessee shall have the right to use so much of the leased lands as is... operations, and specification of interim and final reclamation measures. At a minimum, measures shall...

  16. 43 CFR 3101.1-2 - Surface use rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surface use rights. 3101.1-2 Section 3101... § 3101.1-2 Surface use rights. A lessee shall have the right to use so much of the leased lands as is... operations, and specification of interim and final reclamation measures. At a minimum, measures shall...

  17. 43 CFR 3101.1-2 - Surface use rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surface use rights. 3101.1-2 Section 3101... § 3101.1-2 Surface use rights. A lessee shall have the right to use so much of the leased lands as is... operations, and specification of interim and final reclamation measures. At a minimum, measures shall...

  18. 48 CFR 970.1504-1-2 - Fee policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fee policy. 970.1504-1-2... REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation 970.1504-1-2 Fee policy. (a) DOE management and operating contractors may be paid a fee in accordance with the requirements of this...

  19. 43 CFR 1864.1-2 - Form of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Form of application. 1864.1-2 Section 1864.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) CONVEYANCES, DISCLAIMERS AND CORRECTION DOCUMENTS Recordable Disclaimers of Interest in...

  20. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  1. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  2. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  3. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  4. 43 CFR 3582.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3582.1-2 Section 3582.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.1-2 Hardrock minerals. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this subpart, leasing...

  5. 43 CFR 3582.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3582.1-2 Section 3582.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.1-2 Hardrock minerals. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this subpart, leasing...

  6. 43 CFR 3583.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3583.1-2 Section 3583.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Shasta and Trinity Units of the Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 3583.1-2 Hardrock minerals. This subpart governs...

  7. 43 CFR 3583.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3583.1-2 Section 3583.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Shasta and Trinity Units of the Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 3583.1-2 Hardrock minerals. This subpart governs...

  8. 43 CFR 3582.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3582.1-2 Section 3582.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.1-2 Hardrock minerals. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this subpart, leasing...

  9. 43 CFR 3583.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3583.1-2 Section 3583.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Shasta and Trinity Units of the Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 3583.1-2 Hardrock minerals. This subpart governs...

  10. 43 CFR 3583.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3583.1-2 Section 3583.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Shasta and Trinity Units of the Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 3583.1-2 Hardrock minerals. This subpart governs...

  11. 43 CFR 3582.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3582.1-2 Section 3582.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.1-2 Hardrock minerals. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this subpart, leasing...

  12. MEK1/2 Inhibitors: Molecular Activity and Resistance Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pui-Kei; Park, Jong-In

    2015-12-01

    Aberrant activation of the three-layered protein kinase cascade, Raf/MEK/ERK, is often detected in human cancer, which is mainly attributed to the oncogenic alterations of RAF, or its upstream activators RAS or cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases. Deregulated activity of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway drives uncontrolled tumor cell proliferation and survival, thus providing a rational therapeutic target for the treatment of many cancers. While Raf, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2 are equally important targets for the design of therapeutic small molecular weight inhibitors, the effort to develop MEK1/2-specific inhibitors has been greatly successful. Particularly, MEK1/2 have been relatively advantageous for the design of highly selective adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-noncompetitive inhibitors. Indeed, a plethora of highly selective and potent MEK1/2 inhibitors are now available and many of those inhibitors have been evaluated for their therapeutic potential. Herein, we review different MEK1/2 inhibitors that have been studied for their inhibitory mechanisms and therapeutic potential in cancer. Some of the key structural features of MEK1/2 that are important for the efficacy of these inhibitors are also discussed. In addition, we discuss current challenges and future prospective in using these advanced MEK1/2 inhibitors for cancer therapy. PMID:26615130

  13. 5 CFR 1.2 - Extent of the competitive service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extent of the competitive service. 1.2 Section 1.2 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND... pursuant to statute or by the Office of Personnel Management (hereafter referred to in this subchapter...

  14. 1-vinyl-4-alkyl-1,2,4-triazolium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Ermakova, T.G.; Chipanina, N.N.; Gritza, A.I.; Kuznetsova, N.P.; Lopyrev, V.A.; Tatarova, L.A.

    1985-04-01

    Quaternary salts based on 1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole have been synthesized. Alkyl iodides and bromides and dimethyl sulfate served as the quaternizing agent. Polymeric quaternary salts of 1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole have been obtained by alkylation of its polymer.

  15. 43 CFR 3430.1-2 - Commercial quantities defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial quantities defined. 3430.1-2... Leases § 3430.1-2 Commercial quantities defined. For the purpose of § 3430.1-1 of this title, commercial quantities is defined as follows: (a) The coal deposit discovered under the prospecting permit shall be...

  16. 43 CFR 5441.1-2 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 5441.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) CONDUCT OF SALES Advertised Sales § 5441.1-2... such road construction loan under SBA regulations (13 CFR part 121), the bidder shall submit to...

  17. 43 CFR 1784.1-2 - Duration, termination, and renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration, termination, and renewal. 1784.1-2 Section 1784.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) COOPERATIVE RELATIONS...

  18. 43 CFR 5441.1-2 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 5441.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) CONDUCT OF SALES Advertised Sales § 5441.1-2... such road construction loan under SBA regulations (13 CFR part 121), the bidder shall submit to...

  19. 36 CFR 1.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability and scope. 1.2 Section 1.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL... administered by the National Park Service; (2) The boundaries of lands and waters administered by the...

  20. 36 CFR 1.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability and scope. 1.2 Section 1.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL... administered by the National Park Service; (2) The boundaries of lands and waters administered by the...

  1. 43 CFR 2201.1-2 - Segregative effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... System lands, which proposal shall be filed in compliance with 36 CFR part 254, the authorized officer... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Segregative effect. 2201.1-2 Section 2201... Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.1-2 Segregative effect. (a) If a proposal is made to exchange...

  2. 45 CFR 1206.1-2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application of this part. 1206.1-2 Section 1206.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance §...

  3. 5 CFR 1.2 - Extent of the competitive service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extent of the competitive service. 1.2 Section 1.2 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND... pursuant to statute or by the Office of Personnel Management (hereafter referred to in this subchapter...

  4. 43 CFR 2201.1-2 - Segregative effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... System lands, which proposal shall be filed in compliance with 36 CFR part 254, the authorized officer... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Segregative effect. 2201.1-2 Section 2201... Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.1-2 Segregative effect. (a) If a proposal is made to exchange...

  5. 43 CFR 2201.1-2 - Segregative effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... System lands, which proposal shall be filed in compliance with 36 CFR part 254, the authorized officer... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Segregative effect. 2201.1-2 Section 2201... Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.1-2 Segregative effect. (a) If a proposal is made to exchange...

  6. 43 CFR 2201.1-2 - Segregative effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... System lands, which proposal shall be filed in compliance with 36 CFR part 254, the authorized officer... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Segregative effect. 2201.1-2 Section 2201... Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.1-2 Segregative effect. (a) If a proposal is made to exchange...

  7. Features of target cell lysis by class I and class II MHC restricted cytolytic T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Maimone, M.M.; Morrison, L.A.; Braciale, V.L.; Braciale, T.J.

    1986-12-01

    The lytic activity of influenza virus-specific muvine cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones that are restricted by either H-2K/D (class I) or H-2I (class II) major histocompatibility (MHC) locus products was compared on an influenza virus-infected target cell expressing both K/D and I locus products. With the use of two in vitro measurements of cytotoxicity, conventional /sup 51/Cr release, and detergent-releasable radiolabeled DNA (as a measure of nuclear disintegration in the early post-lethal hit period), the authors found no difference between class I and class II MHC-restricted CTL in the kinetics of target cell destruction. In addition, class II MHC-restricted antiviral CTL failed to show any lysis of radiolabeled bystander cells. Killing of labeled specific targets by these class II MHC-restricted CTL was also efficiently inhibited by unlabeled specific competitor cells in a cold target inhibition assay. In sum, these data suggest that class I and class II MHC-restricted CTL mediate target cell destruction by an essentially similar direct mechanism.

  8. Efficiency of quantum energy teleportation within spin-1/2 particle pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Michael R.

    2016-03-01

    A protocol for quantum energy teleportation (QET) is known for a so-called minimal spin-1/2 particle pair model. We extend this protocol to explicitly admit quantum weak measurements at its first stage. The extended protocol is applied beyond the minimal model to spin-1/2 particle pairs whose Hamiltonians are of a general class characterized by orthogonal pairs of entangled eigenstates. The energy transfer efficiency of the extended QET protocol is derived for this setting, and we show that weaker measurement yields greater efficiency. In the minimal particle pair model, for example, the efficiency can be doubled by this means. We also show that the QET protocol's transfer efficiency never exceeds 100 %, supporting the understanding that quantum energy teleportation is, indeed, an energy transfer protocol, rather than a protocol for remotely catalyzing local extraction of system energy already present.

  9. SIRT1, 2, 3 protect mouse oocytes from postovulatory aging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Teng; Zhou, Yang; Li, Li; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qian, Wei-Ping; Shen, Wei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The quality of metaphase II oocytes will undergo a time-dependent deterioration following ovulation as the result of the oocyte aging process. In this study, we determined that the expression of sirtuin family members (SIRT1, 2, 3) was dramatically reduced in mouse oocytes aged in vivo or in vitro. Increased intracellular ROS was observed when SIRT1, 2, 3 activity was inhibited. Increased frequency of spindle defects and disturbed distribution of mitochondria were also observed in MII oocytes aged in vitro after treatment with Nicotinamide (NAM), indicating that inhibition of SIRT1, 2, 3 may accelerate postovulatory oocyte aging. Interestingly, when MII oocytes were exposed to caffeine, the decline of SIRT1, 2, 3 mRNA levels was delayed and the aging-associated defective phenotypes could be improved. The results suggest that the SIRT1, 2, 3 pathway may play a potential protective role against postovulatory oocyte aging by controlling ROS generation. PMID:26974211

  10. Impact of gelation period on modified locust bean-alginate interpenetrating beads for oral glipizide delivery.

    PubMed

    Dey, Paramita; Sa, Biswanath; Maiti, Sabyasachi

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the effect of hydrogelation period in the design of glipizide-loaded biopolymer-based interpenetrating network (IPN) beads was investigated. Carboxymethyl locust bean gum and sodium alginate IPN beads were prepared by ionic crosslinking method using aqueous aluminium chloride salt solution as gelation medium. The longer exposure of the IPN beads in the gelation medium caused a considerable loss of the drug (∼ 8%), and also affected their surface morphology and drug release performance. Spherical shape of the IPN beads was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The diameter of IPN beads increased with increasing gelation time. The IPNs cured for 0.5h exhibited slower drug release kinetics in HCl (pH 1.2) and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) solution than those incubated for 1-2h. The drug release occurred at a faster rate in phosphate buffer solution and continued for a minimum period of 8h. The IPNs cured for the lowest period obeyed polymer chain-relaxation phenomenon as dominating mechanism for drug release. However, all the IPNs followed anomalous mechanism of drug transport. The drug release corroborated well with pH-dependent swelling behaviors of the IPNs. Thus, IPN beads cured for 0.5h were found most suitable for controlled delivery of BCS class II anti-diabetic drug glipizide. PMID:25745842

  11. Diffraction Theory and Almost Periodic Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strungaru, Nicolae; Terauds, Venta

    2016-09-01

    We introduce and study the notions of translation bounded tempered distributions, and autocorrelation for a tempered distribution. We further introduce the spaces of weakly, strongly and null weakly almost periodic tempered distributions and show that for weakly almost periodic tempered distributions the Eberlein decomposition holds. For translation bounded measures all these notions coincide with the classical ones. We show that tempered distributions with measure Fourier transform are weakly almost periodic and that for this class, the Eberlein decomposition is exactly the Fourier dual of the Lebesgue decomposition, with the Fourier-Bohr coefficients specifying the pure point part of the Fourier transform. We complete the project by looking at few interesting examples.

  12. Dual roles of ERK1/2 in cellular senescence induced by excess thymidine in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Ikuru; Nozawa, Megumi; Miki, Kensuke; Takauji, Yuki; En, Atsuki; Fujii, Michihiko; Ayusawa, Dai

    2016-08-15

    DNA damage response is crucially involved in cellular senescence. We have previously shown that excess thymidine, which stalls DNA replication forks, induces cellular senescence in human cells, and ERK1/2 play a key role in the induction of it. In this study, we found that Chk1 and ERK1/2 were activated to promote cell survival upon addition of excess thymidine. Knockdown of ERK1/2 activated Chk1, and conversely, knockdown of Chk1 activated ERK1/2, which observations suggested a mechanism for compensatory activation of Chk1 and ERK1/2 in the absence of ERK1/2 and Chk1, respectively. We also found that Chk1 functioned mainly at the onset of cellular senescence, and on the other hand, ERK1/2 functioned for a more extended period to induce cellular senescence. Our findings suggested that Chk1 and ERK1/2 were activated to promote cell survival upon addition of excess thymidine, but prolonged activation of ERK1/2 led to cellular senescence. This implies a pleiotropic effect of ERK1/2 in cellular senescence induced by excess thymidine. PMID:27443255

  13. 40 CFR 721.10077 - 3H-1,2,4-Triazol-3-one, 1,2-dihydro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 3H-1,2,4-Triazol-3-one, 1,2-dihydro-. 721.10077 Section 721.10077 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10077...

  14. Fluorination of 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetrahalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Dickerson, D.R.; Shiley, R.H.

    1972-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorofluorobenzene, and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene were fluorinated with potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. By varying the concentration, temperature and reaction time, the degree of fluorination could be controlled to some extent. The optimum conditions for producing mono-, di- and tri-fluoro-substituted chlorobenzenes and trace amounts of tetrafluorobenzene from the corresponding tetrachlorobenzenes are given. 1,2,3,5-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in 44.8% yield from 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene. 1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in only trace amounts from 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. A total of 24 new chlorofluorobenzenes and intermediates are described. Fluorination with potassium fluoride and certain other metal fluorides was also investigated. ?? 1972.

  15. Microarrays for Undergraduate Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dale; Nguyen, Lisa L.; Denyer, Gareth S.; Johnston, Jill M.

    2006-01-01

    A microarray experiment is presented that, in six laboratory sessions, takes undergraduate students from the tissue sample right through to data analysis. The model chosen, the murine erythroleukemia cell line, can be easily cultured in sufficient quantities for class use. Large changes in gene expression can be induced in these cells by…

  16. IQ and Social Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbein, Siv

    1980-01-01

    Swedish longitudinal studies of twins support Scarr-Salapatek's explanation of nature-nurture influences on intelligence. This model predicts more genetic variance in test results for advantaged than disadvantaged groups. Jensen's work, however, suggests equal amounts of variance among different social classes. (Author/CP)

  17. Teaching Very Large Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRogatis, Amy; Honerkamp, Kenneth; McDaniel, Justin; Medine, Carolyn; Nyitray, Vivian-Lee; Pearson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The editor of "Teaching Theology and Religion" facilitated this reflective conversation with five teachers who have extensive experience and success teaching extremely large classes (150 students or more). In the course of the conversation these professors exchange and analyze the effectiveness of several active learning strategies they…

  18. Vendler Classes and Reinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawamura, Michihiko

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the theoretical status of Vendler classes in grammar and utterance interpretation. In the 1950s Zeno Vendler outlined a taxonomy of verb classification which grouped verbs into four equal categories: (1) activity terms; (2) accomplishment terms; (3) achievement terms; and (4) state terms. Although Vendler's taxonomy still has…

  19. Coming out in Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This article shares how the author explained her trans status to her students. Everyone has been extremely supportive of her decision to come out in class and to completely mask the male secondary-sex characteristics, especially in the workplace. The department chair and the faculty in general have been willing to do whatever they can to assist…

  20. Openers for Biology Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…

  1. Virtual Classes, Real Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beem, Kate

    2010-01-01

    As Internet technology encroached on the public school classroom about a decade ago, Kim Ross, superintendent of the Houston School District in Houston, Minnesota, saw an opportunity. At first, he and his administrative team simply wanted to offer students in the district of 1,300 access to more classes via the web than what a district that size…

  2. Financing Class Size Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, C. M.

    2005-01-01

    Class size reduction has been shown to, among other things, improve academic achievement for all students and particularly for low-income and minority students. With the No Child Left Behind Act's heavy emphasis on scientifically based research, adequate yearly progress, and disaggregated results, one wonders why all children aren't enrolled in…

  3. The CLASS Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    The CLASS project is a series of investigations and projects designed by the National Wildlife Federation as supplementary materials for existing junior high school environmental curricula. This notebook contains nine different sections: an introduction, six content areas, a series of case studies, and a resource bibliography. The six content…

  4. Dearth of short-period Neptunian exoplanets: A desert in period-mass and period-radius planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazeh, T.; Holczer, T.; Faigler, S.

    2016-05-01

    A few studies have reported a significant dearth of exoplanets with Neptune mass and radius with orbital periods below 2-4 d. This cannot be explained by observational biases because many Neptunian planets with longer orbital periods have been detected. The existence of this desert is similar to the appearance of the so-called brown-dwarf desert that suggests different formation mechanisms of planets and stellar companions with short orbital periods. Similarly, the Neptunian desert might indicate different mechanisms of formation and evolution for hot Jupiters and short-period super-Earths. We here follow a previous study and examine the location and shape of the desert in both the period-mass and period-radius planes, using the currently available large samples of planets. The desert in the period-mass plane has a relatively sharp upper edge, with a planetary mass that is inversely proportional to the planetary orbital period, while the lower, somewhat blurred, boundary is located along masses that are apparently linearly proportional to the period. The desert in the period-radius plane of the transiting planets is less clear. It seems as if the radius along the upper boundary is inversely proportional to the period to the power of one-third, while the lower boundary shows a radius that is proportional to the period to the power of two-thirds. The combination of the two upper bounds of the desert, in the period-mass and period-radius planes, yields a planetary mass-radius relation of Rp/RJup ≃ (1.2 ± 0.3)(Mp/MJup)0.27 ± 0.11 for 0.1 ≲ Mp/MJup ≲ 1. The derived shape of the desert, which might extend up to periods of 5-10 d, could shed some light on the formation and evolution of close-in planets.

  5. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  6. On the periods of generalized Fibonacci recurrences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brent, Richard P.

    We give a simple condition for a linear recurrence (mod 2^w) of degree r to have the maximal possible period 2^(w-1).(2^r-1). It follows that the period is maximal in the cases of interest for pseudo-random number generation, i.e. for 3-term linear recurrences defined by trinomials which are primitive (mod 2) and of degree r > 2. We consider the enumeration of certain exceptional polynomials which do not give maximal period, and list all such polynomials of degree less than 15.

  7. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  8. 49 CFR 173.115 - Class 2, Divisions 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3-Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... cryogenic gas, compressed gas in solution, asphyxiant gas and oxidizing gas). For the purpose of this... °F). (f) Compressed gas in solution. A compressed gas in solution is a non-liquefied compressed...

  9. 49 CFR 173.115 - Class 2, Divisions 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3-Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cryogenic gas, compressed gas in solution, asphyxiant gas and oxidizing gas). For the purpose of this... °F). (f) Compressed gas in solution. A compressed gas in solution is a non-liquefied compressed gas... mass or more flammable components and the chemical heat of combustion is 30 kJ/g or more; (2)...

  10. 49 CFR 173.115 - Class 2, Divisions 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3-Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cryogenic gas, compressed gas in solution, asphyxiant gas and oxidizing gas). For the purpose of this... °F). (f) Compressed gas in solution. A compressed gas in solution is a non-liquefied compressed gas...% by mass or more flammable components and the chemical heat of combustion is 30 kJ/g or more; (2)...

  11. 49 CFR 173.115 - Class 2, Divisions 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3-Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... kPa (14.7 psia) of pressure (a material which has a boiling point of 20 °C (68 °F) or less at 101.3... pressure of 101.3 kPa (14.7 psia) (a material which has a boiling point of 20 °C (68 °F) or less at 101.3 k... gas having a boiling point colder than -−90 °C (−130 °F) at 101.3 kPa (14.7 psia) absolute. A...

  12. 49 CFR 173.115 - Class 2, Divisions 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3-Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mass or more flammable components and the chemical heat of combustion is 30 kJ/g or more; (2) An... and the heat of combustion is less than 20 kJ/g. (3) Aerosols not meeting the provisions of paragraphs... chemical heat of combustion must be determined in accordance with the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria...

  13. Bubble point pressures for chlorodifluoromethane + 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, bromotrifluoromethane + 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, and bromotrifluoromethane + chloropentafluoroethane

    SciTech Connect

    Mishima, Kenji, Hongo, Masaru; Takagi, Toshiharu; Arai, Yasuhiko . Dept. of Industrial Chemistry)

    1993-01-01

    The bubble point pressures for chlorodifluoromethane (R22) + 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (R114), bromotrifluoromethane (R13B1) + 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (R114), and bromotrifluoromethane (R13B1) + chloropentafluoroethane (R115) were measured by a static method. Measurements were made at various compositions at temperatures from 298.15 K to near their critical temperature. The uncertainty of the pressures was estimated to be no greater than [plus minus]0.3%. The bubble point pressures for pure substances were correlated by the Wagner equation, and those for the mixtures were also correlated by the Wagner equation, using a corresponding states principle.

  14. Comparative antimalarial activities and ADME profiles of ozonides (1,2,4-trioxolanes) OZ277, OZ439, and their 1,2-dioxolane, 1,2,4-trioxane, and 1,2,4,5-tetraoxane isosteres.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofang; Dong, Yuxiang; Wittlin, Sergio; Charman, Susan A; Chiu, Francis C K; Chollet, Jacques; Katneni, Kasiram; Mannila, Janne; Morizzi, Julia; Ryan, Eileen; Scheurer, Christian; Steuten, Jessica; Santo Tomas, Josefina; Snyder, Christopher; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L

    2013-03-28

    To ascertain the structure-activity relationship of the core 1,2,4-trioxolane substructure of dispiro ozonides OZ277 and OZ439, we compared the antimalarial activities and ADME profiles of the 1,2-dioxolane, 1,2,4-trioxane, and 1,2,4,5-tetraoxane isosteres. Consistent with previous data, both dioxolanes had very weak antimalarial properties. For the OZ277 series, the trioxane isostere had the best ADME profile, but its overall antimalarial efficacy was not superior to that of the trioxolane or tetraoxane isosteres. For the OZ439 series, there was a good correlation between the antimalarial efficacy and ADME profiles in the rank order trioxolane > trioxane > tetraoxane. As we have previously observed for OZ439 versus OZ277, the OZ439 series peroxides had superior exposure and efficacy in mice compared to the corresponding OZ277 series peroxides. PMID:23489135

  15. Hierarchical domain structure of lead-free piezoelectric (Na1/2 Bi1/2)TiO3-(K1/2 Bi1/2)TiO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chengtao; Wang, Yaojin; Ge, Wenwei; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight; Delaire, Olivier; Li, Xiaobin; Luo, Haosu

    2016-05-01

    We report a unique hierarchical domain structure in single crystals of (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-xat. %(K1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 for x = 5 and 8 by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A high density of polar nano-domains with a lamellar morphology was found, which were self-assembled into a quadrant-like configuration, which then assembled into conventional ferroelectric macro-domains. Studies by high resolution TEM revealed that the polar lamellar regions contained a coexistence of in-phase and anti-phase oxygen octahedral tilt regions of a few nanometers in size. Domain frustration over multiple length scales may play an important role in the stabilization of the hierarchy, and in reducing the piezoelectric response of this Pb-free piezoelectric solid solution.

  16. 7. VIEW FROM COURTYARD OF BUILDINGS 1, 2 AND 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW FROM COURTYARD OF BUILDINGS 1, 2 AND 3 LOOKING WEST ACROSS TECHWOOD DRIVE TOWARD 570-578 TECHWOOD DRIVE. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  17. INTAKE, DAMS #1, #2, AND #3, AND FOOTBRIDGE; FACING NORTHNORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTAKE, DAMS #1, #2, AND #3, AND FOOTBRIDGE; FACING NORTH-NORTHEAST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Intake, North Bank of Snake River, immediately West/Northwest of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project Dam No. 1, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  18. 2. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHWEST; GATES 1, 2, AND 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHWEST; GATES 1, 2, AND 3 SHOWING. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  19. X-1-2 with Pilots Robert Champine Herb Hoover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 and two of the NACA pilots that flew the aircraft. The one on the left is Robert Champine with the other being Herbert Hoover. The X-1-2 was also equipped with the 10-percent wing and 8 percent tail, powered with an XLR-11 rocket engine and aircraft made its first powered flight on December 9, 1946 with Chalmers 'Slick' Goodlin at the controls. As with the X-1-1 the X-1-2 continued to investigate transonic/supersonic flight regime. NACA pilot Herbert Hoover became the first civilian to fly Mach 1, March 10, 1948. X-1-2 flew until October 23, 1951, completing 74 glide and powered flights with nine different pilots, when it was retired to be rebuilt as the X-1E.

  20. Contextual view of district with Quarters 1, 2, and 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of district with Quarters 1, 2, and 3 in view, as well as Whiting Way, camera facing southwest - Naval Training Station, Senior Officers' Quarters District, Naval Station Treasure Island, Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 14 CFR 1.2 - Abbreviations and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... affecting § 1.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... above ground level. ALS means approach light system. APU means auxiliary power unit. ASR means...

  2. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 1, 2, 3, 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 1, 2, 3, 4, AND 5, EAST SIDE, FROM SOUTH SHORE OF RIVER (LIBERTY COUNTY SIDE), FACING WEST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  3. ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR PIERS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR PIERS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 AND 6, APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5505 TO 8-M1 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  4. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 1, 2, AND 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 1, 2, AND 3, WEST SIDE, FROM SOUTH SHORE OF RIVER (LIBERTY COUNTY SIDE), FACING NORTH - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  5. Unification of the negative electrocaloric effect in Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-BaTiO3 solid solutions by Ba1/2Sr1/2TiO3 doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Sarir; Zheng, Guang-Ping; Iqbal, Yaseen; Ubic, Rick; Yang, Junhe

    2013-12-01

    The microscopic mechanisms of the negative electrocaloric effect (ECE) of the single-phase (1-x)(0.94Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-0.06BaTiO3)-xBa1/2Sr1/2TiO3 (BNT-BT-BST) perovskite solid solutions fabricated via the sol-gel technique are explored in this study. Dielectric and mechanical relaxation analyses are employed to investigate the ferroelectric and structural transitions of the samples. The electrocaloric properties of the samples were measured by thermodynamics Maxwell relations. The difference between the depolarization temperature (Td) and the maximum dielectric constant temperature (Tm) was found to decrease with increasing BST content. Doping with BST stabilized the ferroelectric phase along with unifying the EC temperature changes (ΔT) to only negative values. The origin of the uniform negative ECE of BNT-BT-BST is discussed.

  6. Bounded Correctors in Almost Periodic Homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Scott; Gloria, Antoine; Kuusi, Tuomo

    2016-05-01

    We show that certain linear elliptic equations (and systems) in divergence form with almost periodic coefficients have bounded, almost periodic correctors. This is proved under a new condition we introduce which quantifies the almost periodic assumption and includes (but is not restricted to) the class of smooth, quasiperiodic coefficient fields which satisfy a Diophantine-type condition previously considered by uc(Kozlov) (Mat Sb (N.S), 107(149):199-217, 1978). The proof is based on a quantitative ergodic theorem for almost periodic functions combined with the new regularity theory recently introduced by uc(Armstrong) and uc(Shen) (Pure Appl Math, 2016) for equations with almost periodic coefficients. This yields control on spatial averages of the gradient of the corrector, which is converted into estimates on the size of the corrector itself via a multiscale Poincaré-type inequality.

  7. Effect of B-Ions Substitution in [(K1/2Bi1/2)-(Na1/2Bi1/2)](Ti-B)O3 System with B=Zr, Fe1/2Nb1/2, Zn1/3Nb2/3 or Mg1/3Nb2/3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Akutsu, Tatsuya; Asada, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Koji; Hachiga, Shinji; Kurosaki, Takeshi; Ikagawa, Osamu; Fujiki, Hiroyuki; Hozumi, Katsuhiro; Kawamura, Takeshi; Amakawa, Takashi; Hirota, Ken-ichi; Ikeda, Takuro

    1995-09-01

    Phase relationship in the [(K1/2Bi1/2)1- y(Na1/2Bi1/2) y](Ti1- xB x)O3 system with B=Zr, Fe1/2Nb1/2, Zn1/3Nb2/3 or Mg1/3Nb2/3 has been investigated by dielectric measurement and X-ray diffractometry. All of the bi-binary systems were solid-soluble throughout the entire composition range. With increasing y and x, ferroelectric Curie point decreased and the ɛ-T curve became flat. Composition dependence of the transition temperature was examined by varying x or y. Phase diagrams were mostly determined at room temperature on square diagrams except for a restricted area in the vicinity of (Na1/2B1/2)ZrO3, which involved a tetragonally distorted phase and could not be accounted for. The ferroelectric tetragonal phase was confined within a narrow range of x<0.1 and the rhombohedral phase was dominant in all of the systems studied here.

  8. 1,2-β-Oligoglucan Phosphorylase from Listeria innocua

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Koichi; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Taguchi, Hayao; Kitaoka, Motomitsu

    2014-01-01

    We characterized recombinant Lin1839 protein (Lin1839r) belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 94 from Listeria innocua. Lin1839r catalyzed the synthesis of a series of 1,2-β-oligoglucans (Sopn: n denotes degree of polymerization) using sophorose (Sop2) as the acceptor and α-d-glucose 1-phosphate (Glc1P) as the donor. Lin1839r recognized glucose as a very weak acceptor substrate to form polymeric 1,2-β-glucan. The degree of polymerization of the 1,2-β-glucan gradually decreased with long-term incubation to generate a series of Sopns. Kinetic analysis of the phosphorolytic reaction towards sophorotriose revealed that Lin1839r followed a sequential Bi Bi mechanism. The kinetic parameters of the phosphorolysis of sophorotetraose and sophoropentaose were similar to those of sophorotriose, although the enzyme did not exhibit significant phosphorolytic activity on Sop2. These results indicate that the Lin1839 protein is a novel inverting phosphorylase that catalyzes reversible phosphorolysis of 1,2-β-glucan with a degree of polymerization of ≥3. We propose 1,2-β-oligoglucan: phosphate α-glucosyltransferase as the systematic name and 1,2-β-oligoglucan phosphorylase as the short name for this Lin1839 protein. PMID:24647662

  9. 7S(1/2) ? 9S(1/2) two-photon spectroscopy of trapped francium.

    PubMed

    Simsarian, J E; Shi, W; Orozco, L A; Sprouse, G D; Zhao, W Z

    1996-12-01

    We report on the spectroscopic measurement of the (210)Fr 9S(1/2) energy obtained by two-photon excitation of atoms confined and cooled in a magneto-optic trap. The resonant intermediate level 7P(3/2) is the upper state of the trapping transition. We have measured the energy difference between the 9S(1/2) state and the 7S(1/2) ground state to be 25 671.021 +/- 0.006 cm(-1). PMID:19881852

  10. A disinhibitory microcircuit initiates critical period plasticity in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlman, Sandra J.; Olivas, Nicholas D.; Tring, Elaine; Ikrar, Taruna; Xu, Xiangmin; Trachtenberg, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    Early sensory experience instructs the maturation of neural circuitry in cortex 1,2. This has been extensively studied in the primary visual cortex where loss of vision to one eye permanently degrades cortical responsiveness to that eye 3,4, a phenomenon known as ocular dominance plasticity (ODP). Cortical inhibition mediates this process 4-6, but the precise role of specific classes of inhibitory neurons in ODP is controversial. Here we report that evoked firing rates of binocular excitatory neurons in primary visual cortex immediately drop by half when vision is restricted to one eye, but gradually return to normal over the following 24 hours, despite the fact that vision remains restricted to one eye. This restoration of binocular-like excitatory firing rates following monocular deprivation results from a rapid, though transient reduction in the firing rates of fast-spiking, parvalbumin-positive (PV) interneurons, which in turn can be attributed to a decrease in local excitatory circuit input onto PV interneurons. This reduction in PV cell evoked responses following monocular lid suture is restricted to the critical period for ODP and appears to be necessary for subsequent shifts in excitatory ODP. Pharmacologically enhancing inhibition at the time of sight deprivation blocks ODP and, conversely, pharmaco-genetic reduction of PV cell firing rates can extend the critical period for ODP. These findings define the microcircuit changes initiating competitive plasticity during critical periods of cortical development. Moreover, they show that the restoration of evoked firing rates of L2/3 pyramidal neurons by PV-specific disinhibition is a key step in the progression of ocular dominance plasticity. PMID:23975100

  11. Flame propagation through periodic vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Dold, J.W.; Kerr, O.S.; Nikolova, I.P.

    1995-02-01

    The discovery of a new class of Navier-Stokes solutions representing steady periodic stretched vortices offers a useful test-bed for examining interactions between flames and complex flow-fields. After briefly describing these vortex solutions and their wide-ranging parameterization in terms of wavelength and amplitude, this article examines their effect on flames of constant normal propagation speed as observed through numerical solutions of an eikonal equation. Over certain ranges of vortex amplitude and flame-speed, a corridor of enhanced flame passage is seen to be created as a leading flame-tip managers to leap-frog between successive vortices. However, for large enough amplitudes of vorticity or small enough flame-speeds, the flame fails to be able to benefit from the advection due to the vortices. It is shown that the leading tips of such flames are effectively trapped by the stretched vortices.

  12. Kepler photometry of RRc stars: peculiar double-mode pulsations and period doubling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskalik, P.; Smolec, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Molnár, L.; Kurtz, D. W.; Szabó, R.; Benkő, J. M.; Nemec, J. M.; Chadid, M.; Guggenberger, E.; Ngeow, C.-C.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Kopacki, G.; Kanbur, S. M.

    2015-03-01

    We present the analysis of four first overtone RR Lyrae stars observed with the Kepler space telescope, based on data obtained over nearly 2.5 yr. All four stars are found to be multiperiodic. The strongest secondary mode with frequency f2 has an amplitude of a few mmag, 20-45 times lower than the main radial mode with frequency f1. The two oscillations have a period ratio of P2/P1 = 0.612-0.632 that cannot be reproduced by any two radial modes. Thus, the secondary mode is non-radial. Modes yielding similar period ratios have also recently been discovered in other variables of the RRc and RRd types. These objects form a homogenous group and constitute a new class of multimode RR Lyrae pulsators, analogous to a similar class of multimode classical Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds. Because a secondary mode with P2/P1 ˜ 0.61 is found in almost every RRc and RRd star observed from space, this form of multiperiodicity must be common. In all four Kepler RRc stars studied, we find subharmonics of f2 at ˜1/2f2 and at ˜3/2f2. This is a signature of period doubling of the secondary oscillation, and is the first detection of period doubling in RRc stars. The amplitudes and phases of f2 and its subharmonics are variable on a time-scale of 10-200 d. The dominant radial mode also shows variations on the same time-scale, but with much smaller amplitude. In three Kepler RRc stars we detect additional periodicities, with amplitudes below 1 mmag, that must correspond to non-radial g-modes. Such modes never before have been observed in RR Lyrae variables.

  13. New classes of Wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Manchanda, P.; Meenakshi

    2009-07-02

    Recently Manchanda, Meenakshi and Siddiqi have studied Haar-Vilenkin wavelet and a special type of non-uniform multiresolution analysis. Haar-Vilenkin wavelet is a generalization of Haar wavelet. Motivated by the paper of Gabardo and Nashed we have introduced a class of multiresolution analysis extending the concept of classical multiresolution analysis. We present here a resume of these results. We hope that applications of these concepts to some significant real world problems could be found.

  14. Will 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine-based drugs resist metabolism by cytochrome P450 compound I?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine is a structural and electronic analogue of benzene which is able to occupy benzene-binding pockets in T4 lysozyme and has been proposed as suitable arene-mimicking group for biological and pharmaceutical applications. Its applicability in a biological context requires it to be able to resist modification by xenobiotic-degrading enzymes like the P450 cytochromes. Quantum chemical computations described in this work show that 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine is much more prone to modification by these enzymes than benzene, unless steric crowding of the ring prevents it from reaching the active site, or otherwise only allows reaction at the less reactive C4-position. This novel heterocyclic compound is therefore expected to be of limited usefulness as an aryl bioisostere.

  15. Will 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine-based drugs resist metabolism by cytochrome P450 compound I?

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro J

    2016-01-01

    1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine is a structural and electronic analogue of benzene which is able to occupy benzene-binding pockets in T4 lysozyme and has been proposed as suitable arene-mimicking group for biological and pharmaceutical applications. Its applicability in a biological context requires it to be able to resist modification by xenobiotic-degrading enzymes like the P450 cytochromes. Quantum chemical computations described in this work show that 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine is much more prone to modification by these enzymes than benzene, unless steric crowding of the ring prevents it from reaching the active site, or otherwise only allows reaction at the less reactive C4-position. This novel heterocyclic compound is therefore expected to be of limited usefulness as an aryl bioisostere. PMID:27547588

  16. Regularly alternating spin- 1 /2 anisotropic XY chains: The ground-state and thermodynamic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derzhko, Oleg; Richter, Johannes; Krokhmalskii, Taras; Zaburannyi, Oles'

    2004-06-01

    Using the Jordan-Wigner transformation and continued fractions we calculate rigorously the thermodynamic quantities for the spin- 1 /2 transverse Ising chain with periodically varying intersite interactions and/or on-site fields. We consider in detail the properties of the chains having a period of the transverse field modulation equal to 3. The regularly alternating transverse Ising chain exhibits several quantum phase transition points, where the number of transition points for a given period of alternation strongly depends on the specific set of the Hamiltonian parameters. The critical behavior in most cases is the same as for the uniform chain. However, for certain sets of the Hamiltonian parameters the critical behavior may be changed and weak singularities in the ground-state quantities appear. Due to the regular alternation of the Hamiltonian parameters the transverse Ising chain may exhibit plateaulike steps in the zero-temperature dependence of the transverse magnetization vs transverse field and many-peak temperature profiles of the specific heat. We compare the ground-state properties of regularly alternating transverse Ising and transverse XX chains and of regularly alternating quantum and classical chains. Making use of the corresponding unitary transformations we extend the elaborated approach to the study of thermodynamics of regularly alternating spin- 1 /2 anisotropic XY chains without field. We use the exact expression for the ground-state energy of such a chain of period 2 to discuss how the exchange interaction anisotropy destroys the spin-Peierls dimerized phase.

  17. A novel route to C-unsubstituted 1,2-oxaphosphetane and 1,2-oxaphospholane complexes.

    PubMed

    Kyri, A W; Schnakenburg, G; Streubel, R

    2016-06-30

    The synthesis of 1,2-oxaphosphetane complexes and 1,2-oxaphospholane complex bearing only substituents at phosphorus is reported using the reaction of Li/Cl phosphinidenoid complex with 2-iodoethanol or 3-bromo-propane-1-ol and the subsequent dehydrohalogenation using KHMDS. In contrast, the reaction of complex with (t)BuLi leads selectively to the formation of phosphinito complex . PMID:27320731

  18. Near infrared rubidium 62P3/2,1/2→62S1/2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Paul J.; Richards, Ryan M.; Rice, Christopher A.; Perram, Glen P.

    2016-09-01

    An optically pumped near infrared rubidium (Rb) pulsed, mirrorless laser has been demonstrated in a heat pipe along both the 62P3/2-62S1/2 transition at 2.73 μm and the 62P1/2-62S1/2 transition at 2.79 μm. The bleached limit, slope efficiency, and maximum laser output energy of the near infrared Rb laser scale linearly with increasing Rb density, contrary to prior results. Previously, a maximum output energy of ~5 nJ had been observed before a rollover occurred in the scaling of output energy with rubidium concentration. In this experiment, the maximum laser output energy observed was ~100 nJ, with no indication of any scaling limitation. A maximum slope efficiency of 1.7×10-4 was observed. A small percentage of the pump photons were absorbed even at the maximum Rb density attainable in the heat pipe, indicating that laser efficiency could be scaled to near the quantum efficiency. Additionally, the hyperfine structure and absorption spectral profile of the 52S1/2-62P1/2 and 52S1/2-62P3/2 (blue) pump transitions were studied using a cw pump source.

  19. Dielectric relaxation in 0-3 PVDF-Ba(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, K. P.; Singh, Rajan; Kulkarni, A. R.; Prasad, K.

    2016-05-01

    (1-x)PVDF-xBa(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 ceramic-polymer composites with x = 0.025, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 were prepared using melt-mixing technique. The crystal symmetry, space group and unit cell dimensions were determined from the XRD data of Ba(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 using FullProf software, whereas crystallite size and lattice strain were estimated using Williamson-Hall approach. The distribution of Ba(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 particles in the PVDF matrix were examined on the cryo-fractured surfaces using a scanning electron microscope. Cole-Cole and pseudo Cole-Cole analysis suggested the dielectric relaxation in this system to be of non-Debye type. Filler concentration dependent real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant as well as ac conductivity data followed definite trends of exponential growth types of variation.

  20. 1,2-Hydroxypyridonates as Contrast Agents for Magnetic ResonanceImaging: TREN-1,2-HOPO

    SciTech Connect

    Jocher, Christoph J.; Moore, Evan G.; Xu, Jide; Avedano, Stefano; Botta, Mauro; Aime, Silvio; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-05-08

    1,2-Hydroxypyridinones (1,2-HOPO) form very stable lanthanide complexes that may be useful as contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). X-ray diffraction of single crystals established that the solid state structures of the Eu(III) and the previously reported [Inorg. Chem. 2004, 43, 5452] Gd(III) complex are identical. The recently discovered sensitizing properties of 1,2-HOPO chelates for Eu(III) luminescence allow direct measurement of the number if water molecules in the metal complex. Fluorescence measurements of the Eu(III) complex corroborate that in solution two water molecules coordinate the lanthanide (q = 2) as proposed from the analysis of NMRD profiles. In addition, fluorescence measurements have verified the anion binding interactions of lanthanide TREN-1,2-HOPO complexes in solution, studied by relaxivity, revealing only very weak oxalate binding (K{sub A} = 82.7 {+-} 6.5 M{sup -1}). Solution thermodynamic studies of the metal complex and free ligand have been carried out using potentiometry, spectrophotometry and fluorescence spectroscopy. The metal ion selectivity of TREN-1,2-HOPO supports the feasibility of using 1,2-HOPO ligands for selective lanthanide binding [pGd = 19.3 (2); pZn = 15.2 (2), pCa = 8.8 (3)].

  1. Nanoscale ordering and multiferroic behavior in Pb(Fe1/2Ta1/2)O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, R.; Palai, R.; Huhtinen, H.; Liu, J.; Scott, J. F.; Katiyar, R. S.

    2010-10-01

    We report on structural, microstructural, dielectric, electrical, magnetic, and spectroscopic (Raman and terahertz) properties of lead iron tantalate Pb(Fe1/2Ta1/2)O3 ceramics. Raman spectroscopy revealed the presence of nanoscale ordering though it is forbidden in bulk by crystal symmetry. The dielectric properties of Pb(Fe1/2Ta1/2)O3 show a typical relaxor ferroelectric behavior with long-range disorder while the magnetoelectric properties show an interesting multiferroic behavior (coexistence of ferroelectric and magnetic order) in the same phase. The temperature variation in field cooled magnetization shows anomalies at about 55(±5) and 180(±5)K indicating the existence of two Néel temperatures in agreement with theoretical predictions. The zero-field-cooled magnetization as a function temperature and field reveals the existence of spin-glasslike behavior at low temperature like single crystal. The electrical conduction behavior satisfies the modified Schottky equation of Simmons at all fields. The ac conductivity as a function of frequency shows an excellent fit to the universal power law. Terahertz spectroscopy shows an opaque nature of Pb(Fe1/2Ta1/2)O3 in midinfrared and far-infrared wavelengths.

  2. 75 FR 62459 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Unalakleet, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Federal Register to revise Class E airspace at Unalakleet, AK (75 FR 32865). Interested parties were...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The incorporation by reference in 14...

  3. Advanced Jones calculus for the classification of periodic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Christoph; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lederer, Falk

    2010-11-01

    By relying on an advanced Jones calculus, we analyze the polarization properties of light upon propagation through metamaterial slabs in a comprehensive manner. Based on symmetry considerations, we show that all periodic metamaterials may be divided into five different classes only. It is shown that each class differently affects the polarization of the transmitted light and sustains different eigenmodes. We show how to deduce these five classes from symmetry considerations and provide a simple algorithm that can be applied to decide to which class a given metamaterial belongs by measuring only the transmitted intensities.

  4. Advanced Jones calculus for the classification of periodic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Christoph; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Lederer, Falk

    2010-11-15

    By relying on an advanced Jones calculus, we analyze the polarization properties of light upon propagation through metamaterial slabs in a comprehensive manner. Based on symmetry considerations, we show that all periodic metamaterials may be divided into five different classes only. It is shown that each class differently affects the polarization of the transmitted light and sustains different eigenmodes. We show how to deduce these five classes from symmetry considerations and provide a simple algorithm that can be applied to decide to which class a given metamaterial belongs by measuring only the transmitted intensities.

  5. Hybrid anticancer 1,2-diazine derivatives with multiple mechanism of action. Part 3.

    PubMed

    Antoci, Vasilichia; Mantu, Dorina; Cozma, Danut Gabriel; Usru, Cornelia; Mangalagiu, Ionel I

    2014-01-01

    Antitumour chemotherapy is nowadays a very active field of research, DNA targeting drugs being the most widely used group in therapy. The design, synthesis and anticancer activity of a new class of anticancer derivatives with pyrrolo-1,2-diazine and benzoquinone skeleton is presented. The synthesis is direct and efficient, involving an alkylation followed by a [3+2] dipolar cycloaddition. The penta- and tetra-cyclic pyrrolo-1,2-diazine were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activity against an NCI 60 human tumour cell line panel. The pentacyclic-1,2-diazine exhibit a significant anticancer activity against Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer NCI-H460, Leukemia MOLT-4, Leukemia CCRF-CEM and Breast Cancer MCF7. We hypothesize that these molecules will exert their anticancer activity through multiple mechanisms of action: intercalating the DNA, inhibiting the topoisomerase enzymes and, destroying the DNA strands via electron transfer mechanism. However, the intercalation with the DNA seems to prevail in competition with the others mechanisms. PMID:24239342

  6. Brucella β 1,2 Cyclic Glucan Is an Activator of Human and Mouse Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martirosyan, Anna; Pérez-Gutierrez, Camino; Banchereau, Romain; Dutartre, Hélène; Lecine, Patrick; Dullaers, Melissa; Mello, Marielle; Pinto Salcedo, Suzana; Muller, Alexandre; Leserman, Lee; Levy, Yves; Zurawski, Gerard; Zurawski, Sandy; Moreno, Edgardo; Moriyón, Ignacio; Klechevsky, Eynav; Banchereau, Jacques; Oh, SangKon; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial cyclic glucans are glucose polymers that concentrate within the periplasm of alpha-proteobacteria. These molecules are necessary to maintain the homeostasis of the cell envelope by contributing to the osmolarity of Gram negative bacteria. Here, we demonstrate that Brucella β 1,2 cyclic glucans are potent activators of human and mouse dendritic cells. Dendritic cells activation by Brucella β 1,2 cyclic glucans requires TLR4, MyD88 and TRIF, but not CD14. The Brucella cyclic glucans showed neither toxicity nor immunogenicity compared to LPS and triggered antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses in vivo. These cyclic glucans also enhanced antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses including cross-presentation by different human DC subsets. Brucella β 1,2 cyclic glucans increased the memory CD4+ T cell responses of blood mononuclear cells exposed to recombinant fusion proteins composed of anti-CD40 antibody and antigens from both hepatitis C virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Thus cyclic glucans represent a new class of adjuvants, which might contribute to the development of effective antimicrobial therapies. PMID:23166489

  7. Four-Component Synthesis of 1,2-Dihydropyridine Derivatives and their Evaluation as Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Abdelf-Fattah, Mohamed A. O.; El-Naggar, Mahmoud A. M.; Rashied, Rasha M. H.; Gary, Bernard D.; Piazza, Gary A.; Abadi, Ashraf H.

    2016-01-01

    Two series of compounds with the general formula of 4,6-diaryl-2-oxo-1,2 dihydropyridine-3-carbonitriles and their isosteric imino derivatives were synthesized through a one pot reaction of acetophenone, aldehyde and ammonium acetate with ethyl cyanoacetate or malononitrile, respectively. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for tumor cell growth inhibitory using the human HT-29 colon and MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cell lines. Compound 4-(2-Ethoxyphenyl)-2-imino-6-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,2-dihydropyridine-3 carbonitrile (6) showed IC50 value of 0.70 μM versus HT-29. Meanwhile, compound 4-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)-2-imino-6-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile (4) showed IC50 value of 4.6 μM versus MDA-MB-231. Docking compound 10 to possible molecular targets, survivin and PIM1 kinase showed appreciable interactions with both, which suggest possible targets for the antitumor activity of this novel class of anticancer compounds. PMID:22530887

  8. Brucella β 1,2 cyclic glucan is an activator of human and mouse dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Martirosyan, Anna; Pérez-Gutierrez, Camino; Banchereau, Romain; Dutartre, Hélène; Lecine, Patrick; Dullaers, Melissa; Mello, Marielle; Salcedo, Suzana Pinto; Muller, Alexandre; Leserman, Lee; Levy, Yves; Zurawski, Gerard; Zurawski, Sandy; Moreno, Edgardo; Moriyón, Ignacio; Klechevsky, Eynav; Banchereau, Jacques; Oh, Sangkon; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial cyclic glucans are glucose polymers that concentrate within the periplasm of alpha-proteobacteria. These molecules are necessary to maintain the homeostasis of the cell envelope by contributing to the osmolarity of Gram negative bacteria. Here, we demonstrate that Brucella β 1,2 cyclic glucans are potent activators of human and mouse dendritic cells. Dendritic cells activation by Brucella β 1,2 cyclic glucans requires TLR4, MyD88 and TRIF, but not CD14. The Brucella cyclic glucans showed neither toxicity nor immunogenicity compared to LPS and triggered antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses in vivo. These cyclic glucans also enhanced antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses including cross-presentation by different human DC subsets. Brucella β 1,2 cyclic glucans increased the memory CD4(+) T cell responses of blood mononuclear cells exposed to recombinant fusion proteins composed of anti-CD40 antibody and antigens from both hepatitis C virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Thus cyclic glucans represent a new class of adjuvants, which might contribute to the development of effective antimicrobial therapies. PMID:23166489

  9. Rapid activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in human breast cancer cells by cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zhiwei; Yu Xinyuan; Shaikh, Zahir A.

    2008-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd), an endocrine disruptor, can induce a variety of signaling events including the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT. In this study, the involvement of estrogen receptors (ER) in these events was evaluated in three human breast caner cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and SK-BR-3. The Cd-induced signal activation patterns in the three cell lines mimicked those exhibited in response to 17{beta}-estradiol. Specifically, treatment of MCF-7 cells, that express ER{alpha}, ER{beta} and GPR30, to 0.5-10 {mu}M Cd for only 2.5 min resulted in transient phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Cd also triggered a gradual increase and sustained activation of AKT during the 60 min treatment period. In SK-BR-3 cells, that express only GPR30, Cd also caused a transient activation of ERK1/2, but not of AKT. In contrast, in MDA-MB-231 cells, that express only ER{beta}, Cd was unable to cause rapid activation of either ERK1/2 or AKT. A transient phosphorylation of ER{alpha} was also observed within 2.5 min of Cd exposure in the MCF-7 cells. While the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, did not prevent the effect of Cd on these signals, specific siRNA against hER{alpha} significantly reduced Cd-induced activation of ERK1/2 and completely blocked the activation of AKT. It is concluded that Cd, like estradiol, can cause rapid activation of ERK1/2 and AKT and that these signaling events are mediated by possible interaction with membrane ER{alpha} and GPR30, but not ER{beta}.

  10. The Role of Kv1.2 Channel in Electrotaxis Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gaofeng; Edmundson, Mathew; Telezhkin, Vsevolod; Gu, Yu; Wei, Xiaoqing; Kemp, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Voltage‐gated potassium Kv1.2 channels play pivotal role in maintaining of resting membrane potential and, consequently, regulation of cellular excitability of neurons. Endogenously generated electric field (EF) have been proven as an important regulator for cell migration and tissue repair. The mechanisms of ion channel involvement in EF‐induced cell responses are extensively studied but largely are poorly understood. In this study we generated three COS‐7 clones with different expression levels of Kv1.2 channel, and confirmed their functional variations with patch clamp analysis. Time‐lapse imaging analysis showed that EF‐induced cell migration response was Kv1.2 channel expression level depended. Inhibition of Kv1.2 channels with charybdotoxin (ChTX) constrained the sensitivity of COS‐7 cells to EF stimulation more than their motility. Immunocytochemistry and pull‐down analyses demonstrated association of Kv1.2 channels with actin‐binding protein cortactin and its re‐localization to the cathode‐facing membrane at EF stimulation, which confirms the mechanism of EF‐induced directional migration. This study displays that Kv1.2 channels represent an important physiological link in EF‐induced cell migration. The described mechanism suggests a potential application of EF which may improve therapeutic performance in curing injuries of neuronal and/or cardiac tissue repair, post operational therapy, and various degenerative syndromes. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1375–1384, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26580832

  11. Molecular Determinants of Cav1.2 Calcium Channel Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Soldatov, Nikolai M.

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated L-type Cav1.2 calcium channels couple membrane depolarization to transient increase in cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration that initiates a number of essential cellular functions including cardiac and vascular muscle contraction, gene expression, neuronal plasticity, and exocytosis. Inactivation or spontaneous termination of the calcium current through Cav1.2 is a critical step in regulation of these processes. The pathophysiological significance of this process is manifested in hypertension, heart failure, arrhythmia, and a number of other diseases where acceleration of the calcium current decay should present a benefit function. The central issue of this paper is the inactivation of the Cav1.2 calcium channel mediated by multiple determinants.

  12. The "Why's" of Class Size: Student Behavior in Small Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Jeremy D.; Pannozzo, Gina M.; Achilles, Charles M.

    2003-01-01

    Small classes in the elementary grades have been shown to boost students' academic performance. However, researchers continue to seek a consistent, integrated explanation of "why" small classes have positive effects. This article forwards the hypothesis that when class sizes are reduced, major changes occur in students' engagement in the…

  13. 75 FR 47736 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace, Establishment of Class E Airspace; Patuxent River, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The incorporation by...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... Airpark, excluding that airspace within Restricted Areas R-4005 and R-4007 when active. This Class...

  14. 76 FR 35369 - Proposed Establishment of Class D and Amendment of Class E Airspace; Los Angeles, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR... aircraft operations at the airport. This action also would edit Class E airspace by adding the...

  15. 77 FR 27667 - Proposed Revocation of Class E Airspace; Lloydsville, PA, and Proposed Amendment of Class D and E...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The incorporation by... Class E Airspace listed at Lloydsville, PA, for Latrobe Hospital Heliport (old name), and...

  16. Preparation of bis-(1(2)H-tetrazol-5-yl)-amine monohydrate

    DOEpatents

    Naud, Darren L.; Hiskey, Michael A.

    2003-05-27

    A process of preparing bis-(1(2)H-tetrazol-5-yl)-amine monohydrate is provided including combining a dicyanamide salt, an azide salt and water to form a first reaction mixture, adding a solution of a first strong acid characterized as having a pKa of less than about 1 to said first reaction mixture over a period of time characterized as providing a controlled reaction rate so as to gradually form hydrazoic acid without loss of significant quantities of hydrazoic acid from the solution while heating the first reaction mixture at temperatures greater than about 65.degree. C., heating the resultant reaction mixture at temperatures greater than about 65.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to substantially completely form a reaction product, treating the reaction product with a solution of a second strong acid to form a product of bis-(1(2)H-tetrazol-5-yl)-amine monohydrate, and, recovering the bis-(1(2)H-tetrazol-5-yl)-amine monohydrate product.

  17. Existence of independent [1, 2]-sets in caterpillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoso, Eko Budi; Marcelo, Reginaldo M.

    2016-02-01

    Given a graph G, a subset S ⊆ V (G) is an independent [1, 2]-set if no two vertices in S are adjacent and for every vertex ν ∈ V (G)/S, 1 ≤ |N(ν) ∩ S| ≤ 2, that is, every vertex ν ∈ V (G)/S is adjacent to at least one but not more than two vertices in S. In this paper, we discuss the existence of independent [1, 2]-sets in a family of trees called caterpillars.

  18. Topological characterization of periodically driven quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Takuya; Berg, Erez; Rudner, Mark; Demler, Eugene

    2010-12-01

    Topological properties of physical systems can lead to robust behaviors that are insensitive to microscopic details. Such topologically robust phenomena are not limited to static systems but can also appear in driven quantum systems. In this paper, we show that the Floquet operators of periodically driven systems can be divided into topologically distinct (homotopy) classes and give a simple physical interpretation of this classification in terms of the spectra of Floquet operators. Using this picture, we provide an intuitive understanding of the well-known phenomenon of quantized adiabatic pumping. Systems whose Floquet operators belong to the trivial class simulate the dynamics generated by time-independent Hamiltonians, which can be topologically classified according to the schemes developed for static systems. We demonstrate these principles through an example of a periodically driven two-dimensional hexagonal lattice tight-binding model which exhibits several topological phases. Remarkably, one of these phases supports chiral edge modes even though the bulk is topologically trivial.

  19. Automated Periodical Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellefsen, David

    1985-01-01

    Describes public library reference service which allows patrons to type out search instructions on a computer terminal, review and select references, and receive, by high-speed printer, facsimile copy of selected periodical articles. Development of periodicals center at main county library and use of self-coaching SEARCH HELPER system are…

  20. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  1. The Class of '34

    PubMed Central

    Cairney, Richard

    1995-01-01

    The Great Depression raged, governments were beleaguered, the unemployment rate stood at 30%, scurvy stalked the poor and no one was immune to contagious diseases such as scarlet fever, polio and measles when the University of Alberta School of Medicine's Class of '34 graduated. For four alumni who recently gathered in Edmonton—Drs. Morley Hodgson, Melvin Gaudin, John McLurg and Edmund Cairns—their 60th-anniversary reunion was a time to recall the changes they have witnessed in medicine, including the arrival of antibiotic drugs and the medicare system. Imagesp558-a

  2. A Touch of...Class!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lentz, Francois

    1990-01-01

    Class activities for French native and second-language immersion classes using the souvenir program of a 1988 Manitoba travel festival are outlined. Activities involve global manipulation of the document and specific uses for information seeking and information manipulation. (MSE)

  3. Almost periodic solutions to difference equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayliss, A.

    1975-01-01

    The theory of Massera and Schaeffer relating the existence of unique almost periodic solutions of an inhomogeneous linear equation to an exponential dichotomy for the homogeneous equation was completely extended to discretizations by a strongly stable difference scheme. In addition it is shown that the almost periodic sequence solution will converge to the differential equation solution. The preceding theory was applied to a class of exponentially stable partial differential equations to which one can apply the Hille-Yoshida theorem. It is possible to prove the existence of unique almost periodic solutions of the inhomogeneous equation (which can be approximated by almost periodic sequences) which are the solutions to appropriate discretizations. Two methods of discretizations are discussed: the strongly stable scheme and the Lax-Wendroff scheme.

  4. Antimicrobial studies of some novel quinazolinones fused with [1,2,4]-triazole, [1,2,4]-triazine and [1,2,4,5]-tetrazine rings.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sarvesh Kumar; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Ashutosh; Nizamuddin

    2009-03-01

    Three series of novel and new fused heterocyclic systems, viz. triazolo[4,3-a]-quinazolin-7-ones (4), [1,2,4,5]-tetrazino[4,3-a]-quinazolin-8-ones (6) and indolo[2,3-c][1,2,4]-triazino[4,3-a]-quinazolin-8-ones (8) have been synthesized from the key intermediate 3-(substituted-phenyl)-2-hydrazino-quinazolin-4-ones (3). Thus, condensation of (3) with appropriate aromatic acids in the presence of DCC in dichloromethane afforded the fused system (4), while reaction of (3) with isatin in methanol gave the corresponding Schiff base (7) which on cyclodehydration furnished another fused heterocyclic system (8). The intermediate (3) on refluxing with substituted-phenylisothiocyanate gave the substituted-thiosemicarbazide (5), which on oxidative cyclization with bromine in CCl(4) furnished the novel fused system (6). The structures of intermediate and final compounds have been determined by means of IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, UV and elemental analysis. All the synthesized compounds have been screened for their antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, as well as demonstrated significant antifungal activity against fungi viz. Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger. PMID:18614258

  5. Wavelet periodicity detection algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, John J.; Pfander, Goetz E.

    1998-10-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of time series with respect to certain known periodicities. In particular, we shall present a fast method aimed at detecting periodic behavior inherent in noise data. The method is composed of three steps: (1) Non-noisy data are analyzed through spectral and wavelet methods to extract specific periodic patterns of interest. (2) Using these patterns, we construct an optimal piecewise constant wavelet designed to detect the underlying periodicities. (3) We introduce a fast discretized version of the continuous wavelet transform, as well as waveletgram averaging techniques, to detect occurrence and period of these periodicities. The algorithm is formulated to provide real time implementation. Our procedure is generally applicable to detect locally periodic components in signals s which can be modeled as s(t) equals A(t)F(h(t)) + N(t) for t in I, where F is a periodic signal, A is a non-negative slowly varying function, and h is strictly increasing with h' slowly varying, N denotes background activity. For example, the method can be applied in the context of epileptic seizure detection. In this case, we try to detect seizure periodics in EEG and ECoG data. In the case of ECoG data, N is essentially 1/f noise. In the case of EEG data and for t in I,N includes noise due to cranial geometry and densities. In both cases N also includes standard low frequency rhythms. Periodicity detection has other applications including ocean wave prediction, cockpit motion sickness prediction, and minefield detection.

  6. Silencing β1,2-xylosyltransferase in Transgenic Tomato Fruits Reveals xylose as Constitutive Component of Ige-Binding Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Kathrin Elisabeth; Mahler, Vera; Pabst, Martin; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Altmann, Friedrich; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Complex plant N-glycans containing β1,2-xylose and core α1,3-fucose are regarded as the major class of the so-called “carbohydrate cross-reactive determinants” reactive with IgE antibodies in sera of many allergic patients, but their clinical relevance is still under debate. Plant glycosyltransferases, β1,2-xylosyltransferase (XylT), and core α1,3-fucosyltransferase (FucT) are responsible for the transfer of β1,2-linked xylose and core α1,3-linked fucose residues to N-glycans of glycoproteins, respectively. To test the clinical relevance of β1,2-xylose-containing epitopes, expression of the tomato β1,2-xylosyltransferase was down-regulated by RNA interference (RNAi) in transgenic plants. Fruits harvested from these transgenic plants were analyzed for accumulation of XylT mRNA, abundance of β1,2-xylose epitopes and their allergenic potential. Based on quantitative real-time PCR analysis XylT mRNA levels were reduced up to 10-fold in independent transgenic lines as compared to untransformed control, whereas no xylosylated N-glycans could be revealed by MS analysis. Immunoblotting using anti-xylose-specific IgG antibodies revealed a strong reduction of β1,2-xylose-containing epitopes. Incubating protein extracts from untransformed controls and XylT_RNAi plants with sera from tomato allergic patients showed a patient-specific reduction in IgE-binding, indicating a reduced allergenic potential of XylT_RNAi tomato fruits, in vitro. To elucidate the clinical relevance of β1,2-xylose-containing complex N-glycans skin prick tests were performed demonstrating a reduced responsiveness of tomato allergic patients, in vivo. This study provides strong evidence for the clinical relevance of β1,2-xylose-containing epitopes in vivo. PMID:22639593

  7. Synthesis and pesticidal activity of new N-alkyl-N-[1-(2-hydroxyphenyl) ethyl]amines.

    PubMed

    Shakil, Najam Akhtar; Kumar, Jitendra; Pandey, Alka; Ahluwalia, Vivek; Singh, Manish K; Srivastava, Chitra

    2009-05-01

    A series of novel N-alkyl-N-[1-(2-hydroxyphenyl) ethyl]amines were synthesized as potential new agents to control pests. Their structures were confirmed on the basis of IR, NMR and elemental analyses. Six new N-alkyl-N-[1-(2-hydroxyphenyl) ethyl]amines were prepared by reduction of corresponding Schiff bases using sodium borohydride in 80-87 % yields. These compounds were tested for their antifungal activity against two pathogenic fungi viz., Rhizoctonia bataticola ITCC 0482 and Sclerotium rolfsii ITCC 5226 and for insecticidal activity against insects of stored grain pest Callosobruchus analis. Fungicidal bioassay revealed that compound N-Decyl-N-[1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]amine, was highly effective against R. bataticola (ED(50) 6.86 mg L(-1)) which was comparable with that of commercial fungicide hexaconazole (ED(50) 6.35 mg L(-1)). Also compounds N-Heptyl-N-[1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]amine, N-Octyl-N-[1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]amine and N-Nonyl-N-[1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]amine displayed promising fungitoxicity against same pathogen. However, compound N-Heptyl-N-[1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]amine was also found to be effective against S. rolfsii (ED(50) 4.92 mg L(-1) as against 1.27 mg L(-1) for hexaconazole). Compound N-Hexyl-N-[1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]amine was most effective as insecticide followed by compound N-Octyl-N-[1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]amine. LC(50) values for these compounds were 155.0 and 275.0 mg L(-1) respectively as against 36.70 mg L(-1) for commercial insecticide dichlorovos. The results obtained from bioassays indicate that this class of compounds can be utilized for the design of new substances endowed with pesticidal activities. PMID:19365749

  8. The three latent classes of adolescent delinquency and the risk factors for membership in each class.

    PubMed

    Hasking, Penelope Anne; Scheier, Lawrence M; Abdallah, Arbi Ben

    2011-01-01

    This study used latent class analysis to examine subpopulation membership based on self-reports of delinquent behaviors obtained from Australian youth. Three discrete identifiable classes were derived based on 51 indicators of physical violence, property damage, minor infractions, drug use, and social delinquency. One class of youth engaged in primarily rule breaking and norm violations including underage alcohol use, typical of this age period. A second class was more actively delinquent emphasizing drug use, trespassing, and various forms of disobedience. A third class of highly delinquent youth differed from their counterparts by endorsing drug use, thievery that involved stealing money, goods, and cars, property damage, gambling, precocious sexual experiences, involvement with pornographic materials, and fighting. Multinomial logistic regression predicting class membership indicated highly delinquent youth were more likely to be older males, use venting coping strategies, and be fun or novelty seeking compared with rule breakers. Findings are discussed in terms of refining current taxonomic arguments regarding the structure of delinquency and implications for prevention of early-stage antisocial behavior. PMID:20922769

  9. Periods of activity cycles in late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kliorin, N. I.; Ruzmaykin, A. A.; Sokolov, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    The mean magnetic field dynamo theory is utilized to obtain the qualitative dependence of the period of activity on the angular velocity of rotation for stars with sufficiently extensive convective shells. The dependence of the cycle period on the spectral class is also discussed.

  10. Trends in Class Identification among Black Americans from 1952 to 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Lynn Weber

    1984-01-01

    Throughout the post-World War II period, Black people had clearly perceived class divisions. Study results indicated that objective status and class improvements for many Blacks from 1952 to 1978 more than doubled the percentage who identified themselves as middle-class--from 10 percent in 1952 to 22 percent in 1978. (Author/RM)

  11. Disadvantaged Students in the Early Grades: Will Smaller Classes Help Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaag Iversen, Jon Marius; Bonesrønning, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Norwegian elementary school to test whether students from disadvantaged backgrounds benefit from smaller classes. The data cover one cohort of fourth graders who have been treated in small versus large classes for a period of three years. The Norwegian class size rule of maximum 28 students is used to generate…

  12. Multimethod latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nussbeck, Fridtjof W.; Eid, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Correct and, hence, valid classifications of individuals are of high importance in the social sciences as these classifications are the basis for diagnoses and/or the assignment to a treatment. The via regia to inspect the validity of psychological ratings is the multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) approach. First, a latent variable model for the analysis of rater agreement (latent rater agreement model) will be presented that allows for the analysis of convergent validity between different measurement approaches (e.g., raters). Models of rater agreement are transferred to the level of latent variables. Second, the latent rater agreement model will be extended to a more informative MTMM latent class model. This model allows for estimating (i) the convergence of ratings, (ii) method biases in terms of differential latent distributions of raters and differential associations of categorizations within raters (specific rater bias), and (iii) the distinguishability of categories indicating if categories are satisfyingly distinct from each other. Finally, an empirical application is presented to exemplify the interpretation of the MTMM latent class model. PMID:26441714

  13. LOTUS 1-2-3 Macros for Library Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howden, Norman

    1987-01-01

    Describes LOTUS 1-2-3, an advanced spreadsheet with database and text manipulation functions that can be used with microcomputers by librarians to provide customized calculation and data acquisition tools. Macro commands and the menu system are discussed, and an example is given of an invoice procedure. (Author/LRW)

  14. Rhodium-Catalyzed Boron Arylation of 1,2-Azaborines**

    PubMed Central

    Rudebusch, Gabriel E.; Zakharov, Lev N.; Liu, Shih-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    A Sn-phony in B! BN isosteres of biphenyl compounds are prepared through Rh-catalyzed cross-coupling between 2-chloro-1,2-azaborines and arylstannanes (see scheme). The synthetic method should enable investigations of structure–activity relationships (SARs) by expanding the chemical space of the pharmaceutically relevant biphenyl structure through BN/CC isosterism. PMID:23832871

  15. 7. FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS NO. 1 & 2, SOUTH PORTALS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS NO. 1 & 2, SOUTH PORTALS. SEEN FROM PARK ROW. LOOKING 8°N. - Figueroa Street Tunnels, Mileposts 24.90, 25.14, 25.28, & 25.37 on Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. Graphing Online Searches with Lotus 1-2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Olle

    1986-01-01

    This article illustrates how Lotus 1-2-3 software can be used to create graphs using downloaded online searches as raw material, notes most commands applied, and outlines three required steps: downloading, importing the downloading file into the worksheet, and making graphs. An example in bibliometrics and sample graphs are included. (EJS)

  17. Welcome to Lotus 1-2-3. Learning Activity Packets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Steven; And Others

    This learning activity packet (LAP) contains 11 self-paced study lessons that allow students to proceed along a 36-hour course of study for Lotus 1-2-3 at their own pace. The lessons are organized in the following way: objectives, completion and performance standards, a list of required materials, unit test, and exercises (applications of the…

  18. Tailoring ergodicity through selective A-site doping in the Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-Bi1/2K1/2TiO3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Matias; Liu, Na; Deluca, Marco; Heidt, Sabrina; Ringl, Ines; Dietz, Christian; Stark, Robert W.; Jo, Wook

    2015-04-01

    The morphotropic phase boundary composition Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-20 mol. % Bi1/2K1/2TiO3 was chosen as initial material to do selective A-site aliovalent doping replacing Na and K by 1 at. % La, respectively. The materials were studied macroscopically by measuring dielectric and electromechanical properties. The Na-replaced material has a lower freezing temperature Tfr, lower remanent polarization and remanent strain, and thus a higher degree of ergodicity than the K-replaced material. These results are contrasted with local poling experiments and hysteresis loops obtained from piezoresponse force microscopy. The faster relaxation of the tip-induced local polarization and the lower remanent state in bias-on and -off loops confirm the higher degree of ergodicity of the Na-replaced material. The difference in functional properties is attributed to small variations in chemical pressure achieved through selective doping. Raman results support this working hypothesis.

  19. The Addition of Bromine to 1,2-Diphenylethene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amburgey-Peters, Judith C.; Haynes, Leroy W.

    2005-01-01

    The bromination of 1,2-diphenylethene, using a variety of solvents and brominating agents, can be used in both introductory and advanced organic chemistry courses. The reactions can be used to illustrate the effects of changing solvents and reagents, as well as to reveal interesting aspects of organic reaction mechanisms.

  20. MULTIGENERATION STUDY OF 1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rats were continuously exposed to 0, 25, 100, or 400 ppm 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) in the drinking water, beginning with birth of the Fo generation and continuing through weaning of the F2 generation. These studies demonstrate that chronic or acute doses of TCB can produce adr...

  1. Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Indeno [ 1,2,3 - cd ] pyrene ; CASRN 193 - 39 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  2. MAPK Signaling and ERK1/2 bistability in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Rafeul; Gorska, Magdalena M.

    2010-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) integrate signals from numerous receptors and translate these signals into cell functions. MAPKs are critical for immune cell metabolism, migration, production of pro-inflammatory mediators, survival, and differentiation. We provide a concise review of the involvement of MAPK in important cells of the immune system. Certain cell functions e.g. production of pro-inflammatory mediators resolve quickly and may require a transient MAPK activation, other processes such as cell differentiation and long-term survival may require persistent MAPK signal. The persistent MAPK signal is frequently a consequence of positive feedback loops or double negative feedback loops which perpetuate the signal after removal of an external cell stimulus. This self-perpetuated activation of a signaling circuit is a manifestation of its bistability. Bistable systems can exist in “on” and “off” states and both states are stable. We have demonstrated the existence of self-perpetuated activation mechanism for ERK1/2 in bronchial epithelial cells. This sustained activation of ERK1/2 supports long-term survival of these cells and primes them for cytokine transcription. ERK1/2 bistability arises from repetitive stimulation of the cell. The repeated stimulation (e.g. repeated viral infection or repeated allergen exposure) seems to be a common theme in asthma and other chronic illnesses. We thus hypothesize that the self-perpetuated ERK1/2 signal plays an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. PMID:21121982

  3. Design for a Moore No. 1 1/2 lathe

    SciTech Connect

    Rhorer, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    To increase our capability to machine small spherical parts, we are designing an ultraprecision lathe based on a Moore No. 1 1/2 measuring machine. The machine is being designed for single axis cutting, utilizing an accurate rotary table for spherical cuts. This report summarizes the design and presents an error budget analysis for the design.

  4. SAFT 4{1/2} inch nickel hydrogen battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Duquesne, D.; Lacout, B.; Sennet, A.

    1995-12-31

    SAFT Advanced Batteries has now produced over 400 high capacity 4{1/2} inch Nickel Hydrogen Battery Cells for flight programs. The 4.5 inch diameter, rabbit-ear cell design is designed to provide the anticipated energy required at the lowest practical weight. SAFT has incorporated into the design of the dry-powder nickel electrode, truly hermetic ceramic to metal seals, qualified terminal feedthroughs, high reliability mechanical design, composite pure platinum negative electrode, and zircar separator, plus more than 25 years experience in aerospace nickel cell technology, resulting in a 4{1/2} inch configuration with the 3{1/2} inch cell design carryover heritage. General performance requirements for GEO missions that SAFT cells meet are 15 years in orbit lifetime, 80% DOD, low mass to energy ratios, and flexible capacity by modifying number of electrodes in the stack. This design is qualified for geostationary orbits based on SAFT`s 3{1/2} inch qualification heritage, design verification, and cycling performed by customer Space Systems/LORAL in support of the INTELSAT VIIA and N-STAR flight programs.

  5. Anxiety Self Report (ASR (1,2,3,4,). X

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jane S.

    The Anxiety Self Report (ASR 1,2,3,4) is provided, followed by information about the report. The ASR is discussed as to its development, description, response bias, scoring procedures, reliability, stability, validity, and correlation between the ASR and the Manifest Anxiety Scale. (For related documents, see TM 002 928, 929.) (DB)

  6. Determination of Ethane-1,2-diamine in Inert Complexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searle, Graeme H.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a procedure for determining ethane-1,2-diamine (EN) which is generally applicable for inert or labile complexes or for EN in its salts, although it cannot be used directly with ammonium or coordinated ammonia. It gives results with five percent accuracy or better and requires less than one hour laboratory time. (JN)

  7. 14 CFR 1.2 - Abbreviations and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 1.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... flight training device. GS means glide slope. HIRL means high-intensity runway light system. IAS means... FCmeans maximum speed for stability characteristics. V FEmeans maximum flap extended speed. V...

  8. Structural basis of the impact sensitivities of 1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, 2-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, 4-nitro-1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, and 4-nitro-2-picryl-1,2,3-triazole

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, C.B.; Ryan, R.R.; Ritchie, J.P.; Hall, J.H.; Bachrach, S.M. )

    1989-01-26

    The isomeric pairs 1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, 2-picryl-1,2,3-triazole and 4-nitro-1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, 4-nitro-1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole differ dramatically in their impact sensitivity. Since these pairs of compounds have identical oxygen balance this strongly suggests that there is a difference in the decomposition mechanism. The authors report here the x-ray crystal structure, molecular orbital calculations, and {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H NMR spectra of the four compounds. The picryl substituents are essentially identical in all four cases. The most significant structural difference in the X-ray structures and in the molecular orbital calculations is a decrease in the N2-N3 bond length, accompanied by a lengthening of the adjacent bonds, in the two 1-picryl isomers relative to the corresponding bond lengths in the 2-picryl isomers. Molecular orbital calculations show that this leads to a low activation energy for the elimination of N{sub 2} from the 1-picryl isomers. They suggest that this initial step then leads to a reactive intermediate and is responsible for the large difference in sensitivity.

  9. Di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Wolf, Peter (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers were first synthesized by reacting bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) hydrazide with aniline hydrochloride at 250 C in the melt and also by reacting 1,3 or 1,4-bis- (4-hydroxyphenyl)- phenylene- dihydrazide with 2 moles of aniline hydrochloride in the melt. Purification of the di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers was accomplished by recrystallization. Poly (1,2,4-triazoles) (PT) were prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions were carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as sulfolane or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight PT of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides.

  10. Fluorinated banana-shaped 1,2,4-oxadiazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamysheva, L. A.; Agafonova, I. F.; Geivandova, T. A.; Torgova, Sofia I.; Becchi, M.

    2002-06-01

    A series of banana-shaped diesters derivated of 3,5-bis-(p- hydroxyphenyl)-1,2;4-oxadiazole and p-alkyloxy- fluoro(difluoro)benzoic acids were synthesized and investigated by optical microscopy and DSC method. The influence of the alkyloxy-substituent lengths and of the F- group position in the molecule on its mesomorphic properties is discussed.

  11. Multiplex detection of Solenopsis invicta viruses -1, -2, and -3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed to detect simultaneously Solenopsis invicta viruses -1, -2, and -3 in their host, the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. cDNA synthesis was conducted in a single reaction containing three oligonucleotide primers specific for ...

  12. 1,2-shifts of hydrogen atoms in aryl radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, M.A.; Scott, L.T.

    1999-06-16

    An energy barrier on the order of 60 kcal/mol is predicted for the 1,2-shift of hydrogen atoms in aryl radicals. Such rearrangements are, therefore, not expected to occur under ordinary laboratory conditions, but they should be prevalent in the aryl radicals formed during combustion, flash vacuum pyrolysis, and other high-temperature gas-phase processes. As a demonstration of this rearrangement, the 2-benzo[c]phenanthryl radical (1) was generated by flash vacuum pyrolysis of the corresponding aryl bromide. A 1,2-shift of hydrogen out of the sterically congested cover region of 1, followed by cyclization and rearomatization of the resulting radical, is proposed to explain the observation of benzo[ghi]fluoranthene as the dominant monomeric product formed. Under the same conditions, [1,3,4,5-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]-2-bromobenzo[c]phenanthrene gives [1,2,3,4-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]-benzo[ghi]fluoranthene as the dominant monomeric product, in accord with the expectation of a deuterium atom 1,2-shift.

  13. 41 CFR 51-1.2 - Mandatory source priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 1-GENERAL § 51-1.2... employing persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities, at a price established by the Committee... provisions of 18 U.S.C. 4124, over nonprofit agencies employing persons who are blind or have other...

  14. TOXICOLOGY OF TRANS-1,2-DICHLOROETHYLENE IN THE MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE) was administered to male and female CD-1 mice in order to evaluate its effects on standard toxicological parameters. Following an acute LD50 determination (2122 mg/kg in males and 2391 mg/kg in females) and a 14-day range-finding study, a 90-day d...

  15. CLOSEUP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSE-UP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED CAST HOUSE LIES IN BETWEEN TWO SKIP INCLINES. HIP ROOF AT RIGHT COVERS BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  16. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF 1,2-DIETHYLHYDRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    1,2-Diethylhydrazine is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B2 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a). vidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is "Sufficient", and the evidence from human studies ...

  17. 14 CFR 1.2 - Abbreviations and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 1.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the...) means nondirectional beacon (automatic direction finder). NM means nautical mile. NOPAC means North... Tracking and Reporting System. RAIL means runway alignment indicator light system. RBN means radio...

  18. 14 CFR 1.2 - Abbreviations and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 1.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the...) means nondirectional beacon (automatic direction finder). NM means nautical mile. NOPAC means North... Tracking and Reporting System. RAIL means runway alignment indicator light system. RBN means radio...

  19. 14 CFR 1.2 - Abbreviations and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Federal Register citations affecting § 1.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the...) means nondirectional beacon (automatic direction finder). NM means nautical mile. NOPAC means North... Tracking and Reporting System. RAIL means runway alignment indicator light system. RBN means radio...

  20. 48 CFR 970.1504-1-2 - Fee policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... approved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), or similar document. As applicable, performance... performance requirements relating to: environment, safety, and health (ES&H), including worker safety and... REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation 970.1504-1-2 Fee policy. (a)...

  1. Team Learning in Large Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Information and suggestions are provided on the use of team learning in large college classes. Introductory material discusses the negative cycle of student-teacher interaction that may be provoked by large classes, and the use of permanent, heterogeneous, six- or seven-member student learning groups as the central focus of class activity as a…

  2. Teachers, Social Class and Underachievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Mairead; Gazeley, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Addressing the "the social class attainment gap" in education has become a government priority in England. Despite multiple initiatives, however, little has effectively addressed the underachievement of working-class pupils within the classroom. In order to develop clearer understandings of working-class underachievement at this level, this small…

  3. Neutron and electron diffraction studies of La(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 perovskite.

    PubMed

    Ubic, Rick; Hu, Yi; Abrahams, Isaac

    2006-08-01

    The crystallography and microwave dielectric properties of La(Zn(1/2)Ti(1/2))O(3) (LZT) ceramics prepared via the mixed-oxide route were investigated in this study. While samples were largely single phase, small amounts of ZnO impurity were detected in sintered pellets. Observed reflections in electron and neutron diffraction patterns indicate that the symmetry of LZT is P2(1)/n. The B site is ordered on {110} or pseudocubic {111}, but the presence of the pseudocubic 1/2(111) reflection is in itself insufficient to indicate the existence of such order. Rietveld refinements of the neutron diffraction data yield an excellent fit for such a model. The structure is highly twinned, with variants related through common {211} composition planes and 90 degrees rotations about <011>. The microwave dielectric properties measured were epsilon(r) = 34, Qf = 36,090 and tau(f) = -70 MK(-1). PMID:16840801

  4. Biomechanical characteristics of C1-2 cable fixations.

    PubMed

    Dickman, C A; Crawford, N R; Paramore, C G

    1996-08-01

    The biomechanical characteristics of four different methods of C1-2 cable fixation were studied to assess the effectiveness of each technique in restoring atlantoaxial stability. Biomechanical testing was performed on the upper cervical spines of four human cadaveric specimens. Physiological range loading was applied to the atlantoaxial specimens and three-dimensional motion was analyzed with stereophotogrammetry. The load-deformation relationships and kinematics were measured, including the stiffness, the angular ranges of motion, the linear ranges of motion, and the axes of rotation. Specimens were nondestructively tested in the intact state, after surgical destabilization, and after each of four different methods of cable fixation. Cable fixation techniques included the interspinous technique, the Brooks technique, and two variants of the Gallie technique. All specimens were tested immediately after fixation and again after the specimen was fatigued with 6000 cycles of physiological range torsional loading. All four cable fixation methods were moderately flexible immediately; the different cable fixations allowed between 5 degrees and 40 degrees of rotational motion and between 0.6 and 7 mm of translational motion to occur at C1-2. The Brooks and interspinous methods controlled C1-2 motion significantly better than both of the Gallie techniques. The motion allowed by one of the Gallie techniques did not differ significantly from the motion of the unfixed destabilized specimens. All cable fixation techniques loosened after cyclic loading and demonstrated significant increases in C1-2 rotational and translational motions. The bone grafts shifted during cyclic loading, which reduced the effectiveness of the fixation. The locations of the axes of rotation, which were unconstrained and mobile in the destabilized specimens, became altered with cable fixation. The C1-2 cables constrained motion by shifting the axes of rotation so that C-1 rotated around the fixed cable

  5. A Nitrogen-Regulated Glutamine Amidotransferase (GAT1_2.1) Represses Shoot Branching in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huifen; Kranz, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Shoot branching in plants is regulated by many environmental cues and by specific hormones such as strigolactone (SL). We show that the GAT1_2.1 gene (At1g15040) is repressed over 50-fold by nitrogen stress, and is also involved in branching control. At1g15040 is predicted to encode a class I glutamine amidotransferase (GAT1), a superfamily for which Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has 30 potential members. Most members can be categorized into known biosynthetic pathways, for the amidation of known acceptor molecules (e.g. CTP synthesis). Some members, like GAT1_2.1, are of unknown function, likely involved in amidation of unknown acceptors. A gat1_2.1 mutant exhibits a significant increase in shoot branching, similar to mutants in SL biosynthesis. The results suggest that GAT1_2.1 is not involved in SL biosynthesis since exogenously applied GR24 (a synthetic SL) does not correct the mutant phenotype. The subfamily of GATs (GATase1_2), with At1g15040 as the founding member, appears to be present in all plants (including mosses), but not other organisms. This suggests a plant-specific function such as branching control. We discuss the possibility that the GAT1_2.1 enzyme may activate SLs (e.g. GR24) by amidation, or more likely could embody a new pathway for repression of branching. PMID:22885937

  6. X-rays from G74.9 + 1.2 - An elderly Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    The supernova remnant G74.9 + 1.2, which resembles the Crab Nebula in many of its radio properties, has been detected in 0.15-3 keV X-rays with the Imaging Proportional Counter on the Einstein Observatory. The intrinsic luminosity of the object is about 100 times weaker than the Crab Nebula in this band. The X-ray morphology is centrally brightened (not a shell) with a total extent about 5 arcmin (17 pc). The nearby, intense, compact radio source 2013 + 370 is also probably detected as an extended X-ray source. It is argued that G74.9 + 1.2 represents an object similar to the Crab Nebula but of age 4000-7000 years. If this is the case, the period of the pulsar or neutron star (whose loss of rotational energy fuels the nebula) is predicted to be 0.1-0.2 s.

  7. Ground State Properties of the 1/2 Flux Harper Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Colin; Burton, William Cody; Chung, Woo Chang; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    The Harper Hamiltonian describes the motion of charged particles in an applied magnetic field - the spectrum of which exhibits the famed Hofstadter's butterfly. Recent advances in driven optical lattices have made great strides in simulating nontrivial Hamiltonians, such as the Harper model, in the time-averaged sense. We report on the realization of the ground state of bosons in the Harper Hamiltonian for 1/2 flux per plaquette utilizing a tilted two-dimensional lattice with laser assisted tunneling. We detail progress in studying various ground state properties of the 1/2 flux Harper Hamiltonian including ground state degeneracies, gauge-dependent observables, effects of micromotion, adiabatic loading schemes, and emergence and decay of coherence. Additionally, we describe prospects for flux rectification using a period-tripled superlattice and generalizations to three dimensions. MIT-Harvard Center for Ultracold Atoms, Research Laboratory of Electronics, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  8. Glassy aging in the relaxor-like ferroelectric Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colla, Eugene V.; Sullivan, Kevin; Weissman, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    The dielectric susceptibility of the lead-free relaxor-like perovskite ferroelectric Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 is shown to exhibit the same complicated spinglass-like aging behavior found in several cubic relaxors deep in the glassy state, in contrast to some uniaxial relaxors. The effects include rejuvenation and memory, including the ability to support multiple memories in parallel. Weak dependence of aging memories on changes in the electric field indicates that the aging is associated with relatively non-polar degrees of freedom, not with ferroelectric domains.

  9. Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 Perovskite Ceramics Produced by Simplified Wolframite Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Yi-Cheng; Shih, Chung-Yu; Yu, Chun-Hung

    2002-06-01

    Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 (PFN) perovskite ceramics produced by simplified wolframite route are investigated. Without calcining, the mixture of FeNbO4 and PbO was pressed and sintered directly to form PFN ceramics. Pyrochlore-free PFN ceramics are produced by simplified wolframite route after sintered at temperatures from 950°C to 1100°C for 2 h to 6 h. Density increases with sintering temperature and reaches a maximum around 8.2 g/cm3 at 1050°C for PFN ceramics with various soak times.

  10. Difference in variation of glass transition activation energy between 1,2-propanediamine and 1,2-propanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terashima, Yukio

    2016-05-01

    Variations of the effective activation energy (Eα) throughout the glass transition were determined for 1,2-propanediamine (12PDA) and 1,2-propanediol (12PDO) by applying an isoconversional method to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data. Eα was found to markedly decrease throughout the glass transition of 12PDA, whereas such drastic change in Eα was not observed for 12PDO. Although the two simple liquids are similar in molecular structure and size, their trends in Eα and fragility m throughout the glass transition can be quite different. The significant disparity in the kinetic parameters can be caused by differences in hydrogen-bonding structure between 12PDA and 12PDO.

  11. Periodized Daubechies wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.; Schlossnagle, G.

    1996-03-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrated by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and their use ius illustrated in the approximation of two commonly used differential operators. The periodization of the connection coefficients in Galerkin schemes is presented in detail.

  12. A Model Chemistry Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerlin, Lee; Borgford, Christie

    1989-01-01

    Described is an activity which uses a 96-well reaction plate and soda straws to construct a model of the periodic table of the elements. The model illustrates the ionization energies of the various elements. Construction of the model and related concepts are discussed. (CW)

  13. PROMINENCE THREAD SEISMOLOGY USING THE P{sub 1}/2P{sub 2} RATIO

    SciTech Connect

    DIaz, A. J.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L. E-mail: ramon.oliver@uib.e

    2010-12-20

    Prominence threads are expected to be cold plasma condensations in a long magnetic tube. Because of this density inhomogeneity along the magnetic field, the ratio of the fundamental transverse mode period to twice that of its first overtone, P{sub 1}/2P{sub 2}, must differ from 1. We investigate the dependence of this ratio on the equilibrium parameters of prominence threads and its possible use as a diagnostic tool for prominence seismology. Using the low-beta plasma approximation, we follow the procedure of previous works to obtain the frequencies and spatial distribution of the modes. We also check the thin tube approximation and find it reasonably accurate. The period ratio P{sub 1}/2P{sub 2} is found to be greater than unity, in contrast with coronal loops, for which the effect of inhomogeneities is to make this ratio smaller than 1. The ratio is very sensitive to the thread length, while the dependence on other parameters is less important for threads than for coronal loops. Hence, the period ratio can be used to obtain an estimation of the length of the supporting magnetic tube, since the thread length is known from observations. The obtained value of the tube length does not depend on other parameters, so their potential for prominence seismology may be great.

  14. Development and Optimization of Piperidyl-1,2,3-Triazole Ureas as Selective Chemical Probes of Endocannabinoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ku-Lung; Tsuboi, Katsunori; Whitby, Landon R.; Speers, Anna E.; Pugh, Holly; Inloes, Jordon; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that 1,2,3-triazole ureas (1,2,3-TUs) act as versatile class of irreversible serine hydrolase inhibitors that can be tuned to create selective probes for diverse members of this large enzyme class, including diacylglycerol lipase-β (DAGLβ), a principal biosynthetic enzyme for the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Here, we provide a detailed account of the discovery, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of (2-substituted)-piperidyl-1,2,3-TUs that selectively inactivate DAGLβ in living systems. Key to success was the use of activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) with broad-spectrum and tailored activity-based probes to guide our medicinal chemistry efforts. We also describe an expanded repertoire of DAGL-tailored activity-based probes that includes biotinylated and alkyne agents for enzyme enrichment coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics and assessment of proteome-wide selectivity. Our findings highlight the broad utility of 1,2,3-TUs for serine hydrolase inhibitor development and their application to create selective probes of endocannabinoid biosynthetic pathways. PMID:24152245

  15. Biodegradation of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in liquid broth by brown-rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Perlatti, Bruno; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Fernandes, João Batista; Forim, Moacir Rossi

    2013-11-01

    Dioxins are a class of extremely hazardous molecules that might pose a threat to the environment. This work evaluated the microbial degradation of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4-TCDD), in liquid broth using three brown-rot fungi and one white-rot fungi as control. A fast and reliable extraction method with recoveries of over 98% together with a validated GC-MS method was developed, and applied to quantify 1,2,3,4-TCDD in liquid broth, mycelia and reaction flask, with detection limits of 10 ppb. Among the four strains tested, brown-rot fungus Aspergillus aculeatus showed best results, removing up to 21% of dioxin after 30-day incubation. The results open both a path for biotechnological interest in bioremediation purposes and environmental behavior studies by using brown-rot fungus. PMID:24080442

  16. 1,2,3-Triazole/MWCNT conjugates as filler for gelcoat nanocomposites: new active antibiofouling coatings for marine application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannazzo, Daniela; Pistone, Alessandro; Visco, Annamaria; Galtieri, Giovanna; Giofrè, Salvatore V.; Romeo, Roberto; Romeo, Giovanni; Cappello, Simone; Bonsignore, Martina; Denaro, Renata; Galvagno, Signorino

    2015-11-01

    A polyester-based gelcoat nanocomposite was synthesized by using as nanofiller multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) conjugated with a biocidal 1,2,3-triazole to be used as a new eco-friendly antibiofouling coating. 1,2,3-Triazole/MWCNT conjugates containing differently substituted 1,2,3-triazoles have been synthesized and characterized by physical, chemical, and morphological analyses. Ecotoxicological studies, performed on marine organisms belonging to different evolutive classes, provided information about the choice of the more interesting nanofiller. The synthesized gelcoat nanocomposite showed a significant improvement in the wet ability with respect to the Gelcoat alone. Preliminary biological tests performed on the nanocomposite revealed great biocidal properties, thus providing new opportunities to develop an effective antibiofouling coating.

  17. Functionalization of 2H-1,2,3-Triazole C-Nucleoside Template via N(2) Selective Arylation.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Alexandra Basilio; Wagner, Patrick; de Souza, Rodrigo Octavio Mendonça Alves; Germain, Nadège Lubin; Uziel, Jacques; Bourguignon, Jean-Jacques; Schmitt, Martine; Miranda, Leandro S M

    2016-06-01

    C-Nucleosides are an underexplored and important class of nucleosides with antiviral and anticancer activity. In addition, triazole heterocycles are well employed as a strategy to modify nucleobase in nucleoside analogues, although rare examples were described for triazoyl C-nucleosides. N(2)-Aryl-1,2,3-triazole C-nucleoside compounds that could be obtained by selective 1,2,3-triazole heterocycle N(2) arylation in 1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-2H-1,2,3-triazole substrate were designed in this study. The optimized condition used AdBrettPhos/[PdCl(allyl)]2 as the catalyst system. This transformation was accomplished by aryl halides bearing an electron donor and withdrawing groups, as well as by heterocyclic halides in good to excellent yields. The transformation developed in this study represents a significant contribution to the nucleoside field, once it allows for the synthesis of unexplored scaffolds through selective functionalization of triazole nucleosides. PMID:27166644

  18. Structure-based design of imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivatives as selective inhibitors of Aurora-A kinase in cells.

    PubMed

    Bouloc, Nathalie; Large, Jonathan M; Kosmopoulou, Magda; Sun, Chongbo; Faisal, Amir; Matteucci, Mizio; Reynisson, Jóhannes; Brown, Nathan; Atrash, Butrus; Blagg, Julian; McDonald, Edward; Linardopoulos, Spiros; Bayliss, Richard; Bavetsias, Vassilios

    2010-10-15

    Co-crystallisation of the imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivative 15 (3-chloro-N-(4-morpholinophenyl)-6-(pyridin-3-yl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin-8-amine) with Aurora-A provided an insight into the interactions of this class of compound with Aurora kinases. This led to the design and synthesis of potent Aurora-A inhibitors demonstrating up to 70-fold selectivity in cell-based Aurora kinase pharmacodynamic biomarker assays. PMID:20833547

  19. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may be due to this condition include: Kidney stones (a side effect of acetazolamide) Irregular heartbeat during ... 2016:chap 99. Read More Breathing difficulty Carbohydrates Kidney stones Potassium test Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis Weakness Update Date ...

  20. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high levels of thyroid hormone in their blood ( hyperthyroidism , thyrotoxicosis). Causes This is a rare condition that ... include a family history of periodic paralysis and hyperthyroidism. Symptoms Symptoms involve attacks of muscle weakness or ...

  1. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  2. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be caused by abnormal conditions such as endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease. Unless one of these potentially serious conditions is present, the treatment for painful periods is pain relief. If a ...

  3. Your First Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe asthma). Always follow the directions on the bottle about how much to take. Exercise. Place a ... days. Glossary Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods. Egg: The female reproductive cell produced in and released ...

  4. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  5. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  6. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...

  7. Pedogenic formation of montmorillonite from a 2:1-2:2 intergrade clay mineral

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malcolm, R.L.; Nettleton, W.D.; McCracken, R.J.

    1969-01-01

    Montmorillonite was found to be the dominant clay mineral in surface horizons of certain soils of the North Carolina Coastal Plain whereas a 2:1-2:2 intergrade clay mineral was dominant in subjacent horizons. In all soils where this clay mineral sequence was found, the surface horizon was low in pH (below 4??5) and high in organic matter content. In contrast, data from studies of other soils of this region (Weed and Nelson, 1962) show that: (1) montmorillonite occurs infrequently; (2) maximum accumulation of the 2:1-2:2 intergrade normally occurs in the surface horizon and decreases with depth in the profile; (3) organic matter contents are low; and (4) pH values are only moderately acid (pH 5-6). It is theorized that the montmorillonite in the surface horizon of the soils studied originated by pedogenic weathering of the 2:1-2:2 intergrade clay mineral. The combined effects of low pH (below 4??5) and high organic matter content in surface horizons are believed to be the agents responsible for this mineral transformation. The protonation and solubilization (reverse of hydrolysis) of Al-polymers in the interlayer of expansible clay minerals will occur at or below pH 4??5 depending on the charge and steric effects of the interlayer. A low pH alone may cause this solubilization and thus mineral transformation, but in the soils studied the organic matter is believed to facilitate and accelerage the transformation. The intermediates of organic matter decomposition provide an acid environment, a source of protons, and a source of watersoluble mobile organic substances (principally fulvic acids) which have the ability to complex the solubilized aluminum and move it down the profile. This continuous removal of solubilized aluminum would provide for a favorable gradient for aluminum solubilization. The drainage class or position in a catena is believed to be less important than the chemical factors in formation of montmorillonite from 2:1-2:2 intergrade, because

  8. Class Differences in Cohabitation Processes

    PubMed Central

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning cohabitation literature, research has failed to examine social class variation in processes of forming and advancing such unions. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 122 working- and middle-class cohabitors, we examine the duration between dating and moving in together, reasons for cohabiting, and subsequent plans. Transitions to cohabitation are more rapid among the working class. Respondents often cohabited for practical reasons—out of financial necessity, because it was convenient, or to meet a housing need. Regardless of social class status, few couples move in together as a “trial marriage.” Nonetheless, middle-class cohabitors were more likely to have become engaged than their working-class counterparts. Our findings indicate the need to reassess common beliefs regarding the role served by cohabitation and suggest that cohabitation has become another location where family outcomes are diverging by social class. PMID:23504506

  9. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces) to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month. PMID:27052290

  10. ABIOTIC DEHALOGENATION OF 1,2-DICHLOROETHANE AND 1,2-DIBROMETHANE IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION CONTAINING HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The detection of significant levels of halogenated ali- phatic contaminants in groundwater resources in the U- nited States (1, 2) has spurred a considerable effort to understand the various mechanisms-both microbiological and abiotic-by which these compounds may be trans- formed...

  11. Synthesis and reactivity of 1,2-bis(chlorodimethylgermyl)carborane and 1,2-bis(bromodimethylstannyl)carborane.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chongchan; Lee, Junghyun; Lee, Soon W; Kang, Sang Ook; Ko, Jaejung

    2002-06-17

    The 1,2-bis(chlorogermyl)- (1) and 1,2-bis(bromostannyl)carborane (2) have been prepared by the reaction of dilithio-o-carborane with Me(2)GeCl(2) and Me(2)SnBr(2), respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 are found to be good precursors for the synthesis of a variety of cyclization compounds. The Wurtz-type coupling reaction of 1 and 2 using sodium metal afforded the four-membered digerma compound 3 and five-membered tristanna compound 4, respectively. The salt elimination reactions of 1 and 2 using Li(2)N(t)Bu and Li(2)PC(6)H(5) afforded the cyclic products [structure: see text]. The 1,2-bis(dimethylgermyl)carborane 9 and 1,2-bis(dimethylstannyl)carborane 10 were prepared by the reaction of 1 and 2 with sodium cyanoborohydride. The reactions of 9 and 10 with Pd(PPh(3))(4) afforded the bis(germyl)palladium 12 and bis(stannyl)palladium 13 complexes, respectively. PMID:12054986

  12. UPTAKE, METABOLISM, AND ELIMINATION OF 14C-LABELED 1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE IN RAINBOW TROUT AND CARP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fingerling rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were exposed to 14C-labeled 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) for 8 h in a static exposure (0.018 mg/1) or for 35 d in a continuous-flow exposure (0.020 mg/1) followed by a subsequent elimination period. For the 2 d after the 8-h exposure, th...

  13. Network Class Superposition Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Carl A. B.; Zeng, Chen; Simha, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., for the yeast cell cycle process [1]), considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix , which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for derived from Boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with . We show how to generate Derrida plots based on . We show that -based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on . We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology Boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for , for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses. PMID:23565141

  14. HMGB1/2 can target DNA for illegitimate cleavage by the RAG1/2 complex

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming; Swanson, Patrick C

    2009-01-01

    Background V(D)J recombination is initiated in antigen receptor loci by the pairwise cleavage of recombination signal sequences (RSSs) by the RAG1 and RAG2 proteins via a nick-hairpin mechanism. The RSS contains highly conserved heptamer (consensus: 5'-CACAGTG) and nonamer (consensus: 5'-ACAAAAACC) motifs separated by either 12- or 23-base pairs of poorly conserved sequence. The high mobility group proteins HMGB1 and HMGB2 (HMGB1/2) are highly abundant architectural DNA binding proteins known to promote RAG-mediated synapsis and cleavage of consensus recombination signals in vitro by facilitating RSS binding and bending by the RAG1/2 complex. HMGB1/2 are known to recognize distorted DNA structures such as four-way junctions, and damaged or modified DNA. Whether HMGB1/2 can promote RAG-mediated DNA cleavage at sites lacking a canonical RSS by targeting or stabilizing structural distortions is unclear, but is important for understanding the etiology of chromosomal translocations involving antigen receptor genes and proto-oncogene sequences that do not contain an obvious RSS-like element. Results Here we identify a novel DNA breakpoint site in the plasmid V(D)J recombination substrate pGG49 (bps6197) that is cleaved by the RAG proteins via a nick-hairpin mechanism. The bps6197 sequence lacks a recognizable heptamer at the breakpoint (5'-CCTGACG-3') but contains a nonamer-like element (5'-ACATTAACC-3') 30 base pairs from the cleavage site. We find that RAG-mediated bps6197 cleavage is promoted by HMGB1/2, requiring both HMG-box domains to be intact to facilitate RAG-mediated cleavage, and is stimulated by synapsis with a 12-RSS. A dyad-symmetric inverted repeat sequence lying 5' to the breakpoint is implicated as a target for HMGB1/2 activity. Conclusion We have identified a novel DNA sequence, called bps6197, that supports standard V(D)J-type cleavage despite the absence of an apparent heptamer motif. Efficient RAG-mediated bps6197 cleavage requires the presence of

  15. Role of point defects in bipolar fatigue behavior of Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 modified (Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3-(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3 relaxor ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nitish; Ansell, Troy Y.; Cann, David P.

    2014-04-01

    Lead-free Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3-(Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3-(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3 (BMT-BKT-BNT) ceramics have been shown to exhibit large electromechanical strains under high electric fields along with negligible fatigue under strong electric fields. To investigate the role of point defects on the fatigue characteristics, the composition 5BMT-40BKT-55BNT was doped to incorporate acceptor and donor defects on the A and B sites by adjusting the Bi/Na and Ti/Mg stoichiometries. All samples had pseudo-cubic symmetries based on x-ray diffraction, typical of relaxors. Dielectric measurements showed that the high and low temperature phase transitions were largely unaffected by doping. Acceptor doping resulted in the observation of a typical ferroelectric-like polarization with a remnant polarization and strain hysteresis loops with significant negative strain. Donor-doped compositions exhibited characteristics that were indicative of an ergodic relaxor phase. Fatigue measurements were carried out on all of the compositions. While the A-site acceptor-doped composition showed a small degradation in maximum strain after 106 cycles, the other compositions were essentially fatigue free. Impedance measurements were used to identify the important conduction mechanisms in these compositions. As expected, the presence of defects did not strongly influence the fatigue behavior in donor-doped compositions owing to the nature of their reversible field-induced phase transformation. Even for the acceptor-doped compositions, which had stable domains in the absence of an electric field at room temperature, there was negligible degradation in the maximum strain due to fatigue. This suggests that either the defects introduced through stoichiometric variations do not play a prominent role in fatigue in these systems or it is compensated by factors like decrease in coercive field, an increase in ergodicity, symmetry change, or other factors.

  16. Interplay between aromaticity and strain in double group transfer reactions to 1,2-benzyne.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Israel; Cossío, Fernando P

    2016-05-30

    Density Functional Theory calculations are used to explore the double hydrogen atom transfer from different alkanes to 1,2-benzyne. State-of-the-art calculations including the Activation Strain Model of reactivity, Energy Decomposition Analysis, and Valence Bond methods, reveal the origins of the relatively low activation barriers computed for these processes compared to the analogous reaction involving acetylene. In addition, the interplay between the in-plane aromaticity of the corresponding transition states and the variation of the π-aromaticity associated with the benzyne moiety as well as their influence on the barrier heights of the transformations are analyzed in detail. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26864872

  17. Discovery of pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyridazine-3-carboxamides as Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Duan, James J-W; Lu, Zhonghui; Jiang, Bin; Yang, Bingwei V; Doweyko, Lidia M; Nirschl, David S; Haque, Lauren E; Lin, Shuqun; Brown, Gregory; Hynes, John; Tokarski, John S; Sack, John S; Khan, Javed; Lippy, Jonathan S; Zhang, Rosemary F; Pitt, Sidney; Shen, Guoxiang; Pitts, William J; Carter, Percy H; Barrish, Joel C; Nadler, Steven G; Salter-Cid, Luisa M; McKinnon, Murray; Fura, Aberra; Schieven, Gary L; Wrobleski, Stephen T

    2014-12-15

    A new class of Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors was discovered using a rationally designed pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyridazine-3-carboxamide scaffold. Preliminary studies identified (R)-(2,2-dimethylcyclopentyl)amine as a preferred C4 substituent on the pyrrolopyridazine core (3b). Incorporation of amino group to 3-position of the cyclopentane ring resulted in a series of JAK3 inhibitors (4g-4j) that potently inhibited IFNγ production in an IL2-induced whole blood assay and displayed high functional selectivity for JAK3-JAK1 pathway relative to JAK2. Further modifications led to the discovery of an orally bioavailable (2-fluoro-2-methylcyclopentyl)amino analogue 5g which is a nanomolar inhibitor of both JAK3 and TYK2, functionally selective for the JAK3-JAK1 pathway versus JAK2, and active in a human whole blood assay. PMID:25453808

  18. Efficient synthesis and reactions of 1,2-dipyrrolylethynes

    PubMed Central

    Tanui, Hillary K.; Hao, Erhong; Ihachi, Moses I.; Fronczek, Frank R.; Smith, Kevin M.; Vicente, M. Graça H.

    2011-01-01

    Various dipyrroles possess important motifs for construction of pyrrole-containing pigments. A series of 1,2-dipyrrolylethynes (4a–d) has been efficiently synthesized using an improved one-pot double Sonagashira coupling from trimethylsilylethyne and various 2-iodopyrroles. The resulting 1,2-dipyrrolylethynes were further transformed into novel indolyl-, ethenyl- and carboranyl-dipyrroles (5–7) using the Larock indole synthesis, stereoselective catalytic hydrogenation, or B10H14. Indolyl-dipyrroles were found to selectively bind fluoride ions using one pyrrolic and the indolyl NHs, whereas the carboranyl- and ethenyl-dipyrroles are potentially valuable precursors for the synthesis of porphyrin isomers and expanded pigments. PMID:21822371

  19. Analyzing ERK 1/2 signalling and targets.

    PubMed

    Brietz, Alexandra; Schuch, Kristin Verena; Wangorsch, Gaby; Lorenz, Kristina; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-07-19

    The ERK cascade (e.g. Raf-1) protects the heart from cell death and ischemic injury but can also turn maladaptive. Furthermore, an additional autophosphorylation of ERK2 at Thr188 (Erk1 at Thr208) allows ERK to phosphorylate nuclear targets involved in hypertrophy, stressing this additional phosphorylation as a promising pharmacological target. An in silico model was assembled and setup to reproduce different phosphorylation states of ERK 1/2 and various types of stimuli (hypertrophic versus non-hypertrophic). Synergistic and antagonistic receptor stimuli can be predicted in a semi-quantitative model, simulated time courses were experimentally validated. Furthermore, we detected new targets of ERK 1/2, which possibly contribute to the development of pathological hypertrophy. In addition we modeled further interaction partners involved in the protective and maladaptive cascade. Experimental validation included different gene expression data sets supporting key components and novel interaction partners as well as time courses in chronic heart failure. PMID:27301697

  20. Gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase from Haloferax sp. D1227.

    PubMed

    Fu, W; Oriel, P

    1998-11-01

    Gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase from the extreme halophile Haloferax sp. D1227 (Hf. D1227) was purified using a three-step procedure. The enzyme was found to be a homotetramer of 42,000 +/- 1,000 Da subunits, with a native molecular weight of 174,000 +/- 6,000 Da. The optimal salt concentration, temperature, and pH for enzyme activity were 2 M KCl or NaCl, 45 degrees C, and pH 7.2, respectively. The gene encoding Hf. D1227 gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Haloferax volcanii. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited a 9.2% excess acidic over basic amino acids typical of halophilic enzymes. Four novel histidine clusters and a possible extradiol dioxygenase fingerprint region were identified. PMID:9827334

  1. Photoinduced 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine ring conversions.

    PubMed

    Turovska, Baiba; Lund, Henning; Lūsis, Viesturs; Lielpētere, Anna; Liepiņš, Edvards; Beljakovs, Sergejs; Goba, Inguna; Stradiņš, Jānis

    2015-01-01

    Stable heterocyclic hydroperoxide can be easily prepared as a product of fast oxidation of a 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine by (3)O2 if the solution is exposed to sunlight. The driving force for the photoinduced electron transfer is calculated from electrochemical and spectroscopic data. The outcome of the reaction depends on the light intensity and the concentration of O2. In the solid state the heterocyclic hydroperoxide is stable; in solution it is involved in further reactions. PMID:26664638

  2. Dynamics of Spin-(1)/(2) Quantum Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marklund, Mattias; Brodin, Gert

    2007-01-01

    The fully nonlinear governing equations for spin-(1)/(2) quantum plasmas are presented. Starting from the Pauli equation, the relevant plasma equations are derived, and it is shown that nontrivial quantum spin couplings arise, enabling studies of the combined collective and spin dynamics. The linear response of the quantum plasma in an electron-ion system is obtained and analyzed. Applications of the theory to solid state and astrophysical systems as well as dusty plasmas are pointed out.

  3. Dynamics of spin-1/2 quantum plasmas.

    PubMed

    Marklund, Mattias; Brodin, Gert

    2007-01-12

    The fully nonlinear governing equations for spin-1/2 quantum plasmas are presented. Starting from the Pauli equation, the relevant plasma equations are derived, and it is shown that nontrivial quantum spin couplings arise, enabling studies of the combined collective and spin dynamics. The linear response of the quantum plasma in an electron-ion system is obtained and analyzed. Applications of the theory to solid state and astrophysical systems as well as dusty plasmas are pointed out. PMID:17358613

  4. Photoinduced 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine ring conversions

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Henning; Lūsis, Viesturs; Lielpētere, Anna; Liepiņš, Edvards; Beljakovs, Sergejs; Goba, Inguna; Stradiņš, Jānis

    2015-01-01

    Summary Stable heterocyclic hydroperoxide can be easily prepared as a product of fast oxidation of a 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine by 3O2 if the solution is exposed to sunlight. The driving force for the photoinduced electron transfer is calculated from electrochemical and spectroscopic data. The outcome of the reaction depends on the light intensity and the concentration of O2. In the solid state the heterocyclic hydroperoxide is stable; in solution it is involved in further reactions. PMID:26664638

  5. Aryne 1,2,3-Trifunctionalization with Aryl Allyl Sulfoxides.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Dachuan; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Junli; Shi, Jiarong; Li, Yang

    2016-08-31

    An aryne 1,2,3-trisubstitution with aryl allyl sulfoxides is accomplished, featuring an incorporation of C-S, C-O, and C-C bonds on the consecutive positions of a benzene ring. The reaction condition is mild with broad substrate scope. Preliminary mechanistic study suggests a cascade formal [2 + 2] reaction of aryne with S═O bond, an allyl S → O migration, and a Claisen rearrangement. PMID:27527334

  6. 38. View of DRS 1, 2, and 3 (structure nos. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. View of DRS 1, 2, and 3 (structure nos. 735, 736, and 737) console fault locator for beam power status, radio frequency (RF) and intermediate frequency (IF) fault conditions, RF switches status and TR status. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  7. 2 1/2 -D compressible reconnection model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skender, M.; Vršnak, B.

    The exact solution of the jump conditions on the RD/SMS discontinuity system in a two-and-half-dimensional (2 1/2 -D) symmetrical reconnection model enables one to analyse the outflowing jet characteristics in dependence on the inflow velocity, and to follow changes in transition to the two-dimensional model. Implications arising from the exact solution and its relevance for solar flares are discussed.

  8. Catalytic, Diastereoselective 1,2-Difluorination of Alkenes.

    PubMed

    Banik, Steven M; Medley, Jonathan William; Jacobsen, Eric N

    2016-04-20

    We describe a direct, catalytic approach to the 1,2-difluorination of alkenes. The method utilizes a nucleophilic fluoride source and an oxidant in conjunction with an aryl iodide catalyst and is applicable to alkenes with all types of substitution patterns. In general, the vicinal difluoride products are produced with high diastereoselectivities. The observed sense of stereoinduction implicates anchimeric assistance pathways in reactions of alkenes bearing neighboring Lewis basic functionality. PMID:27046019

  9. Isomerization and fragmentation pathways of 1,2-azaborine.

    PubMed

    Edel, Klara; Fink, Reinhold F; Bettinger, Holger F

    2016-01-01

    The generation of 1,2-azaborine (4), the BN-analogue of ortho-benzyne, was recently achieved by elimination of tert-butyldimethylchlorosilane under the conditions of flash vacuum pyrolysis. The present investigation identifies by computational means pathways for the thermal isomerization and fragmentation of 1,2-azaborine. The computations were performed using single reference (hybrid/density functional, second order Møller-Plesset perturbation, and coupled cluster theories) as well as multiconfiguration methods (complete active space SCF based second order perturbation theory, multireference configuration interaction, and multiconfiguration coupled electron pair approximation) with basis sets up to polarized triple-ζ quality. The 1,2-azaborine is, despite the distortion of its molecular structure, the most stable C4H4BN isomer investigated. The formation of BN-endiyne isomers is highly unfavorable as the identified pathways involve barriers close to 80 kcal mol(-1). The concerted fragmentation to ethyne and 2-aza-3-bora-butadiyne even has a barrier close to 120 kcal mol(-1). The fragmentation of BN-enediynes has energetic requirements similar to enediynes. PMID:26418051

  10. Degradation of 1,2-dichlorobenzene by a Pseudomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Haigler, B E; Nishino, S F; Spain, J C

    1988-02-01

    A Pseudomonas sp. that was capable of growth on 1,2-dichlorobenzene (o-DCB) or chlorobenzene as a sole source of carbon and energy was isolated by selective enrichment from activated sludge. The initial steps involved in the degradation of o-DCB were investigated by isolation of metabolites, respirometry, and assay of enzymes in cell extracts. Extracts of o-DCB-grown cells converted radiolabeled o-DCB to 3,4-dichloro-cis-1,2-dihydroxycyclohexa-3,5-diene (o-DCB dihydrodiol). 3,4-Dichlorocatechol and o-DCB dihydrodiol accumulated in culture fluids of cells exposed to o-DCB. The results suggest that o-DCB is initially converted by a dioxygenase to a dihydrodiol, which is converted to 3,4-dichlorocatechol by an NAD+-dependent dehydrogenase. Ring cleavage of 3,4-dichlorocatechol is by a catechol 1,2-oxygenase to form 2,3-dichloro-cis,cis-muconate. Preliminary results indicate that chloride is eliminated during subsequent lactonization of the 2,3-dichloro-cis,cis-muconate, followed by hydrolysis to form 5-chloromaleylacetic acid. PMID:3281582

  11. 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in commonly consumed foods.

    PubMed

    Degen, Julia; Hellwig, Michael; Henle, Thomas

    2012-07-18

    1,2-Dicarbonyl compounds, formed from carbohydrates during thermal processing in the course of caramelization and Maillard reactions, are intensively discussed as precursors for advanced glycation endproducts in foods and in vivo. To obtain information about the uptake of individual compounds with commonly consumed foods, a comprehensive analysis of the content of 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), 3-deoxygalactosone (3-DGal), and methylglyoxal (MGO) together with 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in 173 food items like bakery products, pasta, nonalcoholic and alcoholic beverages, sweet spreads, and condiments was performed. Following suitable cleanup procedures, 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds were quantitated after derivatization with o-phenylenediamine via RP-HPLC with UV detection. 3-DG proved to be the predominant 1,2-dicarbonyl compound with concentrations up to 410 mg/L in fruit juices, 2622 mg/L in balsamic vinegars, and 385 mg/kg in cookies, thus exceeding the corresponding concentrations of HMF. 3-DGal was found to be of relevance in many foods even in the absence of galactose. MGO was only of minor quantitative importance in all foods studied, except for manuka honey. Dietary intake was estimated to range between 20 and 160 mg/day for 3-DG and 5 and 20 mg/day for MGO, respectively. PMID:22724891

  12. Spectral energy distribution analysis of class I and class II FU Orionis stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Gómez, Mercedes; Rodón, Javier A. E-mail: mercedes@oac.uncor.edu

    2014-06-01

    FU Orionis stars (FUors) are eruptive pre-main sequence objects thought to represent quasi-periodic or recurring stages of enhanced accretion during the low-mass star-forming process. We characterize the sample of known and candidate FUors in a homogeneous and consistent way, deriving stellar and circumstellar parameters for each object. We emphasize the analysis in those parameters that are supposed to vary during the FUor stage. We modeled the spectral energy distributions of 24 of the 26 currently known FUors, using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. We compare our models with those obtained by Robitaille et al. for Taurus class II and I sources in quiescence periods by calculating the cumulative distribution of the different parameters. FUors have more massive disks: we find that ∼80% of the disks in FUors are more massive than any Taurus class II and I sources in the sample. Median values for the disk mass accretion rates are ∼10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} versus ∼10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for standard young stellar objects (YSOs) and FUors, respectively. While the distributions of envelope mass accretion rates for class I FUors and standard class I objects are similar, FUors, on average, have higher envelope mass accretion rates than standard class II and class I sources. Most FUors (∼70%) have envelope mass accretion rates above 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. In contrast, 60% of the classical YSO sample has an accretion rate below this value. Our results support the current scenario in which changes experimented by the circumstellar disk explain the observed properties of these stars. However, the increase in the disk mass accretion rate is smaller than theoretically predicted, although in good agreement with previous determinations.

  13. Archaebacterial class I and class II aldolases from extreme halophiles.

    PubMed

    Altekar, W; Dhar, N M

    1988-01-01

    Both, class I (Schiff-base forming) and class II (metal requiring) fructose biphosphate aldolases were found to be distributed among halophilic archaebacteria. The aldolase activity from Halobacteriium halobium, H. salinarium, H. cutirubrum, H. mediterranei and H. volcanii exhibited properties of a bacterial class II aldolase as it was metal-dependent for activity and therefore inhibited by EDTA. In contrast, aldolase from H. saccharovorum, Halobacterium R-113, H. vallismortis and Halobacterium CH-1 formed a Schiff-base intermediate with the substrate and therefore resembled to eukaryotic class I type. The type of aldolase did not vary by changes in the growth medium. PMID:11536602

  14. Archaebacterial class I and class II aldolases from extreme halophiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alterkar, Wijaya; Dhar, Nenoo M.

    1988-03-01

    Both, class I (Schiff-base forming) and class II (metal requiring) fructose biphosphate aldolases were found to be distributed among halophilic archaebacteria. The aldolase activity fromHalobacterium halobium, H. salinarium, H. cutirubrum, H. mediterranei andH. volcanii exhibited properties of a bacterial class II aldolase as it was metal-dependent for activity and therefore inhibited by EDTA. In contrast, aldolase fromH. saccharovorum, Halobacterium R-113, H. vallismortis andHalobacterium CH-1 formed a Schiff-base intermediate with the substrate and therefore resembled to eukaryotic class I type. The type of aldolase did not vary by changes in the growth medium.

  15. Quasi-Periodic Bifurcations of Higher-Dimensional Tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komuro, Motomasa; Kamiyama, Kyohei; Endo, Tetsuro; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2016-06-01

    We classify the local bifurcations of quasi-periodic d-dimensional tori in maps (abbr. MTd) and in flows (abbr. FTd) for d ≥ 1. It is convenient to classify these bifurcations into normal bifurcations and resonance bifurcations. Normal bifurcations of MTd can be classified into four classes: namely, saddle-node, period doubling, double covering, and Neimark-Sacker bifurcations. Furthermore, normal bifurcations of FTd can be classified into three classes: saddle-node, double covering, and Neimark-Sacker bifurcations. These bifurcations are determined by the type of the dominant Lyapunov bundle. Resonance bifurcations are well known as phase locking of quasi-periodic solutions. These bifurcations are classified into two classes for both MTd and FTd: namely, saddle-node cycle and heteroclinic cycle bifurcations of the (d ‑ 1)-dimensional tori. The former is reversible, while the latter is irreversible. In addition, we propose a method for analyzing higher-dimensional tori, which uses one-dimensional tori in sections (abbr. ST1) and zero-dimensional tori in sections (abbr. ST0). The bifurcations of ST1 can be classified into five classes: saddle-node, period doubling, component doubling, double covering, and Neimark-Sacker bifurcations. The bifurcations of ST0 can be classified into four classes: saddle-node, period doubling, component doubling, and Neimark-Sacker bifurcations. Furthermore, we clarify the relationship between the bifurcations of ST1/ST0 and the bifurcations of MTd/FTd. We present examples of all of these bifurcations.

  16. Is the Sun a Long Period Variable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonett, Charles P.

    1990-01-01

    The inventory of atmospheric radiocarbon exhibits quasi-periodic variations of mean period of bar-lambda=269 years over the entire 9000 year record. But the period is inconstant and subject to random variability (sigma m exp. 1/2 = 119 years). The radiocarbon maxima correspond to the quasiperiodic extension of the Maunder minimum throughout the Holocene and resolve the long-standing issue of Maunder cyclicity. The radiocarbon maxima are amplitude modulated by the approx. 2300 year period and thus vary significantly in peak value. The approx. 2300 year period in turn appears to not be modulated by the secular geomagnetic variation. Detection of a Maunder-like sequence of minima in tree ring growth of Bristlecone pine and its correlation with the Maunder (1890, 1922) cyclicity in the radiocarbon record supports the inference that solar forcing of the radiocarbon record is accompanied by a corresponding forcing of growth of timberline Bristlecone pine. Because of the random component of the Maunder period, prediction of climate, if tied to the Maunder cycle other than probabilistically, is significantly hindered. For the mean Maunder period of 269 years, the probability is 67 percent that a given climatic maximum lies anywhere between 150 and 388 years.

  17. Latent class instrumental variables: a clinical and biostatistical perspective.

    PubMed

    Baker, Stuart G; Kramer, Barnett S; Lindeman, Karen S

    2016-01-15

    In some two-arm randomized trials, some participants receive the treatment assigned to the other arm as a result of technical problems, refusal of a treatment invitation, or a choice of treatment in an encouragement design. In some before-and-after studies, the availability of a new treatment changes from one time period to this next. Under assumptions that are often reasonable, the latent class instrumental variable (IV) method estimates the effect of treatment received in the aforementioned scenarios involving all-or-none compliance and all-or-none availability. Key aspects are four initial latent classes (sometimes called principal strata) based on treatment received if in each randomization group or time period, the exclusion restriction assumption (in which randomization group or time period is an instrumental variable), the monotonicity assumption (which drops an implausible latent class from the analysis), and the estimated effect of receiving treatment in one latent class (sometimes called efficacy, the local average treatment effect, or the complier average causal effect). Since its independent formulations in the biostatistics and econometrics literatures, the latent class IV method (which has no well-established name) has gained increasing popularity. We review the latent class IV method from a clinical and biostatistical perspective, focusing on underlying assumptions, methodological extensions, and applications in our fields of obstetrics and cancer research. PMID:26239275

  18. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Rojith Karanode; Chandran, Suresh Rama; Thirumalnesan, Geetha; Doraisamy, Nedumaran

    2011-07-01

    This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recovery after the medical intervention and was discharged after 24 hours with no residual paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a complication of thyrotoxicosis, more common amongst males in Asia. It presents as acute flaccid paralysis in a case of hyperthyroidism with associated hypokalemia. The features of thyrotoxicosis may be subtle or absent. Thus, in cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to consider thyrotoxicosis as one of the possible causes, and take measures accordingly. PMID:21966655

  19. Periodically kicked turbulence

    PubMed

    Lohse

    2000-10-01

    Periodically kicked turbulence is theoretically analyzed within a mean-field theory. For large enough kicking strength A and kicking frequency f the Reynolds number grows exponentially and then runs into some saturation. The saturation level Re(sat) can be calculated analytically; different regimes can be observed. For large enough Re we find Re(sat) approximately Af, but intermittency can modify this scaling law. We suggest an experimental realization of periodically kicked turbulence to study the different regimes we theoretically predict and thus to better understand the effect of forcing on fully developed turbulence. PMID:11089041

  20. Growth and characterization of ferroelectric Pb(Sc1/2Nb1/2)O3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Siqi; Bokov, Alexei A.; Paterson, Alisa; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2015-10-01

    Single crystals of Pb(Sc1/2Nb1/2)O3 were grown by the high-temperature solution method using PbO + B2O3 as flux. The size of the as-grown crystals varies from 1 to 2 mm. X-ray diffraction indicates a pure perovskite phase without B-site ordering. Polarized light microscopy shows that the crystals are of rhombohedral symmetry at room temperature and become cubic at TC = 112 °C on heating. A ferroelectric-to-relaxor phase transition is verified at TC by dielectric spectroscopy. Frequency-dependent permittivity is observed in dielectric measurements, revealing relaxor behavior above TC. Poling the crystal at room temperature does not change TC, but suppresses the permittivity. Typical ferroelectric hysteresis loop is displayed at room temperature, indicating the ferroelectric nature of the rhombohedral phase.

  1. Ferroelectric (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 thin films showing photoluminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zannen, M.; Dietze, M.; Khemakhem, H.; Es-Souni, M.

    2014-06-01

    Polycrystalline lead-free (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 (NBT) ferroelectric thin films doped with 1 mol% of rare earth (RE) elements are processed on Pt-terminated silicon substrates using a solution deposition method. The thin films that exhibit single-phase perovskite structure show photoluminescence properties with highest intensities in the wavelength range between 700 and 850 nm, depending on RE element. The ferroelectric properties of the pure NBT film (P r: 20.5 µC cm-2, E c: 150 kV cm-1) are somewhat decreased for the doped films, which is ascribed to decreasing of the number of Bi lone pairs through the substitution of Bi with RE elements in the perovskite lattice.

  2. A Structural Theory of Pitch1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Laudanski, Jonathan; Zheng, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Musical notes can be ordered from low to high along a perceptual dimension called “pitch”. A characteristic property of these sounds is their periodic waveform, and periodicity generally correlates with pitch. Thus, pitch is often described as the perceptual correlate of the periodicity of the sound’s waveform. However, the existence and salience of pitch also depends in a complex way on other factors, in particular harmonic content. For example, periodic sounds made of high-order harmonics tend to have a weaker pitch than those made of low-order harmonics. Here we examine the theoretical proposition that pitch is the perceptual correlate of the regularity structure of the vibration pattern of the basilar membrane, across place and time—a generalization of the traditional view on pitch. While this proposition also attributes pitch to periodic sounds, we show that it predicts differences between resolved and unresolved harmonic complexes and a complex domain of existence of pitch, in agreement with psychophysical experiments. We also present a possible neural mechanism for pitch estimation based on coincidence detection, which does not require long delays, in contrast with standard temporal models of pitch. PMID:26464959

  3. Sensitivity Analysis of Gas Production from Class 2 and Class 3 Hydrate Deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Reagan, Matthew; Moridis, George; Zhang, Keni

    2008-05-01

    Gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds in which gas molecules are lodged within the lattices of an ice-like crystalline solid. The vast quantities of hydrocarbon gases trapped in hydrate formations in the permafrost and in deep ocean sediments may constitute a new and promising energy source. Class 2 hydrate deposits are characterized by a Hydrate-Bearing Layer (HBL) that is underlain by a saturated zone of mobile water. Class 3 hydrate deposits are characterized by an isolated Hydrate-Bearing Layer (HBL) that is not in contact with any hydrate-free zone of mobile fluids. Both classes of deposits have been shown to be good candidates for exploitation in earlier studies of gas production via vertical well designs - in this study we extend the analysis to include systems with varying porosity, anisotropy, well spacing, and the presence of permeable boundaries. For Class 2 deposits, the results show that production rate and efficiency depend strongly on formation porosity, have a mild dependence on formation anisotropy, and that tighter well spacing produces gas at higher rates over shorter time periods. For Class 3 deposits, production rates and efficiency also depend significantly on formation porosity, are impacted negatively by anisotropy, and production rates may be larger, over longer times, for well configurations that use a greater well spacing. Finally, we performed preliminary calculations to assess a worst-case scenario for permeable system boundaries, and found that the efficiency of depressurization-based production strategies are compromised by migration of fluids from outside the system.

  4. Mechanistic studies of an unprecedented enzyme-catalyzed 1,2-phosphono migration reaction

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-chen; Dey, Mishtu; Liu, Pinghua; Mansoorabadi, Steven O.; Moon, Sung-Ju; Zhao, Zongbao K.; Drennan, Catherine L.; Liu, Hung-wen

    2013-01-01

    (S)-2-Hydroxypropylphosphonate ((S)-2-HPP) epoxidase (HppE) is a mononuclear non-heme iron-dependent enzyme1,2,3 responsible for the last step in the biosynthesis of the clinically useful antibiotic fosfomycin4. Enzymes of this class typically catalyze oxygenation reactions that proceed via the formation of substrate radical intermediates. In contrast, HppE catalyzes an unusual dehydrogenation reaction while converting the secondary alcohol of (S)-2-HPP to the epoxide ring of fosfomycin1,5. HppE is shown here to also catalyze a biologically unprecedented 1,2-phosphono migration with the alternative substrate (R)-1-HPP. This transformation likely involves an intermediary carbocation based on observations with additional substrate analogues, such as (1R)-1-hydroxy-2-aminopropylphosphonate, and model reactions for both radical- and carbocation-mediated migration. The ability of HppE to catalyze distinct reactions depending on the regio- and stereochemical properties of the substrate is given a structural basis using X-ray crystallography. These results provide compelling evidence for the formation of a substrate-derived cation intermediate in the catalytic cycle of a mononuclear non-heme iron-dependent enzyme. The underlying chemistry of this unusual phosphono migration may represent a new paradigm for the in vivo construction of phosphonate-containing natural products that can be exploited for the preparation of novel phosphonate derivatives. PMID:23552950

  5. Organizing MHC Class II Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Fooksman, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are ligands for CD4+ T cells and are critical for initiating the adaptive immune response. This review is focused on what is currently known about MHC class II organization at the plasma membrane of antigen presenting cells and how this affects antigen presentation to T cells. The organization and diffusion of class II molecules have been measured by a variety of biochemical and microscopic techniques. Membrane lipids and other proteins have been implicated in MHC class II organization and function. However, when compared with the organization of MHC class I or TCR complexes, much less is known about MHC class II. Since clustering of T cell receptors occurs during activation, the organization of MHC molecules prior to recognition and during synapse formation may be critical for antigen presentation. PMID:24782863

  6. Diffusion of 1,2-dimethoxyethane and 1,2-dimethoxypropane through phosphatidycholine bilayers: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Susruta; Hezaveh, Samira; Milano, Giuseppe; Roccatano, Danilo

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, a theoretical study of 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) and 1,2-dimethoxypropane (DMP) at water/n-heptane and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospatidycholine (DMPC) lipid bilayer/water interfaces using the umbrella sampling method is reported. Recently proposed GROMOS96/OPLS compatible models for DME and DMP have been used for the simulation studies. The percolation free energy barrier of one DME and DMP molecule from water to n-heptane phase calculated using the umbrella sampling method turned out to be equal to ~18.5 kJ/mol and ~6 kJ/mol, respectively. In the case of the DMPC lipid bilayer, overall free energy barriers of ~20 kJ/mol and ∼12 kJ/mol were obtained for DME and DMP, respectively. The spontaneous diffusion of DME and DMP in the lipid bilayer has also been investigated using unconstrained molecular dynamics simulations at the water/DMPC interface and inside the lipid bilayer. As expected from the estimated percolation barriers, simulation results show that DME, contrary to DMP, spontaneously diffuse into the aqueous solution from the lipid interior. In addition, simulations with multiple DME or DMP molecules at the interface show spontaneous diffusion within 50 ns inside the DMPC layer only for DMP. PMID:22409229

  7. Cytotoxic 1,2-dialkynylimidazole-based aza-enediynes: aza-Bergman rearrangement rates do not predict cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Laroche, Christophe; Li, Jing; Kerwin, Sean M

    2011-07-28

    A new class of potential antitumor agents inspired by the enediyne antitumor antibiotics has been synthesized: the 1,2-dialkynylimidazoles. The aza-Bergman rearrangement of these 1,2-dialkynylimidazoles has been investigated theoretically at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level and experimentally by measuring the kinetics of rearrangement in 1,4-cyclohexadiene. There is a good correlation between the theoretical and experimental results; subtle substituent effects on the initial aza-Bergman cyclization barrier predicted by theory are confirmed by experiment. Yet, despite the ability of these 1,2-dialkynylimidazoles to undergo Bergman rearrangement to diradical/carbene intermediates under relatively mild conditions, there is no correlation between the rate of Bergman cyclization and cytotoxicity to A459 cells. In addition, cytotoxic 1,2-dialkynylimidazoles do not cause nicking of supercoiled plasmid DNA or cleavage of bovine serum albumin. An alternative mechanism for cytotoxicity involving the unexpected selective thiol addition to the N-ethynyl group of certain 1,2-dialkynylimidazoles is proposed. PMID:21667990

  8. Excessive excretion of cyclic beta-(1,2)-glucan by Rhizobium trifolii TA-1.

    PubMed Central

    Breedveld, M W; Zevenhuizen, L P; Zehnder, A J

    1990-01-01

    At 25 degrees C, the optimal temperature for growth of Rhizobium trifolii TA-1, extracellular and capsular polysaccharide (EPS and CPS) were the main carbohydrate products synthesized in mannitol-rich medium (10 g of mannitol and 1 g of glutamic acid per liter). In the same medium at 33 degrees C, EPS and CPS production was inhibited, and up to 3.9 g of cyclic beta-(1,2)-glucan was produced during an incubation period of 20 days with a total biomass of 0.55 g of protein. In a medium containing 50 g of mannitol and 10 g of glutamic acid per liter, high cell densities (3.95 g of protein) were obtained at 25 degrees C. This biomass excreted 10.9 g of cyclic beta-(1,2)-glucan within 10 days. Concomitantly, 4.8 g of EPS were synthesized, while CPS production was strongly suppressed. The excreted cyclic beta-(1,2)-glucans were neutral and had degrees of polymerization ranging from 17 to 25, with a degree of polymerization of 19 as the major glucan cycle. PMID:2117876

  9. Ayurveda during Abbasid's period.

    PubMed

    Husain, S A; Subhaktha, P K

    2000-01-01

    This is a historical paper which deals with a brief account of Abbasid's period. In this article the existence of Ayurveda in Arab countries, arrival of Ayurvedic physicians to Baghdad, their eminence, authenticity and literary additions in medical field has been studied and presented. PMID:12578013

  10. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a woman to have a baby. During sexual intercourse, the egg can get fertilized by a male’s sperm and then attach to the lining of the uterus ( endometrium ) and grow into a baby. ( Read more about reproduction. ) Does your period come each month? top Menstrual ...

  11. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  12. Periods and Feynman integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, Christian; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2009-04-15

    We consider multiloop integrals in dimensional regularization and the corresponding Laurent series. We study the integral in the Euclidean region and where all ratios of invariants and masses have rational values. We prove that in this case all coefficients of the Laurent series are periods.

  13. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  14. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  15. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  16. Oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Tiago; Machado, Armando

    2009-06-01

    Three experiments examined behavior in extinction following periodic reinforcement. During the first phase of Experiment 1, four groups of pigeons were exposed to fixed interval (FI 16s or FI 48s) or variable interval (VI 16s or VI 48s) reinforcement schedules. Next, during the second phase, each session started with reinforcement trials and ended with an extinction segment. Experiment 2 was similar except that the extinction segment was considerably longer. Experiment 3 replaced the FI schedules with a peak procedure, with FI trials interspersed with non-food peak interval (PI) trials that were four times longer. One group of pigeons was exposed to FI 20s PI 80s trials, and another to FI 40s PI 160s trials. Results showed that, during the extinction segment, most pigeons trained with FI schedules, but not with VI schedules, displayed pause-peck oscillations with a period close to, but slightly greater than the FI parameter. These oscillations did not start immediately after the onset of extinction. Comparing the oscillations from Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that the alternation of reconditioning and re-extinction increases the reliability and earlier onset of the oscillations. In Experiment 3 the pigeons exhibited well-defined pause-peck cycles since the onset of extinction. These cycles had periods close to twice the value of the FI and lasted for long intervals of time. We discuss some hypotheses concerning the processes underlying behavioral oscillations following periodic reinforcement. PMID:18992793

  17. A 1.2--Millimeter Broad--Band Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Jason; Walker, Christopher K.; Young, Erick T.

    1996-05-01

    We describe a 1.2--millimeter polarimeter to be used on the Steward Observatory and Max--Planck--Institut fur Radioastronomie 10--meter Submillimeter Telescope Observatory. The construction, performance parameters, and scientific purpose of the instrument are presented. The detector is a Ge bolometer with a Si absorber operated in a cavity cooled to 0.36 K by a liquid He(3) refrigerator. The bandpass has a central wavelength of 1.2 mm and a width of 0.3 mm. The system noise equivalent power is 1.5*E(-14) W Hz(-{1/2}) at 20 Hz. Polarimetric modulation is accomplished with a room temperature, rotating Rexolite half-wave plate. Unidirectional grooves provide the lambda /2 phase shift between the orthogonal senses of polarization. The polarization analyzer is a stationary, room temperature, unidirectional wire grid that transmits only one sense of polarization with 99% efficiency. The system polarimetric efficiency is 87% and the laboratory instrumental polarization is a well defined 3.7%. Detection of a 1% linear polarization is possible at the several sigma level. The primary scientific goal of this instrument is to probe the magnetic field orientations in the protostellar dust cores of molecular clouds. Non--spherical dust grains are aligned in the presence of a magnetic field resulting in linear polarization of the far--infrared thermal dust emission perpendicular to the magnetic field vector. Observed field orientations will be compared to protostellar molecular outflow orientations and magnetic fields on larger scales. With these comparisons we will assess the role of magnetic fields in cloud collapse and star formation.

  18. Aerobic bioremediation of 1,2 dichloroethane and vinyl chloride at field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Gregory B.; Patterson, Bradley M.; Johnston, Colin D.

    2009-06-01

    Aerobic bioremediation of 1,2 dichloroethane (1,2 DCA) and vinyl chloride (VC) was evaluated at field scale in a layered, silty and fine-sand anaerobic aquifer. Maximum concentrations of 1,2 DCA (2 g/L) and VC (0.75 g/L) in groundwater were within 25% and 70% of pure compound solubility, respectively. Aerobic conditions were induced by injecting air into sparging wells screened 20.5-21.5 m below ground (17-18 m below the water table). Using a cycle of 23 h of air injection followed by three days of no air injection, fifty days of air injection were accumulated over a 12 month period which included some longer periods of operational shutdown. Oxygen and volatile organic compound probes, and multilevel samplers were used to determine changes of the primary contaminants and the associated inorganic chemistry at multiple locations and depths. Air (oxygen) was distributed laterally up to 25 m from the sparge points, with oxygen partial pressures up to 0.7 atmospheres (28-35 mg/L in groundwater) near to the sparge points. The dissolved mass of 1,2 DCA and VC was reduced by greater than 99% over the 590 m 2 trial plot. Significantly, pH declined from nearly 11 to less than 9, and sulfate concentrations increased dramatically, suggesting the occurrence of mineral sulfide (e.g., pyrite) oxidation. Chloride and bicarbonate (aerobic biodegradation by-products) concentration increases were used to estimate that 300-1000 kg of chlorinated hydrocarbons were biodegraded, although the ratio of 1,2 DCA to VC that was biodegraded remained uncertain. The mass biodegraded was comparable but less than the 400-1400 kg of chlorinated compounds removed from the aqueous phase within a 10,000 m 3 volume of the aquifer. Due to the likely presence of non-aqueous phase liquid, the relative proportion of volatilisation compared to biodegradation could not be determined. The aerobic biodegradation rates were greater than those previously estimated from laboratory-based studies.

  19. The Malaysian Class Reader Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raj, Devinder; Hunt, Brain

    1990-01-01

    Briefly describes reading standards in Malaysian schools, outlines a class reader program, and provides samples of teaching files designed to help teachers implement the program. (one reference. (GLR)

  20. Local structure, pseudosymmetry, and phase transitions in Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3-K1/2Bi1/2TiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, I.; Reaney, I. M.; Anton, E.-M.; Jo, Wook; Rödel, J.; Pokorny, J.; Schmitt, L. A.; Kleebe, H.-J.; Hinterstein, M.; Jones, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    The structural behavior of ceramic solid solutions (1-x)Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3-xK1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT-KBT) was studied using high-resolution powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. A temperature-independent morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) separating NBT-like pseudorhombohedral (R) and KBT-like pseudotetragonal (T) phases was observed at x ≈ 0.2. For x<0.2, both local and average room-temperature structures are similar to those in NBT. Simultaneous long-range antiphase and short-range in-phase octahedral rotations average, resulting in effective antiphase a-a-c- tilting, which yields monoclinic symmetry when probed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). For these compositions, polar ordering is coupled to antiphase octahedral rotations so that tilting and ferroelectric (FE) domains coincide. Compositions with x>0.2 exhibit a tetragonal-like distortion; however, complex splitting of reflections in XRD patterns suggests that the actual symmetry is lower than tetragonal. For 0.2≤x≤0.5, in-phase octahedral tilting a0b+a0 (or a+b0b0) is present but confined to the nanoscale, while for x>0.5 the structure becomes untilted. In-phase tilting evolves above the ferroelectric transition and occurs around a nonpolar (a or b) axis of the average T structure. The onset of polar order has no significant effect on the coherence length of in-phase tilting, which suggests only weak coupling between the two phenomena. The average symmetry of the T phase is determined by the effective symmetry (Imm2) of assemblages of coherent in-phase tilted nanodomains. Near the MPB, the coexistence of extended R- and T-like regions is observed, but lattice distortions within each phase are small, yielding narrow peaks with a pseudocubic appearance in XRD. The temperature of the FE phase transition exhibits a minimum at the MPB. The structured diffuse scattering observed in electron diffraction patterns for all the compositions suggests that polar order in NBT-KBT solid solutions is modulated away