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Sample records for 1-2 km wide

  1. Faraday laser using 1.2 km fiber as an extended cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zhiming; Zhang, Xiaogang; Pan, Duo; Chen, Mo; Zhu, Chuanwen; Chen, Jingbiao

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate a Faraday laser using a 1.2 km fiber as an extended cavity, which provides optical feedback and obtains small free spectrum range (FSR) of 83 kHz, and have succeeded in limiting the laser frequency to a crossover transition {5}2{S}1/2,F=2\\to {5}2{P}3/2,F\\prime =1,3 of the natural 87Rb at 780 nm. The Faraday laser is based on a Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) with an ultra-narrow bandwidth and the long fiber extended cavity of 1.2 km. The peak transmission assigned to the crossover transition F=2\\to F\\prime =1,3 in the FADOF is 20.5% with an ultra-narrow bandwidth of 29.1 MHz. The Allan deviation of the Faraday laser is around 6.0× {10}-11 in 0.06 to 1 s sampling time. Laser frequency is always kept in the center of the transmitted peak assigned to F=2\\to F\\prime =1,3. The Faraday laser realized here can provide light exactly resonant with an atomic transition used for atom-photon interaction experiments and is insensitive to diode temperature and injection current fluctuations.

  2. Seismic evidence for a wide-spread low velocity layer atop the 410-km discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauzin, B.; Debayle, E.; Wittlinger, G.

    2009-12-01

    The origin of a low seismic-velocity layer observed in a few regions in the world atop the upper boundary of the mantle transition zone (the 410-km seismic discontinuity) is debated. It has been attributed to the dehydration of subductions, the dehydration of water-bearing silicate beneath continental platforms in the vicinity of mantle plumes, or to dehydration-induced partial melting of ascending ambient mantle rising out of a high-water-solubility transition zone. These interpretations suggest the effect of water which reduces the solidus of mantle silicate rocks and favors partial melting. We present global multiple frequency observations of P-to-S receiver functions indicating that this low velocity layer is actually a wide-spread feature of the upper mantle. Its location is uncorrelated with any tectonic or geodynamic environment. The estimated layer thickness varies over short lateral wavelengths (~200 km) in a range 30 to 100 km. This complexity suggests a compositional origin with a lens-type lateral extension. Dehydration in the vicinity of subductions or mantle plumes cannot solely explain the observed layer implantation. (A) Synthetic receiver functions (RFs) obtained at four lower corner periods for different thicknesses of a low velocity layer (LVL) atop the "410". Steep downward increases of seismic velocities (e.g. the "410") show up as positive (white) amplitudes on the RFs. Steep downward velocity decreases (e.g. the top of the LVL) show up as negative (black) amplitudes. (B) Multiple-frequency RFs obtained at 42 seismic stations after alignment on the "410" waveform. The "410" waveform has a positive amplitude and is colored in white. Under these stations, the top of a LVL is visible. It shows up as a negative (black) amplitude and is emphasized with the small white crosses. The RFs have been ordered by increasing LVL thickness. (C) Synthetic RFs computed using the same LVL thickness distribution as observed on the data.

  3. High cesium concentrations in groundwater in the upper 1.2 km of fractured crystalline rock - Influence of groundwater origin and secondary minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathurin, Frédéric A.; Drake, Henrik; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Berger, Tobias; Peltola, Pasi; Kalinowski, Birgitta E.; Åström, Mats E.

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved and solid phase cesium (Cs) was studied in the upper 1.2 km of a coastal granitoid fracture network on the Baltic Shield (Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory and Laxemar area, SE Sweden). There unusually high Cs concentrations (up to 5-6 μg L-1) occur in the low-temperature (<20 °C) groundwater. The material includes water collected in earlier hydrochemical monitoring programs and secondary precipitates (fracture coatings) collected on the fracture walls, as follows: (a) hydraulically pristine fracture groundwater sampled through 23 surface boreholes equipped for the retrieval of representative groundwater at controlled depths (Laxemar area), (b) fracture groundwater affected by artificial drainage collected through 80 boreholes drilled mostly along the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (underground research facility), (c) surface water collected in local streams, a lake and sea bay, and shallow groundwater collected in 8 regolith boreholes, and (d) 84 new specimens of fracture coatings sampled in cores from the Äspö HRL and Laxemar areas. The groundwater in each area is different, which affects Cs concentrations. The highest Cs concentrations occurred in deep-seated saline groundwater (median Äspö HRL: 4.1 μg L-1; median Laxemar: 3.7 μg L-1) and groundwater with marine origin (Äspö HRL: 4.2 μg L-1). Overall lower, but variable, Cs concentrations were found in other types of groundwater. The similar concentrations of Cs in the saline groundwater, which had a residence time in the order of millions of years, and in the marine groundwater, which had residence times in the order of years, shows that duration of water-rock interactions is not the single and primary control of dissolved Cs in these systems. The high Cs concentrations in the saline groundwater is ascribed to long-term weathering of minerals, primarily Cs-enriched fracture coatings dominated by illite and mixed-layer clays and possibly wall rock micaceous minerals. The high Cs concentrations in the

  4. Galaxy clustering in the CFHTLS-Wide: the changing relationship between galaxies and haloes since z ~ 1.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupon, J.; Kilbinger, M.; McCracken, H. J.; Ilbert, O.; Arnouts, S.; Mellier, Y.; Abbas, U.; de la Torre, S.; Goranova, Y.; Hudelot, P.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.

    2012-06-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that studying how dark matter haloes are populated by galaxies can provide new insights into galaxy formation and evolution. In this paper, we present a detailed investigation of the changing relationship between galaxies and the dark matter haloes they inhabit from z ~ 1.2 to the present day. We do this by comparing precise galaxy clustering measurements over 133 deg2 of the "Wide" component of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) with predictions of an analytic halo occupation distribution (HOD) model where the number of galaxies in each halo depends only on the halo mass. Starting from a parent catalogue of ~3 × 106 galaxies at i'AB<22.5 we use accurate photometric redshifts calibrated using ~104 spectroscopic redshifts to create a series of type-selected volume-limited samples covering 0.2 < z < 1.2. Our principal result, based on clustering measurements in these samples, is a robust determination of the luminosity-to-halo mass ratio and its dependence on redshift and galaxy type. For the full sample, this reaches a peak at low redshifts of Mhpeak = 4.5×1011 h-1 M⊙ and moves towards higher halo masses at higher redshifts. For redder galaxies the peak is at higher halo masses and does not evolve significantly over the entire redshift range of our survey. We also consider the evolution of bias, average halo mass and the fraction of satellites as a function of redshift and luminosity. Our observed growth of a factor of ~2 in satellite fraction between z ~ 1 and z ~ 0 is testament to the limited role that galaxy merging plays in galaxy evolution for ~1012 h-1 M⊙ mass haloes at z < 1. Qualitatively, our observations are consistent with a picture in which red galaxies in massive haloes have already accumulated most of their stellar mass by z ~ 1 and subsequently undergo little evolution until the present day. The observed movement of the peak location for the full galaxy population is consistent with the

  5. Fractional Quantum Hall Effect at ν = 1 / 2 in Hole Systems Confined to GaAs Wide Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasdemir, Sukret; Liu, Yang; Graninger, Aurelius; Shayegan, Mansour; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Baldwin, Kirk; Winkler, Roland

    2014-03-01

    We observe fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) at the even-denominator Landau level filling factor ν = 1 / 2 in two-dimensional hole systems confined to GaAs quantum wells of width 30 to 50 nm and having bilayer-like charge distributions. The ν = 1 / 2 FQHE is stable when the charge distribution is symmetric and only in a range of intermediate densities, qualitatively similar to what is seen in two-dimensional electron systems confined to approximately twice wider GaAs quantum wells. Despite the complexity of the hole Landau level structure, originating from the coexistence and mixing of the heavy- and light-hole states, we find the hole ν = 1 / 2 FQHE to be consistent with a two-component, Halperin-Laughlin (Ψ331) state. We acknowledge support through the DOE BES (DE-FG02-00-ER45841) for measurements, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (Grant GBMF2719), Keck Foundation, and the NSF (DMR-0904117, DMR-1305691 and MRSEC DMR-0819860) for sample fabrication. Work at Arg.

  6. Open-System Magma Reservoir Affects Gas Segregation, Vesiculation, Fragmentation and Lava/Pyroclast Dispersal During the 1.2 km-deep 2007-2010 Submarine Eruption at West Mata Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, K. H.; Clague, D. A.; Embley, R. W.; Hellebrand, E.; Soule, S. A.; Resing, J.

    2014-12-01

    West Mata, a small, active rear-arc volcano in the NE Lau Basin, erupts crystal and gas rich boninite magma. Eruptions were observed at the summit (1.2 km water depth) during 5 ROV Jason dives in 2009 (the deepest erupting submarine volcano observed to date). Subsequent ROV and ship-based bathymetric mapping revealed that a pit crater formed and the summit eruption ceased in 2010, with roughly simultaneous eruptions along the SW rift zone. During the summit eruption, a combination of water depth, H2O-CO2-rich and high crystallinity magma, a split in the conduit to feed two vent sites, and waxing/waning magma supply led to a range of effusive/explosive eruption styles and volcanic deposit types. The 2-3 vent Hades cluster and the lone Prometheus vent had different eruption characteristics. Petrographic, petrologic and geochemical studies of erupted products indicate a change in magma composition in time and space over a period of 3.5 yrs, suggesting a small, open-system magma reservoir within the volcano. Prometheus (1174m depth) produced mostly pyroclastic material during our observations (e.g., highly vesicular glowing fluidal ejecta that cooled in the water column and rounded recycled dense clasts), but sampling and 210Po radiometric dating show that several months prior pillowed lava flows, subsequently covered with cm-sized pyroclasts, had flowed >50m from the vent. In contrast, vents at Hades (1200m depth) cycled between lava production and vigorous degassing, 10-20m high fire fountains and bursts of glowing lava-skinned bubbles, the products of which froze/broke in the water column, forming unstable cones of spatter and scoria near the vents. We hypothesize that bubbles collapse rather than form lava balloons because of skin brittleness (from high crystal content) and hydrostatic pressure. Clast settling times and patterns suggest >100m water column rise height for 10+ cm-sized fragments. Pillow flows were also observed to be issuing from the base of the

  7. REE and Y in groundwater in the upper 1.2 km of Proterozoic granitoids (Eastern Sweden) - Assessing the role of composition and origin of groundwaters, geochemistry of fractures, and organic/inorganic aqueous complexation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathurin, Frédéric A.; Åström, Mats E.; Drake, Henrik; Maskenskaya, Olga M.; Kalinowski, Birgitta E.

    2014-11-01

    Yttrium and rare earth elements (YREEs) are studied in groundwater in the shallow regolith aquifer and the fracture networks of the upper 1.2 km of Paleoproterozoic granitoids in boreal Europe (Laxemar and Forsmark areas, Sweden). The study includes groundwater sampled via a total of 34 shallow boreholes reaching the bottom of the regolith aquifer, and 72 deep boreholes with equipment designed for retrieval of representative groundwater at controlled depths in the fractured bedrock. The groundwater composition differs substantially between regolith and fracture groundwater and between areas, which affects the dissolved YREE features, including concentrations and NASC normalized patterns. In the fresh groundwater in the regolith aquifers, highest YREE concentrations occur (10th and 90th percentile; Laxemar: 4.4-82 μg L-1; Forsmark: 1.9-19 μg L-1), especially in the slightly acidic groundwater (pH: 6.3-7.2 - Laxemar), where the normalized YREE patterns are slightly enriched in light REEs (LaNASC/YNASC: 1.1-2.4). In the recharge areas, where redox potentials of the regolith groundwater is more moderate, negative Ce anomaly (Laxemar: 0.37-0.45; Forsmark: 0.15-0.92) and positive Y anomaly (mainly in Forsmark: 1.0-1.7) are systematically more pronounced than in discharge areas. The significant correlations between the YREE features and dissolved organic carbon, minor elements, and somewhat pH suggest a strong control of humic substances (HSs) together with Al rich colloids and redox sensitive Fe-Mn hydrous precipitates on the dissolved YREE pools. In the bedrock fractures, the groundwater is circumneutral to slightly basic and displays YREE concentrations that are at least one order of magnitude lower than the regolith groundwater, and commonly below detection limit in the deep brackish and saline groundwater, with some exceptions such as La and Y. At intermediate depth (>50 m), where groundwater of meteoric origin percolates, the LaNASC/YNASC values moderately to

  8. Phase Diagrams for the ν = 1/2 Fractional Quantum Hall Effect in Electron Systems Confined to Symmetric, Wide GaAs Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, L. N.; Shabani, J.; Liu, Y.; Shayegan, M.; West, K. W.; Baldwin, K. W.

    2014-03-01

    We report an experimental investigation of fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) at the even-denominator Landau level filling factor ν = 1/2 in high quality wide GaAs quantum wells. The quasi-two-dimensional electron systems we study are confined to GaAs quantum wells with widths, W, ranging from 41 to 96 nm and have variable densities in the range of 4 ×1010 to 4 ×1011 cm-2 . We present several experimental phase diagrams for the stability of the ν = 1/2 FQHE in these quantum wells. We find that the densities at which the ν = 1/2 FQHE is stable are larger for narrower quantum wells. Moreover, even a slight charge distribution asymmetry destabilizes the ν = 1/2 FQHE and turns the electron system into a compressible state. We also present a plot of the subband separation (ΔSAS), which characterizes the interlayer tunneling, vs density for various W. Finally, we summarize the experimental data in a diagram that takes into account the relative strengths of the inter-layer and intra-layer Coulomb interactions and ΔSAS. We compare this experimental phase diagram of normalized inter-layer distance vs tunneling to recent theoretical calculations which have been used to conclude a two-component origin for the ν = 1/2 FQHE. A portion of this work was performed at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory which is supported by NSF Cooperative Agreement No. DMR-1157490, the State of Florida and the US DOE.

  9. Reviving the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster in North and West Africa: a mitochondrial lineage ranging more than 6,000 km wide.

    PubMed

    Gaubert, Philippe; Bloch, Cécile; Benyacoub, Slim; Abdelhamid, Adnan; Pagani, Paolo; Djagoun, Chabi Adéyèmi Marc Sylvestre; Couloux, Arnaud; Dufour, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery of a lineage of gray wolf in North-East Africa suggests the presence of a cryptic canid on the continent, the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster. We analyzed the mtDNA diversity (cytochrome b and control region) of a series of African Canis including wolf-like animals from North and West Africa. Our objectives were to assess the actual range of C. l. lupaster, to further estimate the genetic characteristics and demographic history of its lineage, and to question its taxonomic delineation from the golden jackal C. aureus, with which it has been considered synonymous. We confirmed the existence of four distinct lineages within the gray wolf, including C. lupus/familiaris (Holarctic wolves and dogs), C. l. pallipes, C. l. chanco and C. l. lupaster. Taxonomic assignment procedures identified wolf-like individuals from Algeria, Mali and Senegal, as belonging to C. l. lupaster, expanding its known distribution c. 6,000 km to the west. We estimated that the African wolf lineage (i) had the highest level of genetic diversity within C. lupus, (ii) coalesced during the Late Pleistocene, contemporaneously with Holarctic wolves and dogs, and (iii) had an effective population size of c. 80,000 females. Our results suggest that the African wolf is a relatively ancient gray wolf lineage with a fairly large, past effective population size, as also suggested by the Pleistocene fossil record. Unique field observations in Senegal allowed us to provide a morphological and behavioral diagnosis of the African wolf that clearly distinguished it from the sympatric golden jackal. However, the detection of C. l. lupaster mtDNA haplotypes in C. aureus from Senegal brings the delineation between the African wolf and the golden jackal into question. In terms of conservation, it appears urgent to further characterize the status of the African wolf with regard to the African golden jackal.

  10. Magnetocaloric effect over a wide temperature range due to multiple magnetic transitions in GdNi0.8Al1.2 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, T. P.; Nallamuthu, S.; Arun, K.; Curlik, Ivan; Ilkovic, Sergej; Dzubinska, Andrea; Reiffers, Marian; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2016-05-01

    The magnetic properties, magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and refrigerant capacity (RC) of the novel polycrystalline GdNi0.8Al1.2 alloy are investigated. The temperature dependence of magnetization exhibits multiple magnetic transitions at T1=17.7 K, T2=46.7 K and T3=256 K thereby displaying a complex magnetic behaviour. The magnetocaloric effect is calculated in terms of the magnetic entropy change ( -Δ SM), from isothermal magnetization data using Maxwell relations. The maximum magnetic entropy change at major transitions T2 is 9.15 J kg-1K-1 (for a field change of 0-9 T) and 4.20 Jkg-1K-1 (0-5 T) and at T3 is 1.10 Jkg-1K-1 (0-9 T) and 0.67 Jkg-1K-1 (0-5 T). The overlap of the two -Δ SM peaks expeditiously expand the working temperature range of this material with substantial MCE which in turn yields moderate RC value of 120 J/kg for a field change of 0-5T. These results suggest that the GdNi0.8Al1.2 alloy may be a meaningful candidate for magnetic refrigeration working in a wide temperature range.

  11. Genome-wide analysis and identification of stress-responsive genes of the NAM-ATAF1,2-CUC2 transcription factor family in apple.

    PubMed

    Su, Hongyan; Zhang, Shizhong; Yuan, Xiaowei; Chen, Changtian; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2013-10-01

    NAC (NAM, ATAF1,2, and CUC2) proteins constitute one of the largest families of plant-specific transcription factors. To date, little is known about the NAC genes in the apple (Malus domestica). In this study, a total of 180 NAC genes were identified in the apple genome and were phylogenetically clustered into six groups (I-VI) with the NAC genes from Arabidopsis and rice. The predicted apple NAC genes were distributed across all of 17 chromosomes at various densities. Additionally, the gene structure and motif compositions of the apple NAC genes were analyzed. Moreover, the expression of 29 selected apple NAC genes was analyzed in different tissues and under different abiotic stress conditions. All of the selected genes, with the exception of four genes, were expressed in at least one of the tissues tested, which indicates that the NAC genes are involved in various aspects of the physiological and developmental processes of the apple. Encouragingly, 17 of the selected genes were found to respond to one or more of the abiotic stress treatments, and these 17 genes included not only the expected 7 genes that were clustered with the well-known stress-related marker genes in group IV but also 10 genes located in other subgroups, none of which contains members that have been reported to be stress-related. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first genome-wide analysis of the apple NAC gene family, and the results should provide valuable information for understanding the classification and putative functions of this family.

  12. Use of expression data and the CGEMS genome-wide breast cancer association study to identify genes that may modify risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Walker, Logan C; Waddell, Nic; Ten Haaf, Anette; Grimmond, Sean; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2008-11-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 confer an increased lifetime risk of developing breast or ovarian cancer, but variable penetrance suggests that cancer susceptibility is influenced in part by modifier genes. Microarray expression profiling was conducted for 69 irradiated lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from healthy controls, or from cancer-affected women with a strong family history of breast and ovarian cancer carrying pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2, or with no BRCA1/2 mutations (BRCAX). Genes discriminating between BRCA1, BRCA2 or BRCAX and controls were stratified based on irradiation response and/or cell cycle involvement. Gene lists were aligned against genes tagged with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) determined by the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) Breast Cancer Whole Genome Association Scan to be nominally associated with breast cancer risk. Irradiation responsive genes whose expression correlated with BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation status were more likely to be tagged by risk-associated SNPs in the CGEMS dataset (BRCA1, P = 0.0005; BRCA2, P = 0.01). In contrast, irradiation responsive genes correlating with BRCAX status were not enriched in the CGEMS dataset. Classification of expression data by involvement in cell cycle processes did not enrich for genes tagged by risk-associated SNPs, for BRCA1, BRCA2 or BRCAX groups. Using a novel combinatorial approach, we have identified a subset of irradiation responsive genes as high priority candidate BRCA1/2 modifier genes. Similar approaches may be used to identify genes and underlying genetic risk factors that interact with exogenous stimulants to cause or modify any disease, without a priori knowledge of the pathways involved.

  13. Evidence for wide-spread active galactic nucleus-driven outflows in the most massive z ∼ 1-2 star-forming galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Genzel, R.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Rosario, D.; Lang, P.; Lutz, D.; Wisnioski, E.; Wuyts, E.; Wuyts, S.; Bandara, K.; Bender, R.; Berta, S.; Kurk, J.; Mendel, J. T.; Tacconi, L. J.; Wilman, D.; Beifiori, A.; Burkert, A.; Buschkamp, P.; Chan, J.; Brammer, G. E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de; and others

    2014-11-20

    In this paper, we follow up on our previous detection of nuclear ionized outflows in the most massive (log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ≥ 10.9) z ∼ 1-3 star-forming galaxies by increasing the sample size by a factor of six (to 44 galaxies above log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ≥ 10.9) from a combination of the SINS/zC-SINF, LUCI, GNIRS, and KMOS{sup 3D}spectroscopic surveys. We find a fairly sharp onset of the incidence of broad nuclear emission (FWHM in the Hα, [N II], and [S II] lines ∼450-5300 km s{sup –1}), with large [N II]/Hα ratios, above log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ∼ 10.9, with about two-thirds of the galaxies in this mass range exhibiting this component. Broad nuclear components near and above the Schechter mass are similarly prevalent above and below the main sequence of star-forming galaxies, and at z ∼ 1 and ∼2. The line ratios of the nuclear component are fit by excitation from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or by a combination of shocks and photoionization. The incidence of the most massive galaxies with broad nuclear components is at least as large as that of AGNs identified by X-ray, optical, infrared, or radio indicators. The mass loading of the nuclear outflows is near unity. Our findings provide compelling evidence for powerful, high-duty cycle, AGN-driven outflows near the Schechter mass, and acting across the peak of cosmic galaxy formation.

  14. Genome-wide Association Study Identifies Loci at ATF7IP and KLK2 Associated with Percentage of Circulating Free PSA1 2

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Guangfu; Zheng, Siqun Lilly; Lilja, Hans; Kim, Seong-Tae; Tao, Sha; Gao, Zhengrong; Young, Tracey; Wiklund, Fredrik; Feng, Junjie; Isaacs, William B; Rittmaster, Roger S; Gronberg, Henrik; Condreay, Lynn D; Sun, Jielin; Xu, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Background Percentage of free-to-total prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) is an independent predictor of risk for prostate cancer among men with modestly elevated level of total PSA (tPSA) in blood. Physiological and pathological factors have been shown to influence the %fPSA value and diagnostic accuracy. Materials/Methods To evaluate genetic determinants of %fPSA, we conducted a genome-wide association study of serum %fPSA by genotyping 642,584 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3192 men of European ancestry, each with a tPSA level of 2.5 to 10 ng/ml, that were recruited in the REduction by DUtasteride of Prostate Cancer Events study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with P < 10-5 were further evaluated among the controls of a population-based case-control study in Sweden (2899 prostate cancer cases and 1722 male controls), including 464 controls having tPSA levels of 2.5 to 10 ng/ml. Results We identified two loci that were associated with %fPSA at a genome-wide significance level (P <5 x 10-8). The first associated SNP was rs3213764 (P = 6.45 x 10-10), a nonsynonymous variant (K530R) in the ATF7IP gene at 12p13. This variant was also nominally associated with tPSA (P = .015). The second locus was rs1354774 (P = 1.25 x 10-12), near KLK2 at 19q13, which was not associated with tPSA levels, and is separate from the rs17632542 locus at KLK3 that was previously associated with tPSA levels and prostate cancer risk. Neither rs3213764 nor rs1354774 was associated with prostate cancer risk or aggressiveness. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that genetic variants at ATF7IP and KLK2 contribute to the variance of %fPSA. PMID:23359319

  15. A deep/wide 1-2 GHz snapshot survey of SDSS Stripe 82 using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array in a compact hybrid configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heywood, I.; Jarvis, M. J.; Baker, A. J.; Bannister, K. W.; Carvalho, C. S.; Hardcastle, M.; Hilton, M.; Moodley, K.; Smirnov, O. M.; Smith, D. J. B.; White, S. V.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    We have used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to image ˜100 deg2 of SDSS Stripe 82 at 1-2 GHz. The survey consists of 1026 snapshot observations of 2.5 min duration, using the hybrid CnB configuration. The survey has good sensitivity to diffuse, low surface brightness structures and extended radio emission, making it highly synergistic with existing 1.4 GHz radio observations of the region. The principal data products are continuum images, with 16 × 10 arcsec resolution, and a catalogue containing 11 782 point and Gaussian components resulting from fits to the thresholded Stokes-I brightness distribution, forming approximately 8948 unique radio sources. The typical effective 1σ noise level is 88 μJy beam-1. Spectral index estimates are included, as derived from the 1 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth. Astrometric and photometric accuracy are in excellent agreement with existing narrowband observations. A large-scale simulation is used to investigate clean bias, which we extend into the spectral domain. Clean bias remains an issue for snapshot surveys with the VLA, affecting our total intensity measurements at the ˜1σ level. Statistical spectral index measurements are in good agreement with existing measurements derived from matching separate surveys at two frequencies. At flux densities below ˜35σ the median in-band spectral index measurements begin to exhibit a bias towards flatness that is dependent on both flux density and the intrinsic spectral index. In-band spectral curvature measurements are likely to be unreliable for all but the very brightest components. Image products and catalogues are publicly available via an FTP server.

  16. In vitro induction of apoptosis vs. necrosis by widely used preservatives: 2-phenoxyethanol, a mixture of isothiazolinones, imidazolidinyl urea and 1,2-pentanediol.

    PubMed

    Anselmi, Cecilia; Ettorre, Anna; Andreassi, Marco; Centini, Marisanna; Neri, Paolo; Di Stefano, Anna

    2002-02-01

    Preservatives are added to many final products, such as detergents, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and vaccines. We conducted an in vitro investigation of the apoptosis- and necrosis-inducing potential of brief applications (10 min) of four common preservatives: ethylene glycol monophenyl ether, 2-phenoxyethanol (EGPE), imidazolidinyl urea (IMU), a mixture of 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (CMI/MI), and 1,2-pentanediol, a "preservative-non-preservative" best known as pentylene glycol. Using HL60 cells, we monitored the kinetics of cell toxicity with the MTT test and analysed extranuclear end points of apoptosis, i.e. phosphatidylserine exposure and nuclear fragmentation. Preservative treatment resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of cell viability. The mode of cell death was dose-dependent: necrosis occurred at high concentrations while apoptosis, shown by DNA laddering, DNA sub-diploid peak and caspase-3 activation, occurred at lower concentrations 0-24hr after exposure to a single dose: CMI/MI induced apoptosis at low concentrations (0.001-0.01%) and necrosis at high concentrations (0.5-0.1%); IMU and EGPE required higher concentrations to induce apoptosis (IMU 0.01-0.1% and EGPE 0.01-0.5%) or necrosis (IMU 0.5-1% and EGPE only at 1%). PG induced apoptosis only at 5%. Externalization of PS, a hallmark of apoptosis, occurred early in HL60 treated with low concentrations of CMI/MI and EGPE and was concomitant with the subdiploid peak in HL60 treated with PG. However, it did not occur in HL60 treated with IMU. In conclusion, at appropriate concentrations, each of the four preservatives modulates the apoptotic machinery by a caspase-dependent mechanism. Thus, apoptosis could be a good parameter to evaluate the cytoxicity of these chemical compounds.

  17. A Genome-Wide siRNA Screen Implicates Spire1/2 in SipA-Driven Salmonella Typhimurium Host Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Andritschke, Daniel; Dilling, Sabrina; Emmenlauer, Mario; Welz, Tobias; Schmich, Fabian; Misselwitz, Benjamin; Rämö, Pauli; Rottner, Klemens; Kerkhoff, Eugen; Wada, Teiji; Penninger, Josef M.; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Horvath, Peter; Dehio, Christoph; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Tm) is a leading cause of diarrhea. The disease is triggered by pathogen invasion into the gut epithelium. Invasion is attributed to the SPI-1 type 3 secretion system (T1). T1 injects effector proteins into epithelial cells and thereby elicits rearrangements of the host cellular actin cytoskeleton and pathogen invasion. The T1 effector proteins SopE, SopB, SopE2 and SipA are contributing to this. However, the host cell factors contributing to invasion are still not completely understood. To address this question comprehensively, we used Hela tissue culture cells, a genome-wide siRNA library, a modified gentamicin protection assay and S. TmSipA, a sopBsopE2sopE mutant which strongly relies on the T1 effector protein SipA to invade host cells. We found that S. TmSipA invasion does not elicit membrane ruffles, nor promote the entry of non-invasive bacteria "in trans". However, SipA-mediated infection involved the SPIRE family of actin nucleators, besides well-established host cell factors (WRC, ARP2/3, RhoGTPases, COPI). Stage-specific follow-up assays and knockout fibroblasts indicated that SPIRE1 and SPIRE2 are involved in different steps of the S. Tm infection process. Whereas SPIRE1 interferes with bacterial binding, SPIRE2 influences intracellular replication of S. Tm. Hence, these two proteins might fulfill non-redundant functions in the pathogen-host interaction. The lack of co-localization hints to a short, direct interaction between S. Tm and SPIRE proteins or to an indirect effect. PMID:27627128

  18. Herschel observations of extraordinary sources: Analysis of the HIFI 1.2 THz wide spectral survey toward orion KL. I. method

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, Nathan R.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Neill, Justin L.; Favre, Cécile; Schilke, Peter; Lis, Dariusz C.; Emprechtinger, Martin; Phillips, Thomas G.; Bell, Tom A.; Cernicharo, José; Esplugues, Gisela B.; Blake, Geoffrey; Kleshcheva, Maria; Gupta, Harshal; Pearson, John; Lord, Steven; Marcelino, Nuria; McGuire, Brett A.; Plume, Rene; Van der Tak, Floris; and others

    2014-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of a broadband spectral line survey of the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion KL), one of the most chemically rich regions in the Galaxy, using the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. This survey spans a frequency range from 480 to 1907 GHz at a resolution of 1.1 MHz. These observations thus encompass the largest spectral coverage ever obtained toward this high-mass star-forming region in the submillimeter with high spectral resolution and include frequencies >1 THz, where the Earth's atmosphere prevents observations from the ground. In all, we detect emission from 39 molecules (79 isotopologues). Combining this data set with ground-based millimeter spectroscopy obtained with the IRAM 30 m telescope, we model the molecular emission from the millimeter to the far-IR using the XCLASS program, which assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Several molecules are also modeled with the MADEX non-LTE code. Because of the wide frequency coverage, our models are constrained by transitions over an unprecedented range in excitation energy. A reduced χ{sup 2} analysis indicates that models for most species reproduce the observed emission well. In particular, most complex organics are well fit by LTE implying gas densities are high (>10{sup 6} cm{sup –3}) and excitation temperatures and column densities are well constrained. Molecular abundances are computed using H{sub 2} column densities also derived from the HIFI survey. The distribution of rotation temperatures, T {sub rot}, for molecules detected toward the hot core is significantly wider than the compact ridge, plateau, and extended ridge T {sub rot} distributions, indicating the hot core has the most complex thermal structure.

  19. 40Km Into Lebanon,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    answer to the difficulties in Palestine, London organized a study of the problem under Lord Peel , a for- mer Secretary of State for India, who in 1937...issued the report of the Commission bearing his name. As Peel saw it, the only solution was to partition Palestine between the two communities. The...minority suggestions. The majority 22 40Km into Lebanon report recommended partition with an economic union, much as Peel had proposed in 1937. A

  20. KM3NeT

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, M. de; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2015-07-15

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure, that will consist of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective of KM3NeT is the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe. A further physics perspective is the measurement of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. A corresponding study, ORCA, is ongoing within KM3NeT. A cost effective technology for (very) large water Cherenkov detectors has been developed based on a new generation of low price 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes. Following the successful deployment and operation of two prototypes, the construction of the KM3NeT research infrastructure has started. The prospects of the different phases of the implementation of KM3NeT are summarised.

  1. Knob manager (KM) operators guide

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-08

    KM, Knob Manager, is a tool which enables the user to use the SUNDIALS knob box to adjust the settings of the control system. The followings are some features of KM: dynamic knob assignments with the user friendly interface; user-defined gain for individual knob; graphical displays for operating range and status of each process variable is assigned; backup and restore one or multiple process variable; save current settings to a file and recall the settings from that file in future.

  2. Applying WebMining on KM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, Keiko; Ozaki, Tomonobu; Furukawa, Koichi

    KM (Knowledge Management) systems have recently been adopted within the realm of enterprise management. On the other hand, data mining technology is widely acknowledged within Information systems' R&D Divisions. Specially, acquisition of meaningful information from Web usage data has become one of the most exciting eras. In this paper, we employ a Web based KM system and propose a framework for applying Web Usage Mining technology to KM data. As it turns out, task duration varies according to different user operations such as referencing a table-of-contents page, down-loading a target file, and writing to a bulletin board. This in turn makes it possible to easily predict the purpose of the user's task. By taking these observations into account, we segmented access log data manually. These results were compared with results abstained by applying the constant interval method. Next, we obtained a segmentation rule of Web access logs by applying a machine-learning algorithm to manually segmented access logs as training data. Then, the newly obtained segmentation rule was compared with other known methods including the time interval method by evaluating their segmentation results in terms of recall and precision rates and it was shown that our rule attained the best results in both measures. Furthermore, the segmented data were fed to an association rule miner and the obtained association rules were utilized to modify the Web structure.

  3. 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Diphenylhydrazine ; CASRN 122 - 66 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  4. 1,2-Dibromoethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA 635 / R - 04 / 067 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 1,2 - DIBROMOETHANE ( CAS No . 106 - 93 - 4 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2004 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been revie

  5. 1,2-Dichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichloropropane ; CASRN 78 - 87 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  6. 1,2-Dichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 50 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  7. 1,2-Dichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichloroethane ; CASRN 107 - 06 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  8. Analysis of sex differences in open-water ultra-distance swimming performances in the FINA World Cup races in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km from 2000 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study investigated the changes in swimming speeds and sex differences for elite male and female swimmers competing in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km open-water FINA World Cup races held between 2000 and 2012. Methods The changes in swimming speeds and sex differences across years were analysed using linear, non-linear, and multi-level regression analyses for the annual fastest and the annual ten fastest competitors. Results For the annual fastest, swimming speed remained stable for men and women in 5 km (5.50 ± 0.21 and 5.08 ± 0.19 km/h, respectively), in 10 km (5.38 ± 0.21 and 5.05 ± 0.26 km/h, respectively) and in 25 km (5.03 ± 0.32 and 4.58 ± 0.27 km/h, respectively). In the annual ten fastest, swimming speed remained constant in 5 km in women (5.02 ± 0.19 km/h) but decreased significantly and linearly in men from 5.42 ± 0.03 km/h to 5.39 ± 0.02 km/h. In 10 km, swimming speed increased significantly and linearly in women from 4.75 ± 0.01 km/h to 5.74 ± 0.01 km/h but remained stable in men at 5.36 ± 0.21 km/h. In 25 km, swimming speed decreased significantly and linearly in women from 4.60 ± 0.06 km/h to 4.44 ± 0.08 km/h but remained unchanged at 4.93 ± 0.34 km/h in men. For the annual fastest, the sex difference in swimming speed remained unchanged in 5 km (7.6 ± 3.0%), 10 km (6.1 ± 2.5%) and 25 km (9.0 ± 3.7%). For the annual ten fastest, the sex difference remained stable in 5 km at 7.6 ± 0.6%, decreased significantly and linearly in 10 km from 7.7 ± 0.7% to 1.2 ± 0.3% and increased significantly and linearly from 4.7 ± 1.4% to 9.6 ± 1.5% in 25 km. Conclusions To summarize, elite female open-water ultra-distance swimmers improved in 10 km but impaired in 25 km leading to a linear decrease in sex difference in 10 km and a linear increase in sex difference in 25 km. The linear changes in sex differences

  9. Peregrine 100-km Sounding Rocket Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The Peregrine Sounding Rocket Program is a joint basic research program of NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Wallops, Stanford University, and the Space Propulsion Group, Inc. (SPG). The goal is to determine the applicability of this technology to a small launch system. The approach is to design, build, and fly a stable, efficient liquefying fuel hybrid rocket vehicle to an altitude of 100 km. The program was kicked off in October of 2006 and has seen considerable progress in the subsequent 18 months. This research group began studying liquifying hybrid rocket fuel technology more than a decade ago. The overall goal of the research was to gain a better understanding of the fundamental physics of the liquid layer entrainment process responsible for the large increase in regression rate observed in these fuels, and to demonstrate the effect of increased regression rate on hybrid rocket motor performance. At the time of this reporting, more than 400 motor tests were conducted with a variety of oxidizers (N2O, GOx, LOx) at ever increasing scales with thrust levels from 5 to over 15,000 pounds (22 N to over 66 kN) in order to move this technology from the laboratory to practical applications. The Peregrine program is the natural next step in this development. A number of small sounding rockets with diameters of 3, 4, and 6 in. (7.6, 10.2, and 15.2 cm) have been flown, but Peregrine at a diameter of 15 in. (38.1 cm) and 14,000-lb (62.3-kN) thrust is by far the largest system ever attempted and will be one of the largest hybrids ever flown. Successful Peregrine flights will set the stage for a wide range of applications of this technology.

  10. Focusing of relative plate motion at a continental transform fault: Cenozoic dextral displacement >700 km on New Zealand's Alpine Fault, reversing >225 km of Late Cretaceous sinistral motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Simon; Mortimer, Nick; Smith, Euan; Turner, Gillian

    2016-03-01

    The widely accepted ˜450 km Cenozoic dextral strike-slip displacement on New Zealand's Alpine Fault is large for continental strike-slip faults, but it is still less than 60% of the Cenozoic relative plate motion between the Australian and Pacific plates through Zealandia, with the remaining motion assumed to be taken up by rotation and displacement on other faults in a zone up to 300 km wide. We show here that the 450 km total displacement across the Alpine Fault is an artifact of assumptions about the geometry of New Zealand's basement terranes in the Eocene, and the actual Cenozoic dextral displacement across the active trace is greater than 665 km, with more than 700 km (and <785 km since 25 Ma) occurring in a narrow zone less than 10 km wide. This way, the Alpine Fault has accommodated almost all (>94%) of the relative plate motion in the last 25 Ma at an average rate in excess of 28 mm/yr. It reverses more than 225 km (and <300 km) of sinistral shear through Zealandia in the Late Cretaceous, when Zealandia lay on the margin of Gondwana, providing a direct constraint on the kinematics of extension between East and West Antarctica at this time.

  11. Neutral Wind Observations below 200 km altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, S.; Abe, T.; Habu, H.; Kakinami, Y.; Larsen, M. F.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Yamamoto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Neutral Wind Observations below 200 km altitudesS. Watanabe1, T. Abe2, H. Habu2, Y. Kakinami3, M. Larsen4, R. Pfaff5, M. Yamamoto6, M-Y. Yamamoto31Hokkaido University/Hokkaido Information University, 2JAXA/ISAS, 3Kochi University of Technology, 4Clemson University, 5NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, 6Kyoto University, Neutral wind in the thermosphere is one of the key parameters to understand the ionosphere-thermosphere coupling process. JAXA/ISAS successfully launched sounding rockets from Uchinoura Space Center (USC) on September 2, 2007, January 12, 2012, and July 20, 2013, and NASA launched sounding rockets from Kwajalein on May 7, 2013 and from Wallops on July 4, 2013. The rockets installed Lithium and/or TMA canisters as well as instruments for plasma and electric and magnetic fields. The atomic Lithium gases were released at altitudes between 150 km and 300 km in the evening on September 2, 2007, at altitude of ~100 km in the morning on January 12, 2012, at altitude of ~120km in the midnight on July 20, 2013, at altitude between 150 km and 300 km in the evening on May 7, 2013 and at altitude of ~150 km in the noon on July 4, 2013. The Lithium atoms were scattering sunlight by resonance scattering with wavelength of 670nm. However, the Lithium atoms scattered moon light on July 20, 2013. The moon light scattering is the first time to use for thermospheric wind measurement in the midnight. The Lithium clouds/trails and TMA trails showed clearly the neutral wind shears and atmospheric waves at ~150 km altitude in the lower thermosphere for all local time.

  12. News from KM3NeT

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Ulrich F.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea, hosting a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and nodes for Earth and Sea sciences. In this report we shortly summarise the genesis of the KM3NeT project and present key elements of its technical design. The physics objectives of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope and some selected sensitivity estimates are discussed. Finally, some first results from prototype operations and the next steps towards implementation – in particular the first construction phase in 2014/15 – are described.

  13. Towards Mapping the Ocean Surface Topography at 1 km Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng; Rodriquez, Ernesto

    2006-01-01

    We propose to apply the technique of synthetic aperture radar interferometry to the measurement of ocean surface topography at spatial resolution approaching 1 km. The measurement will have wide ranging applications in oceanography, hydrology, and marine geophysics. The oceanographic and related societal applications are briefly discussed in the paper. To meet the requirements for oceanographic applications, the instrument must be flown in an orbit with proper sampling of ocean tides.

  14. Status of KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccobene, G.

    2016-07-01

    The recent observation of cosmic neutrinos by IceCube has pushed the quest towards the identification of cosmic sources of high-energy particles. The KM3NeT Collaboration is now ready to launch the massive construction of detection units to be installed in deep sea to build a km-cubic size neutrino telescope. The main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected perfomances are briefly reported.

  15. AC conductivity and relaxation mechanism in (Nd1/2Li1/2)(Fe1/2V1/2)O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Susmita; Barik, Subrat Kumar; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study we have synthesized polycrystalline sample of (Nd1/2Li1/2)(Fe1/2V1/2)O3 ceramic by a standard high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. Studies of dielectric and electrical properties of the compound have been carried out in a wide range of temperature (RT - 400 °C) and frequency (1kHz - 1MHz) using complex impedance spectroscopic technique. The imaginary vs. real component of the complex impedance plot (Nyquist plot) of the prepared sample exhibits the existence of grain, grain boundary contributions in the complex electrical parameters and negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) type behavior like semiconductor. Details study of ac conductivity plot reveals that the material obeys universal Jonscher's power law.

  16. Plasma cortisol and testosterone following 19-km and 42-km kayak races.

    PubMed

    Lutoslawska, G; Obminski, Z; Krogulski, A; Sendecki, W

    1991-12-01

    Plasma cortisol and testosterone levels were examined in five, elite, male kayakers before and after 19-km and 42-km kayak races. Both races resulted in significant elevation in plasma cortisol and observed increase is likely to depend on race duration, being much more pronounced after 42-km race compared to 19-km. It should be stressed that observed elevation in cortisol level after 42-km race was higher than reported previously after a marathon run. This finding is in line with reports on hormonal changes in response to arms exercise. Both contests caused a decrease in plasma testosterone level, but the difference between races was not significant. Testosterone/cortisol ratio dropped significantly immediately after the races and the observed decrease was more dominant after the 42-km distance. On the next day, 18 h after the races plasma cortisol, testosterone levels and T/C ratio returned to basal level indicating recuperation from post exercise changes.

  17. KM3NeT-ARCA project status and plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coniglione, R.

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration aims at building a research infrastructure in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea hosting a cubic kilometre neutrino telescope. The KM3NeT/ARCA detector is the ideal instrument to look for high-energy neutrino sources thanks to the latitude of the detector and to the optical characteristics of the sea water. The detector latitude allows for a wide coverage of the observable sky including the region of the Galactic centre and the optical sea water properties allow for the measure of the neutrino direction with excellent angular resolution also for cascade events. The technologically innovative components of the detector and the status of construction will be presented as well as the capability it offers to discover neutrinos.

  18. MODIS 3 km and 10 km aerosol optical depth for China: Evaluation and comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingqing; Zhang, Ming; Huang, Bo; Tong, Xuelian

    2017-03-01

    The recently released Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Collection 6 introduced a fine scale aerosol optical depth (AOD) distribution, the 3 km product, which is expected to perform well in analyzing aerosols and identifying local air pollution, especially in the severely polluted atmosphere of China. However, few detailed evaluations of regional variations have been conducted. In this paper, we evaluate MODIS 3 km and 10 km AOD products for China against ground-based measurements and compare their performance with respect to spatial and temporal variations. The ground validations indicate that the two products are generally correlated well to ground-based observations. Spatially, the 3 km product slightly outperform the 10 km product in well-developed areas of southern China. Temporally, both products perform worse during spring and summer. Atmospheric clouds and underlying surface are two key factors that influence the accuracy and number of retrievals for both products. The comparison analysis reveals the newly introduced AOD product clearly shows good relationships with the coarse resolution retrievals in spatial and temporal variation but significant differences regarding details. The 3 km AOD product provides better aerosol gradients, more retrievals in bare areas of western China and some spikes of diurnal variation in cloudy days. Seasonal comparisons show the 3 km AOD product is higher than the 10 km product in all seasons, especially during spring and summer. Although the 3 km product for China generally performs slightly worse than the 10 km product, the added information of the MODIS 3 km AOD product shows potential for studying local aerosol characterization, and may facilitate studies of air pollution.

  19. cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 09 / 006 F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF cis - 1,2 - DICHLOROETHYLENE and trans - 1,2 - DICHLOROETHYLENE ( CAS Nos . cis : 156 - 59 - 2 ; trans : 156 - 60 - 5 ; mixture : 540 - 59 - 0 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS )

  20. The estimation of 550 km x 550 km mean gravity anomalies. [from free atmosphere gravimetry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, M. R.; Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    The calculation of 550 km X 550 km mean gravity anomalies from 1 degree X 1 degree mean free-air gravimetry data is discussed. The block estimate procedure developed by Kaula was used, and estimates for 1452 of the 1654 blocks were obtained.

  1. Km3Net Italy - Seafloor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaleo, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT European project aims to construct a large volume underwater neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. INFN and KM3NeT collaboration, thanks to a dedicated funding of 21.000.000 € (PON 2007-2013), are committed to build and deploy the Phase 1 of the telescope, composed of a network of detection units: 8 towers, equipped with single photomultiplier optical modules, and 24 strings, equipped with multi-photomultipliers optical modules. All the towers and strings are connected to the main electro optical cable by means of a network of junction boxes and electro optical interlink cables. Each junction box is an active node able to provide all the necessary power to the detection units and to guarantee the data transmission between the detector and the on-shore control station. The KM3NeT Italia project foresees the realization and the installation of the first part of the deep sea network, composed of three junction boxes, one for the towers and two for the strings. In July 2015, two junction boxes have been deployed and connected to the new cable termination frame installed during the same sea campaign. The third and last one will be installed in November 2015. The status of the deep sea network is presented together with technical details of the project.

  2. Towards a 1km resolution global flood risk model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Paul; Neal, Jeff; Sampson, Chris; Smith, Andy

    2014-05-01

    Recent advances in computationally efficient numerical algorithms and new High Performance Computing architectures now make high (1-2km) resolution global hydrodynamic models a realistic proposition. However in many areas of the world the data sets and tools necessary to undertake such modelling do not currently exist. In particular, five major problems need to be resolved: (1) the best globally available terrain data (SRTM) was generated from X-band interferometric radar data which does not penetrate vegetation canopies and which has significant problems in determining ground elevations in urban areas; (2) a global river bathymetry data set does not currently exist; (3) most river channels globally are less than the smallest currently resolvable grid scale (1km) and therefore require a sub-grid treatment; (4) a means to estimate the magnitude of the T year flood at any point along the global river network does not currently exist; and (5) a large proportion of flood losses are generated by off-floodplain surface water flows which are not well represented in current hydrodynamic modelling systems. In this paper we propose solutions to each of these five issues as part of a concerted effort to develop a 1km (or better) resolution global flood hazard model. We describe the new numerical algorithms, computer architectures and computational resources used, and demonstrate solutions to the five previously intractable problems identified above. We conduct a validation study of the modelling against satellite imagery of major flooding on the Mississippi-Missouri confluence plain in the central USA before outlining a proof-of-concept regional study for SE Asia as a step towards a global scale model. For SE Asia we simulate flood hazard for ten different flood return periods over the entire Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia and Laos region at 1km resolution and show that the modelling produces coherent, consistent and sensible simulations of extent and water depth.

  3. Saqqar: A 34 km diameter impact structure in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, Thomas; Afifi, Abdulkader M.; Stewart, Simon A.; Poelchau, Michael H.; Cook, Douglas J.; Neville, Allen S.

    2015-11-01

    Here we present the first proof of an impact origin for the Saqqar circular structure in northwestern Saudi Arabia (Neville et al. ), with an apparent diameter of 34 km, centered at 29°35'N, 38°42'E. The structure is formed in Cambrian-Devonian siliciclastics and is unconformably overlain by undeformed Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments. The age of impact is not well constrained and lies somewhere between 410 and 70 Ma. The subsurface structure is constrained by 2-D reflection seismic profiles and six drilled wells. First-order structural features are a central uplift that rises approximately 2 km above regional datums, surrounded by a ring syncline. The crater rim is defined by circumferential normal faults. The central uplift and ring syncline correspond to a Bouguer gravity high and an annular ring-like low, respectively. The wells were drilled within the central uplift, the deepest among them exceed 2 km depth. Sandstone core samples from these wells show abundant indicators of a shock metamorphic overprint. Planar deformation features (PDFs) were measured with orientations along (0001), {101¯3}, and less frequently along {101¯1} and {101¯4}. Planar fractures (PFs) predominantly occur along (0001) and {101¯1}, and are locally associated with feather features (FFs). In addition, some shocked feldspar grains and strongly deformed mica flakes were found. The recorded shock pressure ranges between 5 and 15 GPa. The preserved level of shock and the absence of an allochthonous crater fill suggest that Saqqar was eroded by 1-2 km between the Devonian and Maastrichtian. The documentation of unequivocal shock features proves the formation of the Saqqar structure by a hypervelocity impact event.

  4. Membrane Proteome-Wide Response to the Antifungal Drug Clotrimazole in Candida glabrata: Role of the Transcription Factor CgPdr1 and the Drug:H+ Antiporters CgTpo1_1 and CgTpo1_2.

    PubMed

    Pais, Pedro; Costa, Catarina; Pires, Carla; Shimizu, Kiminori; Chibana, Hiroji; Teixeira, Miguel C

    2016-01-01

    Azoles are widely used antifungal drugs. This family of compounds includes triazoles, mostly used in the treatment of systemic infections, and imidazoles, such as clotrimazole, often used in the case of superficial infections. Candida glabrata is the second most common cause of candidemia worldwide and presents higher levels of intrinsic azole resistance when compared with Candida albicans, thus being an interesting subject for the study of azole resistance mechanisms in fungal pathogens.Since resistance often relies on the action of membrane transporters, including drug efflux pumps from the ATP-binding cassette family or from the Drug:H(+) antiporter (DHA)(1) family, an iTRAQ-based membrane proteomics analysis was performed to identify all the membrane-associated proteins whose abundance changes in C. glabrata cells exposed to the azole drug clotrimazole. Proteins found to have significant expression changes in this context were clustered into functional groups, namely: glucose metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial import, ribosome components and translation machinery, lipid metabolism, multidrug resistance transporters, cell wall assembly, and stress response, comprising a total of 37 proteins. Among these, the DHA transporter CgTpo1_2 (ORF CAGL0E03674g) was identified as overexpressed in the C. glabrata membrane in response to clotrimazole. Functional characterization of this putative drug:H(+) antiporter, and of its homolog CgTpo1_1 (ORF CAGL0G03927g), allowed the identification of these proteins as localized to the plasma membrane and conferring azole drug resistance in this fungal pathogen by actively extruding the drug to the external medium. The cell wall protein CgGas1 was also shown to confer azole drug resistance through cell wall remodeling. Finally, the transcription factor CgPdr1 in the clotrimazole response was observed to control the expression of 20 of the identified proteins, thus highlighting the existence of additional unforeseen

  5. Membrane Proteome-Wide Response to the Antifungal Drug Clotrimazole in Candida glabrata: Role of the Transcription Factor CgPdr1 and the Drug:H+ Antiporters CgTpo1_1 and CgTpo1_2*

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Pedro; Costa, Catarina; Pires, Carla; Shimizu, Kiminori; Chibana, Hiroji; Teixeira, Miguel C.

    2016-01-01

    Azoles are widely used antifungal drugs. This family of compounds includes triazoles, mostly used in the treatment of systemic infections, and imidazoles, such as clotrimazole, often used in the case of superficial infections. Candida glabrata is the second most common cause of candidemia worldwide and presents higher levels of intrinsic azole resistance when compared with Candida albicans, thus being an interesting subject for the study of azole resistance mechanisms in fungal pathogens. Since resistance often relies on the action of membrane transporters, including drug efflux pumps from the ATP-binding cassette family or from the Drug:H+ antiporter (DHA)1 family, an iTRAQ-based membrane proteomics analysis was performed to identify all the membrane-associated proteins whose abundance changes in C. glabrata cells exposed to the azole drug clotrimazole. Proteins found to have significant expression changes in this context were clustered into functional groups, namely: glucose metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial import, ribosome components and translation machinery, lipid metabolism, multidrug resistance transporters, cell wall assembly, and stress response, comprising a total of 37 proteins. Among these, the DHA transporter CgTpo1_2 (ORF CAGL0E03674g) was identified as overexpressed in the C. glabrata membrane in response to clotrimazole. Functional characterization of this putative drug:H+ antiporter, and of its homolog CgTpo1_1 (ORF CAGL0G03927g), allowed the identification of these proteins as localized to the plasma membrane and conferring azole drug resistance in this fungal pathogen by actively extruding the drug to the external medium. The cell wall protein CgGas1 was also shown to confer azole drug resistance through cell wall remodeling. Finally, the transcription factor CgPdr1 in the clotrimazole response was observed to control the expression of 20 of the identified proteins, thus highlighting the existence of additional unforeseen

  6. Twisted light transmission over 143 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenn, Mario; Handsteiner, Johannes; Fink, Matthias; Fickler, Robert; Ursin, Rupert; Malik, Mehul; Zeilinger, Anton

    2016-11-01

    Spatial modes of light can potentially carry a vast amount of information, making them promising candidates for both classical and quantum communication. However, the distribution of such modes over large distances remains difficult. Intermodal coupling complicates their use with common fibers, whereas free-space transmission is thought to be strongly influenced by atmospheric turbulence. Here, we show the transmission of orbital angular momentum modes of light over a distance of 143 km between two Canary Islands, which is 50× greater than the maximum distance achieved previously. As a demonstration of the transmission quality, we use superpositions of these modes to encode a short message. At the receiver, an artificial neural network is used for distinguishing between the different twisted light superpositions. The algorithm is able to identify different mode superpositions with an accuracy of more than 80% up to the third mode order and decode the transmitted message with an error rate of 8.33%. Using our data, we estimate that the distribution of orbital angular momentum entanglement over more than 100 km of free space is feasible. Moreover, the quality of our free-space link can be further improved by the use of state-of-the-art adaptive optics systems.

  7. 45-km horizontal path optical link demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Wright, Malcolm W.; Sanii, Babak; Page, Norman A.

    2001-06-01

    Observations made during a mountain-top-to-mountain-top horizontal optical link demonstration are described. The optical link spans a range of 46 Km at an average altitude of 2 Km above sea level. A multibeam beacon comprised of eight laser beams emerging from four multimode fiber coupled lasers (780 nm) is launched through a 0.6 m diameter telescope located at the JPL Table Mountain Facility (TMF) in Wrightwood, California. The multibeam beacon is received at Strawberry Peak located in the San Bernardino Mountains of California. The NASA, JPL developed optical communications demonstrator (OCD) receives the beacon, senses the atmospheric turbulence induced motion and using an upgraded fine steering loop actively points a communications laser beam (852 nm, 400 Mbps on-off key modulated, PN7 pseudo random bit sequence) to TMF. The eight-beam beacon allowed a four-fold reduction in normalized irradiance or scintillation index. This in turn was sufficient to eliminate beacon fades sensed by the OCD and enable performance evaluation of the fine steering loop. The residual tracking error was determined to be +/- 1.1 to +/- 1.7 (mu) rad compared to a model prediction of +/- 3.4 (mu) rad. The best link performance observed showed average bit error rates (BER) of 1E-5 over long durations (30 seconds); however, instantaneous BERs of at least 0.8E-6 over durations of 2 ms were observed. The paper also discusses results pertaining to atmospheric effects, link analysis, and overall performance.

  8. Twisted light transmission over 143 km.

    PubMed

    Krenn, Mario; Handsteiner, Johannes; Fink, Matthias; Fickler, Robert; Ursin, Rupert; Malik, Mehul; Zeilinger, Anton

    2016-11-29

    Spatial modes of light can potentially carry a vast amount of information, making them promising candidates for both classical and quantum communication. However, the distribution of such modes over large distances remains difficult. Intermodal coupling complicates their use with common fibers, whereas free-space transmission is thought to be strongly influenced by atmospheric turbulence. Here, we show the transmission of orbital angular momentum modes of light over a distance of 143 km between two Canary Islands, which is 50× greater than the maximum distance achieved previously. As a demonstration of the transmission quality, we use superpositions of these modes to encode a short message. At the receiver, an artificial neural network is used for distinguishing between the different twisted light superpositions. The algorithm is able to identify different mode superpositions with an accuracy of more than 80% up to the third mode order and decode the transmitted message with an error rate of 8.33%. Using our data, we estimate that the distribution of orbital angular momentum entanglement over more than 100 km of free space is feasible. Moreover, the quality of our free-space link can be further improved by the use of state-of-the-art adaptive optics systems.

  9. Converted phases from sharp 1000 km depth mid-mantle heterogeneity beneath Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, J.; Deuss, A.; Cottaar, S.

    2017-02-01

    Until recently, most of the lower mantle was generally considered to be well-mixed with strong heterogeneity restricted to the lowermost several hundred kilometres above the core-mantle boundary, known as the D″ layer. However several recent studies have started to hint at a potential change in Earth's structure at mid-mantle depths beneath the transition zone. Here we present a continental-wide search of Europe and the North Atlantic for mid-mantle P-to-s wave converted phases. Our data set consists of close to 50,000 high quality receiver functions. These are combined in slowness and depth stacks to identify seismic discontinuities in the range of 800-1400 km depth to determine at which depths and in which tectonic settings these features exist. Receiver functions are computed in different frequency bands to resolve the sharpness of the observed discontinuities. We find most seismic velocity jumps are observed between 975-1050 km depth, localised beneath western Europe and Iceland. The shear wave velocity jumps are roughly 1-2.5% velocity increase with depth occurring over less than 8 km in width. The most robust observations are coincident with areas of active upwelling (under Iceland) and an elongate lateral low velocity anomaly imaged in recent tomographic models which has been interpreted as diverted plume material at depth. The lack of any suggested phase change in a normal pyrolitic mantle composition at around 1000 km depth indicates the presence of regional chemical heterogeneity within the mid-mantle, potentially caused by diverted plume material. We hypothesise that our observations represent either a phase change within chemically distinct plume material itself, or are caused by small scale chemical heterogeneities entrained within the upwelling plume, either in the form of recycled basaltic material or deep sourced chemically distinct material from LLSVPs. Our observations, which cannot be directly linked to an area of either active or ancient

  10. Predicting km-scale shear zone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbi, Christopher; Culshaw, Nicholas; Shulman, Deborah; Foley, Maura; Marsh, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Because km-scale shear zones play a first-order role in lithospheric kinematics, accurate conceptual and numerical models of orogenic development require predicting when and where they form. Although a strain-based algorithm in the upper crust for weakening due to faulting appears to succeed (e.g., Koons et al., 2010, doi:10.1029/2009TC002463), a comparable general rule for the viscous crust remains unestablished. Here we consider two aspects of the geological argument for a similar algorithm in the viscous regime, namely (1) whether predicting km-scale shear zone development based on a single parameter (such as strain or shear heating) is reasonable; and (2) whether lithologic variability inherent in most orogenic systems precludes a simple predictive rule. A review of tectonically significant shear zones worldwide and more detailed investigations in the Central Gneiss belt of the Ontario segment of the Grenville Province reveals that most km-scale shear zones occur at lithological boundaries and involve mass transfer, but have fairly little else in common. As examples, the relatively flat-lying Twelve Mile Bay shear zone in the western Central Gneiss belt bounds the Parry Sound domain and is likely the product of both localized anatexis and later retrograde hydration with attendant metamorphism. Moderately dipping shear zones in granitoids of the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone apparently resulted from cooperation among several complementary microstructural processes, such as grain size reduction, enhanced diffusion, and a small degree of metamorphic reaction. Localization into shear zones requires the operation of some spatially restricted processes such as stress concentration, metamorphism/fluid access, textural evolution, and thermal perturbation. All of these could be due in part to strain, but not necessarily linearly related to strain. Stress concentrations, such as those that form at rheological boundaries, may be sufficient to nucleate high strain

  11. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloroethane ; CASRN 79 - 00 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  12. 1,2,4-Tribromobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4 - Tribromobenzene ; CASRN 615 - 54 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  13. 1,1,2-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 598 - 77 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  14. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 08 / 010F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 1,2,3 - TRICHLOROPROPANE ( CAS No . 96 - 18 - 4 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2009 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington DC i DISCLAIMER This document ha

  15. trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    trans - 1,2 - Dichloroethylene ; CASRN 156 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  16. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4 - Trichlorobenzene ; CASRN 120 - 82 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  17. 1,2-Epoxybutane (EBU)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Epoxybutane ( EBU ) ; CASRN 106 - 88 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  18. 45 Km Horizontal Path Optical Link Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, A.; Ceniceros, J.; Novak, M.; Jeganathan, M.; Portillo, A.; Erickson, D.; Depew, J.; Sanii, B.; Lesh, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    Mountain-top to mountain-top optical link experiments have been initiated at JPL, in order to perform a systems level evaluation of optical communications. Progress made so far is reported. ne NASA, JPL developed optical communications demonstrator (OCD) is used to transmit a laser signal from Strawberry Peak (SP), located in the San Bernadino mountains of California. This laser beam is received by a 0.6 m aperture telescope at JPL's Table Mountain Facility (TMF), located in Wrightwood, California. The optical link is bi-directional with the TMF telescope transmitting a continuous 4-wave (cw) 780 run beacon and the OCD sending back a 840 nm, 100 - 500 Mbps pseudo noise (PN) modulated, laser beam. The optical link path is at an average altitude of 2 km above sea level, covers a range of 46.8 km and provides an atmospheric channel equivalent to approx. 4 air masses. Average received power measured at either end fall well within the uncertainties predicted by link analysis. The reduction in normalized intensity variance (sigma(sup 2, sub I)) for the 4-beam beacon, compared to each individual beam, at SP, was from approx. 0.68 to 0.22. With some allowance for intra-beam mis-alignment, this is consistent with incoherent averaging. The sigma(sup2, sub I) measured at TMF approx. 0.43 +/- 0.22 exceeded the expected aperture averaged value of less than 0.1, probably because of beam wander. The focused spot sizes of approx. 162 +/- 6 microns at the TMF Coude and approx. 64 +/- 3 microns on the OCD compare to the predicted size range of 52 - 172 microns and 57 - 93 microns, respectively. This is consistent with 4 - 5 arcsec of atmospheric "seeing". The preliminary evaluation of OCD's fine tracking indicates that the uncompensated tracking error is approx. 3.3 micro rad compared to approx. 1.7 micro rad observed in the laboratory. Fine tracking performance was intermittent, primarily due to beacon fades on the OCD tracking sensor. The best bit error rates observed while

  19. Variation of electron and ion density distribution along Earth's magnetic field line deduced from whistler mode (wm) sounding of image/rpi satellite below altitude 5000 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Susmita

    This thesis provides a detailed survey and analysis of whistler mode (WM) echoes observed by IMAGE/RPI satellite during the years 2000-2005 below the altitude of 5000 km. Approximately 2500 WM echoes have been observed by IMAGE during this period. This includes mostly specularly reflected whistler mode (SRWM) echoes and ~400 magnetospherically reflected whistler mode (MRWM) echoes. Stanford 2D raytracing simulations and the diffusive equilibrium density model have been applied to 82 cases of MRWM echoes, observed during August-December of the year 2005 below 5000 km to determine electron and ion density measurements along Earth's magnetic field line. These are the first results of electron and ion density measurements from WM sounding covering L-shells ~1.6-4, a wide range of geomagnetic conditions (Kp 0+ to 7), and during solar minima (F10.2~70-120) in the altitude range 90 km to 4000 km. The electron and ion density profiles obtained from this analysis were compared with in situ measurements on IMAGE (passive recording; electron density (Ne)), DMSP (~850 km; Ne and ions), CHAMP (~350 km; Ne), Alouette (~500-2000 km; Ne and ions), ISIS-1, 2 (~600-3500 km; Ne, ions), AE (~130-2000 km; ions) satellites, bottom side sounding from nearby ionosonde stations (Ne), and those by GCPM (Global Core Plasma Model), IRI-2012 (International Reference Ionosphere). Based on this analysis it is found that: (1) Ne shows a decreasing trend from L-shell 1.6 to 4 on both the day and night sides of the plasmasphere up to altitude ~1000 km, which is also confirmed by the GCPM and IRI-2012 model. (2) Above ~2000 km altitude, GCPM underestimates Ne by ~30-90% relative to RPI passive measurements, WM sounding results. (3) Below 1500 km, the Ne is higher at day side than night side MLT (Magnetic Local Time). Above this altitude, significant MLT dependence of electron density is not seen. (4) Ion densities from WM sounding measurements are within 10-35% of those from the Alouette, AE, and

  20. Teleportation of entanglement over 143 km.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Thomas; Scheidl, Thomas; Fink, Matthias; Handsteiner, Johannes; Wittmann, Bernhard; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2015-11-17

    As a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, the deterministic amplification as in classical communication is impossible for unknown quantum states. This calls for more advanced techniques in a future global quantum network, e.g., for cloud quantum computing. A unique solution is the teleportation of an entangled state, i.e., entanglement swapping, representing the central resource to relay entanglement between distant nodes. Together with entanglement purification and a quantum memory it constitutes a so-called quantum repeater. Since the aforementioned building blocks have been individually demonstrated in laboratory setups only, the applicability of the required technology in real-world scenarios remained to be proven. Here we present a free-space entanglement-swapping experiment between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, verifying the presence of quantum entanglement between two previously independent photons separated by 143 km. We obtained an expectation value for the entanglement-witness operator, more than 6 SDs beyond the classical limit. By consecutive generation of the two required photon pairs and space-like separation of the relevant measurement events, we also showed the feasibility of the swapping protocol in a long-distance scenario, where the independence of the nodes is highly demanded. Because our results already allow for efficient implementation of entanglement purification, we anticipate our research to lay the ground for a fully fledged quantum repeater over a realistic high-loss and even turbulent quantum channel.

  1. EVLA/NMA: Within and Beyond the 21-km Radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Steve; Romney, Jonathan D.

    NRAO's Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) project is being implemented in two phases. Each involves extremely wide- bandwidth data transmission over optical fibers, but the two phases necessarily involve quite different approaches to the required fiber infrastructure, which make for an interesting contrast. Phase 1, formally called the "Ultrasensitive Array", involves replacing almost all of the existing electronics, leaving only the mechanical and track infrastructure of the VLA. The data transmission system being implemented for Phase 1 uses dedicated optical fibers, currently being buried at the VLA site. Twelve standard single-mode fibers will run from each of 72 antenna pads to the central building. One of these fibers will support the wideband data transmission system, using a dense wavelength division multiplexing technique to carry a bandwidth of 96 Gbps (120 Gbps formatted) per antenna. Fibers from the 27 active antenna pads will carry a total bandwidth of 2.6 Tbps. The longest of these fibers will extend the full 21- km length of each arm. Phase 2 will add the "New Mexico Array". Eight new stations will be built, and the electronics of the VLBA Pie Town and Los Alamos stations will be upgraded, to create a medium-resolution array, with sensitivity even higher than Phase 1. All ten NMA stations will lie within the State of New Mexico. The new antennas will range as far as 265 km from the VLA site, and will be located so as to facilitate access to existing fiber trunks installed, primarily, by rural telephone companies. These trunks include numerous unused fibers which, it is anticipated, can be leased economically. The longest fiber run from the VLA is 480 km. The same 96-Gbps total bandwidth per station will be supported, with the same underlying sub-band structure. Signals from up to three NMA stations will be multiplexed onto a single fiber in the existing trunks. This will limit the total length of fiber which must be leased or acquired to about 1240 km.

  2. A 700 km long crustal transect across northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, Ramon; Gallart, Josep; Díaz, Jordi; Gil, Alba; Harnafi, Mimoun; Ouraini, Fadila; Ayarza, Puy; Teixell, Antonio; Arboleya, Maria Luisa; Palomeras, Imma; Levander, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Two controlled-source wide angle seismic reflection experiments have been acquired recently (2010 and 2011) in northern Africa across Morocco. A lithospheric scale transect can be constructed by joining both data sets. Hence, an approximately 700 km-long seismic velocity cross section can be derived. From south-to-north the transect goes from the Sahara Platform, south of Merzouga, to Tanger in the north. The first experiment, SIMA, aimed to constrain the crustal structure across the Atlas Mountains. The Rif, the orogenic belt located just south of the coast of Alboran Sea, was the target of the second experiment, RIFSIS. In both cases 900 recording instruments (TEXANS) from the IRIS-PASSCAL instrument center were used to record the acoustic energy generated by explosion shots. In both experiments the shots consisted of 1 TM of explosives fired in ~30 m deep boreholes. Although the data quality varies from shot to shot, key seismic phases as Pg, PmP, Pn, and a few intra-crustal arrivals have been identified to constrain the velocity-depth structure along the whole transect. Forward modelling of the seismic reflection/refraction phases reveals a crust consisting of 3 layers in average. The Moho topography shows from south to north a relatively moderate crustal root beneath the High Atlas, which can reach 40-42 km depth. The crust is thicker beneath the Rif where the Moho is imaged as an asymmetric feature that locally defines a crustal root reaching depths of 50 km and suggesting a crustal imbrication. P wave velocities are rather low in the crust and upper mantle. First arrivals/reflections tomography supports the forward modelling results. Low fold wide-angle stacks obtained by using hyperbolic move-out reveals the geometry of the Moho along the entire transect. Beneath the Atlas, the moderate crustal root inferred is not isostatically consistent with the high surface elevations, hence supporting the idea of a 'mantle plume' as main contributor to the Atlas

  3. FUSE Observations of K--M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ake, T. B.; Dupree, A. K.; Linsky, J. L.; Harper, G. M.; Young, P. R.

    2000-12-01

    As part of the FUSE PI program, a representative sample of cool stars is being surveyed in the LWRS (30 x 30 arcsec) aperture. We report on recent observations of three late-type stars, AU Mic (HD 197481, M0 Ve), β Gem (HD 62509, K0 IIIb), and α Ori (HD 39801, M1-2 Ia--Iab). AU Mic and β Gem show strong emission lines of O VI 1032/1037 and C III 977/1176 and weaker lines of C II, N II, N III, S IV, Si III, Si IV, and perhaps Fe III. AU Mic has evidence of He II and S III emission, and β Gem shows S I emission. Differences are seen in line ratios and line profiles between these stars. In α Ori, these features are very weak or non-existent, and Fe II fluorescent lines in the 1100-1150 Å region, pumped by H I Lyman α , are present. Several emission lines are still unidentified in all spectra. Prospects for future cool star observations will be discussed. This work is based on data obtained for the Guaranteed Time Team by the NASA-CNES-CSA FUSE mission operated by the Johns Hopkins University. Financial support to U. S. participants has been provided by NASA contract NAS5-32985.

  4. KM3NeT: towards a km 3-scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, C.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2009-05-01

    The observation of high energy neutrinos ( ≳1 TeV) from astrophysical sources would substantially improve our knowledge and understanding of the non-thermal processes in these sources, and would in particular pinpoint the accelerators of cosmic rays. Theoretical predictions indicate that km 3-scale detectors are needed to detect astrophysical neutrino fluxes. That is the reason why the three Mediterranean experiments, ANTARES, NEMO and NESTOR are working together on preparing KM3NeT, a large deep-sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea which will survey a large part of the Galactic disc, including the Galactic Centre. It will complement the IceCube telescope currently under construction at the South Pole. Furthermore, the improved optical properties of sea water, compared to Antarctic ice, will allow for a better angular resolution and hence a better background rejection. The construction of this detector will require the solution of technological problems common to many deep submarine installations, and will help paving the way for other deep-sea research facilities. In this paper the major activities and the status of KM3NeT are presented.

  5. KM3NeT: towards a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Km3NeT Consortium; Distefano, C.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2009-05-01

    The observation of high energy neutrinos (≳1 TeV) from astrophysical sources would substantially improve our knowledge and understanding of the non-thermal processes in these sources, and would in particular pinpoint the accelerators of cosmic rays. Theoretical predictions indicate that km3-scale detectors are needed to detect astrophysical neutrino fluxes. That is the reason why the three Mediterranean experiments, ANTARES, NEMO and NESTOR are working together on preparing KM3NeT, a large deep-sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea which will survey a large part of the Galactic disc, including the Galactic Centre. It will complement the IceCube telescope currently under construction at the South Pole. Furthermore, the improved optical properties of sea water, compared to Antarctic ice, will allow for a better angular resolution and hence a better background rejection. The construction of this detector will require the solution of technological problems common to many deep submarine installations, and will help paving the way for other deep-sea research facilities. In this paper the major activities and the status of KM3NeT are presented.

  6. Summary of Salient Findings of "Natural Attenuation of the Lead Scavengers 1,2-Dibromoethane (EDB) and 1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) at Motor Fuel Release Sites and Implications for Risk Management"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tetra-ethyl lead was widely used in leaded automobile gasoline from 1923 until 1987 (See Figure 1). To prevent lead deposits from fouling the engine, 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) were added to the gasoline to act as lead scavengers. These compounds r...

  7. MODIS 3km Aerosol Product: Algorithm and Global Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, L. A.; Mattoo, S.; Levy, R. C.; Munchak, L.

    2013-01-01

    After more than a decade of producing a nominal 10 km aerosol product based on the dark target method, the MODIS aerosol team will be releasing a nominal 3 km product as part of their Collection 6 release. The new product differs from the original 10 km product only in the manner in which reflectance pixels are ingested, organized and selected by the aerosol algorithm. Overall, the 3 km product closely mirrors the 10 km product. However, the finer resolution product is able to retrieve over ocean closer to islands and coastlines, and is better able to resolve fine aerosol features such as smoke plumes over both ocean and land. In some situations, it provides retrievals over entire regions that the 10 km product barely samples. In situations traditionally difficult for the dark target algorithm, such as over bright or urban surfaces the 3 km product introduces isolated spikes of artificially high aerosol optical depth (AOD) that the 10 km algorithm avoids. Over land, globally, the 3 km product appears to be 0.01 to 0.02 higher than the 10 km product, while over ocean, the 3 km algorithm is retrieving a proportionally greater number of very low aerosol loading situations. Based on collocations with ground-based observations for only six months, expected errors associated with the 3 km land product are determined to be greater than for the 10 km product: 0.05 0.25 AOD. Over ocean, the suggestion is for expected errors to be the same as the 10 km product: 0.03 0.05 AOD. The advantage of the product is on the local scale, which will require continued evaluation not addressed here. Nevertheless, the new 3 km product is expected to provide important information complementary to existing satellite-derived products and become an important tool for the aerosol community.

  8. Microphysical Model of the Venus clouds between 40km and 80km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGouldrick, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    I am continuing to adapt the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA) to successfully simulate the multi-layered clouds of Venus. The present version of the one-dimensional model now includes a simple parameterization of the photochemicial production of sulfuric acid around altitudes of 62km, and its thermochemical destruction below cloud base. Photochemical production in the model is limited by the availability of water vapor and insolation. Upper cloud particles are introduced into the model via binary homogeneous nucleation, while the lower and middle cloud particles are created via activation of involatile cloud condensation nuclei. Growth by condensation and coagulation and coalescence are also treated. Mass loadings and particle sizes compare favorably with the in situ observations by the Pioneer Venus Large Probe Particle Size Spectrometer, and mixing ratios of volatiles compare favorably with remotely sensed observations of water vapor and sulfuric acid vapor. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program, grant number NNX11AD79G.

  9. Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan, 1/2 Floor Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan - Jack's Mill Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  10. Biodegradation of 1,2,3- and 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene in Soil and in Liquid Enrichment Culture †

    PubMed Central

    Marinucci, A. C.; Bartha, R.

    1979-01-01

    The biodegradation of radiochemically pure (99%) 1,2,3- and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) in soil was investigated. Experimental difficulties posed by the high volatility and slow biodegradation rate of the TCBs were partially overcome by using a specially designed incubation and trapping apparatus. Evolution of 14CO2 from active versus poisoned soil dosed with 50 μg of the individual TCBs per g gave conclusive proof that both isomers are biodegradable. At 20°C, 1,2,4-TCB was mineralized at an approximate rate of 1 nmol/day per 20 g of soil sample, and 1,2,3-TCB was mineralized at one-half to one-third that rate. Mineral fertilizers or cosubstrates failed to increase TCB mineralization rates in soil. Anaerobic conditions had a negative effect on mineralization, and increased temperatures had a positive effect. With increasing 1,2,4-TCB concentrations, 14CO2 evolution exhibited saturation kinetics with an apparent Km of 55.5 nmol per g of soil. Recovery of total radioactivity was good from soil containing high organic matter concentrations. From low-organic-matter soil, some of the radioactivity was recovered only on combustion, and overall recovery was lower. In soil-inoculated liquid culture, the cosubstrates glucose and benzene caused a slight stimulation of 1,2,4-TCB mineralization. Cochromatography of known standards with the extracts of soil pretreated with [14C]TCBs indicated that 3,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,6-dichlorophenol and, to a lesser degree, 2,3-dichlorophenol were present in soils incubated with 1,2,3-TCB. 2,4-, 2,5-, and 3,4-dichlorophenol were present in soils incubated with 1,2,4-TCB. PMID:120698

  11. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  12. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  13. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  14. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  15. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  16. Role of the transition zone and 660 km discontinuity in mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringwood, A. E.

    1994-10-01

    of differentiated oceanic lithosphere, with discrete lithological domains of former oceanic crust, former harzburgite and former lherzolite. However, in the upper mantle, these lithologies have been homogenized via convective mixing and partial melting to form a uniform pyrolite composition. Seismic velocity gradients in the heterogeneous mixture of lithologies of the transition zone are higher than they would be in homogeneous pyrolite, because of the survival of clinopyroxene to a depth of about 500 km. This may contribute towards high seismic velocity gradients observed in the transition zone. The behavior during partial melting of heterogeneous lithologies from the transition zone is also quite different from the partial melting of homogeneous pyrolite. The transition zone provides the principal source region for alkaline intraplate basalts world-wide (including ocean island basalts) whereas the homogeneous pyrolite source region of the upper mantle yields mid-ocean ridge basalt magmas.

  17. Exploring KM Features of High-Performance Companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei-Wen

    2007-12-01

    For reacting to an increasingly rival business environment, many companies emphasize the importance of knowledge management (KM). It is a favorable way to explore and learn KM features of high-performance companies. However, finding out the critical KM features of high-performance companies is a qualitative analysis problem. To handle this kind of problem, the rough set approach is suitable because it is based on data-mining techniques to discover knowledge without rigorous statistical assumptions. Thus, this paper explored KM features of high-performance companies by using the rough set approach. The results show that high-performance companies stress the importance on both tacit and explicit knowledge, and consider that incentives and evaluations are the essentials to implementing KM.

  18. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  19. 29 CFR 1.2 - Definitions. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 1 1.2 Section 1.2 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROCEDURES FOR PREDETERMINATION OF WAGE RATES § 1.2 Definitions. 1 1 These definitions... Assistance Act of 1972. (e) The term Wage Determinations OnLine (WDOL) shall mean the Government Internet...

  20. 29 CFR 1.2 - Definitions. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Definitions. 1 1.2 Section 1.2 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROCEDURES FOR PREDETERMINATION OF WAGE RATES § 1.2 Definitions. 1 1 These definitions are... Assistance Act of 1972. (e) The term Wage Determinations OnLine (WDOL) shall mean the Government Internet...

  1. 29 CFR 1.2 - Definitions. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions. 1 1.2 Section 1.2 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROCEDURES FOR PREDETERMINATION OF WAGE RATES § 1.2 Definitions. 1 1 These definitions... Assistance Act of 1972. (e) The term Wage Determinations OnLine (WDOL) shall mean the Government Internet...

  2. 29 CFR 1.2 - Definitions. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions. 1 1.2 Section 1.2 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROCEDURES FOR PREDETERMINATION OF WAGE RATES § 1.2 Definitions. 1 1 These definitions... Assistance Act of 1972. (e) The term Wage Determinations OnLine (WDOL) shall mean the Government Internet...

  3. 11 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.2 Definitions. As defined in the Privacy Act of 1974 and for the purposes of this part, unless otherwise required by the context, the following terms shall...

  4. 45 CFR 1210.1-2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope. 1210.1-2 Section 1210.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES General § 1210.1-2 Scope. (a) This part applies to all Trainees and...

  5. 45 CFR 1211.1-2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 1211.1-2 Section 1211.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-2 Applicability. This part applies to all volunteers enrolled under part A of title I of the...

  6. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  7. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1997-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of any unincorporated association which...

  8. Marshall Space Flight Center Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) KM Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccioli, Paul; Varnadoe, Tom; McCarter, Mike

    2006-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center s Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) is four months into a fifteen month Knowledge Management (KM) initiative to support enhanced engineering decision making and analyses, faster resolution of anomalies (near-term) and effective, efficient knowledge infused engineering processes, reduced knowledge attrition, and reduced anomaly occurrences (long-term). The near-term objective of this initiative is developing a KM Pilot project, within the context of a 3-5 year KM strategy, to introduce and evaluate the use of KM within PSD. An internal NASA/MSFC PSD KM team was established early in project formulation to maintain a practitioner, user-centric focus throughout the conceptual development, planning and deployment of KM technologies and capabilities with in the PSD. The PSD internal team is supported by the University of Alabama's Aging Infrastructure Systems Center Of Excellence (AISCE), Intergraph Corporation, and The Knowledge Institute. The principle product of the initial four month effort has been strategic planning of PSD KM implementation by first determining the "as is" state of KM capabilities and developing, planning and documenting the roadmap to achieve the desired "to be" state. Activities undertaken to support the planning phase have included data gathering; cultural surveys, group work-sessions, interviews, documentation review, and independent research. Assessments and analyses have been performed including industry benchmarking, related local and Agency initiatives, specific tools and techniques used and strategies for leveraging existing resources, people and technology to achieve common KM goals. Key findings captured in the PSD KM Strategic Plan include the system vision, purpose, stakeholders, prioritized strategic objectives mapped to the top ten practitioner needs and analysis of current resource usage. Opportunities identified from research, analyses, cultural/KM surveys and practitioner interviews include

  9. Wide Angle Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This brief movie illustrates the passage of the Moon through the Saturn-bound Cassini spacecraft's wide-angle camera field of view as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. From beginning to end of the sequence, 25 wide-angle images (with a spatial image scale of about 14 miles per pixel (about 23 kilometers)were taken over the course of 7 and 1/2 minutes through a series of narrow and broadband spectral filters and polarizers, ranging from the violet to the near-infrared regions of the spectrum, to calibrate the spectral response of the wide-angle camera. The exposure times range from 5 milliseconds to 1.5 seconds. Two of the exposures were smeared and have been discarded and replaced with nearby images to make a smooth movie sequence. All images were scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is approximately the same in every image. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS)at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

    Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

    Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  10. Evaluating KM Journal Content: An Assessment of Trends (2000-2005)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Creating a KM Systems Thinking Framework...........................................................17 What is a KM-specific Journal...loop Learning ................................................................... 27 Figure 6. Combining KM Frameworks into a KM Systems Thinking Framework...30 Figure 7. KM Systems Thinking Framework .................................................................. 31 Figure 8. Content

  11. High energy neutrino detection with KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliozzi, Pasquale; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration has started the construction of a next generation high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea: the largest and most sensitive neutrino research infrastructure. The full KM3NeT detector will be a several cubic kilometres distributed, networked infrastructure. In Italy, off the coast of Capo Passero, and in France, off the coast of Toulon. Thanks to its location in the Northern hemisphere and to its large instrumented volume, KM3NeT will be the optimal instrument to search for neutrinos from the Southern sky and in particular from the Galactic plane, thus making it complementary to IceCube. In this work the technologically innovative component of the detector, the status of construction and the first results from prototypes of the KM3NeT detector will be described as well as its capability to discover neutrino sources are reported.

  12. Akeno 20 km (2) air shower array (Akeno Branch)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teshima, M.; Ohoka, H.; Matsubara, Y.; Hara, T.; Hatano, Y.; Hayashida, N.; He, C. X.; Honda, M.; Ishikawa, F.; Kamata, K.

    1985-01-01

    As the first stage of the future huge array, the Akeno air shower array was expanded to about 20 sq. km. by adding 19 scintillation detectors of 2.25 sq m area outside the present 1 sq. km. Akeno array with a new data collection system. These detectors are spaced about 1km from each other and connected by two optical fiber cables. This array has been in partial operation from 8th, Sep. 1984 and full operation from 20th, Dec. 1984. 20 sq m muon stations are planned to be set with 2km separation and one of them is now under construction. The origin of the highest energy cosmic rays is studied.

  13. How does music aid 5 km of running?

    PubMed

    Bigliassi, Marcelo; León-Domínguez, Umberto; Buzzachera, Cosme F; Barreto-Silva, Vinícius; Altimari, Leandro R

    2015-02-01

    This research investigated the effects of music and its time of application on a 5-km run. Fifteen well-trained male long-distance runners (24.87 ± 2.47 years; 78.87 ± 10.57 kg; 178 ± 07 cm) participated in this study. Five randomized experimental conditions during a 5-km run on an official track were tested (PM: motivational songs, applied before 5 km of running; SM: slow motivational songs, applied during 5 km of running; FM: fast and motivational songs, applied during 5 km of running; CS: calm songs, applied after 5 km of running; CO: control condition). Psychophysiological assessments were performed before (functional near-infrared spectroscopy, heart rate variability [HRV], valence, and arousal), during (performance time, heart rate, and rate of perceived exertion [RPE]), and after (mood, RPE, and HRV) tests. The chosen songs were considered pleasurable and capable of activating. Furthermore, they activated the 3 assessed prefrontal cortex (PFC) areas (medial, right dorsolateral, and left dorsolateral) similarly, generating positive emotional consequences by autonomous system analysis. The first 800 m was accomplished faster for SM and FM compared with other conditions (p ≤ 0.05); moreover, there was a high probability of improving running performance when music was applied (SM: 89%; FM: 85%; PM: 39%). Finally, music was capable of accelerating vagal tonus after 5 km of running with CS (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, music was able to activate the PFC area, minimize perceptions, improve performance, and accelerate recovery during 5 km of running.

  14. Tannase Production by Penicillium Atramentosum KM under SSF and its Applications in Wine Clarification and Tea Cream Solubilization

    PubMed Central

    Selwal, Manjit K.; Yadav, Anita; Selwal, Krishan K.; Aggarwal, N.K.; Gupta, Ranjan; Gautam, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase commonly known as tannase is an industrially important enzyme having a wide range of applications, so there is always a scope for novel tannase with better characteristics. A newly isolated tannase-yielding fungal strain identified as Penicillium atramentosum KM was used for tannase production under solid-state fermentation (SSF) using different agro residues like amla (Phyllanthus emblica), ber (Zyzyphus mauritiana), jamun (Syzygium cumini), Jamoa (Eugenia cuspidate) and keekar (Acacia nilotica) leaves. Among these substrates, maximal extracellular tannase production i.e. 170.75 U/gds and 165.56 U/gds was obtained with jamun and keekar leaves respectively at 28ºC after 96 h. A substrate to distilled water ratio of 1:2 (w/v) was found to be the best for tannase production. Supplementation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) as nitrogen source had enhanced tannase production both in jamun and keekar leaves. Applications of the enzyme were studied in wine clarification and tea cream solubilization. It resulted in 38.05% reduction of tannic acid content in case of jamun wine, 43.59% reduction in case of grape wine and 74% reduction in the tea extract after 3 h at 35°C. PMID:24031644

  15. Tannase Production by Penicillium Atramentosum KM under SSF and its Applications in Wine Clarification and Tea Cream Solubilization.

    PubMed

    Selwal, Manjit K; Yadav, Anita; Selwal, Krishan K; Aggarwal, N K; Gupta, Ranjan; Gautam, S K

    2011-01-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase commonly known as tannase is an industrially important enzyme having a wide range of applications, so there is always a scope for novel tannase with better characteristics. A newly isolated tannase-yielding fungal strain identified as Penicillium atramentosum KM was used for tannase production under solid-state fermentation (SSF) using different agro residues like amla (Phyllanthus emblica), ber (Zyzyphus mauritiana), jamun (Syzygium cumini), Jamoa (Eugenia cuspidate) and keekar (Acacia nilotica) leaves. Among these substrates, maximal extracellular tannase production i.e. 170.75 U/gds and 165.56 U/gds was obtained with jamun and keekar leaves respectively at 28ºC after 96 h. A substrate to distilled water ratio of 1:2 (w/v) was found to be the best for tannase production. Supplementation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) as nitrogen source had enhanced tannase production both in jamun and keekar leaves. Applications of the enzyme were studied in wine clarification and tea cream solubilization. It resulted in 38.05% reduction of tannic acid content in case of jamun wine, 43.59% reduction in case of grape wine and 74% reduction in the tea extract after 3 h at 35°C.

  16. Open Wide and Trek Inside. Grades 1-2. NIH Curriculum Supplement Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs.

    This document, an inquiry-based curriculum supplement that includes materials for both teachers and students, is designed to develop an understanding among students about oral health. Contents include: (1) "About the National Institutes of Health"; (2) "About the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research"; (3) "Introduction to Open…

  17. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a)...

  18. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a)...

  19. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a)...

  20. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a)...

  1. Local fluctuations of ozone from 16 km to 45 km deduced from in situ vertical ozone profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreau, G.; Robert, C.

    1994-01-01

    A vertical ozone profile obtained by an in situ ozone sonde from 16 km to 45 km, has allowed to observe local ozone concentration variations. These variations can be observed, thanks to a fast measurement system based on a UV absorption KrF excimer laser beam in a multipass cell. Ozone standard deviation versus altitude calculated from the mean is derived. Ozone variations or fluctuations are correlated with the different dynamic zones of the stratosphere.

  2. Detection of the structure near the 410 km and 660 km discontinuities in Japan subduction zone from the waveform triplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, H.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Slab subduction plays an important role in the mantle material circulation [Stern, 2002], and can also affect the feature of the 410 km and 660 km seismic discontinuities (410 and 660) [Lebedev et al., 2002]. Japan subduction zone is a natural laboratory for studying the mantle composition and velocity structure associated with the deep subduction of the Pacific plate. In this study, triplicated waveforms of an intermediate-depth earthquake at the Hokkaido of Japan (2011/10/21, 08:02:37.62, 142.5315°E, 43.8729°N, Mb6.0, relocated depth: 188 km) are retrieved from the dense Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN). P and S waveforms are filtered with the band of 0.05-1.0 Hz and 0.02-0.5 Hz, respectively, and then integrated into the displacement data. The relative traveltime and synthetic waveform fitting is applied to mapping the deep structure. The best fitting models are obtained through the trial and error tests. We find a 15 km uplift of the 410 and a 25 km depression of the 660, indicating the cold environment caused by the subduction slab; both the 410 and 660 show the sharp discontinuity, but a smaller velocity contrast than the IASP91 model [Kennett and Engdahl, 1991]. Atop the 410 and 660, there are high-velocity layers associated with the subduction (or stagnant) slab. We also find a low-velocity anomaly with the thickness of ~65 km below the 660, which may relate to the slab dehydration or the hot upwelling at the top of the lower mantle. The seismic velocity ratio (VP/VS) shows a lower zone at the depth of ~210-395 km, showing the consistency with the low Poisson's ratio signature of the oceanic plate; a higher zone at the depth of ~560-685 km, implying the hydrous mantle transition zone.

  3. General synthesis of substituted 1,2-dihydropyridines.

    PubMed

    Tejedor, David; Cotos, Leandro; Méndez-Abt, Gabriela; García-Tellado, Fernando

    2014-11-07

    A general and practical metal-free protocol for the synthesis of 1,2-dihydropyridines with wide structural/functional diversity at the ring and featuring mono, double, or spiro substitution at the sp(3) position is described. The protocol entails a microwave-assisted domino reaction of a propargyl vinyl ether (secondary or tertiary) and a primary amine (aliphatic or aromatic) in toluene or methanol.

  4. 44 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Emergency Management Agency. (e) Major rule means any regulation that is likely to result in: (1) An...

  5. 44 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Emergency Management Agency. (e) Major rule means any regulation that is likely to result in: (1) An...

  6. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  7. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  8. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  9. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  10. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  11. 8 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Aliens and... alien means an applicant for admission coming or attempting to come into the United States at a port-of-entry, or an alien seeking transit through the United States at a port-of-entry, or an alien...

  12. Gravity Waves Near 300 km Over the Polar Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. S.; Hanson, W. B.; Hodges, R. R.; Coley, W. R.; Carignan, G. R.; Spencer, N. W.

    1995-01-01

    Distinctive wave forms in the distributions of vertical velocity and temperature of both neutral particles and ions are frequently observed from Dynamics Explorer 2 at altitudes above 250 km over the polar caps. These are interpreted as being due to internal gravity waves propagating in the neutral atmosphere. The disturbances characterized by vertical velocity perturbations of the order of 100 m/s and horizontal wave lengths along the satellite path of about 500 km. They often extend across the entire polar cap. The associated temperature perturbations indicate that the horizontal phase progression is from the nightside to the dayside. Vertical displacements are inferred to be of the order of 10 km and the periods to be of the order of 10(exp 3) s. The waves must propagate in the neutral atmosphere, but they usually are most clearly recognizable in the observations of ion vertical velocity and ion temperature. By combining the neutral pressure calculated from the observed neutral concentration and temperature with the vertical component of the neutral velocity, an upward energy flux of the order of 0.04 erg/sq cm-s at 250 km has been calculated, which is about equal to the maximum total solar ultraviolet heat input above that altitude. Upward energy fluxes calculated from observations on orbital passes at altitudes from 250 to 560 km indicate relatively little attenuation with altitude.

  13. The KM3NeT Digital Optical Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivolo, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a European deep-sea multidisciplinary research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea. It will host a km3-scale neutrino telescope and dedicated instruments for long-term and continuous measurements for Earth and Sea sciences. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope is a 3-dimensional array of Digital Optical Modules, suspended in the sea by means of vertical string structures, called Detection Units, supported by two pre-stretched Dyneema ropes, anchored to the seabed and kept taut with a system of buoys. The Digital Optical Module represents the active part of the neutrino telescope. It is composed by a 17-inch, 14 mm thick borosilicate glass (Vitrovex) spheric vessel housing 31 photomultiplier tubes with 3-inch photocathode diameter and the associated front-end and readout electronics. The technical solution adopted for the KM3NeT optical modules is characterized by an innovative design, considering that existing neutrino telescopes, Baikal, IceCube and ANTARES, all use large photomultipliers, typically with a diameter of 8″ or 10″. It offers several advantages: higher sensitive surface (1260 cm2), weaker sensitivity to Earth's magnetic field, better distinction between single-photon and multi-photon events (photon counting) and directional information with an almost isotropic field of view. In this contribution the design and the performance of the KM3NeT Digital Optical Modules are discussed, with a particular focus on enabling technologies and integration procedure.

  14. Reliability of 5-km Running Performance in a Competitive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Philip; Board, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of a 5-km time-trial during a competitive outdoor running event. Fifteen endurance runners (age = 29.5 ± 4.3 years, height = 1.75 ± 0.08 m, body mass = 71.0 ± 7.1 kg, 5-km lifetime personal best = 19:13 ± 1:13 minutes) completed two competitive 5-km time-trials over 2 weeks. No systematic…

  15. Low-velocity zone atop the 410-km seismic discontinuity in the northwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Song, Teh-Ru Alex; Helmberger, Don V; Grand, Stephen P

    2004-02-05

    The seismic discontinuity at 410 km depth in the Earth's mantle is generally attributed to the phase transition of (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 (refs 1, 2) from the olivine to wadsleyite structure. Variation in the depth of this discontinuity is often taken as a proxy for mantle temperature owing to its response to thermal perturbations. For example, a cold anomaly would elevate the 410-km discontinuity, because of its positive Clapeyron slope, whereas a warm anomaly would depress the discontinuity. But trade-offs between seismic wave-speed heterogeneity and discontinuity topography often inhibit detailed analysis of these discontinuities, and structure often appears very complicated. Here we simultaneously model seismic refracted waves and scattered waves from the 410-km discontinuity in the western United States to constrain structure in the region. We find a low-velocity zone, with a shear-wave velocity drop of 5%, on top of the 410-km discontinuity beneath the northwestern United States, extending from southwestern Oregon to the northern Basin and Range province. This low-velocity zone has a thickness that varies from 20 to 90 km with rapid lateral variations. Its spatial extent coincides with both an anomalous composition of overlying volcanism and seismic 'receiver-function' observations observed above the region. We interpret the low-velocity zone as a compositional anomaly, possibly due to a dense partial-melt layer, which may be linked to prior subduction of the Farallon plate and back-arc extension. The existence of such a layer could be indicative of high water content in the Earth's transition zone.

  16. Simulation of CO2 release at 800 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setayesh, A.

    1993-08-01

    The SOCRATES contamination-interaction code has been used to simulate the reactions of 0 + CO2 yields CO2(v) + O, O + CO2 - CO(v) + O2, and CO2 + H - CO + OH(v) at an altitude of 800 km in both ram and wake directions of the spacecraft. These simulations show that the radiation from these reactions can be measurable for the parameters which have been used in these calculations. The investigation carries out the simulations as much as 30 km from the spacecraft. The radiative intensity of CO(v) and OH(v) show the highest and lowest, respectively.

  17. Digital optical module electronics of KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, D.; Calvo, D.

    2016-11-01

    The KM3NeT neutrino telescope is being built on the Mediterranean sea and, once completed, it will be composed by tens of thousands of glass spheres (nodes) including each 31 of small photocathode (3"). The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT has to collect, treat and send to shore, in an economic way, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers and at the same time to provide time synchronization between each node at the level of 1 ns. It is described in the present article all the electronics developed for achieving this goal.

  18. Cascade sensitivity studies for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, Luigi Antonio

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the deep seas of the Mediterranean housing a large scale neutrino telescope. The first phase of construction of the telescope has started. Next step is an intermediate phase realising a detector volume of about one-third of the final detector volume. We report on calculations of the sensitivity of the KM3NeT detector to showering neutrino events, the strategy to optimise the detector to a cosmic neutrino flux analogous to the one reported by the IceCube Collaboration and the results of this strategy applied to the intermediate phase detector.

  19. Neutral winds above 200Km at high latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meriwether, J. W.; Heppner, J. P.; Stolarik, J. D.; Wescott, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Motion from multiple chemical releases between 200 and 300 km from 15 rockets launched from 4 high latitude locations are analyzed. The observations in the evening and midnight hours at magnetic altitudes or = 65 deg suggest that in these regions ion drag is the dominant force in driving neutral winds between 200 and 300 km. This conclusion is based on both the agreement between ion and neutral drift directions, and the fact that there are distinct changes in the wind associated with (a) the reversal in east-west ion drift at the Harang discontinuity, and (b) the transition from auroral belt, sunward ion drift and polar cap, anti-solar ion drift.

  20. Cloaking spin-(1/2) matter waves

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, De-Hone

    2010-06-15

    A physical construct for the cloaking of relativistic spin-(1/2) matter waves is proposed. It is shown that when the effective energy and mass of relativistic spin-(1/2) particles moving in an effective vector field in a spherical shell are controlled, their matter waves can be perfectly guided through the shell without any distortion or loss; that is, the construct provides a three-dimensional cloaking shell for relativistic spin-(1/2) matter waves. The proposal serves as the basis for some interesting applications such as providing a method to guide the matter waves of spin particles and an ideal setup to exhibit spin-spin interactions as well as perfect quantum interferences of some global effects in spin-(1/2) matter waves.

  1. Running economy during a simulated 60-km trial.

    PubMed

    Schena, Federico; Pellegrini, Barbara; Tarperi, Cantor; Calabria, Elisa; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Capelli, Carlo

    2014-07-01

    The effect of a prolonged running trial on the energy cost of running (C(r)) during a 60-km ultramarathon simulation at the pace of a 100-km competition was investigated in 13 men (40.8 ± 5.6 y, 70.7 ± 5.5 kg, 177.5 ± 4.5 cm) and 5 women (40.4 ± 2.3 y, 53.7 ± 4.4 kg, 162.4 ± 4.8 cm) who participated in a 60-km trial consisting of 3 consecutive 20-km laps. Oxygen uptake (VO(2)) at steady state was determined at constant speed before the test and at the end of each lap; stride length (SL) and frequency and contact time were measured at the same time points; serum creatine kinase (S-CPK) was measured before and at the end of the test. C(r) in J · kg(-1) · m(-1), as calculated from VO(2ss) and respiratory-exchange ratio, did not increase with distance. SL significantly decreased with distance. The net increase in S-CPK was linearly related with the percentage increase of C(r) observed during the trial. It is concluded that, in spite of increased S-CPK, this effort was not able to elicit any peripheral or central fatigue or biomechanical adaptation leading to any modification of C(r).

  2. Gravity wave vertical energy flux at 95 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, P. G.; Jacka, F.

    1985-01-01

    A three-field photometer (3FP) located at Mt. Torrens near Adelaide, is capable of monitoring different airglow emissions from three spaced fields in the sky. A wheel containing up to six different narrow bandpass interference filters can be rotated, allowing each of the filters to be sequentially placed into each of the three fields. The airglow emission of interest is the 557.7 nm line which has an intensity maximum at 95 km. Each circular field of view is located at the apexes of an equilateral triangle centered on zenith with diameters of 5 km and field separations of 13 km when projected to the 95-km level. The sampling period was 30 seconds and typical data lengths were between 7 and 8 hours. The analysis and results from the interaction of gravity waves on the 557.7 nm emission layer are derived using an atmospheric model similar to that proposed by Hines (1960) where the atmosphere is assumed isothermal and perturbations caused by gravity waves are small and adiabatic, therefore, resulting in linearized equations of motion. In the absence of waves, the atmosphere is also considered stationary. Thirteen nights of quality data from January 1983 to October 1984, covering all seasons, are used in this analysis.

  3. Body Composition Measurements of 161-km Ultramarathon Participants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares body composition characteristics with performance among participants in a 161-km trail ultramarathon. Height, mass, and percent body fat from bioimpedence spectroscopy were measured on 72 starters. Correlation analyses were used to compare body characteristics with finish time, ...

  4. Models of earth's atmosphere (90 to 2500 km)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This monograph replaces a monograph on the upper atmosphere which was a computerized version of Jacchia's model. The current model has a range from 90 to 2500 km. In addition to the computerized model, a quick-look prediction method is given that may be used to estimate the density for any time and spatial location without using a computer.

  5. Cisplatin inhibits MEK1/2

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tetsu; Tsigelny, Igor F.; Götz, Andreas W.; Howell, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin (cDDP) is known to bind to the CXXC motif of proteins containing a ferrodoxin-like fold but little is known about its ability to interact with other Cu-binding proteins. MEK1/2 has recently been identified as a Cu-dependent enzyme that does not contain a CXXC motif. We found that cDDP bound to and inhibited the activity of recombinant MEK1 with an IC50 of 0.28 μM and MEK1/2 in whole cells with an IC50 of 37.4 μM. The inhibition of MEK1/2 was relieved by both Cu+1 and Cu+2 in a concentration-dependent manner. cDDP did not inhibit the upstream pathways responsible for activating MEK1/2, and did not cause an acute depletion of cellular Cu that could account for the reduction in MEK1/2 activity. cDDP was found to bind MEK1/2 in whole cells and the extent of binding was augmented by supplementary Cu and reduced by Cu chelation. Molecular modeling predicts 3 Cu and cDDP binding sites and quantum chemistry calculations indicate that cDDP would be expected to displace Cu from each of these sites. We conclude that, at clinically relevant concentrations, cDDP binds to and inhibits MEK1/2 and that both the binding and inhibitory activity are related to its interaction with Cu bound to MEK1/2. This may provide the basis for useful interactions of cDDP with other drugs that inhibit MAPK pathway signaling. PMID:26155939

  6. Estimation of terrestrial carbon fluxes with 1km by 1km spatial-resolution using satellite- driven model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, T.; Nasahara, K.; Ito, A.; Saigusa, N.; Hirata, R.; Takagi, K.; Oikawa, T.

    2008-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon cycle is strongly affected by some local natural phenomena and human-induced activities, which bring change to the carbon exchanges via vegetation and soil microbe activities. In order to accurately understand a realistic spatial pattern in carbon exchanges including such an effect of local-scale events, we need to calculate carbon fluxes and storages with as detailed spatial resolution as possible. In response to this, we attempt to estimate terrestrial carbon fluxes with 1km by 1km spatial resolution using satellite-driven model. Study area of the model estimation is the Further East Asia region, which lies at 30-50 north latitude and 125-150 east longitude. The model is the Biosphere model integrating Eco-physiological And Mechanistic approaches using Satellite data (BEAMS) [Sasai et al., 2005, 2007]. Being aim at simulating terrestrial carbon exchanges under more realistic land surface condition, we applied as many as possible of satellite-observation products such as the standard MODIS, TRMM, and SRTM high-level land products as model inputs. In the model validation, we compared between model estimations and eddy covariance measurements at four flux sites. As a result, a correlation coefficient of the terrestrial carbon fluxes between estimations and measurements were high values, leading up that the model estimations are virtually reasonable. In model analysis, BEAMS was operated with 1km by 1km spatial resolution from 2001 to 2006. Spatial distributions in the annual mean NPP and NEP showed that high values were distributed over the hilly and plateau regions, and they were gradually decreasing towards the urban and high mountain areas, meaning that we could reflect an impact of the local-scale events in the carbon flux estimations. In future, we would extend study area to the East Asia region, and the carbon exchange map with 1km by 1km spatial- resolution is distributed on the website.

  7. A multicomponent formal [1+2+1+2]-cycloaddition for the synthesis of dihydropyridines.

    PubMed

    Girling, P Ricardo; Batsanov, Andrei S; Shen, Hong C; Whiting, Andrew

    2012-05-18

    Reaction of methoxyvinylmethylketone with different amines and aldehydes under Lewis-acid catalysed conditions results in a novel, formal, step-wise [1+2+1+2]-cycloaddition to give dihydropyridine products.

  8. Carrier phase ambiguity resolution for the Global Positioning System applied to geodetic baselines up to 2000 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blewitt, Geoffrey

    1989-01-01

    A technique for resolving the ambiguities in the GPS carrier phase data (which are biased by an integer number of cycles) is described which can be applied to geodetic baselines up to 2000 km in length and can be used with dual-frequency P code receivers. The results of such application demonstrated that a factor of 3 improvement in baseline accuracy could be obtained, giving centimeter-level agreement with coordinates inferred by very-long-baseline interferometry in the western United States. It was found that a method using pseudorange data is more reliable than one using ionospheric constraints for baselines longer than 200 km. It is recommended that future GPS networks have a wide spectrum of baseline lengths (ranging from baselines shorter than 100 km to those longer than 1000 km) and that GPS receivers be used which can acquire dual-frequency P code data.

  9. Seasonal variations of NO and O3 at altitudes of 18.3 and 21.3 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenstein, M.; Savage, H. F.; Whitten, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Nitric oxide and ozone concentrations have been measured in situ from a high-altitude research aircraft. Data which show the variations of NO and O3 with the time of year are presented for altitudes of 18.3 and 21.3 km. The extreme values of the observed NO concentrations at 21.3 km are 1.2 billion per cu cm in summer and 0.2 billion per cu cm in winter. At 18.3 km the extreme values are 1.6 billion per cu cm in summer and 0.1 billion per cu cm in winter. The smoothed NO seasonal data show a variation of about a factor of 2.5 at 21.3 km and a factor of 4 at 18.3 km. The ozone data show the generally expected magnitude and seasonal variation. We have used a photochemical model employing the measured ozone concentrations, the mean solar zenith angle, and seasonal HNO3 data reported by others to predict the seasonal NO variation at 20 km. The result is a summer-to-winter NO ratio of 2.5 which is in fair agreement with the observed ratios.

  10. Fact Sheet for KM200 Front-end Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov; Iliev, Metodi; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas

    2015-07-08

    The KM200 device is a versatile, configurable front-end electronics boards that can be used as a functional replacement for Canberra’s JAB-01 boards based on the Amptek A-111 hybrid chip, which continues to be the preferred choice of electronics for large number of the boards in junction boxes of multiplicity counters that process the signal from an array of 3He detectors. Unlike the A-111 chip’s fixed time constants and sensitivity range, the shaping time and sensitivity of the new KM200 can be optimized for demanding applications such as spent fuel, and thus could improve the safeguards measurements of existing systems where the A-111 or PDT electronics does not perform well.

  11. Remote (250 km) Fiber Bragg Grating Multiplexing System

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Vallejo, Montserrat; Rota-Rodrigo, Sergio; Lopez-Amo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate two ultra-long range fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation systems. In the first approach four FBGs are located 200 km from the monitoring station and a signal to noise ratio of 20 dB is obtained. The second improved version is able to detect the four multiplexed FBGs placed 250 km away, offering a signal to noise ratio of 6–8 dB. Consequently, this last system represents the longest range FBG sensor system reported so far that includes fiber sensor multiplexing capability. Both simple systems are based on a wavelength swept laser to scan the reflection spectra of the FBGs, and they are composed by two identical-lengths optical paths: the first one intended to launch the amplified laser signal by means of Raman amplification and the other one is employed to guide the reflection signal to the reception system. PMID:22164101

  12. Cascade sensitivity studies for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, L. A.; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    KM3NeT is a future neutrino observatory to be built in the Mediterranean Sea. Its main astrophysical goal it to search for cosmic sources of neutrinos. The status of searches for diffuse fluxes of cosmic neutrinos in the cascade channel are reported in this contribution. A signal analogous to that observed by the IceCube collaboration will be observed with a 5 σ significance within one year of operation of the detector.

  13. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coniglione, R.; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    The construction phase of an underwater high energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea, named KM3NeT, has started. The neutrino telescope that will consist of several blocks of instrumented structures will have a size of the order of a cubic-kilometer. In this work the main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected performance will be briefly reported.

  14. Organizations, Paradigms, and People: The Challenge of KM Interventions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Teresa; Burton, Yvette

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on Knowledge Management (KM) and how these interventions are put into practice by organizations and society. The topics include: 1) The Multiple Paradigm Tool; 2) Four Paradigms: tool for the Analyzing Organizations; 3) Assumptions About the Nature of Social Science; 4) Assumptions About the Nature of Society; 5) Schools of Sociological and Organizational Theory; 6) Meaning and Metaphors in the Four Paradigms; and 7) Possibilities and Conclusions.

  15. Hypervelocity launch capabilities to over 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    Very high pressure and acceleration is necessary to launch flier plates to hypervelocities. In addition, the high pressure loading must be uniform, structured, and shockless, i.e., time-dependent to prevent the flier plate from either fracturing or melting. In this paper, a novel technique is described which allows the use of megabar level loading pressures, and 10{sup 9} g acceleration to launch intact flier plates to velocities of 12.2 km/s. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Acceleration of barium ions near 8000 km above an aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T. J.; Wescott, E. M.; Foeppl, H.

    1984-01-01

    A barium shaped charge, named Limerick, was released from a rocket launched from Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska, on March 30, 1982, at 1033 UT. The release took place in a small auroral breakup. The jet of ionized barium reached an altitude of 8100 km 14.5 min after release, indicating that there were no parallel electric fields below this altitude. At 8100 km the jet appeared to stop. Analysis shows that the barium at this altitude was effectively removed from the tip. It is concluded that the barium was actually accelerated upward, resulting in a large decrease in the line-of-sight density and hence the optical intensity. The parallel electric potential in the acceleration region must have been greater than 1 kV over an altitude interval of less than 200 km. The acceleration region, although presumably auroral in origin, did not seem to be related to individual auroral structures, but appeared to be a large-scale horizontal structure. The perpendicular electric field below, as deduced from the drift of the barium, was temporally and spatially very uniform and showed no variation related to individual auroral structures passing through.

  17. Microwave spectrum of 1,2-propanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovas, F. J.; Plusquellic, D. F.; Pate, Brooks H.; Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matthew T.; Remijan, Anthony J.

    2009-09-01

    The microwave spectrum of the sugar alcohol 1,2-propanediol (CH 3CHOHCH 2OH) has been measured over the frequency range 6.5-25.0 GHz with several pulsed-beam Fourier-transform microwave spectrometers. Seven conformers of 1,2-propanediol have been assigned and ab initio electronic structure calculations of the 10 lowest energy forms have been calculated. Stark effect measurements were carried out on several of the lowest energy conformers to provide accurate determinations of the dipole moment components and assist in conformer assignment.

  18. Demonstration of Femtosecond-Phase Stabilization in 2 km OpticalFiber

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, J.W.; Wilcox, R.; Byrd, J.M.

    2007-06-01

    Long-term phase drifts of less than a femtosecond per hour have been demonstrated in a 2 km length of single-mode optical fiber, stabilized interferometrically at 1530 nm. Recent improvements include a wide-band phase detector that reduces the possibility of fringe jumping due to fast external perturbations of the fiber and locking of the master CW laser wavelength to an atomic absorption line. Mode-locked lasers may be synchronized using two wavelengths of the comb, multiplexed over one fiber, each wavelength individually interferometrically stabilized.

  19. Ad-libitum drinking and performance during a 40-km cycling time trial in the heat.

    PubMed

    Berkulo, Meriam A R; Bol, Susan; Levels, Koen; Lamberts, Robert P; Daanen, Hein A M; Noakes, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if drinking ad-libitum can counteract potential negative effects of a hypohydrated start caused by fluid restriction during a 40-km time trial (TT) in the heat. Twelve trained males performed one 40-km cycling TT euhydrated (EU: no water during the TT) and two 40-km cycling TTs hypohydrated. During one hypohydrated trial no fluid was ingested (HYPO), during the other trial ad-libitum water ingestion was allowed (FLUID). Ambient temperature was 35.2 ± 0.2 °C, relative humidity 51 ± 3% and airflow 7 m·s(-1). Body mass (BM) was determined at the start of the test, and before and after the TT. During the TT, power output, heart rate (HR), gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation, thermal comfort and thirst sensation were measured. Prior to the start of the TT, BM was 1.2% lower in HYPO and FLUID compared to EU. During the TT, BM loss in FLUID was lower compared to EU and HYPO (1.0 ± 0.8%, 2.7 ± 0.2% and 2.6 ± 0.3%, respectively). Hydration status had no effect on power output (EU: 223 ± 32 W, HYPO: 217 ± 39 W, FLUID: 224 ± 35 W), HR, gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, RPE, thermal sensation and thermal comfort. Thirst sensation was higher in HYPO than in EU and FLUID. It was concluded that hypohydration did not adversely affect performance during a 40-km cycling TT in the heat. Therefore, whether or not participants consumed fluid during exercise did not influence their TT performance.

  20. 50 CFR 1.2 - Authorized representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.2 Authorized representative. Authorized representative means the subordinate... matters. The Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is frequently the authorized representative of...

  1. 8 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.2 Definitions. As used in this... otherwise noted, means the Department of Homeland Security. Director or district director prior to March 1... or after March 1, 2003, pursuant to delegation from the Secretary of Homeland Security or...

  2. 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,1,2 - Tetrafluoroethane ; CASRN 811 - 97 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  3. 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4,5 - Tetrachlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 94 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  4. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 09 / 001 F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 1,1,2,2 - TETRACHLOROETHANE ( CAS No . 79 - 34 - 5 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2010 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC ii DISCLAIMER This docu

  5. 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

  6. Theoretical study of the photo-isomerisation reactions of 1,2-dihydro-1,2-phosphaborine and 1,2-dihydro-1,2-alumazaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ming-Der

    2015-07-01

    The mechanisms of the photochemical isomerisation reactions are investigated theoretically using the model systems, 1,2-dihydro-1,2-phosphaborine (5) and 1,2-dihydro-1,2-alumazaine (6), using the CAS(6,6)/6-311G(d,p) and MP2-CAS-(6,6)/6-311++G(3df,3pd)//CAS(6,6)/6-311G(d,p) methods. For each model reactant, three reaction pathways, which lead to three kinds of photo-isomers, are examined. The structures of the conical intersections, which play a key role in such photo-rearrangements, are determined. The thermal (or dark) reactions of the reactant species are also examined, using the same level of theory, to provide a qualitative explanation of the reaction pathways. These model investigations demonstrate that the preferred reaction route for these two aromatic heterocyclics is as follows: reactant → Franck-Condon region → conical intersection → photoproduct. The theoretical evidences anticipate that after irradiation of 5, the photoproduct yield of the Dewar BP-isomer, 8, should be larger than that of the Dewar BP-isomer, 7, whereas no Dewar BP-isomer 9 can be observed. Moreover, the present theoretical data predict after irradiation of 6, all three Dewar AlN-isomers (10, 11, and 12) and the starting molecule, 6, are produced.

  7. 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,1,2 - Tetrachloroethane ; CASRN 630 - 20 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  8. 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dibromo - 3 - chloropropane ( DBCP ) ; CASRN 96 - 12 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessm

  9. Efficient production and secretion of pyruvate from Halomonas sp. KM-1 under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Yoshikazu; Nishimura, Taku; Matsushita, Isao; Tsubota, Jun

    2016-03-01

    The alkaliphilic, halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. KM-1 can utilize both hexose and pentose sugars for the intracellular storage of bioplastic poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) under aerobic conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of the sodium nitrate concentration on PHB accumulation in the KM-1 strain. Unexpectedly, we observed the secretion of pyruvate, a central intermediate in carbon- and energy-metabolism processes in all organisms; therefore, pyruvate is widely used as a starting material in the industrial biosynthesis of pharmaceuticals and is employed for the production of crop-protection agents, polymers, cosmetics, and food additives. We then further analyzed pyruvate productivity following changes in culture temperature and the buffer concentration. In 48-h batch-cultivation experiments, we found that wild-type Halomonas sp. KM-1 secreted 63.3 g/L pyruvate at a rate of 1.32 g/(L·h), comparable to the results of former studies using mutant and recombinant microorganisms. Thus, these data provided important insights into the production of pyruvate using this novel strain.

  10. Mapping the global land surface using 1 km AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauer, D.T.; Eidenshink, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The scientific requirements for mapping the global land surface using 1 km advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data have been set forth by the U.S. Global Change Research Program; the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP); The United Nations; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); the Committee on Earth Observations Satellites; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to planet Earth (MTPE) program. Mapping the global land surface using 1 km AVHRR data is an international effort to acquire, archive, process, and distribute 1 km AVHRR data to meet the needs of the international science community. A network of AVHRR receiving stations, along with data recorded by NOAA, has been acquiring daily global land coverage since April 1, 1992. A data set of over 70,000 AVHRR images is archived and distributed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center, and the European Space Agency. Under the guidance of the IGBP, processing standards have been developed for calibration, atmospheric correction, geometric registration, and the production of global 10-day maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composites. The major uses of the composites are for the study of surface vegetation condition, mapping land cover, and deriving biophysical characteristics of terrestrial ecosystems. A time-series of 54 10-day global vegetation index composites for the period of April 1, 1992 through September 1993 has been produced. The production of a time-series of 33 10-day global vegetation index composites using NOAA-14 data for the period of February 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995 is underway. The data products are available from the USGS, in cooperation with NASA's MTPE program and other international organizations.

  11. Development of km23-Based Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Attisano, L., Wieser, R., Ventura , F., and Massagu6, J. (1994) Nature 370, 341-347 28. Biggs, J. R., Kraft, A. S. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 36987-36994...Macias- Silva et al; 1996). Since blockade of km23 could reduce both the levels of phosphorylated Smad2 and the nuclear expression of Smad2, it was of...in TGF-P signaling. Front BioscL. 8, 1280-1303. Macias- Silva , M., Abdollah, S., Hoodless, P. A., Pirone, R., and Attisano, L., Wrana, J. L. (1996

  12. The relational database system of KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Arnauld; Bozza, Cristiano

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration is building a new generation of neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. For these telescopes, a relational database is designed and implemented for several purposes, such as the centralised management of accounts, the storage of all documentation about components and the status of the detector and information about slow control and calibration data. It also contains information useful during the construction and the data acquisition phases. Highlights in the database schema, storage and management are discussed along with design choices that have impact on performances. In most cases, the database is not accessed directly by applications, but via a custom designed Web application server.

  13. An evaluation of the global 1-km AVHRR land dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teillet, P.M.; El Saleous, N.; Hansen, M.C.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Justice, C.O.; Townshend, J.R.G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the steps taken in the generation of the global 1-km AVHRR land dataset, and it documents an evaluation of the data product with respect to the original specifications and its usefulness in research and applications to date. The evaluation addresses data characterization, processing, compositing and handling issues. Examples of the main scientific outputs are presented and options for improved processing are outlined and prioritized. The dataset has made a significant contribution, and a strong recommendation is made for its reprocessing and continuation to produce a long-term record for global change research.

  14. 157km BOTDA with pulse coding and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xianyang; Wang, Zinan; Wang, Song; Xue, Naitian; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Bin; Rao, Yunjiang

    2016-05-01

    A repeater-less Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer (BOTDA) with 157.68km sensing range is demonstrated, using the combination of random fiber laser Raman pumping and low-noise laser-diode-Raman pumping. With optical pulse coding (OPC) and Non Local Means (NLM) image processing, temperature sensing with +/-0.70°C uncertainty and 8m spatial resolution is experimentally demonstrated. The image processing approach has been proved to be compatible with OPC, and it further increases the figure-of-merit (FoM) of the system by 57%.

  15. Survival of Nannochloropsis Phytoplankton in Hypervelocity Impact Events up to Velocities of 6.07 km/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasini, D. L. S.; Price, M. C.; Burchell, M. J.; Cole, M. J.

    2013-09-01

    Studies have previously been conducted to verify the survivability of living cells during hypervelocity impact events to test the panspermia and lithopanspermia hypothesis [1], [2]. It has been demonstrated that bacteria survive impacts up to 5.4 km s-1 (approx. shock pressure 30 GPa) - albeit with a low probability of survival [1] whilst larger more complex objects (such as seeds) break up at ~1 km s-1 [2]. The survivability of yeast spores in impacts up to 7.4 km s-1 has also recently been shown [3]. We demonstrate here the survivability of Nannochloropsis Phytoplankton, a eukaryotic photosynthesizing autotroph found in the 'euphotic zone'(sunlit surface layers of oceans) [4] at impact velocities up to 6.07 km s-1. Phytoplankton from a culture sample was frozen and then fired into water (to simulate oceanic impacts, as described in [5]) using a light gas gun (LGG) [6]. The water was then retrieved and placed into a sealed culture vessel and left under a constant light source to check the viability of any remnant organisms.

  16. Castro ring zone: a 4,500-km2 fossil hydrothermal system in the Challis volcanic field, central Idaho.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criss, R.E.; Ekren, E.B.; Hardyman, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    The largest fossil hydrothermal system occupying a 4500 km2 area in central Idaho is revealed by delta 18O studies. The remains of this meteoric-hydrothermal system are preserved within a sharply bounded, 15 km wide, 70-km-diameter annulus of low delta 18O rock (+2.0 to -8.8per mille) termed the Castro ring zone. The zone is centred on a less depleted (+4.5) core zone consisting of granitic rocks of the Castro pluton. This 700-km2 Eocene subvolcanic batholith has intruded, domed, and hydrothermally metamorphosed a thick sequence of Challis Volcanics, the stratigraphically low rocks in the 2000-km2 Van Horn Peak and the 1000-km2 Thunder Mountain cauldron complexes being most strongly altered. Less extreme 18O depletions occur in the youngest major ash-flow sheets of these complexes, indicating a vertical 18O gradient. Water/rock ratios of geothermal systems are surprisingly insensitive to the circulation scale.-L.-di H.

  17. KM3NeT/ORCA status and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samtleben, Dorothea F. E.

    2016-04-01

    Neutrinos created in interactions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere can serve as a powerful tool to unveil the neutrino mass hierarchy (NMH). At low energies, around a few GeV, matter effects from the transition through the Earth are expected to imprint a distinct but also subtle signature on the oscillation pattern, specific to the ordering of the neutrino masses. KM3NeT/ORCA (Oscillations Research with Cosmics in the Abyss), a densely instrumented building block of the upcoming KM3NeT neutrino telescope, will be designated to measuring this signature in the Mediterranean Sea. Using detailed simulations the sensitivity towards this signature has been evaluated. The multi-PMT detectors allow in the water for an accurate reconstruction of GeV neutrino event signatures and distinction of neutrino flavours. For the determination of the mass hierarchy a median significance of 2-6σ has been estimated for three years of data taking, depending on the actual hierarchy and the oscillation parameters. At the same time the values of several oscillation parameters like θ23 will be determined to unprecedented precision.

  18. CO2 LIDAR measurements over a 20-km slant path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senft, Daniel C.; Fox, Marsha J.; Gonglewski, John D.; Dowling, James A.; Highland, Ronald G.; Shilko, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The Air Force Phillips Laboratory conducted a series of measurements in February, May and August 1995 at the Air Force Maui Optical Station (AMOS) facility on Maui, Hawaii, to determine system requirements for an airborne long path CO(subscript 2) DIAL system. The lidar incorporates a cavity-matched mode-locked 3-J laser with the 60 cm diameter AMOS Beam Director Telescope. The one-way beam propagation path length was 21.3 km, originating at the AMOS facility on Haleakala at an altitude of 3.050 km ASL, and terminating at a target site near sea level. Both heterodyne and direct detection techniques are compared with respect to radiometric performance and signal statistics. Minimum detectable absorption levels for DIAL systems using both detection techniques and a variety of targets are estimated from long- range measurements with controlled absorbers. The signal correlation as a function of interpulse temporal separation was determined for long-range direct detection measurements. Radiometric models including system optical characteristics, beam propagation considerations, target reflectivity characteristics,a nd atmospheric effects have been developed and validated experimentally. A new receiver system is currently being fabricated and the laser transmitter is being upgraded for pulse-to-pulse wavelength agility, prior to incorporation into a C-135E airborne platform for future flight experiments.

  19. Sentiment of Search: KM and IT for User Expectations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Sarah Ann; Meza, David

    2014-01-01

    User perceived value is the number one indicator of a successful implementation of KM and IT collaborations. The system known as "Search" requires more strategy and workflow that a mere data dump or ungoverned infrastructure can provide. Monitoring of user sentiment can be a driver for providing objective measures of success and justifying changes to the user interface. The dynamic nature of information technology makes traditional usability metrics difficult to identify, yet easy to argue against. There is little disagreement, however, on the criticality of adapting to user needs and expectations. The Systems Usability Scale (SUS), developed by John Brook in 1986 has become an industry standard for usability engineering. The first phase of a modified SUS, polls the sentiment of representative users of the JSC Search system. This information can be used to correlate user determined value with types of information sought and how the system is (or is not) meeting expectations. Sentiment analysis by way of the SUS assists an organization in identification and prioritization of the KM and IT variables impacting user perceived value. A secondary, user group focused analysis is the topic of additional work that demonstrates the impact of specific changes dictated by user sentiment.

  20. Quantum crytography over 14km of installed optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.J.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.; Simmons, C.

    1995-09-01

    We have made the first demonstration that low error rate quantum cryptography over long distances (14km) of installed optical fiber in a real-world environment, subject to uncontrolled temperature and mechanical influences, representing an important new step towards incorporation of quantum cryptography into existing information security systems. We also point out that the high visibility single-photon interference in our experiment allows us to infer a test of the superposition principle of quantum mechanics: a photon reaching the detector has traveled over 14km of optical fiber in a wavepacket comprising a coherent superposition of two components that are spatially separated by about 2m. In principle, there are decoherence processes (or even possible modifications of quantum mechanics) that could cause the photon`s wavefunction to collapse into one component or the other during propagation, leading to a reduction in visibility. However, our results are consistent with no such loss of quantum coherence during the 67-{mu}s propagation time.

  1. Regiospecific synthesis of 3-substituted imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines, imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines, and imidazo[1,2-c]pyrimidine.

    PubMed

    Katritzky, Alan R; Xu, Yong-Jiang; Tu, Hongbin

    2003-06-13

    3-Substituted imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines, imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines, and imidazo[1,2-c]pyrimidine were obtained regiospecifically in yields of 35-92% in one pot by reaction of 2-aminopyridines or 2-(or 4-)aminopyrimidines, respectively, with 1,2-bis(benzotriazolyl)-1,2-(dialkylamino)ethanes.

  2. 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloro - 1,2,2 - trifluoroethane ( CFC - 113 ) ; CASRN 76 - 13 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health

  3. The Effect of Water on the 410-km Discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, J. R.; Frost, D. J.

    2001-12-01

    The H content of the Earth is one of the most poorly constrained compositional variables for the planet. The nominally anhydrous olivine and spinelloid phases thought to compose the bulk of the upper mantle and transition zone may contain many times the amount of H and O that reside in the hydrosphere. The discontinuity at 410 kilometers corresponds to the olivine-wadsleyite transition with an increase in both density and S-wave velocity of about five percent. Previous experiments and calculations in the anhydrous peridotite system indicate an olivine-wadsleyite two-phase interval that is from 10 to 18 km in width. Calculations indicate that the two-phase region would be significantly broader in a hydrous system. We have conducted a series of synthesis experiments in the multi-anvil press on hydrous and anhydrous peridotite compositions and characterized the products by electron microprobe and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Six experiments were conducted in a hydrous peridotite system, and three in an anhydrous system. The results of our synthesis experiments are consistent with the prediction of Wood (1995) that the presence of H2O extends the stability of wadsleyite to 0.6 to 1.0 GPa lower pressure and would broaden the two-phase loop to as much as 30 km. In the hydrous runs containing both olivine and wadsleyite, there appears a sharp boundary between regions of olivine and regions of wadsleyite. The texture of the run thus does not appear to be a simple chemical equilibrium, but rather a diffusion-controlled boundary. Hydrogen is known to diffuse very rapidly in these materials, raising the possibility that diffusion of H might control the texture and may affect the sharpness of the boundary in the natural system. Hydrous wadsleyite is about five percent denser than anhydrous olivine. In a hypothetical two-phase region consisting of olivine and wadsleyite plus lesser amounts of garnet and clinopyroxene extending over a depth 20 km in a hydrous system

  4. Biological and Abiotic Transformations of Ethylene Dibromide and 1,2-Dichloroethane in Ground Water at Leaded Gasoline Spill Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tetra-ethyl lead was widely used in leaded automobile gasoline from 1923 until 1987. To prevent lead deposits from fouling the engine, 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) were added to the gasoline to act as lead scavengers. The Maximum Contaminant Levels...

  5. Spin-1/2 Optical Lattice Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, N. D.; Ludlow, A. D.; Barber, Z. W.; Fortier, T. M.; Diddams, S. A.; Jiang, Y.; Jefferts, S. R.; Heavner, T. P.; Parker, T. E.; Oates, C. W.

    2009-08-01

    We experimentally investigate an optical clock based on Yb171 (I=1/2) atoms confined in an optical lattice. We have evaluated all known frequency shifts to the clock transition, including a density-dependent collision shift, with a fractional uncertainty of 3.4×10-16, limited principally by uncertainty in the blackbody radiation Stark shift. We measured the absolute clock transition frequency relative to the NIST-F1 Cs fountain clock and find the frequency to be 518 295 836 590 865.2(0.7) Hz.

  6. The ion population between 1300 km and 230000 km in the coma of comet P/Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altwegg, K.; Balsiger, H.; Geiss, J.; Goldstein, R.; Ip, W. -H.; Meier, A.; Neugebauer, M.; Rosenbauer, H.; Shelley, E.

    1993-01-01

    During the encounter of the spacecraft Giotto with Comet Halley the two sensors of the ion mass spectrometer (IMS), high energy range spectrometer (HERS) and high intensity spectrometer (HIS), measured the mass and the three-dimensional velocity distributions of cometary ions. HIS looked mainly at the cold, slow part of the distribution close to the nucleus, HERS at the more energetic pick-up ions further out. After a thorough recalibration of the HIS flight spare unit and an extensive data analysis we present here continuous ion density-, composition-, velocity-, and temperature profiles for the water group ion (mass range 16-19 amu/e) along Giotto's inbound trajectory from 230,000 to 1300 km from the comet nucleus. The two sensors are in very good agreement in the region where their measurements overlap thus giving an excellent data base for the discussion of theoretical comet models. The most prominent feature where models and observations disagree is the so called pile up region between 8000 and 15,000 km from the nucleus.

  7. Transport System for Delivery Tourists At Altitude 140 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    The author offers a new method and installation for flight in space. This method uses the centrifugal force of a rotating circular cable that provides a means for the launch of a payload into outer space, to keep the fixed space stations at high altitudes (up to 200 km). The method may also be useful for landing to space bodies, for launching of the space ships (crafts), and for moving and accelerating other artificial apparatuses. The offered installation may be used as a propulsion system for space ships and/or probes. This system uses the material of any space body (i.e. stones) for acceleration and change of the space vehicle trajectory. The suggested system may be also used as a high capacity energy accumulator.

  8. Calibration methods and tools for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikovskiy, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT detectors, ARCA and ORCA, composed of several thousands digital optical modules, are in the process of their realization in the Mediterranean Sea. Each optical module contains 31 3-inch photomultipliers. Readout of the optical modules and other detector components is synchronized at the level of sub-nanoseconds. The position of the module is measured by acoustic piezo detectors inside the module and external acoustic emitters installed on the bottom of the sea. The orientation of the module is obtained with an internal attitude and heading reference system chip. Detector calibration, i.e. timing, positioning and sea-water properties, is overviewed in this talk and discussed in detail in this conference. Results of the procedure applied to the first detector unit ready for installation in the deep sea will be shown.

  9. Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution over 200 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yan-Lin; Yin, Hua-Lei; Chen, Si-Jing; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Jiang, Xiao; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jian; You, Li-Xing; Guan, Jian-Yu; Yang, Dong-Xu; Wang, Zhen; Liang, Hao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Nan; Ma, Xiongfeng; Chen, Teng-Yun; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-11-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD) protocol is immune to all attacks on detection and guarantees the information-theoretical security even with imperfect single-photon detectors. Recently, several proof-of-principle demonstrations of MDIQKD have been achieved. Those experiments, although novel, are implemented through limited distance with a key rate less than 0.1 bit /s . Here, by developing a 75 MHz clock rate fully automatic and highly stable system and superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with detection efficiencies of more than 40%, we extend the secure transmission distance of MDIQKD to 200 km and achieve a secure key rate 3 orders of magnitude higher. These results pave the way towards a quantum network with measurement-device-independent security.

  10. Estimating worldwide solar radiation resources on a 40km grid

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, E.L.; George, R.L.; Brady, E.H.

    1996-11-01

    During 1995, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), initiated the Data Grid Task under the auspices of DOE`s Resource Assessment Program. A data grid is a framework of uniformly spaced locations (grid points) for which data are available. Estimates of monthly averages of direct normal, diffuse horizontal, and global horizontal daily-total solar radiation energy (kWh/m{sup 2}) are being made for each point on a grid covering the US, Mexico, the Caribbean, and southern Canada. The grid points are separated by approximately 40 km. Using interpolation methods, the digital data grid can be used to estimate solar resources at any location. The most encouraging result to date has been the location of sources providing worldwide data for most of the input parameters required for modeling daily total solar radiation. This is a multiyear task expected to continue through the rest of this century.

  11. Fatal truck-bicycle accident involving dragging for 45 km.

    PubMed

    Klintschar, M; Darok, M; Roll, P

    2003-08-01

    Vehicle-bicycle accidents with subsequent dragging of the rider over long distances are extremely rare. The case reported here is that of a 16-year-old mentally retarded bike rider who was run over by a truck whose driver failed to notice the accident. The legs of the victim became trapped by the rear axle of the trailer and the body was dragged over 45 km before being discovered under the parked truck. The autopsy revealed that the boy had died from the initial impact and not from the dragging injuries which had caused extensive mutilation. The reports of the technical expert and the forensic pathologist led the prosecutor to drop the case against the truck driver for manslaughter.

  12. Wintertime density perturbations near 50 km in relation to latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiroz, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    Standard and reference atmospheres which depict the horizontal distribution of air density in the stratosphere and mesosphere are not realistic in that they do not provide information on the large departures from standard that may occur during a given month, nor on the time- and space-scales of atmospheric perturbations responsible for these departures. In the present paper, it is shown how this information can be obtained from a special analysis of satellite radiance measurements. Plots of the mean zonal radiance, obtained with the VTPR instrument, and the corresponding 50-km density show not only the expected strong poleward gradient of density, but also a strong density surge from late December to early January, affecting all latitudes.

  13. Performance and Age of the Fastest Female and Male 100-KM Ultramarathoners Worldwide From 1960 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Cejka, Nadine; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph A; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the change in 100-km running performance and in the age of peak performance for 100-km ultramarathoners. Age and running speed of the annual fastest women and men in all 100-km ultramarathons held worldwide between 1960 and 2012 were analyzed in 148,017 finishes with 18,998 women and 129,019 men using single, multivariate, and nonlinear regressions. Running speed of the annual fastest men increased from 8.67 to 15.65 km.h(-1) and from 8.06 to 13.22 km.h(-1) for the annual fastest women. For the annual 10 fastest men, running speed increased from 10.23 ± 1.22 to 15.05 ± 0.29 km.h(-1) (p < 0.0001) and for the annual 10 fastest women from 7.18 ± 1.54 to 13.03 ± 0.18 km.h(-1) (p < 0.0001). The sex difference decreased from 56.1 to 16.3% for the annual fastest finishers (p < 0.0001) and from 46.7 ± 8.7% to 14.0 ± 1.2% for the annual 10 fastest finishers (p < 0.0001). The age of the annual fastest men increased from 29 to 40 years (p = 0.025). For the annual fastest women, the age remained unchanged at 35.0 ± 9.7 years (p = 0.469). For the annual 10 fastest women and men, the age remained unchanged at 34.9 ± 3.2 (p = 0.902) and 34.5 ± 2.5 years (p = 0.064), respectively. To summarize, 100-km ultramarathoners became faster, the sex difference in performance decreased but the age of the fastest finishers remained unchanged at ∼ 35 years. For athletes and coaches to plan a career as 100-km ultramarathoner, the age of the fastest female and male 100-km ultramarathoners remained unchanged at ∼ 35 years between 1960 and 2012 although the runners improved their performance over time.

  14. Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, M.S.

    2005-11-22

    With the increase in demand for more efficient, higher-power, and higher-temperature operation of power converters, design engineers face the challenge of increasing the efficiency and power density of converters [1, 2]. Development in power semiconductors is vital for achieving the design goals set by the industry. Silicon (Si) power devices have reached their theoretical limits in terms of higher-temperature and higher-power operation by virtue of the physical properties of the material. To overcome these limitations, research has focused on wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN), and diamond because of their superior material advantages such as large bandgap, high thermal conductivity, and high critical breakdown field strength. Diamond is the ultimate material for power devices because of its greater than tenfold improvement in electrical properties compared with silicon; however, it is more suited for higher-voltage (grid level) higher-power applications based on the intrinsic properties of the material [3]. GaN and SiC power devices have similar performance improvements over Si power devices. GaN performs only slightly better than SiC. Both SiC and GaN have processing issues that need to be resolved before they can seriously challenge Si power devices; however, SiC is at a more technically advanced stage than GaN. SiC is considered to be the best transition material for future power devices before high-power diamond device technology matures. Since SiC power devices have lower losses than Si devices, SiC-based power converters are more efficient. With the high-temperature operation capability of SiC, thermal management requirements are reduced; therefore, a smaller heat sink would be sufficient. In addition, since SiC power devices can be switched at higher frequencies, smaller passive components are required in power converters. Smaller heat sinks and passive components result in higher-power-density power converters

  15. Taming the 1.2 m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, S.; Edwards, M.; Greenwald, D.; Kono, D.; Liang, D.; Lohnes, K.; Wright, V.; Spillar, E.

    2013-09-01

    Achievable residual jitter on the 1.2 m telescope at MSSS shown in Figure 1 has historically been limited to 10-20 arc-sec. peak in moderate wind conditions due to the combination of the dynamics associated with the twin telescopes on the common declination axis shaft, and the related control system behavior. Figure 1 1.2 m Telescope The lightly damped, low frequency fundamental vibration mode shape of the telescopes rotating out of phase on the common declination axis shaft severely degraded the performance of the prior controllers. This vibration mode is easily excited by external forces such as wind loading and internal torque commands from the mount control system. The relatively poor historic performance was due to a combination of the low error rejection of external disturbances, and the controller exciting the mode. A radical new approach has been implemented that has resulted in a decrease of jitter to less than 1 arcsec under most conditions. The new approach includes minor hardware modifications to provide active damping with accelerometers as feedback sensors. This architecture has allowed a bandwidth increase of almost an order of magnitude and eliminated the large amplitude motions at the mode natural frequency, resulting in much improved pointing and jitter performance. A representative comparison of historical versus new architecture performance is shown in Figure 2 for the declination axis.

  16. SoilGrids1km — Global Soil Information Based on Automated Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Hengl, Tomislav; de Jesus, Jorge Mendes; MacMillan, Robert A.; Batjes, Niels H.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Ribeiro, Eloi; Samuel-Rosa, Alessandro; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G. B.; Walsh, Markus G.; Gonzalez, Maria Ruiperez

    2014-01-01

    Background Soils are widely recognized as a non-renewable natural resource and as biophysical carbon sinks. As such, there is a growing requirement for global soil information. Although several global soil information systems already exist, these tend to suffer from inconsistencies and limited spatial detail. Methodology/Principal Findings We present SoilGrids1km — a global 3D soil information system at 1 km resolution — containing spatial predictions for a selection of soil properties (at six standard depths): soil organic carbon (g kg−1), soil pH, sand, silt and clay fractions (%), bulk density (kg m−3), cation-exchange capacity (cmol+/kg), coarse fragments (%), soil organic carbon stock (t ha−1), depth to bedrock (cm), World Reference Base soil groups, and USDA Soil Taxonomy suborders. Our predictions are based on global spatial prediction models which we fitted, per soil variable, using a compilation of major international soil profile databases (ca. 110,000 soil profiles), and a selection of ca. 75 global environmental covariates representing soil forming factors. Results of regression modeling indicate that the most useful covariates for modeling soils at the global scale are climatic and biomass indices (based on MODIS images), lithology, and taxonomic mapping units derived from conventional soil survey (Harmonized World Soil Database). Prediction accuracies assessed using 5–fold cross-validation were between 23–51%. Conclusions/Significance SoilGrids1km provide an initial set of examples of soil spatial data for input into global models at a resolution and consistency not previously available. Some of the main limitations of the current version of SoilGrids1km are: (1) weak relationships between soil properties/classes and explanatory variables due to scale mismatches, (2) difficulty to obtain covariates that capture soil forming factors, (3) low sampling density and spatial clustering of soil profile locations. However, as the Soil

  17. Continuous transformation of a -1/2 wedge disclination line to a +1/2 one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Jun-Ichi

    2010-04-01

    It is known that, in the order-parameter space S2/Z2 (a typical example being a uniaxial nematic liquid crystal in three dimensions), a -1/2 wedge disclination line and a +1/2 one are topologically equivalent and can thus be transformed continuously into each other. Here we report the realization of this transformation in a simulation of a cholesteric blue phase under an electric field.

  18. 1,2-hydroxypyridonates as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging: TREN-1,2-HOPO.

    PubMed

    Jocher, Christoph J; Moore, Evan G; Xu, Jide; Avedano, Stefano; Botta, Mauro; Aime, Silvio; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2007-10-29

    1,2-Hydroxypyridinones (1,2-HOPO) form very stable lanthanide complexes that may be useful as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). X-ray diffraction of single crystals established that the solid-state structures of the Eu(III) and the previously reported [Inorg. Chem. 2004, 43, 5452] Gd(III) complex are identical. The recently discovered sensitizing properties of 1,2-HOPO chelates for Eu(III) luminescence [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 10 067] allow for direct measurement of the number of water molecules coordinated to the metal center. Fluorescence measurements of the Eu(III) complex corroborate that, in solution, two water molecules coordinate the lanthanide (q = 2) as proposed from the analysis of NMRD profiles. In addition, fluorescence measurements have verified the anion binding interactions of lanthanide TREN-1,2-HOPO complexes in solution, studied by relaxivity, revealing only very weak oxalate binding (KA = 82.7 +/- 6.5 M-1). Solution thermodynamic studies of the metal complex and free ligand have been carried out using potentiometry, spectrophotometry, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The metal ion selectivity of TREN-1,2-HOPO supports the feasibility of using 1,2-HOPO ligands for selective lanthanide binding [pGd = 19.3 (2), pZn = 15.2 (2), pCa = 8.8 (3)].

  19. Evaluation of the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelaro, Ronald; Putman, William M.; Pawson, Steven; Draper, Clara; Molod, Andrea; Norris, Peter M.; Ott, Lesley; Prive, Nikki; Reale, Oreste; Achuthavarier, Deepthi; Bosilovich, Michael; Buchard, Virginie; Chao, Winston; Coy, Lawrence; Cullather, Richard; da Silva, Arlindo; Darmenov, Anton; Koster, Randal; McCarty, Will; Schubert, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    This report documents an evaluation by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) of a two-year 7-km-resolution non-hydrostatic global mesoscale simulation produced with the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) atmospheric general circulation model. The simulation was produced as a Nature Run for conducting observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). Generation of the GEOS-5 Nature Run (G5NR) was motivated in part by the desire of the OSSE community for an improved high-resolution sequel to an existing Nature Run produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), which has served the community for several years. The intended use of the G5NR in this context is for generating simulated observations to test proposed observing system designs regarding new instruments and their deployments. Because NASA's interest in OSSEs extends beyond traditional weather forecasting applications, the G5NR includes, in addition to standard meteorological components, a suite of aerosol types and several trace gas concentrations, with emissions downscaled to 10 km using ancillary information such as power plant location, population density and night-light information. The evaluation exercise described here involved more than twenty-five GMAO scientists investigating various aspects of the G5NR performance, including time mean temperature and wind fields, energy spectra, precipitation and the hydrological cycle, the representation of waves, tropical cyclones and midlatitude storms, land and ocean surface characteristics, the representation and forcing effects of clouds and radiation, dynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere, and the representation of aerosols and trace gases. Comparisons are made with observational data sets when possible, as well as with reanalyses and other long model simulations. The evaluation is broad in scope, as it is meant to assess the overall realism of basic aspects of the G5NR deemed relevant to the conduct of OSSEs

  20. Computational Studies on Nitro Derivatives of 1-Hydroxy-1,2,4-triazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Hariji; Mukherjee, Uttama; Shankar Saini, Ravi

    2012-07-01

    Thermodynamic properties and energetics of the nitro derivatives of 1-hydroxy-1,2,4-triazole, viz. 1-hydroxy-3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole (A), 1-hydroxy-5-nitro-1,2,4-triazole (B), and 1-hydroxy-3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole (C), are considered for a detailed computational study during the present investigation using a density functional theory B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) method as implemented in the Gaussian 03 suite of programs. Heats of formation and other thermodynamic properties for all of the compounds considered were determined. Studies revealed that these compounds possess the requisite properties for use as high-density energetic materials. Detonation velocity (D) and detonation pressure (P) of the title compounds were evaluated using the Kamlet-Jacobs method based on the crystal densities calculated at the DFT(B3LYP)/6-311G(d,p) level incorporating the electrostatic interaction. Calculation showed that these compounds yielded a detonation pressure and detonation velocity in the range of 27-35 GPa and ∼8 km/s, respectively, at loading densities of 1.60-1.90 g/cm3. The calculated values are comparable to the values determined for powerful commercial explosives such as Research Department Explosive (RDX) (34.10 GPa, 8.75 km/s, 1.80 g/cm3), High Melting Explosive (HMX) (39.00 GPa, 9.11 km/s, 1.89 g/cm3), and Trinitrotoluene (TNT) (21.00 GPa, 6.93 km/s, 1.64 g/cm3).

  1. 45-km horizontal-path optical link experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Ceniceros, Juan M.; Novak, Matthew J.; Jeganathan, Muthu; Portillo, Angel; Erickson, David M.; de Pew, Jon; Sanii, B.; Lesh, James R.

    1999-04-01

    Mountain-top to mountain-top optical link experiments have been initiated at JPL, in order to perform a systems level evaluation of optical communications. Progress made so far is reported. The NASA, JPL developed optical communications demonstrator (OCD) is used to transmit a laser signal from Strawberry Peak (SP), located in the San Bernadino mountains of California. This laser beam is received by a 0.6 m aperture telescope at JPL's Table Mountain Facility (TMF), located in Wrightwood, California. The optical link is bi-directional with the TMF telescope transmitting a continuous 4-wave (cw) 780 nm beacon and the OCD sending back an 840 nm, 100 - 500 Mbps pseudo noise (PN) modulated, laser beam. The optical link path is at an average altitude of 2 Km above sea level, covers a range of 46.8 Km and provides an atmospheric channel equivalent to approximately 4 air masses. Average received power measured at either end fall well within the uncertainties predicted by link analysis. The reduction in normalized intensity variance ((sigma) I2) for the 4- beam beacon, compared to each individual beam, at SP, was from approximately 0.68 to 0.22. With some allowance for intra-beam mis-alignment, this is consistent with incoherent averaging. The (sigma) I2 measured at TMF approximately 0.43 plus or minus 0.22 exceeded the expected aperture averaged value of less than 0.1, probably because of beam wander. The focused spot sizes of approximately 162 plus or minus 6 micrometer at the TMF Coude and approximately 64 plus or minus 3 micrometer on the OCD compare to the predicted size range of 52 - 172 micrometer and 57 - 93 micrometer, respectively. This is consistent with 4 - 5 arcsec of atmospheric 'seeing.' The preliminary evaluation of OCD's fine tracking indicates that the uncompensated tracking error is approximately 3.3 (mu) rad compared to approximately 1.7 (mu) rad observed in the laboratory. Fine tracking performance was intermittent, primarily due to beacon fades on the

  2. Just how wide should 'wide reading' be?

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Educationalists introduce students to literature search strategies that, with rare exceptions, focus chiefly on the location of primary research reports and systematic reviews of those reports. These sources are, however, unlikely to adequately address the normative and/or metaphysical questions that nurses frequently and legitimately interest themselves in. To meet these interests, non-research texts exploring normative and/or metaphysical topics might and perhaps should, in some situations, be deemed suitable search targets. This seems plausible and, moreover, students are encouraged to 'read widely'. Yet accepting this proposition creates significant difficulties. Specifically, if non-research scholarly sources and artistic or literary (humanities) products dealing with normative/metaphysical issues were included in what are, at present, scientifically orientated searches, it is difficult to draw boundaries around what--if anything--is to be excluded. Engaging with this issue highlights problems with qualitative scholarship's designation as 'evidence'. Thus, absurdly, if qualitative scholarship's findings are labelled evidence because they generate practice-relevant understanding/insight, then any literary or artistic artefact (e.g. a throwaway lifestyle magazine) that generates kindred understandings/insights is presumably also evidence? This conclusion is rejected and it is instead proposed that while artistic, literary, and qualitative inquiries can provide practitioners with powerful and stimulating non-evidential understanding, these sources are not evidence as commonly conceived.

  3. One-Hundred-km-Scale Basins on Enceladus: Evidence for an Active Ice Shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; McKinnon, William B.

    2009-01-01

    Stereo-derived topographic mapping of 50% of Enceladus reveals at least 6 large-scale, ovoid depressions (basins) 90-175 km across and 800-to-1500 m deep and uncorrelated with geologic boundaries. Their shape and scale are inconsistent with impact, geoid deflection, or with dynamically supported topography. Isostatic thinning of Enceladus ice shell associated with upwellings (and tidally-driven ice melting) can plausibly account for the basins. Thinning implies upwarping of the base of the shell of 10-20 km beneath the depressions, depending on total shell thickness; loss of near-surface porosity due to enhanced heat flow may also contribute to basin lows. Alternatively, the basins may overly cold, inactive, and hence denser ice, but thermal isostasy alone requires thermal expansion more consistent with clathrate hydrate than water ice. In contrast to the basins, the south polar depression (SPD) is larger (350 wide) and shallower (0.4-to-0.8 km deep) and correlates with the area of tectonic deformation and active resurfacing. The SPD also differs in that the floor is relatively flat (i.e., conforms roughly to the global triaxial shape, or geoid) with broad, gently sloping flanks. The relative flatness across the SPD suggests that it is in or near isostatic equilibrium, and underlain by denser material, supporting the polar sea hypothesis of Collins and Goodman. Near flatness is also predicted by a crustal spreading origin for the "tiger stripes (McKinnon and Barr 2007, Barr 2008); the extraordinary, high CIRS heat flows imply half-spreading rates in excess of 10 cm/yr, a very young surface age (250,000 yr), and a rather thin lithosphere (hence modest thermal topography). Topographic rises in places along the outer margin of the SPD correlate with parallel ridges and deformation along the edge of the resurfaced terrain, consistent with a compressional, imbricate thrust origin for these ridges, driven by the spreading.

  4. Development of a global land cover characteristics database and IGBP DISCover from 1 km AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, T.R.; Reed, B.C.; Brown, J.F.; Ohlen, D.O.; Zhu, Z.; Yang, L.; Merchant, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey, University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy produced a 1 km resolution global land cover characteristics database for use in a wide range of continental-to global-scale environmental studies. This database provides a unique view of the broad patterns of the biogeographical and ecoclimatic diversity of the global land surface, and presents a detailed interpretation of the extent of human development. The project was carried out as an International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, Data and Information Systems (IGBP-DIS) initiative. The IGBP DISCover global land cover product is an integral component of the global land cover database. DISCover includes 17 general land cover classes defined to meet the needs of IGBP core science projects. A formal accuracy assessment of the DISCover data layer will be completed in 1998. The 1 km global land cover database was developed through a continent-by-continent unsupervised classification of 1 km monthly Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composites covering 1992-1993. Extensive post-classification stratification was necessary to resolve spectral/temporal confusion between disparate land cover types. The complete global database consists of 961 seasonal land cover regions that capture patterns of land cover, seasonality and relative primary productivity. The seasonal land cover regions were aggregated to produce seven separate land cover data sets used for global environmental modelling and assessment. The data sets include IGBP DISCover, U.S. Geological Survey Anderson System, Simple Biosphere Model, Simple Biosphere Model 2, Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme, Olson Ecosystems and Running Global Remote Sensing Land Cover. The database also includes all digital sources that were used in the classification. The complete database can be sourced from the website: http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/landdaac/glcc/glcc.html.

  5. ASIC design in the KM3NeT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajanana, D.; Gromov, V.; Timmer, P.

    2013-02-01

    In the KM3NeT project [1], Cherenkov light from the muon interactions with transparent matter around the detector, is used to detect neutrinos. Photo multiplier tubes (PMT) used as photon sensor, are housed in a glass sphere (aka Optical Module) to detect single photons from the Cherenkov light. The PMT needs high operational voltage ( ~ 1.5 kV) and is generated by a Cockroft-Walton (CW) multiplier circuit. The electronics required to control the PMT's and collect the signals is integrated in two ASIC's namely: 1) a front-end mixed signal ASIC (PROMiS) for the readout of the PMT and 2) an analog ASIC (CoCo) to generate pulses for charging the CW circuit and to control the feedback of the CW circuit. In this article, we discuss the two integrated circuits and test results of the complete setup. PROMiS amplifies the input charge, converts it to a pulse width and delivers the information via LVDS signals. These LVDS signals carry accurate information on the Time of arrival ( < 2 ns) and Time over Threshold. A PROM block provides unique identification to the chip. The chip communicates with the control electronics via an I2C bus. This unique combination of the ASIC's results in a very cost and power efficient PMT base design.

  6. Stratospheric microbiology at 20 km over the Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David J.; Griffin, Dale W.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    An aerobiology sampling flight at 20 km was conducted on 28 April 2008 over the Pacific Ocean (36.5° N, 118–149° W), a period of time that coincided with the movement of Asian dust across the ocean. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of viable bacteria and fungi within a transoceanic, atmospheric bridge and to improve the resolution of flight hardware processing techniques. Isolates of the microbial strains recovered were analyzed with ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequencing to identify bacterial species Bacillus sp., Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus endophyticus, and the fungal genus Penicillium. Satellite imagery and ground-based radiosonde observations were used to measure dust movement and characterize the high-altitude environment at the time of collection. Considering the atmospheric residency time (7–10 days), the extreme temperature regime of the environment (-75°C), and the absence of a mechanism that could sustain particulates at high altitude, it is unlikely that our samples indicate a permanent, stratospheric ecosystem. However, the presence of viable fungi and bacteria in transoceanic stratosphere remains relevant to understanding the distribution and extent of microbial life on Earth.

  7. A 233 km Tunnel for Lepton and Hadron Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, D. J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Datta, A.; Duraisamy, M.; Luo, T.; Lyons, G. T.

    2012-07-01

    A decade ago, a cost analysis was conducted to bore a 233 km circumference Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) tunnel passing through Fermilab. Here we outline implementations of $e^+e^-$, $p \\bar{p}$, and $\\mu^+ \\mu^-$ collider rings in this tunnel using recent technological innovations. The 240 and 500 GeV $e^+e^-$ colliders employ Crab Waist Crossings, ultra low emittance damped bunches, short vertical IP focal lengths, superconducting RF, and low coercivity, grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. Some details are also provided for a high luminosity 240 GeV $e^+ e^-$ collider and 1.75 TeV muon accelerator in a Fermilab site filler tunnel. The 40 TeV $p \\bar{p}$ collider uses the high intensity Fermilab $\\bar{p}$ source, exploits high cross sections for $p \\bar{p}$ production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconducting magnets run with liquid neon. The 35 TeV muon ring ramps the 2 Tesla superconducting magnets at 9 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of superconducting RF to accelerate muons from 1.75 to 17.5 TeV in 63 orbits with 71% survival, and mitigates neutrino radiation with phase shifting, roller coaster motion in a FODO lattice.

  8. KM3NeT Digital Optical Module electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, Diego

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT collaboration is currently building of a neutrino telescope with a volume of several cubic kilometres at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. The telescope consists of a matrix of Digital Optical Modules that will detect the Cherenkov light originated by the interaction of the neutrinos in the proximity of the detector. This contribution describes the main components of the read-out electronics of the Digital Optical Module: the Power Board, which delivers all the power supply required by the Digital Optical Molule electronics; the Central Logic Board, the main core of the read-out system, hosting 31 Time to Digital Converters with 1 ns resolution and the White Rabbit protocol embedded in the Central Logic Board Field Programmable Gate Array; the Octopus boards, that transfer the Low Voltage Digital Signals from the PMT bases to the Central Logic Board and finally the PMT bases, in charge of converting the analogue signal produced in the 31 3" PMTs into a Low Voltage Digital Signal.

  9. A 233 km tunnel for lepton and hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, D. J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Datta, A.; Duraisamy, M.; Luo, T.; Lyons, G. T.

    2012-12-21

    A decade ago, a cost analysis was conducted to bore a 233 km circumference Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) tunnel passing through Fermilab. Here we outline implementations of e{sup +}e{sup -}, pp-bar , and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} collider rings in this tunnel using recent technological innovations. The 240 and 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders employ Crab Waist Crossings, ultra low emittance damped bunches, short vertical IP focal lengths, superconducting RF, and low coercivity, grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. Some details are also provided for a high luminosity 240 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} collider and 1.75 TeV muon accelerator in a Fermilab site filler tunnel. The 40 TeV pp-bar collider uses the high intensity Fermilab p-bar source, exploits high cross sections for pp-bar production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconducting magnets run with liquid neon. The 35 TeV muon ring ramps the 2 Tesla superconducting magnets at 9 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of superconducting RF to accelerate muons from 1.75 to 17.5 TeV in 63 orbits with 71% survival, and mitigates neutrino radiation with phase shifting, roller coaster motion in a FODO lattice.

  10. Asymmetric Penetration of Shocked Solar Wind Down to 400-km Altitudes at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, K.; Seki, K.; Hara, T.; Brain, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The solar wind interaction with a planetary atmosphere produces the magnetic pile-up region near the planet. The Martian magnetic pile-up region prevents direct penetration of shocked solar wind (magnetosheath) plasma and the penetration boundary is typically located at altitudes above 800 km. Spacecraft measurements have shown, however, that magnetosheath plasma occasionally penetrates into low altitudes below 400 km. Here we used Mars Global Surveyor magnetic field and electron observations during the period from April 1999 to November 2006 to investigate the magnetosheath penetration events. We identified 240 events and found that both solar wind dynamic pressure (Psw) and the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) control the occurrence of the events. The magnetosheath penetration events during the low Psw periods tend to be distributed in low latitudes of the northern hemisphere where the crustal magnetic field is weak, while the event locations widely distributed in terms of the latitude under high Psw conditions. During the low Psw periods, a remarkable feature is that the observational probability is approximately 7 times larger during periods of the "away" IMF sector than during the "toward" sector. These results thus indicate that the magnetosheath penetrations into Martian upper atmosphere more often occur in the upward electric field hemisphere than in the downward electric field hemisphere. Large-amplitude undulation excited by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the upward electric field hemisphere previously suggested from global hybrid simulation can be one of candidate processes to cause the asymmetric penetration during low Psw periods.

  11. Monitoring massive fracture growth at 2-km depths using surface tiltmeter arrays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    Tilt due to massive hydraulic fractures induced in sedimentary rocks at depths of up to 2.2 km have been recorded by surface tiltmeters. Injection of fluid volumes up to 4 ?? 105 liters and masses of propping agent up to 5 ?? 105 kg is designed to produce fractures approximately 1 km long, 50-100 m high and about 1 cm wide. The surface tilt data adequately fit a dislocation model of a tensional fault in a half-space. Theoretical and observational results indicate that maximum tilt occurs at a distance off the strike of the fracture equivalent to 0.4 of the depth to the fracture. Azimuth and extent of the fracture deduced from the geometry of the tilt field agree with other kinds of geophysical measurements. Detailed correlation of the tilt signatures with pumping parameters (pressure, rate, volume, mass) have provided details on asymmetry in geometry and growth rate. Whereas amplitude variations in tilt vary inversely with the square of the depth, changes in flow rate or pressure gradient can produce a cubic change in width. These studies offer a large-scale experimental approach to the study of problems involving fracturing, mass transport, and dilatancy processes. ?? 1979.

  12. Modeling the Lowest 1 Km of the Atmosphere,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Oliver , et al. (1978) chose to stick with Ov as a primary variable and introduce the necessary source terms. The energy equation is then replaced by...H + h + (Hs+hs-H-h)fk(H+h-Hs-hs) (4.4.13) Hx + ht = (H+h-Hs+h5s)*(H+h-HS-hs) (4.4.14) when *is the Heaviside function and Hs(p,T) the saturation...Qz C - 1.6 H& " 2 x (Qz + 1.6)2/6.4 -1.6 ( Qi a 1.6 % Q Qz a 1.6 37 where 2 £(h -hs) 1/2 and Q2 (H-Hs)/o2 Oliver , et al. (1978) adopted a somewhat

  13. Shuttle high resolution accelerometer package experiment results - Atmospheric density measurements between 60-160 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Hinson, E. W.; Nicholson, J. Y.

    1988-01-01

    Indirect or inferred values of atmospheric density encountered by the Shuttle Orbiter during reentry have been calculated from acceleration measurements made by the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP) and the Orbiter Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) liner accelerometers. The atmospheric density data developed from this study represent a significant gain with respect to the body of data collected to date by various techniques in the altitude range of 60 to 160 km. The data are unique in that they cover a very wide horizontal range during each flight and provide insight into the actual density variations encountered along the reentry flight path. The data, which were collected over about 3 years, are also characterized by variations in solar activity, geomagnetic index, and local solar time. Comparison of the flight-derived densities with various atmospheric models have been made, and analyses have attempted to characterize the data and to show correlation with selected physical variables.

  14. 1 GHz, 1 km fiber-optic link for satellite communication integrated terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, J. J.

    In connection with the growth of satellite communications, demands concerning satellite ground terminals are continuously changing. A description is presented of an integrated terminal concept, using a cost-effective microstrip hybrid integrated circuit, GaAs MESFET, and fiber-optic technology, with complete elimination of waveguide transmission loss. The miniature low-noise front-end, consisting of a single-gate MESFET low-noise amplifier, a dual-gate MESFET active mixer, and an injection laser diode transmitter, is capable of being integrated inside the antenna feed. Through a fiber-optic cable, the downconverter signal is sent to the signal processing facility at a distance of 1 km from the antenna site. The considered link provides the advantages of wide bandwidth, elimination of ground loop and noise pick-up, transmission security, and high-voltage (lightning) isolation.

  15. Study on the performance of electromagnetic particle detectors of LHAASO-KM2A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongquan; Hou, Chao; Cao, Zhen; Chang, Jingfan; Feng, Cunfeng; Hanapia, Erlan; Gong, Guanghua; Liu, Jia; Lv, Hongkui; Sheng, Xiangdong; Zhang, Shaoru; Zhu, Chengguang

    2017-02-01

    The electromagnetic particle detectors (EDs) for one square kilometer detector array (KM2A) of large high altitude air shower observation (LHAASO) are designed to measure the densities and arrival times of secondary particles in extensive air showers (EASs). ED is a type of plastic scintillator detector with an active area of 1 m2. This study investigates the design and performance of prototype ED. Approximately 20 photoelectrons are collected by the 1st dynode of a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The prototype ED exhibited good detection efficiency and time resolution. The detection for the wide dynamic particle density varying from 1 to 10 000 particles/m2 is realized with the design of the PMT divider for the readout of both the anode and 6th dynode.

  16. File Specification for the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run, Ganymed Release Non-Hydrostatic 7-km Global Mesoscale Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    da Silva, Arlindo M.; Putman, William; Nattala, J.

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the gridded output files produced by a two-year global, non-hydrostatic mesoscale simulation for the period 2005-2006 produced with the non-hydrostatic version of GEOS-5 Atmospheric Global Climate Model (AGCM). In addition to standard meteorological parameters (wind, temperature, moisture, surface pressure), this simulation includes 15 aerosol tracers (dust, sea-salt, sulfate, black and organic carbon), O3, CO and CO2. This model simulation is driven by prescribed sea-surface temperature and sea-ice, daily volcanic and biomass burning emissions, as well as high-resolution inventories of anthropogenic sources. A description of the GEOS-5 model configuration used for this simulation can be found in Putman et al. (2014). The simulation is performed at a horizontal resolution of 7 km using a cubed-sphere horizontal grid with 72 vertical levels, extending up to to 0.01 hPa (approximately 80 km). For user convenience, all data products are generated on two logically rectangular longitude-latitude grids: a full-resolution 0.0625 deg grid that approximately matches the native cubed-sphere resolution, and another 0.5 deg reduced-resolution grid. The majority of the full-resolution data products are instantaneous with some fields being time-averaged. The reduced-resolution datasets are mostly time-averaged, with some fields being instantaneous. Hourly data intervals are used for the reduced-resolution datasets, while 30-minute intervals are used for the full-resolution products. All full-resolution output is on the model's native 72-layer hybrid sigma-pressure vertical grid, while the reduced-resolution output is given on native vertical levels and on 48 pressure surfaces extending up to 0.02 hPa. Section 4 presents additional details on horizontal and vertical grids. Information of the model surface representation can be found in Appendix B. The GEOS-5 product is organized into file collections that are described in detail in Appendix C. Additional

  17. Kinematics of the New Zealand plate boundary: Relative motion by GPS across networks of 1000 km and 50 km spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meertens, Charles M.; Rocken, Christian; Perin, Barbara; Walcott, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The NASA/DOSE 'Kinematics of the New Zealand Plate Boundary' experiment is a four-year cooperative Global Positioning System (GPS) experiment involving 6 universities and institutions in New Zealand and the United States. The investigation covers two scales, the first on the scale of plates (approximately 1000 km) and the second is on the scale of the plate boundary zone (approximately 50 km). In the first portion of the experiment, phase A, the objective is to make direct measurements of tectonic plate motion between the Australian and Pacific plates using GPS in order to determine the Euler vector of this plate pair. The phase A portion of this experiment was initiated in December 1992 with the first-epoch baseline measurements on the large scale network. The network will be resurveyed two years later to obtain velocities. The stations which were observed for phase A are shown and listed. Additional regional stations which will be used for this study are listed and are part of either CIGNET or other global tracking networks. The phase A portion of the experiment is primarily the responsibility of the UNAVCO investigators. Therefore, this report concentrates on phase A. The first year of NASA funding for phase A included only support for the field work. Processing and analysis will take place with the second year of funding. The second part of the experiemnt measured relative motion between the Australian and Pacific plates across the pate boundary zone between Hokitika and Christchurch on the South Island of New Zealand. The extent and rate of deformation will be determined by comparisons with historical, conventional surveys and by repeated GPS measurements to be made in two years. This activity was the emphasis of the LDGO portion of the study. An ancillary experiment, phase C, concentrated on plate boundary deformation in the vicinity of Wellington and was done as part of training during the early portion of the field campaign. Details of the objectives of the

  18. 77 FR 30407 - 1,2-Ethanediamine, N

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 1,2-Ethanediamine, N1-(2-aminoethyl)-, polymer with 2, 4- diisocyanato-1...-ethanediamine, N1-(2-aminoethyl)-, polymer with 2,4-diisocyanato-1-methylbenzene, when used as an inert... residues of 1,2- ethanediamine, N1-(2-aminoethyl)-, polymer with 2,4-diisocyanato-1- methylbenzene on...

  19. TEVA-SPOT Toolkit 1.2

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jonathan; Riesen, Lee Ann; Hart, William

    2007-07-26

    The TEVA-SPOT Toolkit (SPOT) supports the design of contaminant warning systems (CWSs) that use real-time sensors to detect contaminants in municipal water distribution networks. Specifically, SPOT provides the capability to select the locations for installing sensors in order to maximize the utility and effectiveness of the CWS. SPOT models the sensor placement process as an optimization problem, and the user can specify a wide range of performance objectives for contaminant warning system design, including population health effects, time to detection, extent of contamination, volume consumed and number of failed detections. For example, a SPOT user can integrate expert knowledge during the design process by specigying required sensor placements or designating network locations as forbidden. Further, cost considerations can be integrated by limiting the design with user-specified installation costs at each location.

  20. The 1.2 micron CMOS technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pina, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A set of test structures was designed using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) test chip assembler and was used to evaluate the first CMOS-bulk foundry runs with feature sizes of 1.2 microns. In addition to the problems associated with the physical scaling of the structures, this geometry provided an additional set of problems, since the design files had to be generated in such a way as to be capable of being processed through p-well, n-well, and twin-well processing lines. This requirement meant that the files containing the geometric design rules as well as the structure design files had to produce process-insensitive designs, a requirement that does not apply to the more mature 3.0-micron CMOS feature size technology. Because of the photolithographic steps required with this feature size, the maximum allowable chip size was 10 x 10 mm, and this chip was divided into 24 project areas, with each area being 1.6 x 1.6 mm in size. The JPL-designed structures occupied 13 out of the 21 allowable project sizes and provided the only test information obtained from these three preliminary runs. The structures were used to successfully evaluate three different manufacturing runs through two separate foundries.

  1. A high resolution (1 km) groundwater model for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Verkaik, Jarno; de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Rens; Erkens, Gilles; Bierkens, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater is important in many parts of Indonesia. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and industrial activities. During times of drought, it sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus support ecosystem habitat and biodiversity as well as preventing hazardous forest fire. Besides its importance, groundwater is known as a vulnerable resource as unsustainable groundwater exploitation and management occurs in many areas of the country. Therefore, in order to ensure sustainable management of groundwater resources, monitoring and predicting groundwater changes in Indonesia are imperative. However, large extent groundwater models to assess these changes on a regional scale are almost non-existent and are hampered by the strong topographical and lithological transitions that characterize Indonesia. In this study, we built an 1 km resolution groundwater model for the entire Indonesian archipelago (total inland area: about 2 million km2). We adopted the approaches of Sutanudjaja et al. (2011, 2014a) and de Graaf et al. (2014) in order to make a MODFLOW (Harbaugh et al., 2000) groundwater model by using only global datasets. Aquifer schematization and properties of the groundwater model were developed from available global lithological maps (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2011; Hartmann & Moorsdorf, 2012; Gleeson et al., 2014). We forced the groundwater model with the recent output of global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB version 2.0 (Sutanudjaja et al., 2014b; van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term average of groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from channel discharge. Simulation results were promising. The MODFLOW model converged with realistic aquifer properties (i.e. transmissivities) and produced reasonable groundwater head spatial distribution reflecting the positions of major groundwater bodies and surface water bodies in the country. In Vienna, we aim to show and demonstrate these

  2. Gastrointestinal distress is common during a 161-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Stuempfle, Kristin Jean; Hoffman, Martin Dean

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the incidence, severity, and timing of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in finishers and non-finishers of the 161-km Western States Endurance Run. A total of 272 runners (71.0% of starters) completed a post-race questionnaire that assessed the incidence and severity (none = 0, mild = 1, moderate = 2, severe = 3, very severe = 4) of 12 upper (reflux/heartburn, belching, stomach bloating, stomach cramps/pain, nausea, vomiting) and lower (intestinal cramps/pain, flatulence, side ache/stitch, urge to defecate, loose stool/diarrhoea, intestinal bleeding/bloody faeces) GI symptoms experienced during each of four race segments. GI symptoms were experienced by most runners (96.0%). Flatulence (65.9% frequency, mean value 1.0, s = 0.6 severity), belching (61.3% frequency, mean value 1.0, s = 0.6 severity), and nausea (60.3% frequency, mean value 1.0, s = 0.7 severity) were the most common symptoms. Among race finishers, 43.9% reported that GI symptoms affected their race performance, with nausea being the most common symptom (86.0%). Among race non-finishers, 35.6% reported that GI symptoms were a reason for dropping out of the race, with nausea being the most common symptom (90.5%). For both finishers and non-finishers, nausea was greatest during the most challenging and hottest part of the race. GI symptoms are very common during ultramarathon running, and in particular, nausea is the most common complaint for finishers and non-finishers.

  3. Processing techniques for global land 1-km AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Steinwand, Daniel R.; Wivell, Charles E.; Hollaren, Douglas M.; Meyer, David

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDC) in cooperation with several international science organizations has developed techniques for processing daily Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 1-km data of the entire global land surface. These techniques include orbital stitching, geometric rectification, radiometric calibration, and atmospheric correction. An orbital stitching algorithm was developed to combine consecutive observations acquired along an orbit by ground receiving stations into contiguous half-orbital segments. The geometric rectification process uses an AVHRR satellite model that contains modules for forward mapping, forward terrain correction, and inverse mapping with terrain correction. The correction is accomplished by using the hydrologic features coastlines and lakes from the Digital Chart of the World. These features are rasterized into the satellite projection and are matched to the AVHRR imagery using binary edge correlation techniques. The resulting coefficients are related to six attitude correction parameters: roll, roll rate, pitch, pitch rate, yaw, and altitude. The image can then be precision corrected to a variety of map projections and user-selected image frames. Because the AVHRR lacks onboard calibration for the optical wavelengths, a series of time-variant calibration coefficients derived from vicarious calibration methods and are used to model the degradation profile of the instruments. Reducing atmospheric effects on AVHRR data is important. A method has been develop that will remove the effects of molecular scattering and absorption from clear sky observations, using climatological measurements of ozone. Other methods to remove the effects of water vapor and aerosols are being investigated.

  4. Estimation of Land Surface Temperature from 1-km AVHRR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Corinne

    2016-04-01

    In order to re-process DLRs 1km AVHRR data archive to different geophysical and descriptive parameters of the land surface and the atmosphere, a series of scientific data processors are being developed in the framework of the TIMELINE project. The archive of DLR ranges back to the 80ies. One of the data processors is SurfTemp, which processes L2 LST and emissivity datasets from AVHRR L1b data. The development of the data processor included the selection of statistical procedures suitable for time series processing, including four mono-window and six split window algorithms. For almost all of these algorithms, new constants were generated, which better account for different atmospheric and geometric acquisition situations. The selection of optimal algorithms for SurfTemp is based on a round robin approach, in which the selected mono-window and split window algorithms are tested on the basis of a large number of TOA radiance/LST pairs, which were generated using a radiative transfer model and the SeeBorV5 profile database. The original LSTs are thereby compared to the LSTs derived from the TOA radiances using the mono- and split window algorithms. The algorithm comparison includes measures of precision, as well as the sensitivity of a method to the accuracy of its input data. The results of the round robin are presented, as well as the implementation of selected algorithms into SurfTemp. Further, first cross-validation results between the AVHRR LST and MODIS LST are shown.

  5. Determinants of recovery from a 161-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Martin D; Badowski, Natalie; Chin, Joseph; Stuempfle, Kristin J; Parise, Carol A

    2017-04-01

    The primary study objective was to identify determinants of short-term recovery from a 161-km ultramarathon. Participants completed 400 m runs at maximum speed before the race and on days 3 and 5 post-race, provided a post-race blood sample for plasma creatine kinase (CK) concentration, and provided lower body muscle pain and soreness ratings (soreness, 10-point scale) and overall muscular fatigue scores (fatigue, 100-point scale) pre-race and for 7 days post-race. Among 72 race finishers, soreness and fatigue had statistically returned to pre-race levels by 5 days post-race; and 400 m times at days 3 and 5 remained 26% (P = 0.001) and 12% (P = 0.01) slower compared with pre-race, respectively. CK best modelled soreness, fatigue and per cent change in post-race 400 m time. Runners with the highest CKs had 1.5 points higher (P < 0.001) soreness and 11.2 points higher (P = 0.006) fatigue than runners with the lowest CKs. For the model of 400 m time, a significant interaction of time with CK (P < 0.001) indicates that higher CKs were linked with a slower rate of return to pre-race 400 m time. Since post-race CK was the main modifiable determinant of recovery following the ultramarathon, appropriate training appears to be the optimal approach to enhance ultramarathon recovery.

  6. 26. A sepia photograph, 7 1/2" x 8 1/2" oh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. A sepia photograph, 7 1/2" x 8 1/2" oh semi-matte paper, aerial oblique of central Terre Haute with negative inscribed letters (prints on positive as white) along the bottom margin, "(02105-631K-118) (3-10-37. 10:30A) (R-1000) (State Normal College, Terre Haute, Ind.)" This view taken looking east shows the gas building in the near foreground right. On the reverse in red pencil, "Campus Scenes 10" and in black pencil, "1937". Source: Indiana State University Archives. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  7. Wide Angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer (WAMDII)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. T.

    1985-01-01

    The wide angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer (WAMDII) is a specialized type of optical Michelson interferometer working at sufficiently long path difference to measure Doppler shifts and to infer Doppler line widths of naturally occurring upper atmospheric Gaussian line emissions. The instrument is intended to measure vertical profiles of atmospheric winds and temperatures within the altitude range of 85 km to 300 km. The WAMDII consists of a Michelson interferometer followed by a camera lens and an 85 x 106 charge coupled device photodiode array. Narrow band filters in a filter wheel are used to isolate individual line emissions and the lens forms an image of the emitting region on the charge coupled device array.

  8. Wide Angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer (WAMDII)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, B.

    1986-01-01

    The wide angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer (WAMDII) is a specialized type of optical Michelson interferometer working at sufficiently long path difference to measure Doppler shifts and to infer Doppler line widths of naturally occurring upper atmospheric Gaussian line emissions. The instrument is intended to measure vertical profiles of atmospheric winds and temperatures within the altitude range of 85 km to 300 km. The WAMDII consists of a Michelson interferometer followed by a camera lens and an 85 x 106 charge coupled device photodiode array. Narrow band filters in a filter wheel are used to isolate individual line emissions and the lens forms an image of the emitting region on the charge coupled device array.

  9. Clouds in ECMWF's 30 KM Resolution Global Atmospheric Forecast Model (TL639)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R. F.; Morcrette, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    Global models of the general circulation of the atmosphere resolve a wide range of length scales, and in particular cloud structures extend from planetary scales to the smallest scales resolvable, now down to 30 km in state-of-the-art models. Even the highest resolution models do not resolve small-scale cloud phenomena seen, for example, in Landsat and other high-resolution satellite images of clouds. Unresolved small-scale disturbances often grow into larger ones through non-linear processes that transfer energy upscale. Understanding upscale cascades is of crucial importance in predicting current weather, and in parameterizing cloud-radiative processes that control long term climate. Several movie animations provide examples of the temporal and spatial variation of cloud fields produced in 4-day runs of the forecast model at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) in Reading, England, at particular times and locations of simultaneous measurement field campaigns. model resolution is approximately 30 km horizontally (triangular truncation TL639) with 31 vertical levels from surface to stratosphere. Timestep of the model is about 10 minutes, but animation frames are 3 hours apart, at timesteps when the radiation is computed. The animations were prepared from an archive of several 4-day runs at the highest available model resolution, and archived at ECMWF. Cloud, wind and temperature fields in an approximately 1000 km X 1000 km box were retrieved from the archive, then approximately 60 Mb Vis5d files were prepared with the help of Graeme Kelly of ECMWF, and were compressed into MPEG files each less than 3 Mb. We discuss the interaction of clouds and radiation in the model, and compare the variability of cloud liquid as a function of scale to that seen in cloud observations made in intensive field campaigns. Comparison of high-resolution global runs to cloud-resolving models, and to lower resolution climate models is leading to better

  10. The isolated ˜680 km deep 30 May 2015 MW 7.9 Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Zhan, Zhongwen; Kanamori, Hiroo; Hao, Jin-Lai

    2016-01-01

    Deep-focus earthquakes, located in very high-pressure conditions 300 to 700 km below the Earth's surface within sinking slabs of relatively cold oceanic lithosphere, are mysterious phenomena. The largest recorded deep-focus earthquake (MW 7.9) in the Izu-Bonin slab struck on 30 May 2015 beneath the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, isolated from prior seismicity by over 100 km in depth, and followed by only a few small aftershocks. Globally, this is the deepest (680 km centroid depth) event with MW ≥ 7.8 in the seismological record. Seismicity indicates along-strike contortion of the Izu-Bonin slab, with horizontal flattening near a depth of 550 km in the Izu region and rapid steepening to near-vertical toward the south above the location of the 2015 event. This event was exceptionally well-recorded by seismic stations around the world, allowing detailed constraints to be placed on the source process. Analyses of a large global data set of P, SH and pP seismic phases using short-period back-projection, subevent directivity, and broadband finite-fault inversion indicate that the mainshock ruptured a shallowly-dipping fault plane with patchy slip that spread over a distance of ∼40 km with a multi-stage expansion rate (∼ 5 + km /s down-dip initially, ∼3 km/s up-dip later). During the 17 s total rupture duration the radiated energy was ∼ 3.3 ×1016 J and the stress drop was ∼38 MPa. The radiation efficiency is moderate (0.34), intermediate to that of the 1994 Bolivia and 2013 Sea of Okhotsk MW 8.3 deep earthquakes, indicating that source processes of very large deep earthquakes sample a wide range of behavior from dissipative, more viscous failure to very brittle failure. The isolated occurrence of the event, much deeper than the apparently thermally-bounded distribution of Bonin-slab seismicity above 600 km depth, suggests that localized stress concentration associated with the pronounced deformation of the Izu-Bonin slab and proximity to the 660-km phase

  11. Toxicokinetics and metabolism of 1,2-diethylbenzene in male Sprague Dawley rats--part 2: evidence for in vitro and in vivo stereoselectivity of 1,2-diethylbenzene metabolism.

    PubMed

    Payan, J P; Cossec, B; Beydon, D; Fabry, J P; Ferrari, E

    2001-06-01

    In a previous study, it was shown that the neurotoxic compound 1,2-diethylbenzene (1,2-DEB) is mainly hydroxylated in the alkyl chain to give 1-(2'-ethylphenyl)ethanol (1,2-EPE) and excreted in urine of rats as two glucuronide compounds (GA1 and GA2). Some findings have suggested that the two enantiomers of 1,2-EPE are formed in vivo. In the present study, a chiral high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to separate the two enantiomers of 1,2-EPE from a synthesized racemic mixture. Absolute configuration of both enantiomers was determined after esterification with (R)-(+)-alpha-methoxy-alpha-(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetic acid and analysis of their (1)H NMR spectra in CCl(4) added with Eu (fod)(3). The two main urinary metabolites, GA1 and GA2, from [(14)C]1,2-DEB-treated Sprague-Dawley rats (80 mg/kg, i.p.) were identified, after hydrolysis with beta-glucuronidase from Escherichia coli, as (R) and (S) glucuronide conjugates of 1,2-EPE, respectively. In vitro hydroxylation of 1,2-DEB and glucuroconjugation of 1,2-EPE were under stereoselective control in S9 fraction or microsomes from male Sprague-Dawley rat liver. The V(max) and K(m) constants for (R)1,2-EPE enantiomer formation determined in S9 fraction were greater than those for the (S) enantiomer. In the plasma of bile duct-cannulated rats, the ratio was 1.2 +/- 0.02 over the 1- to 4-h period after oral administration of [(14)C]1,2-DEB (100 mg/kg). In contrast, the glucuroconjugation rate of (S)1,2-DEB enantiomer was 4 times that of (R)1,2-EPE glucuroconjugation. A similar ratio of (R) to (S)1,2-EPE glucuronide conjugates was obtained in the plasma of bile duct-cannulated rats.

  12. Survival of the Tardigrade Hypsibius Dujardini during Hypervelocity Impact Events up to 5.49 km s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasini, D.

    2014-04-01

    Studies have previously been conducted to verify the survivability of living cells during hypervelocity impact events to test the panspermia and lithopanspermia hypotheses [1, 2]. It has been demonstrated that bacteria survive impacts up to 5.4 km s-1 (approx. shock pressure 30 GPa) - albeit with a low probability of survival [1], whilst larger, more complex, objects (such as seeds) break up at ~1 km s-1 [2]. The survivability of yeast spores in impacts up to 7.4 km s-1 has also recently been shown [3]. Previous work by the authors demonstrated the survivability of Nannochloropsis Oculata Phytoplankton, a eukaryotic photosynthesizing autotroph found in the 'euphotic zone' (sunlit surface layers of oceans [4]), at impact velocities up to 6.07 km s-1 [5]. Other groups have also reported that lichens are able to survive shocks in similar pressure ranges [6]. However, whilst many simple single celled organisms have now been shown to survive such impacts (and the associated pressures) as those encountered during the migration of material from one planet to another [1, 3, 5], complex multicellular organisms have either largely not been tested or, those that have been, have not survived the process [2]. Hypsibius dujardini, like most species of tardigrade, are complex organisms composed of approximately 40,000 cells [7]. When humidity decreases they enter a highly dehydrated state known as a 'tun' and can survive extreme temperatures (as low as - 253°C or as high as 151°C), as well as exposure to Xrays and the vacuum of space [7]. Here we test the shock survivability of Hypsibius dujardini by firing a nylon projectile onto a frozen sample of water containing frozen tardigrades using a light gas gun (LGG) [8]. The recovered ice and water were then analysed under an optical microscope to check the viability of any remnant organisms that may have survived impact, and the pressures generated.

  13. 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK transmission up to 6000 km with 200 km amplifier spacing and a hybrid fiber span configuration.

    PubMed

    Downie, John D; Hurley, Jason; Cartledge, John; Bickham, Scott; Mishra, Snigdharaj

    2011-12-12

    We demonstrate transmission of 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK signals over a system with 200 km span lengths. Amplification is provided by hybrid backward-pumped Raman/EDFA amplifiers and reach lengths up to 6000 km for an 8 channel system and 5400 km for a 32 channel system are shown. As a means of maximizing OSNR, a simple hybrid fiber span configuration is used that combines two ultra-low loss fibers, one having very large effective area.

  14. Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, R.

    2014-12-01

    km grid for North America, 1980-2008". Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center for Biogeochemical Dynamics (DAAC), 1. [2] Devarakonda R., et al. 2012. Daymet: Single Pixel Data Extraction Tool. Available [http://daymet.ornl.go/singlepixel.html].

  15. Measurement of the vertical gradient of the semidiurnal tidal wind phase in winter at the 95 km level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schminder, R.; Kurschner, D.

    1984-05-01

    When supplemented by absolute reflection height measurements, low frequency wind measurements in the 90-100 km height range become truly competitive in comparison with the more widely used radar meteor wind observations. For example, height profiles of the wind parameters in the so-called meteor zone can be obtained due to the considerable interdiurnal variability of the average nighttime reflection heights controlled by geomagnetic activity. The phase of the semidiurnal tidal wind is particularly height-dependent. The measured vertical gradient of 1/4 h/km in winter corresponds to a vertical wavelength of about 50 km. Wind measurements in the upper atmosphere, at heights between 90 and 100 km, were carried out at the Collm Geophysical Observatory of Karl Marx University Leipzig for a number of years. These measurements use the closely-spaced receiver method and three measuring paths, on 179, 227, and 272 kHz. They take place every day between sunset and sunrise, i.e., nightly. A night in this sense may last as long as 18 hours in winter. Both the measurements and their evaluation are completely automatic, and the prevailing winds and tides are separated.

  16. Measurement of the Vertical Gradient of the Semidiurnal Tidal Wind Phase in Winter at the 95 Km Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schminder, R.; Kurschner, D.

    1984-01-01

    When supplemented by absolute reflection height measurements, low frequency wind measurements in the 90-100 km height range become truly competitive in comparison with the more widely used radar meteor wind observations. For example, height profiles of the wind parameters in the so-called meteor zone can be obtained due to the considerable interdiurnal variability of the average nighttime reflection heights controlled by geomagnetic activity. The phase of the semidiurnal tidal wind is particularly height-dependent. The measured vertical gradient of 1/4 h/km in winter corresponds to a vertical wavelength of about 50 km. Wind measurements in the upper atmosphere, at heights between 90 and 100 km, were carried out at the Collm Geophysical Observatory of Karl Marx University Leipzig for a number of years. These measurements use the closely-spaced receiver method and three measuring paths, on 179, 227, and 272 kHz. They take place every day between sunset and sunrise, i.e., nightly. A night in this sense may last as long as 18 hours in winter. Both the measurements and their evaluation are completely automatic, and the prevailing winds and tides are separated.

  17. Do some deep-sea, sediment-dwelling species of harpacticoid copepods have 1000-km-scale range sizes?

    PubMed

    Easton, E E; Thistle, D

    2016-09-01

    The range sizes of sediment-dwelling deep-sea species are largely unknown. Such knowledge is important because a deep sea composed in large part of species with 100-km-scale ranges would be very different from one composed predominantly of species with 1000-km-scale ranges. For example, the total species richness would be much greater in the first case than in the second. As a step towards the determination of the distribution of species' range sizes in the deep sea, we asked whether harpacticoid copepods (Crustacea) on the continental rise in the northeastern Pacific had 1000-km-scale range sizes. We chose harpacticoids because they occur widely in deep-sea sediments and thus are a typical deep-sea taxon. In addition, they have no pelagic stage in their life history, so they allow a conservative test of hypotheses about species' range sizes. We used morphology and gene-sequence data to assign individuals to species. At least 13.3% of the species we studied had 1000-km-scale ranges, raising the question of how these species maintain genetic continuity.

  18. Electrical properties of Ba(Dy1/2Nb1/2)O3 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, K. Amar; Chandra, K. P.; Dubey, K.; Prasad, K.

    2016-05-01

    Polycrystalline Ba(Dy1/2Nb1/2)O3 was prepared using a high-temperature solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the formation of a single-phase cubic structure having space group Pm3m. AC impedance plots as a function of frequency at different temperatures were used to analyse the electrical behaviour of the sample, which indicated the negative temperature coefficient of resistance character. Complex impedance analysis targeted non-Debye type dielectric relaxation. Frequency dependent ac conductivity data obeyed Jonscher's power law. The apparent activation energy was estimated to be 0.97 eV at 1 kHz.

  19. Genome Wide Association Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastiani, Paola; Solovieff, Nadia

    The availability of high throughput technology for parallel genotyping has opened the field of genetics to genome-wide association studies (GWAS). These studies generate massive amount of genetic data that challenge investigators with issues related to data management, statistical analysis of large data sets, visualization, and annotation of results. We will review the common approach to analysis of GWAS data and then discuss options to learn more from these data.

  20. Percent utilization of VO2 max at 5-km competition velocity does not determine time performance at 5 km among elite distance runners.

    PubMed

    Støa, Eva Maria; Støren, Øyvind; Enoksen, Eystein; Ingjer, Frank

    2010-05-01

    The present study investigated to what extent maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and fractional utilization (%VO2 max) in 5-km competition speed correlate with 5-km performance times among elite long distance runners. Eight elite long distance runners with 5-km performance times of 15.10 minutes ( +/- 32 seconds) were tested for VO2 max during an incremental protocol and for %VO2 max during an 8-minute treadmill test at the velocity representing their 5-km seasonal best performance time. There was no correlation between fractional utilization and 5-km performance. The study showed no significant difference between VO2 max obtained during an incremental VO2 max test and %VO2 max when running for 8 minutes at the runner's individual 5-km competition speed. The 5-km time was related to the runner's VO2 max even in a homogenous high-level performance group. In conclusion, the present study found no relationship between fractional utilization and 5-km performance time. Training aiming to increase %VO2 max may thus be of little or no importance in performance enhancement for competitions lasting up to approximately 20 minutes.

  1. The Central Logic Board for the KM3NeT detector: Design and production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musico, P.

    2016-07-01

    The KM3NeT deep sea neutrino observatory will include a very large number of multi-Photomultiplier (PMT) optical modules (DOM) to detect the Cherenkov light generated by secondary particles produced in neutrino interactions. The Central Logic Board (CLB) has been developed to acquire timing and amplitude information from the PMT signals, implementing time-to-digital conversion (TDC) with time over threshold (TOT) technique. The board is also used to configure all the DOM subsystems, to assist in the DOM position and orientation, calibration and to monitor temperature and humidity in the DOM itself. All the collected data are transmitted to shore using a wide-bandwidth optical network. Moreover, through the optical network, all the DOMs are kept synchronized in time within 1 ns precision using the White Rabbit (WR) Precision Time Protocol (PTP) over an Ethernet connection. A large Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) has been adopted to implement all the specifications witht the requested performances. The CLB will be also used in the base container of the detection unit (DU) to set-up and monitor all the requested functionalities: in this scenario a dedicated firmware and software will be deployed on board. The design has been started in early 2013 and several prototypes have been developed. After deep test carried on in different EU laboratories, the final mass production batch of 600 boards has been ordered and built: all the CLB are now ready for integration in the DOMs and base containers. The first two KM3NeT DU will be deployed in summer 2015 and all other units are in advanced stage of integration.

  2. Metabolism of 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,3,5-, and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene in the squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Benoit, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of three tetrachlorobenzene isomers (TeCB) was investigated in the squirrel monkey. The animals were administered orally 6 single doses of /sup 14/C-labeled 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,4,5-, or 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene over a 3-wk period at levels ranging from 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w) and kept in individual metabolism cages to collect urine and feces for radioassay. Approximately 38% (1,2,3,4-TeCB), 36% (1,2,3,5-TeCB), and 18% (1,2,4,5-TeCB) of the doses were excreted respectively in the feces 48 h post administration. In monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,4-TeCB, unchanged compound accounted for 50% of the fecal radioactivity. Unchanged compound accounted for more than 50% of the fecal radioactivity found in the monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,5-TeCB. The fecal metabolites were identified in both groups. No metabolites were detected in the feces of monkeys dosed with 1,2,4,5-TeCB. While the fecal route represented the major route of excretion for 1,2,3,4-TeCB, the other two isomers were eliminated exclusively in the feces. The above data in the squirrel monkey are different from those obtained with the rat and the rabbit, and demonstrate the different metabolic pathways for the isomers.

  3. Equatorial ionosphere observations from ionosonde satellite at an altitude of 350 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotonaeva, Nadezhda; Danilkin, Nick

    Experimental study of the ionosphere from a MIR MAN SPACE STATUON (MMSS) was held in 1999. The new and interesting information was obtained in the study of the equatorial ionosphere. Critical frequencies and plasma frequencies distributions along the orbit at an altitude of MMSS had the appearance of two distinct peaks (crests) on both sides of the geomagnetic equator during the afternoon and evening local time. This corresponds to a typical daily distribution of plasma frequencies in areas of the equatorial anomaly (EA). The values of the critical frequency on the tops of EA "crest" exceeded the upper limit (16 MHz) of the ionosonde frequency often. In many cases, the measured values significantly exceeded the forecast model IRI. Analysis of the daytime values of the critical frequency on the tops of EA "crests" showed their approximate equality in the peaks of the southern and northern "crests". General analysis of the location of EA "crests" vertices during a night local time in the 1999 spring showed that the coordinates of the "crest" maxima are consistent with the finding of the geomagnetic equator, which corresponds to the theoretical predictions of the model provisions and IRI. MMSS was often lower than the height of the ionosphere maximum near the EA existence. At that time, satellite ionograms were recorded with previously unknown continuous trace of a characteristic shape with large group delay. This group delay is increasing monotonically with frequency increase. The trace was called "retardation of the lower trace" (RLT). The reason for it appearance is the oblique propagation of radio waves in a wide frequency range with the return to the satellite. A special kind of trajectory can be explained by large gradients of the electron density in a region of signal propagation. Gradients of plasma frequencies at the MMSS heights causing RLT were evaluated by a method of a trajectory synthesis. In the daytime they do not exceed 1 MHz / 100km. In the evening

  4. 40 CFR 721.10345 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...(methylcyclohexyl) ester. 721.10345 Section 721.10345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10345 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester. (a... 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester (PMN P-05-110; CAS No. 27987-25-3)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10345 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...(methylcyclohexyl) ester. 721.10345 Section 721.10345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10345 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester. (a... 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester (PMN P-05-110; CAS No. 27987-25-3)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10345 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...(methylcyclohexyl) ester. 721.10345 Section 721.10345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10345 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester. (a... 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester (PMN P-05-110; CAS No. 27987-25-3)...

  7. Developing Knowledge Management (KM): Contributions by Organizational Learning and Total Quality Management (TQM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan; Lien, Bella Ya-Hui

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge management is an integral business function for many organizations to manage intellectual resources effectively. From a resource-based perspective, organizational learning and TQM are antecedents that are closely related to KM. The purposes of this study were to explain the contents of KM, and explore the relationship between KM-related…

  8. Crystalline 1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidenes

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, Guy; Gulsado-Barrios, Gregorio; Bouffard, Jean; Donnadieu, Bruno

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides novel and stable crystalline 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of making 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of using 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes in catalytic reactions.

  9. Underwater acoustic positioning system for the SMO and KM3NeT - Italia projects

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, S.; Barbagallo, G.; Cacopardo, G.; Calí, C.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amato, V.; D'Amico, A.; De Luca, V.; Del Tevere, F.; Distefano, C.; Ferrera, F.; Gmerk, A.; Grasso, R.; Imbesi, M.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; and others

    2014-11-18

    In the underwater neutrino telescopes, the positions of the Cherenkov light sensors and their movements must be known with an accuracy of few tens of centimetres. In this work, the activities of the SMO and KM3NeT-Italia teams for the development of an acoustic positioning system for KM3NeT-Italia project are presented. The KM3NeT-Italia project foresees the construction, within two years, of 8 towers in the view of the several km{sup 3}-scale neutrino telescope KM3NeT.

  10. Wide Band Artificial Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Zackary

    2017-01-01

    The Wide Band Artificial Pulsar (WBAP) is an instrument verification device designed and built by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virgina. The site currently operates the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI) and the Versatile Green Bank Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) digital backends for their radio telescopes. The commissioning and continued support for these sophisticated backends has demonstrated a need for a device capable of producing an accurate artificial pulsar signal. The WBAP is designed to provide a very close approximation to an actual pulsar signal. This presentation is intended to provide an overview of the current hardware and software implementations and to also share the current results from testing using the WBAP.

  11. Resistance integrons: class 1, 2 and 3 integrons.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yang; Bao, Xuerui; Ji, Lili; Chen, Lei; Liu, Junyan; Miao, Jian; Chen, Dingqiang; Bian, Huawei; Li, Yanmei; Yu, Guangchao

    2015-10-20

    As recently indiscriminate abuse of existing antibiotics in both clinical and veterinary treatment leads to proliferation of antibiotic resistance in microbes and poses a dilemma for the future treatment of such bacterial infection, antimicrobial resistance has been considered to be one of the currently leading concerns in global public health, and reported to widely spread and extended to a large variety of microorganisms. In China, as one of the currently worst areas for antibiotics abuse, the annual prescription of antibiotics, including both clinical and veterinary treatment, has approaching 140 gram per person and been roughly estimated to be 10 times higher than that in the United Kingdom, which is considered to be a potential area for the emergence of "Super Bugs". Based on the integrons surveillance in Guangzhou, China in the past decade, this review thus aimed at summarizing the role of integrons in the perspective of both clinical setting and environment, with the focus on the occurrence and prevalence of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons.

  12. Microwave spectroscopic observation of a Wigner solid within the ν =1 /2 fractional quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatke, A. T.; Liu, Yang; Engel, L. W.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Baldwin, K. W.; Shayegan, M.

    2017-01-01

    We have studied the microwave spectra of a wide quantum well for Landau level fillings, ν , just below 1/2, under conditions where the ν =1 /2 fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) is present. One resonance in the spectra exhibits intensity variations with ν in striking agreement with that expected for a pinning mode of a Wigner solid of quasiholes of this FQHE state. This resonance is also quite sensitive to asymmetrization of the growth-direction charge distribution in the quantum well by gate bias. Another resonance in the spectra is associated with a different bilayer Wigner solid that also exists at much lower ν than the 1/2 FQHE, and that appears to coexist with the 1/2 quasihole solid.

  13. The Crust and Mantle Relationships Beneath Central and Southern Iberian Peninsula constrained by a 550 km long multiseismic transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsan, Siddique Akhtar; Carbonell, Ramon; Simancas, Jose Fernando; Martinez Poyatos, David; Azor, Antonio; Ayarza, Puy; Storti, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    A composite lithospheric cross section which is composed by data from controlled source multiseismic experiments strongly constrains the lithospheric structure of southwestern Iberia. The data includes coincident normal incidence and wide-angle profiles along an, approximately, 550 km long transect. This transect goes across, from North-to-South, the major tectonic zones that build up Southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula (the Central Iberian Zone -CIZ-, the Ossa-Morena Zone -OMZ- and the South Portuguese Zone -SPZ-). The knowledge provided by these datasets constitutes the base to develop multidisciplinary models of the lithosphere. The multichannel deep seismic high resolution (60-90 fold) profiles, IBERSEIS & ALCUDIA were acquired in summer 2001 and 2007 are about 300 and 250 km long respectively. The transects image 20 s (TWTT), about 70 km depth. To address the crust and upper mantle structural relationships a reassessment of the normal incidence seismic reflection transect ALCUDIA has been carried out. We revised the key processing steps and applied advance analysis on the ALCUDIA transect with the aim to improve the signal to noise ratio especially in the deep parts and to produce a depth migrated image. The velocity model generated through wide-angle seismic survey (2003) was used to convert IBERSEIS time migrated stack image into depth. The new data processing flow provide better structural constraints on the shallow and deep structures as the current images reveal indentation features which strongly suggest horizontal tectonics. The ALCUDIA transect shows slightly less reflective upper crust about 13 km thick decoupled from the comparatively reflective lower crust. The reflectivity of the lower crust is continuous, high amplitude, horizontal and parallel though evidences of deformation are present as flat-ramp-flat geometry on the northeastern portion and a "Crocodile structure" wedging into the upper mantle on the southwestern portion of the ALCUDIA

  14. 120 Gbit/s injection-locked homodyne coherent transmission of polarization-multiplexed 64 QAM signals over 150 km.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yixin; Kasai, Keisuke; Yoshida, Masato; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2014-12-15

    We describe an injection-locked 64 QAM homodyne coherent transmission, which is the highest QAM multiplicity realized with an injection locking technique. The frequency locking range of the local oscillator (LO) was as wide as 1 GHz. The phase noise was only 0.2 deg, which is 1/3 of that obtained with our previous OVCO-based OPLL (0.6 deg.). As a result, a 120 Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed 64 QAM signal was successfully transmitted over 150 km with a simple receiver configuration and low DSP complexity.

  15. Positive effect of lower body compression garments on subsequent 40-kM cycling time trial performance.

    PubMed

    de Glanville, Kieran M; Hamlin, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of wearing graduated compression garments during recovery on subsequent 40-km time trial performance. In a randomized single-blind crossover experiment, 14 trained multisport male athletes (mean ± SD: age 33.8 ± 6.8 years, 40-km time 66:11 ± 2:10 minutes:seconds) were given a graduated full-leg-length compressive garment (76% Meryl Elastane, 24% Lycra) or a similar-looking noncompressive placebo garment (92% Polyester, 8% Spandex) to wear continuously for 24 hours after performing an initial 40-km time trial in their normal cycling attire. After the 24-hour recovery period, the compression (or placebo) garments were removed, and a second 40-km time trial was then completed to gauge the effect of each garment on subsequent performance. One week later, the groups were reversed and testing procedures repeated. The participant's hydration status, nutritional intake, and training were similar before each set of trials. Performance time in the second time trial was substantially improved with compression compared with placebo garments (1.2 ± 0.4%, mean ± 90% confidence interval). This improvement resulted in a substantially higher average power output after wearing the compression garment compared with that after wearing the placebo garment (3.3 ± 1.1%). Differences in oxygen cost and rating of perceived exertion between groups were trivial or unclear. The wearing of graduated compressive garments during recovery is likely to be worthwhile and unlikely to be harmful for well-trained endurance athletes.

  16. The Reliability of Running Performance in a 5 km Time Trial on a Non-motorized Treadmill.

    PubMed

    Stevens, C J; Hacene, J; Sculley, D V; Taylor, L; Callister, R; Dascombe, B

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish the reliability of performance and physiological responses during a self-paced 5 km running time trial on a non-motorized treadmill. 17 male runners (age: 32±13 years, height: 177±7 cm, body mass: 71±9 kg, sum of 7 skinfolds: 55±21 mm) performed familiarization then 2 separate maximal 5 km running time trials on a non-motorized treadmill. Physiological responses measured included heart rate, oxygen uptake, expired air volume, blood lactate concentration, tissue saturation index and integrated electromyography. Running time (1,522±163 s vs. 1,519±162 s for trials 1 and 2, respectively) demonstrated a low CV of 1.2% and high ICC of 0.99. All physiological variables had CVs of less than 4% and ICCs of >0.92, with the exception of blood lactate concentration (7.0±2 mmol·L(-1) vs. 6.5±1.5 mmol·L(-1) for trials 1 and 2, respectively; CV: 12%, ICC: 0.83) and the electromyography measures (CV: 8-27%, ICC: 0.71-0.91). The data demonstrate that performance time in a 5 km running time trial on a non-motorized treadmill is a highly reliable test. Most physiological responses measured across the 5 km run also demonstrated good reliability.

  17. Vibrational analysis of 1,2-dichloro-2-methylpropane and 1,2-dibromo-2-methylpropane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, G. A.; Richardson, Mary Townsend

    1982-02-01

    Liquid-state IR and Raman spectra and solid-state IR spectra have been obtained for 1,2-dichloro-2-methylpropane and l,2-dibromo-2-methylpropane. Carbon-halogen stretching bands are observed in the liquid-state spectrum of the dichloro compound at 751, 725, 624 and 574 cm -1 and at 677, 640, 551 and 507 cm -1 in the liquid-state spectrum of the dibromo compound. Both compounds exist as P CTt HHH and P XT XHH conformations in the liquid, but only the P XT XHH conformer is present for each in the crystalline solid. Further Interpretation of the spectra was aided by normal coordinate calculations.

  18. Rh-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation of 1,2-Dicyanoalkenes.

    PubMed

    Li, Meina; Kong, Duanyang; Zi, Guofu; Hou, Guohua

    2017-01-06

    A highly efficient enantioselective hydrogenation of 1,2-dicyanoalkenes catalyzed by the complex of rhodium and f-spiroPhos has been developed. A series of 1,2-dicyanoalkenes were successfully hydrogenated to the corresponding chiral 1,2-dicyanoalkanes under mild conditions with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 98% ee). This methodology provides efficient access to the asymmetric synthesis of chiral diamines.

  19. Acyl migration kinetics of vegetable oil 1,2-diacylglycerols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acyl migration kinetics of long-chain 1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DAG) to form 1,3-diacylglycerol (1,3-DAG) over the temperature range of 25 to 80 degrees Celsius were examined using proton NMR spectroscopy. The 1,2-DAG mole fraction of 0.32 at equilibrium was found to be insensitive to temperature...

  20. 43 CFR 3471.1-2 - Land description in lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land description in lease. 3471.1-2 Section 3471.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Coal Management Provisions and Limitations § 3471.1-2 Land description in lease. (a) All...

  1. 43 CFR 3430.1-2 - Commercial quantities defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial quantities defined. 3430.1-2 Section 3430.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Leases § 3430.1-2 Commercial quantities defined. For the purpose of § 3430.1-1 of this title,...

  2. 45 CFR 1216.1-2 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1216.1-2 Section 1216.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISPLACEMENT OF EMPLOYED WORKERS AND NONIMPAIRMENT OF CONTRACTS FOR SERVICE § 1216.1-2 Applicability of this part. (a)...

  3. 43 CFR § 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2015-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2015-10-01 2015-10-01 false Contents. § 2812.1-2 Section § 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  4. The effect of music on 10-km cycle time-trial performance.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Jana; Foster, Carl; Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose; de Koning, Jos J; Mikat, Richard P; Hendrix, Charles R; Porcari, John P

    2013-01-01

    Music is widely used as an ergogenic aid in sport, but there is little evidence of its effectiveness during closed-loop athletic events. In order to determine the effectiveness of music as an ergogenic aid, well-trained and task-habituated cyclists performed 10-km cycle time trials either while listening to self-selected motivational music or with auditory input blocked. There were no statistically significant differences in performance time or physiological or psychological markers related to music (time-trial duration17.75 ± 2.10 vs 17.81 ± 2.06 min, mean power output 222 ± 66 vs 220 ± 65 W, peak heart rate184 ± 9 vs 183 ± 8 beats/min, peak blood lactate12.1 ± 2.6 vs 11.9 ± 2.1 mmol/L, and final rating of perceived exertion 8.4 ± 1.5 vs 8.5 ± 1.6). It is concluded that during exercise at competitive intensity, there is no meaningful effect of music on either performance or physiology.

  5. Observations of earthquake source parameters at 2 km depth in the Long Valley Caldera, eastern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prejean, Stephanie G.; Ellsworth, William L.

    2001-01-01

    To investigate seismic source parameter scaling and seismic efficiency in the Long Valley caldera, California, we measured source parameters for 41 earthquakes (M 0.5 to M 5) recorded at 2 km depth in the Long Valley Exploratory Well. Borehole recordings provide a wide frequency bandwidth, typically 1 to 200–300 Hz, and greatly reduce seismic noise and path effects compared to surface recordings. We calculated source parameters in both the time and frequency domains for P and S waves. At frequencies above the corner frequency, spectra decay faster than ω3, indicating that attenuation plays an important role in shaping the spectra (path averaged Qp = 100–400, Qs = 200–800). Source parameters are corrected for attenuation and radiation pattern. Both static stress drops and apparent stresses range from approximately 0.01 to 30 MPa. Although static stress drops do not vary with seismic moment for these data, our analyses are consistent with apparent stress increasing with increasing moment. To estimate tectonic driving stress and seismic efficiencies in the region, we combined source parameter measurements with knowledge of the stress field and a Coulomb failure criterion to infer a driving stress of 40–70 MPa. Subsequent seismic efficiencies are consistent with McGarr's (1999) hypothesis of a maximum seismic efficiency of 6%.

  6. Long-range BOTDA sensor over 50 km distance employing pre-pumped Simplex coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiao; Tu, Xiaobo; Sun, Shilin; Meng, Zhou

    2016-05-01

    We propose and demonstrate a long-range Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) sensor based on the pre-pumped Simplex coding technique. This approach combines Simplex coding with the pulse pre-pump technique, which takes full advantage of the signal-to-noise ratio enhancement provided by optical pulse coding and achieves meter-scale spatial resolution with an unbroadened Brillouin gain spectrum by the use of pre-pumped short pump pulse. Compared to the widely used differential pulse-width pair technique, a comparable performance can be realized while the measurement time is reduced by half. The theoretical analysis of pre-pumped Simplex coding applied to BOTDA systems is presented and a proof-of-concept experiment is carried out along a ∼51 km single-mode fiber composed of two fiber segments with slightly different Brillouin frequency shift values. With the proposed technique, Brillouin frequency shifts of the two different fiber sections at the end of the sensing fiber are clearly distinguished, and the obtained spatial resolution and temperature/strain accuracy along the sensing fiber are respectively 1 m and {0.4}\\circ {{C}}/8μ \\varepsilon . According to the experimental results, we believe that the BOTDA employing pre-pumped Simplex coding is able to realize extra-long distance sensing without Raman amplification, while keeping a high spatial resolution and measurement accuracy.

  7. ERK1/2 is dephosphorylated by a novel phosphatase--CacyBP/SIP.

    PubMed

    Kilanczyk, Ewa; Filipek, Slawomir; Filipek, Anna

    2011-01-07

    Recently, we have reported that the CacyBP/SIP protein binds ERK1/2 (Kilanczyk et al., BBRC, 2009). In this work we show that CacyBP/SIP exhibits a phosphatase activity toward ERK1/2 kinases while its E217K mutant does not. The K(m) and V(max) values established for a standard phosphatase substrate, p-NPP, are 16.9±3.6 mM and 4.3±0.4 μmol/min, respectively. The CacyBP/SIP phosphatase activity is decreased by okadaic acid (IC(50)=45 nM). Our experimental results are supported by a theoretical analysis which revealed important sequence similarities between CacyBP/SIP and the phosphatase-like proteins as well as certain MAP kinase phosphatases.

  8. Reaction of pyrido(1,2-a)benzimidazole and tetrahydropyrido(1,2-a)benzimidazole with acetylenedicarboxylic ester

    SciTech Connect

    Prostakov, N.S.; Varlamov, A.V.; Shendrik, I.V.; Krapivko, A.P.; Golovtsov, N.I.

    1986-08-01

    Previously unknown polynuclear condensed systems with bridgehead nitrogen atoms have been obtained by treating acetylenedicarboxylic ester with pyrido(1,2-a)benzimidazole and tetrahydropyrido(1,2-a)benzimidazole.

  9. A 16-year time series of 1 km AVHRR satellite data of the conterminous United States and Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eidenshink, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a 16-year time series of vegetation condition information for the conterminous United States and Alaska using 1 km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The AVHRR data have been processed using consistent methods that account for radiometric variability due to calibration uncertainty, the effects of the atmosphere on surface radiometric measurements obtained from wide field-of-view observations, and the geometric registration accuracy. The conterminous United States and Alaska data sets have an atmospheric correction for water vapor, ozone, and Rayleigh scattering and include a cloud mask derived using the Clouds from AVHRR (CLAVR) algorithm. In comparison with other AVHRR time series data sets, the conterminous United States and Alaska data are processed using similar techniques. The primary difference is that the conterminous United States and Alaska data are at 1 km resolution, while others are at 8 km resolution. The time series consists of weekly and biweekly maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composites.

  10. First principles prediction of a morphotropic phase boundary in the Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3-(Bi1/2Sr1/2)(Zn1/2Nb1/2)O3 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Valentino R; Henry, Asegun S; Takagi, Shigeyuki M; Singh, David J

    2011-01-01

    The magnitude and direction of polarization within alloys of the tetragonally distorted Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 (BZT) and the rhombohedrally oriented Bi1/2Sr1/2Zn1/2Nb1/2O3 (BSZN) are explored using density functional theory. For compositions with 50% of BZT, we find that the polarization points mainly along the [001] direction. Conversely, for low concentrations of BZT the polarization is rhombohedrally oriented. Based on these results we propose a phase diagram with a possible monoclinc phase between 25% and 50 % BZT where this material may have a useful piezoelectric response.

  11. Word Criticality Analysis. MOS: 31V. Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    336,1 2- 347 . 1 2-17,4 -371.12-310#t2 2-Mo1, 2- 34411 2 1-SO 2-311.l 2-333,1 2-321, 2-337,1 2-336,2 2-376,4 2-3?1,5 2-368,3 0Wt,1 3 Abk.KP.IL 2-34, T 2 2...34 -r---2-3 M, Io 3 KX kVu 0.&0 2-337,2 2-321.1 2-368,1 2-343.2 2-347,2 2-31 , 1 2-370. 1 2- 186, 1 2-371. 1 3 LCLP 2-3483 2- 347 *4 2-335,3 _ 2-3209 1 2...DIT CINTEIL HUIME WEJ UNITED STATES ARM~Y TRAIIN~G AN~D DOCTRINE COi’JLAifD FORT L1OME, VIRGINIA 23651 ATOP ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .Zo 10- ./8 dte . *u~ -Wil*.h~.,.I ATE

  12. ERF1_2 -- Enhanced River Reach File 2.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, Jacqueline V.; Brakebill, John W.; Alexander, Richard B.; Schwarz, Gregory E.

    2003-01-01

    The digital segmented network based on watershed boundaries, ERF1_2, includes enhancements to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's River Reach File 1 (RF1) (USEPA, 1996; DeWald and others, 1985) to support national and regional-scale surface water-quality modeling. Alexander and others (1999) developed ERF1, which assessed the hydrologic integrity of the digital reach traces and calculated the mean water time-of-travel in river reaches and reservoirs. ERF1_2 serves as the foundation for SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regressions (of nutrient transport) on Watershed) modeling. Within the context of a Geographic Information System, SPARROW estimates the proportion of watersheds in the conterminous U.S. with outflow concentrations of several nutrients, including total nitrogen and total phosphorus, (Smith, R.A., Schwarz, G.E., and Alexander, R.B., 1997). This version of the network expands on ERF1 (Version 1.2; Alexander, et al., 1999) and includes the incremental and total drainage area derived from 1-kilometer (km) elevation data for North America. Previous estimates of the water time-of-travel were recomputed for reaches with water-quality monitoring sites that included two reaches. The mean flow and velocity estimates for these split reaches are based on previous estimation methods (Alexander et al., 1999) and are unchanged in ERF1_2. Drainage area calculations provide data used to estimate the contribution of a given nutrient to the outflow. Data estimates depend on the accuracy of node connectivity. Reaches split at water-quality or pesticide-monitoring sites indicate the source point for estimating the contribution and transport of nutrients and their loads throughout the watersheds. The ERF1_2 coverage extends the earlier drainage area founded on the 1-kilometer data for North America (Verdin, 1996; Verdin and Jenson, 1996). A 1-kilometer raster grid of ERF1_2 projected to Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area, NAD 27 Datum (Snyder, 1987), was merged with the

  13. Sub-km HIMU-type Enriched Mantle at a Mid-ocean Ridge Far From a Plume: Endeavour, JdFR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, J. B.; Michael, P. J.; Dreyer, B. M.; Clague, D. A.; Ramos, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge is characterized by abundant enriched (E) MORB since the currently inflated axial ridge formed <105 years ago, and by the full range of depleted (D) to E-MORB during the last 2300 years in the km-wide axial graben. Two different styles of enrichment of moderately incompatible elements are present. The first characterized basalts across the ~5 km-wide ridge from >10,000 to ~4000 years ago, whereas the second characterizes more recent basalts erupted in the axial graben. We attribute the first to a higher proportion of pyroxenite to enriched peridotite in the mantle source during ridge inflation. The more recent style reflects the reduced role of pyroxenite after the axial graben formed. The enriched component for both styles is a HIMU-type because it has low 87Sr/86Sr and 176Hf/177Hf relative to 143Nd/144Nd, lower 3He/4He (~8.1 RA) than in the more depleted basalts, shallow slopes on Pb isotope diagrams, and high Nb/LREE ratios. It is regionally widespread and shared with the West Valley and Explorer segments to the north. At least 14 different samplings of mantle components occurred within <1 km of ridge length and width during a time when <1 km of upwelling occurred, indicating that the scale of mantle heterogeneity is <1 km in this setting that is far from a plume.

  14. 1,2-Dehydroreticuline synthase, the branch point enzyme opening the morphinan biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Kazumasa; Poeaknapo, Chotima; Schmidt, Juergen; Zenk, Meinhart H

    2004-04-01

    A synthase which oxidizes (S)-reticuline to 1,2-dehydroreticuline has been found to occur in seedlings of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). Due to its instability, this enzyme could only be partly purified (ca. 5-fold enrichment). Partial characterization at this stage of purification showed that it does not need a redox cofactor and accepts both (S)-reticuline and (S)-norreticuline as substrates. [1-(2)H, (13)C]-(R,S)-reticuline was enzymatically converted into [1-(13)C]-dehydroreticuline, which has been identified by mass spectrometry. Release of the hydrogen atom in position C-1 of the isoquinoline alkaloid during the oxidative conversion, was exploited as a sensitive assay system for this enzyme. The enzyme has a pH optimum of 8.75, a temperature optimum of 37 degrees C and the apparent K(M) value for the substrate reticuline was shown to be 117 microM. Moreover it could be demonstrated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation that the enzyme is located in vesicles of varying size. In combination with the previously discovered strictly stereoselective and NADPH dependent 1,2-dehydroreticuline reductase the detection of this enzyme, the 1,2-dehydroreticuline synthase, provides the necessary inversion of configuration and completes the pathway from two molecules of L-tyrosine via (S)-norcoclaurine to (R)-reticuline in opium poppy involving a total number of 11 enzymes.

  15. The Distribution of High Altitude (70KM) Ice Clouds in the Mars Atmospere from MGS TES and MOC LIMB Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. T.; Wolff, M.; Whitney, B.; Cantor, B.

    2004-11-01

    The Pathfinder descent entry detected extremely cold temperatures at 70-100 km altitudes (Schofield et al., 1997), suggesting the possibility of frequent CO2 ice cloud occurrence in the 70-80 km altitude region (Clancy and Sandor, 1998). However, prior to recent MGS limb measurements, it remained unclear whether CO2 or water ice aerosols are ever present at >60 km altitudes. Dust aerosols have been identified at such high altitudes in Mariner 9 (Anderson and Leovy, 1978), Viking (Jaquin et al., 1986), and MGS limb measurements (Clancy, 2003), associated with the 1971, 1977, and 2001 planet-encircling dust storms, respectively. The highest detached ice cloud identified from Viking limb data occurred at a projected tangent altitude of 55km, at 16S, 72W and Ls = 176° (Jaquin et al., 1986; recently modeled by Montmessin et al., 2002). The seasonal period and location of this detached limb cloud appears consistent with 55-75 km detached limb clouds that we have observed as prominent in MGS TES solarband limb scans and MGS MOC wide-angle (WA) limb images (1-3 pm local times). Their occurrence frequency approaches unity at the beginning and end of the aphelion northern summer season on Mars (centered at Ls =30° and 150° ), where they are confined to equatorial (15S-15N) latitudes and two relatively narrow longitude ranges (330-20W and 50-120W). Cloud altitudes of 65-75km are derived from the distribution of projected limb heights. Peak optical (visible) depths are quite significant (0.01) for the low pressure region of formation ( 1 microbar). It remains unclear as to their composition (water or CO2), although coadded MGS thermal IR spectra indicate potential for water ice identification and particle size information. We will present the spatial and temporal distribution of these mesospheric clouds indicated in the MSG TES and MOC visible limb data, and derived vertical profiles of optical depth and particle size based upon a monte carlo spherical RT analysis of the

  16. MODIS 3 Km Aerosol Product: Applications over Land in an Urban/suburban Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munchak, L. A.; Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.; Remer, L. A.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J. S.; Hostetler, C. A.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites have provided a rich dataset of aerosol information at a 10 km spatial scale. Although originally intended for climate applications, the air quality community quickly became interested in using the MODIS aerosol data. However, 10 km resolution is not sufficient to resolve local scale aerosol features. With this in mind, MODIS Collection 6 is including a global aerosol product with a 3 km resolution. Here, we evaluate the 3 km product over the Baltimore/Washington D.C., USA, corridor during the summer of 2011, by comparing with spatially dense data collected as part of the DISCOVER-AQ campaign these data were measured by the NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and a network of 44 sun photometers (SP) spaced approximately 10 km apart. The HSRL instrument shows that AOD can vary by up to 0.2 within a single 10 km MODIS pixel, meaning that higher resolution satellite retrievals may help to characterize aerosol spatial distributions in this region. Different techniques for validating a high-resolution aerosol product against SP measurements are considered. Although the 10 km product is more statistically reliable than the 3 km product, the 3 km product still performs acceptably, with more than two-thirds of MODIS/SP collocations falling within the expected error envelope with high correlation (R > 0.90). The 3 km product can better resolve aerosol gradients and retrieve closer to clouds and shorelines than the 10 km product, but tends to show more significant noise especially in urban areas. This urban degradation is quantified using ancillary land cover data. Overall, we show that the MODIS 3 km product adds new information to the existing set of satellite derived aerosol products and validates well over the region, but due to noise and problems in urban areas, should be treated with some degree of caution.

  17. Variations in Km(CO2) of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase among Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Hock-Hin; Badger, Murray R.; Watson, Leslie

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the Km(CO2) values of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from 60 grass species shows that enzyme from C3 grasses consistently exhibits lower Km(CO2) than does that from C4 grasses. Systematically ordered variation in Km(CO2) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylases from C3 and C4 grasses is also apparent and, among C4 grasses, this shows some correlation with C4 types. PMID:16661586

  18. Cratering and penetration experiments in Teflon targets at velocities from 1 to 7 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, Friedrich; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Cintala, Mark J.; See, Thomas H.

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 20 sq m of protective thermal blankets, largely composed of Teflon, were retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) after the spacecraft had spent approximately 5.7 years in space. Examination of these blankets revealed that they contained thousands of hypervelocity impact features ranging from micron-sized craters to penetration holes several millimeters in diameter. We conducted impact experiments in an effort to reproduce such features and to -- hopefully -- understand the relationships between projectile size and the resulting crater or penetration-hole diameter over a wide range of impact velocity. Such relationships are needed to derive the size- and mass-frequency distribution and flux of natural and man-made particles in low-Earth orbit. Powder propellant and light-gas guns were used to launch soda-lime glass spheres of 3.175 mm (1/8 inch) nominal diameter (Dp) into pure Teflon FEP targets at velocities ranging from 1 to 7 km/s. Target thickness (T) was varied over more than three orders of magnitude from infinite halfspace targets (Dp/T less than 0.1) to very thin films (Dp/T greater than 100). Cratering and penetration of massive Teflon targets is dominated by brittle failure and the development of extensive spall zones at the target's front and, if penetrated, the target's rear side. Mass removal by spallation at the back side of Teflon targets may be so severe that the absolute penetration-hole diameter (Dh) can become larger than that of a standard crater (Dc) at relative target thicknesses of Dp/T = 0.6-0.9. The crater diameter is infinite halfspace Teflon targets increases -- at otherwise constant impact conditions -- with encounter velocity by a factor of V0.44. In contrast, the penetration-hole size is very thin foils (Dp/T greater than 50) is essentially unaffected by impact velocity. Penetrations at target thicknesses intermediate to these extremes will scale with variable exponents of V. Our experimental matrix is

  19. Cratering and penetration experiments in teflon targets at velocities from 1 to 7 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horz, Friedrich; Cintala, Mark; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Cardenas, Frank; Davidson, William; Haynes, Gerald; See, Thomas H.; Winkler, Jerry; Knight, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Approximately 20 sq m of protective thermal blankets, largely composed of Teflon, were retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility after the spacecraft spent approximately 5.7 years in space. Examination of these blankets revealed that they contained thousands of hypervelocity impact features ranging from micron-sized craters to penetration holes several millimeters in diameter. We conducted impact experiments to reproduce such features and to understand the relationships between projectile size and the resulting crater or penetration hole diameter over a wide range of impact velocities. Such relationships are needed to derive the size and mass frequency distribution and flux of natural and man-made particles in low-earth orbit. Powder propellant and light-gas guns were used to launch soda-lime glass spheres into pure Teflon targets at velocities ranging from 1 to 7 km/s. Target thickness varied over more than three orders of magnitude from finite halfspace targets to very thin films. Cratering and penetration of massive Teflon targets is dominated by brittle failure and the development of extensive spall zones at the target's front and, if penetrated, the target's rear side. Mass removal by spallation at the back side of Teflon targets may be so severe that the absolute penetration hole diameter can become larger than that of a standard crater. The crater diameter in infinite halfspace Teflon targets increases, at otherwise constant impact conditions, with encounter velocity by a factor of V (exp 0.44). In contrast, the penetration hole size in very thin foils is essentially unaffected by impact velocity. Penetrations at target thicknesses intermediate to these extremes will scale with variable exponents of V. Our experimental matrix is sufficiently systematic and complete, up to 7 km/s, to make reasonable recommendations for velocity-scaling of Teflon craters and penetrations. We specifically suggest that cratering behavior and associated equations apply

  20. Cratering and penetration experiments in Teflon targets at velocities from 1 to 7 km/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerz, Friedrich; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Cintala, Mark J.; See, Thomas H.

    1995-02-01

    Approximately 20 sq m of protective thermal blankets, largely composed of Teflon, were retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) after the spacecraft had spent approximately 5.7 years in space. Examination of these blankets revealed that they contained thousands of hypervelocity impact features ranging from micron-sized craters to penetration holes several millimeters in diameter. We conducted impact experiments in an effort to reproduce such features and to -- hopefully -- understand the relationships between projectile size and the resulting crater or penetration-hole diameter over a wide range of impact velocity. Such relationships are needed to derive the size- and mass-frequency distribution and flux of natural and man-made particles in low-Earth orbit. Powder propellant and light-gas guns were used to launch soda-lime glass spheres of 3.175 mm (1/8 inch) nominal diameter (Dp) into pure Teflon FEP targets at velocities ranging from 1 to 7 km/s. Target thickness (T) was varied over more than three orders of magnitude from infinite halfspace targets (Dp/T less than 0.1) to very thin films (Dp/T greater than 100). Cratering and penetration of massive Teflon targets is dominated by brittle failure and the development of extensive spall zones at the target's front and, if penetrated, the target's rear side. Mass removal by spallation at the back side of Teflon targets may be so severe that the absolute penetration-hole diameter (Dh) can become larger than that of a standard crater (Dc) at relative target thicknesses of Dp/T = 0.6-0.9. The crater diameter is infinite halfspace Teflon targets increases -- at otherwise constant impact conditions -- with encounter velocity by a factor of V0.44. In contrast, the penetration-hole size is very thin foils (Dp/T greater than 50) is essentially unaffected by impact velocity. Penetrations at target thicknesses intermediate to these extremes will scale with variable exponents of V. Our experimental matrix is

  1. Experimentally driven atomistic model of 1,2 polybutadiene

    SciTech Connect

    Gkourmpis, Thomas; Mitchell, Geoffrey R.

    2014-02-07

    We present an efficient method of combining wide angle neutron scattering data with detailed atomistic models, allowing us to perform a quantitative and qualitative mapping of the organisation of the chain conformation in both glass and liquid phases. The structural refinement method presented in this work is based on the exploitation of the intrachain features of the diffraction pattern and its intimate linkage with atomistic models by the use of internal coordinates for bond lengths, valence angles, and torsion rotations. Atomic connectivity is defined through these coordinates that are in turn assigned by pre-defined probability distributions, thus allowing for the models in question to be built stochastically. Incremental variation of these coordinates allows for the construction of models that minimise the differences between the observed and calculated structure factors. We present a series of neutron scattering data of 1,2 polybutadiene at the region 120–400 K. Analysis of the experimental data yields bond lengths for Cî—¸C and C î—» C of 1.54 Å and 1.35 Å, respectively. Valence angles of the backbone were found to be at 112° and the torsion distributions are characterised by five rotational states, a three-fold trans-skew± for the backbone and gauche± for the vinyl group. Rotational states of the vinyl group were found to be equally populated, indicating a largely atactic chan. The two backbone torsion angles exhibit different behaviour with respect to temperature of their trans population, with one of them adopting an almost all trans sequence. Consequently, the resulting configuration leads to a rather persistent chain, something indicated by the value of the characteristic ratio extrapolated from the model. We compare our results with theoretical predictions, computer simulations, RIS models and previously reported experimental results.

  2. Running Performance, Nationality, Sex and Age in 10km, Half-marathon, Marathon and 100km Ultra-marathon IAAF 1999-2015.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Onywera, Vincent O; Knechtle, Beat

    2016-10-13

    The aim of the present study was to examine the performance of the world's best runners in 10km, half-marathon, marathon and 100km by age, sex and nationality during 1999-2015 using data from International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). A total of 38,895 runners (17,136 women and 21,759 men) were considered with 2,594 (1,360 women and 1,234 male) in 10km, 11,595 (5,225 women and 6,370 male) in half-marathon, 23,973 (10,208 women and 13,765 male) in marathon and 733 (343 women and 390 male) in 100km. Most of the runners in 10km (women 40%, men 67%) and half-marathon (women 30%, men 57%) were Kenyans. In marathon, most female and male runners were Ethiopians (women 17%, men 14%) and Kenyans (women 15%, men 43%), respectively. In 100km, most runners were Japanese (20% in women and men). Women were older than men in 10km (32.0±6.0 versus 25.3±4.3 years, p<0.001), half-marathon (27.5±4.7 versus 25.9±4.1 years, p<0.001) and marathon (29.5±5.5 versus 29.1±4.3 years, p<0.001), but not in 100km (36.6±6.1 versus 35.9±5.5 years, p=0.097). Men were faster than women in 10km (28:04±0:17 versus 32:08±0.31 min:sec, p<0.001), half-marathon (1:01:58±0:00:52 versus 1:11:21±0:01:18 h:min:sec, p<0.001), marathon (2:13:42±0:03:01 versus 2:35:04±0:05:21 h:min:s, p<0.001), and 100km (6:48:01±0:11:29 versus 7:53:51±0:16:37 h:min:sec, p<0.001). East-Africans were not the fastest compared to athletes originating from other countries where only Ethiopian men were faster than all other men in marathon. In summary, (i) most runners were from Kenya and Ethiopia in 10km, half-marathon and marathon, but from Japan and Russia in 100km, (ii) women were older than men in all distances except 100km, (iii) men were the fastest in all distances, and (iii) Ethiopian men were faster than all other men in marathon.

  3. Potential of KM3NeT to observe galactic neutrino point-like sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trovato, Agata

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT (http://www.km3net.org">http://www.km3net.org) will be the next-generation cubic-kilometre-scale neutrino telescope to be installed in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. This location will allow for surveying the Galactic Centre, most of the Galactic Plane as well as a large part of the sky. We report KM3NeT discovery potential for the SNR RXJ1713.7-3946 and the PWN Vela X and its sensitivity to point-like sources with an E-2 spectrum.

  4. Protective effect of kombucha mushroom (KM) tea on phenol-induced cytotoxicity in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Yapar, Kursad; Cavusoglu, Kultigin; Oruc, Ertan; Yalcin, Emine

    2010-09-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of kombucha mushroom (KM) tea on cytotoxicity induced by phenol (PHE) in mice. We used weight gain and micronucleus (MN) frequency as indicators of cytotoxicity and supported these parameters with pathological findings. The animals were randomly divided into seven groups: (Group I) only tap water (Group II) 1000 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, (Group III) 35 mg kg(-1) body wt. PHE (Group IV) 35 mg kg(-1) body wt. PHE + 250 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea (Group V) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 500 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea (Group VI) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 750 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, (Group VII) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 1000 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, for 20 consecutive days by oral gavage. The results indicated that all KM-tea supplemented mice showed a lower MN frequency than erythrocytes in only PHE-treated group. There was an observable regression on account of lesions in tissues of mice supplemented with different doses of KM-tea in histopathological observations. In conclusion, the KM-tea supplementation decreases cytotoxicity induced by PHE and its protective role is dose-dependent.

  5. Molecular hydrogen and excitation in the HH 1-2 system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noriega-Crespo, A.; Garnavich, P. M.

    1994-01-01

    We present a series of molecular hydrogen images of the Herbig-Haro 1-2 system in the 1-0 S(1) transition at 2.121 microns, with a spatial resolution of approximately 2 sec. The distribution of H2 is then compared with that of the excitation, given by the (S II) 6717+6731 to H-alpha line ratio. We find that most optical condensations in the HH 1-2 system, including the VLA 1 jet, have H2 counterparts. H2 emission is detected in most low excitation knots, as expected for low velocity shocks (50 km/s less than), but also in high excitation regions, like in HH 1F and HH 2A min. For these latter objects, the H2 emission could be due to the interaction of the preionizing flux, produced by 150-200 km/s shocks, with the surrounding interstellar matter, i.e., fluorescence. The lack fluorescent lines in the ultraviolet (UV), however, suggest a different mechanism. H2 is detected at the tip of the VLA 1 jet, where the knot morphology suggests the presence of a second bow shock. H2 is detected also SE of HH 2E and SW of HH 1F, in regions with known NH3 emission.

  6. Word Criticality Analysis. MOS: 44E. Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    78.4 2- 64,1 I GLgKP(Ix 2- 62,1 2- 58,1 1 ’ ’. I fMbs WIUf,D LIaT BY 04GE tfTF .PV. 107? PIGE . 1 GE 2- 79,1 I G1M& 2- 32,1 G(1N)EM2- 17,1 2- 137,1 2...0 2 0 n~ 1 . i , - I - I C5MS WIRD LIST BY PIGE 1Yj’© p𔃻L’ 1177 P.GP 6 j 1 EltL 2- 10,1 2- 18,1 2- 12,1 N1 MI IFV 2- 12.1 2- 66 l 2- 57.2 2- 26,1

  7. Hayward Fault: A 50-km-long Locked Patch Regulates Its Large Earthquake Cycle (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lienkaemper, J. J.; Simpson, R. W.; Williams, P. L.; McFarland, F. S.; Caskey, S. J.

    2010-12-01

    We have documented a chronology of 11 paleoearthquakes on the southern Hayward fault (HS) preceding the Mw6.8, 1868 earthquake. These large earthquakes were both regular and frequent, as indicated by a 0.40 coefficient of variation and mean recurrence interval (MRI) of 161 ± 65 yr (1σ of recurrence intervals). Furthermore, the Oxcal-modeled probability distribution for the average interval resembles a Gaussian rather than a more irregular Brownian passage time distribution. Our revised 3D-modeling of subsurface creep, using newly updated long-term creep rates, now suggests there is only one ~50-km-long locked patch (instead of two), confined laterally between two large patches of deep creep (≥9 km), with an extent consistent with evidence for the 1868 rupture. This locked patch and the fault’s lowest rates of surface creep are approximately centered on HS’s largest bend and a large gabbro body, particularly where the gabbro forms both east and west faces of the fault. We suggest that this locked patch serves as a mechanical capacitor, limiting earthquake size and frequency. The moment accumulation over 161 yr summed on all locked elements of the model reaches Mw6.79, but if half of the moment stored in the creeping elements were to fail dynamically, Mw could reach 6.91. The paleoearthquake histories for nearby faults of the San Francisco Bay region appear to indicate less regular and frequent earthquakes, possibly because most lack the high proportion (40-60%) of aseismic release found on the Hayward fault. The northernmost Hayward fault and Rodgers Creek fault (RCF) appear to rupture only half as frequently as the HS and are separated from the HS by a creep buffer and 5-km wide releasing bend respectively, both tending to limit through-going ruptures. The paleoseismic record allows multi-segment, Hayward fault-RCF ruptures, but does not require it. The 1868 HS rupture preceded the 1906 multi-segmented San Andreas fault (SAF) rupture, perhaps because the HS

  8. Structural and dielectric studies of lead-free ceramics: Na1/2Y1/2TiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, Subrat K.; Choudhary, Ram N. P.; Mahapatra, Prasanta K.

    2008-12-01

    The polycrystalline samples of Na1/2Y1/2TiO3 were prepared by the mixed-oxide method. A preliminary X-ray structural analysis was shown to exhibit the formation of a single-phase compound with an orthorhombic structure. Microstructural analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) exhibits well defined grains distributed uniformly through out the sample suggesting the compactness and homogeneity of the sample. Detailed studies of dielectric properties of Na1/2Y1/2TiO3 in a wide frequency range (102 106 Hz) at different temperatures (31 500°C) show a dielectric anomaly at 105°C, which may be related to a ferroelectricparaelectric phase transition as suggested by hysteresis loop at room temperature. An ac conductivity ( σ ac) of the material is mainly governed by the polaron hopping mechanism, which is also influenced by both frequency and temperature. The activation energy was obtained from the plot of temperature with a.c. conductivity.

  9. Structural and dielectric studies of lead-free ceramics: Na1/2Y1/2TiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, Subrat; Choudhary, Ram; Mahapatra, Prasanta

    2008-12-01

    The polycrystalline samples of Na1/2Y1/2TiO3 were prepared by the mixed-oxide method. A preliminary X-ray structural analysis was shown to exhibit the formation of a single-phase compound with an orthorhombic structure. Microstructural analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) exhibits well defined grains distributed uniformly through out the sample suggesting the compactness and homogeneity of the sample. Detailed studies of dielectric properties of Na1/2Y1/2TiO3 in a wide frequency range (102-106 Hz) at different temperatures (31-500°C) show a dielectric anomaly at 105°C, which may be related to a ferroelectricparaelectric phase transition as suggested by hysteresis loop at room temperature. An ac conductivity (σ ac) of the material is mainly governed by the polaron hopping mechanism, which is also influenced by both frequency and temperature. The activation energy was obtained from the plot of temperature with a.c. conductivity.

  10. Changes in Body Mass, Hydration and Electrolytes Following a 161-km Endurance Race

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To examine electrolyte concentrations and changes in body mass and total body water (TBW) during a 161-km ultra-marathon, and relate these to finish time and incidence of hyponatremia. Methods: Subjects were recruited from the 161-km 2008 Rio Del Lago Endurance Race. Body mass, TBW, and s...

  11. New Marker Development for the Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pi-km

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The blast resistance (R) gene Pi-km protects rice against specific races of the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. The use of blast R genes remains the most cost-effective method of disease control. To facilitate the breeding process, we developed a Pi-km specific molecular marker. For this purp...

  12. Draft genome sequence of the Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22 has been used in experimental infections of swine as a model of clinical B. bronchiseptica infections within swine herds and to study host-to-host transmission. Here we report the draft genome sequence of KM22....

  13. A Co-Creation Blended KM Model for Cultivating Critical-Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yu-chu

    2012-01-01

    Both critical thinking (CT) and knowledge management (KM) skills are necessary elements for a university student's success. Therefore, this study developed a co-creation blended KM model to cultivate university students' CT skills and to explore the underlying mechanisms for achieving success. Thirty-one university students participated in this…

  14. Stereospecific microbial conversion of lactic acid into 1,2-propanediol.

    PubMed

    Niu, Wei; Guo, Jiantao

    2015-04-17

    Biocatalytic syntheses are increasingly explored as the alternate platform of chemical production in order to address the sustainable development challenge faced by the current chemical industry. Here, we report the design and implementation of an artificial pathway to convert lactic acid into 1,2-propanediol. It circumvents a highly cytotoxic intermediate that exists in a widely used natural pathway. We identified and characterized a key enzyme that catalyzed the nonnatural step of the pathway. After 72 h of cultivation under shake-flask conditions, an Escherichia coli biocatalyst expressing the artificial route synthesized 1.5 g/L of R- or 1.7 g/L of S-1,2-propanediol from D- or L- lactic acid at high enantiomeric purity, respectively. The bioconversion is part of a novel biosynthetic pathway that can be further incorporated into appropriate microbial hosts for the de novo synthesis of optically pure 1,2-propanediol from renewable feedstocks.

  15. Unexpected characteristics of the 150 km echoes observed over Gadanki and their implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, A. K.; Pavan Chaitanya, P.

    2016-11-01

    Recent discovery of two distinct types of 150 km echoes, namely, type-A and type-B, and subsequent progress in the large-scale kinetic simulation of photoelectron-induced plasma waves have begun a new era in resolving the five decades long 150 km echoing riddle. In this paper, we present hitherto unrevealed three important and unexpected findings on the two distinct types of 150 km echoes based on Gadanki radar observations. Our observations show unexpected predominance of type-A echoes, strong seasonal dependence of both type-A and type-B echoes, and a surprising connection of the type-B echoes to the unusually deep solar minimum of 2008-2009. We discuss how these results provide important new clues in tethering the competing processes involved in the daytime 150 km echoes and have significance in the recently proposed photoelectron-induced plasma fluctuations as a potential mechanism for the 150 km echoes.

  16. Cape Canaveral, Florida range reference atmosphere 0-70 km altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tingle, A. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    The RRA contains tabulations for monthly and annual means, standard deviations, skewness coefficients for wind speed, pressure temperature, density, water vapor pressure, virtual temperature, dew-point temperature, and the means and standard deviations for the zonal and meridional wind components and the linear (product moment) correlation coefficient between the wind components. These statistical parameters are tabulated at the station elevation and at 1 km intervals from sea level to 30 km and at 2 km intervals from 30 to 90 km altitude. The wind statistics are given at approximately 10 m above the station elevations and at altitudes with respect to mean sea level thereafter. For those range sites without rocketsonde measurements, the RRAs terminate at 30 km altitude or they are extended, if required, when rocketsonde data from a nearby launch site are available. There are four sets of tables for each of the 12 monthly reference periods and the annual reference period.

  17. Design and mass production of the optical modules for KM3NeT-Italia project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonora, Emanuele; Aiello, Sebastiano; Giordano, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT European project aims at constructing a km3 underwater neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. The first phase that is under construction will comprise eight tower-like detection structures (KM3NeT-Italia), which will form the internal core of a km3-scale detector. The detection element of KM3NeT-Italia, the optical module, is made of a 13-inch pressure-resistant glass-vessel that contains a single 10-inch photomultiplier and the relative electronics. The design of the whole optical module, the main results obtained from the massive photomultipliers measurements, and the foremost phases of the mass production procedure performed at the production site of Catania are also presented.

  18. Pure Rotational Raman Lidar for Temperature Measurements from 5-40 Km Over Wuhan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yajuan; Song, Shalei; Yang, Yong; Li, Faquan; Cheng, Xuewu; Chen, Zhenwei; Liu, Linmei; McCormick, M. Patrick; Gong, Shunsheng

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a pure rotational Raman lidar (PRR) was established for the atmospheric temperature measurements from 5 km to 40 km over Wuhan, China (30.5°N, 114.5°E). To extract the expected PRR signals and simultaneously suppress the elastically backscattered light, a high-spectral resolution polychromator for light splitting and filtering was designed. Observational results revealed that the temperature difference measured by PRR lidar and the local radiosonde below 30 km was less than 3.0 K. The good agreement validated the reliability of the PRR lidar. With the 1-h integration and 150-m spatial resolution, the statistical temperature error for PRR lidar increases from 0.4 K at 10 km up to 4 K at altitudes of about 30 km. In addition, the whole night temperature profiles were obtained for study of the long-term observation of atmospheric fluctuations.

  19. Naphtho[1',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-5,6-diones: Synthesis, enzymatic reduction and cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Šarlauskas, Jonas; Pečiukaitytė-Alksnė, Milda; Misevičienė, Lina; Marozienė, Audronė; Polmickaitė, Evelina; Staniulytė, Zita; Čėnas, Narimantas; Anusevičius, Žilvinas

    2016-01-15

    Naphtho[1',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-5,6-diones (NPDOs), a new type of N-heterocycle-fused o-quinones, have been synthesized. They have been found to be efficient electron-accepting substrates of NADPH-dependent single-electron-transferring P-450R and two-electron transferring NQO1, generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a concomitant decrease in NADPH, which is consistent with redox-cycling. The reactivity of NPDOs toward P-450R (in terms of kcat/Km) varied in the range of 10(6)-10(7)M(-1)s(-1), while their reduction by NQO1 proceeded much faster, approaching the diffusion control limit (kcat/Km∼10(8)-10(9)M(-1)s(-1)). NPDOs exhibited relatively high cytotoxic activity against human lung carcinoma (A-549) and breast tumor (MCF-7) cell lines (LC50=0.1-8.3μM), while promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) were less sensitive to NPDOs (LC50⩾10μM). 3-Nitro-substituted NPDO (11) revealed the highest potency against both A-549 and MCF-7 cell lines, with LC50 of 0.12±0.03μM and 0.28±0.08μM, respectively. Dicoumarol partly suppressed the activity of the compounds against A-594 and MCF-7 cell lines, suggesting that their cytotoxic action might be partially influenced by NQO1-mediated bioreductive activation.

  20. Analysis of slope slip surface case study landslide road segment Purwantoro-Nawangan/Bts Jatim Km 89+400

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidik Purnomo, Joko; Muslih Purwana, Yusep; Silmi Surjandari, Niken

    2017-01-01

    Wonogiri is a region of south eastern part of Central Java province which borders with East Java and Yogyakarta Province. In Physiographic its mostly undulating hills so that the frequent occurrence of landslides, especially during the rainy season. Landslide disaster that just happened that on the road segment Purwantoro-Nawangan / Bts Jatim Km 89 + 400 were included in the authority of the Highways Department of Central Java Province. During this time, Error analysis of slope stability is not caused by a lot of presumption shape of slip surface, but by an error in determining the location of the critical slip surface. This study aims to find the shape and location slip surface landslide on segment Purwantoro - Nawangan Km 89 + 400 with the interpretation of soil test results. This research method is with the interpretation of CPT test and Bore Hole as well as modeling use limit equilibrium method and finite element method. Processing contours of the slopes in the landslide area resulted in three cross section that slopes A-A, B-B and C-C which will be modeling the slopes. Modeling slopes with dry and wet conditions at the third cross section slope. It was found that the form of the slope slip surface are known to be composite depth 1.5-2 m with safety factor values more than 1.2 (stable) when conditions are dry slopes. But its became failure with factor of safety < 0.44 when conditions are wet slopes.

  1. Copper-catalyzed 1,2-addition of α-carbonyl iodides to alkynes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Hu, Xile

    2015-01-19

    β,γ-Unsaturated ketones are an important class of organic molecules. Herein, copper catalysis has been developed for the synthesis of β-γ-unsaturated ketones through 1,2-addition of α-carbonyl iodides to alkynes. The reactions exhibit wide substrate scope and high functional group tolerance. The reaction products are versatile synthetic intermediates to complex small molecules. The method was applied for the formal synthesis of (±)-trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor.

  2. Iron-catalyzed 1,2-addition of perfluoroalkyl iodides to alkynes and alkenes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Cheung, Chi Wai; Hu, Xile

    2014-05-05

    Iron catalysis has been developed for the intermolecular 1,2-addition of perfluoroalkyl iodides to alkynes and alkenes. The catalysis has a wide substrate scope and high functional-group tolerance. A variety of perfluoroalkyl iodides including CF3 I can be employed. The resulting perfluoroalkylated alkyl and alkenyl iodides can be further functionalized by cross-coupling reactions. This methodology provides a straightforward and streamlined access to perfluoroalkylated organic molecules.

  3. Product operator theory for IS (I=1/2 S=3/2) spin system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgin, Hacer; Saka, Irfan

    2017-02-01

    In Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments for weakly coupled spin system, product operator theory is widely used for analytical descriptions and experimental suggestions. Interaction with weakly coupled of IS (I=3/2, S=1/2) spin systems have 64 product operators. Changing of these operators named as evolution and 12 of these evolutions under the spin-spin coupling Hamiltonian of product operators were derived in this study.

  4. Catalytic transformation of esters of 1,2-azido alcohols into α-amido ketones.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongjin; Pak, Han Kyu; Rhee, Young Ho; Park, Jaiwook

    2016-05-05

    The esters of 1,2-azido alcohols were transformed into α-amido ketones without external oxidants through the Ru-catalyzed formation of N-H imines with the liberation of N2 followed by intramolecular migration of the acyl moiety. A wide range of α-amido ketones were obtained, and one-pot transformation into the corresponding oxazoles (or a thiazole) was demonstrated.

  5. 43 CFR 3472.1-2 - Special leasing qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special leasing qualifications. 3472.1-2... Lease Qualification Requirements § 3472.1-2 Special leasing qualifications. (a) Each applicant or bidder... compliance with the special leasing qualifications of this subpart. (4)(i) An entity, seeking to qualify...

  6. 43 CFR 3472.1-2 - Special leasing qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special leasing qualifications. 3472.1-2... Lease Qualification Requirements § 3472.1-2 Special leasing qualifications. (a) Each applicant or bidder... compliance with the special leasing qualifications of this subpart. (4)(i) An entity, seeking to qualify...

  7. 43 CFR 3472.1-2 - Special leasing qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special leasing qualifications. 3472.1-2... Lease Qualification Requirements § 3472.1-2 Special leasing qualifications. (a) Each applicant or bidder... compliance with the special leasing qualifications of this subpart. (4)(i) An entity, seeking to qualify...

  8. 41 CFR 51-1.2 - Mandatory source priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mandatory source priorities. 51-1.2 Section 51-1.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... Mandatory source priorities. (a) The JWOD Act mandates that commodities or services on the Procurement...

  9. 36 CFR 1.2 - Applicability and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability and scope. 1.2 Section 1.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL... administered by the National Park Service; (2) The boundaries of lands and waters administered by the...

  10. 43 CFR 3802.1-2 - When not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When not required. 3802.1-2 Section 3802.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... transported without using mechanized earth moving equipment or tracked vehicles....

  11. 43 CFR 3430.1-2 - Commercial quantities defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial quantities defined. 3430.1-2 Section 3430.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... sale of the coal shall exceed the cost of developing the mine and extracting, removing,...

  12. 41 CFR 51-1.2 - Mandatory source priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Mandatory source priorities. 51-1.2 Section 51-1.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 1-GENERAL §...

  13. 41 CFR 51-1.2 - Mandatory source priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mandatory source priorities. 51-1.2 Section 51-1.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 1-GENERAL §...

  14. 41 CFR 51-1.2 - Mandatory source priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Mandatory source priorities. 51-1.2 Section 51-1.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 1-GENERAL §...

  15. 41 CFR 51-1.2 - Mandatory source priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mandatory source priorities. 51-1.2 Section 51-1.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 1-GENERAL §...

  16. 43 CFR 3582.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3582.1-2 Section 3582.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.1-2 Hardrock minerals. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this subpart, leasing...

  17. 43 CFR 3582.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3582.1-2 Section 3582.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.1-2 Hardrock minerals. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this subpart, leasing...

  18. 43 CFR 3583.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3583.1-2 Section 3583.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Shasta and Trinity Units of the Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 3583.1-2 Hardrock minerals. This subpart governs...

  19. 43 CFR 3583.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3583.1-2 Section 3583.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Shasta and Trinity Units of the Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 3583.1-2 Hardrock minerals. This subpart governs...

  20. 43 CFR 3583.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3583.1-2 Section 3583.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Shasta and Trinity Units of the Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 3583.1-2 Hardrock minerals. This subpart governs...

  1. 43 CFR 3582.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3582.1-2 Section 3582.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.1-2 Hardrock minerals. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this subpart, leasing...

  2. 43 CFR 3582.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3582.1-2 Section 3582.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.1-2 Hardrock minerals. Except as otherwise specifically provided in this subpart, leasing...

  3. 43 CFR 3583.1-2 - Hardrock minerals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hardrock minerals. 3583.1-2 Section 3583.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS Shasta and Trinity Units of the Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 3583.1-2 Hardrock minerals. This subpart governs...

  4. Fermions in d = 1 + 2 dimensions from first principles

    SciTech Connect

    Carrillo-Ruiz, Ma. Georgina; Napsuciale, Mauro

    2006-09-25

    In this work we construct states describing planar electrons ('spin' (1/2) particles with well defined parity) in d = 1 + 2 from first principles and show that they satisfy Dirac equation, which turns out to be the covariant form of the eigenvalue equation for spatial inversion (parity) just like in d = 1 + 3.

  5. 14 CFR 1.2 - Abbreviations and symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Abbreviations and symbols. 1.2 Section 1.2 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS DEFINITIONS... indicated airspeed. ICAO means International Civil Aviation Organization. IFR means instrument flight...

  6. 45 CFR 1206.1-2 - Application of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application of this part. 1206.1-2 Section 1206.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance §...

  7. 43 CFR 2201.1-2 - Segregative effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Segregative effect. 2201.1-2 Section 2201... Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.1-2 Segregative effect. (a) If a proposal is made to exchange Federal... public land status records. (c) The segregative effect shall terminate upon the occurrence of any of...

  8. 43 CFR 2201.1-2 - Segregative effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Segregative effect. 2201.1-2 Section 2201... Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.1-2 Segregative effect. (a) If a proposal is made to exchange Federal... public land status records. (c) The segregative effect shall terminate upon the occurrence of any of...

  9. 43 CFR 2201.1-2 - Segregative effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Segregative effect. 2201.1-2 Section 2201... Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.1-2 Segregative effect. (a) If a proposal is made to exchange Federal... public land status records. (c) The segregative effect shall terminate upon the occurrence of any of...

  10. 43 CFR 2201.1-2 - Segregative effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Segregative effect. 2201.1-2 Section 2201... Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.1-2 Segregative effect. (a) If a proposal is made to exchange Federal... public land status records. (c) The segregative effect shall terminate upon the occurrence of any of...

  11. 48 CFR 970.2201-1-2 - Policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policies. 970.2201-1-2... REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Application of Labor Policies 970.2201-1-2 Policies. (a... installations; retention by DOE of absolute authority on all questions of security; and DOE review of...

  12. 43 CFR 3472.1-2 - Special leasing qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special leasing qualifications. 3472.1-2... Lease Qualification Requirements § 3472.1-2 Special leasing qualifications. (a) Each applicant or bidder... compliance with the special leasing qualifications of this subpart. (4)(i) An entity, seeking to qualify...

  13. 5 CFR 1.2 - Extent of the competitive service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extent of the competitive service. 1.2 Section 1.2 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND... pursuant to statute or by the Office of Personnel Management (hereafter referred to in this subchapter...

  14. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  15. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  16. Listening to music in the first, but not the last 1.5 km of a 5-km running trial alters pacing strategy and improves performance.

    PubMed

    Lima-Silva, A E; Silva-Cavalcante, M D; Pires, F O; Bertuzzi, R; Oliveira, R S F; Bishop, D

    2012-10-01

    We examined the effects of listening to music on attentional focus, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), pacing strategy and performance during a simulated 5-km running race. 15 participants performed 2 controlled trials to establish their best baseline time, followed by 2 counterbalanced experimental trials during which they listened to music during the first (M start) or the last (M finish) 1.5 km. The mean running velocity during the first 1.5 km was significantly higher in M start than in the fastest control condition (p<0.05), but there was no difference in velocity between conditions during the last 1.5 km (p>0.05). The faster first 1.5 m in M start was accompanied by a reduction in associative thoughts compared with the fastest control condition. There were no significant differences in RPE between conditions (p>0.05). These results suggest that listening to music at the beginning of a trial may draw the attentional focus away from internal sensations of fatigue to thoughts about the external environment. However, along with the reduction in associative thoughts and the increase in running velocity while listening to music, the RPE increased linearly and similarly under all conditions, suggesting that the change in velocity throughout the race may be to maintain the same rate of RPE increase.

  17. Crustal structure of the Morrocan margin from wide-angle and reflection seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanian, D.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Labails, C.; Cosquer, E.; Geli, L.; Olivet, J.; Sahabi, M.; Nouze, H.; Rouzo, S.; Unternehr, P.

    2004-12-01

    Two deep seismic cruises were conducted as joint projects between Ifremer, Total, and the Universities of Brest, El Jadida and Lisbon to constrain the deep crustal structure of the Morrocan continental margin. During the SISMAR cruise four combined wide-angle and reflection seismic profiles were acquired on the northern Morrocan passive margin. Two profiles were shot parallel and two profiles perpendicular to the margin. During the DAKHLA cruise, a total 1500 km of seismic reflection and wide-angle profiles were acquired off the southern Morrocan margin. Modelling of the reflection and wide-angle seismic data from the SISMAR survey images the thick sedimentary cover of the margin, which is locally perturbed by salt tectonics. The sedimentary basin thickens from 1.5 km on normal oceanic crust to a maximum thickness of 6 km at the base of the continental slope. The model reveals basement structures including a few tilted fault blocks and a transition zone to thin oceanic-type crust. The crust thins from 35 km underneath the continent to about 7 km at the western end of the profile. Modelling of the seismic data from the DAKHLA cruise reveals a 10 km deep sedimentary basin including two high velocity carbonate layers. The crustal thinning from 30 km at the continental part to 7 km in the oceanic part occurs over a 100 km wide zone. Oceanic crust east of the M25 magnetic anomaly displays higher velocities in layer 3 than west of the magnetic anomaly. This change in velocity suggests a possible link to changes in accretionary processes of the oceanic crust. A comparison of wide-angle models from the northern and southern experiment show similar continental crustal thickness and structure in both regions, but a wider ocean - continent transition zone in the south. No high velocity layer corresponding to either serpentinized upper mantle or underplating has been imaged in either margin transect.

  18. Crustal structure of the Morrocan margin from wide-angle and reflection seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanian, D.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Labails, C.; Cosquer, E.; Geli, L.; Olivet, J.; Sahabi, M.; Nouze, H.; Rouzo, S.; Unternehr, P.

    2007-12-01

    Two deep seismic cruises were conducted as joint projects between Ifremer, Total, and the Universities of Brest, El Jadida and Lisbon to constrain the deep crustal structure of the Morrocan continental margin. During the SISMAR cruise four combined wide-angle and reflection seismic profiles were acquired on the northern Morrocan passive margin. Two profiles were shot parallel and two profiles perpendicular to the margin. During the DAKHLA cruise, a total 1500 km of seismic reflection and wide-angle profiles were acquired off the southern Morrocan margin. Modelling of the reflection and wide-angle seismic data from the SISMAR survey images the thick sedimentary cover of the margin, which is locally perturbed by salt tectonics. The sedimentary basin thickens from 1.5 km on normal oceanic crust to a maximum thickness of 6 km at the base of the continental slope. The model reveals basement structures including a few tilted fault blocks and a transition zone to thin oceanic-type crust. The crust thins from 35 km underneath the continent to about 7 km at the western end of the profile. Modelling of the seismic data from the DAKHLA cruise reveals a 10 km deep sedimentary basin including two high velocity carbonate layers. The crustal thinning from 30 km at the continental part to 7 km in the oceanic part occurs over a 100 km wide zone. Oceanic crust east of the M25 magnetic anomaly displays higher velocities in layer 3 than west of the magnetic anomaly. This change in velocity suggests a possible link to changes in accretionary processes of the oceanic crust. A comparison of wide-angle models from the northern and southern experiment show similar continental crustal thickness and structure in both regions, but a wider ocean - continent transition zone in the south. No high velocity layer corresponding to either serpentinized upper mantle or underplating has been imaged in either margin transect.

  19. Global Investigation of the Mg Atom and ion Layers using SCIAMACHY/Envisat Observations between 70 km and 150 km Altitude and WACCM-MG Model Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langowski, M.; vonSavigny, C.; Burrows, J. P.; Feng, W.; Plane, J. M. C.; Marsh, D. R.; Janches, Diego; Sinnhuber, M.; Aikin, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Mg and Mg+ concentration fields in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (UMLT) region are retrieved from SCIAMACHY/Envisat limb measurements of Mg and Mg+ dayglow emissions using a 2-D tomographic retrieval approach. The time series of monthly means of Mg and Mg+ for number density as well as vertical column density in different latitudinal regions are shown. Data from the limb mesosphere-thermosphere mode of SCIAMACHY/Envisat are used, which covers the 50 km to 150 km altitude region with a vertical sampling of 3.3 km and a highest latitude of 82 deg. The high latitudes are not covered in the winter months, because there is no dayglow emission during polar night. The measurements were performed every 14 days from mid-2008 until April 2012. Mg profiles show a peak at around 90 km altitude with a density between 750 cm(exp-3) and 2000 cm(exp-3). Mg does not show strong seasonal variation at mid-latitudes. The Mg+ peak occurs 5-15 km above the neutral Mg peak at 95-105 km. Furthermore, the ions show a significant seasonal cycle with a summer maximum in both hemispheres at mid- and high-latitudes. The strongest seasonal variations of the ions are observed at mid-latitudes between 20-40 deg and densities at the peak altitude range from 500 cm(exp-3) to 6000 cm(exp-3). The peak altitude of the ions shows a latitudinal dependence with a maximum at mid-latitudes that is up to 10 km higher than the peak altitude at the equator. The SCIAMACHY measurements are compared to other measurements and WACCM model results. In contrast to the SCIAMACHY results, the WACCM results show a strong seasonal variability for Mg with a winter maximum, which is not observable by SCIAMACHY, and globally higher peak densities. Although the peak densities do not agree the vertical column densities agree, since SCIAMACHY results show a wider vertical profile. The agreement of SCIAMACHY and WACCM results is much better for Mg+, showing the same seasonality and similar peak densities. However

  20. [L1-2 lumbar disc herniation: a case report].

    PubMed

    Monobe, T; Fujita, T; Nakaue, Y; Nishi, N

    1996-03-01

    A 49-year-old female presented a two-year history of pain in the right thigh and lower back. Neurological examination on admission demonstrated weakness of the right iliopsoas and quadriceps, hypesthesia on the right L1-2 dermatome. Radiological examination including myelography, CT myelography and discography disclosed an L1-2 herniated disc. Sagittal MRI also revealed an L1-2, an L4-5 and L5-S1 protruded disc. A posterior microdiscectomy (Love's method) was performed for the L1-2 disc. A controlateral protruded disc which compressed the L-2 nerve root was identified and partially removed. The postoperative myelography showed residual disc. The patient was free from pain and regained normal sensorimotor function. Love's posterior microdiscectomy has a disadvantage in that the operative field is limited. Careful surgical procedure was needed to avoid injury to nerve roots and the cauda equina in a tight L1-2 lumbar canal.

  1. The effects of running a 308 km ultra-marathon on cardiac markers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Joo; Shin, Young-Oh; Lee, Jeong-Beom; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Shin, Kyung-A; Kim, Al-Chan; Goh, Choong-Won; Kim, Chul; Oh, Jae-Keun; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of cardiac strain and damage in 18 male marathoners with average age of 52.8 ± 5.0 years running at a 308 km ultra-marathon. Blood samples were collected at pre-race, 100 km, 200 km and 308 km check points for the analysis of cardiac muscle injury markers, creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB), cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and cardiac muscle strain marker, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The CK levels increased 1127.2 ± 507.9 IU/L, 5133.8 ± 2492.7 IU/L and 4958.4 ± 2087.9 IU/L at 100 km, 200 km and 308 km, respectively, compared to the pre-race levels. The CK-MB levels increased 20.2 ± 11.2 ng/mL, 73.3 ± 35.6 ng/mL and 68.6 ± 42.6 ng/mL at 100, 200 and 308 km, respectively, compared to the pre-race levels. The CK-MB/CK ratio showed that the CK-MB mass index was within the normal range (<2.5%) at 100 km, 200 km and 308 km. The cTnI levels showed no significant difference in all check points. The NT-proBNP levels increased 146.55 ± 92.7 pg/mL, 167.95 ± 111.9 pg/mL and 241.23 ± 121.2 pg/mL at 100, 200 and 308 km, respectively, compared to the pre-race levels. The normal CK-MB mass index (<5.0 ng/mL) and the absence of an increase in the cTnI levels during the 308 km ultra-marathon suggested that no myocardial injury despite an elevation in CK-MB. The increase in NT-proBNP levels probably resulted from continuous hemodynamic cardiac stress and represents a transient physiological myocardial protective response.

  2. Marshall Space Flight Center Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) Knowledge Management (KM) Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccioli, Paul; Varnedoe, Tom; Smith, Randy; McCarter, Mike; Wilson, Barry; Porter, Richard

    2006-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) is four months into a fifteen month Knowledge Management (KM) initiative to support enhanced engineering decision making and analyses, faster resolution of anomalies (near-term) and effective, efficient knowledge infused engineering processes, reduced knowledge attrition, and reduced anomaly occurrences (long-term). The near-term objective of this initiative is developing a KM Pilot project, within the context of a 3-5 year KM strategy, to introduce and evaluate the use of KM within PSD. An internal NASA/MSFC PSD KM team was established early in project formulation to maintain a practitioner, user-centric focus throughout the conceptual development, planning and deployment of KM technologies and capabilities within the PSD. The PSD internal team is supported by the University of Alabama's Aging Infrastructure Systems Center of Excellence (AISCE), lntergraph Corporation, and The Knowledge Institute. The principle product of the initial four month effort has been strategic planning of PSD KNI implementation by first determining the "as is" state of KM capabilities and developing, planning and documenting the roadmap to achieve the desired "to be" state. Activities undertaken to suppoth e planning phase have included data gathering; cultural surveys, group work-sessions, interviews, documentation review, and independent research. Assessments and analyses have beon pedormed including industry benchmarking, related local and Agency initiatives, specific tools and techniques used and strategies for leveraging existing resources, people and technology to achieve common KM goals. Key findings captured in the PSD KM Strategic Plan include the system vision, purpose, stakeholders, prioritized strategic objectives mapped to the top ten practitioner needs and analysis of current resource usage. Opportunities identified from research, analyses, cultural1KM surveys and practitioner interviews include

  3. The KM3Net project: A neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Capua, F.; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration has started the first phase of construction of a next generation high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. With several cubic kilometers instrumented and thousand of optical sensors, KM3NeT will be the largest and most sensitive high-energy neutrino telescope. Thanks to its location in the Northern hemisphere and to its large instrumented volume KM3NeT will be the optimal instrument to search for neutrinos from the Southern sky and in particular from the Galactic plane, thus making it complementary to IceCube. The full KM3NeT detector will be a distributed, networked infrastructure comprising several detector blocks. In Italy, off the coast of Capo Passero, and in France, off the coast of Toulon, the construction of the KM3NeT-It and KM3NeT-Fr infrastructures respectively is in progress. In this work the technologically innovative component of the detector, the status of construction and the first results from prototypes of the KM3NeT detector will be described and its capability to discover neutrino sources is reported as well.

  4. [Comparative studies on monoclonal antibody KM10 and anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Soyama, N; Yamamoto, M; Ohyanagi, H; Saitoh, Y

    1989-11-01

    The specificity of KM10 was evaluated in comparison with newly developed anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies (A10, B9, JA4, AH3). Both KM10 and all anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies reacted with CEA in ELISA system, and with adenocarcinoma of the stomach, colon, and pancreas in the immunohistochemical assay. B9, JA4, and AH3 were suggested to react with CEA related antigens, such as NCA and BGPI, whereas KM10 and A10 were suggested to recognize the distinctive part of CEA. The antigenic determinant of CEA reactive with KM10 and A10 was revealed to be protein moiety after enzyme treatment. The competitive binding inhibition assay, however, indicated that epitopes of KM10 and A10 were different each other. Enzyme immunoassay using both KM10 and A10 could detect CEA. These findings showed the possible use of both KM10 and A10 for clinical diagnosis and treatment by means of targeting for the distinctive part of CEA.

  5. Comparative genomic analysis of the swine pathogen Bordetella bronchisepticastrain KM22.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Tracy L; Shore, Sarah M; Register, Karen B; Bayles, Darrell O; Kingsley, Robert A; Brunelle, Brain W

    2016-01-01

    The well-characterized Bordetella bronchiseptica strain KM22, originally isolated from a pig with atrophic rhinitis, has been used to develop a reproducible swine respiratory disease model. The goal of this study was to identify genetic features unique to KM22 by comparing the genome sequence of KM22 to the laboratory reference strain RB50. To gain a broader perspective of the genetic relationship of KM22 among other B. bronchiseptica strains, selected genes of KM22 were then compared to five other B. bronchiseptica strains isolated from different hosts. Overall, the KM22 genome sequence is more similar to the genome sequences of the strains isolated from animals than the strains isolated from humans. The majority of virulence gene expression in Bordetella is positively regulated by the two-component sensory transduction system BvgAS. bopN, bvgA, fimB, and fimC were the most highly conserved BvgAS-regulated genes present in all seven strains analyzed. In contrast, the BvgAS-regulated genes present in all seven strains with the highest sequence divergence werefimN, fim2, fhaL, andfhaS. A total of eight major fimbrial subunit genes were identified in KM22. Quantitative real-time PCR data demonstrated that seven of the eight fimbrial subunit genes identified in KM22 are expressed and regulated by BvgAS. The annotation of the KM22 genome sequence, coupled with the comparative genomic analyses reported in this study, can be used to facilitate the development of vaccines with improved efficacy towards B. bronchiseptica in swine to decrease the prevalence and disease burden caused by this pathogen.

  6. 10 km running performance predicted by a multiple linear regression model with allometrically adjusted variables

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Cesar C. C.; Barros, Ronaldo V.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Gagliardi, João F. L.; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.; Lambert, Mike I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to verify the power of VO2max, peak treadmill running velocity (PTV), and running economy (RE), unadjusted or allometrically adjusted, in predicting 10 km running performance. Eighteen male endurance runners performed: 1) an incremental test to exhaustion to determine VO2max and PTV; 2) a constant submaximal run at 12 km·h−1 on an outdoor track for RE determination; and 3) a 10 km running race. Unadjusted (VO2max, PTV and RE) and adjusted variables (VO2max0.72, PTV0.72 and RE0.60) were investigated through independent multiple regression models to predict 10 km running race time. There were no significant correlations between 10 km running time and either the adjusted or unadjusted VO2max. Significant correlations (p < 0.01) were found between 10 km running time and adjusted and unadjusted RE and PTV, providing models with effect size > 0.84 and power > 0.88. The allometrically adjusted predictive model was composed of PTV0.72 and RE0.60 and explained 83% of the variance in 10 km running time with a standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 1.5 min. The unadjusted model composed of a single PVT accounted for 72% of the variance in 10 km running time (SEE of 1.9 min). Both regression models provided powerful estimates of 10 km running time; however, the unadjusted PTV may provide an uncomplicated estimation. PMID:28149382

  7. Enzyme IIANtr Regulates Salmonella Invasion Via 1,2-Propanediol And Propionate Catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Woongjae; Kim, Dajeong; Yoon, Hyunjin; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2017-01-01

    Many Proteobacteria possess a nitrogen-metabolic phosphotransferase system (PTSNtr) consisting of EINtr, NPr, and EIIANtr (encoded by ptsP, ptsO, and ptsN, respectively). The PTSNtr plays diverse regulatory roles, but the substrate phosphorylated by EIIANtr and its primary functions have not yet been identified. To comprehensively understand the roles of PTSNtr in Salmonella Typhimurium, we compared the whole transcriptomes of wild-type and a ΔptsN mutant. Genome-wide RNA sequencing revealed that 3.5% of the annotated genes were up- or down-regulated by three-fold or more in the absence of EIIANtr. The ΔptsN mutant significantly down-regulated the expression of genes involved in vitamin B12 synthesis, 1,2-propanediol utilization, and propionate catabolism. Moreover, the invasiveness of the ΔptsN mutant increased about 5-fold when 1,2-propanediol or propionate was added, which was attributable to the increased stability of HilD, the transcriptional regulator of Salmonella pathogenicity island-1. Interestingly, an abundance of 1,2-propanediol or propionate promoted the production of EIIANtr, suggesting the possibility of a positive feedback loop between EIIANtr and two catabolic pathways. These results demonstrate that EIIANtr is a key factor for the utilization of 1,2-propanediol and propionate as carbon and energy sources, and thereby modulates the invasiveness of Salmonella via 1,2-propanediol or propionate catabolism. PMID:28333132

  8. Fluorination of 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetrahalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Dickerson, D.R.; Shiley, R.H.

    1972-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorofluorobenzene, and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene were fluorinated with potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. By varying the concentration, temperature and reaction time, the degree of fluorination could be controlled to some extent. The optimum conditions for producing mono-, di- and tri-fluoro-substituted chlorobenzenes and trace amounts of tetrafluorobenzene from the corresponding tetrachlorobenzenes are given. 1,2,3,5-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in 44.8% yield from 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene. 1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in only trace amounts from 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. A total of 24 new chlorofluorobenzenes and intermediates are described. Fluorination with potassium fluoride and certain other metal fluorides was also investigated. ?? 1972.

  9. Dosimetry of secondary cosmic radiation up to an altitude of 30 km.

    PubMed

    Wissmann, F; Burda, O; Khurana, S; Klages, T; Langner, F

    2014-10-01

    Dosimetric measurements in the field of secondary cosmic radiation were extensively made during the last years. Since the majority of these measurements were performed on-board passenger aircraft at altitudes between 10 and 12 km, measurements at higher altitudes are desirable for the verification of the legal dose assessment procedures for aircrew. A simple solution is to use a high-altitude balloon that reaches altitudes as high as 30 km. In this work, it is shown that the dose rate profile up to 30 km can be measured with acceptable uncertainties using a Si-detector.

  10. Characterization of the KM3NeT photomultipliers in the Hellenic Open University

    SciTech Connect

    Bourlis, G.; Avgitas, T.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT neutrino research infrastructure will be a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory in the Mediterranean Sea hosting a neutrino telescope. The Physics Laboratory of the Hellenic Open University is involved in the characterization of the KM3NeT neutrino detector. The present work describes measurement techniques for the functional characteristics of the candidate KM3NeT photomultipliers. These characteristics include dark current, transit time spread, gain slope and single photoelectron characteristics, as well as delayed and after pulses.

  11. KM3NeT/ARCA sensitivity and discovery potential for neutrino point-like sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trovato, A.

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure with a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea. Of these, the KM3NeT/ARCA detector, installed in the KM3NeT-It node of the network, is optimised for studying high-energy neutrinos of cosmic origin. Sensitivities to galactic sources such as the supernova remnant RXJ1713.7-3946 and the pulsar wind nebula Vela X are presented as well as sensitivities to a generic point source with an E-2 spectrum which represents an approximation for the spectrum of extragalactic candidate neutrino sources.

  12. Hydrologic monitoring in 1-km2 headwater catchments in Sierra Nevada forests for predictive modeling of hydrologic response to forest treatments across 140-km2 firesheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksa, P. C.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.; Martin, S. E.; Rice, R.

    2010-12-01

    As part of the Sierra Nevada Adaptive Management Project, an eight-year study designed to measure the impacts of forest treatments (thinning, mastication, controlled burns) on multiple forest attributes, four headwater catchments were established to provide data on hydrologic response to treatments. These 1-km2 study catchments are each sited within 40-100 km2 firesheds, which in this case largely follow watershed boundaries, and which are the larger study areas for informing adaptive management of approximately 3,000 km2 of mixed-conifer forest in California’s central and southern Sierra Nevada. The aim of the hydrologic design was to put in place a ground-based monitoring network that would measure hydrologic attributes at representative locations, and when combined with remotely sensed data, provide a basis for predictive modeling of the larger study area. The selected locations employ instrument clusters, or groupings of instruments in a compact arrangement, to maximize the number of measurements possible and accessibility to the monitoring sites. The two study firesheds , located in the Tahoe and Sierra National Forests, cover a total of about 140-km2. Within each fireshed, two meteorological stations were placed near 1650-m and 2150-m, spanning the precipitation gradient from lower-elevation rain-dominated to higher-elevation snow-dominated systems. Two headwater streams draining approximately 1-km2 are monitored for stage, discharge, electrical conductivity, and sediment movement. Additionally, instrument nodes to monitor temperature, snow depth and soil moisture are installed within 0.5-1 km of the outlet and meterological stations. These nodes were placed to monitor end members of aspect, slope, elevation and canopy cover, which set the boundaries for the model outputs. High-resolution LiDAR provides the topographic and distributed vegetation characteristics, which are combined with field surveys and standard soils information to define the modeling

  13. Extreme precipitation events in southestearn France in a high-resolution regional climate model : comparison of a 12 km and a 50 km hindcast with ALADIN-Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, Jeanne; Déqué, Michel; Sanchez Gomez, Emilia; Somot, Samuel

    2010-05-01

    We present a comparison of the modelling of intense precipitations over France in two regional climate simulations performed with the Limited Area Model (LAM) ALADIN-Climate, run at a 12 km and a 50 km resolution. In both experiments, the model is forced by the ERA40 re-analysis over the 1958-2000 period. We focus on the representation of the highest precipitation extremes occuring in southeastern France in Autumn. These events involve small-scale processes than can be explicitly resolved only with 2-1 km resolution non-hydrostatic models. However, previous studies have shown that regional climate models are able to simulate heavy rainfalls in this area, although the amounts of rain are much smaller than the ones that are actually observed. Here, we further explore the ability of ALADIN-Climate in reproducing these specific events and the possible added-value of a higher resolution regarding this matter. Indeed, driving the LAM with ERA40 allows the LAM to stick to the real chronology and therefore enables us to analyze its results not only from a statistical point of view but also through day-to-day diagnosis. First, we assess the performances of the model at the 12 km and 50 km resolutions by comparing the simulated daily precipitations with observations over the south east part of France. To do so, we use the high-resolution gridded SAFRAN analysis which provides series of hourly fields over the french territory at a 8 km resolution, from 1958 to 2008. We consider the differences in the upper quantiles of precipitations between the model and the data, as well as the time correlations of heavy rainfalls and the spatial rain patterns for given extreme events. Then we compare the performances of ALADIN-Climate in both simulations to the ones obtained with a statistical downscaling method we apply to the last twenty years of the ERA40 period. This method is based on a weather regime approach and uses the analog methodology (Boé and Terray, 2007) to reconstruct

  14. An increased fluid intake leads to feet swelling in 100-km ultra-marathoners - an observational field study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An association between fluid intake and changes in volumes of the upper and lower limb has been described in 100-km ultra-marathoners. The purpose of the present study was (i) to investigate the association between fluid intake and a potential development of peripheral oedemas leading to an increase of the feet volume in 100-km ultra-marathoners and (ii) to evaluate a possible association between the changes in plasma sodium concentration ([Na+]) and changes in feet volume. Methods In seventy-six 100-km ultra-marathoners, body mass, plasma [Na+], haematocrit and urine specific gravity were determined pre- and post-race. Fluid intake and the changes of volume of the feet were measured where the changes of volume of the feet were estimated using plethysmography. Results Body mass decreased by 1.8 kg (2.4%) (p < 0.0001); plasma [Na+] increased by 1.2% (p < 0.0001). Haematocrit decreased (p = 0.0005). The volume of the feet remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Plasma volume and urine specific gravity increased (p < 0.0001). Fluid intake was positively related to the change in the volume of the feet (r = 0.54, p < 0.0001) and negatively to post-race plasma [Na+] (r = -0.28, p = 0.0142). Running speed was negatively related to both fluid intake (r = -0.33, p = 0.0036) and the change in feet volume (r = -0.23, p = 0.0236). The change in the volume of the feet was negatively related to the change in plasma [Na+] (r = -0.26, p = 0.0227). The change in body mass was negatively related to both post-race plasma [Na+] (r = -0.28, p = 0.0129) and running speed (r = -0.34, p = 0.0028). Conclusions An increase in feet volume after a 100-km ultra-marathon was due to an increased fluid intake. PMID:22472466

  15. Crustal structure of the SW-Moroccan margin from wide-angle and reflection seismic data (the DAKHLA experiment) Part A: Wide-angle seismic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Labails, C.; Cosquer, E.; Rouzo, S.; Géli, L.; Aslanian, D.; Olivet, J.-L.; Sahabi, M.; Nouzé, H.; Unternehr, P.

    2009-04-01

    A total 1500 km of seismic reflection and wide-angle profiles were acquired off the southern Moroccan margin during the DAKHLA cruise, a joint project of Ifremer, the Universities of Brest, El Jadida and Lisbon and Total. The shots along two profiles parallel to the margin and two profiles perpendicular to the margin were also recorded by ocean bottom seismometers (OBS). The profiles perpendicular to the margin were additionally extended on land using 14 stations on the northern profile and 11 stations on the southern profile. Modelling of the reflection and wide-angle seismic data reveals a 10 km deep sedimentary basin including two high velocity carbonate layers. Lateral crustal thinning is observed from a 27 km thick crystalline continental crust to a 7 km thick oceanic crust occurring over less than 100 km. The crystalline continental crust can be divided into two distinct layers of 12 and 15 km thickness. The oceanic crust east of the magnetic anomaly M25 displays higher velocities in layer 3 than west of the magnetic anomaly. The change in seismic velocity suggests a possible link to changes in accretionary processes of the oceanic crust. Some regions show seismic velocities between 6.8 and 7.4 km/s which could be explained by slightly elevated mantle temperatures during accretion of the crust.

  16. Wide swath and high resolution optical imaging satellite of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Haruyoshi; Kato, Eri; Imai, Hiroko; Sagisaka, Masakazu

    2016-05-01

    The "Advanced optical satellite" (tentative name) is a follow-on mission from ALOS. Mission objectives of the advanced optical satellite is to build upon the existing advanced techniques for global land observation using optical sensors, as well as to promote data utilization for social needs. Wide swath and high resolution optical imager onboard the advanced optical satellite will extend the capabilities of earlier ALOS missions. The optical imager will be able to collect high-resolution (< 1 m) and wide-swath (70 km) images with high geo-location accuracy. This paper introduces a conceptual design of the advanced optical satellite.

  17. Heavy metal effects on the biodegradation of fluorene by Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 isolated from PAHs-contaminated mine soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, I.; Chon, C.; Jung, K.; Kim, J.

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs) are widely distributed in the environment and occur ubiquitously in fossil fuels as well as in products of incomplete combustion and are known to be strongly toxic, often with carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Fluorene is one of the 16 PAHs included in the list of priority pollutants of the Environmental Protection Agency. The fluorene-degrading bacterial strain Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 was isolated from PAHs-contaminated soil near an abandoned mine impacted area by selective enrichment techniques. Fluorene added to the Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 culture as sole carbon and energy source was 78.4% removed within 120 h. A fluorene degradation pathway is tentatively proposed based on mass spectrometric identification of the metabolic intermediates 9-fluorenone, 4-hydroxy-9-fluorenone, and 8-hydroxy-3,4-benzocoumarin. Further the ability of Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 to bioremediate 100 mg/kg fluorene in mine soil was examined by composting under laboratory conditions. Treatment of microcosm soil with the strain KM-02 for 20 days resulted in a 65.6% reduction in total amounts. These results demonstrate that Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 could potentially be used in the bioremediation of fluorene from contaminated soil. Mine impacted area comprises considerable amounts of heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and copper. Although some of these metals are necessary for biological life, excessive quantities often result in the inhibition of essential biological reactions via numerous pathways. A number of reports collectively show that various metals, such as Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg at a range of concentrations have adverse effects on the degradation of organic compounds. However, at present there is only limited information on the effect of individual heavy metals on the biological degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including fluorene. Moreover, heavy metal effects were not

  18. X-1-2 with Pilots Robert Champine Herb Hoover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 and two of the NACA pilots that flew the aircraft. The one on the left is Robert Champine with the other being Herbert Hoover. The X-1-2 was also equipped with the 10-percent wing and 8 percent tail, powered with an XLR-11 rocket engine and aircraft made its first powered flight on December 9, 1946 with Chalmers 'Slick' Goodlin at the controls. As with the X-1-1 the X-1-2 continued to investigate transonic/supersonic flight regime. NACA pilot Herbert Hoover became the first civilian to fly Mach 1, March 10, 1948. X-1-2 flew until October 23, 1951, completing 74 glide and powered flights with nine different pilots, when it was retired to be rebuilt as the X-1E.

  19. Technical Fact Sheet – 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO), provides a brief summary of the contaminant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP), including physical and chemical properties;

  20. Technical Fact Sheet – 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO), provides a brief summary of the contaminant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP), including physical and chemical properties

  1. 39 CFR 1.2 - Delegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (ARTICLE I) § 1.2 Delegation of authority. Except for powers, duties, or obligations specifically vested in the Governors by law, the Board may delegate its authority to the Postmaster General under such...

  2. INTAKE, DAMS #1, #2, AND #3, AND FOOTBRIDGE; FACING NORTHNORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTAKE, DAMS #1, #2, AND #3, AND FOOTBRIDGE; FACING NORTH-NORTHEAST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Intake, North Bank of Snake River, immediately West/Northwest of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project Dam No. 1, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  3. Mapping Land Cover Types in Amazon Basin Using 1km JERS-1 Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Sassan S.; Nelson, Bruce; Podest, Erika; Holt, John

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the 100 meter JERS-1 Amazon mosaic image was used in a new classifier to generate a I km resolution land cover map. The inputs to the classifier were 1 km resolution mean backscatter and seven first order texture measures derived from the 100 m data by using a 10 x 10 independent sampling window. The classification approach included two interdependent stages: 1) a supervised maximum a posteriori Bayesian approach to classify the mean backscatter image into 5 general land cover categories of forest, savannah, inundated, white sand, and anthropogenic vegetation classes, and 2) a texture measure decision rule approach to further discriminate subcategory classes based on taxonomic information and biomass levels. Fourteen classes were successfully separated at 1 km scale. The results were verified by examining the accuracy of the approach by comparison with the IBGE and the AVHRR 1 km resolution land cover maps.

  4. Making sense of KM through users: Information gaps and intellectual property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, Roberto de Miguel; Casado, Esther Monterroso

    2014-10-01

    Despite its lack of definition, in a general sense, knowledge management (KM) is consubstantial to contemporary innovation-driven social systems (IDSSs), allowing individuals, organizations, and entire societies, to cope with their intrinsic technical uncertainties more effectively. Before the advent of IDSSs, most of the results of KM were considered naturally inappropriable as well as fractions of the public domain. In such context, patents litigation was almost anecdotic. This paper summarizes various social scientific and humanistic approaches that nourish the emergence of a new KM model in which innovation will be anchored in the claim for universality. Patentability of ICT and services is also considered on the realm of a commons-based KM.

  5. KM3NeT tower data acquisition and data transport electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolau, C. A.; Ameli, F.; Biagioni, A.; Capone, A.; Frezza, O.; Lonardo, A.; Masullo, R.; Mollo, C. M.; Orlando, A.; Simeone, F.; Vicini, P.

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the KM3Net European project, the production stage of a large volume underwater neutrino telescope has started. The forthcoming installation includes 8 towers and 24 strings, that will be installed 100 km off-shore Capo Passero (Italy) at 3500 m depth. The KM3NeT tower, whose layout is strongly based on the NEMO Phase-2 prototype tower deployed in March 2013, has been re-engineered and partially re-designed in order to optimize production costs, power consumption, and usability. This contribution gives a description of the main electronics, including front-end, data transport and clock distribution system, of the KM3NeT tower detection unit.

  6. 2 GHz clock quantum key distribution over 260 km of standard telecom fiber.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Guo, Jun-Fu; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Zheng; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2012-03-15

    We report a demonstration of quantum key distribution (QKD) over a standard telecom fiber exceeding 50 dB in loss and 250 km in length. The differential phase shift QKD protocol was chosen and implemented with a 2 GHz system clock rate. By careful optimization of the 1 bit delayed Faraday-Michelson interferometer and the use of the superconducting single photon detector (SSPD), we achieved a quantum bit error rate below 2% when the fiber length was no more than 205 km, and of 3.45% for a 260 km fiber with 52.9 dB loss. We also improved the quantum efficiency of SSPD to obtain a high key rate for 50 km length.

  7. 40 Gbps 100-km SSMF VSB-IMDD OFDM transmission experiment based on FBG filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Cheng; Yang, Pengfei; Chen, Xue; Zhang, Zhiguo; Liu, Na

    2014-10-01

    This work studies the transmission performance of vestigial-sideband (VSB)-IMDD OFDM system by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The analysis shows that the detrimental effect of dispersion-induced power fading can be effectively suppressed. The presence of positive and negative chirp of modulator will increase the dispersion-, chirp- and VSB optical filter-induced subcarrier to subcarrier intermixing interference (SSII), which significantly restricts transmission performance. Relatively lower order Gaussian optical filter has almost the same performance with ideal rectangular filter over 100-km SMF transmission and have better performance in less than 60-km transmission. Furthermore, we successfully transmit a 40 Gbps, 16QAM, MZM-based VSB-IMDD OFDM signal through 100-km of uncompensated standard single mode fiber (SSMF) by using an economical FBG optical filter. The experimental results show that available bandwidth has been extended up to 10 GHz after 100-km SSMF transmission.

  8. SU(1,2) invariance in two-dimensional oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivonos, Sergey; Nersessian, Armen

    2017-02-01

    Performing the Hamiltonian analysis we explicitly established the canonical equivalence of the deformed oscillator, constructed in arXiv:1607.03756, with the ordinary one. As an immediate consequence, we proved that the SU(1, 2) symmetry is the dynamical symmetry of the ordinary two-dimensional oscillator. The characteristic feature of this SU(1, 2) symmetry is a non-polynomial structure of its generators written in terms of the oscillator variables.

  9. Cycloadditions of Noncomplementary Substituted 1,2,3-Triazines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The scope of the [4 + 2] cycloaddition reactions of substituted 1,2,3-triazines, bearing noncomplementary substitution with electron-withdrawing groups at C4 and/or C6, is described. The studies define key electronic and steric effects of substituents impacting the reactivity, mode (C4/N1 vs C5/N2), and regioselectivity of the cycloaddition reactions of 1,2,3-triazines with amidines, enamines, and ynamines, providing access to highly functionalized heterocycles. PMID:25222918

  10. Long-term monitoring of local stress changes in 67km installed OPGW cable using BOTDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, L.; Sezerman, O.

    2015-09-01

    The initial results from continuing long-term monitoring of a 67 km of an aerial fiber optic cable installed on a 500 kV power line cable (total fiber length of 134km) using BOTDA are presented. The effects of thunderstorms and rime ice on the cable were identified by monitoring strain on OPGW fibers. Variations of strain between day and night on the OPGW cable were observed and can potentially be exploited.

  11. Skin cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Gumaste, P V; Penn, L A; Cymerman, R M; Kirchhoff, T; Polsky, D; McLellan, B

    2015-06-01

    Women with BRCA1/2 mutations have an elevated risk of breast and ovarian cancer. These patients and their clinicians are often concerned about their risk for other cancers, including skin cancer. Research evaluating the association between BRCA1/2 mutations and skin cancer is limited and has produced inconsistent results. Herein, we review the current literature on the risk of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. No studies have shown a statistically significant risk of melanoma in BRCA1 families. BRCA2 mutations have been linked to melanoma in large breast and ovarian cancer families, though a statistically significant elevated risk was reported in only one study. Five additional studies have shown some association between BRCA2 mutations and melanoma, while four studies did not find any association. With respect to nonmelanoma skin cancers, studies have produced conflicting results. Given the current state of medical knowledge, there is insufficient evidence to warrant increased skin cancer surveillance of patients with a confirmed BRCA1/2 mutation or a family history of a BRCA1/2 mutation, in the absence of standard risk factors. Nonetheless, suspected BRCA1/2 mutation carriers should be counselled about skin cancer risks and may benefit from yearly full skin examinations.

  12. Word Criticality Analysis MOS: 15D. Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    ICASE .2 31 2- 29,2.2-247;1 2-2 ,1;i; Sol 0 1CASTER Z; 77,1 A-~ 49*1 2- 11;1 ICASUALTY . 2-13 217,1 2.lt5;i 2-134,1 j -153,1 1-249,1 ICAICH 2-251,1 I...1 3-. 67,2 3- 69,11 3- 63,11 3- 6206 3- 611 3-:42T13- 50,11 3- 49,& 3- 44.13 3- 24.1 3- 9.3 3- 6,1 3- Sol 3- 4#1 3- 3.3 2 O3.lI 1 -209,1 2-207,1 2...6001 3- host 2-249s1 3- Sol 2-269, 0 2.25001--- 3- 5,1 2-26 ’ i -270,2 I Nf1MFNC L.AT’R rz.k 29681 3- 0,1 3- 42I , - 51,2 11- 55,1 3- ’.spz __A NUM

  13. Microbial production and applications of 1,2-propanediol.

    PubMed

    Saxena, R K; Anand, Pinki; Saran, Saurabh; Isar, Jasmine; Agarwal, Lata

    2010-03-01

    1,2-Propanediol (propylene glycol) is an existing commodity chemical and can be produced from renewable resources using microbes. By virtue of being a natural product, relevant biochemical pathways can be harnessed into fermentation processes to produce 1,2-propanediol. In the present review, the chemical process and different biological strategies for the production of 1,2-propanediol are reviewed and compared with the potentials and limitations of all processes. For the successful commercial production of this diol, it is necessary to establish the metabolic pathways and production hosts (microorganisms), which are capable of delivering final product with high yields and volumetric productivity. Three pathways which have been recognized for 1,2-propanediol production are discussed here. In the first, de-oxy sugars like fucose and rhamnose are used as the carbon sources, while in the other route, the glycolytic intermediate-dihydroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP) is used to produce 1,2-propanediol via the formation of methylglyoxal. A new pathway of 1,2-propanediol production by lactic acid degradation under anoxic conditions and the enzymes involved is also discussed. The production of this diol has gained attention because of their newer applications in industries such as polymers, food, pharmaceuticals, textiles, etc. Furthermore, improvement in fermentation technology will permit its uses in other applications. Future prospect in the light of the current research and its potential as a major bulk chemical are discussed.

  14. 91-km attenuation-free transmission with low noise accumulation by use of distributed erbium-doped fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, Christian; Rottwitt, Karsten; Povlsen, Jørn H.; Varming, Poul; Newhouse, Mark A.; Antos, A. J.

    1995-06-01

    Transparency of a 91-km distributed erbium-doped fiber is achieved with 0.46 mW / km of pump power at a signal power of -12dBm . The accumulation of amplifier noise is measured to be smaller than the minimum noise accumulation that can be achieved in a 91-km link with two lumped amplifiers separated by 45 km.

  15. 7S(1/2) ? 9S(1/2) two-photon spectroscopy of trapped francium.

    PubMed

    Simsarian, J E; Shi, W; Orozco, L A; Sprouse, G D; Zhao, W Z

    1996-12-01

    We report on the spectroscopic measurement of the (210)Fr 9S(1/2) energy obtained by two-photon excitation of atoms confined and cooled in a magneto-optic trap. The resonant intermediate level 7P(3/2) is the upper state of the trapping transition. We have measured the energy difference between the 9S(1/2) state and the 7S(1/2) ground state to be 25 671.021 +/- 0.006 cm(-1).

  16. Daytime zonal drifts in the ionospheric E and 150 km regions estimated using EAR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peddapati, PavanChaitanya; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Patra, Amit

    2016-07-01

    The Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR), located at Kototabang (0.2o S, 100.32o E, mag. lat. 10.36o S), Indonesia, is capable of detecting both E region and 150 km echoes during daytime. We have conducted multi-beam observations using the EAR during daytime covering all seasons to study seasonal variations of these echoes and their dynamics. Given the facts that drifts at the 150 km region are governed primarily by electric field, drifts at the E region are governed by both electric field and neutral wind, simultaneous observations of drifts in both E and 150 km regions would help understand their variations. In this paper we present local time and seasonal variations of zonal drifts in the E and 150 km regions estimated using multi-beam observations. Zonal drifts (positive eastward) in the E and 150 km regions are found to be in the range of -10 to -60 m/s and -40 to 80 m/s, respectively. In the E region, zonal drifts show height reversal and temporal variations having tidal signature and noticeable seasonal variations. Zonal drifts in the 150 km region also show noticeable height and seasonal variations. These results are compared with model drifts and evaluated in terms of electric field and neutral wind.

  17. Antiferromagnetic Spin Ice Correlations at (1/2,1/2,1/2) in the Ground State of the Pyrochlore Magnet Tb2Ti2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, K.; Ross, K. A.; Qiu, Y.; Copley, J. R. D.; Guidi, T.; Bewley, R. I.; Dabkowska, H. A.; Gaulin, B. D.

    2013-03-01

    The ground state of the candidate spin liquid pyrochlore magnet Tb2Ti2O7 (TTO) has been long debated. Despite theoretical expectations of magnetic order below 1K based on classical Ising-like Tb spins, muSR and neutron scattering experiments show no long range order down to 50mK. Two theoretical scenarios have been put forward to account for this: the quantum spin ice scenario and a non-magnetic singlet ground state, but no clear consensus has been reached. We present neutron scattering measurements on TTO at 70mK that reveal elastic scattering intensity at (1/2,1/2,1/2) positions in reciprocal space. The corresponding spin configuration can be modeled as a short-range antiferromagnetically ordered spin ice, in which spins obey a variant of the ice rules in each unit cell, and flip directions between adjacent cells. At low temperatures, this elastic scattering is separated from low-lying magnetic inelastic scattering by ~0.05meV. The elastic signal disappears under the application of small magnetic fields and upon elevating temperature. Pinch-point-like elastic diffuse scattering is observed, which together with the elastic spin ice correlations strongly supports the quantum spin ice picture for TTO.

  18. Functional and Structural Analysis of a β-Glucosidase Involved in β-1,2-Glucan Metabolism in Listeria innocua

    PubMed Central

    Miyanaga, Akimasa; Abe, Koichi; Takahashi, Yuta; Sugimoto, Naohisa; Toyoizumi, Hiroyuki; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Taguchi, Hayao

    2016-01-01

    Despite the presence of β-1,2-glucan in nature, few β-1,2-glucan degrading enzymes have been reported to date. Recently, the Lin1839 protein from Listeria innocua was identified as a 1,2-β-oligoglucan phosphorylase. Since the adjacent lin1840 gene in the gene cluster encodes a putative glycoside hydrolase family 3 β-glucosidase, we hypothesized that Lin1840 is also involved in β-1,2-glucan dissimilation. Here we report the functional and structural analysis of Lin1840. A recombinant Lin1840 protein (Lin1840r) showed the highest hydrolytic activity toward sophorose (Glc-β-1,2-Glc) among β-1,2-glucooligosaccharides, suggesting that Lin1840 is a β-glucosidase involved in sophorose degradation. The enzyme also rapidly hydrolyzed laminaribiose (β-1,3), but not cellobiose (β-1,4) or gentiobiose (β-1,6) among β-linked gluco-disaccharides. We determined the crystal structures of Lin1840r in complexes with sophorose and laminaribiose as productive binding forms. In these structures, Arg572 forms many hydrogen bonds with sophorose and laminaribiose at subsite +1, which seems to be a key factor for substrate selectivity. The opposite side of subsite +1 from Arg572 is connected to a large empty space appearing to be subsite +2 for the binding of sophorotriose (Glc-β-1,2-Glc-β-1,2-Glc) in spite of the higher Km value for sophorotriose than that for sophorose. The conformations of sophorose and laminaribiose are almost the same on the Arg572 side but differ on the subsite +2 side that provides no interaction with a substrate. Therefore, Lin1840r is unable to distinguish between sophorose and laminaribiose as substrates. These results provide the first mechanistic insights into β-1,2-glucooligosaccharide recognition by β-glucosidase. PMID:26886583

  19. Cloning, expression, and characterization of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from a phenol-degrading Candida tropicalis JH8 strain.

    PubMed

    Long, Yan; Yang, Sheng; Xie, Zhixiong; Cheng, Li

    2016-10-02

    The sequence cato encoding catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from Candida tropicalis JH8 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The sequence cato contained an ORF of 858 bp encoding a polypeptide of 285 amino acid residues. The recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase exists as a homodimer structure with a subunit molecular mass of 32 KD. Recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase was unstable below pH 5.0 and stable from pH 7.0 to 9.0; its optimum pH was at 7.5. The optimum temperature for the enzyme was 30°C, and it possessed a thermophilic activity within a broad temperature range. Under the optimal conditions with catechol as substrate, the Km and Vmax of recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase were 9.2 µM and 0.987 µM/min, respectively. This is the first article presenting cloning and expressing in E. coli of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from C. tropicalis and characterization of the recombinant catechol 1,2-dioxygenase.

  20. Evaluation of the 29-km Eta Model. Part 1; Objective Verification at Three Selected Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nutter, Paul A.; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes an objective verification of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) 29-km eta model from May 1996 through January 1998. The evaluation was designed to assess the model's surface and upper-air point forecast accuracy at three selected locations during separate warm (May - August) and cool (October - January) season periods. In order to enhance sample sizes available for statistical calculations, the objective verification includes two consecutive warm and cool season periods. Systematic model deficiencies comprise the larger portion of the total error in most of the surface forecast variables that were evaluated. The error characteristics for both surface and upper-air forecasts vary widely by parameter, season, and station location. At upper levels, a few characteristic biases are identified. Overall however, the upper-level errors are more nonsystematic in nature and could be explained partly by observational measurement uncertainty. With a few exceptions, the upper-air results also indicate that 24-h model error growth is not statistically significant. In February and August 1997, NCEP implemented upgrades to the eta model's physical parameterizations that were designed to change some of the model's error characteristics near the surface. The results shown in this paper indicate that these upgrades led to identifiable and statistically significant changes in forecast accuracy for selected surface parameters. While some of the changes were expected, others were not consistent with the intent of the model updates and further emphasize the need for ongoing sensitivity studies and localized statistical verification efforts. Objective verification of point forecasts is a stringent measure of model performance, but when used alone, is not enough to quantify the overall value that model guidance may add to the forecast process. Therefore, results from a subjective verification of the meso-eta model over the Florida peninsula are

  1. Will 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine-based drugs resist metabolism by cytochrome P450 compound I?

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro J

    2016-01-01

    1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine is a structural and electronic analogue of benzene which is able to occupy benzene-binding pockets in T4 lysozyme and has been proposed as suitable arene-mimicking group for biological and pharmaceutical applications. Its applicability in a biological context requires it to be able to resist modification by xenobiotic-degrading enzymes like the P450 cytochromes. Quantum chemical computations described in this work show that 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine is much more prone to modification by these enzymes than benzene, unless steric crowding of the ring prevents it from reaching the active site, or otherwise only allows reaction at the less reactive C4-position. This novel heterocyclic compound is therefore expected to be of limited usefulness as an aryl bioisostere.

  2. Will 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine-based drugs resist metabolism by cytochrome P450 compound I?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine is a structural and electronic analogue of benzene which is able to occupy benzene-binding pockets in T4 lysozyme and has been proposed as suitable arene-mimicking group for biological and pharmaceutical applications. Its applicability in a biological context requires it to be able to resist modification by xenobiotic-degrading enzymes like the P450 cytochromes. Quantum chemical computations described in this work show that 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine is much more prone to modification by these enzymes than benzene, unless steric crowding of the ring prevents it from reaching the active site, or otherwise only allows reaction at the less reactive C4-position. This novel heterocyclic compound is therefore expected to be of limited usefulness as an aryl bioisostere. PMID:27547588

  3. Thermal mapping of Ceres at 1.2 mm with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moullet, Arielle; Li, Jian-Yang; Titus, Timothy N.; Sykes, Mark V.; Ip, Wing-Huen; Lai, Ian-Lin

    2016-10-01

    Ceres' thermal emission distribution, which can be characterized through observations at IR and longer wavelengths, is indicative of radiative and physical properties of its surface such as thermal inertia and roughness. High-resolution maps from the Dawn mission now provide an exquisite geographic and geological context for the interpretation of temperature features, which are at large not accessible to the spacecraft's instruments. In particular, the presence of hydrated minerals and distinctive geological features suggest the existence of ice water reservoirs near the surface, which may be characterized through the analysis of thermal inertia distributions.We report on observations obtained in Fall 2015 at the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), sampling most of the rotation of Ceres and hence allowing one to disentangle local-hour effects from geographical thermal features. The observations were performed during the 2015 Long Baseline Campaign, offering baselines as long as 10 km and yielding a spatial resolution down to 30 mas (~45 km at the equator). At the observed wavelength of 1.2 mm, the thermal emission probes both the emission from the surface and from deeper layers, down to the level of the diurnal skin depth, hence accessing regions where water ice could be stable.We will describe the diurnal and latitudinal temperature variations derived from our observations as well as preliminary results from thermal modeling in terms of subsurface thermal inertia and ice table latitudinal extent. This work is supported by the NASA Solar System Observations Program grant NNX15AE02G.

  4. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, George; Hammond, Peter R.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  5. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.; Hammond, P.R.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  6. 1,2-Hydroxypyridonates as Contrast Agents for Magnetic ResonanceImaging: TREN-1,2-HOPO

    SciTech Connect

    Jocher, Christoph J.; Moore, Evan G.; Xu, Jide; Avedano, Stefano; Botta, Mauro; Aime, Silvio; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-05-08

    1,2-Hydroxypyridinones (1,2-HOPO) form very stable lanthanide complexes that may be useful as contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). X-ray diffraction of single crystals established that the solid state structures of the Eu(III) and the previously reported [Inorg. Chem. 2004, 43, 5452] Gd(III) complex are identical. The recently discovered sensitizing properties of 1,2-HOPO chelates for Eu(III) luminescence allow direct measurement of the number if water molecules in the metal complex. Fluorescence measurements of the Eu(III) complex corroborate that in solution two water molecules coordinate the lanthanide (q = 2) as proposed from the analysis of NMRD profiles. In addition, fluorescence measurements have verified the anion binding interactions of lanthanide TREN-1,2-HOPO complexes in solution, studied by relaxivity, revealing only very weak oxalate binding (K{sub A} = 82.7 {+-} 6.5 M{sup -1}). Solution thermodynamic studies of the metal complex and free ligand have been carried out using potentiometry, spectrophotometry and fluorescence spectroscopy. The metal ion selectivity of TREN-1,2-HOPO supports the feasibility of using 1,2-HOPO ligands for selective lanthanide binding [pGd = 19.3 (2); pZn = 15.2 (2), pCa = 8.8 (3)].

  7. Near infrared rubidium 62P3/2,1/2→62S1/2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Paul J.; Richards, Ryan M.; Rice, Christopher A.; Perram, Glen P.

    2016-09-01

    An optically pumped near infrared rubidium (Rb) pulsed, mirrorless laser has been demonstrated in a heat pipe along both the 62P3/2-62S1/2 transition at 2.73 μm and the 62P1/2-62S1/2 transition at 2.79 μm. The bleached limit, slope efficiency, and maximum laser output energy of the near infrared Rb laser scale linearly with increasing Rb density, contrary to prior results. Previously, a maximum output energy of ~5 nJ had been observed before a rollover occurred in the scaling of output energy with rubidium concentration. In this experiment, the maximum laser output energy observed was ~100 nJ, with no indication of any scaling limitation. A maximum slope efficiency of 1.7×10-4 was observed. A small percentage of the pump photons were absorbed even at the maximum Rb density attainable in the heat pipe, indicating that laser efficiency could be scaled to near the quantum efficiency. Additionally, the hyperfine structure and absorption spectral profile of the 52S1/2-62P1/2 and 52S1/2-62P3/2 (blue) pump transitions were studied using a cw pump source.

  8. The Trigger and Data Acquisition System for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrino, Carmelo; Chiarusi, Tommaso

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea that includes a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes. The telescopes consist of vertical detection units carrying optical modules, whose separation is optimised according to the different ranges of neutrino energy that shall be explored. Two building blocks, each one made of 115 detection units, will be deployed at the KM3NeT-IT site, about 80 km from Capo Passero, Italy, to search for high-energy neutrino sources (ARCA); another building block will be installed at the KM3NeT-Fr site, about 40 km from Toulon, France, to study the hierarchy of neutrino masses (ORCA). The modular design of the KM3NeT allows for a progressive implementation and data taking even with an incomplete detector. The same scalable design is used for the Trigger and Data Acquisition Systems (TriDAS). In order to reduce the complexity of the hardware inside the optical modules, the "all data to shore" concept is adopted. This implies that the throughput is dominated by the optical background due to the decay of 40K dissolved in the sea water and to the bursts of bioluminescence, about 3 orders of magnitude larger than the physics signal, ranging from 20 Gbps to several hundreds Gbps, according to the number of detection units. In addition, information from the acoustic positioning system of the detection units must be transmitted. As a consequence of the detector construction, the on-shore DAQ infrastructure must be expanded to handle an increasing data-rate and implement an efficient fast data filtering for both the optical and acoustic channels. In this contribution, the Trigger and Data Acquisition System designed for the Phase 1 of KM3NeT and its future expansion are presented. The network infrastructure, the shore computing resources and the developed applications for handling, filtering and monitoring the optical and acoustic data-streams are described.

  9. The isolated 678-km deep 30 May 2015 MW 7.9 Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, L.; Lay, T.; Zhan, Z.; Kanamori, H.; Hao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Deep-focus earthquakes, located 300 to 700 km below the Earth's surface within sinking slabs of relatively cold oceanic lithosphere, are mysterious phenomena. Seismic radiation from deep events is essentially indistinguishable from that for shallow stick-slip frictional-sliding earthquakes, but the confining pressure and temperature are so high for deep-focus events that a distinct process is likely needed to account for their abrupt energy release. The largest recorded deep-focus earthquake (MW 7.9) in the Izu-Bonin slab struck on 30 May 2015 beneath the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, isolated from prior seismicity by over 100 km in depth, and followed by only 2 small aftershocks. Globally, this is the deepest (678 km) major (MW > 7) earthquake in the seismological record. Seismicity indicates along-strike contortion of the Izu-Bonin slab, with horizontal flattening near a depth of 550 km in the Izu region and progressive steepening to near-vertical toward the south above the location of the 2015 event. Analyses of a large global data set of P, SH and pP seismic phases using short-period back-projection, subevent directivity, and broadband finite-fault inversion indicate that the mainshock ruptured a shallowly-dipping fault plane with patchy slip that spread over a distance of ~40 km with variable expansion rate (~5 km/s down-dip initially, ~3 km/s up-dip later). During the 17 s rupture duration the radiated energy was ~3.3 x 1016 J and the stress drop was ~38 MPa. The radiation efficiency is moderate (0.34), intermediate to that of the 1994 Bolivia and 2013 Sea of Okhotsk MW 8.3 earthquakes, indicating a continuum of processes. The isolated occurrence of the event suggests that localized stress concentration associated with the pronounced deformation of the Izu-Bonin slab likely played a role in generating this major earthquake.

  10. Dense Energetic Compounds of C, H, N, and O Atoms. III. 5-(4-Nitro-(1,2, 5)oxadiazolyl)-5H-(1,2,3)triazolo(4,5-c)(1,2,5)oxadiazole

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-21

    1,2,5)oxadiazolyl]-5H- [1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-cI[ 1,2,5] oxadiazole by A. Gunasekaran and J. H. Boyer Published in Heteroatom Chem., 1993, accepted...Nitro-(1,2,5)oxadiazolyl]-5H- [1,2,3] triazolo[4,5-c] [1,2,5] oxadiazole Ananthakrishnan Gunasekaran and Joseph H. Boyer* Department of Chemistry...diaminoazofurazan 7 by treat- ment with sodium azide and underwent thermolysis to 5-[4-azido-(1,2,5)oxadiazolyl]-5H- [1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-c](1,2,5] oxadiazole 5. The

  11. System Wide Information Management (SWIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hritz, Mike; McGowan, Shirley; Ramos, Cal

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation lists questions regarding the implementation of System Wide Information Management (SWIM). Some of the questions concern policy issues and strategies, technology issues and strategies, or transition issues and strategies.

  12. Participation and performance trends in 100-km ultra-marathons worldwide.

    PubMed

    Cejka, Nadine; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Lepers, Romuald; Onywera, Vincent; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to (1) investigate the participation trends for the origin of athletes competing in 100-km ultra-marathons and (2) determine the nationalities of athletes achieving the fastest 100-km race times worldwide. Race times and nationality from 112,283 athletes (15,204 women and 97,079 men) from 102 countries who completed a 100-km ultra-marathon worldwide between 1998 and 2011 were investigated using single- and multi-level regression analyses. The number of finishers increased exponentially, both for women and men. Most of the finishers (73.5%) were from Europe, in particular, France (30.4%). The number of finishers from Japan, Germany, Italy, Poland and the United States of America increased exponentially during the studied period. For women, runners from Canada became slower while those from Italy became faster over time. For men, runners from Belgium, Canada and Japan became slower. Between 1998 and 2011, the ten best race times were achieved by Japanese runners for both women with 457.1 (s = 28.8) min and men with 393.4 (s = 9.6) min. To summarise, most of the finishers in 100-km ultra-marathons originated from Europe, but the best performances belong to Japanese runners. Although East African runners dominate running up to a marathon, Japanese were the best in 100 km.

  13. The Effect of Boron on the Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Disk Alloy KM4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy; Gayda, John; Sweeney, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    The durability of powder metallurgy nickel base superalloys employed as compressor and turbine disks is often limited by low cycle fatigue (LCF) crack initiation and crack growth from highly stressed surface locations (corners, holes, etc.). Crack growth induced by dwells at high stresses during aerospace engine operation can be particularly severe. Supersolvus solution heat treatments can be used to produce coarse grain sizes approaching ASTM 6 for improved resistance to dwell fatigue crack growth. However, the coarse grain sizes reduce yield strength, which can lower LCF initiation life. These high temperature heat treatments also can encourage pores to form. In the advanced General Electric disk superalloy KM4, such pores can initiate fatigue cracks that limit LCF initiation life. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) during the supersolvus solution heat treatment has been shown to improve LCF initiation life in KM4, as the HIP pressure minimizes formation of the pores. Reduction of boron levels in KM4 has also been shown to increase LCF initiation life after a conventional supersolvus heat treatment, again possibly due to effects on the formation tendencies of these pores. However, the effects of reduced boron levels on microstructure, pore characteristics, and LCF failure modes in KM4 still need to be fully quantified. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of boron level on the microstructure, porosity, LCF behavior, and failure modes of supersolvus heat treated KM4.

  14. Operation and results of the prototype KM3NeT detection unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagi, Simone

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT will be a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The detector will consist of blocks of about one hundred detection units. Each detection unit will host 18 digital optical modules, connected along a 700 m-long vertical structure. Electro-optical cables allow for data transmission and power supply to the optical modules. The optical module comprises 31 photomultiplier tubes of 3'', instruments to monitor environmental variables and electronic boards to communicate onshore and operate the photomultipliers. A prototype detection unit has been deployed in May 2014 at the KM3NeT-It installation site 80 km SE offshore of Capo Passero, Sicily. This prototype allowed to test the deployment procedures, the mechanics and the electronic of the apparatus, the data taking and analysis procedures. A general description of the detector and some results of the prototype are presented. The first detection unit of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be deployed and become operative by the end of 2015.

  15. M. tuberculosis ferritin (Rv3841): Potential involvement in Amikacin (AK) & Kanamycin (KM) resistance.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divakar; Lata, Manju; Faheem, Mohammad; Khan, Asad Ullah; Joshi, Beenu; Venkatesan, Krishnamurthy; Shukla, Sangeeta; Bisht, Deepa

    2016-09-16

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease, caused by one of the most successful human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Aminoglycosides, Amikacin (AK) & Kanamycin (KM) are commonly used to treat drug resistant tuberculosis. They target the protein synthesis machinery by interacting with several steps of translation. Several explanations have been proposed to explain the mechanism of aminoglycoside resistance but still our information is inadequate. Iron storing/interacting proteins were found to be overexpressed in aminoglycosides resistant isolates. Iron assimilation and utilization in M. tuberculosis plays a crucial role in growth, virulence and latency. To establish the relationship of ferritin with AK & KM resistance ferritin (Rv3841/bfrB) was cloned, expressed and antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing (DST) was carried out. Rv3841/bfrB gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21 using pQE2 expression vector. Etest results for DST against AK & KM showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ferritin recombinant cells was changed. Recombinants showed two fold changes in MIC with AK and three fold with KM E-strips. Overexpression of ferritin reflect the MIC shift which might be playing a critical role in the survival of mycobacteria by inhibiting/modulating the effects of AK & KM. String analysis also suggests that ferritin interacted with few proteins which are directly and indirectly involved in M. tuberculosis growth, Iron assimilation, virulence, resistance, stresses and latency.

  16. Medicinal Chemistry Profiling of Monocyclic 1,2-Azaborines.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Nettleton, David O; Karki, Rajeshri G; Zécri, Frédéric J; Liu, Shih-Yuan

    2017-03-07

    The first examples of biologically active monocyclic 1,2-azaborines have been synthesized and demonstrated to exhibit not only improved in vitro aqueous solubility in comparison with their corresponding carbonaceous analogues, but in the context of a CDK2 inhibitor, also improved biological activity and better in vivo oral bioavailability. This proof-of-concept study establishes the viability of monocyclic 1,2-azaborines as a novel pharmacophore with distinct pharmacological profiles that can help address challenges associated with solubility in drug development research.

  17. A New Class of Jeff = 1 / 2 Mott Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birol, Turan; Haule, Kristjan

    2015-03-01

    We predict a novel class of Jeff=1/2 Mott insulators in a family of Ir and Rh fluoride compounds with the K2GeF6 crystal structure that are previously synthesized, but not characterized extensively. First principles calculations in the level of all electron Density Functional Theory + Dynamical Mean Field Theory (DFT+DMFT) indicate that these compounds have large Mott gaps and some of them exhibit unprecedented proximity to the ideal, SU(2) symmetric Jeff=1/2 limit.

  18. Existence of independent [1, 2]-sets in caterpillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoso, Eko Budi; Marcelo, Reginaldo M.

    2016-02-01

    Given a graph G, a subset S ⊆ V (G) is an independent [1, 2]-set if no two vertices in S are adjacent and for every vertex ν ∈ V (G)/S, 1 ≤ |N(ν) ∩ S| ≤ 2, that is, every vertex ν ∈ V (G)/S is adjacent to at least one but not more than two vertices in S. In this paper, we discuss the existence of independent [1, 2]-sets in a family of trees called caterpillars.

  19. Redox cycloisomerization approach to 1,2-dihydropyridines.

    PubMed

    Trost, Barry M; Biannic, Berenger

    2015-03-20

    The phosphine-catalyzed synthesis of 1,2-dihydropyridines via an alkyne isomerization/electrocyclization sequence is described. Propargylidenecarbamate substrates were prepared following a one-pot procedure between a terminal alkyne, a benzonitrile, and a chloroformate in the presence of trimethylaluminum. This methodology gives access to a diverse set of 2,6-disubstituted 1,2-dihydropyridines in high yield. The products can be easily converted into substituted piperidines or pyridines, and this methodology was applied to the synthesis of indolizidines.

  20. Polydatin induces bone marrow stromal cells migration by activation of ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Chen, ZhenQiu; Wei, QiuShi; Hong, GuoJu; Chen, Da; Liang, Jiang; He, Wei; Chen, Mei Hui

    2016-08-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have proven to be useful for the treatment of numerous human diseases. However, the reparative ability of BMSCs is limited by their poor migration. Polydatin, widely used in traditional Chinese remedies, has proven to exert protective effects to BMSCs. However, little is known about its role in BMSCs migration. In this study, we studied the effects of polydatin on rat BMSCs migration using the scratch wound healing and transwell migration assays. Our results showed polydatin could promote BMSCs migration. Further experiments showed activation of ERK 1/2, but not JNK, was required for polydatin-induced BMSCs migration, suggesting that polydatin may promote BMSCs migration via the ERK 1/2 signaling pathways. Taken together, our results indicate that polydatin might be beneficial for stem cell replacement therapy by improving BMSCs migration.

  1. L1/2 regularization based numerical method for effective reconstruction of bioluminescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xueli; Yang, Defu; Zhang, Qitan; Liang, Jimin

    2014-05-01

    Even though bioluminescence tomography (BLT) exhibits significant potential and wide applications in macroscopic imaging of small animals in vivo, the inverse reconstruction is still a tough problem that has plagued researchers in a related area. The ill-posedness of inverse reconstruction arises from insufficient measurements and modeling errors, so that the inverse reconstruction cannot be solved directly. In this study, an l1/2 regularization based numerical method was developed for effective reconstruction of BLT. In the method, the inverse reconstruction of BLT was constrained into an l1/2 regularization problem, and then the weighted interior-point algorithm (WIPA) was applied to solve the problem through transforming it into obtaining the solution of a series of l1 regularizers. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method were demonstrated with numerical simulations on a digital mouse. Stability verification experiments further illustrated the robustness of the proposed method for different levels of Gaussian noise.

  2. Pathways for formation of catechol and 1,2,4-benzenetriol in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Osamu; Seiji, Kazunori Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine, Sendai ); Ikeda, Masayuki )

    1989-08-01

    Benzene, an established human leukemogen, was once widely used as an industrial solvent and is currently an important material for organic synthesis. Its metabolism in man and animals has also been studied extensively, and phenolic compounds were identified as major metabolites in urine after benzene exposure. One point yet to be elucidated is the pathway for formation of catechol (or 1,2-benzenediol). Early studies suggested that catechol will be formed via phenol whereas a later study failed to identify catechol in the urine of men and rabbits after oral administration methods of {sup 14}C-phenol. Sensitive HPLC methods have been recently developed in our laboratory to measure urinary phenolic metabolites and t,t-muconic acid. The methods were applied to show that phenol is not a precursor of catechol in rabbits. Evidence is also presented that 1,2,4-benzenetriol is formed only from quinol (1,4-benzenediol) and not from catechol.

  3. Antimicrobial studies of some novel quinazolinones fused with [1,2,4]-triazole, [1,2,4]-triazine and [1,2,4,5]-tetrazine rings.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sarvesh Kumar; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Ashutosh; Nizamuddin

    2009-03-01

    Three series of novel and new fused heterocyclic systems, viz. triazolo[4,3-a]-quinazolin-7-ones (4), [1,2,4,5]-tetrazino[4,3-a]-quinazolin-8-ones (6) and indolo[2,3-c][1,2,4]-triazino[4,3-a]-quinazolin-8-ones (8) have been synthesized from the key intermediate 3-(substituted-phenyl)-2-hydrazino-quinazolin-4-ones (3). Thus, condensation of (3) with appropriate aromatic acids in the presence of DCC in dichloromethane afforded the fused system (4), while reaction of (3) with isatin in methanol gave the corresponding Schiff base (7) which on cyclodehydration furnished another fused heterocyclic system (8). The intermediate (3) on refluxing with substituted-phenylisothiocyanate gave the substituted-thiosemicarbazide (5), which on oxidative cyclization with bromine in CCl(4) furnished the novel fused system (6). The structures of intermediate and final compounds have been determined by means of IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, UV and elemental analysis. All the synthesized compounds have been screened for their antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, as well as demonstrated significant antifungal activity against fungi viz. Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger.

  4. Seismic imaging in the eastern Scandinavian Caledonides: siting the 2.5 km deep COSC-2 borehole, central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhlin, Christopher; Hedin, Peter; Gee, David G.; Lorenz, Henning; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Yan, Ping

    2016-05-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project, a contribution to the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), aims to provide a deeper understanding of mountain belt dynamics. Scientific investigations include a range of topics, from subduction-related tectonics to the present-day hydrological cycle. COSC investigations and drilling activities are focused in central Scandinavia, where rocks from the middle to lower crust of the orogen are exposed near the Swedish-Norwegian border. Here, rock units of particular interest occur in the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) of the so-called Middle Allochthon and include granulite facies migmatites (locally with evidence of ultra-high pressures) and amphibolite facies gneisses and mafic rocks. This complex overlies greenschist facies metasedimentary rocks of the dolerite-intruded Sarv Nappes and underlying, lower grade Jamtlandian Nappes (Lower Allochthon). Reflection seismic profiles have been an important component in the activities to image the subsurface structure in the area. Subhorizontal reflections in the upper 1-2 km are underlain and interlayered with strong west- to northwest-dipping reflections, suggesting significant east-vergent thrusting. Two 2.5 km deep fully cored boreholes are a major component of the project, which will improve our understanding of the subsurface structure and tectonic history of the area. Borehole COSC-1 (IGSN: http://hdl.handle.net/10273/ICDP5054EEW1001), drilled in the summer of 2014, targeted the subduction-related Seve Nappe Complex and the contact with the underlying allochthon. The COSC-2 borehole will be located further east and will investigate the lower grade, mainly Cambro-Silurian rocks of the Lower Allochthon, the Jamtlandian decollement, and penetrate into the crystalline basement rocks to identify the source of some of the northwest-dipping reflections. A series of high-resolution seismic profiles have been acquired along a composite ca

  5. Silver-Catalyzed Formal Inverse Electron-Demand Diels-Alder Reaction of 1,2-Diazines and Siloxy Alkynes

    PubMed Central

    Türkmen, Yunus E.; Montavon, Timothy J.; Kozmin, Sergey A.; Rawal, Viresh H.

    2012-01-01

    A highly effective silver-catalyzed formal inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction of 1,2-diazines and siloxy alkynes has been developed. The reactions provide ready access to a wide range of siloxy naphthalenes and anthracenes, which are formed in good to high yields, under mild reaction conditions, using low catalyst loadings. PMID:22607029

  6. 1,2-Difluoroethane: the angular dependance on 1J(CF) coupling constants is independent of hyperconjugation.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Matheus P; Bühl, Michael; O'Hagan, David

    2012-02-28

    1,2-Difluoroethane is widely recognised to adopt a lower energy gauche rather than anti conformation; this gauche effect has its origin in hyperconjugation; however, surprisingly the (1)J(CF) coupling constant is not influenced by hyperconjugation; instead, its magnitude changes with the overall molecular dipole.

  7. Gravity wave and tidal structures between 60 and 140 km inferred from space shuttle reentry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, David C.; Wang, Ding-Yi; Blanchard, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of density measurements made using high-resolution accelerometers aboard several space shuttles at altitudes from 60 to 140 km during reentry into the earth's atmosphere. The observed density fluctuations are interpreted in terms of gravity waves and tides and provide evidence of the importance of such motions well into the thermosphere. Height profiles of fractional density variance reveal that wave amplitudes increase at a rate consistent with observations at lower levels up to about 90 km. The rate of amplitude growth decreases at greater heights, however, and appears to cease above about 110 km. Wave amplitudes are nevertheless large at these heights and suggest that gravity waves may play an important role in forcing of the lower thermosphere.

  8. Daytime vertical and zonal velocities from 150-km echoes: Their relevance to F-region dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Jorge L.; Woodman, Ronald F.

    2004-09-01

    As it was suggested by Kudeki and Fawcett [1993], and later shown by Woodman and Villanueva [1995], vertical Doppler velocities of daytime 150-km echoes represent the vertical E × B drift velocities at F region altitudes. Recently a special experiment was conducted to compare not only the vertical but also the zonal velocities from 150-km echoes with those from an incoherent scatter radar (ISR) mode perpendicular to the magnetic field. The vertical velocity comparisons show that (1) there is a very good agreement between 150-km velocity and the mean F-region E × B drift, and (2) much better agreement is found with the extrapolated values from the ISR altitudinal profiles. On the other hand poor-to-good agreement is found between their zonal components. Our preliminary zonal velocity results, indicate that there is a poor agreement before noontime, while better agreement is found in the afternoon.

  9. Mantle seismic anisotropy beneath the 660km phase transition generated by subduction body force stresses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nippress, S.; Kusznir, N. J.; Kendall, M.

    2003-04-01

    Observations of seismic anisotropy can provide insights into the style of mantle dynamics near the 660km discontinuity. Wookey et al. (2002) report up to 7 seconds of shear wave splitting for rays generated by deep focus events from the Tonga subduction zone and recorded in Australia. The results suggest a transversely isotropic symmetry with the symmetry axis in the vertical plane, perpendicular to the ray direction. Thus, for horizontally travelling waves this would imply horizontally polarised shear waves (SH lead SV). They show that a topmost lower mantle model with anisotropy between 660-900km could produce theoretical shear wave splitting similar to that observed. Therefore, the seismic anisotropy observed by Wookey et al., can be explained by an anisotropic region between 660-900km, with only a minimal contribution from above the 660km phase transition. The goal of this study is to try to explain the observed shear wave splitting using geodynamical modelling. We use finite element (FE) modelling to calculate slab-induced models of fluid flow, total stress and deviatoric stress. A simple 2D subduction zone model with a prescribed viscosity structure and slab density is used. Large deviatoric stresses (maximum values ~ 40 MPa) are generated in the topmost lower mantle when the subducting slab encounters an increase in viscosity at the 660km phase transition. These stresses may induce mineral alignment in a broad region (lateral wavelength approximately » 800km) in the topmost lower mantle below the slab. Perovskite may therefore be aligned with a rotated symmetry axis conformal to the shape of this region of high deviatoric stress. Aligned Perovskite rotated more than 30 degrees predicts SH-waves faster than SV-waves for horizontally travelling S-waves. The formulation of McKenzie (1979) is used to calculate the finite strain accumulated by a mantle parcel as it propagates through the FE flow models. The computed strain ellipsoids align in a similar region

  10. Status of the central logic board (CLB) of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, D.; Real, D.

    2015-12-01

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of thousands of glass spheres, each of them containing 31 photomultiplier of small photocathode area. The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT has to collect, treat and send to shore, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers, the acoustics sensor and the rest of the instrumentation. The electronics design includes a multiboot module which allows for the re-configuration of the nodes of the telescope remotely from the shore station. All the modules and subsystems are controlled by two embedded microprocessors, implemented on a Kintetx-7 FPGA, and complex embedded software.

  11. Acoustic neutrino detection investigations within ANTARES and prospects for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmann, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The acoustic neutrino detection technique is a promising approach for future large-scale detectors with the aim of measuring the small expected flux of cosmogenic neutrinos at energies exceeding 1 EeV. It suggests itself to investigate this technique in the context of underwater Cherenkov neutrino telescopes, in particular KM3NeT, because acoustic sensors are present by design to allow for the calibration of the positions of the optical sensors. For the future, the KM3NeT detector in the Mediterranean Sea will provide an ideal infrastructure for a dedicated array of acoustic sensors. In this presentation results from the acoustic array AMADEUS of the ANTARES detector will be discussed with respect to the potential and implications for acoustic neutrino detection with KM3NeT and beyond.

  12. Gravity wave and tidal structures between 60 and 140 km inferred from space shuttle reentry data

    SciTech Connect

    Fritts, D.C. ); Dingyi Wang ); Blanchard, R.C. )

    1993-03-15

    This study presents an analysis of density measurements made using high-resolution accelerometers aboard several space shuttles at altitudes from 60 to 140 km during reentry into the earth's atmosphere. The observed density fluctuations are interpreted in terms of gravity waves and tides and provide evidence of the importance of such motions well into the thermosphere. Height profiles of fractional density variance reveal that wave amplitudes increase at a rate consistent with observations at lower levels up to [approximately]90 km. The rate of amplitude growth decreases at greater heights, however, and appears to cease above [approximately]110 km. Wave amplitudes are nevertheless large at these heights and suggest that gravity waves may play an important role in forcing of the lower thermosphere.

  13. AmeriFlux BR-Sa1 Santarem-Km67-Primary Forest

    SciTech Connect

    Saleska, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site BR-Sa1 Santarem-Km67-Primary Forest. Site Description - The LBA Tapajos KM67 Mature Forest site is located in the Tapajos National Forest, a 450,000 ha closed-canopy upland forest in Amazonian Brazil. Bounded by the Tapajos River in the west and highway BR-163 to the east, the tower is located on a flat plateau (or planalto) that extends up to 150 km to the north, south, and east. Within the confines of the National Forest, anthropogenic disturbances are limited to a few small hunting trails. The surrounding stand is classified as primary or "old-growth"" predominantly by its uneven age distribution, emergent trees, numerous epiphytes and abundant large logs. In 2007 falling trees hit the tower guy wires rendering all instrumentation in-operational. After a complete restoration tower measurements resumed in August of 2008.

  14. Monthly mean global climatology of temperature, wind, geopotential height and pressure for 0-120 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, Sushil; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Fleming, Eric L.; Barnett, John J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a monthly mean climatology of zonal mean temperature, zonal wind, and geopotential height with nearly pole-to-pole coverage (80 deg S-80 deg N) for 0-120 km which can be used as a function of altitude and pressure. This climatology reproduces most of the characteristic features of the atmosphere such as the lowering and cooling of the mesopause and the lowering and warming of the stratopause during the summer months at high latitudes. A series of zonal wind profiles is also presented comparing this climatological wind with monthly mean climatological direct wind measurements in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The two data sets compare well below 80 km, with some general seasonal trend agreement observed above 80 km. The zonal wind at the equator presented here simulates the observed features of the semiannual oscillation in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere.

  15. Time-division multiplexing-based BOTDA over 100 km sensing length.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yongkang; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2011-01-15

    We propose and demonstrate a high-performance and long-range Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) based on time-division multiplexing measurement, where a probe pulse and a pump pulse are used to perform the measurement on a selected sensing section, and the measurement of the entire sensing fiber is realized by combining the series measurements over different sections through changing the delay time between the two pulses. In experiment, a 100 km sensing fiber is divided into 11 sections based on the gain-controlled principle, and spatial resolutions of 0.6 m and 2 m are obtained at the end of 75 km and 100 km, respectively.

  16. Comparison of turbulence-induced scintillations for multi-wavelength laser beacons over tactical (7 km) and long (149 km) atmospheric propagation paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorontsov, M.; Gudimetla, V.; Carhart, G.; Weyrauch, T.; Lachinova, S.; Polnau, E.; Reierson, J.; Beresnev, L.; Liu, J.; Riker, J.

    2011-09-01

    We report results of the experimental analysis of atmospheric effects on laser beam propagation over two distinctive propagation paths: a long-range (149 km) propagation path between Mauna Loa (Island of Hawaii) and Haleakala (Island of Maui) mountains, and a tactical-range (7 km) propagation path between the roof of the Dayton Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC) and the Intelligent Optics Laboratory (IOL/UD) located on the 5th floor of the University of Dayton College Park Center building. Both testbeds include three laser beacons operating at wavelengths 532 nm, 1064 nm, and 1550 nm and a set of identical optical receiver systems with fast-framing IR cameras for simultaneous measurements of pupil and focal plane intensity distributions. The results reported here are focused on analysis of intensity scintillations that were simultaneously measured at three wavelengths. Comparison of experimental results shows significant differences in the physics of atmospheric turbulence impact on laser beam propagation over the long- and tactical-range distances.

  17. On the origin of 150-km echoes: Recent observational results and current understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Amit

    2012-07-01

    Discovered nearly 45 years ago, the so-called 150-km echoing phenomenon continues to be a puzzle. These are the coherent radar echoes coming from the height region of 140-180 km during daytime and are of special interest to the ionospheric scientists since they are very useful means for estimating the daytime electric fields, a crucial parameter for studying daytime electrodynamics and plasma physics, and can be observed by radar with moderate sensitivity. Although the 150-km echoes are being regularly used for studying low latitude electrodynamics, it is a bit awkward using them in the scientific work without knowing their origin. This paper is meant to present and discuss new results obtained from Gadanki (13.5o N, 79.2o E, mag. lat. 6.5o N), India to elucidate the underlying physical processes, not considered before. Two new findings, one obtained during the passage of a solar eclipse and another linked with the intermediate layer type descending properties of 150-km echoes, clearly indicate the role of electron density gradient in generating the irregularities responsible for the 150-km radar echoes, not envisioned before. Given the fact that Gadanki is located at magnetically low latitude, it is proposed that the descending echoing layers are produced by interchange instability on the gradient of daytime descending ion layer formed by meridional wind shear associated with tidal/gravity waves quite similar to that observed during nighttime. Comparative anatomy of daytime 150-km echoes and nighttime intermediate layer echoes will also be presented and discussed in an effort to have a deeper understanding on the underlying instability processes.

  18. Influence of an Enforced Fast Start on 10-km-Running Performance.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Everton C; Barroso, Renato; Renfree, Andrew; Gil, Saulo; Tricoli, Valmor

    2016-09-01

    The effects of an enforced fast start on long-distance performance are controversial and seem to depend on the athlete's capacity to delay and tolerate metabolic disruption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an enforced start on 10-km-running performance and the influence of the some physiological and performance variables on the ability to tolerate an enforced fast start during the running. Fifteen moderately trained runners performed two 10-km time trials (TTs): free pacing (FP-TT) and fast start (FS-TT). During FS-TT, speed during the first kilometer was 6% higher than in FP-TT. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), peak velocity (PV), velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max), ventilatory threshold, and running economy at 10 and 12 km/h and FP-TT average velocity (AV-10 km) were individually determined. There were no differences between FP-TT and FS-TT performance (45:01 ± 4:08 vs 45:11 ± 4:46 min:s, respectively, P = .4). Eight participants improved (+2.2%) their performance and were classified as positive responders (PR) and 7 decreased (-3.3%) performance and were classified as negative responders (NR). Running speed was significantly higher for PR between 6 and 9.2 km (P < .05) during FS-TT. In addition, PR presented higher PV (P = .02) and vVO2max (P = .01) than NR, suggesting that PV and vVO2max might influence the ability to tolerate a fast-start strategy. In conclusion, there was an individual response to the enforced fast-start strategy during 10-km running, and those who improved performance also presented higher vVO2max and PV, suggesting a possible association between these variables and response to the strategy adopted.

  19. 43 CFR 3802.1-2 - When not required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.1-2 When not required. A plan of operations under...

  20. Anxiety Self Report (ASR (1,2,3,4,). X

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jane S.

    The Anxiety Self Report (ASR 1,2,3,4) is provided, followed by information about the report. The ASR is discussed as to its development, description, response bias, scoring procedures, reliability, stability, validity, and correlation between the ASR and the Manifest Anxiety Scale. (For related documents, see TM 002 928, 929.) (DB)

  1. CMMI (Trademark) Version 1.2, Training Changes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    exercises, and SEI instructor presentations will be intermixed throughout the week to provide a better balance. TOEFL * requirements will now be...used as part of the registration process. *Test of English as a Foreign Language © 2006 by Carnegie Mellon University CMMI v1.2: Training Changes

  2. 15. View of the Main Office (Buildings 1, 2, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View of the Main Office (Buildings 1, 2, and 3), U.S. Plant Introduction Station, Glenn Dale, MD, ca. 1950. Facilities and Engineering Branch. Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Building 426. - U.S. Plant Introduction Station, 11601 Old Pond Road, Glenn Dale, Prince George's County, MD

  3. CLOSEUP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSE-UP AERIAL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACES 1 & 2. SHARED CAST HOUSE LIES IN BETWEEN TWO SKIP INCLINES. HIP ROOF AT RIGHT COVERS BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  4. 1,2,4-Butanetriol: Analysis and Synthesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-08

    ANHYDRIDE ........................41 CLEAVAGE OF CYCLIC ETHERS. .. ....... ......... 43 REFERENCES .. ... .......... .......... ......... 45... NOMENCLATURE .. ... .......... .......... ........ 49 1. iii/jy NSWC TR 82-380 ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page I HYDROGENATION OF DIETHYLMALATE IN ETHANOL OVER NIKKI...of acetic acid, acetic anhydride , and sul Uric acid yielded 1,2,4-butanetriol triacetate. Subsequent methanolysis of the acetate produced BT. Wagaman

  5. Di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Wolf, Peter (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers were first synthesized by reacting bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) hydrazide with aniline hydrochloride at 250 C in the melt and also by reacting 1,3 or 1,4-bis- (4-hydroxyphenyl)- phenylene- dihydrazide with 2 moles of aniline hydrochloride in the melt. Purification of the di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers was accomplished by recrystallization. Poly (1,2,4-triazoles) (PT) were prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions were carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as sulfolane or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight PT of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides.

  6. The Addition of Bromine to 1,2-Diphenylethene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amburgey-Peters, Judith C.; Haynes, Leroy W.

    2005-01-01

    The bromination of 1,2-diphenylethene, using a variety of solvents and brominating agents, can be used in both introductory and advanced organic chemistry courses. The reactions can be used to illustrate the effects of changing solvents and reagents, as well as to reveal interesting aspects of organic reaction mechanisms.

  7. Design for a Moore No. 1 1/2 lathe

    SciTech Connect

    Rhorer, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    To increase our capability to machine small spherical parts, we are designing an ultraprecision lathe based on a Moore No. 1 1/2 measuring machine. The machine is being designed for single axis cutting, utilizing an accurate rotary table for spherical cuts. This report summarizes the design and presents an error budget analysis for the design.

  8. 1,2-Diphenylethylamines as potential non-stimulant anorectics.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, P; Bolt, A G; Mrongovius, R I

    1978-01-01

    A series of 1,2-diphenylethylamines has been synthesized in which the phenyl rings were substituted with Cl, OCH3 or CF3 at various positions and in various combinations. Four N-ethylpiperazino and N-ethylmorpholino compounds were also prepared. When tested in rats, some of the compounds were found to be potent anorectics and none of them stimulated motor activity.

  9. Federal Register: Toxic Substances; 1,2- Dichloropropane; Testing Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA (also Agency) is issuing a final test rule under section 4(a) of the Toxic Substances (TSCA) that requires manufacturers and processors of 1,2-dichloropropane (DCP CAS Number 78-87—5) to test this chemical.

  10. Determination of Ethane-1,2-diamine in Inert Complexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searle, Graeme H.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a procedure for determining ethane-1,2-diamine (EN) which is generally applicable for inert or labile complexes or for EN in its salts, although it cannot be used directly with ammonium or coordinated ammonia. It gives results with five percent accuracy or better and requires less than one hour laboratory time. (JN)

  11. Phase transformation induced by electric field and mechanical stress in Mn-doped (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-(Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehara, Yoshitaka; Novak, Nikola; Ayrikyan, Azatuhi; Geiger, Philipp T.; Webber, Kyle G.

    2016-11-01

    Electric-field- and stress-induced phase transformations were investigated in polycrystalline 0.5 mol. % Mn-doped (1-x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-x(Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3 (x = 0.1, 0.2). To characterize the effect of electric field and stress on the stability of the ferroelectric and relaxor states, polarization- and current density-electric field curves, as well as the stress-strain response as a function of temperature were characterized. Analogous to the observed electrical behavior, the macroscopic mechanical constitutive behavior showed a closed hysteresis at elevated temperatures, indicating a reversible stress-induced relaxor-to-ferroelectric transformation. The electrical and mechanical measurements were used to construct electric field-temperature and stress-temperature phase diagrams, which show similar characteristics. These data show that a mechanical compressive stress, similarly to an electric field, can induce long-range ferroelectric order in a relaxor ferroelectric.

  12. Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Indeno [ 1,2,3 - cd ] pyrene ; CASRN 193 - 39 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  13. Effects of 200 km propagation on Florida lightning return stroke electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uman, M. A.; Swanberg, C. E.; Tiller, J. A.; Lin, Y. T.; Krider, E. P.

    1976-01-01

    The electric fields produced by lightning return strokes near Kennedy Space Center, Florida, have been measured simultaneously at distances of about 5 to 25 km and about 200 km. Detailed records of the first 12 microsec of waveforms from four strokes are presented, as well as data on the initial field risetimes for 58 first and 92 subsequent strokes. The mean field risetime measured between the 10 to 90% points was about 1 microsec at the close station and about 2 microsec at the distant one.

  14. LES Modeling of Lateral Dispersion in the Ocean on Scales of 10 m to 10 km

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-20

    Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/07/2010 – 06/06/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LES Modeling of Lateral Dispersion in the Ocean on Scales of 10...ocean on scales of 0.1-10 km that can be implemented in larger- scale ocean models. These parameterizations will incorporate the effects of local...Distribution approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Final Report LES Modeling of Lateral Dispersion on Scales of 10 m to 10 km M.-Pascale

  15. One kilometer (1 km) electric solar wind sail tether produced automatically.

    PubMed

    Seppänen, Henri; Rauhala, Timo; Kiprich, Sergiy; Ukkonen, Jukka; Simonsson, Martin; Kurppa, Risto; Janhunen, Pekka; Hæggström, Edward

    2013-09-01

    We produced a 1 km continuous piece of multifilament electric solar wind sail tether of μm-diameter aluminum wires using a custom made automatic tether factory. The tether comprising 90,704 bonds between 25 and 50 μm diameter wires is reeled onto a metal reel. The total mass of 1 km tether is 10 g. We reached a production rate of 70 m/24 h and a quality level of 1‰ loose bonds and 2‰ rebonded ones. We thus demonstrated that production of long electric solar wind sail tethers is possible and practical.

  16. Results and simulation of the prototype detection unit of KM3NeT-ARCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugon, C. M. F.

    2017-03-01

    KM3NeT-ARCA is a deep sea high energy neutrino detector. A detection unit prototype was deployed in the future KM3NeT-ARCA deep-sea site, off of the Sicilian coast. This detection unit is composed of a line of 3 digital optical modules with 31 photomultiplier tubes on each one. The prototype detection unit was operated since its deployment in May 2014 until its decommissioning in July 2015. The results of the calibration of this detection unit and its simulation are presented and discussed.

  17. KM3NeT - ORCA: measuring the neutrino mass ordering in the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouchner, Antoine

    2016-05-01

    ORCA (Oscillations Research with Cosmics in the Abyss) is the low-energy branch of KM3NeT, the underwater Cherenkov neutrino detector in the Mediterranean. Its primary goal is to resolve the long-standing unsolved question of the neutrino mass ordering by measuring matter oscillation effects in atmospheric neutrinos. To be deployed at the French KM3NeT site, ORCA’s multi-PMT optical modules will exploit the excellent optical properties of deep seawater to reconstruct cascade and track events with a few GeV of energy. This contribution reviews the methods and technology, and discusses the current expected performances.

  18. Appraising the reliability of converted wavefield imaging: application to USArray imaging of the 410-km discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Pavlis, Gary L.

    2013-03-01

    We develop a generic method to appraise the reliability of wavefield imaging methods and use it to validate some novel observations on the 410-km discontinuity. The core concept of the error appraisal method is to produce a simulated data set that replicates the geometry of the real data. Here we implemented two simulation methods: (1) flat layer primary P to S conversions, and (2) a point source scattering model for P to S conversion data based on the Born approximation and ray theory propagators. We show how the approach can be extended for any simulation algorithm. We apply this new approach to appraise recent results using a 3-D, three-component P to S conversion imaging method applied to data collected by the USArray. Multiple metrics show that the amplitude of P to S converted energy scattered from the 410-km discontinuity varies by 18 dB with a systematically lower amplitude in an irregular band running from Idaho through northern Arizona. In addition, we observe strong lateral changes in the ratio of amplitudes recovered on the radial versus the transverse component. We compute point resolution functions and a checkerboard test to demonstrate we can reliably recover relative amplitudes with a lateral scale of the order of 200 km and a vertical scale of approximately 10 km. Irregular coverage locally distorts the amplitudes recovered in the checkerboard, but a 156 km scale checkerboard pattern is recovered. Flat layer simulations show we can recover relative amplitudes to within a range of 1 dB and the reconstructed transverse to radial amplitude is everywhere less than 0.1. A model with north-south oriented ridges with a 3° wavelength and 12.5 km amplitude shows of the order of ±6 dB amplitude variations and small, but clear correlation of the transverse/radial amplitude ratio topography in the model. Finally, we model the 410-km discontinuity as a rough surface characterized by variations in amplitude and depth derived from the USArray data. The rough

  19. Configuration Management (CM) Support for KM Processes at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioletti, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Collection and processing of information are critical aspects of every business activity from raw data to information to an executable decision. Configuration Management (CM) supports KM practices through its automated business practices and its integrated operations within the organization. This presentation delivers an overview of JSC/Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) and its methods to encourage innovation through collaboration and participation. Specifically, this presentation will illustrate how SLSD CM creates an embedded KM activity with an established IT platform to control and update baselines, requirements, documents, schedules, budgets, while tracking changes essentially managing critical knowledge elements.

  20. Simulation study of geometric shape factor approach to estimating earth emitted flux densities from wide field-of-view radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. L.; Green, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    A study was performed on the use of geometric shape factors to estimate earth-emitted flux densities from radiation measurements with wide field-of-view flat-plate radiometers on satellites. Sets of simulated irradiance measurements were computed for unrestricted and restricted field-of-view detectors. In these simulations, the earth radiation field was modeled using data from Nimbus 2 and 3. Geometric shape factors were derived and applied to these data to estimate flux densities on global and zonal scales. For measurements at a satellite altitude of 600 km, estimates of zonal flux density were in error 1.0 to 1.2%, and global flux density errors were less than 0.2%. Estimates with unrestricted field-of-view detectors were about the same for Lambertian and non-Lambertian radiation models, but were affected by satellite altitude. The opposite was found for the restricted field-of-view detectors.

  1. Microdomain Structure of Cr-Doped Manganites: Nd 1/2Ca 1/2(Mn,Cr)O 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Akihiko; Moritomo, Yutaka; Nishibori, Eiji; Takata, Masaki; Sakata, Makoto; Ohoyama, Kenji; Mori, Shigeo; Yamamoto, Naoki; Nakamura, Arao

    2000-11-01

    Crystal and magnetic structures of Cr-doped manganites, Nd1/2Ca1/2Mn1-yCryO3 (y=0.00 and 0.03), have been investigated by synchrotron radiation (SR) x-ray powder diffraction as well as neutron powder diffraction measurements.A detailed analysis of the high-resolution x-ray profile has revealed that the Cr-doped compound exhibits broad extra reflections, suggesting the formation of microdomains below the charge-ordering temperature T CO.The origin of the microdomain structure is discussed in terms of the charge separation.

  2. Spin-phonon coupling in Gd(Co1/2Mn1/2)O3 perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R. X.; Reichlova, H.; Marti, X.; Barbosa, D. A. B.; Lufaso, M. W.; Araujo, B. S.; Ayala, A. P.; Paschoal, C. W. A.

    2013-11-01

    We have investigated the temperature-dependent Raman-active phonons and the magnetic properties of Gd(Co1/2Mn1/2)O3 perovskite ceramics in the temperature range from 40 K to 300 K. The samples crystallized in an orthorhombic distorted simple perovskite, whose symmetry belongs to the Pnma space group. The data reveal spin-phonon coupling near the ferromagnetic transition occurring at around 120 K. The correlation of the Raman and magnetization data suggests that the structural order influences the magnitude of the spin-phonon coupling.

  3. Difference in variation of glass transition activation energy between 1,2-propanediamine and 1,2-propanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terashima, Yukio

    2016-05-01

    Variations of the effective activation energy (Eα) throughout the glass transition were determined for 1,2-propanediamine (12PDA) and 1,2-propanediol (12PDO) by applying an isoconversional method to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data. Eα was found to markedly decrease throughout the glass transition of 12PDA, whereas such drastic change in Eα was not observed for 12PDO. Although the two simple liquids are similar in molecular structure and size, their trends in Eα and fragility m throughout the glass transition can be quite different. The significant disparity in the kinetic parameters can be caused by differences in hydrogen-bonding structure between 12PDA and 12PDO.

  4. Wide-Field Plate Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkov, M. K.; Stavrev, K. Y.; Tsvetkova, K. P.; Semkov, E. H.; Mutatov, A. S.

    The Wide-Field Plate Database (WFPDB) and the possibilities for its application as a research tool in observational astronomy are presented. Currently the WFPDB comprises the descriptive data for 400 000 archival wide field photographic plates obtained with 77 instruments, from a total of 1 850 000 photographs stored in 269 astronomical archives all over the world since the end of last century. The WFPDB is already accessible for the astronomical community, now only in batch mode through user requests sent by e-mail. We are working on on-line interactive access to the data via INTERNET from Sofia and parallel from the Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg. (Initial information can be found on World Wide Web homepage URL http://www.wfpa.acad.bg.) The WFPDB may be useful in studies of a variety of astronomical objects and phenomena, andespecially for long-term investigations of variable objects and for multi-wavelength research. We have analysed the data in the WFPDB in order to derive the overall characteristics of the totality of wide-field observations, such as the sky coverage, the distributions by observation time and date, by spectral band, and by object type. We have also examined the totality of wide-field observations from point of view of their quality, availability and digitisation. The usefulness of the WFPDB is demonstrated by the results of identification and investigation of the photometrical behaviour of optical analogues of gamma-ray bursts.

  5. San Andres Rift, Nicaraguan Shelf: A 346-Km-Long, North-South Rift Zone Actively Extending the Interior of the "Stable" Caribbean Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal, L. C.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The San Andres rift (SAR) is an active, 015°-trending, bathymetric and structural rift basin that extends for 346 km across the Nicaraguan platform and varies in bathymetric width from 11-27 km and in water depth from 1,250 to 2,500 m. We used four 2D regional seismic lines tied to two offshore, industry wells located west of the SAR on the Nicaraguan platform to map normal faults, transfer faults, and possibly volcanic features with the rift. The Colombian islands of San Andres (26 km2) and Providencia (17 km2) are footwall uplifts along west-dipping, normal fault bounding the eastern margin of the rift. Mapping indicates the pre-rift section is Late Cretaceous to Oligocene in age and that the onset of rifting began in the early to middle Miocene as shown by wedging of the Miocene and younger sedimentary fill controlled by north-south-striking normal faults. Structural restorations at two locations across the rift shows that the basin opened mainly by dip-slip fault motions producing a total, east-west extension of 18 km in the north and 15 km in the south. Structural restoration shows the rift formed on a 37-km-wide, elongate basement high - possibly of late Cretaceous, volcanic origin and related to the Caribbean large igneous province. Previous workers have noted that the SAR is associated with province of Pliocene to Quaternary seamounts and volcanoes which range from non-alkaline to mildly alkaline, including volcanic rocks on Providencia described as andesites and rhyolites. The SAR forms one of the few recognizable belts of recorded seismicity within the Caribbean plate. The origin of the SAR is related to Miocene and younger left-lateral displacement along the Pedro Banks fault to the north and the southwestern Hess fault to the south. We propose that the amount of left-lateral displacement that created the rift is equivalent to the amount of extension that formed it: 18-20 km.

  6. Purification and characterization of gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867 and Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9869.

    PubMed

    Feng, Y; Khoo, H E; Poh, C L

    1999-03-01

    Two 3-hydroxybenzoate-inducible gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases were purified to homogeneity from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867 (P25X) and Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9869 (P35X), respectively. The estimated molecular mass of the purified P25X gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase was 154 kDa, with a subunit mass of 39 kDa. Its structure is deduced to be a tetramer. The pI of this enzyme was established to be 4.8 to 5.0. The subunit mass of P35X gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase was 41 kDa, and this enzyme was deduced to exist as a dimer, with a native molecular mass of about 82 kDa. The pI of P35X gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase was around 4.6 to 4.8. Both of the gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases exhibited typical saturation kinetics and had apparent Kms of 92 and 143 microM for gentisate, respectively. Broad substrate specificities were exhibited towards alkyl and halogenated gentisate analogs. Both enzymes had similar kinetic turnover characteristics for gentisate, with kcat/Km values of 44.08 x 10(4) s-1 M-1 for the P25X enzyme and 39.34 x 10(4) s-1 M-1 for the P35X enzyme. Higher kcat/Km values were expressed by both enzymes against the substituted gentisates. Significant differences were observed between the N-terminal sequences of the first 23 amino acid residues of the P25X and P35X gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases. The P25X gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase was stable between pH 5.0 and 7.5, with the optimal pH around 8.0. The P35X enzyme showed a pH stability range between 7.0 and 9.0, and the optimum pH was also 8.0. The optimal temperature for both P25X and P35X gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenases was around 50 degrees C, but the P35X enzyme was more heat stable than that from P25X. Both enzymes were strongly stimulated by 0.1 mM Fe2+ but were completely inhibited by the presence of 5 mM Cu2+. Partial inhibition of both enzymes was also observed with 5 mM Mn2+, Zn2+, and EDTA.

  7. Wide field of view telescope

    DOEpatents

    Ackermann, Mark R.; McGraw, John T.; Zimmer, Peter C.

    2008-01-15

    A wide field of view telescope having two concave and two convex reflective surfaces, each with an aspheric surface contour, has a flat focal plane array. Each of the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary reflective surfaces are rotationally symmetric about the optical axis. The combination of the reflective surfaces results in a wide field of view in the range of approximately 3.8.degree. to approximately 6.5.degree.. The length of the telescope along the optical axis is approximately equal to or less than the diameter of the largest of the reflective surfaces.

  8. Cydonia: Wide Angle Color Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Although the resolution of the MOC wide angle cameras is too low to tell much about the geomorphology of the Cydonia region, the images from the red and blue wide angle cameras provide us with two types of information that is of interest in their own right: color and stereoscopic data. Above are a color view and a stereoscopic anaglyph rendition of Geodesy Campaign images acquired by MGS MOC in May 1999. To view the stereo image, you need red/blue '3-D' glasses.

  9. ABIOTIC DEHALOGENATION OF 1,2-DICHLOROETHANE AND 1,2-DIBROMETHANE IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION CONTAINING HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The detection of significant levels of halogenated ali- phatic contaminants in groundwater resources in the U- nited States (1, 2) has spurred a considerable effort to understand the various mechanisms-both microbiological and abiotic-by which these compounds may be trans- formed...

  10. Studies of Thermal, Impedance and Magnetic Properties of (Bi1/2Na1/2)(Fe2/3W1/3)O3 Multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Suhel; Barik, Subrat Kumar

    2017-02-01

    A polycrystalline sample of (Bi1/2Na1/2)(Fe2/3W1/3)O3 was synthesized by high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. Calcination temperature and thermal stability of the material were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals a phase transformation from rhombohedral to orthorhombic due to Na and W co-doping in BFO. Electrical properties of the material were measured in a wide temperature range of 30-450°C, at different frequencies (100 Hz-1 MHz). Dielectric study revealed that the prepared material had a Neel temperature at 325°C. Direct current conductivity was found to obey the Arrhenius relationship. The value of activation energy was found to be 0.67 eV for the grain (175-450°C) and 0.94 eV for the grain boundary (200-450°C). The enhanced magnetic property of the synthesized material was evaluated from the magnetization-magnetic field loop study.

  11. Molecular oxygen measurements at 200 km from AE-D near winter solstice, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, D. C.; Potter, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Utilizing the fly-through mode, the open source neutral mass spectrometer on Atmosphere Explorer-D (AE-D) has measured O2 densities, as well as N2 densities and in situ neutral temperatures, at midmorning during winter solstice over the latitude range 90 degrees S to 90 degrees N. The expected seasonal variation in N2 was found at 200 km together with a more complex behavior in molecular oxygen than might be expected from a diffusive equilibrium model with constant lower boundary values. Under geomagnetically quiet conditions the equatorial 200 km value of O2 was about 1.7 x 10 to the 8th/cu cm. A local maximum in the 200 km O2 densities was found near 70 degrees N, where an average quiet time value was 2.5 x 10 to the 8th/cu cm, implying a 120 km density of 8.3 x 10 to the 10th/cu cm. The in situ temperature measurements confirm the presence of higher temperatures near 70 degrees N latitude, even during geomagnetically quiet conditions.

  12. SMOS disaggregated soil moisture product at 1 km resolution: processor overview and first validation results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission provides surface soil moisture (SM) maps at a mean resolution of ~50 km. However, agricultural applications (irrigation, crop monitoring) and some hydrological applications (floods and modeling of small basins) require higher resolution SM...

  13. The extra vector abeyance (EVA) mechanism as the origin of the KM matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, S.; Lopez, Jorge L.; Nanopoulos, D. V.

    1991-06-01

    We examine a general mechanism whereby an extra vector-like quark of mass Meva generates realistic quark mixing angles from otherwise flavor diagonal quark Yukawa matrices. For scales above Meva the vector-like quark is manifest, while the Yukawa matrices are diagonal, i.e., the KM matrix is held in abeyance. Conversely, for scales below Meva the vector-like quark is in an abeyant state, while the KM matrix is manifest. This mechanism is naturally realized in many superstring models. In fact, knowledge of the Yukawa matrices at the string scale, together with suitable renormalization group scaling, unambigously determines the quark mass ratios and the KM angles at low energies. Conversely, these low-energy observables may be used to determine asyet-unknown parameters in the string model. We explicitly apply the EVA mechanism to a toy model inspired by the structure of the flipped SU (5) string model, to illustrate how this mechanism may be used to predict some of the KM angles. We also outline the procedure to be followed in a realistic calculation in the flipped SU (5) string model. Supported in part by DOE grant DE-AS05-81ER40039.

  14. The Effect of a 20 km Run on Appetite Regulation in Long Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Chihiro; Ishibashi, Aya; Ebi, Kumiko; Goto, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate appetite-related hormonal responses and energy intake after a 20 km run in trained long distance runners. Twenty-three male long-distance runners completed two trials: either an exercise trial consisting of a 20 km outdoor run (EX) or a control trial with an identical period of rest (CON). Blood samples were collected to determine plasma acylated ghrelin, peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) and other hormonal and metabolite concentrations. Energy intake during a buffet test meal was also measured 30 min after the exercise or rest periods. Although plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations were significantly decreased after the 20 km run (p < 0.05), plasma PYY3-36 did not change significantly following exercise. Absolute energy intake during the buffet test meal in EX (1325 ± 55 kcal) was significantly lower than that in CON (1529 ± 55 kcal), and there was a relatively large degree of individual variability for exercise-induced changes in energy intake (−40.2% to 12.8%). However, exercise-induced changes in energy intake were not associated with plasma acylated ghrelin or PYY3-36 responses. The results demonstrated that a 20 km run significantly decreased plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations and absolute energy intake among well-trained long distance runners. PMID:27792164

  15. Nanobeacon: A low cost time calibration instrument for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, David [IFIC. Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of a matrix of pressure resistant glass spheres holding each one a set (31) of small area photomultipliers. The main goal of the telescope is to observe cosmic neutrinos through the Cherenkov light induced in sea water by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions with the surrounding medium. A relative time calibration between photomultipliers of the order of 1 ns is required to achieve an optimal performance. Due to the high volume to be covered by KM3NeT, a cost reduction of the different systems is a priority. To this end a very low price calibration device, the so called Nanobeacon, has been designed and developed. At present one of such devices has already been integrated successfully at the KM3NeT telescope and eight of them in the Nemo Tower Phase II. In this article the main properties and operation of this device are described.

  16. The Trigger and Data Acquisition System for the KM3NeT-Italia towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favaro, M.; Chiarusi, T.; Giacomini, F.; Manzali, M.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT-Italia is an INFN project supported with Italian PON fundings for building the core of the Italian node of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope. The detector, made of 700 10'' Optical Modules (OMs) lodged along 8 vertical structures called towers, will be deployed starting from fall 2015 at the KM3NeT-Italy site, about 80 km off Capo Passero, Italy, 3500 m deep. The all data to shore approach is used to reduce the complexity of the submarine detector, demanding for an on-line trigger integrated in the data acquisition system running in the shore station, called TriDAS. Due to the large optical background in the sea from 40K decays and bioluminescence, the throughput from the underwater detector can range up to 30 Gbps. This puts strong constraints on the design and performances of the TriDAS and of the related network infrastructure. In this contribution the technology behind the implementation of the TriDAS infrastructure is reviewed, focusing on the relationship between the various components and their performances. The modular design of the TriDAS, which allows for its scalability up to a larger detector than the 8-tower configuration is also discussed.

  17. Enabling Grid Computing resources within the KM3NeT computing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippidis, Christos

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a future European deep-sea research infrastructure hosting a new generation neutrino detectors that - located at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea - will open a new window on the universe and answer fundamental questions both in particle physics and astrophysics. International collaborative scientific experiments, like KM3NeT, are generating datasets which are increasing exponentially in both complexity and volume, making their analysis, archival, and sharing one of the grand challenges of the 21st century. These experiments, in their majority, adopt computing models consisting of different Tiers with several computing centres and providing a specific set of services for the different steps of data processing such as detector calibration, simulation and data filtering, reconstruction and analysis. The computing requirements are extremely demanding and, usually, span from serial to multi-parallel or GPU-optimized jobs. The collaborative nature of these experiments demands very frequent WAN data transfers and data sharing among individuals and groups. In order to support the aforementioned demanding computing requirements we enabled Grid Computing resources, operated by EGI, within the KM3NeT computing model. In this study we describe our first advances in this field and the method for the KM3NeT users to utilize the EGI computing resources in a simulation-driven use-case.

  18. Magnetic Anomalies of the Fennoscandian Shield on a 2km resolution grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Juha V.; Aaro, Sven; Reidar Skilbrei, Jan; All, Tarmo

    2010-05-01

    Joint magnetic anomaly grid of the Fennoscandian Shield was released 2002, smoothed and used as data for the WDMAM2007. In comparison with MF5 this grid showed superior characteristics to other sets. The data will be released as a 2 km resolution grid for the WDMAM2011 with eventual updates of anomaly levels.

  19. Global 4 km resolution monthly gridded Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) data set derived from FLUXNET2015

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Jitendra; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Hargrove, William W.; Collier, Nathan

    2016-08-01

    This data set contain global gridded surfaces of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) at 2 arc minute (approximately 4 km) spatial resolution monthly for the period of 2000-2014 derived from FLUXNET2015 (released July 12, 2016) observations using a representativeness based upscaling approach.

  20. Hypervelocity impact testing above 10 km/s of advanced orbital debris shields

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, E.L.; Crews, J.L.; Kerr, J.H.; Chhabildas, L.C.

    1996-05-01

    NASA has developed enhanced performance shields to improve the protection of spacecraft from orbital debris and meteoroid impacts. One of these enhanced shields includes a blanket of Nextel{trademark} ceramic fabric and Kevlar{trademark} high strength fabric that is positioned midway between an aluminum bumper and the spacecraft pressure wall. As part of the evaluation of this new shielding technology, impact data above 10 km/sec has been obtained by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) from the Sandia National Laboratories HVL ({open_quotes}hypervelocity launcher{close_quotes}) and the Southwest Research Institute inhibited shaped charge launcher (ISCL). The HVL launches flyer-plates in the velocity range of 10 to 15 km/s while the ISCL launches hollow cylinders at {approximately}11.5km/s. The {gt}10km/s experiments are complemented by hydrocode analysis and light-gas gun testing at the JSC Hypervelocity Impact Test Facility (HIT-F) to assess the effects of projectile shape on shield performance. Results from the testing and analysis indicate that the Nextel{trademark}/Kevlar{trademark} shield provides superior protection performance compared to an all-aluminum shield alternative. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Spatial correlation of large historical earthquakes and moderate shocks >10 km deep in eastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, H.

    1980-12-01

    A good spatial correlation is noted between historical earthquakes with epicentral intensity > or =VIII (MM) and recent moderate size earthquakes with focal depth >10 km, suggesting that large historical earthquakes in eastern North America may be associated with deep-seated faults

  2. Effects of a minimalist shoe on running economy and 5-km running performance.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Joel T; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if minimalist shoes improve time trial performance of trained distance runners and if changes in running economy, shoe mass, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were related to any difference in performance. Twenty-six trained runners performed three 6-min sub-maximal treadmill runs at 11, 13 and 15 km·h(-1) in minimalist and conventional shoes while running economy, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were assessed. They then performed a 5-km time trial. In the minimalist shoe, runners completed the trial in less time (effect size 0.20 ± 0.12), were more economical during sub-maximal running (effect size 0.33 ± 0.14) and decreased stride length (effect size 0.22 ± 0.10) and increased stride rate (effect size 0.22 ± 0.11). All but one runner ran with a rearfoot footfall in the minimalist shoe. Improvements in time trial performance were associated with improvements in running economy at 15 km·h(-1) (r = 0.58), with 79% of the improved economy accounted for by reduced shoe mass (P < 0.05). The results suggest that running in minimalist shoes improves running economy and 5-km running performance.

  3. MISR 17.6 KM Gridded Cloud Motion Vectors: Overview and Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Kevin; Garay, Michael; Moroney, Catherine; Jovanovic, Veljko

    2012-01-01

    The MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) instrument on the Terra satellite has been retrieving cloud motion vectors (CMVs) globally and almost continuously since early in 2000. In February 2012 the new MISR Level 2 Cloud product was publicly released, providing cloud motion vectors at 17.6 km resolution with improved accuracy and roughly threefold increased coverage relative to the 70.4 km resolution vectors of the current MISR Level 2 Stereo product (which remains available). MISR retrieves both horizontal cloud motion and height from the apparent displacement due to parallax and movement of cloud features across three visible channel (670nm) camera views over a span of 200 seconds. The retrieval has comparable accuracy to operational atmospheric motion vectors from other current sensors, but holds the additional advantage of global coverage and finer precision height retrieval that is insensitive to radiometric calibration. The MISR mission is expected to continue operation for many more years, possibly until 2019, and Level 2 Cloud has the possibility of being produced with a sensing-to-availability lag of 5 hours. This report compares MISR CMV with collocated motion vectors from arctic rawinsonde sites, and from the GOES and MODISTerra instruments. CMV at heights below 3 km exhibit the smallest differences, as small as 3.3 m/s for MISR and GOES. Clouds above 3 km exhibit larger differences, as large as 8.9 m/s for MISR and MODIS. Typical differences are on the order of 6 m/s.

  4. Hypervelocity impact testing above 10 km/s of advanced orbital debris shields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Crews, Jeanne Lee; Kerr, Justin H.; Chhabildas, Lalit C.

    1996-05-01

    NASA has developed enhanced performance shields to improve the protection of spacecraft from orbital debris and meteoroid impacts. One of these enhanced shields includes a blanket of Nextel™ ceramic fabric and Kevlar™ high strength fabric that is positioned midway between an aluminum bumper and the spacecraft pressure wall. As part of the evaluation of this new shielding technology, impact data above 10 km/sec has been obtained by NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) from the Sandia National Laboratories HVL ("hypervelocity launcher") and the Southwest Research Institute inhibited shaped charge launcher (ISCL). The HVL launches flyer-plates in the velocity range of 10 to 15 km/s while the ISCL launches hollow cylinders at ˜11.5 km/s. The >10 km/s experiments are complemented by hydrocode analysis and light-gas gun testing at the JSC Hypervelocity Impact Test Facility (HIT-F) to assess the effects of projectile shape on shield performance. Results from the testing and analysis indicate that the Nextel™/Kevlar™ shield provides superior protection performance compared to an all-aluminum shield alternative.

  5. The possible subduction of continental material to depths greater than 200 km.

    PubMed

    Ye, K; Cong, B; Ye, D

    2000-10-12

    Determining the depth to which continental lithosphere can be subducted into the mantle at convergent plate boundaries is of importance for understanding the long-term growth of supercontinents as well as the dynamic processes that shape such margins. Recent discoveries of coesite and diamond in regional ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks has demonstrated that continental material can be subducted to depths of at least 120 km (ref. 1), and subduction to depths of 150-300 km has been inferred from garnet peridotites in orogenic UHP belts based on several indirect observations. But continental subduction to such depths is difficult to trace directly in natural UHP metamorphic crustal rocks by conventional mineralogical and petrological methods because of extensive late-stage recrystallization and the lack of a suitable pressure indicator. It has been predicted from experimental work, however, that solid-state dissolution of pyroxene should occur in garnet at depths greater than 150 km (refs 6-8). Here we report the observation of high concentrations of clinopyroxene, rutile and apatite exsolutions in garnet within eclogites from Yangkou in the Sulu UHP metamorphic belt, China. We interpret these data as resulting from the high-pressure formation of pyroxene solid solutions in subducted continental material. Appropriate conditions for the Na2O concentrations and octahedral silicon observed in these samples are met at depths greater than 200 km.

  6. Aerobic capacity and running performance across a 1.6 km altitude difference in two sciurid rodents.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Mark A; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M

    2009-03-01

    Hypoxia at high altitudes is often assumed to constrain exercise capacity, but there have been few high- versus low-altitude comparisons of species native to a wide range of altitudes. Such studies are ecologically realistic, as wild-caught animals tested at their native altitude are presumably maximally acclimated (via phenotypic plasticity) or adapted (by evolutionary change) to that altitude. We compared aerobic performance, measured as maximum oxygen consumption in forced exercise (V(O(2),max)), and voluntary wheel-running in two species of sciurid rodents captured and tested at field sites that differed in altitude by 1.6 km (2165 m versus 3800 m). We found reduced V(O(2),max) at 3800 m in least chipmunks (Tamias minimus) but no significant effect of altitude on V(O(2),max) in golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis). Individuals of both species averaged several km day(-1) in wheels. Most behavioral indices of voluntary running (including mean and maximum speeds, time spent running, daily running distance, and the number and duration of running bouts) were unaffected by altitude, even in the species with reduced V(O(2),max) at high altitude. Metabolic rates during running and energy costs of transport differed to some extent across altitudes but in different ways in the two species. At both test sites, voluntary running by both species was almost exclusively at speeds well within aerobic limits. We conclude that substantial differences in altitude do not necessarily result in differences in aerobic capacity in small mammals and, even if V(O(2),max) is reduced at high altitude, there may be no effect on voluntary running behavior.

  7. Temperature minima in the average thermal structure of the middle mesosphere (70 - 80 km) from analysis of 40- to 92-km SME global temperature profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. Todd; Rusch, David W.; Callan, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    Global temperatures have been derived for the upper stratosphere and mesosphere from analysis of Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) limb radiance profiles. The SME temperature represent fixed local time observations at 1400 - 1500 LT, with partial zonal coverage of 3 - 5 longitudes per day over the 1982-1986 period. These new SME temperatures are compared to the COSPAR International Ionosphere Reference Atmosphere 86 (CIRA 86) climatology (Fleming et al., 1990) as well as stratospheric and mesospheric sounder (SAMS); Barnett and Corney, 1984), National Meteorological Center (NMC); (Gelman et al., 1986), and individual lidar and rocket observations. Significant areas of disagreement between the SME and CIRA 86 mesospheric temperatures are 10 K warmer SME temperatures at altitudes above 80 km. The 1981-1982 SAMS temperatures are in much closer agreement with the SME temperatures between 40 and 75 km. Although much of the SME-CIRA 86 disagreement probably stems from the poor vertical resolution of the observations comprising the CIRA 86 modelm, some portion of the differences may reflect 5- to 10-year temporal variations in mesospheric temperatures. The CIRA 86 climatology is based on 1973-1978 measurements. Relatively large (1 K/yr) 5- to 10-year trends in temperatures as functions of longitude, latitude, and altitude have been observed for both the upper stratosphere (Clancy and Rusch, 1989a) and mesosphere (Clancy and Rusch, 1989b; Hauchecorne et al., 1991). The SME temperatures also exhibit enhanced amplitudes for the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of upper mesospheric temperatures at low latitudes, which are not evident in the CIRA 86 climatology. The so-called mesospheric `temperature inversions' at wintertime midlatitudes, which have been observed by ground-based lidar (Hauschecorne et al., 1987) and rocket in situ measurements (Schmidlin, 1976), are shown to be a climatological aspect of the mesosphere, based on the SME observations.

  8. The Caetano Caldera, Nevada: 5 km Thickness of Intracaldera Rhyolite Ignimbrite and Co-Magmatic Batholith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, D. A.; Henry, C. D.; Colgan, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    The Caetano caldera in northern Nevada is cut by Miocene extensional faults that extraordinarily expose a complete, thick (>4 km) intracaldera rhyolite ignimbrite (Caetano Tuff) and underlying cogenetic granitic plutons in tilted blocks reaching to >5 km of paleodepth. The caldera contains (1) a 1-km-thick upper unit of Caetano Tuff composed of multiple, thin cooling units and interbedded sedimentary rocks, (2) a >3.5- km-thick lower compound cooling unit of Caetano Tuff, and (3) 5 shallowly emplaced (locally <1 km) granite porphyries consisting of the Carico Lake pluton and slightly older, altered intrusions that are exposed over >50 km2. Ten sanidine 40Ar/39Ar ages from the stratigraphically lowest Caetano Tuff through the youngest shallow pluton are indistinguishable at 33.8 Ma, indicating that eruption of >1000 km3 of rhyolite tuff, caldera collapse, magma resurgence, and pluton emplacement occurred in <0.1 Ma. The compositionally zoned, crystal-rich Caetano Tuff (~40 vol % phenocrysts) and Carico Lake pluton (60% phenocrysts) contain quartz, sanidine, plagioclase, biotite, Fe-Ti oxide ± hornblende. Allanite, apatite, and zircon are common accessories; sphene is absent. The lower ~3000 m of the lower Caetano Tuff is a monotonous high-silica rhyolite (76-77% SiO2) with relatively flat chondrite- normalized REE patterns (La/Lun~5) and a pronounced negative Eu anomaly. The uppermost ~500 m of the lower Caetano Tuff, upper Caetano Tuff, and Carico Lake pluton all have lower SiO2 (71-75%) and steep REE patterns (La/Lun~30), are enriched in LREE, Ba, Sr, and Zr, lack Eu anomalies, and are depleted in HREE relative to the bulk of the lower Caetano Tuff. These distinct chemical trends suggest two different magma batches were tapped during ignimbrite eruption and that the Carico Lake pluton represents residual magma from the reservoir that fed the later parts of the eruption. Field, geochemical, and geochronologic data prove a shallow batholith-scale magma reservoir

  9. Performance of Whipple Shields at Impact Velocities above 9 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, Bruce A.; Piekutowski, Andrew J.; Poormon, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    Whipple shields were first proposed as a means of protecting spacecraft from the impact of micrometeoroids in 1947 [1] and are currently in use as micrometeoroid and orbital debris shields on modern spacecraft. In the intervening years, the function of the thin bumper used to shatter or melt threatening particles has been augmented and enhanced by the use of various types and configurations of intermediate layers of various materials. All shield designs serve to minimize the threat of a spall failure or perforation of the main wall of the spacecraft as a result of the impact of the fragments. With increasing use of Whipple shields, various ballistic limit equations (BLEs) for guiding the design and estimating the performance of shield systems have been developed. Perhaps the best known and most used are the "new" modified Cour-Palais (Christiansen) equations [2]. These equations address the three phases of impact: (1) ballistic (<3 km/s), where the projectile is moving too slowly to fragment and essentially penetrates as an intact projectile; (2) shatter (3 to 7 km/s), where the projectile fragments at impact and forms an expanding cloud of debris fragments; and (3) melt/vaporization (>7 km/s), where the projectile melts or vaporizes at impact. The performance of Whipple shields and the adequacy of the BLEs have been examined for the first two phases using the results of impact tests obtained from two-stage, light-gas gun test firings. Shield performance and the adequacy of the BLEs has not been evaluated in the melt/vaporization phase until now because of the limitations of launchers used to accelerate projectiles with controlled properties to velocities above 7.5 km/s. A three-stage, light-gas gun, developed at the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) [3], is capable of launching small, aluminum spheres to velocities above 9 km/s. This launcher was used to evaluate the ballistic performance of two Whipple shield systems, various thermal protection

  10. Proto-Type Development of Optical Wide-field Patrol Network and Test Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Choi, Y.; Jo, J.; Moon, H.; Yim, H.; Park, Y.; Hae, Y.; Park, S.; Choi, J.; Son, J.

    2014-09-01

    We present a prototype system developed for optical satellite tracking and its early test observation results. The main objective of the OWL (Optical Wide-field patroL) network is to get orbital information for Korean domestic satellites using optical means only and to maintain their orbital elements. The network is composed of 5 small wide-field telescopes deployed over the world. Each observing station is operated in fully robotic manner from receiving observation schedule to reporting the result, and controlled by the headquarter located in Daejeon, Korea, where orbit calculation and observation strategy will be determined. We developed a compact telescope system for robotic observation and easy maintenance. The telescope is 0.5m of aperture diameter with Rechey-Cretian configuration and its field of view is 1.1 deg. It is equipped with 4K CCD with 9um pixel size, and its pixel scale is 1.2 arcsec/pixel. A chopper wheel with variable speed is adopted to get more points in a single shot. The CCD camera and all the rotating parts (chopper wheel, de-rotator, and filter wheel) are integrated into one compact component called a wheel station. Each observing station is equipped with a fully automatic dome and heavy duty environment monitoring system. We could get an image every 20 seconds and up to ~100 trail points in a single exposure. Each point is time-tagged by ~1/1000 second precision. For one of best cases, we could estimate satellite position with RMS ~ 0.5km accuracy in the along-track with only 4 exposures (~100 points). The first system was installed at the Mongolian site after completing verification test at the testbed site in Daejeon, Korea. The second and third system will be installed in the end of this year.

  11. Architecture overview and data summary of a 5.4 km free-space laser communication experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, John D.; Walther, Frederick G.; Greco, Joseph A.; Michael, Steven; Wilcox, William E., Jr.; Volpicelli, Alicia M.; Magliocco, Richard J.; Henion, Scott R.

    2009-08-01

    MIT Lincoln Laboratory designed and built two free-space laser communications terminals, and successfully demonstrated error-free communication between two ground sites separated by 5.4 km in September, 2008. The primary goal of this work was to emulate a low elevation angle air-to-ground link capable of supporting standard OTU1 (2.667 Gb/s) data formatting with standard client interfaces. Mitigation of turbulence-induced scintillation effects was accomplished through the use of multiple small-aperture receivers and novel encoding and interleaver hardware. Data from both the field and laboratory experiments were used to assess link performance as a function of system parameters such as transmitted power, degree of spatial diversity, and interleaver span, with and without forward error correction. This work was sponsored by the Department of Defense, RRCO DDR&E, under Air Force Contract FA8721-05-C-0002. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are those of the authors and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government.

  12. Click chemistry: 1,2,3-triazoles as pharmacophores.

    PubMed

    Agalave, Sandip G; Maujan, Suleman R; Pore, Vandana S

    2011-10-04

    The copper(I)-catalyzed 1,2,3-triazole-forming reaction between azides and terminal alkynes has become the gold standard of 'click chemistry' due to its reliability, specificity, and biocompatibility. Applications of click chemistry are increasingly found in all aspects of drug discovery; they range from lead finding through combinatorial chemistry and target-templated in vitro chemistry, to proteomics and DNA research by using bioconjugation reactions. The triazole products are more than just passive linkers; they readily associate with biological targets, through hydrogen-bonding and dipole interactions. The present review will focus mainly on the recent literature for applications of this reaction in the field of medicinal chemistry, in particular on use of the 1,2,3-triazole moiety as pharmacophore.

  13. 1,2,3-Triazolium-Based Peptoid Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Aliouat, Hafida; Caumes, Cécile; Roy, Olivier; Zouikri, Mohamed; Taillefumier, Claude; Faure, Sophie

    2017-02-22

    The cis-directing effect of the 1,2,3-triazolium-type side chain was studied on dimeric peptoid models with various patterns: αα, αβ, βα and ββ. Low influences of the sequence and of the solvent were observed, the cis conformation of the amide carrying the triazolium ranging from 83 to 94% in proportion. The synthesis of peptoid homooligomers with four or eight pendant 1,2,3-triazolium side chains is described. α-, β- and α,β-peptoids carrying propargyl groups were subjected to CuAAC reaction using alkyl azides, and the resulting triazoles were quaternized providing well-defined multitriazolium platforms. The influence of the counteranion (PF6(-), BF4(-) or I(-)) on the conformation was also studied.

  14. Rapid and efficient synthesis of α(1-2)mannobiosides.

    PubMed

    Reina, José J; Di Maio, Antonio; Ramos-Soriano, Javier; Figueiredo, Rute C; Rojo, Javier

    2016-03-14

    α(1,2)mannobiosides with different substituents at the reducing end have been synthesized by a common strategy using benzoyls as the permanent protecting groups and an acetyl as the orthogonal protecting group at position C2 of the glycosyl acceptor. The new synthetic strategy has been performed remarkably reducing the number of purification steps, the time of synthesis (less than 72 hours) and improving the overall yield at least three times with respect to the best procedure described in the literature at the moment. Additionally, this protecting group strategy is compatible with the presence of azido groups and the use of Cu catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) also called "click chemistry" for conjugating the α(1-2)mannobiosides to different scaffolds for the preparation of mannosyl multivalent systems.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radial velocities of K-M dwarfs (Sperauskas+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperauskas, J.; Bartasiute, S.; Boyle, R. P.; Deveikis, V.; Raudeliunas, S.; Upgren, A. R.

    2016-09-01

    We analyzed nearly 3300 measurements of radial velocities for 1049 K-M dwarfs, that we obtained during the past decade with a CORAVEL-type instrument, with a primary emphasis on detecting and eliminating from kinematic calculations the spectroscopic binaries and binary candidates. We present the catalog of our observations of radial velocities for 959 stars which are not suspected of velocity variability. Of these, 776 stars are from the MCC sample and 173 stars are K-M dwarfs from the CNS4. The catalog consists of two parts: Table 2 lists the mean radial velocities, and Table 2a contains individual measurements. Our radial velocities agree with the best published standard stars to within 0.7km/s in precision. Combining these and supplementary radial-velocity data with Hipparcos/Tycho-2 astrometry (Table 4 summarizes input observational data) we calculated the space velocity components and parameters of the galactic orbits in a three-component model potential by Johnston K.V. et al. (1995ApJ...451..598J) for a total of 1088 K-M dwarfs (Table 5), that we use for kinematical analysis and for the identification of possible candidate members of nearby stellar kinematic groups. We identified 146 stars as possible candidate members of the classical moving groups and known or suspected subgroups (Table 7). We show that the distributions of space-velocity components, orbital eccentricities, and maximum distances from the Galactic plane for nearby K-M dwarfs are consistent with the presence of young, intermediate-age and old populations of the thin disk and a small fraction (3%) of stars with the thick disk kinematics. (7 data files).

  16. Effects of wearing a cooling vest during the warm-up on 10-km run performance.

    PubMed

    Stannard, Alicja B; Brandenburg, Jason P; Pitney, William A; Lukaszuk, Judith M

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether wearing a cooling vest during an active warm-up would improve the 10-km time trial (TT) performance of endurance runners. Seven male runners completed 3 10-km TTs (1 familiarization and 2 experimental) on a treadmill after a 30-minute warm-up. During the warm-up of the experimental TTs, runners wore either a t-shirt (control [C]) or a cooling vest (V), the order of which was randomized. No differences were found between the C and V conditions for the 10-km TT times (2,533 ± 144 and 2,543 ± 149 seconds, respectively) (p = 0.746) or any of the 2-km split times. Heart rate (HR) at the start of the TT equaled 90 ± 17 b·min for C and 94 ± 16 b·min for V. The HR peaked at 184 ± 20 b·min in C and 181 ± 19 b·min in V. At the start of the TT Tc was 37.65 ± .72°C in C and 37.29 ± .73°C in V (p = 0.067). In C, Tc gradually increased until 39.34 ± 0.43°C while in V is reached 39.18 ± 0.72°C (p = 0.621). Although rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and Thermal sensation (TS) increased during both experimental TTs, there were no differences between V and C. Findings suggest wearing a cooling vest during a warm-up does not improve 10-km performance. The use of cooling vests during the warm-up did not produce any physiological (HR and Tc) or psychological (RPE and TS) benefit, perhaps accounting for the lack of improvement.

  17. The Relationship of Foot Strike Pattern, Shoe Type, and Performance in a 50-km Trail Race.

    PubMed

    Kasmer, Mark E; Liu, Xue-Cheng; Roberts, Kyle G; Valadao, Jason M

    2016-06-01

    Recent "in-race" studies have observed the foot strike patterns of runners in traditional road marathon races. However, similar studies have not been conducted for trail runners, which have been estimated to account for 11% of all runners. The purpose of this study was to (a) determine the rear-foot strike (RFS) prevalence in a 50-km trail race and compare with traditional road marathon races; (b) determine if there is a relationship between foot strike and sex in a 50-km trail race; and (c) determine if there is a relationship between foot strike, shoe type, and performance in a 50-km trail race. One hundred sixty-five runners were videotaped at the 8.1-km mark of the 2012 Ice Age Trail 50-km race. Foot strike analysis revealed RFS prevalence of 85.1%, less than previously reported in traditional road marathon races. There was no relationship found between sex and foot strike (p = 0.60). A significant effect of shoe type on foot strike (RFS was less common among runners in minimalist shoes, p < 0.01) and performance (faster runners were more likely to be wearing minimalist shoes, p < 0.01) was observed; however, no association between foot strike and performance was observed (p = 0.83). This study suggests that most trail runners, albeit less than road runners, prefer an RFS pattern, which is accompanied by biomechanical consequences unique from a non-RFS pattern and, therefore, likely carries a unique injury profile. In addition, the findings in this study suggest that minimalist shoes may represent a reasonable training modification to improve performance.

  18. CMMI (Trademark) for Development, Version 1.2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    organization’s training curriculum . CMMI for Development Version 1.2 Organizational Training (OT) 283 Examples of the information provided in the...or external), and skills needed include the following: • Subject-matter experts • Curriculum designers • Instructional designers • Instructors...Martin) • Cattan, Denise (Spirula) • Clouse, Aaron (Raytheon) • Connell , Clifford (Raytheon) • Fisher, Jerry (Aerospace Corporation) • Hertneck

  19. CMMI (Trademark) for Acquisition, Version 1.2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    or established technologies to be applied, such as robotics, composite materials, or artificial intelligence ; and breadth of the functionality...you to align the way you do busines They allow you to address scalability and provide a way to incorpora knowledge of how to do things better. Processes...part by the selections made by the organization to meet its busine objectives. Tying It All Together 38 CMMI for Acquisition Version 1.2 4

  20. Wheeler-Feynman dynamics of spin-1/2 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Alstine, Peter; Crater, Horace W.

    1986-02-01

    By combining a supersymmetric description of a spinning particle in an external field with an appropriate modification of the ``adjunct field'' of Wheeler and Feynman, we construct a many-time relativistic dynamics for arbitrary numbers of spin-(1/2) and spinless particles in mutual scalar or vector interaction. Quantization of the slow-motion approximation to the dynamics of two spinning particles reproduces the corresponding field-theoretic (Bethe-Salpeter) dynamics through order α4.

  1. 38. View of DRS 1, 2, and 3 (structure nos. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. View of DRS 1, 2, and 3 (structure nos. 735, 736, and 737) console fault locator for beam power status, radio frequency (RF) and intermediate frequency (IF) fault conditions, RF switches status and TR status. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  2. Wide band data collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkiewicz, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology (IRIS) approached NASA Headquarters in 1986 about the need to collect data daily from seismic stations around the world as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. A typical IRIS Seismic Station generates 16 Megabytes of data per day when there is seismic activity. The Preliminary Design Parameters of the Wide Band Data Collection System are summarized.

  3. World Wide Web Homepage Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Michael L.

    This paper examines hypermedia design and draws conclusions about how educational research and theory applies to various aspects of World Wide Web (WWW) homepage design. "Hypermedia" is defined as any collection of information which may be textual, graphical, visual, or auditory in nature and which may be accessed via a nonlinear route.…

  4. Partnership in Sector Wide Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolley, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of bilateral support to the education sector in Tonga and the Solomon Islands, this paper will explore how the discourse of "partnership" has been interpreted and activated within the Sector wide approach (SWAp). In concentrating particularly on the relationship between the respective Ministries of Education and New…

  5. Endoperoxide antimalarials: development, structural diversity and pharmacodynamic aspects with reference to 1,2,4-trioxane-based structural scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Rudrapal, Mithun; Chetia, Dipak

    2016-01-01

    Malaria disease continues to be a major health problem worldwide due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. In recent days, artemisinin (ART)-based drugs and combination therapies remain the drugs of choice for resistant P. falciparum malaria. However, resistance to ART-based drugs has begun to appear in some parts of the world. Endoperoxide compounds (natural/semisynthetic/synthetic) representing a huge number of antimalarial agents possess a wide structural diversity with a desired antimalarial effectiveness against resistant P. falciparum malaria. The 1,2,4-trioxane ring system lacking the lactone ring that constitutes the most important endoperoxide structural scaffold is believed to be the key pharmacophoric moiety and is primarily responsible for the pharmacodynamic potential of endoperoxide-based antimalarials. Due to this reason, research into endoperoxide, particularly 1,2,4-trioxane-, 1,2,4-trioxolane- and 1,2,4,5-teraoxane-based scaffolds, has gained significant interest in recent years for developing antimalarial drugs against resistant malaria. In this paper, a comprehensive effort has been made to review the development of endoperoxide antimalarials from traditional antimalarial leads (natural/semisynthetic) and structural diversity of endoperoxide molecules derived from 1,2,4-trioxane-, 1,2,4-trioxolane- and 1,2,4,5-teraoxane-based structural scaffolds, including their chimeric (hybrid) molecules, which are newer and potent antimalarial agents. PMID:27843298

  6. Quantum critical behavior of low-dimensional spin 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Matthew Brandon

    In this dissertation, experiments on four different insulating antiferromagnetic spin 1/2 Heisenberg systems are presented and described. Copper pyrazine dinitrate is a linear chain spin 1/2 (S = 1/2) Heisenberg antiferromagnet. In an applied magnetic field, the continuum splits into multiple continua including incommensurate gapless excitations. The inelastic neutron scattering measurements presented represent the first complete experimental study of the S = 1/2 linear chain excitation spectrum in an applied magnetic field. Copper nitrate is a S = 1/2 alternating chain Heisenberg antiferromagnet. This system is near the isolated dimer limit, such that perturbation theory based on weakly coupled spin pairs accurately describes the excitation spectrum. Inelastic neutron scattering measurements were performed as a function of applied magnetic field. The data presented here represent the first such measure in all portions of the magnetic phase diagram of a gapped quantum magnet. Piperazinium hexachlorodicuprate is a two-dimensional S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet. It is shown in this work that the structure consists of a collection of coupled spins in the crystalline ac plane. Multiple spin-spin interactions are important in this material. This has consequences for the nature of the dominant interactions and causes there to be significant spin frustration in this system. The spectrum consists of coherent dispersive singlet-triplet excitations describable in terms of multiple significant exchange interactions with geometrical frustration. Thermodynamic and inelastic neutron scattering measurements are presented which characterize the magnetic excitations as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field. In addition, the full magnetic phase diagram including a gapless disordered phase and a reentrant phase transition is presented. Cu2(1,4-diazacycloheptane)2Cl4 was widely believed to be a S = 1/2 Heisenberg spin-ladder material. Neutron scattering measurements

  7. Rapid Kinematic and Tectonic Variations Along the 1400-km-long Australia-Woodlark Plate Boundary Zone, Papua New Guinea and Woodlark Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P.; Taylor, F. W.; Gahagan, L.; Watson, L.

    2004-12-01

    Previous GPS studies have shown the wide variability in present-day plate motions across the highly arcuate, 1400-km-long Australia-Woodlark plate boundary extending from Papua New Guinea to the Solomon Islands. GPS-determined motions range from orthogonal oceanic spreading in the Woodlark basin, to continental transtension in the 2.5-km-high core complex area of easternmost Papua New Guinea, to continental strike-slip and transpression in 4-km-high mountains of the Papuan Peninsula. We use imagery, earthquake focal mechanisms, coral reef uplift data, and structural mapping studies to establish the along-strike continuity of the active plate boundary fault. Systematic angular changes in the direction of the plate vector along this continuous fault explain its varied tectonic geomorphology, Holocene uplift history, and geologic structure. We use a series of plate reconstructions to illustrate the longer term, Cenozoic evolution of this boundary including: its formation as an arcuate, N- and NE-dipping ophiolitic suture zone during Paleogene time, the progressive "unzippering" of this thrust over the past 6 Ma along a N- and NE-dipping, low-angle normal fault in easternmost Papua New Guinea, and its "zippering" or continued shortening on the suture thrust in the Owen Stanley Ranges of the Papuan Peninsula. Over the 1400-km-length of the fault, the length of segments of oceanic spreading, transtension, and transpression is 250-500 km; the time period separating one tectonic style from the succeeding style encroaching from the east is several million years. This systematic spatial and temporal superposition of tectonic styles, leads to complex - but predictable - along-strike variations in geologic history.

  8. Effect of compression garments on short-term recovery of repeated sprint and 3-km running performance in rugby union players.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Michael J; Mitchell, Carla J; Ward, Felila D; Draper, Nick; Shearman, Jeremy P; Kimber, Nicholas E

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether wearing compression garments during recovery improved subsequent repeated sprint and 3-km run performance. In a randomized single-blind crossover study, 22 well-trained male rugby union players (mean ± SD: age 20.1 ± 2.1 years, body mass 88.4 ± 8.8 kg) were given a full-leg length compressive garment (76% Meryl Elastane, 24% Lycra) or a similar-looking noncompressive placebo garment (92% Polyamide, 8% Lycra) to wear continuously for 24 hours after performing a series of circuits developed to simulate a rugby game. After the 24-hour recovery, garments were removed and a 40-m repeated sprint test (10 sprints at 30-second intervals), followed 10 minutes later by a 3-km run, was completed. One week later, the groups were reversed and testing repeated. Relative to the placebo, wearing the compressive garment decreased time to complete the 3 km by 2.0% ± 1.9% (mean ± 90% confidence interval). Additionally, average sprint times improved (1.2% ± 1.5%) and fatigue was diminished (-15.8% ± 26.1%) during the repeated sprint test in the compression group compared with the placebo group. Delayed onset muscle soreness was substantially lower in the compression group compared with the placebo group, 48 hours after testing. Wearing compressive garments during recovery is likely to be worthwhile, and very unlikely to be harmful for well-trained rugby union players.

  9. Full 40 km crustal reflection seismic datasets in several Indonesian basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinkelman, M. G.; Granath, J. W.; Christ, J. M.; Emmet, P. A.; Bird, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Long offset, deep penetration regional 2D seismic data sets have been acquired since 2002 by GX Technology in a number of regions worldwide (www.iongeo.com/Data_Libraries/Spans/). Typical surveys consist of 10+ lines located to image specific critical aspects of basin structure. Early surveys were processed to 20 km, but more recent ones have extended to 40-45 km from 16 sec records. Pre-stack time migration is followed by pre-stack depth migration using gravity and in some cases magnetic modeling to constrain the velocity structure. We illustrate several cases in the SE Asian and Australasian area. In NatunaSPAN™ two generations of inversion can be distinguished, one involving Paleogene faults with Neogene inversion and one involving strike slip-related uplift in the West Natuna Basin. Crustal structure in the very deep Neogene East Natuna Basin has also been imaged. The JavaSPAN™ program traced Paleogene sediments onto oceanic crust of the Flores Sea, thus equating back arc spreading there to the widespread Eocene extension. It also imaged basement in the Makassar Strait beneath as much as 6 km of Cenozoic sedimentary rocks that accumulated Eocene rift basins (the North and South Makassar basins) on the edge of Sundaland, the core of SE Asia. The basement is seismically layered: a noisy upper crust overlies a prominent 10 km thick transparent zone, the base of which marks another change to slightly noisier reflectivity. Eocene normal faults responsible for the opening of extensional basins root in the top of the transparent layer which may be Moho or a brittle-ductile transition within the extended continental crust. Of particular significance is the first image of thick Precambrian basins comprising the bulk of continental crust under the Arafura Sea in the ArafuraSPAN™ program. Four lines some 1200 km long located between Australia and New Guinea on the Arafura platform image a thin Phanerozoic section overlying a striking Precambrian basement composed of

  10. Laboratory spectroscopy of 1, 2-propanediol at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossa, J.-B.; Ordu, M. H.; Müller, H. S. P.; Lewen, F.; Schlemmer, S.

    2014-10-01

    Context. Ethanediol is one of the largest complex organic molecules detected in space thus far. It has been found in different types of molecular clouds. The two propanediol isomers are the next larger diols. Hence, they are viable candidates to be searched for in space. Aims: We wish to provide sufficiently large and accurate sets of spectroscopic parameters of 1, 2-propanediol to facilitate searches for this molecule at millimeter and longer submillimeter wavelengths. Methods: We recorded rotational spectra of 1, 2-propanediol in three wide frequency windows between 38 and 400 GHz. Results: We made extensive assignments for the three lowest energy conformers to yield spectroscopic parameters up to eighth order of angular momentum. Conclusions: Our present data will be helpful for identifying 1, 2-propanediol at moderate submillimeter or longer wavelengths with radio telescope arrays such as ALMA, NOEMA, or EVLA. In particular, its detection with ALMA in sources, in which ethanediol was detected, appears to be promising. Full Tables A.1 and A.4, and Tables A.2 and A.3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/570/A12

  11. Extending MGS-TES Temperature Retrievals in the Martian Atmosphere up to 90 Km: Retrieval Approach and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Kutepov, A. A.; Rezac, L.; Smith, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for performing a temperature retrieval in the Martian atmosphere in the 50-90 km altitude range using spectrally integrated 15 micrometers C02 limb emissions measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), the thermal infrared spectrometer on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). We demonstrate that temperature retrievals from limb observations in the 75-90 km altitude range require accounting for the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) populations of the C02(v2) vibrational levels. Using the methodology described in the paper, we have retrieved approximately 1200 individual temperature profiles from MGS TES limb observations in the altitude range between 60 and 90 km. 0ur dataset of retrieved temperature profiles is available for download in supplemental materials of this paper. The temperature retrieval uncertainties are mainly caused by radiance noise, and are estimated to be about 2 K at 60 km and below, 4 K at 70 km, 7 K at 80 km, 10 K at 85 km, and 20 K at 90 km. We compare the retrieved profiles to Mars Climate Database temperature profiles and find good qualitative agreement. Quantitatively, our retrieved profiles are in general warmer and demonstrate strong variability with the following values for bias and standard deviations (in brackets) compared to the Martian Year 24 dataset of the Mars Climate Database: 6 (+/-20) K at 60 km, 7.5 (+/-25) K at 65 km, 9 (+/-27) K at 70 km, 9.5 (+/-27) K at 75 km, 10 (+/-28) K at 80 km, 11 (+/-29) K at 85 km, and 11.5 (+/-31) K at 90 km. Possible reasons for the positive temperature bias are discussed. carbon dioxide molecular vibrations

  12. Comparison of Two Fluid Replacement Protocols During a 20-km Trail Running Race in the Heat.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Rebecca M; Casa, Douglas J; Jensen, Katherine A; Stearns, Rebecca L; DeMartini, Julie K; Pagnotta, Kelly D; Roti, Melissa W; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2016-09-01

    Lopez, RM, Casa, DJ, Jensen, K, Stearns, RL, DeMartini, JK, Pagnotta, KD, Roti, MW, Armstrong, LE, and Maresh, CM. Comparison of two fluid replacement protocols during a 20-km trail running race in the heat. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2609-2616, 2016-Proper hydration is imperative for athletes striving for peak performance and safety, however, the effectiveness of various fluid replacement strategies in the field setting is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate how two hydration protocols affect physiological responses and performance during a 20-km trail running race. A randomized, counter-balanced, crossover design was used in a field setting (mean ± SD: WBGT 28.3 ± 1.9° C). Well-trained male (n = 8) and female (n = 5) runners (39 ± 14 years; 175 ± 9 cm; 67.5 ± 11.1 kg; 13.4 ± 4.6% BF) completed two 20-km trail races (5 × 4-km loop) with different water hydration protocols: (a) ad libitum (AL) consumption and (b) individualized rehydration (IR). Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Paired t-tests compared pre-race-post-race measures. Main outcome variables were race time, heart rate (HR), gastrointestinal temperature (TGI), fluid consumed, percent body mass loss (BML), and urine osmolality (Uosm). Race times between groups were similar. There was a significant condition × time interaction (p = 0.048) for HR, but TGI was similar between conditions. Subjects replaced 30 ± 14% of their water losses in AL and 64 ± 16% of their losses in IR (p < 0.001). Ad libitum trial experienced greater BML (-2.6 ± 0.5%) compared with IR (-1.3 ± 0.5%; p < 0.001). Pre-race to post-race Uosm differences existed between AL (-273 ± 146 mOsm) and IR (-145 ± 215 mOsm, p = 0.032). In IR, runners drank twice as much fluid than AL during the 20-km race, leading to > 2% BML in AL. Ad libitum drinking resulted in 1.3% greater BML over the 20-km race, which resulted in no thermoregulatory or performance differences from IR.

  13. Marine oil dietary supplementation reduces delayed onset muscle soreness after a 30 km run

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Klaus; Telford, Richard D; Cunningham, Ross B

    2013-01-01

    Objective Runners are prone to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) during long distance training. This especially holds for unaccustomed training volumes at moderate to high intensities. We investigated the effects of a marine oil complex, PCSO-524®, derived from the New Zealand green-lipped mussel (formulated as Lyprinol® and Omega XL®) on DOMS after a 30 km training run. Methods Initially, peak oxygen uptake of 32 distance runners (4 female, 28 male; median age 45 years, range 28–53) was measured on a treadmill with a 1.5 km hour−1 increase every 4 minutes starting from 8.5 km hour−1. At least 1-week after this initial test, they participated in a 30 km road run at a speed corresponding to about 70% of their individual peak oxygen uptake on a flat terrain. Before and after (0, 24, and 48 hours) the run, blood concentration of creatine kinase (CK) were measured and pain sensation was determined (pain scale from 0 = no pain to 10 = extremely painful). Runners were then matched in pairs based on maximal CK and peak oxygen uptake, and allocated randomly into two different groups. One group was supplemented with 400 mg per day of PCSO-524® for 11 weeks, the other group with an olive oil placebo. After that period, CK and pain sensations were remeasured following a second 30 km run at the same speed and on the same terrain. Results The general pattern of soreness in the PCSO-524® supplemented group was reduced by 1.1 units (standard error 0.41) compared to the placebo (P < 0.05), the effects being greater in lesser trained runners (P < 0.05). CK levels were positively associated with pain sensation (P < 0.05), but trends toward lower CK in the PCSO-524® group, which were also more pronounced in the lesser trained runners, were not statistically significant. Conclusion Pain sensations experienced by distance runners following a 30 km run were reduced by supplementation with the marine oil complex PCSO-524®, an effect which was greater in lesser trained

  14. Experimental High Resolution (3 km) SMAP Soil Moisture Data Fields With Uncertainty Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, N. N.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched on January 31st, 2015. The objective of the mission is global mapping of surface soil moisture and landscape freeze/thaw state. SMAP utilizes an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna. The SMAP spacecraft is in a 685-km Sun-synchronous near-polar orbit, and viewing the surface at a constant 40-degree incidence angle with a 1000-km swath width. Merging of the high-resolution active (radar) and coarse-resolution but high-sensitivity passive (radiometer) L-band observations enable an unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrievals. However, on July 7th, 2015, the SMAP radar encountered an anomaly and is currently inoperable. Efforts are being made to revive the SMAP radar. Due to the present status of the SMAP observatory, nearly ~2.5 months (from the end of In-Orbit-Check April 13th, 2015 to July 7th, 2015) of the SMAP Active Passive product will be available to public through the NASA DAAC at National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). The baseline L2_SM_AP product is retrieved soil moisture from the disaggregated/downscaled brightness temperature obtained by merging the coarse-resolution (~36 km) radiometer brightness temperature data and the high-resolution (~3 km) radar backscatter data. The baseline product is intermediate scale 9 km global soil moisture information. Experimentally, a much higher resolution global surface soil moisture data set is also produced at 3 km. This experimental product covering the 2.5 Spring/Summer months is the focus of this presentation. We specifically focus on the analysis of errors and reliability of this data set. The errors in disaggregated brightness temperatures and the retrived soil moisture estimates are discussed. In the presentation the accuracies of the SMAP L2-SM_AP soil moisture retrievals will be shown using summary comparisons with in

  15. The electrical properties and relaxation behavior of AgNb1/2Ta1/2O3 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, K. Ganga; Niranjan, Manish K.; Asthana, Saket

    2017-02-01

    Polycrystalline AgNb1/2Ta1/2O3 powder was prepared by solid state reaction method. Preliminary x-ray diffractogram analysis of some aspects of crystal structure showed that a single phase compound formed exhibiting a monoclinic system. Impedance spectroscopy showed the presence of both bulk and grain boundary effects in the material. The relaxation behavior was studied by fitting electric modulus with Bergman function confirms us the existence of non-Debye type of relaxation the material. The ac conductivity spectrum obeyed Funke's double power law and fitting in results, the hopping parameters n1,n2 were indicating the existence of small and large range polaron hopping in the material. The band gap of the material 3.02 eV measured by using UV visible spectroscopy.

  16. Interplay between intramolecular and intermolecular structures of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloro-1,2-difluoroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovira-Esteva, M.; Murugan, N. A.; Pardo, L. C.; Busch, S.; Tamarit, J. Ll.; Pothoczki, Sz.; Cuello, G. J.; Bermejo, F. J.

    2011-08-01

    We report on the interplay between the short-range order of molecules in the liquid phase of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloro-1,2-difluoroethane and the possible molecular conformations, trans and gauche. Two complementary approaches have been used to get a comprehensive picture: analysis of neutron-diffraction data by a Bayesian fit algorithm and a molecular dynamics simulation. The results of both show that the population of trans and gauche conformers in the liquid state can only correspond to the gauche conformer being more stable than the trans conformer. Distinct conformer geometries induce distinct molecular short-range orders around them, suggesting that a deep intra- and intermolecular interaction coupling is energetically favoring one of the conformers by reducing the total molecular free energy.

  17. Microwave dielectric dispersion in a multiferroic Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobiestianskas, R.; Peng, W.; Lemée, N.; Karkut, M.; Banys, J.; Holc, J.; Kosec, M.

    2012-03-01

    We present the dielectric dispersion in a Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 (PFN) thin film grown on (001) SrTiO3 substrate from 20 MHz to 20 GHz in the temperature range of 270 to 340 K. In the radio frequency region, the hopping charge transport and associated polar nanoregion and/or domain-wall motion contribute to the spectrum. In the microwave region, relaxational dispersion was observed with a dielectric contribution of Δɛ ≈ 600 at room temperature having a characteristic frequency (fm)0.4 = 9.8 . (T-T0) Hz, where T0 is 660 K. It is associated with possible mode-softening behavior, related to the onset of polar nanoregions at T0. The dielectric permittivity shows similarities with 1-dimensional Ising model behaviour.

  18. Biochemical characterization of an α1,2-colitosyltransferase from Escherichia coli O55:H7.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhigang; Zhao, Guohui; Li, Tiehai; Qu, Jingyao; Guan, Wanyi; Wang, Jiajia; Ma, Cheng; Li, Xu; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Peng G; Li, Lei

    2016-05-01

    Colitose, also known as 3,6-dideoxy-L-galactose or 3-deoxy-L-fucose, is one of only five naturally occurring 3,6-dideoxyhexoses. Colitose was found in lipopolysaccharide of a number of infectious bacteria, including Escherichia coli O55 & O111 and Vibrio cholera O22 & O139. To date, no colitosyltransferase (ColT) has been characterized, probably due to the inaccessibility of the sugar donor, GDP-colitose. In this study, starting with chemically prepared colitose, 94.6 mg of GDP-colitose was prepared via a facile and efficient one-pot two-enzyme system involving an L-fucokinase/GDP-L-Fuc pyrophosphorylase and an inorganic pyrophosphatase (EcPpA). WbgN, a putative ColT from E. coliO55:H5 was then cloned, overexpressed, purified and biochemically characterized by using GDP-colitose as a sugar donor. Activity assay and structural identification of the synthetic product clearly demonstrated that wbgN encodes an α1,2-ColT. Biophysical study showed that WbgN does not require metal ion, and is highly active at pH 7.5-9.0. In addition, acceptor specificity study indicated that WbgN exclusively recognizes lacto-N-biose (Galβ1,3-GlcNAc). Most interestingly, it was found that WbgN exhibits similar activity toward GDP-l-Fuc (kcat/Km= 9.2 min(-1)mM(-1)) as that toward GDP-colitose (kcat/Km= 12 min(-1)mM(-1)). Finally, taking advantage of this, type 1 H-antigen was successfully synthesized in preparative scale.

  19. 1-(2’,4’,6’-Trinitrophenyl)imidazoles and -1,2,4-triazoles as Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    triazoles and involved condensation of phenyl hydrazine hydrochloride (30) with dicyandiamide (31) to give 3,5-diamino-l-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole (32) (Reference...the presence of nitro groups on the phenyl ring hinders the condensation of the hydrazine with dicyandiamide , and while the 2’- and 4...8217-nitrophenyldiaminotriazoles (34) and (35) may be prepared, 2,4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazine was inert to reaction with dicyandiamide . Furthermore, oxidation of 34

  20. The MAPK MEK1/2-ERK1/2 Pathway and Its Implication in Hepatocyte Cell Cycle Control

    PubMed Central

    Guégan, Jean-Philippe; Frémin, Christophe; Baffet, Georges

    2012-01-01

    Primary cultures of hepatocytes are powerful models in studying the sequence of events that are necessary for cell progression from a G0-like state to S phase. The models mimic the physiological process of hepatic regeneration after liver injury or partial hepatectomy. Many reports suggest that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) ERK1/2 can support hepatocyte proliferation in vitro and in vivo and the MEK/ERK cascade acts as an essential element in hepatocyte responses induced by the EGF. Moreover, its disregulation has been associated with the promotion of tumor cell growth of a variety of tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma. Whereas the strict specificity of action of ERK1 and ERK2 is still debated, the MAPKs may have specific biological functions under certain contexts and according to the differentiation status of the cells, notably hepatocytes. In this paper, we will focus on MEK1/2-ERK1/2 activations and roles in normal rodent hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo after partial hepatectomy and in human hepatocarcinoma cells. The possible specificity of ERK1 and ERK2 in normal and transformed hepatocyte will be discussed in regard to other differentiated and undifferentiated cellular models. PMID:23133759

  1. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, James S.

    2012-01-20

    Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) have been investigated since the late 1970s. Some devices have been developed that withstand tens of kilovolts and others that switch hundreds of amperes. However, no single device has been developed that can reliably withstand both high voltage and switch high current. Yet, photoconductive switches still hold the promise of reliable high voltage and high current operation with subnanosecond risetimes. Particularly since good quality, bulk, single crystal, wide bandgap semiconductor materials have recently become available. In this chapter we will review the basic operation of PCSS devices, status of PCSS devices and properties of the wide bandgap semiconductors 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 2H-GaN.

  2. Enterprise-wide worklist management.

    PubMed

    Locko, Roberta C; Blume, Hartwig; Goble, John C

    2002-01-01

    Radiologists in multi-facility health care delivery networks must serve not only their own departments but also departments of associated clinical facilities. We describe our experience with a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) implementation that provides a dynamic view of relevant radiological workload across multiple facilities. We implemented a distributed query system that permits management of enterprise worklists based on modality, body part, exam status, and other criteria that span multiple compatible PACSs. Dynamic worklists, with lesser flexibility, can be constructed if the incompatible PACSs support specific DICOM functionality. Enterprise-wide worklists were implemented across Generations Plus/Northern Manhattan Health Network, linking radiology departments of three hospitals (Harlem, Lincoln, and Metropolitan) with 1465 beds and 4260 ambulatory patients per day. Enterprise-wide, dynamic worklist management improves utilization of radiologists and enhances the quality of care across large multi-facility health care delivery organizations. Integration of other workflow-related components remain a significant challenge.

  3. Plutonism at Different Crustal Levels of an Arc: Insights From the 5 to 40 km (Paleodepth) North Cascades Crustal Section, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. B.; Paterson, S. R.; Matzel, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    The crystalline core of the North Cascades preserves a Cretaceous crustal section that facilitates evaluation of pluton construction, emplacement, geometry, composition, and deformation at widely variable crustal levels (~5 to 40 km paleodepth) in a thick (> 55 km) continental magmatic arc. The oldest and largest pulse of plutonism was focused between 96-89 Ma when fluxes were a minimum of 3.9x10-6km3/yr/km of arc length, but the coincidence with regional crustal thickening and underthrusting of a cool outboard terrane resulted in relatively low mid- to deep-crustal temperatures for an arc. A second, smaller peak of magmatism at 78-71 Ma (minimum of 8.2x10-7km3/yr/km of arc length) occurred during regional transpression. Tonalite dominates at all levels of the section. Intrusions range from large plutons to thin (< 50 m) dispersed sheets encased in metamorphic rocks that record less focused magmatism. The percentage of igneous rocks increases systematically from shallow to middle to deep levels; from approximately 37% to 55% to 65% of the total rock volume. Unfocused magmas comprise much higher percentages (approximately 19%) of the total plutonic rock at deep- and mid-crustal depths, but only 1% at shallower levels, whereas the largest intrusions were emplaced into shallow crust. Plutons have a range of shapes, including: asymmetric wedges to funnels; subhorizontal tabular sheets; steep-sided, blade-shaped bodies with high aspect ratios in map view; and steep-sided, vertically extensive (> 8 km) bodies shaped like thick disks and/or hockey pucks. Sheeted intrusions and gently dipping tabular bodies are more common with depth. Some of these plutons fit the model that most intrusions are subhorizontal and tabular, but many do not, reflecting the complex changes in lithology and rheology in arc crust undergoing regional shortening. The steep sheeted plutons partly represent magma transfer zones that fed the large shallow plutons, which were sites of intermittent

  4. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, James S.

    2013-07-03

    Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6HSiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators.

  5. A parametric study of dissociation and ionization models at 12 km/sec

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitcheltree, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Thermochemical nonequilibrium-solution dependence on available models for the chemical reaction rates is examined. Solutions from the Kang and Dunn (1973) reaction-rate set, the Park rate set of 1987, and the Park rate set of 1991 are compared. The blunt-nosed, axisymmetric geometry considered is a 60-deg sphere cone with nose radius of 1.07 m and cicular aft skirt. The nonequilibrium test case is 12 km/sec entry into the earth's atmosphere at 80 km altitude. The model variations are implemented into the Langley aerothermodynamics upwind relaxation algorithm code. While variations in the reaction rates have no effect on the surface pressure distribution and little effect on the convective heating, the effect on degree of ionization and radiative heating can be a factor of three.

  6. Projectile and rail launcher design analysis for electromagnetic propulsion to velocities exceeding 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Buckingham, A.C.

    1981-02-24

    Hypersonic projectile launch was achieved using thrust exerted by an expanding electromagnetic field acting on the projectile base. Previous designs were confined to simple parallel-opposing flat rails. The rails carried the induction current used to launch rectangular projectiles. The projectiles weighed up to several grams and were launched at nearly 10 km/s. Here, a revised design for the launcher and projectiles using a more conventional cylindrical bore is described. Projectile spin-stabilization was considered together with the associated added-stress loads to projectile and launcher. In addition, both the design of the projectile configuration and materials capable of withstanding earth orbital, earth- and solar-system-escape launch loads, aerodynamic loads, and ablation and erosion penalties were studied. Projectile masses of ten to several hundred kilograms and launch speeds from 20 to 50 km/s are included in the analysis and discussion.

  7. Neutral hydrogen flux measured at 100- to 200-km altitude in an electron aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iglesias, G. E.; Anderson, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen fluxes were measured at altitudes of 120-200 km by a rocket payload that also measured electron and proton fluxes and vector magnetic fields. An intense electron arc was crossed, while an upper limit to the flux of 0.5- to 20-keV protons was 1,000,000 per sq cm s sr keV. A neutral flux of 50,000,000 per sq cm s sr was observed, assuming hydrogen with greater than 1-keV energy, with greater north-south extent than the electron flux. Its pitch angle distribution was peaked toward 90 deg, tending toward isotropy in the center. This is fitted to a model describing spreading of an initial proton arc above 500 km.

  8. Physical Contact between the +20 km s-1 Cloud and the Galactic Circumnuclear Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takekawa, Shunya; Oka, Tomoharu; Tanaka, Kunihiko

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery of physical contact between the Galactic circumnuclear disk (CND) and an adjacent giant molecular cloud. The central 10 pc of our Galaxy has been imaged in molecular lines at millimeter wavelength using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m radio telescope. In the position-velocity maps of several high-density probe lines, we have found an emission ``bridge'' connecting the +20 km s-1 cloud (M-0.13-0.08) and the negative longitude extension of the CND. The collision between the +20 km s-1 cloud and the CND may be responsible for the formation of the bridge. This event can promote mass accretion onto the CND and/or into the inner cavity.

  9. Characterization of the 80-mm diameter Hamamatsu PMTs for the KM3NeT project

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, S.; Giordano, V.; Leonora, E.; Classen, L.; Reubelt, J.; Peek, H.; Visser, E.; Samtleben, D.; Kalekin, Oleg Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The optical module designed for the KM3NeT project consists of 31 photomultipliers of 3-inch diameter housed into a 17-inch diameter glass sphere. A proposed photomultiplier was the R12199-02 Hamamatsu 80-mm diameter. 203 of such PMTs have been delivered from Hamamatsu and tested by the KM3NeT groups of NIKHEF-Amsterdam, ECAP-Erlangen and INFN-Catania. Tests have been performed to measure the main parameters, such as gain, transit time spread, dark pulses rate, fraction of spurious pulses, quantum efficiency and effective photocathode size. The main results matched with the requirements of the project. Methods and results are presented in this report.

  10. The Calibration Units of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, B.; Keller, P.; Clark, M. Lindsey

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes to be deployed in the Mediterranean Sea that will perform neutrino astronomy and oscillation studies. It consists of three-dimensional arrays of thousands of optical modules that detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles resulting from the interaction of a neutrino with the surrounding medium. The performance of the neutrino telescope relies on the precise timing and positioning calibration of the detector elements. Other environmental conditions which may affect light and sound transmission, such as water temperature and salinity, must also be continuously monitored. This contribution describes the technical design of the first Calibration Unit, to be deployed on the French site as part of KM3NeT Phase 1.

  11. KM3NeT Neutrino Telescope 1-ns Resolution Time To Digital Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, David; Real, Diego

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean sea consisting of thousands of glass spheres, each of them containing 31 photomultiplier of small photocathode area. The main digitization system is composed by 31 Time to Digital Converter channels with 1-ns resolution embedded in a Field Programmable Gate Array. An architecture with low resource occupancy has been chosen allowing the implementation of other instrumentation, communication and synchronization systems on the same device. The 4-oversampling technique with two high frequency clocks working in opposed phases has been used together with an asymmetric FIFO memory. In the present article the architecture and the first results obtained with the Time to Digital Converters are presented.

  12. First results of the KM3NeT multi-PMT DOM

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, Tino; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The future KM3NeT neutrino telescope will consist of several thousand digital optical modules (DOMs), each of which will be equipped with 31 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs). This design has various advantages over the use of one large PMT per optical module, e.g. concerning effective photocathode area per module, improved background suppression and directional reconstruction. Currently, the KM3NeT collaboration is testing a prototype DOM deployed on the instrumentation line of the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The DOM has been operational since mid-April 2013. First data are presented and compared to simulation results. The results are very encouraging and indicate that muon identification and a coarse direction estimation are possible event with a single DOM.

  13. The cytotoxic mechanism of karlotoxin 2 (KmTx 2) from Karlodinium veneficum (Dinophyceae)

    PubMed Central

    Deeds, Jonathan R.; Hoesch, Robert E.; Place, Allen R.; Kao, Joseph P.Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates that the polyketide toxin karlotoxin 2 (KmTx 2) produced by Karlodinium veneficum, a dinoflagellate associated with fish kills in temperate estuaries worldwide, alters vertebrate cell membrane permeability. Microfluorimetric and electrophysiological measurements were used to determine that vertebrate cellular toxicity occurs through non-selective permeabilization of plasma membranes, leading to osmotic cell lysis. Previous studies showed that KmTx 2 is lethal to fish at naturally-occurring concentrations measured during fish kills, while sub-lethal doses severely damage gill epithelia. This study provides a mechanistic explanation for the association between K. veneficum blooms and fish kills that has long been observed in temperate estuaries worldwide. PMID:25546005

  14. Evaluation of Whipple bumper shields at 7 and 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, J.A.; Chhabildas, L.C. ); Cour-Palais, B.G. ); Christiansen, E.L.; Crews, J.L. . Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center)

    1991-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia Hypervelocity Launcher to determine the performance limits of conventional Whipple shields against representative 0.8 g aluminum orbital debris plate-like fragments with velocities of 7 and 10 km/s. Supporting diagnostics include flash X-rays, high speed photography and transient digitizers for timing correlation. Two Whipple shield designs were tested with either a 0.030 cm or a 0.127 cm thick front sheet and a 0.407 cm thick backsheet separated by 30.5 cm. These two designs bracket the ballistic penetration limit curve for protection against these debris simulants for 7 km/s impacts. 7 refs.

  15. Evaluation of Whipple bumper shields at 7 and 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, J.A.; Chhabildas, L.C.; Cour-Palais, B.G.; Christiansen, E.L.; Crews, J.L.

    1991-12-31

    A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia Hypervelocity Launcher to determine the performance limits of conventional Whipple shields against representative 0.8 g aluminum orbital debris plate-like fragments with velocities of 7 and 10 km/s. Supporting diagnostics include flash X-rays, high speed photography and transient digitizers for timing correlation. Two Whipple shield designs were tested with either a 0.030 cm or a 0.127 cm thick front sheet and a 0.407 cm thick backsheet separated by 30.5 cm. These two designs bracket the ballistic penetration limit curve for protection against these debris simulants for 7 km/s impacts. 7 refs.

  16. Evaluation of Whipple Bumper shields at 7 and 10 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ang, J. A.; Chhabildas, L. C.; Cour-Palais, B. G.; Christiansen, E. L.; Crews, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia Hypervelocity Launcher to determine the performance limits of conventional Whipple shields against representative 0.8 g aluminum orbital debris plate-like fragments with velocities of 7 and 10 km/s. Supporting diagnostics include flash X-rays, high speed photography and transient digitizers for timing correlation. Two Whipple shield designs were tested with either a 0.030 cm or a 0.127 cm thick front sheet and a 0.407 cm thick backsheet separated by 30.5 cm. These two designs bracket the ballistic penetration limit curve for protection against these debris simulants for 7 km/s impacts.

  17. ERTS surveys a 500 km squared locust breeding site in Saudi Arabia. [Red Sea coastal plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedgley, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    From September 1972 to January 1973, ERTS-1 precisely located a 500 sq km area on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia within which the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria, Forsk.) bred successfully and produced many small swarms. Growth of vegetation shown by satellite imagery was confirmed from ground surveys and raingauge data. The experiment demonstrates the feasibility of detecting potential locust breeding sites by satellite, and shows that an operational satellite would be a powerful tool for routine survey of the 3 x 10 to the 7th power sq km invasion area of the Desert Locust in Africa and Asia, as well as of other locust species in the arid and semi-arid tropics.

  18. Progress toward a Km-scale neutrino detector in the deep ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Stokstad, R.G.

    1997-11-01

    The best particles for observing distant objects are photons and neutrinos. Because of the neutrino`s weak interaction cross section, detectors suitable for astronomy must be very large and well shielded from cosmic rays. Eventually, a detector with the order of a square km of effective area will be needed for systematic observations of distant point sources such as active galactic nuclei. Prototype detectors are currently being developed at several sites in the ocean, at Lake Baikal, and in Antarctica. This talk summarizes the status of the projects that use the deep ocean for the detector medium and shielding: DUMAND, NESTOR and ANTARES. Technical developments will be needed for a future km-scale detector; progress on one of these, a digital electronic system, is also described.

  19. Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution Over a 404 km Optical Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hua-Lei; Chen, Teng-Yun; Yu, Zong-Wen; Liu, Hui; You, Li-Xing; Zhou, Yi-Heng; Chen, Si-Jing; Mao, Yingqiu; Huang, Ming-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Chen, Hao; Li, Ming Jun; Nolan, Daniel; Zhou, Fei; Jiang, Xiao; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Xiang-Bin; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-11-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD) with the decoy-state method negates security threats of both the imperfect single-photon source and detection losses. Lengthening the distance and improving the key rate of quantum key distribution (QKD) are vital issues in practical applications of QKD. Herein, we report the results of MDIQKD over 404 km of ultralow-loss optical fiber and 311 km of a standard optical fiber while employing an optimized four-intensity decoy-state method. This record-breaking implementation of the MDIQKD method not only provides a new distance record for both MDIQKD and all types of QKD systems but also, more significantly, achieves a distance that the traditional Bennett-Brassard 1984 QKD would not be able to achieve with the same detection devices even with ideal single-photon sources. This work represents a significant step toward proving and developing feasible long-distance QKD.

  20. Targeting the BRCA1/2 tumor suppressors.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Eliot M; Pishvaian, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are classic tumor suppressor genes that exhibit an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with high penetrance. BRCA carriers inherit one mutant BRCA allele and one wild-type allele; and the wild-type allele is invariably deleted or mutated within the tumor. These genes function as caretakers in the maintenance of genomic stability, in part, by participating in homology-directed DNA repair (HDR), an error- free mechanism for the repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs). PARP1 (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1) is an enzyme that functions in the base excision repair (BER) pathway, where its ability to post-translationally modify histones and DNA damage response proteins is required for repair of single-strand breaks (SSBs). In 2005, it was observed that knockdown of PARP1 or treatment with a small molecule PARP inhibitor was far more toxic to cells with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations than BRCA1/2-competent cells. This observation is an example of "synthetic lethality", a concept whereby two gene mutations combine to cause cell death, when neither mutation alone is lethal. These results spawned the idea to use PARP inhibitors to treat BRCA1/2 mutant cancers. Here, we will review the basic science underlying the discoveries described above, the preclinical research, and the clinical trials designed to exploit the sensitivity of BRCA1/2 mutant tumor cells to PARP inhibitors. We will also describe problems associated with the use of these agents, including development and mechanisms of drug resistance; and we will provide a forward look at new agents and strategies currently under development.