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Sample records for 1-2 mm diameter

  1. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease MM1+2C and MM1 are Identical in Transmission Properties.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Matsuura, Yuichi; Iwaki, Toru; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Yoshida, Mari; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Murayama, Shigeo; Takao, Masaki; Kato, Shinsuke; Yamada, Masahito; Mohri, Shirou; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The genotype (methionine, M or valine, V) at polymorphic codon 129 of the PRNP gene and the type (1 or 2) of abnormal prion protein in the brain are the major determinants of the clinicopathological features of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), thus providing molecular basis for classification of sporadic CJD, that is, MM1, MM2, MV1, MV2, VV1 or VV2. In addition to these "pure" cases, "mixed" cases presenting mixed neuropathological and biochemical features have also been recognized. The most frequently observed mixed form is the co-occurrence of MM1 and MM2, namely MM1+2. However, it has remained elusive whether MM1+2 could be a causative origin of dura mater graft-associated CJD (dCJD), one of the largest subgroups of iatrogenic CJD. To test this possibility, we performed transmission experiments of MM1+2 prions and a systematic neuropathological examination of dCJD patients in the present study. The transmission properties of the MM1+2 prions were identical to those of MM1 prions because MM2 prions lacked transmissibility. In addition, the neuropathological characteristics of MM2 were totally absent in dCJD patients examined. These results suggest that MM1+2 can be a causative origin of dCJD and causes neuropathological phenotype similar to that of MM1.

  2. Photodynamic therapy for Barrett's esophagus using a 20-mm diameter light-delivery balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjehpour, Masoud; Overholt, Bergein F.; Phan, Mary N.; Haydek, John M.; Robinson, Amy R.

    2002-06-01

    Background and Objective: Patients with high grade dysplasia (HGD) in Barrett's esophagus are at a high risk for developing esophageal adenocarcinoma. Esophagectomy is the standard treatment for such patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using an improved light delivery balloon for ablation of Barrett's esophagus with high grade dysplasia and/or early cancer. Materials and Methods: 20 patients with HGD or early cancer (19 with HGD, 1 with T1 cancer) received 2 mg/kg of porfimer sodium, intravenously. Two to three days after the injection, laser light was delivered using a cylindrical diffuser inserted inside a 20-mm diameter reflective esophageal PDT balloon. Initially, the balloon was inflated to a pressure of 80 mm Hg. The balloon pressure was gradually reduced to 30 mm Hg. A KTP/dye laser at 630 nm was used as the light source. Light dose of 115 J/cm was delivered at an intensity of 270 mw/cm. Nodules were pre- treated with an extra 50 J/cm using a short diffuser inserted through the scope. Patients were maintained on PPI therapy to keep the gastric pH higher than 4. Eighteen patients required one treatment, while two patients were treated twice. Follow-up consisted of endoscopy with four quadrant biopsies at every 2 cm of the treated area. Thermal ablation was used to treat small residual islands on the follow-ups. The follow-up endoscopies ranged from 6 to 17 months. Results: On follow-up endoscopy, 12 patients had complete replacement of their Barrett's mucosa with neosquamous mucosa. Five patients had residual non-dysplastic Barrett's mucosa, one had indefinite dysplasia, two had low grad dysplasia. There were no residual HGD or cancers. The average length of Barrett's was reduced from 5.4 cm to 1.2 cm. High balloon pressure resulted in wide variation in PDT response among patients. Lower balloon pressures resulted in more consistent destruction of Barrett's mucosa among patients. Five

  3. Ultrasonic micro-motor using miniature piezoelectric tube with diameter of 1.0 mm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Dong, Shu-xiang; Zhang, Shu-yi; Wang, Tian-hua; Zhang, Zhong-ning; Fan, Li

    2006-12-22

    At the present moment, the smallest piezoelectric ultrasonic micro-motors utilizing miniature PZT piezoelectric ceramic tubes were developed. The motor consists of a PZT-metal composite tube stator, two steel rotors and a thin shaft that keeps the two rotors pressing on both ends of the stator elastically. The dimensions of the PZT tube are 1.0 mm in outer diameter, 0.6 mm in inner diameter and 5.0 mm in length. The diameter and total length of the assembled micro-motor is 1.0 mm and 8 mm (including an adjusting spring), respectively. The tube-type micro-motor is driven by two pairs of alternative voltages with phase shift 90 degrees between the adjacent electrodes and operated in the first circular-bending vibration mode of the stator with the resonance frequency about 58 kHz. The experimental results show that the tube-type micro-motors have perfect performances: (i) high rotation frequency over 3000 rpm and (ii) large starting torque over 7.8 microN m under the conditions of the input voltage of 110 V(p-p) and the resonance frequency. The micro-motor is well suitable for operating in micro-spaces, such as in intravascular, micro-robots and micro-craft applications.

  4. Ultra-Compact Multitip Scanning Probe Microscope with an Outer Diameter of 50 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepanov, Vasily; Zubkov, Evgeny; Junker, Hubertus; Korte, Stefan; Blab, Marcus; Coenen, Peter; Voigtländer, Bert

    We present a multitip scanning tunneling microscope (STM) where four independent STM units are integrated on a diameter of 50 mm. The coarse positioning of the tips is done under the control of an optical microscope or an SEM in vacuum. The heart of this STM is a new type of piezoelectric coarse approach called Koala Drive which can have a diameter greater than 2.5 mm and a length smaller than 10 mm. Alternating movements of springs move a central tube which holds the STM tip or AFM sensor. This new operating principle provides a smooth travel sequence and avoids shaking which is intrinsically present for nanopositioners based on inertial motion with saw tooth driving signals. Inserting the Koala Drive in a piezo tube for xyz-scanning integrates a complete STM inside a 4 mm outer diameter piezo tube of <10 mm length. The use of the Koala Drive makes the scanning probe microscopy design ultra-compact and accordingly leads to a high mechanical stability. The drive is UHV, low temperature, and magnetic field compatible. The compactness of the Koala Drive allows building a four-tip STM as small as a single-tip STM with a drift of <0.2 nm/min and lowest resonance frequencies of 2.5 (xy) and 5.5 kHz (z). We present examples of the performance of the multitip STM designed using the Koala Drive.

  5. Use of 5-mm-diameter implants: Periotest values related to a clinical and radiographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, C; Orozco, P

    1998-12-01

    A modified design of the original Brånemark implant consisting of a cp. Titanium 5.0-mm-diameter self-tapping implant threaded up to the marginal platform has been proposed for specific indications. From February 1992 to November 1995, a total of 185 machined screw implants (Nobel Biocare, Gothenburg, Sweden) were installed in 45 patients to withstand 58 prostheses. Of these, 91 were 3.75-mm diameter and 94 were 5.0-mm wide. Most of the implants were placed in type B and C bone quantity and type 2 and 3 bone quality. A retrospective evaluation with regard to indications, marginal bone remodelling, Periotest values (PTv) and survival rate is presented. PTv and radiographic measurements were made at abutment connection and repeated 3, 6 and 12 months later and thereafter every year. The follow-up ranged from 16 to 55 months (mean 32.9 months) post-loading. Three patients with 8 5.0-mm implants dropped-out of the study at different stages. Out of the wide implants, 1 was expelled during the healing period; 3 were found mobile at the abutment connection; 1 lost its osseointegration suddenly after 2 years of function; 4 belonging to 1 patient did not meet the success criteria due to continuous marginal bone loss. The cumulative success rate of 5.0-mm implants (CSR) after 1 year of function was 97.2% for upper jaws and 88.4% in mandibles, whereas the CSR in maxilla after 48 months was 97.2% and 83.4% in mandibles. The obtained PTv from 5.0-mm-wide fixtures in maxilla and mandibles were respectively 1.1 and 0.6 units lower than those obtained PTv for 3.75-mm-diameter implants in the same patients. The hypothesis that there are differences in the damping capacity of the bone surrounding a 5.0-mm-wide implant compared to the 3.75-mm-diameter implant is supported by the PTv results. PMID:11429941

  6. Use of 5-mm-diameter implants: Periotest values related to a clinical and radiographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, C; Orozco, P

    1998-12-01

    A modified design of the original Brånemark implant consisting of a cp. Titanium 5.0-mm-diameter self-tapping implant threaded up to the marginal platform has been proposed for specific indications. From February 1992 to November 1995, a total of 185 machined screw implants (Nobel Biocare, Gothenburg, Sweden) were installed in 45 patients to withstand 58 prostheses. Of these, 91 were 3.75-mm diameter and 94 were 5.0-mm wide. Most of the implants were placed in type B and C bone quantity and type 2 and 3 bone quality. A retrospective evaluation with regard to indications, marginal bone remodelling, Periotest values (PTv) and survival rate is presented. PTv and radiographic measurements were made at abutment connection and repeated 3, 6 and 12 months later and thereafter every year. The follow-up ranged from 16 to 55 months (mean 32.9 months) post-loading. Three patients with 8 5.0-mm implants dropped-out of the study at different stages. Out of the wide implants, 1 was expelled during the healing period; 3 were found mobile at the abutment connection; 1 lost its osseointegration suddenly after 2 years of function; 4 belonging to 1 patient did not meet the success criteria due to continuous marginal bone loss. The cumulative success rate of 5.0-mm implants (CSR) after 1 year of function was 97.2% for upper jaws and 88.4% in mandibles, whereas the CSR in maxilla after 48 months was 97.2% and 83.4% in mandibles. The obtained PTv from 5.0-mm-wide fixtures in maxilla and mandibles were respectively 1.1 and 0.6 units lower than those obtained PTv for 3.75-mm-diameter implants in the same patients. The hypothesis that there are differences in the damping capacity of the bone surrounding a 5.0-mm-wide implant compared to the 3.75-mm-diameter implant is supported by the PTv results.

  7. Ionization Measurements of SuperCDMS SNOLAB 100 mm Diameter Germanium Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Chagani, H.; Bauer, D.A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P.L.; Cabrera, B.; Cherry, M.; Silva, E.Do Couto e; Godfrey, G.G.; Hall, J.; Hansen, S.; Hasi, J.; Kelsey, M.; Kenney, C.J.; Mandic, V.; Nagasawa, D.; Novak, L.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Partridge, R.; Radpour, R.; Resch, R.; Sadoulet, B.; /UC, Berkeley /Stanford U. /SLAC /Stanford U. /Santa Clara U. /Minnesota U.

    2012-06-12

    Scaling cryogenic Germanium-based dark matter detectors to probe smaller WIMP-nucleon cross-sections poses significant challenges in the forms of increased labor, cold hardware, warm electronics and heat load. The development of larger crystals alleviates these issues. The results of ionization tests with two 100 mm diameter, 33 mm thick cylindrical detector-grade Germanium crystals are presented here. Through these results the potential of using such crystals in the Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS) SNOLAB experiment is demonstrated.

  8. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in the treatment of distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Nobuyuki; Yoshinaga, Atsushi; Ohno, Rena; Chiba, Koji; Hayashi, Tetsuo; Kamata, Shigeyoshi; Watanabe, Toru; Yamada, Takumi

    2004-06-01

    Optimal treatment for distal ureteral stones remains controversial. During a period of 10 years, from December 1992 to December 2002, 103 distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter were treated at our institution with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) using the Siemens Lithostar. Only 2 patients had a ureteral stent in place at the time of treatment. The overall stone-free rate was 98% with 1-12 session and 3-month stone-free rate was 95.1%. These data reveal that a high success rate was achieved in multisession ESWL. Therefore, ESWL is considered to be acceptable as first-line therapy for fragmentation of distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter.

  9. A 2.5-mm diameter probe for photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Chen, Ruimin; Favazza, Christopher; Yao, Junjie; Li, Chiye; Hu, Zhilin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk; Wang, Lihong V

    2012-10-01

    We have created a 2.5-mm outer diameter integrated photo-acoustic and ultrasonic mini-probe which can be inserted into a standard video endoscope's instrument channel. A small-diameter focused ultrasonic transducer made of PMN-PT provides adequate signal sensitivity, and enables miniaturization of the probe. Additionally, this new endoscopic probe utilizes the same scanning mirror and micromotor-based built-in actuator described in our previous reports; however, the length of the rigid distal section of the new probe has been further reduced to ~35 mm. This paper describes the technical details of the mini-probe and presents experimental results that both quantify the imaging performance and demonstrate its in vivo imaging capability, which suggests that it could work as a mini-probe for certain clinical applications. PMID:23188360

  10. Characterization of the 80-mm diameter Hamamatsu PMTs for the KM3NeT project

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, S.; Giordano, V.; Leonora, E.; Classen, L.; Reubelt, J.; Peek, H.; Visser, E.; Samtleben, D.; Kalekin, Oleg Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The optical module designed for the KM3NeT project consists of 31 photomultipliers of 3-inch diameter housed into a 17-inch diameter glass sphere. A proposed photomultiplier was the R12199-02 Hamamatsu 80-mm diameter. 203 of such PMTs have been delivered from Hamamatsu and tested by the KM3NeT groups of NIKHEF-Amsterdam, ECAP-Erlangen and INFN-Catania. Tests have been performed to measure the main parameters, such as gain, transit time spread, dark pulses rate, fraction of spurious pulses, quantum efficiency and effective photocathode size. The main results matched with the requirements of the project. Methods and results are presented in this report.

  11. 200-mm-diameter neutral beam source based on inductively coupled plasma etcher and silicon etching

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Tomohiro; Nukaga, Osamu; Ueki, Shinji; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Inamoto, Yoshimasa; Ohtake, Hiroto; Samukawa, Seiji

    2010-09-15

    The authors developed a neutral beam source consisting of a 200-mm-diameter inductively coupled plasma etcher and a graphite neutralization aperture plate based on the design of a neutral beam source that Samukawa et al. [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 40, L779 (2001)] developed. They measured flux and energy of neutral particles, ions, and photons using a silicon wafer with a thermocouple and a Faraday cup and calculated the neutralization efficiency. An Ar neutral beam flux of more than 1 mA/cm{sup 2} in equivalent current density and a neutralization efficiency of more than 99% were obtained. The spatial uniformity of the neutral beam flux was within {+-}6% within a 100 mm diameter. Silicon etching using a F{sub 2}-based neutral beam was done at an etch rate of about 47 nm/min, while Cl{sub 2}-based neutral beam realized completely no undercut. The uniformity of etch rate was less than {+-}5% within the area. The etch rate increased by applying bias power to the neutralization aperture plate, which shows that accelerated neutral beam was successfully obtained. These results indicate that the neutral beam source is scalable, making it possible to obtain a large-diameter and uniform neutral beam, which is inevitable for application to mass production.

  12. Intravascular ultrasonic-photoacoustic (IVUP) endoscope with 2.2-mm diameter catheter for medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Bui, Nhat Quang; Hlaing, Kyu Kyu; Nguyen, Van Phuc; Nguyen, Trung Hau; Oh, Yun-Ok; Fan, Xiao Feng; Lee, Yong Wook; Nam, Seung Yun; Kang, Hyun Wook; Oh, Junghwan

    2015-10-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging is extremely important for detection and characterization of high-risk atherosclerotic plaques as well as gastrointestinal diseases. Recently, intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging has been used to differentiate the composition of biological tissues with high optical contrast and ultrasonic resolution. The combination of these imaging techniques could provide morphological information and molecular screening to characterize abnormal tissues, which would help physicians to ensure vital therapeutic value and prognostic significance for patients before commencing therapy. In this study, integration of a high-frequency IVUS imaging catheter (45MHz, single-element, unfocused, 0.7mm in diameter) with a multi-mode optical fiber (0.6mm in core diameter, 0.22 NA), an integrated intravascular ultrasonic-photoacoustic (IVUP) imaging catheter, was developed to provide spatial and functional information on light distribution in a turbid sample. Simultaneously, IVUS imaging was co-registered to IVPA imaging to construct 3D volumetric sample images. In a phantom study, a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) tissue-mimicking arterial vessel phantom with indocyanine green (ICG) and methylene blue (MB) inclusion was used to demonstrate the feasibility of mapping the biological dyes, which are used in cardiovascular and cancer diagnostics. For the ex vivo study, an excised sample of pig intestine with ICG was utilized to target the biomarkers present in the gastrointestinal tumors or the atherosclerotic plaques with the proposed hybrid technique. The results indicated that IVUP endoscope with the 2.2-mm diameter catheter could be a useful tool for medical imaging.

  13. MM1+2C sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease presenting as rapidly progressive nonfluent aphasia.

    PubMed

    Allegri, Ricardo F; Bartoloni, Leonardo; Iturry, Mónica; Romero, Carlos; Begué, Christián; Sevlever, Gustavo; Taratuto, Ana Lía

    2014-01-01

    We report a 77-year-old man, presenting with progressive aphasia as an initial symptom, who developed severe dementia over the course of 20 months. Frontal cortex PrPSc western blot was type 2 and codon 129 was MM; brain neuropathology showed cortical vacuoles with perivacuolar PrP immunostaining characteristic of MM2C. Cerebellum showed focal coarse, patchy staining in different sections of the molecular layer, diffuse fine punctuate and coarse PrP immunopositive deposits in the granule cell layer, and focal synaptic immunostaining in the molecular layer, suggestive of MM1+2C by histotyping. This clinical presentation has not yet been described in an MM1+2C subtype by histotyping.

  14. Construction and manufacturing of a microgearhead with 1.9-mm outer diameter for universal application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuerigen, Christian; Beckord, Ulrich; Bessey, Reiner

    1999-03-01

    Many new applications in medicine, telecommunication, automation systems etc. require powerful microdrives. Speeds up to 100.000 rpm and output torques in the (mu) Nm-range are typical characteristics of electromagnetic micromotors with diameters of a few millimeters. To accomplish a powerful microdrive, these micromotors have to be combined with micro gearheads of the same outer diameter. For such a micro gearhead with toothed wheels manufactured by use of the LIGA process a multi-stage planetary gear has many advantages. Many stages with different gear ratios can be combined to achieve a great number of different transmission, but manufacturing tolerances and a clearance for assembly must be respected. Therefore besides the selection of a reliable gearhead type and a suitable manufacturing process the optimization of the tooth profile is the key to the implementation of powerful micro gear systems with high output torques and efficiencies. The involute profile is the most suitable toothing, but many calculations and simulations are required to find the right modulus, total depth of teeth, profile offset etc. In a joint project Dr. Fritz Faulhaber GmbH and Co. KG and the Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH developed a powerful microdevice with an outer diameter of only 1.9 mm.

  15. Efficacy of silodosin in the treatment of distal ureteral stones 4 to 10 mm in diameter

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Serdar; Tokgoz, Husnu; Yalcinkaya, Soner; Baş, Serkan; Ipekci, Tümay; Yildiz, Ali; Ates, Nihat; Savas, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Few studies have investigated the efficacy of silodosin, a recently introduced selective alpha 1-A adrenoceptor antagonist, in medical expulsive therapy (MET) for ureteral calculi. The results of these studies, which all evaluated the efficacy of 8 mg/day, indicate that silodosin is a potential treatment for ureteral calculi. This study investigated the efficacy of 4 mg/day of silodosin for MET of distal ureteral stones 4 to 10 mm in diameter. Material and Method: After 70 patients had been randomized into 2 groups of 35 patients each, both the control and experimental groups (groups 1 and 2, respectively) were advised to take 75 mg/day of diclofenacsodiumas needed for pain relief but only the experimental group to take 4 mg/day of silodosin. After 21 days, the groups were compared regarding the stone expulsion rate and duration, number of renalcolicepisodes, and analgesicdosage. Results: The median expulsion rates were 71.4% and 91.4% in groups 1 and 2, respectively, and the difference between them was significant (P=0.031). The median expulsion durations were 12.91±6.14 and 8.03±4.99 days, respectively, and the difference between them was significant (P<0.001). No significant differences were found regarding the median number of renal colic episodes or median analgesic dosage. While no patients in group 1 experienced side effects, 5 patients (14%) in group 2 experienced retrograde ejaculation. Conclusion: These results indicate that 4 mg/day of silodos in facilitates the expulsion of distal ureteral stones 4 to 10 mm in diameter but does not significantly reduce the number of renal colic episodes or analgesic dosage. PMID:26770537

  16. A DEEP 1.2 mm MAP OF THE LOCKMAN HOLE NORTH FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner, R. R.; Baker, A. J.; Omont, A.; Fiolet, N. E-mail: ajbaker@physics.rutgers.edu E-mail: fiolet@iap.fr

    2011-08-20

    We present deep 1.2 mm continuum mapping of a 566 arcmin{sup 2} area within the Lockman Hole North (LHN) field, previously a target of the Spitzer Wide-Area Infrared Extragalactic survey and extremely deep 20 cm mapping with the Very Large Array, which we have obtained using the Max-Planck millimeter bolometer (MAMBO) array on the IRAM 30 m telescope. After filtering, our full map has an rms sensitivity ranging from 0.45 to 1.5 mJy beam{sup -1}, with an average of 0.75 mJy beam{sup -1}. Using the pixel flux distribution (PFD) in a map made from our best data, we determine the shape, normalization, and approximate flux density cutoff for 1.2 mm number counts well below our nominal sensitivity and confusion limits. After validating our full data set through comparison with this map, we successfully detect 41 1.2 mm sources with signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > 4.0 and S{sub 1.2{sub mm}} {approx_equal} 2-5 mJy. We use the most significant of these detections to directly determine the integral number counts down to 1.8 mJy, which are consistent with the results of the PFD analysis. Ninety-three percent of our 41 individual detections have 20 cm counterparts, 49% have Spitzer/MIPS 24 {mu}m counterparts, and one may have a significant Chandra X-ray counterpart. We resolve {approx_equal} 3% of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 1.2 mm into significant detections and directly estimate a 0.05 mJy faint-end cutoff for the counts that is consistent with the full intensity of the 1.2 mm CIB. The median redshift of our 17 detections with spectroscopic or robust photometric redshifts is z{sub median} = 2.3, and rises to z{sub median} = 2.9 when we include redshifts estimated from the radio/far-infrared spectral index. By using a nearest neighbor and angular correlation function analysis, we find evidence that our S/N > 4.0 detections are clustered at the 95% confidence level.

  17. A Deep 1.2 mm Map of the Lockman Hole North Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, R. R.; Baker, A. J.; Omont, A.; Beelen, A.; Owen, F. N.; Bertoldi, F.; Dole, H.; Fiolet, N.; Harris, A. I.; Ivison, R. J.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lutz, D.; Polletta, M.

    2011-08-01

    We present deep 1.2 mm continuum mapping of a 566 arcmin2 area within the Lockman Hole North (LHN) field, previously a target of the Spitzer Wide-Area Infrared Extragalactic survey and extremely deep 20 cm mapping with the Very Large Array, which we have obtained using the Max-Planck millimeter bolometer (MAMBO) array on the IRAM 30 m telescope. After filtering, our full map has an rms sensitivity ranging from 0.45 to 1.5 mJy beam-1, with an average of 0.75 mJy beam-1. Using the pixel flux distribution (PFD) in a map made from our best data, we determine the shape, normalization, and approximate flux density cutoff for 1.2 mm number counts well below our nominal sensitivity and confusion limits. After validating our full data set through comparison with this map, we successfully detect 41 1.2 mm sources with signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > 4.0 and S 1.2 mm ~= 2-5 mJy. We use the most significant of these detections to directly determine the integral number counts down to 1.8 mJy, which are consistent with the results of the PFD analysis. Ninety-three percent of our 41 individual detections have 20 cm counterparts, 49% have Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm counterparts, and one may have a significant Chandra X-ray counterpart. We resolve ~= 3% of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 1.2 mm into significant detections and directly estimate a 0.05 mJy faint-end cutoff for the counts that is consistent with the full intensity of the 1.2 mm CIB. The median redshift of our 17 detections with spectroscopic or robust photometric redshifts is z median = 2.3, and rises to z median = 2.9 when we include redshifts estimated from the radio/far-infrared spectral index. By using a nearest neighbor and angular correlation function analysis, we find evidence that our S/N > 4.0 detections are clustered at the 95% confidence level.

  18. Electrostatic endothelial cell seeding technique for small-diameter (<6 mm) vascular prostheses: feasibility testing.

    PubMed

    Bowlin, G L; Rittgers, S E

    1997-01-01

    Multiple studies have indicated the importance of surface charge in the adhesion of multiple cardiovascular cell lines including platelets and endothelial cells on the substrate materials (1,4,7-10,12-15). It is the purpose of this article to report a feasibility study conducted using an electrostatic endothelial cell seeding technique. The feasibility study was conducted using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), a static pool apparatus, a voltage source, and a parallel plate capacitor. The HUVEC concentration and seeding times were constant at 560,000 HUVEC/ml and 30 min, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy examination of the endothelial cell adhesion indicated that an induced temporary positive surface charge on e-PTFE graft material enhances the number and the maturation (flattening) of HUVECs adhered. The results indicated that the total number of endothelial cells adhered (70.9 mm2) was increased from 9198 +/- 1194 HUVECs on the control (no induced surface charge) e-PTFE to 22,482 +/- 4814 HUVECs (2.4 x control) on the maximum induced positive surface charge. The total number of cells in the flattened phase of adhesion increased from 837 +/- 275 to 6785 +/- 1012 HUVECs (8.1x) under identical conditions. Thus, the results of the feasibility study support the premise that electrostatic interaction is an important factor in both the endothelial cell adhesion and spreading processes and suggest that the electrostatic seeding technique may lead to an increased patency of small diameter (<6 mm) vascular prostheses.

  19. Integrated intravascular ultrasound and optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy with a 1-mm-diameter catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiaosong; Gong, Xiaojing; Lin, Riqiang; Hau, William; Song, Liang

    2014-03-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) plays a vital role in assessing the severity of atherosclerosis and has greatly enriched our knowledge on atherosclerotic plaques. However, it mainly reveals the structural information of plaques. In contrast, spectroscopic and molecular photoacoustic imaging can potentially improve plaque composition identification, inflammation detection, and ultimately the stratification of plaque vulnerability and risk. In this work, we developed an integrated intravascular ultrasound and optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (IVUS-PAM) system with a single catheter as small as 1 mm in diameter, comparable to that of existing clinical IVUS catheters. In addition, by using a GRIN lens to focus the excitation laser pulse, the system provides an optical-diffraction limited photoacoustic lateral resolution as fine as 19.6 micrometers, ~10-fold finer than that of conventional intravascular photoacoustic imaging and existing IVUS technology. The system employs a custom-made miniaturized single-element ultrasonic transducer with a dimension of ~0.5 mm, a centre frequency of ~40 MHz, and a fractional bandwidth of ~60%. The IVUS-PAM can simultaneously acquire co-registered IVUS images with an axial resolution of ~40 micrometers and a lateral resolution of ~200 micrometers. In the future, IVUS-PAM may open up new opportunities for improved high-resolution vulnerable plaque imaging and image-guided stent deployment.

  20. Manufacturing of 100mm diameter GaSb substrates for advanced space based applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, L. P.; Flint, J. P.; Meshew, G.; Trevethan, J.; Dallas, G.; Khoshakhlagh, A.; Hill, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Engineered substrates such as large diameter (100mm) GaSb wafers need to be ready years in advance of any major shift in DoD and commercial technology, and typically before much of the rest of the materials and equipment for fabricating next generation devices. Antimony based III-V semiconductors are of significant interest for advanced applications in optoelectronics, high speed transistors, microwave devices, and photovoltaics. GaSb demand is increasing due to its lattice parameter matching of various ternary and quaternary III-V compounds, as their bandgaps can be engineered to cover a wide spectral range. For these stealth and spaced based applications, larger format IRFPAs benefit clearly from next generation starting substrates. In this study, we have manufactured and tested 100mm GaSb substrates. This paper describes the characterization process that provides the best possible GaSb material for advanced IRFPA and SLS epi growth. The analysis of substrate by AFM surface roughness, particles, haze, GaSb oxide character and desorption using XPS, flatness measurements, and SLS based epitaxy quality are shown. By implementing subtle changes in our substrate processing, we show that a Sb-oxide rich surface is routinely provided for rapid desorption. Post-MBE CBIRD structures on the 100mm ULD GaSb were examined and reveals a high intensity, 6.6nm periodicity, low (15.48 arcsec) FWHM peak distribution that suggests low surface strain and excellent lattice matching. The Ra for GaSb is a consistent ~0.2-4nm, with average batch wafer warp of ~4 μm to provide a clean, flat GaSb template critical for next generation epi growth.

  1. MAMBO 1.2 mm Observations of Luminous Starbursts at z ~ 2 in the SWIRE Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Polletta, Maria del Carmen; Omont, Alain; Shupe, Dave; Berta, Stefano; Zylka, Robert; Siana, Brian; Lutz, Dieter; Farrah, Duncan; Smith, Harding E.; Lagache, Guilaine; DeBreuck, Carlos; Owen, Frazer; Beelen, Alexandre; Weedman, Dan; Franceschini, Alberto; Clements, Dave; Tacconi, Linda; Afonso-Luis, Alejandro; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Cox, Pierre; Bertoldi, Frank

    2009-02-01

    We report on-off pointed MAMBO observations at 1.2 mm of 61 Spitzer-selected star-forming galaxies from the Spitzer Wide Area Infrared Extragalactic Legacy survey (SWIRE). The sources are selected on the basis of bright 24 μm fluxes (f 24 μm > 0.4 mJy) and of stellar dominated near-infrared spectral energy distributions in order to favor z ~ 2 starburst galaxies. The average 1.2 mm flux for the whole sample is 1.5 ± 0.2 mJy. Our analysis focuses on 29 sources in the Lockman Hole field where the average 1.2 mm flux (1.9 ± 0.3 mJy) is higher than in other fields (1.1 ± 0.2 mJy). The analysis of the multiwavelength spectral energy distributions indicates that these sources are starburst galaxies with far-infrared luminosities from 1012 to 1013.3 L sun, and stellar masses of ~0.2-6 × 1011 M sun. Compared to submillimeter selected galaxies (SMGs), the SWIRE-MAMBO sources are among those with the largest 24 μm/1.2 mm flux ratios. The origin of such large ratios is investigated by comparing the average mid-infrared spectra and the stacked far-infrared spectral energy distributions of the SWIRE-MAMBO sources and of SMGs. The mid-infrared spectra, available for a handful of sources, exhibit strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features, and a warm dust continuum. The warm dust continuum contributes ~34% of the mid-infrared emission, and is likely associated with an AGN component. This contribution is consistent with what is found in SMGs. The large 24 μm/1.2 mm flux ratios are thus not due to AGN emission, but rather to enhanced PAH emission compared to SMGs. The analysis of the stacked far-infrared fluxes yields warmer dust temperatures than typically observed in SMGs. Our selection favors warm ultraluminous infrared sources at high-z, a class of objects that is rarely found in SMG samples. Indeed SMGs are not common among bright 24 μm sources (e.g., only about 20% of SMGs have f 24 μm > 0.4 mJy). Our sample is the largest Spitzer-selected sample detected

  2. Intravascular Optical-Resolution Photoacoustic Tomography with a 1.1 mm Diameter Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiaosong; Gong, Xiaojing; Hau, William; Lin, Riqiang; Zheng, Jiaxiang; Liu, Chengbo; Zeng, Chengzhi; Zou, Xin; Zheng, Hairong; Song, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is an emerging technology that can provide anatomic, functional, and molecular information about biological tissue. Intravascular spectroscopic and molecular photoacoustic imaging can potentially improve the identification of atherosclerotic plaque composition, the detection of inflammation, and ultimately the risk stratification of atherosclerosis. In this study, a first-of-its-kind intravascular optical-resolution photoacoustic tomography (OR-PAT) system with a 1.1 mm diameter catheter is developed, offering optical-diffraction limited transverse resolution as fine as 19.6 μm, ∼10-fold finer than that of conventional intravascular photoacoustic and ultrasonic imaging. To offer complementary imaging information and depth, the system also acquires co-registered intravascular ultrasound images in parallel. Imaging of an iliac stent and a lipid phantom shows that the high resolution and contrast of OR-PAT can enable improved stent implantation guidance and lipid identification. In the future, these capabilities may ultimately improve the diagnosis and interventional treatment of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, which are prone to cause thrombotic complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. PMID:24651256

  3. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... case of products blended with some portion of biomass-based fuel, the carbon share in Table MM-1 of... biomass should not be reported, but products that were derived from both biomass and a petroleum...

  4. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... some portion of biomass-based fuel, the carbon share in Table MM-1 of this subpart represents only the petroleum-based components. 2 Products that are derived entirely from biomass should not be reported, but products that were derived from both biomass and a petroleum product (i.e., co-processed) should...

  5. The Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey: 1.2 mm observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omont, A.; Willott, C. J.; Beelen, A.; Bergeron, J.; Orellana, G.; Delorme, P.

    2013-04-01

    We report 250 GHz (1.2 mm) observations of a sample of 20 quasars at redshifts 5.8 < z < 6.5 from the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey (CFHQS), using the Max-Planck-Millimeter-Bolometer (MAMBO) array at the 30-metre telescope of the Institut de Radioastronomie Millmétrique (IRAM). An rms sensitivity of ≲0.6 mJy was achieved for 65% of the sample, and of ≲1.0 mJy for 90%. Only one quasar, CFHQS J142952+544717, was robustly detected with S250 GHz = 3.46 ± 0.52 mJy. This indicates that one of the most powerful known starbursts at z ~ 6 is associated with this radio-loud quasar. On average, the other CFHQS quasars, which have a mean optical magnitude fainter than the previously studied samples of z ~ 6 quasars of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), have a mean 1.2 mm flux density ⟨ S250 GHz ⟩ = 0.41 ± 0.14 mJy; this average detection with a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 2.9 is hardly meaningful. It would correspond to ⟨ LFIR ⟩ ≈ 0.94 ± 0.32 × 1012 L⊙, and an average star formation rate of a few 100 M⊙/yr, depending on the stellar initial mass function (IMF) and a possible contribution of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) to ⟨ LFIR ⟩. This is consistent with previous findings of Wang et al. on the far-infrared emission of z ~ 6 quasars and extends their results toward optically fainter sources.

  6. A simple multi-seeding approach to growth of large YBCO bulk with a diameter above 53 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tian-wei; Wu, Dong-jie; Wu, Xing-da; Xu, Ke-Xi

    2015-12-01

    A successful simple multi-seeding approach to growing large size Y-Ba-C-O (YBCO) bulks is reported. Compared with the common single seeding method, our multi-seeding method is more efficient. By using four SmBa2Cu3O7-δ (Sm-123) seeds cut from a large size Sm-Ba-C-O (SmBCO) single domain, large YBCO samples up to 53 mm in diameter could be produced successfully and 100 mm diameter samples can also be grown. Experimental results show that the processing time can be shortened greatly by using this new approach, and the superconducting properties can also be improved. The Hall probe mapping shows that the trapped field distribution of 53 mm diameter multi-seeded sample is homogeneous and the peak value is up to 0.53 T. The magnetic levitation force density reaches to 14.7 N/cm2 (77 K, 0.5 T).

  7. Three-degree-of-freedom ultrasonic motor using a 5-mm-diameter piezoelectric ceramic tube.

    PubMed

    Mingsen Guo; Junhui Hu; Hua Zhu; Chunsheng Zhao; Shuxiang Dong

    2013-07-01

    A small three-degree-of-freedom ultrasonic motor has been developed using a simple piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-tube stator (OD 5 mm, ID 3 mm, length 15 mm). The stator drives a ball-rotor into rotational motion around one of three orthogonal (x-, y-, and z-) axes by combing the first longitudinal and second bending vibration modes. A motor prototype was fabricated and characterized; its performance was superior to those of previous motors made with a PZT ceramic/metal composite stator of comparable size. The method for further improving the performance was discussed. The motor can be further miniaturized and it has potential to be applied to medical microrobots, endoscopes or micro laparoscopic devices, and cell manipulation devices.

  8. Three-degree-of-freedom ultrasonic motor using a 5-mm-diameter piezoelectric ceramic tube.

    PubMed

    Mingsen Guo; Junhui Hu; Hua Zhu; Chunsheng Zhao; Shuxiang Dong

    2013-07-01

    A small three-degree-of-freedom ultrasonic motor has been developed using a simple piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-tube stator (OD 5 mm, ID 3 mm, length 15 mm). The stator drives a ball-rotor into rotational motion around one of three orthogonal (x-, y-, and z-) axes by combing the first longitudinal and second bending vibration modes. A motor prototype was fabricated and characterized; its performance was superior to those of previous motors made with a PZT ceramic/metal composite stator of comparable size. The method for further improving the performance was discussed. The motor can be further miniaturized and it has potential to be applied to medical microrobots, endoscopes or micro laparoscopic devices, and cell manipulation devices. PMID:25004511

  9. Thermal mapping of Ceres at 1.2 mm with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moullet, Arielle; Li, Jian-Yang; Titus, Timothy N.; Sykes, Mark V.; Ip, Wing-Huen; Lai, Ian-Lin

    2016-10-01

    Ceres' thermal emission distribution, which can be characterized through observations at IR and longer wavelengths, is indicative of radiative and physical properties of its surface such as thermal inertia and roughness. High-resolution maps from the Dawn mission now provide an exquisite geographic and geological context for the interpretation of temperature features, which are at large not accessible to the spacecraft's instruments. In particular, the presence of hydrated minerals and distinctive geological features suggest the existence of ice water reservoirs near the surface, which may be characterized through the analysis of thermal inertia distributions.We report on observations obtained in Fall 2015 at the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), sampling most of the rotation of Ceres and hence allowing one to disentangle local-hour effects from geographical thermal features. The observations were performed during the 2015 Long Baseline Campaign, offering baselines as long as 10 km and yielding a spatial resolution down to 30 mas (~45 km at the equator). At the observed wavelength of 1.2 mm, the thermal emission probes both the emission from the surface and from deeper layers, down to the level of the diurnal skin depth, hence accessing regions where water ice could be stable.We will describe the diurnal and latitudinal temperature variations derived from our observations as well as preliminary results from thermal modeling in terms of subsurface thermal inertia and ice table latitudinal extent. This work is supported by the NASA Solar System Observations Program grant NNX15AE02G.

  10. Condensation heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture in 5 mm and 4 mm outside diameter horizontal microfin tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiangchao; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Zhu, Yu.; Gao, Yifeng; Deng, Bin

    2010-10-15

    Condensation heat transfer characteristics of R410A-oil mixture in 5 mm and 4 mm outside diameter horizontal microfin tubes were investigated experimentally. The experimental condensing temperature is 40 C, and nominal oil concentration range is from 0% to 5%. The test results indicate that the presence of oil deteriorates the heat transfer. The deterioration effect is negligible at nominal oil concentration of 1%, and becomes obvious with the increase of nominal oil concentration. At 5% nominal oil concentration, the heat transfer coefficient of R410A-oil mixture is found to have a maximum reduction of 25.1% and 23.8% for 5 mm and 4 mm tubes, respectively. The predictabilities of the existing condensation heat transfer correlations were verified with the experimental data, and Yu and Koyama correlation shows the best predictability. By replacing the pure refrigerant properties with the mixture's properties, Yu and Koyama correlation has a deviation of -15% to + 20% in predicting the local condensation heat transfer coefficient of R410A-oil mixture. (author)

  11. Design and performance of a parachute recovery system to recover 155-mm- and 8-inch-diameter artillery shells

    SciTech Connect

    Waye, D.E.; Peterson, C.W.; Botner, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    A parachute recovery system has been developed and demonstrated for the recovery of 155-mm- and 8-inch-diameter artillery shells. The recovery system functions after being subjected to gun launch accelerations of up to 18,000 g's axially and up to 400,000 rad/sec/sup 2/ radially. The parachute is deployed while the shell is still spinning at about 250 revolutions per second. To deploy the parachute while the shell is spinning, a double-swivel system was developed. The deployment signal for the recovery system is provided by an electronic timer. Over 250 tests have been performed on both the 155-mm- and 8-inch-diameter artillery shell. Impact velocities are between 100 and 120 feet per second. The latest version of the recovery systems has been proven to be over 95% successful for the recovery of 8-inch-diameter artillery shells and over 85% successful for the recovery of 155-mm-diameter artillery shells.

  12. Design and evaluation of coils for a 50 mm diameter induction coilgun launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, R.J.; Shokair, I.R.; Wavrik, R.W.; Dempsey, J.F.; Honey, W.E.; Shimp, K.J.; Douglas, G.M.

    1993-12-31

    Coilguns have the ability to provide magnetic pressure to projectiles which results in near constant acceleration. However, to achieve this performance and control projectile hearing, significant constraints are placed on the design of the coils. We are developing coils to produce an effective projectile base pressure of 100 MPa (1kbar) as a step toward reaching base pressures of 200 MPa. The design uses a scalable technology applicable to the entire range of breech to muzzle coils of a multi-stage launcher. This paper presents the design of capacitor-driven coils for launching nominal 50 mm, 350 gram projectiles. Design criteria, constraints, mechanical stress analysis, launcher performance, and test results are discussed.

  13. Record high-speed short-range transmission over 1 mm core diameter POF employing DMT modulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Lee, S C J; Okonkwo, C M; Abraha, S T; van den Boom, H P A; Breyer, F; Randel, S; Koonen, A M J; Tangdiongga, E

    2010-03-01

    We report multigigabit/second transmission capacity in 1 mm core diameter graded index plastic optical fiber (POF) exploiting off-the-shelf low-cost components and discrete multitone (DMT) modulation. Transmission capacities of 10.1 Gbits/s x 15 m and 12.7 Gbits/s x 3 m are achieved for average bit-error rates less than 10(-3).

  14. Pilot Mouse Study of 1 mm Inner Diameter (ID) Vascular Graft Using Electrospun Poly(ester urea) Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yaohua; Yi, Tai; Shinoka, Toshiharu; Lee, Yong Ung; Reneker, Darrell H; Breuer, Christopher K; Becker, Matthew L

    2016-09-01

    An off-the-shelf, small diameter tissue engineered vascular graft (TEVG) would be transformative to surgeons in multiple subspecialties. Herein, the results of a small diameter (ID ≈ 1 mm) vascular graft constructed from resorbable, amino acid-based poly(ester urea) (PEU) are reported. Electrospun PEU grafts of two different wall thicknesses (type A: 250 μm; type B: 350 μm) are implanted as abdominal infra-renal aortic grafts in a severe combined immune deficient/beige mouse model and evaluated for vessel remodeling over one year. Significantly, the small diameter TEVG does not rupture or lead to acute thrombogenic events during the intervals tested. The pilot TEVG in vivo shows long-term patency and extensive tissue remodeling with type A grafts. Extensive tissue remodeling in type A grafts leads to the development of well-circumscribed neovessels with an endothelial inner lining, a neointima containing smooth muscle cells. However, due to slow degradation of the PEU scaffold materials in vivo, the grafts remain after one year. The type B grafts, which have 350 μm thick walls, experience occlusion over the one year interval due to intimal hyperplasia. This study affords significant findings that will guide the design of future generations of small diameter vascular grafts.

  15. Characterization of 100 mm Diameter 4H-Silicon Carbide CrystalsWith Extremely Low Basal Plane Dislocation Density

    SciTech Connect

    M Dudley; N Zhang; Y Zhang; B Raghothamachar; S Byrappa; G Choi; E Drachev; M Loboda

    2011-12-31

    Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography (SWBXT) studies are presented of basal plane dislocation (BPD) configurations and behavior in a new generation of 100mm diameter, 4H-SiC wafers with extremely low BPD densities (3-4 x 10{sup 2} cm{sup -2}). The conversion of non-screw oriented, glissile BPDs into sessile threading edge dislocations (TEDs) is observed to provide pinning points for the operation of single ended Frank-Read sources. In some regions, once converted TEDs are observed to re-convert back into BPDs in a repetitive process which provides multiple BPD pinning points.

  16. Synchronous scan-projection lithography on overall circumference of fine pipes with a diameter of 2 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Toshiyuki; Furuhata, Takahiro; Muro, Hideyuki

    2016-06-01

    The scan-projection exposure of small-diameter pipe surfaces was investigated using a newly developed prototype exposure system. It is necessary to secure a very large depth of focus for printing thick resist patterns on round pipe surfaces with a roughness larger than that of semiconductor wafers. For this reason, a camera lens with a low numerical aperture of 0.089 was used as a projection lens, and the momentary exposure area was limited by a narrow slit with a width of 800 µm. Thus, patterns on a flat reticle were replicated on a pipe surface by linearly moving the reticle and rotating the pipe synchronously. By using a reticle with inclined line-and-space patterns, helical patterns with a width of 30 µm were successfully replicated on stainless-steel pipes with an outer diameter of 2 mm and coated with a 10-µm-thick negative resist. The patterns replicated at the start and stop edges were smoothly stitched seamlessly.

  17. Leg veins with diameter between 1 and 3 mm: flash-lamp-pulsed dye laser, alexandrite laser, invasive Nd:YAG laser treatment, or sclerotherapy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smucler, Roman; Mazanek, Jiri; Moidlova, Marta

    2000-05-01

    After unrealistic laser expectations we can see renaissance of 'golden standard' -- sclerotherapy in leg veins treatment. Every laser specialist knows difference between facial and leg veins now. Combination of flash lamp pulsed dye laser /PDL/ and sclerotherapy can be new 'golden standard' but patients are dissatisfied with this procedure which include 'needle medicine.' We presented our way to solve this problem partially-invasive laser treatment with Nd:YAG laser last year. Another trend is introduction of new modifications of near infrared lasers. GentleLASE/Candela, MA/ with dynamic cooling is one of them. We treat veins from 0 - 1 mm in diameter very successfully with PDL/ScleroPlus, Candela, MA/, bigger veins we recommend for minimal invasive or classical surgery. Combination of lasers is we think only one possibility for successful laser treatment. Aim of our work is comparison of sclerotherapy with combinated treatments with PDL, near infrared laser and invasive Nd:YAG laser for veins in diameter between 1 - 2 mm. Results show that combination of lasers offer same results with comparable side effects like sclerotherapy that is cheaper and most common of course. Patients prefer pure laser therapy with combination of pulsed dye laser and alexandrite laser. We think that isn't one best method, decision is one the doctor and patient.

  18. Operating characteristics of a 7. 6 mm (0. 30 inch) diameter two-stage light-gas gun

    SciTech Connect

    Susoeff, A R; Hawke, R S; Bowen, P R; Greenwood, D W; Marshall, F R

    1992-07-01

    a series of tests was conducted to determine the operating requirements needed to obtain maximum projectile velocity within the engineering design limits of a two-stage light-gas gun with a 7.6 mm (0.30 inch) diameter bore launch tube. The tests were conducted in a medium vacuum flight range. Previous experience with the gun was used to establish the minimum requirements for optimum efficiency. Two operating parameters, propellant load and drive gas pressure, were varied in order to find an initial optimum operating condition at a conservative propellant load. Propellant load and driver gas pressure were then incrementally increased. This procedure was methodically applied until significant mechanical deformation of a critical gun component took place. This report presents the results of these tests. Projectile velocity was measured to better than 3 percent accuracy using a magnetic induction technique. A 0.485 gram polycarbonate projectile was launched to a velocity of 7.77 km/s during the tests. 13 refs.

  19. Completion of evaluation of manufacturing processes for B/Al composites containing 0.2mm diameter boron fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. J.; Moorhead, P. E.

    1980-01-01

    Four fabricators produced a total of 54 B/1100 Al, B/6061 Al, and B/2024 Al panels for evaluation. The 8 ply unidirectional, 45 to 50 volume percent, panels were made using 0.20 mm diameter boron fibers which were obtained from a single supplier. Hot press consolidation was carried out in vacuum except for one set of dry woven tape panels which were hot pressed in air. A single testing contractor conducted nondestructive inspection, metallography, fractography and mechanical property tests. The mechanical property tests included 21 and 260 C tensile tests and 21 C shear tests. Panel quality, as measured by nondestructive evaluation, was generally good as were the 21 C tensile properties. The panels hot pressed in air delaminated in the shear tests. Shear strength values were lower in these panels. But tensile strengths were not affected by the delaminations because of the relation between the tensile loading direction and the delaminations. Composite tensile strength was found to be proportional to the volume percent boron and the aluminum matrix rather than to the tape used or fabrication technique. Suitability of these composites for 260 C service was confirmed by tensile tests.

  20. High-speed intravascular spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging at 1000 A-lines per second with a 0.9-mm diameter catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Gong, Xiaojing; Liu, Chengbo; Lin, Riqiang; Hau, William; Bai, Xiaosong; Song, Liang

    2015-06-01

    Intravascular spectroscopic photoacoustic technology can image atherosclerotic plaque composition with high sensitivity and specificity, which is critical for identifying vulnerable plaques. Here, we designed and engineered a catheter of 0.9 mm in diameter for intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging, smaller than the critical size of 1 mm required for clinical translation. Further, a quasifocusing photoacoustic excitation scheme was developed for the catheter, producing well-detectable IVPA signals from stents and lipids with a laser energy as low as ˜30 μJ/pulse. As a result, this design enabled the use of a low-energy, high-repetition rate, ns-pulsed optical parametric oscillator laser for high-speed spectroscopic IVPA imaging at both the 1.2-μm and 1.7-μm spectral bands for lipid detection. Specifically, for each wavelength, a 1-kHz IVPA A-line rate was achieved, ˜100-fold faster than previously reported IVPA systems offering a similar wavelength tuning range. Using the system, spectroscopic IVPA imaging of peri-adventitial adipose tissue from a porcine aorta segment was demonstrated. The significantly improved imaging speed, together with the reduced catheter size and multiwavelength spectroscopic imaging ability, suggests that the developed high-speed IVPA technology is of great potential to be further translated for in vivo applications.

  1. MAMBO 1.2 mm Observations of BzK-selected Star-forming Galaxies at z ~ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannerbauer, H.; Daddi, E.; Onodera, M.; Kong, X.; Röttgering, H.; Arimoto, N.; Brusa, M.; Cimatti, A.; Kurk, J.; Lehnert, M. D.; Mignoli, M.; Renzini, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present MAMBO 1.2 mm observations of five BzK-preselected vigorous starburst galaxies at z~2. Two of these were detected at more than 99.5% confidence levels, with 1.2 mm fluxes around 1.5 mJy. These millimeter fluxes imply vigorous activity with star formation rates (SFRs) of ~500-1500 Msolar yr-1, which were also confirmed by detections at 24 μm with the Multiband Imaging Photometer on Spitzer (MIPS). The two detected galaxies are the ones in the sample with the highest SFRs estimated from the rest-frame UV, and their far-IR-derived and UV-derived SFRs agree reasonably well. This is different from local ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and high-z submillimeter/millimeter-selected galaxies, for which the UV is reported to underestimate SFRs by factors of 10-100, but similar to the average BzK ULIRG at z~2. The two galaxies detected at 1.2 mm are brighter in K than the typical NIR counterparts of MAMBO and SCUBA sources, implying a significantly different K-band-to-submillimeter/millimeter flux ratio as well. This suggests a scenario in which z~2 galaxies, after their rapid (sub)millimeter-bright phase that is opaque to optical/UV light, evolve into a longer lasting phase of K-band-bright and massive objects. Targeting the most UV-active BzK galaxies could yield substantial detection rates at submillimeter/millimeter wavelengths. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope at Pico Veleta. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain). Also based on ESO observations (program IDs 072.A-0506 and 075.A-0439) and on Subaru observations (programs S02B-101 and S04A-081), and on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the JPL, Caltech, under a contract with NASA.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 1.2mm maps of southern Infrared Dark Clouds (Vasyunina+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyunina, T.; Linz, H.; Henning, Th.; Stecklum, B.; Klose, S.; Nyman, L.-A.

    2009-05-01

    The 1.2mm continuum observations were carried out with the 37-channel bolometer array SIMBA (Nyman et al., 2001Msngr.106...40N) at the SEST on La Silla, Chile between July 16-18, 2003. SIMBA is a hexagonal array in which the HPBW of a single element is about 24" and the separation between elements on the sky is 44". The observations were made using a fast mapping technique without a wobbling secondary (Weferling et al., 2002A&A...383.1088W). Maps of Uranus were taken to check the flux calibration of the resulting data. To correct for the atmospheric opacity, skydips were performed every 2-3 hours. Despite the occurrence of some thin clouds, the observing conditions were good which is reflected in zenith opacity values of 0.16-0.18. The pointing was checked roughly every two hours and proved to be better than 6". The combination of typically three maps with sizes of 560"x900" resulted in a residual noise of about 22-28mJy/beam (rms) in the center of the mapped region. The 1.2mm data for the IRDC regions from SIMBA at the SEST telescope were reduced using the MOPSI package (developed by R. Zylka, IRAM). All maps were reduced by applying the atmospheric opacity corrections, fitting and subtracting a baseline, and removing the correlated sky noise. Thereby, we followed a three-stage approach as suggested in the SIMBA manual. After a first iteration using all data for the sky noise removal, the map regions showing source emission are neglected for sky noise removal in the second iteration. From this second interim map a source model is derived which is being included in the third iteration. The resulting maps were flux-calibrated using the conversion factor obtained from observations of Uranus. For our July 2003 observations, this factor was around 60mJy/beam per count. (2 data files).

  3. Cav1.2 splice variant with exon 9* is critical for regulation of cerebral artery diameter

    PubMed Central

    Nystoriak, Matthew A.; Murakami, Kentaro; Penar, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs) are essential for numerous processes in the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Alternative splicing modulates proteomic composition of Cav1.2 to generate functional variation between channel isoforms. Here, we describe expression and function of Cav1.2 channels containing alternatively spliced exon 9* in cerebral artery myocytes. RT-PCR showed expression of Cav1.2 splice variants both containing (α1C9/9*/10) and lacking (α1C9/10) exon 9* in intact rabbit and human cerebral arteries. With the use of laser capture microdissection and RT-PCR, expression of mRNA for both α1C9/9*/10 and α1C9/10 was demonstrated in isolated cerebral artery myocytes. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed significantly greater α1C9/9*/10 expression relative to α1C9/10 in intact rabbit cerebral arteries compared with cardiac tissue and cerebral cortex. To demonstrate a functional role for α1C9/9*/10, smooth muscle of intact cerebral arteries was treated with antisense oligonucleotides targeting α1C9/9*/10 (α1C9/9*/10-AS) or exon 9 (α1C-AS), expressed in all Cav1.2 splice variants, by reversible permeabilization and organ cultured for 1–4 days. Treatment with α1C9/9*/10-AS reduced maximal constriction induced by elevated extracellular K+ ([K+]o) by ∼75% compared with α1C9/9*/10-sense-treated arteries. Maximal constriction in response to the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin and [K+]o EC50 values were not altered by antisense treatment. Decreases in maximal [K+]o-induced constriction were similar between α1C9/9*/10-AS and α1C-AS groups (22.7 ± 9% and 25.6 ± 4% constriction, respectively). We conclude that although cerebral artery myocytes express both α1C9/9*/10 and α1C9/10 VDCC splice variants, α1C9/9*/10 is functionally dominant in the control of cerebral artery diameter. PMID:19717733

  4. Investigation of an 11mm diameter twin screw granulator: Screw element performance and in-line monitoring via image analysis.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Ridade; Martinez-Marcos, Laura; Osorio, Juan G; Cruise, Paul; Jones, Ian; Halbert, Gavin W; Lamprou, Dimitrios A; Litster, James D

    2015-12-30

    As twin screw granulation (TSG) provides one with many screw element options, characterization of each screw element is crucial in optimizing the screw configuration in order to obtain desired granule attributes. In this study, the performance of two different screw elements - distributive feed screws and kneading elements - was studied in an 11 mm TSG at different liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios. The kneading element configuration was found to break large granules more efficiently, leading to narrower granule size distributions. While pharmaceutical industry shifts toward continuous manufacturing, inline monitoring and process control are gaining importance. Granules from an 11 mm TSG were analysed using the Eyecon™, a real-time high speed direct imaging system, which has been used to capture accurate particle size distribution and particle count. The size parameters and particle count were then assessed in terms of their ability to be a suitable control measure using the Shewhart control charts. d10 and particle count were found to be good indicators of the change in L/S ratio. However, d50 and d90 did not reflect the change, due to their inherent variability even when the process is at steady state.

  5. Investigation of an 11mm diameter twin screw granulator: Screw element performance and in-line monitoring via image analysis.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Ridade; Martinez-Marcos, Laura; Osorio, Juan G; Cruise, Paul; Jones, Ian; Halbert, Gavin W; Lamprou, Dimitrios A; Litster, James D

    2015-12-30

    As twin screw granulation (TSG) provides one with many screw element options, characterization of each screw element is crucial in optimizing the screw configuration in order to obtain desired granule attributes. In this study, the performance of two different screw elements - distributive feed screws and kneading elements - was studied in an 11 mm TSG at different liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios. The kneading element configuration was found to break large granules more efficiently, leading to narrower granule size distributions. While pharmaceutical industry shifts toward continuous manufacturing, inline monitoring and process control are gaining importance. Granules from an 11 mm TSG were analysed using the Eyecon™, a real-time high speed direct imaging system, which has been used to capture accurate particle size distribution and particle count. The size parameters and particle count were then assessed in terms of their ability to be a suitable control measure using the Shewhart control charts. d10 and particle count were found to be good indicators of the change in L/S ratio. However, d50 and d90 did not reflect the change, due to their inherent variability even when the process is at steady state. PMID:26385406

  6. 78 FR 41366 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 4 1/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... Proceedings: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003). Unless we otherwise determine that... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure... antidumping duty order on certain large diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure...

  7. Comparison of retrograde intrarenal surgery and mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy in management of lower-pole renal stones with a diameter of smaller than 15 mm.

    PubMed

    Kirac, Mustafa; Bozkurt, Ömer Faruk; Tunc, Lutfi; Guneri, Cagri; Unsal, Ali; Biri, Hasan

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) and miniaturized percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PNL) in management of lower-pole renal stones with a diameter smaller than 15 mm. Between December 2009 and July 2012, the patients with the diagnosis of lower-pole stones were evaluated by ultrasonography, intravenous pyelography and computed tomography. The records of 73 evaluable patients who underwent mini-PNL (n = 37) or RIRS (n = 36) for lower-pole (LP) stones with diameter smaller than 15 mm were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 73 patients, 37 underwent mini-PNL and 36 underwent RIRS. The stone-free rates were 89.1 and 88.8 % for mini-PNL and RIRS groups, respectively. The mean operation time was 53.7 ± 14.5 in the mini-PNL group but 66.4 ± 15.8 in the RIRS group (P = 0.01). The mean fluoroscopy times and hospitalization times were significantly higher in the mini-PNL group. There was no major complication in any patient. RIRS and mini-PNL are safe and effective methods for treatment of LP calculi with a diameter smaller than 15 mm. RIRS is a non-invasive and feasible treatment option, and has also short hospitalization time, low morbidity and complication rate. It may be an alternative of mini-PNL in the treatment LP calculi with smaller than 15 mm.

  8. Gas-phase NMR. Part I. Conformational energies of 1,2-disubstituted propanes and a comparison with MM2 and MNDO calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyajima, Takashi; Hirano, Tsuneo; Sato, Hisaya

    1984-11-01

    Gas-phase 1H NMR spectra of 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) and 1,2-di(methoxy- d3)-propane (1,2-DMP) have been measured. The conformational energies of these molecules in the gas phase were determined from the observed coupling constants under a three rotational isomeric state model and are compared with the theoretical values from MM2 molecular mechanics and MNDO molecular orbital calculations. The results indicate that gas-phase NMR is useful method for the determination of conformational energies of relatively complex molecules, and that the MNDO results are more reasonable than the MM2 results for molecules containing electronegative atoms such as oxygen.

  9. Value of Baseline Clinical and CT Characteristics for Predicting the Progression of Persistent Pure Ground-glass Nodule 10 mm or Less in Diameter.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang; Cai, Zu-Long; Tian, Shu-Ping; Jin, Xin; Jing, Rui; Yang, Yue-Qing; Jin, Mei; Zhao, Shao-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Objective To explore the risk factors of the progression of persistent pure ground-glass nodule (pGGN) and make the risk stratification for pGGN 10 mm or less in diameter. Methods From June 2008 to April 2015,100 patients (108 lesions) with persistent pGGN≤10 mm in diameter were included in this study. Patients were followed up at least 1 year using thin-section computed tomography (CT). Patients' baseline clinical data and CT characteristics of pGGN were compared between progression group (size increased or/and solid component appeared) and non-progression group. Cox regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between clinical data,CT characteristics of pGGN,and lesion progression. The risk indices of lesion progression were calculated according to the results of Cox regression analysis and the relative factors of lung adenocarcinoma in previous studies. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between risk indices and lesion progression. The optimal cutoff value was decided on receiver operating characteristic curve of risk indices and verified for predicting lesion progression. Results Fifteen of 108 lesions showed progression. The mean follow-up duration was (1016.36±486.00) days. There were statistically significant differences of lesion size,air bronchogram,and vessel changes between progression group and non-progression group (P=0.040,P=0.003,P=0.030,respectively).Lesion density (CT value≥-542.5 HU) and air bronchogram were the risk factors of lesion progression (P=0.003,P=0.021,respectively). The optimal cutoff value of total risk indices on predicting lesion progression was 4.25,with the sensitivity of 46.7%,specificity of 89.2%,and consistency of 83.3%. Conclusions CT value ≥-542.5 HU of pGGN and air bronchogram within lesion may predict lesion progression in persistent pGGN 10 mm or less in diameter. A risk index of less than 4.25 often suggests small probability of disease progression and thus a longer follow

  10. SIMBA survey of southern high-mass star forming regions. I. Physical parameters of the 1.2 mm/IRAS sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faúndez, S.; Bronfman, L.; Garay, G.; Chini, R.; Nyman, L.-Å.; May, J.

    2004-10-01

    We report the results of a 1.2 mm continuum emission survey toward 146 IRAS sources thought to harbour high-mass star forming regions. The sources have FIR colors typical of UCHII regions and were detected in the CS(2->1) line survey of Bronfman et al. (\\cite{bnm}). Regions of 15 arcmin × 10 arcmin, centered on each IRAS source, were mapped with an angular resolution of ˜24 arcsec, using the SIMBA array on the SEST telescope. 1.2 mm emission was detected toward all IRAS sources. We find that the dust cores associated with these sources have typical sizes of 0.4 pc and masses of 5× 103 M⊙. Dust temperatures and luminosities, derived from the SED, are typically 32 K and 2.3 × 105 L⊙. Table 1 and Figs. 6 to 23 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  11. Development of hot slumping technique and last optical performances obtained on a 500mm diameter slumped segment prototype for adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghigo, M.; Basso, S.; Canestrari, R.; Proserpio, L.

    2009-08-01

    In the framework of the E-ELT Design Study financed by the European Community under OPTICON-FP6, the INAF Astronomical Observatory of Brera (INAF-OAB) has developed a technique for the manufacturing of thin optical segments. Thin glass segments are produced by mean of an hot slumping technique that makes use of an optical quality ceramic mould and a precise thermal circle to impart the desired shape to a glass sheet. In the present paper we summarize the results obtained during this study and report the last results of the effort in scaling-up the procedure: in particular the overall process has been refined in order to optimize the parameters (such as time, maximum temperature and amount of pressure) used to slump a 500 mm diameter glass segment. The thickness of these glass segments is of about 1.7 mm, making the optical surface very floppy and easy to be deformed. For this reason optical tests have been performed using a astatic support implemented into a vertical optical bench.

  12. Influence of power density on high purity 63 mm diameter polycrystalline diamond deposition inside a 2.45 GHz MPCVD reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shengwang; Wang, Rong; Zheng, Ke; Gao, Jie; Li, Xiaojing; Hei, Hongjun; Liu, Xiaoping; He, Zhiyong; Shen, Yanyan; Tang, Bin

    2016-09-01

    63 mm diameter polycrystalline diamond (PCD) films were synthesized via a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor in 99% H2–1% CH4 atmosphere. Two different conditions, i.e. the typical condition (input power of 5 kW and gas pressure of 13 kPa) and the high power density condition (input power of 10 kW and gas pressure of 18 kPa), were employed for diamond depositions. The color changes of the plasma under the two proposed conditions with and without methane were observed by photographs. Likewise, the concentrations of hydrogen atoms and carbon active chemical species in plasma were analyzed by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The morphologies and purity of the PCD films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. Finally, the transmission spectrum of the polished PCD plates was characterized by a UV–Vis–NIR spectrometer. Experimental results showed that both the concentrations of hydrogen atoms and carbon radicals increased obviously, with the boost input power and higher pressure. The films synthesized under the high power density condition displayed higher purity and more uniform thickness. The growth rates in 10 kW and 18 kPa reached ~7.7 µm h‑1, approximately 6.5 times as much as that occurred in the typical process. Moreover, the polished plates synthesized under the high power density condition possessed a relatively high optical transmittance (~69%), approaching the theoretical values of approximately 71.4% in IR. These results indicate that the purity and growth rate of big-area PCD films could be simultaneously increased with power density.

  13. Influence of power density on high purity 63 mm diameter polycrystalline diamond deposition inside a 2.45 GHz MPCVD reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shengwang; Wang, Rong; Zheng, Ke; Gao, Jie; Li, Xiaojing; Hei, Hongjun; Liu, Xiaoping; He, Zhiyong; Shen, Yanyan; Tang, Bin

    2016-09-01

    63 mm diameter polycrystalline diamond (PCD) films were synthesized via a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor in 99% H2-1% CH4 atmosphere. Two different conditions, i.e. the typical condition (input power of 5 kW and gas pressure of 13 kPa) and the high power density condition (input power of 10 kW and gas pressure of 18 kPa), were employed for diamond depositions. The color changes of the plasma under the two proposed conditions with and without methane were observed by photographs. Likewise, the concentrations of hydrogen atoms and carbon active chemical species in plasma were analyzed by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The morphologies and purity of the PCD films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. Finally, the transmission spectrum of the polished PCD plates was characterized by a UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer. Experimental results showed that both the concentrations of hydrogen atoms and carbon radicals increased obviously, with the boost input power and higher pressure. The films synthesized under the high power density condition displayed higher purity and more uniform thickness. The growth rates in 10 kW and 18 kPa reached ~7.7 µm h-1, approximately 6.5 times as much as that occurred in the typical process. Moreover, the polished plates synthesized under the high power density condition possessed a relatively high optical transmittance (~69%), approaching the theoretical values of approximately 71.4% in IR. These results indicate that the purity and growth rate of big-area PCD films could be simultaneously increased with power density.

  14. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance of a 1.83 meter (6 foot) diameter 1.2 pressure ratio fan (QF-6). [for short takeoff aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. P.; Lucas, J. G.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1974-01-01

    A 1.2-pressure-ratio, 1.83-meter-(6-ft-) diameter experimental fan stage with characteristics suitable for use in STOL aircraft engines was tested for acoustic and aerodynamic performance. The design incorporated features for low noise, including absence of inlet guide vanes, low rotor-blade-tip speed, low aerodynamic blade loading, and long axial spacing between the rotor and stator rows. The stage was run with four nozzles of different area. The perceived noise along a 152.4 meter (500-ft) sideline was rear-quadrant dominated with a maximum design-point level of 103.9 PNdb. The acoustic 1/3-octave results were analytically separated into broadband and pure-tone components. It was found that the stage noise levels generally increase with a decrease in nozzle area, with this increase observed primarily in the broadband noise component. A stall condition was documented acoustically with a 90-percent-of-design-area nozzle.

  15. Development of in vivo tissue-engineered microvascular grafts with an ultra small diameter of 0.6 mm (MicroBiotubes): acute phase evaluation by optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance angiography.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Daizo; Enmi, Jun-Ichiro; Moriwaki, Takeshi; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hastue; Kobayashi, Mari; Iwana, Shinichi; Iida, Hidehiro; Satow, Tetsu; Takahashi, Jun C; Kurisu, Kaoru; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2016-09-01

    Biotubes, i.e., in vivo tissue-engineered connective tubular tissues, are known to be effective as vascular replacement grafts with a diameter greater than several millimeters. However, the performance of biotubes with smaller diameters is less clear. In this study, MicroBiotubes with diameters <1 mm were prepared, and their patency was evaluated noninvasively by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). MicroBiotube molds, containing seven stainless wires (diameter 0.5 mm) covered with silicone tubes (outer diameter 0.6 mm) per mold, were embedded into the dorsal subcutaneous pouches of rats. After 2 months, the molds were harvested with the surrounding capsular tissues to obtain seven MicroBiotubes (internal diameter 0.59 ± 0.015 mm, burst pressure 4190 ± 1117 mmHg). Ten-mm-long MicroBiotubes were allogenically implanted into the femoral arteries of rats by end-to-end anastomosis. Cross-sectional OCT imaging demonstrated the patency of the MicroBiotubes immediately after implantation. In a 1-month follow-up MRA, high patency (83.3 %, n = 6) was observed without stenosis, aneurysmal dilation, or elongation. Native-like vascular structure was reconstructed with completely endothelialized luminal surfaces, mesh-like elastin fiber networks, regular circumferential orientation of collagen fibers, and α-SMA-positive cells. Although the long-term patency of MicroBiotubes still needs to be confirmed, they may be useful as an alternative ultra-small-caliber vascular substitute. PMID:27003431

  16. Non-invasive high-resolution tracking of human neuronal pathways: diffusion tensor imaging at 7T with 1.2 mm isotropic voxel size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lützkendorf, Ralf; Hertel, Frank; Heidemann, Robin; Thiel, Andreas; Luchtmann, Michael; Plaumann, Markus; Stadler, Jörg; Baecke, Sebastian; Bernarding, Johannes

    2013-03-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows characterizing and exploiting diffusion anisotropy effects, thereby providing important details about tissue microstructure. A major application in neuroimaging is the so-called fiber tracking where neuronal connections between brain regions are determined non-invasively by DTI. Combining these neural pathways within the human brain with the localization of activated brain areas provided by functional MRI offers important information about functional connectivity of brain regions. However, DTI suffers from severe signal reduction due to the diffusion-weighting. Ultra-high field (UHF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should therefore be advantageous to increase the intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This in turn enables to acquire high quality data with increased resolution, which is beneficial for tracking more complex fiber structures. However, UHF MRI imposes some difficulties mainly due to the larger B1 inhomogeneity compared to 3T MRI. We therefore optimized the parameters to perform DTI at a 7 Tesla whole body MR scanner equipped with a high performance gradient system and a 32-channel head receive coil. A Stesjkal Tanner spin-echo EPI sequence was used, to acquire 110 slices with an isotropic voxel-size of 1.2 mm covering the whole brain. 60 diffusion directions were scanned which allows calculating the principal direction components of the diffusion vector in each voxel. The results prove that DTI can be performed with high quality at UHF and that it is possible to explore the SNT benefit of the higher field strength. Combining UHF fMRI data with UHF DTI results will therefore be a major step towards better neuroimaging methods.

  17. The rates of wear of X3 highly cross-linked polyethylene at five years when coupled with a 36 mm diameter ceramic femoral head in young patients.

    PubMed

    Selvarajah, E; Hooper, G; Grabowski, K; Frampton, C; Woodfield, T B F; Inglis, G

    2015-11-01

    Polyethylene wear debris can cause osteolysis and the failure of total hip arthroplasty. We present the five-year wear rates of a highly cross-linked polyethylene (X3) bearing surface when used in conjunction with a 36 mm ceramic femoral head. This was a prospective study of a cohort of 100 THAs in 93 patients. Pain and activity scores were measured pre- and post-operatively. Femoral head penetration was measured at two months, one year, two years and at five years using validated edge-detecting software (PolyWare Auto). At a mean of 5.08 years (3.93 to 6.01), 85 hips in 78 patients were available for study. The mean age of these patients was 59.08 years (42 to 73, the mean age of males (n = 34) was 59.15 years, and females (n = 44) was 59.02 years). All patients had significant improvement in their functional scores (p < 0.001). The steady state two-dimensional linear wear rate was 0.109 mm/year. The steady state volumetric wear rate was 29.61 mm(3)/year. No significant correlation was found between rate of wear and age (p = 0.34), acetabular component size (p = 0.12) or clinical score (p = 0.74). Our study shows low steady state wear rates at five years in X3 highly cross-linked polyethylene in conjunction with a 36 mm ceramic femoral head. The linear wear rate was almost identical to the osteolysis threshold of 0.1 mm/year recommended in the literature.

  18. Noise data from tests of a 1.83 meter (6-ft-) diameter variable-pitch 1.2-pressure-ratio fan (QF-9)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, F. W.; Wazyniak, J. A.; Friedman, R.

    1975-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic data for a 1.83-meter (6-ft.) diameter fan suitable for a quiet engine for short-takeoff-and-landing (STOL) aircraft are documented. The QF-9 rotor blades had an adjustable pitch feature which provided a means for testing at several rotor blade setting angles, including one for reverse thrust. The fan stage incorporated features for low noise. Far-field noise around the fan was measured without acoustic suppression over a range of operating conditions for six different rotor blade setting angles in the forward thrust configuration, and for one in the reverse configuration. Complete results of one-third-octave band analysis of the data are presented in tabular form. Also included are power spectra, data referred to the source, and sideline perceived noise levels.

  19. Total hip replacement through a posterior approach using a 22 mm diameter femoral head : the role of the transverse acetabular ligament and capsular repair in reducing the rate of dislocation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Sharma, S; James, J; Hodgkinson, J P; Hemmady, M V

    2014-09-01

    Despite a lack of long-term follow-up, there is an increasing trend towards using femoral heads of large diameter in total hip replacement (THR), partly because of the perceived advantage of lower rates of dislocation. However, increasing the size of the femoral head is not the only way to reduce the rate of dislocation; optimal alignment of the components and repair of the posterior capsule could achieve a similar effect. In this prospective study of 512 cemented unilateral THRs (Male:Female 230:282) performed between 2004 and 2011, we aimed to determine the rate of dislocation in patients who received a 22 mm head on a 9/10 Morse taper through a posterior approach with capsular repair and using the transverse acetabular ligament (TAL) as a guide for the alignment of the acetabular component. The mean age of the patients at operation was 67 years (35 to 89). The mean follow-up was 2.8 years (0.5 to 6.6). Pre- and post-operative assessment included Oxford hip, Short Form-12 and modified University of California Los Angeles and Merle D'Aubigne scores. The angles of inclination and anteversion of the acetabular components were measured using radiological software. There were four dislocations (0.78%), all of which were anterior. In conclusion, THR with a 22 mm diameter head performed through a posterior approach with capsular repair and using the TAL as a guide for the alignment of the acetabular component was associated with a low rate of dislocation. PMID:25183591

  20. Solar diameter/s/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosch, J.; Yerle, R.

    1983-01-01

    Two definitions are possible for the solar diameter: astrophysical, relating to a specific physical parameter, or observational, relating to a given quantity that is to be measured. Since only the latter is directly accessible, astrophysical definitions should be linked to these quantities. All current solar diameter programs refer to the point of the limb where the brightness gradient is maximum, or to a higher order approximation of the profile shape. Two such programs, the Pic-du-Midi experiment which uses fast scans of the limb to define the injection point after a correction for atmospheric blurring, and the SCLERA experiment, employing an algorithm to obviate this correction, are compared. The advantage of a fast scan is noted.

  1. Probing channel temperature profiles in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN high electron mobility transistors on 200 mm diameter Si(111) by optical spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kyaw, L. M.; Bera, L. K.; Dolmanan, S. B.; Tan, H. R.; Bhat, T. N.; Tripathy, S.; Liu, Y.; Bera, M. K.; Singh, S. P.; Chor, E. F.

    2014-08-18

    Using micro-Raman and photoluminescence (PL) techniques, the channel temperature profile is probed in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) fabricated on a 200 mm diameter Si(111) substrate. In particular, RuO{sub x}-based gate is used due to the semitransparent nature to the optical excitation wavelengths, thus allowing much accurate thermal investigations underneath the gate. To determine the channel temperature profile in devices subjected to different electrical bias voltages, the GaN band-edge PL peak shift calibration with respect to temperature is used. PL analyses show a maximum channel temperature up to 435 K underneath the gate edge between gate and drain, where the estimated thermal resistance in such a HEMT structure is about 13.7 KmmW{sup −1} at a power dissipation of ∼10 W/mm. The temperature profiles from micro-Raman measurements are also addressed from the E{sub 2}-high optical phonon peak shift of GaN, and this method also probes the temperature-induced peak shifts of optical phonon from Si thus showing the nature of thermal characteristics at the AlN/Si substrate interface.

  2. SU-D-19A-05: The Dosimetric Impact of Using Xoft Axxent® Electronic Brachytherapy Source TG-43 Dosimetry Parameters for Treatment with the Xoft 30 Mm Diameter Vaginal Applicator

    SciTech Connect

    Simiele, S; Micka, J; Culberson, W; DeWerd, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A full TG-43 dosimetric characterization has not been performed for the Xoft Axxent ® electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft, a subsidiary of iCAD, San Jose, CA) within the Xoft 30 mm diameter vaginal applicator. Currently, dose calculations are performed using the bare-source TG-43 parameters and do not account for the presence of the applicator. This work focuses on determining the difference between the bare-source and sourcein- applicator TG-43 parameters. Both the radial dose function (RDF) and polar anisotropy function (PAF) were computationally determined for the source-in-applicator and bare-source models to determine the impact of using the bare-source dosimetry data. Methods: MCNP5 was used to model the source and the Xoft 30 mm diameter vaginal applicator. All simulations were performed using 0.84p and 0.03e cross section libraries. All models were developed based on specifications provided by Xoft. The applicator is made of a proprietary polymer material and simulations were performed using the most conservative chemical composition. An F6 collision-kerma tally was used to determine the RDF and PAF values in water at various dwell positions. The RDF values were normalized to 2.0 cm from the source to accommodate the applicator radius. Source-in-applicator results were compared with bare-source results from this work as well as published baresource results. Results: For a 0 mm source pullback distance, the updated bare-source model and source-in-applicator RDF values differ by 2% at 3 cm and 4% at 5 cm. The largest PAF disagreements were observed at the distal end of the source and applicator with up to 17% disagreement at 2 cm and 8% at 8 cm. The bare-source model had RDF values within 2.6% of the published TG-43 data and PAF results within 7.2% at 2 cm. Conclusion: Results indicate that notable differences exist between the bare-source and source-in-applicator TG-43 simulated parameters. Xoft Inc. provided partial funding for this work.

  3. Comparison of retrograde intrarenal surgery versus a single-session percutaneous nephrolithotomy for lower-pole stones with a diameter of 15 to 30 mm: A propensity score-matching study

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Gyoo Hwan; Jung, Jae Hyun; Ahn, Tae Sik; Lee, Joong Sub; Cho, Sung Yong; Jeong, Chang Wook; Lee, Seung Bae; Kim, Hyeon Hoe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate surgical outcomes between retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) groups for a main stone sized 15 to 30 mm and located in the lower-pole calyx. Materials and Methods Patients who underwent PNL or RIRS for a main stone sized 15 to 30 mm and located in the lower-pole calyx were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient in the RIRS group was matched to one in the PNL group on the basis of calculated propensity scores by use of age, sex, body mass index, previous treatment history, stone site, maximum stone size, and stone volume. We compared perioperative outcomes between the unmatched and matched groups. Results Patients underwent PNL (n=87, 66.4%) or RIRS (n=44, 33.6%). After matching, 44 patients in each group were included. Mean patient age was 54.4±13.7 years. Perioperative hemoglobin drop was significantly higher and the hospital stay was longer in the PNL group than in the RIRS group. The operative time was significantly longer in the RIRS group than in the PNL group. Stone-free rates were higher and complications rates were lower in the RIRS group than in the PNL group without statistical significance. The presence of a stone located in the lower-anterior minor calyx was a predictor of stone-free status. Conclusions RIRS and single-session PNL for patients with a main stone of 15 to 30 mm located in the lower-pole calyx showed comparable surgical results. However, RIRS can be performed more safely than PNL with less bleeding. Stones in the lower-anterior minor calyx should be carefully removed during these procedures. PMID:26175872

  4. Effects of Initial Pore Diameter on the Oil Absorption Behavior of Potato Chips during Frying Process.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinwei; Zhang, Tingting; Liu, Yuanfa; Fan, Liuping

    2016-01-01

    How initial pore diameter in materials affects oil absorption has been rarely studied up to now. Herein, we provided direct data evidence suggesting that the pore diameter prior to frying closely related to the oil absorption behavior. The pore had no significant effect on oil absorption of potato chips (p>0.05) when its diameter was 0.1 and 0.2 mm compared with the control. However, the oil absorption increased with the increasing of pore diameter when it was 0.3-1.2 mm. The oil absorption tended to be saturated at 0.9 mm pore diameter. In addition, we analyzed the moisture content, total oil (TO), surface oil (SO), penetrated surface oil (PSO) and structural oil (STO) contents of potato chips. The results when using palm oil showed that there was no significant difference in moisture, TO and STO contents of samples with pore diameter of 0.1 and 0.2 mm during the whole frying processing respectively compared with the control (p>0.05). When pore diameter was 0.3-1.2 mm, STO and TO contents significantly increased with the rising of the diameter (p<0.05). The SO content and PSO content dropped as increasing in frying time for the samples with different pore diameters. The equilibrium TO content of samples with 0.3-0.9 mm pore significantly increased with the rising of pore diameter, which was about 6.2-22.5% higher than that of the control. And there was no significant difference in the equilibrium TO contents of both samples of 1.2 mm and 0.9 mm pore (p>0.05). STO fraction gave the greatest contribution to the increment of oil absorption. PMID:27041514

  5. Directional Solidification and Convection in Small Diameter Crucibles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J.; Sung, P. K.; Tewari, S. N.; Poirier, D. R.; DeGroh, H. C., III

    2003-01-01

    Pb-2.2 wt% Sb alloy was directionally solidified in 1, 2, 3 and 7 mm diameter crucibles. Pb-Sb alloy presents a solutally unstable case. Under plane-front conditions, the resulting macrosegregation along the solidified length indicates that convection persists even in the 1 mm diameter crucible. Al-2 wt% Cu alloy was directionally solidified because this alloy was expected to be stable with respect to convection. Nevertheless, the resulting macrosegregation pattern and the microstructure in solidified examples indicated the presence of convection. Simulations performed for both alloys show that convection persists for crucibles as small as 0.6 mm of diameter. For the solutally stable alloy, Al-2 wt% Cu, the simulations indicate that the convection arises from a lateral temperature gradient.

  6. Cherenkov maser operation at 1-2 mm wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Garate, E.P.; Moustaizis, S.; Buzzi, J.M.; Rouille, C.; Lamain, H.

    1986-05-19

    The interaction of a dense n approx 10/sup 12//cc, mildly relativistic (1.8 < gamma < 3) electron beam and a cylindrical, dielectric-lined waveguide produced tunable microwave radiation in the 150-310 GHZ frequency range with an estimated power output of 500 kW at 150 GHz and 10 kW at 310 GHz. The measured output frequency agrees well with the frequency for which the phase velocity of the TM/sub 1/ mode of the dielectric-lined guide is synchronous with the electron-beam velocity.

  7. Graft Diameter matters in Hamstring ACL reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Clatworthy, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Recently techniques have been developed to increase graft diameter in hamstring ACL reconstruction with the hope to decrease graft failure. To date there is limited evidence to show that a smaller graft diameter results in a higher ACL failure rate. Method: The factors for failure in 1480 consecutive single surgeon hamstring ACL reconstructions were evaluated prospectively. Patients were followed for 2-15 years. A multivariate analysis was performed which looked at graft size, age, sex, time to surgery, meniscal integrity, meniscal repair and ACL graft placement to determine whether graft diameter matters in determining the failure of hamstring ACL reconstruction. Results: Graft diameters ranged from 6-10 mm. The mean graft diameter for all patients was 7.75 mm. 83 ACL reconstructions failed. The mean size of graft failures was 7.55 mm ACL reconstructions that failed had a significantly smaller hamstring graft diameter p=0.001. The Hazard Ratio for a smaller diameter graft is 0.517 p=<0.0001. For every 1 mm decrease in graft diameter there is a 48.3% higher chance of failure. The multivariate analysis showed a hazard ratio of 0.543 p=0.002. For every 1 mm decrease in graft diameter there is a 45.7% higher chance of failure. Conclusion: Smaller diameter hamstring grafts do have a higher failure rate. Grafts ≤ 7.5 mm had twice the failure rate of grafts ≥8 mm using a multivariate analysis for every 1 mm decrease in graft diameter there is a 45.7% higher chance of failure.

  8. Finite Element Analysis of Bone Stress around Micro-Implants of Different Diameters and Lengths with Application of a Single or Composite Torque Force

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ying-juan; Chang, Shao-hai; Ye, Jian-tao; Ye, Yu-shan; Yu, Yan-song

    2015-01-01

    Background Stress on the bone surrounding dental micro-implants affects implant success. Purpose To compare the stress on the bone surrounding a micro-implant after application of a single force (SF) of 200 g or a composite force (CF) of 200 g and 6 N.mm torque. Materials and Methods Finite element models were developed for micro-implant diameters of 1.2, 1.6, and 2.0 mm, and lengths of 6, 8, 10, and 12 mm and either a SF or CF was applied. The maximum equivalent stress (Max EQS) of the bone surrounding the micro-implant was determined, and the relationships among type of force, diameter, and length were evaluated. Results The Max EQS of the CF exceeded that of the SF (P< 0.05). The effect of force on stress was related to implant diameter, but not to implant length. The larger CF led to greater instability of the micro-implant and the effect was most pronounced at an implant diameter of 1.2 mm. The use of implant diameters of 1.6 mm and 2.0 mm produced no significant difference in implant stability when either a CF or SF was applied. Conclusion When considering the use of an implant to perform three-dimensional control on the teeth, the implant diameter chosen should be > 1.2 mm. PMID:26659581

  9. The effect of initial diameter in sperically symmetric droplet combustion of sooting fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, G. S.; Avedisian, C. T.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of initial droplet diameter on the burning rate of sooting fuels - n-heptane and 1-chloro-octane - was examined experimentally at low gravity. A 1.2s drop tower provided a low gravity environment to minimize buoyancy and achieve spherically symmetric flames for stationary droplets. Free-floating and fiber-supported droplets were burned, and both techniques gave matching results for droplets of similar initial diameter. Burning rate constants for both fuels were measured for a large number of droplets ranging from 0.4 to 1.1mm in initial diameter.

  10. Implosion dynamics and x-ray generation in small-diameter wire-array Z pinches.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, V V; Sotnikov, V I; Kindel, J M; Hakel, P; Mancini, R C; Astanovitskiy, A L; Haboub, A; Altemara, S D; Shevelko, A P; Kazakov, E D; Sasorov, P V

    2009-05-01

    It is known from experiments that the radiated x-ray energy appears to exceed the calculated implosion kinetic energy and Spitzer resistive heating [C. Deeney, Phys. Rev. A 44, 6762 (1991)] but possible mechanisms of the enhanced x-ray production are still being discussed. Enhanced plasma heating in small-diameter wire arrays with decreased calculated kinetic energy was investigated, and a review of experiments with cylindrical arrays of 1-16 mm in diameter on the 1 MA Zebra generator is presented in this paper. The implosion and x-ray generation in cylindrical wire arrays with different diameters were compared to find a transition from a regime where thermalization of the kinetic energy is the prevailing heating mechanism to regimes with other dominant mechanisms of plasma heating. Loads of 3-8 mm in diameter generate the highest x-ray power at the Zebra generator. The x-ray power falls in 1-2 mm loads which can be linked to the lower efficiency of plasma heating with the lack of kinetic energy. The electron temperature and density of the pinches also depend on the array diameter. In small-diameter arrays, 1-3 mm in diameter, ablating plasma accumulates in the inner volume much faster than in loads of 12-16 mm in diameter. Correlated bubblelike implosions were observed with multiframe shadowgraphy. Investigation of energy balance provides evidence for mechanisms of nonkinetic plasma heating in Z pinches. Formation and evolution of bright spots in Z pinches were studied with a time-gated pinhole camera. A comparison of x-ray images with shadowgrams shows that implosion bubbles can initiate bright spots in the pinch. Features of the implosions in small-diameter wire arrays are discussed to identify mechanisms of energy dissipation.

  11. Effect of Crucible Diameter Reduction on the Convection, Macrosegregation, and Dendritic Morphology during Directional Solidification of Pb-2.2 Wt Pct Sb Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jun; Tewari, S. N.; Magadi, G.; DeGroh, H. C., III

    2003-01-01

    The Pb-2.2 wt pct Sb alloy has been directionally solidified in 1-, 2-, 3-, and 7-mm-diameter crucibles with planar and dendritic liquid-solid interface orphology. For plane front solidification, the experimentally observed macrosegregation along the solidified length follows the relationship proposed by Favier. Application of a 0.4 T transverse magnetic field has no effect on the extent of convection. Reducing the ampoule diameter appears to decrease the extent of convection. However, extensive convection is still present even in the 1-mm-diameter crucible. An extrapolation of the observed behavior indicated that nearly diffusive transport conditions require ampoules that are about 40 microns in diameter. Reduction of the crucible diameter does not appear to have any significant effect on the primary dendrite spacing. However, it results in considerable distortion of the dendrite morphology and ordering. This is especially true for the 1-mm diameter samples.

  12. Analysis on the stress of the bone surrounding mini-implant with different diameters and lengths under torque.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingjuan; Chang, Shaohai; Ye, Jiantao; Ye, Yushan; Yu, Yansong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the stress of the bone around the mini-implant under the two kinds of force: the composite force which contains torque and traditional single force. There were 96 finite element models formed by the combination of mini-implant and bone, with diameters of 1.2 mm, 1.6 mm, 2.0 mm and corresponding length being 6 mm, 8 mm, 10 mm, 12 mm, respectively. Each size corresponded to 8 models. Group SF (each size n=4) was loaded with 200 g single force, while Group CF (each size n=4) was loaded with composite force which contained 6N mm torque and 200 g single force. The maximum equivalent stress (Max EQS) of the bone surrounding mini implant with different loading directions was calculated, and the relationship of force direction, diameter and length was also evaluated. The Max EQS of Group CF was higher than that of Group SF. The effect of force direction on the stress was related to the diameter of mini implant, but had nothing to do with its length. The Max EQS of the cortical bone around mini implant in Group CF was higher (P<0.05) than that in Group SF. In contrast, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between Group SF and Group CF in terms of bone stress when the diameter of mini implant was 1.6 mm or 2.0 mm. In our study, it is demonstrated that the diameter of mini-implant is better to be larger than 1.2 mm when a mini-implant is used in a torque control of tooth. The impact of this feature in the clinical setting needs to be verified.

  13. Effect of Specimen Diameter on Weldability of Impat Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Date, Hidefumi

    Impact welding has been carried out using a projectile having a diameter of 11 and 5 mm at an impact velocity of 200 m/s or more. A large projectile regardless of the slenderness ratio, was welded to a stainless steel target. However, only a small projectile with a slenderness ratio less than 1.2 was welded to the same target. In order to examine the effect of the diameter of the projectile on the weldability, the temperature elevating process in two cylindrical projectiles subjected to a longitudinal impact was evaluated numerically using LS-DYNA. The numerical results indicated that since the deformation mechanism of a projectile with a slenderness ratio less than 1.0 is different of that of the projectile with the slenderness ratio more than 1.5, the small projectile with the slenderness ratio less than 1.0 can be welded to the target.

  14. mm-wave antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, H. P.

    1985-07-01

    The present low profile seeker front end's slotted waveguide antenna was primarily developed to investigate the feasibility of the application of standard manufacturing techniques to mm-wave hardware. A dual plane monopulse comparator was constructed to mate with the antenna via integrated packaging techniques. The comparator was fabricated by CAD/CAM milling operations.

  15. Interpreting stem diameter changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölttä, T.; Sevanto, S.; Nikinmaa, E.

    2009-12-01

    Detecting phloem transport in stem diameter changes Teemu Hölttä1, Sanna Sevanto2, Eero Nikinmaa1 1Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland 2Department of Physics, P.O. Box 48, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland Introduction The volume of living cells and xylem conduits vary according to pressures they are subjected to. Our proposition is that the behavior of the inner bark diameter variation which cannot be explained by changes in xylem water status arise from changes in the osmotic concentration of the phloem and cambial growth. Materials and methods Simultaneous xylem and stem diameter measurements were conducted between June 28th to October 4th 2006 in Southern Finland on a 47-year old, 15 meter tall, Scots pine tree (DBH 15 cm) at heights of 1.5 and 10 meters. The difference between the measured inner bark diameter and the inner bark diameter predicted from xylem diameter change with a simple model (assuming there was no change in the osmotic concentration of the phloem) is hypothesized to give the changes in the osmotic concentration of the inner bark. The simple model calculates the radial water exchange between the xylem and phloem driven by the water potential changes in the xylem. Results and Discussion The major signal in the inner bark diameter was the transpiration rate as assumed, but also a signal arising from the change in the osmotic concentration (Fig 1a). The predicted osmotic concentration of the phloem typically increased during the afternoon due to the loading of photosynthesized sugars to the phloem. Inner bark osmotic concentration followed the photosynthesis rate with a 3 and 4 hour time-lag at the top and base, respectively (Fig 1b). The connection between photosynthesis and the predicted change in phloem osmotic concentration was stronger in the upper part of the tree compared to lower part. The changes in the predicted osmotic concentration were not similar every day, indicating that

  16. A comparison of the heat transfer and pressure drop performance of R-134a-lubricant mixtures in different diameter smooth tubes and micro-fin tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Eckels, S.J.; Doerr, T.M.; Pate, M.B.

    1998-10-01

    The average heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops during evaporation and condensation are reported for mixtures of R-134a and an ester lubricant in tubes of 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) outer diameter. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the R-134a-lubricant mixtures in these tubes and determine the performance benefits of the micro-fin tube. The performance benefits of the tubes with 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) outer diameter are compared to those of smaller tubes with 9.52 mm (3/8 in.) outer diameter. The lubricant used was a 169 SUS penta erythritol ester mixed-acid lubricant. The lubricant concentration was varied from 0--5.1% in the mixture. The average heat transfer coefficients in the 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) micro-fin tube were 50--150% higher than those for the 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) smooth tube, while pressure drops in the micro-fin tube were 5% to 50% higher than in the smooth tube. The addition of lubricant degraded the average heat transfer coefficients in all cases except during evaporation at low lubricant concentrations. Pressure drops were always increased with the addition of lubricant. The experimental results also indicate that tube diameter has some effect on the performance benefits of the micro-fin tube over that of the smooth tube.

  17. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, Eldon D.; Hooper, Frederick M.; Reichenbach, Marvin L.

    1992-01-01

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut.

  18. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

    1992-08-11

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 figure.

  19. Influence of tube's diameter on boiling heat transfer performance in small diameter tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Chengjun; Wang, Weicheng; Zhang, Lining

    1998-03-01

    This paper reports the experiments of evaporation study in 6 mm inner copper diameter tubes using HFC-134a, HCFC-22 and CFC-12 as working fluid. The results show that the evaporation heat transfer coefficient increases with the decreasing of inner diameter of tubes. A new concept of non-dimensional tube diameter U is proposed in this paper for correction of the influence of the tube diameter on the evaporation heat transfer coefficient. And further, a convenient empirical correction method is presented.

  20. Effect of Projectile Diameter on Weldability of Impact Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Date, Hidefumi

    The impact welding has been carried out using the projectile with the diameter of 11 and 5 mm. The large projectile with the slenderness ratio L/d (L is Length and d is diameter) of 1 to 5 was welded to the stainless steel target. However, only the small projectile with the slenderness ratio less than 1.2 was welded to the same stainless steel target. In order to clarify the effect of the diameter of the projectile on the weldability, the temperature elevating process in the cylindrical projectile subjected to a longitudinal impact is evaluated numerically using LS-DYNA. The slenderness ratios used in the analysis were 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0. The coefficient of friction used in the analysis was 0.2. The constitutive equation used in the analysis was Cowper-Symonds type. Those numerical results indicated that the deformation mechanism of the projectile with the slenderness ratio less than 2.0 is different of that of the projectile with the slenderness ratio more than 2.0. It was clarified from those results that the temperature of the small projectile with the slenderness ratio less than 1.5 arrives at the bonding temperature by the difference of the deformation mechanism regardless of the small kinetic energy.

  1. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Bunker C) 0.1528 84.67 0.4744 Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel 0.1294 86.30 0.4095 Kerosene 0.1346 86.40 0.4264....1156 70.53 0.2990 Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate No. 1 Ultra Low Sulfur 0.1346 86.40 0.4264 Low Sulfur....4296 Low Sulfur 0.1342 87.30 0.4296 High Sulfur 0.1342 87.30 0.4296 Distillate Fuel Oil No. 4 0.1452...

  2. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Bunker C) 0.1528 84.67 0.4744 Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel 0.1294 86.30 0.4095 Kerosene 0.1346 86.40 0.4264....1156 70.53 0.2990 Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate No. 1 Ultra Low Sulfur 0.1346 86.40 0.4264 Low Sulfur....4296 Low Sulfur 0.1342 87.30 0.4296 High Sulfur 0.1342 87.30 0.4296 Distillate Fuel Oil No. 4 0.1452...

  3. Double diameter boring tool

    DOEpatents

    Ashbaugh, Fred N.; Murry, Kenneth R.

    1988-12-27

    A boring tool and a method of operation are provided for boring two concentric holes of precision diameters and depths in a single operation. The boring tool includes an elongated tool body, a shank for attachment to a standard adjustable boring head which is used on a manual or numerical control milling machine and first and second diametrically opposed cutting edges formed for cutting in opposite directions. The diameter of the elongated tool body is substantially equal to the distance from the first cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation plus the distance from the second cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation. The axis of rotation of the tool is spaced from the tool centerline a distance substantially equal to one-half the distance from the second cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation minus one-half the distance from the first cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation. The method includes the step of inserting the boring tool into the boring head, adjusting the distance between the tool centerline and the tool axis of rotation as described above and boring the two concentric holes.

  4. Double diameter boring tool

    DOEpatents

    Ashbaugh, F.A.; Murry, K.R.

    1986-02-10

    A boring tool and a method of operation are provided for boring two concentric holes of precision diameters and depths in a single operation. The boring tool includes an elongated tool body, a shank for attachment to a standard adjustable boring head which is used on a manual or numerical control milling machine and first and second diametrically opposed cutting flutes formed for cutting in opposite directions. The diameter of the elongated tool body is substantially equal to the distance from the first flute tip to the axis of rotation plus the distance from the second flute tip to the axis of rotation. The axis of rotation of the tool is spaced from the tool centerline a distance substantially equal to one-half the distance from the second flute tip to the axis of rotation minus one-half the distance from the first flute tip to the axis of rotation. The method includes the step of inserting the boring tool into the boring head, adjusting the distance between the tool centerline and the tool axis of rotation as described above and boring the two concentric holes.

  5. The Energy Diameter Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Vitello, P; Garza, R; Hernandez, A; Souers, P C

    2007-07-10

    We explore various relations for the detonation energy and velocity as they relate to the inverse radius of the cylinder. The detonation rate-inverse slope relation seen in reactive flow models can be used to derive the familiar Eyring equation. Generalized inverse radii can be shown to fit large quantities of cylinder results. A rough relation between detonation energy and detonation velocity is found from collected JWL values. Cylinder test data for ammonium nitrate mixes down to 6.35 mm radii are presented, and a size energy effect is shown to exist in the Cylinder test data. The relation that detonation energy is roughly proportional to the square of the detonation velocity is shown by data and calculation.

  6. The Energy Diameter Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P; Vitello, P; Garza, R; Hernandez, A

    2007-04-20

    Various relations for the detonation energy and velocity as they relate to the inverse radius of the cylinder are explored. The detonation rate-inverse slope relation seen in reactive flow models can be used to derive the familiar Eyring equation. Generalized inverse radii can be shown to fit large quantities of cylinder and sphere results. A rough relation between detonation energy and detonation velocity is found from collected JWL values. Cylinder test data for ammonium nitrate mixes down to 6.35 mm radii are presented, and a size energy effect is shown to exist in the Cylinder test data. The relation that detonation energy is roughly proportional to the square of the detonation velocity is shown by data and calculation.

  7. Primeval galaxies in the sub-mm and mm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, J. Richard; Myers, Steven T.

    1993-01-01

    Although the results of COBE's FIRAS experiment 1 constrain the deviation in energy from the CMB blackbody in the 500-5000 micron range to be delta E/E, sub cmb less than 0.005, primeval galaxies can still lead to a brilliant sub-mm sky of non-Gaussian sources that are detectable at 10 inch resolution from planned arrays such as SCUBA on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and, quite plausibly, at sub-arcsecond resolution in planned mm and sub-mm interferometers. Here, we apply our hierarchical peaks method to a CDM model to construct sub-mm and mm maps of bursting PG's appropriate for these instruments with minimum contours chosen to correspond to realistic observational parameters for them and which pass the FIRAS limits.

  8. Reconstruction of small diameter arteries using decellularized vascular scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Yuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Kishida, Akio; Fujisato, Toshia; Takakuda, Kazuo

    2014-03-19

    Although artificial vessels are available for large diameter arteries, there are no artificial vessels for small diameter arteries of < 4 mm. We created a decellularized vascular scaffold (length, 10 mm; outer diameter, 1.5 mm; inner diameter, 1.3 mm) from rat abdominal arteries. We measured the biomechanical characteristics of the scaffolds, implanted them to defects made in rat carotid arteries, and evaluated their patency and the endothelial cell linings. Silastic grafts were implanted as controls. The decellularized scaffolds demonstrated similar mechanical characteristics to normal arteries. All of the control grafts were occluded. Fibroblast-like cells were discovered in the thrombus, and fibrous organization was apparent. In contrast, patency of the grafts in 10 of 12 animals was observed 4 weeks after implantation. The internal cavity of the patent scaffold was completely lined by endotheliallike cells. Thus, the possibility of small artery reconstruction using decellularized scaffolds was demonstrated.

  9. Small diameter carbon nanopipettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, Riju; Bhattacharyya, Sayan; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Vitol, Elina; Friedman, Gary; Gogotsi, Yury

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale multifunctional carbon probes facilitate cellular studies due to their small size, which makes it possible to interrogate organelles within living cells in a minimally invasive fashion. However, connecting nanotubes to macroscopic devices and constructing an integrated system for the purpose of fluid and electrical signal transfer is challenging, as is often the case with nanoscale components. We describe a non-catalytic chemical vapor deposition based method for batch fabrication of integrated multifunctional carbon nanopipettes (CNPs) with tip diameters much smaller (10-30 nm) than previously reported (200 nm and above) and approaching those observed for multiwalled carbon nanotubes. This eliminates the need for complicated attachment/assembly of nanotubes into nanofluidic devices. Variable tip geometries and structures were obtained by controlled deposition of carbon inside and outside quartz pipettes. We have shown that the capillary length and gas flow rate have a marked effect on the carbon deposition. This gives us a flexible protocol, useful for growing carbon layers of different thicknesses at selective locations on a glass pipette to yield a large variety of cellular probes in bulk quantities. The CNPs possess an open channel for fluid transfer with the carbon deposited inside at 875 °C behaving like an amorphous semiconductor. Vacuum annealing of the CNP tips at temperatures up to 2000 °C yields graphitic carbon structures with an increase in conductivity of two orders of magnitude. Penetration of the integrated carbon nanoprobes into cells was shown to produce minimal Ca2+ signals, fast recovery of basal Ca2+ levels and no adverse activation of the cellular metabolism during interrogation times as long as 0.5-1 h.

  10. The diameters and number of nerve fibers in spinal nerve roots

    PubMed Central

    Liu, YongTao; Zhou, XiaoJi; Ma, Jun; Ge, YingBin; Cao, Xiaojian

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anatomical and histological features of spinal nerve roots and provide base data for neuroanastomosis therapy for paraplegia. Methods Spinal nerve roots from C1 to S5 were exposed on six adult cadavers. The diameter and the number of nerve fibers of each nerve root were measured, respectively, with a caliper and image analysis software. Results As for ventral roots, the diameter of C5 (2.50 ± 0.55 mm) was the largest in cervical segments. In thoracic and lumbosacral segments, the diameter gradually increased from T11 to S1 and then decreased from S1 to S5 except L3. S1 (1.43 ± 0.16 mm) was the thickest root and S5 (0.14 ± 0.02 mm) was the thinnest one. As for dorsal roots, the diameter of C7 (4.61 ± 0.87 mm) was the largest in cervical segments. From T11 to S1, the diameter increased and then decreased gradually from S1 to S5. The diameter of dorsal roots from T1 to S5 was largest at S1 (2.95 ± 0.57 mm) and smallest at S5 (0.27 ± 0.13 mm), respectively. C7 (8467 ± 1019), T12 (6538 ± 892), L3 (9169 ± 1160), and S1 (8253 ± 1419) ventral roots contained the most nerve fibers in cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral segments, respectively. Similarly, C7 (39 653 ± 8458), T1 (26 507 ± 7617), L5 (34 455 ± 2740), and S1 (41 543 ± 3036) dorsal roots, respectively, contained the most nerve fibers in their corresponding segments. Conclusion The findings in the current study provided the imperative data and may be valuable for spinal nerve root microanastomosis surgery in the paraplegic patients. PMID:24605949

  11. mm-wave radar - The new ECM-ECCM frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, S. L.

    1984-05-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the relationship of mm-wave radar to electronic countermeasures (ECM)/electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM). Electronic warfare support measures (ESM) are also considered, since employment of ECM against mm-wave radar places strong demands on ESM. The mm-waves are defined as wavelengths in the range from 1 to 10 mm corresponding to frequencies in the range from 300 to 30 GHz. Advantages of mm-waves over microwaves for radar applications are partly related to requirements for smaller antenna diameters, increased angular resolution/antenna diameter, increased bandwidth availability, increased range resolution, reduced vulnerability to unwanted detection by hostile forces, and smaller and lighter RF components.

  12. OpenMM accelerated MMTK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Kevin P.; Constable, Steve; Faruk, Nabil F.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we provide an interface developed to link the Molecular Modelling toolkit (MMTK) with OpenMM in order to take advantage of the fast evaluation techniques of OpenMM. This interface allows MMTK scripts using the Langevin dynamics integrator, for both classical and path integral simulations, to be executed on a variety of hardware including graphical processing units via OpenMM. The interface has been developed using Python and Cython to take advantage of the high level abstraction thanks to the MMTK and OpenMM software packages. We have tested the interface on a number of systems to observe which systems benefit most from the acceleration libraries of OpenMM.

  13. SSC 40 mm cable results and 50 mm design discussions

    SciTech Connect

    Christopherson, D.; Capone, D.; Hannaford, R.; Remsbottom, R.; Jayakumar, R.; Snitchler, G. ); Scanlan, R.; Royet, J. )

    1990-09-01

    A summary of the cable produced for the 1990 40 mm Dipole Program is presented. The cable design parameters for the 50 mm Dipole Program are discussed, as well as portions of the SSC specification draft. Considerations leading to the final cable configuration and the results of preliminary trials are included. The first iteration of a strand mapping program to automate cable strand maps is introduced. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Pulling of 3 mm diameter AlSb rods by micro-pulling down method

    SciTech Connect

    Bourret-Courchesne Ph.D., Edith; Perrodin, Didier

    2009-05-14

    We designed and supplied special crucibles for AlSb material. Thermal insulation and limitation of Sb losses were our first work. The protection of the growth environment was also one of our priority to avoid any pollution of the Fibercryst {mu}PD facility. When this work was achieved, the next step was the calibration of the heating power for these new crucibles. Then, it was the definition of single crystal growth conditions that oriented our research. Following our proposal, many growths attempts were performed. We started from Al & Sb pure powder or from LBNL AlSb crystal as expected. We used different crucibles and different seeds.

  15. TECHNICAL NOTE: Characteristic analysis of an ultrasonic micromotor using a 3 mm diameter piezoelectric rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xiangcheng; Yan, Li; Li, Longtu

    2004-04-01

    Smart systems and devices generally use certain microstructures, e.g. rod- and strip-shaped structures. In this paper, a miniaturized piezoelectric rod is analysed using the finite element method (FEM) and a laser scanning vibrometer (LSV). The effects of some factors, including the detailed structure, material parameters and input voltage, on the resonant frequencies and vibration behaviors of a piezoelectric rod are studied. On the basis of experimental results, the vibration modes of the piezoelectric rod can be made available for use in fabricating an ultrasonic micromotor or piezoelectric actuators of other types. The prototype motor fabricated here has a maximum output torque of 410 µN m for a stainless steel stator and 360 µN m for a copper stator. This article was originally published in 2003 by the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities in the framework of its Albert Einstein Memorial Lectures series. Reprinted by permission of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.

  16. Monochromatic imaging studies of sustained metal vapor arcs burning on 150 mm diameter molten iron electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, R.L.; Schlienger, M.E.

    1996-07-01

    Monochromatic imaging was used to investigate the excited-state density distributions of Fe and Fe{sup +} in the inter-electrode gap region of a 3,100 A dc metal vapor arc burning between molten iron surfaces in a vacuum arc furnace. Multiple images were acquired at four wavelengths. The images were corrected and Abel inverted to yield the absolute radial intensity distributions for Fe and Fe{sup +} in the inter-electrode gap region. The results show a structured, axisymmetric plasma consisting of a high density `core` of Fe{sup +} emitters centered between the electrode surfaces situated against a relatively broad, flat excited-state Fe distribution.

  17. Laser amplifier based on a neodymium glass rod 150 mm in diameter

    SciTech Connect

    Shaykin, A A; Fokin, A P; Soloviev, A A; Kuzmin, A A; Shaikin, I A; Burdonov, K F; Khazanov, E A; Charukhchev, A V

    2014-05-30

    A unique large-aperture neodymium glass rod amplifier is experimentally studied. The small-signal gain distribution is measured at different pump energies. The aperture-averaged gain is found to be 2.3. The stored energy (500 J), the maximum possible pump pulse repetition rate, and the depolarisation in a single pulse and in a series of pulses with a repetition rate of one pulse per five minutes are calculated based on the investigations performed. It is shown that the use of this amplifier at the exit of the existing laser can increase the output pulse energy from 300 to 600 J. (lasers)

  18. Architectural Analyses and Developments of 1 mm Diameter Micro Forceps for Catheter Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nokata, Makoto; Hashimoto, Yusuke; Obayashi, Takumi

    Blockage in a blood vessel due to cardiovascular disease such as arteriosclerosis or aneurysms requires minimally invasive placement of a mesh tube or platinum coil stent via a catheter to open the affected area. Stents are positioned using a guide wire via a catheter, but the stent may be dropped on the way to its destination and requires much time in surgery, increasing the burden on the patient. Medical apparatuses are thus desired having a mechanism to grasp artifacts securely in blood vessels. We designed prototype microforceps for use on the end of a catheter for grasping operation in blood vessels and to contribute to medical apparatuses in this field. The microforceps we designed using a minimum number of parts uses metal injection molding (MIM) to realize strong mass production. Microforceps installed in the tip of a catheter. Stress analysis verified its capability to grasp, bend and turn within the confines of a blood vessels model.

  19. The DIAMET campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, G.

    2012-04-01

    DIAMET (DIAbatic influences on Mesoscale structures in ExTratropical storms) is a joint project between the UK academic community and the Met Office. Its focus is on understanding and predicting mesoscale structures in synoptic-scale storms, and in particular on the role of diabatic processes in generating and maintaining them. Such structures include fronts, rain bands, secondary cyclones, sting jets etc, and are important because much of the extreme weather we experience (e.g. strong winds, heavy rain) comes from such regions. The project conducted two field campaigns in the autumn of 2011, from September 14 - 30 and November 24 - December 14, based around the FAAM BAe146 aircraft with support from ground-based radar and radiosonde measurements. Detailed modelling, mainly using the Met Office Unified model, supported the planning and interpretation of these campaigns. This presentation will give a brief overview of the campaigns. Both in September and November-December the weather regime was westerly, with a strong jet stream directed across the Atlantic. Three IOPs were conducted in September, to observe a convective band ahead of an upper-level trough, waves on a long trailing cold front, and a warm conveyor belt associated with a secondary cyclone. In November-December six IOPs were conducted, to observe frontal passages and high winds. This period was notable for a number of very strong windstorms passing across the north of the UK, and gave us an opportunity to examine bent-back warm fronts in the southern quadrant of these storms where the strongest winds are found. The case studies fell into two basic patterns. In the majority of cases, dropsonde legs at high level were used to obtain a cross-section of winds and thermodynamic structure (e.g. across a front), followed by in situ legs at lower levels (generally where the temperature was between 0 and -10°) to examine microphysical processes, especially ice multiplication and the extent of supercooled water

  20. Suspected melanoma only when the lesion is greater than 6mm may harm patients

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Renato Santos; de Oliveira, Daniel Arcuschin; Souza, Murilo Costa; da Silva, Mariane; Brandão, Mireille Darc Cavalcanti

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the distribution of larger diameter in the pathological report of cutaneous melanoma patients. Methods Data were obtained from patients seen from 1994 to 2015. Date, sex, age, maximum diameter, histological subtype, primary site, microscopic thickness, mitoses, ulceration, vertical growth phase, and regression were the variables studied. This study was approved by the National Ethics Committee - Brazil Platform. Patients were grouped into smaller diameter (≤6mm) and larger diameter (>6mm). The statistical analysis used the χ2 test (p<0.05). Results Of the 292 patients analyzed, 123 were seen between 1994 and 2004, and 169 between 2005 and 2015; in that, 151 women and 141 men, mean age of 52 years. The diameters ranged from 2 to 76mm (mean of 14mm), 81 patients with smaller diameter (≤6mm) and 211 with larger diameter (>6mm). Out of 81 patients with smaller diameter, 29 had invasive melanoma, while 179 of the 211 with larger diameter were invasive. A difference was observed in frequency of vertical growth phase. Conclusion Pigmented skin lesions with diameter smaller than 6mm should not be an excluding factor for biopsies, especially when patients present risk of developing skin cancer. PMID:26761547

  1. The GBT 4mm Receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frayer, David T.; White, S.; Watts, G.; Stennes, M.; Maddalena, R. J.; Simon, R.; Pospieszalski, M.; Bryerton, E.

    2013-01-01

    The new 4mm receiver (67--93 GHz) for the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) was built to take advantage of the improved surface accuracy of the dish. The low frequency end of the 3mm atmospheric window is not available with ALMA (<84 GHz), and the sensitivity of the GBT is better than any other facility within this band. We discuss the design and performance of this new receiver for the GBT, and highlight the science opportunities available with the instrument. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  2. Wheel Diameter and Speedometer Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Clifton

    2010-01-01

    Most introductory physics students have seen vehicles with nonstandard wheel diameters; some may themselves drive "low-rider" cars or "big-wheel" pickup trucks. But how does changing wheel diameter affect speedometer readout for a given speed? Deriving the answer can be followed readily by students who have been introduced to rotation, and it…

  3. Apollo 12 photography 70 mm, 16 mm, and 35 mm frame index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    For each 70-mm frame, the index presents information on: (1) the focal length of the camera, (2) the photo scale at the principal point of the frame, (3) the selenographic coordinates at the principal point of the frame, (4) the percentage of forward overlap of the frame, (5) the sun angle (medium, low, high), (6) the quality of the photography, (7) the approximate tilt (minimum and maximum) of the camera, and (8) the direction of tilt. A brief description of each frame is also included. The index to the 16-mm sequence photography includes information concerning the approximate surface coverage of the photographic sequence and a brief description of the principal features shown. A column of remarks is included to indicate: (1) if the sequence is plotted on the photographic index map and (2) the quality of the photography. The pictures taken using the lunar surface closeup stereoscopic camera (35 mm) are also described in this same index format.

  4. 1,2-Dichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichloroethane ; CASRN 107 - 06 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  5. 1,2-Dichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichloropropane ; CASRN 78 - 87 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  6. 1,2-Dichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 50 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  7. 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Diphenylhydrazine ; CASRN 122 - 66 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  8. 1,2-Dibromoethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dibromoethane ; CASRN 106 - 93 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  9. Mechanical analysis of conventional and small diameter conical implant abutments

    PubMed Central

    Moris, Izabela Cristina Maurício; Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; de Mattos, Maria da Gloria Chiarello; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of the present study was to evaluate if a smaller morse taper abutment has a negative effect on the fracture resistance of implant-abutment connections under oblique compressive loads compared to a conventional abutment. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty morse taper conventional abutments (4.8 mm diameter) and smaller abutments (3.8 mm diameter) were tightened (20 Ncm) to their respective implants (3.5 × 11 mm) and after a 10 minute interval, implant/abutment assemblies were subjected to static compressive test, performed in a universal test machine with 1 mm/min displacement, at 45° inclination. The maximum deformation force was determined. Data were statistically analyzed by student t test. RESULTS Maximum deformation force of 4.8 mm and 3.8 mm abutments was approximately 95.33 kgf and 95.25 kgf, respectively, but no fractures were noted after mechanical test. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the evaluated abutments were statistically similar (P=.230). CONCLUSION Abutment measuring 3.8 mm in diameter (reduced) presented mechanical properties similar to 4.8 mm (conventional) abutments, enabling its clinical use as indicated. PMID:22977724

  10. A 1.2 mm MAMBO survey of post-AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buemi, C. S.; Umana, G.; Trigilio, C.; Leto, P.

    2007-02-01

    Aims:We performed a millimetric survey of a sample of 24 post-AGB stars aimed at searching for emission from circumstellar matter, in order to investigate the physical properties of the outer parts of the envelopes. Methods: The observations were conducted using the 37-channel Max-Planck Millimeter Bolometer array at the 30-meter IRAM telescope. The continuum emission toward the detected sources was used to quantify the mass of the emitting dust. We combined our observations with data available in the literature to construct the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the sources. When the observational data covered a spectral range wide enough, some properties of circumstellar envelopes were derived by comparison with spectra computed using a radiative transfer code. Results: Of the 24 objects in our sample, we detected millimetric continuum emission toward 11 sources. Two other sources were detected at a flux level close to 3σ. The derived circumstellar dust masses range between 0.4 and 24 × 10-4 M⊙, but these results are affected by the uncertainty about the source distances. The parameters derived from the SED fits are consistent with the values characteristic of this kind of object. As confirmed from the flux density extrapolated in the first light channels of the Atacama Large Millimetric Array, these sources could be good targets for future high-resolution mapping with the ALMA facility.

  11. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of stress distribution in a tooth restored with metal and fiber posts of varying diameters: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pradeep; Rao, R. Nageswar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare stress distribution in a tooth restored with metal and fiber posts of varying diameters (1.2 and 1.4 mm) by means of three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D-FEA). Materials and Methods: Four 3D-FEA models were constructed: (1) fiber post (1.2 and 1.4 mm) and (2) metal post (1.2 and 1.4 mm). The material properties were assigned and a force of 100 N was applied at 45° angle to the longitudinal axis of the tooth onto the palatal surface incisal to the cingulum. Analysis was run and stress distribution pattern was studied. Results: Maximum stresses in the radicular tooth structure for fiber post were higher than that for metal post. In the former models, stresses in the tooth structure were slightly reduced with increase in fiber post diameter. Conclusions: To reduce stress in the remaining radicular tooth structure, it is better to use a fiber post of a large diameter. PMID:25829685

  12. Correlation of Anterior Chamber Angle and Ciliary Sulcus Diameters With White-to-White Corneal Diameter in High Myopes Using Artemis VHF Digital Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Reinstein, Dan Z.; Archer, Timothy J.; Silverman, Ronald H.; Rondeau, Mark J.; Coleman, D. Jackson

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine whether horizontal angle diameter and sulcus diameter can be accurately estimated by conventional external measurements in high myopic eyes. METHODS Ten horizontal anterior segment scans were obtained with the Artemis 1 very high-frequency (VHF) digital ultrasound arc-scanner in 40 eyes of 20 patients. Angle and sulcus diameters were measured and descriptive statistics and within-eye repeatability were calculated. Linear regression was performed between each permutation of white-to-white, angle diameter, and sulcus diameter. Multivariate regression also included anterior chamber depth (ACD), age, manifest refraction, keratometry, and central corneal thickness (CCT). The standard deviation and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the residuals were calculated. RESULTS The population mean ±standard deviation (95% CI) was 12.88±0.42 mm [12.74, 13.02] for angle diameter and 12.85±0.69 mm [12.63, 13.07] for sulcus diameter. Within-eye repeatability was 0.13 mm for angle diameter and 0.23 mm for sulcus diameter. A weak correlation was noted between white-to-white and angle diameter (r2=0.59) with a 95% Cl of ±0.53 mm. Multivariate regression found white-to-white, CCT, and minimum keratometry predicted angle diameter (r2=0.69) with a 95% Cl of ±0.46 mm. For predicting sulcus diameter, there were weak correlations between white-to-white (r2=0.32) with a 95% Cl of ±1.11 mm and angle diameter (r2=0.46) with a 95% Cl of ±0.99 mm. Multivariate regression found angle diameter and ACD predicted sulcus diamter (r2=0.57) with 95% Cl of ±0.88 mm. CONCLUSIONS Regression modeling found weak correlations among all combinations of white-to-white, angle diameter, and sulcus diameter. Given the relative accuracy of direct measurement of angle and sulcus diameter compared to the potential accuracy of these regression equations, it appears that direct measurement would increase the safety of anterior and posterior chamber phakic IOL sizing. PMID:19241769

  13. Stellar diameters and temperatures. IV. Predicting stellar angular diameters

    SciTech Connect

    Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Van Belle, Gerard; Von Braun, Kaspar

    2014-03-01

    The number of stellar angular diameter measurements has greatly increased over the past few years due to innovations and developments in the field of long baseline optical interferometry. We use a collection of high-precision angular diameter measurements for nearby, main-sequence stars to develop empirical relations that allow the prediction of stellar angular sizes as a function of observed photometric color. These relations are presented for a combination of 48 broadband color indices. We empirically show for the first time a dependence on metallicity of these relations using Johnson (B – V) and Sloan (g – r) colors. Our relations are capable of predicting diameters with a random error of less than 5% and represent the most robust and empirical determinations of stellar angular sizes to date.

  14. Electromagnetic launch of mm-size pellets to great velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Drobyshevski, E.M.; Zhukov, B.G.; Kurakin, R.O.; Sakharov, V.A.; Studenkov, A.M.

    1994-11-01

    Small body launching that uses gas or plasma faces the fundamental problem caused by excess energy loss that is due to the great wall surface/volume ratio of the barrel. For example, the efficiency of the plasma armature (PA) rail-gun acceleration is maximum for 8-10 mm-size bodies and drops as their size decreases. That is why in the case of nuclear fusion applications, where 1-2 mm-size pellets at 5-10 km/s velocity are desirable, electromagnetic launchers have not yet demonstrated an advantage over light-gas guns and one is now forced to search for a compromise between the pellet size (increasing it up to 3-4 mm) and its velocity (decreasing it down to {approx}3 km/s). As a whole, the probability of attaining 5-10 km/s velocity for 1-2 mm pellets seems to be rather remote at the present.

  15. Effect of Anterior Zonule Transection on the Change in Lens Diameter and Power in Cynomolgus Monkeys during Simulated Accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Nankivil, Derek; Manns, Fabrice; Arrieta-Quintero, Esdras; Ziebarth, Noel; Borja, David; Amelinckx, Adriana; Bernal, Andres; Ho, Arthur; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To quantify the role of anterior zonular tension on the optomechanical lens response during simulation of accommodation in primates. Methods Postmortem cynomolgus monkey eyes (n = 14; age range, 3.0 –11.5 years) were dissected leaving intact the lens, zonules, ciliary body, hyaloid membrane, anterior vitreous, and a scleral rim. The lens was mounted in a lens-stretching system and stretched radially in step-wise fashion. The load, and the lens diameter and power were measured at each step and the diameter- and power-load relationships were quantified. The anterior zonular fibers were then transected, and the experiment was repeated. The equatorial lens diameter and lens optical power before and after zonular transection were compared. Results Stretching increased the lens diameter by 0.25 ± 0.09 mm (median ± interquartile range) before and 0.25 ± 0.19 mm after zonular transection. Stretching decreased the lens power by 13.0 ± 6.5 D before and 10.6 ± 8.0 D after zonular transection. The load required to change the diameter of the lens by 1 mm decreased from 18.8 ± 10.7 g before to 15.0 ± 7.8 g after zonular transection. The absolute change in power per gram of loading decreased from 2.5 ± 1.1 before to 2.0 ± 1.2 D after zonular transection. Conclusions The cynomolgus monkey lens retains a significant fraction of its accommodative ability after transection of the anterior zonules in simulated accommodation experiments. PMID:19324840

  16. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOEpatents

    Vanacek, D.L.; Pike, C.D.

    1982-07-13

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly having a tubular insulator extending between the ground plane ring and the high voltage ring. The insulator is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring to the high voltage ring, producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall of the insulator to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly.

  17. Novel Processing of 81-mm Cu Shaped Charge Liners

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A; Korzekwa, D

    2002-01-16

    A seven-step procedure was developed for producing shaped charge liner blanks by back extrusion at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Starting with a 38.1-mm diameter, 101.6-mm long cylinder at 77K, three forging steps with a flat-top die are required to produce the solid cone while maintaining low temperature. The solid cone is forged in four individual back extrusions at 77K to produce the rough liner blank. This procedure is capable of being run in batch processes to improve the time efficiency.

  18. Diameter dependent failure current density of gold nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, S.; Maaz, K.; Ali, G.; Ensinger, W.

    2009-09-01

    Failure current density of single gold nanowires is investigated in this paper. Single wires with diameters ranging from 80 to 720 nm and length 30 µm were electrochemically deposited in ion track-etched single-pore polycarbonate membranes. The maximum current density was investigated while keeping the wires embedded in the polymer matrix and ramping up the current until failure occurred. The current density is found to increase with diminishing diameter and the wires with a diameter of 80 nm withstand 1.2 × 1012 A m-2 before undergoing failure. Possible reasons for these results are discussed in this paper.

  19. Large diameter germanium single crystals for infrared optics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafni, G.; Azoulay, M.; Shiloh, C.; Noter, Y.; Saya, A.; Galron, H.; Roth, M.

    1989-09-01

    Large single crystals, up to 200 mm in diameter, of high optical quality germanium have been grown by the Czochralski technique. Postgrowth thermal treatment improves the optical homogeneity and reduces optical losses, as shown by measurements of refractive index gradients and modulation transfer function (MTF). A new approach for the piecewise combination of interferograms, as well as a polychromatic treatment of MTF, is presented.

  20. Six-mm, plane-wave shock driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Alan M.; Chau, Henry H.

    1994-07-01

    A 6-mm-diameter, plane-wave shock generation system has been developed and characterized as a laboratory bench driver for small scale experiments. The driver is based on an exploding-foil-driven slapper used either directly or to initiate an HE pellet. The slapper is driven by a low-inductance fireset with burst currents on the order of 30 kA and burst times of about 250 ns, with time-to-burst jitter under 10 ns. Both the slapper impact and the detonation breakout of the pellet have been measured to be flat to within 10 ns over a 6-mm diameter. Fabry-Perot velocimetry of impacts with LiF crystals were used to characterize shock pressures and durations. Attenuator plates and flyers driven by the HE were also measured, which provided a variety of available pulse shapes and data for modeling efforts.

  1. Six-mm, plane-wave shock driver

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.M.; Chau, H.H.

    1993-06-14

    A 6-mm-diameter, plane-wave shock generation system has been developed and characterized as a laboratory bench driver for small scale experiments. The driver is based on an exploding-foil-driven slapper used either directly or to initiate an HE pellet. The slapper is driven by a low-inductance fireset with burst currents on the order of 30 kA and burst times of about 250ns, with a time-to-burst jitter under 10ns. Both the slapper impact and the detonation breakout of the pellet have been measured to be flat to within 10ns over a 6-mm diameter. Fabry-Perot velocimetry of impacts with LiF crystals were used to characterize shock pressures and durations. Attenuator plates and flyers driven by the HE were also measured, which provided a variety of available pulse shapes and data for modeling efforts.

  2. Six-mm, plane-wave shock driver

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.M.; Chau, H.H. )

    1994-07-10

    A 6-mm-diameter, plane-wave shock generation system has been developed and characterized as a laboratory bench driver for small scale experiments. The driver is based on an exploding-foil-driven slapper used either directly or to initiate an HE pellet. The slapper is driven by a low-inductance fireset with burst currents on the order of 30 kA and burst times of about 250 ns, with time-to-burst jitter under 10 ns. Both the slapper impact and the detonation breakout of the pellet have been measured to be flat to within 10 ns over a 6-mm diameter. Fabry-Perot velocimetry of impacts with LiF crystals were used to characterize shock pressures and durations. Attenuator plates and flyers driven by the HE were also measured, which provided a variety of available pulse shapes and data for modeling efforts. [copyright]American Institute of Physics

  3. Dehalogenimonas spp. can Reductively Dehalogenate High Concentrations of 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,2-Dichloropropane, and 1,1,2-Trichloroethane

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The contaminant concentrations over which type strains of the species Dehalogenimonas alkenigignens and Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens were able to reductively dechlorinate 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) were evaluated. Although initially isolated from an environment with much lower halogenated solvent concentrations, D. alkenigignens IP3-3T was found to reductively dehalogenate chlorinated alkanes at concentrations comparable to D. lykanthroporepellens BL-DC-9T. Both species dechlorinated 1,2-DCA, 1,2-DCP, and 1,1,2-TCA present at initial concentrations at least as high as 8.7, 4.0, and 3.5 mM, respectively. The ability of Dehalogenimonas spp. to carry out anaerobic reductive dechlorination even in the presence of high concentrations of chlorinated aliphatic alkanes has important implications for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. PMID:23046725

  4. Dehalogenimonas spp. can Reductively Dehalogenate High Concentrations of 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,2-Dichloropropane, and 1,1,2-Trichloroethane.

    PubMed

    Maness, Andrew D; Bowman, Kimberly S; Yan, Jun; Rainey, Fred A; Moe, William M

    2012-01-01

    The contaminant concentrations over which type strains of the species Dehalogenimonas alkenigignens and Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens were able to reductively dechlorinate 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) were evaluated. Although initially isolated from an environment with much lower halogenated solvent concentrations, D. alkenigignens IP3-3T was found to reductively dehalogenate chlorinated alkanes at concentrations comparable to D. lykanthroporepellens BL-DC-9T. Both species dechlorinated 1,2-DCA, 1,2-DCP, and 1,1,2-TCA present at initial concentrations at least as high as 8.7, 4.0, and 3.5 mM, respectively. The ability of Dehalogenimonas spp. to carry out anaerobic reductive dechlorination even in the presence of high concentrations of chlorinated aliphatic alkanes has important implications for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. PMID:23046725

  5. Dehalogenimonas spp. can Reductively Dehalogenate High Concentrations of 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,2-Dichloropropane, and 1,1,2-Trichloroethane.

    PubMed

    Maness, Andrew D; Bowman, Kimberly S; Yan, Jun; Rainey, Fred A; Moe, William M

    2012-01-01

    The contaminant concentrations over which type strains of the species Dehalogenimonas alkenigignens and Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens were able to reductively dechlorinate 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) were evaluated. Although initially isolated from an environment with much lower halogenated solvent concentrations, D. alkenigignens IP3-3T was found to reductively dehalogenate chlorinated alkanes at concentrations comparable to D. lykanthroporepellens BL-DC-9T. Both species dechlorinated 1,2-DCA, 1,2-DCP, and 1,1,2-TCA present at initial concentrations at least as high as 8.7, 4.0, and 3.5 mM, respectively. The ability of Dehalogenimonas spp. to carry out anaerobic reductive dechlorination even in the presence of high concentrations of chlorinated aliphatic alkanes has important implications for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater.

  6. High voltage variable diameter insulator

    DOEpatents

    Vanecek, David L.; Pike, Chester D.

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage feedthrough assembly (10) having a tubular insulator (15) extending between the ground plane ring (16) and the high voltage ring (30). The insulator (15) is made of Pyrex and decreases in diameter from the ground plane ring (16) to the high voltage ring (30), producing equipotential lines almost perpendicular to the wall (27) of the insulator (15) to optimize the voltage-holding capability of the feedthrough assembly (10).

  7. Fine Structure in the Mm-Wavelength Spectra of the Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, H. S.; Cecatto, J. R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Faltan observaciones solares espectrosc6picas en la longitud de onda milimetrica. Hay sugerencias de que se puede superponer una fi na estructura en frecuencia a la componente-S de la regi6n solar activa, asi como a la componente del brote en las longitudes de onda milimetri- cas. Se ha desarrollado un receptor de alta sensibilidad de pasos de frecuencia que opera en el intervalo de 23-18 GHz con una resoluci6n de 1 GHz y resoluci6n de tiempo variable entre 1.2 y 96 sec, usando la an- tena de Itapetinga de 13.7-m para estudiar la estructura fina en frecuencia y tiempo. Discutimos el espectro en longitud de onda-mm en re- giones activas y su evoluci6n en el tiempo. El estudio de Ia evoluci6n en el tiempo de la regi6n activa en AR 5569 observada el 29 de junio de 1989, sugiere la existencia de estructuras finas como funci6n deltiempo. ABSTRACT. There is a lack of mm-wavelength spectroscopic solar observations. There are suggestions that a fine structure in frequency may be superimposed on the S-component of solar active region as well as on the burst component at inm-wavelengths. To study fine structure in frequency and time, a high sensitivity step frequency receiver operating in the frequency range 23-18 GHz with frequency resolution of 1 GHz and variable time resolution 1.2 to 96 sec, using 13.7 m diameter Itapetinga radome covered antenna, has been developed. Here, we discuss mm-wavelength spectra of active regions and their time evolution. Study of time evolution of an active region AR 5569 observed on 29th June, 1989 suggests existence of fine structures as a function of time. ( Ck : SUN-ACTIVITY - SUN-RADIO RADIATION

  8. 7 CFR 51.2934 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2934 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest diameter, measured through the center of the apricot, at right angles to a line running from the stem to the...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2934 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2934 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest diameter, measured through the center of the apricot, at right angles to a...

  10. 7 CFR 51.2934 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2934 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest diameter, measured through the center of the apricot, at right angles to a...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2934 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2934 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest diameter, measured through the center of the apricot, at right angles to a line running from the stem to the...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2934 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2934 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest diameter, measured through the center of the apricot, at right angles to a line running from the stem to the...

  13. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane using copper nanoparticles under reduction conditions of sodium borohydride.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chang-Chieh; Lo, Shang-Lien; Tsai, Shin-Mu; Lien, Hsing-Lung

    2011-09-01

    1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) is a raw material used for the manufacture of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and therefore has very often been detected in the groundwater nearby the VCM manufacturing plant. Zero-valent iron (ZVI) is capable of degrading a wide array of highly chlorinated contaminants; however, the reactivity of ZVI towards 1,2-DCA is very low. In this study, zero-valent copper nanoparticles have been synthesized for effective dechlorination of 1,2-DCA under reduction conditions of sodium borohydride. Copper nanoparticles consisted of mainly metallic copper (Cu(0)) with small amounts of cuprous oxide (Cu(2)O). They have surface areas of about 19.0 m(2) g(-1) and an average diameter of 15 nm. Batch experiments were conducted to test the effectiveness of copper nanoparticles for 1,2-DCA degradation using sodium borohydride as electron donors where the ORP was measured as -1100 mV. More than 80% of 1,2-DCA (30 mg L(-1)) was rapidly degraded within 2 h in the presence of both copper nanoparticles (2.5 g L(-1)) and borohydride (25 mM). No reduction of 1,2-DCA was observed when the system contained either copper nanoparticles alone or borohydride alone. The degradation intermediates included ethane and ethylene accounting for 79% and ∼1.5% of the 1,2-DCA lost, respectively. Potential environmental applications can be achieved by immobilizing copper nanoparticles onto the surface of reducing metals to form a reactive bimetallic structure.

  14. Coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction: coracoid tunnel diameter correlates with failure risk.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Lucas S; Baldini, Todd; Mitchell, Justin J; Messina, Michael; Justl Ellis, Ian A; McCarty, Eric C

    2014-06-01

    The current study compared tunnel diameter as an independent risk factor for fixation failure from the coracoid after transcoracoid coracoclavicular reconstruction. The effect of variation in coracoid size and scapular bone density on fixation failure was also studied. Sixty-two cadaveric scapulae were randomized into 1 of 4 groups: a control group with no coracoid hole, a group with a 4-mm transcoracoid tunnel, a group with a 6-mm transcoracoid tunnel, and a group with a socket technique using a 6-mm hole superiorly with a 4-mm hole inferiorly. Bone density measures for all specimens were performed. Coracoid dimensions were quantified. Using a cortical button device, all specimens were loaded to failure with an Instron servohydraulic testing machine (Instron Corp, Canton, Massachusetts). All drilled specimens failed by button pullout, and all control specimens failed by coracoid fracture. Average pullout strength for each tunnel subgroup was as follows: 4 mm, 296.9 N; 6 mm, 146.2 N; 6-4 socket, 261.8 N; control, 762.9 N. No difference was found with respect to tunnel subgroups in base height (P=.25) or bone density (P=.44). Load to failure for the control group was significantly higher than for the other 3 techniques. The 4-mm tunnel load to failure was significantly higher than that for the 6-mm tunnel (P=.006). No difference was found between the 4-mm tunnel and the 6-4 socket technique (P=.853). Although it was not statistically significant, a very strong trend was seen toward increased strength of the 6-4 socket over the 6-mm tunnel (P=.051). The study results show that when employing a transcoracoid reconstruction technique, a 4-mm tunnel technique is significantly stronger than a 6-mm tunnel technique. None of the coracoids drilled with the various tunnels approached the strength of the native coracoid controls using a looped wire technique. PMID:24972433

  15. Diameter Effect Curve and Detonation Front Curvature Measurements for ANFO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanach, R. A.; Hill, L. G.

    2002-07-01

    Diameter effect and front curvature measurements are reported for rate stick experiments on commercially available prilled ANFO (ammonium-nitrate/fuel-oil) at ambient temperature. The shots were fired in paper tubes so as to provide minimal confinement. Diameters ranged from 77 mm (approximately failure diameter) to 205 mm, with the tube length being ten diameters in all cases. Each detonation wave shape was fit with an analytic form, from which the local normal velocity Dn, and local total curvature kappa, were generated as a function of radius R, then plotted parametrically to generate a Dn(kappa) function. The observed behavior deviates substantially from that of previous explosives, for which curves for different diameters overlay well for small kappa but diverge for large kappa, and for which kappa increases monotonically with R. For ANFO, we find that Dn(kappa) curves for individual sticks 1) show little or no overlap--with smaller sticks lying to the right of larger ones, 2) exhibit a large velocity deficit with little kappa variation, and 3) reach a peak kappa at an intermediate R.

  16. Diameter effect curve and detonation front curvature measurements for ANFO

    SciTech Connect

    Catanach, R. A.; Hill, L. G.

    2001-01-01

    Diameter effect and front curvature measurements are reported for rate stick experiments on commercially available prilled ANFO (ammonium-nitrate/fuel-oil) at ambient temperature. The shots were fired in paper tubes so as to provide minimal confinement. Diameters ranged from 77 mm ({approx} failure diameter) to 205 mm, with the tube length being ten diameters in all cases. Each detonation wave shape was fit with an analytic form, from which the local normal velocity Dn, and local total curvature {kappa}, were generated as a function of radius R, then plotted parametrically to generate a Dn({kappa}) function. The observed behavior deviates substantially from that of previous explosives, for which curves for different diameters overlay well for small {kappa} but diverge for large {kappa}, and for which {kappa} increases monotonically with R. For ANFO, we find that Dn({kappa}) curves for individual sticks (1) show little or no overlap--with smaller sticks lying to the right of larger ones, (2) exhibit a large velocity deficit with little {kappa} variation, and (3) reach a peak {kappa} at an intermediate R.

  17. Design considerations and initial performance of a 1.2 cm{sup 2} beta imaging intra-operative probe

    SciTech Connect

    Tornai, M.P.; MacDonald, L.R.; Levin, C.S.; Siegel, S.; Hoffman, E.J.

    1996-08-01

    A novel small area beta ({beta}{sup {+-}}) detector is under development for nuclear emission imaging of surgically exposed, radiolabeled tumor beds. The imaging device front-end consists of a 0.5 mm thick by 1.25 cm diameter CaF{sub 2}(Eu) scintillator disk coupled to a rapid bundle of 2 mm diameter double clad optical fibers through a polystyrene light diffuser. The detector area (1.2 cm{sup 2}) was determined by the requirement of introducing the probe into small cavities, e.g. during neuro-surgical lesion resection, but large enough to produce images of clinical significance. Flexible back-end optical fibers (1.9 m long) were coupled to the front-end components allowing {approximately} 75 photoelectrons to e detected for mean beta energies of 250 keV, indicating that sufficient signal can be obtained with clinical beta emitters (e.g. {sup 18}F, {sup 131}I). The long flexible fibers guide the scintillation light to a Philips XP1700 series, fiber optical faceplate, Multi-Channel PMT. The parallel MC-PMT outputs re fed into a variable gain, charge divider network and an i-V pre-amplifier/line driver network, whose resulting four outputs are digitized and histogrammed with standard Anger positioning logic. The various components in the imaging chain were evaluated and optimized by both simulations and measurements. Line spread functions measured in the 10.8 mm FOV were 0.50 mm {+-} 0.038 mm and 0.55 mm {+-} 0.065 mm FWHM in X and Y, respectively. A 20% variation in pulse height and minimal variation in spatial resolution was observed. The differential image uniformity was measured to be {+-}15.6% with {approximately} 150 cts/pixel. Preliminary images show excellent reproduction of phantom activity distributions.

  18. Controlling the optical path length in turbid media using differential path-length spectroscopy: fiber diameter dependence.

    PubMed

    Kaspers, O P; Sterenborg, H J C M; Amelink, A

    2008-01-20

    We have characterized the path length for the differential path-length spectroscopy (DPS) fiber optic geometry for a wide range of optical properties and for fiber diameters ranging from 200 microm to 1000 microm. Phantom measurements show that the path length is nearly constant for scattering coefficients in the range 5 mm(-1)< micros <50 mm(-1) for all fiber diameters and that the path length is proportional to the fiber diameter. The path length decreases with increasing absorption for all fiber diameters, and this effect is more pronounced for larger fiber diameters. An empirical model is formulated that relates the DPS path length to total absorption for all fiber diameters simultaneously.

  19. Spot diameters for scanning photorefractive keratectomy: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    1998-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare with computer simulations the duration, smoothness and accuracy of scanning photo-refractive keratectomy with spot diameters ranging from 0.2 to 1 mm. Methods: We calculated the number of pulses per diopter of flattening for spot sizes varying from 0.2 to 1 mm. We also computed the corneal shape after the correction of 4 diopters of myopia and 4 diopters of astigmatism with a 6 mm ablation zone and a spot size of 0.4 mm with 600 mJ/cm2 peak radiant exposure and 0.8 mm with 300 mJ/cm2 peak radiant exposure. The accuracy and smoothness of the ablations were compared. Results: The repetition rate required to produce corrections of myopia with a 6 mm ablation zone in a duration of 5 s per diopter is on the order of 1 kHz for spot sizes smaller than 0.5 mm, and of 100 Hz for spot sizes larger than 0.5 mm. The accuracy and smoothness after the correction of myopia and astigmatism with small and large spot sizes were not significantly different. Conclusions: This study seems to indicate that there is no theoretical advantage for using either smaller spots with higher radiant exposures or larger spots with lower radiant exposures. However, at fixed radiant exposure, treatments with smaller spots require a larger duration of surgery but provide a better accuracy for the correction of astigmatism.

  20. Experimental study of star-like and small-diameter wire-array z-pinches on the 1-MA Zebra generator

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V. V.; Sotnikov, V. I.; Kindel, J. M.; Hakel, P.; Mancini, R. C.; Astanovitskiy, A. L.; Haboub, A.; Altemara, S. D.; Le Galloudec, B.; Nalajala, V.; Shevelko, A. P.; Kazakov, E. D.

    2009-01-21

    Star-like wire arrays and small-diameter (1-3 mm in diameter) cylindrical loads were tested in the 1-MA Zebra generator. Mitigation of plasma inhomogeneity was observed in the implosions of star-like loads, which consisted of multiple nested, cylindrical arrays aligned azimuthally such that the wires appear as linear array 'rays' extending from the axis of symmetry. The implosion in these loads is directed along the 'rays' of the star and cascades from wire to wire to the center to form moving plasma columns with smooth leading edges. Despite the low azimuthal symmetry, a star-like wire array produces a stable x-ray pulse with a high peak power and a short duration of 8-12-ns. This can be linked to the stabilization of instabilities due to the multiple nesting. X-ray generation and implosion dynamics in wire arrays 1-16 mm in diameter were investigated to find a transition between the regime with prevailing kinetic energy and 'non-kinetic' plasma heating. Loads 3-8 mm in diameter generate the highest x-ray power at the Zebra generator. The fall of x-ray power in 1-2-mm loads can be linked to the lack of kinetic energy. Laser probing diagnostics show the formation of 'necks' on the pinch during the bubble-like implosion. The energy balance provides the evidence of the enhanced plasma heating in z-pinches. Features of the implosions in small-diameter wire-arrays can help to identify the mechanisms of energy dissipation.

  1. Methods of resolution enhancement of laser diameter measuring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chursin, Yury A.; Fedorov, Evgeny M.

    2015-04-01

    The paper presents the implementation of diffraction and spectral analysis methods allowing 1 μm resolution enhancement of optical instruments intended for measurements of such round wire materials as cables, wires, cords, etc. with diameters exceeding the wavelength (~0.5 mm and large). The transformation function suggested allows detecting geometrical boundaries of object's shadows that are used to calculate its diameter independently from its location in the gaging zone. The real-time detection algorithm is described for diffraction extreme values in the analog video signal produced by the charge-coupled device sensors. A method of additional improvement of resolution is shown on the basis of spectral analysis.

  2. Mm-size bistable zipping dielectric elastomer actuators for integrated microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffli, Luc; Rosset, Samuel; Shea, Herbert R.

    2013-04-01

    We report on a new structure of Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (DEAs) called zipping DEAs, which have a set of unique characteristics that are a good match for the requirements of electrically-powered integrated microfluidic pumping and/or valving units as well as Braille displays. The zipping DEAs operate by pulling electrostatically an elastomer membrane in contact with the rigid sidewalls of a sloped chamber. In this work, we report on fully functional mm-size zipping DEAs that demonstrate a complete sealing of the chamber sidewalls and a tunable bistable behavior, and compare the measurements with an analytical model. Compared to our first generation of devices, we are able vary the sidewall angle and benefit therefore from more flexibility to study the requirements to make fully functional actuators. In particular, we show that with Nusil CF19 as membrane material (1.2 MPa Young's modulus), it is possible to zip completely 2.3 mm diameter chambers with 15° and 21° sidewalls angle equibiaxially prestretched to λ0=1.12 and 15° chambers with λ0=1.27.

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Subpart MM 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM General...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart MM 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM General...

  5. Predicting Hamstring Graft Diameter Using MRI and Anthropometry

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Brett A; Mhaskar, Vikram A; An, Vincent Vinh Gia; Scholes, Corey

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Graft diameter is one variable that may affect outcome of ACL reconstruction. The ability to predict the size of a graft in a given patient pre-operatively may help guide graft selection and preparation technique. Various papers have correlated anthropometric data and MRI tendon measurements to intraoperative graft diameter, although no papers have investigated these together. The intra-operative diameter of a hamstring autograft will be influenced by graft preparation technique. Our study aimed to investigate the prediction of intraoperative graft diameter of 2 different graft construct techniques (4-strand semitendinosus versus quadrupled semitendinosus) using anthropometry and MRI measurements. Methods: Retrospective review of two groups of ACL reconstruction using different graft preparation techniques was performed. “Conventional” 4-strand gracilis + semitendinosus with fixed suspension at the femur and screw fixation at the tibia were compared with quadrupled semitendinosus grafts with adjustable suspensory fixation at each end (Graftlink). Cross-sectional areas (XSA) of the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons was measured in the axial slice of a T2 weighted MRI image using a region-of-interest tool. Stepwise linear regression using intraoperative graft diameter as the dependant variable was performed using MRI XSA of the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons, gender and height as predictors. Results: 129 ACL Reconstruction in 127 patients were done in the time period, 89 of which were done conventionally, and 40 which employed the Graftlink construct. The median graft diameter in the Graftlink group (8.5mm IQR8-9) was greater than that of the conventional group (8mm, IQR 7.5-8) (p < 0.001). MRI XSA of semitendinosus and height were statistically significant predictors of diameter in the Graftlink group (R2 = 51%), whilst MRI XSA of semitendinosus + gracilis and gender were predictors in the conventional group (R2 = 36%). Conclusion: Graftlink

  6. Fatigue acceptance test limit criteria for larger diameter rolled thread fasteners

    SciTech Connect

    Kephart, A.R.

    1999-05-19

    This document describes a fatigue lifetime acceptance test criterion by which studs having rolled threads, larger than 1.0 inches (25 mm) in diameter, can be assured to meet minimum quality attributes associated with a controlled rolling process.

  7. Diameter Effect Curve and Detonation Front Curvature Measurements for ANFO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanach, R. A.; Hill, L. G.

    2001-06-01

    Diameter effect and front curvature measurements are reported for rate stick experiments on commercially available prilled ANFO (ammonium nitrate-fuel oil) at ambient temperature. The shots were fired in paper tubes so as to provide minimal confinement. Diameters ranged from 77 mm. (≈ failure diameter) to 200 mm., with the tube length being ten diameters in all cases. Each detonation wave shape was fit with an analytic form, from which the local normal velocity Dn and total curvature κ were generated as a function of radius R, then plotted parametrically to generate a D_n(κ) function. The resulting behavior deviates substantially from that of previous explosives,(Hill,L.G., Bdzil,J.B., and Aslam,T.D., 11^th) Detonation Symposium, 1998^,(Hill,L.G., Bdzil,J.B., Davis,W.C., and Engelke,R., Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, 1999) in which curves for different stick sizes overlay well for small κ but diverge for large κ, and for which κ increases monotonically with R to achieve a maximum value at the charge edge. For ANFO, we find that κ achieves a maximum at an intermediate R and that D_n(κ) curves for different stick sizes are widely separated with no overlap whatsoever.

  8. Minimum tube diameters for steady propagation of gaseous detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Ng, H. D.; Lee, J. H. S.

    2014-07-01

    Recent experimental results on detonation limits are reported in this paper. A parametric study was carried out to determine the minimum tube diameters for steady detonation propagation in five different hydrocarbon fuel-oxygen combustible mixtures and in five polycarbonate test tube diameters ranging from 50.8 mm down to a small scale of 1.5 mm. The wave propagation in the tube was monitored by optical fibers. By decreasing the initial pressure, hence the sensitivity of the mixture, the onset of limits is indicated by an abrupt drop in the steady detonation velocity after a short distance of travel. From the measured wave velocities inside the test tube, the critical pressure corresponding to the limit and the minimum tube diameters for the propagation of the detonation can be obtained. The present experimental results are in good agreement with previous studies and show that the measured minimum tube diameters can be reasonably estimated on the basis of the /3 rule over a wide range of conditions, where is the detonation cell size. These new data shall be useful for safety assessment in process industries and in developing and validating models for detonation limits.

  9. A 10-mm MR-Conditional Unidirectional Pneumatic Stepper Motor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yue; Mershon, Christopher D.; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) conditional robotic devices facilitate accurate interventional procedures under MR imaging (MRI) guidance. For this purpose, a compact (10-mm diameter) MR-conditional stepper motor is presented. The device features seven key components, which contribute to a dense and easy to fabricate design. Alternating bursts of pressurized air and vacuum can drive the motor in 60° per step to achieve a maximum torque of 2.4 mNm. The relationship between torque and angular speed was investigated to demonstrate motor performance under different loading conditions. The stepper motor was tested in a GE 3T MRI scanner to verify its MR-compatibility. A maximum artifact width of 3 mm was measured in MRI images and a maximum signal-to-noise ratio reduction of 2.49% was recorded. PMID:25419104

  10. Effects of the tube diameter on the propagation of helium plasma plume via electric field measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S.; Lu, X.; Yue, Y.; Dong, X.; Pei, X.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the dependence of the length of plasma plume, propagation velocity, electric field in the streamer head, and propagation mode transition on the tube diameter varied in the range of 0.07-4 mm is investigated for the first time. The atmospheric-pressure helium plasma plume, ignited by a positive pulsed direct current voltage with a pulse rising time of 60 ns, is confined inside a long glass tube. First, the decreased tube diameter results in the reduction of the length of plasma plume but the growth of aspect ratio of plasma plume. Second, as the tube diameter decreases, the average velocity of the propagation of plasma plume increases first, then reaches a maximum value at tube diameter of 1 mm, and finally decreases for the tube diameter decreasing further. Third, the electric field in the streamer head, determined by the method based on Stark polarization spectroscopy of He 447 nm line, increases monotonically from 9 kV/cm to 20 kV/cm with the tube diameter decreasing from 4 mm to 0.6 mm. Finally, when the tube diameter is further reduced to 0.07 mm, high-speed photography reveals that the propagation mode of the plasma plume transits from the plasma bullet to the continuous plasma column.

  11. Application of MM wave therapy in radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Avakian, R.S.; Gasparyan, L.V.

    1995-12-31

    The authors studied the effects of MM wave electromagnetic radiation influence on patients, affected by X-ray radiation during the reparation works after Chernobyl nuclear power plant exposure. They compared results of treatment of two groups of patients: (1) control group patients received only basis therapy; (2) testing group, 10 patients received basis therapy and MM wave influence. The authors used the wide band noise generator `Artsakh - 2` for local irradiation on the acupuncture points. Their data proved that low intensity MM waves have immunocorrective, antioxidant effects, and MM wave therapy is a perspective method for treatment of patients with radiological pathology.

  12. Development and evaluation of elastomeric hollow fiber membranes as small diameter vascular graft substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Mercado-Pagán, Ángel E.; Kang, Yunqing; Findlay, Michael W.; Yang, Yunzhi

    2015-01-01

    Engineering of small diameter (<6 mm) vascular grafts (SDVGs) for clinical use, remains a significant challenge. Here, elastomeric polyester urethane (PEU)-based hollow fiber membranes (HFM) are presented as an SDVG candidate to target the limitations of current technologies and improve tissue engineering designs. HFMs are fabricated by a simple phase inversion method. HFM dimensions are tailored through adjustments to fabrication parameters. The walls of HFMs are highly porous. The HFMs are very elastic, with moduli ranging from 1–4 MPa, strengths from 1–5 MPa, and max strains from 300–500%. Permeability of the HFMs varies from 0.5–3.5×10−6 cm/s, while burst pressure varies from 25 to 35 psi. The suture retention forces of HFMs are in the range of 0.8 to 1.2 N. These properties match those of blood vessels. A slow degradation profile is observed for all HFMs, with 71 to 78% of the original mass remaining after 8 weeks, providing a suitable profile for potential cellular incorporation and tissue replacement. Both human endothelial cells and human mesenchymal stem cells proliferate well in the presence of HFMs up to 7 days. These results demonstrate a promising customizable PEU HFMs for small diameter vascular repair and tissue engineering applications. PMID:25686982

  13. Ultrasonographic Measurement of Normal Common Bile Duct Diameter and its Correlation with Age, Sex and Anthropometry

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Simmi; Lal, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ultrasonography is the diagnostic method of choice for visualization and rational work-up of abdominal organs. The dilatation of the common bile duct helps distinguish obstructive from non-obstructive causes of jaundice. Availability of normal measurements of the common bile duct is therefore important. There exists significant variations in the anthropometric features of various populations, regions and races. Aim: Study was conducted to obtain data on sonographically measured diameters of common bile duct in a series of normal Rajasthani population and to measure its correlation with age, sex and anthropometry. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, India. Materials and Methods: Study included 200 participants with equal proportion belonging to either sex. Common bile duct was measured at three locations- at the porta hepatis, in the most distal aspect of head of pancreas and mid-way between these points. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, chest circumference, circumference at transpyloric plane, circumference at umbilicus and circumference at hip were obtained using standard procedures. Statistical Analysis: Univariable analysis with measures of frequency and standard deviation and bivariable analysis using correlation. Results: Mean age of study subjects was 34.5 years (Range 18-85 years). Mean diameters of the common bile duct in the three locations were: proximal, 4.0 mm (SD 1.02 mm); middle, 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm); and distal, 4.2 mm (SD 1.01 mm) and overall mean for all measures 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm). Average diameter ranged from 2.0 mm to 7.9 mm, with 95 percent of the subjects having a diameter of less than 6 mm. We observed a statistically significant relation of common bile duct with age, along with a linear trend. There was no statistically significant difference in common bile duct diameter between male and female subjects. The diameter did

  14. Augmented PMMA distribution: improvement of mechanical property and reduction of leakage rate of a fenestrated pedicle screw with diameter-tapered perforations.

    PubMed

    Tan, Quan-Chang; Wu, Jian-Wei; Peng, Fei; Zang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xiong; Lei, Wei; Wu, Zi-Xiang

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE This study investigated the optimum injection volume of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) to augment a novel fenestrated pedicle screw (FPS) with diameter-tapered perforations in the osteoporotic vertebral body, and how the distribution characteristics of PMMA affect the biomechanical performance of this screw. METHODS Two types of FPSs were designed (FPS-A, composed of 6 perforations with an equal diameter of 1.2 mm; and FPS-B, composed of 6 perforations each with a tapered diameter of 1.5 mm, 1.2 mm, and 0.9 mm from tip to head. Each of 28 human cadaveric osteoporotic vertebrae were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 groups: FPS-A1.0: FPS-A+1.0 ml PMMA; FPS-A1.5: FPS-A+1.5 ml PMMA; FPS-A2.0: FPS-A+2.0 ml PMMA; FPS-B1.0: FPS-B+1.0 ml PMMA; FPS-B1.5: FPS-B+1.5 ml PMMA; FPS-B2.0: FPS-B+2.0 ml PMMA; and conventional pedicle screws (CPSs) without PMMA. After the augmentation, 3D CT was performed to assess the cement distribution characteristics and the cement leakage rate. Axial pullout tests were performed to compare the maximum pullout force thereafter. RESULTS The CT construction images showed that PMMA bone cement formed a conical mass around FPS-A and a cylindrical mass around FPS-B. When the injection volume was increased from 1.0 ml to 2.0 ml, the distribution region of the PMMA cement was enlarged, the PMMA was distributed more posteriorly, and the risk of leakage was increased. When the injection volume reached 2.0 ml, the risk of cement leakage was lower for screws having diameter-tapered perforations. The pullout strengths of the augmented FPS-A groups and FPS-B groups were higher than that of the CPS group (p < 0.0001). All FPS-B groups had a higher pullout strength than the FPS-A groups. CONCLUSIONS The diameter of the perforations affects the distribution of PMMA cement. The diameter-tapered design enabled PMMA to form larger bone-PMMA interfaces and achieve a relatively higher pullout strength, although statistical significance was not reached. Study

  15. A Toddler's Treatment of "Mm" and "Mm Hm" in Talk with a Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipi, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The study to be reported in this paper examined the work accomplished by "mm" and "mm hm" in the interactions of a parent and his daughter aged 0;10-2;0. Using the findings of Gardner (2001) for adults, the analysis shows that "mm" accomplished a range of functions based on its sequential placement and prosodic features, whereas "mm hm" was much…

  16. Large Diameter, Radiative Extinction Experiments with Decane Droplets in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, John; Tien, James; Dietrich, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    The extinction of a diffusion flame is of fundamental interest in combustion science. Linan, Law, and Chung and Law analytically and experimentally determined an extinction boundary in terms of droplet diameter and pressure for a single droplet due to Damkohler, or blowoff, extinction. More recently, other researchers demonstrated extinction due to finite rate kinetics in reduced gravity for free droplets of heptane. Chao modeled the effect of radiative heat loss on a quasi-steady spherically symmetric single droplet burning in the absence of buoyancy. They determined that for increasing droplet diameter, a second limit can be reached such that combustion is no longer possible. This second, larger droplet diameter limit arises due to radiative heat loss, which increases with increasing droplet and flame diameter. This increase in radiative heat loss arises due to an increase in the surface area of the flame. Recently, Marchese modeled fuel droplets with detailed chemistry and radiative effects, and compared the results to other work. The modeling also showed the importance of radiative loss and radiative extinction Experiments examined the behavior of a large droplet of decane burning in reduced gravity onboard the NASA Lewis DC-9 aircraft, but did not show a radiative extinction boundary due to g-jitter (Variations in gravitational level and direction) effects. Dietrich conducted experiments in the reduced gravity environment of the Space Shuttle. This work showed that the extinction diameter of methanol droplets increased when the initial diameter of the droplets was large (in this case, approximately 5 mm). Theoretical results agreed with these experimental results only when the theory included radiative effects . Radiative extinction was experimentally verified by Nayagam in a later Shuttle mission. The following work focuses on the combustion and extinction of a single fuel droplet. The goal is to experimentally determine a large droplet diameter limit that

  17. A mediated polyphenol oxidase biosensor immobilized by electropolymerization of 1,2-diamino benzene.

    PubMed

    Akyilmaz, Erol; Kozgus, Ozge; Türkmen, Hayati; Cetinkaya, Bekir

    2010-06-01

    A biosensor based on a partially purified polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme was developed by using electropolymerization of [(2,2'-bipyridine)(chloro)(p-cymene)rutenium(II)]chloride] mediator complex and 1,2-diamino benzene (DAB) on a screen printing Pt electrode (1mm diameter). The electropolymerization was carried out at +0.7V for 45min in phosphate buffer (50mM, pH 7.0) which contained 14.0U/10mL polyphenole oxidase, 200mM DAB and 2.5mM Ru-mediator complex solutions. Measurement is based on the detection of the oxidation current of the Ru-mediator complex that related to the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by PPO at +0.65V. The phosphate buffer (50mM, pH 7.0 containing 0.1M KCl) and 30 degrees C were established as being the optimum working conditions. Under the optimum experimental conditions a linear calibration curve was obtained between 5 and 100microM catechol concentration. The detection limit of the biosensor is 2.385microM. In the characterization studies of the biosensor some parameters such as effect of Ru-mediator types on the biosensor response, substrate specificity, reproducibility and storage stability were studied. From the experiments, the average value (x), standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV%) were found to be 48.75microM,+/-1.56microM, and 3.2% respectively for 50microM catechol standard. PMID:19783226

  18. Prediction of quadruple hamstring graft diameter for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by anthropometric measurements

    PubMed Central

    Asif, Naiyer; Ranjan, Rahul; Ahmed, Sohail; Sabir, Aamir B; Jilani, Latif Z; Qureshi, Owais A

    2016-01-01

    Background: The literature is scanty regarding the anthropometric predictors on the diameter of quadruple hamstring graft obtained in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in Indian population. Minimum diameter of the graft for ACL reconstruction should be >7 mm to preclude failure. The objective of this study was to assess the prediction of the hamstring graft diameter by several anthropometric parameters including age, thigh circumference, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). Materials and Methods: 46 consecutive patients who had undergone ACL reconstruction by the same surgeon using quadruple hamstring grafts were evaluated. The age, thigh circumference of the normal side, height, weight and BMI were recorded preoperatively and Pearson correlation was done using these parameters with graft diameter measured intraoperatively. Regression analysis in a stepwise manner was undertaken to assess the influence of individual anthropometric parameters on the graft diameter. Results: There were 44 males and 2 females. Mean age was 29.4 years, mean height was 172.6 cm, mean weight was 70.9 kg, mean BMI was 23.8 kg/m2, mean thigh circumference was 47.1 cm and mean graft diameter was 7.9 mm. There was a positive correlation individually between the thigh circumference and graft diameter obtained (r = 0.8, P < 0.01, n = 46), and between the height and graft diameter (r = 0.8, P < 0.01, n = 46). On the regression analysis thigh circumference and height were found to be significant predictors of graft diameter giving the following equation: Graft diameter (mm) = 0. 079 height (cm) +0.068 thigh circumference (cm) −9.031. Conclusion: Preoperatively using the above equation if graft diameter came out to be <7 mm then alternate options of graft material must be kept in mind in order to prevent failure. PMID:26955176

  19. Introduction to QM/MM simulations.

    PubMed

    Groenhof, Gerrit

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations have become a popular tool for investigating chemical reactions in condensed phases. In QM/MM methods, the region of the system in which the chemical process takes place is treated at an appropriate level of quantum chemistry theory, while the remainder is described by a molecular mechanics force field. Within this approach, chemical reactivity can be studied in large systems, such as enzymes. In the first part of this contribution, the basic methodology is briefly reviewed. The two most common approaches for partitioning the two subsystems are presented, followed by a discussion on the different ways of treating interactions between the subsystems. Special attention is given on how to deal with situations in which the boundary between the QM and MM subsystems runs through one or more chemical bonds. The second part of this contribution discusses what properties of larger system can be obtained within the QM/MM framework and how. Finally, as an example of a QM/MM application in practice, the third part presents an overview of recent QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations on photobiological systems. In addition to providing quantities that are experimentally accessible, such as structural intermediates, fluorescence lifetimes, quantum yields and spectra, the QM/MM simulations also provide information that is much more difficult to measure experimentally, such as reaction mechanisms and the influence of individual amino acid residues.

  20. The effect of patient position and MAST inflation on carotid sinus diameter.

    PubMed

    Hauswald, M; Tandberg, D

    1985-11-01

    A comparison of several maneuvers that are believed to increase vagal tone was made by measuring the carotid sinus with an ultrasound device. For 20 healthy volunteers the mean carotid sinus diameter was 5.7 mm supine, 6.1 mm in the Trendelenberg position, 6.5 mm after supine medical antishock trousers (MAST) inflation, 7.0 mm after MAST inflation in the Trendelenberg position, and 7.3 mm during a headstand. Each mean value was significantly different (P less than .01) from each of the others. These results have important implications for the treatment of dysrhythmias such as paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia.

  1. MM Algorithms for Geometric and Signomial Programming.

    PubMed

    Lange, Kenneth; Zhou, Hua

    2014-02-01

    This paper derives new algorithms for signomial programming, a generalization of geometric programming. The algorithms are based on a generic principle for optimization called the MM algorithm. In this setting, one can apply the geometric-arithmetic mean inequality and a supporting hyperplane inequality to create a surrogate function with parameters separated. Thus, unconstrained signomial programming reduces to a sequence of one-dimensional minimization problems. Simple examples demonstrate that the MM algorithm derived can converge to a boundary point or to one point of a continuum of minimum points. Conditions under which the minimum point is unique or occurs in the interior of parameter space are proved for geometric programming. Convergence to an interior point occurs at a linear rate. Finally, the MM framework easily accommodates equality and inequality constraints of signomial type. For the most important special case, constrained quadratic programming, the MM algorithm involves very simple updates.

  2. Diameter measurement by laser at the submicron accuracy level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainsah, E.; Wong, Cheuk-Mun G.; Stout, Kenneth J.

    1993-09-01

    One important consequence of the " Quality Revolution" that is currently taking place in all sectors of advanced manufacturing industry is the requirement for more systematic and precise measurement. This is a pre-requisite for controlling tolerances on manufactured components and for ensuring that products leaving the factory meet the required specifications. The dramatic increase in computer power coupled with the demands of the space age nanotechnology and customer sophistication have meant that instrumentation is being constantly pushed to the limits in terms of accuracy tolerance and speed. Diameter measurements are carried out on a daily basis in many sectors of manufacturing industry. Due to the emphasis on factors such as speed accuracy and repeatability the current trend is to move away from conventional measurement techniques (metre rule measuring tape Vernier callipers) towards non-contact techniques. One of such techniques involves the use of the laser. This paper discusses at the design of a laser tracer data initiation capture and processing unit that permits diameter measurements to be made on-line and has the capability of carrying out up to 500 measurements per second. The system is non-contact with a measurement range of 2. 0000 mm and a resolution of 0. 5 im. It is demonstraated that by using two of these devices diameters of up to 220. 000 mm can be measured. This is done by incorporating a translational table that provides the

  3. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of stress distribution in composite resin cores with fiber posts of varying diameters.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kazuhiko; Ino, Teruno; Iwase, Naoki; Shimizu, Eitaroh; Suzuki, Megumi; Satoh, Goh; Ohkawa, Shuji; Fujisawa, Masanori

    2008-01-01

    Using three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D-FEA), stress distributions in the remaining radicular tooth structure were investigated under the condition of varying diameters of fiber post for fiber post-reinforced composite resin cores (fiber post and core) in maxillary central incisors. Four 3D-FEA models were constructed: (1) fiber post (ø1.2, ø1.4, and ø1.6 mm) and composite resin core; and (2) gold-cast post and core. Maximum stresses in the tooth structure for fiber post and core were higher than that for gold-cast post and core. In the former models, stresses in the tooth structure as well as in the composite resin were slightly reduced with increase in fiber post diameter. These results thus suggested that to reduce stress in the remaining radicular tooth with a large coronal defect, it is recommended to accompany a composite resin core with a fiber post of a large diameter. PMID:18309611

  4. QM/MM Calculations on Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ryde, U

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, I discuss combined quantum mechanics (QM) and molecular mechanics (MM; QM/MM) calculations for proteins. In QM/MM, a small but interesting part of the protein is treated by accurate QM methods, whereas the remainder is treated by faster MM methods. The prime problems with QM/MM calculations are bonds between the QM and MM systems, the selection of the QM system, and the local-minima problem. The two first problems can be solved by the big-QM approach, including in the QM calculation all groups within 4.5-6Å of the active site and all buried charges in the protein. The third problem can be solved by calculating free energies. It is important to study QM/MM energy components to ensure that the results are stable and reliable. They can also be used to understand the reaction and the effect of the surroundings, eg, by dividing the catalytic effect into bonded, van der Waals, electrostatic, and geometric components and to deduce which parts of the protein contribute most to the catalysis. It should be ensured that the QM calculations are reliable and converged by extending the basis set to quadruple-zeta quality, including a proper treatment of dispersion, as well as years experience and method development calculations with both pure and hybrid density functional theory methods. If the latter give differing results, calibration with high-level QM methods is needed. Reactions that change the net charge should be avoided. QM/MM calculations can be combined with experimental methods. PMID:27498637

  5. High Rate Proton Irradiation of 15mm Muon Drifttubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibell, A.; Biebel, O.; Hertenberger, R.; Ruschke, A.; Schmitt, Ch.; Kroha, H.; Bittner, B.; Schwegler, P.; Dubbert, J.; Ott, S.

    2012-08-01

    Future LHC luminosity upgrades will significantly increase the amount of background hits from photons, neutrons 11.11d protons in the detectors of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. At the proposed LHC peak luminosity of 5\\cdot 1034(1)/(cm2s), background hit rates of more than 10(kHz)/(cm2) are expected in the innermost forward region, leading to a loss of performance of the current tracking chambers. Based on the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube chambers, a new high rate capable drift tube detecor using tubes with a reduced diameter of 15mm was developed. To test the response to highly ionizing particles, a prototype chamber of 46 15mm drift tubes was irradiated with a 20 MeV proton beam at the tandem accelerator at the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Munich. Three tubes in a planar layer were irradiated while all other tubes were used for reconstruction of cosmic muon tracks through irradiated and nonirradiated parts of the chamber. To determine the rate capability of the 15mm drifttubes we investigated the effect of the proton hit rate on pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution of the cosmic muon signals.

  6. The LLNL 150-mm equation-of-state gun system

    SciTech Connect

    Rienecker, F.; Honodel, C.; Waldron, R.; Moor, E.; Perfect, S.; Bast, R.

    1987-09-22

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently designing a large gun system for expanded studies of a wide range of materials, including samples of high explosives weighing up to 10 kg. In its initial configuration, the system will have a 150-mm bore, 20-m-long, single-stage gun that can fire a 10-kg projectile at velocities of 2.2 km/s. Future plans include conversion either to a two-stage gun, or to a single-stage 100-mm gun, and conversion to a ballistic range. The high-explosive samples will be contained in a stainless steel tank that is 3.8 m in diameter, 12.5-m long, and 89-mm thick. This paper emphasizes improvements in the gun design, including tube couplings that use large coupling nuts and elastic interference fits to achieve precise alignment, a rail support system that allows rapid changes of configuration without need for re-alignment, and a barrel venting experiment designed to reduce projectile tilt in free flight. In addition, the authors discuss a computer modeling experiment in which they examined the effects of stress and strain on one part of the gun, the breech. Results showed that peak stresses would cause the breech to deform, producing autofrettaged conditions.

  7. COMPLICATIONS RELATED TO GASTRIC BYPASS PERFORMED WITH DIFFERENT GASTROJEJUNAL DIAMETERS

    PubMed Central

    SAMPAIO-NETO, José; BRANCO-FILHO, Alcides José; NASSIF, Luis Sérgio; BROSKA, Anne Caroline; KAMEI, Douglas Jun; NASSIF, André Thá

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Among the options for surgical treatment of obesity, the most widely used has been the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The gastrojejunal anastomosis can be accomplished in two ways: handsewn or using circular and linear stapled. The complications can be divided in early and late. Aim: To compare the incidence of early complications related with the handsewn gastrojejunal anastomosis in gastric bypass using Fouchet catheter with different diameters. Method: The records of 732 consecutive patients who had undergone the bypass were retrospectively analyzed and divided in two groups, group 1 with 12 mm anastomosis (n=374), and group 2 with 15 mm (n=358). Results: The groups showed anastomotic stenosis with rates of 11% and 3.1% respectively, with p=0.05. Other variables related to the anastomosis were also analyzed, but without statistical significance (p>0.05). Conclusion: The diameter of the anastomosis of 15 mm was related with lower incidence of stenosis. It was found that these patients had major bleeding postoperatively and lower surgical site infection, and in none was observed presence of anastomotic leak. PMID:27683767

  8. Pupil Diameter Tracks Lapses of Attention

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Peter R.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Our ability to sustain attention for prolonged periods of time is limited. Studies on the relationship between lapses of attention and psychophysiological markers of attentional state, such as pupil diameter, have yielded contradicting results. Here, we investigated the relationship between tonic fluctuations in pupil diameter and performance on a demanding sustained attention task. We found robust linear relationships between baseline pupil diameter and several measures of task performance, suggesting that attentional lapses tended to occur when pupil diameter was small. However, these observations were primarily driven by the joint effects of time-on-task on baseline pupil diameter and task performance. The linear relationships disappeared when we statistically controlled for time-on-task effects and were replaced by consistent inverted U-shaped relationships between baseline pupil diameter and each of the task performance measures, such that most false alarms and the longest and most variable response times occurred when pupil diameter was both relatively small and large. Finally, we observed strong linear relationships between the temporal derivative of pupil diameter and task performance measures, which were largely independent of time-on-task. Our results help to reconcile contradicting findings in the literature on pupil-linked changes in attentional state, and are consistent with the adaptive gain theory of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine function. Moreover, they suggest that the derivative of baseline pupil diameter is a potentially useful psychophysiological marker that could be used in the on-line prediction and prevention of attentional lapses. PMID:27768778

  9. Diameter Effect In Initiating Explosives, Numerical Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lefrancois, A.; Benterou, J.; Roeske, F.; Roos, E.

    2006-02-10

    The ability to safely machine small pieces of HE with the femtosecond laser allows diameter effect experiments to be performed in initiating explosives in order to study the failure diameter, the reduction of the detonation velocity and curvature versus the diameter. The reduced diameter configuration needs to be optimized, so that the detonation products of the first cylinder will not affect the measurement of the detonation velocity of the second cylinder with a streak camera. Different 2D axi-symmetrical configurations have been calculated to identify the best solution using the Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for LX16 Pellet with Ls-Dyna.

  10. trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    trans - 1,2 - Dichloroethylene ; CASRN 156 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  11. 1,2,4-Tribromobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4 - Tribromobenzene ; CASRN 615 - 54 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  12. 1,1,2-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 598 - 77 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  13. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,3 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 96 - 18 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several program offices , regional offices , and the Office of Research and Development

  14. cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    cis - 1,2 - Dichloroethylene ; CASRN 156 - 59 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  15. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloroethane ; CASRN 79 - 00 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  16. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4 - Trichlorobenzene ; CASRN 120 - 82 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  17. 1,2-Epoxybutane (EBU)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Epoxybutane ( EBU ) ; CASRN 106 - 88 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  18. Dark filaments observed at 8.3mm and 3.1mm wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiel, E.; Ishiguro, M.; Kosugi, T.; Shibasaki, K.

    1986-01-01

    Mapping of the sun was made at 3.1mm (98 GHz) and 8.3mm (36 GHz) wavelengths with a 45m dish radio telescope at the Nobeyama Cosmic Radio Observatory. The depressions associated with large H alpha filaments are derived to be -0.2 at 8.3mm and -0.05 at 3.1mm, which are darker than the values inferred by Raoult et al. (1979)

  19. Analogue saturation limit of single and double 10 mm microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milnes, J. S.; Conneely, T. M.; Horsfield, C. J.

    2016-11-01

    Photek are a well-established supplier of microchannel plate (MCP) photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) to the inertial confinement fusion community. The analogue signals produced at the major inertial confinement fusion facilities cover many orders of magnitude, therefore understanding the upper saturation limit of MCP-PMTs to large low rate signals takes on a high importance. Here we present a study of a single and a double MCP-PMT with 10 mm diameter active area. The saturation was studied for a range of optical pulse widths from 4 ns to 100 ns and at a range of electron gain values: 103 to 104 for the single and 104 to 106 for the double. We have shown that the saturation level of ˜1.2 nC depends only on the integrated charge of the pulse and is independent of pulse width and gain over this range, but that the level of charge available in deep saturation is proportional to the operating gain.

  20. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using 2-mm instruments.

    PubMed

    Uranüs, S; Peng, Z; Kronberger, L; Pfeifer, J; Salehi, B

    1998-10-01

    Today, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the method of choice for treatment of symptomatic gallbladder disorders. It minimizes effects of the operation that are independent of the gallbladder, such as trauma to the abdominal wall and other soft tissue. The surgical wounds were even smaller when 2-mm trocars were used. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using 2-mm instruments was performed in a consecutive series of 14 patients with symptomatic gallstones. The procedure was completed in 12 cases, with conversion to open surgery in two cases. Intraoperative cholangiography was always performed. The postoperative course was always uneventful. The cosmetic effect was highly satisfactory. The procedure using 2-mm instruments could be indicated in selected patients with uncomplicated gallstone disease. PMID:9820716

  1. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using 2-mm instruments.

    PubMed

    Uranüs, S; Peng, Z; Kronberger, L; Pfeifer, J; Salehi, B

    1998-10-01

    Today, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the method of choice for treatment of symptomatic gallbladder disorders. It minimizes effects of the operation that are independent of the gallbladder, such as trauma to the abdominal wall and other soft tissue. The surgical wounds were even smaller when 2-mm trocars were used. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using 2-mm instruments was performed in a consecutive series of 14 patients with symptomatic gallstones. The procedure was completed in 12 cases, with conversion to open surgery in two cases. Intraoperative cholangiography was always performed. The postoperative course was always uneventful. The cosmetic effect was highly satisfactory. The procedure using 2-mm instruments could be indicated in selected patients with uncomplicated gallstone disease.

  2. Serial Measurements of Splanchnic Vein Diameters in Rats Using High-Frequency Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Bridget M.; Krieger-Burke, Teresa; Fink, Gregory D.; Watts, Stephanie W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate serial ultrasound imaging in rats as a fully non-invasive method to (1) quantify the diameters of splanchnic veins in real time as an indirect surrogate for the capacitance function of those veins, and (2) assess the effects of drugs on venous dimensions. A 21 MHz probe was used on anesthetized male Sprague–Dawley rats to collect images containing the portal vein (PV), superior mesenteric vein (SMV), abdominal inferior vena cava (IVC), and splenic vein (SpV; used as a landmark in timed studies) and the abdominal aorta (AA). Stable landmarks were established that allowed reproducible quantification of cross-sectional diameters within an animal. The average diameters of vessels measured every 5 min over 45 min remained within 0.75 ± 0.15% (PV), 0.2 ± 0.09% (SMV), 0.5 ± 0.12% (IVC), and 0.38 ± 0.06% (AA) of baseline (PV: 2.0 ± 0.12 mm; SMV: 1.7 ± 0.04 mm; IVC: 3.2 ± 0.1 mm; AA: 2.3 ± 0.14 mm). The maximal effects of the vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 2 mg/kg, i.v. bolus) on venous diameters were determined 5 min post SNP bolus; the diameters of all noted veins were significantly increased by SNP, while mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased 29 ± 4 mmHg. By contrast, administration of the venoconstrictor sarafotoxin (S6c; 5 ng/kg, i.v. bolus) significantly decreased PV and SpV, but not IVC, SMV, or AA, diameters 5 min post S6c bolus; MAP increased by 6 ± 2 mmHg. In order to determine if resting splanchnic vein diameters were stable over much longer periods of time, vessel diameters were measured every 2 weeks for 8 weeks. Measurements were found to be highly reproducible within animals over this time period. Finally, to evaluate the utility of vein imaging in a chronic condition, images were acquired from 4-week deoxycorticosterone acetate salt (DOCA-salt) hypertensive and normotensive (SHAM) control rats. All vessel diameters increased from baseline while MAP increased (67 ± 4 mmHg) in DOCA-salt rats

  3. 7 CFR 51.2850 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a straight line running...

  4. 7 CFR 51.651 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946...) Definitions § 51.651 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a line...

  5. 7 CFR 51.712 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... § 51.712 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a line from...

  6. Shrinking plastic tubing and nonstandard diameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, W. V.; Thatcher, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    Process allows larger-than-normal postshrink diameters without splitting. Tetrafluoroethylene tubing on mandrel is supported within hot steel pipe by several small diameter coil sections. Rising temperature of mandrel is measured via thermocouple so assembly can be removed without overshrinking (and splitting) of tubing.

  7. 7 CFR 51.2850 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a straight line running...

  8. 7 CFR 51.651 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946...) Definitions § 51.651 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a line...

  9. 7 CFR 51.712 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... § 51.712 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a line from...

  10. The 1.2 micron CMOS technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pina, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A set of test structures was designed using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) test chip assembler and was used to evaluate the first CMOS-bulk foundry runs with feature sizes of 1.2 microns. In addition to the problems associated with the physical scaling of the structures, this geometry provided an additional set of problems, since the design files had to be generated in such a way as to be capable of being processed through p-well, n-well, and twin-well processing lines. This requirement meant that the files containing the geometric design rules as well as the structure design files had to produce process-insensitive designs, a requirement that does not apply to the more mature 3.0-micron CMOS feature size technology. Because of the photolithographic steps required with this feature size, the maximum allowable chip size was 10 x 10 mm, and this chip was divided into 24 project areas, with each area being 1.6 x 1.6 mm in size. The JPL-designed structures occupied 13 out of the 21 allowable project sizes and provided the only test information obtained from these three preliminary runs. The structures were used to successfully evaluate three different manufacturing runs through two separate foundries.

  11. Microeconomics of 300-mm process module control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Kevin M.; Chatterjee, Arun K.; Falessi, Georges; Levy, Ady; Stoller, Meryl D.

    2001-08-01

    Simple microeconomic models that directly link metrology, yield, and profitability are rare or non-existent. In this work, we validate and apply such a model. Using a small number of input parameters, we explain current yield management practices in 200 mm factories. The model is then used to extrapolate requirements for 300 mm factories, including the impact of simultaneous technology transitions to 130nm lithography and integrated metrology. To support our conclusions, we use examples relevant to factory-wide photo module control.

  12. Note: Computer controlled rotation mount for large diameter optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakonjac, Ana; Roberts, Kris O.; Deb, Amita B.; Kjærgaard, Niels

    2013-02-01

    We describe the construction of a motorized optical rotation mount with a 40 mm clear aperture. The device is used to remotely control the power of large diameter laser beams for a magneto-optical trap. A piezo-electric ultrasonic motor on a printed circuit board provides rotation with a precision better than 0.03° and allows for a very compact design. The rotation unit is controlled from a computer via serial communication, making integration into most software control platforms straightforward.

  13. Turbulent Concentration of MM-Size Particles in the Protoplanetary Nebula: Scaled-Dependent Multiplier Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Hartlep, Thomas; Weston, B.; Estremera, Shariff Kareem

    2014-01-01

    The initial accretion of primitive bodies (asteroids and TNOs) from freely-floating nebula particles remains problematic. Here we focus on the asteroids where constituent particle (read "chondrule") sizes are observationally known; similar arguments will hold for TNOs, but the constituent particles in those regions will be smaller, or will be fluffy aggregates, and are unobserved. Traditional growth-bysticking models encounter a formidable "meter-size barrier" [1] (or even a mm-cm-size barrier [2]) in turbulent nebulae, while nonturbulent nebulae form large asteroids too quickly to explain long spreads in formation times, or the dearth of melted asteroids [3]. Even if growth by sticking could somehow breach the meter size barrier, other obstacles are encountered through the 1-10km size range [4]. Another clue regarding planetesimal formation is an apparent 100km diameter peak in the pre-depletion, pre-erosion mass distribution of asteroids [5]; scenarios leading directly from independent nebula particulates to this size, which avoid the problematic m-km size range, could be called "leapfrog" scenarios [6-8]. The leapfrog scenario we have studied in detail involves formation of dense clumps of aerodynamically selected, typically mm-size particles in turbulence, which can under certain conditions shrink inexorably on 100-1000 orbit timescales and form 10-100km diameter sandpile planetesimals. The typical sizes of planetesimals and the rate of their formation [7,8] are determined by a statistical model with properties inferred from large numerical simulations of turbulence [9]. Nebula turbulence can be described by its Reynolds number Re = L/eta sup(4/3), where L = ETA alpha sup (1/2) the largest eddy scale, H is the nebula gas vertical scale height, and a the nebula turbulent viscosity parameter, and ? is the Kolmogorov or smallest scale in turbulence (typically about 1km), with eddy turnover time t?. In the nebula, Re is far larger than any numerical simulation can

  14. Turbulent Concentration of mm-Size Particles in the Protoplanetary Nebula: Scale-Dependent Cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Hartlep, T.

    2015-01-01

    The initial accretion of primitive bodies (here, asteroids in particular) from freely-floating nebula particles remains problematic. Traditional growth-by-sticking models encounter a formidable "meter-size barrier" (or even a mm-to-cm-size barrier) in turbulent nebulae, making the preconditions for so-called "streaming instabilities" difficult to achieve even for so-called "lucky" particles. Even if growth by sticking could somehow breach the meter size barrier, turbulent nebulae present further obstacles through the 1-10km size range. On the other hand, nonturbulent nebulae form large asteroids too quickly to explain long spreads in formation times, or the dearth of melted asteroids. Theoretical understanding of nebula turbulence is itself in flux; recent models of MRI (magnetically-driven) turbulence favor low-or- no-turbulence environments, but purely hydrodynamic turbulence is making a comeback, with two recently discovered mechanisms generating robust turbulence which do not rely on magnetic fields at all. An important clue regarding planetesimal formation is an apparent 100km diameter peak in the pre-depletion, pre-erosion mass distribution of asteroids; scenarios leading directly from independent nebula particulates to large objects of this size, which avoid the problematic m-km size range, could be called "leapfrog" scenarios. The leapfrog scenario we have studied in detail involves formation of dense clumps of aerodynamically selected, typically mm-size particles in turbulence, which can under certain conditions shrink inexorably on 100-1000 orbit timescales and form 10-100km diameter sandpile planetesimals. There is evidence that at least the ordinary chondrite parent bodies were initially composed entirely of a homogeneous mix of such particles. Thus, while they are arcane, turbulent concentration models acting directly on chondrule size particles are worthy of deeper study. The typical sizes of planetesimals and the rate of their formation can be

  15. Film Programmer's Guide to 16mm Rentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artel, Linda J., Ed.; Weaver, Kathleen, Ed.

    The guide is geared to reflect the expanding interest in the history of cinema, in underground and experimental films, in social and political documentaries as well as more conventional Hollywood and foreign classics. It lists over 8,000 16mm films selected from 50 United States distributors. A title directory contains information concerning the…

  16. CCM3 to MM5 Data Conversion

    2007-03-02

    The accompanying script (which uses the NCAR Command Language) ready output from the Community Climate Model Code, version 3 (CCM3) and converts it to input format for the Mesoscale Model, version 5 (MM5) code. The script utilizes a Fortran binary write routine.

  17. Mm-wave power meter mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, D. L.; Oltmans, D. A.; Stelzried, C. T.

    1968-01-01

    E-band thermistor mount and a technique for adjusting a temperature compensating thermistor to provide an electrically balanced bridge are used for measuring RF power in the mm-wavelength. The mount is relatively insensitive to temperature effects that cause measurement errors in single ended circuits.

  18. Management of Benign Tracheal Stenosis by Small-diameter Tube-assisted Bronchoscopic Balloon Dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yi-Lin; Liu, Guang-Nan; Zheng, Hou-Wen; Li, Yu; Chen, Le-Cheng; Fu, Yu-Yan; Li, Wen-Tao; Huang, Si-Ming; Yang, Mei-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Background: A limitation of bronchoscopic balloon dilatation (BBD) is that airflow must be completely blocked for as long as possible during the operation. However, the patient often cannot hold his or her breath for a long period affecting the efficacy of the procedure. In this study, we used an extra-small-diameter tube to provide assisted ventilation to patients undergoing BBD and assessed the efficacy and safety of this technique. Methods: Bronchoscopic balloon dilatation was performed in 26 patients with benign tracheal stenosis using an extra-small-diameter tube. The tracheal diameter, dyspnea index, blood gas analysis results, and complications were evaluated before and after BBD. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS version 16.0 for Windows (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Sixty-three BBD procedures were performed in 26 patients. Dyspnea immediately improved in all patients after BBD. The tracheal diameter significantly increased from 5.5 ± 1.5 mm to 13.0 ± 1.3 mm (P < 0.001), and the dyspnea index significantly decreased from 3.4 ± 0.8 to 0.5 ± 0.6 (P < 0.001). There was no significant change in the partial pressure of oxygen during the operation (before, 102.5 ± 27.5 mmHg; during, 96.9 ± 30.4 mmHg; and after, 97.2 ± 21.5 mmHg; P = 0.364), but there was slight temporary retention of carbon dioxide during the operation (before, 43.5 ± 4.2 mmHg; during, 49.4 ± 6.8 mmHg; and after, 40.1 ± 3.9 mmHg; P < 0.001). Conclusion: Small-diameter tube-assisted BBD is an effective and safe method for the management of benign tracheal stenosis. PMID:25963352

  19. Sonar cephalometry in twin pregnancy: discordancy of the biparietal diameter after 28 weeks' gestation.

    PubMed

    Leveno, K J; Santos-Ramos, R; Duenhoelter, J H; Reisch, J S; Whalley, P J

    1980-11-15

    Sonar measured biparietal diameter (BPD) differences of twin paires were examined in 123 twin pregnancies at or beyond 28 weeks' gestation. Among 117 liveborn sets, the risk of a twin infant being small for gestational age was threefold greater when paired BPD differences were 5 mm or more compared to 4 mm or less. The incidence of fetal death increased from 2.7% for twin pairs with 0 to 6 mm BPD differences to 20% when the difference was 7 mm or more. Sonar cephalometry may be helpful in the antepartum evaluation of twin pregnancies, although detection of BPD discordancy does not preclude normal twin outcome.

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REAL-TIME AND TIME-INTEGRATED COARSE (2.5-10MM), INTERMEDIATE (1-2.5MM), AND FINE (<2.5MM) PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE LOS ANGELES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention due to the association between ambient particulate concentrations and mortality. Current toxicological and epidemiological studies and controlled human and animal exposures suggest that a...

  1. Diameter prediction mathematical models for xanthan gum-alginate capsules produced by extrusion-dripping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Hui-Yen; Lee, Boon-Beng; Zakaria, Zarina; Chan, Eng-Seng

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the applicability of particle diameter prediction mathematical models (i.e. Tate's Law equation, the modified Tate's Law equation, the modified Yildirim's model) to determine diameter of liquid core capsules. The capsules were produced by extruding xanthan gum-calcium chloride solution through a hypodermic needle into sodium alginate solution. The effects of two types of xanthan gum with different concentrations and needle diameters on capsule diameter were investigated in this work. The results showed that there was no significant difference in capsule diameter despite different types and concentrations of xanthan gum were used. However, the diameter of the capsules increased when the diameter of needles increased. As a whole, the produced capsules were in the range of 3.47 mm to 4.86 mm. Among the three studied prediction models, the modified Tate's Law mathematical equation was the most suitable model for the diameter prediction of the liquid core capsules with AAD of 2.74% and MAD of 6.55%.

  2. Biologically Inspired mm-size Gliding UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, Daniel; Zussman, Eyal; Yarin, Alexander

    2002-11-01

    We present a first design of an unmanned aerial vehicle whose aerodynamic loads are carried by comb-like permeable surfaces. This concept was based on observation and analysis of the flight capabilities of the Thrip family of insects, whose have wings of this form and various plant seeds which use this concept to form an aerodynamic decelerator. This concept is only practical for at low Reynolds numbers, as the viscous trace of bodies moving in fluid becomes thicker as Re becomes smaller. When Re<1, a cylinder moving in fluid can drag along fluid up to several cylinder diameters. This drag effect can be used to produce a comb structure, where the ratio of comb rod to inter-rod distance can be up to 0.1 without significant throughflow, i.e. the comb is equivalent to a continuous surface. To demonstrate this principle, we have built artificial ``dandelion seeds", i.e. stable aerodynamic decelerators (parachutes) made of permeable light mats of submicron diameter nanofibers. We produced the nanofiber matrices (mats) by electrospinning of polymer solutions, obtaining fibers of 200-400 nm diameter. These fibers were then deposited on frames that serve to define the aerodynamic surfaces, thus producing the mat, with controllable density. For stability, the aerodynamic surfaces had positive dihedral ( inverted umbrella) forms with the fuselage hanging below. When dropped, the platforms fell freely through the air, apex down, reaching terminal velocity very quickly. By comparing the sink rate of the permeable structures with equivalent decelerators with continuous (Saran-wrap) surfaces we show that the permeable surfaces are equivalent to continuous surfaces, with significant weight savings, as long as the local Reynolds number is o(1).

  3. Substrate diameter and compliance affect the gripping strategies and locomotor mode of climbing boa constrictors.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Greg; Jayne, Bruce C

    2010-12-15

    Arboreal habitats pose unique challenges for locomotion as a result of their narrow cylindrical surfaces and discontinuities between branches. Decreased diameter of branches increases compliance, which can pose additional challenges, including effects on stability and energy damping. However, the combined effects of substrate diameter and compliance are poorly understood for any animal. We quantified performance, kinematics and substrate deformation while boa constrictors (Boa constrictor) climbed vertical ropes with three diameters (3, 6 and 9 mm) and four tensions (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 body weights). Mean forward velocity decreased significantly with both decreased diameter and increased compliance. Both diameter and compliance had numerous effects on locomotor kinematics, but diameter had larger and more pervasive effects than compliance. Locomotion on the largest diameter had a larger forward excursion per cycle, and the locomotor mode and gripping strategy differed from that on the smaller diameters. On larger diameters, snakes primarily applied opposing forces at the same location on the rope to grip. By contrast, on smaller diameters forces were applied in opposite directions at different locations along the rope, resulting in increased rope deformation. Although energy is likely to be lost during deformation, snakes might use increased surface deformation as a strategy to enhance their ability to grip.

  4. Growth of nanostructures with controlled diameter

    DOEpatents

    Pfefferle, Lisa; Haller, Gary; Ciuparu, Dragos

    2009-02-03

    Transition metal-substituted MCM-41 framework structures with a high degree of structural order and a narrow pore diameter distribution were reproducibly synthesized by a hydrothermal method using a surfactant and an anti-foaming agent. The pore size and the mesoporous volume depend linearly on the surfactant chain length. The transition metals, such as cobalt, are incorporated substitutionally and highly dispersed in the silica framework. Single wall carbon nanotubes with a narrow diameter distribution that correlates with the pore diameter of the catalytic framework structure were prepared by a Boudouard reaction. Nanostructures with a specified diameter or cross-sectional area can therefore be predictably prepared by selecting a suitable pore size of the framework structure.

  5. Gene Tree Diameter for Deep Coalescence.

    PubMed

    Górecki, Paweł; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The deep coalescence cost accounts for discord caused by deep coalescence between a gene tree and a species tree. It is a major concern that the diameter of a gene tree (the tree's maximum deep coalescence cost across all species trees) depends on its topology, which can largely obfuscate phylogenetic studies. While this bias can be compensated by normalizing the deep coalescence cost using diameters, obtaining them efficiently has been posed as an open problem by Than and Rosenberg. Here, we resolve this problem by describing a linear time algorithm to compute the diameter of a gene tree. In addition, we provide a complete classification of the species trees yielding this diameter to guide phylogenetic analyses.

  6. Measurements of Pupillary Diameter and Wavefront Aberrations in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Altay, Mehmet Metin; Demirok, Gulizar; Balta, Ozgur; Bolu, Hulya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To show whether pregnancy affects the measurements of pupillary diameter and wavefront (WF) aberrations. Methods. This was a case-control study including 34 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and age-matched 34 nonpregnant women. Only women who had no ocular abnormalities and no refractive error were included. We measured photopic and mesopic pupil diameter and WF aberrations at the third trimester and at the second postpartum month. Measurements of the right eyes were used in this study. The differences between groups were analysed by paired t-test and t-test. Results. Pregnant women's mean photopic pupil size in the third trimester was significantly higher than in postpartum period and in control group (3.74 ± 0.77, 3.45 ± 0.53, and 3.49 ± 0.15 mm, p < 0.05, resp.). Mesopic pupil size in the third trimester was also higher than in postpartum period and in control group (6.77 ± 0.52, 6.42 ± 0.55, and 6.38 ± 0.21 mm, p < 0.05, resp.). RMS-3 and RMS-5 values were higher in pregnancy but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Pregnancy increased photopic and mesopic pupil size significantly but did not increase wavefront aberrations notably. Increased pupil size may be due to increased sympathetic activity during pregnancy. And this activity can be noninvasively determined by measuring pupil size. PMID:26998383

  7. The Use of Narrow Diameter Implants in the Molar Area

    PubMed Central

    Saad, M.; Assaf, A.; Gerges, E.

    2016-01-01

    Implant rehabilitations in the posterior jaw are influenced by many factors such as the condition of the remaining teeth, the force factors related to the patient, the quality of the bone, the maintenance of the hygiene, the limited bone height, the type and extent of edentulism, and the nature of the opposing arch. The gold standard is to place a regular diameter implant (>3.7 mm) or a wide one to replace every missing molar. Unfortunately, due to horizontal bone resorption, this option is not possible without lateral bone augmentation. In this situation, narrow diameter implant (NDI < 3.5 mm) could be the alternative to lateral bone augmentation procedures. This paper presents a clinical study where NDIs were used for the replacement of missing molars. They were followed up to 11 years. Special considerations were observed and many parameters were evaluated. NDI could be used to replace missing molar in case of moderate horizontal bone resorption if strict guidelines are respected. Yet, future controlled prospective clinical trials are required to admit their use as scientific evidence. PMID:27293436

  8. Terahertz/mm wave imaging simulation software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetterman, M. R.; Dougherty, J.; Kiser, W. L., Jr.

    2006-10-01

    We have developed a mm wave/terahertz imaging simulation package from COTS graphic software and custom MATLAB code. In this scheme, a commercial ray-tracing package was used to simulate the emission and reflections of radiation from scenes incorporating highly realistic imagery. Accurate material properties were assigned to objects in the scenes, with values obtained from the literature, and from our own terahertz spectroscopy measurements. The images were then post-processed with custom Matlab code to include the blur introduced by the imaging system and noise levels arising from system electronics and detector noise. The Matlab code was also used to simulate the effect of fog, an important aspect for mm wave imaging systems. Several types of image scenes were evaluated, including bar targets, contrast detail targets, a person in a portal screening situation, and a sailboat on the open ocean. The images produced by this simulation are currently being used as guidance for a 94 GHz passive mm wave imaging system, but have broad applicability for frequencies extending into the terahertz region.

  9. Large diameter carbon-boron fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veltri, R. D.; Jacob, B. A.; Galasso, F. S.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations concerned with a development of large-diameter carbon fibers are considered, taking into account the employment of vapor deposition techniques. In the experiments a carbon monofilament substrate is used together with reacting gases which consist of combinations of hydrogen, methane, and boron trichloride. It is found that the described approach can be used to obtain a large-diameter carbon filament containing boron. The filament has reasonable strength and modulus properties.

  10. Ultra-efficient Engine Diameter Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Brown, Stephen T.; Kawai, Ron T.

    2003-01-01

    Engine fan diameter and Bypass Ratio (BPR) optimization studies have been conducted since the beginning of the turbofan age with the recognition that reducing the engine core jet velocity and increasing fan mass flow rate generally increases propulsive efficiency. However, performance tradeoffs limit the amount of fan flow achievable without reducing airplane efficiency. This study identifies the optimum engine fan diameter and BPR, given the advanced Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) powerplant efficiencies, for use on an advanced subsonic airframe. Engine diameter studies have historically focused on specific engine size options, and were limited by existing technology and transportation infrastructure (e.g., ability to fit bare engines through aircraft doors and into cargo holds). This study is unique in defining the optimum fan diameter and drivers for future 2015 (UEET) powerplants while not limiting engine fan diameter by external constraints. This report follows on to a study identifying the system integration issues of UEET engines. This Engine Diameter study was managed by Boeing Phantom Works, Seattle, Washington through the NASA Glenn Revolutionary Aero Space Engine Research (RASER) contract under task order 10. Boeing Phantom Works, Huntington Beach, completed the engine/airplane sizing optimization, while the Boeing Commercial Airplane group (BCA) provided design oversight. A separate subcontract to support the overall project was issued to Tuskegee University.

  11. Beam optics of a 10-cm diameter high current heavy ion diode

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, J.W.; Vay, J.L.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Halaxa, E.; Westenskow, G.; Haber, I.

    2003-05-01

    Typically a large diameter surface ionization source is used to produce > 0.5 A K{sup +} current with emittance < 1 {pi}-mm-mrad for heavy ion fusion experiments. So far we have observed aberrations that are slightly different from those predicted by computer simulations. We have now set up an experiment to study in detail the beam optics of such a large diameter ion diode and to benchmark the simulation code.

  12. Maximum Diameter of Native Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Measured by Angio-Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Caroline E.; Marcus, Claude D.; Barbe, Coralie M.; Ecarnot, Fiona B.; Long, Anne L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the reference technique for the measurement of native maximum abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) diameter when surgery is being considered. However, there is a wide choice available for the methodology of maximum AAA diameter measurement on CTA, and to date, no consensus has been reached on which method is best. We analyzed clinical decisions based on these various measures of native maximum AAA diameter with CTA, then analyzed their reproducibility and identified the method of measurement yielding the highest agreement in terms of patient management. Materials and Methods: Three sets of measures in 46 native AAA were obtained, double-blind by three radiologists (J, S, V) on orthogonal planes, curved multiplanar reconstructions, and semi-automated-software, based on the AAA-lumen centerline. From each set, the clinical decision was recorded as follows: "Follow-up" (if all diameters <50 mm), "ambiguous" (if at least one diameter <50 mm AND at least one ≥50 mm) or "Surgery " (if all diameters ≥50 mm). Intra- and interobserver agreements in clinical decisions were compared using the weighted Kappa coefficient. Results: Clinical decisions varied according to the measurement sets used by each observer, and according to intra and interobserver (lecture#1) reproducibility. Based on the first reading of each observer, the number of AAA proposed for surgery ranged from 11 to 24 for J, 5 to 20 for S, and 15 to 23 for V. The rate of AAAs classified as "ambiguous" varied from 11% (5/46) to 37% (17/46). The semi-automated method yielded very good intraand interobserver agreements in clinical decisions in all comparisons (Kappa range 0.83–1.00). Conclusion: The semi-automated method seems to be appropriate for native AAA maximum diameter measurement on CTA. In the absence of AAA outer-wallbased software more robust for complex AAA, clinical decisions might best be made with diameter values obtained using this technique

  13. Validating a Nonhuman Primate Model of Super-Selective Intraophthalmic Artery Chemotherapy: Comparing Ophthalmic Artery Diameters

    PubMed Central

    Ditta, Lauren C.; Choudhri, Asim F.; Tse, Brian C.; Landers, Mark M.; Haik, Barrett G.; Steinle, Jena J.; Williams, J. Scott; Wilson, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Superselective intraophthalmic artery chemotherapy (SSIOAC) is being used for treatment of retinoblastoma; however, the hemodynamic consequences and toxicities are not fully known. We developed a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of SSIOAC and reported our clinical observations. For validation, we compared ophthalmic artery (OA) diameters between NHPs and children (<6 years). Methods. Endovascular cannulation of the right OA was performed three times each in six adult male Rhesus macaques. Angiographic OA images were obtained and measured, and postmortem OAs were histologically sectioned and measured. Retrospectively, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) angiography images of the head in children and adolescents (as an adult reference) were used to measure the OA luminal diameter at its origin. Results. The median angiographic diameter of treated NHP OA origins (n = 6) was 1.06 mm (range 0.94–1.56). Histologic measurements (8 of 12 NHP OAs) gave a median diameter of 1.09 mm (range 0.95–1.41). In 98 children (from 169 consecutive CT and MR angiography studies; median age 1.01 years, range 0.01–5.74), 186 OAs were measurable at the origin (median luminal diameter 1.28 mm, range 0.82–2.00; P = 0.16 for the angiographic NHP diameters versus pediatric cohort). Angiographic measurements of 34 OAs (of 20 consecutive studies of adolescents; median age 16.55 years, range 14.40–18.18) gave a median luminal diameter of 1.45 mm (origin, range 1.13–1.66; P < 0.0001, adolescent versus pediatric). Conclusions. Measurements of the OA luminal diameter at its origin were similar between our NHP and pediatric cohort, validating our NHP model for testing both the hemodynamic consequences and toxicities of SSIOAC. PMID:23111611

  14. Effect of conical nanopore diameter on ion current rectification.

    PubMed

    Kovarik, Michelle L; Zhou, Kaimeng; Jacobson, Stephen C

    2009-12-10

    Asymmetric nanoscale conduits, such as conical track-etch pores, rectify ion current due to surface charge effects. To date, most data concerning this phenomenon have been obtained for small nanopores with diameters comparable to the electrical double layer thickness. Here, we systematically evaluate rectification for nanopores in poly(ethylene terephthalate) membranes with tip diameters of 10, 35, 85, and 380 nm. Current-voltage behavior is determined for buffer concentrations from 1 mM to 1 M and pHs 3.4 and 6.7. In general, ion current rectification increases with decreasing tip diameter, with decreasing ionic strength, and at higher pH. Surface charge contributes to increased pore conductivities compared to bulk buffer conductivities, though double layer overlap is not necessary for rectification to occur. Interestingly, the 35 nm pore exhibits a maximum rectification ratio for the 0.01 M buffer at pH 6.7, and the 380 nm pores exhibit nearly diodelike current-voltage curves when initially etched and strong rectification after the ion current has stabilized.

  15. Influence of coronary artery diameter on eNOS protein content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, M. H.; Turk, J. R.; Schrage, W. G.; Woodman, C. R.; Price, E. M.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the content of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein (eNOS protein/g total artery protein) increases with decreasing artery diameter in the coronary arterial tree. Content of eNOS protein was determined in porcine coronary arteries with immunoblot analysis. Arteries were isolated in six size categories from each heart: large arteries [301- to 2,500-microm internal diameter (ID)], small arteries (201- to 300-microm ID), resistance arteries (151- to 200-microm ID), large arterioles (101- to 150-microm ID), intermediate arterioles (51- to 100-microm ID), and small arterioles(<50-microm ID). To obtain sufficient protein for analysis from small- and intermediate-sized arterioles, five to seven arterioles 1-2 mm in length were pooled into one sample for each animal. Results establish that the number of smooth muscle cells per endothelial cell decreases from a number of 10 to 15 in large coronary arteries to 1 in the smallest arterioles. Immunohistochemistry revealed that eNOS is located only in endothelial cells in all sizes of coronary artery and in coronary capillaries. Contrary to our hypothesis, eNOS protein content did not increase with decreasing size of coronary artery. Indeed, the smallest coronary arterioles had less eNOS protein per gram of total protein than the large coronary arteries. These results indicate that eNOS protein content is greater in the endothelial cells of conduit arteries, resistance arteries, and large arterioles than in small coronary arterioles.

  16. Development of Small Diameter Nanofiber Tissue Engineered Arterial Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Tara, Shuhei; Rocco, Kevin A.; Bagi, Paul S.; Yi, Tai; Udelsman, Brooks; Zhuang, Zhen W.; Cleary, Muriel; Iwakiri, Yasuko; Breuer, Christopher K.; Shinoka, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    The surgical repair of heart and vascular disease often requires implanting synthetic grafts. While synthetic grafts have been successfully used for medium-to-large sized arteries, applications for small diameter arteries (<6 mm) is limited due to high rates of occlusion by thrombosis. Our objective was to develop a tissue engineered vascular graft (TEVG) for small diameter arteries. TEVGs composed of polylactic acid nanofibers with inner luminal diameter between 0.5 and 0.6 mm were surgically implanted as infra-renal aortic interposition conduits in 25 female C17SCID/bg mice. Twelve mice were given sham operations. Survival of mice with TEVG grafts was 91.6% at 12 months post-implantation (sham group: 83.3%). No instances of graft stenosis or aneurysmal dilatation were observed over 12 months post-implantation, assessed by Doppler ultrasound and microCT. Histologic analysis of explanted TEVG grafts showed presence of CD31-positive endothelial monolayer and F4/80-positive macrophages after 4, 8, and 12 months in vivo. Cells positive for α-smooth muscle actin were observed within TEVG, demonstrating presence of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Neo-extracellular matrix consisting mostly of collagen types I and III were observed at 12 months post-implantation. PCR analysis supports histological observations. TEVG group showed significant increases in expressions of SMC marker, collagen-I and III, matrix metalloproteinases-2 and 9, and itgam (a macrophage marker), when compared to sham group. Overall, patency rates were excellent at 12 months after implantation, as structural integrity of these TEVG. Tissue analysis also demonstrated vessel remodeling by autologous cell. PMID:25830942

  17. Solid-state conversion of (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3-(K1/2Na1/2)NbO3 single crystals and their piezoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Ho-Yong; Kang, Suk-Joong L.

    2014-06-01

    Piezoelectric ceramic with a composition of (94 - x)(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-6BaTiO3-x(K1/2Na1/2)NbO3 (NBT-BT-xKNN) is a promising lead-free piezoelectric material for actuator applications because of its giant electric-field-induced strains, which are comparable with that of soft Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (PZT) ceramics. Using the solid-state single crystal growth method, we succeeded in fabricating usable single crystals of NBT-BT-3KNN (6 mm × 6 mm × 8 mm size) with a uniform chemical composition. The room temperature piezoelectric properties of ⟨001⟩, ⟨110⟩, and ⟨111⟩ oriented single crystals were measured. Single crystals showed strong anisotropic strain characteristics. In particular, ⟨001⟩ oriented single crystals had excellent piezoelectric properties with small hysteresis and a high strain of 0.57% at 7 kV/mm. In addition, the fabricated single crystals exhibited a high converse piezoelectric constant, Smax/Emax, of over 1000 pm/V at 4 kV/mm. These values are greater than those reported for any lead-containing and lead-free ceramics and comparable with those of lead-based single crystals. Our investigation demonstrates the solid-state conversion of lead-free single crystals and their practical usability in replacement of lead-based materials.

  18. 1 mm ultrafast superconducting stripline molecule detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zen, N.; Casaburi, A.; Shiki, S.; Suzuki, K.; Ejrnaes, M.; Cristiano, R.; Ohkubo, M.

    2009-10-01

    Superconducting stripline detectors (SSLDs) are promising for detecting keV molecules at nanosecond response times and with mass-independent detection efficiency. However, a fast response time is incompatible with practical centimeter detector size. A parallel configuration of striplines provides a means to address this problem. Experimental results and simulation for promisingly large 1-mm-square parallel niobium SSLDs show that nanosecond pulses are produced by superconducting-normal transition within only one of the parallel striplines instead of cascade switching of all the parallel striplines. Successful detection of a series of multimers of immunoglobulin G up to 584 kDa supports the mass-independent efficiency for mass spectrometry.

  19. Performance of and Pressure Elevation Formed by Small-diameter Microtubes Used in Constant-flow Sets

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Sae Woon; Noh, Myounggyu D.; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Kyoung Nam; Ahn, Byung Heon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We explored the performance of and pressure elevation caused by small-diameter microtubes used to reduce overfiltration. Methods Using a syringe pump-driven constant-flow setting (2 µL/min), pressures were measured for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microtubes 5 mm in length with inner diameters of 51, 64, and 76 µm and for polyether block amide (PEBAX) microtubes with an inner diameter of 76 µm. Experiments (using microtubes only) were initially performed in air, water, and enucleated pig eyes and were repeated under the same conditions using intraluminal 9/0 nylon stents. Results The pressures measured in air in 51-, 64-, and 76-µm-diameter PTFE microtubes differed significantly (22.1, 16.9, and 12.2 mmHg, respectively; p < 0.001), and that of the 76-µm-diameter PEBAX microtube was 15.8 mmHg (p < 0.001 compared to the 12.2 mmHg of the 76-µm-diameter PTFE microtube). The pressures measured in water also differed significantly among the three microtubes at 3.9, 3.0, and 1.4 mmHg, respectively, while that in the PEBAX microtube was 2.6 mmHg (all p < 0.001). Using the intraluminal stent, the pressure in water of the three different PTFE microtubes increased to 22.6, 18.0, and 4.1 mmHg, respectively, and that in the PEBAX microtube increased to 10.5 mmHg (all p < 0.001). Similar trends were evident when measurements were performed in pig eyes. Conclusions Although microtubes of smaller diameter experienced higher pressure in air, reduction of the inner diameter to 51 µm did not adequately increase the pressure attained in water or pig eyes. Insertion of an intraluminal stent effectively elevated the latter pressures. PEBAX microtubes created higher pressures than did PTFE microtubes. PMID:27247522

  20. Single loop multi-gap resonator for whole body EPR imaging of mice at 1.2 GHz.

    PubMed

    Petryakov, Sergey; Samouilov, Alexandre; Kesselring, Eric; Wasowicz, Tomasz; Caia, George L; Zweier, Jay L

    2007-09-01

    For whole body EPR imaging of small animals, typically low frequencies of 250-750 MHz have been used due to the microwave losses at higher frequencies and the challenges in designing suitable resonators to accommodate these large lossy samples. However, low microwave frequency limits the obtainable sensitivity. L-band frequencies can provide higher sensitivity, and have been commonly used for localized in vivo EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, it would be highly desirable to develop an L-band microwave resonator suitable for in vivo whole body EPR imaging of small animals such as living mice. A 1.2 GHz 16-gap resonator with inner diameter of 42 mm and 48 mm length was designed and constructed for whole body EPR imaging of small animals. The resonator has good field homogeneity and stability to animal-induced motional noise. Resonator stability was achieved with electrical and mechanical design utilizing a fixed position double coupling loop of novel geometry, thus minimizing the number of moving parts. Using this resonator, high quality EPR images of lossy phantoms and living mice were obtained. This design provides good sensitivity, ease of sample access, excellent stability and uniform B(1) field homogeneity for in vivo whole body EPR imaging of mice at 1.2 GHz. PMID:17625940

  1. SINGLE LOOP - MULTI GAP RESONATOR FOR WHOLE BODY EPR IMAGING OF MICE AT 1.2 GHZ

    PubMed Central

    Petryakov, Sergey; Samouilov, Alexandre; Kesselring, Eric; Wasowicz, Tomasz; Caia, George L.; Zweier, Jay L.

    2009-01-01

    For whole body EPR imaging of small animals, typically low frequencies of 250–750 MHz have been used due to the microwave losses at higher frequencies and the challenges in designing suitable resonators to accommodate these large lossy samples. However, low microwave frequency limits the obtainable sensitivity. L-band frequencies can provide higher sensitivity, and have been commonly used for localized in vivo EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, it would be highly desirable to develop an L-band microwave resonator suitable for in vivo whole body EPR imaging of small animals such as living mice. A 1.2 GHz 16 gap resonator with inner diameter of 43 mm and 48 mm length was designed and constructed for whole body EPR imaging of small animals. The resonator has good field homogeneity and stability to animal induced motional noise. Resonator stability was achieved with electrical and mechanical design utilizing a fixed position double coupling loop of novel geometry, thus minimizing the number of moving parts. Using this resonator, high quality EPR images of lossy phantoms and living mice were obtained. This design provides good sensitivity, ease of sample access, excellent stability and uniform B1 field homogeneity for in vivo whole body EPR imaging of mice at 1.2 GHz. PMID:17625940

  2. Single loop multi-gap resonator for whole body EPR imaging of mice at 1.2 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petryakov, Sergey; Samouilov, Alexandre; Kesselring, Eric; Wasowicz, Tomasz; Caia, George L.; Zweier, Jay L.

    2007-09-01

    For whole body EPR imaging of small animals, typically low frequencies of 250-750 MHz have been used due to the microwave losses at higher frequencies and the challenges in designing suitable resonators to accommodate these large lossy samples. However, low microwave frequency limits the obtainable sensitivity. L-band frequencies can provide higher sensitivity, and have been commonly used for localized in vivo EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, it would be highly desirable to develop an L-band microwave resonator suitable for in vivo whole body EPR imaging of small animals such as living mice. A 1.2 GHz 16-gap resonator with inner diameter of 42 mm and 48 mm length was designed and constructed for whole body EPR imaging of small animals. The resonator has good field homogeneity and stability to animal-induced motional noise. Resonator stability was achieved with electrical and mechanical design utilizing a fixed position double coupling loop of novel geometry, thus minimizing the number of moving parts. Using this resonator, high quality EPR images of lossy phantoms and living mice were obtained. This design provides good sensitivity, ease of sample access, excellent stability and uniform B1 field homogeneity for in vivo whole body EPR imaging of mice at 1.2 GHz.

  3. Collagen fibril diameter and leather strength.

    PubMed

    Wells, Hannah C; Edmonds, Richard L; Kirby, Nigel; Hawley, Adrian; Mudie, Stephen T; Haverkamp, Richard G

    2013-11-27

    The main structural component of leather and skin is type I collagen in the form of strong fibrils. Strength is an important property of leather, and the way in which collagen contributes to the strength is not fully understood. Synchrotron-based small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is used to measure the collagen fibril diameter of leather from a range of animals, including sheep and cattle, that had a range of tear strengths. SAXS data were fit to a cylinder model. The collagen fibril diameter and tear strength were found to be correlated in bovine leather (r(2) = 0.59; P = 0.009), with stronger leather having thicker fibrils. There was no correlation between orientation index, i.e., fibril alignment, and fibril diameter for this data set. Ovine leather showed no correlation between tear strength and fibril diameter, nor was there a correlation across a selection of other animal leathers. The findings presented here suggest that there may be a different structural motif in skin compared with tendon, particularly ovine skin or leather, in which the diameter of the individual fibrils contributes less to strength than fibril alignment does.

  4. Modular Small Diameter Vascular Grafts with Bioactive Functionalities

    PubMed Central

    Neufurth, Meik; Wang, Xiaohong; Tolba, Emad; Dorweiler, Bernhard; Schröder, Heinz C.; Link, Thorben; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2015-01-01

    We report the fabrication of a novel type of artificial small diameter blood vessels, termed biomimetic tissue-engineered blood vessels (bTEBV), with a modular composition. They are composed of a hydrogel scaffold consisting of two negatively charged natural polymers, alginate and a modified chitosan, N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (N,O-CMC). Into this biologically inert scaffold two biofunctionally active biopolymers are embedded, inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) and silica, as well as gelatin which exposes the cell recognition signal, Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD). These materials can be hardened by exposure to Ca2+ through formation of Ca2+ bridges between the polyanions, alginate, N,O-CMC, and polyP (alginate-Ca2+-N,O-CMC-polyP). The bTEBV are formed by pressing the hydrogel through an extruder into a hardening solution, containing Ca2+. In this universal scaffold of the bTEBV biomaterial, polycations such as poly(l-Lys), poly(d-Lys) or a His/Gly-tagged RGD peptide (three RGD units) were incorporated, which promote the adhesion of endothelial cells to the vessel surface. The mechanical properties of the biopolymer material (alginate-Ca2+-N,O-CMC-polyP-silica) revealed a hardness (elastic modulus) of 475 kPa even after a short incubation period in CaCl2 solution. The material of the artificial vascular grafts (bTEBVs with an outer size 6 mm and 1.8 mm, and an inner diameter 4 mm and 0.8 mm, respectively) turned out to be durable in 4-week pulsatile flow experiments at an alternating pressure between 25 and 100 mbar (18.7 and 75.0 mm Hg). The burst pressure of the larger (smaller) vessels was 850 mbar (145 mbar). Incorporation of polycationic poly(l-Lys), poly(d-Lys), and especially the His/Gly-tagged RGD peptide, markedly increased the adhesion of human, umbilical vein/vascular endothelial cells, EA.HY926 cells, to the surface of the hydrogel. No significant effect of the polyP samples on the clotting of human plasma is measured. We propose that the metabolically degradable

  5. DiameterJ: A Validated Open Source Nanofiber Diameter Measurement Tool

    PubMed Central

    Hotaling, Nathan A.; Bharti, Kapil; Kriel, Haydn; Simon, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing use of nanofiber scaffolds for tissue engineering applications, there is not a validated, readily available, free solution for rapid, automated analysis of nanofiber diameter from scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs. Thus, the goal of this study was to create a user friendly ImageJ/FIJI plugin that would analyze SEM micrographs of nanofibers to determine nanofiber diameter on a desktop computer within 60 seconds. Additional design goals included 1) compatibility with a variety of existing segmentation algorithms, and 2) an open source code to enable further improvement of the plugin. Using existing algorithms for centerline determination, Euclidean distance transforms and a novel pixel transformation technique, a plugin called “DiameterJ” was created for ImageJ/FIJI. The plugin was validated using 1) digital synthetic images of white lines on a black background and 2) SEM images of nominally monodispersed steel wires of known diameters. DiameterJ analyzed SEM micrographs in 20 seconds, produced diameters not statistically different from known values, was over 10-times closer to known diameter values than other open source software, provided hundreds of times the sampling of manual measurement, and was hundreds of times faster than manual assessment of nanofiber diameter. DiameterJ enables users to rapidly and thoroughly determine the structural features of nanofiber scaffolds and could potentially allow new insights to be formed into fiber diameter distribution and cell response. PMID:26043061

  6. DiameterJ: A validated open source nanofiber diameter measurement tool.

    PubMed

    Hotaling, Nathan A; Bharti, Kapil; Kriel, Haydn; Simon, Carl G

    2015-08-01

    Despite the growing use of nanofiber scaffolds for tissue engineering applications, there is not a validated, readily available, free solution for rapid, automated analysis of nanofiber diameter from scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs. Thus, the goal of this study was to create a user friendly ImageJ/FIJI plugin that would analyze SEM micrographs of nanofibers to determine nanofiber diameter on a desktop computer within 60 s. Additional design goals included 1) compatibility with a variety of existing segmentation algorithms, and 2) an open source code to enable further improvement of the plugin. Using existing algorithms for centerline determination, Euclidean distance transforms and a novel pixel transformation technique, a plugin called "DiameterJ" was created for ImageJ/FIJI. The plugin was validated using 1) digital synthetic images of white lines on a black background and 2) SEM images of nominally monodispersed steel wires of known diameters. DiameterJ analyzed SEM micrographs in 20 s, produced diameters not statistically different from known values, was over 10-times closer to known diameter values than other open source software, provided hundreds of times the sampling of manual measurement, and was hundreds of times faster than manual assessment of nanofiber diameter. DiameterJ enables users to rapidly and thoroughly determine the structural features of nanofiber scaffolds and could potentially allow new insights to be formed into fiber diameter distribution and cell response.

  7. DiameterJ: A validated open source nanofiber diameter measurement tool.

    PubMed

    Hotaling, Nathan A; Bharti, Kapil; Kriel, Haydn; Simon, Carl G

    2015-08-01

    Despite the growing use of nanofiber scaffolds for tissue engineering applications, there is not a validated, readily available, free solution for rapid, automated analysis of nanofiber diameter from scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs. Thus, the goal of this study was to create a user friendly ImageJ/FIJI plugin that would analyze SEM micrographs of nanofibers to determine nanofiber diameter on a desktop computer within 60 s. Additional design goals included 1) compatibility with a variety of existing segmentation algorithms, and 2) an open source code to enable further improvement of the plugin. Using existing algorithms for centerline determination, Euclidean distance transforms and a novel pixel transformation technique, a plugin called "DiameterJ" was created for ImageJ/FIJI. The plugin was validated using 1) digital synthetic images of white lines on a black background and 2) SEM images of nominally monodispersed steel wires of known diameters. DiameterJ analyzed SEM micrographs in 20 s, produced diameters not statistically different from known values, was over 10-times closer to known diameter values than other open source software, provided hundreds of times the sampling of manual measurement, and was hundreds of times faster than manual assessment of nanofiber diameter. DiameterJ enables users to rapidly and thoroughly determine the structural features of nanofiber scaffolds and could potentially allow new insights to be formed into fiber diameter distribution and cell response. PMID:26043061

  8. NWA 7034 Martian breccia: Ar/Ar ages of ca. 1.2 to 1.4 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, B. E.; Mark, D. F.; Cassata, W.; Lee, M. R.; Smith, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    NWA 7034 and its paired stones are some of the oldest and most diverse of the Martian meteorites. They are complex polymict breccias of impact, igneous, and sedimentary clasts set in a dark grey matrix [1; 2]. The rock also contains angular mineral fragments, including K-feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, and pyroxene [1; 2]. Mineral fragments are often > 1 mm wide, and clasts can be > 1 cm. This diverse breccia assemblage indicates formation via repeated impact events, supported by Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and U-Pb ages ranging from 1.3 to 4.4 Ga [1, 2, and references therein]. In this study we investigate the distribution of ages yielded by Ar/Ar, with nine aliquots analyzed to date, and additional analyses planned. In order to analyze only single phases, chips of matrix/clasts were restricted to visibly monomict fragments < 1 mm diameter, while mineral separates were analyzed as single crystals. Cosmogenic Ar corrections are from [3]. Analyses were undertaken at SUERC and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the results pooled. The bulk of aliquots (n = 8) yielded ages of ca. 1.2-1.4 Ga indicating a major thermal event occurred at around the same time as crystallization of the Nakhlite group of meteorites. Select step ages are considerably older (> 2 Ga), supporting results of other chronometers that much older material is present in this sample. These results also demonstrate that some older fragments retained Ar during breccia formation. [1] Wittmann A. et al. (2015) Meteoritics & Planet. Sci., 50, 326-352. [2] Santos A. R. et al. (2015) GCA, 157, 56-85. [3] Cassata W. S., and Borg L. E. (2015) 46th LPSC, Abstract #2742.

  9. Ultrasonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter in normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Chun; Choi, Ho-Jung; Choi, Min-Cheol; Yoon, Jung-Hee

    2003-12-01

    This study was carried out to assess the feasibility of ultrasonographic measurements of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) in normal dogs and evaluate the effect of breed, sex, body weight and age on biometry of ONSD. The ONSDs were evaluated in 15 dogs (10-50 months old) with normal eye (7 Yorkshire terrier and 8 Maltese). Ultrasonographic measurements of the ONSD were carried out at a constant position located 5 mm behind the optic disc. Eyes were collected immediately after euthanasia, and were used for saline immersion technique and direct measurement by calipers for biometry of ONSD. In this study, there was no significant difference of ONSD between the left and the right eyes, and was no significant difference among ONSD values obtained from ultrasonographical method, saline immersion technique and direct measurement (k=0.95). Also, there was no correlations between ONSD and sex, body weight and age, but was significant between the mean ONSD of Yorkshire terrier and Maltese (p<0.01). The mean ONSD of Yorkshire terrier was 2.10 +/- 0.22 mm and Maltese was 1.63 +/- 0.23 mm. This study suggests that ultrasonographic measurements is useful method for biometry of the ONSD in normal dogs and provides baseline information for the study of evaluating ONSD in various breeds and diagnosing several diseases with the change of the ONSD.

  10. Submicron diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Cary; Homa, Daniel; Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhihao; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2014-10-02

    In this work, a submicron-diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber was demonstrated via wet acid etching at elevated temperatures. Etch rates on the order 2.3 µm/hr were achievable with a 3:1 molar ratio sulfuric-phosphoric acid solution maintained at a temperature of 343°C. A sapphire fiber with an approximate diameter of 800 nm was successfully fabricated from a commercially available fiber with an original diameter of 50 µm. The simple and controllable etching technique provides a feasible approach to the fabrication of unique waveguide structures via traditional silica masking techniques. The ability to tailor the geometry of sapphire optical fibers is the first step in achieving optical and sensing performance on par with its fused silica counterpart.

  11. Submicron diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber

    DOE PAGES

    Hill, Cary; Homa, Daniel; Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhihao; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2014-10-02

    In this work, a submicron-diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber was demonstrated via wet acid etching at elevated temperatures. Etch rates on the order 2.3 µm/hr were achievable with a 3:1 molar ratio sulfuric-phosphoric acid solution maintained at a temperature of 343°C. A sapphire fiber with an approximate diameter of 800 nm was successfully fabricated from a commercially available fiber with an original diameter of 50 µm. The simple and controllable etching technique provides a feasible approach to the fabrication of unique waveguide structures via traditional silica masking techniques. The ability to tailor the geometry of sapphire optical fibers ismore » the first step in achieving optical and sensing performance on par with its fused silica counterpart.« less

  12. Coordinated mm/sub-mm observations of Sagittarius A* in May 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunneriath, D.; Eckart, A.; Vogel, S.; Sjouwerman, L.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Schödel, R.; Baganoff, F. K.; Morris, M.; Bertram, T.; Dovciak, M.; Dowries, D.; Duschl, W. J.; Karas, V.; Konig, S.; Krichbaum, T.; Krips, M.; Lu, R.-S.; Markoff, S.; Mauerhan, J.; Meyer, L.; Moultaka, J.; Muzic, K.; Najarro, F.; Schuster, K.; Straubmeier, C.; Thum, C.; Witzel, G.; Zamaninasab, M.; Zensus, A.

    2008-10-01

    At the center of the Milky Way, with a distance of thicksim8 kpc, the compact source Sagittarius A* (SgrA*) can be associated with a super massive black hole of thicksim4x 106Modot. SgrA* shows strong variability from the radio to the X-ray wavelength domains. Here we report on simultaneous NIR/sub-millimeter/X-ray observations from May 2007 that involved the NACO adaptive optics (AO) instrument at the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), the US mm-array CARMA, the IRAM 30m mm-telescope, and other telescopes. We concentrate on the time series of mm/sub-mm data from CARMA, ATCA, and the MAMBO bolometer at the IRAM 30m telescope.

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....860. 63.1(b)(2) Title V operating permit—see 40 CFR part 70 Yes All major affected sources are... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM,...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....860. 63.1(b)(2) Title V operating permit—see 40 CFR part 70 Yes All major affected sources are... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM,...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....860. 63.1(b)(2) Title V operating permit—see 40 CFR part 70 Yes All major affected sources are... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM,...

  16. Shaft Diameter Measurement Using Structured Light Vision

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Siyuan; Tan, Qingchang; Zhang, Yachao

    2015-01-01

    A method for measuring shaft diameters is presented using structured light vision measurement. After calibrating a model of the structured light measurement, a virtual plane is established perpendicular to the measured shaft axis and the image of the light stripe on the shaft is projected to the virtual plane. On the virtual plane, the center of the measured shaft is determined by fitting the projected image under the geometrical constraints of the light stripe, and the shaft diameter is measured by the determined center and the projected image. Experiments evaluated the measuring accuracy of the method and the effects of some factors on the measurement are analyzed. PMID:26274963

  17. Fabrication of 10nm diameter carbon nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Radenovic, Aleksandra; Trepagnier, Eliane; Csencsits, Roseann; Downing, Kenneth H; Liphardt, Jan

    2008-09-25

    The addition of carbon to samples, during imaging, presents a barrier to accurate TEM analysis, the controlled deposition of hydrocarbons by a focused electron beam can be a useful technique for local nanometer-scale sculpting of material. Here we use hydrocarbon deposition to form nanopores from larger focused ion beam (FIB) holes in silicon nitride membranes. Using this method, we close 100-200nm diameter holes to diameters of 10nm and below, with deposition rates of 0.6nm per minute. I-V characteristics of electrolytic flow through these nanopores agree quantitatively with a one dimensional model at all examined salt concentrations.

  18. Prediction of Stereochemistry using Q2MM

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus The standard method of screening ligands for selectivity in asymmetric, transition metal-catalyzed reactions requires experimental testing of hundreds of ligands from ligand libraries. This “trial and error” process is costly in terms of time as well as resources and, in general, is scientifically and intellectually unsatisfying as it reveals little about the underlying mechanism behind the selectivity. The accurate computational prediction of stereoselectivity in enantioselective catalysis requires adequate conformational sampling of the selectivity-determining transition state but has to be fast enough to compete with experimental screening techniques to be useful for the synthetic chemist. Although electronic structure calculations are accurate and general, they are too slow to allow for sampling or fast screening of ligand libraries. The combined requirements can be fulfilled by using appropriately fitted transition state force fields (TSFFs) that represent the transition state as a minimum and allow fast conformational sampling using Monte Carlo. Quantum-guided molecular mechanics (Q2MM) is an automated force field parametrization method that generates accurate, reaction-specific TSFFs by fitting the functional form of an arbitrary force field using only electronic structure calculations by minimization of an objective function. A key feature that distinguishes the Q2MM method from many other automated parametrization procedures is the use of the Hessian matrix in addition to geometric parameters and relative energies. This alleviates the known problems of overfitting of TSFFs. After validation of the TSFF by comparison to electronic structure results for a test set and available experimental data, the stereoselectivity of a reaction can be calculated by summation over the Boltzman-averaged relative energies of the conformations leading to the different stereoisomers. The Q2MM method has been applied successfully to perform virtual ligand

  19. Prediction of Stereochemistry using Q2MM.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Eric; Rosales, Anthony R; Tutkowski, Brandon; Norrby, Per-Ola; Wiest, Olaf

    2016-05-17

    The standard method of screening ligands for selectivity in asymmetric, transition metal-catalyzed reactions requires experimental testing of hundreds of ligands from ligand libraries. This "trial and error" process is costly in terms of time as well as resources and, in general, is scientifically and intellectually unsatisfying as it reveals little about the underlying mechanism behind the selectivity. The accurate computational prediction of stereoselectivity in enantioselective catalysis requires adequate conformational sampling of the selectivity-determining transition state but has to be fast enough to compete with experimental screening techniques to be useful for the synthetic chemist. Although electronic structure calculations are accurate and general, they are too slow to allow for sampling or fast screening of ligand libraries. The combined requirements can be fulfilled by using appropriately fitted transition state force fields (TSFFs) that represent the transition state as a minimum and allow fast conformational sampling using Monte Carlo. Quantum-guided molecular mechanics (Q2MM) is an automated force field parametrization method that generates accurate, reaction-specific TSFFs by fitting the functional form of an arbitrary force field using only electronic structure calculations by minimization of an objective function. A key feature that distinguishes the Q2MM method from many other automated parametrization procedures is the use of the Hessian matrix in addition to geometric parameters and relative energies. This alleviates the known problems of overfitting of TSFFs. After validation of the TSFF by comparison to electronic structure results for a test set and available experimental data, the stereoselectivity of a reaction can be calculated by summation over the Boltzman-averaged relative energies of the conformations leading to the different stereoisomers. The Q2MM method has been applied successfully to perform virtual ligand screens on a range of

  20. Experiments on the effect of initial diameter in spherically symmetric droplet combustion of sooting fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, G. S.; Avedisian, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of initial droplet diameter on the burning rate of sooting fuels (n-heptane and 1-chloro-octane) is studied experimentally at low gravity. A 1.2 s drop tower provided a low gravity environment to minimize buoyancy and achieve spherically symmetric flames for stationary droplets. Free-floating and fiber supported droplets were burned, and both methods gave matching results for droplets of similar initial diameter.

  1. Precision distances with spiral galaxy apparent diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Spiral galaxy diameters offer the oldest extragalactic distance indicator known. Although outdated and hitherto imprecise, two spiral diameter-based distance indicators applied in the 1980s can be tested, calibrated, and re-established for precision era use, based on abundant redshift-independent distances data available in NED-D. Indicator one employs the largest Giant Spiral Galaxies, which have an absolute isophotal major diameter of ~70 +/- 10 kpc, offering standard ruler-based distances with <10% precision. Indicator two employs the diameter-magnitude relation for spirals in general, as a secondary indicator, offering ~20% precision. The ruler-based indicator is the only indicator with <10% precision able to independently calibrate type Ia supernovae-based distances at cosmological distances. The secondary-based indicator is the only indicator with 20% precision applicable to more galaxies than in current Tully-Fisher surveys. The primary indicator gives researchers a new tool to confirm or refute if, as currently believed, universal expansion is accelerating. The secondary indicator gives researchers a new path toward acquiring a more complete 3D picture of the local universe and potentially, because the majority of galaxies in the universe are spirals, the distant universe.

  2. 7 CFR 51.587 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diameter. 51.587 Section 51.587 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  3. 7 CFR 51.587 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Diameter. 51.587 Section 51.587 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  4. 7 CFR 51.320 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.320 Diameter. When measuring for minimum size, “diameter” means the greatest dimension of the apple measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end. When measuring for maximum size, “diameter” means the smallest dimension of the apple determined...

  5. 7 CFR 51.320 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.320 Diameter. When measuring for minimum size, “diameter” means the greatest dimension of the apple measured at right angles to... dimension of the apple determined by passing the apple through a round opening in any position....

  6. 7 CFR 51.320 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.320 Diameter. When measuring for minimum size, “diameter” means the greatest dimension of the apple measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end. When measuring for maximum size, “diameter” means the smallest dimension of the apple determined...

  7. 7 CFR 51.320 - Diameter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.320 Diameter. When measuring for minimum size, “diameter” means the greatest dimension of the apple measured at right angles to... dimension of the apple determined by passing the apple through a round opening in any position....

  8. Slug flow in a large diameter pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, C.J.; Sam, R.G.; Wallis, G.B.; Mehta, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and anlytical results are presented for two-phase slug flow in a transparent, large diameter pipe (6.75 inches ID) at high gas density. Slug characteristics of velocity, length, frequency, carpet profile and carpet velocity, as well as pressure drop, have been measured and compared with correlations and mechanistic models.

  9. Changing the Diameter of a Viewing Tube

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obara, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the students' investigation about the relationship between the diameter of the view tubes (x) of constant lengths and the viewable vertical distance (y) on the wall while keeping the perpendicular distance from the eyeball to the wall constant. The students collected data and used and represented it in tabular and graphical…

  10. Reducing the diameters of computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, S. H.; Raza, A. D.

    1986-01-01

    Three methods of reducing the diameters of computer networks by adding additional processor to processor links under the constraint that no more than one I/O port be added to each processor are discussed. This is equivalent to adding edges to a given graph under the constraint that the degree of any node be increased, at most, by one.

  11. Strain analysis of different diameter Morse taper implants under overloading compressive conditions.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carolina Guimarães; Zancopé, Karla; Veríssimo, Crisnicaw; Soares, Carlos José; Neves, Flávio Domingues das

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of deformation from compression caused by different diameters of Morse taper implants and the residual deformation after load removal. Thirty Morse taper implants lacking external threads were divided into 3 groups (n = 10) according to their diameter as follows: 3.5 mm, 4.0 mm and 5.0 mm. Two-piece abutments were fixed into the implants, and the samples were subjected to compressive axial loading up to 1500 N of force. During the test, one strain gauge remained fixed to the cervical portion of each implant to measure the strain variation. The strain values were recorded at two different time points: at the maximum load (1500 N) and 60 seconds after load removal. To calculate the strain at the implant/abutment interface, a mathematical formula was applied. Data were analyzed using a one-way Anova and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The 5.0 mm diameter implant showed a significantly lower strain (650.5 μS ± 170.0) than the 4.0 mm group (1170.2 μS ± 374.7) and the 3.5 mm group (1388.1 μS ± 326.6) (p < 0.001), regardless of the load presence. The strain values decreased by approximately 50% after removal of the load, regardless of the implant diameter. The 5.0 mm implant showed a significantly lower strain at the implant/abutment interface (943.4 μS ± 504.5) than the 4.0 mm group (1057.4 μS ± 681.3) and the 3.5 mm group (1159.6 μS ± 425.9) (p < 0.001). According to the results of this study, the diameter influenced the strain around the internal and external walls of the cervical region of Morse taper implants; all diameters demonstrated clinically acceptable values of strain.

  12. Entrance effect and gas-film mass-transfer coefficient in a large-diameter packed column

    SciTech Connect

    Doan, H.D.; Fayed, M.E.

    2000-04-01

    The effects of the bed height and the entrance section below the packing support on mass transfer in a 1.2-m diameter packed bed of 50-mm ceramic Intalox saddles were investigated under various gas flow rates from 1,957 to 7,828 kg/h {sm_bullet}m{sup 2} and liquid flow rates from 12,200 to 46,700 kg/h {sm_bullet}m{sup 2}. The entrance effect accounted for 17% of the overall water vapor transferred from moist air to a calcium chloride solution in the tower, regardless of the packing height. For a 0.91-m high bed, the average mass-transfer coefficient was directly proportional to the gas rate and was proportional to the liquid rate to the power of 0.24. For a 1.8-m high bed, the average mass-transfer coefficient was proportional to the gas rate to the power of 0.89 and appeared to be independent of the liquid rate. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) for 50-mm ceramic Intalox saddles remained relatively constant under various gas rates used in the present study. The HTU was about 0.5 m for the short bed and 0.8 m for the tall bed.

  13. Mimicking Form and Function of Native Small Diameter Vascular Conduits Using Mulberry and Non-mulberry Patterned Silk Films.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prerak; Kumar, Manishekhar; Bhardwaj, Nandana; Kumar, Jadi Praveen; Krishnamurthy, C S; Nandi, Samit Kumar; Mandal, Biman B

    2016-06-29

    Autologous graft replacement as a strategy to treat diseased peripheral small diameter (≤6 mm) blood vessel is often challenged by prior vein harvesting. To address this issue, we fabricated native-tissue mimicking multilayered small diameter vascular graft (SDVG) using mulberry (Bombyx mori) and Indian endemic non-mulberry (Antheraea assama and Philosamia ricini) silk. Patterned silk films were fabricated on microgrooved PDMS mold, casted by soft lithography. The biodegradable patterned film templates with aligned cell sheets were rolled onto an inert mandrel to mimic vascular conduit. The hemocompatible and mechanically strong non-mulberry films with RGD motif supported ∼1.2 folds greater proliferation of vascular cells with aligned anchorage. Elicitation of minimal immune response on subcutaneous implantation of the films in mice was complemented by ∼45% lower TNF α secretion by in vitro macrophage culture post 7 days. Pattern-induced alignment favored the functional contractile phenotype of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), expressing the signature markers-calponin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC). Endothelial cells (ECs) exhibited a typical punctuated pattern of von Willebrand factor (vWF). Deposition of collagen and elastin by the SMCs substantiated the aptness of the graft with desired biomechanical attributes. Furthermore, the burst strength of the fabricated conduit was in the range of ∼915-1260 mmHg, a prerequisite to withstand physiological pressure. This novel fabrication approach may eliminate the need of maturation in a pulsatile bioreactor for obtaining functional cellular phenotype. This work is thereby an attestation to the immense prospects of exploring non-mulberry silk for bioengineering a multilayered vascular conduit similar to a native vessel in "form and function", befitting for in vivo transplantation. PMID:27269821

  14. From the nm to the Mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, I. M.

    2003-12-01

    Tectonic models for the evolution of an orogen start at the Mm scale, and use field work on smaller subunits at the km scale and rocks collected at the m scale. At the mm scale, minerals are identified, analyzed by mass spectrometry, their "cooling ages" assigned to a specific closure temperature, a cooling rate attributed to a particular tectonic regime, and a large body of self-referential literature is the product of an oiled machinery. Problems become apparent if one attempts to harmonize mm-scale science with the nasty little details at even smaller scales. Atoms are invisible to the naked eye (unlike the minerals mentioned above) and their actual behavior is, or was, only accessible to indirect argumentations and simplified calculations. Increased computing power now allows calculating the transport of atoms in a crystal from the Schr”dinger equation: results do not fit 19th century continuum physics for infinitely dilute solutions (Fick's and Arrhenius' "laws"). Moreover, improved nanochemical analyses allow characterizing the supposedly homogeneous mineral matrix. TEM images show how layers or chains in pristine minerals are substituted in a non-periodic way by alteration products. EMP analyses show the almost ubiquitous presence of razor-sharp boundaries rather than Erf profiles. Disequilibrium recrystallization textures thus prevail over diffusive reequilibration; diffusion sensu stricto is shown to be a much slower process than heterochemical replacement. Alterability sequences are well known to surface scientists: e.g. halite, olivine, biotite, muscovite, zircon. Such sequences are reflected in the isotopic retentivity. The link only becomes clear at the nm scale: isotopic exchange occurs during the replacement reactions that affect all rocks on their retrograde P-T evolution. This is sufficient to explain why zircons record higher isotopic ages than muscovites, which in turn undergo less isotope exchange than biotites etc. While there is a vague

  15. Experimental study of lean flammability limits of methane/hydrogen/air mixtures in tubes of different diameters

    SciTech Connect

    Shoshin, Y.L.; Goey, L.P.H. de

    2010-04-15

    Lean limit flames in methane/hydrogen/air mixtures propagating in tubes of internal diameters (ID) of 6.0, 8.9, 12.3, 18.4, 25.2, 35.0, and 50.2 mm have been experimentally studied. The flames propagated upward from the open bottom end of the tube to the closed upper end. The content of hydrogen in the fuel gas has been varied in the range 0-40 mol%. Lean flammability limits have been determined; flame shapes recorded and the visible speed of flame propagation measured. Most of the observed limit flames in tubes with diameters in the range of 8.9-18.4 mm had enclosed shape, and could be characterized as distorted or spherical flame balls. The tendency was observed for mixtures with higher hydrogen content to form smaller size, more uniform flame balls in a wider range of tube diameters. At hydrogen content of 20% or more in the fuel gas, limit flames in largest diameters (35.0 mm and 50.2 mm ID) tubes had small, compared to the tube diameter, size and were ''lens''-shaped. ''Regular'' open-front lean limit flames were observed only for the smallest diameters (6.0 mm and 8.9 mm) and largest diameters (35.0 and 50.2 mm ID), and only for methane/air and (90% CH{sub 4} + 10% H{sub 2})/air mixtures, except for 6 mm ID tube in which all limit flames had open front. In all experiments, except for the lean limit flames in methane/air and (90% CH{sub 4} + 10% H{sub 2})/air mixtures in the 8.9 mm ID tube, and all limit flames in 6.0 mm ID tube, visible flame speeds very weakly depended on the hydrogen content in the fuel gas and were close to- or below the theoretical estimate of the speed of a rising hot bubble. This observation suggests that the buoyancy is the major factor which determines the visible flame speed for studied limit flames, except that last mentioned. A decrease of the lean flammability limit value with decreasing the tube diameter was observed for methane/air and (90% CH{sub 4} + 10% H{sub 2})/air mixtures for tubes having internal diameters in the range

  16. Apical canal diameter in the first upper molar at various ages.

    PubMed

    Gani, O; Visvisian, C

    1999-10-01

    The shape of root canals cross-sectioned through their roots at 2 mm from their apices and its correlation with the D0 diameter of endodontic instruments was evaluated in 40 first upper molars. The molars were grouped according to age: under 13 yr (children), 18 to 20 yr (adolescents), 30 to 40 yr (adults), and over 50 yr. Evaluation of the root canal diameters revealed that the shapes were predominantly circular in the palatal canal, mostly flat in the mesiobuccal canal, and circular or flat in equal proportions in the distobuccal root. Age does not seem to affect the shape of the canals. Narrowing with age was statistically significant (p < 0.05) for palatal and mesiobuccal canals only. Correlation between the maximum diameter of the canals and the instruments was varied. Even in old age, diameters were observed that would require instruments of a size that would be impossible to use, because one internal diameter would exceed the root's external diameter in a different direction (i.e. intimal buccolingual diameter of #80 and external mesiodistal diameter of #70). PMID:10687530

  17. A comparative study on liquid core formulation on the diameter on the alginate capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Hui-Yen; Lee, Boon-Beng; Radzi, AkmalHadi Ma'; Zakaria, Zarina; Chan, Eng-Seng

    2015-08-01

    Liquid core capsule has vast application in biotechnology related industries such as pharmaceutical, medical, agriculture and food. Formulation of different types of capsule was important to determine the performance of the capsule. Generally, the liquid core capsule with different formulations generated different size of capsule.Therefore, the aim of this project is to investigate the effect of different liquid core solution formulations on the diameter of capsule. The capsule produced by extruding liquid core solutions into sodium alginate solution. Three types of liquid core solutions (chitosan, xanthan gum, polyethylene glycol (PEG)) were investigated. The results showed that there is significant change in capsule diameter despite in different types of liquid core solution were used and a series of capsule range in diameter of 3.1 mm to 4.5 mm were produced. Alginate capsule with chitosan formulation appeared to be the largest capsule among all.

  18. Preparation and evaluation of bicomponent and homogeneous polyester silk small diameter arterial prostheses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Lu; Guan, Guoping; King, Martin W; Li, Yuling; Peng, Lei; Guan, Ying; Hu, Xingyou

    2014-01-01

    The development of a small diameter (≤5 mm) arterial prosthesis requires the appropriate selection of materials, structure and fabrication method so as to provide adequate mechanical properties, superior biocompatibility and precise control over the diameter. In this study, 100% polyester, 100% silk fibroin and a combination of both yarns were woven into seamless tubular prototype prostheses with different basic weaves. After degumming/scouring they met a target inner diameter of 3.9±0.3 mm which demonstrates that weaving is a precise way to manufacture small caliber arterial prostheses. In conclusion, the bicomponent polyester/silk woven samples had superior mechanical properties and improved cytocompatibility compared to commercial ePTFE devices. PMID:23292721

  19. The MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA methods to estimate ligand-binding affinities

    PubMed Central

    Genheden, Samuel; Ryde, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The molecular mechanics energies combined with the Poisson–Boltzmann or generalized Born and surface area continuum solvation (MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA) methods are popular approaches to estimate the free energy of the binding of small ligands to biological macromolecules. They are typically based on molecular dynamics simulations of the receptor–ligand complex and are therefore intermediate in both accuracy and computational effort between empirical scoring and strict alchemical perturbation methods. They have been applied to a large number of systems with varying success. Areas covered: The authors review the use of MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA methods to calculate ligand-binding affinities, with an emphasis on calibration, testing and validation, as well as attempts to improve the methods, rather than on specific applications. Expert opinion: MM/PBSA and MM/GBSA are attractive approaches owing to their modular nature and that they do not require calculations on a training set. They have been used successfully to reproduce and rationalize experimental findings and to improve the results of virtual screening and docking. However, they contain several crude and questionable approximations, for example, the lack of conformational entropy and information about the number and free energy of water molecules in the binding site. Moreover, there are many variants of the method and their performance varies strongly with the tested system. Likewise, most attempts to ameliorate the methods with more accurate approaches, for example, quantum-mechanical calculations, polarizable force fields or improved solvation have deteriorated the results. PMID:25835573

  20. A comparison of 9-inch, 70mm, and 35mm cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clegg, R. H.; Scherz, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    Successful aerial photography depends on aerial cameras that provide acceptable photographs within the cost restrictions of the job. For topographic mapping where ultimate accuracy is required, only large-format mapping cameras will suffice. For mapping environmental patterns of vegetation, soils, or water pollution, 9-inch cameras often exceed accuracy and cost requirements, and small formats may be an overall better choice. In choosing the best camera for environmental mapping, relative capabilities and costs must be understood. This study compares resolution, photo interpretation potential, metric accuracy, and cost of 9-inch, 70 mm, and 35 mm cameras for obtaining simultaneous color and color-infrared photography for environmental mapping purposes.

  1. Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan, 1/2 Floor Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan - Jack's Mill Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  2. Quantification of pulmonary vessel diameter in low-dose CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudyanto, Rina D.; Ortiz de Solórzano, Carlos; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate

    2015-03-01

    Accurate quantification of vessel diameter in low-dose Computer Tomography (CT) images is important to study pulmonary diseases, in particular for the diagnosis of vascular diseases and the characterization of morphological vascular remodeling in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). In this study, we objectively compare several vessel diameter estimation methods using a physical phantom. Five solid tubes of differing diameters (from 0.898 to 3.980 mm) were embedded in foam, simulating vessels in the lungs. To measure the diameters, we first extracted the vessels using either of two approaches: vessel enhancement using multi-scale Hessian matrix computation, or explicitly segmenting them using intensity threshold. We implemented six methods to quantify the diameter: three estimating diameter as a function of scale used to calculate the Hessian matrix; two calculating equivalent diameter from the crosssection area obtained by thresholding the intensity and vesselness response, respectively; and finally, estimating the diameter of the object using the Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM). We find that the accuracy of frequently used methods estimating vessel diameter from the multi-scale vesselness filter depends on the range and the number of scales used. Moreover, these methods still yield a significant error margin on the challenging estimation of the smallest diameter (on the order or below the size of the CT point spread function). Obviously, the performance of the thresholding-based methods depends on the value of the threshold. Finally, we observe that a simple adaptive thresholding approach can achieve a robust and accurate estimation of the smallest vessels diameter.

  3. Ultrasonic wave based pressure measurement in small diameter pipeline.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Song, Zhengxiang; Wu, Yuan; Jiang, Yuan

    2015-12-01

    An effective non-intrusive method of ultrasound-based technique that allows monitoring liquid pressure in small diameter pipeline (less than 10mm) is presented in this paper. Ultrasonic wave could penetrate medium, through the acquisition of representative information from the echoes, properties of medium can be reflected. This pressure measurement is difficult due to that echoes' information is not easy to obtain in small diameter pipeline. The proposed method is a study on pipeline with Kneser liquid and is based on the principle that the transmission speed of ultrasonic wave in pipeline liquid correlates with liquid pressure and transmission speed of ultrasonic wave in pipeline liquid is reflected through ultrasonic propagation time providing that acoustic distance is fixed. Therefore, variation of ultrasonic propagation time can reflect variation of pressure in pipeline. Ultrasonic propagation time is obtained by electric processing approach and is accurately measured to nanosecond through high resolution time measurement module. We used ultrasonic propagation time difference to reflect actual pressure in this paper to reduce the environmental influences. The corresponding pressure values are finally obtained by acquiring the relationship between variation of ultrasonic propagation time difference and pressure with the use of neural network analysis method, the results show that this method is accurate and can be used in practice.

  4. Research on high accuracy diameter measurement system with CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Bo; Duan, Guoteng

    2011-08-01

    Non-touch measurement is an important technology in many domains such as the monitoring of tool breakage and tool wear, et al. Based on the method of curve fitting and demanding inflection point, we present a high accuracy non-touch diameter measurement system. The measurement system comprise linear array CCD, CCD driving circuit, power supply, workseat, light source, data acquisition card and so on. The picture element of the linear array CCD is 2048, and the size of every pixel and the spacing of adjacent pixels have the same size of 14μmx14μm. The stabilized voltage supply has a constant voltage output of 3V. The light is generated by a halogen tungsten lamp, which does not represent any risk to the health of the whole system. The data acquisition card converts the analog signal to digital signal with the accuracy of 12 bit. The error of non-uniform of the CCD pixels in sensitivity and the electrical noise error are indicated in detail. The measurement system has a simple structure, high measuring precision, and can be carried out automatically. Experiment proves that the diameter measurement of the system is within the range of Φ0.5~Φ10mm, and the total measuring unstability of the system is within the range of +/- 1.4μm.

  5. Coke from small-diameter tubes analyzed

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, L.F.

    1988-08-29

    The mechanism for coke deposit formation and the nature of the coke itself can vary with the design of the ethylene furnace tube bank. In this article, coke deposits from furnaces with small-diameter pyrolysis tubes are examined. The samples were taken from four furnaces of identical design (Plant B). As in both the first and second installments of the series, the coke deposits were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX). The deposits from the small-diameter tubes are compared with the coke deposits from the furnace discussed in earlier articles. Analysis of the coke in both sets of samples are then used to offer recommendations for improved decoking procedures, operating procedures, better feed selection, and better selection of the metallurgy used in furnace tubes, to extend the operating time of the furnace tubes by reducing the amount and type of coke build up.

  6. Small diameter, deep bore optical inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Lord, D.E.; Petrini, R.R.; Carter, G.W.

    An improved rod optic system for inspecting small diameter, deep bores is described. The system consists of a rod optic system utilizing a curved mirror at the end of the rod lens such that the optical path through the system is bent 90/sup 0/ to minimize optical distortion in examing the sides of a curved bore. The system is particularly useful in the examination of small bores for corrosion, and is capable if examing 1/16 inch diameter and up to 4-inch deep drill holes, for example. The positioning of the curved mirror allows simultaneous viewing from shallow and righ angle points of observation of the same artifact (such as corrosion) in the bore hole. The improved rod optic system may be used for direct eye sighting, or in combination with a still camera or a low-light television monitor; particularly low-light color television.

  7. Small diameter, deep bore optical inspection system

    DOEpatents

    Lord, David E.; Petrini, Richard R.; Carter, Gary W.

    1981-01-01

    An improved rod optic system for inspecting small diameter, deep bores. The system consists of a rod optic system utilizing a curved mirror at the end of the rod lens such that the optical path through the system is bent 90.degree. to minimize optical distortion in examining the sides of a curved bore. The system is particularly useful in the examination of small bores for corrosion, and is capable of examining 1/16 inch diameter and up to 4 inch deep drill holes, for example. The positioning of the curved mirror allows simultaneous viewing from shallow and right angle points of observation of the same artifact (such as corrosion) in the bore hole. The improved rod optic system may be used for direct eye sighting, or in combination with a still camera or a low-light television monitor; particularly low-light color television.

  8. On finding minimum-diameter clique trees

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, J.R.S. . Dept. of Computer Science); Peyton, B.W. )

    1991-08-01

    It is well-known that any chordal graph can be represented as a clique tree (acyclic hypergraph, join tree). Since some chordal graphs have many distinct clique tree representations, it is interesting to consider which one is most desirable under various circumstances. A clique tree of minimum diameter (or height) is sometimes a natural candidate when choosing clique trees to be processed in a parallel computing environment. This paper introduces a linear time algorithm for computing a minimum-diameter clique tree. The new algorithm is an analogue of the natural greedy algorithm for rooting an ordinary tree in order to minimize its height. It has potential application in the development of parallel algorithms for both knowledge-based systems and the solution of sparse linear systems of equations. 31 refs., 7 figs.

  9. 77 FR 59374 - Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure Pipe (Under 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Request for Revocation in Part, 77 FR 45338 (July 31, 2012). Rescission of Administrative Review Pursuant... International Trade Administration Certain Small Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line and Pressure... standard, line and pressure pipe (under 4\\1/2\\ inches) (hereinafter, ``small diameter pipe'') from...

  10. 76 FR 7815 - Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure Pipe (Over 41/2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Requests for Revocations in Part, 75 FR 44224... International Trade Administration Certain Large Diameter Carbon and Alloy Seamless Standard, Line, and Pressure... certain large diameter carbon and alloy seamless standard, line, and pressure pipe (over 4\\1/2\\...

  11. Lasing in microdisks of ultrasmall diameter

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukov, A. E. Kryzhanovskaya, N. V.; Maximov, M. V.; Lipovskii, A. A.; Savelyev, A. V.; Bogdanov, A. A.; Shostak, I. I.; Moiseev, E. I.; Karpov, D. V.; Laukkanen, J.; Tommila, J.

    2014-12-15

    It is demonstrated by calculations and experimental results that room-temperature lasing can be obtained at the ground-state optical transition of InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots in optical microcavities with a record-small diameter of 1.5 μm. In 1-μm cavities, lasing occurs at the wavelength of one of the whispering-gallery modes within the band corresponding to the first excited-state optical transition.

  12. Diameter-dependent hydrophobicity in carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyakuno, Haruka; Fukasawa, Mamoru; Ichimura, Ryota; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Nakai, Yusuke; Miyata, Yasumitsu; Saito, Takeshi; Maniwa, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are a good model system that provides atomically smooth nanocavities. It has been reported that water-SWCNTs exhibit hydrophobicity depending on the temperature T and the SWCNT diameter D. SWCNTs adsorb water molecules spontaneously in their cylindrical pores around room temperature, whereas they exhibit a hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition or wet-dry transition (WDT) at a critical temperature Twd ≈ 220-230 K and above a critical diameter Dc ≈ 1.4-1.6 nm. However, details of the WDT phenomenon and its mechanism remain unknown. Here, we report a systematic experimental study involving X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. It is found that water molecules inside thick SWCNTs (D > Dc) evaporate and condense into ice Ih outside the SWCNTs at Twd upon cooling, and the ice Ih evaporates and condenses inside the SWCNTs upon heating. On the other hand, residual water trapped inside the SWCNTs below Twd freezes. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that upon lowering T, the hydrophobicity of thick SWCNTs increases without any structural transition, while the water inside thin SWCNTs (D < Dc) exhibits a structural transition, forming an ordered ice. This ice has a well-developed hydrogen bonding network adapting to the cylindrical pores of the SWCNTs. Thus, the unusual diameter dependence of the WDT is attributed to the adaptability of the structure of water to the pore dimension and shape.

  13. Effect of fiber diameter and matrix alloys on impact-resistant boron/aluminum composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdanels, D. L.; Signorelli, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Efforts to improve the impact resistance of B/Al are reviewed and analyzed. Nonstandard thin-sheet charpy and Izod impact tests and standard full-size Charpy impact tests were conducted on composites containing unidirectional 0.10mm, 0.14mm, and 0.20mm diameter boron fibers in 1100, 2024, 5052, and 6061 Al matrices. Impact failure modes of B/Al are proposed in an attempt to describe the mechanisms involved and to provide insight for maximizing impact resistance. The impact strength of B/Al was significantly increased by proper selection of materials and processing. The use of a ductile matrix and large diameter boron fibers gave the highest impact strengths. This combination resulted in improved energy absorption through matrix shear deformation and multiple fiber breakage.

  14. Screw fixation diameter for fifth metatarsal jones fracture: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Scott, Ryan T; Hyer, Christopher F; DeMill, Shyler L

    2015-01-01

    The fifth metatarsal Jones fracture is a well-documented injury occurring at the proximal diaphyseal-metaphyseal junction. Conservative versus surgical intervention has been discussed in published studies for the management of Jones fractures. Solid intramedullary fixation relies on accurate matching of the screw diameter to the intraosseous diameter. The purpose of the present cadaveric study was to determine the average intraosseous diameter of the proximal fifth metatarsal as it relates to screw size selection for Jones fracture stabilization. Twenty fresh-frozen cadaver legs were used for examination. The fifth metatarsal was completely dissected. A transverse osteotomy was performed from laterally to medially along the midline of the metatarsal. A digital caliper was used to measure the diameter of the medullary canal of the fifth metatarsal. The measurement was taken at the narrowest portion of the medullary canal just distal to the proximal metaphysis. The mean dorsal to plantar diameter of the fifth metatarsal was 6.475 ± 1.54 (range 4 to 12) mm and the mean medial to lateral diameter was 4.6 ± 0.85 (range 3 to 6) mm. Intramedullary screw fixation has shown beneficial results in the treatment protocol of fifth metatarsal Jones fractures. Our study has demonstrated that a 4.5-mm cannulated screw is the narrowest diameter screw that can be used in the average fifth metatarsal and still obtain adequate intraosseous purchase. When selecting the appropriate screw, the surgeon must be comfortable selecting the largest screw that will achieve the maximal interface with the dense cortical bone in both the medial to lateral and dorsal to plantar plane.

  15. The measurement of the diameter change of a piezoelectric transducer cylinder with the white-light interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Abdelaziz; Jiang, Yi; Liu, Yuewu; Wang, Zhen

    2014-05-01

    The measurement of the diameter change of a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) cylinder with the white-light interferometry is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. One arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is wrapped on the PZT cylinder, and the phase change of the interferogram of the MZI is used to determine the diameter change when a DC voltage is applied on the PZT cylinder. The Fourier transform white-light interferometry is used for recovering the phase change of the interferometer. The experimental results show that the diameter change resolution of 0.8 nm for the PZT cylinder with diameter of 40 mm is achieved.

  16. Internal Diameter HVAF Spraying for Wear and Corrosion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyphout, C.; Björklund, S.

    2015-01-01

    Electrolytic hard chrome (EHC) methods are still widely utilized in the printing, automotive and off-shore industries. Alternative methods to EHC have been widely developed in the past decade by conventional HVOF processes and more recently HVAF systems, which are processing at higher kinetic energy and more particularly at lower temperature, significantly increasing wear and corrosion resistance properties. A dedicated internal diameter HVAF system is here presented, and coatings characteristics are compared to the one obtained by standard HVAF coatings. Specially R&D designed fixtures with inside bore of 200 mm have been manufactured for this purpose, with a possibility to spray samples at increasing depth up to 400 mm while simulating closed bottom bore spraying. WC-based and Cr3C2-based powder feedstock materials have been deposited onto high-strength steel substrates. Respective coating microstructures, thermally induced stresses and corrosion resistance are discussed for further optimization of coating performances. The fact that the ID-HVAF system is utilized both for spraying and gritblasting procedures is also given a particular interest.

  17. Evaluation of design parameters of dental implant shape, diameter and length on stress distribution: a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Mohammed Ibrahim, M; Thulasingam, C; Nasser, K S G A; Balaji, V; Rajakumar, M; Rupkumar, P

    2011-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate the design parameters of dental implants shape, diameter and length on stress distribution by finite element analysis (FEA).The objectives of the study was to compare the influence of stress distribution in the implants of screw-vent tapered and parallel design by varying the implant diameter with a standard implant length. Six dental implant models have been simulated three-dimensionally. The influence of diameter and length on stress distribution was evaluated by Group I: for screw-vent tapered design (Zimmer Dental Implant Carlsbad, CA, USA) (1) Dental implant model with diameter 3.7 mm and length 13 mm. (2) Dental implant model with diameter 4.1 mm and length 13 mm. (3) Dental implant model with diameter 4.7 mm and length 13 mm. Group II: for parallel design (Zimmer Dental Implant Carlsbad, CA, USA) (4) Dental implant model with diameter 3.7 mm and length 13 mm. (5) Dental implant model with diameter 4.1 mm and length 13 mm. (6) Dental implant model with diameter 4.7 mm and length 13 mm. The 3-D model of the implant was created in the pro-e wildfire 4.0 software by giving various commands. This model was imported to the ANSYS software through IGES (initial graphic exchange specification) file for further analysis. All six models were loaded with a force of 17.1, 114.6 and 23.4 N in a lingual, an axial and disto-mesial direction respectively, simulating average masticatory force in a natural oblique direction, to analyze the stress distribution on these implants. The increase in implant diameter in Group I and Group II from 3.7 to 4.1 mm and from 4.1 to 4.7 mm with constant 13 mm length for screw-vent tapered and parallel design implant resulted in a reduction in maximum value of Von Mises stress in the bone surrounding the implant was statistically significant at 5% level done by student "t" test. The overall maximum value of Von Mises stress was decreased in parallel design implant diameter of 4.7 mm with constant

  18. Biomechanics and load resistance of small-diameter and mini dental implants: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Istabrak; Bourauel, Christoph; Mundt, Torsten; Stark, Helmut; Heinemann, Friedhelm

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, the application of small-diameter and mini dental implants to support removable and fixed prosthesis has dramatically increased. However, the success of these implants under functional biting forces and the reaction of the bone around them need to be analyzed. This review was aimed to present studies that deal with the fatigue life of small-diameter and mini dental implants under normal biting force, and their survival rate. The numerical and experimental studies concluded that an increase in the risk of bone damage or implant failure may be assumed in critical clinical situations and implants with <3 mm diameter have a risk of fracture in clinical practice. The survival rate of the small-diameter and mini dental implants over 5 years was 98.3-99.4%.

  19. Larger Maximum Tumor Diameter at Radical Prostatectomy Is Associated With Increased Biochemical Failure, Metastasis, and Death From Prostate Cancer After Salvage Radiation for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Skyler B.; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Jackson, William C.; Zhou, Jessica; Foster, Benjamin; Foster, Corey; Song, Yeohan; Li, Darren; Palapattu, Ganesh S.; Kunju, Lakshmi; Mehra, Rohit; Sandler, Howard; Feng, Felix Y.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the maximum tumor diameter (MTD) of the dominant prostate cancer nodule in the radical prostatectomy specimen as a prognostic factor for outcome in patients treated with salvage external beam radiation therapy (SRT) for a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value after radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: From an institutional cohort of 575 patients treated with SRT, data on MTD were retrospectively collected. The impact of MTD on biochemical failure (BF), metastasis, and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) was assessed on univariate and multivariate analysis using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: In the 173 patients with MTD data available, median follow-up was 77 months (interquartile range, 47-104 months) after SRT, and median MTD was 18 mm (interquartile range, 13-22 mm). Increasing MTD correlated with increasing pT stage, Gleason score, presence of seminal vesicle invasion, and lymph node invasion. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified MTD of >14 mm to be the optimal cut-point. On univariate analysis, MTD >14 mm was associated with an increased risk of BF (P=.02, hazard ratio [HR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.8), metastasis (P=.002, HR 4.0, 95% CI 2.1-7.5), and PCSM (P=.02, HR 8.0, 95% CI 2.9-21.8). On multivariate analysis MTD >14 mm remained associated with increased BF (P=.02, HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.2), metastasis (P=.02, HR 3.4, 95% CI 1.2-9.2), and PCSM (P=.05, HR 9.7, 95% CI 1.0-92.4), independent of extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, positive surgical margins, pre-RT PSA value, Gleason score, and pre-RT PSA doubling time. Conclusions: For patients treated with SRT for a rising PSA value after prostatectomy, MTD at time of radical prostatectomy is independently associated with BF, metastasis, and PCSM. Maximum tumor diameter should be incorporated into clinical decision making and future clinical risk assessment tools for those patients

  20. Automated calculation of stenosis diameters from the width of the velocity jet with the use of a multi-gate pulsed Doppler system.

    PubMed

    de Knecht, S; Hopman, J C; Alsters, J L; Daniëls, O; Hoeks, A P; Reneman, R S

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an algorithm for automated estimation of the width of a jet stream originating from a stenosis. The evaluation was performed in a pulsatile flow model. The width of the jetstream was assessed by measuring the diameter of the region with relatively high velocities (the jet) in the velocity profiles, as recorded with a multi-gate pulsed Doppler system. Measurements were performed at 3, 6, and 9 mm downstream of three different stenoses (stenosis diameter: 3, 5, or 8 mm) at different Reynolds numbers (200-1600) based on time averaged flow velocity for a tube of diameter 15 mm. The developed algorithm was used successfully for automated detection and quantification of jet flow diameters downstream to a stenosis. The algorithm can be used for calculating the stenosis diameter notwithstanding a theoretically predictable overestimation of about 1 mm, depending on the Reynolds number and the distance from the stenosis. PMID:2974211

  1. Diagnostics for a 1.2 kA, 1 MeV electron induction injector

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, T.L.; Anderson, D.E.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.M.; Vanecek, D.L.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    1998-05-11

    We are constructing a 1.2-kA, 1-MeV, electron induction injector as part of the RTA program, a collaborative effort between LLNL and LBNL to develop relativistic klystrons for Two-Beam Accelerator applications. The RTA injector will also be used in the development of a high-gradient, low-emittance, electron source and beam diagnostics for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility. The electron source will be a 3.5``-diameter, thermionic, flat-surface, m-type cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. Additional design parameters for the injector include a pulse length of over 150-ns flat top (1% energy variation), and a normalized edge emittance of less than 200 {pi}-mm-mr. Precise measurement of the beam parameters is required so that performance of the RTA injector can be confidently scaled to the 4-kA, 3-MeV, and 2-microsecond pulse parameters of the DARHT injector. Planned diagnostics include an isolated cathode with resistive divider for direct measurement of current emission, resistive wall and magnetic probe current monitors for measuring beam current and centroid position, capacitive probes for measuring A-K gap voltage, an energy spectrometer, and a pepper-pot emittance diagnostic. Details of the injector, beam line, and diagnostics are presented.

  2. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  3. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  4. 16 CFR 1.2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedure. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.2 Procedure. (a) Application. The request for advice...

  5. 44 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2... GENERAL RULEMAKING; POLICY AND PROCEDURES General § 1.2 Definitions. (a) Rule or regulation means the...) Significant adverse effects on competition, employment, investment, productivity, innovation, or on...

  6. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2006-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  7. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    1997-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of any unincorporated association which...

  8. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  9. 49 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES General § 1.2 Definitions. As used in this part, Administrator includes: (a) The Federal Aviation Administrator. (b) The Federal Highway Administrator. (c)...

  10. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  11. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  12. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  13. MALT-45: The Galactic plane in 7mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Christopher; Walsh, Andrew; Voronkov, Maxim; Ellingsen, Simon

    2013-07-01

    MALT-45: The Galactic plane in 7mm MALT-45 is an untargeted Galactic plane survey searching for tracers of high mass star formation (HMSF) at 7mm. With the recent upgrades to the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we have been able to push the limits on observational efficiency to obtain a very sensitive blind survey in a short amount of time. Specifically, MALT-45 uses a fast on-the-fly mapping with 6 seconds per pointing, which results in a quarter-square-degree region being mapped in approximately 14 hours. Each region is Nyquist sampled and collects data in 12 spectral lines. The primary spectral lines of MALT-45 include: CS (1-0) - a high density gas tracer, which contrasts well with NH3 (1,1) from the similar HOPS survey; 44 GHz Class I methanol masers - the brightest of the Class I lines, it is poorly understood, and MALT-45 is one of the first surveys to thoroughly search for these masers; SiO (1-0) v=1,2,3 - typically associated with evolved stars, there have been rare associations with HMSF, and MALT-45 offers the potential to detect more. Other lines include thermal SiO (1-0) v=0, thermal methanol, C34S, OCS, and radio recombination lines H51a and H53a. Perhaps the most significant and innovative aspect of MALT-45 is the usage of ATCA autocorrelations. Each antenna of the ATCA is similar to Mopra, and by using all 6 antennae simultaneously, have a 6 fold increase in sensitivity per unit observation time. The autocorrelation data was only recently made available by the ATCA upgrade with the Compact Array Broadband Backend, and tools have been developed to allow this data processing. We present the first 5 square-degrees (l = 330 - 335, b = -0.5 - +0.5) of the Galactic plane mapped by MALT-45.

  14. A deployable .015 inch diameter wire antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibiasi, L.

    1979-01-01

    This mechanism was developed to dispense a small diameter wire which serves as a receiving antenna for electric field measurements on an Earth orbiting satellite. The antenna is deployed radially from a spinning satellite. A brushless dc motor drives a storage spool to dispense the wire at a controlled rate. Centrifugal force, acting on a mass attached to the end of the wire, keeps the wire in the radial position. The mechanism design, testing, and performance characteristics are discussed. Finally, operational data of the mechanism while in orbit are presented.

  15. Thread gauge for measuring thread pitch diameters

    DOEpatents

    Brewster, A.L.

    1985-11-19

    A thread gauge which attaches to a vernier caliper to measure the thread pitch diameter of both externally threaded and internally threaded parts is disclosed. A pair of anvils are externally threaded with threads having the same pitch as those of the threaded part. Each anvil is mounted on a stem having a ball on which the anvil can rotate to properly mate with the parts to which the anvils are applied. The stems are detachably secured to the caliper blades by attachment collars having keyhole openings for receiving the stems and caliper blades. A set screw is used to secure each collar on its caliper blade. 2 figs.

  16. Variable diameter wind turbine rotor blades

    DOEpatents

    Jamieson, Peter McKeich; Hornzee-Jones, Chris; Moroz, Emilian M.; Blakemore, Ralph W.

    2005-12-06

    A system and method for changing wind turbine rotor diameters to meet changing wind speeds and control system loads is disclosed. The rotor blades on the wind turbine are able to adjust length by extensions nested within or containing the base blade. The blades can have more than one extension in a variety of configurations. A cable winching system, a hydraulic system, a pneumatic system, inflatable or elastic extensions, and a spring-loaded jack knife deployment are some of the methods of adjustment. The extension is also protected from lightning by a grounding system.

  17. Thread gauge for measuring thread pitch diameters

    DOEpatents

    Brewster, Albert L.

    1985-01-01

    A thread gauge which attaches to a vernier caliper to measure the thread pitch diameter of both externally threaded and internally threaded parts. A pair of anvils are externally threaded with threads having the same pitch as those of the threaded part. Each anvil is mounted on a stem having a ball on which the anvil can rotate to properly mate with the parts to which the anvils are applied. The stems are detachably secured to the caliper blades by attachment collars having keyhole openings for receiving the stems and caliper blades. A set screw is used to secure each collar on its caliper blade.

  18. System performance advances of 18-mm and 16-mm subminiature image intensifier sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nils I.

    2000-11-01

    Night vision system design has been centered aroudn the An/AVS-6 and AN/PVS-7 night vision goggle systems for the past 20 years. Goggle performance has improved during this time through increased performance of the image intensifier sensor, primarily the Omni IV sensor from ITT Industries Night Vision. Most of this improvement has been at the optimal light level (1E-3 fc scene illumination). Recent advances in image sensor performance from the filmless Generation (Gen) IV sensors has increased the low light level performance of night vision devices from 0.3 cy/mr to 0.7 cy/mr. In addition, sensor packaging design requirements have forced night vision sensor manufactures to design light weight, small volume sensors. ITT recently has designed such a sensor in a 16-mm format. This sensor if 50% lighter, up to 50% shorter, and has design features that simplify the objective lens design. New night vision goggles have been, and are being, designed which reduce the perceived head-supported weight. This paper presents signal-to-noise ratio, halo, and other film-less sensor data and similar 16-mm subminiature sensor data. The resulting system performance data will be described. Finally, the system design improvements and relationships with the subminiature 16-mm subminiature sensor will be given.

  19. Compressive resistance of abutments with different diameters and transmucosal heights in Morse-taper implants.

    PubMed

    Lillo, Ricardo; Parra, Carlos; Fuentes, Ramón; Borie, Eduardo; Engelke, Wilfried; Beltrán, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the compressive resistance under oblique loads of abutments with two different diameters and transmucosal heights used for cement-retained implant-supported prostheses in Morse-taper implants. Forty Morse-taper implants were divided into four groups with different abutment sizes for cement-retained prostheses in order to perform the compressive test. The groups were divided by abutment diameter and transmucosal height as follows: Group 1: 4.5 x 2.5 mm; Group 2: 4.5 x 3.5 mm; Group 3: 3.3 x 2.5 mm; and Group 4: 3.3 x 3.5 mm. An oblique compressive loading test was performed on each sample located in a platform at 30° using a universal testing machine with a load cell of 1,000 kgf and 0.5 mm/min speed until achieving the deformation of abutment's neck. The compressive resistance and its mechanical behavior were recorded for each group and the data were analyzed using ANOVA, the Shapiro-Wilk and Scheffé tests. In addition, the detailed damage of all samples was recorded with a conventional camera linked to the endoscopic equipment. Significant differences were observed among the groups, except between Groups 2 and 3 (p>0.005). All the abutments showed permanent deformations in the upper region and at the transmucosal portion, but the threads of the screws were intact. Fractures were only identified in Groups 3 and 4. Stronger mechanical behavior and compressive resistance was observed in the abutments with 4.5 mm diameter and 2.5 mm transmucosal height.

  20. Measurement of Diameter Changes during Irradiation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K. L.; Knudson, D. L.; Crepeau, J. C.; Solstad, S.

    2015-03-01

    New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding, and structures in advanced and existing nuclear reactors. Such materials can experience significant dimensional and physical changes during irradiation. Currently in the US, such changes are measured by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a specified period of time and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The time and labor to remove, examine, and return irradiated samples for each measurement makes this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and handling may disturb the phenomena of interest. In-pile detection of changes in geometry is sorely needed to understand real-time behavior during irradiation testing of fuels and materials in high flux US Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). This paper presents development results of an advanced Linear Variable Differential Transformer-based test rig capable of detecting real-time changes in diameter of fuel rods or material samples during irradiation in US MTRs. This test rig is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory and will provide experimenters with a unique capability to measure diameter changes associated with fuel and cladding swelling, pellet-clad interaction, and crud buildup.

  1. Diameter and position effect determination of diaphragm on hybrid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xingliang; Tian, Hui; Cai, Guobiao

    2016-09-01

    This study is aimed to determine and better reveal the mixture enhancement and regression rate distribution of hybrid rocket motor with diaphragm by numerical approach. A numerical model based on the computational fluid dynamics software is built to simulate the flow and combustion inside the motor. Four firing tests of the motor, including one without diaphragm and three with diaphragm, are conducted on a standard experimental system and also used as a reference for numerical simulation, the consistency between the simulation and experiment demonstrates that the numerical approach is an effective method to study the diaphragm effect on the motor performance. The flow field characteristic and regression rate distribution inside the hybrid rocket motor are then calculated to analyze the effect of position and diameter of the diaphragm. The results indicate that the diaphragm almost have no effect on the regression rate before it. However, the regression rate after the diaphragm has a strong dependence on the position and diameter of the diaphragm. As the diameter decreases and the position moves backward, the regression rate increases larger and larger, this is mainly due to the augmentation of the eddy generated by the diaphragm, which enhances the heat feedback transferred to the grain surface. When the diameter of diaphragm located at middle of grain decreases from 50 mm to 20 mm, regression rate is increased from 0.30 mm/s to 0.57 mm/s. The use of the diaphragm does cause a combustion efficiency improvement; the maximum combustion efficiency is enhanced to 98.9% from lower than 90% of the motor with no diaphragm. The increasing amplitude displays a square relation with the diameter decrease, since the entrainment of the eddy make the reactants mix sufficiently to release more energy inside the motor.

  2. Expanding Endovascular Therapy of Very Small Ruptured Aneurysms with the 1.5-mm Coil

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thanh N.; Masoud, Hesham; Tarlov, Nicholas; Holsapple, James; Chin, Lawrence S.; Norbash, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Very small ruptured aneurysms (≤3 mm) demonstrate a significant risk for procedural rupture with endovascular therapy. Since 2007, 1.5-mm-diameter coils have been available (Micrus, Microvention, and ev3), allowing neurointerventionalists the opportunity to offer patients with very small aneurysms endovascular treatment. In this study, we review the clinical and angiographic outcome of patients with very small ruptured aneurysms treated with the 1.5-mm coil. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study in which we examined consecutive ruptured very small aneurysms treated with coil embolization at a single institution. The longest linear aneurysm was recorded, even if the first coil was sized to a smaller transverse diameter. Very small aneurysms were defined as ≤3 mm. Descriptive results are presented. Results From July 2007 to March 2015, 81 aneurysms were treated acutely with coils in 78 patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage. There were 5 patients with 3-mm aneurysms, of which the transverse diameter was ≤2 mm in 3 patients. In all 5 patients, a balloon was placed for hemostatic prophylaxis in case of rupture, and a single 1.5-mm coil was inserted for aneurysm treatment without complication. Complete aneurysm occlusion was achieved in 1 patient, residual neck in 2, and residual aneurysm in 2 patients. Aneurysm recanalization was present in 2 patients with an anterior communicating artery aneurysm; a recoiling attempt was unsuccessful in 1 of these 2 patients due to inadvertent displacement and distal coil embolization, but subsequent surgical clipping was successful. Another patient was retreated by surgical clipping for a residual wide-neck carotid terminus aneurysm. One patient died of ventriculitis 3 weeks after presentation; all 4 other patients had an excellent outcome with no rebleed at follow-up (mean 21 months, range 1-62). Conclusion The advent of the 1.5-mm coil may be used in the endovascular treatment of patients with very

  3. Can outer-to-outer diameter be used alone in diagnosing appendicitis on 128-slice MDCT?

    PubMed Central

    Yaqoob, Jamal; Idris, Muhammad; Alam, Muhammad Shahbaz; Kashif, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the frequency of visualization, position and diameter of normal appendix on 128-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in adult population. METHODS: Retrospective cross sectional study conducted at Radiology Department, Dallah Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from March 2013 to October 2013. Non-enhanced computed tomography scans of abdomen and pelvis of 98 patients presenting with hematuria (not associated with abdominal pain, fever or colonic disease) were reviewed by two radiologists, blinded to patient history. The study group included 55 females and 43 males with overall mean age of 54.7 years (range 21 to 94 years). The coronal reformatted images were reviewed in addition to the axial images. The frequency of visualization of appendix was recorded with assessment of position, diameter and luminal contents. RESULTS: The appendix was recorded as definitely visualized in 99% of patients and mean outer-to-outer diameter of the appendix was 5.6 ± 1.3 mm (range 3.0-11.0 mm). CONCLUSION: MDCT with its multiplanar reformation display is extremely useful for visualization of normal appendix. The normal appendix is very variable in its position and diameter. In the absence of other signs, the diagnosis of acute appendix should not be made solely on outer-to-outer appendiceal diameter. PMID:25550996

  4. PHOS Experiment: Thermal Response of a Large Diameter Pulsating Heat Pipe on Board REXUS-18 Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creatini, F.; Guidi, G. M.; Belfi, F.; Cicero, G.; Fioriti, D.; Di Prizio, D.; Piacquadio, S.; Becatti, G.; Orlandini, G.; Frigerio, A.; Fontanesi, S.; Nannipieri, P.; Rognini, M.; Morganti, N.; Filippeschi, S.; Di Marco, P.; Fanucci, L.; Baronti, F.; Mameli, M.; Marengo, M.; Manzoni, M.

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, the results of two Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipes (CLPHPs) tested on board REXUS-1 8 sounding rocket in order to get experimental data over a relatively broad reduced gravity period (about 90 s) are thoroughly discussed. The CLPHPs are partially filled with refrigerant FC-72 and have, respectively, an inner tube diameter larger (3 .0 mm) and slightly smaller (1 .6 mm) than a critical diameter defined on Earth gravity conditions. On ground, the small diameter CLPHP works as a real Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP): the typical capillary slug flow pattern forms inside the device and the heat exchange is triggered by self-sustained thermally driven oscillations of the working fluid. Conversely, the large diameter CLPHP behaves like a two-phase thermosyphon in vertical position while does not operate in horizontal position as the working fluid stratifies within the tube and surface tension is not able to balance buoyancy. Then, the idea to test the CLPHPs under reduced gravity conditions: as soon as gravity reduces, buoyancy becomes less intense and the typical capillary slug flow pattern can also forms within a tube with a larger diameter. Moreover, this allows to increase the heat transfer rate and, consequently, to decrease the overall thermal resistance. Even though it was not possible to experience the expected reduced gravity conditions due to a failure of the yo-yo de-spin system, the thermal response to the peculiar acceleration field (hyper-gravity) experienced on board are thoroughly described.

  5. Effect of Orifice Diameter on Bubble Generation Process in Melt Gas Injection to Prepare Aluminum Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jianyu; Li, Yanxiang; Wang, Ningzhen; Cheng, Ying; Chen, Xiang

    2016-06-01

    The bubble generation process in conditioned A356 alloy melt through submerged spiry orifices with a wide diameter range (from 0.07 to 1.0 mm) is investigated in order to prepare aluminum foams with fine pores. The gas flow rate and chamber pressure relationship for each orifice is first determined when blowing gas in atmospheric environment. The effects of chamber pressure ( P c) and orifice diameter ( D o) on bubble size are then analyzed separately when blowing gas in melt. A three-dimensional fitting curve is obtained illustrating both the influences of orifice diameter and chamber pressure on bubble size based on the experimental data. It is found that the bubble size has a V-shaped relationship with orifice diameter and chamber pressure neighboring the optimized parameter ( D o = 0.25 mm, P c = 0.4 MPa). The bubble generation mechanism is proposed based on the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. It is found that the bubbles will not be generated until a threshold pressure difference is reached. The threshold pressure difference is dependent on the orifice diameter, which determines the time span of pre-formation stage and bubble growth stage.

  6. Large Diameter Limbs for Dilated Common Iliac Arteries in Endovascular Aneurysm Repair. Is It Safe?

    SciTech Connect

    Malagari, Katerina Brountzos, Elias; Gougoulakis, Alexandros; Papathanasiou, Matilda; Alexopoulou, Efthymia; Mastorakou, Renata; Kelekis, Dimitris

    2004-09-15

    In this prospective study we examined whether dilated common iliac arteries (CIAs) can provide a safe distal seal in endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with the use of bifurcated stent grafts with large diameter limbs. Sixteen patients with 26 dilated CIAs with a diameter of {>=}6 mm who were offered EVAR using stent grafts with large diameter limbs were included in the study (Group A). Forty-two patients who also underwent EVAR without iliac dilatation, matched for age, sex and surgical risk were used for comparison (controls-Group B). In group A mean CIA diameter was 18.2 mm (16-28) and mean abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) diameter was 6.87 {+-} 1.05 cm; mean age was 77.2 {+-} 4.8 yrs (67-81). Mean follow-up was 33.6 months (2.8 yrs). CIA diameter changes and development of endoleaks were assessed by CT angiography (CTA). Overall iliac dilatation was present in 16/58 of our patients (27.6%). In 10 patients dilatation was bilateral (17.3%). Partial or complete flow to the internal iliac artery (IIA) territories was preserved in all patients post-EVAR. On follow-up, stable caliber of the dilated CIAs was observed in 21 patients (84%), enlargement of 1mm in 3 (16%), and failure of the distal attachment in 1 (6.2%). Compared to the control group there was no statistical significance in the incidence of complications. Dilated common iliac arteries provide a safe distal seal in patients who have undergone EVAR, thus obviating the need for additional endovascular procedures and sparing flow in the IIA vascular bed.

  7. A slotted waveguide field applicator to sustain large diameter uniform plasma cylinders.

    PubMed

    Wu, C; Zhan, R; Huang, W

    2000-01-01

    We describe a slotted waveguide field applicator and present the results of experimental investigation. The experimental results show that it can efficiently transfer power to plasma in the wide pressure range. Specially, it is able to produce a large diameter uniform plasma cylinder with diameter over 160 mm. The electron temperature and density are 2-4 eV and 10(10)-10(11) cm-3, respectively, under conditions of the pressure below 135 Pa and the microwave power 500-900 w. In addition, the primary study of the surface-wave modes indicate that the mode of m = 6 can be excited and propagate.

  8. Imaging characteristics of an 8.8  mm long and 125  μm thick graded-index short multimode fiber probe.

    PubMed

    Sato, Manabu; Shouji, Kou; Saito, Daisuke; Nishidate, Izumi

    2016-04-20

    We demonstrated the feasibility of an ultrathin imaging probe with a 50-μm core diameter, a 125 μm total diameter, and an 8.8 mm length, which is a typical graded-index multimode fiber for optical communications. We used an ABCD matrix to analyze the imaging conditions and magnification, which corresponded closely to the measured results. The lateral resolution was calculated at 1.2 μm with a wavelength of 730 nm, which reflects the image test pattern where a period of 4.38 μm was measured with a wavelength of 730 nm. In the numerical aperture of the objective lens, we experimentally evaluated the tradeoff between the magnification and the coupling efficiency. At four wavelengths of 540 nm, 632 nm, 730 nm, and 852 nm, the contrast and signal intensity versus the wavelength were investigated to show that the contrast at 632 and 730 nm is relatively high. By using a thin random phase screen model, we explained that as the wavelength decreases the greater the decrease in the optical transfer function at higher spatial frequencies. Using a 635 nm LED light source, we imaged the surfaces of chicken tendons in contact and the surface roughness was visible. PMID:27140102

  9. Development of fine diameter mullite fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of a program to develop and evaluate mullite fiber with a mean diameter under two microns. The two micron fiber is produced by a blowing process at room temperature from a low viscosity (10-25 poise) solution. The blown fiber was evaluated for dimensional stability in thermal cycling to 1371 C, and was equivalent to the 5 micron spun B and W mullite fiber. An additive study was conducted to evaluate substitutes for the boron. Three levels of chromium, lithium fluoride, and magnesium were added to the standard composition in place of boron and the fiber produced was evaluated for chemical and dimensional stability in thermal cycling to 1371 C. The magnesium was the most chemically stable, but the chrome additive imparted the best dimensional stability.

  10. Fire protection covering for small diameter missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Sawko, P. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Flexible intumescent protection sheeting of unusually uniform thickness were prepared from epoxy-polysulfide compositions, containing microfibers and the ammonium salt of 1,4-nitroaniline-2-sulfonic acid, as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,663,464, except that an ammonium salt particle size in the order of 5 to 8 microns and a fiber size of about 1/128th inch in length and 3 to 5 microns in diameter were found critical to obtain the required density of 1.46 to 1.50 g/cc. The insulation sheeting was prepared by a continuous process involving vacuum mixing, calendering, and curing under very strict conditions which depend to some extent upon the thickness of the sheet produced.

  11. Granulation, Irradiance and Diameter Solar Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humberto Andrei, Alexandre; Calderari Boscardin, Sergio; Lousada Penna, Jucira; Reis Neto, Eugenio

    2015-08-01

    Though granulation forms the very face of sun’s photosphere, there are no long term registers of it. Observational and computational hardships to define and follow such highly variable “face” have so far prevented the realization of those registers. However, in recent years a large, coherent body of white light images became available. We retrieved white light, full solar disk images from the BBSO, to a total of 1104 treated ones and 1245 treated and compensated for limb darkening ones. The time coverage extends from the year 2000 to 2005, thus covering the rise and fall of the solar cycle 23. For the analysis, only the central 0.35R portion of the Sun was considered. The central portion was then divided into 100 subsectors, to average and discard the deviant results. The analysis goal is to derive the long term behavior of the photosphere granulation, in broad statistical sense. Three statistics were this way calculated: the standard deviation of the counts (that answers to the grains size); the counts difference between the maximum and minimum tenths (that answers to the grains brightness); the degree of the best fit polynomial along lines and columns (that answers to the grains numbers). According to the statistics, there is no significant variation in the number of grains. The grains sizes are the largest by the solar maximum, in excellent agreement with the maximum of the measured diameter. The grains brightness, on the contrary, is minimum at the solar maximum, and again an excellent agreement is verified with the maximum of the measured diameter.

  12. The LLAMA 12 m mm/sub-mm radiotelescope in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepine, Jacques; Edemundo Arnal, Marcelo; de Graauw, Thijs; Abraham, Zulema; Gimenez de Castro, Guillermo; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Morras, Ricardo; Larrarte, Juan; Viramontes, José; Finger, Ricardo; Kooi, Jacob; Reeves, Rodrigo; Beaklini, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    LLAMA (Large Latin American Millimetric Array) is a joint Argentinean-Brazilian project of a 12m mm/sub-mm radio telescope similar to the APEX antenna, to be installed at a site at 4800 m altitude near San Antonio de Los Cobres in the Salta Province in Argentine, at 150 km from ALMA. The scientific cases for single dish and VLBI observations include black holes and accretion disks, the molecular evolution of interstellar clouds, the structure of the Galaxy, the formation of galaxies, and much more. The antenna was ordered to the company Vertex Antennentechnik in June 2014, and the construction is progressing quickly; it will be installed at the site in 2016. The radio telescope will be equipped with up to six receivers covering bands similar to those of ALMA. Cryostats with room for 3 cartridges, constructed by NAOJ (Tokyo,Japan), will be installed in each of the two Nasmyth cabins. Among the first receivers we will have an ALMA band 9 provided by NOVA (Groningen, Holland) and a band 5 from the Chalmers University (Sweden). Other receivers are still being discussed at the time of submission of this abstract,At high frequencies, VLBI observations at high frequencies could be made with ALMA, APEX and ASTE, and Northern radiotelescopes. In this way, LLAMA will be a seed for a Latin-American VLBI network.

  13. Teaching Evolutionary Mechanisms: Genetic Drift and M&M's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Nancy L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity that teaches the mechanism of genetic drift to undergraduates. Illustrates a number of concepts that are critical in developing evolution literacy by sampling M&M milk chocolate candies. (MM)

  14. Synthesis and structural characterization of highly tetragonal (1-x)Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)-xPbTiO3 piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Jyoti; Pandey, Rishikesh; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar

    2013-02-01

    We present here the comprehensive X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dielectric measurement of (1-x)Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3-xPbTiO3 (BZT-xPT) piezoceramics with x=0.65, 0.70, 0.75 and 0.80. Powder X-ray diffraction data reveals the tetragonal structure (space group P4mm) of BZT-xPT ceramics for all the compositions.

  15. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging measurements of optic nerve sheath diameter in dogs with and without presumed intracranial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Scrivani, Peter V; Fletcher, Daniel J; Cooley, Stacy D; Rosenblatt, Alana J; Erb, Hollis N

    2013-01-01

    Intracranial hypertension is a cause of cerebral ischemia and neurologic deficits in dogs. Goals of this retrospective study were to test interobserver agreement for MRI measurements of optic nerve sheath diameter and associations between optic nerve sheath diameter, signalment data, and presumed intracranial hypertension status in a cohort of dogs. A veterinary radiologist interpreted scans of 100 dogs and dogs were assigned to groups based on presence or absence of at least two MRI characteristics of presumed intracranial hypertension. Two observers who were unaware of group status independently measured optic nerve diameter from transverse T2-weighted sequences. Mean optic nerve sheath diameter for all dogs was 3 mm (1-4 mm). The mean difference between observers was 0.3 mm (limits of agreement, -0.4 and 1.0 mm). There was no correlation between optic nerve sheath diameter and age for either observer (r = -0.06 to 0.00) but a moderate positive correlation was observed between optic nerve sheath diameter and body weight for both observers (r = 0.70-0.76). The 22 dogs with presumed intracranial hypertension weighed less than the 78 dogs without (P = 0.02) and were more often female (P = 0.04). Dogs with presumed intracranial hypertension had a larger ratio of optic nerve sheath diameter to body weight for each observer-side pair (P = 0.01-0.04) than dogs without. Findings indicated that the ratio of MRI optic nerve sheath diameter relative to body weight may be a repeatable predictor of intracranial hypertension in dogs.

  16. 23 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... shall have the following meaning: Administrator. The Federal Highway Administrator. Advertising policy... laws, heretofore or hereafter enacted, relating to Federal aid for highways. Latest available...

  17. 23 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... shall have the following meaning: Administrator. The Federal Highway Administrator. Advertising policy... laws, heretofore or hereafter enacted, relating to Federal aid for highways. Latest available...

  18. 23 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... shall have the following meaning: Administrator. The Federal Highway Administrator. Advertising policy... laws, heretofore or hereafter enacted, relating to Federal aid for highways. Latest available...

  19. 23 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... shall have the following meaning: Administrator. The Federal Highway Administrator. Advertising policy... laws, heretofore or hereafter enacted, relating to Federal aid for highways. Latest available...

  20. 23 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... shall have the following meaning: Administrator. The Federal Highway Administrator. Advertising policy... laws, heretofore or hereafter enacted, relating to Federal aid for highways. Latest available...

  1. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  2. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  3. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  4. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  5. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  6. 8 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Aliens and... alien means an applicant for admission coming or attempting to come into the United States at a port-of-entry, or an alien seeking transit through the United States at a port-of-entry, or an alien...

  7. 45 CFR 1210.1-2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 1210.1-2 Section 1210.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA... separation of any Trainee or Volunteer. Separate procedures, as detailed in the VISTA Handbook,...

  8. Large Circular Basin - 1300-km diameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Close-up view of one-half of a 1300-km diameter circular basin the largest observed on Mercury. The other half is hidden beyond the terminator to the left. Hills and valleys extend in a radial fashion outward from the main ring. Interior of the large basin is completely flooded by plains materials; adjacent lowlands are also partially flooded and superimposed on the plains are bowl shaped craters. Wrinkle ridges are abundant on the plains materials. The area shown is 1008 miles (1600 km) from the top to the bottom of the picture. Sun's illumination is from the right. Blurred linear lines extending across the picture near bottom are missing data lines that have been filled in by the computer. Mariner 10 encountered Mercury on Friday, March 29th, 1974, passing the planet on the darkside 431 miles (690-km) from the surface.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    NOTE: This image was scanned from physical media.

  9. The 15 cm diameter ion thruster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The startup reliability of a 15 cm diameter mercury bombardment ion thruster which employs a pulsed high voltage tickler electrode on the main and neutralizer cathodes is examined. Startup of the thruster is achieved 100% of the time on the main cathode and 98.7% of the time on the neutralizer cathode over a 3640 cycle test. The thruster was started from a 20 C initial condition and operated for an hour at a 600 mA beam current. An energy efficiency of 75% and a propellant utilization efficiency of 77% was achieved over the complete cycle. The effect of a single cusp magnetic field thruster length on its performance is discussed. Guidelines are formulated for the shaping of magnetic field lines in thrusters. A model describing double ion production in mercury discharges is presented. The production route is shown to occur through the single ionic ground state. Photographs of the interior of an operating-hollow cathode are presented. A cathode spot is shown to be present if the cathode is free of low work-function surfaces. The spot is observed if a low work-function oxide coating is applied to the cathode insert. Results show that low work-function oxide coatings tend to migrate during thruster operation.

  10. SKADS: Sub-Kilometer Asteroid Diameter Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, D. R.; Gladman, B.; Jedicke, R.; Williams, G.

    2004-11-01

    We surveyed 8 sq deg over the course of six nights (March 21-23 and March 29-31 UT, 2001) using the mosaic camera on the KPNO 4m telescope. This survey was designed to sample the mainbelt asteroid size and orbit distribution down to mR ˜ 23 and to obtain V and R band photometry on these objects. Improved understanding of the asteroid size distribution is needed to refine our knowledge of the disruptive scaling law and the collisional evolution of asteroids. On each night, 24 fields were observed 3 times with the fields being shifted by the mean motion of mainbelt asteroids between dates. Data was taken on all six nights with 4 nights being photometric for all or most of the night. A total of 1087 asteroids were detected on 2 or more of the 6 nights while 907 asteroids were detected on at least 4 nights to allow a ``good" orbit to be determined. The 50% detection efficiency was between mR ˜ 22.9 and 23.1 for the photometric nights. Debiasing the detected asteroids will yield the asteroid diameter distribution down to sub-km sizes.

  11. Electrospun fibre diameter, not alignment, affects mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into the tendon/ligament lineage.

    PubMed

    Cardwell, Robyn D; Dahlgren, Linda A; Goldstein, Aaron S

    2014-12-01

    Efforts to develop engineered tendons and ligaments have focused on the use of a biomaterial scaffold and a stem cell source. However, the ideal scaffold microenvironment to promote stem cell differentiation and development of organized extracellular matrix is unknown. Through electrospinning, fibre scaffolds can be designed with tailorable architectures to mimic the intended tissue. In this study, the effects of fibre diameter and orientation were examined by electrospinning thin mats, consisting of small (< 1 µm), medium (1-2 µm) or large (> 2 µm) diameter fibres with either random or aligned fibre orientation. C3H10T1/2 model stem cells were cultured on the six different electrospun mats, as well as smooth spin-coated films, and the morphology, growth and expression of tendon/ligament genes were evaluated. The results demonstrated that fibre diameter affects cellular behaviour more significantly than fibre alignment. Initially, cell density was greater on the small fibre diameter mats, but similar cell densities were found on all mats after an additional week in culture. After 2 weeks, gene expression of collagen 1α1 and decorin was increased on all mats compared to films. Expression of the tendon/ligament transcription factor scleraxis was suppressed on all electrospun mats relative to spin-coated films, but expression on the large-diameter fibre mats was consistently greater than on the medium-diameter fibre mats. These results suggest that larger-diameter fibres (e.g. > 2 µm) may be more suitable for in vitro development of a tendon/ligament tissue.

  12. The effect of femoral head diameter upon lubrication and wear of metal-on-metal total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Smith, S L; Dowson, D; Goldsmith, A A

    2001-01-01

    It has been found that a remarkable reduction in the wear of metal-on-metal hip joints can be achieved by simply increasing the diameter of the joint. A tribological evaluation of metal-on-metal joints of 16, 22.225, 28 and 36 mm diameter was conducted in 25 per cent bovine serum using a hip joint simulator. The joints were subject to dynamic motion and loading cycles simulating walking for both lubrication and wear studies. For each size of joint in the lubrication study, an electrical resistivity technique was used to detect the extent of surface separation through a complete walking cycle. Wear of each size of joint was measured gravimetrically in wear tests of at least 2 x 10(6) cycles duration. Joints of 16 and 22.225 mm diameter showed no surface separation in the lubrication study. This suggested that wear would be proportional to the sliding distance and hence joint size in this boundary lubrication regime. A 28 mm diameter joint showed only limited evidence of surface separation suggesting that these joints were operating in a mixed lubrication regime. A 36 mm diameter joint showed surface separation for considerable parts of each walking cycle and hence evidence of the formation of a protective lubricating film. Wear testing of 16 and 22.225 mm diameter metal-on-metal joints gave mean wear rates of 4.85 and 6.30 mm3/10(6) cycles respectively. The ratio of these wear rates, 0.77, is approximately the same as the joint diameters ratio, 16/22.225 or 0.72, as expected from simple wear theory for dry or boundary lubrication conditions. No bedding-in was observed with these smaller diameter joints. For the 28 mm diameter joint, from 0 to 2 x 10(6) cycles, the mean wear rate was 1.62 mm3/10(6) cycles as the joints bedded-in. Following bedding-in, from 2.0 x 10(6) to 4.7 x 10(6) cycles, the wear rate was 0.54 mm3/10(6) cycles. As reported previously by Goldsmith et al. in 2000 [1], the mean steady state wear rate of the 36 mm diameter joints was lower than those

  13. [Modeling formation of aerobic granule and influence of hydrodynamic shear forces on granule diameter].

    PubMed

    Dong, Feng; Zhang, Han-Min; Yang, Feng-Lin

    2012-01-01

    A one-dimension aerobic granule mathematical model was established, basing on mathematical biofilm model and activated sludge model. The model was used to simulate simple aerobic granule process such as nutrients removal, granule diameter evolution, cycle performance as well as depth profiles of DO and biomass. The effluent NH4(+) -N concentration decreased as the modeling processed. The simulation effluent NO3(-)-N concentration decreased to 3 mg x L(-1) as the granules grew. While the granule diameter increased from 1.1 mm on day 30 to 2.5 mm on day 100, the TN removal efficiency increased from less than 10% to 91%. The denitrification capacity was believed to enhance because the anoxic zone would be enlarged with the increasing granule diameter. The simultaneous nitrification and denitrification occurred inside the big aerobic granules. The oxygen permeating depth increased with the consumption of substrate. It was about 100-200 microm at the beginning of the aeration phase, and it turned to near 800 microm at the end of reaction. The autotrophs (AOB and NOB) were mostly located at the out layer where the DO concentration was high. The heterotrophic bacteria were distributed through the whole granule. As hydrodynamic shear coefficient k(de) increased from 0.25 (m x d)(-1) to 5 (m x d)(-1), the granule diameter under steady state decreased form 3.5 mm to 1.8 mm. The granule size under the dynamic steady-state decreased with the increasing hydrodynamic shear force. The granule size could be controlled by adjusting aeration intensity. PMID:22452208

  14. Relation of Blood Pressure to Retinal Vessel Diameter in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Zinman, Bernard; Gardiner, Robert; Suissa, Samy; Sinaiko, Alan R.; Donnelly, Sandra M.; Goodyer, Paul; Strand, Trudy; Mauer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship of blood pressure (BP) and use of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) to retinal vessel diameter in normotensive, normoalbuminuric persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Participants Persons with T1DM and gradable fundus photographs both at baseline (n=147) and 5-year follow-up (n=124). Methods Clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BPs (ABP) were measured. Retinal arteriolar and venular diameters were measured using a computer-assisted technique. Individual arteriolar and venular measurements were combined into summary indices that reflect the average retinal arteriolar (central retinal arteriolar equivalent [CRAE]) and venular (central retinal venular equivalent [CRVE]) diameter of an eye, respectively. Main Outcome Measures CRAE and CRVE. Results While controlling for age, study site, glycosylated hemoglobin and ambulatory pulse rate, daytime ambulatory systolic (-0.29 μm effect per 1mmHg, P=.02) and daytime ambulatory diastolic (-0.44 μm effect per 1mmHg, P=.04), nighttime ambulatory systolic (-0.27 μm effect per 1mmHg, P=.03), and 24-hour ambulatory systolic BP (-0.31 μm effect per 1mmHg, P=.03) were cross-sectionally associated with a smaller CRAE. While controlling for age, study site, glycosylated hemoglobin, ambulatory pulse rate and baseline CRAE, no BP measure was associated with a change in CRAE or CRVE over 5 years of follow-up. Treatment with losartan or enalapril was not associated with a statistically significant change in CRAE or CRVE. Conclusions ACEI or ARB therapy does not affect retinal arteriolar or venular diameter in normotensive persons with T1DM. PMID:20142543

  15. Pulse height tests of a large diameter fast LaBr₃:Ce scintillation detector.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, A A; Khiari, F Z; Maslehuddin, M; Gondal, M A; Al-Amoudi, O S B; Ukashat, M S; Ilyas, A M; Liadi, F A; Isab, A A; Khateeb-ur Rehman; Raashid, M; Dastageer, M A

    2015-10-01

    The pulse height response of a large diameter fast 100 mm × 100 mm LaBr3:Ce detector was measured for 0.1-10 MeV gamma-rays. The detector has a claimed time resolution of 608 ps for 511 keV gamma rays, but has relatively poor energy resolution due to the characteristics of its fast photomultiplier. The detector pulse height response was measured for gamma rays from cobalt, cesium, and bismuth radioisotope sources as well as prompt gamma rays from thermal neutron capture in water samples contaminated with mercury (3.1 wt%), boron (2.5 wt%), cadmium (0.25 wt%), chromium (52 wt%), and nickel (22 wt%) compounds. The energy resolution of the detector was determined from full width at half maximum (FWHM) of element-characteristic gamma ray peaks in the pulse height spectrum associated with the element present in the contaminated water sample. The measured energy resolution of the 100 mm × 100 mm detector varies from 12.7±0.2% to 1.9±0.1% for 0.1 to 10 MeV gamma rays, respectively. The graph showing the energy resolution ΔE/E(%) versus 1/√Eγ was fitted with a linear function to study the detector light collection from the slope of the curve. The slope of the present 100 mm × 100 mm detector is almost twice as large as the slope of a similar curve of previously published data for a 89 mm × 203 mm LaBr3:Ce detector. This indicates almost two times poorer light collection in the 100 mm × 100 mm detector as compared to the other detector. PMID:26207950

  16. Slip flow through colloidal crystals of varying particle diameter.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Benjamin J; Wirth, Mary J

    2013-01-22

    Slip flow of water through silica colloidal crystals was investigated experimentally for eight different particle diameters, which have hydraulic channel radii ranging from 15 to 800 nm. The particle surfaces were silylated to be low in energy, with a water contact angle of 83°, as determined for a silylated flat surface. Flow rates through centimeter lengths of colloidal crystal were measured using a commercial liquid chromatograph for accurate comparisons of water and toluene flow rates using pressure gradients as high as 10(10) Pa/m. Toluene exhibited no-slip Hagen-Poiseuille flow for all hydraulic channel radii. For water, the slip flow enhancement as a function of hydraulic channel radius was described well by the expected slip flow correction for Hagen-Poiseuille flow, and the data revealed a constant slip length of 63 ± 3 nm. A flow enhancement of 20 ± 2 was observed for the smallest hydraulic channel radius of 15 nm. The amount of slip flow was found to be independent of shear rate over a range of fluid velocities from 0.7 to 5.8 mm/s. The results support the applicability of the slip flow correction for channel radii as small as 15 nm. The work demonstrates that packed beds of submicrometer particles enable slip flow to be employed for high-volume flow rates.

  17. Slip Flow through Colloidal Crystals of Varying Particle Diameter

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Benjamin J.; Wirth, Mary J.

    2012-01-01

    Slip flow of water through silica colloidal crystals was investigated experimentally for 8 different particle diameters, which have hydraulic channel radii ranging from 15 nm to 800 nm. The particle surfaces were silylated to be low in energy, with a water contact angle of 83°, as determined for a silylated flat surface. Flow rates through centimeter lengths of colloidal crystal were measured using a commercial liquid chromatograph for accurate comparisons of water and toluene flow rates using pressure gradients as high as 1010 Pa/m. Toluene exhibited no-slip Hagen-Poiseuille flow for all hydraulic channel radii. For water, the slip flow enhancement as a function of hydraulic channel radius was described well by the expected slip flow correction for Hagen-Poiseuille flow, and the data revealed a constant slip length of 63±3 nm. A flow enhancement of 20±2 was observed for the smallest hydraulic channel radius of 15 nm. The amount of slip flow was found to be independent of shear rate over a range of fluid velocities from 0.7 to 5.8 mm/s. The results support the applicability of the slip flow correction for channel radii as small as 15 nm. The work demonstrates that packed beds of submicrometer particles enable slip flow to be employed for high volume flow rates. PMID:23237590

  18. Presenting a high accuracy Theta-Phi-style fiber-positioner prototype with a 15-mm pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeuser, Marco; Lang-Bardl, Florian; Richter, Josef; Hess, Hans-Joachim; Degwert, Adrian; Karasz, Adolf; Kosyra, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Bender, Ralf

    2014-07-01

    We present a Θ - Φ-style fiber-positioner prototype, which will be controlled via the EMI-robust CAN-Bus. Our positioner points without iterations or a metrology system. Due to the overlapping patrol disc of 17.3 mm diameter, we reach a filling factor of 100 %. The positioners diameter is 14.6 mm, containing the control electronics on a contemporary PCB of 13.5 mm width. While moving, the power consumption does not lead to a significant rise in temperature. Given a mechanical reference point measured by stall detection, the absolute accuracy is 27 μm (1σ = 14 µm) and pointings are repeatable with 7 μm (1σ = 4 μm). Better positioning may be reachable with upcoming calibration.

  19. Synthesis of a novel small diameter polyurethane vascular graft with reactive binding sites.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, D J; Phaneuf, M D; Bide, M J; Szycher, M; Quist, W C; Logerfo, F W

    1998-01-01

    Development of a small diameter (4 mm inner diameter [ID]) prosthetic vascular graft with functional groups accessible for covalent binding of recombinant hirudin (a potent anticoagulant) should create a more hemocompatible surface. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique for generating carboxylic acid groups on the surface of precast 4 mm ID poly-(carbonate urea)-urethane vascular grafts and to evaluate the accessibility of these groups. A polycarbonate based urethane with the chain extender 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid was synthesized. A precast 4 mm ID poly(carbonate urea)-urethane vascular graft (Chronoflex [CF]; CardioTech International, Woburn, MA) was then placed into a 4% carboxylated polyurethane (cPU) solution (in 1% dimethyl acetamide) and incubated for 30 minutes (cPU graft). To determine the accessibility of the carboxylic acid groups, a standard textile technique using methylene blue dye was used. Macroscopic cross-sections, which were cut and evaluated for dye penetration, showed greatest concentration of carboxylic acid groups at the luminal and capsule surfaces, with minimal penetration into the mid-portion of the graft. Analysis of dye baths for absorbance reduction resulted in the cPU grafts having 3.7-fold and 5.4-fold more accessible carboxylic acid groups compared with untreated and dimethyl acetamide dipped CF grafts. Thus, a novel small diameter vascular graft has been developed that contains reactive carboxylic acid groups accessible for protein binding. PMID:9804482

  20. Estimation of local pulse wave velocity using arterial diameter waveforms: Experimental validation in sheep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, S.; Craiem, D.; Barra, J. G.; Armentano, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Increased arterial stiffness is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Estimation of arterial stiffness using local pulse wave velocity (PWV) promises to be very useful for noninvasive diagnosis of arteriosclerosis. In this work we estimated in an instrumented sheep, the local aortic pulse wave velocity using two sonomicrometry diameter sensors (separated 7.5 cm) according to the transit time method (PWVTT) with a sampling rate of 4 KHz. We simultaneously measured aortic pressure in order to determine from pressure-diameter loops (PWVPDLoop), the "true" local aortic pulse wave velocity. A pneumatic cuff occluder was implanted in the aorta in order to compare both methods under a wide range of pressure levels. Mean pressure values ranged from 47 to 101 mmHg and mean proximal diameter values from 12.5. to 15.2 mm. There were no significant differences between PWVTT and PWVPDLoop values (451±43 vs. 447±48 cm/s, p = ns, paired t-test). Both methods correlated significantly (R = 0.81, p<0.05). The mean difference between both methods was only -4±29 cm/s, whereas the range of the limits of agreement (mean ± 2 standard deviation) was -61 to +53 cm/s, showing no trend. In conclusion, the diameter waveforms transit time method was found to allow an accurate and precise estimation of the local aortic PWV.

  1. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based fuel and biomass Column A:Density (metric tons/bbl) Column...

  2. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based fuel and biomass Column A:Density (metric tons/bbl) Column...

  3. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based fuel and biomass Column A:Density (metric tons/bbl) Column...

  4. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based fuel and biomass Column A:Density (metric tons/bbl) Column...

  5. Blood flow velocity in the pial arteries of cats, with particular reference to the vessel diameter.

    PubMed

    Kobari, M; Gotoh, F; Fukuuchi, Y; Tanaka, K; Suzuki, N; Uematsu, D

    1984-03-01

    The blood flow velocity and diameter of feline pial arteries, ranging in diameter from 20 to 200 microns, were measured simultaneously using a newly developed video camera method under steady-state conditions for all other parameters. There was a linear relationship between blood flow velocity and pial artery diameter (y = 0.340x + 0.309), the correlation coefficient being 0.785 (p less than 0.001). The average values for blood flow velocity in pial arteries less than 50 microns, greater than or equal to 50 but less than 100 microns, greater than or equal to 100 but less than 150 microns, and greater than or equal to 150 microns in diameter were 12.9 +/- 1.3, 24.6 +/- 3.4, 42.1 +/- 4.7, and 59.9 +/- 5.3 mm/s, respectively. Blood flow rate was calculated as a product of the cross-sectional area and the flow velocity. The blood flow rate increased exponentially as the pial artery diameter increased (y = 2.71 X 10(-4) x2.98). The average values for blood flow rate in pial arteries less than 50 microns, greater than or equal to 50 but less than 100 microns, greater than or equal to 100 but less than 150 microns and greater than or equal to 150 microns in diameter were 12.8 +/- 1.5, 122.1 +/- 24.8, 510.2 +/- 74.8, and 1524.2 +/- 174.4 10(-3) mm3/s, respectively. Hemorheological parameters such as the wall shear rate and Reynolds' number were also calculated. The data obtained provide a useful basis for further investigations in the field of cerebral circulation.

  6. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter and Visceral Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Henry S.; Gasevic, Danijela; Liang, Zhe; Frediani, Jennifer K.; Torres, William E.; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Lin, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Background In the context of increasing obesity prevalence, the relationship between large visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volumes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is unclear. In a clinical sample of severely obese women (mean body mass index [BMI], 46 kg/m2) with fasting normoglycemia (n=40) or dysglycemia (impaired fasting glucose+diabetes; n=20), we sought to determine the usefulness of anthropometric correlates of VAT and associations with dysglycemia. Methods VAT volume was estimated using multi-slice computer tomography; anthropometric surrogates included sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), waist circumference (WC) and BMI. Insulin sensitivity (Si), and beta-cell dysfunction, measured by insulin secretion (AIRg) and the disposition index (DI), were determined by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Results Compared to fasting normoglycemic women, individuals with dysglycemia had greater VAT (P<0.001) and SAD (P=0.04), but BMI, total adiposity and Si were similar. VAT was inversely associated with AIRg and DI after controlling for ancestry, Si, and total adiposity (standardized beta, −0.32 and −0.34, both P<0.05). In addition, SAD (beta=0.41, P=0.02) was found to be a better estimate of VAT volume than WC (beta=0.32, P=0.08) after controlling for covariates. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that VAT volume, followed by SAD, outperformed WC and BMI in identifying dysglycemic participants. Conclusions Increasing VAT is associated with beta-cell dysfunction and dysglycemia in very obese women. In the presence of severe obesity, SAD is a simple surrogate of VAT, and an indicator of glucose dysregulation. PMID:23408092

  7. Effect of ceramic membrane channel diameter on limiting retentate protein concentration during skim milk microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael C; Barbano, David M

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of retentate flow channel diameter (4 or 6mm) of nongraded permeability 100-nm pore size ceramic membranes operated in nonuniform transmembrane pressure mode on the limiting retentate protein concentration (LRPC) while microfiltering (MF) skim milk at a temperature of 50°C, a flux of 55 kg · m(-2) · h(-1), and an average cross-flow velocity of 7 m · s(-1). At the above conditions, the retentate true protein concentration was incrementally increased from 7 to 11.5%. When temperature, flux, and average cross-flow velocity were controlled, ceramic membrane retentate flow channel diameter did not affect the LRPC. This indicates that LRPC is not a function of the Reynolds number. Computational fluid dynamics data, which indicated that both membranes had similar radial velocity profiles within their retentate flow channels, supported this finding. Membranes with 6-mm flow channels can be operated at a lower pressure decrease from membrane inlet to membrane outlet (ΔP) or at a higher cross-flow velocity, depending on which is controlled, than membranes with 4-mm flow channels. This implies that 6-mm membranes could achieve a higher LRPC than 4-mm membranes at the same ΔP due to an increase in cross-flow velocity. In theory, the higher LRPC of the 6-mm membranes could facilitate 95% serum protein removal in 2 MF stages with diafiltration between stages if no serum protein were rejected by the membrane. At the same flux, retentate protein concentration, and average cross-flow velocity, 4-mm membranes require 21% more energy to remove a given amount of permeate than 6-mm membranes, despite the lower surface area of the 6-mm membranes. Equations to predict skim milk MF retentate viscosity as a function of protein concentration and temperature are provided. Retentate viscosity, retentate recirculation pump frequency required to maintain a given cross-flow velocity at a given retentate viscosity, and retentate protein

  8. 45 CFR 1211.1-2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-2 Applicability. This part applies to all volunteers enrolled under part A of title I of the Domestic Volunteer Service Act of 1973, as amended, Pub. L. 93-113, (42...

  9. 45 CFR 1211.1-2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-2 Applicability. This part applies to all volunteers enrolled under part A of title I of the Domestic Volunteer Service Act of 1973, as amended, Pub. L. 93-113, (42...

  10. AC conductivity and relaxation mechanism in (Nd1/2Li1/2)(Fe1/2V1/2)O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Susmita; Barik, Subrat Kumar; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study we have synthesized polycrystalline sample of (Nd1/2Li1/2)(Fe1/2V1/2)O3 ceramic by a standard high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. Studies of dielectric and electrical properties of the compound have been carried out in a wide range of temperature (RT - 400 °C) and frequency (1kHz - 1MHz) using complex impedance spectroscopic technique. The imaginary vs. real component of the complex impedance plot (Nyquist plot) of the prepared sample exhibits the existence of grain, grain boundary contributions in the complex electrical parameters and negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) type behavior like semiconductor. Details study of ac conductivity plot reveals that the material obeys universal Jonscher's power law.

  11. Cloaking spin-(1/2) matter waves

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, De-Hone

    2010-06-15

    A physical construct for the cloaking of relativistic spin-(1/2) matter waves is proposed. It is shown that when the effective energy and mass of relativistic spin-(1/2) particles moving in an effective vector field in a spherical shell are controlled, their matter waves can be perfectly guided through the shell without any distortion or loss; that is, the construct provides a three-dimensional cloaking shell for relativistic spin-(1/2) matter waves. The proposal serves as the basis for some interesting applications such as providing a method to guide the matter waves of spin particles and an ideal setup to exhibit spin-spin interactions as well as perfect quantum interferences of some global effects in spin-(1/2) matter waves.

  12. Instability of Reference Diameter in the Evaluation of Stenosis After Coronary Angioplasty: Percent Diameter Stenosis Overestimates Dilative Effects Due to Reference Diameter Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hirami, Ryouichi; Iwasaki, Kohichiro; Kusachi, Shozo; Murakami, Takashi; Hina, Kazuyoshi; Matano, Shigeru; Murakami, Masaaki; Kita, Toshimasa; Sakakibara, Noburu; Tsuji, Takao

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: To examine changes in the reference segment luminal diameter after coronary angioplasty.Methods: Sixty-one patients with stable angina pectoris or old myocardial infarction were examined. Coronary angiograms were recorded before coronary angioplasty (pre-angioplasty) and immediately after (post-angioplasty), as well as 3 months after. Artery diameters were measured on cine-film using quantitative coronary angiographic analysis.Results: The diameters of the proximal segment not involved in the balloon inflation and segments in the other artery did not change significantly after angioplasty, but the reference segment diameter significantly decreased (4.7%). More than 10% luminal reduction was observed in seven patients (11%) and more than 5% reduction was observed in 25 patients (41%). More than 5% underestimation of the stenosis was observed in 22 patients (36%) when the post-angioplasty reference diameter was used as the reference diameter, compared with when the pre-angioplasty measurement was used and more than 10% underestimation was observed in five patients (8%).Conclusion: This study indicated that evaluation by percent diameter stenosis, with the reference diameter from immediately after angioplasty, overestimates the dilative effects of coronary angioplasty, and that it is thus better to evaluate the efficacy of angioplasty using the absolute diameter in addition to percent luminal stenosis.

  13. Limitations on the Optical Tunability of Small Diameter Gold Nanoshells

    PubMed Central

    Rasch, Michael R.; Sokolov, Konstantin V.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    Gold (Au) nanoshells were grown on silica nanoparticles with differing average diameters, ranging from 30 nm to 120 nm. Au nanoshells were also formed on silica spheres encapsulating 5 nm diameter magnetic iron oxide nanocrystals. The optical absorbance spectra of these Au nanoshells are reported. The plasmon resonance wavelengths of the smaller diameter nanoshells were significantly less tunable than those of the larger diameter nanoshells. This is due to a reduced range of accessible core-shell ratio—the geometric factor that determines the plasmon peak position—as the silica core diameter shrinks. The smaller diameter nanoshells were also found to be highly prone to aggregation, which broadens the plasmon absorption peak. Model calculations of dispersion stability as a function of silica core diameter reveal that smaller diameter Au shells exhibit more aggregation because of the size-dependence of the electrostatic double-layer potential. PMID:19711913

  14. Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    VIGIL,MANUEL G.

    2001-07-01

    This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels.

  15. A λ 3 mm and 1 mm line survey toward the yellow hypergiant IRC +10420⋆

    PubMed Central

    Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Bujarrabal, V.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Alcolea, J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Our knowledge of the chemical properties of the circumstellar ejecta of the most massive evolved stars is particularly poor. We aim to study the chemical characteristics of the prototypical yellow hypergiant star, IRC +10420. For this purpose, we obtained full line surveys at 1 and 3 mm atmospheric windows. Methods We have identified 106 molecular emission lines from 22 molecular species. Approximately half of the molecules detected are N-bearing species, in particular HCN, HNC, CN, NO, NS, PN, and N2H+. We used rotational diagrams to derive the density and rotational temperature of the different molecular species detected. We introduced an iterative method that allows us to take moderate line opacities into account. Results We have found that IRC +10420 presents high abundances of the N-bearing molecules compared with O-rich evolved stars. This result supports the presence of a N-rich chemistry, expected for massive stars. Our analysis also suggests a decrease of the 12C/13C ratio from ≳ 7 to ~ 3.7 in the last 3800 years, which can be directly related to the nitrogen enrichment observed. In addition, we found that SiO emission presents a significant intensity decrease for high-J lines when compared with older observations. Radiative transfer modeling shows that this variation can be explained by a decrease in the infrared (IR) flux of the dust. The origin of this decrease might be an expansion of the dust shell or a lower stellar temperature due to the pulsation of the star. PMID:27458319

  16. The diameter-dependent photoelectrochemical performance of silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing-Chang; Wang, Hui; He, Le; Duan, Chun-Yang; Li, Fan; Ou, Xue-Mei; Sun, Bao-Quan; Zhang, Xiao-Hong

    2016-01-25

    We demonstrate the first systematic study of the diameter-dependent photoelectrochemical performance of single silicon nanowires within a broad size range from 200 to 2000 nm. SiNWs with a diameter of 1415 nm exhibit the highest solar energy conversion efficiency, which can be mainly traced to their diameter-dependent light absorption properties.

  17. Optimization of rod diameter in solid state lasers side pumped with multiple laser diode arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, Newton, Jr.; Chamblee, Christyl M.; Barnes, Norman P.; Lockard, George E.; Cross, Patricia L.

    1992-01-01

    Results of a study to determine the optimum laser rod diameter for maximum output energy in a solid state neodymium laser transversely pumped with multiple laser diode arrays are reported here. Experiments were performed with 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm and 2.0 mm rod radii of both neodymium doped Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) and La2Be2O5 (Nd:BeL) pumped with laser diode arrays having a maximum combined energy of 10.5 mJ. Equations were derived which predict the optimum rod radius and corresponding output mirror reflectivity for a given laser material and total pump energy. Predictions of the equations agreed well with the experiments for each of the laser materials which possessed significantly different laser properties from one another.

  18. A 3mm band SIS receiver for the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladu, A.; Pisanu, T.; Navarrini, A.; Marongiu, P.; Valente, G.

    2014-07-01

    We present the optical and mechanical design of a 3mm band SIS receiver for the Gregorian focus of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT). The receiver, was designed and built at IRAM and deployed on the IRAM for the Plateau de Bure Interferometer antennas until 2006. Following its decommissioning the receiver was purchased by the INAFAstronomical Observatory of Cagliari with the aim to adapt its optics for test of the performance of the new 64-m diameter Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) in the 3 mm band (84 - 116 GHz). The instrument will be installed in the rotating turret inside of the Gregorian focal room of SRT. The dimensions of the focal room, the horn position in the lower side of the cryostat and the vessel for the liquid helium impose very hard constraints to the optical and mechanical mounting structure of the receiver inside the cabin. We present the receiver configuration and how we plan to install it on SRT.

  19. The effect of substrate diameter and incline on locomotion in an arboreal frog.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Perrenoud, Mats; Decamps, Thierry; Abdala, Virginia; Manzano, Adriana; Pouydebat, Emannuelle

    2013-10-01

    Frogs are characterized by a unique morphology associated with their saltatory lifestyle. Yet, arboreal species show morphological specializations relative to other ecological specialists allowing them to hold on to narrow substrates. However, almost nothing is known about the effects of substrate characteristics on locomotion in frogs. Here, we quantified the 3D kinematics of forelimb movement for frogs moving across branches of different diameters (1 and 40 mm) and two different inclines (horizontal and 45 deg uphill). Our results show that grip types differ while moving across substrates of different diameters and inclines. The kinematics of the wrist, elbow and shoulder as well as the body position relative to the substrate also showed significant effects of individual, diameter and incline. Kinematic differences involved duration, velocity of movement and angular excursions. Differences were most pronounced for the proximal joints of the forelimb and effects for substrate diameter were greater than for incline. Interestingly, the effects of diameter and incline on both grip type and kinematics are similar to what has been observed for lizards and primates, suggesting that the mechanics of narrow substrate locomotion drive the kinematics of movement independent of morphology and phylogeny.

  20. Diameter-selective separation of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Kataoka, Masakazu; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Shimamoto, Daisuke; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Takuya; Endo, Morinobu; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2008-12-01

    Here, we report a simple and effective way of separating double-walled carbon nanotubes as a function of their diameter using individually dispersed nanotube solutions with the aid of long and random single-stranded DNA. The subtle pH change in nanotube solutions gives rise to the preferential coagulation of large-diameter tubes and allows the easy preparation of small-diameter tubes. The stronger van der Waals forces between large-diameter tubes, combined with the decreased solubility of DNA in water at low pH, lead to the preferential agglomeration of large-diameter tubes.

  1. Isolation and characterization of tetrachloroethylene- and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene-dechlorinating propionibacteria.

    PubMed

    Chang, Young-Cheol; Ikeutsu, Kaori; Toyama, Tadashi; Choi, Dubok; Kikuchi, Shintaro

    2011-10-01

    Two rapidly growing propionibacteria that could reductively dechlorinate tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE) to ethylene were isolated from environmental sediments. Metabolic characterization and partial sequence analysis of their 16S rRNA genes showed that the new isolates, designated as strains Propionibacterium sp. HK-1 and Propionibacterium sp. HK-3, did not match any known PCE- or cis-DCE-degrading bacteria. Both strains dechlorinated relatively high concentrations of PCE (0.3 mM) and cis-DCE (0.52 mM) under anaerobic conditions without accumulating toxic intermediates during incubation. Cell-free extracts of both strains catalyzed PCE and cis-DCE dechlorination; degradation was accelerated by the addition of various electron donors. PCE dehalogenase from strain HK-1 was mediated by a corrinoid protein, since the dehalogenase was inactivated by propyl iodide only after reduction by titanium citrate. The amounts of chloride ions (0.094 and 0.103 mM) released after PCE (0.026 mM) and cis-DCE (0.05 mM) dehalogenation using the cell-free enzyme extracts of both strains, HK-1 and HK-3, were stoichiometrically similar (91 and 100%), indicating that PCE and cis-DCE were fully dechlorinated. Radiotracer studies with [1,2-¹⁴C] PCE and [1,2-¹⁴C] cis-DCE indicated that ethylene was the terminal product; partial conversion to ethylene was observed. Various chlorinated aliphatic compounds (PCE, trichloroethylene, cis-DCE, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and vinyl chloride) were degraded by cell-free extracts of strain HK-1.

  2. Impact of Needle Diameter on Long-Term Dry Needling Treatment of Chronic Lumbar Myofascial Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang; Gao, Qian; Li, Jun; Tian, Yuling; Hou, Jingshan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the impact of diameter of needles on the effect of dry needling treatment of chronic lumbar myofascial pain syndrome. Design Forty-eight patients with chronic lumbar myofascial pain syndrome were randomly allocated to 3 groups. They received dry needling with needles of diameter 0.25 (group A), 0.5 (group B), and 0.9 mm (group C). Visual analog scale evaluation and health survey were conducted at baseline and 3 months after the treatment. Results Visual analog scale scores were significantly different in all groups from baseline to 3 months. Visual analog scale scores at 3 months showed differences between group C and the other 2 groups. When baseline and 3 months after treatment (0 day and 3 months) in each of the 3 groups was compared, there was a difference between group C and group B. The Short Form (36) Health Survey scores from baseline to 3 months were different within the treatment groups. Conclusions Visual analog scale score evaluations at 3 months showed efficacy in all groups. Results of 3 months showed that efficacy of treatment with larger needles (0.9-mm diameter) was better than that of smaller ones (0.5-mm diameter). The Short Form (36) Health Survey scores at 3 months indicated that treatments with needles of varying diameters were all effective, and when the results of 3 months were compared, there was no difference between the 3 groups. PMID:27333534

  3. Aortic Intima-Media Thickness and Aortic Diameter in Small for Gestational Age and Growth Restricted Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Roig, M. Dolores; Mazarico, Edurne; Valladares, Esther; Guirado, Laura; Fernandez-Arias, Mireia; Vela, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to measure aortic intima-media thickness (aIMT) and aortic diameter (AD) in appropriate for gestational age (AGA) fetuses, small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses, and intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetuses. Methods Case-control study performed between June 2011 and June 2012. Forty-nine AGA fetuses, 40 SGA fetuses, and 35 IUGR fetuses underwent concomitant measurement of aIMT and AD at a mean gestational age of 34.4 weeks. Results Median aIMT was higher in fetuses with IUGR (0.504 mm [95%CI: 0.477-0.530 mm]), than in SGA fetuses (0.466 mm [95% CI: 0.447–0.485 mm]), and AGA fetuses (0.471 mm [95% CI: 0.454-0.488 mm]) (p = 0.023). Mean AD was significantly lower in fetuses with IUGR (4.451 mm [95% CI: 4.258–4.655 mm]), than in AGA fetuses (4.74 mm [95% CI: 4.63-4.843 mm]) (p = 0.028). Conclusions Growth restricted fetuses have a thicker aortic wall than AGA and SGA fetuses, which possibly represents preclinical atherosclerosis and a predisposition to later cardiovascular disease. PMID:26017141

  4. [Clinical Study of Surgical Treatment of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer 
10 mm or Less in Diameter Under Video-assisted Thoracoscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tong; Ma, Shaohua; Yan, Tiansheng; Song, Jintao; Wang, Keyi; He, Wei; Bai, Jie

    2016-04-20

    背景与目的 早期原发性非小细胞肺癌(non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC)的手术切除及淋巴结切除的合理方式存在较大争议,本研究旨在探讨直径≤10 mm的原发NSCLC的微创切除及淋巴结切除的手术方式。方法 对2013年7月-2016年3月在我院接受电视胸腔镜手术(video-assisted thoracic surgery, VATS)治疗并有明确病理诊断为NSCLC的共46例患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析。所有患者术前行薄层计算机断层扫描(computed tomography, CT),实性结节5例,混合性磨玻璃结节(mixed ground-glass opacity, mGGO)23例,纯磨玻璃结节(pure ground-glass opacity, pGGO)18例。根据患者具体情况采用不同术式,包括VATS肺叶切除和系统性淋巴结清扫,VATS肺楔形切除和选择性淋巴结切除,VATS肺段切除和选择性淋巴结切除,或仅采用VATS肺楔形切除。其中7例术前行CT引导下Hook-wire定位。结果 VATS肺叶切除和系统性淋巴结清扫23例(mGGOs 15例,pGGOs 4例,实性结节4例),只有1例实性腺癌结节出现N2淋巴结转移,VATS肺楔形切除和选择性淋巴结切除5例(mGGOs 2例,pGGOs 3例)和VATS肺段切除和选择性淋巴结切除4例(mGGOs 2例,pGGOs 2例)均无淋巴结转移 ,仅采用VATS肺楔形切除14例(mGGOs 4例,pGGOs 9例,实性结节1例)。7例Hook-wire定位均成功。 围手术期无重大并发症,随访1个月-26个月,平均(13.7±8.7)个月,无复发及转移。结论 直径≤10 mm以mGGO和pGGO为表现的原发性NSCLC淋巴结转移率低,术中可以不进行淋巴结的清扫,实性结节应选择性淋巴结切除或系统性淋巴结清扫。高龄和心肺功能差的患者可以选择楔形切除或肺段切除。术前运用Hook-wire定位安全有效,可为VATS提供便利。.

  5. Structural properties of free-standing 50 mm diameter GaN waferswith (101_0) orientation grown on LiAlO2

    SciTech Connect

    Jasinski, Jacek; Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Maruska, Herbert-Paul; Chai, Bruce H.; Hill, David W.; Chou, Mitch M.C.; Gallagher, John J.; Brown, Stephen

    2005-09-27

    (10{und 1}0) GaN wafers grown on (100) face of {gamma}-LiAlO{sub 2} were studied using transmission electron microscopy. Despite good lattice matching in this heteroepitaxial system, high densities of planar structural defects in the form of stacking faults on the basal plane and networks of boundaries located on prism planes inclined to the layer/substrate interface were present in these GaN layers. In addition, significant numbers of threading dislocations were observed. High-resolution electron microscopy indicates that stacking faults present on the basal plane in these layers are of low-energy intrinsic I1type. This is consistent with diffraction contrast experiments.

  6. Index to 8mm Motion Cartridges. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. National Information Center for Educational Media.

    Research at the National Information Center for Educational Media has shown that the 8mm motion cartridge with optical and magnetic sound seems to meet the basic tenets of a prime educational criterion for an educational medium--that it be available to the learner at his convenience. This is a bibliographical source for 8mm motion cartridges, and…

  7. Index to 8mm Motion Cartridges. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. National Information Center for Educational Media.

    Research at the National Information Center for Educational Media (NICEM) has shown that the 8mm motion cartridge with optical and magnetic sound seems to meet the basic tenets of a prime educational criterion for an educational medium--that it be available to the learner at his convenience. This is a bibliographical source for 8mm motion…

  8. Do Noncontingent Interviewer Mm-hmms Facilitate Interviewee Productivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegman, Aron Wolfe

    1976-01-01

    Two studies investigated the hypothesis that noncontingent interviewer "mm-hmms" facilitate interviewee verbal productivity. Within- and between-subjects comparisons failed to support the hypothesis, although interviewees' ratings indicate that the mm-hmms were perceived as the social reinforcers they were intended to be. (Author)

  9. Is smaller better? Comparison of 3-mm and 5-mm leaf size for stereotactic radiosurgery: A dosimetric study

    SciTech Connect

    Chern, Shyh-shi . E-mail: Richard.Chern@hci.utah.edu; Leavitt, Dennis D.; Jensen, Randy L.; Shrieve, Dennis C.

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To perform a dosimetric comparison of a minimal 3-mm leaf width multileaf collimator (MLC) and a minimal 5-mm MLC in dynamic conformal arc stereotactic radiosurgery for treatment of intracranial lesions. Methods and Materials: The treatment plans of 23 patients previously treated for intracranial lesions in our institution were redone using the BrainSCAN, version 5.3, stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning system (BrainLAB). For each case, two dynamic conformal arc plans were generated: one using a minimal 3-mm micro-MLC (BrainLAB, Novalis) and one using a minimal 5-mm MLC (Varian Millennium). All arc parameters were the same in each of the two plans, except for the collimator angle settings. The collimator angle settings were optimized for each arc in each plan. A peritumoral rind structure (1 cm) was created to evaluate normal tissue sparing immediately adjacent to the target volume. Conformity indexes (CIs) were calculated for each plan. The dependence of normal tissue sparing and target conformity on target volume (TV) was determined. Results: The TV was 0.14-36.32 cm{sup 3} (median, 5.90). The CI was 1.22-2.60 (median, 1.51) for the 3-mm micro-MLC and 1.23-2.69 (median, 1.60) for the 5-mm MLC. Despite this small difference, it was a statistically significant increase (p < 0.0001) for the 5-mm MLC compared with the 3-mm micro-MLC. Improved normal tissue sparing was demonstrated using the 3-mm micro-MLC compared with the 5-mm MLC by examining the peritumoral rind volumes (PRVs) receiving 50% (PRV{sub 5}), 80% (PRV{sub 8}), and 90% (PRV{sub 9}) of the prescription dose. The reduction in the PRV{sub 5}, PRV{sub 8}, and PRV{sub 9} for the 3-mm micro-MLC compared with the 5-mm MLC was 13.5%, 12.9%, and 11.5%, respectively. The CI decreased with a larger TV, as did the difference in the CIs between the 3-mm micro-MLC and 5-mm MLC. A reduction in the PRV increased with larger TVs. Conclusion: The 3-mm micro-MLC provided better target conformity and

  10. Progression Rates of Carotid Intima-media Thickness and Adventitial Diameter during the Menopausal Transition

    PubMed Central

    El Khoudary, Samar R.; Wildman, Rachel P.; Matthews, Karen; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The authors assessed whether the levels and progression rates of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and adventitial diameter (AD) vary by menopausal stage. Methods 249 Women (42–57 years old, premenopausal (49%) or early peri-menopausal (46%)) from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation were included in the current analysis. Participants were followed for up to 9 years (median=3.7 years) and had up to 5 carotid scans. Linear mixed models were used for analysis. Results The overall rate of change in IMT was 0.007 mm/year. Independent of age and race, progression rate of IMT increased substantially in late peri-menopausal stage (0.017 mm/year) compared to both premenopausal (0.007 mm/year) and early peri-menopausal (0.005 mm/year) stages; (P≤0.05). For AD, while the overall rate of change was negative (−0.009 mm/year), significant positive increases in the rate of change were observed in late peri-menopausal (0.024 mm/year) and postmenopausal (0.018 mm/year) stages compared to premenopausal stage (−0.032 mm/year); (P<0.05). In final models, postmenopausal stage was independently associated with higher levels of IMT and AD (P<0.05) compared to premenopausal stage. Conclusions During the menopausal transition, the carotid artery undergoes an adaptation that is reflected in adverse changes in IMT and AD. These changes may impact the vulnerability of the vessel to disease in older women. PMID:22990755

  11. Evaluation of the Diode laser (810nm,980nm) on dentin tubule diameter following internal bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Kiomarsi, Nazanin; Salim, Soheil; Sarraf, Pegah; Javad-Kharazifard, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diode laser irradiation and bleaching materials on the dentinal tubule diameter after laser bleaching. Material and Methods The dentin discs of 40 extracted third molar were used in this experiment. Each disc surface was divided into two halves by grooving. Half of samples were laser bleached at different wavelengths with two different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. Other half of each disc with no laser bleaching remained as a negative control. Dentin discs were assigned randomly into four groups (n=10) with following hydrogen peroxide and diode laser wavelength specifications; Group 1 (30% - 810 nm), group 2 (30% - 980 nm), group 3 (46% - 810 nm) and group 4 (46% - 980 nm). All specimens were sent for scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis in order to measure tubular diameter in laser treated and control halves. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.05). Results A significant reduction in dentin tubule diameter was observed in groups 1, 2 and 4. There was no significant difference between groups 1 and 2 and between groups 3 and 4 after bleaching. Conclusions The SEM results showed that diode laser was able to reduce dentin tubule diameter and its effect on dentin was dependent on chemical action of bleaching material. Key words:Laser, diode, dentin, tubule, diameter. PMID:27398172

  12. 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4,5 - Tetrachlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 94 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  13. 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,1,2 - Tetrafluoroethane ; CASRN 811 - 97 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  14. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2,2 - Tetrachloroethane ; CASRN 79 - 34 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  15. 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dibromo - 3 - chloropropane ( DBCP ) ; CASRN 96 - 12 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessm

  16. 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,1,2 - Tetrachloroethane ; CASRN 630 - 20 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  17. 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

  18. 43 CFR 1815.1-2 - Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL GUIDANCE Disaster Relief § 1815.1-2 Applications. (a) Place of filing. The application for relief shall be filed in the office which... particular disaster and its effect upon contract performance. (3) An estimate of the damages suffered. (4)...

  19. Fiber diameter distributions in the chinchilla's ampullary nerves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Larry F.; Honrubia, Vicente

    2002-01-01

    A morphometric study of the chinchilla's ampullary nerves was conducted to produce an unbiased accounting of the diameter distribution of their constituent fibers. Diameter analyses were determined from 1 microm plastic-embedded nerve sections taken at a plane immediately proximal to the sensory epithelium. We found these nerves to be composed of 2094+/-573 fibers, having diameters that ranged from 0.5 to 8 microm. The distributions of diameters were positively skewed, where approximately 75% of the fibers were found to have diameters less than 3.5 microm. An analysis of the spatial distribution of diameters within the nerve section revealed that the lateralmost areas of the nerve contained larger fractions of fibers within the smallest diameter quintiles, and the central area harbored greater proportions of the larger diameter quintiles. However, significant fractions of all quintiles were found in all areas. These data were integrated with available data of Fernandez et al. (1998) to produce diameter estimates of calyx, dimorphic, and bouton morphology subpopulations. In view of a general relationship between diameter, innervation locus, and an afferent's physiologic characteristics, these data provide the basis for developing a perspective for the in situ distribution of afferent response dynamics.

  20. 3D Imaging with a Single-Aperture 3-mm Objective Lens: Concept, Fabrication and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korniski, Ron; Bae, Sam Y.; Shearn, Mike; Manohara, Harish; Shahinian, Hrayr

    2011-01-01

    There are many advantages to minimally invasive surgery (MIS). An endoscope is the optical system of choice by the surgeon for MIS. The smaller the incision or opening made to perform the surgery, the smaller the optical system needed. For minimally invasive neurological and skull base surgeries the openings are typically 10-mm in diameter (dime sized) or less. The largest outside diameter (OD) endoscope used is 4mm. A significant drawback to endoscopic MIS is that it only provides a monocular view of the surgical site thereby lacking depth information for the surgeon. A stereo view would provide the surgeon instantaneous depth information of the surroundings within the field of view, a significant advantage especially during brain surgery. Providing 3D imaging in an endoscopic objective lens system presents significant challenges because of the tight packaging constraints. This paper presents a promising new technique for endoscopic 3D imaging that uses a single lens system with complementary multi-bandpass filters (CMBFs), and describes the proof-of-concept demonstrations performed to date validating the technique. These demonstrations of the technique have utilized many commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components including the ones used in the endoscope objective.

  1. Amplitude modulation drive to rectangular-plate linear ultrasonic motors with vibrators dimensions 8 mm x 2.16 mm X 1 mm.

    PubMed

    Ming, Yang; Hanson, Ben; Levesley, Martin C; Walker, Peter G; Watterson, Kevin G

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, to exploit the contribution from not only the stators but also from other parts of miniature ultrasonic motors, an amplitude modulation drive is proposed to drive a miniature linear ultrasonic motor consisting of two rectangular piezoelectric ceramic plates. Using finite-element software, the first longitudinal and second lateral-bending frequencies of the vibrator are shown to be very close when its dimensions are 8 mm x 2.16 mm x 1 mm. So one single frequency power should be able to drive the motor. However, in practice the motor is found to be hard to move with a single frequency power because of its small vibration amplitudes and big frequency difference between its longitudinal and bending resonance, which is induced by the boundary condition variation. To drive the motor effectively, an amplitude modulation drive is used by superimposing two signals with nearly the same frequencies, around the resonant frequency of the vibrators of the linear motor. When the amplitude modulation frequency is close to the resonant frequency of the vibrator's surroundings, experimental results show that the linear motor can move back and forward with a maximum thrust force (over 0.016 N) and a maximum velocity (over 50 mm/s).

  2. Improving predictions of root biomechanical properties, is age a better determinant than diameter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loades, Kenneth; Hallett, Paul; Lynch, Jonathan; Chimungu, Joseph; Bengough, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    Roots mechanically reinforce many soils. Root tensile strength and stiffness is critical for soil stabilisation with plants potentially providing civil engineers a 'green' alternative for soil stabilisation. Relatively little is known on factors influencing root tensile strength. Through a better understanding of these factors the adoption of 'green engineering' techniques by civil engineers will improve. Existing models are limited in their accuracy due to simplistic assumptions to derive root contributions to the resistance of soil to failure. Current models typically use relationships between strength and diameter, however, there are a number of other factors potentially influencing root biomechanical properties. The effects of root age on biomechanical properties have largely been overlooked. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) was grown under differing soil conditions, waterlogged, moderate mechanical impedance and in unimpeded, control, conditions. The root system was excavated and tensile tests performed on root sections along the length of each root axis. Root tensile strength increased with increasing distance along the root axes in control soil from 0.5 MPa to 7.0 MPa at a distance of 800mm from the root tip and from 1.0 Mpa to 8.0 MPa, 500mm from the root tip when under moderate mechanical impedance. Increases in strength were also observed when plants were subjected to waterlogging with tensile strength increasing from 1.0 MPa to 3.0 MPa, 200mm from the root tip. Young's modulus increased from ~10 MPa at the root tip to ~60 MPa 400mm and 800mm from the root tip in mechanically impeded and control treatments respectively. Distance from root tip explained over 47% of the variance in root tensile strength and 34% of root stiffness. Including root diameter in the model led to further improvements in predicting root properties, explaining ~54% of root strength variance and ~49% of root stiffness. Root age has been shown to improve predictions of root tensile strength

  3. Japanese Science Films; a Descriptive and Evaluative Catalog of: 16mm Motion Pictures, 8mm Cartridges, and Video Tapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newren, Edward F., Ed.

    One hundred and eighty Japanese 16mm motion pictures, 8mm cartridges, and video tapes produced and judged appropriate for a variety of audience levels are listed in alphabetical order by title with descriptive and evaluative information. A subject heading list and a subject index to the film titles are included, as well as a sample of the…

  4. Pyrometry temperature studies of shocked tin including investigations exploring surface defects, anvil diameter and the integration with emissivity diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenton-Taylor, Caroline; de'Ath, James; Ota, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Accurate temperature measurement of shock-loaded systems continues to present experimental challenges. With short measurable time durations diagnostic methods are almost exclusively restricted to optical techniques. By preventing full sample pressure unloading, through the use of an anvil, partial release temperature measurements can be deduced from multiple wavelength optical pyrometry. This paper presents our recent studies of tin shocked to 28GPa including investigations exploring surface defects, anvil dimensions and the integration with emissivity diagnostics. The results indicate that a ring groove, 5mm across and with a nominal machined depth of 50 microns, acts to enhance the measured temperature by approximately 150K. Additionally on reducing the LiF anvil diameter from 20mm to 15mm, comparable partial release temperatures were observed. With the anticipated development of multiple anvil target designs, the smaller anvil diameter is desirable. British Crown Copyright 2009/MOD.

  5. Internal rotation for predicting conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane and 1,2-dichloroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venâncio, Mateus F.; Dos Santos, Hélio F.; De Almeida, Wagner B.

    2016-06-01

    The contribution of internal rotation to the thermal correction of Gibbs free energy (ΔG) is estimated using the quantum pendulum model (QPM) to solve the characteristic Schrödinger equation. The procedure is applied to theoretical prediction of conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane (1,2-DFE) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) molecules. The predicted population for the anti form was 37% and 75%, for 1,2-DFE and 1,2-DCE respectively, in excellent agreement with experimental gas phase data available, 37 ± 5% and 78 ± 5%. These results provide great support to the use of the QPM model to account for the low vibrational frequency modes effect on the calculation of thermodynamic properties.

  6. Saqqar: A 34 km diameter impact structure in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, Thomas; Afifi, Abdulkader M.; Stewart, Simon A.; Poelchau, Michael H.; Cook, Douglas J.; Neville, Allen S.

    2015-11-01

    Here we present the first proof of an impact origin for the Saqqar circular structure in northwestern Saudi Arabia (Neville et al. ), with an apparent diameter of 34 km, centered at 29°35'N, 38°42'E. The structure is formed in Cambrian-Devonian siliciclastics and is unconformably overlain by undeformed Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments. The age of impact is not well constrained and lies somewhere between 410 and 70 Ma. The subsurface structure is constrained by 2-D reflection seismic profiles and six drilled wells. First-order structural features are a central uplift that rises approximately 2 km above regional datums, surrounded by a ring syncline. The crater rim is defined by circumferential normal faults. The central uplift and ring syncline correspond to a Bouguer gravity high and an annular ring-like low, respectively. The wells were drilled within the central uplift, the deepest among them exceed 2 km depth. Sandstone core samples from these wells show abundant indicators of a shock metamorphic overprint. Planar deformation features (PDFs) were measured with orientations along (0001), {101¯3}, and less frequently along {101¯1} and {101¯4}. Planar fractures (PFs) predominantly occur along (0001) and {101¯1}, and are locally associated with feather features (FFs). In addition, some shocked feldspar grains and strongly deformed mica flakes were found. The recorded shock pressure ranges between 5 and 15 GPa. The preserved level of shock and the absence of an allochthonous crater fill suggest that Saqqar was eroded by 1-2 km between the Devonian and Maastrichtian. The documentation of unequivocal shock features proves the formation of the Saqqar structure by a hypervelocity impact event.

  7. Investigation of systematic bias in radiometric diameter determination of near-Earth asteroids: the night emission simulated thermal model (NESTM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolters, Stephen D.; Green, Simon F.

    2009-11-01

    The near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM) has proven to be a reliable simple thermal model for radiometric diameter determination. However, NEATM assumes zero thermal emission on the night side of an asteroid. We investigate how this assumption affects the best-fitting beaming parameter η, overestimates the effective diameter Deff and underestimates the albedo pv at large phase angles, by testing NEATM on thermal infrared fluxes generated from simulated asteroid surfaces with different thermal inertia Γ. We compare NEATM to radar diameters and find that NEATM overestimates the diameter when η is fitted to multiwavelength observations and underestimates the diameter when default η is used. The night emission simulated thermal model (NESTM) is introduced. NESTM models the night side temperature (Tnight) as an iso-latitudinal fraction (f) of the maximum day side temperature (Tmax calculated for NEATM with η = 1): Tnight = fTmax cos1/4 φ, where φ is the latitude. A range of f is found for different thermal parameters, which depend on Γ. NESTM diameters are compared with NEATM and radar diameters, and it is shown that NESTM may reduce the systematic bias in overestimating diameters. It is suggested that a version of the NESTM which assumes Γ = 200Jm-2s-1/2K-1 is adopted as a default model when the solar phase angle is greater than 45°.

  8. Hyaluronic acid enhancement of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene for small diameter vascular grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Nicole R.

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the United States and other developed countries. In the United States alone, 8 million people are diagnosed with peripheral arterial disease per year and over 250,000 patients have coronary bypass surgery each year. Autologous blood vessels are the standard graft used in small diameter (<6mm) arterial bypass procedures. Synthetic small diameter grafts have had limited success. While polyethylene (Dacron) and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) are the most commonly used small diameter synthetic vascular graft materials, there are significant limitations that make these materials unfavorable for use in the low blood flow conditions of the small diameter arteries. Specifically, Dacron and ePTFE grafts display failure due to early thrombosis or late intimal hyperplasia. With the shortage of tissue donors and the limited supply of autologous blood vessels available, there is a need for a small diameter synthetic vascular graft alternative. The aim of this research is to create and characterize ePTFE grafts prepared with hyaluronic acid (HA), evaluate thrombogenic potential of ePTFE-HA grafts, and evaluate graft mechanical properties and coating durability. The results in this work indicate the successful production of ePTFE-HA materials using a solvent infiltration technique. Surface interactions with blood show increased platelet adhesion on HA-modified surfaces, though evidence may suggest less platelet activation and erythrocyte lysis. Significant changes in mechanical properties of HA-modified ePTFE materials were observed. Further investigation into solvent selection, uniformity of HA, endothelialization, and dynamic flow testing would be beneficial in the evaluation of these materials for use in small diameter vascular graft bypass procedures.

  9. Correlation between linezolid zone diameter and minimum inhibitory concentration values determined by regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Dimitriu, G; Poiata, Antonia; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Buiuc, D

    2006-01-01

    Linezolid is a new synthetic antibiotic belonging to the oxazolidinone class, available for the therapy of gram-positive infections, caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococci, vancomycin-resistant enterococci and penicillin-resistant pneumococci. The aim of the study was to determine the in vitro activity of linezolid against staphylococci strains and also to determine the relationship between the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and inhibition zone diameter by calculating the regression analysis. We tested one hundred S. aureus isolates, obtained from healthy persons (naso-pharyngeal swabs) during 2005 year. The antibiotic susceptibility of strains was determined by disk diffusion standardized method and by agar dilution method using a multipoint inoculator. The relationship between the diameter of the inhibition zone produced by a linezolid disc impregnated with a fixed amount (30 eg) was determined by regression performed with the least squares method, considering the log2 of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as the independent variable and the zone diameter as the dependent variable. The MIC values expressed in logarithmic form are plotted against inhibition zone diameter (arithmetic scale) of the same strain. The activity of linezolid against staphylococci was very good, with MIC 90 of 1 mg/l. All strains were fully sensitive. The regression line for linezolid passes through a continuous series of points that all are approximately located on the a straight line. For each of the MIC values the differences result no greater than 23 mm in diameter sizes were registered. Regression equation was y= -0.188x + 8.048. In conclusion, the regression line analysis calculated for linezolid, demonstrates a significant correlation between MIC values and the inhibition zone diameters obtained by a 30 mg disc.

  10. Diameter Controlled of Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized on Nanoporous Silicon Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asli, N. A.; Shamsudin, M. S.; Maryam, M.; Yusop, S. F. M.; Suriani, A. B.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2013-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been successfully synthesized on nanoporous silicon template (NPSiT) using botanical source, camphor oil. Diameter of CNTs synthesized was controlled by pore size of NPSiT prepared by photo-electrochemical anodization method. The diameter of CNTs grown on different NPSiT corresponded to the pore diameter of NPSiT. FESEM images showed self-organized bundles of fiber-like structures of CNTs with diameter of around 20nm which were successfully grown directly on nanoporous silicon while raman spectra obtained ratio of ID/IG at 0.67.

  11. Effect of Specimen Diameter on Tensile Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steels in Liquid Hydrogen and Gaseous Helium at 20K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, H.; Ohmiya, S.; Shibata, K.; Ogata, T.

    2006-03-01

    Tensile tests using round bar type specimens of 3, 5 and 7 mm in diameter were conducted at 20K in liquid hydrogen and also in gaseous helium at the same temperature for three major austenitic stainless steels, JIS SUS304L, 316L and 316LN, extensively used for cryogenic applications including liquid hydrogen transportation and storage vessels. Stress-strain curves were considerably different between circumstances and also specimen diameter, resulting in differences of strength and ductility. In liquid hydrogen, serrated deformation appeared after considerable work hardening and more active in specimens with larger diameter. Meanwhile serrated deformation was observed from the early stage of plastic deformation in gaseous helium at 20 K and serration was more frequent in specimens with smaller diameter. The serrated deformation behaviors were numerically simulated for 304L steel with taking thermal properties such as thermal conductivity, specific heat, heat transfer from specimens to cryogenic media into account, and some agreement with the experiments was obtained.

  12. 1,2-Diazinium hydrogen chloranilate

    PubMed Central

    Gotoh, Kazuma; Ishida, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C4H5N2 +·C6HCl2O4 −, there are three crystallographically independent 1,2-diazinium cations and hydrogen chloranilate anions. The anions are held together by pairs of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form two types of dimers, one of which is centrosymmetric. The 1,2-diazinium cations are linked on both sides of each dimer via bifurcated N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to give two kinds of 2–2 cation–anion associations. The 2–2 associations are linked by inter­molecular C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a mol­ecular tape along the [230] direction. The tapes are further connected by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:21580959

  13. Nitrone Cycloadditions of 1,2-Cyclohexadiene

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Joyann S.; Styduhar, Evan D.; Pham, Hung V.; McMahon, Travis C.; Houk, K. N.; Garg, Neil K.

    2016-01-01

    We report the first 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of 1,2-cyclohexadiene, a rarely exploited strained allene. 1,2-Cyclohexadiene is generated in situ under mild conditions and trapped with nitrones to give isoxazolidine products in synthetically useful yields. The reactions occur regioselectively and exhibit a notable endo preference, thus resulting in the controlled formation of two new bonds and two stereogenic centers. DFT calculations of stepwise and concerted reaction pathways are used to rationalize the observed selectivities. Moreover, the strategic manipulation of nitrone cycloadducts demonstrates the utility of this methodology for the assembly of compounds bearing multiple heterocyclic units. These studies showcase the exploitation of a traditionally avoided reactive intermediate in chemical synthesis. PMID:26854652

  14. Building 1204, oblique view to east, 90 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 1204, oblique view to east, 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Squadron Operations & Readiness Crew Facility, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  15. Building 1204, oblique view to west, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 1204, oblique view to west, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Squadron Operations & Readiness Crew Facility, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  16. Building 909, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 909, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. Building 908 at extreme right for context. - Travis Air Force Base, Handling Crew Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  17. Building 931, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 931, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Central Battery Charging Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  18. Building 904, oblique view to northwest, 135 mm lens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to northwest, 135 mm lens - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  19. Building 931, oblique view to northwest, 210 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 931, oblique view to northwest, 210 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Central Battery Charging Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  20. Building 904, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  1. Building 904, oblique view to northeast, 210mm lens Travis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to northeast, 210mm lens - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  2. Building 932, oblique view to northwest, 90 mm lens. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 932, oblique view to northwest, 90 mm lens. Building 933-935 at extreme left. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Plant 5, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  3. Relationships between stem diameter, sapwood area, leaf area and transpiration in a young mountain ash forest.

    PubMed

    Vertessy, R A; Benyon, R G; O'Sullivan, S K; Gribben, P R

    1995-09-01

    We examined relationships between stem diameter, sapwood area, leaf area and transpiration in a 15-year-old mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell.) forest containing silver wattle (Acacia dealbata Link.) as a suppressed overstory species and mountain hickory (Acacia frigescens J.H. Willis) as an understory species. Stem diameter explained 93% of the variation in leaf area, 96% of the variation in sapwood area and 88% of the variation in mean daily spring transpiration in 19 mountain ash trees. In seven silver wattle trees, stem diameter explained 87% of the variation in sapwood area but was a poor predictor of the other variables. When transpiration measurements from individual trees were scaled up to a plot basis, using stem diameter values for 164 mountain ash trees and 124 silver wattle trees, mean daily spring transpiration rates of the two species were 2.3 and 0.6 mm day(-1), respectively. The leaf area index of the plot was estimated directly by destructive sampling, and indirectly with an LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer and by hemispherical canopy photography. All three methods gave similar results. PMID:14965913

  4. Influence of hole diameter on the average size and quantity distribution of Si nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Lizhi; Zong, Yu; Deng, Zechao; Ding, Xuecheng; Zhao, Hongdong; Wang, Yinglong

    2013-12-01

    The single crystalline Si target with high resistivity was ablated by a XeCl excimer laser (wavelength 308nm) in pure Ar gas under the ambient pressure of 10 Pa. The mask with a 1-10 mm diameter hole in the center was placed at a distance of 1.5 cm to the Si target. The Si nanocrystalline films were systemically deposited on a glass or single crystalline Si substrate placed behind the mask parallelly with a distance of 1.0 cm. The Raman and X-ray diffraction spectra indicate that the films were nanocrystalline. Scanning electron microscope images of the films showed that the diameter of the hole affected on the quantity and distributed range of Si nanoparticles on the substrate. It was obtained that the average size of Si nanoparticles decreasing with the diameter of the hole increasing, the quantity of Si nanoparticles was proportional to the power of 1.5 of the hole diameter. It is the nonlinear dynamic process to lead to the experimental result.

  5. ALMA 1.3 mm observations of the Fomalhaut System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Jacob; Boley, Aaron C.; Ford, Eric B.; Payne, Matthew John; Dent, William; Corder, Stuartt

    2016-10-01

    We present ALMA Band 6 (1.3 mm) observations of Fomalhaut and its debris disk. Since the system is relatively close at 7.7 pc, it has been the target of numerous studies at multiple wavelengths, and can serve as a testbed for debris disk evolution models and planet-disk interactions. Outstanding issues that need to be resolved to properly characterize the debris include tightening constraints on the spectral index in the submm/mm regime and determining whether there is indeed excess over the stellar emission, indicating the presence of an inner debris disk or ring.These ALMA 1.3 mm observations provide the highest resolution observations to date of the mm grains the outer ring. Tight constraints are placed on the geometry of the disk and on the mm-wavelength spectral index. We explore fitting the debris disk model in the image plane in addition to the standard method of fitting the visibilities. The results are compared and potential advantages/disadvantages of each approach are discussed.The central emission detected is indistinguishable from a point source, with 0.89 mJy being the best fit flux of the host star for Fomalhaut itself. This implies that any inner debris component must contribute little to the total central emission. Moreover, the stellar flux is less than 70% of that predicted by extrapolating a blackbody from the constrained photosphere temperature and just over 70% of the flux if extrapolating from the far infrared. This behavior is similar to that seen in the Sun for submm/mm wavelengths, but even more pronounced. Currently, insufficient data exists to properly constrain the degree to which stellar atmospheres affect the observed flux in the submm/mm regime. This result is part of an ongoing larger project focused on measuring the emission from stellar atmospheres at submm/mm wavelengths, which directly impacts inferred excesses for debris disk studies.

  6. [Degradation of oil derivatives by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus MM5].

    PubMed

    Marín, M M; Ortiz, M L; Laborda, F

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the isolation of microorganisms from polluted heating oil. The growth of one of them has been studied (Acinetobacter calcoaceticus MM5) in several linear and branched hydrocarbons as well as the effect of its growth on commercial diesel oil. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus MM5 is not capable of using glucose as its only source of carbon, and it needs the presence of nitrogen and phosphorus sources to degrade any petroleum by-product.

  7. Diamond Powders Less Than 100 nm in Diameter as Effective Solid Lubricants in Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarevich, Anna Valeryevna; Usuba, Shu; Kakudate, Yozo; Tanaka, Akihiro; Odawara, Osamu

    2004-07-01

    The frictional behavior of detonation nanodiamond and single-crystal fine diamond powders were studied to determine the effect of particle diameter on their lubricative and abrasive characteristics. In vacuum, nanodiamond with an average aggregate size of 75 nm and mechanically crushed single-crystal diamond powders with an average diameter of 50 nm formed a uniform lubricating layer while sliding against a SiC ball and showed very low friction coefficients of 0.03 and less than 0.01, respectively, under moderate conditions of 0.5 N applied load and 3.5 mm/s sliding speed. A clear tendency was observed for both the friction coefficient and specific wear rates to decrease with decreasing particle/aggregate size.

  8. A system for magnetostrictive transduction of guided waves in fluid-filled pipes of small diameter.

    PubMed

    Challis, Richard E; Phang, Albert P Y; Lowe, Michael J S; Mather, Melissa L

    2008-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the design of magnetostrictive transducers for the excitation and detection of guided waves in metal pipes of small diameter (mm) and their application to the study of wave propagation in pipes filled with water or supercritical CO(2). Optimized system design is based on a simulation of the overall signal pathway which includes the electric circuit conditions at the transducers, mode excitability, and the wavenumber filtering effect of the spatial distribution of the exciting alternating magnetic field. A prototype system was built, and experimental observations on small diameter pipes indicated good agreement with expected results from simulations. The reassigned spectrogram has been used to compare expectation on the basis of guided wave dispersion curves for fluid-filled pipes with experimental data. PMID:18986895

  9. 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloro - 1,2,2 - trifluoroethane ( CFC - 113 ) ; CASRN 76 - 13 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health

  10. Equilibria of 1,1,2,-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, S.Y.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1995-07-01

    ChloroFluoroCarbons (CFCs) are now considered to be the prime contribution to stratospheric ozone depletion. As a result, the use of activated carbons to adsorb specific CFCs has received great attention. In this paper, the equilibrium adsorption characteristics of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane vapor on different-shaped carbons were studied. Adsorption isotherms of 1,2,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on an activated carbon pellet and an activated carbon felt were measured. The equilibria of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on the activated carbon pellet having a dual pore structure were expressed by the Redlich-Peterson equation, and equilibrium constants were expressed as functions of temperature from 298 to 393 K. On the other hand, the equilibria of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on the activated carbon felt having a relatively uniform pore structure were interpreted by the Dubinin-Radushkevich correlation based on the micropore volume filling theory. The affinity coefficient was correlated by the molar polarization.

  11. Brain Arterial Diameters as a Risk Factor for Vascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Jose; Cheung, Ken; Bagci, Ahmet; Rundek, Tatjana; Alperin, Noam; Sacco, Ralph L; Wright, Clinton B; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2015-01-01

    Background Arterial luminal diameters are routinely used to assess for vascular disease. Although small diameters are typically considered pathological, arterial dilatation has also been associated with disease. We hypothesize that extreme arterial diameters are biomarkers of the risk of vascular events. Methods and Results Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study who had a time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography were included in this analysis (N=1034). A global arterial Z-score, called the brain arterial remodeling (BAR) score, was obtained by averaging the measured diameters within each individual. Individuals with a BAR score <−2 SDs were considered to have the smallest diameters, individuals with a BAR score >−2 and <2 SDs had average diameters, and individuals with a BAR score >2 SDs had the largest diameters. All vascular events were recorded prospectively after the brain magnetic resonance imaging. Spline curves and incidence rates were used to test our hypothesis. The association of the BAR score with death (P=0.001), vascular death (P=0.02), any vascular event (P=0.05), and myocardial infarction (P=0.10) was U-shaped except for ischemic stroke (P=0.74). Consequently, incidence rates for death, vascular death, myocardial infarction, and any vascular event were higher in individuals with the largest diameters, whereas individuals with the smallest diameters had a higher incidence of death, vascular death, any vascular event, and ischemic stroke compared with individuals with average diameters. Conclusions The risk of death, vascular death, and any vascular event increased at both extremes of brain arterial diameters. The pathophysiology linking brain arterial remodeling to systemic vascular events needs further research. PMID:26251284

  12. Fabrication of ф 160 mm convex hyperbolic mirror for remote sensing instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Yu, Zong-Ru; Ho, Cheng-Fang; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Chen, Fong-Zhi

    2012-10-01

    In this study, efficient polishing processes with inspection procedures for a large convex hyperbolic mirror of Cassegrain optical system are presented. The polishing process combines the techniques of conventional lapping and CNC polishing. We apply the conventional spherical lapping process to quickly remove the sub-surface damage (SSD) layer caused by grinding process and to get the accurate radius of best-fit sphere (BFS) of aspheric surface with fine surface texture simultaneously. Thus the removed material for aspherization process can be minimized and the polishing time for SSD removal can also be reduced substantially. The inspection procedure was carried out by using phase shift interferometer with CGH and stitching technique. To acquire the real surface form error of each sub aperture, the wavefront errors of the reference flat and CGH flat due to gravity effect of the vertical setup are calibrated in advance. Subsequently, we stitch 10 calibrated sub-aperture surface form errors to establish the whole irregularity of the mirror in 160 mm diameter for correction polishing. The final result of the In this study, efficient polishing processes with inspection procedures for a large convex hyperbolic mirror of Cassegrain optical system are presented. The polishing process combines the techniques of conventional lapping and CNC polishing. We apply the conventional spherical lapping process to quickly remove the sub-surface damage (SSD) layer caused by grinding process and to get the accurate radius of best-fit sphere (BFS) of aspheric surface with fine surface texture simultaneously. Thus the removed material for aspherization process can be minimized and the polishing time for SSD removal can also be reduced substantially. The inspection procedure was carried out by using phase shift interferometer with CGH and stitching technique. To acquire the real surface form error of each sub aperture, the wavefront errors of the reference flat and CGH flat due to

  13. Study on measurement of 160 mm convex hyperbolic mirror for Cassegrain reflecting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Cheng-Fang; Yu, Zong-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Yao

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the measurement of a 160 mm convex hyperbolic mirror by using the 6 inches phase shifting interferometer and the CGH (computer-generated hologram) in a vertical setup is presented. The wavefront errors of the metrology system including the reference flat and CGH flat due to gravity effect are measured and calibrated by using random testing and null cavity testing with and without CGH. Then, the real form error of each single sub-aperture could be acquired by subtracting the system wavefront errors. In this study, we measured form errors of 10 off-axis sub-apertures with equal angle space and then stitched them to establish the whole irregularity in the shape of the mirror in 160 mm diameter. Finally, we imported the irregularity in the shape of the mirror to the CNC aspheric polishing machine for correction polishing. Combining the aspheric metrology technique and the CNC aspheric polishing technique, a 160 mm secondary mirror for the Cassegrain reflecting system was finished within PV 0.15μm and RMS 17.9 nm.

  14. Performance of 0. 75 mm pitch MWPC'S operating at high rate

    SciTech Connect

    Conetti, S.; Kuzminski, J.; Marchionni, A.; Stairs, D.; Arenton, M.; Chen, T.Y.; Cox, B.; Delchamps, S.; Etemadi, B.; Fortney, L.

    1989-01-01

    Three Multiwire Proportional Chambers (MWPC) with high rate capability have been constructed for Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory experiment 705 (Charmonium and Direct Photon production by ..pi../sup +-/, p and /bar p/ at 300 GeV/c). Each chamber, with a sensitive area of 308 cm/sup 2/, consists of three anode planes, wound with 12.5 ..mu..m diameter gold-plated tungsten/rhenium wire, facing 25 ..mu..m graphite-coated kapton cathode planes at a distance of 3 mm. Wire spacing in two of the MWPC (PC-B1 and PC-B2) is 0.75 mm and 1.00 mm in the third one (PC-B3). After a few weeks of running on ''Magic Gas'' with a beam flux of up to /approximately/10/sup 7/ particles/cm/sup 2/sec, severe damage occurred to the graphite coating. All cathode planes were replaced by aluminized kapton, and the chambers worked successfully for the next 3 months until the end of the run, when a 10% efficiency drop was observed after a total accumulated charge of /approximately/1 C/cm of sense wire. After the end of the run the chambers were disassembled and inspected. A white deposit with a characteristic ''wire pattern'' etched away from the Al coating was observed in the region of the beam spot. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. A pilot trial of large versus small diameter needles for oocyte retrieval

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was designed to determine whether small diameter needles for oocyte retrieval alter oocyte yields in patients undergoing IVF in comparison to standard large diameter needles. Methods We conducted a prospective pilot study of 21 consecutive favorable prognosis patients. In each patient one ovary was randomly allocated to retrieval with either a 20 G/ 35 mm (thin) or 17 G/ 35 mm (standard) needle, the other ovary was then retrieved with the opposite needle. Results The standard diameter needle was used to collect a total of 215 oocytes from 355 aspirated follicles (60.6%) compared to 203 oocytes from 352 aspirated follicles (57.7%) with the thinner needle (p = 0.23). Stratifying outcomes by anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), as indicator of ovarian reserve, and by body mass index (BMI) the oocyte yields, still, did not differ (AMH, r (17) = −0.20, p = 0.44; BMI, r (17) =0.02, p = 0.96). Outcomes also did not vary among women with diminished ovarian reserve (p = 0.17) and in women with normal ovarian reserve (p = 1.00). Operating time was, however, significantly increased by 3.3 minutes per ovary (z = −3.08, p = 0.002) with the thinner needle. Conclusions Needle diameter does not affect oocyte yield, including in obese patients and patients with diminished ovarian reserve. Thinner needles appear to significantly prolong operating time. PMID:23510450

  16. Influence of the implant diameter with different sizes of hexagon: analysis by 3-dimensional finite element method.

    PubMed

    Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; de Moraes, Sandra Lúcia Dantas; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution in implants of regular platforms and of wide diameter with different sizes of hexagon by the 3-dimensional finite element method. We used simulated 3-dimensional models with the aid of Solidworks 2006 and Rhinoceros 4.0 software for the design of the implant and abutment and the InVesalius software for the design of the bone. Each model represented a block of bone from the mandibular molar region with an implant 10 mm in length and different diameters. Model A was an implant 3.75 mm/regular hexagon, model B was an implant 5.00 mm/regular hexagon, and model C was an implant 5.00 mm/expanded hexagon. A load of 200 N was applied in the axial, lateral, and oblique directions. At implant, applying the load (axial, lateral, and oblique), the 3 models presented stress concentration at the threads in the cervical and middle regions, and the stress was higher for model A. At the abutment, models A and B showed a similar stress distribution, concentrated at the cervical and middle third; model C showed the highest stresses. On the cortical bone, the stress was concentrated at the cervical region for the 3 models and was higher for model A. In the trabecular bone, the stresses were less intense and concentrated around the implant body, and were more intense for model A. Among the models of wide diameter (models B and C), model B (implant 5.00 mm/regular hexagon) was more favorable with regard to distribution of stresses. Model A (implant 3.75 mm/regular hexagon) showed the largest areas and the most intense stress, and model B (implant 5.00 mm/regular hexagon) showed a more favorable stress distribution. The highest stresses were observed in the application of lateral load.

  17. Towards higher sensitivity and stability of axon diameter estimation with diffusion‐weighted MRI

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Daniel C.; Kurniawan, Nyoman D.; Reutens, David C.; Yang, Zhengyi

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion‐weighted MRI is an important tool for in vivo and non‐invasive axon morphometry. The ActiveAx technique utilises an optimised acquisition protocol to infer orientationally invariant indices of axon diameter and density by fitting a model of white matter to the acquired data. In this study, we investigated the factors that influence the sensitivity to small‐diameter axons, namely the gradient strength of the acquisition protocol and the model fitting routine. Diffusion‐weighted ex. vivo images of the mouse brain were acquired using 16.4‐T MRI with high (G max of 300 mT/m) and ultra‐high (G max of 1350 mT/m) gradient strength acquisitions. The estimated axon diameter indices of the mid‐sagittal corpus callosum were validated using electron microscopy. In addition, a dictionary‐based fitting routine was employed and evaluated. Axon diameter indices were closer to electron microscopy measures when higher gradient strengths were employed. Despite the improvement, estimated axon diameter indices (a lower bound of ~ 1.8 μm) remained higher than the measurements obtained using electron microscopy (~1.2 μm). We further observed that limitations of pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) acquisition sequences and axonal dispersion could also influence the sensitivity with which axon diameter indices could be estimated. Our results highlight the influence of acquisition protocol, tissue model and model fitting, in addition to gradient strength, on advanced microstructural diffusion‐weighted imaging techniques. © 2016 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26748471

  18. Solar diameter measurements for study of Sun climate coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    Variability in solar shape and diameters was examined as a possible probe of an important climatic driving function, solar luminosity variability. The techniques and facilities developed for measuring the solar diameter were used. The observing program and the requisite data reduction were conducted simultaneously. The development of a technique to calibrate the scale in the telescope field progressed to the design and construction phase.

  19. Method accurately measures mean particle diameters of monodisperse polystyrene latexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubitschek, H. E.

    1967-01-01

    Photomicrographic method determines mean particle diameters of monodisperse polystyrene latexes. Many diameters are measured simultaneously by measuring row lengths of particles in a triangular array at a glass-oil interface. The method provides size standards for electronic particle counters and prevents distortions, softening, and flattening.

  20. THE MAGNETIC FIELD MORPHOLOGY OF THE CLASS 0 PROTOSTAR L1157-mm

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Ian W.; Looney, Leslie W.; Kwon, Woojin; Crutcher, Richard M.; Hull, Charles L. H.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Chapman, Nicholas; Novak, Giles; Matthews, Tristan; Davidson, Jacqueline; Vaillancourt, John E.; Shinnaga, Hiroko

    2013-05-20

    We present the first detection of polarization around the Class 0 low-mass protostar L1157-mm at two different wavelengths. We show polarimetric maps at large scales (10'' resolution at 350 {mu}m) from the SHARC-II Polarimeter and at smaller scales (1.''2-4.''5 at 1.3 mm) from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). The observations are consistent with each other and show inferred magnetic field lines aligned with the outflow. The CARMA observations suggest a full hourglass magnetic field morphology centered about the core; this is only the second well-defined hourglass detected around a low-mass protostar to date. We apply two different methods to CARMA polarimetric observations to estimate the plane-of-sky magnetic field magnitude, finding values of 1.4 and 3.4 mG.

  1. Kerosene-water separation in T-junction with orientation upward branch with a 60° angle: Variation of diameter ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puspitasari, Dewi; Indarto, Purnomo, Khasani

    2016-06-01

    Research on the T-junction is still underway for the flow of liquid-liquid (kerosene-water). Some research on the characteristics of kerosene-water separation was performed using T-junction oriented upward branch with a 60° angle. To observe the effect of diameters ratio on the phase separation that produced T-junction then made a test section with a horizontal pipe diameter 36 mm, while the side arm 36 mm diameter, 26 mm and 19 mm (diameters ratio of 1, 0.7 and 0.5) by using plexiglass pipe type. Based on experimental results and visualization of data flow in the test section, to the value obtained 60% water cut, the maximum separation efficiency of 94%, FK = 0.94 and FW = 0.001 with a diameter ratio of 1. For other diameter ratio of 0.7 and 0.5 respectively separation efficiency of 66%, FK = 1 and Fw = 0.34 for 0.7 and separation efficiency of 84%, FK = 1 and Fw = 0.16 for 0.5, the best value is obtained at a water cut 60% too. All the best conditions to achieve the above-stratified flow pattern.

  2. Superresolution measurement of nanofiber diameter by modes beating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, E. F.; Solano, P.; Hoffman, J. E.; Orozco, L. A.; Rolston, S. L.; Fatemi, F. K.

    2016-05-01

    Nanofibers are becoming an important tool in quantum information technologies for coupling photonics systems to atomic systems. Nondestructive techniques for characterizing these nanofibers prior to integration into an apparatus are desirable. In this work, we probe the light propagating in a fused silica optical nanofiber (750-nm-diameter) by coupling it evanescently to a 6- μm-diameter microfiber that is scanned along the nanofiber length. This technique is capable of observing all possible beat lengths among different propagating modes. The beat lengths are strongly dependent on the nanofiber diameter and refractive index of the fiber. The steep dependence has enabled measurements of the fiber diameter with sub-Angstrom sensitivity. The diameter extracted from the beat length measurements agrees with a measurement made using scanning electron microscopy. Work supported by NSF.

  3. Reliable Diameter Control of Carbon Nanotube Nanobundles Using Withdrawal Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jung Hwal; Kim, Kanghyun; An, Taechang; Choi, WooSeok; Lim, Geunbae

    2016-09-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) nanobundles are widely used in nanoscale imaging, fabrication, and electrochemical and biological sensing. The diameter of CNT nanobundles should be controlled precisely, because it is an important factor in determining electrode performance. Here, we fabricated CNT nanobundles on tungsten tips using dielectrophoresis (DEP) force and controlled their diameters by varying the withdrawal velocity of the tungsten tips. Withdrawal velocity pulling away from the liquid-air interface could be an important, reliable parameter to control the diameter of CNT nanobundles. The withdrawal velocity was controlled automatically and precisely with a one-dimensional motorized stage. The effect of the withdrawal velocity on the diameter of CNT nanobundles was analyzed theoretically and compared with the experimental results. Based on the attachment efficiency, the withdrawal velocity is inversely proportional to the diameter of the CNT nanobundles; this has been demonstrated experimentally. Control of the withdrawal velocity will play an important role in fabricating CNT nanobundles using DEP phenomena.

  4. Reliable Diameter Control of Carbon Nanotube Nanobundles Using Withdrawal Velocity.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung Hwal; Kim, Kanghyun; An, Taechang; Choi, WooSeok; Lim, Geunbae

    2016-12-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) nanobundles are widely used in nanoscale imaging, fabrication, and electrochemical and biological sensing. The diameter of CNT nanobundles should be controlled precisely, because it is an important factor in determining electrode performance. Here, we fabricated CNT nanobundles on tungsten tips using dielectrophoresis (DEP) force and controlled their diameters by varying the withdrawal velocity of the tungsten tips. Withdrawal velocity pulling away from the liquid-air interface could be an important, reliable parameter to control the diameter of CNT nanobundles. The withdrawal velocity was controlled automatically and precisely with a one-dimensional motorized stage. The effect of the withdrawal velocity on the diameter of CNT nanobundles was analyzed theoretically and compared with the experimental results. Based on the attachment efficiency, the withdrawal velocity is inversely proportional to the diameter of the CNT nanobundles; this has been demonstrated experimentally. Control of the withdrawal velocity will play an important role in fabricating CNT nanobundles using DEP phenomena.

  5. Lysosome Transport as a Function of Lysosome Diameter

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Debjyoti; Cyphersmith, Austin; Zapata, Jairo A.; Kim, Y. Joseph; Payne, Christine K.

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles responsible for the transport and degradation of intracellular and extracellular cargo. The intracellular motion of lysosomes is both diffusive and active, mediated by motor proteins moving lysosomes along microtubules. We sought to determine how lysosome diameter influences lysosome transport. We used osmotic swelling to double the diameter of lysosomes, creating a population of enlarged lysosomes. This allowed us to directly examine the intracellular transport of the same organelle as a function of diameter. Lysosome transport was measured using live cell fluorescence microscopy and single particle tracking. We find, as expected, the diffusive component of intracellular transport is decreased proportional to the increased lysosome diameter. Active transport of the enlarged lysosomes is not affected by the increased lysosome diameter. PMID:24497985

  6. Reliable Diameter Control of Carbon Nanotube Nanobundles Using Withdrawal Velocity.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung Hwal; Kim, Kanghyun; An, Taechang; Choi, WooSeok; Lim, Geunbae

    2016-12-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) nanobundles are widely used in nanoscale imaging, fabrication, and electrochemical and biological sensing. The diameter of CNT nanobundles should be controlled precisely, because it is an important factor in determining electrode performance. Here, we fabricated CNT nanobundles on tungsten tips using dielectrophoresis (DEP) force and controlled their diameters by varying the withdrawal velocity of the tungsten tips. Withdrawal velocity pulling away from the liquid-air interface could be an important, reliable parameter to control the diameter of CNT nanobundles. The withdrawal velocity was controlled automatically and precisely with a one-dimensional motorized stage. The effect of the withdrawal velocity on the diameter of CNT nanobundles was analyzed theoretically and compared with the experimental results. Based on the attachment efficiency, the withdrawal velocity is inversely proportional to the diameter of the CNT nanobundles; this has been demonstrated experimentally. Control of the withdrawal velocity will play an important role in fabricating CNT nanobundles using DEP phenomena. PMID:27581602

  7. (1+2)-dimensional strongly nonlocal solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang Shigen; Guo Qi

    2007-11-15

    Approximate solutions of (1+2)-dimensional strongly nonlocal solitons (SNSs) are presented. It is shown that the power of a SNS in a nematic liquid crystal is in direct proportion to the second power of the degree of nonlocality, the power of a SNS in a nonlocal medium with a logarithmic nonlocal response is in inverse proportion to the second power of its beamwidth, and the power of a SNS in a nonlocal medium with an sth-power decay nonlocal response is in direct proportion to the (s+2)th power of the degree of nonlocality.

  8. Valve-in-valve implantation with a 23-mm balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valve for the treatment of a 19-mm stentless bioprosthesis severe aortic regurgitation using a strategy of "extreme" underfilling.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Florent; Leipsic, Jonathon; Généreux, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    We report a case of valve-in-valve (ViV) implantation by transfemoral approach with a 23-mm balloon-expandable prosthesis inside a stentless 19-mm acutely degenerated bioprosthesis, using a strategy of "extreme" underfilling. A 74-year-old patient presented to our institution in cardiogenic shock. An initial transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) showed severe central aortic regurgitation (AR) due to a torn leaflet. She was deemed inoperable and considered for urgent transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Given the fairly small true internal diameter, a strategy of 3-cc underfilling of a 23-mm transcatheter heart valve (THV) was planned. However, the final implantation was performed with 5-cc underfilling due to the incapacity to deliver the entire amount of fluid contained in the inflation syringe. TEE guidance confirmed the successful positioning and deployment of the prosthesis, with no AR and a mean gradient of 25 mm Hg. While implantation of a smaller prosthesis (20 mm) was debated during the Heart Team discussion, the risk of valve embolization due to inadequate anchoring inside the stentless prosthesis led to the selection of a 23-mm THV. At 6-month follow-up, the patient was in NYHA class I, with no AR and a mean gradient of 28 mm Hg. We report for the first time the use of in vivo THV with 5-cc underfilling with no acute or short-term structural failure, and the first ViV implantation by transfemoral approach with a 23-mm balloon-expandable prosthesis inside a stentless 19-mm bioprosthesis. The current report presents the challenges related to ViV implantation inside a small stentless bioprosthesis and offers practical ways to overcome them. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Experimental study on thermal performance of heat sinks: the effect of hydraulic diameter and geometric shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzougui, M.; Hammami, M.; Maad, R. Ben

    2016-10-01

    The main purpose of this study is focused on experimental investigation of cooling performance of various minichannel designs. The hydraulic dimension of one of the heat sink is 3 mm while that of the other is 2 mm. Deionised water was used as the coolant for studies conducted in both the heat sinks. Tests were done for a wide range of flow rates (0.7 l-9 l h-1) and heat inputs (5-40 kW/m2). Irrespective of the hydraulic diameter and the geometric configuration, profits and boundaries of each channel shape are analyzed and discussed in the clarity of experimental data. The total thermal resistance and the average heat transfer coefficient are compared for the various channels inspected.

  10. Structural and thermal response of 30 cm diameter ion thruster optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macrae, G. S.; Zavesky, R. J.; Gooder, S. T.

    1989-01-01

    Tabular and graphical data are presented which are intended for use in calibrating and validating structural and thermal models of ion thruster optics. A 30 cm diameter, two electrode, mercury ion thruster was operated using two different electrode assembly designs. With no beam extraction, the transient and steady state temperature profiles and center electrode gaps were measured for three discharge powers. The data showed that the electrode mount design had little effect on the temperatures, but significantly impacted the motion of the electrode center. Equilibrium electrode gaps increased with one design and decreased with the other. Equilibrium displacements in excess of 0.5 mm and gap changes of 0.08 mm were measured at 450 W discharge power. Variations in equilibrium gaps were also found among assemblies of the same design. The presented data illustrate the necessity for high fidelity ion optics models and development of experimental techniques to allow their validation.

  11. Comparison of ultrasonic and direct biparietal diameter measurements and placental localization.

    PubMed

    Staisch, K J; Cumberland, W G; Hammill, H; Geck, D

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of fetal biparietal diameter (BPD) measurements and placental localizations performed by physicians in a university hospital obstetrical service using real-time ultrasound equipment was determined. The sonographic estimations were compared to caliper measurements on the neonate and to the implantation site of the placenta found at surgery in 40 patients undergoing repeat cesarean section. The correlation coefficient 0.93 and p less than 0.00001 indicate high agreement between the BPD measurements. The regression of caliper on sonar measurements gave 95% prediction intervals of +/- 3.50 mm compared to +/- 2.4 mm calculated from data reported by ultrasonic laboratories. Placental localization was in error in 5.9% of the cases. Thus, physicians should be aware that their errors are likely to be larger than those which have been published by experts in ultrasound diagnosis.

  12. Large-diameter total hip arthroplasty modular heads require greater assembly forces for initial stability

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, A. R.; Sullivan, N. P. T.; Whitehouse, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Modular junctions are ubiquitous in contemporary hip arthroplasty. The head-trunnion junction is implicated in the failure of large diameter metal-on-metal (MoM) hips which are the currently the topic of one the largest legal actions in the history of orthopaedics (estimated costs are stated to exceed $4 billion). Several factors are known to influence the strength of these press-fit modular connections. However, the influence of different head sizes has not previously been investigated. The aim of the study was to establish whether the choice of head size influences the initial strength of the trunnion-head connection. Materials and Methods Ti-6Al-4V trunnions (n = 60) and two different sizes of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) heads (28 mm and 36 mm; 30 of each size) were used in the study. Three different levels of assembly force were considered: 4 kN; 5 kN; and 6 kN (n = 10 each). The strength of the press-fit connection was subsequently evaluated by measuring the pull-off force required to break the connection. The statistical differences in pull-off force were examined using a Kruskal–Wallis test and two-sample Mann–Whitney U test. Finite element and analytical models were developed to understand the reasons for the experimentally observed differences. Results 36 mm diameter heads had significantly lower pull-off forces than 28 mm heads when impacted at 4 kN and 5 kN (p < 0.001; p < 0.001), but not at 6 kN (p = 0.21). Mean pull-off forces at 4 kN and 5 kN impaction forces were approximately 20% larger for 28 mm heads compared with 36 mm heads. Finite element and analytical models demonstrate that the differences in pull-off strength can be explained by differences in structural rigidity and the resulting interface pressures. Conclusion This is the first study to show that 36 mm Co-Cr heads have up to 20% lower pull-off connection strength compared with 28 mm heads for equivalent assembly forces. This effect is likely

  13. Observation of a Spot Diameter Dependency in Confined Laser Ablation of Zinc Oxide on Copper-Indium-Diselenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Regina; Seiler, Daniel; Huber, Heinz P.; Marowsky, Gerd

    Confined laser ablation with ultra-short laser pulses, also referred to as laser "lift-off", is initiated at the interface of transparent thin films and underlying absorbing substrates. The energy per ablated volume at confined laser ablation (<10J/mm3) is higher than at direct laser ablation (about 100 J/mm3). In this paper the selective laser structuring of a zinc oxide (ZnO) / copper-indium-diselenid (CIS) layer system is investigated with 10 ps and 460 fs long laser pulses. Spot diameters between 14 μm and 100 μm were selected to show the relation between the spot diameter and the so called punching fluence. This value describes the lowest fluence at which the laser "lift-off" takes place. For both pulse durations the punching fluence depends on the spot diameter. The punching fluence increases from about 0.4 J/cm2 at spot diameters ≥40 μm to about 1.1 J/cm2 for decreasing spot diameters <40 μm.

  14. CMOS mm-wave transceivers for Gbps wireless communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baoyong, Chi; Zheng, Song; Lixue, Kuang; Haikun, Jia; Xiangyu, Meng; Zhihua, Wang

    2016-07-01

    The challenges in the design of CMOS millimeter-wave (mm-wave) transceiver for Gbps wireless communication are discussed. To support the Gbps data rate, the link bandwidth of the receiver/transmitter must be wide enough, which puts a lot of pressure on the mm-wave front-end as well as on the baseband circuit. This paper discusses the effects of the limited link bandwidth on the transceiver system performance and overviews the bandwidth expansion techniques for mm-wave amplifiers and IF programmable gain amplifier. Furthermore, dual-mode power amplifier (PA) and self-healing technique are introduced to improve the PA's average efficiency and to deal with the process, voltage, and temperature variation issue, respectively. Several fully-integrated CMOS mm-wave transceivers are also presented to give a short overview on the state-of-the-art mm-wave transceivers. Project supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61331003).

  15. The same-source parallel MM{sub 5}.

    SciTech Connect

    Michalakes, J.

    1999-08-23

    The set of architectures available to users of the Penn State/NCAR MM5 has been expanded to included distributed-memory parallel computers, providing cost-effective scalable performance and memory capacity for large problem sizes. The same-source approach uses high-level parallel library and source-translation technology for adapting MM5, simplifying maintenance and allowing new physics modules to be incorporated without modification. The approach facilitates maintenance of the DM-parallel option to MM5 as an option within the official version, rather than as a separate stand-alone version. As a result, the DM-parallel option to MM5 (now at Version 3.1) has been a part of six subsequent model releases since MM5 Version 2.8 in March 1998. The same-source approach is applicable to other, similarly constructed codes when there is a need or desire to develop the code for distributed memory parallel machines without impacting the pre-existing source code. The approach is also compatible with pre-existing loop-level multithreading directives so that the code will run in distributed-memory/shared-memory mode on SMP clusters.

  16. Consecutive Case Series of Healed Single-Molar Sites Immediately Restored with Wide-Diameter Implants: A 1-Year Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Antoun, Hadi; Cherfane, Pierre; Sojod, Bouchra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To evaluate outcomes of wide-diameter (6 mm) implants immediately provisionalized with cement-retained single crowns in posterior molar sites. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight consecutive patients received a total of 53 moderately rough-surface, 6 mm diameter implants in healed sites. All implants were immediately provisionalized with a cement-retained provisional crown. Final prosthesis with cement-retained porcelain fused to metal crowns was delivered 3-6 months later. Patients were followed up for 1 year. Outcome measures were implant failures and success rate, complications, marginal bone levels, bone level changes, papilla index, bleeding on probing, and inflammation. Results. One patient was lost to follow-up. At one year, the implant survival and success rate were 98.1%. The mean marginal bone loss after 1 year was -0.17 ± 1.84 mm. Ideal papilla score was recorded at 83.8% of the sites. More than 95.6% of the sites showed no bleeding or inflammation. No procedure-related or device-related adverse events were reported. Conclusion. Wide-diameter (6 mm) implants can safely and successfully replace single posterior molars. Longer follow-up studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term success of these implants. PMID:27195008

  17. Consecutive Case Series of Healed Single-Molar Sites Immediately Restored with Wide-Diameter Implants: A 1-Year Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cherfane, Pierre; Sojod, Bouchra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To evaluate outcomes of wide-diameter (6 mm) implants immediately provisionalized with cement-retained single crowns in posterior molar sites. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight consecutive patients received a total of 53 moderately rough-surface, 6 mm diameter implants in healed sites. All implants were immediately provisionalized with a cement-retained provisional crown. Final prosthesis with cement-retained porcelain fused to metal crowns was delivered 3–6 months later. Patients were followed up for 1 year. Outcome measures were implant failures and success rate, complications, marginal bone levels, bone level changes, papilla index, bleeding on probing, and inflammation. Results. One patient was lost to follow-up. At one year, the implant survival and success rate were 98.1%. The mean marginal bone loss after 1 year was −0.17 ± 1.84 mm. Ideal papilla score was recorded at 83.8% of the sites. More than 95.6% of the sites showed no bleeding or inflammation. No procedure-related or device-related adverse events were reported. Conclusion. Wide-diameter (6 mm) implants can safely and successfully replace single posterior molars. Longer follow-up studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term success of these implants. PMID:27195008

  18. Taming the 1.2 m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, S.; Edwards, M.; Greenwald, D.; Kono, D.; Liang, D.; Lohnes, K.; Wright, V.; Spillar, E.

    2013-09-01

    Achievable residual jitter on the 1.2 m telescope at MSSS shown in Figure 1 has historically been limited to 10-20 arc-sec. peak in moderate wind conditions due to the combination of the dynamics associated with the twin telescopes on the common declination axis shaft, and the related control system behavior. Figure 1 1.2 m Telescope The lightly damped, low frequency fundamental vibration mode shape of the telescopes rotating out of phase on the common declination axis shaft severely degraded the performance of the prior controllers. This vibration mode is easily excited by external forces such as wind loading and internal torque commands from the mount control system. The relatively poor historic performance was due to a combination of the low error rejection of external disturbances, and the controller exciting the mode. A radical new approach has been implemented that has resulted in a decrease of jitter to less than 1 arcsec under most conditions. The new approach includes minor hardware modifications to provide active damping with accelerometers as feedback sensors. This architecture has allowed a bandwidth increase of almost an order of magnitude and eliminated the large amplitude motions at the mode natural frequency, resulting in much improved pointing and jitter performance. A representative comparison of historical versus new architecture performance is shown in Figure 2 for the declination axis.

  19. A 5-mm piezo-scanning fiber device for high speed ultrafast laser microsurgery

    PubMed Central

    Ferhanoglu, Onur; Yildirim, Murat; Subramanian, Kaushik; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2014-01-01

    Towards developing precise microsurgery tools for the clinic, we previously developed image-guided miniaturized devices using low repetition rate amplified ultrafast lasers for surgery. To improve the speed of tissue removal while reducing device diameter, here we present a new 5-mm diameter device that delivers high-repetition rate laser pulses for high speed ultrafast laser microsurgery. The device consists of an air-core photonic bandgap fiber (PBF) for the delivery of high energy pulses, a piezoelectric tube actuator for fiber scanning, and two aspheric lenses for focusing the light. Its inline optical architecture provides easy alignment and substantial size reduction to 5 mm diameter as compared to our previous MEMS-scanning devices while realizing improved intensity squared (two-photon) lateral and axial resolutions of 1.16 μm and 11.46 μm, respectively. Our study also sheds light on the maximum pulse energies that can be delivered through the air-core PBF and identifies cladding damage at the input facet of the fiber as the limiting factor. We have achieved a maximum energy delivery larger than 700 nJ at 92% coupling efficiency. An in depth analysis reveals how this value is greatly affected by possible slight misalignments of the beam during coupling and the measured small beam pointing fluctuations. In the absence of these imperfections, self-phase modulation becomes the limiting factor for the maximum energy delivery, setting the theoretical upper bound to near 2 μJ for a 1-m long, 7-μm, air-core PBF. Finally, the use of a 300 kHz repetition rate fiber laser enabled rapid ablation of 150 µm x 150 µm area within only 50 ms. Such ablation speeds can now allow the surgeons to translate the surgery device as fast as ~4 mm/s to continuously remove a thin layer of a 150 µm wide tissue. Thanks to a high optical transmission efficiency of the in-line optical architecture of the device and improved resolution, we could successfully perform ablation of

  20. A 5-mm piezo-scanning fiber device for high speed ultrafast laser microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Ferhanoglu, Onur; Yildirim, Murat; Subramanian, Kaushik; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2014-07-01

    Towards developing precise microsurgery tools for the clinic, we previously developed image-guided miniaturized devices using low repetition rate amplified ultrafast lasers for surgery. To improve the speed of tissue removal while reducing device diameter, here we present a new 5-mm diameter device that delivers high-repetition rate laser pulses for high speed ultrafast laser microsurgery. The device consists of an air-core photonic bandgap fiber (PBF) for the delivery of high energy pulses, a piezoelectric tube actuator for fiber scanning, and two aspheric lenses for focusing the light. Its inline optical architecture provides easy alignment and substantial size reduction to 5 mm diameter as compared to our previous MEMS-scanning devices while realizing improved intensity squared (two-photon) lateral and axial resolutions of 1.16 μm and 11.46 μm, respectively. Our study also sheds light on the maximum pulse energies that can be delivered through the air-core PBF and identifies cladding damage at the input facet of the fiber as the limiting factor. We have achieved a maximum energy delivery larger than 700 nJ at 92% coupling efficiency. An in depth analysis reveals how this value is greatly affected by possible slight misalignments of the beam during coupling and the measured small beam pointing fluctuations. In the absence of these imperfections, self-phase modulation becomes the limiting factor for the maximum energy delivery, setting the theoretical upper bound to near 2 μJ for a 1-m long, 7-μm, air-core PBF. Finally, the use of a 300 kHz repetition rate fiber laser enabled rapid ablation of 150 µm x 150 µm area within only 50 ms. Such ablation speeds can now allow the surgeons to translate the surgery device as fast as ~4 mm/s to continuously remove a thin layer of a 150 µm wide tissue. Thanks to a high optical transmission efficiency of the in-line optical architecture of the device and improved resolution, we could successfully perform ablation of

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Faint ALMA 1.2mm sources down to ~0.02mJy (Fujimoto+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, S.; Ouchi, M.; Ono, Y.; Shibuya, T.; Ishigaki, M.; Nagai, H.; Momose, R.

    2016-06-01

    We use 67 continuum maps obtained by ~120 pointing of the ALMA cycle 0-2 observations in Band 6/7 that accomplish high sensitivities and angular resolutions. For the mapping mode definitions, there are maps targeting field regions by single-pointing observations, referred to as "field" data, 4 and 62 out of which are taken from our programs and the ALMA archive, respectively. Two out of the four maps were taken in the ALMA cycle-0 Band 6 observations for the spectroscopically confirmed Lyα emitter (LAE) at z=6.595 (Himiko) and an LAE at z=6.511 (NB921-N-79144). See Ono et al. (2014ApJ...795....5O) for a summary of these observations. We also utilize two maps of newly obtained (ALMA cycle 2) field data of Bands 6 and 7 taken for spectroscopically confirmed LAEs at z=5.7 (NB816-S-61269) and at z=7.3 (NB101-S-2904). The NB816-S-61269 observations were carried out in the ALMA program of #2012.1.00602.S (PI: R. Momose) on 2014 May 20, Jun 19, and July 7 with 43 12m antennae array in the range of 18-650m baseline. The NB101-S-2904 data were taken in the ALMA program of #2012.1.00088.S (PI: M. Ouchi) on 2014 July 22 and August 6, 7, 14, and 18, with 55 12m antennae array in the extended configuration of 18-1300m baseline. See section 2.1 for further explanations. To increase the number of ALMA sources, we make full use of ALMA archival data of cycles 0 and 1 that became public by 2015 June. See references in table2 for the collected 62 maps and section 2.2.1 for further details. One-cluster data were taken for Abell 1689 (A1689) in ALMA cycle 0 and 1 observations (PI: J. Richard) of ALMA #2011.0.00319.S and #2012.1.00261.S (see section 2.2.2 for further explanations). (3 data files).

  2. 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one, a less sensitive explosive

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Kien-Yin; Coburn, Michael D.

    1988-01-01

    A less sensitive explosive, 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one. The compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) has a crystal density of 1.93 g/cm.sup.3 and calculated detonation velocity and pressure equivalent to those of RDX. It can be prepared in high yield from inexpensive starting materials in a safe synthesis. Results from initial small-scale sensitivity tests indicate that NTO is less sensitive than RDX and HMX in all respects. A 4.13 cm diameter, unconfined plate-dent test at 92% of crystal density gave the detonation pressure predicted for NTO by the BKW calculation.

  3. Design report for an indirectly cooled 3-m diameter superconducting solenoid for the Fermilab Collider Detector Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, R.; Grimson, J.; Kephart, R.

    1982-10-01

    The Fermilab Collider Detector Facility (CDF) is a large detector system designed to study anti pp collisions at very high center of mass energies. The central detector for the CDF shown employs a large axial magnetic field volume instrumented with a central tracking chamber composed of multiple layers of cylindrical drift chambers and a pair of intermediate tracking chambers. The purpose of this system is to determine the trajectories, sign of electric charge, and momenta of charged particles produced with polar angles between 10 and 170 degrees. The magnetic field volume required for tracking is approximately 3.5 m long an 3 m in diameter. To provide the desired ..delta..p/sub T/p/sub T/ less than or equal to 1.5% at 50 GeV/c using drift chambers with approx. 200..mu.. resolution the field inside this volume should be 1.5 T. The field should be as uniform as is practical to simplify both track finding and the reconstruction of particle trajectories with the drift chambers. Such a field can be produced by a cylindrical current sheet solenoid with a uniform current density of 1.2 x 10/sup 6/ A/m (1200 A/mm) surrounded by an iron return yoke. For practical coils and return yokes, both central electromagnetic and central hadronic calorimetry must be located outside the coil of the magnet. This geometry requires that the coil and the cryostat be thin both in physical thickness and in radiation and absorption lengths. This dual requirement of high linear current density and minimal coil thickness can only be satisfied using superconducting technology. In this report we describe the design for an indirectly cooled superconducting solenoid to meet the requirements of the Fermilab CDF. The components of the magnet system are discussed in the following chapters, with a summary of parameters listed in Appendix A.

  4. Renal Artery Embolization Combined With Radiofrequency Ablation in a Porcine Kidney Model: Effect of Small and Narrowly Calibrated Microparticles as Embolization Material on Coagulation Diameter, Volume, and Shape

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, C. M. Kortes, N.; Zelzer, S.; Arnegger, F. U.; Stampfl, U.; Bellemann, N.; Gehrig, T.; Nickel, F.; Kenngott, H. G.; Mogler, C.; Longerich, T.; Meinzer, H. P.; Richter, G. M.; Kauczor, H. U.; Radeleff, B. A.

    2011-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of renal artery embolization with small and narrowly calibrated microparticles on the coagulation diameter, volume, and shape of radiofrequency ablations (RFAs) in porcine kidneys. Forty-eight RFAs were performed in 24 kidneys of 12 pigs. In 6 animals, bilateral renal artery embolization was performed with small and narrowly calibrated microparticles. Upper and lower kidney poles were ablated with identical system parameters. Applying three-dimensional segmentation software, RFAs were segmented on registered 2 mm-thin macroscopic slices. Length, depth, width, volume{sub s}egmented, and volume{sub c}alculated were determined to describe the size of the RFAs. To evaluate the shape of the RFAs, depth-to-width ratio (perfect symmetry-to-lesion length was indicated by a ratio of 1), sphericity ratio (perfect sphere was indicated by a sphericity ratio of 1), eccentricity (perfect sphere was indicated by an eccentricity of 0), and circularity (perfect circle was indicated by a circularity of 1) were determined. Embolized compared with nonembolized RFAs showed significantly greater depth (23.4 {+-} 3.6 vs. 17.2 {+-} 1.8 mm; p < 0.001) and width (20.1 {+-} 2.9 vs. 12.6 {+-} 3.7 mm; p < 0.001); significantly larger volume{sub s}egmented (8.6 {+-} 3.2 vs. 3.0 {+-} 0.7 ml; p < 0.001) and volume{sub c}alculated (8.4 {+-} 3.0 ml vs. 3.3 {+-} 1.1 ml; p < 0.001); significantly lower depth-to-width (1.17 {+-} 0.10 vs. 1.48 {+-} 0.44; p < 0.05), sphericity (1.55 {+-} 0.44 vs. 1.96 {+-} 0.43; p < 0.01), and eccentricity (0.84 {+-} 0.61 vs. 1.73 {+-} 0.91; p < 0.01) ratios; and significantly greater circularity (0.62 {+-} 0.14 vs. 0.45 {+-} 0.16; p < 0.01). Renal artery embolization with small and narrowly calibrated microparticles affected the coagulation diameter, volume, and shape of RFAs in porcine kidneys. Embolized RFAs were significantly larger and more spherical compared with nonembolized RFAs.

  5. Engineering Strong Interactions Between mm-wave and Optical Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Mark; Suleymanzade, Aziza; Estes, Jeremy; Eustice, Scott; Schuster, David; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    We propose an atomic interface of Rydberg atoms as a means of engineering effective strong interactions between single mm-wave and optical photons. The atomic sample resides at the intersection of a high-finesse optical cavity and a superconducting mm-wave cavity, where it can coherently interact with photons of both regimes. The use of mm-wave (100 GHz) frequencies allows strong coupling at higher temperatures and with less sensitivity to stray electric fields. A hybrid cryogenic vacuum chamber at 4 Kelvin enables access to superconductivity as well as a UHV environment with optical access necessary for cold atom experiments. Strong interactions between these separate quantum degrees of freedom has important applications in quantum computing as well as simulation of many-body interacting systems.

  6. QM/MM X-ray Refinement of Zinc Metalloenzymes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue; Hayik, Seth A.; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Zinc metalloenzymes play an important role in biology. However, due to the limitation of molecular force field energy restraints used in X-ray refinement at medium or low resolutions, the precise geometry of the zinc coordination environment can be difficult to distinguish from ambiguous electron density maps. Due to the difficulties involved in defining accurate force fields for metal ions, the QM/MM (Quantum-Mechanical /Molecular-Mechanical) method provides an attractive and more general alternative for the study and refinement of metalloprotein active sites. Herein we present three examples that indicate that QM/MM based refinement yields a superior description of the crystal structure based on R and Rfree values and on the inspection of the zinc coordination environment. It is concluded that QM/MM refinement is a useful general tool for the improvement of the metal coordination sphere in metalloenzyme active sites. PMID:20116858

  7. New Methods for Exploring QM:MM Potential Energy Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hratchian, Hrant P.

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, the applicability of quantum chemical methods for large system studies has been greatly enhanced by the development of hybrid QM:MM techniques. Despite these advancements, exploring the associated potential energy surfaces continues to present two key challenges. First, the QM energy and derivative evaluations may be too costly for simulations; and second, the system size for many QM:MM cases are too large to effectively store or use second-order information, an approach often used in QM studies to allow for larger integration steps and fewer QM evaluations of the potential energy surface. Our most recent work is focused on overcoming both computational bottlenecks. Using surface fitting models together with direct Hessian-vector and diagonalization algorithms, we are developing models that can accurately and efficiently explore QM:MM potential energy landscapes for very large systems. Our current development status and results from initial applications will be described.

  8. 450mm wafer patterning with jet and flash imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Ecron; Hellebrekers, Paul; Hofemann, Paul; LaBrake, Dwayne L.; Resnick, Douglas J.; Sreenivasan, S. V.

    2013-09-01

    The next step in the evolution of wafer size is 450mm. Any transition in sizing is an enormous task that must account for fabrication space, environmental health and safety concerns, wafer standards, metrology capability, individual process module development and device integration. For 450mm, an aggressive goal of 2018 has been set, with pilot line operation as early as 2016. To address these goals, consortiums have been formed to establish the infrastructure necessary to the transition, with a focus on the development of both process and metrology tools. Central to any process module development, which includes deposition, etch and chemical mechanical polishing is the lithography tool. In order to address the need for early learning and advance process module development, Molecular Imprints Inc. has provided the industry with the first advanced lithography platform, the Imprio® 450, capable of patterning a full 450mm wafer. The Imprio 450 was accepted by Intel at the end of 2012 and is now being used to support the 450mm wafer process development demands as part of a multi-year wafer services contract to facilitate the semiconductor industry's transition to lower cost 450mm wafer production. The Imprio 450 uses a Jet and Flash Imprint Lithography (J-FILTM) process that employs drop dispensing of UV curable resists to assist high resolution patterning for subsequent dry etch pattern transfer. The technology is actively being used to develop solutions for markets including NAND Flash memory, patterned media for hard disk drives and displays. This paper reviews the recent performance of the J-FIL technology (including overlay, throughput and defectivity), mask development improvements provided by Dai Nippon Printing, and the application of the technology to a 450mm lithography platform.

  9. Length to diameter ratio and row number effects in short pin fin heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brigham, B. A.; Vanfossen, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    The relative effects of pin length to diameter ratio and of pin row geometry on the heat transfer from pin fins, was determined. Array averaged heat transfer coefficients on pin and endwall surfaces were measured for two configurations of staggered arrays of short pin fins (length to diameter ratio of 4). One configuration contained eight streamwise rows of pins, while the other contained only four rows. Results showed that both the 8-row and the 4-row configurations for an L sub p/D of 4, exhibit higher heat transfer than in similar tests on shorter pin fns (L sub p/D of 1/2 and 2). It was also found that for this L sub p/D ratio, the array averaged heat transfer was slightly higher with eight rows of staggered pins than with only four rows.

  10. Length to diameter ratio and row number effects in short pin fin heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brigham, B. A.; Vanfossen, G. J.

    1984-01-01

    The relative effects of pin length to diameter ratio and of pin row geometry on the heat transfer from pin fins, was determined. Array averaged heat transfer coefficients on pin and endwall surfaces were measured for two configurations of staggered arrays of short pin fins (length to diameter ratio of 4). One configuration contained eight streamwise rows of pins, while the other contained only four rows. Results showed that both the 8-row and the 4-row configurations for an L sub p/D of 4, exhibit higher heat transfer than in similar tests on shorter pin fins (L sub p/D of 1/2 and 2). It was also found that for this L sub p/D ratio, the array averaged heat transfer was slightly higher with eight rows of staggered pins than with only four rows. Previously announced in STAR as N83-14431

  11. Increased Arterial Diameters in the Posterior Cerebral Circulation in Men with Fabry Disease

    PubMed Central

    Üçeyler, Nurcan; Homola, György A.; Guerrero González, Hans; Kramer, Daniela; Wanner, Christoph; Weidemann, Frank; Solymosi, László; Sommer, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    A high load of white matter lesions and enlarged basilar arteries have been shown in selected patients with Fabry disease, a disorder associated with an increased stroke risk. We studied a large cohort of patients with Fabry disease to differentially investigate white matter lesion load and cerebral artery diameters. We retrospectively analyzed cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans of 87 consecutive Fabry patients, 20 patients with ischemic stroke, and 36 controls. We determined the white matter lesion load applying the Fazekas score on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences and measured the diameters of cerebral arteries on 3D-reconstructions of the time-of-flight-MR-angiography scans. Data of different Fabry patient subgroups (males – females; normal – impaired renal function) were compared with data of patients with stroke and controls. A history of stroke or transient ischemic attacks was present in 4/30 males (13%) and 5/57 (9%) females with Fabry disease, all in the anterior circulation. Only one man with Fabry disease showed confluent cerebral white matter lesions in the Fazekas score assessment (1%). Male Fabry patients had a larger basilar artery (p<0.01) and posterior cerebral artery diameter (p<0.05) compared to male controls. This was independent of disease severity as measured by renal function and did not lead to changes in arterial blood flow properties. A basilar artery diameter of >3.2 mm distinguished between men with Fabry disease and controls (sensitivity: 87%, specificity: 86%, p<0.001), but not from stroke patients. Enlarged arterial diameters of the posterior circulation are present only in men with Fabry disease independent of disease severity. PMID:24475221

  12. Increased arterial diameters in the posterior cerebral circulation in men with Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Uçeyler, Nurcan; Homola, György A; Guerrero González, Hans; Kramer, Daniela; Wanner, Christoph; Weidemann, Frank; Solymosi, László; Sommer, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    A high load of white matter lesions and enlarged basilar arteries have been shown in selected patients with Fabry disease, a disorder associated with an increased stroke risk. We studied a large cohort of patients with Fabry disease to differentially investigate white matter lesion load and cerebral artery diameters. We retrospectively analyzed cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans of 87 consecutive Fabry patients, 20 patients with ischemic stroke, and 36 controls. We determined the white matter lesion load applying the Fazekas score on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences and measured the diameters of cerebral arteries on 3D-reconstructions of the time-of-flight-MR-angiography scans. Data of different Fabry patient subgroups (males-females; normal-impaired renal function) were compared with data of patients with stroke and controls. A history of stroke or transient ischemic attacks was present in 4/30 males (13%) and 5/57 (9%) females with Fabry disease, all in the anterior circulation. Only one man with Fabry disease showed confluent cerebral white matter lesions in the Fazekas score assessment (1%). Male Fabry patients had a larger basilar artery (p<0.01) and posterior cerebral artery diameter (p<0.05) compared to male controls. This was independent of disease severity as measured by renal function and did not lead to changes in arterial blood flow properties. A basilar artery diameter of >3.2 mm distinguished between men with Fabry disease and controls (sensitivity: 87%, specificity: 86%, p<0.001), but not from stroke patients. Enlarged arterial diameters of the posterior circulation are present only in men with Fabry disease independent of disease severity.

  13. Coronary artery diameter can be assessed reliably with transthoracic echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, Tuomas O; Saraste, Markku; Koskenvuo, Juha W; Airaksinen, K E Juhani; Toikka, Jyri O; Saraste, Antti; Pärkkä, Jussi P; Hartiala, Jaakko J

    2004-04-01

    We studied whether diameters of coronary arteries can be measured accurately with the use of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). By knowing the anatomic diameter of the coronary artery together with coronary flow velocity it is possible to measure coronary flow volume more precisely by TTE. However, the suitability of TTE for measurement of diameters of all main epicardial coronary arteries has not been systematically validated. We measured the diameters of the left main (LM), left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCX), and right coronary arteries (RCA) with the use of TTE [manual two-dimensional (2D), color-Doppler, and automated 2D analysis] in 30 patients who had normal coronary anatomy. We compared these diameters to those measured with quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). We could measure diameters of LM, LAD, LCX, and RCA by TTE in up to 37%, 63%, 7%, and 60% of patients, respectively. The overall correlation coefficients between TTE and QCA measurements were 0.83 (P < 0.01) with manual 2D analysis, 0.82 (P < 0.01) with automated 2D analysis, and 0.94 (P < 0.01) with a color-Doppler-based analysis. Interobserver variability of TTE measurements was low (coefficient of variation 5.4 +/- 4.6-7.5 +/- 8.8%). TTE is an accurate method to evaluate coronary artery diameter in patients with healthy coronary arteries.

  14. Full-mesh optical backplane with standard MM fiber ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrario, M.; Coviello, D.; Boffi, P.; Martinelli, M.; Basile, V.; Fassi, I.; Falcucci, M.; Renghini, C.; Scalmati, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    A new optical backplane solution is proposed for high-capacity ICT apparatus. A modular, scalable and full-mesh bandwidth-upgradable optical interconnection between optoelectronic boards is guaranteed thanks to an optimized layout of standard MM 12-fiber ribbons which divides the overall backplane into several independent optical sub-circuits. The novel automated assembly procedure of fiber ribbons inside sub-circuits with a robotic work-cell is described. System validation of the optical backplane performed with commercially available MM 12-fiber transceivers @10Gb/s proved the feasibility of the proposed solution for future optical interconnections with terabit overall capacity.

  15. Performance evaluation of 4.75-mm NMAS superpave mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Farhana

    A Superpave asphalt mixture with 4.75-mm nominal maximum aggregate size (NMAS) is a promising, low-cost pavement preservation treatment for agencies such as the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT). The objective of this research study is to develop an optimized 4.75-mm NMAS Superpave mixture in Kansas. In addition, the study evaluated the residual tack coat application rate for the 4.75-mm NMAS mix overlay. Two, hot-in-place recycling (HIPR) projects in Kansas, on US-160 and K-25, were overlaid with a 15- to 19-mm thick layer of 4.75-mm NMAS Superpave mixture in 2007. The field tack coat application rate was measured during construction. Cores were collected from each test section for Hamburg wheel tracking device (HWTD) and laboratory bond tests performed after construction and after one year in service. Test results showed no significant effect of the tack coat application rate on the rutting performance of rehabilitated pavements. The number of wheel passes to rutting failure observed during the HWTD test was dependent on the aggregate source as well as on in-place density of the cores. Laboratory pull-off tests showed that most cores were fully bonded at the interface of the 4.75-mm NMAS overlay and the HIPR layer, regardless of the tack application rate. The failure mode during pull-off tests at the HMA interface was highly dependent on the aggregate source and mix design of the existing layer material. This study also confirmed that overlay construction with a high tack coat application rate may result in bond failure at the HMA interface. Twelve different 4.75-mm NMAS mix designs were developed using materials from the aforementioned but two binder grades and three different percentages of natural (river) sand. Laboratory performance tests were conducted to assess mixture performance. Results show that rutting and moisture damage potential in the laboratory depend on aggregate type irrespective of binder grade. Anti-stripping agent affects moisture

  16. Fragrance material review on 1,2-ethanediol, 1-phenyl-, 1,2-diacetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1,2-ethanediol, 1-phenyl-, 1,2-diacetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1,2-Ethanediol, 1-phenyl-, 1,2-diacetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1,2-ethanediol, 1-phenyl-, 1,2-diacetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE fragrances.

  17. Detonation wave velocity and curvature of a plastic-bonded, nonideal explosive PBXN-111 as a function of diameter and confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, J. W.; Lemar, E. R.

    1998-12-01

    Detonation velocities and wave front curvatures are measured on various diameter cylinders of PBXN-111 (RDX/AP/Al/HTPB binder with 20/43/25/12 weight percent). The cylinders are either unconfined or encased in 5-mm-thick brass tubes. In all experiments with brass tubes (diameters from 19 to 100 mm) the detonation velocity of PBXN-111 was affected by the confinement. Steady detonation waves propagated in brass encased charges with diameters as small as 19 mm, which is about half of the 37.1 mm failure diameter for unconfined PBXN-111. The radii of curvature at the center of the detonation wave fronts ranged from 52 to 480 mm for charge diameters from 25 to 100 mm, respectively. Detonation velocity as a function of radius of curvature at the wave's center is represented by a single curve for both cased and uncased cylindrical charges. The difference in the axial position of the detonation wave at the center of the charge and at the edge of the charge (i.e., lag distance) are between 1.6 and 6.7 mm. The angles between the detonation wave fronts and the brass/charge interfaces are between 73° and 82° while the angles at the cylindrical free surface for the uncased charges are between 61° and 64°. Calculation of this angle for brass encased charges using oblique shock equations and assuming no reaction in the shock front resulted in angles 8° higher than measured except for the 100-mm-diam charge which was in agreement. The calculated angles for the uncased charge are in agreement with the measured values.

  18. Measurement of fetal biparietal diameter in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    PubMed

    Schuler, A Michele; Brady, Alan G; Tustin, George W; Parks, Virginia L; Morris, Chris G; Abee, Christian R

    2010-09-01

    Owl monkeys are New World primates frequently used in biomedical research. Despite the historical difficulty of breeding owl monkeys in captivity, several productive owl monkey breeding colonies exist currently. The animals in the colony we describe here are not timed-pregnant, and determination of gestational age is an important factor in prenatal care. Gestational age of human fetuses is often determined by using transabdominal measurements of fetal biparietal diameter. The purpose of this study was to correlate biparietal diameter measurements with gestational age in owl monkeys. We found that biparietal diameter can be used to accurately predict gestational age in owl monkeys.

  19. Surgical Management of Tibial Plateau Fractures With 3.5 mm Simple Plates

    PubMed Central

    Bagherifard, Abolfazl; Jabalameli, Mahmoud; Hadi, Hosseinali; Rahbar, Mohammad; Minator Sajjadi, Mohammadreza; Jahansouz, Ali; Karimi Heris, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Tibial plateau fractures can be successfully fixed utilizing 3.5 mm locking plates. However, there are some disadvantages to using these plates. Objectives In the current prospective study, we investigated the outcome of treating different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates which, to our knowledge, has not been evaluated in previous studies. Materials and Methods Between 2011 and 2013, 32 patients aged 40 ± 0.2 years underwent open reduction and internal fixation for tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates. The patients were followed for 16.14 ± 2.1 months. At each patient’s final visit, the articular surface depression, medial proximal tibial angle, and slope angle were measured and compared with measurements taken early after the operation. The functional outcomes were measured with the WOMAC and Lysholm knee scores. Results The mean union time was 13 ± 1.2 weeks. The mean knee range of motion was 116.8° ± 3.3°. The mean WOMAC and Lysholm scores were 83.5 ± 1.8 and 76.8 ± 1.6, respectively. On the early postoperative and final X-rays, 87.5% and 84% of patients, respectively, had acceptable reduction. Medial proximal tibial and slope angles did not change significantly by the last visit. No patient was found to have complications related to the type of plate. Conclusions In this case series study, the fixation of different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple non-locking and non-precontoured plates was associated with acceptable clinical, functional, and radiographic outcomes. Based on the advantages and costs of these plates, the authors recommend using 3.5 mm simple plates for different types of tibial plateau fractures. PMID:27626010

  20. Brown dwarf disks with Herschel: Linking far-infrared and (sub)-mm fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daemgen, Sebastian; Natta, Antonella; Scholz, Alexander; Testi, Leonardo; Jayawardhana, Ray; Greaves, Jane; Eastwood, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Brown dwarf disks are excellent laboratories to test our understanding of disk physics in an extreme parameter regime. In this paper we investigate a sample of 29 well-characterized brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, for which Herschel far-infrared fluxes and (sub)-mm fluxes are available. We measured new Herschel/PACS fluxes for 11 objects and complement these with (sub)-mm data and Herschel fluxes from the literature. We analyze their spectral energy distributions in comparison with results from radiative transfer modeling. Fluxes in the far-infrared are strongly affected by the shape and temperature of the disk (and hence stellar luminosity), whereas the (sub)-mm fluxes mostly depend on disk mass. Nevertheless, there is a clear correlation between far-infrared and (sub)-mm fluxes. We argue that the link results from the combination of the stellar mass-luminosity relation and a scaling between disk mass and stellar mass. We find strong evidence of dust settling to the disk midplane. The spectral slopes between near- and far-infrared are mostly between -0.5 and -1.2 in our sample, which is comparable to more massive T Tauri stars; this may imply that the disk shapes are similar as well, although highly flared disks are rare among brown dwarfs. We find that dust temperatures in the range of 7-15 K, calculated with T ≈ 25 (L/L⊙)0.25 K, are appropriate for deriving disk masses from (sub)-mm fluxes for these low luminosity objects. About half of our sample hosts disks with at least one Jupiter mass, confirming that many brown dwarfs harbor sufficient material for the formation of Earth-mass planets in their midst. Herschel is a ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  1. Correlation of anterior segment optical coherence tomography measurements with graft trephine diameter following descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess repeatability of the Zhongshan Assessment Program (ZAP) software measurement of Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (ASOCT) images and correlate with graft trephine diameter following Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSAEK) Methods Retrospectively evaluated interventional case series. 121 consecutive eyes undergoing DSAEK over a 26 month period underwent ASOCT imaging 1month after their surgery. ASOCT images were processed using ZAP software which measured the graft and cornea parameters including anterior and posterior graft arc length and cord length, posterior cornea arc length (PCAL) and anterior chamber width. Results The graft measurements showed good repeatability on ASOCT using ZAP with high intra class coefficient and small variation in the coefficient of variation. On ASOCT, the mean recipient PCAL was 12.99+/−0.69mm and the anterior chamber width was 11.16+/−0.57mm. The mean Graft anterior arc length was 9.69+/−0.66mm and the mean Graft anterior cord length was 8.92+/−2.94mm. The mean graft posterior arc length was 9.24+/−0.75mm and the mean graft posterior cord length was 8.15+/−0.57mm. Graft posterior arc length (rho=0.788, p< 0.001) correlated best with intra-operative graft trephine diameter. The mean ratio of posterior graft arc length to PCAL was 0.712 +/− 0.056. Conclusions We have validated the repeatability of the ZAP software for DSAEK graft measurements from ASOCT images and shown that the graft arc length parameters calculated from the ASOCT images correlate well with the intra-operative graft trephine diameter. This software may help surgeons determine the optimal DSAEK graft size based on pre-operative ASOCT measurements of the recipient eye. PMID:22824516

  2. PROGRESS IN 2 mm GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER MANDREL DEVELOPMENT FOR NIF

    SciTech Connect

    NIKROO,A; BOUSQUET,J; COOK,R; McQUILLAN,B.W; PAGUIO,R; TAKAGI,M

    2003-06-01

    OAK-B135 All planned National Ignition Facility (NIF) capsule targets except machined beryllium require a glow discharge polymer (GDP) mandrel upon which the albator is applied. This mandrel, {approx} 2 mm in diameter, must at least meet if not exceed the symmetry and surface finish requirements of the final capsule. Such mandrels are currently produced by the three-step depolymerizable mandrel technique. The quality of the final mandrel depends upon precise optimization and execution of each of the three steps. They had shown previously that fabrication of a mandrel which met the symmetry and surface finish requirements was feasible using this technique. In this paper they will discuss recent progress towards converting this process into a high yield, production scale process.

  3. Advanced ACTPol Multichroic Polarimeter Array Fabrication Process for 150 mm Wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, S. M.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; Datta, R.; Gallardo, P. A.; Henderson, S. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Ho, S. P.; Hubmayr, J.; Koopman, B. J.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Nati, F.; Niemack, M. D.; Pappas, C. G.; Salatino, M.; Schmitt, B. L.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Van Lanen, J.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is a third-generation cosmic microwave background receiver to be deployed in 2016 on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). Spanning five frequency bands from 25 to 280 GHz and having just over 5600 transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers, this receiver will exhibit increased sensitivity and mapping speed compared to previously fielded ACT instruments. This paper presents the fabrication processes developed by NIST to scale to large arrays of feedhorn-coupled multichroic AlMn-based TES polarimeters on 150-mm diameter wafers. In addition to describing the streamlined fabrication process which enables high yields of densely packed detectors across larger wafers, we report the details of process improvements for sensor (AlMn) and insulator (SiN_x) materials and microwave structures, and the resulting performance improvements.

  4. Bell & Howell Introduces an 8mm Cartridge Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educ Screen Audiovisual Guide, 1970

    1970-01-01

    "Bell & Howell has developed a highly versatile cartidge projector system for cine and super 8mm formats. Because Bell & Howell believes that standardization is an important factor in the development of a cartridge system, it has built in a flexibility which will allow this standardization. (Author)

  5. 8mm Film in Education: Status and Prospects--1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsdale, Louis

    An overwhelming deterrent to the use of film in the classroom has been the inaccessibility of the films and the complicated projectors required to show them. Eight-millimeter film has the potential to lower the cost of films, making them more accessible, and to make showing them vastly simpler. This paper traces the development of 8mm film use in…

  6. Public Library Subject Headings for 16MM Motion Pictures, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Library Association, Sacramento.

    A subject heading list for 16 millimeter motion pictures is proposed here that is designed to provide audiovisual librarians with a tool which will aid them in making subject indexes for their printed film catalogs and to establish an authority for professional catalogers who may be called upon to catalog 16 mm. motion pictures. In preparing the…

  7. IMPLEMENTATION OF AN URBAN CANOPY PARAMETERIZATION IN MM5

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) (Grell et al. 1994) has been modified to include an urban canopy parameterization (UCP) for fine-scale urban simulations (~1-km horizontal grid spacing). The UCP accounts for drag ...

  8. Advisory List of Instructional Media--16MM Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Educational Media.

    These two advisory lists include information on 16mm films appropriate for the K-12 instructional program. In both bibliographies films are listed in the following categories: communication skills; guidance; health, physical education, safety, and sports; science; and social studies. The list for the 1982-1983 school year also includes categories…

  9. Guide to Films (16 mm) About Negroes. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    Over 740 films (16 mm.) concerning the lives, culture, history, and problems of Black people in the United States and in Africa are listed alphabetically by title in this guide. Each entry includes the running time, a synopsis of the film's content, and a source code and tells whether the film is in black-and-white or in color. The guide includes…

  10. RF and mm-Wave Photonics at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Vawter, G.A.; Sullivan, C.

    1999-07-08

    RF and mm-wave photonic devices and circuits have been developed at Sandia National Laboratories for applications ranging from RF optical data links to optical generation of mm-wave frequencies. This talk will explore recent high-speed photonics technology developments at Sandia including: (1) A monolithic optical integrated circuit for all-optical generation of mm-waves. Using integrated mode-locked diode lasers, amplifiers, and detectors, frequencies between 30 GHz and 90 GHz are generated by a single monolithic (Al,Ga)As optical circuit less than 2mm in its largest dimension. (2) Development of polarization-maintaining, low-insertion-loss, low v-pi, Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulators with DC-to-potentially-K-band modulation bandwidth. New low-loss polarization-maintaining waveguide designs using binary alloys have been shown to reduce polarization crosstalk in undoped (Al,Ga)As waveguides, yielding high extinction ratio (>40dB) and low on-chip loss (<6dB) in Mach-Zehnder interferometers. RF drive voltage is reduced through use of 45rnrn-active length devices with modulator sensitivity, v-pi, less than 3V.

  11. Guide to Films (16 mm) About Ecology, Adaptation and Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    Synopses of 350 films (16 mm.) on ecology, adaptation of plants and animals to their environment, and environmental pollution are listed alphabetically by title in this guide. It specifies whether the film is black-and-white or color, its running time, and its source. An abbreviated subject index and a directory of sources are also provided. The…

  12. Use of MM-Paths in constructive software development

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    Systems such as nuclear reactors, weapons systems, and real-time switching systems present a variety of problems for conventional software development. In addition to the sheer magnitude of these systems, high reliability requirements and deep complexities best characterized by Petri nets demand improvements in specification, design, and testing. Specification of such systems is considered: traditional functional decomposition is shown to be inadequate, as is the approach based on Finite State Machines. A rigorous form of process descriptions is developed here; these are demonstrated to have the same expressive power as Petri nets. Use of these process descriptions as a specification technique leads naturally to a truly intermediate level concept, the MM-path, which is the basis of the development methodology proposed here. This methodology is highly constructive in the sense that information needed in later phases is used to populate a database structured by the process description and MM-Path concepts. Sample queries are given to illustrate the use of the database in the software testing phases. Test coverage metrics are developed for the unit, integration, and system levels of software testing. Existing unit test coverage metrics are shown to be upper bounds to the unit test coverage metrics defined here. A lattice of four integration test coverage metrics is defined in terms of MM-Paths, and MM-Paths are used to extend the concepts of path analysis to system level testing.

  13. Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Analysis Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    C. Lum

    2002-02-12

    The purpose of this report is to document the Mineralogic Model (MM), Version 3.0 (MM3.0) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.0 and previous versions. A three-dimensional (3-D) Mineralogic Model was developed for Yucca Mountain to support the analyses of hydrologic properties, radionuclide transport, mineral health hazards, repository performance, and repository design. Version 3.0 of the MM was developed from mineralogic data obtained from borehole samples. It consists of matrix mineral abundances as a function of x (easting), y (northing), and z (elevation), referenced to the stratigraphic framework defined in Version 3.1 of the Geologic Framework Model (GFM). The MM was developed specifically for incorporation into the 3-D Integrated Site Model (ISM). The MM enables project personnel to obtain calculated mineral abundances at any position, within any region, or within any stratigraphic unit in the model area. The significance of the MM for key aspects of site characterization and performance assessment is explained in the following subsections. This work was conducted in accordance with the Development Plan for the MM (CRWMS M&O 2000). The planning document for this Rev. 00, ICN 02 of this AMR is Technical Work Plan, TWP-NBS-GS-000003, Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model, Process Model Report, Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The purpose of this ICN is to record changes in the classification of input status by the resolution of the use of TBV software and data in this report. Constraints and limitations of the MM are discussed in the appropriate sections that follow. The MM is one component of the ISM, which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1

  14. Conjugate heat transfer analysis of 300-mm bake station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanan, Natarajan; Liang, Frank F.; Sims, James B.

    1999-06-01

    An exhaustive heat-transfer analysis of 200-mm and 300-mm bake equipment has been conducted to infer the temperature uniformity on the wafer from the time it is set on the plate until the end of the bake process. The objective of the analysis was to gain insight into the heat transport to the wafer and improve the thermal uniformity of the wafer. During the soft, hard and post-exposure bake processes, the temperatures to which the wafer is heated can range from 50 degrees to 250 degrees C. The influence of the variables that contribute to the temperature nonuniformity, namely the height of the proximity pins, wafer warp and bow, heater thickness, insulation of the bake plate, and lid material, have been analyzed. The analysis has been carried out using computational fluid dynamics packages, FLUENT/UNS and FIDAP. The accuracy of the numerical simulations has been verified through analytical solution is presented which provides a closed-form expression for the temperature of the wafer in terms of Biot number, a dimensionless parameter. The temperature rise of the wafer based on this simple expression compares very favorably with the detailed axisymmetric numerical solution that was carried out using variable material properties and the complex boundary conditions for the geometry of a 200-mm bake plate. The radial temperature variation on the wafer after 100 seconds on the bake plate also matches very well with the measurements. Based on the success of the modeling results with the 200-mm bake plates, a 300-mm bake plate analysis was conducted to determine if the temperature uniformity would be within specifications. The analysis revealed some key factors that caused temperature nonuniformity and the design was then altered to improve the temperature uniformity. Subsequent measurements confirmed the improvement of the temperature uniformity.

  15. Effect of hole geometry and Electric-Discharge Machining (EDM) on airflow rates through small diameter holes in turbine blade material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, S. A.; Cochran, R. P.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of two design parameters, electrode diameter and hole angle, and two machine parameters, electrode current and current-on time, on air flow rates through small-diameter (0.257 to 0.462 mm) electric-discharge-machined holes were measured. The holes were machined individually in rows of 14 each through 1.6 mm thick IN-100 strips. The data showed linear increase in air flow rate with increases in electrode cross sectional area and current-on time and little change with changes in hole angle and electrode current. The average flow-rate deviation (from the mean flow rate for a given row) decreased linearly with electrode diameter and increased with hole angle. Burn time and finished hole diameter were also measured.

  16. Importance of head diameter, clearance, and cup wall thickness in elastohydrodynamic lubrication analysis of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing prostheses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Jin, Zhongmin; Roberts, P; Grigoris, P

    2006-08-01

    The main design features of metal-on-metal (MOM) hip resurfacing prostheses in promoting elastohydrodynamic lubrication were investigated in the present study, including the femoral head diameter, the clearance, and the cup wall thickness. Simplified conceptual models were developed, based on equivalent uniform wall thicknesses for both the cup and the head as well as the support materials representing bone and cement, and subsequently used for elastohydrodynamic lubrication analysis. Both typical first- and second-generation MOM hip resurfacing prostheses with different clearances and cup wall thicknesses were considered with a fixed large bearing diameter of 50 mm, as well as a 28 mm diameter MOM total hip replacement bearing for the purpose of comparison. The importance of the head diameter and the clearance in promoting elastohydrodynamic lubrication was confirmed. Furthermore, it was also predicted that a relatively thin acetabular cup in the more recently introduced second-generation MOM hip resurfacing prostheses would be capable of improving elastohydrodynamic lubrication even further.

  17. Wavelength dependence of the apparent diameter of retinal blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Robert; Twietmeyer, Karen; Chipman, Russell; Beaudry, Neil; Salyer, David

    2005-04-01

    Imaging of retinal blood vessels may assist in the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and hypertension. However, close examination reveals that the contrast and apparent diameter of vessels are dependent on the wavelength of the illuminating light. In this study multispectral images of large arteries and veins within enucleated swine eyes are obtained with a modified fundus camera by use of intravitreal illumination. The diameters of selected vessels are measured as a function of wavelength by cross-sectional analysis. A fixed scale with spectrally independent dimension is placed above the retina to isolate the chromatic effects of the imaging system and eye. Significant apparent differences between arterial and venous diameters are found, with larger diameters observed at shorter wavelengths. These differences are due primarily to spectral absorption in the cylindrical blood column.

  18. Synthesis of very small diameter silica nanofibers using sound waves.

    PubMed

    Datskos, Panos; Chen, Jihua; Sharma, Jaswinder

    2014-07-14

    Silica nanofibers of an average diameter ≈30 nm and length ≈100 μm have been synthesized using an unprecedented strategy: sound waves. A new phenomenon, spinning off the nanofibers at silica rod tips, is also observed.

  19. Eddy sensors for small diameter stainless steel tubes.

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Jack L.; Morales, Alfredo Martin; Grant, J. Brian; Korellis, Henry James; LaFord, Marianne Elizabeth; Van Blarigan, Benjamin; Andersen, Lisa E.

    2011-08-01

    The goal of this project was to develop non-destructive, minimally disruptive eddy sensors to inspect small diameter stainless steel metal tubes. Modifications to Sandia's Emphasis/EIGER code allowed for the modeling of eddy current bobbin sensors near or around 1/8-inch outer diameter stainless steel tubing. Modeling results indicated that an eddy sensor based on a single axial coil could effectively detect changes in the inner diameter of a stainless steel tubing. Based on the modeling results, sensor coils capable of detecting small changes in the inner diameter of a stainless steel tube were designed, built and tested. The observed sensor response agreed with the results of the modeling and with eddy sensor theory. A separate limited distribution SAND report is being issued demonstrating the application of this sensor.

  20. Northern view of inside diameter welding station of the saw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northern view of inside diameter welding station of the saw line in bay9 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  1. Nonextensive distributions of asteroid rotation periods and diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betzler, A. S.; Borges, E. P.

    2012-03-01

    Context. We investigate the distribution of asteroid rotation periods from different regions of the solar system and diameter distributions of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Aims: We aim to verify if nonextensive statistics satisfactorily describes the data. Methods: Light curve data were taken from the Planetary Database System (PDS) with Rel ≥ 2. We also considered the taxonomic class and region of the solar system. Data of NEA were taken from the Minor Planet Center. Results: The rotation periods of asteroids follow a q-Gaussian with q = 2.6 regardless of taxonomy, diameter, or region of the solar system of the object. The distribution of rotation periods is influenced by observational bias. The diameters of NEAs are described by a q-exponential with q = 1.3. According to this distribution, there are expected to be 994 ± 30 NEAs with diameters greater than 1 km.

  2. 10' DIAMETER BULLWHEEL IN MAIN LEVEL OF DRIVE TERMINAL, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10' DIAMETER BULLWHEEL IN MAIN LEVEL OF DRIVE TERMINAL, LOOKING NORTHEAST. SHEAVE WHEEL SUPPORTING LIFT CABLE IN CENTER. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  3. SMALL DIAMETER PAINTING FROM CATWALK ABOVE. United States Pipe ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SMALL DIAMETER PAINTING FROM CATWALK ABOVE. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Coating, Painting, Lining & Packaging Building, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  4. SMALL DIAMETER STENCILING, ROLLING OVER STAMP. United States Pipe ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SMALL DIAMETER STENCILING, ROLLING OVER STAMP. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Coating, Painting, Lining & Packaging Building, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  5. SMALL DIAMETER PRECEMENT LINING FROM CATWALK ABOVE. United States ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SMALL DIAMETER PRE-CEMENT LINING FROM CATWALK ABOVE. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Coating, Painting, Lining & Packaging Building, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  6. SMALL DIAMETER CEMENT LINING FROM STAIRWAY. United States Pipe ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SMALL DIAMETER CEMENT LINING FROM STAIRWAY. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Coating, Painting, Lining & Packaging Building, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  7. Development of welded metal bellows having minimum effective diameter change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henschel, J. K.; Stevens, J. B.; Harvey, A. C.; Howland, J. S.; Rhee, S. S.

    1972-01-01

    A program of analysis, design, and fabrication was conducted to develop welded metal bellows having a minimum change in effective diameter for cryogenic turbomachinery face seal applications. Linear analysis of the principle types of bellows provided identification of concepts capable of meeting basic operation requirements. For the 6-inch (.152 m) mean diameter, 1.5-inch free length bellows studied, nonlinear analysis showed that opposed and nested toroidal bellows plates stiffened by means of alternating stiffener rings were capable of maintaining constant effective diameter within 0.3% and 0.1% respectively under the operating conditions of interest. Changes in effective diameter were due principally to bellows axial deflection with pressure differential having a lesser influence. Fabrication problems associated with joining the thin bellows plates to the relatively heavy stiffener rings were encountered and precluded assembly and testing of a bellows core. Fabrication problems are summarized and recommended fabrication methods for future effort are presented.

  8. MM 55266 and MM 55268, glycopeptide antibiotics produced by a new strain of Amycolatopsis. Isolation, purification and structure determination.

    PubMed

    Box, S J; Coates, N J; Davis, C J; Gilpin, M L; Houge-Frydrych, C S; Milner, P H

    1991-08-01

    Two novel glycopeptide antibiotics MM 55266 and MM 55268 containing fatty acid acyl functions, and of molecular formula C86H89N8O35Cl5 and C87H91N8O35Cl5, respectively, have been isolated and identified from a complex produced by Amycolatopsis sp. NCIB 40089. Fermentation conditions for their production, and methods for their isolation are described. Structures have been deduced by use of COSY and NOE NMR techniques and supported by chemical degradation studies. Both glycopeptides possessed good antibacterial activity against Gram-positive organisms. PMID:1917694

  9. Crystal-melt interface shape of Czochralski-grown large diameter germanium crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, M.; Azoulay, M.; Gafni, G.; Mizrachi, M.

    1990-01-01

    Crystal-melt interface shapes of 100 to 200 mm diameter 111-line Ge grown by the Czochralski technique have been examined using the method of fast withdrawal from the melt. Initially, the interface shape is convex, then transforms gradually into a sigmoidal shape, becomes nearly planar at about one third of the final crystal length, and finally assumes a concave profile with progressively increasing curvature. The nearly planar interface has a double-facet structure, with an annular facet at the edge of the crystal in addition to the central (111) facet. Formation of the annular facet is accompanied by a giant oscillation of the pull rate when the maximum average pull rate is exceeded. Such oscillation is detrimental to crystal quality, since it introduces a region of high dislocation density. An average pull rate maximum of 2 cm/h has been found to allow for a smooth growth of 200 mm diameter crystals. The origin of the pull rate perturbation is discussed in terms of an instantaneous change in the equilibrium shape of the meniscus.

  10. Solid-state conversion of (94-x)(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-6BaTiO3-x(K1/2Na1/2)NbO3 single crystals and their enhanced converse piezoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Hoon; Kang, Suk-Joong L.

    2016-01-01

    (94-x)(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-6BaTiO3-x(K1/2Na1/2)NbO3 (NBT-6BT-xKNN) piezoelectric ceramics have notable potential for replacing lead containing piezoelectric ceramics in actuator applications due to their exceptionally large strain. However, a high electric field for producing a large strain and a large hysteresis are critical issues that should be resolved for practical actuator applications. In an attempt to address these issues and optimize the piezoelectric performance, we fabricated NBT-6BT-xKNN (x = 0 - 5) piezoelectric single crystals with a size of 8 x 8x 10 mm by the solid-state single crystal growth method and systematically measured their electrical properties. With increased addition of KNN to replace NBT, the ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity of the fabricated [001] NBT-6BT-xKNN single crystals decreased, but their unipolar strain and hysteresis were considerably improved. For NBT-6BT-5KNN single crystals, the largest maximum strain (Smax) was 0.57% at 6 kV/mm, showing a converse piezoelectric constant (Smax/Emax) of 950 pm/V, and their hysteresis in the unipolar S-E curve was 12% at 6kV/mm, which would be appropriate for some actuator applications. Our results demonstrate the applicability of the produced single crystals as lead-free piezoelectric actuator components.

  11. Convergence in the QM-only and QM/MM modeling of enzymatic reactions: A case study for acetylene hydratase.

    PubMed

    Liao, Rong-Zhen; Thiel, Walter

    2013-10-15

    We report systematic quantum mechanics-only (QM-only) and QM/molecular mechanics (MM) calculations on an enzyme-catalyzed reaction to assess the convergence behavior of QM-only and QM/MM energies with respect to the size of the chosen QM region. The QM and MM parts are described by density functional theory (typically B3LYP/def2-SVP) and the CHARMM force field, respectively. Extending our previous work on acetylene hydratase with QM regions up to 157 atoms (Liao and Thiel, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2012, 8, 3793), we performed QM/MM geometry optimizations with a QM region M4 composed of 408 atoms, as well as further QM/MM single-point calculations with even larger QM regions up to 657 atoms. A charge deletion analysis was conducted for the previously used QM/MM model (M3a, with a QM region of 157 atoms) to identify all MM residues with strong electrostatic contributions to the reaction energetics (typically more than 2 kcal/mol), which were then included in M4. QM/MM calculations with this large QM region M4 lead to the same overall mechanism as the previous QM/MM calculations with M3a, but there are some variations in the relative energies of the stationary points, with a mean absolute deviation (MAD) of 2.7 kcal/mol. The energies of the two relevant transition states are close to each other at all levels applied (typically within 2 kcal/mol), with the first (second) one being rate-limiting in the QM/MM calculations with M3a (M4). QM-only gas-phase calculations give a very similar energy profile for QM region M4 (MAD of 1.7 kcal/mol), contrary to the situation for M3a where we had previously found significant discrepancies between the QM-only and QM/MM results (MAD of 7.9 kcal/mol). Extension of the QM region beyond M4 up to M7 (657 atoms) leads to only rather small variations in the relative energies from single-point QM-only and QM/MM calculations (MAD typically about 1-2 kcal/mol). In the case of acetylene hydratase, a model with 408 QM atoms thus seems

  12. Making Reliable Large-Diameter O-Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Glade L.; Harvey, Albert R.

    1989-01-01

    Vacuum curing yields joint-free, voidless elastomer seals. Method for manufacturing large-diameter O-rings produces them in single pieces, without bonded joints. Reduces probability trapped gases form flaws. O-rings produced, having diameters as much as 144 in. (3.66m), reliable and of high quality. Nesting upper and lower halves of mold hold elastomer rings for curing. Oil flowing through upper and lower cavities heats elastomer to cure it.

  13. Thermal resistance of ultra-small-diameter disk microlasers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukov, A. E. Kryzhanovskaya, N. V.; Maximov, M. V.; Lipovskii, A. A.; Savelyev, A. V.; Shostak, I. I.; Moiseev, E. I.; Kudashova, Yu. V.; Kulagina, M. M.; Troshkov, S. I.

    2015-05-15

    The thermal resistance of AlGaAs/GaAs microlasers of the suspended-disk type with a diameter of 1.7–4 μm and InAs/InGaAs quantum dots in the active region is inversely proportional to the squared diameter of the microdisk. The proportionality factor is 3.2 × 10{sup −3} (K cm{sup 2})/W, and the thermal resistance is 120–20°C/mW.

  14. Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi nov. gen., nov. sp.: variable-diameter composite spirochete from microbial mats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerrero, R.; Ashen, J.; Sole, M.; Margulis, L.

    1993-01-01

    Large (up to 100 micrometers long), loosely coiled, free-living spirochetes with variable diameters (from 0.4 to 3 micrometers in the same cell) were seen at least 40 times between August 1990 and January 1993. These spirochetes were observed in mud water and enrichment media from highly specific habitats in intertidal evaporite flats at three disjunct localities, one in Spain and two in Mexico. All three are sites of commercial saltworks. Associated with Microcoleus chthonoplastes the large spirochetes from Spain display phototaxis and a composite organization. Shorter and smaller-diameter spirochetes are seen inside both healthy and spent periplasm of larger ones. Small spirochetes attached to large ones have been observed live. From two to twelve spirochete protoplasmic cylinders were seen inside a single common outer membrane. A distinctive granulated cytoplasm in which the granules are of similar diameter (20-32 nanometers) to that of the flagella (26 nanometers) was present. Granule diameters were measured in thin section and in negatively-stained whole-mount preparations. Based on their ultrastructure, large size, variable diameter, number of flagella (3 to 6), and phototactic behavior these unique spirochetes are formally named Spirosymplokos deltaeiberi. Under anoxic (or low oxygen) conditions they formed blooms in mixed culture in media selective for spirochetes. Cellobiose was the major carbon source in 80% seawater, the antibiotic rifampicin was added, mat from the original field site was present and tubes were incubated in the light at from 18-31 degrees C. Within 1-2 weeks populations of the large spirochete developed at 25 degrees C but they could not be transferred to fresh medium.

  15. Scaffold fiber diameter regulates human tendon fibroblast growth and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Erisken, Cevat; Zhang, Xin; Moffat, Kristen L; Levine, William N; Lu, Helen H

    2013-02-01

    The diameter of collagen fibrils in connective tissues, such as tendons and ligaments is known to decrease upon injury or with age, leading to inferior biomechanical properties and poor healing capacity. This study tests the hypotheses that scaffold fiber diameter modulates the response of human tendon fibroblasts, and that diameter-dependent cell responses are analogous to those seen in healthy versus healing tissues. Particularly, the effect of the fiber diameter (320 nm, 680 nm, and 1.80 μm) on scaffold properties and the response of human tendon fibroblasts were determined over 4 weeks of culture. It was observed that scaffold mechanical properties, cell proliferation, matrix production, and differentiation were regulated by changes in the fiber diameter. More specifically, a higher cell number, total collagen, and proteoglycan production were found on the nanofiber scaffolds, while microfibers promoted the expression of phenotypic markers of tendon fibroblasts, such as collagen I, III, V, and tenomodulin. It is possible that the nanofiber scaffolds of this study resemble the matrix in a state of injury, stimulating the cells for matrix deposition as part of the repair process, while microfibers represent the healthy matrix with micron-sized collagen bundles, thereby inducing cells to maintain the fibroblastic phenotype. The results of this study demonstrate that controlling the scaffold fiber diameter is critical in the design of scaffolds for functional and guided connective tissue repair, and provide new insights into the role of matrix parameters in guiding soft tissue healing.

  16. Understanding the effect of carbon status on stem diameter variations

    PubMed Central

    De Swaef, Tom; Driever, Steven M.; Van Meulebroek, Lieven; Vanhaecke, Lynn; Marcelis, Leo F. M.; Steppe, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Background Carbon assimilation and leaf-to-fruit sugar transport are, along with plant water status, the driving mechanisms for fruit growth. An integrated comprehension of the plant water and carbon relationships is therefore essential to better understand water and dry matter accumulation. Variations in stem diameter result from an integrated response to plant water and carbon status and are as such a valuable source of information. Methods A mechanistic water flow and storage model was used to relate variations in stem diameter to phloem sugar loading and sugar concentration dynamics in tomato. The simulation results were compared with an independent model, simulating phloem sucrose loading at the leaf level based on photosynthesis and sugar metabolism kinetics and enabled a mechanistic interpretation of the ‘one common assimilate pool’ concept for tomato. Key Results Combining stem diameter variation measurements and mechanistic modelling allowed us to distinguish instantaneous dynamics in the plant water relations and gradual variations in plant carbon status. Additionally, the model combined with stem diameter measurements enabled prediction of dynamic variables which are difficult to measure in a continuous and non-destructive way, such as xylem water potential and phloem hydrostatic potential. Finally, dynamics in phloem sugar loading and sugar concentration were distilled from stem diameter variations. Conclusions Stem diameter variations, when used in mechanistic models, have great potential to continuously monitor and interpret plant water and carbon relations under natural growing conditions. PMID:23186836

  17. Sb-based IR photodetector epiwafers on 100 mm GaSb substrates manufactured by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastenau, Joel M.; Lubyshev, Dmitri; Qiu, Yueming; Liu, Amy W. K.; Koerperick, Edwin J.; Olesberg, Jon T.; Norton, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    Antimony-based materials continue to provide great interest for infrared photodetector and focal plane array imaging applications. Detector architectures include InAs/Ga(In)Sb strained-layer superlattices, which create a type-II band alignment that can be tailored to cover a wide range of the mid- and long-wavelength bands by varying the thickness and composition of the constituent materials, and bulk InAsSb-based XBn barrier designs. These materials can provide desirable detector features such as wider wavelength range, suppression of tunneling currents, improved quantum efficiency, and higher operating temperatures. In order to bring these advantages to market, a reliable manufacturing process must be established on large diameter substrates. We report our latest work on the molecular beam epitaxy growth of Sb-detector epiwafers on 100 mm diameter GaSb substrates in a multi-wafer production format. The growth process has been established to address the challenges of these demanding structures, including the large numbers of alternating thin layers and mixed group-V elements. Various characterization techniques demonstrate excellent surface morphology, crystalline structure quality, and optical properties of the epiwafers. The measured wafer-to-wafer consistency and cross-wafer uniformity demonstrate the potential for volume manufacturing.

  18. Influence of frequency on the characteristics of VHF capacitively coupled plasmas in a 300 mm chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebner, G. A.; Barnat, E. V.; Miller, P. A.; Paterson, A.; Holland, J.; Lill, T.

    2004-09-01

    We have investigated the characteristics of VHF capacitively coupled plasmas produced in a modified Applied Materials chamber. The chamber had a 14-inch diameter upper electrode (source) that was driven at 10 to 160 MHz and a 300 mm diameter electrostatic chuck with a ceramic process kit that was driven at 13.56 MHz (bias). Diagnostics employed include a microwave interferometer to measure the line-integrated electron density, a hairpin microwave resonator to measure the spatially resolved electron density, absorption spectroscopy to determine the argon metastable temperature and density, laser induced fluorescence (LIF) to determine the spatial distribution of the excited species, and spatially resolved optical emission. We found that for constant source rf power, the electron density increased with rf frequency. The argon 1s5 metastable temperature was slightly above room temperature (300 - 400K), significantly cooler than our previous measurements in inductively coupled plasmas. The metastable density was not a strong function of source frequency or rf power. The metastable spatial distribution was always peaked in the center of the chamber and had a weak dependence on frequency. Scaling of the plasma parameters with frequency, power and pressure, and implications to energy deposition models will be discussed. This work was supported by Applied Materials and Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Characteristics of VHF capacitively coupled plasmas in a 300 mm chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebner, G. A.; Miller, P. A.; Barnat, E. V.; Paterson, A.; Holland, J.; Lill, T.

    2004-09-01

    We have investigated the characteristics of VHF capacitively coupled plasmas produced in a modified Applied Materials chamber. The chamber had a 14-inch diameter upper electrode (source) that was driven at 10 to 160 MHz and a 300 mm diameter electrostatic chuck with a ceramic process kit that was driven at 13.56 MHz (bias). Diagnostics employed include rf diagnostics to measure the voltage and current, Bdot probes to measure the spatial magnetic fields, a microwave interferometer to measure the line-integrated electron density, a hairpin microwave resonator to measure the spatially resolved electron density, absorption spectroscopy to determine the argon metastable temperature and density, laser induced fluorescence (LIF) to determine the spatial distribution of the excited species, and spatially resolved optical emission. Scaling of the plasma parameters with frequency, power and pressure, and implications to energy deposition models will be discussed. This work was supported by Applied Materials and Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. A High-Resolution Endoscope of Small Diameter Using Electromagnetically Vibration of Single Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Tadao; Hino, Ryunosuke; Makishi, Wataru; Esashi, Masayoshi; Haga, Yoichi

    For high resolution visual inspection in the narrow space of the human body, small diameter endoscope has been developed which utilize electromagnetically vibration of single fiber. Thin endoscopes are effective for inspection in the narrow space of the human body, for example, in the blood vessel, lactiferous duct for detection infiltration of breast cancer, and periodontal gap between gingiva and tooth. This endoscope consists of single optical fiber and photofabricated driving coils. A collimator lens and a cylindrical permanent magnet are fixed on the optical fiber, and the tilted driving coils have been patterned on a 1.08 mm outer diameter thin tube. The fiber is positioned at the center of the tube which is patterned the coils. When an electrical alternating current at the resonance frequency is supplied to the coils, the permanent magnet which is fixed to the fiber is vibrated electromagnetically and scanned one or two dimensionally. This paper reports small diameter endoscope by using electromagnetically vibration of single fiber. Optical coherence tomography imaging has also been carried out with the fabricated endoscope and cross-section image of sub-surface skin of thumb was observed.