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Sample records for 1-2 km thick

  1. Changes in single skinfold thickness in 100 km ultramarathoners

    PubMed Central

    Knechtle, Beat; Baumgartner, Sabrina; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Bescós, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in single skinfold thickness and body fat have been investigated in ultraswimmers and ultracyclists, but not in ultrarunners. The present study investigated the changes in single skinfold thickness during a 100 km ultramarathon. Methods Firstly, we investigated associations between prerace preparation and prerace body composition and, secondly, changes in single skinfold thickness during a 100 km ultramarathon in 219 male ultramarathoners. Changes in fat mass and skeletal muscle were estimated using anthropometric methods. Results Kilometers run weekly prerace and running speed during training were negatively associated with all skinfold thicknesses (P < 0.05) except for the front thigh skinfold. During the race, skinfold thickness at the pectoral (−0.1%), suprailiac (−1.8%), and calf (−0.8%) sites decreased (P < 0.05). The subjects lost 1.9 ± 1.4 kg of body mass (P < 0.001), 0.7 ± 1.0 kg of estimated skeletal muscle mass (P < 0.001), and 0.2 ± 1.3 kg of estimated fat mass (P < 0.05). The decrease in body mass was positively related to the decrease in both estimated skeletal muscle mass (r = 0.21, P = 0.0017) and estimated fat mass (r = 0.41, P < 0.0001). Conclusion Firstly, prerace fat mass and prerace skinfold thickness were associated with both volume and speed in running training. Secondly, during the ultramarathon, skinfold thickness decreased at the pectoral, suprailiac, and calf sites, but not at the thigh site. Percent decreases in skinfold thickness for ultrarunners was lower than the percent decreases in skinfold thickness reported for ultraswimmers and ultracyclists. PMID:24198597

  2. Faraday laser using 1.2 km fiber as an extended cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zhiming; Zhang, Xiaogang; Pan, Duo; Chen, Mo; Zhu, Chuanwen; Chen, Jingbiao

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate a Faraday laser using a 1.2 km fiber as an extended cavity, which provides optical feedback and obtains small free spectrum range (FSR) of 83 kHz, and have succeeded in limiting the laser frequency to a crossover transition {5}2{S}1/2,F=2\\to {5}2{P}3/2,F\\prime =1,3 of the natural 87Rb at 780 nm. The Faraday laser is based on a Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) with an ultra-narrow bandwidth and the long fiber extended cavity of 1.2 km. The peak transmission assigned to the crossover transition F=2\\to F\\prime =1,3 in the FADOF is 20.5% with an ultra-narrow bandwidth of 29.1 MHz. The Allan deviation of the Faraday laser is around 6.0× {10}-11 in 0.06 to 1 s sampling time. Laser frequency is always kept in the center of the transmitted peak assigned to F=2\\to F\\prime =1,3. The Faraday laser realized here can provide light exactly resonant with an atomic transition used for atom–photon interaction experiments and is insensitive to diode temperature and injection current fluctuations.

  3. Practical Point-to-Point Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution over 1/2 KM

    SciTech Connect

    Buttler, W.T.; Hughes, R.J.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Morgan, G.L.; Peterson, C.G.

    1999-02-01

    We have demonstrated point-to-point single-photon quantum key distribution (QKD) over a free-space optical path of {approximately}475 m under daylight conditions. This represents an increase of >1,000 times farther than any reported point-to-point demonstration, and >6 times farther than the previous folded path daylight demonstration. We expect to extend the daylight range to 2 km or more within the next few months. A brief description of the system is given here. The QKD transmitter, a.k.a. ''Alice'' (Fig. 1), consists of three thermoelectrically cooled diode lasers, a single interference filter (IF), two optical attenuators, two linear polarizers, two non-polarization beam-splitters (BSs), and a 27x beam expander. The two data-lasers' (dim-lasers') wavelengths are temperature controlled and constrained by the IF to {approximately}773 {+-} 0.5 nm, while the transmitted wavelength of the bright-laser (timing-laser) is {approximately}768 nm; the data-lasers are configured to emit a weak pulse of approximately 1 ns duration. The transmitter incorporates no active polarization switching--a first in QKD.

  4. An improved plate theory of order (1,2) for thick composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tessler, A.

    1992-01-01

    A new (1,2)-order theory is proposed for the linear elasto-static analysis of laminated composite plates. The basic assumptions are those concerning the distribution through the laminate thickness of the displacements, transverse shear strains and the transverse normal stress, with these quantities regarded as some weighted averages of their exact elasticity theory representations. The displacement expansions are linear for the inplane components and quadratic for the transverse component, whereas the transverse shear strains and transverse normal stress are respectively quadratic and cubic through the thickness. The main distinguishing feature of the theory is that all strain and stress components are expressed in terms of the assumed displacements prior to the application of a variational principle. This is accomplished by an a priori least-square compatibility requirement for the transverse strains and by requiring exact stress boundary conditions at the top and bottom plate surfaces. Equations of equilibrium and associated Poisson boundary conditions are derived from the virtual work principle. It is shown that the theory is particularly suited for finite element discretization as it requires simple C(sup 0)- and C(sup -1)-continuous displacement interpolation fields. Analytic solutions for the problem of cylindrical bending are derived and compared with the exact elasticity solutions and those of our earlier (1,2)-order theory based on the assumed displacements and transverse strains.

  5. Three-dimensional structure and origin of a 1.8 km thick ice dome within Korolev Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, T. Charles; Holt, John W.

    2016-02-01

    Korolev is an 80 km diameter impact crater located at 72.7°N, 164.5°E containing a large domed deposit. Perennial water ice is thought to be currently unstable there; however, using a 3-D analysis of the dome's internal radar stratigraphy, we estimate that Korolev's central mound contains between 1400 and 3500 km3 of water ice that is up to 1.8 km thick. Furthermore, the stratigraphic structure of this ice dome is strikingly similar to the north polar layered deposits (NPLD) on Planum Boreum, approximately 600 km to the north. Additionally, our stratigraphic analysis suggests that Korolev ice was not previously part of a once larger polar ice sheet but rather it was deposited locally. We conclude that Korolev Crater's ice likely deposited during the same climate regime as Planum Boreum's NPLD, but independently. This implies that the incorporation of circumpolar ice deposits such as Korolev may prove useful in reconstructing a unique Mars polar climate history.

  6. Signaling through ERK1/2 controls myelin thickness during myelin repair in the adult central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Fyffe-Maricich, Sharyl L; Schott, Alexandra; Karl, Molly; Krasno, Janet; Miller, Robert H

    2013-11-20

    Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells of the CNS, exquisitely tailor the thickness of individual myelin sheaths to the diameter of their target axons to maximize the speed of action potential propagation, thus ensuring proper neuronal connectivity and function. Following demyelinating injuries to the adult CNS, newly formed oligodendrocytes frequently generate new myelin sheaths. Following episodes of demyelination such as those that occur in patients with multiple sclerosis, however, the matching of myelin thickness to axon diameter fails leaving remyelinated axons with thin myelin sheaths potentially compromising function and leaving axons vulnerable to damage. How oligodendrocytes determine the appropriate thickness of myelin for an axon of defined size during repair is unknown and identifying the signals that regulate myelin thickness has obvious therapeutic implications. Here, we show that sustained activation of extracellular-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in oligodendrocyte lineage cells results in accelerated myelin repair after injury, and is sufficient for the generation of thick myelin sheaths around remyelinated axons in the adult mouse spinal cord. Our findings suggest a model where ERK1/2 MAP kinase signaling acts as a myelin thickness rheostat that instructs oligodendrocytes to generate axon-appropriate quantities of myelin. PMID:24259565

  7. A {1,2}-Order Plate Theory Accounting for Three-Dimensional Thermoelastic Deformations in Thick Composite and Sandwich Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tessler, A.; Annett, M. S.; Gendron, G.

    2001-01-01

    A {1,2}-order theory for laminated composite and sandwich plates is extended to include thermoelastic effects. The theory incorporates all three-dimensional strains and stresses. Mixed-field assumptions are introduced which include linear in-plane displacements, parabolic transverse displacement and shear strains, and a cubic distribution of the transverse normal stress. Least squares strain compatibility conditions and exact traction boundary conditions are enforced to yield higher polynomial degree distributions for the transverse shear strains and transverse normal stress through the plate thickness. The principle of virtual work is used to derive a 10th-order system of equilibrium equations and associated Poisson boundary conditions. The predictive capability of the theory is demonstrated using a closed-form analytic solution for a simply-supported rectangular plate subjected to a linearly varying temperature field across the thickness. Several thin and moderately thick laminated composite and sandwich plates are analyzed. Numerical comparisons are made with corresponding solutions of the first-order shear deformation theory and three-dimensional elasticity theory. These results, which closely approximate the three-dimensional elasticity solutions, demonstrate that through - the - thickness deformations even in relatively thin and, especially in thick. composite and sandwich laminates can be significant under severe thermal gradients. The {1,2}-order kinematic assumptions insure an overall accurate theory that is in general superior and, in some cases, equivalent to the first-order theory.

  8. High cesium concentrations in groundwater in the upper 1.2 km of fractured crystalline rock - Influence of groundwater origin and secondary minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathurin, Frédéric A.; Drake, Henrik; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Berger, Tobias; Peltola, Pasi; Kalinowski, Birgitta E.; Åström, Mats E.

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved and solid phase cesium (Cs) was studied in the upper 1.2 km of a coastal granitoid fracture network on the Baltic Shield (Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory and Laxemar area, SE Sweden). There unusually high Cs concentrations (up to 5-6 μg L-1) occur in the low-temperature (<20 °C) groundwater. The material includes water collected in earlier hydrochemical monitoring programs and secondary precipitates (fracture coatings) collected on the fracture walls, as follows: (a) hydraulically pristine fracture groundwater sampled through 23 surface boreholes equipped for the retrieval of representative groundwater at controlled depths (Laxemar area), (b) fracture groundwater affected by artificial drainage collected through 80 boreholes drilled mostly along the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (underground research facility), (c) surface water collected in local streams, a lake and sea bay, and shallow groundwater collected in 8 regolith boreholes, and (d) 84 new specimens of fracture coatings sampled in cores from the Äspö HRL and Laxemar areas. The groundwater in each area is different, which affects Cs concentrations. The highest Cs concentrations occurred in deep-seated saline groundwater (median Äspö HRL: 4.1 μg L-1; median Laxemar: 3.7 μg L-1) and groundwater with marine origin (Äspö HRL: 4.2 μg L-1). Overall lower, but variable, Cs concentrations were found in other types of groundwater. The similar concentrations of Cs in the saline groundwater, which had a residence time in the order of millions of years, and in the marine groundwater, which had residence times in the order of years, shows that duration of water-rock interactions is not the single and primary control of dissolved Cs in these systems. The high Cs concentrations in the saline groundwater is ascribed to long-term weathering of minerals, primarily Cs-enriched fracture coatings dominated by illite and mixed-layer clays and possibly wall rock micaceous minerals. The high Cs concentrations in the

  9. Tension strength of a thick graphite/epoxy laminate after impact by a 1/2-in. radius impactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, C. C., Jr.; Illg, W.; Garber, D. P.

    1986-01-01

    NASA is developing graphite/epoxy filament-wound cases for solid rocket motors of the space shuttle. They are wet-wound with AS4W graphite fiber and HBRF-55A epoxy. The membrane region is about 1.4 inches thick. Two 30-inch-diameter by 12-inch-long cylinders were impacted every two inches of circumference with 1/2-inch radius impactors that were dropped from various heights. One cylinder was empty and the other was filled with inert propellant. Two-inch-wide test specimens were cut from the cylinders. Each was centered on an impact site. The specimens were x-rayed and loaded to failure in uniaxial tension. Rigid body mechanics and the Hertz law were used to predict impact force, local deformations, contact diameters, and contact pressures. The depth of impact damage was predicted using Love's solution for pressure applied on part of the boundary of a semi-infinite body. The predictions were reasonably good. The strengths of the impacted specimens were reduced by as much as 37 percent without visible surface damage. Even the radiographs did not reveal the nonvisible damage.

  10. Localization and quasilocalization of a spin-1 /2 fermion field on a two-field thick braneworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Heng; Xie, Qun-Ying; Fu, Chun-E.

    2015-11-01

    Localization of a spin-1 /2 fermion on the braneworld is an important and interesting problem. It is well known that a five-dimensional free massless fermion Ψ minimally coupled to gravity cannot be localized on the Randall-Sundrum braneworld. In order to trap such a fermion, the coupling between the fermion and bulk scalar fields should be introduced. In this paper, localization and quasilocalization of a bulk fermion on the thick braneworld generated by two scalar fields (a kink scalar ϕ and a dilaton scalar π ) are investigated. Two types of couplings between the fermion and two scalars are considered. One coupling is the usual Yukawa coupling -η Ψ ¯ϕ Ψ between the fermion and kink scalar, another one is λ Ψ ¯ΓM∂Mπ γ5Ψ between the fermion and dilaton scalar. The left-chiral fermion zero mode can be localized on the brane, and both the left- and right-chiral fermion massive Kaluza-Klein modes may be localized or quasilocalized. Hence the four-dimensional massless left-chiral fermion and massive Dirac fermions, whose lifetime is infinite or finite, can be obtained on the brane.

  11. Implications for generating an ERS1/2-ICESat-Cryosat-ICESat-2 time series of sea ice thickness change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markus, T.; Neumann, T.; Kwok, R.; Laxon, S.

    2012-12-01

    Radar and laser altimetry data from ERS-1 and ICESat provided the first basin-scale estimates of sea ice thickness and are considered the cornerstone of sea ice thickness retrievals from space. Neither mission had the retrieval of sea ice measurements listed in their requirements. Since then ESA and NASA have been developing a new generation of those measurement concepts with Cryosat (launched in April 2010) and ICESat-2 (scheduled for launch in 2016), and extracting information of sea ice thickness is an integral part of those missions. Furthermore, IceBridge, an airborne campaign to bridge the data gap between ICESat and ICESat-2, is collecting data with various instruments along transects across the Arctic Ocean every March/April since 2009; some transects are aligned with ICESat as well as with Cryosat ground tracks. While all those instruments have shown to be able (or are expected to be able, in the case of ICESat-2) to extract sea ice thickness, the physical principles behind those measurements are different, their spatial and temporal coverage is different, and their spatial resolutions are different. This results in different uncertanties and errors for Arctic-wide sea ice thickness estimates. The talk will discuss the those uncertainties and errors and how those need to be accounted for when deriving a long-term data set of sea ice thickness.

  12. Open-System Magma Reservoir Affects Gas Segregation, Vesiculation, Fragmentation and Lava/Pyroclast Dispersal During the 1.2 km-deep 2007-2010 Submarine Eruption at West Mata Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, K. H.; Clague, D. A.; Embley, R. W.; Hellebrand, E.; Soule, S. A.; Resing, J.

    2014-12-01

    West Mata, a small, active rear-arc volcano in the NE Lau Basin, erupts crystal and gas rich boninite magma. Eruptions were observed at the summit (1.2 km water depth) during 5 ROV Jason dives in 2009 (the deepest erupting submarine volcano observed to date). Subsequent ROV and ship-based bathymetric mapping revealed that a pit crater formed and the summit eruption ceased in 2010, with roughly simultaneous eruptions along the SW rift zone. During the summit eruption, a combination of water depth, H2O-CO2-rich and high crystallinity magma, a split in the conduit to feed two vent sites, and waxing/waning magma supply led to a range of effusive/explosive eruption styles and volcanic deposit types. The 2-3 vent Hades cluster and the lone Prometheus vent had different eruption characteristics. Petrographic, petrologic and geochemical studies of erupted products indicate a change in magma composition in time and space over a period of 3.5 yrs, suggesting a small, open-system magma reservoir within the volcano. Prometheus (1174m depth) produced mostly pyroclastic material during our observations (e.g., highly vesicular glowing fluidal ejecta that cooled in the water column and rounded recycled dense clasts), but sampling and 210Po radiometric dating show that several months prior pillowed lava flows, subsequently covered with cm-sized pyroclasts, had flowed >50m from the vent. In contrast, vents at Hades (1200m depth) cycled between lava production and vigorous degassing, 10-20m high fire fountains and bursts of glowing lava-skinned bubbles, the products of which froze/broke in the water column, forming unstable cones of spatter and scoria near the vents. We hypothesize that bubbles collapse rather than form lava balloons because of skin brittleness (from high crystal content) and hydrostatic pressure. Clast settling times and patterns suggest >100m water column rise height for 10+ cm-sized fragments. Pillow flows were also observed to be issuing from the base of the

  13. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the <300 km wide and <6 km thick western Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the <150 km wide and ~15 km thick Fitzroy Trough of the eastern Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (β<2.0) followed by negligible post-rift thermal subsidence. These features cannot be readily explained by the established model of rift basin development. We attribute the difference in basin architecture between the western and eastern Canning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic

  14. KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, M.

    2015-07-01

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure, that will consist of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective of KM3NeT is the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe. A further physics perspective is the measurement of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. A corresponding study, ORCA, is ongoing within KM3NeT. A cost effective technology for (very) large water Cherenkov detectors has been developed based on a new generation of low price 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes. Following the successful deployment and operation of two prototypes, the construction of the KM3NeT research infrastructure has started. The prospects of the different phases of the implementation of KM3NeT are summarised.

  15. KM3NeT

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, M. de; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2015-07-15

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure, that will consist of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective of KM3NeT is the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe. A further physics perspective is the measurement of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. A corresponding study, ORCA, is ongoing within KM3NeT. A cost effective technology for (very) large water Cherenkov detectors has been developed based on a new generation of low price 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes. Following the successful deployment and operation of two prototypes, the construction of the KM3NeT research infrastructure has started. The prospects of the different phases of the implementation of KM3NeT are summarised.

  16. Imaging Resolution of the 410-km and 660-km Discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, K.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Structure of seismic discontinuities at depths of about 410 km and 660 km provides important constraints on mantle convection as the associated phase transformations in the transition zone are sensitive to thermal perturbations. Teleseismic P-to-S receiver functions have been widely used to map the depths of the two discontinuities. In this study, we investigate the resolution of receiver functions in imaging topographic variations of the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities based on wave propagation simulations using the Spectral Element Method (SEM). We investigate finite-frequency effects of direct P waves as well as P-to-S converted waves by varying the length scale of discontinuity topography in the transition zone. We show that wavefront healing effects are significant in broadband receiver functions. For example, at a period of 10 to 20 seconds, the arrival anomaly in P-to-S converted waves is about 50% of what predicted by ray theory when the topography length scale is in the order of 400 km. The observed arrival anomaly further reduces to 10-20% when the topography length scale reduces to about 200 km. We calculate 2-D boundary sensitivity kernels for direct P waves as well as receiver functions based on surface wave mode summation and confirm that finite frequency-effects can be properly accounted for. Three-dimensional wavespeed structure beneath seismic stations can also introduce significant artifacts in transition zone discontinuity topography if time corrections are not applied, and, the effects are dependent on frequency.

  17. Knob manager (KM) operators guide

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-08

    KM, Knob Manager, is a tool which enables the user to use the SUNDIALS knob box to adjust the settings of the control system. The followings are some features of KM: dynamic knob assignments with the user friendly interface; user-defined gain for individual knob; graphical displays for operating range and status of each process variable is assigned; backup and restore one or multiple process variable; save current settings to a file and recall the settings from that file in future.

  18. Whipple bumper shield tests at over 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Hertel, E.S. ); Hill, S.A. . George C. Marshall Space Flight Center)

    1991-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed on the the Sandia HyperVelocity Launcher (HVL) to evaluate the effectiveness of a thin Whipple bumper shield at impact velocities up to 10.5 km/s by orbital space debris. Upon impact by an 0.67gm (0.87 mm thick) flier plate the thin aluminum bumper shield completely disintegrates into a debris cloud. The debris cloud front propagates axially at velocities in excess of 14 km/s and expands radially at a velocity of {approximately}7 km/s. Subsequent loading on a 3.2 mm thick aluminum substructure by the debris cloud penetrates the substructure completely. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Thick Toenails

    MedlinePlus

    ... be seen in individuals with nail fungus (onychomycosis), psoriasis, and hypothyroidism. Those who have problems with the thickness of their toenails should consult a foot and ankle surgeon for proper diagnosis and treatment. and or or and or or, browse by ...

  20. Furrow Topography and the Elastic Thickness of Ganymede's Dark Terrain Lithosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappalardo, Robert T.; Nimmo, Francis; Giese, Bernd; Bader, Christina E.; DeRemer, Lindsay C.; Prockter, Louise M.

    2003-01-01

    The effective elastic thickness of Ganymede's lithosphere tell of the satellite's thermal evolution through time. Generally it has been inferred that dark terrain, which is less tectonically deformed than grooved terrain, represents regions of cooler and thicker lithosphere [1]. The ancient dark terrain is cut by furrows, tectonic troughs about 5 to 20 km in width, which may have formed in response to large ancient impacts [1, 2]. We have applied the methods of [3] to estimate effective elastic thickness based on topographic profiles across tectonic furrows, extracted from a stereo-derived digital elevation model (DEM) of dark terrain in Galileo Regio [4]. Asymmetry in furrow topography and inferred flexure suggests asymmetric furrow fault geometry. We find effective elastic thicknesses 0.4 km, similar to analyzed areas alongside bright grooved terrain. Data and Analysis: A broken-plate elastic model.

  1. 1,2-Dichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichloropropane ; CASRN 78 - 87 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  2. 1,2-Dichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichloroethane ; CASRN 107 - 06 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  3. 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Diphenylhydrazine ; CASRN 122 - 66 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  4. 1,2-Dichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 50 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  5. 1,2-Dibromoethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dibromoethane ; CASRN 106 - 93 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  6. Detection of the structure near the 410 km and 660 km discontinuities in Japan subduction zone from the waveform triplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, H.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Slab subduction plays an important role in the mantle material circulation [Stern, 2002], and can also affect the feature of the 410 km and 660 km seismic discontinuities (410 and 660) [Lebedev et al., 2002]. Japan subduction zone is a natural laboratory for studying the mantle composition and velocity structure associated with the deep subduction of the Pacific plate. In this study, triplicated waveforms of an intermediate-depth earthquake at the Hokkaido of Japan (2011/10/21, 08:02:37.62, 142.5315°E, 43.8729°N, Mb6.0, relocated depth: 188 km) are retrieved from the dense Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN). P and S waveforms are filtered with the band of 0.05-1.0 Hz and 0.02-0.5 Hz, respectively, and then integrated into the displacement data. The relative traveltime and synthetic waveform fitting is applied to mapping the deep structure. The best fitting models are obtained through the trial and error tests. We find a 15 km uplift of the 410 and a 25 km depression of the 660, indicating the cold environment caused by the subduction slab; both the 410 and 660 show the sharp discontinuity, but a smaller velocity contrast than the IASP91 model [Kennett and Engdahl, 1991]. Atop the 410 and 660, there are high-velocity layers associated with the subduction (or stagnant) slab. We also find a low-velocity anomaly with the thickness of ~65 km below the 660, which may relate to the slab dehydration or the hot upwelling at the top of the lower mantle. The seismic velocity ratio (VP/VS) shows a lower zone at the depth of ~210-395 km, showing the consistency with the low Poisson's ratio signature of the oceanic plate; a higher zone at the depth of ~560-685 km, implying the hydrous mantle transition zone.

  7. The KM3NeT Digital Optical Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivolo, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a European deep-sea multidisciplinary research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea. It will host a km3-scale neutrino telescope and dedicated instruments for long-term and continuous measurements for Earth and Sea sciences. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope is a 3-dimensional array of Digital Optical Modules, suspended in the sea by means of vertical string structures, called Detection Units, supported by two pre-stretched Dyneema ropes, anchored to the seabed and kept taut with a system of buoys. The Digital Optical Module represents the active part of the neutrino telescope. It is composed by a 17-inch, 14 mm thick borosilicate glass (Vitrovex) spheric vessel housing 31 photomultiplier tubes with 3-inch photocathode diameter and the associated front-end and readout electronics. The technical solution adopted for the KM3NeT optical modules is characterized by an innovative design, considering that existing neutrino telescopes, Baikal, IceCube and ANTARES, all use large photomultipliers, typically with a diameter of 8″ or 10″. It offers several advantages: higher sensitive surface (1260 cm2), weaker sensitivity to Earth's magnetic field, better distinction between single-photon and multi-photon events (photon counting) and directional information with an almost isotropic field of view. In this contribution the design and the performance of the KM3NeT Digital Optical Modules are discussed, with a particular focus on enabling technologies and integration procedure.

  8. How thick are lunar mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, F.

    1978-01-01

    It is argued that De Hon's estimates of the thickness of lunar mare basalts, made by analyzing 'ghost' craters on mare surfaces, were inflated as the result of the crater morphometric data of Pike (1977) to reconstruct rim heights of degraded craters. Crater rim heights of 82 randomly selected highland craters of various states of degradation were determined, and median rim height was compared to that of corresponding fresh impact structures. Results indicate that the thickness estimates of De Hon may be reduced by a factor of 2, and that the total volume of mare basalt produced throughout lunar history could be as little as 1-2 million cubic kilometers. A survey of geochemical and petrographic evidence indicates that lateral transport of regolith components over distances of much greater than 10 km is relatively inefficient; it is suggested that vertical mixing of a highland substrate underlying the basaltic fill may have had a primordial role in generating the observed mare width distributions and high concentrations of exotic components in intrabasin regoliths.

  9. Analysis of sex differences in open-water ultra-distance swimming performances in the FINA World Cup races in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km from 2000 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study investigated the changes in swimming speeds and sex differences for elite male and female swimmers competing in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km open-water FINA World Cup races held between 2000 and 2012. Methods The changes in swimming speeds and sex differences across years were analysed using linear, non-linear, and multi-level regression analyses for the annual fastest and the annual ten fastest competitors. Results For the annual fastest, swimming speed remained stable for men and women in 5 km (5.50 ± 0.21 and 5.08 ± 0.19 km/h, respectively), in 10 km (5.38 ± 0.21 and 5.05 ± 0.26 km/h, respectively) and in 25 km (5.03 ± 0.32 and 4.58 ± 0.27 km/h, respectively). In the annual ten fastest, swimming speed remained constant in 5 km in women (5.02 ± 0.19 km/h) but decreased significantly and linearly in men from 5.42 ± 0.03 km/h to 5.39 ± 0.02 km/h. In 10 km, swimming speed increased significantly and linearly in women from 4.75 ± 0.01 km/h to 5.74 ± 0.01 km/h but remained stable in men at 5.36 ± 0.21 km/h. In 25 km, swimming speed decreased significantly and linearly in women from 4.60 ± 0.06 km/h to 4.44 ± 0.08 km/h but remained unchanged at 4.93 ± 0.34 km/h in men. For the annual fastest, the sex difference in swimming speed remained unchanged in 5 km (7.6 ± 3.0%), 10 km (6.1 ± 2.5%) and 25 km (9.0 ± 3.7%). For the annual ten fastest, the sex difference remained stable in 5 km at 7.6 ± 0.6%, decreased significantly and linearly in 10 km from 7.7 ± 0.7% to 1.2 ± 0.3% and increased significantly and linearly from 4.7 ± 1.4% to 9.6 ± 1.5% in 25 km. Conclusions To summarize, elite female open-water ultra-distance swimmers improved in 10 km but impaired in 25 km leading to a linear decrease in sex difference in 10 km and a linear increase in sex difference in 25 km. The linear changes in sex differences

  10. Neutral Wind Observations below 200 km altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, S.; Abe, T.; Habu, H.; Kakinami, Y.; Larsen, M. F.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Yamamoto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Neutral Wind Observations below 200 km altitudesS. Watanabe1, T. Abe2, H. Habu2, Y. Kakinami3, M. Larsen4, R. Pfaff5, M. Yamamoto6, M-Y. Yamamoto31Hokkaido University/Hokkaido Information University, 2JAXA/ISAS, 3Kochi University of Technology, 4Clemson University, 5NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, 6Kyoto University, Neutral wind in the thermosphere is one of the key parameters to understand the ionosphere-thermosphere coupling process. JAXA/ISAS successfully launched sounding rockets from Uchinoura Space Center (USC) on September 2, 2007, January 12, 2012, and July 20, 2013, and NASA launched sounding rockets from Kwajalein on May 7, 2013 and from Wallops on July 4, 2013. The rockets installed Lithium and/or TMA canisters as well as instruments for plasma and electric and magnetic fields. The atomic Lithium gases were released at altitudes between 150 km and 300 km in the evening on September 2, 2007, at altitude of ~100 km in the morning on January 12, 2012, at altitude of ~120km in the midnight on July 20, 2013, at altitude between 150 km and 300 km in the evening on May 7, 2013 and at altitude of ~150 km in the noon on July 4, 2013. The Lithium atoms were scattering sunlight by resonance scattering with wavelength of 670nm. However, the Lithium atoms scattered moon light on July 20, 2013. The moon light scattering is the first time to use for thermospheric wind measurement in the midnight. The Lithium clouds/trails and TMA trails showed clearly the neutral wind shears and atmospheric waves at ~150 km altitude in the lower thermosphere for all local time.

  11. News from KM3NeT

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Ulrich F.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea, hosting a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and nodes for Earth and Sea sciences. In this report we shortly summarise the genesis of the KM3NeT project and present key elements of its technical design. The physics objectives of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope and some selected sensitivity estimates are discussed. Finally, some first results from prototype operations and the next steps towards implementation – in particular the first construction phase in 2014/15 – are described.

  12. Status of KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccobene, G.

    2016-07-01

    The recent observation of cosmic neutrinos by IceCube has pushed the quest towards the identification of cosmic sources of high-energy particles. The KM3NeT Collaboration is now ready to launch the massive construction of detection units to be installed in deep sea to build a km-cubic size neutrino telescope. The main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected perfomances are briefly reported.

  13. Origins of the 520-km discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnik, Lev

    2016-04-01

    The 520-km discontinuity is often explained by the phase transition from wadsleyite to ringwoodite, although the theoretical impedance of this transition is so small that the related converted and reflected seismic phases could hardly be seen in the seismograms. At the same time there are numerous reports on observations of a large discontinuity at this depth, especially in the data on SS precursors and P-wave wide-angle reflections. Revenaugh and Jordan (1991) argued that this discontinuity is related to the garnet/post-garnet transformation. Gu et al. (1998) preferred very deep continental roots extending into the transition zone. Deuss and Woodhouse proposed splitting of the 520-km discontinuity into two discontinuities, whilst Bock (1994) denied evidence of the 520-km discontinuity in the SS precursors. Our approach to this problem is based on the analysis of S and P receiver functions. Most of our data are related to hot-spots in and around the Atlantic where the appropriate converted phases are often comparable in amplitude with P410s and S410p. Both S and P receiver functions provide strong evidence of a low S velocity in a depth range from 450 km to 510 km at some locations. The 520-km discontinuity appears to be the base of this low-velocity layer. Our observations of the low S velocity in the upper transition zone are very consistent with the indications of a drop in the solidus temperature of carbonated peridotite in the same pressure range (Keshav et al. 2011), and this phenomenon provides a viable alternative to the other explanations of the 520-km discontinuity.

  14. Km3Net Italy - Seafloor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaleo, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT European project aims to construct a large volume underwater neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. INFN and KM3NeT collaboration, thanks to a dedicated funding of 21.000.000 € (PON 2007-2013), are committed to build and deploy the Phase 1 of the telescope, composed of a network of detection units: 8 towers, equipped with single photomultiplier optical modules, and 24 strings, equipped with multi-photomultipliers optical modules. All the towers and strings are connected to the main electro optical cable by means of a network of junction boxes and electro optical interlink cables. Each junction box is an active node able to provide all the necessary power to the detection units and to guarantee the data transmission between the detector and the on-shore control station. The KM3NeT Italia project foresees the realization and the installation of the first part of the deep sea network, composed of three junction boxes, one for the towers and two for the strings. In July 2015, two junction boxes have been deployed and connected to the new cable termination frame installed during the same sea campaign. The third and last one will be installed in November 2015. The status of the deep sea network is presented together with technical details of the project.

  15. Large Circular Basin - 1300-km diameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Close-up view of one-half of a 1300-km diameter circular basin the largest observed on Mercury. The other half is hidden beyond the terminator to the left. Hills and valleys extend in a radial fashion outward from the main ring. Interior of the large basin is completely flooded by plains materials; adjacent lowlands are also partially flooded and superimposed on the plains are bowl shaped craters. Wrinkle ridges are abundant on the plains materials. The area shown is 1008 miles (1600 km) from the top to the bottom of the picture. Sun's illumination is from the right. Blurred linear lines extending across the picture near bottom are missing data lines that have been filled in by the computer. Mariner 10 encountered Mercury on Friday, March 29th, 1974, passing the planet on the darkside 431 miles (690-km) from the surface.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    NOTE: This image was scanned from physical media.

  16. Towards a 1km resolution global flood risk model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Paul; Neal, Jeff; Sampson, Chris; Smith, Andy

    2014-05-01

    Recent advances in computationally efficient numerical algorithms and new High Performance Computing architectures now make high (1-2km) resolution global hydrodynamic models a realistic proposition. However in many areas of the world the data sets and tools necessary to undertake such modelling do not currently exist. In particular, five major problems need to be resolved: (1) the best globally available terrain data (SRTM) was generated from X-band interferometric radar data which does not penetrate vegetation canopies and which has significant problems in determining ground elevations in urban areas; (2) a global river bathymetry data set does not currently exist; (3) most river channels globally are less than the smallest currently resolvable grid scale (1km) and therefore require a sub-grid treatment; (4) a means to estimate the magnitude of the T year flood at any point along the global river network does not currently exist; and (5) a large proportion of flood losses are generated by off-floodplain surface water flows which are not well represented in current hydrodynamic modelling systems. In this paper we propose solutions to each of these five issues as part of a concerted effort to develop a 1km (or better) resolution global flood hazard model. We describe the new numerical algorithms, computer architectures and computational resources used, and demonstrate solutions to the five previously intractable problems identified above. We conduct a validation study of the modelling against satellite imagery of major flooding on the Mississippi-Missouri confluence plain in the central USA before outlining a proof-of-concept regional study for SE Asia as a step towards a global scale model. For SE Asia we simulate flood hazard for ten different flood return periods over the entire Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia and Laos region at 1km resolution and show that the modelling produces coherent, consistent and sensible simulations of extent and water depth.

  17. Saqqar: A 34 km diameter impact structure in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, Thomas; Afifi, Abdulkader M.; Stewart, Simon A.; Poelchau, Michael H.; Cook, Douglas J.; Neville, Allen S.

    2015-11-01

    Here we present the first proof of an impact origin for the Saqqar circular structure in northwestern Saudi Arabia (Neville et al. ), with an apparent diameter of 34 km, centered at 29°35'N, 38°42'E. The structure is formed in Cambrian-Devonian siliciclastics and is unconformably overlain by undeformed Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments. The age of impact is not well constrained and lies somewhere between 410 and 70 Ma. The subsurface structure is constrained by 2-D reflection seismic profiles and six drilled wells. First-order structural features are a central uplift that rises approximately 2 km above regional datums, surrounded by a ring syncline. The crater rim is defined by circumferential normal faults. The central uplift and ring syncline correspond to a Bouguer gravity high and an annular ring-like low, respectively. The wells were drilled within the central uplift, the deepest among them exceed 2 km depth. Sandstone core samples from these wells show abundant indicators of a shock metamorphic overprint. Planar deformation features (PDFs) were measured with orientations along (0001), {101¯3}, and less frequently along {101¯1} and {101¯4}. Planar fractures (PFs) predominantly occur along (0001) and {101¯1}, and are locally associated with feather features (FFs). In addition, some shocked feldspar grains and strongly deformed mica flakes were found. The recorded shock pressure ranges between 5 and 15 GPa. The preserved level of shock and the absence of an allochthonous crater fill suggest that Saqqar was eroded by 1-2 km between the Devonian and Maastrichtian. The documentation of unequivocal shock features proves the formation of the Saqqar structure by a hypervelocity impact event.

  18. Global anisotropy and the thickness of continents.

    PubMed

    Gung, Yuancheng; Panning, Mark; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2003-04-17

    For decades there has been a vigorous debate about the depth extent of continental roots. The analysis of heat-flow, mantle-xenolith and electrical-conductivity data all indicate that the coherent, conductive part of continental roots (the 'tectosphere') is at most 200-250 km thick. Some global seismic tomographic models agree with this estimate, but others suggest that a much thicker zone of high velocities lies beneath continental shields, reaching a depth of at least 400 km. Here we show that this disagreement can be reconciled by taking into account seismic anisotropy. We show that significant radial anisotropy, with horizontally polarized shear waves travelling faster than those that are vertically polarized, is present under most cratons in the depth range 250-400 km--similar to that found under ocean basins at shallower depths of 80-250 km. We propose that, in both cases, the anisotropy is related to shear in a low-viscosity asthenospheric channel, located at different depths under continents and oceans. The seismically defined 'tectosphere' is then at most 200-250 km thick under old continents. The 'Lehmann discontinuity', observed mostly under continents at about 200-250 km, and the 'Gutenberg discontinuity', observed under oceans at depths of about 60-80 km, may both be associated with the bottom of the lithosphere, marking a transition to flow-induced asthenospheric anisotropy. PMID:12700758

  19. A Chemical Abundance Analysis of Stars Believed to be Metal Poor Members of the Galactic Stellar Thick Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmerer, Jennifer Ann

    Galactic formation models have long sought to reproduce the observed chemical and kinematical properties of the Milky Way's stellar halo and disk. Recently it is the so-called ``intermediate population'', the stellarthick disk, that is driving advances in our understanding of the formation of spiral galaxies. The thick disk is kinematically more like the thin disk than the halo, for all the thick disk has a velocity dispersion twice that of the thin diskand rotates ~40 km/s more slowly. It is generally accepted that the thick disk's metallicity distribution function peaks at a lower metallicity than the thin disk but at higher metallicity than the halo. The lower bound of the thick disk is still uncertain, as many observational studies have found only a few thick disk candidate. stars or clusters that are more metal poor than [Fe/H]=--1. Beers et al. (2002) have so far proposed the largest sample of metal poor thick disk. candidates, presenting 9 stars at [Fe/H]=-1.2 or lower and 46 more stars at [Fe/H]=-1 or lower, all of which are believed to belong to the thick disk. Beers et al. (2002) present possible thick disk stars as metal poor as [Fe/H]~ -2.5, roughly 1 dex lower than is suggested by current Galactic formation models (Brook et al., 2005). This study is a high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up of 29 of the stars Beers et al. (2002) and Chiba & Beers (2000) identify as potiential metal poor members of the thick disk and an additional 40 stars from the cannonical thick disk, halo, and thin disk. None of the very metal-poor stars identified by Beers et al. (2002) can be confirmed as members of the thick disk and many are not metal poor at all. Only two stars more metal poor than [Fe/H]=--1.2 retain their thick disk membership. These two stars exhibit some of the. chemical characteristics of the cannonical thick disk: high alpha-element abundances and a relatively low s-/r- process element ratio. Also of interest are. six stars with thin disk kinematic

  20. The model of lithospheric thickness beneath China from gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Ravat, D.

    2015-12-01

    We compare estimates of lithospheric thickness from several studies in China and examine whether the available gravity field anomalies can constrain these estimates. Ma (1987) suggested based on integrated geophysics that the lithospheric thickness varies from ~130 km in Qinling Dabie orogenic belt to ~60 km in Beijing, and ~50 km in Bohai bay. Lebedev and Nolet (2003) determined the lithospheric thickness in Bohai bay to be ~140 km from S wave tomography. Sodoudi et al.'s (2006) estimate of the lithospheric thickness is 72 km in Qinling Dabie orogenic belt and ~60 km in north China block. Since physical character differences exist between lithosphere and asthenosphere, it is possible to determine the thickness of lithospheric though gravity data. In this study, we use the crustal thickness obtained from teleseismic receiver functions (Li et al., 2014) to model the Moho gravity field variation and then remove this variation from the observed gravity field. Based on the residual field, the lithospheric thickness is obtained by the Parker inversion. Results show that the lithospheric thickness beneath China varies from ~80 km in the north of XinJiang to ~140 km in Tibet, and it changes to ~100 km in Eastern China. The residual field used for inversion is smooth which results in a smooth lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). The LAB is generally in agreement with the previous seismic inversion result along profiles in eastern China (e.g. Li et al., 2011) and suggests that our method could be used to estimate the regional lithospheric variation in other areas in China, and somewhere else.

  1. Global modeling with GEOS-5 from 50-km to 1-km with a single unified GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putman, William; Suarez, Max; Molod, Andrea; Barahona, Donifan

    2015-04-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System model (GEOS-5) of the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is uniquely designed to adapt to increasing resolution. This supports application of GEOS-5 for decadal scale climate simulation and reanalysis with a horizontal resolution of 50-kilometers (km), high-resolution numerical weather prediction at 25- to 14-km, and global mesoscale modeling at resolutions of 7- to 1.5-km. Resolution-aware parameterizations and dynamics support this diverse portfolio of applications within a single unified GEOS-5 GCM code-base. We will discuss the adaptation of physics parameterizations with increasing resolution. This includes the role of deep convective parameterization, the move to an improved two-moment microphysics scheme, the need for shallow convective parameterization, and the role of non-hydrostatic dynamics and implicit/explicit damping. Parameterization and dynamics evaluation are explored not only in global integrations with GEOS-5 but with radiative convective equilibrium tests that permit the rapid exploration of high-resolution simulations in a smaller doubly periodic Cartesian domain. Simulation results will highlight intercomparisons of model biases in cloud forcing and precipitation from the 30-year 50-km MERRA-2 reanalysis, 50- to 25-km free-running AMIP simulations, a 2-year 7-km global mesoscale simulation, and monthly global simulations at 3.5-km. A global 1.5-km simulation with GEOS-5 highlights our pursuit of truly convection permitting global simulations with GEOS-5. The tuning evaluation for this simulation using doubly periodic radiative convective equilibrium experiments will be discussed.

  2. Predicting km-scale shear zone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbi, Christopher; Culshaw, Nicholas; Shulman, Deborah; Foley, Maura; Marsh, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Because km-scale shear zones play a first-order role in lithospheric kinematics, accurate conceptual and numerical models of orogenic development require predicting when and where they form. Although a strain-based algorithm in the upper crust for weakening due to faulting appears to succeed (e.g., Koons et al., 2010, doi:10.1029/2009TC002463), a comparable general rule for the viscous crust remains unestablished. Here we consider two aspects of the geological argument for a similar algorithm in the viscous regime, namely (1) whether predicting km-scale shear zone development based on a single parameter (such as strain or shear heating) is reasonable; and (2) whether lithologic variability inherent in most orogenic systems precludes a simple predictive rule. A review of tectonically significant shear zones worldwide and more detailed investigations in the Central Gneiss belt of the Ontario segment of the Grenville Province reveals that most km-scale shear zones occur at lithological boundaries and involve mass transfer, but have fairly little else in common. As examples, the relatively flat-lying Twelve Mile Bay shear zone in the western Central Gneiss belt bounds the Parry Sound domain and is likely the product of both localized anatexis and later retrograde hydration with attendant metamorphism. Moderately dipping shear zones in granitoids of the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone apparently resulted from cooperation among several complementary microstructural processes, such as grain size reduction, enhanced diffusion, and a small degree of metamorphic reaction. Localization into shear zones requires the operation of some spatially restricted processes such as stress concentration, metamorphism/fluid access, textural evolution, and thermal perturbation. All of these could be due in part to strain, but not necessarily linearly related to strain. Stress concentrations, such as those that form at rheological boundaries, may be sufficient to nucleate high strain

  3. Ubiquitous Low-Velocity Layer Atop the 410-km Discontinuity in the Northern Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasbinsek, J. J.; Dueker, K. G.

    2006-12-01

    Receiver functions (RF) from three 30-station IRIS-PASSCAL small aperture arrays (2-15 km station spacing) operated for ten months each in the northern Rocky Mountains show a ubiquitous negative polarity P to S arrival (NPA) just preceding the 410-km discontinuity arrival. Data from the arrays was divided into NW, SE and SW backazimuths and stacked to form nine quadrant stacks (QS). Remarkably, the NPA is apparent in 8 of the 9 QS, with 7 of the 8 displaying a similar dipole shape (paired negative and positive swings). Each QS contains clear P to S arrivals from the 410- and 660-km discontinuities and display the correct moveout. To model the NPA, a "double gradient slab" model consisting of five parameters is used: top gradient thickness and shear wave velocity drop; a constant velocity layer; bottom gradient thickness and shear wave velocity increase. Model misfit is assessed via a grid search over the model space using a reflectivity code to calculate synthetic seismograms. Assessment of model likelihood is done by calculating 1- and 2-D marginal probability density functions (PDF). Model parameters for each QS are well resolved and uncorrelated, with the exception of the anti-correlation of the top and bottom gradients. To define an average model, the probability distributions of each QS for each parameter are multiplied to form summary 1-D marginal PDF from which 90% probability bounds are calculated. These probability bounds are: the top gradient is < 8 km with a velocity decrement of 0.3-0.5 km/s; the constant velocity layer thickness is < 5 km; and, the bottom gradient is 29-37 km with a velocity increase of 0.4-0.6 km/s. The effective width of the low velocity layer atop the 410 (herein called the 410-LVL) is characterized as the layer thickness plus half the two gradient widths. Thus, the 410-LVL is found to have a mean thickness of 26 km and a mean shear wave velocity decrement of 8.3%. These results contrast with 410-LVL widths of 25-90 km and shear

  4. Impact penetration experiments in teflon targets of variable thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, F.; Cintala, M. J.; Bernhard, R. P.; See, T. H.

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 20.4 sq m of Teflon thermal blankets on the nonspinning Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) were exposed to the orbital debris and micrometeoroid environment in low-Earth orbit (LEO) for approximately 5.7 years. Each blanket consisted of an outer layer (approximately 125 micron thick) of FEP Teflon that was backed by a vapor-deposited metal mirror (Inconel; less than 1 micron thick). The inner surface consisted of organic binders and Chemglaze thermal protective paint (approximately 50 micron thick) resulting in a somewhat variable, total blanket thickness of approximately 180 to 200 microns. There was at least one of these blankets, each exposing approximately 1.2 sq m of surface area, on nine of LDEF's 12 principal pointing directions, the exceptions being Rows 3, 9, and 12. As a consequence, these blankets represent a significant opportunity for micrometeoroid and debris studies, in general, and specifically they provide an opportunity to address those issues that require information about pointing direction (i.e., spatial density of impact events as a function of instrument orientation). During deintegration of the LDEF spacecraft at KSC, all penetration holes greater than or equal to 300 micron in diameter were documented and were recently synthesized in terms of spatial density as a function of LDEF viewing direction by. The present report describes ongoing cratering and penetration experiments in pure Teflon targets, which are intended to establish the relationships between crater or penetration-hole diameters and the associated projectile dimensions at laboratory velocities (i.e., 6 km/s). The ultimate objective of these efforts is to extract reliable mass-frequencies and associated fluxes of hypervelocity particles in LEO.

  5. Variations in effective elastic thickness of the North American lithosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechtel, Timothy D.; Forsyth, Donald W.; Sharpton, Virgil L.; Grieve, Richard A. F.

    1990-01-01

    A technique for estimating flexural rigidity that is not limited to sedimentary basins is used here to map variations in the effective elastic thickness of the North American lithosphere. The effective elastic thickness ranges from a minimum of about 4 km in the Basin and Range Province to more than 100 km in the Precambrian core of the continent. This finding supports the idea that flexural rigidity has increased with time since the last thermal event.

  6. 1,2,4-Tribromobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4 - Tribromobenzene ; CASRN 615 - 54 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  7. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,3 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 96 - 18 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several program offices , regional offices , and the Office of Research and Development

  8. trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    trans - 1,2 - Dichloroethylene ; CASRN 156 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  9. 1,1,2-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 598 - 77 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  10. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloroethane ; CASRN 79 - 00 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  11. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4 - Trichlorobenzene ; CASRN 120 - 82 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  12. cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    cis - 1,2 - Dichloroethylene ; CASRN 156 - 59 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  13. 1,2-Epoxybutane (EBU)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Epoxybutane ( EBU ) ; CASRN 106 - 88 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  14. 45 Km Horizontal Path Optical Link Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, A.; Ceniceros, J.; Novak, M.; Jeganathan, M.; Portillo, A.; Erickson, D.; Depew, J.; Sanii, B.; Lesh, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    Mountain-top to mountain-top optical link experiments have been initiated at JPL, in order to perform a systems level evaluation of optical communications. Progress made so far is reported. ne NASA, JPL developed optical communications demonstrator (OCD) is used to transmit a laser signal from Strawberry Peak (SP), located in the San Bernadino mountains of California. This laser beam is received by a 0.6 m aperture telescope at JPL's Table Mountain Facility (TMF), located in Wrightwood, California. The optical link is bi-directional with the TMF telescope transmitting a continuous 4-wave (cw) 780 run beacon and the OCD sending back a 840 nm, 100 - 500 Mbps pseudo noise (PN) modulated, laser beam. The optical link path is at an average altitude of 2 km above sea level, covers a range of 46.8 km and provides an atmospheric channel equivalent to approx. 4 air masses. Average received power measured at either end fall well within the uncertainties predicted by link analysis. The reduction in normalized intensity variance (sigma(sup 2, sub I)) for the 4-beam beacon, compared to each individual beam, at SP, was from approx. 0.68 to 0.22. With some allowance for intra-beam mis-alignment, this is consistent with incoherent averaging. The sigma(sup2, sub I) measured at TMF approx. 0.43 +/- 0.22 exceeded the expected aperture averaged value of less than 0.1, probably because of beam wander. The focused spot sizes of approx. 162 +/- 6 microns at the TMF Coude and approx. 64 +/- 3 microns on the OCD compare to the predicted size range of 52 - 172 microns and 57 - 93 microns, respectively. This is consistent with 4 - 5 arcsec of atmospheric "seeing". The preliminary evaluation of OCD's fine tracking indicates that the uncompensated tracking error is approx. 3.3 micro rad compared to approx. 1.7 micro rad observed in the laboratory. Fine tracking performance was intermittent, primarily due to beacon fades on the OCD tracking sensor. The best bit error rates observed while

  15. Thickness of western mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    An isopach map of the basalt thickness in the western mare basins is constructed from measurements of the exposed external rim height of partially buried craters. The data, although numerically sparse, is sufficiently distributed to yield gross thickness variations. The average basalt thickness in Oceanus Procellarum and adjacent regions is 400 m with local lenses in excess of 1500 m in the circular maria. The total volume of basalt in the western maria is estimated to be in the range of 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power cu km. The chief distinction between the eastern and western maria appears to be one of basalt volumes erupted to the surface. Maximum volumes of basalt are deposited west of the central highlands and flood subjacent terrain to a greater extent than on the east. The surface structures of the western maria reflect the probability of a greater degree of isostatic response to a larger surface loading by the greater accumulation of mare basalt.

  16. Teleportation of entanglement over 143 km.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Thomas; Scheidl, Thomas; Fink, Matthias; Handsteiner, Johannes; Wittmann, Bernhard; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2015-11-17

    As a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, the deterministic amplification as in classical communication is impossible for unknown quantum states. This calls for more advanced techniques in a future global quantum network, e.g., for cloud quantum computing. A unique solution is the teleportation of an entangled state, i.e., entanglement swapping, representing the central resource to relay entanglement between distant nodes. Together with entanglement purification and a quantum memory it constitutes a so-called quantum repeater. Since the aforementioned building blocks have been individually demonstrated in laboratory setups only, the applicability of the required technology in real-world scenarios remained to be proven. Here we present a free-space entanglement-swapping experiment between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, verifying the presence of quantum entanglement between two previously independent photons separated by 143 km. We obtained an expectation value for the entanglement-witness operator, more than 6 SDs beyond the classical limit. By consecutive generation of the two required photon pairs and space-like separation of the relevant measurement events, we also showed the feasibility of the swapping protocol in a long-distance scenario, where the independence of the nodes is highly demanded. Because our results already allow for efficient implementation of entanglement purification, we anticipate our research to lay the ground for a fully fledged quantum repeater over a realistic high-loss and even turbulent quantum channel. PMID:26578764

  17. Teleportation of entanglement over 143 km

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Thomas; Scheidl, Thomas; Fink, Matthias; Handsteiner, Johannes; Wittmann, Bernhard; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2015-01-01

    As a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, the deterministic amplification as in classical communication is impossible for unknown quantum states. This calls for more advanced techniques in a future global quantum network, e.g., for cloud quantum computing. A unique solution is the teleportation of an entangled state, i.e., entanglement swapping, representing the central resource to relay entanglement between distant nodes. Together with entanglement purification and a quantum memory it constitutes a so-called quantum repeater. Since the aforementioned building blocks have been individually demonstrated in laboratory setups only, the applicability of the required technology in real-world scenarios remained to be proven. Here we present a free-space entanglement-swapping experiment between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, verifying the presence of quantum entanglement between two previously independent photons separated by 143 km. We obtained an expectation value for the entanglement-witness operator, more than 6 SDs beyond the classical limit. By consecutive generation of the two required photon pairs and space-like separation of the relevant measurement events, we also showed the feasibility of the swapping protocol in a long-distance scenario, where the independence of the nodes is highly demanded. Because our results already allow for efficient implementation of entanglement purification, we anticipate our research to lay the ground for a fully fledged quantum repeater over a realistic high-loss and even turbulent quantum channel. PMID:26578764

  18. MODIS Retrievals of Cloud Optical Thickness and Particle Radius

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, S.; King, M. D.; Ackerman, S. A.; Gray, M.; Moody, E.; Arnold, G. T.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides an unprecedented opportunity for global cloud studies with 36 spectral bands from the visible through the infrared, and spatial resolution from 250 m to 1 km at nadir. In particular, all solar window bands useful for simultaneous retrievals of cloud optical thickness and particle size (0.67, 0.86, 1.2, 1.6, 2.1, and 3.7 micron bands) are now available on a single satellite instrument/platform for the first time. An operational algorithm for the retrieval of these optical and cloud physical properties (including water path) have been developed for both liquid and ice phase clouds. The product is archived into two categories: pixel-level retrievals at 1 km spatial resolution (referred to as a Level-2 product) and global gridded statistics (Level-3 product). An overview of the MODIS cloud retrieval algorithm and early level-2 and -3 results will be presented. A number of MODIS cloud validation activities are being planned, including the recent Southern Africa Regional Science Initiative 2000 (SAFARI-2000) dry season campaign conducted in August/September 2000. The later part of the experiment concentrated on MODIS validation in the Namibian stratocumulus regime off the southwest coast of Africa. Early retrieval results from this regime will be discussed.

  19. Cloud Thickness from Offbeam Returns - Thor Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R.; Kolasinski, J.; McGill, M.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Physical thickness of a cloud layer, and sometimes multiple cloud layers, can be estimated from the time delay of off-beam returns from a pulsed laser source illuminating one side of the cloud layer. In particular, the time delay of light returning from the outer diffuse halo of light surrounding the beam entry point, relative to the time delay at beam center, determines the cloud physical thickness. The delay combined with the pulse stretch gives the optical thickness. The halo method works best for thick cloud layers, typically optical thickness exceeding 2, and thus compliments conventional lidar which cannot penetrate thick clouds. Cloud layer top and base have been measured independently over the ARM/SGP site using conventional laser ranging (lidar) and the top minus base thickness are compared with a cloud top halo estimate obtained from the NASA/Goddard THOR System (THOR = THickness from Offbeam Returns). THOR flies on the NASA P3, and measures the halo timings from several km above cloud top, at the same time providing conventional lidar cloud top height. The ARM/SGP micropulse lidar provides cloud base height for validation.

  20. Thickness of the magnetic crust of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    2008-04-01

    To estimate the thickness of the magnetic crust of Mars, six observational magnetic spectra are fitted with the theoretical spectrum expected from a novel, bimodal distribution of magnetic sources. Observational spectra differ, for each comes from a different map or model of variously selected and analyzed Mars Global Surveyor Magnetometer/Electron Reflectometer measurements of the vector magnetic field around Mars. The new theoretical spectrum represents fields from both compact sources and extended, laterally correlated sources on a spherical shell, so the estimated shell depth can now be doubled to obtain layer thickness. This typical magnetic crustal thickness is put at 47.8 +/- 8.4 km. The extensive sources are enormous, typically 650 km across, and account for over half the magnetic energy at low degrees. There is some indication that these sources are relatively shallow, but the typical area remains about 330,000 km2. Granted such extended sources represent magnetization of Mars' ancient crust in a core source field dominated by a reversing, areocentric paleodipole, each one arguably formed during a single polarity chron. How did such vast regions of magnetic crust form? A survey of many eligible mechanisms suggests magnetization of cooling igneous rock at minimal rates of about 1 to 0.1 km3/a during superchrons of order 15 to 150 Ma long.

  1. Peregrine 100-km Sounding Rocket Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The Peregrine Sounding Rocket Program is a joint basic research program of NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Wallops, Stanford University, and the Space Propulsion Group, Inc. (SPG). The goal is to determine the applicability of this technology to a small launch system. The approach is to design, build, and fly a stable, efficient liquefying fuel hybrid rocket vehicle to an altitude of 100 km. The program was kicked off in October of 2006 and has seen considerable progress in the subsequent 18 months. This research group began studying liquifying hybrid rocket fuel technology more than a decade ago. The overall goal of the research was to gain a better understanding of the fundamental physics of the liquid layer entrainment process responsible for the large increase in regression rate observed in these fuels, and to demonstrate the effect of increased regression rate on hybrid rocket motor performance. At the time of this reporting, more than 400 motor tests were conducted with a variety of oxidizers (N2O, GOx, LOx) at ever increasing scales with thrust levels from 5 to over 15,000 pounds (22 N to over 66 kN) in order to move this technology from the laboratory to practical applications. The Peregrine program is the natural next step in this development. A number of small sounding rockets with diameters of 3, 4, and 6 in. (7.6, 10.2, and 15.2 cm) have been flown, but Peregrine at a diameter of 15 in. (38.1 cm) and 14,000-lb (62.3-kN) thrust is by far the largest system ever attempted and will be one of the largest hybrids ever flown. Successful Peregrine flights will set the stage for a wide range of applications of this technology.

  2. Crustal-thickness variations in the central Andes

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, S.L.; Myers, S.C.; Wallace, T.C.; Zandt, G. |; Silver, P.G.; Drake, L.

    1996-05-01

    We estimated the crustal thickness along an east-west transect across the Andes at lat 20{degree}S and along a north-south transect along the eastern edge of the Altiplano from data recorded on two arrays of portable broadband seismic stations (BANJO and SEDA). We found crustal-thickness variations of nearly 40 km across the Andes. Maximum crustal thicknesses of 70-74 km under the Western Cordillera and the Eastern Cordillera thin to 32-38 km 200 km east of the Andes in the Chaco Plain. The central Altiplano at 20{degree}S has crustal thicknesses of 60 to 65 km. The crust also appears to thicken from north (16{degree}S, 55-60 km) to south (20{degree}S, 70-74 km) along the Eastern Cordillera. The Subandean zone crust has intermediate thicknesses of 43 to 47 km. Crustal-thickness predictions for the Andes based on Airy-type isostatic behavior show remarkable overall correlation with observed crustal thickness in the regions of high elevation. In contrast, at the boundary between the Eastern Cordillera and the Subandean zone and in the Chaco Plain, the crust is thinner than predicted, suggesting that the crust in these regions is supported in part by the flexural rigidity of a strong lithosphere. With additional constraints, we conclude that the observation of Airy-type isostasy is consistent with thickening associated with compressional shortening of a weak lithosphere squeezed between the stronger lithosphere of the subducting Nazca plate and the cratonic lithosphere of the Brazilian craton. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Predicting gravity and sediment thickness in Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, W.; Brozena, J.; Peters, M.

    2013-02-01

    The US Naval Research Laboratory conducted comprehensive high-altitude (7 km above mean sea level) aero-geophysical surveys over Afghanistan in 2006 (Rampant Lion I). The surveys were done in collaboration with the US Geological Survey and upon the request of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines. In this study, we show that a best fitting admittance between topography and airborne gravity in western Afghanistan can be used to predict airborne gravity for the no-data area of eastern Afghanistan where the mountains are too high to conduct airborne surveys, due to the threat of ground fire. The differences between the airborne and the predicted gravity along a tie-track through the no-data area were found to be within ±12 mGal range with rms difference 7.3 mGal, while those between the predicted gravity from a simple Airy model (with compensation depth of 32 km and crustal density of 2.67 g cm-3) and the airborne gravity were within ±22 mGal range with rms difference 10.3 mGal. A combined airborne free-air anomaly has been constructed by merging the predicted gravity with the airborne data. We also demonstrate that sediment thickness can be estimated for basin areas where surface topography and airborne free-air anomaly profiles do not show a correlation presumably because of thick sediments. In order to estimate sediment thickness, we first determine a simple linear relationship from a scatter plot of the airborne gravity points and the interpolated Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) topography along the Rampant Lion I tracks, and computed corresponding quasi-topography tracks by multiplying the linear relationship with the airborne free-air anomalies. We then take the differences between the SRTM and quasi-topography as a first-order estimate of sediment thickness. A global gravity model (GOCO02S), upward continued to the same altitude (7 km above mean sea level) as the data collection, was compared with the low-pass filtered (with cutoff

  4. FUSE Observations of K--M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ake, T. B.; Dupree, A. K.; Linsky, J. L.; Harper, G. M.; Young, P. R.

    2000-12-01

    As part of the FUSE PI program, a representative sample of cool stars is being surveyed in the LWRS (30 x 30 arcsec) aperture. We report on recent observations of three late-type stars, AU Mic (HD 197481, M0 Ve), β Gem (HD 62509, K0 IIIb), and α Ori (HD 39801, M1-2 Ia--Iab). AU Mic and β Gem show strong emission lines of O VI 1032/1037 and C III 977/1176 and weaker lines of C II, N II, N III, S IV, Si III, Si IV, and perhaps Fe III. AU Mic has evidence of He II and S III emission, and β Gem shows S I emission. Differences are seen in line ratios and line profiles between these stars. In α Ori, these features are very weak or non-existent, and Fe II fluorescent lines in the 1100-1150 Å region, pumped by H I Lyman α , are present. Several emission lines are still unidentified in all spectra. Prospects for future cool star observations will be discussed. This work is based on data obtained for the Guaranteed Time Team by the NASA-CNES-CSA FUSE mission operated by the Johns Hopkins University. Financial support to U. S. participants has been provided by NASA contract NAS5-32985.

  5. Corneal thickness in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    De Cevallos, E; Dohlman, C H; Reinhart, W J

    1976-02-01

    The central corneal stromal thickness of patients with open angle glaucoma, secondary glaucoma (the majority aphakic), or a history of unilateral acute angle closure glaucoma were measured and compared with the stromal thickness of a group of normal patients. In open angle glaucoma, there was a small but significant increase in the average stromal thickness. This thickness increase was, in all likelihood, due to an abnormal function of the endothelium in this disease since the level of the intraocular pressure did not seem to be a factor. There was no correlation between stromal thickness and duration of the glaucoma or type of anti-glaucomatous medication. Most cases of secondary glaucome, controlled medically or not, had markedly increased corneal thickness, again, most likely, due to endothelial damage rather than to level of intraocular pressure. After an angle closure attack, permanent damage to the cornea was found to be rare. PMID:1247273

  6. Lead Thickness Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1998-02-16

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in{sup 3}, an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  7. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  8. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

    1995-09-19

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors. 8 figs.

  9. Education and "Thick" Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  10. Evaluation of Whipple Bumper shields at 7 and 10 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ang, J. A.; Chhabildas, L. C.; Cour-Palais, B. G.; Christiansen, E. L.; Crews, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia Hypervelocity Launcher to determine the performance limits of conventional Whipple shields against representative 0.8 g aluminum orbital debris plate-like fragments with velocities of 7 and 10 km/s. Supporting diagnostics include flash X-rays, high speed photography and transient digitizers for timing correlation. Two Whipple shield designs were tested with either a 0.030 cm or a 0.127 cm thick front sheet and a 0.407 cm thick backsheet separated by 30.5 cm. These two designs bracket the ballistic penetration limit curve for protection against these debris simulants for 7 km/s impacts.

  11. The crustal thickness of West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaput, J.; Aster, R. C.; Huerta, A.; Sun, X.; Lloyd, A.; Wiens, D.; Nyblade, A.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Winberry, J. P.; Wilson, T.

    2014-01-01

    P-to-S receiver functions (PRFs) from the Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET) GPS and seismic leg of POLENET spanning West Antarctica and the Transantarctic Mountains deployment of seismographic stations provide new estimates of crustal thickness across West Antarctica, including the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS), Marie Byrd Land (MBL) dome, and the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) margin. We show that complications arising from ice sheet multiples can be effectively managed and further information concerning low-velocity subglacial sediment thickness may be determined, via top-down utilization of synthetic receiver function models. We combine shallow structure constraints with the response of deeper layers using a regularized Markov chain Monte Carlo methodology to constrain bulk crustal properties. Crustal thickness estimates range from 17.0±4 km at Fishtail Point in the western WARS to 45±5 km at Lonewolf Nunataks in the TAM. Symmetric regions of crustal thinning observed in a transect deployment across the West Antarctic Ice Sheet correlate with deep subice basins, consistent with pure shear crustal necking under past localized extension. Subglacial sediment deposit thicknesses generally correlate with trough/dome expectations, with the thickest inferred subice low-velocity sediment estimated as ˜0.4 km within the Bentley Subglacial Trench. Inverted PRFs from this study and other published crustal estimates are combined with ambient noise surface wave constraints to generate a crustal thickness map for West Antarctica south of 75°S. Observations are consistent with isostatic crustal compensation across the central WARS but indicate significant mantle compensation across the TAM, Ellsworth Block, MBL dome, and eastern and western sectors of thinnest WARS crust, consistent with low density and likely dynamic, low-viscosity high-temperature mantle.

  12. Origami of thick panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2015-07-01

    Origami patterns, including the rigid origami patterns in which flat inflexible sheets are joined by creases, are primarily created for zero-thickness sheets. In order to apply them to fold structures such as roofs, solar panels, and space mirrors, for which thickness cannot be disregarded, various methods have been suggested. However, they generally involve adding materials to or offsetting panels away from the idealized sheet without altering the kinematic model used to simulate folding. We develop a comprehensive kinematic synthesis for rigid origami of thick panels that differs from the existing kinematic model but is capable of reproducing motions identical to that of zero-thickness origami. The approach, proven to be effective for typical origami, can be readily applied to fold real engineering structures.

  13. Measuring coal thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, C.; Blaine, J.; Geller, G.; Robinson, R.; Summers, D.; Tyler, J.

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory tested concept, for measuring thickness of overhead coal using noncontacting sensor system coupled to controller and high pressure water jet, allows mining machines to remove virtually all coal from mine roofs without danger of cutting into overlying rock.

  14. Importance of Corneal Thickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section The Importance of Corneal Thickness email Send this article to ... is important because it can mask an accurate reading of eye pressure, causing doctors to treat you ...

  15. MODIS 3km Aerosol Product: Algorithm and Global Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, L. A.; Mattoo, S.; Levy, R. C.; Munchak, L.

    2013-01-01

    After more than a decade of producing a nominal 10 km aerosol product based on the dark target method, the MODIS aerosol team will be releasing a nominal 3 km product as part of their Collection 6 release. The new product differs from the original 10 km product only in the manner in which reflectance pixels are ingested, organized and selected by the aerosol algorithm. Overall, the 3 km product closely mirrors the 10 km product. However, the finer resolution product is able to retrieve over ocean closer to islands and coastlines, and is better able to resolve fine aerosol features such as smoke plumes over both ocean and land. In some situations, it provides retrievals over entire regions that the 10 km product barely samples. In situations traditionally difficult for the dark target algorithm, such as over bright or urban surfaces the 3 km product introduces isolated spikes of artificially high aerosol optical depth (AOD) that the 10 km algorithm avoids. Over land, globally, the 3 km product appears to be 0.01 to 0.02 higher than the 10 km product, while over ocean, the 3 km algorithm is retrieving a proportionally greater number of very low aerosol loading situations. Based on collocations with ground-based observations for only six months, expected errors associated with the 3 km land product are determined to be greater than for the 10 km product: 0.05 0.25 AOD. Over ocean, the suggestion is for expected errors to be the same as the 10 km product: 0.03 0.05 AOD. The advantage of the product is on the local scale, which will require continued evaluation not addressed here. Nevertheless, the new 3 km product is expected to provide important information complementary to existing satellite-derived products and become an important tool for the aerosol community.

  16. United States crustal thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allenby, R. J.; Schnetzler, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    The thickness of the crust, the thickness of the basal (intermediate or lower) crustal layer, and the average velocity at the top of the mantle have been mapped using all available deep-penetrating seismic-refraction profiles in the conterminous United States and surrounding border areas. These profiles are indexed to their literature data sources. The more significant long wavelength anomalies on the three maps are briefly discussed and analyzed. An attempt to use Bouguer gravity to validate mantle structure was inconclusive.

  17. Lake Bonneville - Constraints on lithospheric thickness and upper mantle viscosity from isostatic warping of Bonneville, Provo, and Gilbert stage shorelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bills, Bruce G.; May, Glenn M.

    1987-01-01

    Data collected from three deformed shorelines of Lake Bonneville (the Bonneville, Provo, and Gilbert shorelines) are used to constrain the effective elastic lithospheric thickness to 23 + or - 2 km, the mantle viscosity to (1.2 + or - 0.2) x 10 to the 20th Pa sec, and the depth to a significant viscosity increase to no less than 300 km. A modification of the earth model of Nakiboglu and Lambeck (1982, 1983) is used for the calculations, and the water load is computed at each time step from a digital terrain model and a specified lake elevation. Differences noted between the observed and computed shoreline elevations indicate a regional tilt down to the NE of about 6 x 10 to the -5th, which is suggested to be due to collapse of the peripheral bulge formed by the Laurentide ice sheet.

  18. Role of the transition zone and 660 km discontinuity in mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringwood, A. E.

    1994-10-01

    Recent seismic evidence suggests that subducted slabs experience resistance to further descent when they encounter the 660 km seismic discontinuity. Several possible causes of this resistance are evaluated. It is concluded that the chemical composition of the lower mantle is similar to that of the upper mantle, and that compositional change is therefore unlikely to be the cause of resistance to slab penetration. The proposal that a large increase of viscosity at the 660 km discontinuity impedes descending slabs is also rejected. However, three other factors are identified, each of which is capable of causing substantial resistance to descending slabs: (1) the negative slope of the transformation of silicate spinel to Mg-perovskite+magnesiowuestite; (2) differentiation of oceanic lithosphere into basaltic and depleted peridotitic layers, causing the slab to be buoyant compared with surrounding mantle pyrolite between depths of 660-800 km; (3) the accumulation of former oceanic crust to produce a gravitationally stable layer of garnetite (about 50 km thick) on top of the 660 km discontinuity. The combined effects of these sources of resistance provide a filter for subducted slabs. Those slabs with seismic zones extending below 600 km may possess sufficient negative buoyancy and strength to overcome the barriers and penetrate into the lower mantle. However, the resistance causes strong buckling and plastic thickening of these slabs, which accumulate to form huge blobs or 'megaliths' underneath the 660 km discontinuity. In contrast, slabs with seismic zones extending no deeper than 300 km possess much smaller degrees of negative buoyancy and strength and hence are unable to penetrate the 660 km discontinuity. Slabs of this type are recycled within the transition zone and upper mantle. Mixing and petrological homogenization processes are less efficient in the transition zone than in the upper mantle (above 400 km). The transition zone is composed mainly of ancient slabs

  19. Sediment thickness beneath the Indo-Gangetic Plain and Siwalik Himalaya inferred from receiver function modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Kajaljyoti; Kanna, Nagaraju; Rai, S. S.; Prakasam, K. S.

    2015-03-01

    The Indo-Gangetic Plain and the adjoining Siwalik Himalaya are the seismically most vulnerable regions due to high density of human population and presence of thick sediments that amplify the seismic waves due to an earthquake in the region. We investigate the sedimentary structure and crustal thickness of the region through joint inversion of the receiver function time series at 14 broadband seismograph locations and the available Rayleigh velocity data for the region. Results show significant variability of sedimentary layer thicknesses from 1.0 to 2.0 km beneath the Delhi region to 2.0-5.0 km beneath the Indo-Gangetic Plain and the Siwalik Himalaya. As we progress from the Delhi to the Indo-Gangetic Plain, we observe a decrease in the shear velocity in sedimentary layer from ∼2.0 km/s to ∼1.3 km/s while the layer thickness increases progressively from ∼1.0 km in south to 2.0-5.0 km in the north. Average S-velocity in the sedimentary layer beneath the Siwalik Himalaya is ∼2.1 km/s. Crustal thicknesses varies from ∼42 in the Delhi region, ∼48 km in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, ∼50 km in the western part of Siwalik Himalaya to ∼60 km in the Kumaon region of Siwalik Himalaya.

  20. Microphysical Model of the Venus clouds between 40km and 80km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGouldrick, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    I am continuing to adapt the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA) to successfully simulate the multi-layered clouds of Venus. The present version of the one-dimensional model now includes a simple parameterization of the photochemicial production of sulfuric acid around altitudes of 62km, and its thermochemical destruction below cloud base. Photochemical production in the model is limited by the availability of water vapor and insolation. Upper cloud particles are introduced into the model via binary homogeneous nucleation, while the lower and middle cloud particles are created via activation of involatile cloud condensation nuclei. Growth by condensation and coagulation and coalescence are also treated. Mass loadings and particle sizes compare favorably with the in situ observations by the Pioneer Venus Large Probe Particle Size Spectrometer, and mixing ratios of volatiles compare favorably with remotely sensed observations of water vapor and sulfuric acid vapor. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program, grant number NNX11AD79G.

  1. Liquid thickness gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus are developed to measure the thickness of a liquid on a surface independent of liquid conductivity. Two pairs of round, corrosion resistant wires are mounted in an insulating material such that the cross-sectional area of each wire is flush with and normal to the surface. The resistance between each pair of wires is measured using two ac resistance measuring circuits, in which the ratio of the outputs of the two resistance measuring circuits is indicative of the thickness of the liquid on the surface.

  2. Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan, 1/2 Floor Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan - Jack's Mill Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  3. Crustal Thickness of Iran Inferred from Converted Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghizadeh-Farahmand, Fataneh; Afsari, Narges; Sodoudi, Forough

    2015-02-01

    The Iranian plate is part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt, which has been formed by the continental collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. The present-day Iranian plate is characterized by diverse tectonic domains including mountain belts (e.g. Zagros and Alborz, Kopeh-Dagh) and oceanic plate subduction (e.g. Makran). Here we present the lateral variations of the Moho discontinuity beneath Iran using a detailed P receiver function study. Our results allow for more precise estimations of the crustal thickness and enable us to provide a detailed Moho depth map for all of Iran for the first time. We used the teleseismic events recorded from 1995 to 2011 at 77 national permanent stations (24 broadband and 53 short period stations). Our results show significant variations in the crustal thickness, which are related to the different geological features within Iran. In general, the average crustal thickness beneath Iran is about 40-45 km. A relatively thick crust of about 54 ± 2 km due to the shortening is observed beneath the Alborz mountain ranges. The crust beneath the Alborz zone shows a thickness changing from 47 ± 2 to 45 ± 2 km from west to east and reaches a thickness of about 50 ± 2 km beneath the Kopeh-Dagh mountain range. We find the thinnest crust of about 33 ± 2 km beneath the Makran subduction zone in southeast Iran showing a normal continental crust, which has not been influenced by collisional processes. The thickest crust (~66 ± 2 km) is locally observed beneath the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, which is considered the suture zone of the collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates.

  4. Thick Film Interference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trefil, James

    1983-01-01

    Discusses why interference effects cannot be seen with a thick film, starting with a review of the origin of interference patterns in thin films. Considers properties of materials in films, properties of the light source, and the nature of light. (JN)

  5. Debris cloud characterization at impact velocities of 5 to 11 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Boslough, M.B.; Reinhart, W.D.; Hall, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia HyperVelocity Launcher to impact a 1.25-mm thick aluminum bumper by an aluminum flier plate 17-mm diameter by 0.92-mm thick over the velocity range of 5 km/s to 11 km/s. Radiographic techniques were employed to record the debris cloud generated upon impact. The shape of the debris cloud is found to depend on the flier plate tilt. Generally -- the data indicate a central core of higher density surrounded by a diffused layer. These experiments allow measurements of debris cloud expansion velocities as the material undergoes a phase change from solid fragments at impact velocities of 5 km/s to a mixture of liquid and vapor phase at higher impact velocities. The expansion velocity of the debris cloud increases with increasing impact velocity, with the high-density leading edge traveling faster than the impact velocity. There is a difference between the X-ray and photographic measurements of expansion velocities at higher impact velocities. This is believed to be due to the presence of very low-density vapor in the photographic records that are not detecting using X-ray techniques.

  6. Hypervelocity impact tests and simulations of single Whipple bumper shield concepts at 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Hertel, E.S. ); Hill, S.A. )

    1992-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed to evaluate the effectiveness of a Whipple bumper shield to orbital space debris at impact velocities of [approximately] 10 km/s. Upon impact by a 19 mm (0.87 nun thick, L/D [approximately]0.5) flier plate, the thin aluminum bumper shield disintegrates into a debris cloud. The debris cloud front propagates axially at velocities of [approximately]14 km/s and expands radially at a velocity of [approximately]7 km/s. Subsequent loading by the debris on a 3.2 mm thick aluminum substructure placed 114 mm from the bumper penetrates the substructure completely. However, when the diameter of the flier plate is reduced to 12.7 mm, the substructure, although damaged, is not perforated over the duration of the experiment. Numerical simulations performed using the multi-dimensional hydrodynamics code CTH also predict complete perforation of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud for the larger flier plate. The numerical simulation for a 12.7 mm flier plate, however, shows a strong dependence on assumed impact geometry, i.e., a spherical projectile impact geometry does not result in perforation of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud, while the flat plate impact geometry results in perforation.

  7. Hypervelocity impact tests and simulations of single Whipple bumper shield concepts at 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Hertel, E.S.; Hill, S.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of experiments has been performed to evaluate the effectiveness of a Whipple bumper shield to orbital space debris at impact velocities of {approximately} 10 km/s. Upon impact by a 19 mm (0.87 nun thick, L/D {approximately}0.5) flier plate, the thin aluminum bumper shield disintegrates into a debris cloud. The debris cloud front propagates axially at velocities of {approximately}14 km/s and expands radially at a velocity of {approximately}7 km/s. Subsequent loading by the debris on a 3.2 mm thick aluminum substructure placed 114 mm from the bumper penetrates the substructure completely. However, when the diameter of the flier plate is reduced to 12.7 mm, the substructure, although damaged, is not perforated over the duration of the experiment. Numerical simulations performed using the multi-dimensional hydrodynamics code CTH also predict complete perforation of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud for the larger flier plate. The numerical simulation for a 12.7 mm flier plate, however, shows a strong dependence on assumed impact geometry, i.e., a spherical projectile impact geometry does not result in perforation of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud, while the flat plate impact geometry results in perforation.

  8. Whipple bumper shield results and CTH simulations at velocities in excess of 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Hertel, E.S. Jr.; Reinhart, W.D.; Miller, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia HyperVelocity Launcher (HVL) to evaluate the effectiveness of a Whipple bumper shield to orbital space debris at impact velocities in excess of 10 km/s. Upon impact by a 0.67 g (0.87 mm thick) flier plate, the thin aluminum bumper shield disintegrates into a debris cloud. The debris cloud front propagates axially at velocities of {approximately}14 km/s and expands radially at a velocity of {approximately}7 km/s. Subsequent loading on a 3.2 mm thick aluminum substructure by the debris penetrates the substructure completely. However, when the mass of the flier plate is reduced to 0.33 g, the substructure, although damaged, is not perforated over the duration of the experiment. Numerical simulations performed using the multi-dimensional hydrodynamics code CTH also predict complete penetration of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud for a 0.87 g flier plate. The numerical simulations for a 0.33 g flier plate show a strong dependence on assumed impact geometry. For the assumption of a spherical projectile impact geometry, perforation of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud is not predicted by CTH.

  9. Whipple bumper shield results and CTH simulations at velocities in excess of 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Hertel, E.S. Jr.; Reinhart, W.D.; Miller, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia HyperVelocity Launcher (HVL) to evaluate the effectiveness of a Whipple bumper shield to orbital space debris at impact velocities in excess of 10 km/s. Upon impact by a 0.67 g (0.87 mm thick) flier plate, the thin aluminum bumper shield disintegrates into a debris cloud. The debris cloud front propagates axially at velocities of [approximately]14 km/s and expands radially at a velocity of [approximately]7 km/s. Subsequent loading on a 3.2 mm thick aluminum substructure by the debris penetrates the substructure completely. However, when the mass of the flier plate is reduced to 0.33 g, the substructure, although damaged, is not perforated over the duration of the experiment. Numerical simulations performed using the multi-dimensional hydrodynamics code CTH also predict complete penetration of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud for a 0.87 g flier plate. The numerical simulations for a 0.33 g flier plate show a strong dependence on assumed impact geometry. For the assumption of a spherical projectile impact geometry, perforation of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud is not predicted by CTH.

  10. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  11. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  12. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  13. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  14. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  15. Exploring KM Features of High-Performance Companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei-Wen

    2007-12-01

    For reacting to an increasingly rival business environment, many companies emphasize the importance of knowledge management (KM). It is a favorable way to explore and learn KM features of high-performance companies. However, finding out the critical KM features of high-performance companies is a qualitative analysis problem. To handle this kind of problem, the rough set approach is suitable because it is based on data-mining techniques to discover knowledge without rigorous statistical assumptions. Thus, this paper explored KM features of high-performance companies by using the rough set approach. The results show that high-performance companies stress the importance on both tacit and explicit knowledge, and consider that incentives and evaluations are the essentials to implementing KM.

  16. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  17. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  18. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  19. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  20. 16 CFR 1.2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedure. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.2 Procedure. (a) Application. The request for advice...

  1. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  2. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  3. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  4. 11 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.2 Definitions. As defined in the Privacy Act of 1974 and for the purposes of this part, unless otherwise required by the context, the following terms shall have these meanings: Act means the...

  5. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2008-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2008-10-01 2008-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT.... and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  6. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    1996-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 1996-10-01 1996-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of any unincorporated association which...

  7. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2000-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2000-10-01 2000-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT,DEPARTMENT OF... Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of any...

  8. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2002-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2002-10-01 2002-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  9. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2006-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  10. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    1997-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of any unincorporated association which...

  11. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  12. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  13. 16 CFR 1.2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedure. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.2 Procedure. (a) Application. The request for advice...

  14. 45 CFR 1210.1-2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope. 1210.1-2 Section 1210.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES General § 1210.1-2 Scope. (a) This part applies to all Trainees and...

  15. 45 CFR 1211.1-2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability. 1211.1-2 Section 1211.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-2 Applicability. This part applies to all volunteers enrolled under part A of title I of the...

  16. 16 CFR 1.2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedure. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.2 Procedure. (a) Application. The request for advice...

  17. 16 CFR 1.2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.2 Procedure. (a) Application. The request for advice...

  18. 16 CFR 1.2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedure. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.2 Procedure. (a) Application. The request for advice...

  19. Marshall Space Flight Center Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) KM Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccioli, Paul; Varnadoe, Tom; McCarter, Mike

    2006-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center s Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) is four months into a fifteen month Knowledge Management (KM) initiative to support enhanced engineering decision making and analyses, faster resolution of anomalies (near-term) and effective, efficient knowledge infused engineering processes, reduced knowledge attrition, and reduced anomaly occurrences (long-term). The near-term objective of this initiative is developing a KM Pilot project, within the context of a 3-5 year KM strategy, to introduce and evaluate the use of KM within PSD. An internal NASA/MSFC PSD KM team was established early in project formulation to maintain a practitioner, user-centric focus throughout the conceptual development, planning and deployment of KM technologies and capabilities with in the PSD. The PSD internal team is supported by the University of Alabama's Aging Infrastructure Systems Center Of Excellence (AISCE), Intergraph Corporation, and The Knowledge Institute. The principle product of the initial four month effort has been strategic planning of PSD KM implementation by first determining the "as is" state of KM capabilities and developing, planning and documenting the roadmap to achieve the desired "to be" state. Activities undertaken to support the planning phase have included data gathering; cultural surveys, group work-sessions, interviews, documentation review, and independent research. Assessments and analyses have been performed including industry benchmarking, related local and Agency initiatives, specific tools and techniques used and strategies for leveraging existing resources, people and technology to achieve common KM goals. Key findings captured in the PSD KM Strategic Plan include the system vision, purpose, stakeholders, prioritized strategic objectives mapped to the top ten practitioner needs and analysis of current resource usage. Opportunities identified from research, analyses, cultural/KM surveys and practitioner interviews include

  20. Thick film ink chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehman, R. W.

    1982-03-01

    Twenty-six thick film inks from two vendors were proved for hybrid microcircuit production use. A data base of chemical information was established for all the inks to aid in future diagnostic and failure analysis activities. Efforts included both organic chemical analysis of printing vehicles and binders and inorganic chemical analysis of glass frits and electrically active phases. Analytical methods included infrared spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, gas chromatography, X-ray fluorescence, emission spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and wet chemical techniques.

  1. Time-resolved wave-profile measurements at impact velocities of 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Furnish, M.D.; Reinhart, W.D.

    1998-06-01

    Development of well-controlled hypervelocity launch capabilities is the first step to understand material behavior at extreme pressures and temperatures not available using conventional gun technology. In this paper, techniques used to extend both the launch capabilities of a two-stage light-gas gun to 10 km/s and their use to determine material properties at pressures and temperature states higher than those ever obtained in the laboratory are summarized. Time-resolved interferometric techniques have been used to determine shock loading and release characteristics of materials impacted by titanium and aluminum fliers launched by the only developed three-stage light-gas gun at 10 km/s. In particular, the Sandia three stage light gas gun, also referred to as the hypervelocity launcher, HVL, which is capable of launching 0.5 mm to 1.0 mm thick by 6 mm to 19 mm diameter plates to velocities approaching 16 km/s has been used to obtain the necessary impact velocities. The VISAR, interferometric particle-velocity techniques has been used to determine shock loading and release profiles in aluminum and titanium at impact velocities of 10 km/s.

  2. One-hundred-km-scale basins on Enceladus: Evidence for an active ice shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; McKinnon, William B.

    2009-08-01

    Stereo-derived topographic mapping of ˜50% of Enceladus reveals at least 6 large-scale, ovoid depressions (basins) 90-175 km across and 800-to-1500 m deep and uncorrelated with geologic boundaries. In contrast, the south polar depression is larger and apparently shallower and correlates with active resurfacing. The shape and scale of the basins is inconsistent with impact, geoid surface deflections, or with dynamically supported topography. Isostatic thinning of Enceladus' ice shell associated with upwellings (and tidally-driven ice melting) can plausibly account for these basins. Thinning implies upwarping of the base of the shell of ˜10-20 km beneath the depressions, depending on total shell thickness; loss of near-surface porosity due to enhanced heat flow may also contribute to basin lows. Alternatively, the basins may overly cold, inactive, and hence denser ice, but thermal isostasy alone requires thermal expansion more consistent with clathrate hydrate than water ice.

  3. The temperature gradient between 100 and 120 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, T. M.; Carignan, G. R.

    1975-01-01

    Oxygen density profiles inferred from Ogo 6 green nightglow emission vary too sharply between 100 and 120 km to be consistent with temperature gradients in standard model atmospheres, and the eddy diffusion coefficient K determined from these observations reaches its maximum below 115 km. For three atomic oxygen profiles obtained at geographic latitudes of -27.69, +48.89, and +59.10 the temperature profiles required to create a downward flux that varies with altitude as the integrated photolytic production rate above that altitude are calculated, assuming K to be invariant with altitude and latitude. The oxygen distribution can be reconciled with a constant eddy coefficient above 100 km if the temperature gradient reaches a value between 10 and 20 deg K/km for low values of the eddy coefficient (about 500,000 sq cm/sec) or between 30 and 50 deg K/km for a higher eddy coefficient (about 1.6 million sq cm/sec). The maximum gradient for the Jacchia (1971) model is about 10 deg K/km. These temperature profiles predict Ar/N ratios consistent with those measured by sounding rockets. The low K profiles are large enough to remove a large part of the solar energy deposited below 120 km by thermal conduction.

  4. Antarctic Crustal Thickness from Gravity Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, A. P.; Kusznir, N. J.; Ferraccioli, F.; Jordan, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    Using gravity anomaly inversion, we have produced the first comprehensive regional maps of crustal thickness and oceanic lithosphere distribution for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. We determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness, continental lithosphere thinning (1-1/β) and ocean-continent transition location using a 3D spectral domain gravity inversion method, which incorporates a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction. The continental lithosphere thinning distribution, used to define the initial thermal model temperature perturbation is derived from the gravity inversion and uses no a priori isochron information; as a consequence the gravity inversion method provides a prediction of ocean-continent transition location, which is independent of ocean isochron information. The gravity anomaly contribution from ice thickness is included in the gravity inversion, as is the contribution from sediments which assumes a compaction controlled sediment density increase with depth. Data used in the gravity inversion are elevation and bathymetry, free-air gravity anomaly, the most recent Bedmap2 ice thickness and bedrock topography compilation south of 60 degrees south (Fretwell et al., 2013) and relatively sparse constraints on sediment thickness. Our gravity inversion study predicts thick crust (> 45 km) under interior East Antarctica penetrated by narrow continental rifts that feature relatively thinner crust. The East Antarctic Rift System (EARS) is a major Permian to Cretaceous age rift system that appears to extend from the continental margin at the Lambert Rift to the South Pole region, a distance of 2500 km. This is comparable in scale to the well-studied East African rift system. Intermediate crustal thickness with an inferred linear rift fabric is predicted under Coates Land. An extensive region of either thick oceanic crust or highly thinned continental crust is predicted offshore Oates Land and north Victoria Land, and also off West Antarctica

  5. The KM phase in semi-realistic heterotic orbifold models

    SciTech Connect

    Giedt, Joel

    2000-07-05

    In string-inspired semi-realistic heterotic orbifolds models with an anomalous U(1){sub X},a nonzero Kobayashi-Masakawa (KM) phase is shown to arise generically from the expectation values of complex scalar fields, which appear in nonrenormalizable quark mass couplings. Modular covariant nonrenormalizable superpotential couplings are constructed. A toy Z{sub 3} orbifold model is analyzed in some detail. Modular symmetries and orbifold selection rules are taken into account and do not lead to a cancellation of the KM phase. We also discuss attempts to obtain the KM phase solely from renormalizable interactions.

  6. Accelerating Thick Aluminum Liners Using Pulsed Power

    SciTech Connect

    Kyrala, G.A.; Hammerburg, J.E.; Bowers, D.; Stokes, J.; Morgan, D.V.; Anderson, W.E.; Cochrane, J.C.

    1999-06-28

    The authors have investigated the acceleration of very thick cylindrical aluminum liners using the Pegasus II capacitory bank. These accelerated solid liners will be used to impact other objects at velocities below 1.5 km/sec, allowing one to generate and sustain shocks of a few 100 kilobar for a few microseconds. A cylindrical shell of 1100 series aluminum with an initial inner radius of 23.61 mm, an initial thickness of 3.0 mm, and a height of 20 mm, was accelerated using a current pulse of 7.15 MA peak current and a 7.4 microsecond quarter cycle time. The aluminum shell was imploded within confining copper glide planes with decreasing separation with an inward slope of 8 degrees. At impact with a cylindrical target of diameter 3-cm, the liner was moving at 1.4 km/sec and its thickness increased to 4.5 mm. Radial X-ray radiograms of the liner showed both the liner and the glide plane interface. The curvature of the inner surface of the liner was measured before impact with the 15-mm radius target. The radiograms also showed that the copper glide planes distorted as the liner radius decreased and that some axial stress is induced in the liner. The axial stresses did not affect the inner curvature significantly. Post-shot calculations of the liner behavior indicated that the thickness of the glide plane played a significant role in the distortion of the interface between the liner and the glide plane.

  7. Constraining Enceladus’s ice shell thickness using tidally driven Coulomb failure models of the tiger stripe fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olgin, J. G.; Smith-Konter, B. R.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2009-12-01

    The thickness of Enceladus’s ice shell, and subsequently the depth of its underlying ocean, plays an important role in determining the magnitude and orientation of tidal stresses on the surface of the satellite. The objective of this study is to attempt to constrain Enceladus’s ice shell thickness through assessment of tidally driven Coulomb failure of the tiger stripe fractures, probable sources of tectonic activity that reside along Enceladus’s south polar region. Using the SatStress computational model and assuming a global ocean and uniform ice shell thickness, we compare tidal stresses resulting from a suite of models of variable ice shell thickness (6 km, 24 km, 30 km, 40 km, 50 km, 75 km, and 90 km). Evaluation of the Love numbers for each model (l2, h2 and k2) suggest that ice shell thicknesses greater than a few 10s of km are not capable of generating stress conditions conducive to fault failure on Enceladus. We further investigate the feasibility of tiger stripe failure by applying a Coulomb failure model to the resulting tidal stresses. Based on previous work, we have shown that a 24 km thick ice shell model is capable of generating stress conditions that promote Coulomb failure and strike-slip displacements of ~0.4 m along some portions of the tiger stripe system, assuming a coefficient of friction of 0.2. We compare this reference model to the 6 km, 30 km, 40 km, 50 km, 75 km, and 90 km ice shell models and find that thin to moderate ice shell models do indeed support fault failure, while thick ice shell models do not. Models based on a 6 km ice shell thickness can yield strike-slip displacements on the order of 1 m along all segments of the tiger stripe system. Models based on a 30 km ice shell thickness can also generate strike-slip displacements (~0.1 m), however only on isolated fault segments. Finally, models based on a 40 km ice shell thickness or greater cannot generate stresses capable of Coulomb failure along any of the tiger stripe

  8. 4-km body(ies?) embedded in Saturn's Huygens Ringlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitale, Joseph N.; Hahn, Joseph M.; Tamayo, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Saturn's 20-km-wide Huygens ringlet, located ~250 km exterior to the B ring, displays unusual kinematics, as evidenced by a time variable width-relation. The cause of this behavior is not clear, but may be related to the presence of large embedded bodies (Spitale and Hahn 2016). The largest such bodies produce half-propeller-shaped disturbances originating at the inner edge of the ringlet, whose radial widths imply a size of ~4 km, based on simple scaling from A-ring propellers. Here, we show that a numerical N-body model of the ringlet with a 4-km body embedded near the inner edge produces features that are consistent with the observed half propellers.

  9. High energy neutrino detection with KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliozzi, Pasquale; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration has started the construction of a next generation high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea: the largest and most sensitive neutrino research infrastructure. The full KM3NeT detector will be a several cubic kilometres distributed, networked infrastructure. In Italy, off the coast of Capo Passero, and in France, off the coast of Toulon. Thanks to its location in the Northern hemisphere and to its large instrumented volume, KM3NeT will be the optimal instrument to search for neutrinos from the Southern sky and in particular from the Galactic plane, thus making it complementary to IceCube. In this work the technologically innovative component of the detector, the status of construction and the first results from prototypes of the KM3NeT detector will be described as well as its capability to discover neutrino sources are reported.

  10. Akeno 20 km (2) air shower array (Akeno Branch)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teshima, M.; Ohoka, H.; Matsubara, Y.; Hara, T.; Hatano, Y.; Hayashida, N.; He, C. X.; Honda, M.; Ishikawa, F.; Kamata, K.

    1985-01-01

    As the first stage of the future huge array, the Akeno air shower array was expanded to about 20 sq. km. by adding 19 scintillation detectors of 2.25 sq m area outside the present 1 sq. km. Akeno array with a new data collection system. These detectors are spaced about 1km from each other and connected by two optical fiber cables. This array has been in partial operation from 8th, Sep. 1984 and full operation from 20th, Dec. 1984. 20 sq m muon stations are planned to be set with 2km separation and one of them is now under construction. The origin of the highest energy cosmic rays is studied.

  11. How does music aid 5 km of running?

    PubMed

    Bigliassi, Marcelo; León-Domínguez, Umberto; Buzzachera, Cosme F; Barreto-Silva, Vinícius; Altimari, Leandro R

    2015-02-01

    This research investigated the effects of music and its time of application on a 5-km run. Fifteen well-trained male long-distance runners (24.87 ± 2.47 years; 78.87 ± 10.57 kg; 178 ± 07 cm) participated in this study. Five randomized experimental conditions during a 5-km run on an official track were tested (PM: motivational songs, applied before 5 km of running; SM: slow motivational songs, applied during 5 km of running; FM: fast and motivational songs, applied during 5 km of running; CS: calm songs, applied after 5 km of running; CO: control condition). Psychophysiological assessments were performed before (functional near-infrared spectroscopy, heart rate variability [HRV], valence, and arousal), during (performance time, heart rate, and rate of perceived exertion [RPE]), and after (mood, RPE, and HRV) tests. The chosen songs were considered pleasurable and capable of activating. Furthermore, they activated the 3 assessed prefrontal cortex (PFC) areas (medial, right dorsolateral, and left dorsolateral) similarly, generating positive emotional consequences by autonomous system analysis. The first 800 m was accomplished faster for SM and FM compared with other conditions (p ≤ 0.05); moreover, there was a high probability of improving running performance when music was applied (SM: 89%; FM: 85%; PM: 39%). Finally, music was capable of accelerating vagal tonus after 5 km of running with CS (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, music was able to activate the PFC area, minimize perceptions, improve performance, and accelerate recovery during 5 km of running. PMID:25029009

  12. Seismology and lateral thickness variations of the lunar crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenet, H.; Lognonné, P.; Wieczorek, M.; Mizutani, H.

    The Apollo missions set up a seismic network on the nearside of the Moon (1969-1977), which allowed to address the fundamental questions of lunar science. Recently this dataset was re-investigated in order to shed light on ambiguous results of ancient studies. One of them was the proposed 60 km crustal thickness below the Apollo station 12 and 14 sites. Today, Khan and Mosegaard (2002) and Lognonné et al. (2003), both propose that the crust is much thinner than expected, respectively around 45 and 30 km. On the other hand, lateral relative variations of crustal thickness can be determined by inversion of gravity and topography data, but this process requires the use of a reference thickness brought by seismic determination, in order to build a crustal thickness map. This present work goes further. In this study, we constrain for the first time the lateral variations of crustal thickness with seismic and topography data only. We use a Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo method to invert for the lateral crustal thickness, determined by the arrival times of impacts at the 4 Apollo stations. Each impact and station site is associated to an independent Moho depth. Thus, we find independent seismological constraints on the Moho depth for 30 different locations on the lunar surface instead of one. We will present here the results of this study via a comparison between this first lunar crustal thickness map we built with seismology, and the map resulting from analysis of the gravity data.

  13. The Crustal Thickness of Mars: Accuracy and Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    The accuracy of the most recent crustal thickness models of Mars is investigated along with their resolution. Evidence is presented of noise-like features in the maps and spectra that suggest the basic data only represent features down to resolutions of about 300 to 600 km. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Status of the KM3NeT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margiotta, A.

    2014-04-01

    KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It will be installed at three sites: KM3NeT-Fr, offshore Toulon, France, KM3NeT-It, offshore Portopalo di Capo Passero, Sicily (Italy) and KM3NeT-Gr, offshore Pylos, Peloponnese, Greece. It will host the next generation Cherenkov neutrino telescope and nodes for a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory, providing oceanographers, marine biologists, and geophysicists with real time measurements. The neutrino telescope will search for Galactic and extra-Galactic sources of neutrinos, complementing IceCube in its field of view. The detector will have a modular structure and consists of six building blocks, each including about one hundred Detection Units (DUs). Each DU will be equipped with 18 multi-PMT digital optical modules. The first phase of construction has started and shore and deep-sea infrastructures hosting the future KM3NeT detector are being prepared in France near Toulon and in Italy, near Capo Passero in Sicily. The technological solutions for KM3NeT and the expected performance of the detector are presented and discussed.

  15. The vertical structure and thickness of Saturn's rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Burns, J. A.; Durisen, R. H.; Hamill, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    An explanation for the vertical structure and thickness of Saturn's rings compatible with observational data is presented. The model of the rings as being many particles thick is shown to be possible, with random particle motions preventing the complete flattening of the system and a gaussian distribution of particle density with vertical displacement. The model prediction of a maximum ring thickness of tens of meters, however, is in conflict with observations of ring thickness of at least 0.8 km at ring-plane passage. It is shown that perturbations to ring particle orbits caused by the sun and Saturn's large satellites may produce long- and short-period coherent vertical ring displacements and a nonlinear displacement of the ring plane from the equatorial plane with radial distance, leading to an apparent edge-on thickness of a few hundred meters.

  16. Links between the mechanical, seismic and thermal thickness, rheological structure and mechanical stability of the continental lithosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, E.; Watts, A. B.; Francois, T.; Tesauro, M.

    2012-04-01

    rules are similar for young hot plates (thermo-tectonic age < 150 Myr) but different for older plates. In old plates, the mechanical thickness appears to be roughly equal to crustal thickness Hc + EET multiplied by a factor of 1.2-1.5. It thus varies from about 80-100 km to 200 km. Comparing Hm and EET in oceans and continents with seismic thickness Hs indicates stable correlations between these quantities. However, no correlation exists between Hm-EET and seismogenic layer thickness Ts. In turn, the latter parameter seem to anti-correlate with Hm-EET in cases of strong local deformation while in cases of small strain/stress states there is no any depictable link. We show that stabilization of the surface, LAB and Moho topography generally requires strong mantle lithosphere with Ht > 150 km and rheology close to that of "typical" dry olivine flow law. Independently of their crustal properties, lithosphere with weaker mantle rheology and thermo-mechanical ages from 100 to 300Ma is unstable so that RT instabilities at the LAB boundary, and small-scale convection below it, result in rapid destruction (typically less than in 60 Myr) of the lithosphere. At same time surface dynamic topography shows unrealistic undulations on the order of 2000m in amplitude. Assumption of strong mantle lithosphere reduces surface undulations to the acceptable 200m while the lithosphere survives over time spans exceeding 200Myr. For older plates (> 1000 Myr) surface topography, Moho and LAB are still unstable for rheological models based on the assumption of weak wet olivine rheology.

  17. Fetal nuchal translucency thickness.

    PubMed

    Witters, I; Fryns, J R

    2007-01-01

    In the early 1990s Nicolaides introduced screening for trisomy 21 by fetal nuchal translucency thickness measurement with ultrasound between 11-13(+6) weeks. Already in 1866 L. Down noted that common features of patients with trisomy 21 are a skin being too large for the body and a flat face with a small nose. While detection rates for trisomy 21, given an invasive testing rate of 5%, were only 30% for screening by maternal age and 65% for screening by maternal serum triple test, the detection rate for screening by nuchal translucency combined with maternal age was 75% and this could be increased to 90% in combination with maternal serum screening (serum B-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A) at 11-13(+6) weeks. The additional soft markers in the first trimester are the fetal nasal bone, the Doppler velocity waveform in the ductus venosus and tricuspid regurgitation and these markers can be used to further increase the detection rate of trisomy 21. In addition increased nuchal translucency thickness can also identify other chromosomal defects (mainly trisomy 13 and 18 and monosomy X) and major congenital malformations (mainly cardiac defects) and genetic syndromes. PMID:17515296

  18. On the relations between cratonic lithosphere thickness, plate motions, and basal drag

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Artemieva, I.M.; Mooney, W.D.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of seismic, thermal, and petrological evidence on the structure of Precambrian lithosphere suggests that its local maximum thickness is highly variable (140-350 km), with a bimodal distribution for Archean cratons (200-220 km and 300-350 km). We discuss the origin of such large differences in lithospheric thickness, and propose that the lithospheric base can have large depth variations over short distances. The topography of Bryce Canyon (western USA) is proposed as an inverted analog of the base of the lithosphere. The horizontal and vertical dimensions of Archean cratons are strongly correlated: larger cratons have thicker lithosphere. Analysis of the bimodal distribution of lithospheric thickness in Archean cratons shows that the "critical" surface area for cratons to have thick (>300 km) keels is >6-8 ?? 106 km2 . Extrapolation of the linear trend between Archean lithospheric thickness and cratonic area to zero area yields a thickness of 180 km. This implies that the reworking of Archean crust should be accompanied by thinning and reworking of the entire lithospheric column to a thickness of 180 km in accord with thickness estimates for Proterozoic lithosphere. Likewise, extrapolation of the same trend to the size equal to the total area of all Archean cratons implies that the lithospheric thickness of a hypothesized early Archean supercontinent could have been 350-450 km decreasing to 280-400 km for Gondwanaland. We evaluate the basal drag model as a possible mechanism that may thin the cratonic lithosphere. Inverse correlations are found between lithospheric thickness and (a) fractional subduction length and (b) the effective ridge length. In agreement with theoretical predictions, lithospheric thickness of Archean keels is proportional to the square root of the ratio of the craton length (along the direction of plate motion) to the plate velocity. Large cratons with thick keels and low plate velocities are less eroded by basal drag than small

  19. Local fluctuations of ozone from 16 km to 45 km deduced from in situ vertical ozone profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreau, G.; Robert, C.

    1994-01-01

    A vertical ozone profile obtained by an in situ ozone sonde from 16 km to 45 km, has allowed to observe local ozone concentration variations. These variations can be observed, thanks to a fast measurement system based on a UV absorption KrF excimer laser beam in a multipass cell. Ozone standard deviation versus altitude calculated from the mean is derived. Ozone variations or fluctuations are correlated with the different dynamic zones of the stratosphere.

  20. Similarities and Differences in Pacing Patterns in a 161-km and 101-km Ultra-Distance Road Race.

    PubMed

    Tan, Philip L S; Tan, Frankie H Y; Bosch, Andrew N

    2016-08-01

    Tan, PLS, Tan, FHY, and Bosch, AN. Similarities and differences in pacing patterns in a 161-km and 101-km ultra-distance road race. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2145-2155, 2016-The purpose of this study was to establish and compare the pacing patterns of fast and slow finishers in a tropical ultra-marathon. Data were collected from the Craze Ultra-marathon held on the 22nd and 21st of September in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Finishers of the 161-km (N = 47) and 101-km (N = 120) categories of the race were divided into thirds (groups A-C) by merit of finishing time. Altogether, 17 and 11 split times were recorded for the 161-km and 101-km finishers, respectively, and used to calculate the mean running speed for each distance segment. Running speed for the first segment was normalized to 100, with all subsequent splits adjusted accordingly. Running speed during the last 5 km was calculated against the mean race pace to establish the existence of an end spurt. A reverse J-shaped pacing profile was demonstrated in all groups for both distance categories and only 38% of the finishers executed an end spurt. In the 101-km category, in comparison with groups B and C, group A maintained a significantly more even pace (p = 0.013 and 0.001, respectively) and completed the race at a significantly higher percent of initial starting speed (p = 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Descriptive data also revealed that the top 5 finishers displayed a "herd-behavior" by staying close to the lead runner in the initial portion of the race. These findings demonstrate that to achieve a more even pace, recreational ultra-runners should adopt a patient sustainable starting speed, with less competitive runners setting realistic performance goals whereas competitive runners with a specific time goal to consider running in packs of similar pace. PMID:26808845

  1. The Equivalent Slab Thickness of Mars' Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendillo, M.; Lawler, G.; Narvaez, C.; Kofman, W.; Mouginot, J.; Morgan, D.; Gurnett, D.

    2014-04-01

    The integral with height of an electron density profile, called the ionospheric total electron content (TEC), is dominated by plasma near the height of maximum electron density (Nmax). The ratio τ = TEC/Nmax has a unit of distance, representing the thickness of a slab of plasma of uniform density (Nmax) with the same TEC. At Earth, the parameter τ has been found to vary far less than either Nmax or TEC, and thus models of τ can be used to generate values of TEC or Nmax when only one is observed. For an ionospheric layer dominated by photo-chemical processes, τ has also been related to the scale height of the neutral gas (H = kT/mg) that is ionized by sunlight. The MARSIS radio science package on the Mars Express satellite has produced large independent data sets of TEC and Nmax. We have used them to form slab thickness patterns versus phase of the solar cycle and solar zenith angle. The overall sample average for daytime (SZA < 90o) conditions is < τ >day = 71 ± 21 km, and for SZA between 90o - 100o, < τ >terminator = 55 ± 25 km. We will report on the possible use of τ patterns to infer characteristics of the martian ionosphere and thermosphere.

  2. X-1-2 on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 aircraft on the ramp at NACA High Speed Flight Research Station located on the South Base of Muroc Army Air Field in 1947. The X-1-2 flew until October 23, 1951, completing 74 glide and powered flights with nine different pilots. The aircraft has white paint and the NACA tail band. The black Xs are reference markings for tracking purposes. They were widely used on NACA aircraft in the early 1950s. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On Oct. 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager

  3. 44 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., appliances, services, or allowances therefor or to valuations, costs or accounting, or practices relating to... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  4. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  5. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  6. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  7. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  8. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  9. 44 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Emergency Management Agency. (e) Major rule means any regulation that is likely to result in: (1) An...

  10. 44 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Emergency Management Agency. (e) Major rule means any regulation that is likely to result in: (1) An...

  11. 44 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Emergency Management Agency. (e) Major rule means any regulation that is likely to result in: (1) An...

  12. Ultrasonic Inspection Of Thick Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friant, C. L.; Djordjevic, B. B.; O'Keefe, C. V.; Ferrell, W.; Klutz, T.

    1993-01-01

    Ultrasonics used to inspect large, relatively thick vessels for hidden defects. Report based on experiments in through-the-thickness transmission of ultrasonic waves in both steel and filament-wound composite cases of solid-fuel rocket motors.

  13. Gravity Waves Near 300 km Over the Polar Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. S.; Hanson, W. B.; Hodges, R. R.; Coley, W. R.; Carignan, G. R.; Spencer, N. W.

    1995-01-01

    Distinctive wave forms in the distributions of vertical velocity and temperature of both neutral particles and ions are frequently observed from Dynamics Explorer 2 at altitudes above 250 km over the polar caps. These are interpreted as being due to internal gravity waves propagating in the neutral atmosphere. The disturbances characterized by vertical velocity perturbations of the order of 100 m/s and horizontal wave lengths along the satellite path of about 500 km. They often extend across the entire polar cap. The associated temperature perturbations indicate that the horizontal phase progression is from the nightside to the dayside. Vertical displacements are inferred to be of the order of 10 km and the periods to be of the order of 10(exp 3) s. The waves must propagate in the neutral atmosphere, but they usually are most clearly recognizable in the observations of ion vertical velocity and ion temperature. By combining the neutral pressure calculated from the observed neutral concentration and temperature with the vertical component of the neutral velocity, an upward energy flux of the order of 0.04 erg/sq cm-s at 250 km has been calculated, which is about equal to the maximum total solar ultraviolet heat input above that altitude. Upward energy fluxes calculated from observations on orbital passes at altitudes from 250 to 560 km indicate relatively little attenuation with altitude.

  14. Full 40 km crustal reflection seismic datasets in several Indonesian basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinkelman, M. G.; Granath, J. W.; Christ, J. M.; Emmet, P. A.; Bird, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Long offset, deep penetration regional 2D seismic data sets have been acquired since 2002 by GX Technology in a number of regions worldwide (www.iongeo.com/Data_Libraries/Spans/). Typical surveys consist of 10+ lines located to image specific critical aspects of basin structure. Early surveys were processed to 20 km, but more recent ones have extended to 40-45 km from 16 sec records. Pre-stack time migration is followed by pre-stack depth migration using gravity and in some cases magnetic modeling to constrain the velocity structure. We illustrate several cases in the SE Asian and Australasian area. In NatunaSPAN™ two generations of inversion can be distinguished, one involving Paleogene faults with Neogene inversion and one involving strike slip-related uplift in the West Natuna Basin. Crustal structure in the very deep Neogene East Natuna Basin has also been imaged. The JavaSPAN™ program traced Paleogene sediments onto oceanic crust of the Flores Sea, thus equating back arc spreading there to the widespread Eocene extension. It also imaged basement in the Makassar Strait beneath as much as 6 km of Cenozoic sedimentary rocks that accumulated Eocene rift basins (the North and South Makassar basins) on the edge of Sundaland, the core of SE Asia. The basement is seismically layered: a noisy upper crust overlies a prominent 10 km thick transparent zone, the base of which marks another change to slightly noisier reflectivity. Eocene normal faults responsible for the opening of extensional basins root in the top of the transparent layer which may be Moho or a brittle-ductile transition within the extended continental crust. Of particular significance is the first image of thick Precambrian basins comprising the bulk of continental crust under the Arafura Sea in the ArafuraSPAN™ program. Four lines some 1200 km long located between Australia and New Guinea on the Arafura platform image a thin Phanerozoic section overlying a striking Precambrian basement composed of

  15. Fluctuating Arctic Sea ice thickness changes estimated by an in situ learned and empirically forced neural network model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belchansky, G.I.; Douglas, D.C.; Platonov, N.G.

    2008-01-01

    Sea ice thickness (SIT) is a key parameter of scientific interest because understanding the natural spatiotemporal variability of ice thickness is critical for improving global climate models. In this paper, changes in Arctic SIT during 1982-2003 are examined using a neural network (NN) algorithm trained with in situ submarine ice draft and surface drilling data. For each month of the study period, the NN individually estimated SIT of each ice-covered pixel (25-km resolution) based on seven geophysical parameters (four shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes, surface air temperature, ice drift velocity, and ice divergence/convergence) that were cumulatively summed at each monthly position along the pixel's previous 3-yr drift track (or less if the ice was <3 yr old). Average January SIT increased during 1982-88 in most regions of the Arctic (+7.6 ?? 0.9 cm yr-1), decreased through 1996 Arctic-wide (-6.1 ?? 1.2 cm yr-1), then modestly increased through 2003 mostly in the central Arctic (+2.1 ?? 0.6 cm yr-1). Net ice volume change in the Arctic Ocean from 1982 to 2003 was negligible, indicating that cumulative ice growth had largely replaced the estimated 45 000 km3 of ice lost by cumulative export. Above 65??N, total annual ice volume and interannual volume changes were correlated with the Arctic Oscillation (AO) at decadal and annual time scales, respectively. Late-summer ice thickness and total volume varied proportionally until the mid-1990s, but volume did not increase commensurate with the thickening during 1996-2002. The authors speculate that decoupling of the ice thickness-volume relationship resulted from two opposing mechanisms with different latitudinal expressions: a recent quasi-decadal shift in atmospheric circulation patterns associated with the AO's neutral state facilitated ice thickening at high latitudes while anomalously warm thermal forcing thinned and melted the ice cap at its periphery. ?? 2008 American Meteorological Society.

  16. Depressed mantle discontinuities beneath Iceland: Evidence of a garnet controlled 660 km discontinuity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, J.; Cottaar, S.; White, R. S.; Deuss, A.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of a mantle plume beneath Iceland has long been hypothesised to explain its high volumes of crustal volcanism. Practical constraints in seismic tomography mean that thin, slow velocity anomalies representative of a mantle plume signature are difficult to image. However it is possible to infer the presence of temperature anomalies at depth from the effect they have on phase transitions in surrounding mantle material. Phase changes in the olivine component of mantle rocks are thought to be responsible for global mantle seismic discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depth, though exact depths are dependent on surrounding temperature conditions. This study uses P to S seismic wave conversions at mantle discontinuities to investigate variation in topography allowing inference of temperature anomalies within the transition zone. We employ a large data set from a wide range of seismic stations across the North Atlantic region and a dense network in Iceland, including over 100 stations run by the University of Cambridge. Data are used to create over 6000 receiver functions. These are converted from time to depth including 3D corrections for variations in crustal thickness and upper mantle velocity heterogeneities, and then stacked based on common conversion points. We find that both the 410 and 660 km discontinuities are depressed under Iceland compared to normal depths in the surrounding region. The depression of 30 km observed on the 410 km discontinuity could be artificially deepened by un-modelled slow anomalies in the correcting velocity model. Adding a slow velocity conduit of -1.44% reduces the depression to 18 km; in this scenario both the velocity reduction and discontinuity topography reflect a temperature anomaly of 210 K. We find that much larger velocity reductions would be required to remove all depression on the 660 km discontinuity, and therefore correlated discontinuity depressions appear to be a robust feature of the data. While it is not possible

  17. The -145 km/S Absorption System of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vieira, G.; Gull, T. R.; Danks, A.; Johansson, S.

    2002-01-01

    With the STIS E230H mode (R-118,000) , we have identified about twenty absorption components in line of sight from Eta Carinae. Two components, one at -513 km/s and another at -145 W s , are quite different in character from the others, mostly at intermediate velocities. The -145 km/s component is significantly wider in fwhm, is seen in many more species, and the lower level can be above 20,000/cm, well above the 2000/cm noted in the -513 km/s component. In the spectral region from 2400 to 3160A, approximately 500 absorption lines have been identified. In this poster, we will present line identifications and atomic parameters of the measured lines, hopefully providing insight as to what levels are being excited and by what processes.

  18. Reproducibility of airway wall thickness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Krass, Stefan; Owsijewitsch, Michael; de Hoop, Bartjan; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

    2010-03-01

    Airway remodeling and accompanying changes in wall thickness are known to be a major symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), associated with reduced lung function in diseased individuals. Further investigation of this disease as well as monitoring of disease progression and treatment effect demand for accurate and reproducible assessment of airway wall thickness in CT datasets. With wall thicknesses in the sub-millimeter range, this task remains challenging even with today's high resolution CT datasets. To provide accurate measurements, taking partial volume effects into account is mandatory. The Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum (FWHM) method has been shown to be inappropriate for small airways1,2 and several improved algorithms for objective quantification of airway wall thickness have been proposed.1-8 In this paper, we describe an algorithm based on a closed form solution proposed by Weinheimer et al.7 We locally estimate the lung density parameter required for the closed form solution to account for possible variations of parenchyma density between different lung regions, inspiration states and contrast agent concentrations. The general accuracy of the algorithm is evaluated using basic tubular software and hardware phantoms. Furthermore, we present results on the reproducibility of the algorithm with respect to clinical CT scans, varying reconstruction kernels, and repeated acquisitions, which is crucial for longitudinal observations.

  19. Evaluation of triggering schemes for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, T.; Herold, B.; Shanidze, R.

    2013-10-01

    The future neutrino telescope KM3NeT, to be built in the Mediterranean Sea, will be the largest of its kind. It will include nearly two hundred thousand photomultiplier tubes (PMT) mounted in multi-PMT digital optical modules (DOM). The dominant source of the PMT signals is decays of 40K and marine fauna bioluminescence. Selection of neutrino and muon events from this continuous optical background signals requires the implementation of fast and efficient triggers. Various schemes for the filtering of background data and the selection of neutrino and muon events were evaluated for the KM3NeT telescope using Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Simulation of CO2 release at 800 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setayesh, A.

    1993-08-01

    The SOCRATES contamination-interaction code has been used to simulate the reactions of 0 + CO2 yields CO2(v) + O, O + CO2 - CO(v) + O2, and CO2 + H - CO + OH(v) at an altitude of 800 km in both ram and wake directions of the spacecraft. These simulations show that the radiation from these reactions can be measurable for the parameters which have been used in these calculations. The investigation carries out the simulations as much as 30 km from the spacecraft. The radiative intensity of CO(v) and OH(v) show the highest and lowest, respectively.

  1. Cascade sensitivity studies for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, Luigi Antonio

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the deep seas of the Mediterranean housing a large scale neutrino telescope. The first phase of construction of the telescope has started. Next step is an intermediate phase realising a detector volume of about one-third of the final detector volume. We report on calculations of the sensitivity of the KM3NeT detector to showering neutrino events, the strategy to optimise the detector to a cosmic neutrino flux analogous to the one reported by the IceCube Collaboration and the results of this strategy applied to the intermediate phase detector.

  2. Calculation of ejecta thickness and structural uplift for Lunar and Martian complex crater rims.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Tim; Sturm, Sebastian; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Crater rims of simple and complex craters have an elevation that is formed during the excavation stage of crater formation. For simple crater rims it is believed that the elevation is due to the sum of two equal parts, the thickness of the most proximal impact ejecta blanket (overturned flap) plus the thickness that results from plastic deformation including injection [1, 2, 3]. We intend to measure and quantify the kinematics of mass movements, especially concerning the question why complex impact craters have elevated crater rims like simple craters and precisely constrain the ejecta thickness and structural uplift of Lunar and Martian crater rims to understand what the main contributor to the elevated rim is [4]. We investigated a pristine 16 km-diameter unnamed Martian complex crater (21.52°N, 184.35°) and the lunar complex craters Bessel (21.8°N, 17.9°E) 16 km in diameter and Euler (23.3°N, 29.2°W) 28 km in diameter [5, 6]. In the crater walls of these craters we found columnar lavas on Mars and basaltic layering on the Moon. We used the uppermost layers of these exposed outcrops along the crater wall to determine the dip of the target rocks (Mars) and to distinguish between the bedrock and the overlying ejecta. We precisely measured the structural uplift and ejecta thickness of these complex craters. The unnamed crater on Mars has a mean rim height of 375.75 m, with a structural uplift of 233.88 m (57.44%), exposed as columnar lavas and the superposing ejecta has a height of 141.87 m (43.56%). For the Lunar complex crater Euler the mean total rim height is 790 ± 100 m, with a minimal structural uplift of 475 ± 100 m (60 ± 10 %), exposed as basaltic layers [e.g., 7, 8] and a maximum ejecta thickness of 315 ± 100 m (40 ± 10%). The Lunar complex crater Bessel has a total rim height of 430 ± 15 m , with a minimal structural uplift of 290 ± 15 m (67 ± 3 %), exposed as basaltic layers and a maximum ejecta thickness of 140 ± 115 m (33 ± 3%). For the

  3. Thermal thickness and evolution of Precambrian lithosphere: A global study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Artemieva, I.M.; Mooney, W.D.

    2001-01-01

    The thermal thickness of Precambrian lithosphere is modeled and compared with estimates from seismic tomography and xenolith data. We use the steady state thermal conductivity equation with the same geothermal constraints for all of the Precambrian cratons (except Antarctica) to calculate the temperature distribution in the stable continental lithosphere. The modeling is based on the global compilation of heat flow data by Pollack et al. [1993] and more recent data. The depth distribution of heat-producing elements is estimated using regional models for ???300 blocks with sizes varying from 1?? ?? 1?? to about 5?? ?? 5?? in latitude and longitude and is constrained by laboratory, seismic and petrologic data and, where applicable, empirical heat flow/heat production relationships. Maps of the lateral temperature distribution at depths 50, 100, and 150 km are presented for all continents except Antarctica. The thermal thickness of the lithosphere is calculated assuming a conductive layer overlying the mantle with an adiabat of 1300??C. The Archean and early Proterozoic lithosphere is found to have two typical thicknesses, 200-220 km and 300-350 km. In general, thin (???220 km) roots are found for Archean and early Proterozoic cratons in the Southern Hemisphere (South Africa, Western Australia, South America, and India) and thicker (>300 km) roots are found in the Northern Hemisphere (Baltic Shield, Siberian Platform, West Africa, and possibly the Canadian Shield). We find that the thickness of continental lithosphere generally decreases with age from >200 km beneath Archean cratons to intermediate values of 200 ?? 50 km in early Proterozoic lithosphere, to about 140 ?? 50 km in middle and late Proterozoic cratons. Using known crustal thickness, our calculated geotherms, and assuming that isostatic balance is achieved at the base of the lithosphere, we find that Archean and early Proterozoic mantle lithosphere is 1.5% less dense (chemically depleted) than the

  4. Subduction of thick crust: the Alaska example (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abers, G. A.; Kim, Y.; Christensen, D. H.

    2013-12-01

    It is a paradigm of plate tectonics that oceanic lithosphere subducts readily, while lithosphere transporting much thicker continental crust does not. Analyses of plate buoyancy have included a variety of effects, such as eclogitization, crustal compositional stratification, and plate strength, but all lead to the conclusion that crust needs to be thinner than about 15-25 km in order to subduct. A test of this conclusion is underway in southern Alaska, where the Yakutat terrane is being driven by the Pacific plate into the Alaskan margin. Its crust is 15-30 km thick, varying along strike, with a seismic velocity structure resembling an oceanic plateau; thus it spans the predicted limit in thickness of subductable crust. In the eastern thicker part, the terrane appears to be colliding and driving orogenesis in the St. Elias-Chugach ranges, although voluminous volcanism of the Wrangell Volcanic Field may be a consequence of some crust subducting. Farther west, the Yakutat terrane is 15-20 km thick and clearly subducting beneath the Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula. It forms the slab subducting beneath the central Alaska Range 400 km inland. The thick crust has been imaged at all depths less than 130 km, through receiver functions, travel-time tomography, and offshore by active-source imaging, with similar structure in most images. Greater than 130 km depth the imaged crust vanishes in seismic images, consistent with predicted depths of eclogitization of weakly hydrated metagabbroic crust, and the lack of a velocity contrast between eclogite and peridotite. Lithosphere including the thick Yakutat crust gives a net buoyancy close to neutral, so its subduction will depend on other factors. The high buoyancy may be responsible for the remarkably shallow dip of the plate at depths less than 50 km, producing one of the widest seismogenic thrust zones on the planet, allowing it to host the great (Mw 9.3) 1964 Gulf of Alaska earthquake. The shallow dip may also aid

  5. Waterway Ice Thickness Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The ship on the opposite page is a U. S. Steel Corporation tanker cruising through the ice-covered waters of the Great Lakes in the dead of winter. The ship's crew is able to navigate safely by plotting courses through open water or thin ice, a technique made possible by a multi-agency technology demonstration program in which NASA is a leading participant. Traditionally, the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway System is closed to shipping for more than three months of winter season because of ice blockage, particularly fluctuations in the thickness and location of ice cover due to storms, wind, currents and variable temperatures. Shippers have long sought a system of navigation that would allow year-round operation on the Lakes and produce enormous economic and fuel conservation benefits. Interrupted operations require that industrial firms stockpile materials to carry them through the impassable months, which is costly. Alternatively, they must haul cargos by more expensive overland transportation. Studies estimate the economic benefits of year-round Great Lakes shipping in the hundreds of millions of dollars annually and fuel consumption savings in the tens of millions of gallons. Under Project Icewarn, NASA, the U.S. Coast Guard and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration collaborated in development and demonstration of a system that permits safe year-round operations. It employs airborne radars, satellite communications relay and facsimile transmission to provide shippers and ships' masters up-to-date ice charts. Lewis Research Center contributed an accurate methods of measuring ice thickness by means of a special "short-pulse" type of radar. In a three-year demonstration program, Coast Guard aircraft equipped with Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) flew over the Great Lakes three or four times a week. The SLAR, which can penetrate clouds, provided large area readings of the type and distribution of ice cover. The information was supplemented by short

  6. Castro ring zone: a 4,500-km2 fossil hydrothermal system in the Challis volcanic field, central Idaho.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criss, R.E.; Ekren, E.B.; Hardyman, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    The largest fossil hydrothermal system occupying a 4500 km2 area in central Idaho is revealed by delta 18O studies. The remains of this meteoric-hydrothermal system are preserved within a sharply bounded, 15 km wide, 70-km-diameter annulus of low delta 18O rock (+2.0 to -8.8per mille) termed the Castro ring zone. The zone is centred on a less depleted (+4.5) core zone consisting of granitic rocks of the Castro pluton. This 700-km2 Eocene subvolcanic batholith has intruded, domed, and hydrothermally metamorphosed a thick sequence of Challis Volcanics, the stratigraphically low rocks in the 2000-km2 Van Horn Peak and the 1000-km2 Thunder Mountain cauldron complexes being most strongly altered. Less extreme 18O depletions occur in the youngest major ash-flow sheets of these complexes, indicating a vertical 18O gradient. Water/rock ratios of geothermal systems are surprisingly insensitive to the circulation scale.-L.-di H.

  7. The thickness history of the northern sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet: an assessment of glacial isostatic adjustment models, sea-level measurements, and vertical land motion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, K. M.; James, T. S.; Henton, J. A.; Dyke, A.

    2014-12-01

    The fit of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) model predictions to 24 relative sea-level histories and an additional 18 present-day GPS-measured vertical land motion rates constrains the thickness and volume history of the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet. The predictions of the best-fit GIA model indicate respective peak ice thicknesses west and east of Hudson Bay of 3.4-3.6 km and approximately 4 km. These values represent, respectively, a large decrease, and a moderate increase, to the load thickness compared to ICE-5G. This result is generally consistent with other GIA studies focussing on space-geodetic constraints. The large reduction to the ice load west of Hudson Bay also reduces the vertical mantle response along the margins of the load centre, which improves the fit to relative sea-level data from the southern Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The fit of GIA model predictions to relative sea-level data from the Baffin Sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet indicate peak ice thicknesses there of 1.2-1.3 km, a modest reduction compared to ICE-5G. On Baffin Island, the modelled elastic crustal response of the Earth to present-day ice mass changes is large. Accounting for this effect improves the agreement between GPS measurements of vertical crustal motion and the GIA model predictions. However, work is needed to incorporate more detailed observations and modelling of present-day changes to glaciers and ice caps. Overall, the fit to the data is most strongly improved in the region west of Hudson Bay (the χ2 RSL misfit is reduced by a factor of ~4) although the entire revised reconstruction for the central and northern Laurentide Ice Sheet provides an improved fit to both the regional RSL data (the cumulative χ2 misfit is reduced by a factor of >2) and the GPS data (the RMS misfit is reduced by a factor of 9).

  8. Gravity wave vertical energy flux at 95 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, P. G.; Jacka, F.

    1985-01-01

    A three-field photometer (3FP) located at Mt. Torrens near Adelaide, is capable of monitoring different airglow emissions from three spaced fields in the sky. A wheel containing up to six different narrow bandpass interference filters can be rotated, allowing each of the filters to be sequentially placed into each of the three fields. The airglow emission of interest is the 557.7 nm line which has an intensity maximum at 95 km. Each circular field of view is located at the apexes of an equilateral triangle centered on zenith with diameters of 5 km and field separations of 13 km when projected to the 95-km level. The sampling period was 30 seconds and typical data lengths were between 7 and 8 hours. The analysis and results from the interaction of gravity waves on the 557.7 nm emission layer are derived using an atmospheric model similar to that proposed by Hines (1960) where the atmosphere is assumed isothermal and perturbations caused by gravity waves are small and adiabatic, therefore, resulting in linearized equations of motion. In the absence of waves, the atmosphere is also considered stationary. Thirteen nights of quality data from January 1983 to October 1984, covering all seasons, are used in this analysis.

  9. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, M.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2010-11-01

    KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure to be constructed in the Mediterranean Sea hosting a neutrino telescope with a volume of at least one cubic kilometre. The scientific case for a neutrino telescope of a cubic kilometre scale is overwhelming. The infrastructure it requires will be shared by a host of other sciences, making continuous and long-term measurements in the fields of oceanography, geophysics, and marine biological sciences possible. The feasibility of neutrino astronomy with a detector in the deep sea was proven by the successful deployment and operation of the ANTARES prototype detector. The potential of the detection technique, based on the reconstruction of the tracks of muons, the possible reaction products of the sought after neutrinos, has been demonstrated. With two other pilot projects, NEMO and NESTOR, different detector configurations and techniques were explored. The three projects have provided a wealth of information on the technologies required for a large deep-sea neutrino telescope. KM3NeT will reap the benefits. It is planned to make KM3NeT a CO2-neutral facility, using wind or solar energy to supply the required power for the underwater system as well as the shore station. The proposed infrastructure will be built by a European consortium (KM3NeT). The total cost is estimated at 220-250 M€.

  10. The -145 km/s Absorption System of Eta Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, G. L.; Gull, T. R.; Danks, A. C.; Johansson, S.

    2002-12-01

    With the STIS E230H mode (R 118,000), we have identified about twenty absorption components in line of sight from Eta Carinae. Two components, one at -513 km/s and another at -145 km/s, are quite different in character from the others, mostly at intermediate velocities (See adjacent posters by T. Gull and A. Danks). The -145 km/s component is significantly wider in fwhm, is seen in many more species, and the lower level can be above 20,000 cm-1, well above the 2000 cm-1 noted in the -513 km/s component. In the spectral region from 2400 to 3160A, approximately 500 absorption lines have been identified. In this poster, we will present line identifications and atomic parameters of the measured lines, hopefully providing insight as to what levels are being excited and by what processes. Observations were accomplished through STScI under proposal 9242 (Danks, P.I.). Funding is through the STIS GTO resources.

  11. Models of earth's atmosphere (90 to 2500 km)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This monograph replaces a monograph on the upper atmosphere which was a computerized version of Jacchia's model. The current model has a range from 90 to 2500 km. In addition to the computerized model, a quick-look prediction method is given that may be used to estimate the density for any time and spatial location without using a computer.

  12. Body Composition Measurements of 161-km Ultramarathon Participants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares body composition characteristics with performance among participants in a 161-km trail ultramarathon. Height, mass, and percent body fat from bioimpedence spectroscopy were measured on 72 starters. Correlation analyses were used to compare body characteristics with finish time, ...

  13. AC conductivity and relaxation mechanism in (Nd1/2Li1/2)(Fe1/2V1/2)O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Susmita; Barik, Subrat Kumar; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study we have synthesized polycrystalline sample of (Nd1/2Li1/2)(Fe1/2V1/2)O3 ceramic by a standard high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. Studies of dielectric and electrical properties of the compound have been carried out in a wide range of temperature (RT - 400 °C) and frequency (1kHz - 1MHz) using complex impedance spectroscopic technique. The imaginary vs. real component of the complex impedance plot (Nyquist plot) of the prepared sample exhibits the existence of grain, grain boundary contributions in the complex electrical parameters and negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) type behavior like semiconductor. Details study of ac conductivity plot reveals that the material obeys universal Jonscher's power law.

  14. Radar Interferometric Possibilities for Determining Sea Ice Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, S.; Holt, B.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Steward, J.; Oveisgharan, S.; Moller, D.; Mahoney, A. R.; Reis, J.

    2014-12-01

    Sea ice thickness is a primary indicator of climate change in the polar oceans, as the thickness is a time-integrated result of both thermodynamic and dynamic processes. The large-scale ocean and atmospheric forcing acts on the fine-scale (a few to 10s of meters) opening and closing of the sea ice cover along fractures. The mean thickness and variance of sea thickness at km scales (50 cm uncertainty) are derived from recent spaceborne observations from the ICESat lidar and in the Arctic from sporadic upward looking sonar measurements. However, accurate measurements of sea ice thickness at the fine-scales at which the forcing is occurring are virtually non-existent. In this paper we explore two potential radar interferometric means of obtaining sea ice thickness. One method uses high frequency Ka-band (8.5 mm wavelength) to infer sea ice thickness by measuring elevations to the surface of the ice and to the ocean surface in nearby open leads. Data from the NASA Glistin radar is used to illustrate this methodology. Alternatively, we consider the use of dual frequency X-band and P-band (3 cm and 85 cm wavelengths) to exploit the differential penetration of longer versus shorter wavelength to estimate sea ice thickness. This technique is illustrated with data collected by the Furgo Earthdata GeoSAR system. Portions of this research were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  15. Cisplatin inhibits MEK1/2

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tetsu; Tsigelny, Igor F.; Götz, Andreas W.; Howell, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin (cDDP) is known to bind to the CXXC motif of proteins containing a ferrodoxin-like fold but little is known about its ability to interact with other Cu-binding proteins. MEK1/2 has recently been identified as a Cu-dependent enzyme that does not contain a CXXC motif. We found that cDDP bound to and inhibited the activity of recombinant MEK1 with an IC50 of 0.28 μM and MEK1/2 in whole cells with an IC50 of 37.4 μM. The inhibition of MEK1/2 was relieved by both Cu+1 and Cu+2 in a concentration-dependent manner. cDDP did not inhibit the upstream pathways responsible for activating MEK1/2, and did not cause an acute depletion of cellular Cu that could account for the reduction in MEK1/2 activity. cDDP was found to bind MEK1/2 in whole cells and the extent of binding was augmented by supplementary Cu and reduced by Cu chelation. Molecular modeling predicts 3 Cu and cDDP binding sites and quantum chemistry calculations indicate that cDDP would be expected to displace Cu from each of these sites. We conclude that, at clinically relevant concentrations, cDDP binds to and inhibits MEK1/2 and that both the binding and inhibitory activity are related to its interaction with Cu bound to MEK1/2. This may provide the basis for useful interactions of cDDP with other drugs that inhibit MAPK pathway signaling. PMID:26155939

  16. Near-axis crustal structure and thickness of the Endeavour Segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soule, Dax; Wilcock, William S. D.; Toomey, Douglas R.; Hooft, Emilie E. E.; Weekly, Robert T.

    2016-06-01

    A model of crustal thickness and lower crustal velocities is obtained for crustal ages of 0.1-1.2 Ma on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge by inverting travel times of crustal paths and non-ridge-crossing wide-angle Moho reflections obtained from a three-dimensional tomographic experiment. The crust is thicker by 0.5-1 km beneath a 200 m high plateau that extends across the segment center. This feature is consistent with the influence of the proposed Heckle melt anomaly on the spreading center. The history of ridge propagation on the Cobb overlapping spreading center may also have influenced the formation of the plateau. The sharp boundaries of the plateau and crustal thickness anomaly suggest that melt transport is predominantly upward in the crust. Lower crustal velocities are lower at the ends of the segment, likely due to increased hydrothermal alteration in regions influenced by overlapping spreading centers, and possibly increased magmatic differentiation.

  17. Regional anomalies of sediment thickness, basement depth and isostatic crustal thickness in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louden, Keith E.; Tucholke, Brian E.; Oakey, Gordon N.

    2004-07-01

    We calculate the anomalous basement topography for the North Atlantic Ocean from 30° to 70°N latitude and from 0° to 70°W longitude at a resolution of roughly 6×6 km, using grids of total sediment thickness and observed and predicted sea-floor bathymetry to correct for the effects of isostatic sediment loading and lithospheric age. Plotting this residual topography for various plate reconstructions during opening of the North Atlantic, we delineate consistent patterns of basement highs related to variations in hotspot-related volcanism. In addition to Iceland and the Azores, we recognize three centers of excess volcanism at the mid-Atlantic ridge: the Milne Seamounts and Azores-Biscay Rise (˜75-40 Ma), the Southeast Newfoundland Ridge and Madeira-Tore Rise (˜130-110 Ma), and the East and West Thulean Rises (˜60-50 Ma). The duration of volcanic activity ranges from 8 to 10 m.y. (Thulean Rises) to 60 m.y. (Iceland) and thus it appears that both long- and short-lived hotspots coexist, even in relatively close proximity. In contrast, during the period 110-60 Ma we observe little excess volcanism during either continental breakup or seafloor spreading. We estimate isostatic crustal thickness from the anomalous basement depths, after first removing dynamic effects created by mantle flow. Maximum thicknesses of volcanic features, from 30 km beneath the Greenland-Iceland-Faeroe ridge to ˜15 km beneath the Azores-Biscay Rise, are broadly consistent with seismic data and predictions of decompression melting. Widths of volcanic features indicate that thickening primarily occurs within 100-200 km of hotspots except along continental margins that rifted at the time of the hotspot activity (i.e. East Greenland and the Hatton-Rockall Bank). We observe conjugate structures south of Greenland and Edoras Bank, where excess volcanism appears to have extended beyond the margin proper and into oceanic crust. Similar conjugate features appear in the Labrador Sea south of Davis

  18. Determination of Ice Crust Thickness from Flanking Cracks Along Ridges on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, S. E.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

    2002-01-01

    We use equations describing the deflection of an elastic plate below a line load to estimate ice crust thickness below ridges on Europa. Using a range of elastic parameters, ice thickness is calculated to fall in the range 0.2 2.6 km. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. A SEARCH FOR HIGH PROPER MOTION T DWARFS WITH Pan-STARRS1 + 2MASS + WISE

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Michael C.; Deacon, Niall R.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Redstone, Joshua; Goldman, Bertrand; Price, P. A.

    2011-10-20

    We have searched {approx}8200 deg{sup 2} for high proper motion ({approx}0.''5-2.''7 year{sup -1}) T dwarfs by combining first-epoch data from the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3{pi} Survey, the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) All-Sky Point Source Catalog, and the WISE Preliminary Data Release. We identified two high proper motion objects with the very red (W1 - W2) colors characteristic of T dwarfs, one being the known T7.5 dwarf GJ 570D. Near-IR spectroscopy of the other object (PSO J043.5395+02.3995 {identical_to} WISEP J025409.45+022359.1) reveals a spectral type of T8, leading to a photometric distance of 7.2 {+-} 0.7 pc. The 2.''56 year{sup -1} proper motion of PSO J043.5+02 is the second highest among field T dwarfs, corresponding to a tangential velocity of 87 {+-} 8 km s{sup -1}. According to the Besancon galaxy model, this velocity indicates that its galactic membership is probably in the thin disk, with the thick disk an unlikely possibility. Such membership is in accord with the near-IR spectrum, which points to a surface gravity (age) and metallicity typical of the field population. We combine 2MASS, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, WISE, and PS1 astrometry to derive a preliminary parallax of 171 {+-} 45 mas (5.8{sup +2.0} {sub -1.2} pc), the first such measurement using PS1 data. The proximity and brightness of PSO J043.5+02 will facilitate future characterization of its atmosphere, variability, multiplicity, distance, and kinematics. The modest number of candidates from our search suggests that the immediate ({approx}10 pc) solar neighborhood does not contain a large reservoir of undiscovered T dwarfs earlier than about T8.

  20. Initiation of the Southern Elsinore Fault at ˜1.2 Ma: Evidence from the Fish Creek-Vallecito Basin, southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Axen, Gary J.; Peryam, Thomas C.; Kairouz, Mary E.

    2012-04-01

    Strike-slip faults west of the San Andreas fault (SAF) accommodate more than half of the modern Pacific-North America plate motion in southern California, yet their age, kinematic evolution and long-term slip rates are incompletely understood. The southern Elsinore fault is part of this zone and occupies the boundary between Mesozoic crystalline rocks of the Peninsular Ranges and Late Cenozoic sedimentary rocks of the Salton Trough depocenter. The Fish Creek-Vallecito Basin, a recently inverted western sub-basin of the Salton Trough, contains a thick succession of Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary rocks that preserve a record of crustal subsidence and uplift in response to evolving tectonic controls. Deposits older than ˜1.2 Ma accumulated during transtension and subsidence in the hanging wall of the low-angle West Salton detachment fault. A fanning-dip interval high in the section, dated at 1.2-1.0 Ma, accumulated during tilting caused by earliest motion on the Elsinore and Earthquake Valley faults. Total offset of 1-2 km yields a lifetime slip rate of about 1-2 mm/yr for the southern Elsinore fault, similar to a late Pleistocene rate in the Coyote Mountains but slower than published estimates for the northern Elsinore fault. This difference likely results from long-term transfer of slip from the northern Elsinore fault to the San Felipe and San Jacinto fault zones farther east. Initiation of the Elsinore fault at 1.2 Ma coincides with a major tectonic reorganization that terminated slip on the detachment fault and formed the modern network of strike-slip faults west of the SAF.

  1. KM3NeT-ARCA project status and plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coniglione, R.

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration aims at building a research infrastructure in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea hosting a cubic kilometre neutrino telescope. The KM3NeT/ARCA detector is the ideal instrument to look for high-energy neutrino sources thanks to the latitude of the detector and to the optical characteristics of the sea water. The detector latitude allows for a wide coverage of the observable sky including the region of the Galactic centre and the optical sea water properties allow for the measure of the neutrino direction with excellent angular resolution also for cascade events. The technologically innovative components of the detector and the status of construction will be presented as well as the capability it offers to discover neutrinos.

  2. Neutral winds above 200 km at high latitudes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meriwether, J. W.; Heppner, J. P.; Stolarik, J. D.; Wescott, E. M.

    1973-01-01

    Electrically neutral, luminous clouds are a by-product of chemical releases conducted to create barium ion clouds for the measurement of electric fields. Wind measurements provided by the motions of these clouds are particularly valuable in that the motions can be directly compared with convective ion drift motions to test the importance of ion drag forces. Motion from multiple releases between 200 and 300 km from 15 rockets launched from four high-latitude locations is analyzed in this paper. The observations in the evening and midnight hours at magnetic latitudes above 65 deg strongly suggest that in these regions ion drag is the dominant force in driving neutral winds between 200 and 300 km. In the morning sector, it is evident that neutral wind observations cannot be directly interpreted in terms of ion drag; other factors must be considered.

  3. Fact Sheet for KM200 Front-end Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov; Iliev, Metodi; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas

    2015-07-08

    The KM200 device is a versatile, configurable front-end electronics boards that can be used as a functional replacement for Canberra’s JAB-01 boards based on the Amptek A-111 hybrid chip, which continues to be the preferred choice of electronics for large number of the boards in junction boxes of multiplicity counters that process the signal from an array of 3He detectors. Unlike the A-111 chip’s fixed time constants and sensitivity range, the shaping time and sensitivity of the new KM200 can be optimized for demanding applications such as spent fuel, and thus could improve the safeguards measurements of existing systems where the A-111 or PDT electronics does not perform well.

  4. Remote (250 km) Fiber Bragg Grating Multiplexing System

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Vallejo, Montserrat; Rota-Rodrigo, Sergio; Lopez-Amo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate two ultra-long range fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation systems. In the first approach four FBGs are located 200 km from the monitoring station and a signal to noise ratio of 20 dB is obtained. The second improved version is able to detect the four multiplexed FBGs placed 250 km away, offering a signal to noise ratio of 6–8 dB. Consequently, this last system represents the longest range FBG sensor system reported so far that includes fiber sensor multiplexing capability. Both simple systems are based on a wavelength swept laser to scan the reflection spectra of the FBGs, and they are composed by two identical-lengths optical paths: the first one intended to launch the amplified laser signal by means of Raman amplification and the other one is employed to guide the reflection signal to the reception system. PMID:22164101

  5. Real Km-synthesis via generalized Popov multipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, R. Y.; Safonov, M. G.

    1992-01-01

    The authors refine their H-infinity control designs presented at the 1990 and 1991 American Control Conference by introducing a new real Km-synthesis technique involving the use of generalized Popov multipliers. This multiplier technique substantially reduces, and in some cases may even eliminate altogether, the conservativeness associated with traditional Km-synthesis solutions in which all uncertainties are treated as complex, even when they arise from real parameters such as the masses and spring constants in the benchmark problem. The design results demonstrate how this approach permits a very precise analysis of the intrinsic tradeoffs between robustness, performance, and control energy requirements. Also included is an open-loop H-infinity prefilter design that makes it possible to address the command response shaping issue. The design concept has been applied to the benchmark problem no. 4 and successfully removes the initial undesired transient and cuts down the percent overshoot.

  6. Quantum Cryptography Over 24 km of Underground Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Richard; Luther, Gabriel; Morgan, George; Peterson, Charles; Simmons, Charles

    1997-04-01

    The secure distribution of the secret random bit sequences known as ''key'' material, is an essential precursor to their use for the encryption and decryption of confidential communications. Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions: Heisenberg's uncertainty principle ensures that an adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection (eavesdropping raises the key error rate above a threshold value). We are performing quantum cryptography over 24-km of underground optical fiber using non-orthogonal single-photon interference states. Key material is built up by transmitting a single-photon per bit of an initial secret random sequence. A quantum-mechanically random subset of this sequence is identified, becoming the key material after a data reconciliation stage with the sender. Our experiment demonstrates that secure, real-time key generation over "open" multi-km node-to-node optical fiber communications links is feasible.

  7. Organizations, Paradigms, and People: The Challenge of KM Interventions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Teresa; Burton, Yvette

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on Knowledge Management (KM) and how these interventions are put into practice by organizations and society. The topics include: 1) The Multiple Paradigm Tool; 2) Four Paradigms: tool for the Analyzing Organizations; 3) Assumptions About the Nature of Social Science; 4) Assumptions About the Nature of Society; 5) Schools of Sociological and Organizational Theory; 6) Meaning and Metaphors in the Four Paradigms; and 7) Possibilities and Conclusions.

  8. Kinematic characteristics of elite men's 50 km race walking.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Brian; Bissas, Athanassios; Drake, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Race walking is an endurance event which also requires great technical ability, particularly with respect to its two distinguishing rules. The 50 km race walk is the longest event in the athletics programme at the Olympic Games. The aims of this observational study were to identify the important kinematic variables in elite men's 50 km race walking, and to measure variation in those variables at different distances. Thirty men were analysed from video data recorded during a World Race Walking Cup competition. Video data were also recorded at four distances during the European Cup Race Walking and 12 men analysed from these data. Two camcorders (50 Hz) recorded at each race for 3D analysis. The results of this study showed that walking speed was associated with both step length (r=0.54,P=0.002) and cadence (r=0.58,P=0.001). While placing the foot further ahead of the body at heel strike was associated with greater step lengths (r=0.45,P=0.013), it was also negatively associated with cadence (r= -0.62,P<0.001). In the World Cup, knee angles ranged between 175 and 186° at initial contact and between 180 and 195° at midstance. During the European Cup, walking speed decreased significantly (F=9.35,P=0.002), mostly due to a decrease in step length between 38.5 and 48.5 km (t=8.59,P=0.014). From this study, it would appear that the key areas a 50 km race walker must develop and coordinate are step length and cadence, although it is also important to ensure legal walking technique is maintained with the onset of fatigue. PMID:23679143

  9. Towards Mapping the Ocean Surface Topography at 1 KM Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, L. L.; Rodriguez, E.

    2006-07-01

    We propose to apply the technique of synthetic aperture radar interferometry to the measurement of ocean surface topography at spatial resolu tion approaching 1 km . The measurement w ill have wide ranging applications in oceanography , hydrology , and marine geophysics. The oceanographic and related societal applications are briefly discussed in the paper. To meet the requirements for oceanographic application s, the in strument must be flown in an orbit w ith proper samp ling of ocean tides.

  10. Towards Mapping the Ocean Surface Topography at 1 km Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng; Rodriquez, Ernesto

    2006-01-01

    We propose to apply the technique of synthetic aperture radar interferometry to the measurement of ocean surface topography at spatial resolution approaching 1 km. The measurement will have wide ranging applications in oceanography, hydrology, and marine geophysics. The oceanographic and related societal applications are briefly discussed in the paper. To meet the requirements for oceanographic applications, the instrument must be flown in an orbit with proper sampling of ocean tides.

  11. Calcium accumulation during sporulation of Bacillus megaterium KM.

    PubMed Central

    Hogarth, C; Ellar, D J

    1978-01-01

    Accumulation of Ca2+ in Bacilli occurs during stages IV to VI of sporulation. Ca2+ uptake into the sporangium was investigated in Bacillus megaterium KM in protoplasts prepared in stage III of sporulation and cultured to continue sporulation. These protoplasts and whole cells exhibit essentially identical Ca2+ uptake, which is compared with that of forespores isolated in stage V of sporulation. Ca2+, uptake into both sporangial protoplasts and isolated forespores occurs by Ca2+-specific carrier-mediated processes. However, protoplasts exhibit a Km value of 31 micrometer, and forespores have a Km value of 2.1 mM. Sporangial protoplasts accumulate Ca2+ against a concentration gradient. In contrast, Ca2+ uptake into isolated forespores is consistent with downhill transfer in which both rate and extent of uptake are affected by the external Ca2+ concontration. Dipicolinic acid has no effect on Ca2+ uptake by isolated forespores, apart from decreasing the external Ca2+ concentration by chelation. A model for sporulation-specific Ca2+ accumulation is proposed, in which Ca2+ is transported into the sporangium, resulting in a concentration of 3--9 mM in the mother-cell cytoplasm. This high concentration of Ca2+ enables carrier-mediated transfer down a concentration gradient into the forespore compartment, where a low free Ca2+ concentration is maintained by complexing with dipicolinic acid. PMID:103543

  12. Observations of magnetoconvection in Sunspots with 100 km resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T. E.; Löfdahl, M. G.; Scharmer, G.; Title, A. M.

    2003-05-01

    We present new observations from the Swedish 1-meter Solar Telescope (SST) on La Palma with ˜0.1 arcsecond ( ˜100 km) resolution: the highest resolution yet achieved in solar observations. We focus on sunspot and active region magnetoconvective phenomena using G-band 4305 Å, 4877 Å continuum, 7507 Å TiO bandhead, and Ca II 3968 Å H-line filtergram movies. The G-band data are post-processed using Joint Phase Diverse Speckle wavefront restoration to create a full diffraction limited time series. Sunspot light-bridges are shown to have dark lanes less than 300 km in width that are coherent along the entire length of the bridge. Similarly, we find elongated dark ``canals'' in plage regions, particularly near pores, that appear to be highly modified intergranular downflow lanes. The canals are less than 200 km in width and are much more coherent than intergranular lanes in non-magnetic regions, often retaining their basic structure for more than one granular turn-over time. Both the light-bridge central lane and the canals appear to be the result of highly constrained flow structure in strong magnetic field regions -- an aspect of solar magnetoconvection that has not previously been observed. This reseach was supported by funding from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, a SOHO Guest Investigator subcontract to California State University Northridge, and the NASA TRACE contract NAS5-38099 at Lockheed Martin.

  13. Acceleration of barium ions near 8000 km above an aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T. J.; Wescott, E. M.; Foeppl, H.

    1984-01-01

    A barium shaped charge, named Limerick, was released from a rocket launched from Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska, on March 30, 1982, at 1033 UT. The release took place in a small auroral breakup. The jet of ionized barium reached an altitude of 8100 km 14.5 min after release, indicating that there were no parallel electric fields below this altitude. At 8100 km the jet appeared to stop. Analysis shows that the barium at this altitude was effectively removed from the tip. It is concluded that the barium was actually accelerated upward, resulting in a large decrease in the line-of-sight density and hence the optical intensity. The parallel electric potential in the acceleration region must have been greater than 1 kV over an altitude interval of less than 200 km. The acceleration region, although presumably auroral in origin, did not seem to be related to individual auroral structures, but appeared to be a large-scale horizontal structure. The perpendicular electric field below, as deduced from the drift of the barium, was temporally and spatially very uniform and showed no variation related to individual auroral structures passing through.

  14. Mesoscale (50-km) Boundary Layer Eddies in CASES-97

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeMone, M. A.; Grossman, R. L.; Yates, D.; Chen, F.; Ikeda, K.

    2001-05-01

    Boundery-layer eddies 50 km across are documented for the morning of 10 May 1997 during the Cooperative Atmosphere Surface Exchange Study (CASES-97). CASES-97 was held from 21 April to 21 May 1997, in the lower Walnut River Watershed in south central Kansas, to study the role of the heterogeneous surface in boundary-layer evolution. The eddies appear to be tied to terrain, with warm, upwelling air over the relatively high terrain that forms the eastern edge of the watershed, and downwelling air over the watershed. The winds on this day were 5 m/s out of the south, and there were strong horizontal contrasts in vegetation and surface fluxes, suggesting that surfact fluxes could also play a role. For comparison, we examine two other days for the presence of mesoscale eddies, 29 April (characterized by high horizontal heterogeneity of vegetation and 10 m/s southerlies), and 20 May (characterized by a uniformly green and moist surface with winds ENE at 7 m/s). 29 April had significant but rapidly-changing horizontal variability at scales greater than 10 km, but variability on 20 May was on scales less than 5 km. Estimates of the sensible heat budgets for the three days revealed a large residual for 10 May, the day with the mesoscale eddies. Calculation of the expected errors and reasonable corrections for bias errors and radiative heating did not account for the residual, leading to the hypothesis that the residual is associated with the mesoscale eddies.

  15. The influence of performance level, age and gender on pacing strategy during a 100-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Andrew; Crivoi do Carmo, Everton; Martin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of performance level, age and gender on pacing during a 100-km ultramarathon. Results of a 100-km race incorporating the World Masters Championships were used to identify differences in relative speeds in each 10-km segment between participants finishing in the first, second, third and fourth quartiles of overall positions (Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Similar analyses were performed between the top and bottom 50% of finishers in each age category, as well as within male and female categories. Pacing varied between athletes achieving different absolute performance levels. Group 1 ran at significantly lower relative speeds than all other groups in the first three 10-km segments (all P < 0.01), and significantly higher relative speeds than Group 4 in the 6th and 10th (both P < 0.01), and Group 2 in the 8th (P = 0.04). Group 4 displayed significantly higher relative speeds than Group 2 and 3 in the first three segments (all P < 0.01). Overall strategies remained consistent across age categories, although a similar phenomenon was observed within each category whereby 'top' competitors displayed lower relative speeds than 'bottom' competitors in the early stages, but higher relative speeds in the later stages. Females showed lower relative starting speeds and higher finishing speeds than males. 'Top' and 'bottom' finishing males displayed differing strategies, but this was not the case within females. Although pacing remained consistent across age categories, it differed with level of performance within each, possibly suggesting strategies are anchored on direct competitors. Strategy differs between genders and differs depending on performance level achieved in males but not females. PMID:26034882

  16. Ad-libitum drinking and performance during a 40-km cycling time trial in the heat.

    PubMed

    Berkulo, Meriam A R; Bol, Susan; Levels, Koen; Lamberts, Robert P; Daanen, Hein A M; Noakes, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if drinking ad-libitum can counteract potential negative effects of a hypohydrated start caused by fluid restriction during a 40-km time trial (TT) in the heat. Twelve trained males performed one 40-km cycling TT euhydrated (EU: no water during the TT) and two 40-km cycling TTs hypohydrated. During one hypohydrated trial no fluid was ingested (HYPO), during the other trial ad-libitum water ingestion was allowed (FLUID). Ambient temperature was 35.2 ± 0.2 °C, relative humidity 51 ± 3% and airflow 7 m·s(-1). Body mass (BM) was determined at the start of the test, and before and after the TT. During the TT, power output, heart rate (HR), gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation, thermal comfort and thirst sensation were measured. Prior to the start of the TT, BM was 1.2% lower in HYPO and FLUID compared to EU. During the TT, BM loss in FLUID was lower compared to EU and HYPO (1.0 ± 0.8%, 2.7 ± 0.2% and 2.6 ± 0.3%, respectively). Hydration status had no effect on power output (EU: 223 ± 32 W, HYPO: 217 ± 39 W, FLUID: 224 ± 35 W), HR, gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, RPE, thermal sensation and thermal comfort. Thirst sensation was higher in HYPO than in EU and FLUID. It was concluded that hypohydration did not adversely affect performance during a 40-km cycling TT in the heat. Therefore, whether or not participants consumed fluid during exercise did not influence their TT performance. PMID:25675355

  17. Satellite Observations of Antarctic Sea Ice Thickness and Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Nathan; Markus, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    We utilize satellite laser altimetry data from ICESat combined with passive microwave measurements to analyze basin-wide changes in Antarctic sea ice thickness and volume over a 5 year period from 2003-2008. Sea ice thickness exhibits a small negative trend while area increases in the summer and fall balanced losses in thickness leading to small overall volume changes. Using a five year time-series, we show that only small ice thickness changes of less than -0.03 m/yr and volume changes of -266 cu km/yr and 160 cu km/yr occurred for the spring and summer periods, respectively. The calculated thickness and volume trends are small compared to the observational time period and interannual variability which masks the determination of long-term trend or cyclical variability in the sea ice cover. These results are in stark contrast to the much greater observed losses in Arctic sea ice volume and illustrate the different hemispheric changes of the polar sea ice covers in recent years.

  18. New modeling results of the Bunte breccia ejecta morphology and thickness variations outside the Ries impact crater, southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, S.; Wulf, G.; Jung, D.; Kenkmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    The Ries impact crater with a diameter of ~25 km represents a relatively pristine, complex impact crater in southern Germany that was formed during the Miocene (14.34+-0.08 Ma) [1, 2]. The impact occurred into a two-layered target that consists of ~650 m partly water-saturated and subhorizontally layered sediments (limestones, sandstones, shales) of Triassic to Tertiary ages underlain by crystalline basement rocks (mainly gneisses, granites and amphibolites) [3, 4]. The continuous ejecta blanket of the crater ejected up to a distance of 45 km from the crater center is built up by so called Bunte breccias, a polymict lithic breccia. The ejected breccia material mainly consists of unshocked to weakly shocked sedimentary target clasts in addition to a minority of crystalline basement clasts and reworked surfical sediments (e.g., Upper Freshwater Molasses or Upper Seawater Molasses) [5, 6]. Here we present new results of the morphology of the (i) paleo-relief and (ii) the thickness variations of the continuous ejecta blanket with radial range. For this study we combined digital elevation data and geologic information of the recent geologic map [7] in ArcGIS (ESRI) and RockWorks14 (RockWare) to extract the elevation of the lower contact plane ("paleo-surface") and the contact between the Bunte breccia and the overlain Suevite deposits. In detail, we extracted the mapping information of the autochthonous-allochthonous ("Bunte breccia base") and allochthonous-suevite ("Bunte breccia top") intersections from the geologic map [7], descriptions of nine NASA drilling sites [6], and included up to 40 drillings carried out by the Bavarian Environment Agency to interpolate the morphology and thickness variation of the Bunte breccia ejecta outside the Ries impact crater. Due to the highest data density and the widespread occurrence of Bunte breccia deposits as well as Suevite, the southwestern part of the ejecta blanket was selected for the study and delivered a more or less

  19. Comparison of orbital chemistry with crustal thickness and lunar sample chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonfeld, E.

    1977-01-01

    A correlation between orbital chemistry (FeO, Al2O3, Mg/Al, MgO/FeO, Th) and the lunar crustal thickness is examined. The correlation suggests either lack of complete homogenization by lateral or vertical mixing, or lateral variation in the differentiation process. In addition, links between orbital chemistry and lunar sample chemistry are investigated. In regions with crustal thickness between 100 and 110 km, gabbroic anorthosites are very abundant, while in regions with crustal thickness of about 80 km anorthositic gabbros are frequent. Special attention is given to the distribution of low-potassium Fra Mauro basalt, found in high concentrations in regions with 50 to 60 km crustal thickness.

  20. 49 CFR 179.400-8 - Thickness of plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the outer jacket shell may not be less than 7/16 inch. The minimum wall thickness, after forming, of the outer jacket heads may not be less than 1/2 inch and they must be made from steel specified in § 179.16(c). The annular space is to be evacuated, and the cylindrical portion of the outer...

  1. Measuring Thicknesses of Wastewater Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Davenport, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Sensor determines when thickness of film of electrically conductive wastewater on rotating evaporator drum exceeds preset value. Sensor simple electrical probe that makes contact with liquid surface. Made of materials resistant to chemicals in liquid. Mounted on shaft in rotating cylinder, liquid-thickness sensor extends toward cylinder wall so tip almost touches. Sensor body accommodates probe measuring temperature of evaporated water in cylinder.

  2. 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dibromo - 3 - chloropropane ( DBCP ) ; CASRN 96 - 12 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessm

  3. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2,2 - Tetrachloroethane ; CASRN 79 - 34 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  4. 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4,5 - Tetrachlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 94 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  5. 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,1,2 - Tetrachloroethane ; CASRN 630 - 20 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  6. 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,1,2 - Tetrafluoroethane ; CASRN 811 - 97 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  7. 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

  8. Thicknesses and Volumes of Lunar Mare Basalt Flow Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W.; Wolf, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    Reliable estimates of the flow thickness are crucial to our understanding of the vol- umes and the flux of lunar mare basalt volcanism. Previous work on basalt flow unit thicknesses was based on (1) shadow measurements in high-resolution images that were taken under low-sun conditions, (2) in situ observations, e.g. of Hadley Rille at the Apollo 15 landing site, and (3) on studies of the chemical kinetic aspects of lava emplacement and cooling. These studies revealed flow unit thicknesses between 1 and 96 m. Flow unit thicknesses derived from imaging data are on average ~21 m, in contrast to chemical kinetic considerations that yield thicknesses of less than 10 m. We used crater size-distribution measurements to estimate flow unit thicknesses. A large number (~60) of our crater counts show evidence for resurfacing events and these "irregularities" in the crater size distributions are used to infer the thickness of the resurfacing layer, that is the thickness of lava flows in several nearside basins. We find that the average minimum flow unit height of all investigated units is on the order of 34 m (+7/-6 m) and that the average maximum flow unit height is about 53 m (+9/- 9 m). On average the thinnest flow units were detected for units in Mare Insularum, Mare Cognitum, and Mare Nubium, thickest flows are exposed in Mare Tranquilli- tatis and Mare Humorum. Average thicknesses of flow units in Oceanus Procellarum and Mare Imbrium are slightly larger than in Mare Insularum, Mare Cognitum, and Mare Nubium, but are smaller than in Mare Tranquillitatis and Mare Humorum. The minimum average volume of all investigated flow units is~590 km3 and the maximum average volume is~940 km3. Our data indicate that the most voluminous flow units are located in Mare Humorum and Mare Tranquillitatis. As crater counts for units in Mare Serenitatis do not exhibit prominent deflections we conclude that these units have not to been resurfaced with flows thick enough to be detected in the

  9. Comparison of broadband mode arrivals at ranges of 3515 km and 5171 km in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wage, Kathleen E.

    2003-04-01

    The Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) provided an opportunity to observe signals propagating in the low-order modes of the ocean waveguide. Understanding the fluctuations of these mode signals is an important prerequisite to using them for tomography or other applications. In previous work, we characterized the cross-mode coherence and temporal variability of the low-order mode arrivals at 3515 km range [Wage et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (in press)]. This study compares the mode arrivals for two different ranges : 3515 km and 5171 km, using data from the ATOC vertical line arrays at Hawaii and Kiritimati. We discuss the mode intensity and coherence statistics for each of the arrays and examine mean arrival time trends over the year-long deployment. Experimental results are compared to PE simulations of propagation through a realistic background environment perturbed by internal waves of varying strengths. The dependence of mode statistics on the path-dependent changes in the background sound speed and the parameters of the internal wave field is explored. [Work supported by an ONR Ocean Acoustics Young Faculty Award.] a)A. B. Baggeroer, T. G. Birdsall, C. Clark, J. A. Colosi, B. D. Cornuelle, D. Costa, B. D. Dushaw, M. A. Dzieciuch, A. M. G. Forbes, B. M. Howe, D. Menemenlis, J. A. Mercer, K. Metzger, W. H. Munk, R. C. Spindel, P. F. Worcester, and C. Wunsch.

  10. Thickness and mass of Saturn's B ring as derived from its seasonal temperature variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, C.; Reffet, E.; Verdier, M.

    2014-04-01

    Structural and thermal properties of Saturn's B ring and its particles are derived from orbital and seasonal temperatures variations observed by the CIRS infrared spectrometer between 2004 and 2009. Our multi-scale thermal model [1], best suited to model heat transfer in dense rings, is adjusted to data. Most observations were focused on the center B ring, at 105,000 km from Saturn. At this distance, a very good fit is obtained for conductive particles embedded in a moderately conductive ring medium. Assuming a bulk composition of water ice, the thermal inertia of particles is found to be of the order of Γ1 = 160 - 200 J/m2/K/s1/2. It varies with seasons because part of the heat transfer through the particle happens via radiation. For the same reason, the ring thermal inertia also varies with seasons. Its value, around 30-40 J/m2/K/s1/2, is very comparable to the thermal inertia of icy satellites regoliths. The ring filling factor is found to be relatively high, D=0.34, typical of a compact medium and compatible with output of numerical simulations of their dynamics. The thickness of the B ring at this distance of Saturn is estimated at 2.2 ± 0.2 m. The correlation of the vertical thermal gradient between lit and unlit sides with the optical depth is easily reproduced if the variations in optical depth of the B ring are due to varying thickness. Its vertical thickness H is found to range between 1 and 3 meters across the B2, B3 and B4 rings (Figure 1). It is thinner than the neighbouring C ring and Cassini Division. This can be understood as a consequence of self-gravity which acts at reducing the vertical excursion of ring particles within self-gravity wakes. Radial variation of the surface mass density is deduced from the thickness using aspect-ratios H/λ of self-gravity wakes detected there. It ranges between 300 and about 2000 kg/m2. The inferred B ring mass is MB = 8.7 ± 1.7 1018 kg and the total ring mass is MR = 1.4 ± 0.17 1019 kg. This mass is expected

  11. Variations in pesticide leaching related to land use, pesticide properties, and unsaturated zone thickness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.M.T.; Wieczorek, M.E.; Nolan, B.T.; Hancock, T.C.; Sandstrom, M.W.; Barbash, J.E.; Bayless, E.R.; Healy, R.W.; Linard, J.

    2008-01-01

    Pesticide leaching through variably thick soils beneath agricultural fields in Morgan Creek, Maryland was simulated for water years 1995 to 2004 using LEACHM (Leaching Estimation and Chemistry Model). Fifteen individual models were constructed to simulate five depths and three crop rotations with associated pesticide applications. Unsaturated zone thickness averaged 4.7 m but reached a maximum of 18.7 m. Average annual recharge to ground water decreased from 15.9 to 11.1 cm as the unsaturated zone increased in thickness from 1 to 10 m. These point estimates of recharge are at the lower end of previously published values, which used methods that integrate over larger areas capturing focused recharge in the numerous detention ponds in the watershed. The total amount of applied and leached masses for five parent pesticide compounds and seven metabolites were estimated for the 32-km2 Morgan Creek watershed by associating each hectare to the closest one-dimensional model analog of model depth and crop rotation scenario as determined from land-use surveys. LEACHM parameters were set such that branched, serial, first-order decay of pesticides and metabolites was realistically simulated. Leaching is predicted to be greatest for shallow soils and for persistent compounds with low sorptivity. Based on simulation results, percent parent compounds leached within the watershed can be described by a regression model of the form e−depth (a ln t½−b ln KOC) where t 1/2 is the degradation half-life in aerobic soils, K OC is the organic carbon normalized sorption coefficient, and a and b are fitted coefficients (R 2 = 0.86, p value = 7 × 10−9).

  12. Subduction of European continental crust to 70 km depth imaged in the Western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Anne; Zhao, Liang; Guillot, Stéphane; Solarino, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    amplitude negative-polarity converted phases (generated by downward velocity decreases) beneath the Dora Maira massif and the westernmost Po plain. Records in the Po plain display a strong but intricate converted signal from the Adria Moho between 10 and 35 km depth. We propose that the negative-polarity converted phases are generated by downward decreasing velocity between, from top to bottom, the Ivrea body of mantle origin, a thick wedge of HP/UHP metamorphic rocks and the European lower crust. Our receiver-function section thus displays the classical wedge-shaped image of the Alpine crust, but with the deepest European Moho ever recorded (70-75 km), and clear evidence of continental subduction of the European lower crust beneath the Ivrea mantle body (and possibly Adria mantle) as a negative-polarity converted phase indicative of an inverted Moho. Based on our seismic section, complemented with seismic and gravity modelling and geological arguments, we propose a new crustal-scale cross-section of the Western Alps.

  13. Internal rotation for predicting conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane and 1,2-dichloroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venâncio, Mateus F.; Dos Santos, Hélio F.; De Almeida, Wagner B.

    2016-06-01

    The contribution of internal rotation to the thermal correction of Gibbs free energy (ΔG) is estimated using the quantum pendulum model (QPM) to solve the characteristic Schrödinger equation. The procedure is applied to theoretical prediction of conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane (1,2-DFE) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) molecules. The predicted population for the anti form was 37% and 75%, for 1,2-DFE and 1,2-DCE respectively, in excellent agreement with experimental gas phase data available, 37 ± 5% and 78 ± 5%. These results provide great support to the use of the QPM model to account for the low vibrational frequency modes effect on the calculation of thermodynamic properties.

  14. Exhumation of an unusually large, ~3000 km3 coherent block of oceanic crust from >40 km depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, Wendy; Metcalf, Rodney; Fairhurst, Robert

    2010-05-01

    The Central Metamorphic terrane (CMt) is an unusually large (~3000 km3) coherent block of mid-ocean ridge (MOR) metabasites; the first one of this scale reported with eclogite facies relicts, decompression assemblages, and thermobarometry indicating exhumation of the entire block from >40 km depth. The CMt is exposed in the eastern Klamath Mountains of northern California and is dominantly an amphibolite facies metabasite which represents remnant oceanic crust subducted in a mid-Paleozoic Pacific-type margin. Thermochronology indicates that the CMt was subsequently exhumed along the Trinity fault during an early Permian extensional event. Newly discovered relict textures with new thermobarometry results suggest the CMt metabasites record the retrograde segment of the P-T-deformation-time path during exhumation from hornblende eclogite facies P-T conditions. A decompression and cooling sequence consisting of rutile cores within ilmenite crystals mantled by titanite is observed in CMt amphibolite samples. Zr-in-rutile thermometry combined with experimental data for rutile stability in metabasites suggests that relict rutile crystals preserve early P-T conditions of ~600° C and >1.3 GPa. Transition from eclogite facies is further supported by ilmenite-plagioclase-amphibole symplectites suggesting replacement of garnet or omphacite during decompression. The dominant mineral assemblages and metamorphic fabrics indicate dynamic recrystallization of metabasites during declining P-T conditions through amphibolite - epidote amphibolite facies. Exhumation via extension along the Trinity fault is suggested by the coplanar relationship between metabasite decompression-related deformation fabrics and the Trinity fault. We propose that subducted oceanic crust (CMt) was subsequently exhumed as a large coherent block from depths >40 km. This is significant because the conversion of mafic oceanic crust to eclogite produces the negative buoyancy (relative to mantle peridotite) that

  15. Mapping the global land surface using 1 km AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauer, D.T.; Eidenshink, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The scientific requirements for mapping the global land surface using 1 km advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data have been set forth by the U.S. Global Change Research Program; the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP); The United Nations; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); the Committee on Earth Observations Satellites; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to planet Earth (MTPE) program. Mapping the global land surface using 1 km AVHRR data is an international effort to acquire, archive, process, and distribute 1 km AVHRR data to meet the needs of the international science community. A network of AVHRR receiving stations, along with data recorded by NOAA, has been acquiring daily global land coverage since April 1, 1992. A data set of over 70,000 AVHRR images is archived and distributed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center, and the European Space Agency. Under the guidance of the IGBP, processing standards have been developed for calibration, atmospheric correction, geometric registration, and the production of global 10-day maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composites. The major uses of the composites are for the study of surface vegetation condition, mapping land cover, and deriving biophysical characteristics of terrestrial ecosystems. A time-series of 54 10-day global vegetation index composites for the period of April 1, 1992 through September 1993 has been produced. The production of a time-series of 33 10-day global vegetation index composites using NOAA-14 data for the period of February 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995 is underway. The data products are available from the USGS, in cooperation with NASA's MTPE program and other international organizations.

  16. An evaluation of the global 1-km AVHRR land dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teillet, P.M.; El Saleous, N.; Hansen, M.C.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Justice, C.O.; Townshend, J.R.G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the steps taken in the generation of the global 1-km AVHRR land dataset, and it documents an evaluation of the data product with respect to the original specifications and its usefulness in research and applications to date. The evaluation addresses data characterization, processing, compositing and handling issues. Examples of the main scientific outputs are presented and options for improved processing are outlined and prioritized. The dataset has made a significant contribution, and a strong recommendation is made for its reprocessing and continuation to produce a long-term record for global change research.

  17. Microorganisms cultured from stratospheric air samples obtained at 41 km.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, M; Wickramasinghe, N C; Narlikar, J V; Rajaratnam, P

    2003-01-21

    Samples of air removed from the stratosphere, at an altitude of 41 km, were previously found to contain viable, but non-cultureable bacteria (cocci and rods). Here, we describe experiments aimed at growing these, together with any other organisms, present in these samples. Two bacteria (Bacillus simplex and Staphylococcus pasteuri) and a single fungus, Engyodontium album (Limber) de Hoog were isolated from the samples. Although the possibility of contamination can never be ruled out when space-derived samples are studied on earth, we are confident that the organisms originated from the stratosphere. Possible mechanisms by which these organisms could have attained such a height are discussed. PMID:12583913

  18. A Proposed International Tropical Reference Atmosphere up to 80 Km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ananthasayanam, M. R.; Narasimha, R.

    1985-01-01

    Based upon previous standard reference atmosphere, which are usually inspired by temperature regions, a proposal is made for an International Tropical Reference Atmosphere (ITRA). It is a modification of the Indian Standard Tropical Atmosphere (ISIA). The data at the available longitudinal stations in the tropics was considered in formulating the present proposal. Balloonsonde, rocketsonde, and grenade and falling sphere data was used in developing the temperature data bse fromt he stratosphere, troposphere and mesosphere. Temperature distribution and mean sea level pressures up to 80 km altitudes is discussed.

  19. PMT characterisation for the KM3NeT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, B.; Kalekin, O.; Reubelt, J.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2011-05-01

    The KM3NeT project aims to design and to construct at least a cubic kilometre scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main task is to instrument this deep-sea water volume with optical modules, each housing one or several photomultiplier tubes. Three-, 8- and 10-in. PMTs from ET Enterprises, Hamamatsu and MELZ-FEU have been investigated as candidates for the telescope's optical modules. Various parameters of these photomultiplier tubes have been measured in a test bench at the Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics. These results are presented.

  20. EVLA/NMA: Within and Beyond the 21-km Radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Steve; Romney, Jonathan D.

    NRAO's Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) project is being implemented in two phases. Each involves extremely wide- bandwidth data transmission over optical fibers, but the two phases necessarily involve quite different approaches to the required fiber infrastructure, which make for an interesting contrast. Phase 1, formally called the "Ultrasensitive Array", involves replacing almost all of the existing electronics, leaving only the mechanical and track infrastructure of the VLA. The data transmission system being implemented for Phase 1 uses dedicated optical fibers, currently being buried at the VLA site. Twelve standard single-mode fibers will run from each of 72 antenna pads to the central building. One of these fibers will support the wideband data transmission system, using a dense wavelength division multiplexing technique to carry a bandwidth of 96 Gbps (120 Gbps formatted) per antenna. Fibers from the 27 active antenna pads will carry a total bandwidth of 2.6 Tbps. The longest of these fibers will extend the full 21- km length of each arm. Phase 2 will add the "New Mexico Array". Eight new stations will be built, and the electronics of the VLBA Pie Town and Los Alamos stations will be upgraded, to create a medium-resolution array, with sensitivity even higher than Phase 1. All ten NMA stations will lie within the State of New Mexico. The new antennas will range as far as 265 km from the VLA site, and will be located so as to facilitate access to existing fiber trunks installed, primarily, by rural telephone companies. These trunks include numerous unused fibers which, it is anticipated, can be leased economically. The longest fiber run from the VLA is 480 km. The same 96-Gbps total bandwidth per station will be supported, with the same underlying sub-band structure. Signals from up to three NMA stations will be multiplexed onto a single fiber in the existing trunks. This will limit the total length of fiber which must be leased or acquired to about 1240 km.

  1. The 10 km/s, 10 kg railgun

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, R.A. ); Barber, J.P. )

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the system design for a railgun powered by capacitor-based energy stores distributed along its length is presented. It is assumed that it is required to accelerate a mass of 10kg to a velocity of 10 km/s. Parameters for the railgun and its energy stores are derived and the performance of the system is computed with particular attention being paid to the efficiency with which store energy is converted to launch package kinetic energy. It is shown that efficiencies of 90 percent can be expected from a properly designed system.

  2. The relational database system of KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Arnauld; Bozza, Cristiano

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration is building a new generation of neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. For these telescopes, a relational database is designed and implemented for several purposes, such as the centralised management of accounts, the storage of all documentation about components and the status of the detector and information about slow control and calibration data. It also contains information useful during the construction and the data acquisition phases. Highlights in the database schema, storage and management are discussed along with design choices that have impact on performances. In most cases, the database is not accessed directly by applications, but via a custom designed Web application server.

  3. 157km BOTDA with pulse coding and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xianyang; Wang, Zinan; Wang, Song; Xue, Naitian; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Bin; Rao, Yunjiang

    2016-05-01

    A repeater-less Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer (BOTDA) with 157.68km sensing range is demonstrated, using the combination of random fiber laser Raman pumping and low-noise laser-diode-Raman pumping. With optical pulse coding (OPC) and Non Local Means (NLM) image processing, temperature sensing with +/-0.70°C uncertainty and 8m spatial resolution is experimentally demonstrated. The image processing approach has been proved to be compatible with OPC, and it further increases the figure-of-merit (FoM) of the system by 57%.

  4. Survival of Nannochloropsis Phytoplankton in Hypervelocity Impact Events up to Velocities of 6.07 km/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasini, D. L. S.; Price, M. C.; Burchell, M. J.; Cole, M. J.

    2013-09-01

    Studies have previously been conducted to verify the survivability of living cells during hypervelocity impact events to test the panspermia and lithopanspermia hypothesis [1], [2]. It has been demonstrated that bacteria survive impacts up to 5.4 km s-1 (approx. shock pressure 30 GPa) - albeit with a low probability of survival [1] whilst larger more complex objects (such as seeds) break up at ~1 km s-1 [2]. The survivability of yeast spores in impacts up to 7.4 km s-1 has also recently been shown [3]. We demonstrate here the survivability of Nannochloropsis Phytoplankton, a eukaryotic photosynthesizing autotroph found in the 'euphotic zone'(sunlit surface layers of oceans) [4] at impact velocities up to 6.07 km s-1. Phytoplankton from a culture sample was frozen and then fired into water (to simulate oceanic impacts, as described in [5]) using a light gas gun (LGG) [6]. The water was then retrieved and placed into a sealed culture vessel and left under a constant light source to check the viability of any remnant organisms.

  5. One-Hundred-km-Scale Basins on Enceladus: Evidence for an Active Ice Shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; McKinnon, William B.

    2009-01-01

    Stereo-derived topographic mapping of 50% of Enceladus reveals at least 6 large-scale, ovoid depressions (basins) 90-175 km across and 800-to-1500 m deep and uncorrelated with geologic boundaries. Their shape and scale are inconsistent with impact, geoid deflection, or with dynamically supported topography. Isostatic thinning of Enceladus ice shell associated with upwellings (and tidally-driven ice melting) can plausibly account for the basins. Thinning implies upwarping of the base of the shell of 10-20 km beneath the depressions, depending on total shell thickness; loss of near-surface porosity due to enhanced heat flow may also contribute to basin lows. Alternatively, the basins may overly cold, inactive, and hence denser ice, but thermal isostasy alone requires thermal expansion more consistent with clathrate hydrate than water ice. In contrast to the basins, the south polar depression (SPD) is larger (350 wide) and shallower (0.4-to-0.8 km deep) and correlates with the area of tectonic deformation and active resurfacing. The SPD also differs in that the floor is relatively flat (i.e., conforms roughly to the global triaxial shape, or geoid) with broad, gently sloping flanks. The relative flatness across the SPD suggests that it is in or near isostatic equilibrium, and underlain by denser material, supporting the polar sea hypothesis of Collins and Goodman. Near flatness is also predicted by a crustal spreading origin for the "tiger stripes (McKinnon and Barr 2007, Barr 2008); the extraordinary, high CIRS heat flows imply half-spreading rates in excess of 10 cm/yr, a very young surface age (250,000 yr), and a rather thin lithosphere (hence modest thermal topography). Topographic rises in places along the outer margin of the SPD correlate with parallel ridges and deformation along the edge of the resurfaced terrain, consistent with a compressional, imbricate thrust origin for these ridges, driven by the spreading.

  6. Wall thickness design and corrosion management

    SciTech Connect

    Gestel, W.M. van; Guijt, J.

    1994-12-31

    In 1995, Norske Shell will install two 36-in. sweet wet gas pipe lines in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. The lines cross the Norwegian trench with water depths up to 350 meter. For the last 3.5 km. of the route the pipelines will be laid in a tunnel which will be flooded after construction. The two lines will transport largely untreated well fluids from the Troll field to an onshore processing plant at Kollsness, North of Bergen. From there sales gas will be transported to the continent via the Furopipe and Zeepipe systems. Gas contracts covering 30 years have been concluded with gas utilities on the continent. The maximum wall thickness that could be installed was limited by the capabilities of the present generation of lay barges and pipe mill capacities. The over-thickness, i.e. beyond that what is required for pressure containment and external collapse, is available as corrosion allowance. The paper discusses a novel probabilistic approach to define the corrosion control measures. The corrosion control system is based on the injection of glycol for corrosion mitigation and inspection by ultrasonic internal smart pigs, which in combination with identified fall back options, ensure a minimum 50 year service life.

  7. Kinetics of 1,2-Dichloroethane and 1,2-Dibromoethane Biodegradation in Anaerobic Enrichment Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rong; Peethambaram, Hari S.; Falta, Ronald W.; Verce, Matthew F.; Henderson, James K.; Bagwell, Christopher E.; Brigmon, Robin L.

    2013-01-01

    1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) and 1,2-dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide [EDB]) contaminate groundwater at many hazardous waste sites. The objectives of this study were to measure yields, maximum specific growth rates (μ̂), and half-saturation coefficients (KS) in enrichment cultures that use 1,2-DCA and EDB as terminal electron acceptors and lactate as the electron donor and to evaluate if the presence of EDB has an effect on the kinetics of 1,2-DCA dehalogenation and vice versa. Biodegradation was evaluated at the high concentrations found at some industrial sites (>10 mg/liter) and at lower concentrations found at former leaded-gasoline sites (1.9 to 3.7 mg/liter). At higher concentrations, the Dehalococcoides yield was 1 order of magnitude higher when bacteria were grown with 1,2-DCA than when they were grown with EDB, while μ̂'s were similar for the two compounds, ranging from 0.19 to 0.52 day−1 with 1,2-DCA to 0.28 to 0.36 day−1 for EDB. KS was larger for 1,2-DCA (15 to 25 mg/liter) than for EDB (1.8 to 3.7 mg/liter). In treatments that received both compounds, EDB was always consumed first and adversely impacted the kinetics of 1,2-DCA utilization. Furthermore, 1,2-DCA dechlorination was interrupted by the addition of EDB at a concentration 100 times lower than that of the remaining 1,2-DCA; use of 1,2-DCA did not resume until the EDB level decreased close to its maximum contaminant level (MCL). In lower-concentration experiments, the preferential consumption of EDB over 1,2-DCA was confirmed; both compounds were eventually dehalogenated to their respective MCLs (5 μg/liter for 1,2-DCA, 0.05 μg/liter for EDB). The enrichment culture grown with 1,2-DCA has the advantage of a more rapid transition to 1,2-DCA after EDB is consumed. PMID:23263950

  8. Near-Cloud Aerosol Properties from the 1 Km Resolution MODIS Ocean Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnai, Tamas; Marshak, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This study examines aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds by analyzing high-resolution atmospheric correction parameters provided in the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) ocean color product. The study analyzes data from a 2 week long period of September in 10 years, covering a large area in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. The results indicate that on the one hand, the Quality Assessment (QA) flags of the ocean color product successfully eliminate cloud-related uncertainties in ocean parameters such as chlorophyll content, but on the other hand, using the flags introduces a sampling bias in atmospheric products such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent. Therefore, researchers need to select QA flags by balancing the risks of increased retrieval uncertainties and sampling biases. Using an optimal set of QA flags, the results reveal substantial increases in optical thickness near clouds-on average the increase is 50% for the roughly half of pixels within 5 km from clouds and is accompanied by a roughly matching increase in particle size. Theoretical simulations show that the 50% increase in 550nm AOT changes instantaneous direct aerosol radiative forcing by up to 8W/m2 and that the radiative impact is significantly larger if observed near-cloud changes are attributed to aerosol particles as opposed to undetected cloud particles. These results underline that accounting for near-cloud areas and understanding the causes of near-cloud particle changes are critical for accurate calculations of direct aerosol radiative forcing.

  9. How to evacuate 10 km3 of mud: saturate with gas and decrease the pressure!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbert, Patrice; Geiss, Bernard; Fatjó de Martín, Núria

    2014-06-01

    The crest of the Absheron anticline in the South Caspian Basin at a few hundred meters below the present seafloor shows a subcircular depression about 8 km in diameter and 200 m deep, bounded by steep edges dipping 15° to 45° into it. The depression and the surrounding series are respectively filled and overlain by a regional mass-transport deposit (MTD) 150 m thick outside the depression and 300 m thick inside, composed mostly of extensional blocks. Geometric and stratigraphic analyses indicate that 150 m of initially deposited sediment were removed from a closed area after burial. Seismic evidence of shallow gas accumulations below the crater-like feature suggests that gas likely played a significant role in its development. The model proposed for the emplacement of the crater is that the gas-bearing cover of a shallow gas reservoir underwent exsolution when its overburden thinned during an episode of extensional slope failure. This resulted in loss of resistance to shear and evacuation of the gas-bearing sediment, likely at the shearing base of the failed mass. This evacuation feature is considered an example where the presence of gas locally governs the morphology of an MTD. The interpreted process shows a positive feedback between slope failure and loss of strength at the base of the resulting MTD.

  10. Foveal Thickness Alterations in Patients with Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Cankaya, Cem; Tecellioglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the alterations in foveal retinal thickness (FT) values in patients with migraine and to reveal the correlations between FT and clinical characteristics of migraine disease. Methods: This study included sixty-eight eyes of 34 migraine patients [twenty-eight eyes of 14 patients with aura (group 1), and forty eyes of 20 patients without aura (group 2)] and forty eyes of 20 healthy volunteer who served as the control group (group 3). FT values were measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in each group. Results: Mean age of patients in group 1, 2, and 3 was 34.0± 6.82, 35.2±10.12, and 35.1± 6.85 years, respectively (p=0.84). Mean FT was 211.07±7.36, 220.0±12.01, and 221.85±12.27 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was statistically significance among the group 1-2 and 1-3 (p=0.002 and p< 0.001). There was no statistically significance between group 2-3 (p=0.88). Conclusion: This study suggests that in particular migraine with aura may lead to a reduction in FT values. This finding can be explained by the blood flow decrease theory in migraine; however larger studies seem mandatory. PMID:27147787

  11. Infrared emission from the atmosphere above 200 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    The infrared radiation over the range from 4 to 1000 microns from atoms and molecules in the earth's atmosphere, between 200 and 400 km, was calculated. Only zenith lines of sight were considered. The excitation of the atoms and molecules is due to collisions with other molecules and to absorption of radiation from the earth and sun. In some cases, the abundances of the molecules had to be estimated. The most important lines are the forbidden lines from atomic oxygen at 63.1 and 147 micron, and the vibration-rotation band of nitric oxide at 5.3 micron. These lines can have intensities as high as a few times 0.001 ergs/sq cm/sec/steradian at 200 km altitude. In addition, the vibration-rotation bands of NO(+) at 4.3 micron and CO at 4.7 micron and the pure rotation lines of NO and NO(+) could be detected by infrared telescopes in space.

  12. Km typing with PCR: application to population screening.

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, J H; Bowcock, A M; Erlich, H A; Nevo, S; Cavalli-Sforza, L L

    1991-01-01

    The immunoglobulin kappa light chain (IgK) locus may play a significant role in the pathology of both infectious and autoimmune diseases. Most of the work on IgK genetics has been conducted using immunological techniques for allelic typing and sequence analysis. This is restricted by availability of reagents and can be both expensive and time-consuming. PCR primers were designed to amplify the kappa constant gene (Ck), and four allele-specific oligonucleotides (ASOs) were used to distinguish the alleles in the amplified PCR products. Direct sequencing of PCR products was performed to confirm that the primers specifically amplified the Ck region and the ASOs differentiated the Km alleles. Sequencing of an average of 209 nucleotides of DNA from 50 individuals revealed no variation except at codon 191, which is known to be involved in a frequent polymorphism. An analysis of 347 different individual DNAs from 10 human populations was conducted to determine Km allelic frequencies within these populations and to apply this type of data collection to population studies. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1900145

  13. KM3NeT/ORCA status and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samtleben, Dorothea F. E.

    2016-04-01

    Neutrinos created in interactions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere can serve as a powerful tool to unveil the neutrino mass hierarchy (NMH). At low energies, around a few GeV, matter effects from the transition through the Earth are expected to imprint a distinct but also subtle signature on the oscillation pattern, specific to the ordering of the neutrino masses. KM3NeT/ORCA (Oscillations Research with Cosmics in the Abyss), a densely instrumented building block of the upcoming KM3NeT neutrino telescope, will be designated to measuring this signature in the Mediterranean Sea. Using detailed simulations the sensitivity towards this signature has been evaluated. The multi-PMT detectors allow in the water for an accurate reconstruction of GeV neutrino event signatures and distinction of neutrino flavours. For the determination of the mass hierarchy a median significance of 2-6σ has been estimated for three years of data taking, depending on the actual hierarchy and the oscillation parameters. At the same time the values of several oscillation parameters like θ23 will be determined to unprecedented precision.

  14. Quantum crytography over 14km of installed optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.J.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.; Simmons, C.

    1995-09-01

    We have made the first demonstration that low error rate quantum cryptography over long distances (14km) of installed optical fiber in a real-world environment, subject to uncontrolled temperature and mechanical influences, representing an important new step towards incorporation of quantum cryptography into existing information security systems. We also point out that the high visibility single-photon interference in our experiment allows us to infer a test of the superposition principle of quantum mechanics: a photon reaching the detector has traveled over 14km of optical fiber in a wavepacket comprising a coherent superposition of two components that are spatially separated by about 2m. In principle, there are decoherence processes (or even possible modifications of quantum mechanics) that could cause the photon`s wavefunction to collapse into one component or the other during propagation, leading to a reduction in visibility. However, our results are consistent with no such loss of quantum coherence during the 67-{mu}s propagation time.

  15. Nitrone Cycloadditions of 1,2-Cyclohexadiene

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Joyann S.; Styduhar, Evan D.; Pham, Hung V.; McMahon, Travis C.; Houk, K. N.; Garg, Neil K.

    2016-01-01

    We report the first 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of 1,2-cyclohexadiene, a rarely exploited strained allene. 1,2-Cyclohexadiene is generated in situ under mild conditions and trapped with nitrones to give isoxazolidine products in synthetically useful yields. The reactions occur regioselectively and exhibit a notable endo preference, thus resulting in the controlled formation of two new bonds and two stereogenic centers. DFT calculations of stepwise and concerted reaction pathways are used to rationalize the observed selectivities. Moreover, the strategic manipulation of nitrone cycloadducts demonstrates the utility of this methodology for the assembly of compounds bearing multiple heterocyclic units. These studies showcase the exploitation of a traditionally avoided reactive intermediate in chemical synthesis. PMID:26854652

  16. The modified dispersion relation for ionacoustic instabilities of ionospheric plasma at 80-200 km altitudes and its usage for interpretation of 150km equatorial radioecho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berngardt, O. I.; Potekhin, A. P.

    2009-04-01

    Ionacoustic instabilities of the ionospheric plasma and corresponding small-scale irregularities of the electron density significantly affect to the HF and UHF radiowaves propagation. Due to this an investigation of their characteristics is the important task staying on the border of the radiowaves propagation theory, geophysics and plasmaphysics. The theory of these instabilities in the E-layer, that are qualitatively divided into the two-stream and gradient-drift ones, is under development for a long time. The most part of the linear theories replaces investigation of the irregularities by analysis of the dispersion relation for the plasma irregularities. This dispersion relation connects oscillation frequency of the irregularities with their wave vector and defines conditions for the growth of the irregularities and their spectral characteristics in terms of plane waves approximation. There are two traditional limitations of such theories, limiting their region of applicability: 1)Magnetized electrons and unmagnetized ions requirement; 2)Low oscillation frequency of irregularities in comparison with ion-neutral and electron-neutral collision frequencies. In the paper within the approximation of the two-fluid magnetohydrodynamics and geometrooptical approximation the dispersion relation without noted limitations was obtained. The relation describes ionacoustic instabilities of the ionospheric plasma at 80-200km altitudes in three-dimensional weakly irregular ionosphere. The dispersion relation obtained has a form of the 6-th order polynomial for the oscillation frequency. Within limitations 1,2 the obtained relation has approximate solutions, close to the traditional ones for two-stream and gradient-drift instabilities. The difference between obtained and standard dispersion relation becomes significant at altitudes above 140 km. For this situation, in some special cases this new dispersion relation can be significantly simplified and some analytical solutions of

  17. Shape from equal thickness contours

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, G.; Parvin, B.

    1998-05-10

    A unique imaging modality based on Equal Thickness Contours (ETC) has introduced a new opportunity for 3D shape reconstruction from multiple views. We present a computational framework for representing each view of an object in terms of its object thickness, and then integrating these representations into a 3D surface by algebraic reconstruction. The object thickness is inferred by grouping curve segments that correspond to points of second derivative maxima. At each step of the process, we use some form of regularization to ensure closeness to the original features, as well as neighborhood continuity. We apply our approach to images of a sub-micron crystal structure obtained through a holographic process.

  18. Laser detection of material thickness

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.

    2002-01-01

    There is provided a method for measuring material thickness comprising: (a) contacting a surface of a material to be measured with a high intensity short duration laser pulse at a light wavelength which heats the area of contact with the material, thereby creating an acoustical pulse within the material: (b) timing the intervals between deflections in the contacted surface caused by the reverberation of acoustical pulses between the contacted surface and the opposite surface of the material: and (c) determining the thickness of the material by calculating the proportion of the thickness of the material to the measured time intervals between deflections of the contacted surface.

  19. Through thick and thin: Structure of the Galactic thick disc from extragalactic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordopatis, G.; Hill, V.; Irwin, M.; Gilmore, G.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Tolstoy, E.; de Laverny, P.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Battaglia, G.; Starkenburg, E.

    2013-07-01

    . This population was earlier detected, but our more detailed analysis provides robust estimates of its location (|Z| < 1 kpc), metallicity (-2 < [M/H] < -1 dex) and azimuthal orbital velocity (Vφ ~ 120 km s-1). Conclusions: Given the chemo-dynamical properties of the over-density towards the Carina line-of-sight, we suggest that it represents the metal-poor tail of the canonical thick disc. In spite of the small number of stars available, we suggest that this metal-weak thick disc follows the often suggested canonical thick disc velocity-metallicity correlation of ∂Vφ/∂ [M/H] ~ 40-50 km s-1 dex-1. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory at Paranal, Chile, ESO Large Programme 171.B-0588 (DART) and 171.B-0520(A).Full Tables 2 and 4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/555/A12

  20. Cratering and penetration experiments in Teflon targets at velocities from 1 to 7 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, Friedrich; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Cintala, Mark J.; See, Thomas H.

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 20 sq m of protective thermal blankets, largely composed of Teflon, were retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) after the spacecraft had spent approximately 5.7 years in space. Examination of these blankets revealed that they contained thousands of hypervelocity impact features ranging from micron-sized craters to penetration holes several millimeters in diameter. We conducted impact experiments in an effort to reproduce such features and to -- hopefully -- understand the relationships between projectile size and the resulting crater or penetration-hole diameter over a wide range of impact velocity. Such relationships are needed to derive the size- and mass-frequency distribution and flux of natural and man-made particles in low-Earth orbit. Powder propellant and light-gas guns were used to launch soda-lime glass spheres of 3.175 mm (1/8 inch) nominal diameter (Dp) into pure Teflon FEP targets at velocities ranging from 1 to 7 km/s. Target thickness (T) was varied over more than three orders of magnitude from infinite halfspace targets (Dp/T less than 0.1) to very thin films (Dp/T greater than 100). Cratering and penetration of massive Teflon targets is dominated by brittle failure and the development of extensive spall zones at the target's front and, if penetrated, the target's rear side. Mass removal by spallation at the back side of Teflon targets may be so severe that the absolute penetration-hole diameter (Dh) can become larger than that of a standard crater (Dc) at relative target thicknesses of Dp/T = 0.6-0.9. The crater diameter is infinite halfspace Teflon targets increases -- at otherwise constant impact conditions -- with encounter velocity by a factor of V0.44. In contrast, the penetration-hole size is very thin foils (Dp/T greater than 50) is essentially unaffected by impact velocity. Penetrations at target thicknesses intermediate to these extremes will scale with variable exponents of V. Our experimental matrix is

  1. Hybrid fine scale climatology and microphysics of in-cloud icing: From 32 km reanalysis to 5 km mesoscale modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamraoui, Fayçal; Benoit, Robert; Perron, Jean; Fortin, Guy; Masson, Christian

    2015-03-01

    In-cloud icing can impose safety concerns and economic challenges for various industries. Icing climate representations proved beneficial for optimal designs and careful planning. The current study investigates in-cloud icing, its related cloud microphysics and introduces a 15-year time period climatology of icing events. The model was initially driven by reanalysis data from North American Regional Reanalysis and downscaled through a two-level nesting of 10 km and 5 km, using a limited-area version of the Global Environment Multiscale Model of the Canadian Meteorological Center. In addition, a hybrid approach is used to reduce time consuming calculations. The simulation realized exclusively on significant icing days, was combined with non-significant icing days as represented by data from NARR. A proof of concept is presented here for a 1000 km area around Gaspé during January for those 15 years. An increase in the number and intensity of icing events has been identified during the last 15 years. From GEM-LAM simulations and within the atmospheric layer between 10 m and 200 m AGL, supercooled liquid water contents indicated a maximum of 0.4 g m- 3, and 50% of the values are less than 0.05 g m- 3. All values of median volume diameters (MVD) are approximately capped by 70 μm and the typical values are around 15 μm. Supercooled Large Droplets represent approximately 5%. The vertical profile of icing climatology demonstrates a steady duration of icing events until the level of 60 m. The altitudes of 60 m and 100 m indicate substantial icing intensification toward higher elevations. GEM-LAM demonstrated a substantial improvement in the calculation of in-cloud icing, reducing significantly the challenge posed by complex terrains.

  2. An Instrument Suite for the Vertical Characterization of the Ionosphere-Thermosphere System from 100 km to 700km Altitude.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, F.; Nicholas, A.

    2008-05-01

    We describe an instrument suite that includes WTS (the Wind-Temperature Spectrometer developed for the ANDE mission of the Naval Research Laboratory), a new Ion-Drift-Temperature Spectrometer (IDTS) and one each of our new Neutral (NMS) and Ion (IMS) Mass Spectrometers. The WTS and IDTS both implement Small- Deflection Energy Analyzers (SDEAs) developed at NASA Goddard; thus, they are capable of measuring the differential energy and angular distributions of neutrals and ions with the capability of detecting and characterizing non-Maxwellian ion and neutral distributions in the upper atmosphere. The mass spectrometers have a mass resolution of approximately 1/60. The suite is designed for sounding rocket investigations to obtain the vertical distribution of the neutral wind, ion drift, respective temperatures, and relative densities of the major species, e.g., O/N2; in addition it will provide ion and neutral composition, to include metals. The sensitivity of each instrument is sufficient to provide data over altitudes ranging from about 100 to about 700 km. The vertical spatial resolution in the neutral wind/temperature gradually increases from a few meters between 100 and 150 km to 100's of meters above 400 km. The ion drift measurements will have spatial resolution less than 1 m at the peak of the F- region and larger above and below. The wind and ion-drift measurements require large vehicle velocity in the sampled region. We will discuss this and other performance requirements. The capability offered in this instrument suite will make it possible to add new data in our pursuit of two long standing questions: a) the transition from Maxwellian to non-Maxwellian as the thermosphere becomes the exosphere and b) the true O/O2 and O/N2 ratio without instrument contamination due to O recombination in the ion source.

  3. Equilibria of 1,1,2,-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, S.Y.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1995-07-01

    ChloroFluoroCarbons (CFCs) are now considered to be the prime contribution to stratospheric ozone depletion. As a result, the use of activated carbons to adsorb specific CFCs has received great attention. In this paper, the equilibrium adsorption characteristics of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane vapor on different-shaped carbons were studied. Adsorption isotherms of 1,2,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on an activated carbon pellet and an activated carbon felt were measured. The equilibria of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on the activated carbon pellet having a dual pore structure were expressed by the Redlich-Peterson equation, and equilibrium constants were expressed as functions of temperature from 298 to 393 K. On the other hand, the equilibria of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on the activated carbon felt having a relatively uniform pore structure were interpreted by the Dubinin-Radushkevich correlation based on the micropore volume filling theory. The affinity coefficient was correlated by the molar polarization.

  4. 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloro - 1,2,2 - trifluoroethane ( CFC - 113 ) ; CASRN 76 - 13 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health

  5. Thickness-dependent bending modulus of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun; Bando, Yoshio; Zhi, Chunyi; Huang, Yang; Golberg, Dmitri

    2009-09-01

    Bending modulus of exfoliation-made single-crystalline hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) with thicknesses of 25-300 nm and sizes of 1.2-3.0 µm were measured using three-point bending tests in an atomic force microscope. BNNSs suspended on an SiO2 trench were clamped by a metal film via microfabrication based on electron beam lithography. Calculated by the plate theory of a doubly clamped plate under a concentrated load, the bending modulus of BNNSs was found to increase with the decrease of sheet thickness and approach the theoretical C33 value of a hexagonal BN single crystal in thinner sheets (thickness<50 nm). The thickness-dependent bending modulus was suggested to be due to the layer distribution of stacking faults which were also thought to be responsible for the layer-by-layer BNNS exfoliation.

  6. A 700 km long crustal transect across northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, Ramon; Gallart, Josep; Díaz, Jordi; Gil, Alba; Harnafi, Mimoun; Ouraini, Fadila; Ayarza, Puy; Teixell, Antonio; Arboleya, Maria Luisa; Palomeras, Imma; Levander, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Two controlled-source wide angle seismic reflection experiments have been acquired recently (2010 and 2011) in northern Africa across Morocco. A lithospheric scale transect can be constructed by joining both data sets. Hence, an approximately 700 km-long seismic velocity cross section can be derived. From south-to-north the transect goes from the Sahara Platform, south of Merzouga, to Tanger in the north. The first experiment, SIMA, aimed to constrain the crustal structure across the Atlas Mountains. The Rif, the orogenic belt located just south of the coast of Alboran Sea, was the target of the second experiment, RIFSIS. In both cases 900 recording instruments (TEXANS) from the IRIS-PASSCAL instrument center were used to record the acoustic energy generated by explosion shots. In both experiments the shots consisted of 1 TM of explosives fired in ~30 m deep boreholes. Although the data quality varies from shot to shot, key seismic phases as Pg, PmP, Pn, and a few intra-crustal arrivals have been identified to constrain the velocity-depth structure along the whole transect. Forward modelling of the seismic reflection/refraction phases reveals a crust consisting of 3 layers in average. The Moho topography shows from south to north a relatively moderate crustal root beneath the High Atlas, which can reach 40-42 km depth. The crust is thicker beneath the Rif where the Moho is imaged as an asymmetric feature that locally defines a crustal root reaching depths of 50 km and suggesting a crustal imbrication. P wave velocities are rather low in the crust and upper mantle. First arrivals/reflections tomography supports the forward modelling results. Low fold wide-angle stacks obtained by using hyperbolic move-out reveals the geometry of the Moho along the entire transect. Beneath the Atlas, the moderate crustal root inferred is not isostatically consistent with the high surface elevations, hence supporting the idea of a 'mantle plume' as main contributor to the Atlas

  7. Improved Coal-Thickness Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    Summed signals and dielectric-filled antenna improve measurement. Improved FM radar for measuring thickness of coal seam eliminates spectrum splitting and reduces magnitude of echo from front coal surface.

  8. Metal thickness measurements using radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achrekar, P. M.

    1986-04-01

    The present invention relates broadly to a radiographic inspection technique, and in particular to a metal thickness measurement method using radiography. The localized areas wherein the effective metal thickness is less than the minimum that is required for radiation shielding and which can render a shielding enclosure functionless, is readily determined. The invention comprises a process for assuring metal thickness in small regions. The actual metal thickness of small regions can be verified by comparing the optical densities of sections of the metal i.e., stepwedge. A comparator microphotometer, which compares optical densities of spectrum lines from spectrophotometers, compares the optical density of spectrum lines on an exposed spectrum plate (metal under test) with a standard plate (stepwedge).

  9. Edge-on thick discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasparova, A.; Katkov, I.; Chilingarian, I.; Silchenko, O.; Moiseev, A.; Borisov, S.

    2016-06-01

    Although thick stellar discs are detected in nearly all edge-on disc galaxies, their formation scenarios still remain a matter of debate. Due to observational difficulties, there is a lack of information about their stellar populations. Using the Russian 6-m telescope BTA we collected deep spectra of thick discs in three edge-on early-type disc galaxies located in different environments: NGC4111 in a dense group, NGC4710 in the Virgo cluster, and NGC5422 in a sparse group. We see intermediate age (4 ‑ 5 Gyr) metal rich ([Fe/H] ~ ‑0.2 ‑ 0.0 dex) stellar populations in NGC4111 and NGC4710. On the other hand, NGC5422 does not harbour young stars, its only disc is thick and old (10 Gyr) and its α-element abundance suggests a long formation epoch implying its formation at high redshift. Our results prove the diversity of thick disc formation scenarios.

  10. ICESat: Sea ice freeboard, snow depth, and thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, R.

    2007-12-01

    Total freeboard (snow and ice) and thickness of the Arctic Ocean sea ice cover are derived from ICESat data for two 35-day periods: one during the fall (Oct-Nov) of 2005 and the other during the winter (Feb-Mar) of 2006. Our freeboard retrieval approach is based on reflectivity and the expected statistics of freeboard variability from combined analysis of RADARSAT/ICESat data. Results suggest that our retrieval procedures could provide consistent freeboard estimates along 25-km segments with uncertainties of better than several centimeters. With a climatology of snow density, ECMWF snowfall is used to construct a time-varying field of snow depth for the conversion of freeboard to sea ice thickness. The derived ice thickness estimates are compared with ice draft observations from moored upward looking sonar data and the snow depth/thickness data from mass balance buoys in the Beaufort Sea. Preliminary results show that the estimated ICESat thickness estimates are within 0.5 m of the ice drafts reported by moorings. In this talk, we highlight some of the issues associated with the process of freeboard retrieval, thickness estimation, and quality assessment due to the disparity of spatial resolution between the ICESat footprint and those from in-situ measurements.

  11. Peripapillary choroidal thickness in childhood.

    PubMed

    Read, Scott A; Alonso-Caneiro, David; Vincent, Stephen J; Collins, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Changes in the thickness of the invivo peripapillary choroid have been documented in a range of ocular conditions in adults; however, choroidal thickness in the peripapillary region of children has not been examined in detail. This study therefore aimed to investigate the thickness of the peripapillary choroid and the overlying retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) in a population of normal children with a range of refractive errors. Ninety-three children (37 myopes and 56 non-myopes) aged between 11 and 16 years, had measurements of peripapillary choroidal and RNFL thickness derived from enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images (EDI-OCT, Heidelberg Spectralis). The average thickness was determined in a series of five 0.25 mm width concentric annuli (each divided into 8 equal sized 45° sectors) centred on the optic nerve head boundary, accounting for individual ocular magnification factors and the disc-fovea angle. Significant variations in peripapillary choroidal thickness were found to occur with both annulus location (p < 0.001) and sector position (p < 0.001) in this population of children. The innermost annulus (closest to the edge of the optic disc) exhibited the thinnest choroid (mean 77 ± 16 μm) and the outermost annulus, the thickest choroid (191 ± 52 μm). The choroid was thinnest inferior to the optic nerve head (139 ± 38 μm) and was thickest in the superior temporal sector (157 ± 40 μm). Significant differences in the distribution of choroidal thickness were also associated with myopia, with myopic children having significantly thinner choroids in the inner and outer annuli of the nasal and temporal sectors respectively (p < 0.001). RNFL thickness also varied significantly with annulus location and sector (p < 0.001), and showed differences in thickness distribution associated with refractive error. This study establishes the normal variations in the thickness of the peripapillary choroid with radial distance and azimuthal angle

  12. The ion population between 1300 km and 230000 km in the coma of comet P/Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altwegg, K.; Balsiger, H.; Geiss, J.; Goldstein, R.; Ip, W. -H.; Meier, A.; Neugebauer, M.; Rosenbauer, H.; Shelley, E.

    1993-01-01

    During the encounter of the spacecraft Giotto with Comet Halley the two sensors of the ion mass spectrometer (IMS), high energy range spectrometer (HERS) and high intensity spectrometer (HIS), measured the mass and the three-dimensional velocity distributions of cometary ions. HIS looked mainly at the cold, slow part of the distribution close to the nucleus, HERS at the more energetic pick-up ions further out. After a thorough recalibration of the HIS flight spare unit and an extensive data analysis we present here continuous ion density-, composition-, velocity-, and temperature profiles for the water group ion (mass range 16-19 amu/e) along Giotto's inbound trajectory from 230,000 to 1300 km from the comet nucleus. The two sensors are in very good agreement in the region where their measurements overlap thus giving an excellent data base for the discussion of theoretical comet models. The most prominent feature where models and observations disagree is the so called pile up region between 8000 and 15,000 km from the nucleus.

  13. 2540 km: bimagic baseline for neutrino oscillation parameters.

    PubMed

    Dighe, Amol; Goswami, Srubabati; Ray, Shamayita

    2010-12-31

    We show that a source-to-detector distance of 2540 km, motivated recently [S. K. Raut, R. S. Singh, and S. U. Sankar, arXiv:0908.3741] for a narrow band superbeam, offers multiple advantages for a low energy neutrino factory with a detector that can identify muon charge. At this baseline, for any neutrino hierarchy, the wrong-sign muon signal is almost independent of CP violation and θ(13) in certain energy ranges. This allows the identification of the hierarchy in a clean way. In addition, part of the muon spectrum is also sensitive to the CP violating phase and θ(13), so that the same setup can be used to probe these parameters as well. PMID:21231644

  14. Transport System for Delivery Tourists At Altitude 140 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    The author offers a new method and installation for flight in space. This method uses the centrifugal force of a rotating circular cable that provides a means for the launch of a payload into outer space, to keep the fixed space stations at high altitudes (up to 200 km). The method may also be useful for landing to space bodies, for launching of the space ships (crafts), and for moving and accelerating other artificial apparatuses. The offered installation may be used as a propulsion system for space ships and/or probes. This system uses the material of any space body (i.e. stones) for acceleration and change of the space vehicle trajectory. The suggested system may be also used as a high capacity energy accumulator.

  15. Readout and data acquisition for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belias, Anastasios; Manolopoulos, Konstantinos

    2013-05-01

    In the KM3NeT neutrino telescope design the readout concept is based on a point-to-point network connecting tenthousands of optical modules in the deep sea through a photonic network with the shore station. The time-over-threshold data from each Photo Multiplier Tube (PMT) of each optical module will be send to shore over fibres using dedicated wavelengths. Nanosecond timing accuracy will be schieved using a clock signal embedded in the data stream and measuring the roundtrip time from the shore to each optical module individually. The DAQ software architecture based on the Internet Communications Engine (ICE) will provide a common and uniform software framework for the control of each optical module and the data acquisition of the whole neutrino telescope.

  16. Fatal truck-bicycle accident involving dragging for 45 km.

    PubMed

    Klintschar, M; Darok, M; Roll, P

    2003-08-01

    Vehicle-bicycle accidents with subsequent dragging of the rider over long distances are extremely rare. The case reported here is that of a 16-year-old mentally retarded bike rider who was run over by a truck whose driver failed to notice the accident. The legs of the victim became trapped by the rear axle of the trailer and the body was dragged over 45 km before being discovered under the parked truck. The autopsy revealed that the boy had died from the initial impact and not from the dragging injuries which had caused extensive mutilation. The reports of the technical expert and the forensic pathologist led the prosecutor to drop the case against the truck driver for manslaughter. PMID:12748865

  17. Calibration methods and tools for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikovskiy, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT detectors, ARCA and ORCA, composed of several thousands digital optical modules, are in the process of their realization in the Mediterranean Sea. Each optical module contains 31 3-inch photomultipliers. Readout of the optical modules and other detector components is synchronized at the level of sub-nanoseconds. The position of the module is measured by acoustic piezo detectors inside the module and external acoustic emitters installed on the bottom of the sea. The orientation of the module is obtained with an internal attitude and heading reference system chip. Detector calibration, i.e. timing, positioning and sea-water properties, is overviewed in this talk and discussed in detail in this conference. Results of the procedure applied to the first detector unit ready for installation in the deep sea will be shown.

  18. Estimating worldwide solar radiation resources on a 40km grid

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, E.L.; George, R.L.; Brady, E.H.

    1996-11-01

    During 1995, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), initiated the Data Grid Task under the auspices of DOE`s Resource Assessment Program. A data grid is a framework of uniformly spaced locations (grid points) for which data are available. Estimates of monthly averages of direct normal, diffuse horizontal, and global horizontal daily-total solar radiation energy (kWh/m{sup 2}) are being made for each point on a grid covering the US, Mexico, the Caribbean, and southern Canada. The grid points are separated by approximately 40 km. Using interpolation methods, the digital data grid can be used to estimate solar resources at any location. The most encouraging result to date has been the location of sources providing worldwide data for most of the input parameters required for modeling daily total solar radiation. This is a multiyear task expected to continue through the rest of this century.

  19. Constraining density and velocity jumps across the 410 km discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saki, Morvarid; Thomas, Christine; Cobden, Laura; Abreu, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the velocity and density structure of the olivine-to-wadsleyite transition using polarities of precursor arrivals to PP seismic waves that reflect off the 410 km discontinuity beneath the Northern Atlantic. Numerous source-receiver combinations have been used in order to collect a dataset of reflection points beneath our investigation area. We analyzed over 1700 seismograms from Mw > 5.8 using array seismology methods to enhance the signal to noise ratio. For each event the polarity of the PP phase is compared to polarity of the precursor signal and we find several events where the polarity of the precursors are opposite to that of PP. There does not seem to be any dependency of the observed polarities on the propagation direction of the seismic waves but interestingly there seems to be a dependency on the distance between source and receiver. The events with epicentral distances greater than 119 degrees mostly show opposite polarities, while for those with smaller epicentral distances the same polarity of the main phase and precursor signal is dominant. Using Zeoppritz equations, we analyzed more than 64 million combinations of density, compressional and shear wave velocities for both layers, above and below the 410 km discontinuity in order to find the best combination of those parameters that can explain the observations. The results are indicating combinations of density, P and S wave velocity exhibiting a smaller contrast compared to those from the pyrolite model (the density jump, however is still positive to provide physically meaningful results). The calculated reductions in both compressional and shear wave velocities go up to 13% but mostly fall within the range of less than 7- 8%. We interpret this reduction in elastic properties and seismic velocity of minerals as the effect of a higher than normal content of water of wadsleyite in this region, while we can exclude a reduction in iron.

  20. Models of crustal thickness for South America from seismic refraction, receiver functions and surface wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpção, Marcelo; Feng, Mei; Tassara, Andrés; Julià, Jordi

    2013-12-01

    An extensive compilation of crustal thicknesses is used to develop crustal models in continental South America. We consider point crustal thicknesses from seismic refraction experiments, receiver function analyses, and surface-wave dispersion. Estimates of crustal thickness derived from gravity anomalies were only included along the continental shelf and in some areas of the Andes to fill large gaps in seismic coverage. Two crustal models were developed: A) by simple interpolation of the point estimates, and B) our preferred model, based on the same point estimates, interpolated with surface-wave tomography. Despite gaps in continental coverage, both models reveal interesting crustal thickness variations. In the Andean range, the crust reaches 75 km in Southern Peru and the Bolivian Altiplano, while crustal thicknesses seem to be close to the global continental average (~ 40 km) in Ecuador and southern Colombia (despite high elevations), and along the southern Andes of Chile-Argentina (elevation lower than 2000 m). In the stable continental platform the average thickness is 38 ± 5 km (1-st. deviation) and no systematic differences are observed among Archean-Paleoproterozoic cratons, NeoProterozoic fold belts, and low-altitude intracratonic sedimentary basins. An exception is the Borborema Province (NE Brazil) with crust ~ 30-35 km thick. Narrow belts surrounding the cratons are suggested in central Brazil, parallel to the eastern and southern border of the Amazon craton, and possibly along the TransBrasiliano Lineament continuing into the Chaco basin, where crust thinner than 35 km is observed. In the sub-Andean region, between the mid-plate cratons and the Andean cordillera, the crust tends to be thinner (~ 35 km) than the average crust in the stable platform, a feature possibly inherited from the old pre-Cambrian history of the continent. We expect that these crustal models will be useful for studies of isostasy, dynamic topography, and crustal evolution of the

  1. Models of Crustal Thickness for South America from Seismic Refraction, Receiver Functions and Surface Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpcao, M.; Feng, M.; Tassara, A.; Julia, J.

    2013-05-01

    An extensive compilation of crustal thicknesses is used to develop crustal models in continental South America. We consider point crustal thicknesses from seismic seismic refraction experiments, receiver function analyses, and surface-wave dispersion. Estimates of crustal thickness derived from gravity anomalies were only included along the continental shelf and in some areas of the Andes to fill large gaps in seismic coverage. Two crustal models were developed: A) by simple interpolation of the ~1000 point estimates, and B) our preferred model, based on the same point estimates, interpolated with surface-wave tomography. Despite gaps in continental coverage, both models reveal interesting crustal thickness variations. In the Andean range, the crust reaches 75 km in Southern Peru and the Bolivian Altiplano, while crustal thicknesses seem to be close to the global continental average (~40 km) in Ecuador and southern Colombia (despite high elevations), and along the southern Andes of Chile-Argentina (elevation lower than 2000 m). In the stable continental platform the average thickness is 38 ± 5 km (1 std. deviation) and no systematic differences are observed among Archean-Paleoproterozoic cratons, NeoProterozoic fold belts, and low-altitude intracratonic sedimentary basins. An exception is the Borborema Province (NE Brazil) with crust ~30-35 km thick. Narrow belts surrounding the cratons are suggested in central Brazil, parallel to the eastern and southern border of the Amazon craton, and possibly along the Transbrasiliano Lineament continuing into the Chaco basin, where crust thinner than 35 km is observed. In the sub-Andean region, between the mid-plate cratons and the Andean cordillera, the crust tends to be thinner (~35 km) than the average crust in the stable platform, a feature possibly inherited from the old pre-Cambrian history of the continent. We expect these crustal models will be useful for studies of isostasy, dynamic topography, and crustal evolution

  2. On the Spatial Variability of the Martian Elastic Lithosphere Thickness: Evidence for Mantle Plumes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grott, M.; Breuer, D.

    2009-12-01

    The elastic lithosphere thickness at the Martian North Pole has recently been constrained by estimating the flexural response of the lithosphere to loading at the polar caps and a minimum elastic thickness of 300 km has been determined. This is a factor of three to four larger than elastic thickness estimates for other Amazonian surface units like the Tharsis volcanoes, which exhibit elastic thicknesses around 75 to 90 km. Here we investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the Martian elastic lithosphere thickness and present a model which takes the locally varying crustal thickness, the local concentration of heat producing elements as well as variations of strain rate into account. The model predicts D = 225 km at the North Pole today, whereas D = 75-90 km is obtained at the Tharsis volcanoes if a mid Amazonian loading age is assumed. Therefore, although a large degree of spatial heterogeneity can be explained by the presented model, large elastic thicknesses in excess of 300 km cannot be reproduced. In order to fit all elastic thickness values derived from observations the mantle heat flow at the North Pole needs to be smaller than the global average. A local reduction of heat flow by 25% with respect to the chondritic value would be sufficient to explain the large elastic thicknesses observed there. However, a local reduction of heat flow can only be reconciled with a bulk chondritic concentration of heat producing elements in the Martian interior if the excess heat is deposited elsewhere. This could be achieved by mantle plumes, possibly active underneath Tharsis. The size and strength of such a plume is constrained by the elastic thickness at the Tharsis Montes and maximum average heat flows between 8 and 20 mW/m2, corresponding to central peak heat flows of 40 to 100 mW/m2, are consistent with the observations. Such a plume would leave a clear signature in the surface heat flow and should be readily detectable by in-situ heat flow measurements. Gray

  3. Amputee socks: how does sock ply relate to sock thickness?

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Joan E; Cagle, John C; Harrison, Daniel S; Karchin, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Background The term “sock ply” may be a source of confusion in prosthetics practice, because there may not be a consistent relationship between sock ply and sock thickness. Objectives The purpose of this study was to characterize how sock ply related to sock thickness for different sock materials commonly used in limb prosthetics. We also evaluated how sock thickness changed under loading conditions experienced while wearing a lower-limb prosthesis compared with unstressed. Study Design Experimental. Mechanical assessment. Methods Seven sock materials of varying ply were tested using a custom instrument. Sock thickness under eight different compressive stress conditions and two different in-plane tensile strain conditions were measured. Results For socks woven from a single material, thickness under walking stance phase conditions averaged 0.7, 1.2, and 1.5 mm for 1, 3, and 5-ply, respectively. For socks woven from several materials, the corresponding results were 0.4, 0.7, and 0.8 mm, respectively. Sock ply did not sum, e.g. a 3-ply sock was not three times the thickness of a 1-ply sock. Conclusions Sock thickness and compressive stiffness are strongly dependent upon sock material and interface pressure. Clinical Relevance Data may be useful towards selecting socks during fitting and towards understanding volume changes induced by adding socks. PMID:22228614

  4. Stereodynamics of small 1,2-dialkyldiaziridines.

    PubMed

    Kamuf, Matthias; Trapp, Oliver

    2013-04-01

    Diaziridines are very interesting representatives of organic compounds containing stereogenic nitrogen atoms. In particular, 1,2-dialkyldiaziridines show extraordinarily high stereointegrity. The lone electron pairs of the nitrogen atoms are in trans configuration, avoiding a four-electron repulsive interaction. Furthermore, the trans configuration of the substituents at the nitrogen atoms is energetically favored because of reduced steric interactions. Therefore only two stereoisomers (enantiomers) are observed. At elevated temperatures the enantiomers are interconverting because of the limited stereointegrity of the chirotopic nitrogen atoms. The enantiomerization rate constants and the activation parameters of interconversion are of great interest. Here, we investigated the stereodynamics of a set of small 1,2-dialkyldiaziridines bearing short substituents (Me, Et, iPr, tBu), using enantioselective dynamic gas chromatography (DGC). Separation of enantiomers of all compounds, including the highly volatile 1,2-dimethyldiaziridine, was achieved using heptakis(2,3-di-O-ethyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-β-cyclodextrin in 50% PS086 (w/w) as chiral stationary phase in fused silica capillaries with a length of up to 50 m. Measurements at variable temperatures were performed and reaction rate constants were determined using the unified equation of chromatography implemented in the software DCXplorer. The activation barriers at room temperature for 1-(tert-butyl)-2-ethyldiaziridine, ΔG(╪)(298K) = 123.8 kJ mol(-1) (ΔH(╪) = 115.5±2.9 kJ mol(-1), ΔS(╪) = -28±1 J mol(-1) K(-1)), and 1-ethyl-2-isopropyldiaziridine, ΔG(╪)(298K) = 124.2 kJ mol(-1) (ΔH(╪) = 113.1±2.4 kJ mol(-1), ΔS(╪) = -37±2 J mol(-1) K(-1)), were determined, representing some of the highest values observed for nitrogen inversion in diaziridines. PMID:23401088

  5. (1+2)-dimensional strongly nonlocal solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang Shigen; Guo Qi

    2007-11-15

    Approximate solutions of (1+2)-dimensional strongly nonlocal solitons (SNSs) are presented. It is shown that the power of a SNS in a nematic liquid crystal is in direct proportion to the second power of the degree of nonlocality, the power of a SNS in a nonlocal medium with a logarithmic nonlocal response is in inverse proportion to the second power of its beamwidth, and the power of a SNS in a nonlocal medium with an sth-power decay nonlocal response is in direct proportion to the (s+2)th power of the degree of nonlocality.

  6. Spin-1/2 Optical Lattice Clock

    SciTech Connect

    Lemke, N. D.; Ludlow, A. D.; Barber, Z. W.; Fortier, T. M.; Diddams, S. A.; Jiang, Y.; Jefferts, S. R.; Heavner, T. P.; Parker, T. E.; Oates, C. W.

    2009-08-07

    We experimentally investigate an optical clock based on {sup 171}Yb (I=1/2) atoms confined in an optical lattice. We have evaluated all known frequency shifts to the clock transition, including a density-dependent collision shift, with a fractional uncertainty of 3.4x10{sup -16}, limited principally by uncertainty in the blackbody radiation Stark shift. We measured the absolute clock transition frequency relative to the NIST-F1 Cs fountain clock and find the frequency to be 518 295 836 590 865.2(0.7) Hz.

  7. Regional crustal thickness and precipitation in young mountain chains

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, W. G.

    2004-01-01

    Crustal thickness is related to climate through precipitation-induced erosion. Along the Andes, the highest mountains and thickest crust (≈70 km) occur at 25° south, a region of low precipitation. Westerly winds warm passing over the Atacama Desert; precipitation is modest in the High Andes and eastward over the Altiplano. Severe aridity, hence low erosion rates, helps to account for the elevated volcanogenic contractional arc and high, internally draining plateau in its rain shadow. Weak erosion along the north-central arc provides scant amounts of sediment to the Chile–Peru Trench, starving the subduction channel. Subcrustal removal might be expected to reduce the crustal thickness, but is not a factor at 25° south. The thickness of the gravitationally compensated continental crust cannot reflect underplating and/or partial fusion of sediments, but must be caused chiefly by volcanism-plutonism and contraction. Contrasting climate typifies the terrane at 45° south where moisture-laden westerly winds encounter a cool margin, bringing abundant precipitation. The alpine landscape is of lower average elevation compared with the north-central Andes and is supported by thinner continental crust (≈35 km). Intense erosion supplies voluminous clastic debris to the offshore trench, and vast quantities are subducted. However, the southern Andean crust is only about half as thick as that at 25° south, suggesting that erosion, not subcrustal sediment accretion or anatexis, is partly responsible for the thickness of the mountain belt. The Himalayas plus Tibetan Plateau, the Sierra Nevada plus Colorado Plateau, and the Japanese Islands exhibit analogous relationships between crustal thickness and climate. PMID:15471988

  8. Regional crustal thickness and precipitation in young mountain chains.

    PubMed

    Ernst, W G

    2004-10-19

    Crustal thickness is related to climate through precipitation-induced erosion. Along the Andes, the highest mountains and thickest crust (approximately 70 km) occur at 25 degrees south, a region of low precipitation. Westerly winds warm passing over the Atacama Desert; precipitation is modest in the High Andes and eastward over the Altiplano. Severe aridity, hence low erosion rates, helps to account for the elevated volcanogenic contractional arc and high, internally draining plateau in its rain shadow. Weak erosion along the north-central arc provides scant amounts of sediment to the Chile-Peru Trench, starving the subduction channel. Subcrustal removal might be expected to reduce the crustal thickness, but is not a factor at 25 degrees south. The thickness of the gravitationally compensated continental crust cannot reflect underplating and/or partial fusion of sediments, but must be caused chiefly by volcanism-plutonism and contraction. Contrasting climate typifies the terrain at 45 degrees south where moisture-laden westerly winds encounter a cool margin, bringing abundant precipitation. The alpine landscape is of lower average elevation compared with the north-central Andes and is supported by thinner continental crust (approximately 35 km). Intense erosion supplies voluminous clastic debris to the offshore trench, and vast quantities are subducted. However, the southern Andean crust is only about half as thick as that at 25 degrees south, suggesting that erosion, not subcrustal sediment accretion or anatexis, is partly responsible for the thickness of the mountain belt. The Himalayas plus Tibetan Plateau, the Sierra Nevada plus Colorado Plateau, and the Japanese Islands exhibit analogous relationships between crustal thickness and climate. PMID:15471988

  9. Photographer : JPL Range : 241,000km (150,600 mi.). This black and white image of Europa, smallest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer : JPL Range : 241,000km (150,600 mi.). This black and white image of Europa, smallest of Jupiter's four Galilean satellites, was acquired by Voyager 2. Europa, the brightest of the Galiliean satellites, has a density slightly less than Io, suggesting it has a substantial quantity of water. Scientists previously speculated that the water must have cooled from the interior and formed a mantle of ice perhaps 100 km thick. The complex patterns on its surface suggest that the icy surface was fractured, and that the cracks filled with dark material from below. Very few impact craters are visible on the surface, suggesting that active processes on the surface are still modifying Europa. The tectonic pattern seen on its surface differs drastically from the fault systems seen on Ganymede where pieces of the crust have moved relative to each other. On Europa, the crust evidently fractures but the pieces remain in roughly their original position.

  10. Progress in determining the thickness and distribution of volcanic materials on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    Volcanic plains and constructs comprise over half the surface of Mars. Volume estimates require sensible estimates of the thickness of volcanic materials. The completion of the 1:2 M Viking photomosaics and a refined geologic map based on Viking photography set the stage for improved thickness studies and volume estimates. Currently, a revised (but incomplete) data base of 740 partially buried craters was compiled using Mars photomosaics at 1:2 M for initial identification and measurement.

  11. Evaluation of the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelaro, Ronald; Putman, William M.; Pawson, Steven; Draper, Clara; Molod, Andrea; Norris, Peter M.; Ott, Lesley; Prive, Nikki; Reale, Oreste; Achuthavarier, Deepthi; Bosilovich, Michael; Buchard, Virginie; Chao, Winston; Coy, Lawrence; Cullather, Richard; da Silva, Arlindo; Darmenov, Anton; Koster, Randal; McCarty, Will; Schubert, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    This report documents an evaluation by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) of a two-year 7-km-resolution non-hydrostatic global mesoscale simulation produced with the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) atmospheric general circulation model. The simulation was produced as a Nature Run for conducting observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). Generation of the GEOS-5 Nature Run (G5NR) was motivated in part by the desire of the OSSE community for an improved high-resolution sequel to an existing Nature Run produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), which has served the community for several years. The intended use of the G5NR in this context is for generating simulated observations to test proposed observing system designs regarding new instruments and their deployments. Because NASA's interest in OSSEs extends beyond traditional weather forecasting applications, the G5NR includes, in addition to standard meteorological components, a suite of aerosol types and several trace gas concentrations, with emissions downscaled to 10 km using ancillary information such as power plant location, population density and night-light information. The evaluation exercise described here involved more than twenty-five GMAO scientists investigating various aspects of the G5NR performance, including time mean temperature and wind fields, energy spectra, precipitation and the hydrological cycle, the representation of waves, tropical cyclones and midlatitude storms, land and ocean surface characteristics, the representation and forcing effects of clouds and radiation, dynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere, and the representation of aerosols and trace gases. Comparisons are made with observational data sets when possible, as well as with reanalyses and other long model simulations. The evaluation is broad in scope, as it is meant to assess the overall realism of basic aspects of the G5NR deemed relevant to the conduct of OSSEs

  12. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  13. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  14. System for measuring film thickness

    DOEpatents

    Batishko, Charles R.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Peters, Timothy J.; Rasmussen, Donald E.

    1990-01-01

    A system for determining the thicknesses of thin films of materials exhibiting fluorescence in response to exposure to excitation energy from a suitable source of such energy. A section of film is illuminated with a fixed level of excitation energy from a source such as an argon ion laser emitting blue-green light. The amount of fluorescent light produced by the film over a limited area within the section so illuminated is then measured using a detector such as a photomultiplier tube. Since the amount of fluorescent light produced is a function of the thicknesses of thin films, the thickness of a specific film can be determined by comparing the intensity of fluorescent light produced by this film with the intensity of light produced by similar films of known thicknesses in response to the same amount of excitation energy. The preferred embodiment of the invention uses fiber optic probes in measuring the thicknesses of oil films on the operational components of machinery which are ordinarily obscured from view.

  15. Thicknesses of Mare Basalts from Gravity and Topograhy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GONG, S.; Wieczorek, M.; Nimmo, F.; Kiefer, W.; Head, J.; Smith, D.; Zuber, M.

    2015-10-01

    Mare basalts are derived from partial melting of the lunar interior and are mostly located on the near side of the Moon [1, 2]. Their iron-rich composition gives rise to their dark color, but also causes their density to be substantially higher than normal crustal rocks. The total volume of mare basalts can provide crucial information about the Moon's thermal evolution and volcanic activity. Unfortunately, the thicknesses of the mare are only poorly constrained. Here we use gravity data from NASA's GRAIL mission to investigate the thickness of mare basalts.

  16. The Crust and Mantle Relationships Beneath Central and Southern Iberian Peninsula constrained by a 550 km long multiseismic transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsan, Siddique Akhtar; Carbonell, Ramon; Simancas, Jose Fernando; Martinez Poyatos, David; Azor, Antonio; Ayarza, Puy; Storti, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    A composite lithospheric cross section which is composed by data from controlled source multiseismic experiments strongly constrains the lithospheric structure of southwestern Iberia. The data includes coincident normal incidence and wide-angle profiles along an, approximately, 550 km long transect. This transect goes across, from North-to-South, the major tectonic zones that build up Southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula (the Central Iberian Zone -CIZ-, the Ossa-Morena Zone -OMZ- and the South Portuguese Zone -SPZ-). The knowledge provided by these datasets constitutes the base to develop multidisciplinary models of the lithosphere. The multichannel deep seismic high resolution (60-90 fold) profiles, IBERSEIS & ALCUDIA were acquired in summer 2001 and 2007 are about 300 and 250 km long respectively. The transects image 20 s (TWTT), about 70 km depth. To address the crust and upper mantle structural relationships a reassessment of the normal incidence seismic reflection transect ALCUDIA has been carried out. We revised the key processing steps and applied advance analysis on the ALCUDIA transect with the aim to improve the signal to noise ratio especially in the deep parts and to produce a depth migrated image. The velocity model generated through wide-angle seismic survey (2003) was used to convert IBERSEIS time migrated stack image into depth. The new data processing flow provide better structural constraints on the shallow and deep structures as the current images reveal indentation features which strongly suggest horizontal tectonics. The ALCUDIA transect shows slightly less reflective upper crust about 13 km thick decoupled from the comparatively reflective lower crust. The reflectivity of the lower crust is continuous, high amplitude, horizontal and parallel though evidences of deformation are present as flat-ramp-flat geometry on the northeastern portion and a "Crocodile structure" wedging into the upper mantle on the southwestern portion of the ALCUDIA

  17. ASIC design in the KM3NeT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajanana, D.; Gromov, V.; Timmer, P.

    2013-02-01

    In the KM3NeT project [1], Cherenkov light from the muon interactions with transparent matter around the detector, is used to detect neutrinos. Photo multiplier tubes (PMT) used as photon sensor, are housed in a glass sphere (aka Optical Module) to detect single photons from the Cherenkov light. The PMT needs high operational voltage ( ~ 1.5 kV) and is generated by a Cockroft-Walton (CW) multiplier circuit. The electronics required to control the PMT's and collect the signals is integrated in two ASIC's namely: 1) a front-end mixed signal ASIC (PROMiS) for the readout of the PMT and 2) an analog ASIC (CoCo) to generate pulses for charging the CW circuit and to control the feedback of the CW circuit. In this article, we discuss the two integrated circuits and test results of the complete setup. PROMiS amplifies the input charge, converts it to a pulse width and delivers the information via LVDS signals. These LVDS signals carry accurate information on the Time of arrival ( < 2 ns) and Time over Threshold. A PROM block provides unique identification to the chip. The chip communicates with the control electronics via an I2C bus. This unique combination of the ASIC's results in a very cost and power efficient PMT base design.

  18. Nausea is associated with endotoxemia during a 161-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Stuempfle, Kristin J; Valentino, Taylor; Hew-Butler, Tamara; Hecht, Frederick M; Hoffman, Martin D

    2016-09-01

    This study explored possible contributing factors to gastrointestinal distress, including endotoxemia, hyperthermia, dehydration and nutrition, during a 161-km ultramarathon. Thirty runners participated in the study and 20 finished the race. At three checkpoints and the finish, runners were interviewed to assess the incidence and severity of 12 gastrointestinal symptoms and to determine dietary intake. Core temperature was measured at the same locations. Runners were weighed pre-race, at the three checkpoints and the finish to monitor hydration status. Blood markers for endotoxemia (sCD14) and inflammation (interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein) were measured pre- and post-race. Gastrointestinal symptoms were experienced by most runners (80%), with nausea being the most common complaint (60%). Runners with nausea experienced significantly greater (P = 0.02) endotoxemia than those without nausea (sCD14 mean increase 0.7 versus 0.5 µg · mL(-1)). There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.652, P = 0.005) between nausea severity and endotoxemia level. Inflammatory response, core temperature, hydration level and race diet were similar between runners with and without nausea. This study links endotoxemia to nausea in ultramarathon runners. Other possible contributing factors to nausea such as hyperthermia, dehydration and nutrition did not appear to play a role in the symptomatic runners in this study. PMID:26707127

  19. A 233 km tunnel for lepton and hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, D. J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Datta, A.; Duraisamy, M.; Luo, T.; Lyons, G. T.

    2012-12-01

    A decade ago, a cost analysis was conducted to bore a 233 km circumference Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) tunnel passing through Fermilab. Here we outline implementations of e+e-, pp, and μ+μ- collider rings in this tunnel using recent technological innovations. The 240 and 500 GeV e+e- colliders employ Crab Waist Crossings, ultra low emittance damped bunches, short vertical IP focal lengths, superconducting RF, and low coercivity, grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. Some details are also provided for a high luminosity 240 GeV e+e- collider and 1.75 TeV muon accelerator in a Fermilab site filler tunnel. The 40 TeV pp collider uses the high intensity Fermilab p source, exploits high cross sections for pp production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconducting magnets run with liquid neon. The 35 TeV muon ring ramps the 2 Tesla superconducting magnets at 9 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of superconducting RF to accelerate muons from 1.75 to 17.5 TeV in 63 orbits with 71% survival, and mitigates neutrino radiation with phase shifting, roller coaster motion in a FODO lattice.

  20. KM3NeT Digital Optical Module electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, Diego

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT collaboration is currently building of a neutrino telescope with a volume of several cubic kilometres at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. The telescope consists of a matrix of Digital Optical Modules that will detect the Cherenkov light originated by the interaction of the neutrinos in the proximity of the detector. This contribution describes the main components of the read-out electronics of the Digital Optical Module: the Power Board, which delivers all the power supply required by the Digital Optical Molule electronics; the Central Logic Board, the main core of the read-out system, hosting 31 Time to Digital Converters with 1 ns resolution and the White Rabbit protocol embedded in the Central Logic Board Field Programmable Gate Array; the Octopus boards, that transfer the Low Voltage Digital Signals from the PMT bases to the Central Logic Board and finally the PMT bases, in charge of converting the analogue signal produced in the 31 3" PMTs into a Low Voltage Digital Signal.

  1. A 233 km tunnel for lepton and hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, D. J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Datta, A.; Duraisamy, M.; Luo, T.; Lyons, G. T.

    2012-12-21

    A decade ago, a cost analysis was conducted to bore a 233 km circumference Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) tunnel passing through Fermilab. Here we outline implementations of e{sup +}e{sup -}, pp-bar , and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} collider rings in this tunnel using recent technological innovations. The 240 and 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders employ Crab Waist Crossings, ultra low emittance damped bunches, short vertical IP focal lengths, superconducting RF, and low coercivity, grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. Some details are also provided for a high luminosity 240 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} collider and 1.75 TeV muon accelerator in a Fermilab site filler tunnel. The 40 TeV pp-bar collider uses the high intensity Fermilab p-bar source, exploits high cross sections for pp-bar production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconducting magnets run with liquid neon. The 35 TeV muon ring ramps the 2 Tesla superconducting magnets at 9 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of superconducting RF to accelerate muons from 1.75 to 17.5 TeV in 63 orbits with 71% survival, and mitigates neutrino radiation with phase shifting, roller coaster motion in a FODO lattice.

  2. Determination of the Elastic Thickness of the Crust using GOES and LIDAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghavi, Farahnaz; Ghalenoiee, Samira; Ebrahim-zadeh Ardestani, Vahid

    2016-07-01

    In this study, to identify the elastic thickness (Te) of the crust, the local variations of the coherence between Bouguer gravity and topography in the three area included Canadian Shield region, Appalachian region, and Basin and Range region are determined. We use a coherence method based on Windowed Fourier Transform (WFT) under the assumption of an isotropic lithosphere. Data sources are selected from GOES and LIDAR images for Bouguer gravity and topography, respectively. First, the coherence distribution is calculated and then, the characteristic wavelengths are obtained where the coherence is 0.5. Results show that values of the elastic thickness of the lithosphere are 110km in the Canadian Shield region, 49km in the Appalachian region and 3.5km in the Basin and Range region. The results are in good agreement with the existing values calculated from other spectral methods. Key words: Effective elastic thickness, Coherence method, Bouguer gravity anomaly, topography, satellite images.

  3. Fermion localization on thick branes

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Tempo, Jose David

    2006-02-15

    We consider chiral fermion confinement in scalar thick branes, which are known to localize gravity, coupled through a Yukawa term. The conditions for the confinement and their behavior in the thin-wall limit are found for various different BPS branes, including double walls and branes interpolating between different AdS{sub 5} spacetimes. We show that only one massless chiral mode is localized in all these walls, whenever the wall thickness is keep finite. We also show that, independently of wall's thickness, chiral fermionic modes cannot be localized in dS{sub 4} walls embedded in a M{sub 5} spacetime. Finally, massive fermions in double wall spacetimes are also investigated. We find that, besides the massless chiral mode localization, these double walls support quasilocalized massive modes of both chiralities.

  4. LTCC Thick Film Process Characterization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Girardi, M. A.; Peterson, K. A.; Vianco, P. T.

    2016-05-01

    Low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) technology has proven itself in military/space electronics, wireless communication, microsystems, medical and automotive electronics, and sensors. The use of LTCC for high frequency applications is appealing due to its low losses, design flexibility and packaging and integration capability. Moreover, we summarize the LTCC thick film process including some unconventional process steps such as feature machining in the unfired state and thin film definition of outer layer conductors. The LTCC thick film process was characterized to optimize process yields by focusing on these factors: 1) Print location, 2) Print thickness, 3) Drying of tapes and panels,more » 4) Shrinkage upon firing, and 5) Via topography. Statistical methods were used to analyze critical process and product characteristics in the determination towards that optimization goal.« less

  5. Applications of film thickness equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1983-01-01

    A number of applications of elastohydrodynamic film thickness expressions were considered. The motion of a steel ball over steel surfaces presenting varying degrees of conformity was examined. The equation for minimum film thickness in elliptical conjunctions under elastohydrodynamic conditions was applied to roller and ball bearings. An involute gear was also introduced, it was again found that the elliptical conjunction expression yielded a conservative estimate of the minimum film thickness. Continuously variable-speed drives like the Perbury gear, which present truly elliptical elastohydrodynamic conjunctions, are favored increasingly in mobile and static machinery. A representative elastohydrodynamic condition for this class of machinery is considered for power transmission equipment. The possibility of elastohydrodynamic films of water or oil forming between locomotive wheels and rails is examined. The important subject of traction on the railways is attracting considerable attention in various countries at the present time. The final example of a synovial joint introduced the equation developed for isoviscous-elastic regimes of lubrication.

  6. A unique approach to accurately measure thickness in thick multilayers.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bing; Hiller, Jon M; Liu, Yuzi; Liu, Chian; Qian, Jun; Gades, Lisa; Wieczorek, Michael J; Marander, Albert T; Maser, Jorg; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2012-05-01

    X-ray optics called multilayer Laue lenses (MLLs) provide a promising path to focusing hard X-rays with high focusing efficiency at a resolution between 5 nm and 20 nm. MLLs consist of thousands of depth-graded thin layers. The thickness of each layer obeys the linear zone plate law. X-ray beamline tests have been performed on magnetron sputter-deposited WSi(2)/Si MLLs at the Advanced Photon Source/Center for Nanoscale Materials 26-ID nanoprobe beamline. However, it is still very challenging to accurately grow each layer at the designed thickness during deposition; errors introduced during thickness measurements of thousands of layers lead to inaccurate MLL structures. Here, a new metrology approach that can accurately measure thickness by introducing regular marks on the cross section of thousands of layers using a focused ion beam is reported. This new measurement method is compared with a previous method. More accurate results are obtained using the new measurement approach. PMID:22514179

  7. Model-based cartilage thickness measurement in the submillimeter range

    SciTech Connect

    Streekstra, G. J.; Strackee, S. D.; Maas, M.; Wee, R. ter; Venema, H. W.

    2007-09-15

    Current methods of image-based thickness measurement in thin sheet structures utilize second derivative zero crossings to locate the layer boundaries. It is generally acknowledged that the nonzero width of the point spread function (PSF) limits the accuracy of this measurement procedure. We propose a model-based method that strongly reduces PSF-induced bias by incorporating the PSF into the thickness estimation method. We estimated the bias in thickness measurements in simulated thin sheet images as obtained from second derivative zero crossings. To gain insight into the range of sheet thickness where our method is expected to yield improved results, sheet thickness was varied between 0.15 and 1.2 mm with an assumed PSF as present in the high-resolution modes of current computed tomography (CT) scanners [full width at half maximum (FWHM) 0.5-0.8 mm]. Our model-based method was evaluated in practice by measuring layer thickness from CT images of a phantom mimicking two parallel cartilage layers in an arthrography procedure. CT arthrography images of cadaver wrists were also evaluated, and thickness estimates were compared to those obtained from high-resolution anatomical sections that served as a reference. The thickness estimates from the simulated images reveal that the method based on second derivative zero crossings shows considerable bias for layers in the submillimeter range. This bias is negligible for sheet thickness larger than 1 mm, where the size of the sheet is more than twice the FWHM of the PSF but can be as large as 0.2 mm for a 0.5 mm sheet. The results of the phantom experiments show that the bias is effectively reduced by our method. The deviations from the true thickness, due to random fluctuations induced by quantum noise in the CT images, are of the order of 3% for a standard wrist imaging protocol. In the wrist the submillimeter thickness estimates from the CT arthrography images correspond within 10% to those estimated from the anatomical

  8. Cratering and penetration experiments in teflon targets at velocities from 1 to 7 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horz, Friedrich; Cintala, Mark; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Cardenas, Frank; Davidson, William; Haynes, Gerald; See, Thomas H.; Winkler, Jerry; Knight, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Approximately 20 sq m of protective thermal blankets, largely composed of Teflon, were retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility after the spacecraft spent approximately 5.7 years in space. Examination of these blankets revealed that they contained thousands of hypervelocity impact features ranging from micron-sized craters to penetration holes several millimeters in diameter. We conducted impact experiments to reproduce such features and to understand the relationships between projectile size and the resulting crater or penetration hole diameter over a wide range of impact velocities. Such relationships are needed to derive the size and mass frequency distribution and flux of natural and man-made particles in low-earth orbit. Powder propellant and light-gas guns were used to launch soda-lime glass spheres into pure Teflon targets at velocities ranging from 1 to 7 km/s. Target thickness varied over more than three orders of magnitude from finite halfspace targets to very thin films. Cratering and penetration of massive Teflon targets is dominated by brittle failure and the development of extensive spall zones at the target's front and, if penetrated, the target's rear side. Mass removal by spallation at the back side of Teflon targets may be so severe that the absolute penetration hole diameter can become larger than that of a standard crater. The crater diameter in infinite halfspace Teflon targets increases, at otherwise constant impact conditions, with encounter velocity by a factor of V (exp 0.44). In contrast, the penetration hole size in very thin foils is essentially unaffected by impact velocity. Penetrations at target thicknesses intermediate to these extremes will scale with variable exponents of V. Our experimental matrix is sufficiently systematic and complete, up to 7 km/s, to make reasonable recommendations for velocity-scaling of Teflon craters and penetrations. We specifically suggest that cratering behavior and associated equations apply

  9. Kinematics of the New Zealand plate boundary: Relative motion by GPS across networks of 1000 km and 50 km spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meertens, Charles M.; Rocken, Christian; Perin, Barbara; Walcott, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The NASA/DOSE 'Kinematics of the New Zealand Plate Boundary' experiment is a four-year cooperative Global Positioning System (GPS) experiment involving 6 universities and institutions in New Zealand and the United States. The investigation covers two scales, the first on the scale of plates (approximately 1000 km) and the second is on the scale of the plate boundary zone (approximately 50 km). In the first portion of the experiment, phase A, the objective is to make direct measurements of tectonic plate motion between the Australian and Pacific plates using GPS in order to determine the Euler vector of this plate pair. The phase A portion of this experiment was initiated in December 1992 with the first-epoch baseline measurements on the large scale network. The network will be resurveyed two years later to obtain velocities. The stations which were observed for phase A are shown and listed. Additional regional stations which will be used for this study are listed and are part of either CIGNET or other global tracking networks. The phase A portion of the experiment is primarily the responsibility of the UNAVCO investigators. Therefore, this report concentrates on phase A. The first year of NASA funding for phase A included only support for the field work. Processing and analysis will take place with the second year of funding. The second part of the experiemnt measured relative motion between the Australian and Pacific plates across the pate boundary zone between Hokitika and Christchurch on the South Island of New Zealand. The extent and rate of deformation will be determined by comparisons with historical, conventional surveys and by repeated GPS measurements to be made in two years. This activity was the emphasis of the LDGO portion of the study. An ancillary experiment, phase C, concentrated on plate boundary deformation in the vicinity of Wellington and was done as part of training during the early portion of the field campaign. Details of the objectives of the

  10. File Specification for the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run, Ganymed Release Non-Hydrostatic 7-km Global Mesoscale Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    da Silva, Arlindo M.; Putman, William; Nattala, J.

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the gridded output files produced by a two-year global, non-hydrostatic mesoscale simulation for the period 2005-2006 produced with the non-hydrostatic version of GEOS-5 Atmospheric Global Climate Model (AGCM). In addition to standard meteorological parameters (wind, temperature, moisture, surface pressure), this simulation includes 15 aerosol tracers (dust, sea-salt, sulfate, black and organic carbon), O3, CO and CO2. This model simulation is driven by prescribed sea-surface temperature and sea-ice, daily volcanic and biomass burning emissions, as well as high-resolution inventories of anthropogenic sources. A description of the GEOS-5 model configuration used for this simulation can be found in Putman et al. (2014). The simulation is performed at a horizontal resolution of 7 km using a cubed-sphere horizontal grid with 72 vertical levels, extending up to to 0.01 hPa (approximately 80 km). For user convenience, all data products are generated on two logically rectangular longitude-latitude grids: a full-resolution 0.0625 deg grid that approximately matches the native cubed-sphere resolution, and another 0.5 deg reduced-resolution grid. The majority of the full-resolution data products are instantaneous with some fields being time-averaged. The reduced-resolution datasets are mostly time-averaged, with some fields being instantaneous. Hourly data intervals are used for the reduced-resolution datasets, while 30-minute intervals are used for the full-resolution products. All full-resolution output is on the model's native 72-layer hybrid sigma-pressure vertical grid, while the reduced-resolution output is given on native vertical levels and on 48 pressure surfaces extending up to 0.02 hPa. Section 4 presents additional details on horizontal and vertical grids. Information of the model surface representation can be found in Appendix B. The GEOS-5 product is organized into file collections that are described in detail in Appendix C. Additional

  11. A high resolution (1 km) groundwater model for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Verkaik, Jarno; de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Rens; Erkens, Gilles; Bierkens, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater is important in many parts of Indonesia. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and industrial activities. During times of drought, it sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus support ecosystem habitat and biodiversity as well as preventing hazardous forest fire. Besides its importance, groundwater is known as a vulnerable resource as unsustainable groundwater exploitation and management occurs in many areas of the country. Therefore, in order to ensure sustainable management of groundwater resources, monitoring and predicting groundwater changes in Indonesia are imperative. However, large extent groundwater models to assess these changes on a regional scale are almost non-existent and are hampered by the strong topographical and lithological transitions that characterize Indonesia. In this study, we built an 1 km resolution groundwater model for the entire Indonesian archipelago (total inland area: about 2 million km2). We adopted the approaches of Sutanudjaja et al. (2011, 2014a) and de Graaf et al. (2014) in order to make a MODFLOW (Harbaugh et al., 2000) groundwater model by using only global datasets. Aquifer schematization and properties of the groundwater model were developed from available global lithological maps (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2011; Hartmann & Moorsdorf, 2012; Gleeson et al., 2014). We forced the groundwater model with the recent output of global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB version 2.0 (Sutanudjaja et al., 2014b; van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term average of groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from channel discharge. Simulation results were promising. The MODFLOW model converged with realistic aquifer properties (i.e. transmissivities) and produced reasonable groundwater head spatial distribution reflecting the positions of major groundwater bodies and surface water bodies in the country. In Vienna, we aim to show and demonstrate these

  12. Estimation of Land Surface Temperature from 1-km AVHRR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Corinne

    2016-04-01

    In order to re-process DLRs 1km AVHRR data archive to different geophysical and descriptive parameters of the land surface and the atmosphere, a series of scientific data processors are being developed in the framework of the TIMELINE project. The archive of DLR ranges back to the 80ies. One of the data processors is SurfTemp, which processes L2 LST and emissivity datasets from AVHRR L1b data. The development of the data processor included the selection of statistical procedures suitable for time series processing, including four mono-window and six split window algorithms. For almost all of these algorithms, new constants were generated, which better account for different atmospheric and geometric acquisition situations. The selection of optimal algorithms for SurfTemp is based on a round robin approach, in which the selected mono-window and split window algorithms are tested on the basis of a large number of TOA radiance/LST pairs, which were generated using a radiative transfer model and the SeeBorV5 profile database. The original LSTs are thereby compared to the LSTs derived from the TOA radiances using the mono- and split window algorithms. The algorithm comparison includes measures of precision, as well as the sensitivity of a method to the accuracy of its input data. The results of the round robin are presented, as well as the implementation of selected algorithms into SurfTemp. Further, first cross-validation results between the AVHRR LST and MODIS LST are shown.

  13. Gastrointestinal distress is common during a 161-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Stuempfle, Kristin Jean; Hoffman, Martin Dean

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the incidence, severity, and timing of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in finishers and non-finishers of the 161-km Western States Endurance Run. A total of 272 runners (71.0% of starters) completed a post-race questionnaire that assessed the incidence and severity (none = 0, mild = 1, moderate = 2, severe = 3, very severe = 4) of 12 upper (reflux/heartburn, belching, stomach bloating, stomach cramps/pain, nausea, vomiting) and lower (intestinal cramps/pain, flatulence, side ache/stitch, urge to defecate, loose stool/diarrhoea, intestinal bleeding/bloody faeces) GI symptoms experienced during each of four race segments. GI symptoms were experienced by most runners (96.0%). Flatulence (65.9% frequency, mean value 1.0, s = 0.6 severity), belching (61.3% frequency, mean value 1.0, s = 0.6 severity), and nausea (60.3% frequency, mean value 1.0, s = 0.7 severity) were the most common symptoms. Among race finishers, 43.9% reported that GI symptoms affected their race performance, with nausea being the most common symptom (86.0%). Among race non-finishers, 35.6% reported that GI symptoms were a reason for dropping out of the race, with nausea being the most common symptom (90.5%). For both finishers and non-finishers, nausea was greatest during the most challenging and hottest part of the race. GI symptoms are very common during ultramarathon running, and in particular, nausea is the most common complaint for finishers and non-finishers. PMID:25716739

  14. Processing techniques for global land 1-km AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Steinwand, Daniel R.; Wivell, Charles E.; Hollaren, Douglas M.; Meyer, David

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDC) in cooperation with several international science organizations has developed techniques for processing daily Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 1-km data of the entire global land surface. These techniques include orbital stitching, geometric rectification, radiometric calibration, and atmospheric correction. An orbital stitching algorithm was developed to combine consecutive observations acquired along an orbit by ground receiving stations into contiguous half-orbital segments. The geometric rectification process uses an AVHRR satellite model that contains modules for forward mapping, forward terrain correction, and inverse mapping with terrain correction. The correction is accomplished by using the hydrologic features coastlines and lakes from the Digital Chart of the World. These features are rasterized into the satellite projection and are matched to the AVHRR imagery using binary edge correlation techniques. The resulting coefficients are related to six attitude correction parameters: roll, roll rate, pitch, pitch rate, yaw, and altitude. The image can then be precision corrected to a variety of map projections and user-selected image frames. Because the AVHRR lacks onboard calibration for the optical wavelengths, a series of time-variant calibration coefficients derived from vicarious calibration methods and are used to model the degradation profile of the instruments. Reducing atmospheric effects on AVHRR data is important. A method has been develop that will remove the effects of molecular scattering and absorption from clear sky observations, using climatological measurements of ozone. Other methods to remove the effects of water vapor and aerosols are being investigated.

  15. Dehalogenimonas spp. can Reductively Dehalogenate High Concentrations of 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,2-Dichloropropane, and 1,1,2-Trichloroethane

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The contaminant concentrations over which type strains of the species Dehalogenimonas alkenigignens and Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens were able to reductively dechlorinate 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) were evaluated. Although initially isolated from an environment with much lower halogenated solvent concentrations, D. alkenigignens IP3-3T was found to reductively dehalogenate chlorinated alkanes at concentrations comparable to D. lykanthroporepellens BL-DC-9T. Both species dechlorinated 1,2-DCA, 1,2-DCP, and 1,1,2-TCA present at initial concentrations at least as high as 8.7, 4.0, and 3.5 mM, respectively. The ability of Dehalogenimonas spp. to carry out anaerobic reductive dechlorination even in the presence of high concentrations of chlorinated aliphatic alkanes has important implications for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. PMID:23046725

  16. Dehalogenimonas spp. can Reductively Dehalogenate High Concentrations of 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,2-Dichloropropane, and 1,1,2-Trichloroethane.

    PubMed

    Maness, Andrew D; Bowman, Kimberly S; Yan, Jun; Rainey, Fred A; Moe, William M

    2012-01-01

    The contaminant concentrations over which type strains of the species Dehalogenimonas alkenigignens and Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens were able to reductively dechlorinate 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) were evaluated. Although initially isolated from an environment with much lower halogenated solvent concentrations, D. alkenigignens IP3-3T was found to reductively dehalogenate chlorinated alkanes at concentrations comparable to D. lykanthroporepellens BL-DC-9T. Both species dechlorinated 1,2-DCA, 1,2-DCP, and 1,1,2-TCA present at initial concentrations at least as high as 8.7, 4.0, and 3.5 mM, respectively. The ability of Dehalogenimonas spp. to carry out anaerobic reductive dechlorination even in the presence of high concentrations of chlorinated aliphatic alkanes has important implications for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. PMID:23046725

  17. Seismotectonics and Crustal Thickness of Northwest Mindoro, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P. F.; Olavere, E. A.; Lee, K. M.; Bautista, B.; Solidum, R., Jr.; Huang, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    Mindoro Island locates where the Palawan Continental Block (PCB) indented into the Philippine Mobile Belt (PMB) during the Early Miocene and where the Manila Trench terminates, having ceased convergence due to collision. On the transition from subduction to collision, Northwest Mindoro exhibits vigorous seismic activity and has been debated about its affiliation being PCB or PMB. Here, we use data from both the EHB and Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalogues to study the regional seismotectonics. We also deployed five broadband stations to probe the crustal thickness beneath NW Mindoro using receiver function analysis. Results show that, following the southeasterly reduction of convergence rates at the southern termination of the Manila Trench, the slab dipping angles steepen, were initiated at depth (~200 km) and propagate upwards. The horizontal distances of the trench and slab, as measured from the Wadati-Benioff zone at 200 km depth, also reduce in a southeasterly direction. Observations of intermediate-depth earthquakes that exhibit predominantly down-dip extensional stress patterns attest that the steepening of slab dipping angles is due to the negative buoyancy of the slab. Preliminary results of receiver function analysis suggest that the crustal thickness beneath NW Mindoro is about 40 km and is probably PCB affiliated.

  18. Response of mantle transition zone thickness to plume buoyancy flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Sharma, S.; Ramesh, D. S.; Li, X.; Yuan, X.; Sreenivas, B.; Kind, R.

    2010-01-01

    The debate concerning thermal plumes in the Earth's mantle, their geophysical detection and depth characterization remains contentious. Available geophysical, petrological and geochemical evidence is at variance regarding the very existence of mantle plumes. Utilizing P-to-S converted seismic waves (P receiver functions) from the 410 and 660 km discontinuities, we investigate disposition of these boundaries beneath a number of prominent hotspot regions. The thickness of the mantle transition zone (MTZ), measured as P660s-P410s differential times (tMTZ), is determined. Our analyses suggest that the MTZ thickness beneath some hotspots correlates with the plume strength. The relationship between tMTZ, in response to the thermal perturbation, and the strength of plumes, as buoyancy flux B, follows a power law. This B-tMTZ behavior provides unprecedented insights into the relation of buoyancy flux and excess temperature at 410-660 km depth below hotspots. We find that the strongest hotspots, which are located in the Pacific, are indeed plumes originating at the MTZ or deeper. According to the detected power law, even the strongest plumes may not shrink the transition zone by significantly more than ~40 km (corresponding to a maximum of 300-400° excess temperature).

  19. Eddy current thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Rosen, Gary J.; Sinclair, Frank; Soskov, Alexander; Buff, James S.

    2015-06-16

    A sheet of a material is disposed in a melt of the material. The sheet is formed using a cooling plate in one instance. An exciting coil and sensing coil are positioned downstream of the cooling plate. The exciting coil and sensing coil use eddy currents to determine a thickness of the solid sheet on top of the melt.

  20. A complete list of conservation laws for non-integrable compacton equations of K(m, m) type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodová, Jiřina

    2013-03-01

    In 1993, P Rosenau and J M Hyman introduced and studied Korteweg-de-Vries-like equations with nonlinear dispersion admitting compacton solutions, u_t+D_x^3(u^n)+D_x(u^m)=0 , m, n > 1, which are known as the K(m, n) equations. In this paper we consider a slightly generalized version of the K(m, n) equations for m = n, namely, u_t=aD_x^3(u^m)+bD_x(u^m) , where m, a, b are arbitrary real numbers. We describe all generalized symmetries and conservation laws thereof for m ≠ -2, -1/2, 0, 1; for these four exceptional values of m the equation in question is either completely integrable (m = -2, -1/2) or linear (m = 0, 1). It turns out that for m ≠ -2, -1/2, 0, 1 there are only three symmetries corresponding to x- and t-translations and scaling of t and u, and four non-trivial conservation laws, one of which expresses the conservation of energy, and the other three are associated with the Casimir functionals of the Hamiltonian operator \\mathfrak{D}=aD_x^3+bD_x admitted by our equation. Our result provides inter alia a rigorous proof of the fact that the K (2, 2) equation has just four conservation laws from the paper of P Rosenau and J M Hyman.

  1. K--Ar dating, geological and paleomagnetic study of a 5-KM lava succession in northern Iceland

    SciTech Connect

    Saemundsson, K.; Kristjansson, L.; McDougall, I.; Watkins, N.D.

    1980-07-10

    A 5-km section of basalt lavas exposed at Troellaskagi on the western flank of the Eyjafjoerdur structural dome in northern Iceland has been subjected to K--Ar age and paleomagnetic analysis from which detailed results are tabulated (34 dated lavas, 455 paleomagnetic directions). The upper 4 km of the sequence was erupted between about 11 and 9 m.y. ago. The rate of growth of the lava pile changed about 9.5 m.y. ago. Growth rates in the lower part were of the order of 1 km/m.y., whereas growth rates in the upper part may have been as high as 4 km/m.y. A 1.8 km-thick normal polarity interval in the middle part of the section is correlated with marine magnetic anomaly 5. A good match is observed between the polarity sequence of the Troellaskagi section and the marine magnetic polarity pattern above and below anamaly 5. Regression analysis of the K-Ar data gives an age of 10.5 m.y. for the older boundary of anomaly 5 but a questionable o.3-m.y. age for its younger limit. Structural characteristics of the lava pile indicate that eruption of the sequence was associated with a now extinct rift axis in the western part of northern Iceland. Low-lattice virtual poles are more prevalent in this survey than in two comparable recent surveys on younger Icelandic lavas and much more common than may be expected from a Fisherian distribution. There is no evidence to confirm that such transitional poles are predominantly due to nondipole fields. No significant difference was found in overall strength or stability between normal and reverse geomagnetic fields, as recorded in over 1000 lava flows in Iceland.

  2. Thick resist for MEMS processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Joe; Hamel, Clifford

    2001-11-01

    The need for technical innovation is always present in today's economy. Microfabrication methods have evolved in support of the demand for smaller and faster integrated circuits with price performance improvements always in the scope of the manufacturing design engineer. The dispersion of processing technology spans well beyond IC fabrication today with batch fabrication and wafer scale processing lending advantages to MEMES applications from biotechnology to consumer electronics from oil exploration to aerospace. Today the demand for innovative processing techniques that enable technology is apparent where only a few years ago appeared too costly or not reliable. In high volume applications where yield and cost improvements are measured in fractions of a percent it is imperative to have process technologies that produce consistent results. Only a few years ago thick resist coatings were limited to thickness less than 20 microns. Factors such as uniformity, edge bead and multiple coatings made high volume production impossible. New developments in photoresist formulation combined with advanced coating equipment techniques that closely controls process parameters have enable thick photoresist coatings of 70 microns with acceptable uniformity and edge bead in one pass. Packaging of microelectronic and micromechanical devices is often a significant cost factor and a reliability issue for high volume low cost production. Technologies such as flip- chip assembly provide a solution for cost and reliability improvements over wire bond techniques. The processing for such technology demands dimensional control and presents a significant cost savings if it were compatible with mainstream technologies. Thick photoresist layers, with good sidewall control would allow wafer-bumping technologies to penetrate the barriers to yield and production where costs for technology are the overriding issue. Single pass processing is paramount to the manufacturability of packaging

  3. Plate-Tectonic Analysis of Shallow Seismicity: Apparent Boundary Width, beta-Value, Corner Magnitude, Coupled Lithosphere Thickness, and Coupling in 7 Tectonic Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, P.; Kagan, Y. Y.

    2003-12-01

    A new plate model [Bird, 2003, G3, 10.1029/2001GC000252] is used to analyze the mean seismicities of 7 types of plate boundary (CRB continental rift boundary, CTF continental transform fault, CCB continental convergent boundary, OSR oceanic spreading ridge, OTF oceanic transform fault, OCB oceanic convergent boundary, SUB subduction zone). We compare the plate-like (non-orogen) regions of model PB2002 with the CMT catalog to select apparent boundary half-widths, and then assign 95% of shallow earthquakes to one of these settings. A tapered Gutenberg-Richter model of the frequency/moment relation is fit to the subcatalog for each setting by maximum-likelihood. Best-fitting β values range from 0.53 to 0.92, but all 95%-confidence ranges are consistent with a common value of 0.61-0.66. To better determine some corner magnitudes we expand the subcatalogs by: (1) inclusion of orogens; and (2) inclusion of years 1900-1975 from the catalog of Pacheco and Sykes [1992]. Combining both earthquake statistics and the plate-tectonic constraint on moment rate, corner magnitudes include: CRB 7.64-.26+.76, CTF 8.01-.21+.45, CCB 8.46-.39+.21, OCB 8.04-.22+.52, and SUB 9.58-.46+.48. Coupled lithosphere thicknesses are found to be: CRB 3.0-1.4+7.0 km; CTF 8.6-4.1+11 km; CCB 18-11+? km; OSR 0.13-0.09+.13 km for normal-faulting and 0.40-.21+? km for strike-slip; OTF 12-7.1+?, 1.6-0.5+1.4, and 1.5-0.6+1.2 km at low, medium, and high velocities; OCB 3.8-2.3+13.7 km, and SUB 18.0-10.8+? km. Generally high coupling of subduction and continental plate boundaries suggests that here all seismic gaps are dangerous unless proven to be creeping. Generally low coupling within oceanic lithosphere suggests a different model of isolated seismic asperities surrounded by large seismic gaps which may be permanent.

  4. MAPPING THE ASYMMETRIC THICK DISK. II. DISTANCE, SIZE, AND MASS OF THE HERCULES THICK DISK CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Jeffrey A.; Cabanela, Juan E.; Humphreys, Roberta M. E-mail: cabanela@mnstate.edu

    2011-04-15

    The Hercules Thick Disk Cloud was initially discovered as an excess in the number of faint blue stars between Quadrants 1 and 4 of the Galaxy. The origin of the Cloud could be an interaction with the disk bar, a triaxial Thick Disk, or a merger remnant or stream. To better map the spatial extent of the Cloud along the line of sight, we have obtained multi-color UBVR photometry for 1.2 million stars in 63 fields each of approximately 1 deg{sup 2}. Our analysis of the fields beyond the apparent boundaries of the excess has already ruled out a triaxial Thick Disk as a likely explanation. In this paper, we present our results for the star counts over all of our fields, determine the spatial extent of the overdensity across and along the line of sight, and estimate the size and mass of the Cloud. Using photometric parallaxes, the stars responsible for the excess are between 1 and 6 kpc from the Sun, 0.5-4 kpc above the Galactic plane, and extend approximately 3-4 kpc across our line of sight. The Cloud is thus a major substructure in the Galaxy. The distribution of the excess along our sight lines corresponds with the density contours of the bar in the Disk, and its most distant stars are directly over the bar. We also see through the Cloud to its far side. Over the entire 500 deg{sup 2} of the sky containing the Cloud, we estimate more than 5.6 million stars and 1.9 million solar masses of material. If the overdensity is associated with the bar, it would exceed 1.4 billion stars and more than 50 million solar masses. Finally, we argue that the Hercules-Aquila Cloud is actually the Hercules Thick Disk Cloud.

  5. Substrate interactions in dehalogenation of 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and 1,1,2-trichloroethane mixtures by Dehalogenimonas spp.

    PubMed

    Dillehay, Jacob L; Bowman, Kimberly S; Yan, Jun; Rainey, Fred A; Moe, William M

    2014-04-01

    When chlorinated alkanes are present as soil or groundwater pollutants, they often occur in mixtures. This study evaluated substrate interactions during the anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of chlorinated alkanes by the type strains of two Dehalogenimonas species, D. lykanthroporepellens and D. alkenigignens. Four contaminant mixtures comprised of combinations of the chlorinated solvents 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) were assessed for each species. Chlorinated solvent depletion and daughter product formation determined as a function of time following inoculation into anaerobic media revealed preferential dechlorination of 1,1,2-TCA over both 1,2-DCA and 1,2-DCP for both species. 1,2-DCA in particular was not dechlorinated until 1,1,2-TCA reached low concentrations. In contrast, both species concurrently dechlorinated 1,2-DCA and 1,2-DCP over a comparably large concentration range. This is the first report of substrate interactions during chlorinated alkane dehalogenation by pure cultures, and the results provide insights into the chlorinated alkane transformation processes that may be expected for contaminant mixtures in environments where Dehalogenimonas spp. are present. PMID:23990262

  6. Survival of the Tardigrade Hypsibius Dujardini during Hypervelocity Impact Events up to 5.49 km s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasini, D.

    2014-04-01

    Studies have previously been conducted to verify the survivability of living cells during hypervelocity impact events to test the panspermia and lithopanspermia hypotheses [1, 2]. It has been demonstrated that bacteria survive impacts up to 5.4 km s-1 (approx. shock pressure 30 GPa) - albeit with a low probability of survival [1], whilst larger, more complex, objects (such as seeds) break up at ~1 km s-1 [2]. The survivability of yeast spores in impacts up to 7.4 km s-1 has also recently been shown [3]. Previous work by the authors demonstrated the survivability of Nannochloropsis Oculata Phytoplankton, a eukaryotic photosynthesizing autotroph found in the 'euphotic zone' (sunlit surface layers of oceans [4]), at impact velocities up to 6.07 km s-1 [5]. Other groups have also reported that lichens are able to survive shocks in similar pressure ranges [6]. However, whilst many simple single celled organisms have now been shown to survive such impacts (and the associated pressures) as those encountered during the migration of material from one planet to another [1, 3, 5], complex multicellular organisms have either largely not been tested or, those that have been, have not survived the process [2]. Hypsibius dujardini, like most species of tardigrade, are complex organisms composed of approximately 40,000 cells [7]. When humidity decreases they enter a highly dehydrated state known as a 'tun' and can survive extreme temperatures (as low as - 253°C or as high as 151°C), as well as exposure to Xrays and the vacuum of space [7]. Here we test the shock survivability of Hypsibius dujardini by firing a nylon projectile onto a frozen sample of water containing frozen tardigrades using a light gas gun (LGG) [8]. The recovered ice and water were then analysed under an optical microscope to check the viability of any remnant organisms that may have survived impact, and the pressures generated.

  7. Coal thickness guage using RRAS techniques, parts 2 and 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. D.; Rollwitz, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Electron magnetic resonance was investigated as a sensing technique for use in measuring the thickness of the layer of coal overlying the rock substrate. The goal is development of a thickness gauge which will be usable for control of mining machinery to maintain the coal thickness within selected bounds. A sensor must be noncontracting, have a measurement range of 6 inches or more, and an accuracy of 1/2 inch or better. The sensor should be insensitive to variations in spacing between the sensor and the surface, the response speed should be adequate to permit use on continuous mining equipment, and the device should be rugged and otherwise suited for operation under conditions of high vibration, moisture, and dust. Finally, the sensor measurement must not be adversely affected by the natural effects occurring in coal such as impurities, voids, cracks, layering, high moisture level, and other conditions that are likely to be encountered.

  8. Using a New Crustal Thickness Model to Test Previous Candidate Lunar Basins and to Search for New Candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, H. M.; Frey, H. V.

    2012-01-01

    A new crustal thickness model was used to test the viability of 110 candidate large lunar basins previously identified using older topographic and crustal thickness data as well as photogeologic data. The new model was also used to search for new candidate lunar basins greater than 300 km in diameter. We eliminated 11 of 27 candidates previously identified in the older crustal thickness model, and found strong evidence for at least 8 new candidates.

  9. Generation and characterization of 1,2-diaryl-1,1,2,2-tetramethyldisilane cation radicals.

    PubMed

    Guirado, Gonzalo; Haze, Olesya; Dinnocenzo, Joseph P

    2010-05-21

    Nanosecond laser flash photolysis methods were used to generate and spectrally characterize the cation radicals of 1,2-diaryl-1,1,2,2,-tetramethyldisilanes (Ar = p-X-Ph, X = H, CH(3), OCH(3)) in hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) at room temperature. The disilane cation radicals rapidly reacted with methanol, with bimolecular rate constants ranging from 0.63 to 2.1 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1). The cation radicals were found to react with tert-butanol 4-5 times more slowly than methanol, consistent with a small steric effect for nucleophile-assisted fragmentation of the Si-Si bond. The standard potentials for oxidation of the disilanes in HFIP were determined by two different methods: first, by measuring equilibrium constants for electron exchange between the disilanes and the cation radical of hexaethylbenzene and, second, by combining electrochemical data from cyclic voltammetry with the lifetimes of the disilane cation radicals measured by laser flash photolysis in the same media. Agreement between the two methods was excellent (1,2-di-p-methoxyphenyl-1,1,2,2,-tetramethyldisilane by slow scan cyclic voltammetry in acetonitrile was not found to be reversible, in contrast to prior literature reports. Possible explanations for the prior results are proposed. PMID:20405871

  10. The Origin of Voluminous Dacite (vs. Andesite) at Mature, Thick Continental Arcs: A Reflection of Processes in the Deep Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    An outstanding question is why some continental arc segments are characterized by voluminous eruptions of dacite (65-70 wt% SiO2), whereas others erupt more andesite (58-64 wt% SiO2) than any other magma type. An example of the former is the Altiplano-Puna region of the central Andean arc, which has erupted a predominance of dacite over all magma types 10-1 Ma (de Silva, 1989). In contrast, a 200-km arc segment of the Mexican volcanic arc (Michoacán-Guanajuato arc segment) has erupted ~75% andesite, ~26% basaltic andesite and < 10% basalt, with no dacite, over the last 1-2 Myrs (e.g., Ownby et al., 2011). Possible plutonic equivalents of these two contrasting arc segments are: (1) the eastern Peninsular/Sierra Nevada batholiths, where plutons of dacitic (65-70 wt% SiO2) composition predominate, and (2) the western Peninsular/Sierra Nevada batholiths, where plutons with 58-65 wt% SiO2 are more abundant than those with 65-70 wt% SiO2 (e.g., Gromet and Silver, 1987; Oliver et al., 1993). A consistent feature is the predominance of dacitic magma where subduction occurs along mature, thick (50-75 km) continental crust, whereas andesite is more abundant where crustal thickness is average (~35-45 km). For the Michoacán-Guanajuato arc segment, on the basis of phenocryst modes, major- and trace-element data, as well as phase-equilibrium experiments from the literature, it is proposed that the andesites were derived by partial melting (>20%) of hornblende-rich (~40%) gabbronorite in the deep crust, driven by mantle-derived basalt intrusions at depths of 30-40 km. The absence of any dacite or rhyolite along this arc segment indicates that interstitial liquid from crystal-rich andesites never segregated to form eruptible magma. Thus, little upper-crust differentiation occurred along this arc segment. On the basis of phase-equilibrium experiments in the literature (e.g., Sisson et al., 2005), it is proposed that rhyolite and dacite did form during partial melting of the lower

  11. An alternating GluN1-2-1-2 subunit arrangement in mature NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Riou, Morgane; Stroebel, David; Edwardson, J Michael; Paoletti, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    NMDA receptors (NMDARs) form glutamate-gated ion channels that play a critical role in CNS physiology and pathology. Together with AMPA and kainate receptors, NMDARs are known to operate as tetrameric complexes with four membrane-embedded subunits associating to form a single central ion-conducting pore. While AMPA and some kainate receptors can function as homomers, NMDARs are obligatory heteromers composed of homologous but distinct subunits, most usually of the GluN1 and GluN2 types. A fundamental structural feature of NMDARs, that of the subunit arrangement around the ion pore, is still controversial. Thus, in a typical NMDAR associating two GluN1 and two GluN2 subunits, there is evidence for both alternating 1/2/1/2 and non-alternating 1/1/2/2 arrangements. Here, using a combination of electrophysiological and cross-linking experiments, we provide evidence that functional GluN1/GluN2A receptors adopt the 1/2/1/2 arrangement in which like subunits are diagonal to one another. Moreover, based on the recent crystal structure of an AMPA receptor, we show that in the agonist-binding and pore regions, the GluN1 subunits occupy a "proximal" position, closer to the central axis of the channel pore than that of GluN2 subunits. Finally, results obtained with reducing agents that differ in their membrane permeability indicate that immature (intracellular) and functional (plasma-membrane inserted) pools of NMDARs can adopt different subunit arrangements, thus stressing the importance of discriminating between the two receptor pools in assembly studies. Elucidating the quaternary arrangement of NMDARs helps to define the interface between the subunits and to understand the mechanism and pharmacology of these key signaling receptors. PMID:22493736

  12. Characteristics, changes and influence of body composition during a 4486 km transcontinental ultramarathon: results from the Transeurope Footrace mobile whole body MRI-project

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    .3% (SE 2.3%), SAST −48.7% (SE 2.8%), VAT −64.5% (SE 4.6%), intraabdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) −67.3% (SE 4.3%), mediastinal adopose tissue (MAT) −41.5% (SE 7.1%), TLT −1.2% (SE 1.0%), SLT −1.4% (SE 1.1%). Before the start and during the early phase of the Transeurope Footrace 2009, the non-finisher group had a significantly higher percentage volume of TVV, TAT, SAST and VAT compared to the finisher group. VAT correlates significantly with prerace training volume and intensity one year before the race and with 50 km- and 24 hour-race records. Neither prerace body composition nor specific tissue compartment volume changes showed a significant relationship to performance in the last two thirds of the Transeurope Footrace 2009. Conclusions With this mobile MRI field study the complex changes in body composition during a multistage ultramarathon could be demonstrated in detail in a new and differentiated way. Participants lost more than half of their adipose tissue. Even lean tissue volume (mainly skeletal muscle tissue) decreased due to the unpreventable chronic negative energy balance during the race. VAT has the fastest and highest decrease compared to SAST and lean tissue compartments during the race. It seems to be the most sensitive morphometric parameter regarding the risk of non-finishing a transcontinental footrace and shows a direct relationship to prerace-performance. However, body volume or body mass and, therefore, fat volume has no correlation with total race performances of ultra-athletes finishing a 4,500 km multistage race. PMID:23657091

  13. Constraining the thickness of Europa's water-ice shell: Insights from tidal dissipation and conductive cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, Lynnae C.; Marsh, Bruce D.

    2015-06-01

    The time of crystallization of a 100 km thick ocean on Europa is estimated using a Stefan-style solidification solution. This solution is then extended to estimate the present thickness of the ice shell. It is assumed that the shell is initially in a steady-state conductive regime, and the ocean is taken to be an infinite liquid half space cooling from above. We find that in the absence of tidal heating and without the presence of low-eutectic impurities to serve as anti-freezes, a 100 km thick ocean solidifies in about 64 Myr. Conversely, when considering the present thickness of Europa's ice shell, if tidal heating is included at a global dissipation rate of ∼1 TW, the shell is found to be, on average, approximately 28 km thick. However, if this dissipative heating is solely restricted to the shell, the local rate of heating may vary significantly due to crustal compositional heterogeneities and it is shown that this process may, in turn, produce thermal maxima in the crust, which could lead to local melting and structural instabilities, perhaps associated with the formation of chaos regions. Our approach is also extended to Ganymede and Callisto in order to estimate the time of solidification of their putative subsurface oceans and the current thicknesses of their ice-I shells.

  14. Quantifying Uncertainties in Tephra Thickness and Volume Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engwell, S. L.; Aspinall, W.; Sparks, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    Characterization of explosive volcanic eruptive processes from interpretations of deposits is a key to assessing long-term volcanic hazards and risks, particularly for large explosive eruptions which occur relatively infrequently and others whose deposits, particularly distal deposits, are transient in the geological record. Whilst eruption size - determined by measurement and interpretation of tephra fall deposits - is of particular importance, uncertainties for such measurements and volume estimates are rarely presented. In this study, we quantify the main sources of variance in determining tephra volume from thickness measurements and isopachs in terms of number and spatial distribution of such measurements, using the Fogo A deposit, São Miguel, Azores as an example. Analysis of Fogo A fall deposits show measurement uncertainties are approximately 9 % of measured thickness while uncertainty associated with natural deposit variability ranges between 10 % and 40 % of average thickness, with an average variation of 30 %. Correlations between measurement uncertainties and natural deposit variability are complex and depend on a unit's thickness, position within a succession and distance from source and local topography. The degree to which thickness measurement errors impact on volume uncertainty depends on the number of measurements in a given dataset and their associated individual uncertainties. For Fogo A, the consequent uncertainty in volume associated with thickness measurement uncertainty is 1.3 %, equivalent to a volume uncertainty of 1.5 × 0.02 km3. Uncertainties also arise in producing isopach maps: the spatial relationships between source location and different deposit thicknesses are described by contours subjectively drawn to encompass measurements of a given thickness, generally by eye. Recent advances in volume estimation techniques involve the application of mathematical models directly to tephra thickness data. Here, uncertainties in tephra volumes

  15. Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, R.

    2014-12-01

    km grid for North America, 1980-2008". Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center for Biogeochemical Dynamics (DAAC), 1. [2] Devarakonda R., et al. 2012. Daymet: Single Pixel Data Extraction Tool. Available [http://daymet.ornl.go/singlepixel.html].

  16. Focusing of relative plate motion at a continental transform fault: Cenozoic dextral displacement >700 km on New Zealand's Alpine Fault, reversing >225 km of Late Cretaceous sinistral motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Simon; Mortimer, Nick; Smith, Euan; Turner, Gillian

    2016-03-01

    The widely accepted ˜450 km Cenozoic dextral strike-slip displacement on New Zealand's Alpine Fault is large for continental strike-slip faults, but it is still less than 60% of the Cenozoic relative plate motion between the Australian and Pacific plates through Zealandia, with the remaining motion assumed to be taken up by rotation and displacement on other faults in a zone up to 300 km wide. We show here that the 450 km total displacement across the Alpine Fault is an artifact of assumptions about the geometry of New Zealand's basement terranes in the Eocene, and the actual Cenozoic dextral displacement across the active trace is greater than 665 km, with more than 700 km (and <785 km since 25 Ma) occurring in a narrow zone less than 10 km wide. This way, the Alpine Fault has accommodated almost all (>94%) of the relative plate motion in the last 25 Ma at an average rate in excess of 28 mm/yr. It reverses more than 225 km (and <300 km) of sinistral shear through Zealandia in the Late Cretaceous, when Zealandia lay on the margin of Gondwana, providing a direct constraint on the kinematics of extension between East and West Antarctica at this time.

  17. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Shapter, Joseph G.; Gibson, Christopher T.

    2016-03-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  18. Preparation of thick molybdenum targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Thick natural molybdenum deposits on nickel plated copper substrates were prepared by thermal decomposition of molybdenum hexacarbonyl vapors on a heated surface in an inert gas atmosphere. The molybdenum metal atoms are firmly bonded to the substrate atoms, thus providing an excellent thermal contact across the junction. Molybdenum targets thus prepared should be useful for internal bombardment in a cyclotron where thermal energy inputs can exceed 10 kW.

  19. Soliton models for thick branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyravi, Marzieh; Riazi, Nematollah; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we present new soliton solutions for thick branes in 4+1 dimensions. In particular, we consider brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), φ 4 and φ 6 scalar fields, which have broken Z2 symmetry in some cases and are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. The origin of the symmetry breaking in these models resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacua. These vacua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. We also study the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane. Furthermore, we examine the stability of the thick branes, by determining the sign of the w^2 term in the expansion of the potential for the resulting Schrödinger-like equation, where w is the five-dimensional coordinate. It turns out that the φ ^4 brane is stable, while there are unstable modes for certain ranges of the model parameters in the SG and φ ^6 branes.

  20. Central Corneal Thickness in Children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the central corneal thickness (CCT) in healthy white, African-American, and Hispanic children from birth to 17 years of age. Design Prospective observational multicenter study. Central corneal thickness was measured with a hand-held contact pachymeter. Results Two thousand seventy-nine children were included in the study, with ages ranging from day of birth to 17 years. Included were 807 white, 494 Hispanic, and 474 African-American individuals, in addition to Asian, unknown and mixed race individuals. African-American children had thinner corneas on average than that of both white (p< .001) and Hispanic children (p< .001) by approximately 20 micrometers. Thicker median CCT was observed with each successive year of age from age 1 to 11 years, with year-to-year differences steadily decreasing and reaching a plateau after age 11 at 573 micrometers in white and Hispanic children and 551 micrometers in African-American children. For every 100 micrometers of thicker CCT measured, the intraocular pressure was 1.5 mmHg higher on average (p< 0.001). For every diopter of increased myopic refractive error (p< 0.001) CCT was 1 micrometer thinner on average. Conclusions Median CCT increases with age from 1 to 11 years with the greatest increase present in the youngest age groups. African-American children on average have thinner central corneas than white and Hispanic children, while white and Hispanic children demonstrate similar central corneal thickness. PMID:21911662

  1. Measuring Metal Thickness With an Electric Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumka, A.

    1986-01-01

    Thickness of metal parts measured from one side with aid of Kelvin probe. Method developed for measuring thickness of end plate on sealed metal bellows from outside. Suitable for thicknesses of few thousandth's of inch (few hundred micrometers). Method also used to determine thickness of metal coatings applied by sputtering, electroplating, and flame spraying.

  2. Measuring Rind Thickness on Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C.; Miller, J.; Brown, H.

    1985-01-01

    Nondestructive test determines rind thickness of polyurethane foam. Surface harness of foam measured by Shore durometer method: hardness on Shore D scale correlates well with rind thickness. Shore D hardness of 20, for example, indicates rind thickness of 0.04 inch (1 millimeter). New hardness test makes it easy to determine rind thickness of sample nondestructively and to adjust fabrication variables accordingly.

  3. Effect of Varying Crustal Thickness on CHAMP Geopotential Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, P. T.; Kis, K. I.; vonFrese, R. R. B.; Korhonen, J. V.; Wittmann, G.; Kim, H. R.; Potts, L. V.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effect of crustal thickness variation on satellite-altitude geopotential anomalies we compared two regions of Europe with vastly different values, Central/Southern Finland and the Pannonian Basin. Crustal thickness exceeds 62 km in Finland and is less than 26 km in the Pannonian Basin. Heat-flow maps indicate that the thinner and more active crust of the Pannonian Basin has a value nearly three times that of the Finnish Svecofennian Province. Ground based gravity mapping in Hungary shows that the free-air gravity anomalies across the Pannonian Basin are near 0 to +20 mGal with shorter wavelength anomalies from +40 to less than +60 mGal and some 0 to greater than -20 mGal. Larger anomalies are detected in the mountainous areas. The minor value anomalies can indicate the isostatic equilibrium for Hungary (the central part of the Pannonian Basin). Gravity data over Finland are complicated by de-glaciation. CHAMP gravity data (400 km) indicates a west-east positive gradient of greater than 4 mGal across Central/Southern Finland and an ovoid positive anomaly (approximately 4 mGal) quasi-coincidental with the magnetic anomaly traversing the Pannonian Basin. CHAMP magnetic data (425 km) reveal elongated semicircular negative anomalies for both regions with South-Central Finland having larger amplitude (less than -6 nT) than that over the Pannonian Basin, Hungary (less than -5 nT). In both regions subducted oceanic lithosphere has been proposed as the anomalous body.

  4. Arctic sea ice volume and thickness: trends and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, Ronald

    The sea ice extent of the Northern Hemisphere has been declining at an average rate of ˜3% per decade over the satellite record (1978-present) and the summer decline seems to be accelerating (Comiso et al., 2008). In September 2007, the summer ice extent reached a record minimum of 4.2×106 km2, which was 1.6×106 km2 or 23% less than the previous record set in September 2005. The loss of old ice is occurring at an even higher rate of ˜10% per decade. In addition to these remarkable trends in summer ice coverage, combined submarine and satellite records show a parallel thinning of the central Arctic ice cover from a winter thickness of 3.64 m in 1980 to only 1.89 m by 2008, a net decrease of 1.75 m or 48% in thickness (Kwok and Rothrock, 2009). More than two-thirds of the Arctic is now covered by thinner seasonal ice. If current rates persist, both trajectories point to the potential of ice-free summers in the not too distant future. Recent thickness observations from ICESat-1 have also provided a short record of the total sea ice volume of the Arctic Ocean -an important indicator of the state of the sea ice system. However, sustaining a capability to construct a long-term climate record of thickness and volume is a challenge. At this writing, ICESat-1 is near the end of its mission life and CryoSat-2 is about to be launched. CryoSat-2 is designed to have a mission life of 3 years that would likely end prior to launch of ICESat-II in ˜2015. Cross-calibration of the ICESat and CryoSat-2 (and eventually ICESat-II) ice thickness estimates is needed for linking the two data sets to extend the record of the seasonal, interannual, and decadal trends in thickness and volume. This is crucial for understanding the trends, process studies, as well as for improvement of long-term climate projections. Through this decade, there will be gaps in observations that need to be bridged with airborne assets augmented perhaps other new approaches to measure sea ice thickness. In

  5. Vibration Analysis of Stepped Thickness Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S. J.; Keane, A. J.; Moshrefi-Torbati, M.

    1997-07-01

    Investigation has been made into various approaches for analyzing the vibration of plates with stepped thicknesses. First, attention has been paid to updating a classical approach for the analysis of such problems, correcting the boundary conditions cited in an earlier paper and dealing with the difficulties that can arise when calculating high order modes. Secondly, contribution has been made to improving the classical finite strip method (FSM) by replacing the "static" shape function of the strip element by a "dynamic" function. This leads to the development of a dynamic finite strip method which improves solution accuracy without compromising model size and which therefore is more efficient than the classical FSM. When compared with the finite element method (FEM), which is also considered here, the advantages of smaller model size and higher accuracy of the dynamic FSM are significant. In order to demonstrate the application of the above approaches, the modes of simply supported plates with uniform and stepped thicknesses have been analyzed. From this numerical study, it is noted that the updated classical approach can be used to obtain a solution for any order mode to any specified accuracy and is the most efficient approach considered in the present study. It is also noted that, compared with the FEM of similar solution accuracy, the dynamic finite strip method normally produces a much smaller model size, so that such calculations are significantly more efficient than for the FEM. The aim of this work is to establish methods for the analysis of stepped plates that might be used in optimization studies where speed of formulation and solution are at a premium. There are, of course, a number of other methods that could be used to tackle such problems, but they lie outside the scope of this work; see for example the papers of Liew and co-authors [1, 2].

  6. Decameter thick remnant glacial ice deposits on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Susan J.; Balme, Matthew R.

    2014-08-01

    On Mars, a smooth, draping unit—the "latitude-dependant mantle" (LDM), believed to comprise meter thick layers of dust and ice—extends from the midlatitudes to the poles, covering at least 23% of the surface. We show that the LDM can be 30 m deep on pole-facing crater walls, and by measuring the erosional and depositional volumes of small gullies that incise these LDM deposits, we show that it must contain between 46% and 95% ice by volume. Extrapolating to a global scale, these deposits account for ~104 km3 of near-surface ice, doubling previous LDM volume estimates. Thick LDM deposits can be emplaced during the many orbital variation-driven climate excursions that occurred during the Amazonian period. We suggest that LDM deposits are similar to ice sheets composed of massive ice with a surface lag.

  7. Progress towards measuring the 2S1 / 2 to 2P1 / 2 interval in hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vutha, A. C.; Bezginov, N.; Ferchichi, I.; Hessels, E. A.

    2015-05-01

    There is a large discrepancy between the CODATA value for the proton charge radius, and its determinations from muonic hydrogen measurements. This discrepancy is referred to as the proton radius puzzle. Improved measurements on atomic hydrogen can elucidate the origins of this discrepancy. We have constructed an experiment to measure the Lamb shift (n = 2 ,S1 / 2 -->P1 / 2) in a fast beam of atomic hydrogen. Using a novel separated-oscillatory-fields method and high signal-to-noise ratio detection, we can measure the center of this transition with a statistical uncertainty approaching 10-5 of its natural linewidth. We report on our studies of systematic effects, and on our progress towards a new measurement of the proton charge radius. We acknowledge funding from NSERC, CFI, CRC, ORF, and NIST.

  8. Electrical properties of Ba(Dy1/2Nb1/2)O3 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, K. Amar; Chandra, K. P.; Dubey, K.; Prasad, K.

    2016-05-01

    Polycrystalline Ba(Dy1/2Nb1/2)O3 was prepared using a high-temperature solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the formation of a single-phase cubic structure having space group Pm3m. AC impedance plots as a function of frequency at different temperatures were used to analyse the electrical behaviour of the sample, which indicated the negative temperature coefficient of resistance character. Complex impedance analysis targeted non-Debye type dielectric relaxation. Frequency dependent ac conductivity data obeyed Jonscher's power law. The apparent activation energy was estimated to be 0.97 eV at 1 kHz.

  9. ERK1/2 can feedback-regulate cellular MEK1/2 levels.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung-Keun; Wu, Pui-Kei; Karkhanis, Mansi; Park, Jong-In

    2015-10-01

    Signal transduction of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway is regulated by various feedback mechanisms. Given the greater molar ratio between Raf-MEK than between MEK-ERK in cells, it may be possible that MEK1/2 levels are regulated to modulate Raf/MEK/ERK activity upon pathway stimulation. Nevertheless, it has not been reported whether MEK1/2 expression can be subject to a feedback regulation. Here, we report that the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway can feedback-regulate cellular MEK1 and MEK2 levels. In different cell types, ΔRaf-1:ER- or B-Raf(V600E)-mediated MEK/ERK activation increased MEK1 but decreased MEK2 levels. These regulations were abrogated by ERK1/2 knockdown mediated by RNA interference, suggesting the presence of a feedback mechanism that regulates MEK1/2 levels. Subsequently, analyses using qPCR and luciferase reporters of the DNA promoter and 3' untranslated region revealed that the feedback MEK1 upregulation was in part attributed to increased transcription. However, the feedback MEK2 downregulation was only observed at protein levels, which was blocked by the proteasome inhibitors, MG132 and bortezomib, suggesting that the MEK2 regulation is mediated at a post-translational level. These results suggest that the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway can feedback-regulate cellular levels of MEK1 and MEK2, wherein MEK1 levels are upregulated at transcriptional level whereas MEK2 levels are downregulated at posttranslational level. PMID:26163823

  10. Thickness of Saturn's B ring as derived from seasonal temperature variations measured by Cassini CIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reffet, E.; Verdier, M.; Ferrari, C.

    2015-07-01

    Structural and thermal properties of Saturn's B ring and its particles are derived from orbital and seasonal temperatures variations observed by the Cassini CIRS spectrometer between 2004 and 2009 equinox. Our multiscale thermal model (Ferrari, C., Reffet, E. [2013]. Icarus 223, 28-39), which assumes negligible heat transfer by vertical motion of particles in dense rings, is adjusted to the data. Most observations were focused on the center of the B ring, at 105,000 km from Saturn. A very good fit is obtained for conductive particles embedded in a moderately conductive ring medium. Assuming a bulk composition of water ice, the thermal inertia of particles is found to be Γ1 = 160-200J /m2 /K /s 1 / 2 and to vary with seasons as part of the heat transfer is radiative, then temperature-dependent. For the same reason, the thermal inertia of the ring, Γ0 , varies with seasons, between 30 and 35 J /m2 /K /s 1 / 2 . It is very comparable to the thermal inertia of icy satellite surfaces. The porosity of particles p1 found to fit this thermal inertia is very high (0.93) and may emphasize an inappropriate modeling of particles by an effective porous medium. The ring filling factor is fairly high, D = 0.34 ± 0.01 , but stays typical of a compact medium and compatible with the output of numerical simulations of dense ring dynamics. The thickness of the B ring at 105,000 km from Saturn is estimated at HS = 2.2 ± 0.2 m. The observed correlation of its optical depth with the thermal gradient between lit and unlit sides is easily reproduced by the model if the radial variations in optical depth are due to varying thickness HS (a) with constant filling factor. This thickness varies between 1 and 3 m across theB2,B3 and B4 regions. It is thinner than the neighboring C ring and Cassini Division. This can be understood as a consequence of self-gravity. The ring surface mass density Σ = (1 -p1)ρ0DHS (a) derived from these structural parameters is too low for a self

  11. Metabolism of 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,3,5-, and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene in the squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Benoit, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of three tetrachlorobenzene isomers (TeCB) was investigated in the squirrel monkey. The animals were administered orally 6 single doses of /sup 14/C-labeled 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,4,5-, or 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene over a 3-wk period at levels ranging from 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w) and kept in individual metabolism cages to collect urine and feces for radioassay. Approximately 38% (1,2,3,4-TeCB), 36% (1,2,3,5-TeCB), and 18% (1,2,4,5-TeCB) of the doses were excreted respectively in the feces 48 h post administration. In monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,4-TeCB, unchanged compound accounted for 50% of the fecal radioactivity. Unchanged compound accounted for more than 50% of the fecal radioactivity found in the monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,5-TeCB. The fecal metabolites were identified in both groups. No metabolites were detected in the feces of monkeys dosed with 1,2,4,5-TeCB. While the fecal route represented the major route of excretion for 1,2,3,4-TeCB, the other two isomers were eliminated exclusively in the feces. The above data in the squirrel monkey are different from those obtained with the rat and the rabbit, and demonstrate the different metabolic pathways for the isomers.

  12. Thicknesses of mare basalts on the Moon from gravity and topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Shengxia; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Nimmo, Francis; Kiefer, Walter S.; Head, James W.; Huang, Chengli; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2016-05-01

    A new method of determining the thickness of mare basalts on the Moon is introduced that is made possible by high-resolution gravity data acquired from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission. Using a localized multitaper spherical-harmonic analysis, an effective density spectrum is calculated that provides an estimate of the average crustal density as a function of spherical harmonic degree. By comparing the observed effective density spectrum with one generated from a theoretical model, the thickness of mare basalts can be constrained. We assume that the grain density of the basalts is known from remote sensing data and petrologic considerations, we assign a constant porosity to the basalts, and we let both the thickness of the basalts and the density of the underlying crust vary. Using this method, the total thickness of basalts was estimated on the nearside hemisphere, yielding an average of 0.74 km with 1σ upper and lower bounds of 1.62 km and 100 m, respectively. The region of Marius Hills, which is a long-lived volcanic complex, is found to have the thickest basalts, with an average of 2.86 km and 1σ limits of 3.65 and 1.02 km, respectively. The crust beneath the Mare Imbrium basalts is found to have an atypically high density of about 3000 kg m-3 that we interpret as representing a mafic, unfractured, impact melt sheet.

  13. Thickness of the Magnetic Crust of Mars from Magneto-Spectral Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    2006-01-01

    Previous analysis of the magnetic spectrum of Mars showed only a crustal source field. The observational spectrum was fairly well fitted by the spectrum expected from random dipolar sources scattered on a spherical shell about 46 plus or minus 10 km below Mars' 3389.5 km mean radius. This de-correlation depth overestimates the typical depth of extended magnetized structures, and so was judged closer to mean source layer thickness than twice its value. To better estimate the thickness of the magnetic crust of Mars, six different magnetic spectra were fitted with the theoretical spectrum expected from a novel, bimodal distribution of magnetic sources. This theoretical spectrum represents both compact and extended, laterally correlated sources, so source shell depth is doubled to obtain layer thickness. The typical magnetic crustal thickness is put at 47.8 plus or minus 8.2 km. The extended sources are enormous, typically 650 km across, and account for over half the magnetic energy at low degrees. How did such vast regions form?

  14. Developing Knowledge Management (KM): Contributions by Organizational Learning and Total Quality Management (TQM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan; Lien, Bella Ya-Hui

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge management is an integral business function for many organizations to manage intellectual resources effectively. From a resource-based perspective, organizational learning and TQM are antecedents that are closely related to KM. The purposes of this study were to explain the contents of KM, and explore the relationship between KM-related…

  15. Deformation of an elastic shell with variable thickness: a comparison of different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalousová, K.; Souček, O.; Čadek, O.

    2012-08-01

    Deformation of the outermost parts of single-plate planetary bodies is often modelled in terms of the response of a spherical elastic shell to surface or basal loading. As the thickness of such elastic lithosphere is usually much smaller than the radius of the body, the deformation is commonly approximated by that obtained for a thin elastic shell of uniform thickness. The main advantage of the thin shell approximation is its simplicity—the solution can be expressed analytically if the thickness of the shell is uniform, but even in the case of a thin shell of variable thickness, when the problem must be solved numerically, the computational costs are much lower than in a fully 3-D case. Here we analyse the error of the thin shell approximation by comparing it with the solution obtained for a shell of finite thickness using finite element methods. Special attention is paid to a shell of variable thickness and, in general, to the effect of elastic thickness variations on local deformation. For a shell of uniform thickness with the outer radius corresponding to Mars, we find that the error in radial displacement at low harmonic degrees (ℓ≤ 20) does not exceed 5 per cent for small shell thicknesses (d≤ 50 km) and 10 per cent for thick shells (d˜ 250 km). Similar accuracy is also found for a shell of variable thickness if the thin shell approximation is used. Our numerical tests indicate that local deformation of a shell is mostly sensitive to the average thickness of the shell in the near zone while the effect of thickness variations in the far zone can be neglected in the first approximation. Consequently, the extremely simple thin shell method, designed for shells of uniform thickness, can be effectively used to obtain a reasonably accurate estimate of deflection even in the case of a shell with varying thickness. Finally, we investigate the deformation of an elastic lithosphere due to viscous flow beneath the shell, and we propose an extension of the

  16. Strength contrast between majorite and ringwoodite: Implication for the separation of crustal material from slab near 660 km depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, Y.; Kawazoe, T.; Nishi, M.; Ohuchi, T.; Higo, Y.; Funakoshi, K.; Irifune, T.

    2012-12-01

    Many seismic observations have shown that some of subducting lithospheres penetrates into deeper mantle across 660 km discontinuity. Former oceanic crust, which forms uppermost layer of the slab, consists mainly of majorite-rich garnet (hereafter majorite) near 660 km depth. Majorite is denser than surrounding mantle at shallower depth than 660 km where the ambient mantle consists mostly of ringwoodite, but is less dense at deeper part of the mantle where the Mg-perovskite is the dominant phase. Thus the crustal component may separate from the slab near 660 km depth. Karato (1997) discussed that the separation of crustal component can occur when the crustal component is significantly stronger than surrounding mantle based on dynamic calculation. However, it is unclear whether the separation of the crustal material occurs because plastic strength of related materials at the deep mantle conditions has not been known. In this study, we conducted deformation experiments at pressure and temperature conditions corresponding to the Earth's deep mantle in order to determine strength contrast between majorite and ringwoodite. Deformation experiments at pressure of ~17 GPa and temperature of 1473 and 1673 K were carried out using SPEED-MkII-D installed at BL04B1, SPring-8, Japan. Majorite (Mj) synthesized from a gel with chemistry of the majoritic garnet in oceanic crust and (Mg0.6Fe0.4)2SiO4 ringwoodite synthesized from olivine were placed vertically and deformed uniaxially under same temperature, pressure and stress conditions. Strain measurements were carried out during deformation based on X-ray radiography using synchrotron radiation. Strain rates were 0.7-2.4 x 10-5 s-1 for Mj and 1.2-14.5 x 10-5 s-1 for Rw. Relative strain rate of Rw and Mj (strain rate for Rw divided by that for Mj at same condition) determined at 7 different deformation conditions were 1.2-2.5 (Mj was always stronger in the present experimental conditions). However, an extrapolation of present

  17. Crystalline 1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidenes

    DOEpatents

    Bertrand, Guy; Gulsado-Barrios, Gregorio; Bouffard, Jean; Donnadieu, Bruno

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides novel and stable crystalline 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of making 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of using 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes in catalytic reactions.

  18. Impact cratering experiments in brittle targets with variable thickness: Implications for deep pit craters on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michikami, T.; Hagermann, A.; Miyamoto, H.; Miura, S.; Haruyama, J.; Lykawka, P. S.

    2014-06-01

    High-resolution images reveal that numerous pit craters exist on the surface of Mars. For some pit craters, the depth-to-diameter ratios are much greater than for ordinary craters. Such deep pit craters are generally considered to be the results of material drainage into a subsurface void space, which might be formed by a lava tube, dike injection, extensional fracturing, and dilational normal faulting. Morphological studies indicate that the formation of a pit crater might be triggered by the impact event, and followed by collapse of the ceiling. To test this hypothesis, we carried out laboratory experiments of impact cratering into brittle targets with variable roof thickness. In particular, the effect of the target thickness on the crater formation is studied to understand the penetration process by an impact. For this purpose, we produced mortar targets with roof thickness of 1-6 cm, and a bulk density of 1550 kg/m3 by using a mixture of cement, water and sand (0.2 mm) in the ratio of 1:1:10, by weight. The compressive strength of the resulting targets is 3.2±0.9 MPa. A spherical nylon projectile (diameter 7 mm) is shot perpendicularly into the target surface at the nominal velocity of 1.2 km/s, using a two-stage light-gas gun. Craters are formed on the opposite side of the impact even when no target penetration occurs. Penetration of the target is achieved when craters on the opposite sides of the target connect with each other. In this case, the cross section of crater somehow attains a flat hourglass-like shape. We also find that the crater diameter on the opposite side is larger than that on the impact side, and more fragments are ejected from the crater on the opposite side than from the crater on the impact side. This result gives a qualitative explanation for the observation that the Martian deep pit craters lack a raised rim and have the ejecta deposit on their floor instead. Craters are formed on the opposite impact side even when no penetration

  19. Time-temperature-burial significance of Devonian anthracite implies former great (approx. 6. 5 km) depth of burial of Catskill Mountains, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, G.M.; Sanders, J.E.

    1982-02-01

    Specimens of coalified plant debris in Tully-correlative strata of the Gilboa Formation (uppermost Middle Devonian) within the eastern Catskill Mountains of New York State have been converted to anthracite having a vitrinite reflectance of 2.5%. This implies a level of organic metamorphism (LOM) of 16. The specimens are about 350 m.y. old; if 200 m.y. is taken as the duration of the time of exposure to the maximum geothermal temperature, then the LOM of 16 and other thermal indicators imply a maximum temperature of 190/sup 0/C. Using a geothermal gradient of 26/sup 0/C.km/sup -1/ (17/sup 0/F.1,000 ft/sup -1/), a former depth of burial of 6.5 km is implied. Such former deep burial is not usually inferred for the Catskills, but it is consistent with the idea that the thick (about 6.4 km or 21,000 ft) Carboniferous strata of northeastern Pennsylvania formerly extended northeast far enough to bury the Catskills. The lack of metamorphism of the Paleozoic strata lying about 4.5 km beneath the Tully-correlative rocks and exposed in the adjacent Hudson Valley places low limits on the former geothermal gradient; this supports the concept of great depth of former burial of the Catskills. For example, 6.5 km of former burial and a geothermal gradient of 26/sup 0/C.km/sup -1/ imply a temperature of 307/sup 0/C for the base of the Paleozoic. By contrast, only 1 km of former burial requires a geothermal gradient of 170/sup 0/C.km/sup -1/, which would have subjected the base of the Paleozoic to a temperature of 955/sup 0/GAMMA, which is far higher than the 600 to 650/sup 0/C recently inferred for the Acadian-age metamorphism of the Taconic allochthon in southwestern Massachusetts and adjoining areas.

  20. Candida albicans β-1,2 mannosyl transferase Bmt3: Preparation and evaluation of a β (1,2), α (1,2)-tetramannosyl fluorescent substrate.

    PubMed

    Cattiaux, Laurent; Mée, Anaïs; Pourcelot, Marilyne; Sfihi-Loualia, Ghenima; Hurtaux, Thomas; Maes, Emmanuel; Fradin, Chantal; Sendid, Boualem; Poulain, Daniel; Fabre, Emeline; Delplace, Florence; Guérardel, Yann; Mallet, Jean-Maurice

    2016-03-15

    We describe for the first time the chemical synthesis of a tetramannoside, containing both α (1→2) and β (1→2) linkages. Dodecylthio (lauryl) glycosides were prepared from odorless dodecyl thiol and used as donors for the glycosylation steps. This tetramannoside, was coupled to a mantyl group, and revealed to be a perfect substrate of β-mannosyltransferase Bmt3, confirming the proposed specificity and allowing the preparation of a pentamannoside sequence (β Man (1,2) β Man (1,2) α Man (1,2) α Man (1,2) α Man) usable as a novel substrate for further elongation studies. PMID:26895658

  1. North Pole ice thickness and association with ice motion history 1977-1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shy, Timothy L.; Walsh, John E.

    Ice drafts measured by U.S. Navy submarine sonar near the North Pole from 1977 to 1992 were used together with Arctic Ocean drifting buoy data from 1979 to 1992 to investigate North Pole ice thickness changes during this 15-year period. A primary objective was to determine dynamical forcing mechanisms and associated time scales relevant to ice thickness variation. North Pole ice thickness showed much interannual variability, and no systematic decrease of ice thickness was observed. Changes in ice thickness were closely associated with long-term directional deviation of ice motion from geostrophic wind-forcing, and with ice convergence and divergence at the North Pole during the 1-2 weeks prior to submarine measurement. The geographic origin of ice within the Arctic Ocean was not associated with its eventual thickness at the North Pole.

  2. Measurement of Topcoat Thickness of Thermal Barrier Coating for Gas Turbines using Terahertz Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuchi, Tetsuo; Fuse, Norikazu; Fujii, Tomoharu; Okada, Mitsutoshi; Fukunaga, Kaori; Mizuno, Maya

    The topcoat thickness of thermal barrier coating (TBC) samples was measured using terahertz (THz) waves. The index of refraction of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which is the topcoat material, is necessary to obtain the topcoat thickness from time domain reflectometry. Time domain THz spectroscopy was applied to YSZ samples, and the index of refraction was measured to be 4.8 in the frequency region 0.1-1.2 THz. The topcoat thickness of 6 different TBC samples, which varied from 300 to 600 μm, was measured using THz waves. The results were in agreement with microscope observation results to within measurement error. In addition, the topcoat thickness profile of a turbine blade sample was measured with 2.4 μm resolution. The profile showed a standard deviation of 4 μm, which reflects the actual variation in the topcoat thickness. The results showed that THz waves are effective for high resolution measurement of the topcoat thickness.

  3. Three-dimensional estimate of the lithospheric effective elastic thickness of the Line ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Minzhang; Li, Jiancheng; Jin, Taoyong; Xu, Xinyu; Xing, Lelin; Shen, Chongyang; Li, Hui

    2015-09-01

    Using a new bathymetry grid formed with vertical gravity gradient anomalies and ship soundings (BAT_VGG), a 1° × 1° lithospheric effective elastic thickness (Te) grid of the Line ridge was calculated with the moving window admittance technique. As a comparison, both the GEBCO_08 and SIO V15.1 bathymetry datasets were used to calculate Te as well. The results show that BAT_VGG is suitable for the calculation of lithospheric effective elastic thickness. The lithospheric effective elastic thickness of the Line ridge is shown to be low, in the range of 5.5-13 km, with an average of 8 km and a standard deviation of 1.3 km. Using the plate cooling model as a reference, most of the effective elastic thicknesses are controlled by the 150-300 °C isotherm. Seamounts are primarily present in two zones, with lithospheric ages of 20-35 Ma and 40-60 Ma, at the time of loading. Unlike the Hawaiian-Emperor chain, the lithospheric effective elastic thickness of the Line ridge does not change monotonously. The tectonic setting of the Line ridge is discussed in detail based on our Te results and the seamount ages collected from the literature. The results show that thermal and fracture activities must have played an important role in the origin and evolution of the ridge.

  4. Optically thick outflows in ultraluminous supersoft sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquhart, R.; Soria, R.

    2016-02-01

    Ultraluminous supersoft sources (ULSs) are defined by a thermal spectrum with colour temperatures ˜0.1 keV, bolometric luminosities ˜ a few 1039 erg s-1, and almost no emission above 1 keV. It has never been clear how they fit into the general scheme of accreting compact objects. To address this problem, we studied a sample of seven ULSs with extensive Chandra and XMM-Newton coverage. We find an anticorrelation between fitted temperatures and radii of the thermal emitter, and no correlation between bolometric luminosity and radius or temperature. We compare the physical parameters of ULSs with those of classical supersoft sources, thought to be surface-nuclear-burning white dwarfs, and of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), thought to be super-Eddington stellar-mass black holes. We argue that ULSs are the sub-class of ULXs seen through the densest wind, perhaps an extension of the soft-ultraluminous regime. We suggest that in ULSs, the massive disc outflow becomes effectively optically thick and forms a large photosphere, shrouding the inner regions from our view. Our model predicts that when the photosphere expands to ≳ 105 km and the temperature decreases below ≈50 eV, ULSs become brighter in the far-UV but undetectable in X-rays. Conversely, we find that harder emission components begin to appear in ULSs when the fitted size of the thermal emitter is smallest (interpreted as a shrinking of the photosphere). The observed short-term variability and absorption edges are also consistent with clumpy outflows. We suggest that the transition between ULXs (with a harder tail) and ULSs (with only a soft thermal component) occurs at blackbody temperatures of ≈150 eV.

  5. Cloud Thickness from Offbeam Returns (THOR) Validation Campaign on NASA's P3B Over the ARM/SGP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R. F.; Kolasinski, J.; McGill, M.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Physical thickness of a cloud layer, sometimes multiple cloud layers, is a crucial controller of solar heating of the Earth- atmosphere system, which drives the convective processes that produce storm systems. Yet clouds of average optical thickness are opaque to conventional lidar, so their thickness is well estimated only by combining a lidar above and another below cloud, or a radar and lidar on the same side, dual facilities not widely available. Here we report initial observations of a new airborne multiple field of view lidar, capable of determining physical thickness of cloud layers from time signatures of off-beam returns from a I kHz micropulse lidar at 540 rim. For a single layer, the time delay of light returning from the outer diffuse halo of light surrounding the beam entry point, relative to the time delay at beam center, determines the cloud physical thickness. The delay combined with the pulse stretch gives the optical thickness. This halo method requires cloud optical thickness exceeding 2, and improves with cloud thickness, thus complimenting conventional lidar, which cannot penetrate thick clouds. Results are presented from March 25, 2002, when THOR flew a butterfly pattern over the ARM site at 8.3 km, above a thin ice cloud at 5 km, and a thick boundary-layer stratus deck with top at 1.3 km, as shown by THOR channel 1, and a base at about 0.3 km as shown by the ground-based MPL. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  6. Hyperveolcity impacts on aluminum from 6 to 11 km/s for hydrocode benchmarking.

    SciTech Connect

    Saul, W. Venner; Reinhart, William Dodd; Thornhill, Tom Finley, III; Lawrence, Raymond Jeffery Jr.; Chhabildas, Lalit Chandra; Bessette, Gregory Carl; Kipp, Marlin E.

    2003-04-01

    A systematic computational and experimental study is presented on impact generated debris resulting from record-high impact speeds recently achieved on the Sandia three-stage light-gas gun. In these experiments, a target plate of aluminum is impacted by a titanium-alloy flyer plate at speeds ranging from 6.5 to 11 km/s, producing pressures from 1 Mb to over 2.3 Mb, and temperatures as high as 15000 K (>1 eV). The aluminum plate is totally melted at stresses above 1.6 Mb. Upon release, the thermodynamic release isentropes will interact with the vapor dome. The amount of vapor generated in the debris cloud will depend on many factors such as the thickness of the aluminum plate, super-cooling, vaporization kinetics, the distance, and therefore time, over which the impact-generated debris is allowed to expand. To characterize the debris cloud, the velocity history produced by stagnation of the aluminum expansion products against a witness plate is measured using velocity interferometry. X-ray measurements of the debris cloud are also recorded prior to stagnation against an aluminum witness plate. Both radiographs and witness-plate velocity measurements suggest that the vaporization process is both time-dependent and heterogeneous when the material is released from shocked states around 230 GPa. Experiments suggest that the threshold for vaporization kinetics in aluminum should become significant when expanded from shocked states over 230 GPa. Numerical simulations are conducted to compare the measured x-ray radiographs of the debris cloud and the time-resolved experimental interferometer record with calculational results using the 3-D hydrodynamic wavecode, CTH. Results of these experiments and calculations are discussed in this paper.

  7. Underwater acoustic positioning system for the SMO and KM3NeT - Italia projects

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, S.; Barbagallo, G.; Cacopardo, G.; Calí, C.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amato, V.; D'Amico, A.; De Luca, V.; Del Tevere, F.; Distefano, C.; Ferrera, F.; Gmerk, A.; Grasso, R.; Imbesi, M.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; and others

    2014-11-18

    In the underwater neutrino telescopes, the positions of the Cherenkov light sensors and their movements must be known with an accuracy of few tens of centimetres. In this work, the activities of the SMO and KM3NeT-Italia teams for the development of an acoustic positioning system for KM3NeT-Italia project are presented. The KM3NeT-Italia project foresees the construction, within two years, of 8 towers in the view of the several km{sup 3}-scale neutrino telescope KM3NeT.

  8. Large floor-fractured craters and isostatic crater modification: Implications for lithospheric thickness on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichman, R. W.; Schultz, P. H.

    1993-03-01

    Several of the largest craters on Venus, including Mead, Meitner and Isabella, exhibit well-developed floor fracture patterns combining a central set of radial features with a peripheral set of concentric fractures. This pattern strongly resembles the fracture patterns observed in the largest floor-fractured craters on the Moon (e.g. Humboldt, Gauss, Petavius). Although most lunar floor-fractured craters apparently reflect crater modification by igneous intrusions and volcanism, we propose that the fractures in these larger craters represent domical flexure events in response to post-impact isostatic uplift. Since the extent of uplift and surface failure in this model depends on both the size of the basin cavity and the local lithospheric thickness, this interpretation also provides a means for constraining lithospheric thicknesses on Venus. Based on the apparent onset diameter of isostatic crater modification, we derive lithospheric thickness estimates for the Moon of approximately 80 - 100 km, and for Venus of approximately 50 - 70 km.

  9. Effect of Ice-Shell Thickness Variations on the Tidal Deformation of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choblet, G.; Cadek, O.; Behounkova, M.; Tobie, G.; Kozubek, T.

    2015-12-01

    Recent analysis of Enceladus's gravity and topography has suggested that the thickness of the ice shell significantly varies laterally - from 30-40 km in the south polar region to 60 km elsewhere. These variations may influence the activity of the geysers and increase the tidal heat production in regions where the ice shell is thinned. Using a model including a regional or global subsurface ocean and Maxwell viscoelasticity, we investigate the impact of these variations on the tidal deformation of the moon and its heat production. For that purpose, we use different numerical approaches - finite elements, local application of 1d spectral method, and a generalized spectral method. Results obtained with these three approaches for various models of ice-shell thickness variations are presented and compared. Implications of a reduced ice shell thickness for the south polar terrain activity are discussed.

  10. Large floor-fractured craters and isostatic crater modification: Implications for lithospheric thickness on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichman, R. W.; Schultz, P. H.

    1993-01-01

    Several of the largest craters on Venus, including Mead, Meitner and Isabella, exhibit well-developed floor fracture patterns combining a central set of radial features with a peripheral set of concentric fractures. This pattern strongly resembles the fracture patterns observed in the largest floor-fractured craters on the Moon (e.g. Humboldt, Gauss, Petavius). Although most lunar floor-fractured craters apparently reflect crater modification by igneous intrusions and volcanism, we propose that the fractures in these larger craters represent domical flexure events in response to post-impact isostatic uplift. Since the extent of uplift and surface failure in this model depends on both the size of the basin cavity and the local lithospheric thickness, this interpretation also provides a means for constraining lithospheric thicknesses on Venus. Based on the apparent onset diameter of isostatic crater modification, we derive lithospheric thickness estimates for the Moon of approximately 80 - 100 km, and for Venus of approximately 50 - 70 km.

  11. Kinematical and Chemical Vertical Structure of the Galactic Thick Disk. I. Thick Disk Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moni Bidin, C.; Carraro, G.; Méndez, R. A.

    2012-03-01

    The variation of the kinematical properties of the Galactic thick disk with Galactic height Z is studied by means of 412 red giants observed in the direction of the south Galactic pole up to 4.5 kpc from the plane. We confirm the non-null mean radial motion toward the Galactic anticenter found by other authors, but we find that it changes sign at |Z| = 3 kpc, and the proposed inward motion of the local standard of rest alone cannot explain these observations. The rotational velocity decreases with |Z| by -30 km s-1 kpc-1, but the data are better represented by a power law with index 1.25, similar to that proposed from the analysis of Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. All the velocity dispersions increase with |Z|, but the vertical gradients are small. The dispersions grow proportionally, with no significant variation of the anisotropy. The ratio σU/σW = 2 suggests that the thick disk could have formed from a low-latitude merging event. The vertex deviation increases with Galactic height, reaching ~20° at |Z| = 3.5 kpc. The tilt angle also increases, and the orientation of the ellipsoid in the radial-vertical plane is constantly intermediate between the alignment with the cylindrical and the spherical coordinate systems. The tilt angle at |Z| = 2 kpc coincides with the expectations of MOdified Newtonian Dynamics, but an extension of the calculations to higher |Z| is required to perform a conclusive test. Finally, between 2.5 and 3.5 kpc we detect deviations from the linear trend of many kinematical quantities, suggesting that some kinematical substructure could be present. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (proposal IDs 075.B-0459(A), 077.B-0348(A)). This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan and the duPont Telescopes, located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  12. On Level Ice Thickness Retrieval in the Kara Sea Using MODIS and Envisat ASAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makynen, Marko; Simila, Markku; Cheng, Bin

    2010-12-01

    We propose here an approach to use jointly ENVISAT SAR and MODIS data and high-resolution thermodynamic snow/ice model (HIGHTSI) to estimate the thickness of first-year sea ice in cold winter conditions. For thin ice areas the sea ice thickness is retrieved from the MODIS based ice surface temperature (Ts) and HIRLAM forcing data. When estimating the ice thickness in the older and thicker drift ice areas, ice thickness field produced by HIGHTSI is used as a background field which constraints backscattering coefficient based ice thickness range. Our test data set consists of four MODIS-SAR image pairs taken over the Kara Sea in Dec 2008 - Mar 2009. The MODIS based ice thickness retrievals were consistent with each other. We estimated their uncertainty to be less than 25% for young ice. However, the HIRLAM modelled air temperature seems to be somewhat lower than could be inferred from Ts. This bias affected the MODIS ice thickness retrieval process by decreasing the retrieved ice thickness significantly for thicker ice fields. On a scale 10-100 km the spatial distribution of the ice thickness provided by our algorithm follows roughly the AARI ice charts which were used as a ground truth.

  13. Positive effect of lower body compression garments on subsequent 40-kM cycling time trial performance.

    PubMed

    de Glanville, Kieran M; Hamlin, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of wearing graduated compression garments during recovery on subsequent 40-km time trial performance. In a randomized single-blind crossover experiment, 14 trained multisport male athletes (mean ± SD: age 33.8 ± 6.8 years, 40-km time 66:11 ± 2:10 minutes:seconds) were given a graduated full-leg-length compressive garment (76% Meryl Elastane, 24% Lycra) or a similar-looking noncompressive placebo garment (92% Polyester, 8% Spandex) to wear continuously for 24 hours after performing an initial 40-km time trial in their normal cycling attire. After the 24-hour recovery period, the compression (or placebo) garments were removed, and a second 40-km time trial was then completed to gauge the effect of each garment on subsequent performance. One week later, the groups were reversed and testing procedures repeated. The participant's hydration status, nutritional intake, and training were similar before each set of trials. Performance time in the second time trial was substantially improved with compression compared with placebo garments (1.2 ± 0.4%, mean ± 90% confidence interval). This improvement resulted in a substantially higher average power output after wearing the compression garment compared with that after wearing the placebo garment (3.3 ± 1.1%). Differences in oxygen cost and rating of perceived exertion between groups were trivial or unclear. The wearing of graduated compressive garments during recovery is likely to be worthwhile and unlikely to be harmful for well-trained endurance athletes. PMID:22240553

  14. Imaging Transition Zone Thickness Beneath South America from SS Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmerr, N.; Garnero, E.

    2006-12-01

    We image detailed upper mantle discontinuity structure beneath a number of geologically active regions, including the South American subduction zone, the Scotia plate subduction zone, and several volcanic hotspots (e.g., the Galapagos Islands), in a region ~10,000 km by 10,000 km wide, spanning 70° S to 20° N and 20° W to 110° W. Precursors to the seismic phase SS are analyzed, which form as a result of underside reflections off seismic discontinuities beneath the midpoint of the SS path and are highly sensitive to discontinuity depth and sharpness. Our SS dataset consists of over 15,000 high-quality transverse component broadband displacement seismograms collected from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), the Canadian National Seismic Network (CNSN), as well as data from EarthScope seismic stations, and from the Canadian Northwest Experiment (CANOE) temporary broadband array deployment. This dataset densely samples several regions in our study area and significantly improves the sampling for this area compared to previous precursor studies. Data with common central SS bouncepoints are stacked to enhance precursory phases. Solution discontinuity structure depends on a number of factors, including dominant seismic period, crustal correction, signal-to-noise ratio threshold, and tomography model used for mantle heterogeneity correction. We exclude precursor data predicted to interfere with other seismic phases, such as topside reflections (e.g., s670sS), which have been demonstrated to contaminate final stacks. Solution transition zone thickness is at least 20 km thicker than global average estimates of 242 km along the northwestern portion of the South American subduction complex (Peru, Ecuador, and Columbia); this thickening extends 1000-1500 km to the east beneath the continent, but does not appear to continue south of -20° latitude along the convergent margin. A minimum of 10 km of thickening is imaged to the west of the Scotia

  15. A Unified Sea Ice Thickness Data Set for Model Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, R.; Wensnahan, M.

    2007-12-01

    Can we, as a community, do better at using existing ice thickness measurements to more effectively evaluate the changing nature of the Arctic ice pack and to better evaluate the performance of our models? We think we can if we work together. We are trying to create a unified ice thickness data set by combining observations from various ice thickness measurement systems. It is designed to facilitate the intercomparison of different measurements, the evaluation of the state of the ice pack, and the validation of sea ice models. Datasets that might be included are ice draft estimates from various submarine and moored upward looking sonar instruments, ice thickness estimates from airborne electromagnetic instruments, and satellite altimeter freeboard measurements. Three principles for the proposed data set are: 1) Full documentation of data sources and characteristics, 2) Spatial and temporal averaging to approximately common scales, and 3) Common data formats. We would not mix data types and we would not interpolate to locations or times not represented in the observations. The target spatial and temporal scale for the measurements would be 50 lineal km of ice and/or one month. Point measurements are not so useful in this context. Data from both hemispheres and any body of ocean water would be included. Documentation would include locations, times, measurement methods, processing, snow depth assumptions, averaging distance and time, error characteristics, data provider, and more. The cooperation and collaboration of the various data providers is essential to the success of this project and so far we have had a very gratifying response to our overtures. We would like to hear from any who have not heard from us and who have collected sea ice thickness data at the approximate target scales. With potentially thousands of individual samples, much could be learned about the measurement systems, about the changing state of the ice cover, and about ice model performance and

  16. 43 CFR 4170.1-2 - Failure to use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Failure to use. 4170.1-2 Section 4170.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 4170.1-2 Failure to use. If a permittee or lessee has, for 2 consecutive grazing fee years, failed...

  17. 43 CFR 4170.1-2 - Failure to use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Failure to use. 4170.1-2 Section 4170.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 4170.1-2 Failure to use. If a permittee or lessee has, for 2 consecutive grazing fee years, failed...

  18. 43 CFR 4170.1-2 - Failure to use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Failure to use. 4170.1-2 Section 4170.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 4170.1-2 Failure to use. If a permittee or lessee has, for 2 consecutive grazing fee years, failed...

  19. 43 CFR § 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2015-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2015-10-01 2015-10-01 false Contents. § 2812.1-2 Section § 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  20. Acyl migration kinetics of vegetable oil 1,2-diacylglycerols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acyl migration kinetics of long-chain 1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DAG) to form 1,3-diacylglycerol (1,3-DAG) over the temperature range of 25 to 80 degrees Celsius were examined using proton NMR spectroscopy. The 1,2-DAG mole fraction of 0.32 at equilibrium was found to be insensitive to temperature...

  1. 43 CFR 8365.1-2 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.1-2 Section 8365.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.1-2 Occupancy and...

  2. 43 CFR 1784.1-2 - Duration, termination, and renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration, termination, and renewal. 1784.1-2 Section 1784.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) COOPERATIVE RELATIONS Advisory Committees § 1784.1-2 Duration,...

  3. 43 CFR 8365.1-2 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.1-2 Section 8365.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.1-2 Occupancy and...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1-2 - Limitation on tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Limitation on tax. 1.1-2 Section 1.1-2 Internal... Surtaxes § 1.1-2 Limitation on tax. (a) Taxable years ending before January 1, 1971. For taxable years ending before January 1, 1971, the tax imposed by section 1 (whether by subsection (a) or subsection...

  5. 43 CFR 4170.1-2 - Failure to use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Failure to use. 4170.1-2 Section 4170.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... § 4170.1-2 Failure to use. If a permittee or lessee has, for 2 consecutive grazing fee years, failed...

  6. 36 CFR 1.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability and scope. 1.2 Section 1.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1.2 Applicability and scope. (a) The regulations contained in this chapter apply to all...

  7. 36 CFR 1.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability and scope. 1.2 Section 1.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1.2 Applicability and scope. (a) The regulations contained in this chapter apply to all...

  8. 36 CFR 1.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability and scope. 1.2 Section 1.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1.2 Applicability and scope. (a) The regulations contained in this chapter apply to all persons entering, using, visiting,...

  9. 45 CFR 1216.1-2 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1216.1-2 Section 1216.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISPLACEMENT OF EMPLOYED WORKERS AND NONIMPAIRMENT OF CONTRACTS FOR SERVICE § 1216.1-2 Applicability of this part. (a)...

  10. Effect of Varying Crustal Thickness on CHAMP Geopotential Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick T.; Kis, Karoly I.; vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Korhonen, Juha V.; Wittmann, Geza; Kim, Hyung Rae; Potts, Larmie V.

    2003-01-01

    Tn determine the effect of crustal thickness variation on satellite-altitude geopotential anomalies we compared two regions of Europe with vastly different values, South and Central Finland and the Pannonian Basin. In our study regions, crustal thickness exceeds 44 km in Finland and is less than 26 km in the Pannonian Basin. Heat-flow data indicate that the thinner and more active crust of the Pannonian Basin has a value nearly three times that of the Finnish Svecofennian Province. An ovoid positive CHAMP gravity anomaly (-4 mGal) is quasi-coincidental with the CHAMP magnetic anomaly traverses the Pannonian Basin while ground based gravity mapping in Hungary shows that the free-air gravity anomalies across the Pannonian Basin are near 0 to +20 mGal with shorter wavelength anomalies from +40 to less than +60 mGal and some 0 to greater than -20 mGal. Larger anomalies are detected in the mountainous areas. The minor value anomalies can indicate the isostatic equilibrium for Hungary (the central part of the Pannonian Basin). Gravity data over Finland bear overprint of de-glaciation. CHAMP gravity data indicates a west-east positive gradient of less than 4 mGal across South and Central Finland. CHAMP magnetic data (400 km) reveal elongated semi-circular negative anomalies for both regions with South-Central Finland having larger amplitude (less than -6 nT) than that over the Pannonian Basin, Hungary (less than -5 nT). In the latter subducted oceanic lithosphere has been proposed as the anomalous body.

  11. Composition and thickness of the southern Altiplano crust, Bolivia

    SciTech Connect

    Zandt, G.; Velasco, A.A. ); Beck, S.L. )

    1994-11-01

    Slant stacking of broadband seismograms recorded in the western United States for two 1993 intermediate-depth earthquakes that occurred near the Bolvia-Argentina-Chile borders reveals small but clear precursors to both the compressional (P) wave and shear (S) wave depth phases. We interpret and model these precursors as underside reflections from the thickened Andean Altiplano crust. We model the crustal structure of the Altiplano with a grid-search technique to match the timing and amplitudes of the depth phases and precursors in the waveforms of both the P wave and S wave. Our best-fit model has an average crust velocity of 5.9-6.0 km/s, a crustal V[sub p]/V[sub s] of 1.6, a crustal thickness of 75-80 km, and a high-velocity (V[sub p] = 8.4 km/s), high-V[sub p]/V[sub s] (1.9) mantle wedge. Assuming isotropy, the low V[sub p]/V[sub s] ratio of 1.6 for the crust corresponds to an anomalously low Poisson's ratio of 0.18. Such a low value, in conjunction with the low average V[sub p] estimate, is consistent only with a felsic composition and high upper-crustal temperatures. The finding of a thick felsic crust overlying a high-velocity mantle supports models of Altiplano uplift due predominantly to crustal shortening as opposed to mafic magmatic addition and is inconsistent with recent mantle delamination. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Deformation quantification in steel plates following impact at a velocity of 2.6 km/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, J. D.; Rogers, R. J.; Spray, J. G.

    2014-05-01

    Micro-scale damage processes during hypervelocity impact into steel targets have been evaluated using image analysis and electron backscatter diffraction techniques. The targets were 50 mm thick and the impact velocity was 2.6 km/s. Image analysis of the pearlite grains shows localized pockets of strain upwards of 55% occurring at depths associated with penetrator geometry. Electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) shows that inter-granular ferrite grain orientations become less uniform, with deformation being primarily two- and three-dimensional. Mobilized micro-ferrite textures aligned in the shot direction were also identified with EBSD. These are formed as a result of significant plastic deformation and frictional shearing of the small volume of material.

  13. Amputee Socks: Thickness of Multiple Socks

    PubMed Central

    Cagle, John C; Yu, Alan J; Ciol, Marcia A; Sanders, JE

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim It is unclear how total sock ply and thickness are related when more than one sock is worn. The objectives were to determine if the thickness of one multi-ply amputee sock of ply P was the same as the thickness of a stack of reduced-ply socks of total ply P; and if the thickness of N single socks stacked one on top of the other was equal to the sum (1 to N) of the single sock thicknesses. Technique Using a custom instrument, compressive stresses were applied while sock thickness was measured. Discussion The thickness of one multi-ply sock of ply P was typically less than the thickness of a stack of reduced-ply socks of total ply P. The thickness of N single socks stacked one on top of the other was approximately equal to the sum (1 to N) of the single sock thicknesses. Clinical Relevance Our findings suggest three 1-ply socks to be 20% greater in thickness than one 3-ply sock, and one 3-ply + two 1-ply socks to be 30% greater in thickness than one 5-ply sock. PMID:24240023

  14. X-1-2 on ramp with Boeing B-29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 Sitting on the ramp at NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station with the Boeing B-29 launch ship behind. The painting near the nose of the B-29 depicts a stork carrying a bundle which is symbolic of the Mothership launching her babe (X-1-2). The pilot access door is open to the cockpit of the X-1-2 aircraft. On the X-1-2's fin is the old NACA shield, which was later replaced with a yellow band and the letters 'NACA' plus wings that were both black. There were four versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On Oct. 14, 1947, the X-1

  15. Effects of training and anthropometric factors on marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance

    PubMed Central

    Tanda, Giovanni; Knechtle, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Background Marathon (42 km) and 100 km ultramarathon races are increasing in popularity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of anthropometric and training variables with performance in these long-distance running competitions. Methods Training and anthropometric data from a large cohort of marathoners and 100 km ultramarathoners provided the basis of this work. Correlations between training and anthropometric indices of subjects and race performance were assessed using bivariate and multiple regression analyses. Results A combination of volume and intensity in training was found to be suitable for prediction of marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race pace. The relative role played by these two variables was different, in that training volume was more important than training pace for the prediction of 100 km ultramarathon performance, while the opposite was found for marathon performance. Anthropometric characteristics in terms of body fat percentage negatively affected 42 km and 100 km race performance. However, when this factor was relatively low (ie, less than 15% body fat), the performance of 42 km and 100 km races could be predicted solely on the basis of training indices. Conclusion Mean weekly training distance run and mean training pace were key predictor variables for both marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance. Predictive correlations for race performance are provided for runners with a relatively low body fat percentage. PMID:25995653

  16. Global sediment thickness data set updated for the Australian-Antarctic Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Joanne M.; Goncharov, Alexey; Williams, Simon E.; Müller, R. Dietmar; Leitchenkov, German

    2013-08-01

    We present a new, 5 min sediment thickness grid for the Australian-Antarctic region (60°E-155°E, 30°S-70°S). New seismic reflection and refraction data have been used to add detail to the conjugate Australian and Antarctic margins and intervening ocean floor where regional sediment thickness patterns were poorly known previously. On the margins, sediment thickness estimates were computed from velocity-depth functions from sonobuoy/refraction velocity solutions ground-truthed against seismic reflection data. For the Southeast Indian Ridge abyssal plains, sediment thickness contours from Geli et al. (2007) were used. The new regional minimum sediment thickness grid was combined with the global National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) sediment grid to create an updated global grid. Even using the minimum estimates, sediment accumulations on the extended Australian and Antarctic continental margins are 2 km thicker across large regions and up to 9 km thicker in the Ceduna Basin compared to the global NGDC compilation of sediment thickness data.

  17. On a mechanism of 1/2<110> and 1/2<112> dislocation pinning in {gamma}-TiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Inkson, B.J.

    1996-10-15

    A new mechanism for 1/2<110> and 1/2<112> dislocation pinning in TiAl is discussed. This mechanism is based on the inability of 1/2<110> perfect dislocations and 1/2<112> superdislocations to propagate through small {gamma} order-domains where the two {gamma}-grains are related by an order relationship equivalent to a 120{degree} rotation about <111>.

  18. Recent summer sea ice thickness surveys in Fram Strait and associated ice volume fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumpen, T.; Gerdes, R.; Haas, C.; Hendricks, S.; Herber, A.; Selyuzhenok, V.; Smedsrud, L.; Spreen, G.

    2016-03-01

    Fram Strait is the main gateway for sea ice export out of the Arctic Ocean, and therefore observations there give insight into the composition and properties of Arctic sea ice in general and how it varies over time. A data set of ground-based and airborne electromagnetic ice thickness measurements collected during summer between 2001 and 2012 is presented here, including long transects well into the southern part of the Transpolar Drift obtained using fixed-wing aircrafts. The primary source of the surveyed sea ice leaving Fram Strait is the Laptev Sea and its age has decreased from 3 to 2 years between 1990 and 2012. The thickness data consistently also show a general thinning of sea ice for the last decade, with a decrease in modal thickness of second year and multiyear ice, and a decrease in mean thickness and fraction of ice thicker than 3 m. Local melting in the strait was investigated in two surveys performed in the downstream direction, showing a decrease in sea ice thickness of 0.19 m degree-1 latitude south of 81° N. Further north variability in ice thickness is more related to differences in age and deformation. The thickness observations were combined with ice area export estimates to calculate summer volume fluxes of sea ice. While satellite data show that monthly ice area export had positive trends since 1980 (10.9 × 103 km2 decade-1), the summer (July and August) ice area export is low with high uncertainties. The average volume export amounts to 16.78 km3. Naturally, the volume flux estimates are limited to the period when airborne thickness surveys are available. Nevertheless, we could show that the combination of satellite data and airborne observations can be used to determine volume fluxes through Fram Strait and as such, can be used to bridge the lack of satellite-based sea ice thickness information in summer.

  19. Microstrip dipole antennas on electrically thick substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, D. R.; Alexopoulos, N. G.

    1985-10-01

    Printed circuit antennas are attractive radiation sources both at microwave and millimeter wave frequencies. However, for millimeter wave applications where the substrate is likely to be electrically thick, it is important to understand the basic effects of a thick substrate on radiation characteristics. In particular, it is concluded here that dipole radiation properties become sensitive to loss as the substrate becomes thick. Furthermore, the efficiency of dipoles on thick substrates tends to be low, especially as the dielectric constant of the substrate increases. A method of improving both the efficiency and gain can be used for thick substrates, however, which uses a superstrate layer on top of the antenna.

  20. Intelligent processing for thick composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Daniel Dong-Ok

    2000-10-01

    Manufacturing thick composite parts are associated with adverse curing conditions such as large in-plane temperature gradient and exotherms. The condition is further aggravated because the manufacturer's cycle and the existing cure control systems do not adequately counter such affects. In response, the forecast-based thermal control system is developed to have better cure control for thick composites. Accurate cure kinetic model is crucial for correctly identifying the amount of heat generated for composite process simulation. A new technique for identifying cure parameters for Hercules AS4/3502 prepreg is presented by normalizing the DSC data. The cure kinetics is based on an autocatalytic model for the proposed method, which uses dynamic and isothermal DSC data to determine its parameters. Existing models are also used to determine kinetic parameters but rendered inadequate because of the material's temperature dependent final degree of cure. The model predictions determined from the new technique showed good agreement to both isothermal and dynamic DSC data. The final degree of cure was also in good agreement with experimental data. A realistic cure simulation model including bleeder ply analysis and compaction is validated with Hercules AS4/3501-6 based laminates. The nonsymmetrical temperature distribution resulting from the presence of bleeder plies agreed well to the model prediction. Some of the discrepancies in the predicted compaction behavior were attributed to inaccurate viscosity and permeability models. The temperature prediction was quite good for the 3cm laminate. The validated process simulation model along with cure kinetics model for AS4/3502 prepreg were integrated into the thermal control system. The 3cm Hercules AS4/3501-6 and AS4/3502 laminate were fabricated. The resulting cure cycles satisfied all imposed requirements by minimizing exotherms and temperature gradient. Although the duration of the cure cycles increased, such phenomena was

  1. Experimental technique to simulate orbital-debris impact on space shields at impact velocities over 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Boslough, M.B.

    1992-12-31

    With the development of a new HyperVelocity Launcher, HVL, at Sandia, it is now possible to perform experiments over the velocity range of 7 to 12 km/s. This velocity range has not been previously accessible for gram-size plates. This meets the requisite mass-velocity criteria established for the orbital debris environment. In this paper, the technique employed to launch thin flier plates to velocities not previously accessible on a two-stage light-gas gun is reported. In particular, this technique has been used on a two-stage light-gas gun to launch nominally 0.5 to 1.0-mm thick aluminum, titanium, and magnesium flier plates intact to velocities up to 12.2 km/s. Since the mass-velocity capability of the newly developed HVL meets the average specifications of the space debris environment, it is expected to be a useful tool to evaluate the effects of debris impact on space structures and debris shields. Examples of a plate impact i.e., orbital debris impact on a thin Whipple shield are presented in this paper.

  2. Experimental technique to simulate orbital-debris impact on space shields at impact velocities over 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Boslough, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    With the development of a new HyperVelocity Launcher, HVL, at Sandia, it is now possible to perform experiments over the velocity range of 7 to 12 km/s. This velocity range has not been previously accessible for gram-size plates. This meets the requisite mass-velocity criteria established for the orbital debris environment. In this paper, the technique employed to launch thin flier plates to velocities not previously accessible on a two-stage light-gas gun is reported. In particular, this technique has been used on a two-stage light-gas gun to launch nominally 0.5 to 1.0-mm thick aluminum, titanium, and magnesium flier plates intact to velocities up to 12.2 km/s. Since the mass-velocity capability of the newly developed HVL meets the average specifications of the space debris environment, it is expected to be a useful tool to evaluate the effects of debris impact on space structures and debris shields. Examples of a plate impact i.e., orbital debris impact on a thin Whipple shield are presented in this paper.

  3. Pavement thickness evaluation using ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Dwayne Arthur

    Accurate knowledge of pavement thickness is important information to have both at a network and project level. This information aids in pavement management and design. Much of the time this information is missing, out of date, or unknown for highway sections. Current technologies for determining pavement thickness are core drilling, falling weight deflectometer (FWD), and ground penetrating radar (GPR). Core drilling provides very accurate pin point pavement thickness information; however, it is also time consuming, labor intensive, intrusive to traffic, destructive, and limited in coverage. FWD provides nondestructive estimates of both a surface thickness and total pavement structure thickness, including pavement, base and sub-base. On the other hand, FWD is intrusive to traffic and affected by the limitations and assumptions the method used to estimate thickness. GPR provides pavement surface course thickness estimates with excellent data coverage at highway speed. Yet, disadvantages include the pavement thickness estimation being affected by the electrical properties of the pavement, limitations of the system utilized, and heavy post processing of the data. Nevertheless, GPR has been successfully utilized by a number of departments of transportation (DOTs) for pavement thickness evaluation. This research presents the GPR thickness evaluation methods, develops GPRPAVZ the software used to implement the methodologies, and addresses the quality of GPR pavement thickness evaluation.

  4. Thickness effect on HVOF coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Thorpe, R.

    1994-12-31

    Hobart/Tafa`s JP-5000`s particle velocity has a unique effect on coatings. This paper discusses the effect of thickness on coating properties such as: integrity, bond strength, stresses and coating performance. Much has been said about the advantages of these coatings. The goal of this paper if to provide additional substantiation. Higher operating pressure gun with high particle velocity yields coating properties that allow them to be applied thicker than ever before. the properties of these thicker coatings are evaluated versus micro-integrity, porosity, bond strength, oxide content and performance. Other comparisons are considered. Stresses in those coatings are a key part of this evaluation. Due to the unique coating stresses, corrosion and stress-corrosion resistance properties are improved. Also, mechanical and thermal fatigue properties are enhanced. A few case histories will be examined as documentation of actual field history. The types of applications involved are high and low temperature particle erosion; impact and sliding wear; immersion and heat corrosion; dimensional restoration of superalloys.

  5. Variations in Km(CO2) of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase among Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Hock-Hin; Badger, Murray R.; Watson, Leslie

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the Km(CO2) values of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from 60 grass species shows that enzyme from C3 grasses consistently exhibits lower Km(CO2) than does that from C4 grasses. Systematically ordered variation in Km(CO2) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylases from C3 and C4 grasses is also apparent and, among C4 grasses, this shows some correlation with C4 types. PMID:16661586

  6. MODIS 3 Km Aerosol Product: Applications over Land in an Urban/suburban Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munchak, L. A.; Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.; Remer, L. A.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J. S.; Hostetler, C. A.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites have provided a rich dataset of aerosol information at a 10 km spatial scale. Although originally intended for climate applications, the air quality community quickly became interested in using the MODIS aerosol data. However, 10 km resolution is not sufficient to resolve local scale aerosol features. With this in mind, MODIS Collection 6 is including a global aerosol product with a 3 km resolution. Here, we evaluate the 3 km product over the Baltimore/Washington D.C., USA, corridor during the summer of 2011, by comparing with spatially dense data collected as part of the DISCOVER-AQ campaign these data were measured by the NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and a network of 44 sun photometers (SP) spaced approximately 10 km apart. The HSRL instrument shows that AOD can vary by up to 0.2 within a single 10 km MODIS pixel, meaning that higher resolution satellite retrievals may help to characterize aerosol spatial distributions in this region. Different techniques for validating a high-resolution aerosol product against SP measurements are considered. Although the 10 km product is more statistically reliable than the 3 km product, the 3 km product still performs acceptably, with more than two-thirds of MODIS/SP collocations falling within the expected error envelope with high correlation (R > 0.90). The 3 km product can better resolve aerosol gradients and retrieve closer to clouds and shorelines than the 10 km product, but tends to show more significant noise especially in urban areas. This urban degradation is quantified using ancillary land cover data. Overall, we show that the MODIS 3 km product adds new information to the existing set of satellite derived aerosol products and validates well over the region, but due to noise and problems in urban areas, should be treated with some degree of caution.

  7. Quality assurance and risk assessment in the KM3NeT neutrino telescope design study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sollima, C.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2011-01-01

    KM3NeT is an undersea neutrino detector currently under design. This paper summarises the quality management system (QMS) and risk assessment (RA) thought into the KM3NeT project. QMS and RA are set up as an integrated system for the improvement and optimization of components of the KM3NeT neutrino detector as well as its production and operation.

  8. Nemo:. a Project for a KM3 Underwater Detector for Astrophysical Neutrinos in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amore, I.; Aiello, S.; Ambriola, M.; Ameli, F.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anzalone, A.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Battaglieri, M.; Bellotti, R.; Beverini, N.; Bonori, M.; Bouhadef, B.; Brescia, M.; Cacopardo, G.; Cafagna, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Castorina, E.; Ceres, A.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Costa, M.; Cuneo, S.; D'Amico, A.; de Bonis, G.; de Marzo, C.; de Rosa, G.; de Vita, R.; Distefano, C.; Falchini, E.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Gabrielli, A.; Galeotti, S.; Gandolfi, E.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgi, F.; Grimaldi, A.; Habel, R.; Leonora, E.; Lonardo, A.; Longo, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Lucarelli, F.; Maccioni, E.; Margiotta, A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Megna, R.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Musumeci, M. S.; Nicolau, C. A.; Orlando, A.; Osipenko, M.; Osteria, G.; Papaleo, R.; Pappalardo, V.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Reito, S.; Ricco, G.; Riccobene, G.; Ripani, M.; Rovelli, A.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Russo, S.; Sapienza, P.; Sedita, M.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Spurio, M.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Trasatti, L.; Urso, S.; Valente, V.; Vicini, P.

    The status of the project is described: the activity on long term characterization of water optical and oceanographic parameters at the Capo Passero site candidate for the Mediterranean km3 neutrino telescope; the feasibility study; the physics performances and underwater technology for the km3; the activity on NEMO Phase 1, a technological demonstrator that has been deployed at 2000 m depth 25 km offshore Catania; the realization of an underwater infrastructure at 3500 m depth at the candidate site (NEMO Phase 2).

  9. Estimates of the Effective Elastic Thickness: Any signs of agreement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Dan

    2016-04-01

    There is little controversy about the value of Te estimated from oceanic measurements of gravity and bathymetry. Its value is often obtained from the relationship between the free air gravity and bathymetry in the spectral domain. Estimates of Te from those few regions where there is good 2D bathymetric coverage give values which vary from 2-4 km for spreading ridges to ˜ 20 km for old lithosphere like that beneath Hawaii. There is a general belief that the elastic thickness is controlled by the depth of an isotherm whose value is ˜ 450°C, and that Te < T_s, the seismogenic thickness, which closely follows the 600°C isotherm. In contrast, there is no agreement between different estimates of Te from continents, most of which are based on Forsyth's method using the coherence between Bouguer gravity and topography. In regions of rough topography his approach gives estimates of Te that are similar to, though generally about double, those obtained from the free air gravity using the same approach as in the oceans. However, in regions with little topography, which includes most shields, the ratio between the two estimates often exceeds a factor of 5, with estimates of Te from Forsyth's method often exceeding 100 km, corresponding to a limiting isotherm of 1000°C or more. Laboratory experiments at such temperatures show that elastic stresses are relaxed in hours. This problem has generated a long running controversy. It is straightforward to show that estimates of Te from Bouguer gravity depend only on the ratio of the power spectra of free air gravity to topography when the two are incoherent (McK, 2015), and are independent of the actual value of T_e. In many shield regions the topography is indeed incoherent with the topography. No valid estimates of Te can then be obtained. However, it is nonetheless often possible to use the spectral ratio to estimate an upper bound on the value of T_e, which is generally < 30 km. Accurate maps of topography and gravity are now

  10. Organic facies characteristics of the Miocene Soma Formation (Lower Lignite Succession-KM2), Soma Coal Basin, western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokerek, Selin; Ozcelik, Orhan

    2015-04-01

    The Soma coal basin is one of the largest economic lignite-bearing alluvial basins of western Turkey. The Miocene succession (Soma Formation) of the coalfield contains two lignite seams successions; Lower Lignite, Middle Lignite .The Lower Lignite (KM2) is a seam 15 m thick and found in contact between siliciclastic and carbonate deposits (marlstones). Detailed data from thick Miocene sediments (Soma Formation) made it possible to construct an organic facies framework using different zonations. Organic matter is composed predominantly of woody material. Kerogen in the deposits is type III, as indicated by organic petrographic observations and Rock-Eval data. Total organic carbon (TOC) values are generally between 28.45 and 72.66 %, but reach 73.38 % in the formation. Tmax values vary between 403 and 429 °C, confirming maturation trends indicated by vitrinite reflectance data (between 0.35-0.48 Ro %). Organic facies type C and CD were identified in the investigated units. Organic facies C and CD are related to clayey coal and coal lithofacies. These facies are characterized by average values of HI around 126 mg HC/g TOC (equivalent to type III kerogen), TOC around 56.61 %, and an average of S2 of 72.4 mg HC/g of rock. The organic matter is partly oxidized/oxidized and reworked. Keywords: Western Turkey; Soma Formation; organic facies; organic geochemistry

  11. Potential of KM3NeT to observe galactic neutrino point-like sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trovato, Agata

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT (http://www.km3net.org">http://www.km3net.org) will be the next-generation cubic-kilometre-scale neutrino telescope to be installed in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. This location will allow for surveying the Galactic Centre, most of the Galactic Plane as well as a large part of the sky. We report KM3NeT discovery potential for the SNR RXJ1713.7-3946 and the PWN Vela X and its sensitivity to point-like sources with an E-2 spectrum.

  12. How Accurately Do Spectral Methods Estimate Effective Elastic Thickness?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Gussinye, M.; Lowry, A. R.; Watts, A. B.; Velicogna, I.

    2002-12-01

    The effective elastic thickness, Te, is an important parameter that has the potential to provide information on the long-term thermal and mechanical properties of the the lithosphere. Previous studies have estimated Te using both forward and inverse (spectral) methods. While there is generally good agreement between the results obtained using these methods, spectral methods are limited because they depend on the spectral estimator and the window size chosen for analysis. In order to address this problem, we have used a multitaper technique which yields optimal estimates of the bias and variance of the Bouguer coherence function relating topography and gravity anomaly data. The technique has been tested using realistic synthetic topography and gravity. Synthetic data were generated assuming surface and sub-surface (buried) loading of an elastic plate with fractal statistics consistent with real data sets. The cases of uniform and spatially varying Te are examined. The topography and gravity anomaly data consist of 2000x2000 km grids sampled at 8 km interval. The bias in the Te estimate is assessed from the difference between the true Te value and the mean from analyzing 100 overlapping windows within the 2000x2000 km data grids. For the case in which Te is uniform, the bias and variance decrease with window size and increase with increasing true Te value. In the case of a spatially varying Te, however, there is a trade-off between spatial resolution and variance. With increasing window size the variance of the Te estimate decreases, but the spatial changes in Te are smeared out. We find that for a Te distribution consisting of a strong central circular region of Te=50 km (radius 600 km) and progressively smaller Te towards its edges, the 800x800 and 1000x1000 km window gave the best compromise between spatial resolution and variance. Our studies demonstrate that assumed stationarity of the relationship between gravity and topography data yields good results even in

  13. Molecular hydrogen and excitation in the HH 1-2 system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noriega-Crespo, A.; Garnavich, P. M.

    1994-01-01

    We present a series of molecular hydrogen images of the Herbig-Haro 1-2 system in the 1-0 S(1) transition at 2.121 microns, with a spatial resolution of approximately 2 sec. The distribution of H2 is then compared with that of the excitation, given by the (S II) 6717+6731 to H-alpha line ratio. We find that most optical condensations in the HH 1-2 system, including the VLA 1 jet, have H2 counterparts. H2 emission is detected in most low excitation knots, as expected for low velocity shocks (50 km/s less than), but also in high excitation regions, like in HH 1F and HH 2A min. For these latter objects, the H2 emission could be due to the interaction of the preionizing flux, produced by 150-200 km/s shocks, with the surrounding interstellar matter, i.e., fluorescence. The lack fluorescent lines in the ultraviolet (UV), however, suggest a different mechanism. H2 is detected at the tip of the VLA 1 jet, where the knot morphology suggests the presence of a second bow shock. H2 is detected also SE of HH 2E and SW of HH 1F, in regions with known NH3 emission.

  14. The 5- or 10-km Marikenloop Run: A Prospective Study of the Etiology of Running-Related Injuries in Women.

    PubMed

    van der Worp, Maarten P; de Wijer, Anton; van Cingel, Robert; Verbeek, André L M; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Staal, J Bart

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort. Background The popularity of running events is still growing, particularly among women; however, little is known about the risk factors for running-related injuries in female runners. Objectives The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and characteristics (site and recurrence) of running-related injuries and to identify specific risk factors for running-related injuries among female runners training for a 5- or 10-km race. Methods Four hundred thirty-five women registered for the Marikenloop run of 5 or 10 km were recruited. Follow-up data were collected over 12 weeks using questionnaires, starting 8 weeks before the event and ending 4 weeks after the event. Two orthopaedic tests (navicular drop test and extension of the first metatarsophalangeal joint) were performed in the 8 weeks before the event. Running-related injuries, defined as running-related pain of the lower back and/or the lower extremity that restricted running for at least 1 day, were assessed at 1-, 2-, and 3-month follow-ups. Results Of 417 female runners with follow-up data (96%), 93 runners (22.3%) reported 109 running-related injuries, mainly of the hip/groin, knee, and lower leg. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that a weekly training distance of more than 30 km (hazard ratio = 3.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23, 8.75) and a previous running injury longer than 12 months prior (hazard ratio = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.45) were associated with the occurrence of running-related injuries. Conclusion Hip/groin, knee, and lower-leg injuries were common among female runners. Only weekly training distance (greater than 30 km) and previous running injury (greater than 12 months prior) were associated with running-related injuries in female runners training for a 5- or 10-km event. Level of Evidence Etiology, 2b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(6):462-470. Epub 26 Apr 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6402. PMID:27117730

  15. Synthesis of Naphtho[1',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and Imidazo[5,1,2-cd]indolizines Through Pd-Catalyzed Cycloaromatization of 2-Phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridines with Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyuan; Zhang, Xinying; Fan, Xuesen

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, palladium-catalyzed oxidative cycloaromatization of 2-phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine (PIP) with internal alkyne is studied. From this reaction, two classes of fused N-heterocycle, naphtho[1',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine (NIP) and imidazo[5,1,2-cd]indolizine (IID), were formed through dehydrogenative coupling featured with cleavage of the C-H bonds located on different moiety of the PIP substrates. Moreover, when 5-methyl-2-phenylimidazo [1,2-a]pyridine or 2-mesitylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine was used, either NIP or IID could be obtained as an exclusive product with good efficiency. Intriguingly, Pd(II) showed different action mode in promoting this reaction compared with Rh(III) and led to the formation of NIP with reversed regio-selectivity for the reaction of asymmetrical alkyne. PMID:26168267

  16. Crustal Vp-Vs ratios and thickness for Ross Island and the Transantarctic Mountain front, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finotello, Marco; Nyblade, Andrew; Julia, Jordi; Wiens, Douglas; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar

    2011-04-01

    We investigate crustal Vp-Vs ratios and thickness along the Transantarctic Mountain (TAM) front and on Ross Island, Antarctica to determine if the TAM crust has been modified by the Neogene magmatism associated with Ross Island. A seismic low velocity zone (LVZ) in the upper mantle beneath Ross Island extends laterally ˜80 km under the TAM front, and mantle temperatures within the LVZ may be sufficiently elevated for partial melting to have occurred and modified the crust. Data for the study come from 16 temporary seismic stations that were part of the TAM Seismic Experiment and three permanent stations. Estimates of Vp/Vs (κ) and crustal thickness (H) have been obtained from receiver functions analysed using the H-κ stacking method for 10 of the stations, and for the remaining stations, crustal thickness has been calculated by using the Moho Ps arrival time with an assumed Vp/Vs value. A Vp/Vs value of 1.88 is obtained for Ross Island, consistent with the mafic composition of the volcanic rocks from Mt. Erebus. Vp/Vs values for stations in the TAM situated away from the LVZ range from 1.63 to 1.78, with a mean of 1.73, while values for stations in the TAM lying above the LVZ range from 1.67 to 1.78, with a mean of 1.72. This result indicates that there is little difference in bulk crustal composition for areas above and away from the LVZ, and together with a Vp/Vs value (1.73) that is typical for felsic to intermediate composition crust, suggests that the crust along the TAM front has not been altered significantly by mafic magmatism. Crustal thickness estimates along the coast are quite variable, ranging from 18 to 33 km, and increase to 39 km inland beneath the crest of the TAM. On Ross Island, crustal thickness estimates range between 19 and 27 km.

  17. MAPPING THE ASYMMETRIC THICK DISK. III. THE KINEMATICS AND INTERACTION WITH THE GALACTIC BAR

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Grammer, Skyler; Davidson, Kris; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Cabanela, Juan E.; Larsen, Jeffrey A. E-mail: grammer@astro.umn.edu E-mail: beers@pa.msu.edu E-mail: cabanela@mnstate.edu

    2011-04-15

    In the first two papers of this series, Larsen et al. describe our faint CCD survey in the inner Galaxy and map the overdensity of thick disk stars in Quadrant 1 (Q1) to 5 kpc or more along the line of sight. The regions showing the strongest excess are above the density contours of the bar in the Galactic disk. In this third paper on the asymmetric thick disk, we report on radial velocities and derived metallicity parameters for over 4000 stars in Q1, above and below the plane, and in Quadrant 4 (Q4) above the plane. We confirm the corresponding kinematic asymmetry first reported by Parker et al., extended to greater distances and with more spatial coverage. The thick disk stars in Q1 have a rotational lag of 60-70 km s{sup -1} relative to circular rotation, and the metal-weak thick disk stars have an even greater lag of 100 km s{sup -1}. Both lag their corresponding populations in Q4 by {approx}30 km s{sup -1}. Interestingly, the disk stars in Q1 also appear to participate in the rotational lag by about 30 km s{sup -1}. The enhanced rotational lag for the thick disk in Q1 extends to 4 kpc or more from the Sun. At 3-4 kpc, our sight lines extend above the density contours on the near side of the bar, and as our lines of sight pass directly over the bar the rotational lag appears to decrease. This is consistent with a 'gravitational wake' induced by the rotating bar in the disk which would trap and pile up stars behind it. We conclude that a dynamical interaction with the stellar bar is the most probable explanation for the observed kinematic and spatial asymmetries.

  18. X-1-2 on Ramp with Boeing B-29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 sitting on the ramp at NACA High- Speed Flight Research Station with the Boeing B-29 launch ship behind. The B-29 was fondly referred to as 'Fertile Myrtle.' The painting near the nose depicts a stork carrying a bundle which is symbolic of the Mothership launching her babe (X-1-2). The pilot access door is open to the cockpit of the X-1-2 aircraft.

  19. 15 CFR 1.2 - Description and design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Description and design. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce THE SEAL OF THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE § 1.2 Description and design. (a) The Act of February 14, 1903 (32 Stat. 825, as amended) (15 U.S.C. 1501), which established the Department...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1-2 - Limitation on tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Limitation on tax. 1.1-2 Section 1.1-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.1-2 Limitation on tax. (a) Taxable years ending before January 1, 1971. For taxable years ending before January 1, 1971, the tax...

  1. Contrasting alluvial architecture of Late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits along a 120-km transect from the central Po Plain (northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, Bruno; Amorosi, Alessandro; Bruno, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    High-resolution investigation of a ~ 120-km-long transect along the course of the modern Po River, northern Italy, revealed marked changes in alluvial architecture across the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. Along the whole transect, a 20- to 30-m thick sheet-like succession of Late Pleistocene fluvial sands is invariably overlain by silt and clay deposits, with isolated fluvial bodies of Holocene age (< 9.4 cal ka BP). The Holocene succession displays consistent downstream changes in facies architecture: well-drained floodplain deposits are transitional at distal locations to increasingly organic, poorly drained floodplain to swamp facies associations. Thick paludal facies extend continuously up to 60 km landward of the Holocene maximum marine ingression, about 90 km from the modern shoreline. Based on 28 radiocarbon dates, the abrupt change in lithofacies and channel stacking pattern occurred at the transition from the last glacial period to the present interglacial, under conditions of rapid sea-level rise. The architectural change from amalgamated, Late Pleistocene sand bodies to overlying, mud-dominated Holocene units represent an example of chronologically well-constrained fluvial response to combined climate and relative sea-level change. The overall aggradational stacking pattern of individual channel-belt sand bodies indicates that high subsidence rates continuously created accommodation in the Po Basin, even during phases of falling sea level and lowstand.

  2. Resistance Spot Welding of AA5052 Sheet Metal of Dissimilar Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat Din, N. A.; Zuhailawati, H.; Anasyida, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Resistance spot welding of dissimilar thickness of AA5052 aluminum alloy was performed in order to investigate the effect of metal thickness on the weldment strength. Resistance spot welding was done using a spot welder machine available in Coraza Systems Sdn Bhd using a hemispherical of chromium copper electrode tip with radius of 6.00 mm under 14 kA of current and 0.02 bar of pressure for all thickness combinations. Lap joint configuration was produced between 2.0 mm thick sheet and 1.2 - 3.2 mm thick sheet, respectively. Microstructure of joint showed asymmetrical nugget shape that was larger on the thicker side indicating larger molten metal volume. Joint 2.0 mm x 3.2 mm sheets has the lowest hardness in both transverse direction and through thickness direction because less heat left in the weld nugget. The microstructure shows that this joint has coarse grains of HAZ. As thickness of sheet metal increased, the failure load of the joints increased. However, there was no linear correlation established between joint strength and metal thickness due to different shape of fusion zone in dissimilar thickness sheet metal.

  3. Rapid growth and seasonal persistence of efficient subglacial drainage under kilometre thick Greenland ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienow, P.; Wadham, J.; Chandler, D.; Doyle, S. H.; Tedstone, A. J.; Hubbard, A., II

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between surface melt and ice motion partly determines the sensitivity of the Greenland Ice Sheet to climate, and the structure of the subglacial drainage system may be critical in controlling how changing melt-rates will impact on future ice dynamics. However, the extent to which efficient subglacial drainage develops tens of km inland from the ice margin under thick (>1km) ice remains equivocal. In particular, several numerical modelling studies suggest that under such conditions subglacial channels cannot evolve on seasonal timescales, even under extreme inputs of surface meltwater. Here, we present hydrological and ice-motion data collected in summer 2012 in the vicinity of a moulin located ~40 km from the western margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet, where ice is ~1km thick. Supraglacial discharge into the moulin was monitored from the onset of surface drainage and the tracer sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) was injected into the moulin at repeat intervals and its emergence was monitored at its proglacial river outlet. The tracer results indicate rapid evolution from a slow, inefficient drainage system to a fast, hydraulically efficient system within ~three weeks from the onset of surface drainage. Once an efficient hydrological pathway was established, it remained open - as evidenced by the fast tracer return times - even during periods of low surface melt (~0.01m/d), when discharge into the moulin was <4 m3 s-1 and ceased overnight. Ice motion in the vicinity of the moulin slowed following the establishment of the efficient drainage pathway with a clear diurnal cyclicity driven by variations in supraglacial discharge. Our results confirm that hydraulically-efficient subglacial drainage can exist 10s km from the ice sheet margin where ice is ~1km thick, that the drainage configuration can form in a matter of weeks, and that it persists even during cool periods when local surface melt rates and inputs are low.

  4. Precision polarizability measurements of atomic cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Hannah; Kortyna, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    We report hyperfine-resolved scalar polarizabilities for cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states using resonant two-photon spectroscopy. Two single-mode, external-cavity diode lasers drive the 6 s 2S1 / 2 --> 6 p 2P1 / 2 --> ns 2S1 / 2 transition (n = 8 or 9). Both laser beams are split and counter-propagate through an effusive beam and a vapor cell. An electric field applied across two parallel plates imposes Stark shifts on the ns 2S1 / 2 levels in the effusive beam. Electric-field strengths are measured in situ. The laser frequency is calibrated in the vapor cell using a phase modulation technique, with the modulation frequency referenced to the ground-state hyperfine splitting of atomic rubidium. Our measured 8 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 38370 +/- 380 a03, agrees with previous theory and experiments. Our measured 9 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 150700 +/- 1100 a03, agrees within two sigma of theory, but we are unaware of previous measurements. We also verify that these polarizabilities are independent of the hyperfine levels, placing upper limits on the differential polarizabilities of 200 +/- 260 a03 for the 8 s 2S1 / 2 state and 490 +/- 450 a03 for the 9 s 2S1 / 2 state. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-0653107.

  5. Dynamic plumbing systems along the 100 km long Arctic Vestnesa Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza-Faverola, Andreia; Buenz, Stefan; Vadakkepuliyambatta, Sunil; Mienert, Jurgen; Chand, Shyam; Johnson, Joel; Greinert, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Vestnesa is a ridge-like contour-current controlled sediment succession that lies above young oceanic crust created during the tectonic opening of Fram Strait. It is surrounded by the Molloy transform fault to the southwest, the Molloy deep to the north-west, the Knipovich oceanic ridge to the south-east, and the continental margin of Svalbard to the northeast. Although interrupted in places, a mostly continuous bottom simulating reflector (BSR), the seismic indicator for the base of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), extends for tens of kilometers from the crest of the ridge towards its northern and southern flanks. High-resolution P-Cable 2D seismic data show vertical fluid migration pathways, distributed in clusters along the 100 km long ridge, connecting the free gas system beneath the GHSZ through a 160-180 m thick hydrate stability zone to seabed pockmarks at the crest of the ridge. Among these clusters only those lying towards the easternmost end of the ridge have been documented to be periodically active in terms of present-day seafloor gas seepage. The methane release activity shows particularly well on 18 kHz echosounder data over a time period from 2008 to 2013. Gas hydrates have been recovered in shallow sediment cores (<6 mbsf) at the active seafloor seepage site. Gas analyses show heavier gases in addition to methane, as a hydrate-forming gas. Within the framework of CAGE - Center for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate, we are investigating the development of the plumbing systems of the Arctic Vestnesa Ridge in space and time domains. We compare the modeled base of the GHSZ for different gas compositions against the depth of the BSR in the region and discuss the elements of fluid migration systems that could explain observed lateral changes in BSR depths and the switching between active and inactive plumbing systems. The Centre of Excellence is funded by the Norwegian Research Council (grant No. 223259) over a period of ten years.

  6. Structural uplift and ejecta thickness of lunar mare craters: New insights into the formation of complex crater rims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Tim; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Most complex impact craters on solid planetary surfaces throughout the Solar System exhibit elevated crater rims similar to the elevated crater rims of simple craters. In principal the final elevation of the crater rim is due to the deposition of ejecta on the structurally uplifted bedrock of the pre-impact surface. For simple craters the elevated crater rim is due to two well understood factors: (i) Emplacement of the coherent proximal ejecta material at the transient cavity rim (overturned flap) [1]. (ii) Structural uplift of the pre-impact surface in the proximity of the transient cavity [1, 2]. The amount of structural uplift at the rim of simple craters is due to plastic thickening of the target rock, the emplacement of interthrust wedges and/or the injection of dike material in the underlying target [1, 2, 3, 4]. Both factors, (i) and (ii), are believed to equally contribute to the structural uplift of simple craters. Larger craters have complex morphologies and the crater's extent may considerably exceed that of the transient cavity due to gravity-driven adjustment movements. For instance, the Ries crater's final diameter is twice of its transient cavity size. It is expected that both ejecta thickness and structural uplift decrease with increasing distance from the rim of the transient crater. For lunar craters the continuous ejecta extends up to 2 crater radii from the crater center. The ejecta blanket thickness ET at the rim crest of the transient crater (which is inside the final crater) is a function of the distance r from the crater center, with RT as the radius of the transient crater [2, 6, 7] and is expressed by the following function: (1) ET = 0.033 RT (r/RT)^-3.0 for r ≥ RT [5, 6] The structural uplift is largest at the transient cavity rim and gets rapidly smaller with increasing distance to the crater center and disappears after 1.3 - 1.7 crater radii [1]. These circumstances raise the question, how elevated rims of complex craters form? Based

  7. Ice thickness in the Northwest Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Christian; Howell, Stephen E. L.

    2015-09-01

    Recently, the feasibility of commercial shipping in the ice-prone Northwest Passage (NWP) has attracted a lot of attention. However, very little ice thickness information actually exists. We present results of the first ever airborne electromagnetic ice thickness surveys over the NWP carried out in April and May 2011 and 2015 over first-year and multiyear ice. These show modal thicknesses between 1.8 and 2.0 m in all regions. Mean thicknesses over 3 m and thick, deformed ice were observed over some multiyear ice regimes shown to originate from the Arctic Ocean. Thick ice features more than 100 m wide and thicker than 4 m occurred frequently. Results indicate that even in today's climate, ice conditions must still be considered severe. These results have important implications for the prediction of ice breakup and summer ice conditions, and the assessment of sea ice hazards during the summer shipping season.

  8. Acute prior heavy strength exercise bouts improve the 20-km cycling time trial performance.

    PubMed

    Silva, Renato A S; Silva-Júnior, Fernando L; Pinheiro, Fabiano A; Souza, Patrícia F M; Boullosa, Daniel A; Pires, Flávio O

    2014-09-01

    This study verified if a prior 5 repetition maximum (5RM) strength exercise would improve the cycling performance during a 20-km cycling time trial (TT20km). After determination of the 5RM leg press exercise load, 11 trained cyclists performed a TT20km in a control condition and 10-minute after 4 sets of 5RM strength exercise bouts (potentiation condition). Oxygen uptake, blood lactate concentration, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and power output data were recorded during the TT20km. Cycling economy index was assessed before the TT20km, and pacing strategy was analyzed assuming a "J-shaped" power output distribution profile. Results were a 6.1% reduction (p ≤ 0.05) in the time to complete the TT20km, a greater cycling economy (p < 0.01), and power output in the first 10% of the TT20km (i.e., trend; p = 0.06) in the potentiation condition. However, no differences were observed in pacing strategy, physiological parameters, and RPE between the conditions. These results suggest that 5RM strength exercise bouts improve the performance in a subsequent TT20km. PMID:24584047

  9. A Co-Creation Blended KM Model for Cultivating Critical-Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yu-chu

    2012-01-01

    Both critical thinking (CT) and knowledge management (KM) skills are necessary elements for a university student's success. Therefore, this study developed a co-creation blended KM model to cultivate university students' CT skills and to explore the underlying mechanisms for achieving success. Thirty-one university students participated in this…

  10. Quality control considerations for the KM3NeT Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sollima, C.

    2013-10-01

    Within the KM3NeT project a quality management system was proposed that included a qualification process and a database to store information on the design. This paper highlights quality control procedures applicable to KM3NeT and describes the database.

  11. New Marker Development for the Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pi-km

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The blast resistance (R) gene Pi-km protects rice against specific races of the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. The use of blast R genes remains the most cost-effective method of disease control. To facilitate the breeding process, we developed a Pi-km specific molecular marker. For this purp...

  12. Changes in Body Mass, Hydration and Electrolytes Following a 161-km Endurance Race

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To examine electrolyte concentrations and changes in body mass and total body water (TBW) during a 161-km ultra-marathon, and relate these to finish time and incidence of hyponatremia. Methods: Subjects were recruited from the 161-km 2008 Rio Del Lago Endurance Race. Body mass, TBW, and s...

  13. Draft genome sequence of the Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22 has been used in experimental infections of swine as a model of clinical B. bronchiseptica infections within swine herds and to study host-to-host transmission. Here we report the draft genome sequence of KM22....

  14. Alpha Ridge: Oceanic or Continental Crust? Constraints from Crustal Thickness Mapping using Gravity Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusznir, N. J.; Alvey, A.

    2010-12-01

    The ocean basins of the Arctic formed during the Late Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary as a series of small distinct ocean basins leading to a complex distribution of oceanic crust, thinned continental crust and rifted continental margins. The structure and origin of the Alpha and Mendeleev Ridges within the Amerasia Basin are contentious; possibilities include thick oceanic crust formed by ocean ridge - mantle plume interaction, micro-continents or thinned continental crust with mantle plume volcanic addition. We use gravity inversion, incorporating a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction, to map Moho depth, crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning factor for the Amerasia Basin in order to determine the distribution of oceanic and continental lithosphere and the ocean-continent transition location. Data used in the gravity inversion are gravity data from the NGA (U) Arctic Gravity Project, IBCAO bathymetry and sediment thickness from Laske et al. (1997). Our gravity inversion predicts thin crust (5-10 km thickness) and high continental lithosphere thinning factors in the Makarov, Podvodnikov, Nautilus and Canada Basins consistent with these basins being oceanic or highly thinned continental crust. Larger crustal thicknesses, in the range 20-30 km, are predicted for the Alpha, Mendeleev and Lomonosov Ridges. Moho depths predicted by gravity inversion compare well with estimates from the TransArctica-Arctica seismic profiles. Moho depths from the gravity inversion are dependent on the age of oceanic lithosphere and continental breakup because of the lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction; these ages are uncertain for the Amerasia Basin. Gravity inversion sensitivities to break-up ages between 150 Ma (late Jurassic Triassic) and 60 Ma (early Tertiary) have been examined. Alpha Ridge has in its centre a crustal thickness of 25-30 km and possesses sharp angular edges. While Alpha Ridge has been compared with Iceland for structure and

  15. Inverse Design of a Thick Supercritical Airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pambagjo, Tjoetjoek Eko; Nakahashi, Kazuhiro; Obayashi, Shigeru

    In this paper, a study on designing a thick supercritical airfoil by utilizing Takanashi’s inverse design method is discussed. One of the problems to design a thick supercritical airfoil by Takanashi’s method is that an oscillation of the geometry may occur during the iteration process. To reduce the oscillation, an airfoil parameterization method is utilized as the smoothing procedure. A guideline to determine the target pressure distribution to realize the thick airfoil is also discussed.

  16. Do elliptical galaxies have thick disks?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, R. C.; Wright, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    The authors discuss new evidence which supports the existence of thick disks in elliptical/SO galaxies. Numerical simulations of weak interactions with thick disk systems produce shell structures very similar in appearance to those observed in many shell galaxies. The authors think this model presents a more plausible explanation for the formation of shell structures in elliptical/SO galaxies than does the merger model and, if correct, supports the existence of thick disks in elliptical/SO galaxies.

  17. Remote Measurement Of Thickness Of Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.

    1994-01-01

    Technique for remote measurement of thickness of ice layer on surface proposed. Surfaces measured optoelectronically. Radiation in three near-infrared wavelength bands scattered from both test spot and nearby reference spot, and ratios of intensities compared to determine thickness of ice. Technique applicable to all surfaces appropriately lit with adequate radiation in three preselected bands. Useful in variety of applications, including aerospace applications, research, and measurement of ice thicknesses on aircraft surfaces.

  18. Localizing gravity on exotic thick 3-branes

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo-Felisola, Oscar; Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Ramirez, Alba

    2004-11-15

    We consider localization of gravity on thick branes with a nontrivial structure. Double walls that generalize the thick Randall-Sundrum solution, and asymmetric walls that arise from a Z{sub 2} symmetric scalar potential, are considered. We present a new asymmetric solution: a thick brane interpolating between two AdS{sub 5} spacetimes with different cosmological constants, which can be derived from a 'fake supergravity' superpotential, and show that it is possible to confine gravity on such branes.

  19. Design and mass production of the optical modules for KM3NeT-Italia project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonora, Emanuele; Aiello, Sebastiano; Giordano, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT European project aims at constructing a km3 underwater neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. The first phase that is under construction will comprise eight tower-like detection structures (KM3NeT-Italia), which will form the internal core of a km3-scale detector. The detection element of KM3NeT-Italia, the optical module, is made of a 13-inch pressure-resistant glass-vessel that contains a single 10-inch photomultiplier and the relative electronics. The design of the whole optical module, the main results obtained from the massive photomultipliers measurements, and the foremost phases of the mass production procedure performed at the production site of Catania are also presented.

  20. Pure Rotational Raman Lidar for Temperature Measurements from 5-40 Km Over Wuhan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yajuan; Song, Shalei; Yang, Yong; Li, Faquan; Cheng, Xuewu; Chen, Zhenwei; Liu, Linmei; McCormick, M. Patrick; Gong, Shunsheng

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a pure rotational Raman lidar (PRR) was established for the atmospheric temperature measurements from 5 km to 40 km over Wuhan, China (30.5°N, 114.5°E). To extract the expected PRR signals and simultaneously suppress the elastically backscattered light, a high-spectral resolution polychromator for light splitting and filtering was designed. Observational results revealed that the temperature difference measured by PRR lidar and the local radiosonde below 30 km was less than 3.0 K. The good agreement validated the reliability of the PRR lidar. With the 1-h integration and 150-m spatial resolution, the statistical temperature error for PRR lidar increases from 0.4 K at 10 km up to 4 K at altitudes of about 30 km. In addition, the whole night temperature profiles were obtained for study of the long-term observation of atmospheric fluctuations.

  1. Cape Canaveral, Florida range reference atmosphere 0-70 km altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tingle, A. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    The RRA contains tabulations for monthly and annual means, standard deviations, skewness coefficients for wind speed, pressure temperature, density, water vapor pressure, virtual temperature, dew-point temperature, and the means and standard deviations for the zonal and meridional wind components and the linear (product moment) correlation coefficient between the wind components. These statistical parameters are tabulated at the station elevation and at 1 km intervals from sea level to 30 km and at 2 km intervals from 30 to 90 km altitude. The wind statistics are given at approximately 10 m above the station elevations and at altitudes with respect to mean sea level thereafter. For those range sites without rocketsonde measurements, the RRAs terminate at 30 km altitude or they are extended, if required, when rocketsonde data from a nearby launch site are available. There are four sets of tables for each of the 12 monthly reference periods and the annual reference period.

  2. Coherence transfer of subhertz-linewidth laser light via an 82-km fiber link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chaoqun; Wu, Lifei; Jiang, Yanyi; Yu, Hongfu; Bi, Zhiyi; Ma, Longsheng

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate optical coherence transfer of subhertz-linewidth laser light through fiber links by actively compensating random fiber phase noise induced by environmental perturbations. The relative linewidth of laser light after transferring through a 32-km urban fiber link is suppressed within 1 mHz (resolution bandwidth limited), and the absolute linewidth of the transferred laser light is less than 0.36 Hz. For an 82-km fiber link, a repeater station is constructed between a 32-km urban fiber and a 50-km spooled fiber to recover the spectral purity. A relative linewidth of 1 mHz is also demonstrated for light transferring through the 82-km cascaded fiber. Such an optical signal distribution network based on repeater stations allows optical coherence and synchronization available over spatially separated places.

  3. Prediction of sediment thickness in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea from gravity inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engen, Øyvind; Frazer, L. Neil; Wessel, PâL.; Faleide, Jan Inge

    2006-11-01

    We explore the feasibility of inverting freely available altimetry-derived gravity grids for sediment thickness on oceanic crust. A four-layer Earth model is adopted, assuming that the gravity signal from the base of the sedimentary layer can be fully isolated from the observed free-air gravity. The following additional data are required: (1) shipboard bathymetry for reliable Bouguer correction, (2) oceanic crustal ages to correct for gravity anomalies related to the thermal history of lithospheric breakup and seafloor spreading, and (3) some wide-angle seismic observations of sediment thickness. A fixed relationship between the base of the sedimentary layer and the Moho is also required because of limited gravity resolution at large depths. The final inversion setup searches for three control parameter values (density of uppermost sediments, density of oceanic crystalline crust, and thermal diffusivity of mantle rock) that minimize misfit between the Earth model and observations. Applied to the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, the inversion successfully predicts locations of >20-25 km wide depocenters and crystalline crustal highs, yet ˜1 km thickness errors are common even in well-constrained areas. The largest errors are associated with underplated crust, active mid-ocean ridges, and the continent-ocean boundary, indicating locally incorrect assumptions of mantle thermal structure and crystalline crustal thickness. The thicknesses of >4 km thick submarine fans are underpredicted, probably because of too low sedimentary densities in the Earth model. If these limitations are acceptable or do not apply because of simple crustal structure, gravity inversion may be used for mapping regional sedimentary patterns, e.g., in the Arctic Ocean.

  4. Holographic recording in acrylamide photopolymers: thickness limitations.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Mohammad Sultan; Naydenova, Izabela; Pandey, Nitesh; Babeva, Tzwetanka; Jallapuram, Raghavendra; Martin, Suzanne; Toal, Vincent

    2009-05-10

    Holographic recording in thick photopolymer layers is important for application in holographic data storage, volume holographic filters, and correlators. Here, we studied the characteristics of acrylamide-based photopolymer layers ranging in thickness from 250 microm to 1 mm. For each thickness, samples with three different values of absorbance were studied. By measuring the diffraction efficiency growth of holographically recorded gratings and studying the diffraction patterns obtained, the influence of scattering on the diffraction efficiency of thick volume holographic gratings was analyzed. It was found that, above a particular thickness and absorbance, the diffraction efficiency significantly decreased because of increased holographic scattering. From the diffraction efficiency dependence on absorbance and thickness it is possible to choose photopolymer layer properties that are suitable for a particular holographic application. This study was carried out to determine the highest layer thickness that could be used for phase code multiplexed holographic data storage utilizing thick photopolymer layers as a recording medium. Based on our studies to date we believe that the layer to be used for phase coded reference beam recording with 0.1 absorbance at 532 nm can have a thickness up to 450 microm. The potential use of thicker layers characterized by low scattering losses is part of our continuing research. PMID:19424384

  5. Dust devil height and spacing with relation to the martian planetary boundary layer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, Lori K.; Lorenz, Ralph

    2015-11-01

    In most remote and unmonitored places, little is known about the characteristics of daytime turbulent activity. Few processes render the optically transparent atmospheres of Earth and Mars visible; put more plainly, without clever instruments it is difficult to "see the unseen". To address this, we present a pilot study of images of martian dust devils (DDs) testing the hypothesis that DD height and spacing correlates with the thickness of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), h. The survey includes Context Camera (CTX) images from a 580 × 590 km2 area (196-208°E, 30-40°N) in northern Amazonis Planitia, spanning ∼3.6 Mars Years (MY) from Ls = 134.55°, MY 28 (13 November 2006) to Ls = 358.5°, MY 31 (28 July 2013). DD activity follows a repeatable seasonal pattern similar to that found in previous surveys, with a distinct "on" season during local summer, beginning shortly before the northern spring equinox (Ls = 0°) and lasting until just after the northern fall equinox (Ls = 180°). DD heights measured from shadow lengths varied considerably, with median values peaking at local midsummer. Modeled PBL heights, constrained by those measured from radio occultation data, follow a similar seasonal trend, and correlation of the two suggests that the martian PBL thickness is approximately 5 times the median DD height. These results compare favorably to the limited terrestrial data available. DD spacing was measured using nearest neighbor statistics, following the assumption that because convection cell widths have been measured to be ∼1.2 ± 0.2h (Willis, G.E., Deardorff, J.W. [1979]. J. Geophys. Res. 84(C1), 295-302), a preference for DD formation at vertices of convection cells intersections could be used to estimate the PBL height. During local spring and summer, the DD average nearest neighbor (ANN) ranged from ∼1 to 2h, indicating that DD spacing does indeed correlate with PBL height. However, this result is complicated by two factors: (1) convection cell

  6. 1,2-Dialkyl-4-pyrazolidinethiols as potential antiradiation agents.

    PubMed

    Kornet, M J; Daniels, R

    1979-10-01

    The reaction between 3-chloropropylene sulfide and the 1,2-dialkylhydrazines was employed to prepare a series of 1,2-dialkyl-4-pyrazolidinethiols. Evidence is presented to support the structure proposed for the product. These mercaptoheterocycles are related to the beta-mercaptoethylamines and were prepared as potential radiation protective agents. No significant activity was observed. PMID:512875

  7. 43 CFR 3101.1-2 - Surface use rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface use rights. 3101.1-2 Section 3101... § 3101.1-2 Surface use rights. A lessee shall have the right to use so much of the leased lands as is... operations, and specification of interim and final reclamation measures. At a minimum, measures shall...

  8. 43 CFR 3101.1-2 - Surface use rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surface use rights. 3101.1-2 Section 3101... § 3101.1-2 Surface use rights. A lessee shall have the right to use so much of the leased lands as is... operations, and specification of interim and final reclamation measures. At a minimum, measures shall...

  9. 43 CFR 3101.1-2 - Surface use rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surface use rights. 3101.1-2 Section 3101... § 3101.1-2 Surface use rights. A lessee shall have the right to use so much of the leased lands as is... operations, and specification of interim and final reclamation measures. At a minimum, measures shall...

  10. 48 CFR 970.1504-1-2 - Fee policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fee policy. 970.1504-1-2... REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation 970.1504-1-2 Fee policy. (a) DOE management and operating contractors may be paid a fee in accordance with the requirements of this...

  11. 43 CFR 1864.1-2 - Form of application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Form of application. 1864.1-2 Section 1864.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) CONVEYANCES, DISCLAIMERS AND CORRECTION DOCUMENTS Recordable Disclaimers of Interest in...

  12. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  13. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  14. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  15. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  16. 43 CFR 3582.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3582.1-2 Section 3582.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.1-2 Hardrock minerals. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this subpart, leasing...

  17. 43 CFR 3582.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3582.1-2 Section 3582.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.1-2 Hardrock minerals. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this subpart, leasing...

  18. 43 CFR 3583.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3583.1-2 Section 3583.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Shasta and Trinity Units of the Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 3583.1-2 Hardrock minerals. This subpart governs...

  19. 43 CFR 3583.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3583.1-2 Section 3583.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Shasta and Trinity Units of the Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 3583.1-2 Hardrock minerals. This subpart governs...

  20. 43 CFR 3582.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3582.1-2 Section 3582.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.1-2 Hardrock minerals. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this subpart, leasing...

  1. 43 CFR 3583.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3583.1-2 Section 3583.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Shasta and Trinity Units of the Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 3583.1-2 Hardrock minerals. This subpart governs...

  2. 43 CFR 3583.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3583.1-2 Section 3583.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Shasta and Trinity Units of the Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 3583.1-2 Hardrock minerals. This subpart governs...

  3. 43 CFR 3582.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3582.1-2 Section 3582.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.1-2 Hardrock minerals. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this subpart, leasing...

  4. MEK1/2 Inhibitors: Molecular Activity and Resistance Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pui-Kei; Park, Jong-In

    2015-12-01

    Aberrant activation of the three-layered protein kinase cascade, Raf/MEK/ERK, is often detected in human cancer, which is mainly attributed to the oncogenic alterations of RAF, or its upstream activators RAS or cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases. Deregulated activity of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway drives uncontrolled tumor cell proliferation and survival, thus providing a rational therapeutic target for the treatment of many cancers. While Raf, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2 are equally important targets for the design of therapeutic small molecular weight inhibitors, the effort to develop MEK1/2-specific inhibitors has been greatly successful. Particularly, MEK1/2 have been relatively advantageous for the design of highly selective adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-noncompetitive inhibitors. Indeed, a plethora of highly selective and potent MEK1/2 inhibitors are now available and many of those inhibitors have been evaluated for their therapeutic potential. Herein, we review different MEK1/2 inhibitors that have been studied for their inhibitory mechanisms and therapeutic potential in cancer. Some of the key structural features of MEK1/2 that are important for the efficacy of these inhibitors are also discussed. In addition, we discuss current challenges and future prospective in using these advanced MEK1/2 inhibitors for cancer therapy. PMID:26615130

  5. 5 CFR 1.2 - Extent of the competitive service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extent of the competitive service. 1.2 Section 1.2 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND... pursuant to statute or by the Office of Personnel Management (hereafter referred to in this subchapter...

  6. 1-vinyl-4-alkyl-1,2,4-triazolium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Ermakova, T.G.; Chipanina, N.N.; Gritza, A.I.; Kuznetsova, N.P.; Lopyrev, V.A.; Tatarova, L.A.

    1985-04-01

    Quaternary salts based on 1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole have been synthesized. Alkyl iodides and bromides and dimethyl sulfate served as the quaternizing agent. Polymeric quaternary salts of 1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole have been obtained by alkylation of its polymer.

  7. 43 CFR 3430.1-2 - Commercial quantities defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial quantities defined. 3430.1-2... Leases § 3430.1-2 Commercial quantities defined. For the purpose of § 3430.1-1 of this title, commercial quantities is defined as follows: (a) The coal deposit discovered under the prospecting permit shall be...

  8. 43 CFR 5441.1-2 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 5441.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) CONDUCT OF SALES Advertised Sales § 5441.1-2... such road construction loan under SBA regulations (13 CFR part 121), the bidder shall submit to...

  9. 43 CFR 1784.1-2 - Duration, termination, and renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration, termination, and renewal. 1784.1-2 Section 1784.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) COOPERATIVE RELATIONS...

  10. 43 CFR 5441.1-2 - Special considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 5441.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) CONDUCT OF SALES Advertised Sales § 5441.1-2... such road construction loan under SBA regulations (13 CFR part 121), the bidder shall submit to...

  11. 36 CFR 1.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability and scope. 1.2 Section 1.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL... administered by the National Park Service; (2) The boundaries of lands and waters administered by the...

  12. 36 CFR 1.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability and scope. 1.2 Section 1.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL... administered by the National Park Service; (2) The boundaries of lands and waters administered by the...

  13. 43 CFR 2201.1-2 - Segregative effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... System lands, which proposal shall be filed in compliance with 36 CFR part 254, the authorized officer... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Segregative effect. 2201.1-2 Section 2201... Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.1-2 Segregative effect. (a) If a proposal is made to exchange...

  14. 45 CFR 1206.1-2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application of this part. 1206.1-2 Section 1206.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance §...

  15. 5 CFR 1.2 - Extent of the competitive service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extent of the competitive service. 1.2 Section 1.2 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND... pursuant to statute or by the Office of Personnel Management (hereafter referred to in this subchapter...

  16. 43 CFR 2201.1-2 - Segregative effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... System lands, which proposal shall be filed in compliance with 36 CFR part 254, the authorized officer... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Segregative effect. 2201.1-2 Section 2201... Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.1-2 Segregative effect. (a) If a proposal is made to exchange...

  17. 43 CFR 2201.1-2 - Segregative effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... System lands, which proposal shall be filed in compliance with 36 CFR part 254, the authorized officer... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Segregative effect. 2201.1-2 Section 2201... Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.1-2 Segregative effect. (a) If a proposal is made to exchange...

  18. 43 CFR 2201.1-2 - Segregative effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... System lands, which proposal shall be filed in compliance with 36 CFR part 254, the authorized officer... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Segregative effect. 2201.1-2 Section 2201... Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.1-2 Segregative effect. (a) If a proposal is made to exchange...

  19. Global investigation of the Mg atom and ion layers using SCIAMACHY/Envisat observations between 70 km and 150 km altitude and WACCM-Mg model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langowski, M.; von Savigny, C.; Burrows, J. P.; Feng, W.; Plane, J. M. C.; Marsh, D. R.; Janches, D.; Sinnhuber, M.; Aikin, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Mg and Mg+ concentration fields in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (UMLT) region are retrieved from SCIAMACHY/Envisat limb measurements of Mg and Mg+ dayglow emissions using a 2-D tomographic retrieval approach. The time series of monthly means of Mg and Mg+ for number density as well as vertical column density in different latitudinal regions are shown. Data from the limb mesosphere-thermosphere mode of SCIAMACHY/Envisat are used, which covers the 50 km to 150 km altitude region with a vertical sampling of 3.3 km and a highest latitude of 82°. The high latitudes are not covered in the winter months, because there is no dayglow emission during polar night. The measurements were performed every 14 days from mid-2008 until April 2012. Mg profiles show a peak at around 90 km altitude with a density between 750 cm-3 and 2000 cm-3. Mg does not show strong seasonal variation at mid-latitudes. The Mg+ peak occurs 5-15 km above the neutral Mg peak at 95-105 km. Furthermore, the ions show a significant seasonal cycle with a summer maximum in both hemispheres at mid- and high-latitudes. The strongest seasonal variations of the ions are observed at mid-latitudes between 20-40° and densities at the peak altitude range from 500 cm-3 to 6000 cm-3. The peak altitude of the ions shows a latitudinal dependence with a maximum at mid-latitudes that is up to 10 km higher than the peak altitude at the equator. The SCIAMACHY measurements are compared to other measurements and WACCM model results. In contrast to the SCIAMACHY results, the WACCM results show a strong seasonal variability for Mg with a winter maximum, which is not observable by SCIAMACHY, and globally higher peak densities. Although the peak densities do not agree the vertical column densities agree, since SCIAMACHY results show a wider vertical profile. The agreement of SCIAMACHY and WACCM results is much better for Mg+, showing the same seasonality and similar peak densities. However, there are the following

  20. Global Investigation of the Mg Atom and ion Layers using SCIAMACHY/Envisat Observations between 70 km and 150 km Altitude and WACCM-MG Model Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langowski, M.; vonSavigny, C.; Burrows, J. P.; Feng, W.; Plane, J. M. C.; Marsh, D. R.; Janches, Diego; Sinnhuber, M.; Aikin, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Mg and Mg+ concentration fields in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (UMLT) region are retrieved from SCIAMACHY/Envisat limb measurements of Mg and Mg+ dayglow emissions using a 2-D tomographic retrieval approach. The time series of monthly means of Mg and Mg+ for number density as well as vertical column density in different latitudinal regions are shown. Data from the limb mesosphere-thermosphere mode of SCIAMACHY/Envisat are used, which covers the 50 km to 150 km altitude region with a vertical sampling of 3.3 km and a highest latitude of 82 deg. The high latitudes are not covered in the winter months, because there is no dayglow emission during polar night. The measurements were performed every 14 days from mid-2008 until April 2012. Mg profiles show a peak at around 90 km altitude with a density between 750 cm(exp-3) and 2000 cm(exp-3). Mg does not show strong seasonal variation at mid-latitudes. The Mg+ peak occurs 5-15 km above the neutral Mg peak at 95-105 km. Furthermore, the ions show a significant seasonal cycle with a summer maximum in both hemispheres at mid- and high-latitudes. The strongest seasonal variations of the ions are observed at mid-latitudes between 20-40 deg and densities at the peak altitude range from 500 cm(exp-3) to 6000 cm(exp-3). The peak altitude of the ions shows a latitudinal dependence with a maximum at mid-latitudes that is up to 10 km higher than the peak altitude at the equator. The SCIAMACHY measurements are compared to other measurements and WACCM model results. In contrast to the SCIAMACHY results, the WACCM results show a strong seasonal variability for Mg with a winter maximum, which is not observable by SCIAMACHY, and globally higher peak densities. Although the peak densities do not agree the vertical column densities agree, since SCIAMACHY results show a wider vertical profile. The agreement of SCIAMACHY and WACCM results is much better for Mg+, showing the same seasonality and similar peak densities. However

  1. Hu 1-2: a metal-poor bipolar planetary nebula with fast collimated outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X.; Guerrero, M. A.; Miranda, L. F.; Riera, A.; Velázquez, P. F.; Raga, A. C.

    2015-09-01

    We present narrow-band optical and near-IR imaging and optical long-slit spectroscopic observations of Hu 1-2, a Galactic planetary nebula (PN) with a pair of [N II]-bright, fast-moving (>340 km s-1) bipolar knots. Intermediate-dispersion spectra are used to derive physical conditions and abundances across the nebula, and high-dispersion spectra to study the spatio-kinematical structure. Generally, Hu 1-2 has high He/H (≈0.14) and N/O ratios (≈0.9), typical of Type I PNe. On the other hand, its abundances of O, Ne, S, and Ar are low as compared with the average abundances of Galactic bulge and disc PNe. The position-velocity maps can be generally described as an hour-glass shaped nebula with bipolar expansion, although the morphology and kinematics of the innermost regions cannot be satisfactorily explained with a simple, tilted equatorial torus. The spatio-kinematical study confines the inclination angle of its major axis to be within 10° of the plane of sky. As in the irradiated bow-shocks of IC 4634 and NGC 7009, there is a clear stratification in the emission peaks of [O III], Hα, and [N II] in the north-west (NW) knot of Hu 1-2. Fast collimated outflows in PNe exhibit higher excitation than other low-ionization structures. This is particularly the case for the bipolar knots of Hu 1-2, with He II emission levels above those of collimated outflows in other Galactic PNe. The excitation of the knots in Hu 1-2 is consistent with the combined effects of shocks and UV radiation from the central star. The mechanical energy and luminosity of the knots are similar to those observed in the PNe known to harbour a post-common envelope (post-CE) close binary central star.

  2. SIRT1, 2, 3 protect mouse oocytes from postovulatory aging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Teng; Zhou, Yang; Li, Li; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qian, Wei-Ping; Shen, Wei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The quality of metaphase II oocytes will undergo a time-dependent deterioration following ovulation as the result of the oocyte aging process. In this study, we determined that the expression of sirtuin family members (SIRT1, 2, 3) was dramatically reduced in mouse oocytes aged in vivo or in vitro. Increased intracellular ROS was observed when SIRT1, 2, 3 activity was inhibited. Increased frequency of spindle defects and disturbed distribution of mitochondria were also observed in MII oocytes aged in vitro after treatment with Nicotinamide (NAM), indicating that inhibition of SIRT1, 2, 3 may accelerate postovulatory oocyte aging. Interestingly, when MII oocytes were exposed to caffeine, the decline of SIRT1, 2, 3 mRNA levels was delayed and the aging-associated defective phenotypes could be improved. The results suggest that the SIRT1, 2, 3 pathway may play a potential protective role against postovulatory oocyte aging by controlling ROS generation. PMID:26974211

  3. Minimum Wind Dynamic Soaring Trajectories under Boundary Layer Thickness Limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousquet, Gabriel; Triantafyllou, Michael; Slotine, Jean-Jacques

    2015-11-01

    Dynamic soaring is the flight technique where a glider, either avian or manmade, extracts its propulsive energy from the non-uniformity of horizontal winds. Albatrosses have been recorded to fly an impressive 5000 km/week at no energy cost of their own. In the sharp boundary layer limit, we show that the popular image, where the glider travels in a succession of half turns, is suboptimal for travel speed, airspeed, and soaring ability. Instead, we show that the strategy that maximizes the three criteria simultaneously is a succession of infinitely small arc-circles connecting transitions between the calm and windy layers. The model is consistent with the recordings of albatross flight patterns. This lowers the required wind speed for dynamic soaring by over 50% compared to previous beliefs. In the thick boundary layer limit, energetic considerations allow us to predict a minimum wind gradient necessary for sustained soaring consistent with numerical models.

  4. Variability of Arctic sea ice thickness and volume from CryoSat-2.

    PubMed

    Kwok, R; Cunningham, G F

    2015-07-13

    We present our estimates of the thickness and volume of the Arctic Ocean ice cover from CryoSat-2 data acquired between October 2010 and May 2014. Average ice thickness and draft differences are within 0.16 m of measurements from other sources (moorings, submarine, electromagnetic sensors, IceBridge). The choice of parameters that affect the conversion of ice freeboard to thickness is discussed. Estimates between 2011 and 2013 suggest moderate decreases in volume followed by a notable increase of more than 2500 km(3) (or 0.34 m of thickness over the basin) in 2014, which could be attributed to not only a cooler summer in 2013 but also to large-scale ice convergence just west of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago due to wind-driven onshore drift. Variability of volume and thickness in the multiyear ice zone underscores the importance of dynamics in maintaining the thickness of the Arctic ice cover. Volume estimates are compared with those from ICESat as well as the trends in ice thickness derived from submarine ice draft between 1980 and 2004. The combined ICESat and CryoSat-2 record yields reduced trends in volume loss compared with the 5 year ICESat record, which was weighted by the record-setting ice extent after the summer of 2007. PMID:26032317

  5. Cortical thickness and brain volumetric analysis in body dysmorphic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Sarah K.; Zai, Alex; Pirnia, Tara; Arienzo, Donatello; Zhan, Liang; Moody, Teena D.; Thompson, Paul M.; Feusner, Jamie D.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) suffer from preoccupations with perceived defects in physical appearance, causing severe distress and disability. Although BDD affects 1-2% of the population, the neurobiology is not understood. Discrepant results in previous volumetric studies may be due to small sample sizes, and no study has investigated cortical thickness in BDD. The current study is the largest neuroimaging analysis of BDD. Participants included 49 medication-free, right-handed individuals with DSM-IV BDD and 44 healthy controls matched by age, sex, and education. Using high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, we computed vertex-wise gray matter (GM) thickness on the cortical surface and GM volume using voxel-based morphometry. We also computed volumes in cortical and subcortical regions of interest. In addition to group comparisons, we investigated associations with symptom severity, insight, and anxiety within the BDD group. In BDD, greater anxiety was significantly associated with thinner GM in the left superior temporal cortex and greater GM volume in the right caudate nucleus. There were no significant differences in cortical thickness, GM volume, or volumes in regions of interest between BDD and control subjects. Subtle associations with clinical symptoms may characterize brain morphometric patterns in BDD, rather than large group differences in brain structure. PMID:25797401

  6. Petal Thicknesses and Shape Transformations in Blooming Lilies

    SciTech Connect

    Portet, Thomas; Holmes, Peter N.; Bowden, Mark E.; Stephens, Sean A.; Varga, Tamas; Keller, Sarah L.

    2013-01-29

    During blooming, flower petals undergo significant shape changes. For lilies, various different mechanisms responsible for the change have been suggested [1,2]. One is that cell growth along the edge of a petal, or, more generally, a tepal, drives a transition from a cup shape (within a bud) to a saddle shape (within a bloom). This mechanism has been previously considered for tepals modeled as shallow elliptical shells whose thickness from the center, t, falls off at least as fast as t = t0 (1 - x2/a2 - y2/b2 ) [1]. Here t0 is the maximum thickness of the shell, a and b are the semimajor and semiminoraxes, x and y are the coordinates along the longitudinal and lateral axes. By measuring tepal thicknesses from images collected by x-ray tomography of intact buds and by photography of microtomed buds, we find that this condition is indeed met for both Lilium casablanca and Lilium lancifolium. [1] Liang and Mahadevan. Growth, geometry, and mechanics of a blooming lily.

  7. Variation of electron and ion density distribution along Earth's magnetic field line deduced from whistler mode (wm) sounding of image/rpi satellite below altitude 5000 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Susmita

    This thesis provides a detailed survey and analysis of whistler mode (WM) echoes observed by IMAGE/RPI satellite during the years 2000-2005 below the altitude of 5000 km. Approximately 2500 WM echoes have been observed by IMAGE during this period. This includes mostly specularly reflected whistler mode (SRWM) echoes and ~400 magnetospherically reflected whistler mode (MRWM) echoes. Stanford 2D raytracing simulations and the diffusive equilibrium density model have been applied to 82 cases of MRWM echoes, observed during August-December of the year 2005 below 5000 km to determine electron and ion density measurements along Earth's magnetic field line. These are the first results of electron and ion density measurements from WM sounding covering L-shells ~1.6-4, a wide range of geomagnetic conditions (Kp 0+ to 7), and during solar minima (F10.2~70-120) in the altitude range 90 km to 4000 km. The electron and ion density profiles obtained from this analysis were compared with in situ measurements on IMAGE (passive recording; electron density (Ne)), DMSP (~850 km; Ne and ions), CHAMP (~350 km; Ne), Alouette (~500-2000 km; Ne and ions), ISIS-1, 2 (~600-3500 km; Ne, ions), AE (~130-2000 km; ions) satellites, bottom side sounding from nearby ionosonde stations (Ne), and those by GCPM (Global Core Plasma Model), IRI-2012 (International Reference Ionosphere). Based on this analysis it is found that: (1) Ne shows a decreasing trend from L-shell 1.6 to 4 on both the day and night sides of the plasmasphere up to altitude ~1000 km, which is also confirmed by the GCPM and IRI-2012 model. (2) Above ~2000 km altitude, GCPM underestimates Ne by ~30-90% relative to RPI passive measurements, WM sounding results. (3) Below 1500 km, the Ne is higher at day side than night side MLT (Magnetic Local Time). Above this altitude, significant MLT dependence of electron density is not seen. (4) Ion densities from WM sounding measurements are within 10-35% of those from the Alouette, AE, and

  8. Within-plate magmatism under condition of abnormally thick sialic crust: Evidence for Proterozoic anorthosite-rapakivi granite complexes of the East-European Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, Evgenii

    2010-05-01

    Mid-Proterozoic (1.8-1.5 Ga) large bimodal multistage anorthosite-rapakivi granite complexes (ARGCs) are distinct magmatic assemblages in central part of the East European Craton. ARGCs formation commenced after stabilization of the Svecofennian orogen and relics of its abnormally thick (up to 50-60 km now) crust survived here in many places. Such massifs are practically absent at the eastern part of the craton (Kola-Karelian, Volga-Urals, etc. domains) with normal thickness (~40 km) of the crust. The ARGCs formation was accompanied by emplacement of diabase, quartz porphyry and complex dike swarms. Intra-plutonic diabase dikes (Fe-Ti basalts plume-related type), intruding the rapakivi granites, are often crossed in turn by later portions of granites; injections of basaltic melt into granitic magma chambers resulted in magma mingling. It indicates that melted out occurred simultaneously in mantle and crust during ARGC formation. Geochemical peculiarities of the ARGC rocks are enrichment in alkali (especially in K), Ti, Zn, Pb, and Zr, relatively high concentrations of Be, Sn, In, Y, Nb, Rb, F, Cu, W and Mo, and sometimes - Li and U. ɛNd value, ranges from -1.2 to +1.6, and relative high Th and Zn contents, most frequently observable in anorthosites, imply that the mafic magmas were considerably contaminated by crustal components. According to geophysical data, ARGCs represent upper parts of large transcrustal systems, composed by alternation of basic and silicic rocks, which located above rises of the mantle up to 10-20 km high. Such localization of ARGCs, probably evidence that such protuberances were mantle plume heads in time, where melting of their material occurred due to adiabatic decompression. Newly-formed basaltic melts (apparently Fe-Ti basalts, similar in composition to intra-plutonic dike rocks) intruded at different depths into abnormally thick sialic crust of stabilized by then Svecofennian orogen in form of large sills and caused melting of crustal

  9. Marshall Space Flight Center Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) Knowledge Management (KM) Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccioli, Paul; Varnedoe, Tom; Smith, Randy; McCarter, Mike; Wilson, Barry; Porter, Richard

    2006-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) is four months into a fifteen month Knowledge Management (KM) initiative to support enhanced engineering decision making and analyses, faster resolution of anomalies (near-term) and effective, efficient knowledge infused engineering processes, reduced knowledge attrition, and reduced anomaly occurrences (long-term). The near-term objective of this initiative is developing a KM Pilot project, within the context of a 3-5 year KM strategy, to introduce and evaluate the use of KM within PSD. An internal NASA/MSFC PSD KM team was established early in project formulation to maintain a practitioner, user-centric focus throughout the conceptual development, planning and deployment of KM technologies and capabilities within the PSD. The PSD internal team is supported by the University of Alabama's Aging Infrastructure Systems Center of Excellence (AISCE), lntergraph Corporation, and The Knowledge Institute. The principle product of the initial four month effort has been strategic planning of PSD KNI implementation by first determining the "as is" state of KM capabilities and developing, planning and documenting the roadmap to achieve the desired "to be" state. Activities undertaken to suppoth e planning phase have included data gathering; cultural surveys, group work-sessions, interviews, documentation review, and independent research. Assessments and analyses have beon pedormed including industry benchmarking, related local and Agency initiatives, specific tools and techniques used and strategies for leveraging existing resources, people and technology to achieve common KM goals. Key findings captured in the PSD KM Strategic Plan include the system vision, purpose, stakeholders, prioritized strategic objectives mapped to the top ten practitioner needs and analysis of current resource usage. Opportunities identified from research, analyses, cultural1KM surveys and practitioner interviews include

  10. Compilation of known and suspected Quaternary faults within 100 km of Yucca Mountain, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Piety, L.A.

    1996-12-31

    Geologic data have been compiled for known and suspected Quaternary faults in southern Nevada and southeastern California within about 100 km of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain. The data set includes regional studies that attempt to identify and evaluate lineaments, scraps, and other possible tectonic landforms of possible Quaternary age, detailed studies that focus on a single fault, and geologic studies that were completed for purposes other than evaluation of Quaternary fault activity. Studies included in this compilation are those that were available as of December 1993. Faults that have known or suspected Quaternary activity are presented on a topographic base map at a scale of 1:250,000. Data for each fault that are pertinent to the assessment of future faulting and earthquake events are assembled on description sheets and summarized on tables. This compilation identifies ten faults within 50 km of the site but outside the site area and an additional fourteen faults between 50 km and 100 km of the site for which evidence for Holocene or late Pleistocene surface rupture has been reported in the literature. The longest and most continuous of these faults is the northwest-striking, 250-km-long Furnace Creek fault (including its possible extension into Fish Lake Valley), which is located about 50 km west of the site. In addition to identifying known or suspected Quaternary faults within about 100 km of the site, this compilation demonstrates the lack of information for most of these faults.

  11. Statistics of 150-km echoes over Jicamarca based on low-power VHF observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, J. L.; Kudeki, E.

    2006-07-01

    In this work we summarize the statistics of the so-called 150-km echoes obtained with a low-power VHF radar operation at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (11.97 S, 76.87 W, and 1.3 dip angle at 150-km altitude) in Peru. Our results are based on almost four years of observations between August 2001 and July 2005 (approximately 150 days per year). The majority of the observations have been conducted between 08:00 and 17:00 LT. We present the statistics of occurrence of the echoes for each of the four seasons as a function of time of day and altitude. The occurrence frequency of the echoes is ~75% around noon and start decreasing after 15:00 LT and disappear after 17:00 LT in all seasons. As shown in previous campaign observations, the 150-echoes appear at a higher altitude (>150 km) in narrow layers in the morning, reaching lower altitudes (~135 km) around noon, and disappear at higher altitudes (>150 km) after 17:00 LT. We show that although 150-km echoes are observed all year long, they exhibit a clear seasonal variability on altitudinal coverage and the percentage of occurrence around noon and early in the morning. We also show that there is a strong day-to-day variability, and no correlation with magnetic activity. Although our results do not solve the 150-km riddle, they should be taken into account when a reasonable theory is proposed.

  12. A differential mechanical profilometer for thickness measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, J. Maia; Brito, M.C.; Serra, J.M.; Vallera, A.M.

    2004-12-01

    A low cost differential profilometer based on standard commercial displacement transducers is fully described. Unlike most common profilometers this device can be used to measure the thickness profile of samples having both surfaces irregular. A sensitivity of about 0.2 {mu}m, independent of the sample thickness is achieved.

  13. Monitoring Coating Thickness During Plasma Spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    High-resolution video measures thickness accurately without interfering with process. Camera views cylindrical part through filter during plasma spraying. Lamp blacklights part, creating high-contrast silhouette on video monitor. Width analyzer counts number of lines in image of part after each pass of spray gun. Layer-by-layer measurements ensure adequate coat built up without danger of exceeding required thickness.

  14. Eggshell thickness in mourning dove populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreitzer, J.F.

    1971-01-01

    Eggs (n = 452) of the mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura) were collected from 9 states in 1969 and 11 states in 1970, and shell thickness was compared with that of eggs (n = 97) collected from 24 states during the years 1861 to 1935. Mean shell thickness did not differ significantly in the test groups.

  15. EVA mouthguards: how thick should they be?

    PubMed

    Westerman, Bill; Stringfellow, Peter M; Eccleston, John A

    2002-02-01

    A major consideration in the performance of mouthguards is their ability to absorb energy and reduce transmitted forces when impacted. This is especially important to participants in contact sports such as hockey or football. The thickness of mouthguard materials is directly related to energy absorption and inversely related to transmitted forces when impacted. However, wearer comfort is also an important factor in their use. Thicker mouthguards are not user-friendly. While thickness of material over incisal edges and cusps of teeth is critical, just how thick should a mouthguard be and especially in these two areas? Transmitted forces through different thicknesses of the most commonly used mouthguard material, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) (Shore A Hardness of 80) were compared when impacted with identical forces which were capable of damaging the oro-facial complex. The constant impact force used in the tests was produced by a pendulum and had an energy of 4.4 joules and a velocity of 3 meters per second. Improvements in energy absorption and reductions in transmitted forces were observed with increasing thickness. However, these improvements lessened when the mouthguard material thickness was greater than 4 mm. The results show that the optimal thickness for EVA mouthguard material with a Shore A Hardness of 80 is around 4 mm. Increased thickness, while improving performance marginally, results in less wearer comfort and acceptance. PMID:11841462

  16. Scattering From A Thick Dichroic Microwave Reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jacqueline C.

    1994-01-01

    Thick Frequency Selective Surface with Rectangular Apertures, TFSSRA, computer program developed to calculate scattering parameters of thick frequency-selective surface with rectangular apertures on skew grid at oblique angle of incidence. Integral equation transformed into matrix equation, which is then solved. Written in FORTRAN 77 with single precision.

  17. 40 CFR 721.10077 - 3H-1,2,4-Triazol-3-one, 1,2-dihydro-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 3H-1,2,4-Triazol-3-one, 1,2-dihydro-. 721.10077 Section 721.10077 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10077...

  18. The Venus ionopause current sheet - Thickness length scale and controlling factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Scarf, F. L.; Brace, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    Data from the fluxgate magnetometer, plasma wave experiment and Langmuir probe aboard Pioneer Venus are used to investigate the characteristic thickness length scale of the ionopause current sheet, as well as how this length scale is controlled. Thickness is found to be a bistatic quality, large scales being associated with high field strengths and current sheet altitudes below 300 km, while smaller scales are found with lower field strengths and ionopause altitudes above 300 km. Ion collisions and plasma wave activity contribute to the formation of the broader, low-altitude ionopause current sheets. Although evidence suggests that the wave activity influences the thin ionopause current sheets, a simple model points to the control of the thin ionopause current sheets by ionospheric ion and electron temperatures

  19. Non-Uniform Thickness Electroactive Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An electroactive device comprises at least two layers of material, wherein at least one layer is an electroactive material and wherein at least one layer is of non-uniform thickness. The device can be produced in various sizes, ranging from large structural actuators to microscale or nanoscale devices. The applied voltage to the device in combination with the non-uniform thickness of at least one of the layers (electroactive and/or non-electroactive) controls the contour of the actuated device. The effective electric field is a mathematical function of the local layer thickness. Therefore, the local strain and the local bending/ torsion curvature are also a mathematical function of the local thickness. Hence the thinnest portion of the actuator offers the largest bending and/or torsion response. Tailoring of the layer thicknesses can enable complex motions to be achieved.

  20. Fluorination of 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetrahalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Dickerson, D.R.; Shiley, R.H.

    1972-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorofluorobenzene, and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene were fluorinated with potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. By varying the concentration, temperature and reaction time, the degree of fluorination could be controlled to some extent. The optimum conditions for producing mono-, di- and tri-fluoro-substituted chlorobenzenes and trace amounts of tetrafluorobenzene from the corresponding tetrachlorobenzenes are given. 1,2,3,5-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in 44.8% yield from 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene. 1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in only trace amounts from 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. A total of 24 new chlorofluorobenzenes and intermediates are described. Fluorination with potassium fluoride and certain other metal fluorides was also investigated. ?? 1972.

  1. Hydrologic monitoring in 1-km2 headwater catchments in Sierra Nevada forests for predictive modeling of hydrologic response to forest treatments across 140-km2 firesheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksa, P. C.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.; Martin, S. E.; Rice, R.

    2010-12-01

    As part of the Sierra Nevada Adaptive Management Project, an eight-year study designed to measure the impacts of forest treatments (thinning, mastication, controlled burns) on multiple forest attributes, four headwater catchments were established to provide data on hydrologic response to treatments. These 1-km2 study catchments are each sited within 40-100 km2 firesheds, which in this case largely follow watershed boundaries, and which are the larger study areas for informing adaptive management of approximately 3,000 km2 of mixed-conifer forest in California’s central and southern Sierra Nevada. The aim of the hydrologic design was to put in place a ground-based monitoring network that would measure hydrologic attributes at representative locations, and when combined with remotely sensed data, provide a basis for predictive modeling of the larger study area. The selected locations employ instrument clusters, or groupings of instruments in a compact arrangement, to maximize the number of measurements possible and accessibility to the monitoring sites. The two study firesheds , located in the Tahoe and Sierra National Forests, cover a total of about 140-km2. Within each fireshed, two meteorological stations were placed near 1650-m and 2150-m, spanning the precipitation gradient from lower-elevation rain-dominated to higher-elevation snow-dominated systems. Two headwater streams draining approximately 1-km2 are monitored for stage, discharge, electrical conductivity, and sediment movement. Additionally, instrument nodes to monitor temperature, snow depth and soil moisture are installed within 0.5-1 km of the outlet and meterological stations. These nodes were placed to monitor end members of aspect, slope, elevation and canopy cover, which set the boundaries for the model outputs. High-resolution LiDAR provides the topographic and distributed vegetation characteristics, which are combined with field surveys and standard soils information to define the modeling

  2. Extreme precipitation events in southestearn France in a high-resolution regional climate model : comparison of a 12 km and a 50 km hindcast with ALADIN-Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, Jeanne; Déqué, Michel; Sanchez Gomez, Emilia; Somot, Samuel

    2010-05-01

    We present a comparison of the modelling of intense precipitations over France in two regional climate simulations performed with the Limited Area Model (LAM) ALADIN-Climate, run at a 12 km and a 50 km resolution. In both experiments, the model is forced by the ERA40 re-analysis over the 1958-2000 period. We focus on the representation of the highest precipitation extremes occuring in southeastern France in Autumn. These events involve small-scale processes than can be explicitly resolved only with 2-1 km resolution non-hydrostatic models. However, previous studies have shown that regional climate models are able to simulate heavy rainfalls in this area, although the amounts of rain are much smaller than the ones that are actually observed. Here, we further explore the ability of ALADIN-Climate in reproducing these specific events and the possible added-value of a higher resolution regarding this matter. Indeed, driving the LAM with ERA40 allows the LAM to stick to the real chronology and therefore enables us to analyze its results not only from a statistical point of view but also through day-to-day diagnosis. First, we assess the performances of the model at the 12 km and 50 km resolutions by comparing the simulated daily precipitations with observations over the south east part of France. To do so, we use the high-resolution gridded SAFRAN analysis which provides series of hourly fields over the french territory at a 8 km resolution, from 1958 to 2008. We consider the differences in the upper quantiles of precipitations between the model and the data, as well as the time correlations of heavy rainfalls and the spatial rain patterns for given extreme events. Then we compare the performances of ALADIN-Climate in both simulations to the ones obtained with a statistical downscaling method we apply to the last twenty years of the ERA40 period. This method is based on a weather regime approach and uses the analog methodology (Boé and Terray, 2007) to reconstruct

  3. A hypervelocity launcher for simulated large fragment space debris impacts at 10 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tullos, R. J.; Gray, W. M.; Mullin, S. A.; Cour-Palais, B. G.

    1989-01-01

    The background, design, and testing of two explosive launchers for simulating large fragment space debris impacts are presented. The objective was to develop a launcher capable of launching one gram aluminum fragments at velocities of 10 km/s. The two launchers developed are based on modified versions of an explosive shaped charge, common in many military weapons. One launcher design has yielded a stable fragment launch of approximately one gram of aluminum at 8.93 km/s velocity. The other design yielded velocities in excess of 10 km/s, but failed to produce a cohesive fragment launch. This work is ongoing, and future plans are given.

  4. Characterization of the KM3NeT photomultipliers in the Hellenic Open University

    SciTech Connect

    Bourlis, G.; Avgitas, T.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT neutrino research infrastructure will be a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory in the Mediterranean Sea hosting a neutrino telescope. The Physics Laboratory of the Hellenic Open University is involved in the characterization of the KM3NeT neutrino detector. The present work describes measurement techniques for the functional characteristics of the candidate KM3NeT photomultipliers. These characteristics include dark current, transit time spread, gain slope and single photoelectron characteristics, as well as delayed and after pulses.

  5. Crustal Thickness in Northern Andes Using pP and sS Precursors at Teleseismic Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranda Camacho, N. M.; Assumpcao, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Andean belt is a result of the subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American continental plate. It has an extension of 8000 km from Venezuela to Tierra del Fuego. While the crustal-thickness is a well-known property in Southern and Central Andes, it is still poorly known in the Northern Andes (between 10°N and 4° S). The crustal thickness is a very important property to understand the crustal evolution such as in geodynamic models and in modeling wave-propagation in global and regional seismic studies. Due to the high seismic activity at intermediate depths in the Northern Andes, it is possible to use the teleseismic P-wave and S-wave trains to find the crustal-thickness. In this study, we analyze the reflections from the underside of the Moho for intermediate and deep earthquakes in the northern Andes recorded at teleseismic distances (between 40°- 85°), and estimate the crustal-thickness at the bounce points of the pP and sS wave by converting the delay time between the phases pP and pmP and also between sS and smS into crustal thickness. This method can be applied in zones with earthquakes having magnitude larger than 6 for that reason the Northern Andes is a favorable area to develop it. We analyzed five events from the Northern Andes with magnitude larger than 6 and deeper than 100 km. The crustal thickness was calculated using the P wave with the vertical component and the S wave using both transverse SH and radial SV components. We find that the crustal-thickness in this area varied from 27.9 × 2.4 km at (76.48 W, 4.82 N) to 55.7 × 5.2 km at (77.92 W, 2 S). Our results show a crustal-thickness consistent with a compilation made for a larger region that includes our research area, showing residuals between -4 km and 4 km in most of the bounce points . We are getting results in areas that have not been studied previously so it will help to increase the database of crustal-thicknesses for the Northern Andes.

  6. X-1-2 on ramp during ground engine test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1947-01-01

    Ground engine test run on the Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 airplane at NACA Muroc Flight Test Unit service area. Notice the front on the lower part of the aircraft aft of the nose section. The frost forms from the mixture of the propellants (including liquid oxygen) in the internal tanks. This photograph was taken in 1947. The aircraft shown is still painted in its original saffron (orange) paint finish. This was later changed to white, which was more visible against the dark blue sky than saffron turned out to be. There were four versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December

  7. Density of pack-ice seals and penguins in the western Weddell Sea in relation to ice thickness and ocean depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Hauke; Haas, Christian; van Franeker, Jan Andries; Meesters, Erik

    2008-04-01

    Aerial band transect censuses were carried out parallel with ice thickness profiling surveys in the pack ice of the western Weddell Sea during the ISPOL (Ice Station POLarstern) expedition of R.V. Polarstern from November 2004 to January 2005. Three regions were surveyed: the deep sea of the Weddell Sea, a western continental shelf/slope region where R.V. Polarstern passively drifted with an ice floe (ISPOL), and a northern region (N). Animal densities were compared among regions and in relation to bathymetry and ice thickness distribution. Crabeater seals Lobodon carcinophaga were the most abundant species in all three regions. Their density was significantly lower in the deep sea (0.50 km -2) than in the ISPOL (1.00 km -2) and northern regions (1.21 km -2). Weddell seals Leptonychotes weddellii were not sighted in the deep-sea region, their density elsewhere ranging from 0.03 (N) to 0.08 km -2 (ISPOL). Leopard seals Hydrurga leptonyx were observed in all three areas, but could only be quantified in the deep-sea (0.05 km -2) and northern regions (0.06 km -2). The abundance of emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri was markedly higher in the northern (0.75 km -2) than in the ISPOL (0.13 km -2) and the deep-sea region (not quantified). Crabeater seal density was significantly related to ocean depth and modal ice thickness.

  8. Mercury's lithospheric thickness and crustal density, as inferred from MESSENGER observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, P. B.; Mazarico, E.; Genova, A.; Smith, D. E.; Neumann, G. A.; Solomon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    The gravity field and topography of Mercury measured by the MESSENGER spacecraft have provided insights into the thickness of the planet's elastic lithosphere, Te. We localized the HgM006 free-air gravity anomaly and gtmes_125v03 shape datasets to search for theoretical elastic thickness solutions that best fit a variety of localized coherence spectra between Bouguer gravity anomaly and topography. We adopted a crustal density of ρcrust =2700 kg m-3 for the Bouguer gravity correction, but density uncertainty did not markedly affect the elastic thickness estimates. A best-fit solution in the northern smooth plains (NSP) gives an elastic thickness of Te =30-60 km at the time of formation of topography for a range of ratios of top to bottom loading from 1 to 5. For a mechanical lithosphere with a thickness of ~2Te and a temperature of 1600 °C at the base, this solution is consistent with a geothermal gradient of 9-18 K km-1. A similar coherence analysis exterior to the NSP produces an elastic thickness estimate of Te =20-50 km, albeit with a poorer fit. Coherence in the northern hemisphere as a whole does not approach zero at any wavelength, because of the presence of variations in crustal thickness that are unassociated with elastic loading. The ratios and correlations of gravity and topography at intermediate wavelengths (harmonic degree l between 30 and 50) also constrain regional crustal densities. We localized gravity and topography with a moving Slepian taper and calculated regionally averaged crustal densities with the approximation ρcrust=Zl/(2πG), where Zl is the localized admittance and G is the gravitational constant. The only regional density estimates greater than 2000 kg m-3 for l=30 correspond to the NSP. Density estimates outside of the NSP were unreasonably low, even for highly porous crust. We attribute these low densities to the confounding effects of crustal thickness variations and Kaula filtering of the gravity dataset at the highest harmonic

  9. Using Seismic Refraction to Assess the Crustal Thickness of the Great Basin and Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimgartner, M. N.; Louie, J. N.; Scott, J. B.; Thelen, W.; Pullammanappallil, S.; Lopez, C. T.; Coolbaugh, M. F.

    2006-12-01

    In order to assess the crustal thickness of the Great Basin in poorly constrained areas, we have completed three long-range seismic refraction experiments: the 2002 Northern Walker Lane (NWL) transect, extending from central Nevada to the eastern Sierras; the 2004 Idaho-Nevada-California (INC) experiment, running from central Nevada into Fresno, California; and the 2005 Northern-Nevada-Utah transect (NNUT), stretching from central Nevada through eastern Utah. Our refraction experiments will contribute toward a more accurate crustal model for the northern Great Basin where little previous seismic refraction control exists. The INC and NNUT experiments used a dense spacing of 400 portable seismographs and 4.5-Hz geophones. The instruments were able to record events ranging from large mine blasts to small local earthquakes. Our instruments sensed blast first arrivals out to distances of approximately 400 km. We obtained 99% data recovery and clear first arrivals across the Sierra Nevada and the northern Great Basin regions. From our INC transect, we observe an unexpectedly deep crustal root beneath the northern Sierra Nevada range (>50 km down to a Moho velocity of 7.8 km/s). From the NWL experiment, we observe anomalously thin crust over a limited region approximately 100 km wide, near Battle Mountain, NV, with a crustal thickness of 19-23 km and a southern extent limited by the INC transect. This area of thin crust correlates with regional gravity data. Our NNUT refraction experiment will better constrain crustal thickness and provide insight into the crustal-scale tectonics of the northeastern Great Basin, including the Wasatch Front and eastern Utah. These experiments are a successful demonstration that crustal refraction profiles can be obtained using mine blasts and a dense array of portable seismographs. Costly refraction shots were not needed to find crustal thicknesses, where mine blasts could be recorded. In addition, local earthquakes (approximately M2

  10. The temperature dependence of thermal conductivity for lherzolites from the North China Craton and the associated constraints on the thermodynamic thickness of the lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Sheqiang; Li, Heping; Chen, Gang

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the authors aimed to compute the lithospheric thickness beneath the North China Craton (NCC) by combining the measurement of the thermophysical properties of lherzolite xenoliths from the Cenozoic basalts in North China with the corresponding geothermal data, thus providing geothermal constraints for the lithospheric thinning beneath the NCC. Based on the precise measurement of the thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity at high temperatures, and density at room temperature for lherzolites from the NCC, the temperature dependence of lattice thermal conductivity for lherzolites was obtained. Combining with the surface heat flow, heat production of rocks and other relevant conditions, the average thickness of the lithosphere beneath the NCC and the lithospheric thickness of secondary massifs were computed, and we identified the relationship between depth and temperature beneath the NCC and each secondary massif. The computed lithospheric thickness is highly consistent with the results of geophysical observations. The computation results of this study indicate that the average lithospheric thickness of the current NCC and the average thickness of the eastern NCC were 101 and 75 km, the lithospheric thickness of the Ordos block increases from 110 km in the east to approximately 200 km in the west, and the average thickness is 141 km, that were thinner than that in the Archean era (200 km) by approximately 100, 125 and 60 km. These results reveal that, in addition to eastern NCC, the Taihang orogenic belt and Ordos block have also experienced varying degrees of thinning with a thinning centre oriented in the north-south direction, consistent with the direction of the thinning centre along the Tanlu fault zone beneath the east NCC.

  11. Exploring a Link Between Great and Giant Megathrust Earthquakes and Relative Thickness of Sediment and Eroded Debris in the Subduction Channel to Roughness of Subducted Relief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, D. W.; Kirby, S. H.; von Huene, R.

    2011-12-01

    SEDIMENT SUBDUCTION AND SEISMICITY: At sediment-nourished (>1-2 km) subduction zones (SZs), instrumentally recorded great and giant earthquakes (Eqs) plus the geologically well-vetted Cascadia's Mw9.0 of 1700, corresponds to the occurrence of: 52 percent of Mw8.0 and larger (12 of 23), 57 percent of Mw8.3 and larger (8 of 14), 67 percent of Mw8.5 and larger (8 of 12), 71 percent of Mw8.8 and larger (5 of 7), 67 percent of Mw9.0 and larger (4 of 6), and 100 percent of Eqs larger than Mw9.0 (3 of 3). The implications of this observation were first explored by Ruff (1989, Pure and Applied Geophysics, v. 129, p. 263-282). SIGNIFICANT EXCEPTIONS: A significant percentage of powerful megathrust Eqs have nucleated at poorly sedimented trenches (<1.0-0.5 km). For example, the 1952 Kamchatka Mw9.0 event, and the horrendous March 11, 2011 Tohoku-Oki Mw9.0 megathrust. Other great megathrust ruptures have also torn the Peru-Chile SZ opposite the sediment-starved trench sectors of southern Peru (2001 Mw8.4) and northern Chile (1922 Mw8.3), and probably at higher magnitudes in the pre-instrumental 19th century. RELATIVE THICKNESS AND THE SMOOTHNESS CONJECTURE: Ruff (1989) surmised that excess sediment (i.e., at least 1-2 km thick) entering a subduction zone constructs a laterally homogenous layer within the plate-separating subduction channel where seismogenic rupturing occurs. The layer of subducted sediment works to even the trench-parallel distribution of coupling strength (asperities) by smothering the roughness or rugosity of subducted sea-floor relief. In doing so sediment subduction contributes to the lengthy (>300-500 km) rupturing of great and giant megathrust Eqs. Larger Mw Eqs do not correlate with increasing thickness of subducted sediment. We add here the observation that great and giant Eqs occurring along sediment-poor SZs are typically underthrust by wide sectors of seafloor of low average bathymetric relief, in particular that caused by seamounts and fracture

  12. A dipping, thick Farallon slab below central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Gurnis, M.; Saleeby, J.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that much of the Laramide orogeny was caused by dynamic effects induced by an extensive flat slab during a period of plateau subduction. A particularly thick block containing the Shatsky Rise conjugate, now in the mid-mantle, left a distinctive deformation footprint from southern California to Denver, Colorado. Thus mid-mantle, relic slabs can provide fundamental information about past subduction and the history of plate tectonics if properly imaged. Here we find clear evidence for a northeastward dipping (35° dip), slab-like, but fat (up to 400-500 km thick) seismic anomaly within the top of the lower mantle below the central United States. Using a deep focus earthquake below Spain with direct seismic paths that propagate along the top and bottom of the anomaly, we find that the observed, stacked seismic waveforms recorded with the dense USArray show multi-pathing indicative of sharp top and bottom surfaces. Plate tectonic reconstructions in which the slab is migrated back in time suggest strong coupling of the slab to North America. In combination with the reconstructions, we interpret the structure as arising from eastward dipping Farallon subduction at the western margin of North America during the Cretaceous, in contrast with recent interpretations. The slab could have been fattened through a combination of pure shear thickening during flat-slab subduction and a folding instability during penetration into the lower mantle.

  13. Changes in Bladder Wall Thickness and Detrusor Wall Thickness After Surgical Treatment of Benign Prostatic Enlargement in Patients With Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hakmin; Choo, Minsoo; Kim, Myong; Cho, Sung Yong; Lee, Seung Bae; Jeong, Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the perioperative changes in bladder wall thickness and detrusor wall thickness after transurethral prostatectomy. Materials and Methods Fifty-one men who were treated for benign prostatic hyperplasia/lower urinary tract symptoms with transurethral prostatectomy were prospectively analyzed from May 2012 to July 2013. Prostate size, detrusor wall thickness, and bladder wall thickness were assessed by transrectal and transabdominal ultrasonography perioperatively. All postoperative evaluations were performed 1 month after the surgery. Results The patients' mean age was 69.0 years, the mean prostate-specific antigen concentration was 8.1 ng/mL, and the mean prostate volume was 63.2 mL. The mean bladder wall thickness was 5.1 mm (standard deviation [SD], ±1.6), 5.1 mm (SD, ±1.6), and 5.0 mm (SD, ±1.4) preoperatively and 4.5 mm (SD, ±1.5), 4.5 mm (SD, ±1.3), and 4.6 mm (SD, ±1.2) postoperatively in the anterior wall, dome, and trigone, respectively (p=0.178, p=0.086, and p=0.339, respectively). The mean detrusor wall thickness was 0.9 mm (SD, ±0.4) preoperatively and 0.7 mm (SD, ±0.3) postoperatively (p=0.001). A subgroup analysis stratifying patients into a large prostate group (weight, ≥45 g) and a high Abrams-Griffiths number group (>30) showed a significant decrease in detrusor wall thickness (p=0.002, p=0.018). Conclusions There was a decrease in detrusor wall thickness after transurethral prostatectomy. The large prostate group and the high Abrams-Griffiths number group showed a significant decrease in detrusor wall thickness after surgery. PMID:24466397

  14. Assessing change in mouthguard thickness according to the thickness of the original mouthguard sheet.

    PubMed

    Mizuhashi, Fumi; Koide, Kaoru; Takahashi, Mutsumi

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in thickness and differences in rate of change of mouthguard thickness according to the thickness of the original sheet used to form the mouthguard. The material used in this study was Sports Mouthguard (3.0, 3.8, and 5.0 mm thicknesses, ethylene vinyl acetate sheet). The sheets were heated until they hung 15 mm from the baseline and were then vacuum formed. The thickness of the mouthguard was measured, and the rate of change of thickness was calculated. The differences in thickness and rate of change of thickness at the labial surface of the central incisor and buccal surface of the first molar according to the thickness of sheet were analyzed by one-way anova, and that of the occlusal surface of the first molar was analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. The results showed that the thickness of mouthguard increased as the thickness of sheet increased (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The thickness of the sheet did not affect the rate of change of thickness at the central incisor and occlusal surface of the first molar. Adequate thickness could be obtained using the original sheet with a thickness >3.8 mm at the buccal surface of the first molar and >3.0 mm at the occlusal surface of the first molar. At the central incisor, the necessary thickness of the original sheet was calculated as 5.6 mm. These results would be useful for selecting the appropriate mouthguard sheet material. PMID:24890333

  15. Ice-Accretion Scaling Using Water-Film Thickness Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.; Feo, Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Studies were performed at INTA in Spain to determine water-film thickness on a stagnation-point probe inserted in a simulated cloud. The measurements were correlated with non-dimensional parameters describing the flow and the cloud conditions. Icing scaling tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel were then conducted using the Ruff scaling method with the scale velocity found by matching scale and reference values of either the INTA non-dimensional water-film thickness or a Weber number based on that film thickness. For comparison, tests were also performed using the constant drop-size Weber number and the average-velocity methods. The reference and scale models were both aluminum, 61-cm-span, NACA 0012 airfoil sections at 0 deg. AOA. The reference had a 53-cm-chord and the scale, 27 cm (1/2 size). Both models were mounted vertically in the center of the IRT test section. Tests covered a freezing fraction range of 0.28 to 1.0. Rime ice (n = 1.0) tests showed the consistency of the IRT calibration over a range of velocities. At a freezing fraction of 0.76, there was no significant difference in the scale ice shapes produced by the different methods. For freezing fractions of 0.40, 0.52 and 0.61, somewhat better agreement with the reference horn angles was typically achieved with the average-velocity and constant-film thickness methods than when either of the two Weber numbers was matched to the reference value. At a freezing fraction of 0.28, the four methods were judged equal in providing simulations of the reference shape.

  16. Bubble point pressures for chlorodifluoromethane + 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, bromotrifluoromethane + 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, and bromotrifluoromethane + chloropentafluoroethane

    SciTech Connect

    Mishima, Kenji, Hongo, Masaru; Takagi, Toshiharu; Arai, Yasuhiko . Dept. of Industrial Chemistry)

    1993-01-01

    The bubble point pressures for chlorodifluoromethane (R22) + 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (R114), bromotrifluoromethane (R13B1) + 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (R114), and bromotrifluoromethane (R13B1) + chloropentafluoroethane (R115) were measured by a static method. Measurements were made at various compositions at temperatures from 298.15 K to near their critical temperature. The uncertainty of the pressures was estimated to be no greater than [plus minus]0.3%. The bubble point pressures for pure substances were correlated by the Wagner equation, and those for the mixtures were also correlated by the Wagner equation, using a corresponding states principle.

  17. Comparative antimalarial activities and ADME profiles of ozonides (1,2,4-trioxolanes) OZ277, OZ439, and their 1,2-dioxolane, 1,2,4-trioxane, and 1,2,4,5-tetraoxane isosteres.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofang; Dong, Yuxiang; Wittlin, Sergio; Charman, Susan A; Chiu, Francis C K; Chollet, Jacques; Katneni, Kasiram; Mannila, Janne; Morizzi, Julia; Ryan, Eileen; Scheurer, Christian; Steuten, Jessica; Santo Tomas, Josefina; Snyder, Christopher; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L

    2013-03-28

    To ascertain the structure-activity relationship of the core 1,2,4-trioxolane substructure of dispiro ozonides OZ277 and OZ439, we compared the antimalarial activities and ADME profiles of the 1,2-dioxolane, 1,2,4-trioxane, and 1,2,4,5-tetraoxane isosteres. Consistent with previous data, both dioxolanes had very weak antimalarial properties. For the OZ277 series, the trioxane isostere had the best ADME profile, but its overall antimalarial efficacy was not superior to that of the trioxolane or tetraoxane isosteres. For the OZ439 series, there was a good correlation between the antimalarial efficacy and ADME profiles in the rank order trioxolane > trioxane > tetraoxane. As we have previously observed for OZ439 versus OZ277, the OZ439 series peroxides had superior exposure and efficacy in mice compared to the corresponding OZ277 series peroxides. PMID:23489135

  18. Hierarchical domain structure of lead-free piezoelectric (Na1/2 Bi1/2)TiO3-(K1/2 Bi1/2)TiO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chengtao; Wang, Yaojin; Ge, Wenwei; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight; Delaire, Olivier; Li, Xiaobin; Luo, Haosu

    2016-05-01

    We report a unique hierarchical domain structure in single crystals of (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-xat. %(K1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 for x = 5 and 8 by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A high density of polar nano-domains with a lamellar morphology was found, which were self-assembled into a quadrant-like configuration, which then assembled into conventional ferroelectric macro-domains. Studies by high resolution TEM revealed that the polar lamellar regions contained a coexistence of in-phase and anti-phase oxygen octahedral tilt regions of a few nanometers in size. Domain frustration over multiple length scales may play an important role in the stabilization of the hierarchy, and in reducing the piezoelectric response of this Pb-free piezoelectric solid solution.

  19. 7. VIEW FROM COURTYARD OF BUILDINGS 1, 2 AND 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW FROM COURTYARD OF BUILDINGS 1, 2 AND 3 LOOKING WEST ACROSS TECHWOOD DRIVE TOWARD 570-578 TECHWOOD DRIVE. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  20. INTAKE, DAMS #1, #2, AND #3, AND FOOTBRIDGE; FACING NORTHNORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTAKE, DAMS #1, #2, AND #3, AND FOOTBRIDGE; FACING NORTH-NORTHEAST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Intake, North Bank of Snake River, immediately West/Northwest of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project Dam No. 1, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID