Science.gov

Sample records for 1-2 mm thick

  1. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products... Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table MM-1 Table MM-1 to Subpart MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column A: density(metric...

  2. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products... Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table MM-1 Table MM-1 to Subpart MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column A: density(metric...

  3. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products... Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table MM-1 Table MM-1 to Subpart MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column A: density(metric...

  4. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Factors for Petroleum Products... Suppliers of Petroleum Products Pt. 98, Subpt. MM, Table MM-1 Table MM-1 to Subpart MM of Part 98—Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column A: density(metric...

  5. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease MM1+2C and MM1 are Identical in Transmission Properties.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Matsuura, Yuichi; Iwaki, Toru; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Yoshida, Mari; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Murayama, Shigeo; Takao, Masaki; Kato, Shinsuke; Yamada, Masahito; Mohri, Shirou; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The genotype (methionine, M or valine, V) at polymorphic codon 129 of the PRNP gene and the type (1 or 2) of abnormal prion protein in the brain are the major determinants of the clinicopathological features of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), thus providing molecular basis for classification of sporadic CJD, that is, MM1, MM2, MV1, MV2, VV1 or VV2. In addition to these "pure" cases, "mixed" cases presenting mixed neuropathological and biochemical features have also been recognized. The most frequently observed mixed form is the co-occurrence of MM1 and MM2, namely MM1+2. However, it has remained elusive whether MM1+2 could be a causative origin of dura mater graft-associated CJD (dCJD), one of the largest subgroups of iatrogenic CJD. To test this possibility, we performed transmission experiments of MM1+2 prions and a systematic neuropathological examination of dCJD patients in the present study. The transmission properties of the MM1+2 prions were identical to those of MM1 prions because MM2 prions lacked transmissibility. In addition, the neuropathological characteristics of MM2 were totally absent in dCJD patients examined. These results suggest that MM1+2 can be a causative origin of dCJD and causes neuropathological phenotype similar to that of MM1.

  6. Growth kinetics of 1-2 mm and 3-4 mm colonies of Nostoc sphaeroides (Cyanophyta) in outdoor culture.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhongyang; Yan, Chunlan; Lu, Fan; Hu, Qiang; Hu, Zhengyu

    2008-10-01

    Nostoc sphaeroides Kützing was cultivated in paddlewheel-driven raceway ponds and the growth kinetics of 1-2 mm and 3-4 mm colonies of N. sphaeroides was studied. The biomass productivities in 2.5 m(2) raceway ponds inoculated with 1-2 mm and 3-4 mm colonies were 5.2 and 0.25 g dry wt m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Furthermore, differently sized colonies showed different relative water content, total soluble carbohydrates, chlorophyll a content and density of filaments. This is the first report on mass culture of N. sphaeroides under outdoor conditions.

  7. MM1+2C sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease presenting as rapidly progressive nonfluent aphasia.

    PubMed

    Allegri, Ricardo F; Bartoloni, Leonardo; Iturry, Mónica; Romero, Carlos; Begué, Christián; Sevlever, Gustavo; Taratuto, Ana Lía

    2014-01-01

    We report a 77-year-old man, presenting with progressive aphasia as an initial symptom, who developed severe dementia over the course of 20 months. Frontal cortex PrPSc western blot was type 2 and codon 129 was MM; brain neuropathology showed cortical vacuoles with perivacuolar PrP immunostaining characteristic of MM2C. Cerebellum showed focal coarse, patchy staining in different sections of the molecular layer, diffuse fine punctuate and coarse PrP immunopositive deposits in the granule cell layer, and focal synaptic immunostaining in the molecular layer, suggestive of MM1+2C by histotyping. This clinical presentation has not yet been described in an MM1+2C subtype by histotyping.

  8. A study on friction stir welding of 12mm thick aluminum alloy plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Deepati Anil; Biswas, Pankaj; Tikader, Sujoy; Mahapatra, M. M.; Mandal, N. R.

    2013-12-01

    Most of the investigations regarding friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminum alloy plates have been limited to about 5 to 6 mm thick plates. In prior work conducted the various aspects concerning the process parameters and the FSW tool geometry were studied utilizing friction stir welding of 12 mm thick commercial grade aluminum alloy. Two different simple-to-manufacture tool geometries were used. The effect of varying welding parameters and dwell time of FSW tool on mechanical properties and weld quality was examined. It was observed that in order to achieve a defect free welding on such thick aluminum alloy plates, tool having trapezoidal pin geometry was suitable. Adequate tensile strength and ductility can be achieved utilizing a combination of high tool rotational speed of about 2000 r/min and low speed of welding around 28 mm/min. At very low and high dwell time the ductility of welded joints are reduced significantly.

  9. Thermal mapping of Ceres at 1.2 mm with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moullet, Arielle; Li, Jian-Yang; Titus, Timothy N.; Sykes, Mark V.; Ip, Wing-Huen; Lai, Ian-Lin

    2016-10-01

    Ceres' thermal emission distribution, which can be characterized through observations at IR and longer wavelengths, is indicative of radiative and physical properties of its surface such as thermal inertia and roughness. High-resolution maps from the Dawn mission now provide an exquisite geographic and geological context for the interpretation of temperature features, which are at large not accessible to the spacecraft's instruments. In particular, the presence of hydrated minerals and distinctive geological features suggest the existence of ice water reservoirs near the surface, which may be characterized through the analysis of thermal inertia distributions.We report on observations obtained in Fall 2015 at the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), sampling most of the rotation of Ceres and hence allowing one to disentangle local-hour effects from geographical thermal features. The observations were performed during the 2015 Long Baseline Campaign, offering baselines as long as 10 km and yielding a spatial resolution down to 30 mas (~45 km at the equator). At the observed wavelength of 1.2 mm, the thermal emission probes both the emission from the surface and from deeper layers, down to the level of the diurnal skin depth, hence accessing regions where water ice could be stable.We will describe the diurnal and latitudinal temperature variations derived from our observations as well as preliminary results from thermal modeling in terms of subsurface thermal inertia and ice table latitudinal extent. This work is supported by the NASA Solar System Observations Program grant NNX15AE02G.

  10. Analysis of stable tearing in a 7.6 mm thick aluminum plate alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Dawicke, D.S.; Piascik, R.S.; Newman, J.C. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The behavior of a 7.6 mm thick 2000 series aluminum plate alloy was investigated. Fracture tests were conducted on 304.8 mm and 101.6 mm wide M(T) specimens and 152.4 mm and 101.6 C(T) specimens. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional, elastic-plastic finite element simulations used the critical CTOA criterion to simulate the fracture behavior. A plane strain core was used in the two-dimensional analyses to approximate the three-dimensional constraint. The results from this study indicate: (A) The three-dimensional finite element analyses required a critical CTOA of 5.75{degree} to simulate the fracture behavior of the 101.6 mm and 304.8 mm wide M(T) specimen with side grooves. This angle was about the upper limit of the surface CTOA measurements. (B) The three-dimensional finite element analyses required a critical CTOA of 3.6{degree} to simulate the fracture behavior of the 101.6 mm C(T) specimen with side grooves. This angle was about the upper limit of the microtopography through-thickness CTOA measurements. (C) A plane strain core height of PSC = 4 mm was required for the two-dimensional analyses to match the fracture behavior obtained from the three-dimensional analyses. This height agreed with the distance that a three-dimensional analysis indicated was the start of plane strain like behavior. (D) For large M(T) specimens (W > 1,000 mm) the two-dimensional plane strain core analysis predicted a failure stress between the plane stress and plane strain conditions and provided a good approximation of the three-dimensional analyses. (E) The experimental measurements and analytical results show good agreement when the specimens sizes meet the uncracked ligament to thickness ratio (b/B > 4) determined by Newman et al. This indicates that there is a minimum size laboratory specimen that can be used to determine the material behavior needed to predict fracture in large specimens and structures.

  11. Characterization of a 2-mm thick, 16x16 Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride Pixel Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Richardson, Georgia; Mitchell, Shannon; Ramsey, Brian; Seller, Paul; Sharma, Dharma

    2003-01-01

    The detector under study is a 2-mm-thick, 16x16 Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride pixel array with a pixel pitch of 300 microns and inter-pixel gap of 50 microns. This detector is a precursor to that which will be used at the focal plane of the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) telescope currently being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center. With a telescope focal length of 6 meters, the detector needs to have a spatial resolution of around 200 microns in order to take full advantage of the HERO angular resolution. We discuss to what degree charge sharing will degrade energy resolution but will improve our spatial resolution through position interpolation. In addition, we discuss electric field modeling for this specific detector geometry and the role this mapping will play in terms of charge sharing and charge loss in the detector.

  12. Mechanical Properties of Laser Heat Treated 6 mm Thick UHSS-Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Jaervenpaeae, Antti; Maentyjaervi, Kari; Maeaettae, Antti; Hietala, Mikko; Merklein, Marion; Karjalainen, Jussi

    2011-05-04

    In this work abrasion resistant (AR) steel with a sheet thickness of 6 mm was heat treated by a 4 kW Nd:YAG and a 4 kW Yb:Yag-laser, followed by self-quenching. In the delivered condition, test material blank (B27S) is water quenched from 920 deg. C. In this condition, fully martensitic microstructure provides excellent hardness of over 500 HB. The test material is referred to AR500 from now onwards. Laser heat treatment was carried out only on top surface of the AR500 sheet: the achieved maximum temperature in the cross-section varies as a function of the depth. Consequently, the microstructure and mechanical properties differ between the surfaces and the centre of the cross-section (layered microstructure). For better understanding, all layers were tested in tensile tests. For a wide heat treatment track, the laser beam was moved by scanning. Temperatures were measured using thermographic camera and thermocouples. Laser heat treated AR500 samples were tested in hardness tests and by air bending using a press brake machine. Microstructures were studied using a light microscope and FE-SEM/SEM-EBSD. At least three kind of microstructure layers were observed: 1) Dual-Phase ferritic/martensitic (T = A{sub C1}-A{sub C3}), 2) ferritic (T{approx}A{sub C3}) and 3) bainitic/martensitic (T>A{sub C3}).

  13. 0.25mm-thick CCD packaging for the Dark Energy Survey Camera array

    SciTech Connect

    Derylo, Greg; Diehl, H.Thomas; Estrada, Juan; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    The Dark Energy Survey Camera focal plane array will consist of 62 2k x 4k CCDs with a pixel size of 15 microns and a silicon thickness of 250 microns for use at wavelengths between 400 and 1000 nm. Bare CCD die will be received from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). At the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the bare die will be packaged into a custom back-side-illuminated module design. Cold probe data from LBNL will be used to select the CCDs to be packaged. The module design utilizes an aluminum nitride readout board and spacer and an Invar foot. A module flatness of 3 microns over small (1 sqcm) areas and less than 10 microns over neighboring areas on a CCD are required for uniform images over the focal plane. A confocal chromatic inspection system is being developed to precisely measure flatness over a grid up to 300 x 300 mm. This system will be utilized to inspect not only room-temperature modules, but also cold individual modules and partial arrays through flat dewar windows.

  14. Laser-Assisted Stir Welding of 25-mm-Thick HSLA-65 Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Keith M.

    2002-12-01

    Laser-assisted stir welding is a hybrid process that combines energy from a laser with functional heating and mechanical energy to join materials in the solid state. The technology is an adaptation of friction stir welding which is particularly suited for joining thick plates. Aluminum plates up to 75 mm thick have been successfully joined using friction stir welding. Since joining occurs in the solid state, stir technology offers the capability for fabricating full penetration joints in thick plates with better mechanical properties and less weld distortion than is possible by fusion processes. Currently friction stir welding is being used in several industries to improve productivity, reduce weight, and increase the strength of welded structures. Examples include: (a) the aircraft/aerospace industry where stir technology is currently being used to fabricate the space shuttle's external tank as well as components of the Delta family of rockets; (b) the shipping industry where container manufacturers are using stir technology to produce lighter containers with more payload capacity; and (c) the oil industry where offshore platform manufactures are using automated stir welding plants to fabricate large panels and structures up to 16 meters long with widths as required. In all these cases, stir technology has been restricted to aluminum alloys; however, stainless and HSLA 65 steels have been recently stir welded with friction as the primary heat source. One of the difficulties in adapting stir welding to steel is tool wear aggravated by the high tool rubbing velocities needed to provide frictional heat input into the material. Early work showed that the tool shoulder reached temperatures above 1000 C and the weld seam behind the tool stayed within this temperature range for up to 25 mm behind the tool. Cross sections of stir welded samples showed that the heat-affected zone is relatively wide and follows the profile of the tool shoulder. Besides minimizing the tool

  15. Investigations on Nd:YAG laser welding of 1.55mm thick Al1050A alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Xingbo; Bai Peikang; Guo Juzhu; Hu Jiandong; Shang Tiepin; Wang Qingchao; Chung, T.E.

    1996-12-31

    The paper deals with experimental and theoretical analyses of butt welding of 1.55mm thick Al1050A alloy using a 1kW pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The butt welded joints are investigated for tensile strength and microhardness. Then the authors discuss effects of some main normalized welding parameters on the surface quality of welded seams and penetration depth.

  16. An improved plate theory of order (1,2) for thick composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tessler, A.

    1992-01-01

    A new (1,2)-order theory is proposed for the linear elasto-static analysis of laminated composite plates. The basic assumptions are those concerning the distribution through the laminate thickness of the displacements, transverse shear strains and the transverse normal stress, with these quantities regarded as some weighted averages of their exact elasticity theory representations. The displacement expansions are linear for the inplane components and quadratic for the transverse component, whereas the transverse shear strains and transverse normal stress are respectively quadratic and cubic through the thickness. The main distinguishing feature of the theory is that all strain and stress components are expressed in terms of the assumed displacements prior to the application of a variational principle. This is accomplished by an a priori least-square compatibility requirement for the transverse strains and by requiring exact stress boundary conditions at the top and bottom plate surfaces. Equations of equilibrium and associated Poisson boundary conditions are derived from the virtual work principle. It is shown that the theory is particularly suited for finite element discretization as it requires simple C(sup 0)- and C(sup -1)-continuous displacement interpolation fields. Analytic solutions for the problem of cylindrical bending are derived and compared with the exact elasticity solutions and those of our earlier (1,2)-order theory based on the assumed displacements and transverse strains.

  17. On the applicability of the molecular-mechanical force field (MM2) scheme to the gauche oxygen effect characteristic of glycol ethers such as 1,2-dimethoxyethane, 1,2-dimethoxypropane and 1,2-dimethoxy-2-methylpropane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Akihiro; Tasaki, Kenzabu

    1986-07-01

    MM2 calculations have been carried out for a series of glycol ethers such as 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME), 1,2-dimethoxypropane (DME) and 1,2-dimethoxy-2-methylpropane (DMMP). For DME, in accordance with the results of Baldwin [11], the observed energy of the gauche state ( Eσ = -0.5 kcal mol -1) for the OCCO bond is found to be approximately reproduced by the calculation when the dipole—dipole interaction term is suppressed by adopting a relatively large dielectric constant (ɛ eff = 7.5). With the same value of ɛ eff, the gauche energy of DMMP is calculated to be Eψ = —0.9 kcal mol -1, which is at variance with the observed value of 0.5 kcal mol -1. In DMP, the two gauche forms around the OCCO bond are non-equivalent, and the stability of the conformers varies in the order gα &>; t &>; gß. These experimental observations were not produced by the calculation. The MM2 program failed, in the state of the art, to provide an adequate explanation for the gauche oxygen effect observed in the aboved-mentioned glycol ethers as well as in there polymer analogs. It is pointed out that inclusion of an empirical correction term in the torsional potential for the individual rotational states offers a simple amendment which serves for practical purposes.

  18. Red meat and fruit intake is prognostic among patients with localized cutaneous melanomas more than 1 mm thick

    PubMed Central

    Gould Rothberg, Bonnie E.; Bulloch, Kaleigh J.; Fine, Judith A.; Barnhill, Raymond L.; Berwick, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Background As the 10-year mortality for localized cutaneous melanoma more than 1.00 mm thick approaches 40% following complete resection, non-therapeutic interventions that can supplement recommended active surveillance are needed. Although guidelines recommending nutrition, physical activity and tobacco cessation for cancer survivors have been published, data describing their associations with melanoma survivorship are lacking. Methods Analysis of modifiable lifestyle behaviors collected on the 249 cases with melanomas more than 1.00 mm thick enrolled in the Connecticut Case-Control Study of Skin Self-Examination study was conducted. Independent associations with melanoma-specific survival were evaluated through Cox proportional hazards modeling adjusting for age, gender, Breslow thickness, ulceration and the presence of microsatellites. Independently significant variables were then combined into a single model and backwards elimination was employed until all remaining variables were significant at p<0.05. Results Following adjustment for age, Breslow thickness and anatomic site of the index melanoma, daily fruit consumption was associated with improved melanoma-specific survival (HR=0.54; 95% CI: 0.34–0.86) whereas at least weekly red meat consumption was associated with worse outcomes (HR=1.84; 95% CI: 1.02–3.30). Natural red (HR=0.44; 95% CI: 0.22–0.88) or blond (HR=0.52; 95% CI: 0.29–0.94) hair were also favorably prognostic. Higher fish consumption was of borderline significance for improved survival only when considered independently (HR=0.65; 95% CI: 0.40–1.05); no association was seen following adjustment for red meat and fruit consumption (p>0.10). Conclusions Dietary choices at the time of diagnosis are associated with melanoma-specific survival in patients with melanomas more than 1.00 mm thick. Further validation of our findings in larger cohorts with repeated post-diagnostic measures is warranted to further evaluate whether dietary

  19. Threading dislocations in GaAs epitaxial layers on various thickness Ge buffers on 300 mm Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogumilowicz, Y.; Hartmann, J. M.; Rochat, N.; Salaun, A.; Martin, M.; Bassani, F.; Baron, T.; David, S.; Bao, X.-Y.; Sanchez, E.

    2016-11-01

    We have grown GaAs epitaxial layers on Ge buffers, themselves on Si (001) substrates, using an Applied Materials 300 mm metal organic chemical vapor deposition tool. We varied the Ge buffer thickness between 0.36 and 1.38 μm and studied the properties of a 0.27 μm thick GaAs layer on top. We found that increasing the Ge buffer thickness yielded smoother GaAs films with an rms surface roughness as low as 0.5 nm obtained on a 5×5 μm2 area. The bow of the substrate increased following a linear law with the epitaxial stack thickness up to 240 μm for a 1.65 μm stack. We have also characterized the threading dislocations present in the GaAs layers using X-ray diffraction and cathodoluminescence. Increasing the Ge buffer thickness resulted in lower threading dislocation densities, enabling us to obtain anti-phase boundary - free GaAs films with a threading dislocation density as low as 3×107 cm-2. In addition, atomic force microscopy surface topology measurements showed the presence of pits in the GaAs layers whose density agreed well with other threading dislocation density assessments. It thus seems that threading dislocations can in certain cases induce some growth rate variations, making them visible in as-grown GaAs films. Using thicker Ge buffers results in smoother films with less threading dislocations, with the side effect of increasing the bow on the wafer. If bow is not an issue, this is a practical approach to improve the GaAs (on Ge buffer) on silicon quality.

  20. Effect of laser incidence angle on cut quality of 4 mm thick stainless steel sheet using fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullick, Suvradip; Agrawal, Arpit Kumar; Nath, Ashish Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Fiber laser has potential to outperform the more traditionally used CO2 lasers in sheet metal cutting applications due to its higher efficiency, better beam quality, reliability and ease of beam delivery through optical fiber. It has been however, reported that the higher focusability and shorter wavelength are advantageous for cutting thin metal sheets up to about 2 mm only. Better focasability results in narrower kerf-width, which leads to an earlier flow separation in the flow of assist gas within the kerf, resulting in uncontrolled material removal and poor cut quality. However, the advarse effect of tight focusability can be taken care by shifting the focal point position towards the bottom surface of work-piece, which results in a wider kerf size. This results in a more stable flow within the kerf for a longer depth, which improves the cut quality. It has also been reported that fiber laser has an unfavourable angle of incidence during cutting of thick sections, resulting in poor absorption at the metal surface. Therefore, the effect of laser incidence angle, along with other process parameters, viz. cutting speed and assist gas pressure on the cut quality of 4 mm thick steel sheet has been investigated. The change in laser incidence angle has been incorporated by inclining the beam towards and away from the cut front, and the quality factors are taken as the ratio of kerf width and the striation depth. Besides the absorption of laser radiation, beam inclination is also expected to influence the gas flow characteristics inside the kerf, shear force phenomena on the molten pool, laser beam coupling and laser power distribution at the inclined cut surface. Design of experiment has been used by implementing response surface methodology (RSM) to study the parametric dependence of cut quality, as well as to find out the optimum cut quality. An improvement in quality has been observed for both the inclination due to the combined effect of multiple phenomena.

  1. Signaling through ERK1/2 controls myelin thickness during myelin repair in the adult central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Fyffe-Maricich, Sharyl L; Schott, Alexandra; Karl, Molly; Krasno, Janet; Miller, Robert H

    2013-11-20

    Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells of the CNS, exquisitely tailor the thickness of individual myelin sheaths to the diameter of their target axons to maximize the speed of action potential propagation, thus ensuring proper neuronal connectivity and function. Following demyelinating injuries to the adult CNS, newly formed oligodendrocytes frequently generate new myelin sheaths. Following episodes of demyelination such as those that occur in patients with multiple sclerosis, however, the matching of myelin thickness to axon diameter fails leaving remyelinated axons with thin myelin sheaths potentially compromising function and leaving axons vulnerable to damage. How oligodendrocytes determine the appropriate thickness of myelin for an axon of defined size during repair is unknown and identifying the signals that regulate myelin thickness has obvious therapeutic implications. Here, we show that sustained activation of extracellular-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in oligodendrocyte lineage cells results in accelerated myelin repair after injury, and is sufficient for the generation of thick myelin sheaths around remyelinated axons in the adult mouse spinal cord. Our findings suggest a model where ERK1/2 MAP kinase signaling acts as a myelin thickness rheostat that instructs oligodendrocytes to generate axon-appropriate quantities of myelin.

  2. A {1,2}-Order Plate Theory Accounting for Three-Dimensional Thermoelastic Deformations in Thick Composite and Sandwich Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tessler, A.; Annett, M. S.; Gendron, G.

    2001-01-01

    A {1,2}-order theory for laminated composite and sandwich plates is extended to include thermoelastic effects. The theory incorporates all three-dimensional strains and stresses. Mixed-field assumptions are introduced which include linear in-plane displacements, parabolic transverse displacement and shear strains, and a cubic distribution of the transverse normal stress. Least squares strain compatibility conditions and exact traction boundary conditions are enforced to yield higher polynomial degree distributions for the transverse shear strains and transverse normal stress through the plate thickness. The principle of virtual work is used to derive a 10th-order system of equilibrium equations and associated Poisson boundary conditions. The predictive capability of the theory is demonstrated using a closed-form analytic solution for a simply-supported rectangular plate subjected to a linearly varying temperature field across the thickness. Several thin and moderately thick laminated composite and sandwich plates are analyzed. Numerical comparisons are made with corresponding solutions of the first-order shear deformation theory and three-dimensional elasticity theory. These results, which closely approximate the three-dimensional elasticity solutions, demonstrate that through - the - thickness deformations even in relatively thin and, especially in thick. composite and sandwich laminates can be significant under severe thermal gradients. The {1,2}-order kinematic assumptions insure an overall accurate theory that is in general superior and, in some cases, equivalent to the first-order theory.

  3. Half-joule output optical-parametric oscillation by using 10-mm-thick periodically poled Mg-doped congruent LiNbO3.

    PubMed

    Ishizuki, Hideki; Taira, Takunori

    2012-08-27

    We present a next generation of large-aperture periodically poled Mg-doped LiNbO3 (PPMgLN) device with 10-mm thickness. Efficient optical parametric oscillation with 540 mJ output energy at 709 mJ pumping by 1.064 µm laser in 10 nanoseconds operation could be demonstrated using the 10-mm-thick PPMgLN with an inversion period of 32.2 µm at total conversion efficiency > 76%. We also confirmed that degradation effect of conversion-efficiency distribution by wedged-inversion structures, which is inevitable in current poling condition of the large-aperture PPMgLN, can be ignored in high-intensity operation.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 70um-1.2mm and N2H+ maps of IRDC18454 (W43) (Beuther+,

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuther, H.; Tackenberg, J.; Linz, H.; Henning, T.; Krause, O.; Ragan, S.; Nielbock, M.; Launhardt, R.; Schmiedeke, A.; Schuller, F.; Carlhoff, P.; Nguyen-Luong, Q.; Sakai, T.

    2011-11-01

    The cloud complex with a size of ~6'x6' was observed with PACS on Herschel on 2010 March 9. Maps at 250, 350, and 500um were obtained with SPIRE 2010) on 2010 March 11. We observed IRDC18454-1 with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer during five nights in October and November 2009 at 93GHz in the C and D configurations. The N2H+ data has been observed using the BEARS receiver at the NRO 45m telescope in Nobeyama, Japan. The different velocity components have been observed one in April 2010 with an average system temperature of Tsys=206K, the second in June, at slightly lower Tsys. The MIPS 24um data (from MIPSGAL) as well as the IRAC 8um observations (from GLIMPSE) are taken from the Spitzer archive. The 1.2mm continuum data were first presented in Beuther et al. (2002, Cat. J/ApJ/566/945) and the APEX 870um data are part of the ATLASGAL survey of the Galactic plane (Schuller et al., 2009A&A...504..415S). (2 data files).

  5. Tension strength of a thick graphite/epoxy laminate after impact by a 1/2-in. radius impactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, C. C., Jr.; Illg, W.; Garber, D. P.

    1986-01-01

    NASA is developing graphite/epoxy filament-wound cases for solid rocket motors of the space shuttle. They are wet-wound with AS4W graphite fiber and HBRF-55A epoxy. The membrane region is about 1.4 inches thick. Two 30-inch-diameter by 12-inch-long cylinders were impacted every two inches of circumference with 1/2-inch radius impactors that were dropped from various heights. One cylinder was empty and the other was filled with inert propellant. Two-inch-wide test specimens were cut from the cylinders. Each was centered on an impact site. The specimens were x-rayed and loaded to failure in uniaxial tension. Rigid body mechanics and the Hertz law were used to predict impact force, local deformations, contact diameters, and contact pressures. The depth of impact damage was predicted using Love's solution for pressure applied on part of the boundary of a semi-infinite body. The predictions were reasonably good. The strengths of the impacted specimens were reduced by as much as 37 percent without visible surface damage. Even the radiographs did not reveal the nonvisible damage.

  6. Non-invasive high-resolution tracking of human neuronal pathways: diffusion tensor imaging at 7T with 1.2 mm isotropic voxel size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lützkendorf, Ralf; Hertel, Frank; Heidemann, Robin; Thiel, Andreas; Luchtmann, Michael; Plaumann, Markus; Stadler, Jörg; Baecke, Sebastian; Bernarding, Johannes

    2013-03-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows characterizing and exploiting diffusion anisotropy effects, thereby providing important details about tissue microstructure. A major application in neuroimaging is the so-called fiber tracking where neuronal connections between brain regions are determined non-invasively by DTI. Combining these neural pathways within the human brain with the localization of activated brain areas provided by functional MRI offers important information about functional connectivity of brain regions. However, DTI suffers from severe signal reduction due to the diffusion-weighting. Ultra-high field (UHF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should therefore be advantageous to increase the intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This in turn enables to acquire high quality data with increased resolution, which is beneficial for tracking more complex fiber structures. However, UHF MRI imposes some difficulties mainly due to the larger B1 inhomogeneity compared to 3T MRI. We therefore optimized the parameters to perform DTI at a 7 Tesla whole body MR scanner equipped with a high performance gradient system and a 32-channel head receive coil. A Stesjkal Tanner spin-echo EPI sequence was used, to acquire 110 slices with an isotropic voxel-size of 1.2 mm covering the whole brain. 60 diffusion directions were scanned which allows calculating the principal direction components of the diffusion vector in each voxel. The results prove that DTI can be performed with high quality at UHF and that it is possible to explore the SNT benefit of the higher field strength. Combining UHF fMRI data with UHF DTI results will therefore be a major step towards better neuroimaging methods.

  7. The ERK1/2 pathway participates in the upregulation of the expression of mesenteric artery α1 receptors by intravenous tail injections of mmLDL in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Jie; Chen, Xiao-Lan; Xu, Cang-Bao; Jiang, Gao-Feng; Lin, Jie; Liu, En-Qi; Qin, Xu-Ping; Li, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Minimally modified low density lipoprotein (mmLDL) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, no studies examining the effect of mmLDL on vascular smooth muscle receptors have been released. The current study investigated the effect of mmLDL on the mesenteric artery α1 adrenoceptor and the molecular mechanisms. Mice were divided into the normal saline (NS), mmLDL, and mmLDL+U0126 groups. In the mmLDL+U0126 group, the animals were subjected to an intravenous tail injection of mmLDL and an intraperitoneal injection of U0126. Vascular tension caused by noradrenaline (NA) in mesenteric arteries was measured with a sensitive myograph system. The serum levels of oxLDL, TNF-α, and IL-1β were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The expressions of the α1 adrenoceptor, the α2 adrenoceptor, TNF-α, IL-1β, and pERK1/2 were detected using real-time polymerase chain reactions and Western blot analysis. Compared with the NS group, the mmLDL group exhibited a noticeably enhanced NA shrinkage dose-response curve and a significantly increased Emax value (P<0.01). Prazosin (α1 adrenoceptor antagonist) caused a noticeable right shift of the dose-response curve. U0126 inhibited the increases in the serum levels and vessel wall expression of IL-1β and TNF-α and enhanced the NA shrinkage dose-response curve caused by mmLDL, as observed by a significantly decreased Emax value (P<0.01). It inhibited the increased α1 adrenoceptor expression caused by mmLDL. The serum levels of IL-1β and TNF-α demonstrated a positive correlation with the NA-induced maximum shrinkage percentage. U0126 inhibited the mmLDL-induced increase in the pERK1/2 protein level in the vessel wall. In conclusion, mmLDL increased the serum levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in vivo by activating the ERK1/2 pathway, which resulted in α1 receptor-mediated vasoconstriction and an increase in the expression of α1 adrenoceptor. The results of this study may provide new ideas for the prevention

  8. Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding of 10-mm-Thick Cast Martensitic Stainless Steel CA6NM: As-Welded Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirakhorli, Fatemeh; Cao, Xinjin; Pham, Xuan-Tan; Wanjara, Priti; Fihey, Jean-Luc

    2016-07-01

    Cast CA6NM martensitic stainless steel plates, 10 mm in thickness, were welded using hybrid laser-arc welding. The effect of different welding speeds on the as-welded joint integrity was characterized in terms of the weld bead geometry, defects, microstructure, hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and impact energy. Significant defects such as porosity, root humping, underfill, and excessive penetration were observed at a low welding speed (0.5 m/min). However, the underfill depth and excessive penetration in the joints manufactured at welding speeds above 0.75 m/min met the specifications of ISO 12932. Characterization of the as-welded microstructure revealed untempered martensite and residual delta ferrite dispersed at prior-austenite grain boundaries in the fusion zone. In addition, four different heat-affected zones in the weldments were differentiated through hardness mapping and inference from the Fe-Cr-Ni ternary phase diagram. The tensile fracture occurred in the base metal for all the samples and fractographic analysis showed that the crack path is within the martensite matrix, along primary delta ferrite-martensite interfaces and within the primary delta ferrite. Additionally, Charpy impact testing demonstrated slightly higher fracture energy values and deeper dimples on the fracture surface of the welds manufactured at higher welding speeds due to grain refinement and/or lower porosity.

  9. Tungsten Inert Gas and Friction Stir Welding Characteristics of 4-mm-Thick 2219-T87 Plates at Room Temperature and -196 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Xuefeng; Deng, Ying; Yin, Zhimin; Xu, Guofu

    2014-06-01

    2219-T87 aluminum alloy is widely used for fabricating liquid rocket propellant storage tank, due to its admirable cryogenic property. Welding is the dominant joining method in the manufacturing process of aerospace components. In this study, the tungsten inert gas welding and friction stir welding (FSW) characteristics of 4-mm-thick 2219-T87 alloy plate at room temperature (25 °C) and deep cryogenic temperature (-196 °C) were investigated by property measurements and microscopy methods. The studied 2219 base alloy exhibits a low strength plane anisotropy and excellent room temperature and cryogenic mechanical properties. The ultimate tensile strength values of TIG and FSW welding joints can reach 265 and 353 MPa at room temperature, and 342 and 438 MPa at -196 °C, respectively. The base metal consists of elongated deformed grains and many nano-scaled θ (Al2Cu) aging precipitates. Fusion zone and heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the TIG joint are characterized by coarsening dendritic grains and equiaxed recrystallized grains, respectively. The FSW-welded joint consists of the weld nugget zone, thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), and HAZ. In the weld nugget zone, a micro-scaled sub-grain structure is the main microstructure characteristic. The TMAZ and HAZ are both characterized by coarsened aging precipitates and elongated deformed grains. The excellent FSW welding properties are attributed to the preservation of the working structures and homogenous chemical compositions.

  10. The ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Continuum Number Counts, Resolved 1.2 mm Extragalactic Background, and Properties of the Faintest Dusty Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravena, M.; Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Da Cunha, E.; Bauer, F. E.; Carilli, C. L.; Daddi, E.; Elbaz, D.; Ivison, R. J.; Riechers, D. A.; Smail, I.; Swinbank, A. M.; Weiss, A.; Anguita, T.; Assef, R. J.; Bell, E.; Bertoldi, F.; Bacon, R.; Bouwens, R.; Cortes, P.; Cox, P.; Gónzalez-López, J.; Hodge, J.; Ibar, E.; Inami, H.; Infante, L.; Karim, A.; Le Le Fèvre, O.; Magnelli, B.; Ota, K.; Popping, G.; Sheth, K.; van der Werf, P.; Wagg, J.

    2016-12-01

    We present an analysis of a deep (1σ = 13 μJy) cosmological 1.2 mm continuum map based on ASPECS, the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. In the 1 arcmin2 covered by ASPECS we detect nine sources at \\gt 3.5σ significance at 1.2 mm. Our ALMA-selected sample has a median redshift of z=1.6+/- 0.4, with only one galaxy detected at z > 2 within the survey area. This value is significantly lower than that found in millimeter samples selected at a higher flux density cutoff and similar frequencies. Most galaxies have specific star formation rates (SFRs) similar to that of main-sequence galaxies at the same epoch, and we find median values of stellar mass and SFRs of 4.0× {10}10 {M}⊙ and ˜ 40 {M}⊙ yr-1, respectively. Using the dust emission as a tracer for the interstellar medium (ISM) mass, we derive depletion times that are typically longer than 300 Myr, and we find molecular gas fractions ranging from ˜0.1 to 1.0. As noted by previous studies, these values are lower than those using CO-based ISM estimates by a factor of ˜2. The 1 mm number counts (corrected for fidelity and completeness) are in agreement with previous studies that were typically restricted to brighter sources. With our individual detections only, we recover 55% ± 4% of the extragalactic background light (EBL) at 1.2 mm measured by the Planck satellite, and we recover 80% ± 7% of this EBL if we include the bright end of the number counts and additional detections from stacking. The stacked contribution is dominated by galaxies at z˜ 1{--}2, with stellar masses of (1-3) × 1010 M {}⊙ . For the first time, we are able to characterize the population of galaxies that dominate the EBL at 1.2 mm.

  11. Modulation transfer function of the imaging probe using an 8.8 mm-long and 125 μm-thick graded- index short multimode fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Manabu; Shouji, Kou; Nishidate, Izumi

    2017-02-01

    We measured the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a short multimode fiber (SMMF) probe and proposed the optical model including the thin random phase screen (TRPS) to explain degradations of imaging characteristics. SMMF is a graded index multimode fiber for optical communication. That length is 8.8 mm and the diameter of core is 50 μm. With the wavelength of 780 nm, for spatial frequencies from128 lp/mm to 228 lp/mm MTFs were measured at 0.179-0.062 in reflection images and these contrasts were 19% to contrasts without TRPS. With parameters of σϕ of 1.5 rad and W of 2-3.5 μm calculated results almost correspond to measured ones. Dependences of contrasts on wavelength were also measured. With the spatial frequency of 200 lp/mm, at the wavelength of 0.8 μm the contrast decreased to 17% due to TRPS and at that of 0.5 μm the contrast decreased to 6%. Measured dependences of contrasts on wavelength with the spatial frequency of 228 lp/mm approximately correspond to calculation results with 200 lp/mm. These basic characteristics are useful to design the imaging optics by means of SMMF.

  12. Bilayer thickness and lipid interface area in unilamellar extruded 1,2-diacylphosphatidylcholine liposomes: a small-angle neutron scattering study.

    PubMed

    Balgavý, P; Dubnicková, M; Kucerka, N; Kiselev, M A; Yaradaikin, S P; Uhríková, D

    2001-05-02

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments have been performed on large unilamellar liposomes prepared from 1,2-dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC), 1,2-dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and 1,2-distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) in heavy water by extrusion through polycarbonate filters with 500 A pores. The neutron scattering intensity I(Q) in the region of scattering vectors Q corresponding to 0.0015 A(-2) < or = Q(2) < or = 0.0115 A(-2) was fitted using a step function model of bilayer neutron scattering length density and supposing that the liposomes are spherical and have a Gaussian distribution of radii. Using the lipid volumetric data, and supposing that the thickness of bilayer polar region equals to d(H) = 9+/-1 A and the water molecular volume intercalated in the bilayer polar region is the same as in the aqueous bulk aqueous phase, the steric bilayer thickness d(L), the lipid surface area A(L) and the number of water molecules per lipid molecule N intercalated in the bilayer polar region were obtained: d(L) = 41.58+/-1.93 A, A(L) = 57.18+/-1.00 A(2) and N = 6.53+/-1.93 in DLPC at 20 degrees C, d(L) = 44.26+/-1.42 A, A(L) = 60.01+/-0.75 A(2) and N = 7.37+/-1.94 in DMPC at 36 degrees C, and d(L) = 49.77+/-1.52 A, A(L) = 64.78+/-0.46 A(2) and N = 8.67+/-1.97 in DSPC at 60 degrees C. After correcting for area thermal expansivity alpha approximately 0.00417 K(-1), the lipid surface area shows a decrease with the lipid acyl chain length at 60 degrees C: A(L) = 67.56+/-1.18 A(2) in DLPC, A(L) = 66.33+/-0.83 A(2) in DMPC and A(L) = 64.78+/-0.46 A(2) in DSPC. It is also shown that a joint evaluation of SANS and small-angle X-ray scattering on unilamellar liposomes can be used to obtain the value of d(H) and the distance of the lipid phosphate group from the bilayer hydrocarbon region d(H1).

  13. Comparison of fibrin sealant and staples for attaching split-thickness autologous sheet grafts in patients with deep partial- or full-thickness burn wounds: a phase 1/2 clinical study.

    PubMed

    Gibran, Nicole; Luterman, Arnold; Herndon, David; Lozano, Daniel; Greenhalgh, David G; Grubbs, Lisa; Schofield, Neil; Hantak, Edith; Callahan, Janice D; Schiestl, Nina; Riina, Louis H

    2007-01-01

    We undertook a multicenter, randomized, controlled, phase 1/2 clinical study to investigate the safety and efficacy of a fibrin sealant containing 4 IU/ml thrombin (FS 4IU) for the attachment of autologous sheet grafts in patients with deep partial-thickness or full-thickness burn wounds. Fibrin sealant (FS 4IU) was compared with staples for adherence of sheet grafts in 40 patients. Patients had to have burn wounds measuring 40% TBSA or less with two comparable test sites measuring between 1% and 4% TBSA each. Wound beds were prepared before treatment assignment, which was randomized. Percent area of hematoma/seroma at Day 1 (P = .0138) and questionable viability at Day 5 (P = .0182) were significantly less for FS 4IU-treated sites. Median percent area of graft survival on Day 14 was 100% for both treatments (P = .3525). The percentage of completely closed sites generally was greater for FS 4IU-sites on Days 5 to 91; the maximum difference occurred at Day 28 (79.5% vs 59%; P = .0215). The safety profile of FS 4IU was excellent as indicated by the lack of any related serious adverse experiences. These findings indicate that FS 4IU is safe and effective for fixation of skin grafts, with outcomes similar to or better than staple fixation. The data suggest that FS 4IU is a promising candidate for further clinical studies focusing on skin graft adhesion and burn wound healing.

  14. Spontaneously poling of electro-optic polymer thin films across a 1.1-mm thick glass substrate by pyroelectric crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Su; Luo, Jingdong; Jin, Zhian; Li, Ming; Kim, Tae-Dong; Chen, Antao; Jen, Alex K.-Y.

    2014-11-01

    We developed a method to pole electro-optic (E-O) polymer thin films using pyroelectric crystals instead of external high voltage source unit. The process is based on a multi-layered dielectric stack, in which micron-thick E-O polymer films were sandwiched between millimeter thick pyroelectric crystal and borosilicate glass substrate. Through modest temperature change, very large electric fields could be spontaneously generated from pyroelectric effect of the crystals, which can deliver high effective field strength (up to 0.7 MV/cm) to the E-O polymer thin films across the glass plate. Very intriguing phenomena of significantly reduced leak through current (LTC) and improved dielectric breakdown strength of E-O polymers were observed. As a result, large Pockels coefficients of 62 pm/V at 1.31 μm can be obtained for poled E-O thin films. The good agreement between theory and experimentally measured results in the study provide important insights of electrostatics in pyroelectric systems and their effective interactions with thin film E-O polymeric materials. It also demonstrates that pyroelectric poling is a promising alternative to commonly used contact poling and corona poling that offers unique advantages of high field strength and near-zero LTC for polarizing dielectric functional materials and devices.

  15. Apollo 17 Index: 70 mm, 35 mm, and 16 mm Photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Ronald A. (Compiler)

    1974-01-01

    This index lists and provides supplemental data for all Apollo 17 70 mm, 35 mm, and 16 mm photographs. The 70 mm and 35 mm photographs are indexed in three ways: (1) all photographs are listed in numerical sequence according to NASA photograph number, (2) photographs exposed in lunar orbit are listed according to longitude in 10deg increments, and (3) all photographs exposed on the lunar surface are listed in chronological order. In indexing the 70 mm and 35 mm orbital photographs, individual frames were matched to imagery on the 1:2,750,000 scale Lunar Planning Charts (LOC). Each frame was outlined on the LOC base map, and the principal point determined. The latitude and longitude of each principal point, to the nearest 0.1 degree, is recorded in this index, If the principal point of a photograph is in space or its location obscured by shadow, an approximate longitude was recorded so that the photograph would not be excluded from the computer-generated listing by longitude. Each frame is described in terms of a named lunar surface feature within the boundaries of the frame or, if no named features are within the frame boundaries, a major nearby feature.

  16. Resistance Spot Welding of AA5052 Sheet Metal of Dissimilar Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat Din, N. A.; Zuhailawati, H.; Anasyida, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Resistance spot welding of dissimilar thickness of AA5052 aluminum alloy was performed in order to investigate the effect of metal thickness on the weldment strength. Resistance spot welding was done using a spot welder machine available in Coraza Systems Sdn Bhd using a hemispherical of chromium copper electrode tip with radius of 6.00 mm under 14 kA of current and 0.02 bar of pressure for all thickness combinations. Lap joint configuration was produced between 2.0 mm thick sheet and 1.2 - 3.2 mm thick sheet, respectively. Microstructure of joint showed asymmetrical nugget shape that was larger on the thicker side indicating larger molten metal volume. Joint 2.0 mm x 3.2 mm sheets has the lowest hardness in both transverse direction and through thickness direction because less heat left in the weld nugget. The microstructure shows that this joint has coarse grains of HAZ. As thickness of sheet metal increased, the failure load of the joints increased. However, there was no linear correlation established between joint strength and metal thickness due to different shape of fusion zone in dissimilar thickness sheet metal.

  17. MCT detectors: from IR to sub-mm and mm wavelength bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizov, F. F.; Vasiliev, V. V.; Gumenjuk-Sichevska, J. V.; Kamenev, Yu. E.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.

    2008-09-01

    Modern technology advances combined with unique physical properties of mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) material, empower low-signal applications in technical vision systems. Properties of MCT detectors manufactured from LPE and MBE epilayers and their dependences on thickness and doping both for IR and THz regions are discussed. It is shown by comparison of experimental data and modeling of I-V dark current characteristics that MCT photodiode ultimate electrical characteristics are limited by diffusion current in n+-n--p junctions and by current via the deep traps in the gap with position Et= 0.7 Eg above the valence band and concentrations Nt = (1.0-5.5)•1015 cm-3 which are comparable with donor concentration in n--region Nd = (1.1-1.8)•1015 cm-3. Detector array parameters for a wavelength range 8-12 microns are: detectivity D*=1.9•1011 cm•Hz1/2/W, noise equivalent difference temperature NEDT ~ 9 mK, dynamical resistance R ~ 4Â.109 Ohm for the reverse biases ΔV = 0.1-0.2 V. Also, it is shown that MCT layers can be successfully used as sub-mm or mm wave ambient temperature or moderately cooled hot electron bolometers. Thus, in addition to the wavelength range from SWIR to VLIR, where the MCT detectors are employed mainly as photodiodes or photoresistors, they can be used as sub-mm or mm wave detectors in the range from 190 microns to 8 mm. They can be employed here as semiconductor hot electron bolometers (SHEB). Measurements performed at electromagnetic wave frequencies ν = 37, 55, 77 GHz, and also at 0.89 and 1.58 THz with non-optimized Hg0.8Cd0.2Te bolometer prototype, has confirmed the basic concepts of SHEB. At ν = 0.89 THz, 77 GHz and 37 GHz the signal temperature dependencies were measured too. At 77 K the SHEB sensitivity at ν = 37 and 77 GHz is increasing up to two orders compared to room temperature data. The sensitivity Sν ~ 2 V/W at 300 K, and calculated both Johnson-Nyquist and generation-recombination noise values give estimations of

  18. Model-based cartilage thickness measurement in the submillimeter range

    SciTech Connect

    Streekstra, G. J.; Strackee, S. D.; Maas, M.; Wee, R. ter; Venema, H. W.

    2007-09-15

    Current methods of image-based thickness measurement in thin sheet structures utilize second derivative zero crossings to locate the layer boundaries. It is generally acknowledged that the nonzero width of the point spread function (PSF) limits the accuracy of this measurement procedure. We propose a model-based method that strongly reduces PSF-induced bias by incorporating the PSF into the thickness estimation method. We estimated the bias in thickness measurements in simulated thin sheet images as obtained from second derivative zero crossings. To gain insight into the range of sheet thickness where our method is expected to yield improved results, sheet thickness was varied between 0.15 and 1.2 mm with an assumed PSF as present in the high-resolution modes of current computed tomography (CT) scanners [full width at half maximum (FWHM) 0.5-0.8 mm]. Our model-based method was evaluated in practice by measuring layer thickness from CT images of a phantom mimicking two parallel cartilage layers in an arthrography procedure. CT arthrography images of cadaver wrists were also evaluated, and thickness estimates were compared to those obtained from high-resolution anatomical sections that served as a reference. The thickness estimates from the simulated images reveal that the method based on second derivative zero crossings shows considerable bias for layers in the submillimeter range. This bias is negligible for sheet thickness larger than 1 mm, where the size of the sheet is more than twice the FWHM of the PSF but can be as large as 0.2 mm for a 0.5 mm sheet. The results of the phantom experiments show that the bias is effectively reduced by our method. The deviations from the true thickness, due to random fluctuations induced by quantum noise in the CT images, are of the order of 3% for a standard wrist imaging protocol. In the wrist the submillimeter thickness estimates from the CT arthrography images correspond within 10% to those estimated from the anatomical

  19. Amputee socks: how does sock ply relate to sock thickness?

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Joan E; Cagle, John C; Harrison, Daniel S; Karchin, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Background The term “sock ply” may be a source of confusion in prosthetics practice, because there may not be a consistent relationship between sock ply and sock thickness. Objectives The purpose of this study was to characterize how sock ply related to sock thickness for different sock materials commonly used in limb prosthetics. We also evaluated how sock thickness changed under loading conditions experienced while wearing a lower-limb prosthesis compared with unstressed. Study Design Experimental. Mechanical assessment. Methods Seven sock materials of varying ply were tested using a custom instrument. Sock thickness under eight different compressive stress conditions and two different in-plane tensile strain conditions were measured. Results For socks woven from a single material, thickness under walking stance phase conditions averaged 0.7, 1.2, and 1.5 mm for 1, 3, and 5-ply, respectively. For socks woven from several materials, the corresponding results were 0.4, 0.7, and 0.8 mm, respectively. Sock ply did not sum, e.g. a 3-ply sock was not three times the thickness of a 1-ply sock. Conclusions Sock thickness and compressive stiffness are strongly dependent upon sock material and interface pressure. Clinical Relevance Data may be useful towards selecting socks during fitting and towards understanding volume changes induced by adding socks. PMID:22228614

  20. Effect of Different Thicknesses of Pressable Ceramic Veneers on Polymerization of Light-cured and Dual-cured Resin Cements

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seok-Hwan; Lopez, Arnaldo; Berzins, David W.; Prasad, Soni; Ahn, Kwang Woo

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study evaluated the effects of ceramic veneer thicknesses on the polymerization of two different resin cements. Materials and Methods A total of 80 ceramic veneer discs were fabricated by using a pressable ceramic material (e.max Press; Ivoclar Vivadent) from a Low Translucency (LT) ingot (A1 shade). These discs were divided into light-cured (LC; NX3 Nexus LC; Kerr) and dual-cured (DC; NX3 Nexus DC; Kerr) and each group was further divided into 4 subgroups, based on ceramic disc thickness (0.3 mm, 0.6 mm, 0.9 mm, and 1.2 mm). The values of Vickers microhardness (MH) and degree of conversion (DOC) were obtained for each specimen after a 24-hour storage period. Association between ceramic thickness, resin cement type, and light intensity readings (mW/cm2) with respect to microhardness and degree of conversion was statistically evaluated by using ANOVA. Results For the DOC values, there was no significant difference observed among the LC resin cement subgroups, except in the 1.2 mm subgroup; only the DOC value (14.0 ± 7.4%) of 1.2 mm DC resin cement had significantly difference from that value (28.9 ± 7.5%) of 1.2 mm LC resin cement (P<.05). For the MH values between LC and DC resin cement groups, there was statistically significant difference (P<.05); overall, the MH values of LC resin cement groups demonstrated higher values than DC resin cement groups. On the other hands, among the DC resin cement subgroups, the MH values of 1.2 mm DC subgroup was significantly lower than the 0.3 mm and 0.6 mm subgroups (P<.05). However, among the LC subgroups, there was no statistically significant difference among them (P >.05). Conclusion The degree of conversion and hardness of the resin cement was unaffected with veneering thicknesses between 0.3 and 0.9 mm. However, the DC resin cement group resulted in a significantly lower DOC and MH values for the 1.2 mm subgroup. Clinical Significance While clinically adequate polymerization of LC resin cement can be achieved

  1. Normal echocardiographic mitral and aortic valve thickness in children

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Rachel H; Culliford-Semmens, Nicola; Sidhu, Karishma; Wilson, Nigel J

    2017-01-01

    Objective We aimed to define the normal range of aortic and mitral valve thickness in healthy schoolchildren from a high prevalence rheumatic heart disease (RHD) region, using a standardised protocol for imaging and measurement. Methods Measurements were performed in 288 children without RHD. Anterior mitral valve leaflet (AMVL) thickness measurements were performed at the midpoint and tip of the leaflet in the parasternal long axis (PSLA) in diastole, when the AMVL was approximately parallel to the ventricular septum. Thickness of the aortic valve was measured from PSLA imaging in systole when the leaflets were at maximum excursion. The right coronary and non-coronary closure lines of the aortic valve were measured in diastole in parasternal short axis (PSSA) imaging. Results were compared with 51 children with RHD classified by World Heart Federation diagnostic criteria. Results In normal children, median AMVL tip thickness was 2.0 mm (IQR 1.7–2.4) and median AMVL midpoint thickness 2.0 mm (IQR 1.7–2.4). The median aortic valve thickness was 1.5 mm (IQR 1.3–1.6) in the PSLA view and 1.4 mm (IQR 1.2–1.6) in the PSSA view. The interclass correlation coefficient for the AMVL tip was 0.85 (0.71 to 0.92) and for the AMVL midpoint was 0.77 (0.54 to 0.87). Conclusions We have described a standardised method for mitral and aortic valve measurement in children which is objective and reproducible. Normal ranges of left heart valve thickness in a high prevalence RHD population are established. These results provide a reference range for school-age children in high prevalence RHD regions undergoing echocardiographic screening.

  2. Primeval galaxies in the sub-mm and mm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, J. Richard; Myers, Steven T.

    1993-01-01

    Although the results of COBE's FIRAS experiment 1 constrain the deviation in energy from the CMB blackbody in the 500-5000 micron range to be delta E/E, sub cmb less than 0.005, primeval galaxies can still lead to a brilliant sub-mm sky of non-Gaussian sources that are detectable at 10 inch resolution from planned arrays such as SCUBA on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and, quite plausibly, at sub-arcsecond resolution in planned mm and sub-mm interferometers. Here, we apply our hierarchical peaks method to a CDM model to construct sub-mm and mm maps of bursting PG's appropriate for these instruments with minimum contours chosen to correspond to realistic observational parameters for them and which pass the FIRAS limits.

  3. Thickness Distribution of Glenohumeral Joint Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Schleich, Christoph; Bittersohl, Bernd; Antoch, Gerald; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Zilkens, Christoph; Kircher, Jörn

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution 3-dimensional cartilage-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at 3 T to test the following hypotheses: (1) there is a nonuniform cartilage thickness distribution both on the proximal humerus and on the glenoid surface and (2) the glenohumeral joint as a combined system is congruent with the level of the joint cartilage surface without substantial radial mismatch. Inclusion of 38 volunteers (19 females, mean age 24.34 ± 2.22 years; range 21-29 years) in a prospective study. Measurements of: cartilage thickness in 3 regions and 3 zones; radius of both circles (glenoid and humeral cartilage) for congruency calculation using 3-T MRI with 3-dimensional dual-echo steady-state sequence with water excitation. A homogenous mean cartilage thickness (1.2-1.5 mm) and slightly higher values for the glenoidal articulating surface radii both in the mid-paracoronar section (2.4 vs. 2.1 cm, P < 0.001) and in the mid-paraaxial section (2.4 vs. 2.1 cm, P < 0.001) compared with the humeral side were observed. The concept of a radial mismatch between the humeral head and the glenoid in healthy human subjects can be confirmed. This study provides normative data for the comparison of joint cartilage changes at the shoulder for future studies.

  4. Masking ability of opaque thickness on layered metal-ceramic.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Cari M; Waldemarin, Renato Fa; Camacho, Guilherme B

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the masking ability of two opaques applied in different thicknesses. Eighty NiCr metal discs 16 mm in diameter and 1.0 mm thick were prepared. The disks were divided into 8 groups (n = 10). Ceramic opaque in paste (groups 1 to 4) or powder (groups 5 to 8) presentations were applied. They were machined with aluminum oxide burs to the following thicknesses: G1 and G5 = 0.10 mm; G2 and G6 = 0.15 mm; G3 and G7 = 0.20 mm and G4 and G8 = 0.30 mm. Dentin ceramic 0.7 mm thick was applied over these discs, sintered and glazed according manufacturer's instructions. Color was assessed with a Minolta CR10 spectrocolorimeter on the CIELab scale. Powder opaque had higher values on (L) and (ΔE) variables, and lower values on (a) and (b) variables compared to paste opaque. For opaque thickness, 0.10 mm had higher ΔE than all other thicknesses. L values were higher for 0.20 mm and 0.30 mm. Lowest and highest a* values were observed for 0.10 mm and 0.30 mm, respectively. No difference was observed for b* values. There were differences between paste and powder opaque types; 0.10 mm thickness behaves differently from the other thicknesses, with higher ΔE, while 0.15 mm does not differ statistically from thicker layers.

  5. Microhardness of composite resin cured through different primary tooth thicknesses with different light intensities and curing times: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mazhari, Fatemeh; Ajami, Behjatolmolok; Moazzami, Saied Mostafa; Baghaee, Bahareh; Hafez, Bahareh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased exposure time and light intensity on microhardness of cured composite through different thicknesses of tooth structure in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventy cylindrical resin composite specimens were prepared. All specimens were divided into 17 experimental and control groups. “Light-emitting diode” light curing unit (LCU) applied directly or through 1, 2, and 3 mm thicknesses tooth slices for experimental groups. The irradiation protocols were 25 and 50 s at 650 mW/cm2 and 15 and 30 s at 1100 mW/cm2. The “quartz-tungsten-halogen” LCU (400 mW/cm2) for 40 s was used in control group. Microhardness was measured by the Vickers hardness test. Results: Indirectly cured specimens and those cured through a 1 mm thick tooth structure, an increase in intensity caused hardness drop. In the specimens cured through 2 and 3 mm thick tooth structures, increased intensity and/or exposure time did not show any appropriate changes on microhardness. Conclusion: Irradiation through a 1.0 mm thick tooth slice resulted in reduced microhardness although it was still within the clinically acceptable level. The hardness values of the specimens cured through 2 or 3 mm thick tooth slices fell below the clinically acceptable level even after doubling the exposure time and/or light intensity. PMID:27095897

  6. 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Diphenylhydrazine ; CASRN 122 - 66 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  7. 1,2-Dibromoethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA 635 / R - 04 / 067 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 1,2 - DIBROMOETHANE ( CAS No . 106 - 93 - 4 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2004 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been revie

  8. 1,2-Dichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichloropropane ; CASRN 78 - 87 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  9. 1,2-Dichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 50 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  10. 1,2-Dichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichloroethane ; CASRN 107 - 06 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  11. Apollo 12 photography 70 mm, 16 mm, and 35 mm frame index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    For each 70-mm frame, the index presents information on: (1) the focal length of the camera, (2) the photo scale at the principal point of the frame, (3) the selenographic coordinates at the principal point of the frame, (4) the percentage of forward overlap of the frame, (5) the sun angle (medium, low, high), (6) the quality of the photography, (7) the approximate tilt (minimum and maximum) of the camera, and (8) the direction of tilt. A brief description of each frame is also included. The index to the 16-mm sequence photography includes information concerning the approximate surface coverage of the photographic sequence and a brief description of the principal features shown. A column of remarks is included to indicate: (1) if the sequence is plotted on the photographic index map and (2) the quality of the photography. The pictures taken using the lunar surface closeup stereoscopic camera (35 mm) are also described in this same index format.

  12. Feasibility of a Sustainer Projectile in the 30-mm, 35-mm, and 40-mm Caliber Range

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    calibers appropriate for air defense. Sustaining the muzzle velocity has the advantage of decreasing the projectile time of flight, thus reducing the...mm Rocket-Assisted Projectiles Air Defense 30 mm 20 A@SrACT I"Centfate an eerseod if VHW en Identify by blocek number) A sustainer projectile is a...feasibility of RAP’s in the smaller calibers appropriate for air defense, * .i.e., the 30-40 nn caliber range. The nominal objective of this study was to

  13. [Impact of planning CT slice thickness on the accuracy of automatic target registration using the on-board cone-beam CT].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Tanooka, Masao; Doi, Hiroshi; Miura, Hideharu; Nakagawa, Hideo; Sakai, Toshiyuki; Oda, Masahiko; Yasumasa, Katsumi; Sakamoto, Kiyoshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Hirota, Shozo

    2011-01-01

    We have evaluated relationship between planning CT slice thickness and the accuracy of automatic target registration using cone-beam CT (CBCT). Planning CT images were acquired with reconstructed slice thickness of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10mm for three different phantoms: Penta-Guide phantom, acrylic ball phantom, and pelvic phantom. After correctly placing the phantom at the isocenter using an in-room laser, we purposely displaced it by moving the treatment couch and then obtained CBCT images. Registration between the planning CT and the CBCT was performed using automatic target registration software, and the registration errors were recorded for each planning CT data set with different slice thickness. The respective average and standard deviation of errors for 10 mm slice thickness CT in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions (n=15 data sets) were: 0.7 +/- 0.2mm, 0.8 +/- 0.2mm, and 0.2 +/- 0.2mm for the Penta-Guide phantom; 0.5 +/- 0.4 mm, 0.6 +/- 0.3 mm, and 0.4 +/- 0.3 mm for the acrylic ball phantom; and 0.6 +/- 0.2 mm, 0.9 +/- 0.2 mm, and 0.2 +/- 0.2 mm for the pelvic phantom. We found that the mean registration errors were always less than 1 mm regardless of the slice thickness tested. The results suggest that there is no obvious correlation between the planning CT slice thickness and the registration errors.

  14. Anatomical evaluation of the root canal diameter and root thickness on the apical third of mesial roots of molars.

    PubMed

    Martos, Josué; Tatsch, Gustavo Henrique; Tatsch, Augusto César; Silveira, Luiz Fernando Machado; Ferrer-Luque, Carmen María

    2011-09-01

    The purpose was to determine the diameter of the main root canal and wall thickness in the apical dentin in mesial roots of maxillary and mandibular molars. Forty mesiobuccal and mesial root specimens were sectioned horizontally at 1, 2 and 3 mm from the apex, and measured at each top surface by using optical microscopy to an accuracy of ×20 magnification. The anatomical parameters were established as the following points of reference: AB, two points connected by a line from the outer edge of the mesial wall to the outer edge of the distal one through the center of the root canal to measure the thickness of the root and mesiodistal diameter of the root canal (CD). A second line (EF) was designed to evaluate the diameter of the root canal in the buccolingual direction. All data were summarized, and values were assessed statistically by ANOVA and Bonferroni multiple comparisons. The buccolingual (BL) root canal diameters at 1, 2 and 3 mm in the mandibular and maxillary molars were greater than in the mesiodistal (MD), showing statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). The MD root thicknesses at 1, 2 and 3 mm in mandibular and maxillary molars were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The lowest value to 1 mm from the apex in the mandibular molars was 1.219 mm and the highest at 3 mm from the root apex in maxillary molars was 1.741 mm. The BL diameters in maxillary and mandibular molars were higher than the MD diameter. The thickness (MD) of maxillary and mandibular molars decreased as a function of apical proximity.

  15. New method of assessing the relationship between buccal bone thickness and gingival thickness

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between buccal bone thickness and gingival thickness by means of a noninvasive and relatively accurate digital registration method. Methods In 20 periodontally healthy subjects, cone-beam computed tomographic images and intraoral scanned files were obtained. Measurements of buccal bone thickness and gingival thickness at the central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines were performed at points 0–5 mm from the alveolar crest on the superimposed images. The Friedman test was used to compare buccal bone and gingival thickness for each depth between the 3 tooth types. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between buccal bone thickness and gingival thickness. Results Of the central incisors, 77% of all sites had a buccal thickness of 0.5–1.0 mm, and 23% had a thickness of 1.0–1.5 mm. Of the lateral incisors, 71% of sites demonstrated a buccal bone thickness <1.0 mm, as did 63% of the canine sites. For gingival thickness, the proportion of sites <1.0 mm was 88%, 82%, and 91% for the central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines, respectively. Significant differences were observed in gingival thickness at the alveolar crest level (G0) between the central incisors and canines (P=0.032) and between the central incisors and lateral incisors (P=0.013). At 1 mm inferior to the alveolar crest, a difference was found between the central incisors and canines (P=0.025). The lateral incisors and canines showed a significant difference for buccal bone thickness 5 mm under the alveolar crest (P=0.025). Conclusions The gingiva and buccal bone of the anterior maxillary teeth were found to be relatively thin (<1 mm) overall. A tendency was found for gingival thickness to increase and bone thickness to decrease toward the root apex. Differences were found between teeth at some positions, although the correlation between buccal bone thickness and soft tissue thickness was

  16. A high performance intermediate temperature fuel cell based on a thick oxide-carbonate electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Lan, Rong; Xu, Xiaoxiang; Tao, Shanwen; Jiang, Yinzhu; Kraft, Arno

    A high performance intermediate temperature fuel cell (ITFC) with composite electrolyte composed of co-doped ceria Ce 0.8Gd 0.05Y 0.15O 1.9 (GYDC) and a binary carbonate-based (52 mol% Li 2CO 3/48 mol% Na 2CO 3), 1.2 mm thick electrolyte layer has been developed. Co-doped Ce 0.8Gd 0.05Y 0.15O 1.9 was synthesized by a glycine-nitrate process and used as solid support matrix for the composite electrolyte. The conductivity of both composite electrolyte and GYDC supporting substrate were measured by AC impedance spectroscopy. It showed a sharp conductivity jump at about 500 °C when the carbonates melted. Single cells with thick electrolyte layer were fabricated by a dry-pressing technique using NiO as anode and Ba 0.5Sr 0.5Co 0.8Fe 0.2O 3- δ or lithiated NiO as cathode. The cell was tested at 450-550 °C using hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. Excellent performance with high power density of 670 mW cm -2 at 550 °C was achieved for a 1.2 mm thick composite electrolyte containing 40 wt% carbonates which is much higher than that of a cell based on pure GYDC with a 70 μm thick electrolyte layer.

  17. Effect of filter media thickness on the performance of sand drying beds used for faecal sludge management.

    PubMed

    Manga, M; Evans, B E; Camargo-Valero, M A; Horan, N J

    2016-12-01

    The effect of sand filter media thickness on the performance of faecal sludge (FS) drying beds was determined in terms of: dewatering time, contaminant load removal efficiency, solids generation rate, nutrient content and helminth eggs viability in the dried sludge. A mixture of ventilated improved pit latrine sludge and septage in the ratio 1:2 was dewatered using three pilot-scale sludge drying beds with sand media thicknesses of 150, 250 and 350 mm. Five dewatering cycles were conducted and monitored for each drying bed. Although the 150 mm filter had the shortest average dewatering time of 3.65 days followed by 250 mm and 350 mm filters with 3.83 and 4.02 days, respectively, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) attributable to filter media thickness configurations. However, there was a significant difference for the percolate contaminant loads in the removal and recovery efficiency of suspended solids, total solids, total volatile solids, nitrogen species, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand, with the highest removal efficiency for each parameter achieved by the 350 mm filter. There were also significant differences in the nutrient content (NPK) and helminth eggs viability of the solids generated by the tested filters. Filtering media configurations similar to 350 mm have the greatest potential for optimising nutrient recovery from FS.

  18. LIGA-fabricated compact mm-wave linear accelerator cavities.

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.J.; Bajikar, S.S.; DeCarlo, F.; Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Mancini, D.C.; Nassiri, A.; Lai, B.; Feinerman, A.D.; White, V.

    1998-03-23

    Millimeter-wave rf cavities for use in linear accelerators, free-electron lasers, and mm-wave undulatory are under development at Argonne National Laboratory. Typical cavity dimensions are in the 1000 mm range, and the overall length of the accelerator structure, which consists of 30-100 cavities, is about 50-100 mm. An accuracy of 0.2% in the cavity dimensions is necessary in order to achieve a high Q-factor of the cavity. To achieve this these structures are being fabricated using deep X-ray lithography, electroforming, and assembly (LIGA). The first prototype cavity structures are designed for 108 GHz and 2p/3-mode operation. Input and output couplers are integrated with the cavity structures. The cavities are fabricated on copper substrates by electroforming copper into 1-mm-thick PMMA resists patterned by deep x-ray lithography and polishing the copper down to the desired thickness. These are fabricated separately and subsequently assembled with precision spacing and alignment using microspheres, optical fibers, or microfabricated spacers/alignment pieces. Details of the fabrication process, alignment, and assembly work are presented in here.

  19. Effect of surface thickness on the wetting front velocity during jet impingement surface cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Chitranjan; Gotherwal, Deepesh; Singh, Chandradeep; Singh, Charan

    2017-02-01

    A hot stainless steel (SS-304) surface of 450 ± 10 °C initial temperature is cooled with a normally impinging round water jet. The experiments have been performed for the surface of different thickness e.g. 1, 2, 3 mm and jet Reynolds number in the range of Re = 26,500-48,000. The cooling performance of the hot test surface is evaluated on the basis of wetting front velocity. The wetting front velocity is determined for 10-40 mm downstream spatial locations away from the stagnation point. It has been observed that the wetting front velocity increase with the rise in jet flow rate, however, diminishes towards the downstream spatial location and with the rise in surface thickness. The proposed correlation for the dimensionless wetting front velocity predicts the experimental data well within the error band of ±30 %, whereas, 75 % of experimental data lies within the range of ±20 %.

  20. Peripapillary choroidal thickness in healthy Chinese subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To evaluate the peripapillary choroidal thickness of a healthy Chinese population, and to determine its influencing factors. Methods A total of 76 healthy volunteers (76 eyes) without ophthalmic or systemic symptoms were enrolled. Choroidal scans (360-degree 3.4 mm diameter peripapillary circle scans) were obtained for all eyes using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Choroid thickness was measured at the temporal, superotemporal, superior, superonasal, nasal, inferonasal, inferior, and inferotemporal segments. Results The average peripapillary choroidal thicknesses were 165.03 ± 40.37 μm. Inferonasal, inferior, and inferotemporal thicknesses were significantly thinner than temporal, superotemporal, superior, superonasal, nasal thicknesses (p < 0.05). No statistically significant difference was found among inferonasal, inferior, and inferotemporal thicknesses. The average peripapillary choroidal thickness decreased linearly with age (β = −1.33, 95% CI −1.98, -0.68, P < 0.001). No correlation was noted between average choroidal thickness and other factors (gender, refractive error, axial length, average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, intraocular pressure, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, diastolic ocular perfusion pressure, systolic ocular perfusion pressure, and mean ocular perfusion pressure). Conclusions The inferonasal, inferior, inferotemporal peripapillary choroidal thicknesses were significantly thinner than temporal, superotemporal, superior, superonasal, and nasal thicknesses. A thinner peripapillary choroid is associated with increasing age. PMID:23758729

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Subpart MM 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM General...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Subpart MM 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63—General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM General...

  3. Influence of wall thickness and diameter on arterial shear wave elastography: a phantom and finite element study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksuti, Elira; Bini, Fabiano; Fiorentini, Stefano; Blasi, Giulia; Urban, Matthew W.; Marinozzi, Franco; Larsson, Matilda

    2017-04-01

    Quantitative, non-invasive and local measurements of arterial mechanical properties could be highly beneficial for early diagnosis of cardiovascular disease and follow up of treatment. Arterial shear wave elastography (SWE) and wave velocity dispersion analysis have previously been applied to measure arterial stiffness. Arterial wall thickness (h) and inner diameter (D) vary with age and pathology and may influence the shear wave propagation. Nevertheless, the effect of arterial geometry in SWE has not yet been systematically investigated. In this study the influence of geometry on the estimated mechanical properties of plates (h  =  0.5–3 mm) and hollow cylinders (h  =  1, 2 and 3 mm, D  =  6 mm) was assessed by experiments in phantoms and by finite element method simulations. In addition, simulations in hollow cylinders with wall thickness difficult to achieve in phantoms were performed (h  =  0.5–1.3 mm, D  =  5–8 mm). The phase velocity curves obtained from experiments and simulations were compared in the frequency range 200–1000 Hz and showed good agreement (R 2  =  0.80  ±  0.07 for plates and R 2  =  0.82  ±  0.04 for hollow cylinders). Wall thickness had a larger effect than diameter on the dispersion curves, which did not have major effects above 400 Hz. An underestimation of 0.1–0.2 mm in wall thickness introduces an error 4–9 kPa in hollow cylinders with shear modulus of 21–26 kPa. Therefore, wall thickness should correctly be measured in arterial SWE applications for accurate mechanical properties estimation.

  4. cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 09 / 006 F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF cis - 1,2 - DICHLOROETHYLENE and trans - 1,2 - DICHLOROETHYLENE ( CAS Nos . cis : 156 - 59 - 2 ; trans : 156 - 60 - 5 ; mixture : 540 - 59 - 0 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS )

  5. ION AND NEUTRAL MOLECULES IN THE W43-MM1(G30.79 FIR 10) INFALLING CLUMP

    SciTech Connect

    Cortes, Paulo C.

    2011-12-20

    The high-mass star-forming clump W43-MM1 has been mapped in N{sub 2}H{sup +}(4 {yields} 3), C{sup 18}O(3 {yields} 2), SiO(8 {yields} 7), and in a single pointing in DCO{sup +}(5 {yields} 4) toward the center of the clump. Column densities from these observations as well as previous HCO{sup +}(4 {yields} 3), H{sup 13}CO{sup +}(4 {yields} 3), HCN(4 {yields} 3), H{sup 13}CN(4 {yields} 3), and CS(7 {yields} 6) data have been derived using the RADEX code; results later have been used to derive chemical abundances at selected points in the MM1 main axis. We compare with chemical models to estimate an evolutionary age of 10{sup 4} years for a remarkable warm hot core inside MM1. We also proposed that the dust temperature derived from the spectral energy distribution fitting in MM1 is not representative of the gas temperature deep inside the clump because dust emission may have become optically thick. By deriving a deuterium fractionation of 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3}, we estimate an electron fraction of X(e) = 6.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}. Thus, the coupling between the neutral gas and the magnetic field is estimated by computing the ambipolar diffusion Reynolds number R{sub m} = 18 and the wave coupling number W = 110. Considering that the infalling speed is slightly supersonic (M = 1.1) but sub-Alfvenic, we conclude that the MM1 clump has recently been or is in the process of decoupling the field from the neutral fluid. Thus, the MM1 clump appears to be in an intermediate stage of evolution in which a hot core has developed while the envelope is still infalling and not fully decoupled from the ambient magnetic field.

  6. Application of MM wave therapy in radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Avakian, R.S.; Gasparyan, L.V.

    1995-12-31

    The authors studied the effects of MM wave electromagnetic radiation influence on patients, affected by X-ray radiation during the reparation works after Chernobyl nuclear power plant exposure. They compared results of treatment of two groups of patients: (1) control group patients received only basis therapy; (2) testing group, 10 patients received basis therapy and MM wave influence. The authors used the wide band noise generator `Artsakh - 2` for local irradiation on the acupuncture points. Their data proved that low intensity MM waves have immunocorrective, antioxidant effects, and MM wave therapy is a perspective method for treatment of patients with radiological pathology.

  7. Growth of MM-Thick Orientation-Patterned GaAs for IR and THZ Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-30

    21| K. Gruter, M. Deschler. H. Jurgensen . R . Beccard. p. Balk. J. Crystal Growth 94 (1989)607. [221 S- Lourdudoss. 0. Kjebon. IEEE J. Sel. Top...J. Napierala. D. Castelluci. A . Pimpinelli. R . Cadoret. B. Gerard. J. Crystal Growth 222 (2001) 482. ...Journal of Crystal Growth 310 (2008) 5241 -5247 i-;-’" ;*;--’ r ! I SI \\’ll R Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Journal of Crystal Growth

  8. Improvement in thickness uniformity of thick SOI by numerically controlled local wet etching.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Kazuya; Ueda, Kazuaki; Hosoda, Mao; Zettsu, Nobuyuki

    2011-04-01

    Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers are promising semiconductor materials for high-speed LSIs, low-power-consumption electric devices and micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). The thickness distribution of an SOI causes the variation of threshold voltage in electronic devices manufactured on the SOI wafer. The thickness distribution of a thin SOI, which is manufactured by applying a smart cut technique, is comparatively uniform. On the other hand, a thick SOI has a large thickness distribution because a bonded wafer is thinned by conventional grinding and polishing. For a thick SOI wafer with a thickness of 1 microm, it is required that the tolerance of thickness variation is less than 50 nm. However, improving the thickness uniformity of a thick SOI layer to a tolerance of +/- 5% is difficult by conventional machining because of the fundamental limitations of these techniques. We have developed numerically controlled local wet etching (NC-LWE) technique as a novel deterministic subaperture figuring and finishing technique, which utilizes a localized chemical reaction between the etchant and the surface of the workpiece. We demonstrated an improvement in the thickness distribution of a thick SOI by NC-LWE using an HF/HNO3 mixture, and thickness variation improved from 480 nm to 200 nm within a diameter of 170 mm.

  9. Effects of immersion solution on corneal tissue strip hydration and thickness during thermal shrinkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borja, David; Manns, Fabrice; Lamar, Peggy D.; Rosen, Alexander; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    2003-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the effects of immersion solutions with different Dextran concentrations on the hydration of cornea tissue strips at normal body temperature. Methods: A 20% Dextran-BSS solution was injected via a self sealing limbal-transcorneal tunnel incision using a 30ga needle into the anterior chamber of human donor eyes until the globe was hard. The eyes were then immersed cornea down overnight in the same solution. Corneal thickness was measured by ultrasound pachymetry after the eyes were re-inflated and at regular intervals to assess dehydration. When the central cornea thickness reached 400-500μm corneal buttons were removed using a 10mm trephine. The buttons were then cut into 6x6mm strips using a custom-made jig and immediately immersed in solutions of Dextran (15 to 20% in increments of 2.5%) at 35degC. The edge thickness of the immersed strip was measured every 5 min for one hour using an optical comparator (Topcon, Japan) modified for tissue shadowphotogrammetry. Results: For five Florida Lions Eye Bank donated eyes after one hour in the Dextran solution the mean final measured thickness of corneas in 20%, 17.5% and 15% Dextran-BSS solutions were 570 (+/-75) μm, 680 (+/-70) μm, and 1080 (+/-95) μm respectively. These measured thicknesses changes correspond to an average swelling of 1.2, 1.4 and 2.2 times the initial thickness of each cornea strip in the 20%, 17.5% and 15% Dextran-BSS solutions respectively. Conclusion: We will conduct experiments at higher Dextran concentrations but our current results indicate that 20% Dextran-BSS solution was the best solution tested at keeping corneal tissue strips at or close to physiological thickness.

  10. MM Algorithms for Some Discrete Multivariate Distributions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2010-09-01

    The MM (minorization-maximization) principle is a versatile tool for constructing optimization algorithms. Every EM algorithm is an MM algorithm but not vice versa. This article derives MM algorithms for maximum likelihood estimation with discrete multivariate distributions such as the Dirichlet-multinomial and Connor-Mosimann distributions, the Neerchal-Morel distribution, the negative-multinomial distribution, certain distributions on partitions, and zero-truncated and zero-inflated distributions. These MM algorithms increase the likelihood at each iteration and reliably converge to the maximum from well-chosen initial values. Because they involve no matrix inversion, the algorithms are especially pertinent to high-dimensional problems. To illustrate the performance of the MM algorithms, we compare them to Newton's method on data used to classify handwritten digits.

  11. Multimedia contents production system (MM-CPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roser, Miguel; Villegas, Paulo; Simon, Maria; Hernandez-Gil, J. F.; Aguado, Isidro

    1996-01-01

    A present characterized by deep worldwide changes, and a future where social relations and behaviors are going to undergo a substantial change need new telecommunications services in order to allow people to get closer, facilitate their daily tasks and place at their disposal multimedia information to be accessed anywhere and at any time. These new services are very dependent on the contents to be included in the applications. The purpose of this paper is to describe an universal MM contents production system (MM-CPS), which allows the generation of coded data files suitable to be included in MM-servers.

  12. MM Algorithms for Geometric and Signomial Programming.

    PubMed

    Lange, Kenneth; Zhou, Hua

    2014-02-01

    This paper derives new algorithms for signomial programming, a generalization of geometric programming. The algorithms are based on a generic principle for optimization called the MM algorithm. In this setting, one can apply the geometric-arithmetic mean inequality and a supporting hyperplane inequality to create a surrogate function with parameters separated. Thus, unconstrained signomial programming reduces to a sequence of one-dimensional minimization problems. Simple examples demonstrate that the MM algorithm derived can converge to a boundary point or to one point of a continuum of minimum points. Conditions under which the minimum point is unique or occurs in the interior of parameter space are proved for geometric programming. Convergence to an interior point occurs at a linear rate. Finally, the MM framework easily accommodates equality and inequality constraints of signomial type. For the most important special case, constrained quadratic programming, the MM algorithm involves very simple updates.

  13. QM/MM methods in inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bo, Carles; Maseras, Feliu

    2008-06-14

    Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods are a useful tool for the computational study of inorganic systems. They allow a quantitative description of systems larger than those treatable with pure QM methods, in principle with a comparable quality. QM/MM calculations are being currently applied to the research in a variety of topics, including structural effects of ligand bulk, selectivity in homogeneous catalysis and mechanical embedding in heterogeneous catalysis. The QM/MM approach is also useful for the separation of steric and electronic contributions, and as an auxiliary tool for geometry optimization when full QM methods are mandatory. The power of QM/MM methods in inorganic chemistry is illustrated in this Perspective with a summary of recent representative applications.

  14. Scapular thickness--implications for fracture fixation.

    PubMed

    Burke, Charity S; Roberts, Craig S; Nyland, John A; Radmacher, Paula G; Acland, Robert D; Voor, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure and map scapula osseous thickness to identify the optimal areas for internal fixation. Eighteen (9 pairs) scapulae from 2 female and 7 male cadavers were used. After harvest and removal of all soft tissues, standardized measurement lines were made based on anatomic landmarks. For consistency among scapulae, measurements were taken at standard percentage intervals along each line approximating the distance between two consecutive reconstruction plate screw holes. Two-mm-diameter drill holes were made at each point, and a standard depth gauge was used to measure thickness. The glenoid fossa (25 mm) displayed the greatest mean osseous thickness, followed by the lateral scapular border (9.7 mm), the scapula spine (8.3 mm), and the central portion of the body of the scapula (3.0 mm). To optimize screw purchase and internal fixation strength, the lateral border, the lateral aspect of the base of the scapula spine, and the scapula spine itself should be used for anatomic sites of internal fixation of scapula fractures.

  15. Central Corneal Thickness in Children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the central corneal thickness (CCT) in healthy white, African-American, and Hispanic children from birth to 17 years of age. Design Prospective observational multicenter study. Central corneal thickness was measured with a hand-held contact pachymeter. Results Two thousand seventy-nine children were included in the study, with ages ranging from day of birth to 17 years. Included were 807 white, 494 Hispanic, and 474 African-American individuals, in addition to Asian, unknown and mixed race individuals. African-American children had thinner corneas on average than that of both white (p< .001) and Hispanic children (p< .001) by approximately 20 micrometers. Thicker median CCT was observed with each successive year of age from age 1 to 11 years, with year-to-year differences steadily decreasing and reaching a plateau after age 11 at 573 micrometers in white and Hispanic children and 551 micrometers in African-American children. For every 100 micrometers of thicker CCT measured, the intraocular pressure was 1.5 mmHg higher on average (p< 0.001). For every diopter of increased myopic refractive error (p< 0.001) CCT was 1 micrometer thinner on average. Conclusions Median CCT increases with age from 1 to 11 years with the greatest increase present in the youngest age groups. African-American children on average have thinner central corneas than white and Hispanic children, while white and Hispanic children demonstrate similar central corneal thickness. PMID:21911662

  16. Lead Thickness Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1998-02-16

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in{sup 3}, an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  17. Macular thickness in healthy Saudi adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zamil, Waseem M.; Al-Zwaidi, Fahad M.; Yassin, Sanaa A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the macular thickness in the eyes of healthy Saudi adults using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study, including 158 healthy participants between August and December 2015. Mean subject age was 29.9 ± 7.85 years old. All participants underwent full ophthalmic evaluation, including SD-OCT imaging, and axial length measurement. Data from the right eye were included. Mean retinal thickness was determined. Correlations between retinal thickness and gender, age, axial length, and spherical equivalence were analyzed. Results: Mean central retinal thickness was 244.76 ± 23.62 µm, mean axial length was 23.8 ± 1.062 mm (range: 20.5-29 mm) and mean spherical equivalent was -0.31 ± 1.75 diopters (D) (range: -5.50 to +4.25 D). Central subfield (CSF) thickness and foveal volume were significantly lower in women than in men (both p<0.001). Data from the various age groups did not show statistically significant differences in the CSF thickness (p=0.389) or foveal volume (p=0.341). A positive correlation between CSF thickness and axial length (p<0.001) was observed. Conclusion: The normal macular thickness values in healthy Saudi individuals is different from that reported in other ethnic groups, as obtained by SD-OCT. Saudi men had thicker CSF than Saudi women and axial length was positively correlated to the central foveal thickness. PMID:28042632

  18. The Effect of Thickness on the Sealing Ability of CEM Cement as a Root-end Filling Material

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Saeed; Asgary, Saeed; Samiei, Mohammad; Bahari, Mahmoud; Vahid Pakdel, Seyyed Mahdi; Mahmoudi, Rasoul

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Different materials have been used for root-end filling during surgical endodontic treatment. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the dye penetration in different thicknesses of calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement as root-end filling material. Materials and methods. Following root canal filling in 70 extracted human single-rooted premolar teeth, the apical 3 mm of their root-ends was resected; the root-end cavities with depths of 1, 2 and 3 mm were prepared by ultrasonic retrotips and filled with CEM cement. After setting of cement, the roots were immersed in 2% Rhodamine B and the dye leakage was measured under stereomicroscope (×16) using Image J software. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests at 5% significance level. Results. The means and standard deviations of dye penetration in the 1, 2, and 3 mm groups were 3395.5±1893.4, 3410.4±1440.5, and 2581.6±1852.9 μm, respectively. The one-way ANOVA analysis indicated significant differences (P < 0.001); however, the Bonferroni post hoc test revealed that only the positive control group differed significantly from the experimental groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The findings demonstrated CEM cement to have an adequate root-end sealing ability in 3-mm thickness. PMID:25973147

  19. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloroethane ; CASRN 79 - 00 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  20. 1,2,4-Tribromobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4 - Tribromobenzene ; CASRN 615 - 54 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  1. 1,1,2-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 598 - 77 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  2. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 08 / 010F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 1,2,3 - TRICHLOROPROPANE ( CAS No . 96 - 18 - 4 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2009 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington DC i DISCLAIMER This document ha

  3. trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    trans - 1,2 - Dichloroethylene ; CASRN 156 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  4. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4 - Trichlorobenzene ; CASRN 120 - 82 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  5. 1,2-Epoxybutane (EBU)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Epoxybutane ( EBU ) ; CASRN 106 - 88 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  6. 29 mm Diameter Test Target Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Olivas, Eric Richard; Naranjo, Angela Carol; Romero, Frank Patrick

    2016-08-15

    The Northstar target for Mo99 production is made up of Mo100 disks in a stack separated by coolant gaps for helium flow. A number of targets have been tested at ANL for both production of Mo99 and for thermal-hydraulic performance. These have all been with a 12 mm diameter target, even while the production goals have increased the diameter to now 29 mm. A 29 mm diameter target has been designed that is consistent with the ANL beam capabilities and the capabilities of the helium circulation system currently in use at ANL. This target is designed for 500 μA at 35 MeV electrons. While the plant design calls for 42 MeV, the chosen design point is more favorable and higher power given the limits of the ANL accelerator. The intended beam spot size is 12 mm FWHM, but the thermal analysis presented herein conservatively assumed a 10 mm FWHM beam, which results in a 44% higher beam current density at beam center.

  7. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  8. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

    1995-09-19

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors. 8 figs.

  9. Education and "Thick" Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  10. Lateral eyelid rotation flap: a novel technique for reconstruction of full thickness eyelid defect.

    PubMed

    Pushker, Neelam; Batra, Jyoti; Meel, Rachna; Bajaj, Mandeep S; Chawla, Bhavna; Ghose, Supriyo

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to study anatomical, functional, and cosmetic outcomes of a novel technique, 'Lateral Eyelid Rotation Flap' for reconstruction of full thickness eyelid defect. In this prospective interventional study, 10 patients with full thickness eyelid defect measuring 1/2-2/3rd of eyelid width were included. Eyelid reconstruction was performed by single surgeon, using lateral eyelid rotation flap. Anatomic outcome was assessed by analyzing horizontal and vertical palpebral apertures (HPA and VPA), eyelid contour, and lateral canthus. Functional outcome was assessed by measuring tear film break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer's test in both the eyes. Cosmetic outcome was evaluated by patients. Median age of patients was 56 years. Nine cases had full thickness defect following the excision of eyelid malignancy. The mean horizontal defect size was 17 ± 4.2 mm. HPA did not change significantly after surgery. VPA was statistically comparable to contralateral eye at 1-month follow-up. Lateral canthus angle recovered by 3rd month after surgery. TBUT and Schirmer's tests were comparable to contralateral eye. Eight patients graded cosmetic outcome as good to excellent. This is a new, single-stage technique for reconstruction of full thickness eyelid defects, with full thickness eyelid tissue including margin.

  11. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using 2-mm instruments.

    PubMed

    Uranüs, S; Peng, Z; Kronberger, L; Pfeifer, J; Salehi, B

    1998-10-01

    Today, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the method of choice for treatment of symptomatic gallbladder disorders. It minimizes effects of the operation that are independent of the gallbladder, such as trauma to the abdominal wall and other soft tissue. The surgical wounds were even smaller when 2-mm trocars were used. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using 2-mm instruments was performed in a consecutive series of 14 patients with symptomatic gallstones. The procedure was completed in 12 cases, with conversion to open surgery in two cases. Intraoperative cholangiography was always performed. The postoperative course was always uneventful. The cosmetic effect was highly satisfactory. The procedure using 2-mm instruments could be indicated in selected patients with uncomplicated gallstone disease.

  12. The 1.2 micron CMOS technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pina, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A set of test structures was designed using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) test chip assembler and was used to evaluate the first CMOS-bulk foundry runs with feature sizes of 1.2 microns. In addition to the problems associated with the physical scaling of the structures, this geometry provided an additional set of problems, since the design files had to be generated in such a way as to be capable of being processed through p-well, n-well, and twin-well processing lines. This requirement meant that the files containing the geometric design rules as well as the structure design files had to produce process-insensitive designs, a requirement that does not apply to the more mature 3.0-micron CMOS feature size technology. Because of the photolithographic steps required with this feature size, the maximum allowable chip size was 10 x 10 mm, and this chip was divided into 24 project areas, with each area being 1.6 x 1.6 mm in size. The JPL-designed structures occupied 13 out of the 21 allowable project sizes and provided the only test information obtained from these three preliminary runs. The structures were used to successfully evaluate three different manufacturing runs through two separate foundries.

  13. Crown dimensions and proximal enamel thickness of mandibular second bicuspids.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Sérgio Augusto; Vellini-Ferreira, Flávio; Scavone-Junior, Helio; Ferreira, Rívea Inês

    2011-01-01

    To achieve proper recontouring of anterior and posterior teeth, to obtain optimal morphology during enamel stripping, it is important to be aware of dental anatomy. This study aimed at evaluating crown dimensions and proximal enamel thickness in a sample of 40 extracted sound, human, mandibular, second bicuspids (20 right and 20 left). Mesiodistal, cervico-occlusal and buccolingual crown dimensions were measured using a digital caliper, accurate to 0.01 mm. Teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and cut along their long axes through the proximal surfaces to obtain 0.7 mm-thick central sections. Enamel thickness on the cut sections was measured using a perfilometer. Comparative analyses were carried out using the Student's-t test (α= 5%). The mean mesiodistal crown widths for right and left teeth were 7.79 mm (± 0.47) and 7.70 mm (± 0.51), respectively. Mean cervico-occlusal heights ranged from 8.31 mm (± 0.75) on the right to 8.38 mm (± 0.85) on the left teeth. The mean values for the buccolingual dimension were 8.67 mm (± 0.70) on the right and 8.65 mm (± 0.54) on the left teeth. The mean enamel thickness on the mesial surfaces ranged from 1.35 mm (± 0.22) to 1.40 mm (± 0.17), on the left and right sides, respectively. On the distal surfaces, the corresponding values were 1.44 mm (± 0.21) and 1.46 mm (± 0.12). No significant differences were found between measurements for right and left teeth. However, enamel thickness was significantly greater on the distal surfaces, compared with the mesial surfaces.

  14. Littoral Combat Ship Mission Modules (LCS MM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-443 Littoral Combat Ship Mission Modules (LCS MM) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY

  15. Excalibur Precision 155mm Projectiles (Excalibur)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-366 Excalibur Precision 155mm Projectiles (Excalibur) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget...Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be

  16. Optimizing digital 8mm drive performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schadegg, Gerry

    1993-01-01

    The experience of attaching over 350,000 digital 8mm drives to 85-plus system platforms has uncovered many factors which can reduce cartridge capacity or drive throughput, reduce reliability, affect cartridge archivability and actually shorten drive life. Some are unique to an installation. Others result from how the system is set up to talk to the drive. Many stem from how applications use the drive, the work load that's present, the kind of media used and, very important, the kind of cleaning program in place. Digital 8mm drives record data at densities that rival those of disk technology. Even with technology this advanced, they are extremely robust and, given proper usage, care and media, should reward the user with a long productive life. The 8mm drive will give its best performance using high-quality 'data grade' media. Even though it costs more, good 'data grade' media can sustain the reliability and rigorous needs of a data storage environment and, with proper care, give users an archival life of 30 years or more. Various factors, taken individually, may not necessarily produce performance or reliability problems. Taken in combination, their effects can compound, resulting in rapid reductions in a drive's serviceable life, cartridge capacity, or drive performance. The key to managing media is determining the importance one places upon their recorded data and, subsequently, setting media usage guidelines that can deliver data reliability. Various options one can implement to optimize digital 8mm drive performance are explored.

  17. Mm-wave power meter mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, D. L.; Oltmans, D. A.; Stelzried, C. T.

    1968-01-01

    E-band thermistor mount and a technique for adjusting a temperature compensating thermistor to provide an electrically balanced bridge are used for measuring RF power in the mm-wavelength. The mount is relatively insensitive to temperature effects that cause measurement errors in single ended circuits.

  18. MM-122: High speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demarest, Bill; Anders, Kurt; Manchec, John; Yang, Eric; Overgaard, Dan; Kalkwarf, Mike

    1992-01-01

    The rapidly expanding Pacific Rim market along with other growing markets indicates that the future market potential for a high speed civil transport is great indeed. The MM-122 is the answer to the international market desire for a state of the art, long range, high speed civil transport. It will carry 250 passengers a distance of 5200 nm at over twice the speed of sound. The MM-122 is designed to incorporate the latest technologies in the areas of control systems, propulsions, aerodynamics, and materials. The MM-122 will accomplish these goals using the following design parameters. First, a double delta wing planform with highly swept canards and an appropriately area ruled fuselage will be incorporated to accomplish desired aerodynamic characteristics. Propulsion will be provided by four low bypass variable cycle turbofan engines. A quad-redundant fly-by-wire flight control system will be incorporated to provide appropriate static stability and level 1 handling qualities. Finally, the latest in conventional metallic and modern composite materials will be used to provide desired weight and performance characteristics. The MM-122 incorporates the latest in technology and cost minimization techniques to provide a viable solution to this future market potential.

  19. CCM3 to MM5 Data Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, John; Mirin, Arthur

    2007-03-02

    The accompanying script (which uses the NCAR Command Language) ready output from the Community Climate Model Code, version 3 (CCM3) and converts it to input format for the Mesoscale Model, version 5 (MM5) code. The script utilizes a Fortran binary write routine.

  20. Simulated lesion, human observer performance comparison between thin-section dedicated breast CT images versus computed thick-section simulated projection images of the breast.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Boone, J M; Abbey, C K; Hargreaves, J; Bateni, C; Lindfors, K K; Yang, K; Nosratieh, A; Hernandez, A; Gazi, P

    2015-04-21

    The objective of this study was to compare the lesion detection performance of human observers between thin-section computed tomography images of the breast, with thick-section (>40 mm) simulated projection images of the breast. Three radiologists and six physicists each executed a two alterative force choice (2AFC) study involving simulated spherical lesions placed mathematically into breast images produced on a prototype dedicated breast CT scanner. The breast image data sets from 88 patients were used to create 352 pairs of image data. Spherical lesions with diameters of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 11 mm were simulated and adaptively positioned into 3D breast CT image data sets; the native thin section (0.33 mm) images were averaged to produce images with different slice thicknesses; average section thicknesses of 0.33, 0.71, 1.5 and 2.9 mm were representative of breast CT; the average 43 mm slice thickness served to simulate simulated projection images of the breast.The percent correct of the human observer's responses were evaluated in the 2AFC experiments. Radiologists lesion detection performance was significantly (p < 0.05) better in the case of thin-section images, compared to thick section images similar to mammography, for all but the 1 mm lesion diameter lesions. For example, the average of three radiologist's performance for 3 mm diameter lesions was 92% correct for thin section breast CT images while it was 67% for the simulated projection images. A gradual reduction in observer performance was observed as the section thickness increased beyond about 1 mm. While a performance difference based on breast density was seen in both breast CT and the projection image results, the average radiologist performance using breast CT images in dense breasts outperformed the performance using simulated projection images in fatty breasts for all lesion diameters except 11 mm. The average radiologist performance outperformed that of the average physicist observer, however trends

  1. Simulated lesion, human observer performance comparison between thin-section dedicated breast CT images versus computed thick-section simulated projection images of the breast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Boone, J. M.; Abbey, C. K.; Hargreaves, J.; Bateni, C.; Lindfors, K. K.; Yang, K.; Nosratieh, A.; Hernandez, A.; Gazi, P.

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the lesion detection performance of human observers between thin-section computed tomography images of the breast, with thick-section (>40 mm) simulated projection images of the breast. Three radiologists and six physicists each executed a two alterative force choice (2AFC) study involving simulated spherical lesions placed mathematically into breast images produced on a prototype dedicated breast CT scanner. The breast image data sets from 88 patients were used to create 352 pairs of image data. Spherical lesions with diameters of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 11 mm were simulated and adaptively positioned into 3D breast CT image data sets; the native thin section (0.33 mm) images were averaged to produce images with different slice thicknesses; average section thicknesses of 0.33, 0.71, 1.5 and 2.9 mm were representative of breast CT; the average 43 mm slice thickness served to simulate simulated projection images of the breast. The percent correct of the human observer’s responses were evaluated in the 2AFC experiments. Radiologists lesion detection performance was significantly (p < 0.05) better in the case of thin-section images, compared to thick section images similar to mammography, for all but the 1 mm lesion diameter lesions. For example, the average of three radiologist’s performance for 3 mm diameter lesions was 92% correct for thin section breast CT images while it was 67% for the simulated projection images. A gradual reduction in observer performance was observed as the section thickness increased beyond about 1 mm. While a performance difference based on breast density was seen in both breast CT and the projection image results, the average radiologist performance using breast CT images in dense breasts outperformed the performance using simulated projection images in fatty breasts for all lesion diameters except 11 mm. The average radiologist performance outperformed that of the average physicist

  2. Effect of thickness of indirect restoration and distance from the light-curing unit tip on the hardness of a dual-cured resin cement.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Andréia Bolzan; Tango, Rubens Nisie; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Alves, Marcelo Corrêa; Puppin-Rontani, Regina M

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the Knoop hardness and polymerization depth of a dual-cured resin cement, light-activated at different distances through different thicknesses of composite resin. One bovine incisor was embedded in resin and its buccal surface was flattened. Dentin was covered with PVC film where a mold (0.8-mm-thick and 5 mm diameter) was filled with cement and covered with another PVC film. Light curing (40 s) was carried out through resin discs (2, 3, 4 or 5 mm) with a halogen light positioned 0, 1, 2 or 3 mm from the resin surface. After storage, specimens were sectioned for hardness measurements (top, center, and bottom). Data were subjected to split-plot ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). The increase in resin disc thickness decreased cement hardness. The increase in the distance of the light-curing tip decreased hardness at the top region. Specimens showed the lowest hardness values at the bottom, and the highest at the center. Resin cement hardness was influenced by the thickness of the indirect restoration and by the distance between the light-curing unit tip and the resin cement surface.

  3. Measuring coal thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, C.; Blaine, J.; Geller, G.; Robinson, R.; Summers, D.; Tyler, J.

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory tested concept, for measuring thickness of overhead coal using noncontacting sensor system coupled to controller and high pressure water jet, allows mining machines to remove virtually all coal from mine roofs without danger of cutting into overlying rock.

  4. Origami of thick panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2015-07-01

    Origami patterns, including the rigid origami patterns in which flat inflexible sheets are joined by creases, are primarily created for zero-thickness sheets. In order to apply them to fold structures such as roofs, solar panels, and space mirrors, for which thickness cannot be disregarded, various methods have been suggested. However, they generally involve adding materials to or offsetting panels away from the idealized sheet without altering the kinematic model used to simulate folding. We develop a comprehensive kinematic synthesis for rigid origami of thick panels that differs from the existing kinematic model but is capable of reproducing motions identical to that of zero-thickness origami. The approach, proven to be effective for typical origami, can be readily applied to fold real engineering structures.

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REAL-TIME AND TIME-INTEGRATED COARSE (2.5-10MM), INTERMEDIATE (1-2.5MM), AND FINE (<2.5MM) PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE LOS ANGELES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has received considerable attention due to the association between ambient particulate concentrations and mortality. Current toxicological and epidemiological studies and controlled human and animal exposures suggest that a...

  6. Terahertz/mm wave imaging simulation software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetterman, M. R.; Dougherty, J.; Kiser, W. L., Jr.

    2006-10-01

    We have developed a mm wave/terahertz imaging simulation package from COTS graphic software and custom MATLAB code. In this scheme, a commercial ray-tracing package was used to simulate the emission and reflections of radiation from scenes incorporating highly realistic imagery. Accurate material properties were assigned to objects in the scenes, with values obtained from the literature, and from our own terahertz spectroscopy measurements. The images were then post-processed with custom Matlab code to include the blur introduced by the imaging system and noise levels arising from system electronics and detector noise. The Matlab code was also used to simulate the effect of fog, an important aspect for mm wave imaging systems. Several types of image scenes were evaluated, including bar targets, contrast detail targets, a person in a portal screening situation, and a sailboat on the open ocean. The images produced by this simulation are currently being used as guidance for a 94 GHz passive mm wave imaging system, but have broad applicability for frequencies extending into the terahertz region.

  7. Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery for Correction of Adolescent Idiopatic Scoliosis: Comparison of 4.5 mm versus 5.5 mm Rod Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hak Sun; Park, Jin Oh; Nanda, Ankur; Kho, Phillip Anthony; Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Hwan Mo; Moon, Seong Hwan; Ha, Jung Won; Ahn, Eun Kyoung; Shin, Dong Eun; Kim, Sung Jun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to report the comparative results of thoracoscopic correction achieved via cantilever technique using a 4.5 mm thin rod and the poly-axial reduction screw technique using a 5.5 mm thick rod in Lenke type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Materials and Methods Radiographic data, Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) patient-based outcome questionnaires, and operative records were reviewed for forty-nine patients undergoing surgical treatment of scoliosis. The study group was divided into a 4.5 mm thin rod group (n = 24) and a 5.5 mm thick rod group (n = 25). The radiographic parameters that were analyzed included coronal curve correction, the most caudal instrumented vertebra tilt angle correction, coronal balance, and thoracic kyphosis. Results The major curve was corrected from 49.8° and 47.2° pre-operatively to 24.5° and 18.8° at the final follow-up for the thin and thick rod groups, respectively (50.8% vs. 60.2% correction). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of kyphosis, coronal balance, or tilt angle at the time of the final follow-up. The mean number of levels fused was 6.2 in the thin rod group, compared with 5.9 levels in the thick rod group. There were no major intraoperative complications in either group. Conclusion Significant correction loss was observed in the thin rod system at the final follow-up though both groups had comparable correction immediately post-operative. Therefore, the thick rod with poly axial screw system helps to maintain post-operative correction. PMID:20635452

  8. The Effect of Nozzle Trailing Edge Thickness on Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda; Kinzie, Kevin; Haskin, Henry

    2004-01-01

    The effect of nozzle trailing edge thickness on broadband acoustic radiation and the production of tones is investigated for coannular nozzles. Experiments were performed for a core nozzle trailing edge thickness between 0.38 mm and 3.17 mm. The on-set of discrete tones was found to be predominantly affected by the velocity ratio, the ratio of the fan velocity to the core velocity, although some dependency on trailing edge thickness was also noted. For a core nozzle trailing edge thickness greater than or equal to 0.89 mm, tones were produced for velocity ratios between 0.91 and 1.61. For a constant nozzle trailing edge thickness, the frequency varied almost linearly with the core velocity. The Strouhal number based on the core velocity changed with nozzle trailing edge thickness and varied between 0.16 and 0.2 for the core nozzles used in the experiments. Increases in broadband noise with increasing trailing edge thickness were observed for tone producing and non-tone producing conditions. A variable thickness trailing edge (crenellated) nozzle resulted in no tonal production and a reduction of the broadband trailing edge noise relative to that of the corresponding constant thickness trailing edge.

  9. Thickness dependence of ice removal stress for a polydimethylsiloxane nanocomposite: Sylgard 184.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenyu; Fuller, Trae; Zhang, Wei; Wynne, Kenneth J

    2014-11-04

    Minimizing adhesion of ice has been the subject of extensive studies because of importance to applications such aircraft wings, spacecraft, and power transmission wires. A growing interest concerns coatings for wind turbine blades and refrigeration. Herein, a new laboratory test was employed to obtain the thickness dependence of ice adhesion for Sylgard 184-a filled polydimethylsiloxane elastomer. A correlation between ice adhesion and coating thickness (t) was found that follows a relationship developed by Kendall over 40 years ago for removal of a rigid object from an elastomer. With a 0.05 mm/s probe speed a nearly linear relationship between peak removal stress (Ps) and 1/t(1/2) was obtained with Ps ∼ 460 kPa for an 18 μm coating, decreasing to ∼120 kPa for 533 μm. Preliminary results suggest that below ∼10 μm Ps departs from the 1/t(1/2) correlation while above ∼500 μm a limiting value for Ps may be reached. We previously reported that probe speed has negligible effect on the glassy polymer PMMA. In contrast, probe speed is identified as an important variable for testing ice release on elastomeric Sylgard 184 coatings. While work of adhesion, which is related to surface free energy, is recognized as an important factor that can affect ice release, the results reported herein show that coating thickness can override this single parameter for elastomeric substrates.

  10. Resonant biaxial 7-mm MEMS mirror for omnidirectional scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, U.; Aikio, M.; Janes, J.; Senger, F.; Stenchly, V.; Weiss, M.; Quenzer, H.-J.; Wagner, B.; Benecke, W.

    2013-03-01

    Low-cost automotive laser scanners for environment perception are needed to enable the integration of advanced driver assistant systems (ADAS) into all automotive vehicle segments, a key to reducing the number of traffic accidents on roads. An omnidirectional 360 degree laser scanning concept has been developed based on combination of an omnidirectional lens and a biaxial large aperture MEMS mirror. This omnidirectional scanning concept is the core of a small sized low-cost time-of-flight based range sensor development. This paper describes concept, design, fabrication and first measurement results of a resonant biaxial 7mm gimbal-less MEMS mirror that is electrostatically actuated by stacked vertical comb drives. Identical frequencies of the two resonant axes are necessary to enable the required circle scanning capability. A tripod suspension was chosen since it allows minimizing the frequency splitting of the two resonant axes. Low mirror curvature is achieved by a thickness of the mirror of more than 500 μm. Hermetic wafer level vacuum packaging of such large mirrors based on multiple wafer bonding has been developed to enable to achieve a large mechanical tilt angle of +/- 6.5 degrees in each axis. The 7mm-MEMS mirror demonstrates large angle circular scanning at 1.5kHz.

  11. Influence of preparation design and ceramic thicknesses on fracture resistance and failure modes of premolar partial coverage restorations

    PubMed Central

    Guess, Petra C.; Schultheis, Stefan; Wolkewitz, Martin; Zhang; Strub, Joerg R.

    2015-01-01

    Statement of problem Preparation designs and ceramic thicknesses are key factors for the long-term success of minimally invasive premolar partial coverage restorations. However, only limited information is presently available on this topic. Purpose The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the fracture resistance and failure modes of ceramic premolar partial coverage restorations with different preparation designs and ceramic thicknesses. Material and methods Caries-free human premolars (n= 144) were divided into 9 groups. Palatal onlay preparation comprised reduction of the palatal cusp by 2 mm (Palatal-Onlay-Standard), 1 mm (Palatal-Onlay-Thin), or 0.5 mm (Palatal-Onlay-Ultra-Thin). Complete-coverage onlay preparation additionally included the buccal cusp (Occlusal-Onlay-Standard; Occlusal-Onlay-Thin; Occlusal-Onlay-Ultra-Thin). Labial surface preparations with chamfer reductions of 0.8 mm (Complete-Veneer-Standard), 0.6 mm (Complete-Veneer-Thin) and 0.4 mm (Complete-Veneer-Ultra-Thin) were implemented for complete veneer restorations. Restorations were fabricated from a pressable lithium-disilicate ceramic (IPS-e.max-Press) and cemented adhesively (Syntac-Classic/Variolink-II). All specimens were subjected to cyclic mechanical loading (F= 49 N, 1.2 million cycles) and simultaneous thermocycling (5°C to 55°C) in a mouth-motion simulator. After fatigue, restorations were exposed to single-load-to-failure. Two-way ANOVA was used to identify statistical differences. Pair-wise differences were calculated and P-values were adjusted by the Tukey–Kramer method (α= .05). Results All specimens survived fatigue. Mean (SD) load to failure values (N) were as follows: 837 (320/Palatal-Onlay-Standard), 1055 (369/Palatal-Onlay-Thin), 1192 (342/Palatal-Onlay-Ultra-Thin), 963 (405/Occlusal-Onlay-Standard), 1108 (340/Occlusal-Onlay-Thin), 997 (331/Occlusal-Onlay-Ultra-Thin), 1361 (333/Complete-Veneer-Standard), 1087 (251/Complete-Veneer-Thin), 883 (311/Complete

  12. Retrospective Comparison of Intermediate-term Efficacy of 350 mm2 Glaucoma Drainage Implants and Medium-sized 230-250 mm2 Implants

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Alissa M; Rodgers, Cooper D; Zou, Baiming; Rosenberg, Nicole C; Webel, Aaron D

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim To compare the intermediate-term efficacy of a large surface area Baerveldt 350 mm2 glaucoma drainage device (GDD) with medium surface area implants (Baerveldt 250 mm2 and Molteno 3, 230, or 245 mm2). Design This is a retrospective, nonrandomized comparative trial. Materials and methods A total of 94 eyes of 94 patients of mixed glaucoma diagnoses without any prior glaucoma surgical procedures and who had undergone a glaucoma drainage implant surgery with either a large Baerveldt 350 mm2 GDD or a medium-sized GDD (Baerveldt 250 mm2 or Molteno 230 or 245 mm2) were reviewed for intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications, and visual acuity (VA) preoperatively, and at 1, 2, and 3 years postprocedure. Results No significant differences were found in mean IOP, number of glaucoma medications used, and VA at 1, 2, and 3 years postoperatively. The rate of additional glaucoma procedures was similar between the two groups. Conclusion There is no clear evidence that a larger implant surface area beyond 230 to 250 mm2 is advantageous in providing intermediate-term IOP control. Clinical significance It may be technically easier to surgically place a GDD that does not need to have its wings placed underneath the recti muscles, and the IOP results are similar. How to cite this article Meyer AM, Rodgers CD, Zou B, Rosenberg NC, Webel AD, Sherwood MB. Retrospective Comparison of Intermediate-term Efficacy of 350 mm2 Glaucoma Drainage Implants and Medium-sized 230-250 mm2 Implants. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2017;11(1):8-15. PMID:28138212

  13. In vitro enamel thickness measurements with ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Sindi, Khalid Hussain; Bubb, Nigel Lawrence; Gutteridge, Diana Lynn; Evans, Joseph Anthony

    2015-01-01

    In the work described here, agreement between ultrasound and histologic measurements of enamel thickness in vitro was investigated. Fifteen extracted human premolars were sectioned coronally to produce 30 sections. The enamel thickness of each specimen was measured with a 15-MHz hand-held ultrasound probe and verified with histology. The speed of sound in enamel was established. Bland-Altman analysis, intra-class correlation coefficient and Wilcoxon sign rank test were used to assess agreement. The mean speed of sound in enamel was 6191 ± 199 m s(-1). Bland-Altman limits of agreement were -0.16 to 0.18 mm when the speed of sound for each specimen was used, and -0.17 to 0.21 mm when the mean speed of sound was used. Intra-class correlation coefficient agreement was 0.97, and the Wilcoxon sign rank test yielded a p-value of 0.55. Using the speed of sound for each specimen results in more accurate measurement of enamel thickness. Ultrasound measurements were in good agreement with histology, which highlights its potential for monitoring the progressive loss of enamel thickness in erosive tooth surface loss.

  14. Thick Film Interference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trefil, James

    1983-01-01

    Discusses why interference effects cannot be seen with a thick film, starting with a review of the origin of interference patterns in thin films. Considers properties of materials in films, properties of the light source, and the nature of light. (JN)

  15. Prediction of Stereochemistry using Q2MM

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus The standard method of screening ligands for selectivity in asymmetric, transition metal-catalyzed reactions requires experimental testing of hundreds of ligands from ligand libraries. This “trial and error” process is costly in terms of time as well as resources and, in general, is scientifically and intellectually unsatisfying as it reveals little about the underlying mechanism behind the selectivity. The accurate computational prediction of stereoselectivity in enantioselective catalysis requires adequate conformational sampling of the selectivity-determining transition state but has to be fast enough to compete with experimental screening techniques to be useful for the synthetic chemist. Although electronic structure calculations are accurate and general, they are too slow to allow for sampling or fast screening of ligand libraries. The combined requirements can be fulfilled by using appropriately fitted transition state force fields (TSFFs) that represent the transition state as a minimum and allow fast conformational sampling using Monte Carlo. Quantum-guided molecular mechanics (Q2MM) is an automated force field parametrization method that generates accurate, reaction-specific TSFFs by fitting the functional form of an arbitrary force field using only electronic structure calculations by minimization of an objective function. A key feature that distinguishes the Q2MM method from many other automated parametrization procedures is the use of the Hessian matrix in addition to geometric parameters and relative energies. This alleviates the known problems of overfitting of TSFFs. After validation of the TSFF by comparison to electronic structure results for a test set and available experimental data, the stereoselectivity of a reaction can be calculated by summation over the Boltzman-averaged relative energies of the conformations leading to the different stereoisomers. The Q2MM method has been applied successfully to perform virtual ligand

  16. Apollo 15 Index of 70 mm Photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    All Apollo 15 70 mm photographs to which NASA photo numbers have been assigned are described in this index. In the first section all photographs are listed in sequence by NASA photo numbers. In subsequent sections, lunar surface and lunar orbital photographs are cross-indexed. Lunar surface photographs are listed in chronological order within the following categories: SEVA and LM window photos (LM window photos were taken before, between, and after EVA's), EVA 1, EVA 2, and EVA 3. Photographs of the lunar surface taken while in lunar orbit are cross-indexed by longitude in 10 deg increments, starting with the easternmost (farside) photos, and progressing to the westernmost (nearside) photos. Within each 10 deg interval of longitude, photographs are listed sequentially by NASA photo number, not by specific longitude of the principal point of each photograph.

  17. Prediction of Stereochemistry using Q2MM.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Eric; Rosales, Anthony R; Tutkowski, Brandon; Norrby, Per-Ola; Wiest, Olaf

    2016-05-17

    The standard method of screening ligands for selectivity in asymmetric, transition metal-catalyzed reactions requires experimental testing of hundreds of ligands from ligand libraries. This "trial and error" process is costly in terms of time as well as resources and, in general, is scientifically and intellectually unsatisfying as it reveals little about the underlying mechanism behind the selectivity. The accurate computational prediction of stereoselectivity in enantioselective catalysis requires adequate conformational sampling of the selectivity-determining transition state but has to be fast enough to compete with experimental screening techniques to be useful for the synthetic chemist. Although electronic structure calculations are accurate and general, they are too slow to allow for sampling or fast screening of ligand libraries. The combined requirements can be fulfilled by using appropriately fitted transition state force fields (TSFFs) that represent the transition state as a minimum and allow fast conformational sampling using Monte Carlo. Quantum-guided molecular mechanics (Q2MM) is an automated force field parametrization method that generates accurate, reaction-specific TSFFs by fitting the functional form of an arbitrary force field using only electronic structure calculations by minimization of an objective function. A key feature that distinguishes the Q2MM method from many other automated parametrization procedures is the use of the Hessian matrix in addition to geometric parameters and relative energies. This alleviates the known problems of overfitting of TSFFs. After validation of the TSFF by comparison to electronic structure results for a test set and available experimental data, the stereoselectivity of a reaction can be calculated by summation over the Boltzman-averaged relative energies of the conformations leading to the different stereoisomers. The Q2MM method has been applied successfully to perform virtual ligand screens on a range of

  18. The Table Mountain 8-mm wavelength interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janssen, M. A.; Gary, B. L.; Gulkis, S.; Olsen, E. T.; Soltis, F. S.; Yamane, N. I.

    1979-01-01

    A two-element radio interferometer operating at 8.33-mm wavelength has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Table Mountain Observatory near Wrightwood, CA. The interferometer employs a 5.5-m and a 3-m diameter antenna on an east-west baseline of 60 or 120 m, yielding fringe spacings at transit of 28 or 14 arcsec, respectively. The broad intermediate-frequency bandpass of 100-350 MHz and the system noise temperature of 500 K provide high sensitivity for the measurement of continuum sources. The interferometer has been used for high-resolution studies of the planets and the sun, and it is currently being adapted to study solar flare emissions at high spatial and time resolution.

  19. Validation of cartilage thickness calculations using indentation analysis.

    PubMed

    Koff, Matthew F; Chong, Le Roy; Virtue, Patrick; Chen, Dan; Wang, Xioanan; Wright, Timothy; Potter, Hollis G

    2010-04-01

    Different methods have been used to cross-validate cartilage thickness measurements from magnetic resonance images (MRIs); however, a majority of these methods rely on interpolated data points, regional mean and/or maximal thickness, or surface mean thickness for data analysis. Furthermore, the accuracy of MRI cartilage thickness measurements from commercially available software packages has not necessarily been validated and may lead to an under- or overestimation of cartilage thickness. The goal of this study was to perform a matching point-to-point validation of indirect cartilage thickness calculations using a magnetic resonance (MR) image data set with direct cartilage thickness measurements using biomechanical indentation testing at the same anatomical locations. Seven bovine distal femoral condyles were prepared and a novel phantom filled with dilute gadolinium solution was rigidly attached to each specimen. High resolution MR images were acquired, and thickness indentation analysis of the cartilage was performed immediately after scanning. Segmentation of the MR data and cartilage thickness calculation was performed using semi-automated software. Registration of MR and indentation data was performed using the fluid filled phantom. The inter- and intra-examiner differences of the measurements were also determined. A total of 105 paired MRI-indentation thickness data points were analyzed, and a significant correlation between them was found (r=0.88, p<0.0001). The mean difference (+/-std. dev.) between measurement techniques was 0.00+/-0.23 mm, with Bland-Altman limits of agreement of 0.45 mm and -0.46 mm. The intra- and inter-examiner measurement differences were 0.03+/-0.22 mm and 0.05+/-0.24 mm, respectively. This study validated cartilage thickness measurements from MR images with thickness measurements from indentation by using a novel phantom to register the image-based and laboratory-based data sets. The accuracy of the measurements was comparable to

  20. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the <300 km wide and <6 km thick western Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the <150 km wide and ~15 km thick Fitzroy Trough of the eastern Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (β<2.0) followed by negligible post-rift thermal subsidence. These features cannot be readily explained by the established model of rift basin development. We attribute the difference in basin architecture between the western and eastern Canning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic

  1. Cortical thickness in a case of congenital unilateral perisylvian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kotini, A; Camposano, S; Hara, K; Salat, D; Cole, A; Stufflebeam, S; Halgren, E

    2004-11-30

    In congenital perisylvian syndrome, there is polymicrogyric cortex distributed in variable extensions around the sylvian fissure. Unilateral cases usually present with congenital hemiparesis, while bilateral cases have pseudobulbar paralysis of the oropharingoglossal region. Both unilateral and bilateral cases have a high rate of epilepsy. Polymicrogyric cortex is characterized by too many small convolutions. Often there are no intervening sulci, and almost no white matter can be seen under them. On MRI they appear to have increased thickness. Bilateral and symmetric polimycrogiria can be hard to recognize on standard MRIs. Accurate and automated methods for measuring the thickness of cerebral cortex are available. They have mainly been used to study a variety of disorders with diminished cortical thickness. We studied a case of right perisylvian polymicrogyria, who presented in adult life with epilepsy and had a normal neurological exam. Fischl and Dale's automated cortical thickness analysis rendered a very clear picture of increased cortical thickness with values up to 9 mm in the affected areas (normal cortical thickness varies between 1 and 4.5 mm). The thickest areas were seen over grossly abnormal gyri on the reconstructed cerebral cortex. On MEG he presented a prominent and monotonous 9 Hz activity that was located within the limits of a thick gyrus. There was a significant difference of thickness between homologous hemispheric areas. To our surprise some areas of the left hemisphere also appeared to have increased thickness, raising the question of a bilateral asymmetric case.

  2. Hot Wall Thickness Variation Measurement System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    Subtltia) HOT WALL THICKNESS VARIATION MEASUREMENT SYSTEM 7. AUTHORfa; 3. J. KRUPSKI 9 . PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS PRODUCT...THE FORGING 3. ULTRASONICS ON A HOT TUBE 4. SYSTEt-l DESCRIPTION 5. TESTING RESULTS 6. CONCLUSIONS 7. HffLEMENTATION PAGE i ii 1 2 4 6 9 ...printed out. The grip procedure was repeated toward the breech end of the forging with good results. The third and 9 breech end prints were at about

  3. Mesiodistal width and proximal enamel thickness of maxillary first bicuspids.

    PubMed

    Macha, Aurélio de Carvalho; Vellini-Ferreira, Flávio; Scavone-Junior, Helio; Ferreira, Rívea Inês

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating measurements relative to the mesiodistal crown width and enamel thickness of maxillary first bicuspids. The sample consisted of 40 extracted sound bicuspids (20 right and 20 left), selected from white patients (mean age: 23.7 +/- 4.2 years), who were treated orthodontically with tooth extraction at a private clinic in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. All teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and cut along their long axis through the proximal surfaces, parallel to the buccal side, to obtain 0.6-mm central sections. The mesiodistal crown width and proximal enamel thickness were measured using a stereoscopic microscope connected to a computer. Measurements for right and left teeth, as well as the mesial and distal enamel thicknesses in the total sample, were compared by the Wilcoxon test (alpha = 0.05). The mesiodistal crown width mean values found were 7.51 mm (+/- 0.54) on the right side and 7.53 mm (+/- 0.35) on the left side. The mean enamel thickness on the distal surfaces for both sides was 1.29 mm (right: s.d. = 0.12 and left: s.d. = 0.18). The mean values for the mesial surfaces were 1.08 mm (+/- 0.14) and 1.19 mm (+/- 0.25), on the right and the left sides, respectively. No significant differences were found between the crown measurements and enamel thicknesses on the left and right sides. However, enamel thickness was significantly greater on the distal surfaces. Reliable measurements of enamel thickness are useful to guide stripping, which may be an attractive alternative to tooth extraction because it allows the transverse arch dimension to be maintained.

  4. The distribution of cartilage thickness within the joints of the lower limb of elderly individuals

    PubMed Central

    ADAM, CHRISTOPH; ECKSTEIN, FELIX; MILZ, STEFAN; PUTZ, REINHARD

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the normal distribution of cartilage thickness in the major joints of the lower limb in elderly individuals. A 12.5 MHz ultrasound transducer was used to measure the cartilage thickness in the right and left hip, knee and ankle joint of 10 individuals aged between 62 and 99 y. Distribution patterns of cartilage thickness were derived by b-spline interpolation and the average distribution computed in each surface. The maximum cartilage thickness in the hip joint was 2.6 (±0.36) mm and the mean thickness 1.3 (±0.17) mm. The CV% (a measure of thickness inhomogeneity within the joint surface) was 32%. In the knee, the maximal and mean values were 3.8 (±0.46) mm and 1.9 mm (±0.24) mm, respectively (CV%=34%), and in the ankle 1.7 (±0.25) mm and 1.0 (±0.16) mm (CV%=32%). Systematic differences existed between both sides in the knee, the distal femur showing a significantly greater thickness on the right. While the mean and maximal thicknesses were systematically higher in the knee than in the hip, and in the hip higher than in the ankle (P<0.05), there were no systematic differences in the thickness inhomogeneity of the 3 joints. Only the malleolus showed a somewhat more uniform thickness than the other joint surfaces. The variablity between individuals was similar for all joints for mean thickness, but the interindividual variability of the maximal thickness values was highest in the knee and lowest in the ankle. Whereas the cartilage thickness distributions in the joints of the lower limb have been suggested to reflect the pressure distribution within the articular surface, the absolute thickness is proposed to be a function of dynamic loading (range of motion) during gait, rather than being a reflection of the static articular pressure. PMID:9827636

  5. Low-Friction Minilaparoscopy Outperforms Regular 5-mm and 3-mm Instruments for Precise Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Firme, Wood A.; Lima, Diego L.; de Paula Lopes, Vladmir Goldstein; Montandon, Isabelle D.; Filho, Flavio Santos; Shadduck, Phillip P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Therapeutic laparoscopy was incorporated into surgical practice more than 25 y ago. Several modifications have since been developed to further minimize surgical trauma and improve results. Minilaparoscopy, performed with 2- to 3-mm instruments was introduced in the mid 1990s but failed to attain mainstream use, mostly because of the limitations of the early devices. Buoyed by a renewed interest, new generations of mini instruments are being developed with improved functionality and durability. This study is an objective evaluation of a new set of mini instruments with a novel low-friction design. Method: Twenty-two medical students and 22 surgical residents served as study participants. Three designs of laparoscopic instruments were evaluated: conventional 5 mm, traditional 3 mm, and low-friction 3 mm. The instruments were evaluated with a standard surgical simulator, emulating 4 exercises of various complexities, testing grasping, precise 2-handed movements, and suturing. The metric measured was time to task completion, with 5 replicates for every combination of instrument–exercise–participant. Results: For all 4 tasks, the instrument design that performed the best was the same in both the medical student and surgical resident groups. For the gross-grasping task, the 5-mm conventional instruments performed best, followed by the low-friction mini instruments. For the 3 more complex and precise tasks, the low-friction mini instruments outperformed both of the other instrument designs. Conclusion: In standard surgical simulator exercises, low-friction minilaparoscopic instruments outperformed both conventional 3- and 5-mm laparoscopic instruments for precise tasks. PMID:26390530

  6. Laser Ultrasonic Thickness Measurements of Very Thick Walls at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, S. E.; Lord, M.; Monchalin, J.-P.

    2006-03-06

    Laser-ultrasonics presents many advantages compared to conventional ultrasonics, but is, generally, considered as less sensitive. As a consequence, laser-ultrasonics should not be adequate for ultrasonic measurements in coarse microstructure materials or measurements of large thicknesses. However, since the generated waves extend to very low frequencies, measurements in such conditions can be successfully performed if a photorefractive interferometer sensitive also to these low frequencies and properly balanced is used for detection. This is demonstrated by measurements of thicknesses up to 100 mm (4'') for various steel grades and at temperatures up to 1250 deg. C.

  7. Generation of Bessel Beams at mm- and Sub mm-wavelengths by Binary Optical Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y. Z.; Dou, W. B.

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, binary optical elements (BOE’s) are designed for generating Bessel beams at mm- and sub mm- wavelengths. The design tool is to combine a genetic algorithm (GA) for global optimization with a two-dimension finite-difference time-domain (2-D FDTD) method for rigorous electromagnetic computation. The design process for converting a normally incident Gaussian beam into a Bessel beam is described in detail. Numerical results demonstrate that the designed BOE’s can not only successfully produce arbitrary order Bessel beams, but also have higher diffraction efficiencies when compared with amplitude holograms.

  8. Cold-electron bolometers for future mm and sub-mm sky surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salatino, Maria; de Bernardis, Paolo; Mahashabde, Sumedh; Kuzmin, Leonid S.; Masi, Silvia

    2014-07-01

    Future sky surveys in the mm/sub-mm range, like the forthcoming balloon-borne missions LSPE, OLIMPO, SPIDER etc., will need detectors insensitive to cosmic rays (CRs) and with a NEP of the order of 10-17 ¥ 10-18 W/sqrt(Hz). The Cold-Electron Bolometers (CEBs) technology is promising, having the required proper- ties, since the absorber volume is extremely small and the electron system of the absorber is thermally insulated from the phonon system. We have developed an experimental setup to test the optical performance and the CRs insensitivity of CEBs, with the target of integrating them in the OLIMPO and LSPE focal planes.

  9. Experimental validation of an eddy current probe for defect detection in thick conducting specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesh Raja, P.; Arunachalam, Kavitha; Balasubramanian, Krishnan

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents numerical modeling and experimental measurements of eddy current (EC) probe for detecting subsurface defects in 10 mm to 15 mm thick conducting specimen. Measurements are presented for a pancake air core coil to detect subsurface defect in 10 mm thick aluminum slab. EC coil parameters namely inner radius(r1), and outer radius(r2), and operating frequency (f) are optimized for deeper penetration in the conducting plate (35 MS/m) for a given coil height(h), and lift off distance (d). Preliminary simulation results are presented for a subsurface defect in 15 mm thick aluminium plate for the optimized EC coil parameters.

  10. Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan, 1/2 Floor Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan - Jack's Mill Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  11. Early atherosclerosis in normotensive patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: the relation between epicardial adipose tissue thickness and carotid intima-media thickness.

    PubMed

    Sag, Saim; Yildiz, Abdulmecit; Gullulu, Sumeyye; Gungoren, Fatih; Ozdemir, Bulent; Cegilli, Ercan; Oruc, Aysegul; Ersoy, Alparslan; Gullulu, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue thickness (EATT) is suggested as a novel marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Despite increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients, the extent of the relationship between CIMT and EATT is unknown. The main purpose of our study was to evaluate the relation between EATT and CIMT in normotensive ADPKD patients with well-preserved renal function. Fifty-five normotensive ADPKD patients with normal renal function and 50 healthy control subjects were included in the study. EATT and CIMT were measured by echocardiography in all subjects. Correlation between EATT and CIMT was evaluated in ADPKD patients, while multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to determine factors predicting EATT and CIMT. ADPKD patients had significantly higher levels CIMT [0.7 (0.4-1.2) vs. 0.5 (0.4-0.8) mm, p < 0.001] and EATT (6.8 ± 2.7 vs. 4.8 ± 1.2 mm, p < 0.001) as compared with control subjects. Significant positive correlation was found between EATT and CIMT (r = 0.58, p < 0.001). Higher CRP levels (OR 54.7, 95 % CI 37.44-72.01, p < 0.001) and having ADPKD (OR 10.2, 95 % CI 2.53-17.86, p = 0.01) were the only independent factors associated with a higher EATT. A higher age (OR 0.35, 95 % CI -0.02 to 0.71, p = 0.06) tended to be independently associated with a higher EATT. In conclusion, our findings suggest that EATT, being simply measured by echocardiography and correlated with CIMT, can be used to detect subclinical atherosclerosis in normotensive ADPKD patients.

  12. Colorimetric evaluation of composite materials with different thickness by reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portero, Priscila Paiva; Florez, Fernando; Bagnato, Vanderlei; de Oliveira, Osmir Batista, Jr.; de Castro Monteiro Loffredo, Leonor

    2007-02-01

    Selection of the proper shade and color matching of restorations to natural dentition continues to be one of the most frustrating problems in dentistry and currently available shade guide presents a limited selection of colors compared to those found in natural dentition. This investigation evaluation if the composites resins shade B2 are equivalent to the Vita shade guide B2. Twelve composite resins (Renamel Microfill Super Brite- Cosmedent USA, Renamel Universal Brite- Cosmedent USA, Renamel Microfill Body- Cosmedent USA, Renamel Universal Body- Cosmedent USA, Opallis EB2-FGM, Opallis DB2-FGM, Filtek Supreme XT-3M/ESPE, Filtek Z250-3M/ESPE, Filtek Z350-3M/ESPE, Z100-3M/ESPE, 4 Seasons Dentin-Ivoclar/Vivadent, Tetric Ceram-Ivoclar/Vivadent) shade B2 were used. From each composite, two specimens were made in a steel matrix with 8.0 mm diameter and 10.0 mm different predetermined thickness (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2.0 mm). The specimens were 40 seconds light polymerized by LED Ultrablue (DMC). The specimens were measured 10 times each to determine the shade using a reflectance spectrophotometer (Pocket Spec). According to results was verified that not any of composites resins shade B2 evaluated in this study presented values of color difference (ΔE) equivalent to the Vita shade guide B2 and the 2 mm thickness showed the closer match to the Vita shade guide B2.

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....860. 63.1(b)(2) Title V operating permit—see 40 CFR part 70 Yes All major affected sources are required to obtain a title V permit. 63.1(b)(3) Record of the applicability determination No All affected... applicability of each paragraph of subpart A of this part to sources subject to subpart MM. 63.1(c)(2) Title...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....860. 63.1(b)(2) Title V operating permit—see 40 CFR part 70 Yes All major affected sources are required to obtain a title V permit. 63.1(b)(3) Record of the applicability determination No All affected... applicability of each paragraph of subpart A of this part to sources subject to subpart MM. 63.1(c)(2) Title...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....860. 63.1(b)(2) Title V operating permit—see 40 CFR part 70 Yes All major affected sources are required to obtain a title V permit. 63.1(b)(3) Record of the applicability determination No All affected... applicability of each paragraph of subpart A of this part to sources subject to subpart MM. 63.1(c)(2) Title...

  16. Development of ultrahigh resolution Si-PM-based PET system using 0.32 mm pixel scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Watabe, Hiroshi; Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Ogata, Yoshimune; Kato, Katsuhiko; Hatazawa, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Ultrahigh resolution small animal PET systems require small pixel size scintillators. We developed an ultrahigh resolution small animal PET system using fine LYSO pixels, which were 0.32 mm×0.5 mm×5.0 mm. The LYSO pixels were combined into a 22×15 matrix with a 0.1 mm thick BaSO4 reflector between them. The LYSO block was 9.24 mm×9.0 mm×5 mm, and it was optically coupled to a 4×4 through silicon via silicon photomultiplier (TSV Si-PM) array that has smaller gaps between channels with a 1-mm thick light guide. We made eight Si-PM-based block detectors and arranged them octagonally to form a PET detector ring. At the center, the spatial resolution of the developed PET system, which was reconstructed by filtered back projection (FBP), was 0.6-mm FWHM. The sensitivity at the axial center was 0.5%. The peak noise equivalent count rate (NECR) was 12.5 k cps. We obtained high resolution images of phantoms and small animals with the developed PET system. With these results, we conclude that a high resolution PET system is possible with 0.32 mm pixel LYSO scintillators.

  17. Two-dimensional Kerr-Fourier imaging of translucent phantoms in thick turbid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Wang, L.; Ho, P. P.; Alfano, R. R.

    1995-06-01

    Translucent scattering phantoms hidden inside a 5.5-cm-thick Intralipid solution were imaged as a function of phantom scattering coefficients by the use of a picosecond time-and space-gated Kerr-Fourier imaging system. A 2-mm-thick translucent phantom with a 0.1% concentration (scattering coefficient) difference from the 55-mm-thick surrounding scattering host can be distinguished at a signal level of approximately 10-10 of the incidence illumination intensity.

  18. Far infrared transmission of a thick TGS single crystal at 7K, and beers' law validity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbaux, X.; Marin Cudraz, H.

    1990-01-01

    Far IR transmission of a thick Triglycine Sulfate (TGS) single crystal t=8 mm thick is compared with calculations using the absorption index measured with a very thin t=13 μm thick plate. Big discrepancies suggest the occurence of surface layers.

  19. Defining the role of TORC1/2 in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Maiso, Patricia; Liu, Yi; Morgan, Brittany; Azab, Abdel Kareem; Ren, Pingda; Martin, Michel B.; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Yang; Sacco, Antonio; Ngo, Hai; Azab, Feda; Quang, Phong; Rodig, Scott J.; Lin, Charles P.; Roccaro, Aldo M.; Rommel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a downstream serine/threonine kinase of the PI3K/Akt pathway that integrates signals from the tumor microenvironment to regulate multiple cellular processes. Rapamycin and its analogs have not shown significant activity in multiple myeloma (MM), likely because of the lack of inhibition of TORC2. In the present study, we investigated the baseline activity of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway TORC1/2 in MM cell lines with different genetic abnormalities. TORC1/2 knock-down led to significant inhibition of the proliferation of MM cells, even in the presence of BM stromal cells. We also tested INK128, a dual TORC1/2 inhibitor, as a new therapeutic agent against these MM cell lines. We showed that dual TORC1/2 inhibition is much more active than TORC1 inhibition alone (rapamycin), even in the presence of cytokines or stromal cells. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that p-4EBP1 and p-Akt inhibition could be predictive markers of TORC2 inhibition in MM cell lines. Dual TORC1/2 inhibition showed better inhibition of adhesion to BM microenvironmental cells and inhibition of homing in vivo. These studies form the basis for further clinical testing of TORC1/2 inhibitors in MM. PMID:22045983

  20. The Effect of Mortar Grade and Thickness on the Impact Resistance of Ferrocement Slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che Muda, Zakaria; Syamsir, Agusril; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Sulleman, Sorefan; Beddu, Salmia; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Ismail, Firas B.; Usman, Fathoni; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Ashraful Alam, Md; Birima, Ahmed H.; Itam, Zarina; Zaroog, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigate the effect of the thickness and mesh spacing on the impact of ferrocement for the concrete slab of 300mm × 300mm size reinforced subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.236 kg drop at height of 150 mm, 350mm, and 500mm has been used in this research work. The objective of this research is to study the relationship of impact resistance of ferrocement against the mortar grade and slab thickness. There is a good linear correlation between impact resistance of ferrocement against the mortar grade and the thickness of ferrocement slab. The first and ultimate crack impact resistance of mortar grade 43 (for 40 mm thick slab with mesh reinforcement) are 1.60 times and 1.53 times respectively against the mortar grade 17 slab (of same thickness with mesh reinforcement). The first and ultimate crack impact resistance for 40 mm thick slab (mortar grade 43 with mesh reinforcement) are 3.55 times and 4.49 times respectively against the 20 mm thick slab (of same mortar grade with mesh reinforcement).

  1. Expectation maximization classification and Laplacian based thickness measurement for cerebral cortex thickness estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Mark; Moreno-Vallecillo, Rafael; Harris, Anthony; Gomes, Lavier J.; Diep, Than-Mei; Bourgeat, Pierrick T.; Ourselin, Sébastien

    2007-03-01

    We describe a new framework for measuring cortical thickness from MR human brain images. This involves the integration of a method of tissue classification with one to estimate thickness in 3D. We have determined an additional boundary detection step to facilitate this. The classification stage utlizes the Expectation Maximisation (EM) algorithm to classify voxels associated with the tissue types that interface with cortical grey matter (GM, WM and CSF). This uses a Gaussian mixture and the EM algorithm to estimate the position and and width of the Gaussians that model the intensity distributions of the GM, WM and CSF tissue classes. The boundary detection stage uses the GM, WM and CSF classifications and finds connected components, fills holes and then applies a geodesic distance transform to determine the GM/WM interface. Finally the thickness of the cortical grey matter is estimated by solving Laplace's equation and determining the streamlines that connect the inner and outer boundaries. The contribution of this work is the adaptation of the classification and thickness measurement steps, neither requiring manual initialisation, and also the validation strategy. The resultant algorithm is fully automatic and avoids the computational expense associated with preserving the cortical surface topology. We have devised a validation strategy that indicates the cortical segmentation of a gold standard brain atlas has a similarity index of 0.91, thickness estimation has subvoxel accuracy evaluated using a synthetic image and precision of the combined segmentation and thickness measurement of 1.54mm using three clinical images.

  2. Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors and carotid intima-media thickness: The USE-IMT study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Anderson, Todd J.; Britton, Annie R.; Dekker, Jacqueline; Engström, Gunnar; Evans, Greg W.; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Hedblad, Bo; Holewijn, Suzanne; Ikeda, Ai; Kauhanen, Jussi; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Kurl, Sudhir; Lonn, Eva M.; Lorenz, Matthias W.; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Nijpels, Giel; Okazaki, Shuhei; Polak, Joseph F.; Price, Jacqueline F.; Rembold, Christopher M.; Rosvall, Maria; Rundek, Tatjana; Salonen, Jukka T.; Sitzer, Matthias; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Peters, Sanne A. E.; Bots, Michiel L.

    2017-01-01

    Background The relation of a single risk factor with atherosclerosis is established. Clinically we know of risk factor clustering within individuals. Yet, studies into the magnitude of the relation of risk factor clusters with atherosclerosis are limited. Here, we assessed that relation. Methods Individual participant data from 14 cohorts, involving 59,025 individuals were used in this cross-sectional analysis. We made 15 clusters of four risk factors (current smoking, overweight, elevated blood pressure, elevated total cholesterol). Multilevel age and sex adjusted linear regression models were applied to estimate mean differences in common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) between clusters using those without any of the four risk factors as reference group. Results Compared to the reference, those with 1, 2, 3 or 4 risk factors had a significantly higher common CIMT: mean difference of 0.026 mm, 0.052 mm, 0.074 mm and 0.114 mm, respectively. These findings were the same in men and in women, and across ethnic groups. Within each risk factor cluster (1, 2, 3 risk factors), groups with elevated blood pressure had the largest CIMT and those with elevated cholesterol the lowest CIMT, a pattern similar for men and women. Conclusion Clusters of risk factors relate to increased common CIMT in a graded manner, similar in men, women and across race-ethnic groups. Some clusters seemed more atherogenic than others. Our findings support the notion that cardiovascular prevention should focus on sets of risk factors rather than individual levels alone, but may prioritize within clusters. PMID:28323823

  3. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  4. 29 CFR 1.2 - Definitions. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 1 1.2 Section 1.2 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROCEDURES FOR PREDETERMINATION OF WAGE RATES § 1.2 Definitions. 1 1 These definitions... Assistance Act of 1972. (e) The term Wage Determinations OnLine (WDOL) shall mean the Government Internet...

  5. 29 CFR 1.2 - Definitions. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Definitions. 1 1.2 Section 1.2 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROCEDURES FOR PREDETERMINATION OF WAGE RATES § 1.2 Definitions. 1 1 These definitions are... Assistance Act of 1972. (e) The term Wage Determinations OnLine (WDOL) shall mean the Government Internet...

  6. 29 CFR 1.2 - Definitions. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions. 1 1.2 Section 1.2 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROCEDURES FOR PREDETERMINATION OF WAGE RATES § 1.2 Definitions. 1 1 These definitions... Assistance Act of 1972. (e) The term Wage Determinations OnLine (WDOL) shall mean the Government Internet...

  7. 29 CFR 1.2 - Definitions. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions. 1 1.2 Section 1.2 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROCEDURES FOR PREDETERMINATION OF WAGE RATES § 1.2 Definitions. 1 1 These definitions... Assistance Act of 1972. (e) The term Wage Determinations OnLine (WDOL) shall mean the Government Internet...

  8. 11 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.2 Definitions. As defined in the Privacy Act of 1974 and for the purposes of this part, unless otherwise required by the context, the following terms shall...

  9. 45 CFR 1210.1-2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope. 1210.1-2 Section 1210.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES General § 1210.1-2 Scope. (a) This part applies to all Trainees and...

  10. 45 CFR 1211.1-2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 1211.1-2 Section 1211.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-2 Applicability. This part applies to all volunteers enrolled under part A of title I of the...

  11. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  12. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1997-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of any unincorporated association which...

  13. MASTER: a radiometer for mm and sub-mm observations from the Antarctic Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boella, G.; Gervasi, M.; Passerini, A.; Sironi, G.; Tartari, A.; Zannoni, M.; Natale, V.

    A radiometer based on SIS mixers for astrophysical observations is being assembled. The system, cooled to cryogenic temperature by a pulse tube refrigerator, is intended for operation on the Antartic Plateau during the local winter, using the mm dishes available there in the future. The system prototype will be tested at the focus of the 2.6m MITO telescope at the Testa Grigia Observatory on the italian Alps. We discuss the system characteristics and the observational programs.

  14. Influence of water layer thickness on hard tissue ablation with pulsed CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianzeng; Zhan, Zhenlin; Liu, Haishan; Zhao, Haibin; Xie, Shusen; Ye, Qing

    2012-03-01

    The theory of hard tissue ablation reported for IR lasers is based on a process of thermomechanical interaction, which is explained by the absorption of the radiation in the water component of the tissue. The microexplosion of the water is the cause of tissue fragments being blasted from hard tissue. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the interdependence of water layer thickness and incident radiant exposure on ablation performance. A total of 282 specimens of bovine shank bone were irradiated with a pulse CO2 laser. Irradiation was carried out in groups: without a water layer and with a static water layer of thickness ranging from 0.2 to 1.2 mm. Each group was subdivided into five subgroups for different radiant exposures ranging from 18 to 84 J/cm2, respectively. The incision geometry, surface morphology, and microstructure of the cut walls as well as thermal injury were examined as a function of the water layer thickness at different radiant exposures. Our results demonstrate that the additional water layer is actually a mediator of laser-tissue interaction. There exists a critical thickness of water layer for a given radiant exposure, at which the additional water layer plays multiple roles, not only acting as a cleaner to produce a clean cut but also as a coolant to prevent bone heating and reduce thermal injury, but also helping to improve the regularity of the cut shape, smooth the cut surface, and enhance ablation rate and efficiency. The results suggest that desired ablation results depend on optimal selection of both water layer thickness and radiant exposure.

  15. Influence of water layer thickness on hard tissue ablation with pulsed CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianzeng; Zhan, Zhenlin; Liu, Haishan; Zhao, Haibin; Xie, Shusen; Ye, Qing

    2012-03-01

    The theory of hard tissue ablation reported for IR lasers is based on a process of thermomechanical interaction, which is explained by the absorption of the radiation in the water component of the tissue. The microexplosion of the water is the cause of tissue fragments being blasted from hard tissue. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the interdependence of water layer thickness and incident radiant exposure on ablation performance. A total of 282 specimens of bovine shank bone were irradiated with a pulse CO(2) laser. Irradiation was carried out in groups: without a water layer and with a static water layer of thickness ranging from 0.2 to 1.2 mm. Each group was subdivided into five subgroups for different radiant exposures ranging from 18 to 84 J/cm(2), respectively. The incision geometry, surface morphology, and microstructure of the cut walls as well as thermal injury were examined as a function of the water layer thickness at different radiant exposures. Our results demonstrate that the additional water layer is actually a mediator of laser-tissue interaction. There exists a critical thickness of water layer for a given radiant exposure, at which the additional water layer plays multiple roles, not only acting as a cleaner to produce a clean cut but also as a coolant to prevent bone heating and reduce thermal injury, but also helping to improve the regularity of the cut shape, smooth the cut surface, and enhance ablation rate and efficiency. The results suggest that desired ablation results depend on optimal selection of both water layer thickness and radiant exposure.

  16. Is midsole thickness a key parameter for the running pattern?

    PubMed

    Chambon, Nicolas; Delattre, Nicolas; Guéguen, Nils; Berton, Eric; Rao, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have highlighted differences in foot strike pattern comparing habitually shod runners who ran barefoot and with running shoes. Barefoot running results in a flatter foot landing and in a decreased vertical ground reaction force compared to shod running. The aim of this study was to investigate one possible parameter influencing running pattern: the midsole thickness. Fifteen participants ran overground at 3.3 ms(-1) barefoot and with five shoes of different midsole thickness (0 mm, 2 mm, 4 mm, 8 mm, 16 mm) with no difference of height between rearfoot and forefoot. Impact magnitude was evaluated using transient peak of vertical ground reaction force, loading rate, tibial acceleration peak and rate. Hip, knee and ankle flexion angles were computed at touch-down and during stance phase (range of motion and maximum values). External net joint moments and stiffness for hip, knee and ankle joints were also observed as well as global leg stiffness. No significant effect of midsole thickness was observed on ground reaction force and tibial acceleration. However, the contact time increased with midsole thickness. Barefoot running compared to shod running induced ankle in plantar flexion at touch-down, higher ankle dorsiflexion and lower knee flexion during stance phase. These adjustments are suspected to explain the absence of difference on ground reaction force and tibial acceleration. This study showed that the presence of very thin footwear upper and sole was sufficient to significantly influence the running pattern.

  17. Interocular Asymmetry of Foveal Thickness in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shrier, Eric M.; Adam, Christopher R.; Spund, Brian; Glazman, Sofya; Bodis-Wollner, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To quantify interocular asymmetry (IA) of foveal thickness in Parkinson disease (PD) versus that of controls. Design. Prospective case-control series. Methods. In vivo assessment of foveal thickness of 46 eyes of 23 PD patients and 36 eyes of 18 control subjects was studied using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Inner versus outer layer retinal segmentation and macular volumes were quantified using the manufacturer's software, while foveal thickness was measured using the raw data from each eye in a grid covering a 6 by 6 mm area centered on the foveola in 0.25 mm steps. Thickness data were entered into MATLAB software. Results. Macular volumes differed significantly at the largest (Zone 3) diameter centered on the foveola (ETDRS protocol). By segmenting inner from outer layers, we found that the IA in PD is mostly due to changes on the slope of the foveal pit at the radial distances of 0.5 and 0.75 mm (1.5 mm and 1 mm diameter). Conclusions. About half of the PD patients had IA of the slope of the foveal pit. IA is a potentially useful marker of PD and is expected to be comparable across different SD-OCT equipment. Data of larger groups may be developed in future multicenter studies. PMID:22900149

  18. System performance advances of 18-mm and 16-mm subminiature image intensifier sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nils I.

    2000-11-01

    Night vision system design has been centered aroudn the An/AVS-6 and AN/PVS-7 night vision goggle systems for the past 20 years. Goggle performance has improved during this time through increased performance of the image intensifier sensor, primarily the Omni IV sensor from ITT Industries Night Vision. Most of this improvement has been at the optimal light level (1E-3 fc scene illumination). Recent advances in image sensor performance from the filmless Generation (Gen) IV sensors has increased the low light level performance of night vision devices from 0.3 cy/mr to 0.7 cy/mr. In addition, sensor packaging design requirements have forced night vision sensor manufactures to design light weight, small volume sensors. ITT recently has designed such a sensor in a 16-mm format. This sensor if 50% lighter, up to 50% shorter, and has design features that simplify the objective lens design. New night vision goggles have been, and are being, designed which reduce the perceived head-supported weight. This paper presents signal-to-noise ratio, halo, and other film-less sensor data and similar 16-mm subminiature sensor data. The resulting system performance data will be described. Finally, the system design improvements and relationships with the subminiature 16-mm subminiature sensor will be given.

  19. Thick beryllium coatings by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H; Nikroo, A; Youngblood, K; Moreno, K; Wu, D; Fuller, T; Alford, C; Hayes, J; Detor, A; Wong, M; Hamza, A; van Buuren, T; Chason, E

    2011-04-14

    Thick (>150 {micro}m) beryllium coatings are studied as an ablator material of interest for fusion fuel capsules for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). As an added complication, the coatings are deposited on mm-scale spherical substrates, as opposed to flats. DC magnetron sputtering is used because of the relative controllability of the processing temperature and energy of the deposits. We used ultra small angle x-ray spectroscopy (USAXS) to characterize the void fraction and distribution along the spherical surface. We investigated the void structure using a combination focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results show a few volume percent of voids and a typical void diameter of less than two hundred nanometers. Understanding how the stresses in the deposited material develop with thickness is important so that we can minimize film cracking and delamination. To that end, an in-situ multiple optical beam stress sensor (MOSS) was used to measure the stress behavior of thick Beryllium coatings on flat substrates as the material was being deposited. We will show how the film stress saturates with thickness and changes with pressure.

  20. Ultrasonic Inspection Of Thick Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friant, C. L.; Djordjevic, B. B.; O'Keefe, C. V.; Ferrell, W.; Klutz, T.

    1993-01-01

    Ultrasonics used to inspect large, relatively thick vessels for hidden defects. Report based on experiments in through-the-thickness transmission of ultrasonic waves in both steel and filament-wound composite cases of solid-fuel rocket motors.

  1. How thick is the lithosphere?

    PubMed

    Kanamori, H; Press, F

    1970-04-25

    A rapid decrease in shear velocity in the suboceanic mantle is used to infer the thickness of the lithosphere. It is proposed that new and highly precise group velocity data constrain the solutions and imply a thickness near 70 km.

  2. Skin thickness effects on in vivo LXRF

    SciTech Connect

    Preiss, I.L.; Washington, W. II

    1995-12-31

    The analysis of lead concentration in bone utilizing LXRF can be adversely effected by overlying issue. A quantitative measure of the attenuation of the 10.5 keV Pb L a x-ray signal by skin and skin equivalent plastic has been conducted. Concentration ranges in plaster of Paris and goat bone from 7 to 90 ppm with attenuators of Lucite{reg_sign} and pig skin were examined. It is concluded that no quantitative or semi quantitative analysis can be achieved if overlying sue thickness exceeds 3 mm for Ph concentrations of less than 30 porn Ph in bone.

  3. The Effect of Thickness and Mesh Spacing on the Impact Resistance of Ferrocement Slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che Muda, Zakaria; Ashraful Alam, Md; Syamsir, Agusril; Sulleman, Sorefan; Beddu, Salmia; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Ismail, Firas B.; Usman, Fathoni; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Birima, Ahmed H.; Itam, Zarina; Zaroog, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the thickness and mesh spacing on the impact of ferrocement for the concrete slab of 300mm x 300mm size reinforced subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.236 kg drop at height of 150 mm, 350mm, and 500mm has been used in this research work. The objective of this research is to study the relationship of impact resistance of ferrocement against slab thickness and mesh reinforcement spacing. There is a good linear correlation between impact resistance of ferrocement against slab thickness and its mesh spacing. The first and ultimate crack impact resistance for 40 mm slab are 2.00 times and 1.84 times respectively against the 20 mm slab with the same mesh spacing. The first and ultimate crack impact resistance for 40 mm slab with 20 mm mesh spacing are 2.24 times and 3.70 times respectively against 50 mm mesh spacing with the same slab thickness. The mesh with higher content of reinforcement provides more contribution to the slab resistance as compare with the thickness.

  4. Effects of Antimony and Wall Thickness on Graphite Morphology in Ductile Iron Castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glavas, Zoran; Strkalj, Anita; Maldini, Kresimir

    2016-08-01

    Effects of Sb additions on the graphite morphology of ductile iron castings in different wall thicknesses (3, 12, 25, 38, 50, 75, and 100 mm) were analyzed in this paper. In the wall thicknesses of 3, 12, and 25 mm, low contents of rare earth (RE) elements showed a beneficial effect on nodule count and nodularity. Nodularity >80 pct and a high nodule count were achieved without the addition of Sb. In the wall thicknesses of 38, 50, 75, and 100 mm, nodularity >80 pct was not achieved without the use of the chill or proper content of Sb. Excess of RE elements was neutralized with the addition of proper amount of Sb to the wall thickness. Addition of 0.01 wt pct Sb (ratio of RE/Sb = 0.34, ratio of RE/SE = 0.105) was sufficient to achieve nodularity >80 pct in the wall thicknesses of 38, 50, 75, and 100 mm.

  5. GDx-MM: An imaging Mueller matrix retinal polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twietmeyer, Karen Marie

    2007-12-01

    Retinal diseases are a major cause of blindness worldwide. Although widely studied, disease mechanisms are not completely understood, and diagnostic tests may not detect disease early enough for timely intervention. The goal of this research is to contribute to research for more sensitive diagnostic tests that might use the interaction of polarized light with retinal tissue to detect subtle changes in the microstructure. This dissertation describes the GDx-MM, a scanning laser polarimeter which measures a complete 16-element Mueller matrix image of the retina. This full polarization signature may provide new comparative information on the structure of healthy and diseased retinal tissue by highlighting depolarizing structures as well as structures with varying magnitudes and orientations of retardance and diattenuation. The three major components of this dissertation are: (1) Development of methods for polarimeter optimization and error analysis; (2) Design, optimization, assembly, calibration, and validation of the GDx-MM polarimeter; and (3) Analysis of data for several human subjects. Development involved modifications to a Laser Diagnostics GDx, a commercially available scanning laser ophthalmoscope with incomplete polarization capability. Modifications included installation of polarization components, development of a data acquisition system, and implementation of algorithms to convert raw data into polarization parameter images. Optimization involved visualization of polarimeter state trajectories on the Poincare sphere and a condition number analysis of the instrument matrix. Retinal images are collected non-invasively at 20 mum resolution over a 15° visual field in four seconds. Validation of the polarimeter demonstrates a polarimetric measurement accuracy of approximately +/- 5%. Retinal polarization data was collected on normal human subjects at the University of Arizona and at Indiana University School of Optometry. Calculated polarization parameter

  6. Waterway Ice Thickness Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The ship on the opposite page is a U. S. Steel Corporation tanker cruising through the ice-covered waters of the Great Lakes in the dead of winter. The ship's crew is able to navigate safely by plotting courses through open water or thin ice, a technique made possible by a multi-agency technology demonstration program in which NASA is a leading participant. Traditionally, the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway System is closed to shipping for more than three months of winter season because of ice blockage, particularly fluctuations in the thickness and location of ice cover due to storms, wind, currents and variable temperatures. Shippers have long sought a system of navigation that would allow year-round operation on the Lakes and produce enormous economic and fuel conservation benefits. Interrupted operations require that industrial firms stockpile materials to carry them through the impassable months, which is costly. Alternatively, they must haul cargos by more expensive overland transportation. Studies estimate the economic benefits of year-round Great Lakes shipping in the hundreds of millions of dollars annually and fuel consumption savings in the tens of millions of gallons. Under Project Icewarn, NASA, the U.S. Coast Guard and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration collaborated in development and demonstration of a system that permits safe year-round operations. It employs airborne radars, satellite communications relay and facsimile transmission to provide shippers and ships' masters up-to-date ice charts. Lewis Research Center contributed an accurate methods of measuring ice thickness by means of a special "short-pulse" type of radar. In a three-year demonstration program, Coast Guard aircraft equipped with Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) flew over the Great Lakes three or four times a week. The SLAR, which can penetrate clouds, provided large area readings of the type and distribution of ice cover. The information was supplemented by short

  7. Reproducibility of airway wall thickness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Krass, Stefan; Owsijewitsch, Michael; de Hoop, Bartjan; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

    2010-03-01

    Airway remodeling and accompanying changes in wall thickness are known to be a major symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), associated with reduced lung function in diseased individuals. Further investigation of this disease as well as monitoring of disease progression and treatment effect demand for accurate and reproducible assessment of airway wall thickness in CT datasets. With wall thicknesses in the sub-millimeter range, this task remains challenging even with today's high resolution CT datasets. To provide accurate measurements, taking partial volume effects into account is mandatory. The Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum (FWHM) method has been shown to be inappropriate for small airways1,2 and several improved algorithms for objective quantification of airway wall thickness have been proposed.1-8 In this paper, we describe an algorithm based on a closed form solution proposed by Weinheimer et al.7 We locally estimate the lung density parameter required for the closed form solution to account for possible variations of parenchyma density between different lung regions, inspiration states and contrast agent concentrations. The general accuracy of the algorithm is evaluated using basic tubular software and hardware phantoms. Furthermore, we present results on the reproducibility of the algorithm with respect to clinical CT scans, varying reconstruction kernels, and repeated acquisitions, which is crucial for longitudinal observations.

  8. Interferometry of thick and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Michael

    2007-06-01

    Interferometry is now an established technique for the measurement of surface topography. It has the capability of combining sub-nanometre resolution. A very useful extension to its capability is the ability to measure thick and thin films on a local scale. For films with thicknesses in excess of 1-2μm (depending on refractive index), the SWLI interaction with the film leads simply the formation of two localised fringes, each corresponding to a surface interface. It is relatively trivial to locate the positions of these two envelope maxima and therefore determine the film thickness, assuming the refractive index is known. For thin films (with thicknesses ~20nm to ~2μm, again depending on the index), the SWLI interaction leads to the formation of a single interference maxima. In this context, it is appropriate to describe the thin film structure in terms of optical admittances; it is this regime that is addressed through the introduction of a new function, the 'helical conjugate field' (HCF) function. This function may be considered as providing a 'signature' of the multilayer measured so that through optimization, the thin film multilayer may be determined on a local scale.

  9. Comparative evaluation of physicians' pulmonary nodule detection with reduced slice thickness at CT screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinsuat, Marodina; Shimamura, Ichiro; Saita, Shinsuke; Kubo, Mitsuru; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Tominaga, Keigo; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2008-03-01

    With thin and thick section Multi-slice CT images at lung cancer screening, we have statistically and quantitatively shown and evaluated the diagnostic capabilities of these slice thicknesses on physicians' pulmonary nodule diagnosis. To comparatively evaluate the 2 mm and 10 mm slice thicknesses, MSCT images of 360 people were read by six physicians. The reading criteria consisted of nodule for further examination (NFE), nodule for no further examination (NNFE) and no abnormality (NA) case. For reading results evaluation; firstly, cross-tabulation was carried out to roughly analyze the diagnoses based on whole lung field and each lung lobes. Secondly, from semi-automated extraction result of the nodule, detailed quantitative analysis was carried out to determine the diagnostic capabilities of two slice thicknesses. Finally, using the reading results of 2 mm thick image as the gold standard, the diagnostic capabilities were analyzed through the features and locations of pulmonary nodules. The study revealed that both slice thicknesses can depict lung cancer. Thin section may not be effective to diagnose nodules of <=3 mm in size and nodules of <= 5mm in size for thick section. Though thick section is less tiring for reading physicians, it is not good at depicting nodules located at the border of lung upper lobe and which have a pixel size distance of <=5 from the chest wall. The information presented may serve as a useful reference to determine in which particular pulmonary nodule condition the two slice thicknesses can be effectively used for early detection of lung cancer.

  10. The LLAMA 12 m mm/sub-mm radiotelescope in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepine, Jacques; Edemundo Arnal, Marcelo; de Graauw, Thijs; Abraham, Zulema; Gimenez de Castro, Guillermo; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Morras, Ricardo; Larrarte, Juan; Viramontes, José; Finger, Ricardo; Kooi, Jacob; Reeves, Rodrigo; Beaklini, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    LLAMA (Large Latin American Millimetric Array) is a joint Argentinean-Brazilian project of a 12m mm/sub-mm radio telescope similar to the APEX antenna, to be installed at a site at 4800 m altitude near San Antonio de Los Cobres in the Salta Province in Argentine, at 150 km from ALMA. The scientific cases for single dish and VLBI observations include black holes and accretion disks, the molecular evolution of interstellar clouds, the structure of the Galaxy, the formation of galaxies, and much more. The antenna was ordered to the company Vertex Antennentechnik in June 2014, and the construction is progressing quickly; it will be installed at the site in 2016. The radio telescope will be equipped with up to six receivers covering bands similar to those of ALMA. Cryostats with room for 3 cartridges, constructed by NAOJ (Tokyo,Japan), will be installed in each of the two Nasmyth cabins. Among the first receivers we will have an ALMA band 9 provided by NOVA (Groningen, Holland) and a band 5 from the Chalmers University (Sweden). Other receivers are still being discussed at the time of submission of this abstract,At high frequencies, VLBI observations at high frequencies could be made with ALMA, APEX and ASTE, and Northern radiotelescopes. In this way, LLAMA will be a seed for a Latin-American VLBI network.

  11. Influence of ceramic thickness and ceramic materials on fracture resistance of posterior partial coverage restorations.

    PubMed

    Bakeman, E M; Rego, N; Chaiyabutr, Y; Kois, J C

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of ceramic thickness and ceramic materials on fracture resistance of posterior partial coverage ceramic restorations. Forty extracted molars were allocated into four groups (n=10) to test for two variables: 1) the thickness of ceramic (1 mm or 2 mm) and 2) the ceramic materials (a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic [IPS e.max] or leucite-reinforced glass ceramic [IPS Empress]). All ceramic restorations were luted with resin cement (Variolink II) on the prepared teeth. These luted specimens were loaded to failure in a universal testing machine, in the compression mode, with a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and the Tukey Honestly Significantly Different multiple comparison test (α =0.05). The fracture resistance revealed a significant effect for materials (p<0.001); however, the thickness of ceramic was not significant (p=0.074), and the interaction between the thickness of ceramic and the materials was not significant (p=0.406). Mean (standard deviation) fracture resistance values were as follows: a 2-mm thickness of a lithium disilicate bonded to tooth structure (2505 [401] N) revealed a significantly higher fracture resistance than did a 1-mm thickness of leucite-reinforced (1569 [452] N) and a 2-mm thickness of leucite-reinforced ceramic bonded to tooth structure (1716 [436] N) (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in fracture resistance values between a lithium disilicate ceramic at 1-mm thickness (2105 [567] N) and at 2-mm thickness. Using a lithium disilicate glass ceramic for partial coverage restoration significantly improved fracture resistance compared to using a leucite-reinforced glass ceramic. The thickness of ceramic had no significant effect on fracture resistance when the ceramics were bonded to the underlying tooth structure.

  12. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a)...

  13. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a)...

  14. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a)...

  15. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a)...

  16. Clinical evaluation of surgery-induced astigmatism in cataract surgery using 2.2 mm or 1.8 mm clear corneal micro-incisions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Hong; Pang, Yi; Wei, Rui-Hua

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate corneal astigmatism after phacoemulsification using 2.2 mm or 1.8 mm clear corneal micro-incisions and its effects on visual function. METHODS Sixty cases (60 eyes) with cataract were randomly divided into groups A (n=30) and B (n=30) respectively underwent 2.2 mm and 1.8 mm clear corneal tunnel incision phacoemulsification combined with folding intraocular lens implantation from the time direction of 11:00. On day 1 and at 1, 4, and 6wk after operation, patients' vision was measured and both the corneal curvature and corneal thickness (CT) were recorded using Pentacam. RESULTS The measured surgery-induced astigmatism (SIA) in both groups A and B peaked on day 1 after operation, and then gradually decreased and eventually stabilized in week 4. No statistically significant difference was found in corneal astigmatism between two groups (P>0.05). The measured corneal astigmatism at 4wk and 6wk postoperatively were 0.28±0.09 D and 0.27±0.10 D for groups A and 0.27±0.09 D and 0.25±0.10 D for groups B without statistically significant difference (P>0.05). In addition, no significant differences in visual acuity and CT were found between groups A and B before or after operation. CONCLUSION Both 2.2 mm and 1.8 mm micro-incision cataract surgeries result in relatively small SIA with no difference in visual function and corneal astigmatism between two surgery approaches. Thus, the two types of surgical systems are safe and efficient for cataract treatment, by which satisfactory uncorrected visual acuity can be regained early postoperatively. PMID:28149779

  17. The origin of thick discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerón, Sébastien

    2015-03-01

    Thick discs are defined to be disc-like components with a scale height larger than that of the classical discs. They are ubiquitous (Yoachim & Dalcanton 2006; Comerón et al. 2011a), they are made of mostly old and metal-poor stars and are most easily detected in close to edge-on galaxies. Their origin has been considered mysterious and several formation theories have been proposed: • The thick disc being formed secularly by thin disc stars heated by disc overdensities such as giant molecular clouds or spiral arms (Villumsen 1985, ApJ, 290, 75) and by stars moved outwards from their original orbits by radial migration mechanisms (Schönrich & Binney 2009). • The thick disc being formed by the heating of the thin disc by satellites (Quinn et al. 1993) and the tidal stripping of them (Abadi et al. 2003). • The thick disc being formed fast and already thick at high redshift in an highly unstable disc. Inside that thick disc, a thin disc would form afterwards as suggested by Elemgreen & Elmegreen (2006). • The thick disc being formed originally thick at high redshift by the merger of gas-rich protogalactic fragments and a thin disc forming afterwards within it (Brook et al. 2007). The first mechanism is a secular evolution mechanism. The time-scale of the second one is dependent on the merger history of the main galaxy. In the two last mechanisms, the thick disc forms already thick in a short time-scale at high redshift. Recent Milky Way studies, (see, e.g., Bovy et al. 2012), have shown indications that there is no discontinuity between the thin and the thick disc chemical and kinematic properties. Instead, those studies indicate the presence of a monotonic distribution of disc thicknesses. This would suggest a secular origin for the Milky Way thick disc. Studies in external galaxies (Yoachim & Dalcanton 2006; Comerón et al. 2011b), have shown that low-mass disc galaxies have thick disc relative masses much larger than those found in large-mass galaxies

  18. Teaching Evolutionary Mechanisms: Genetic Drift and M&M's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Nancy L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity that teaches the mechanism of genetic drift to undergraduates. Illustrates a number of concepts that are critical in developing evolution literacy by sampling M&M milk chocolate candies. (MM)

  19. Thickness effect of kenaf cellulose membrane on its morphological, physical and tensile properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Sharifah Nurul Ain Syed; Zakaria, Sarani; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed; Chia, Chin Hua

    2016-11-01

    Dissolution of kenaf core cellulose was undergone in NaOH/Urea solvent and the cellulose solution was casted with three different thicknesses (0.04 mm, 0.06 mm and 0.07 mm) followed by coagulation in 5 % of H2SO4 to form regenerated cellulose membrane. The XRD results showed that the crystallinity index (CrI) of kenaf core cellulose membrane decreased after been regenerated into cellulose II. The surface morphology showed that the pores of the membrane became smaller as the thickness of cellulose membrane increased. The transparency tests demonstrated the thinner samples (0.04 mm) gave higher light transmittance than the thickest samples (0.07 mm). The kenaf core membrane with 0.07 mm thickness possessed highest tensile strength and breaking elongation at σ = 33.48 and ɛ = 8.03 relatively and also exhibited the largest pore size.

  20. Charge distribution dependency on gap thickness of CMS endcap RPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. K.; Kang, M. H.; Lee, K. S.

    2016-11-01

    We report on the results of a systematic study for the charge distribution dependency of CMS Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) on the gap thickness. Prototypes of the double-gap RPCs with six different gap thicknesses ranging from 1.0 to 2.0 mm in 0.2 mm steps were built with 2 mm-thick phenolic high-pressure-laminated (HPL) plates. The efficiencies of the six gaps were measured as a function of the effective high voltages. We report that the strength of the electric field of the gap decreased as the gap thickness increased. The charge distribution in the six gaps was measured, and the space charge effect is seen in the charge distribution at high voltages near 95% efficiency. The logistic function is used to fit the charge distribution data, and smaller charges than charges within the current 2.0 mm gap are produced within smaller gas gaps. The digitization threshold should also be lowered to utilize these smaller charges.

  1. Measurement of compressed breast thickness by optical stereoscopic photogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Albert H; Mawdsley, Gordon E; Yaffe, Martin J

    2009-02-01

    The determination of volumetric breast density (VBD) from mammograms requires accurate knowledge of the thickness of the compressed breast. In attempting to accurately determine VBD from images obtained on conventional mammography systems, the authors found that the thickness reported by a number of mammography systems in the field varied by as much as 15 mm when compressing the same breast or phantom. In order to evaluate the behavior of mammographic compression systems and to be able to predict the thickness at different locations in the breast on patients, they have developed a method for measuring the local thickness of the breast at all points of contact with the compression paddle using optical stereoscopic photogrammetry. On both flat (solid) and compressible phantoms, the measurements were accurate to better than 1 mm with a precision of 0.2 mm. In a pilot study, this method was used to measure thickness on 108 volunteers who were undergoing mammography examination. This measurement tool will allow us to characterize paddle surface deformations, deflections and calibration offsets for mammographic units.

  2. Sand Shear Band Thickness Measurements by Digital Imaging Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alshibli, Khalid A.; Sture, Stein

    1998-01-01

    Digital imaging analysis was used to study localized deformations in granular materials tested under plane strain condition. Two independent techniques were applied and compared. In the first, the digitized optical images of a grid printed on the latex membrane were used to measure the shear band orientation angle and thickness, and were found to be 54.5' and 3.01 mm respectively. The second technique involved introducing an ultra-low viscosity resin into the specimen in preparation for thin- sectioning and microscopic study of the internal fabric. A total of 24 microscopic images obtained from four thin sections were analyzed and void ratio variation was measured. The shear band thickness measurements from images located along the shear band axis (at two locations) were equal to 3.19 mm and 3.29 mm which are very close to the average value obtained from surface analysis. The study was then extended to investigate the effects of sand grain-size and properties, specimen density, and confining pressure on shear band thickness. It was found that the normalized shear band thickness decreases as grain-size and confining pressure increase and as density decreases. Finally, shear band thickness is highly influenced by the specimen dilatancy.

  3. Stable operation with gain of a double phase Liquid Argon LEM-TPC with a 1 mm thick segmented LEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resnati, F.; Badertscher, A.; Curioni, A.; Horikawa, S.; Knecht, L.; Lussi, D.; Marchionni, A.; Natterer, G.; Rubbia, A.; Viant, T.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we present results from a test of a small Liquid Argon Large Electron Multiplier Time Projection Chamber (LAr LEM-TPC). This detector concept provides a 3D-tracking and calorimetric device capable of charge amplification, suited for next-generation neutrino detectors and possibly direct Dark Matter searches. During a test of a 3 lt chamber equipped with a 10×10 cm2 readout, cosmic muon data was recorded during three weeks of data taking. A maximum gain of 6.5 was achieved and the liquid argon was kept pure enough to ensure 20 cm drift (O(ppb) O2 equivalent).

  4. 44 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Emergency Management Agency. (e) Major rule means any regulation that is likely to result in: (1) An...

  5. 44 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Emergency Management Agency. (e) Major rule means any regulation that is likely to result in: (1) An...

  6. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  7. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  8. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  9. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  10. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  11. 8 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Aliens and... alien means an applicant for admission coming or attempting to come into the United States at a port-of-entry, or an alien seeking transit through the United States at a port-of-entry, or an alien...

  12. Simultaneous estimation of cortical bone thickness and acoustic wave velocity using a multivariable optimization approach: Bone phantom and in-vitro study.

    PubMed

    Tasinkevych, Yuriy; Podhajecki, Jerzy; Falińska, Katarzyna; Litniewski, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    The paper presents a method that allows the thickness of a compact bone layer and longitudinal wave velocity in the bone to be determined simultaneously with the use of reflected waves, with particular emphasis on the case of layers when the propagation time through the layer is shorter than the time duration of the interrogating pulse. The proposed method estimates simultaneously the thickness of the cortical bone layer and acoustic wave velocity by fitting the temporal spectrum of the simulated reflected wave to the spectrum of the reflected wave measured experimentally. For the purpose of echo-simulations the model of "soft tissue - compact bone layer - cancellous bone" was developed. Next, the cost function was defined as the least square error between the measured and simulated temporal spectra. Minimization of the cost function allowed us to determine the values of the parameters of the cortical bone layer which best fitted the measurements. To solve the optimization problem a simulated annealing algorithm was used. The method was tested using acoustic data obtained at the frequency of 0.6 MHz and 1 MHz respectively for a custom designed bone mimicking phantom and a calf femur. For the cortical shell of the calf femur whose thickness varies from 2.1 mm to 2.4 mm and velocity of 2910 m/s, the relative errors of the thickness estimation ranged from 0.4% to 5.5%. The corresponding error of the acoustic wave velocity estimation in the layer was 3.1%. In the case of artificial bone the thickness of the cortical layer was equal to 1.05 and 1.2 mm and acoustic wave velocity was 2900 m/s. These parameters were determined with the errors ranging from 1.9% to 10.8% and from 3.9% to 4.5% respectively.

  13. Variation in mouthguard thickness due to different heating conditions during fabrication: part 2.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mutsumi; Koide, Kaoru; Mizuhashi, Fumi

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in the thickness of mouthguard sheets under different heating conditions during fabrication. Mouthguards were fabricated with polyolefin-polystyrene co-polymer (OS) and olefin co-polymer (OL) sheets (4.0-mm thick) utilizing a vacuum-forming machine under the following three conditions: (A) the sheet was moulded when it sagged 15 mm below the sheet frame (i.e. the normally used position); (B) the sheet frame was lowered to and heated at 30 mm below the top of the post and moulded when it sagged by 15 mm; and (C) the sheet frame was lowered to and heated at 50 mm below the top of the post and moulded when it sagged by 15 mm. The working model was trimmed to a height of 20 mm at the incisor and 15 mm at the first molar. Post-moulding thickness was determined for the incisal portion (incisal edge and labial surface) and molar portion (cusp, central groove and buccal surface). Dimensions were measured, and differences in the change in thickness due to heating condition were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Under condition C, OS and OL decreased in thickness from 0.36-0.54 mm to 0.26-0.30 mm, respectively, at the incisal portion and from 0.34-0.66 mm to 0.17-0.47 mm, respectively, at the molar portion. It may be clinically useful when moulding a mouthguard to maintain the thickness of the incisal and molar portions by adjusting the height of the sheet frame.

  14. Thickness measurement of tablet coating using continuous-wave terahertz reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, Nirmala; Dash, Jyotirmayee; Ray, Shaumik; Pesala, Bala

    2016-02-01

    THz rays have higher penetration depth compared to infrared rays and hence can be effectively used to measure tablet coating thickness. In addition, THz wavelength (1 mm - 0.1 mm) provides an optimal depth resolution for the thickness measurement. This method can be non-invasive and hence ideal for inline quality monitoring. Tablet coating thickness is one of the major parameters of interest in Process Analytical Technology (PAT). In this paper, a reflection mode Continuous Wave (CW) Terahertz (THz) system has been employed to measure the tablet coating thickness. A frequency scan of the sample has been carried out from 0.1 THz to 1.1 THz and the reflection coefficient of the sample is inverse fourier transformed to obtain the tablet thickness. The calculated thickness has also been validated using the optical microscope. Results show that the thickness can be measured with considerable accuracy.

  15. Effect of adhesive thickness on adhesively bonded T-joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, A. R.; Afendi, Mohd; Majid, M. S. Abdul

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the effect of adhesive thickness on tensile strength of adhesively bonded stainless steel T-joint. Specimens were made from SUS 304 Stainless Steel plate and SUS 304 Stainless Steel perforated plate. Four T-joint specimens with different adhesive thicknesses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm) were made. Experiment result shows T-joint specimen with adhesive thickness of 1.0 mm yield highest maximum load. Identical T-joint specimen jointed by spot welding was also tested. Tensile test shows welded T-Joint had eight times higher tensile load than adhesively bonded T-joint. However, in low pressure application such as urea granulator chamber, high tensile strength is not mandatory. This work is useful for designer in fertilizer industry and others who are searching for alternative to spot welding.

  16. Shock absorption capacities of mouthguards in different types and thicknesses.

    PubMed

    Bemelmanns, P; Pfeiffer, P

    2001-02-01

    Although sports mouthguards provide protection against trauma, dentoalveolar injuries can still occur with the mouthguards in place. This study examined the effect of mouthguard protection in an in vitro model. A simulated maxilla, out of a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) arch, containing replaceable resin teeth, was used to assess the performance of different mouthguard designs. "Boil and bite" and custom-fitted mouthguards (ethylene vinyl acetate [EVA]) laminated with hard (poly-vinyl chloride [PVC]) or soft labial intermediate EVA layers were fabricated according to manufacturers' instructions. A steel ram was dropped onto the mouthguards at the maxillary incisor region. Changes in voltage, which were induced by a strain gauge at the back of the upper left incisor, were measured with an amplified voltmeter. Data were analysed by ANOVA at a significance level of 0.05. "Boil and bite" and mouthguards layered with silicone or with small hard PVC inserts of 1.5 mm thickness demonstrated less absorption and differed significantly from the other mouthguard systems (p < 0.05). Bilaminated mouthguards with hard PVC inserts of 0.8 mm, 1.5 mm or 2 mm thickness showed no significant differences to those with 1.5 mm thick (EVA) inserts. The absorption rates amounted to 33 % compared with the unprotected tooth.

  17. Performance Characteristics of Thick Silicon Double-sided Strip Detectors.

    PubMed

    Shokouhi, Sepideh; McDonald, Benjamin S; Durko, Heather L; Fritz, Mark A; Furenlid, Lars R; Peterson, Todd E

    2007-01-01

    This work presents characterization studies of thick silicon double-sided strip detectors for a high-resolution small-animal SPECT. The dimension of these detectors is 60 mm × 60 mm × 1 mm. There are 1024 strips on each side that give the coordinates of the photon interaction, with each strip processed by a separate ASIC channel. Our measurement shows that intrinsic spatial resolution equivalent to the 59 µm strip pitch is attainable. Good flood uniformity can be achieved by proper setting of a 4-bit DAC in each ASIC channel to remove trigger threshold variations. This is particularly important for triggering at low energies. The thick silicon DSSD shows high potential for small-animal SPECT imaging.

  18. Performance Characteristics of Thick Silicon Double-sided Strip Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Shokouhi, Sepideh; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Durko, Heather L.; Fritz, Mark A.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Peterson, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents characterization studies of thick silicon double-sided strip detectors for a high-resolution small-animal SPECT. The dimension of these detectors is 60 mm × 60 mm × 1 mm. There are 1024 strips on each side that give the coordinates of the photon interaction, with each strip processed by a separate ASIC channel. Our measurement shows that intrinsic spatial resolution equivalent to the 59 µm strip pitch is attainable. Good flood uniformity can be achieved by proper setting of a 4-bit DAC in each ASIC channel to remove trigger threshold variations. This is particularly important for triggering at low energies. The thick silicon DSSD shows high potential for small-animal SPECT imaging. PMID:26778911

  19. The effect of resin thickness on polymerization characteristics of silorane-based composite resin

    PubMed Central

    Son, Sung-Ae; Roh, Hyoung-Mee; Hur, Bock; Kwon, Yong-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the influence of the resin thickness on the polymerization of silorane- and methacrylate-based composites. Materials and Methods One silorane-based (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE) and two methacrylate-based (Filtek Z250 and Z350, 3M ESPE) composite resins were used. The number of photons were detected using a photodiode detector at the different thicknesses (thickness, 1, 2 and 3 mm) specimens. The microhardness of the top and bottom surfaces was measured (n = 15) using a Vickers hardness with 200 gf load and 15 sec dwell time conditions. The degree of conversion (DC) of the specimens was determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Scratched powder of each top and bottom surface of the specimen dissolved in ethanol for transmission FTIR spectroscopy. The refractive index was measured using a Abbe-type refractometer. To measure the polymerization shrinkage, a linometer was used. The results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test at p < 0.05 level. Results The silorane-based resin composite showed the lowest filler content and light attenuation among the specimens. P90 showed the highest values in the DC and the lowest microhardness at all depth. In the polymerization shrinkage, P90 showed a significantly lower shrinkage than the rest two resin products (p < 0.05). P90 showed a significantly lower refractive index than the remaining two resin products (p < 0.05). Conclusions DC, microhardness, polymerization rate and refractive index linearly decreased as specimen thickness linearly increased. P90 showed much less polymerization shrinkage compared to other specimens. P90, even though achieved the highest DC, showed the lowest microhardness and refractive index. PMID:25383351

  20. Optimal stapler cartridge selection according to the thickness of the pancreas in distal pancreatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hongbeom; Jang, Jin-Young; Son, Donghee; Lee, Seungyeoun; Han, Youngmin; Shin, Yong Chan; Kim, Jae Ri; Kwon, Wooil; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stapling is a popular method for stump closure in distal pancreatectomy (DP). However, research on which cartridges are suitable for different pancreatic thickness is lacking. To identify the optimal stapler cartridge choice in DP according to pancreatic thickness. From November 2011 to April 2015, data were prospectively collected from 217 consecutive patients who underwent DP with 3-layer endoscopic staple closure in Seoul National University Hospital, Korea. Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) was graded according to International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula definitions. Staplers were grouped based on closed length (CL) (Group I: CL ≤ 1.5 mm, II: 1.5 mm < CL < 2 mm, III: CL ≥ 2 mm). Compression ratio (CR) was defined as pancreas thickness/CL. Distribution of pancreatic thickness was used to find the cut-off point of thickness which predicts POPF according to stapler groups. POPF developed in 130 (59.9%) patients (Grade A; n = 86 [66.1%], B; n = 44 [33.8%]). The numbers in each stapler group were 46, 101, and 70, respectively. Mean thickness was higher in POPF cases (15.2 mm vs 13.5 mm, P = 0.002). High body mass index (P = 0.003), thick pancreas (P = 0.011), and high CR (P = 0.024) were independent risk factors for POPF in multivariate analysis. Pancreatic thickness was grouped into <12 mm, 12 to 17 mm, and >17 mm. With pancreatic thickness <12 mm, the POPF rate was lowest with Group II (I: 50%, II: 27.6%, III: 69.2%, P = 0.035). The optimal stapler cartridges with pancreatic thickness <12 mm were those in Group II (Gold, CL: 1.8 mm). There was no suitable cartridge for thicker pancreases. Further studies are necessary to reduce POPF in thick pancreases. PMID:27583852

  1. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based fuel and biomass Column A:Density (metric tons/bbl) Column...

  2. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based fuel and biomass Column A:Density (metric tons/bbl) Column...

  3. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based fuel and biomass Column A:Density (metric tons/bbl) Column...

  4. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based fuel and biomass Column A:Density (metric tons/bbl) Column...

  5. Fabrication and Characterization of PZT Thick Films for Sensing and Actuation

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ling-Sheng; Kuo, Kuo-Ching

    2007-01-01

    Lead Zirconate Titanate oxide (PZT) thick films with thicknesses of up to 10 mm were developed using a modified sol-gel technique. Usually, the film thickness is less than 1 mm by conventional sol-gel processing, while the electrical charge accumulation which reveals the direct effect of piezoelectricity is proportional to the film thickness and therefore restricted. Two approaches were adopted to conventional sol-gel processing – precursor concentration modulation and rapid thermal annealing. A 10 μm thick film was successfully fabricated by coating 16 times via this technique. The thickness of each coating layer was about 0.6 mm and the morphology of the film was dense with a crack-free area as large as 16 mm2. In addition, the structure, surface morphology and physical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrical performance. The dielectric constant and hysteresis loops were measured as electric characteristics. This study investigates the actuation and sensing performance of the vibrating structures with the piezoelectric thick film. The actuation tests demonstrated that a 4 mm × 4 mm × 6.5 mm PZT film drove a 40 mm × 7 mm × 0.5 mm silicon beam as an actuator. Additionally, it generated an electrical signal of 60 mVpp as a sensor, while vibration was input by a shaker. The frequencies of the first two modes of the beam were compared with the theoretical values obtained by Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The linearity of the actuation and sensing tests were also examined.

  6. Fracture behavior of thick, laminated graphite/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. E.; Morris, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of laminate thickness on the fracture behavior of laminated graphite epoxy (T300/5208) composites was studied. The predominantly experimental research program included the study of the 0/+ or - 45/90 sub ns and 0/90 sub ns laminates with thickness of 8, 32, 64, 96 and 120 plies and the 0/+ or - 45 sub ns laminate with thickness of 6, 30, 60, 90 and 120 plies. The research concentrated on the measurement of fracture toughness utilizing the center-cracked tension, compact tension and three point bend specimen configurations. The development of subcritical damage at the crack tip was studied nondestructively using enhanced X-ray radiography and destructively using the laminate deply technique. The test results showed fracture toughness to be a function of laminate thickness. The fracture toughness of the 0 + or - 45/90 sub ns and 0/90 sub ns laminates decreased with increasing thickness and asymptotically approached lower bound values of 30 ksi square root of in. (1043 MPa square root of mm and 25 ksi square root of in (869 MPa square root of mm respectively. In contrast to the other two laminates, the fracture toughness of the 0/+ or - 45 sub ns laminate increased sharply with increasing thickness but reached an upper plateau value of 40 ksi square root of in (1390 MPa square root of mm) at 30 plies. Fracture toughness was independent of crack size for both thin and thick laminates for all three laminate types except for the 0/90 sub 2s laminate which spilt extensively. The center cracked tension, three point bend and compact tension specimens gave comparable results.

  7. AC conductivity and relaxation mechanism in (Nd1/2Li1/2)(Fe1/2V1/2)O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Susmita; Barik, Subrat Kumar; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study we have synthesized polycrystalline sample of (Nd1/2Li1/2)(Fe1/2V1/2)O3 ceramic by a standard high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. Studies of dielectric and electrical properties of the compound have been carried out in a wide range of temperature (RT - 400 °C) and frequency (1kHz - 1MHz) using complex impedance spectroscopic technique. The imaginary vs. real component of the complex impedance plot (Nyquist plot) of the prepared sample exhibits the existence of grain, grain boundary contributions in the complex electrical parameters and negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) type behavior like semiconductor. Details study of ac conductivity plot reveals that the material obeys universal Jonscher's power law.

  8. Cloaking spin-(1/2) matter waves

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, De-Hone

    2010-06-15

    A physical construct for the cloaking of relativistic spin-(1/2) matter waves is proposed. It is shown that when the effective energy and mass of relativistic spin-(1/2) particles moving in an effective vector field in a spherical shell are controlled, their matter waves can be perfectly guided through the shell without any distortion or loss; that is, the construct provides a three-dimensional cloaking shell for relativistic spin-(1/2) matter waves. The proposal serves as the basis for some interesting applications such as providing a method to guide the matter waves of spin particles and an ideal setup to exhibit spin-spin interactions as well as perfect quantum interferences of some global effects in spin-(1/2) matter waves.

  9. Gauge Measures Thicknesses Of Blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, George R.; Yoshino, Stanley Y.

    1991-01-01

    Tool makes highly repeatable measurements of thickness of penetrable blanket insulation. Includes commercial holder for replaceable knife blades, which holds needle instead of knife. Needle penetrates blanket to establish reference plane. Ballasted slider applies fixed preload to blanket. Technician reads thickness value on scale.

  10. Measuring Thicknesses of Wastewater Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Davenport, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Sensor determines when thickness of film of electrically conductive wastewater on rotating evaporator drum exceeds preset value. Sensor simple electrical probe that makes contact with liquid surface. Made of materials resistant to chemicals in liquid. Mounted on shaft in rotating cylinder, liquid-thickness sensor extends toward cylinder wall so tip almost touches. Sensor body accommodates probe measuring temperature of evaporated water in cylinder.

  11. Cisplatin inhibits MEK1/2

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tetsu; Tsigelny, Igor F.; Götz, Andreas W.; Howell, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin (cDDP) is known to bind to the CXXC motif of proteins containing a ferrodoxin-like fold but little is known about its ability to interact with other Cu-binding proteins. MEK1/2 has recently been identified as a Cu-dependent enzyme that does not contain a CXXC motif. We found that cDDP bound to and inhibited the activity of recombinant MEK1 with an IC50 of 0.28 μM and MEK1/2 in whole cells with an IC50 of 37.4 μM. The inhibition of MEK1/2 was relieved by both Cu+1 and Cu+2 in a concentration-dependent manner. cDDP did not inhibit the upstream pathways responsible for activating MEK1/2, and did not cause an acute depletion of cellular Cu that could account for the reduction in MEK1/2 activity. cDDP was found to bind MEK1/2 in whole cells and the extent of binding was augmented by supplementary Cu and reduced by Cu chelation. Molecular modeling predicts 3 Cu and cDDP binding sites and quantum chemistry calculations indicate that cDDP would be expected to displace Cu from each of these sites. We conclude that, at clinically relevant concentrations, cDDP binds to and inhibits MEK1/2 and that both the binding and inhibitory activity are related to its interaction with Cu bound to MEK1/2. This may provide the basis for useful interactions of cDDP with other drugs that inhibit MAPK pathway signaling. PMID:26155939

  12. A Probabilistic Method for Estimation of Bowel Wall Thickness in MR Colonography

    PubMed Central

    Menys, Alex; Jaffer, Asif; Bhatnagar, Gauraang; Punwani, Shonit; Atkinson, David; Halligan, Steve; Hawkes, David J.; Taylor, Stuart A.

    2017-01-01

    MRI has recently been applied as a tool to quantitatively evaluate the response to therapy in patients with Crohn’s disease, and is the preferred choice for repeated imaging. Bowel wall thickness on MRI is an important biomarker of underlying inflammatory activity, being abnormally increased in the acute phase and reducing in response to successful therapy; however, a poor level of interobserver agreement of measured thickness is reported and therefore a system for accurate, robust and reproducible measurements is desirable. We propose a novel method for estimating bowel wall-thickness to improve the poor interobserver agreement of the manual procedure. We show that the variability of wall thickness measurement between the algorithm and observer measurements (0.25mm ± 0.81mm) has differences which are similar to observer variability (0.16mm ± 0.64mm). PMID:28072831

  13. A Probabilistic Method for Estimation of Bowel Wall Thickness in MR Colonography.

    PubMed

    Hampshire, Thomas; Menys, Alex; Jaffer, Asif; Bhatnagar, Gauraang; Punwani, Shonit; Atkinson, David; Halligan, Steve; Hawkes, David J; Taylor, Stuart A

    2017-01-01

    MRI has recently been applied as a tool to quantitatively evaluate the response to therapy in patients with Crohn's disease, and is the preferred choice for repeated imaging. Bowel wall thickness on MRI is an important biomarker of underlying inflammatory activity, being abnormally increased in the acute phase and reducing in response to successful therapy; however, a poor level of interobserver agreement of measured thickness is reported and therefore a system for accurate, robust and reproducible measurements is desirable. We propose a novel method for estimating bowel wall-thickness to improve the poor interobserver agreement of the manual procedure. We show that the variability of wall thickness measurement between the algorithm and observer measurements (0.25mm ± 0.81mm) has differences which are similar to observer variability (0.16mm ± 0.64mm).

  14. Clinical outcome of surgical treatment of T1-2 N0 squamous cell carcinoma of oral tongue with observation for the neck: Analysis of 176 cases

    PubMed Central

    Hakeem, Arsheed Hussain; Pradhan, Sultan Ahmed; Kannan, Rajan; Tubachi, Jagadish

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze various demographic, clinical, and histopathologic factors in T1-2 N0 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral tongue to define a high-risk group for regional recurrence that will benefit from elective neck dissection. Materials and Methods: Retrospective outcome analysis of a patient cohort without palpable or ultrasound (USG) detectable nodal metastases undergoing per oral wide glossectomy for T1-2 N0 SCC of oral tongue. Patients were followed up using palpation and serial USG neck and fine-needle aspiration cytology. Results: Of the 176 patients, 69 (39%) showed recurrence during follow-up. Fifty-eight cases developed regional neck node metastases, i.e., overall regional node recurrence rate of 33%. Fifty-three (91%) with regional neck node metastases were salvaged successfully with further treatment. In 110 cases with tumor thickness more than 5 mm, 39% cases developed regional neck node metastases. This association was significant with P = 0.0402. Among 44 cases with perineural invasion, 54% developed regional neck node metastases. Similarly in 39 cases with lymphovascular invasion, 61% developed regional neck node metastases. Association of both of these parameters with the development of regional neck node metastases was significant. Conclusion: We recommend prophylactic selective neck dissection in early stage SCC of oral tongue, especially with depth of invasion more than 5 mm, perineural and lymphovascular invasion. PMID:28299264

  15. A λ 3 mm and 1 mm line survey toward the yellow hypergiant IRC +10420⋆

    PubMed Central

    Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Bujarrabal, V.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Alcolea, J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Our knowledge of the chemical properties of the circumstellar ejecta of the most massive evolved stars is particularly poor. We aim to study the chemical characteristics of the prototypical yellow hypergiant star, IRC +10420. For this purpose, we obtained full line surveys at 1 and 3 mm atmospheric windows. Methods We have identified 106 molecular emission lines from 22 molecular species. Approximately half of the molecules detected are N-bearing species, in particular HCN, HNC, CN, NO, NS, PN, and N2H+. We used rotational diagrams to derive the density and rotational temperature of the different molecular species detected. We introduced an iterative method that allows us to take moderate line opacities into account. Results We have found that IRC +10420 presents high abundances of the N-bearing molecules compared with O-rich evolved stars. This result supports the presence of a N-rich chemistry, expected for massive stars. Our analysis also suggests a decrease of the 12C/13C ratio from ≳ 7 to ~ 3.7 in the last 3800 years, which can be directly related to the nitrogen enrichment observed. In addition, we found that SiO emission presents a significant intensity decrease for high-J lines when compared with older observations. Radiative transfer modeling shows that this variation can be explained by a decrease in the infrared (IR) flux of the dust. The origin of this decrease might be an expansion of the dust shell or a lower stellar temperature due to the pulsation of the star. PMID:27458319

  16. Full-field optical thickness profilometry of semitransparent thin films with transmission densitometry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay; Harris, Tequila

    2010-05-20

    A novel bidirectional thickness profilometer based on transmission densitometry was designed to measure the localized thickness of semitransparent films on a dynamic manufacturing line. The densitometer model shows that, for materials with extinction coefficients between 0.3 and 2.9 D/mm, 100-500 {mu}m measurements can be recorded with less than {+-}5% error at more than 10,000 locations in real time. As a demonstration application, the thickness profiles of 75 mmx100 mm regions of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) were determined by converting the optical density of the sample to thickness with the Beer-Lambert law. The PEM extinction coefficient was determined to be 1.4 D/mm, with an average thickness error of 4.7%.

  17. Thickness effect on flexural strength of natural stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellopede, Rossana; Marini, Paola; Castelletto, Eleonora

    2016-04-01

    Few scientific works deal with size effect on mechanical resistance in the case of stone, but for the concrete size effect has been widely verified. In fact, the stone size effect is not always ruled by well-known statistical laws as Weibull because of the intrinsic complex structure and features of the materials analysed. Previous studies on natural stone size effect have been made mainly taking into account compression strength. However, flexural strength test under concentrated load, according EN12372, is applied to assess the mechanical resistance of stone and it is well correlated with the petrographic properties of stone. For this reason, to further investigate the size effect on stone , this research analyses the variation of mechanical resistance in relation to thickness of the specimens, taking into account the petrographic characteristics (mineralogical composition, heterogeneity, anisotropy, porosity)of different kinds of rock. From previous studies on 15 different stones (Bellopede et al. 2015) it was observed a negligible values variation for different thickness and a data scattering caused by: intrinsic properties (porosity and structure), defects distribution (fractures, cracks, voids), heterogeneity characterizing each specimen. According to EN 12372:2006, the suggested dimensions for the determination of flexural strength under concentrated load are 50x50x300mm. Other dimensions are possible, but the following requirement need to be fulfilled. The thickness should be minimum 25mm and maximum 100 mm, the width should be within 50 mm and 3 times the thickness and the distance between the supporting rollers span should be 5 times the thickness. In this research, in order to further investigate the thickness effect even in relation with the stone structure and heterogeneity, eight different stones have been tested: four with anisotropic features and four homogeneous. The distance between the support knife was equal to 2/3 to specimens length. The

  18. A multicomponent formal [1+2+1+2]-cycloaddition for the synthesis of dihydropyridines.

    PubMed

    Girling, P Ricardo; Batsanov, Andrei S; Shen, Hong C; Whiting, Andrew

    2012-05-18

    Reaction of methoxyvinylmethylketone with different amines and aldehydes under Lewis-acid catalysed conditions results in a novel, formal, step-wise [1+2+1+2]-cycloaddition to give dihydropyridine products.

  19. Mesoscopic tomography imaging of reporter genes in thick printed tissue constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Mehmet S.; Lee, Vivian K.; Zhao, Lingling; Dai, Guohoa; Intes, Xavier

    2013-06-01

    We report an application of Mesoscopic Fluorescence Molecular Tomography to 3D tissue engineering construct. Engineered thick tissue was hosting two 3D printed vasculatures. The channels were formed by live cells, expressing GFP and mCherry reporter genes, embedded in 3mm turbid media. Tissue and cells kept in a 3mm thick perfusion chamber during the entire imaging process which took less than 5 minutes.

  20. Sagitally focusing scanning monochromator produces 0.4-mm focus (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, G.; Sullivan, M.; Fischetti, R.; Rock, L.

    1992-01-01

    A sagitally focusing stage has been constructed for the double-crystal scanning monochromator on beam line X9-A at the NSLS which can be exchanged with the normally used flat crystal stage. The bending device located at 12.0 m from the source is designed to accept a beam up to 200-mm wide. The monochromator with bending stage can be scanned over Bragg angles from 10° to 71° corresponding to photon energies from 11.4 to 2.1 keV with Si-111 crystals. In conjunction with the vertically focusing mirror a point focus of 0.38 mm×0.18 mm [horizontal×vertical, full width at half maximum (FWHM) each] has been achieved at a focal length of 3.8 m (center of a four-circle diffractometer). Focused at the back of the experimental hutch (focal length=5.4 m) the focal size was 0.55 mm×0.30 mm. The measured horizontal width of the focus equals the calculated size of the demagnified source and is independent of the horizontal convergence used. The horizontal focus produced by the crystal is very clean: the full width at 1% of maximum is 1.5 mm and at 0.01% it is about 4 mm. The flux into the focus is 5×1011 photons/s at a photon energy of 7.4 keV and beam current of 200 mA. The average flux density in the center of the focus (FWHM area) is 5×1011 photons/s/mm2. The preliminary crystal presently used has been made from a thin Si plate of 0.4-mm thickness, 80-mm width, and 75-mm length (in the direction of the beam). Steel ribs of 0.6-mm thickness have been glued at 3-mm pitch to the back of the crystal in order to stiffen the plate and reduce anticlastic bending.1 Plates have been glued to this crystal plate to extend the width to size the bending stage. The crystal was cut in 111 orientation with a 4° angle between the lattice planes and the crystal surface. The asymmetric cut was used to increase the angle of incidence and thus decrease the effect of the remaining anticlastic bending. The bending stage has a bending couple at both ends of the crystal in order to produce the

  1. Acceleration of Ab Initio QM/MM Calculations under Periodic Boundary Conditions by Multiscale and Multiple Time Step Approaches.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kwangho

    2014-10-14

    Development of multiscale ab initio quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (AI-QM/MM) method for periodic boundary molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and their acceleration by multiple time step approach are described. The developed method achieves accuracy and efficiency by integrating the AI-QM/MM level of theory and the previously developed semiempirical (SE) QM/MM-Ewald sum method [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2005, 1, 2] extended to the smooth particle-mesh Ewald (PME) summation method. In the developed methods, the total energy of the simulated system is evaluated at the SE-QM/MM-PME level of theory to include long-range QM/MM electrostatic interactions, which is then corrected on the fly using the AI-QM/MM level of theory within the real space cutoff. The resulting energy expression enables decomposition of total forces applied to each atom into forces determined at the low-level SE-QM/MM method and correction forces at the AI-QM/MM level, to integrate the system using the reversible reference system propagator algorithm. The resulting method achieves a substantial speed-up of the entire calculation by minimizing the number of time-consuming energy and gradient evaluations at the AI-QM/MM level. Test calculations show that the developed multiple time step AI-QM/MM method yields MD trajectories and potential of mean force profiles comparable to single time step QM/MM results. The developed method, together with message passing interface (MPI) parallelization, accelerates the present AI-QM/MM MD simulations about 30-fold relative to the speed of single-core AI-QM/MM simulations for the molecular systems tested in the present work, making the method less than one order slower than the SE-QM/MM methods under periodic boundary conditions.

  2. Tube-Wall Thickness Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleint, R. E.; Baily, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Eddy-current measurements detect wear of thin walls (0.01 in) (0.25 mm) in small diameter (0.19 in) (5 mm) heat exchanger tubing. Flexible durable thin rod inserts eddy-current coil into the heatexchanger tube.

  3. Reliability of Intra-Retinal Layer Thickness Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Oberwahrenbrock, Timm; Weinhold, Maria; Mikolajczak, Janine; Zimmermann, Hanna; Paul, Friedemann; Beckers, Ingeborg; Brandt, Alexander U.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Measurement of intra-retinal layer thickness using optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become increasingly prominent in multiple sclerosis (MS) research. Nevertheless, the approaches used for determining the mean layer thicknesses vary greatly. Insufficient data exist on the reliability of different thickness estimates, which is crucial for their application in clinical studies. This study addresses this lack by evaluating the repeatability of different thickness estimates. Methods Studies that used intra-retinal layer segmentation of macular OCT scans in patients with MS were retrieved from PubMed. To investigate the repeatability of previously applied layer estimation approaches, we generated datasets of repeating measurements of 15 healthy subjects and 13 multiple sclerosis patients using two OCT devices (Cirrus HD-OCT and Spectralis SD-OCT). We calculated each thickness estimate in each repeated session and analyzed repeatability using intra-class correlation coefficients and coefficients of repeatability. Results We identified 27 articles, eleven of them used the Spectralis SD-OCT, nine Cirrus HD-OCT, two studies used both devices and two studies applied RTVue-100. Topcon OCT-1000, Stratus OCT and a research device were used in one study each. In the studies that used the Spectralis, ten different thickness estimates were identified, while thickness estimates of the Cirrus OCT were based on two different scan settings. In the simulation dataset, thickness estimates averaging larger areas showed an excellent repeatability for all retinal layers except the outer plexiform layer (OPL). Conclusions Given the good reliability, the thickness estimate of the 6mm-diameter area around the fovea should be favored when OCT is used in clinical research. Assessment of the OPL was weak in general and needs further investigation before OPL thickness can be used as a reliable parameter. PMID:26349053

  4. The effect of slice thickness on quantitation of in vivo renal volume with cine computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Lerman, L.O.; Bentley, M.D.; Bell, M.R.; Rumberger, J.A.; Romero, J.C. )

    1990-02-26

    The development of fast computed tomography (CT) scanners allows the accurate quantitations of the volume (V) of the in-vivo kidney (K) and its component tissues, using 3 mm thick slices. Utilizing thicker slices may potentially enable the use of shorter scan times with less exposure to contrast media. To determine the relative accuracy of such scans, the right Ks of 14 anesthetized dogs were first scanned, using 3mm thick slices, after a venous bolus injection of iohexol (0.5 cc/kg). The images were then averaged to produce 6 and 10 mm thick slices, and the Vs of the Ks, and their cortical and medullary Vs, determined after boundary identification. Following the scans, the Ks were excised and their Vs determined post-mortem by fluid displacement. The whole K Vs obtained with the 6 and 10 mm thick slices correlated well with those obtained with the 3 mm thick slices. The difference between the in vivo and the post-mortem renal and medullary Vs was consistent with the blood, filtrate and urine contents of the in vivo kidney. In conclusion, the use of 6 and 10 mm thick slices resulted in an overestimation of the in vivo cortical V due to a partial volume effect, which was reflected in a consistent overestimation of KV.

  5. Effect of laminate thickness on moisture diffusion of polymer matrix composites in artificial seawater ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Ratna; Narasimha Murthy, H. N.; Sreejith, M.; Vishnu Mahesh, K. R.; Krishna, M.; Sharma, S. C.

    2012-09-01

    The influence of laminate thickness of polymer matrix composites on moisture diffusion in seawater immersion, as well as the resulting mechanical property degradation for composites of glass/isopolyester (G/IPE), carbon/isopolyester (C/IPE), glass/vinylester (G/VE) and carbon/vinylester (C/VE), was investigated in this paper. Laminates 3 and 10mm in thickness, fabricated using the wet hand lay-up technique, were characterized for moisture absorption in artificial seawater medium, and their flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) degradations were studied. Moisture diffusion was observed to be anamolous to the Fick's law for both 3 and 10mm thick samples in the later stage of diffusion. Moisture permeability of 10mmthick samples was two to three order greater than that of 3mm thick ones, while the time to moisture saturation remained unchanged. With the increase of laminate thickness, moisture saturation increased by 1.4% for C/VE and 7% for G/IPE. The residual flexural strength and ILSS were greater in case of 10mm thick specimens after 200 days of exposure. SEM examination of the fractured specimens showed greater levels of fibre/matrix debonding in 10mm thick specimens.

  6. Choroidal thickness in pregnant women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ru; Kuang, Guo-Ping; Luo, Di-Xian; Lu, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate choroidal thickness in pregnant women and compare the measurements with those of normal nonpregnant women. METHODS Using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea and at 1 mm and 3 mm superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal to the fovea in both healthy pregnant women and nonpregnant women. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and the demographic and ocular parameters. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed-effects model when Meta-analyses were conducted. RESULTS Comparison of choroidal thickness between the groups showed that it was significantly greater in healthy pregnant women's eyes than in normal nonpregnant women's eyes at all locations except at 3 mm superior and 3 mm temporal from the fovea (P<0.05). The mean SFCT was 344.13±50.94 µm in healthy pregnant women's eyes and 315.03±60.57 µm in normal nonpregnant women's eyes, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.008). Pearson correlation analysis showed that age and axial length were significantly related to SFCT in healthy pregnant women, normal nonpregnant women, and all subjects. The results of our cross-sectional study were consistent with the results of the further Meta-analysis, with a pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) of 33.66 µm (95% CI: 26.16 to 41.15) for SFCT. CONCLUSION Our results, along with the comprehensive Meta-analysis, suggest that choroidal thickness in healthy pregnant women is greater than that in normal nonpregnant women. PMID:27588276

  7. Shape from equal thickness contours

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, G.; Parvin, B.

    1998-05-10

    A unique imaging modality based on Equal Thickness Contours (ETC) has introduced a new opportunity for 3D shape reconstruction from multiple views. We present a computational framework for representing each view of an object in terms of its object thickness, and then integrating these representations into a 3D surface by algebraic reconstruction. The object thickness is inferred by grouping curve segments that correspond to points of second derivative maxima. At each step of the process, we use some form of regularization to ensure closeness to the original features, as well as neighborhood continuity. We apply our approach to images of a sub-micron crystal structure obtained through a holographic process.

  8. Laser detection of material thickness

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.

    2002-01-01

    There is provided a method for measuring material thickness comprising: (a) contacting a surface of a material to be measured with a high intensity short duration laser pulse at a light wavelength which heats the area of contact with the material, thereby creating an acoustical pulse within the material: (b) timing the intervals between deflections in the contacted surface caused by the reverberation of acoustical pulses between the contacted surface and the opposite surface of the material: and (c) determining the thickness of the material by calculating the proportion of the thickness of the material to the measured time intervals between deflections of the contacted surface.

  9. Measurements of the Polarization Properties of Foam Materials Useful for mm-wave Polarimeters Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, G.; Marchetti, T.; de Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.

    2016-08-01

    We have measured in the W-band, using a custom setup, the absorption and polarization properties in transmission of foam materials (elyfoamⓇ, styrodurⓇ, plastazoteⓇ, and propozoteⓇ) useful for windows of mm-wave photometers and polarimeters. The levels of the induced polarization degree and of the absorption are very small, and difficult to measure accurately. We find induced polarization degrees lower than 0.6 %, and transmissions higher than 97 % for few centimeter thicknesses of our samples. We describe the instrumental setup, the measurements, and the impact of our findings in the design of precision polarimeters for Cosmic Microwave Background measurements. All these materials, with the exception of black plastazoteⓇ, feature transmissions higher than 99 %, and induced polarizations lower than ˜1 % for sample thicknesses around 2-3 cm.

  10. OLIMPO: a balloon-borne, arcminute-resolution survey of the sky at mm and sub-mm wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masi, S.; Ade, P.; Boscaleri, A.; de Bernardis, P.; de Petris, M.; de Troia, G.; Fabrini, M.; Iacoangeli, A.; Lamagna, L.; Lange, A.; Lubin, P.; Mauskopf, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Melchiorri, F.; Nati, L.; Nati, F.; Orlando, A.; Piacentini, F.; Pierre, M.; Pisano, G.; Polenta, G.; Rephaeli, Y.; Romeo, G.; Salvaterra, L.; Savini, G.; Valiante, E.; Yvon, D.

    2003-08-01

    We describe OLIMPO, a balloon-borne telescope devoted to cosmological and astrophysical surveys in the mm and sub-mm range. We summarize the relevant science (principally surveys of SZ clusters, of the sub-mm cosmic background and observations of galactic and cirrus dust) and the innovative sub-systems we have developed. The test flight of the telescope is planned for July 2004; the long duration flight is planned for the end of 2005.

  11. Microwave spectrum of 1,2-propanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovas, F. J.; Plusquellic, D. F.; Pate, Brooks H.; Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matthew T.; Remijan, Anthony J.

    2009-09-01

    The microwave spectrum of the sugar alcohol 1,2-propanediol (CH 3CHOHCH 2OH) has been measured over the frequency range 6.5-25.0 GHz with several pulsed-beam Fourier-transform microwave spectrometers. Seven conformers of 1,2-propanediol have been assigned and ab initio electronic structure calculations of the 10 lowest energy forms have been calculated. Stark effect measurements were carried out on several of the lowest energy conformers to provide accurate determinations of the dipole moment components and assist in conformer assignment.

  12. Public Library Subject Headings for 16mm Motion Pictures. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Library Association, Sacramento.

    Suggested subject headings for 16mm motion pictures are listed. The intent of the list is to provide audiovisual librarians with a tool which will aid them in making subject indexes for their printed catalogs. It is also intended as an authority for professional catalogers who may be called upon to catalog 16mm motion pictures. (Author/KKC)

  13. Is smaller better? Comparison of 3-mm and 5-mm leaf size for stereotactic radiosurgery: A dosimetric study

    SciTech Connect

    Chern, Shyh-shi . E-mail: Richard.Chern@hci.utah.edu; Leavitt, Dennis D.; Jensen, Randy L.; Shrieve, Dennis C.

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To perform a dosimetric comparison of a minimal 3-mm leaf width multileaf collimator (MLC) and a minimal 5-mm MLC in dynamic conformal arc stereotactic radiosurgery for treatment of intracranial lesions. Methods and Materials: The treatment plans of 23 patients previously treated for intracranial lesions in our institution were redone using the BrainSCAN, version 5.3, stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning system (BrainLAB). For each case, two dynamic conformal arc plans were generated: one using a minimal 3-mm micro-MLC (BrainLAB, Novalis) and one using a minimal 5-mm MLC (Varian Millennium). All arc parameters were the same in each of the two plans, except for the collimator angle settings. The collimator angle settings were optimized for each arc in each plan. A peritumoral rind structure (1 cm) was created to evaluate normal tissue sparing immediately adjacent to the target volume. Conformity indexes (CIs) were calculated for each plan. The dependence of normal tissue sparing and target conformity on target volume (TV) was determined. Results: The TV was 0.14-36.32 cm{sup 3} (median, 5.90). The CI was 1.22-2.60 (median, 1.51) for the 3-mm micro-MLC and 1.23-2.69 (median, 1.60) for the 5-mm MLC. Despite this small difference, it was a statistically significant increase (p < 0.0001) for the 5-mm MLC compared with the 3-mm micro-MLC. Improved normal tissue sparing was demonstrated using the 3-mm micro-MLC compared with the 5-mm MLC by examining the peritumoral rind volumes (PRVs) receiving 50% (PRV{sub 5}), 80% (PRV{sub 8}), and 90% (PRV{sub 9}) of the prescription dose. The reduction in the PRV{sub 5}, PRV{sub 8}, and PRV{sub 9} for the 3-mm micro-MLC compared with the 5-mm MLC was 13.5%, 12.9%, and 11.5%, respectively. The CI decreased with a larger TV, as did the difference in the CIs between the 3-mm micro-MLC and 5-mm MLC. A reduction in the PRV increased with larger TVs. Conclusion: The 3-mm micro-MLC provided better target conformity and

  14. Microhardness of different thicknesses of resin composite polymerized by conventional photocuring at different distances.

    PubMed

    Aguirar, Flavio Henrique Baggio; e Oliveria, Thalita Regina Viera; Lima, Debora Alves Nunes Leite; Ambrosano, Glaucia maria ovi; Lovadino, Jose Roberto

    2008-01-01

    This in vitro study sought to evaluate the influence of photocuring modes and polymerization time on the microhardness of a hybrid composite resin. Sixty composite resin specimens were prepared at random and divided into 12 experimental groups (n=5), consisting of four curing tip distances (2.0 mm, 4.0 mm, 6.0 mm, and 8.0 mm) and three sample thicknesses (0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, and 2.0 mm). All samples were polymerized with a continuous output at 550 mW/cm2. After 24 hours, Knoop microhardness measurements were obtained on top and bottom surfaces of the sample, with a load of 25 g for 10 seconds. Five indentations were made on each surface of each sample. Subdivided parcels ANOVA test and Tukey test were performed (p = 0.05). There were no statistical differences among the experimental groups for the top surface. On the bottom surface, 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm sample thicknesses showed significantly higher hardness means for all photocuring tip distances when compared with the 2.0 mm sample thickness. In terms of the photocuring tip distance, the 2.0 mm and 4.0 mm distances showed significantly higher hardness means for all sample thicknesses when compared with the 8.0 mm distance. For all experimental conditions, the top surface showed higher hardness than the bottom surface. It was concluded that the resin composite increments should be decreased to improve the polymerization of the resin composite bottom surface in deep cavities.

  15. Track chambers based on precision drift tubes housed inside 30 mm mylar pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, A.; Bozhko, N.; Fakhrutdinov, R.; Kozhin, A.; Leontiev, B.; Levin, A.

    2014-06-01

    We describe drift chambers consisting of 3 layers of 30 mm (OD) drift tubes made of double sided aluminized mylar film with thickness 0.125 mm. A single drift tube is self-supported structure withstanding 350 g tension of 50 microns sense wire located in the tube center with 10 microns precision with respect to end-plug outer surface. Such tubes allow to create drift chambers with small amount of material, construction of such chambers doesn't require hard frames. Twenty six chambers with working area from 0.8 × 1.0 to 2.5 × 2.0 m2 including 4440 tubes have been manufactured for experiments at 70-GeV proton accelerator at IHEP(Protvino).

  16. Improved Coal-Thickness Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    Summed signals and dielectric-filled antenna improve measurement. Improved FM radar for measuring thickness of coal seam eliminates spectrum splitting and reduces magnitude of echo from front coal surface.

  17. The effect of adhesive type and thickness on bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Mackay, F

    1992-02-01

    Fine-mesh based brackets were bonded to plastic cylinders using four different adhesives. Adhesive thickness was controlled using a bonding jig. The bond was then tested to failure using a shear force. Each adhesive had its own minimum thickness, probably related to its viscosity. Increasing the thickness of the adhesiveness to 0.26 mm, using a stainless steel spacer had minimal effect on their mean shear bond strength.

  18. Thickness-dependent bending modulus of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun; Bando, Yoshio; Zhi, Chunyi; Huang, Yang; Golberg, Dmitri

    2009-09-23

    Bending modulus of exfoliation-made single-crystalline hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) with thicknesses of 25-300 nm and sizes of 1.2-3.0 microm were measured using three-point bending tests in an atomic force microscope. BNNSs suspended on an SiO(2) trench were clamped by a metal film via microfabrication based on electron beam lithography. Calculated by the plate theory of a doubly clamped plate under a concentrated load, the bending modulus of BNNSs was found to increase with the decrease of sheet thickness and approach the theoretical C(33) value of a hexagonal BN single crystal in thinner sheets (thickness<50 nm). The thickness-dependent bending modulus was suggested to be due to the layer distribution of stacking faults which were also thought to be responsible for the layer-by-layer BNNS exfoliation.

  19. Thickness-dependent bending modulus of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun; Bando, Yoshio; Zhi, Chunyi; Huang, Yang; Golberg, Dmitri

    2009-09-01

    Bending modulus of exfoliation-made single-crystalline hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) with thicknesses of 25-300 nm and sizes of 1.2-3.0 µm were measured using three-point bending tests in an atomic force microscope. BNNSs suspended on an SiO2 trench were clamped by a metal film via microfabrication based on electron beam lithography. Calculated by the plate theory of a doubly clamped plate under a concentrated load, the bending modulus of BNNSs was found to increase with the decrease of sheet thickness and approach the theoretical C33 value of a hexagonal BN single crystal in thinner sheets (thickness<50 nm). The thickness-dependent bending modulus was suggested to be due to the layer distribution of stacking faults which were also thought to be responsible for the layer-by-layer BNNS exfoliation.

  20. Effect of Temperature Gradient on Thick Film Selective Emitter Emittance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Good, Brian S.; Clark, Eric B.; Chen, Zheng

    1997-01-01

    A temperature gradient across a thick (greater than or equal to .1 mm) film selective emitter will produce a significant reduction in the spectral emittance from the no temperature gradient case. Thick film selective emitters of rare earth doped host materials such as yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) are examples where temperature gradient effects are important. In this paper a model is developed for the spectral emittance assuming a linear temperature gradient across the film. Results of the model indicate that temperature gradients will result in reductions the order of 20% or more in the spectral emittance.

  1. MALT-45: A 7 mm survey of the southern Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Christopher Harry

    2015-09-01

    -0 for CS lies within the 7mm waveband, which also contains the poorly understood class I CH3OH maser. Unlike the class II variant, class I masers are not exclusively associated with HMSF, but do appear in star-forming regions across a wide range of evolutionary stages. A large problem for class I CH3OH maser studies is the bias in the targeted searches which have been used to find them; they have only been identified towards other masing regions (such as class II CH3OH), and therefore the properties of these masers are somewhat unclear. In this thesis, results focus on the MALT-45 survey using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) in auto-correlation ('single-dish' mode). To date, MALT-45 has mapped the Galactic plane within 330° *lt; < l < 335°, jbj< 0:5°, which contains several known star-forming regions, including the G333 giant molecular cloud. MALT-45 surveys 12 spectral lines, but primarily CS (1-0), class I CH3OH masers and SiO (1-0) v = 0; 1; 2; 3. Bright, extended CS emission is detected across the survey region, and highlight two distinct velocities, due to different spiral arms of the Galaxy. In addition to the previously known 19 class I CH3OH masers, 58 new masers were detected. SiO masers were detected towards 47 regions, in various combinations of vibrational mode v = 1; 2; 3, all towards evolved infrared stars. Thermal SiO v = 0 emission is also detected across the survey region. Major science results from MALT-45 include: (i) A CS to NH3 comparison, which highlights cold, dense clumps as well as hot, evolved clumps. The cold and dense clumps appear to have self-absorption of CS emission in their centres and a relative over-abundance of NH3, while evolved clumps appear to have very little NH3 emission, despite being a dense gas tracer; (ii) Almost all (94 per cent) of ATLASGAL 870 um dust emission point sources are associated with at least a 3σ peak of CS emission; (iii) By comparing with peak CS velocities, class I CH3OH masers are good

  2. Development of buffer layers on 30 mm wide textured metal substrates for REBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Ota, H.; Ohki, K.; Konishi, M.; Ohmatsu, K.

    2010-11-01

    We have been studying REBa2Cu3Ox (RE: rare earth elements) coated conductors on clad-type substrates. We developed coated conductors on the 10 mm wide clad-type tape, and succeeded in obtaining the maximum critical current of 380 A/cm with the 2.0 μm thick GdBa2Cu3Ox superconducting film. At present, we are trying to widen the tape width from 10 mm to 30 mm in order to increase production throughput. We report our recent progress on scaling-up of the buffer layers and their properties. The buffer layers consisted of three layers; CeO2 as the seed layer, yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the diffusion barrier layer and CeO2 as the lattice matching layer. They were grown by the RF-sputtering method and the electron beam evaporation technique (EB). EB deposition has possibility of higher throughput compared with the RF-sputtering. The intensity ratio of (2 0 0) to (2 0 0) + (1 1 1) for the lattice matching layer showed as high as 98%. The uniform properties of 40 m long and 30 mm wide substrates were successfully produced by all sputtering method. Additionally, the tape travel speed of the seed layer can be increased from 7 m/h (RF-sputtering deposition) to 10 m/h (EB deposition) on short sample (0.3 m long).

  3. 50 CFR 1.2 - Authorized representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.2 Authorized representative. Authorized representative means the subordinate... matters. The Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is frequently the authorized representative of...

  4. 8 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.2 Definitions. As used in this... otherwise noted, means the Department of Homeland Security. Director or district director prior to March 1... or after March 1, 2003, pursuant to delegation from the Secretary of Homeland Security or...

  5. 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,1,2 - Tetrafluoroethane ; CASRN 811 - 97 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  6. 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4,5 - Tetrachlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 94 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  7. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 09 / 001 F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 1,1,2,2 - TETRACHLOROETHANE ( CAS No . 79 - 34 - 5 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2010 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC ii DISCLAIMER This docu

  8. 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

  9. Theoretical study of the photo-isomerisation reactions of 1,2-dihydro-1,2-phosphaborine and 1,2-dihydro-1,2-alumazaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ming-Der

    2015-07-01

    The mechanisms of the photochemical isomerisation reactions are investigated theoretically using the model systems, 1,2-dihydro-1,2-phosphaborine (5) and 1,2-dihydro-1,2-alumazaine (6), using the CAS(6,6)/6-311G(d,p) and MP2-CAS-(6,6)/6-311++G(3df,3pd)//CAS(6,6)/6-311G(d,p) methods. For each model reactant, three reaction pathways, which lead to three kinds of photo-isomers, are examined. The structures of the conical intersections, which play a key role in such photo-rearrangements, are determined. The thermal (or dark) reactions of the reactant species are also examined, using the same level of theory, to provide a qualitative explanation of the reaction pathways. These model investigations demonstrate that the preferred reaction route for these two aromatic heterocyclics is as follows: reactant → Franck-Condon region → conical intersection → photoproduct. The theoretical evidences anticipate that after irradiation of 5, the photoproduct yield of the Dewar BP-isomer, 8, should be larger than that of the Dewar BP-isomer, 7, whereas no Dewar BP-isomer 9 can be observed. Moreover, the present theoretical data predict after irradiation of 6, all three Dewar AlN-isomers (10, 11, and 12) and the starting molecule, 6, are produced.

  10. 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,1,2 - Tetrachloroethane ; CASRN 630 - 20 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  11. 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dibromo - 3 - chloropropane ( DBCP ) ; CASRN 96 - 12 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessm

  12. Light transmittance of zirconia as a function of thickness and microhardness of resin cements under different thicknesses of zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Egilmez, Ferhan; Ergun, Gulfem; Kaya, Bekir M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare microhardness of resin cements under different thicknesses of zirconia and the light transmittance of zirconia as a function of thickness. Study design: A total of 126 disc-shaped specimens (2 mm in height and 5 mm in diameter) were prepared from dual-cured resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Panavia F and Clearfil SA cement). Photoactivation was performed by using quartz tungsten halogen and light emitting diode light curing units under different thicknesses of zirconia. Then the specimens (n=7/per group) were stored in dry conditions in total dark at 37°C for 24 h. The Vicker’s hardness test was performed on the resin cement layer with a microhardness tester. Statistical significance was determined using multifactorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) (alpha=.05). Light transmittance of different thicknesses of zirconia (0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 mm) was measured using a hand-held radiometer (Demetron, Kerr). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test (alpha=.05). Results: ANOVA revealed that resin cement and light curing unit had significant effects on microhardness (p < 0.001). Additionally, greater zirconia thickness resulted in lower transmittance. There was no correlation between the amount of light transmitted and microhardness of dual-cured resin cements (r = 0.073, p = 0.295). Conclusion: Although different zirconia thicknesses might result in insufficient light transmission, dual-cured resin cements under zirconia restorations could have adequate microhardness. Key words:Zirconia, microhardness, light transmittance, resin cement. PMID:23385497

  13. Epitaxial thick film high-Tc SQUIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faley, M. I.; Mi, S. B.; Jia, C. L.; Poppe, U.; Urban, K.; Fagaly, R. L.

    2008-02-01

    Low-noise operation of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) in magnetic fields requires high critical current and strong pinning of vortices in the superconducting electrodes and in the flux transformer. Crack-free epitaxial high-Tc dc-SQUID structures with a total thickness ?5 μm and a surface roughness determined by 30 nm high growth spirals were prepared with YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) films on MgO substrates buffered by a SrTiO3/BaZrO3-bilayer. HRTEM demonstrated a high quality epitaxial growth of the films. The YBCO films and SQUID structures deposited on the buffered MgO substrates had a superconducting transition temperature Tc exceeding 91 K and critical current densities Jc > 3 MA/cm2 at 77 K up to a thickness ~5 μm. The application of thicker superconducting and insulator films helped us to increase the critical current and dynamic range of the multilayer high-Tc flux transformer and improve the insulation between the superconducting layers. An optimization of SQUID inductance allowed us to fabricate 8 mm SQUID magnetometers with SQUID voltage swings of ~60 μV and a field resolution of ~30 fT/√Hz at 77 K.

  14. Amplitude modulation drive to rectangular-plate linear ultrasonic motors with vibrators dimensions 8 mm x 2.16 mm X 1 mm.

    PubMed

    Ming, Yang; Hanson, Ben; Levesley, Martin C; Walker, Peter G; Watterson, Kevin G

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, to exploit the contribution from not only the stators but also from other parts of miniature ultrasonic motors, an amplitude modulation drive is proposed to drive a miniature linear ultrasonic motor consisting of two rectangular piezoelectric ceramic plates. Using finite-element software, the first longitudinal and second lateral-bending frequencies of the vibrator are shown to be very close when its dimensions are 8 mm x 2.16 mm x 1 mm. So one single frequency power should be able to drive the motor. However, in practice the motor is found to be hard to move with a single frequency power because of its small vibration amplitudes and big frequency difference between its longitudinal and bending resonance, which is induced by the boundary condition variation. To drive the motor effectively, an amplitude modulation drive is used by superimposing two signals with nearly the same frequencies, around the resonant frequency of the vibrators of the linear motor. When the amplitude modulation frequency is close to the resonant frequency of the vibrator's surroundings, experimental results show that the linear motor can move back and forward with a maximum thrust force (over 0.016 N) and a maximum velocity (over 50 mm/s).

  15. Anatomical characterization of central, apical and minimal corneal thickness

    PubMed Central

    Saenz-Frances, Federico; Bermúdez-Vallecilla, Martha Cecilia; Borrego-Sanz, Lara; Jañez, Luis; Martinez-de-la-Casa, José María; Morales-Fernandez, Laura; Santos-Bueso, Enrique; Garcia-Sanchez, Julián; Garcia-Feijoo, Julián

    2014-01-01

    AIM To anatomically locate the points of minimum corneal thickness and central corneal thickness (pupil center) in relation to the corneal apex. METHODS Observational, cross-sectional study, 299 healthy volunteers. Thickness at the corneal apex (AT), minimum corneal thickness (MT) and corneal thickness at the pupil center (PT) were determined using the pentacam. Distances from the corneal apex to MT (MD) and PT (PD) were calculated and their quadrant position (taking the corneal apex as the reference) determined: point of minimum thickness (MC) and point of central thickness (PC) depending on the quadrant position. Two multivariate linear regression models were constructed to examine the influence of age, gender, power of the flattest and steepest corneal axes, position of the flattest axis, corneal volume (determined using the Pentacam) and PT on MD and PD. The effects of these variables on MC and PC were also determined in two multinomial regression models. RESULTS MT was located at a mean distance of 0.909 mm from the apex (79.4% in the inferior-temporal quadrant). PT was located at a mean distance of 0.156 mm from the apex. The linear regression model for MD indicated it was significantly influenced by corneal volume (B=-0.024; 95%CI: -0.043 to -0.004). No significant relations were identified in the linear regression model for PD or the multinomial logistic regressions for MC and PC. CONCLUSION MT was typically located at the inferior-temporal quadrant of the cornea and its distance to the corneal apex tended to decrease with the increment of corneal volume. PMID:25161940

  16. Japanese Science Films; a Descriptive and Evaluative Catalog of: 16mm Motion Pictures, 8mm Cartridges, and Video Tapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newren, Edward F., Ed.

    One hundred and eighty Japanese 16mm motion pictures, 8mm cartridges, and video tapes produced and judged appropriate for a variety of audience levels are listed in alphabetical order by title with descriptive and evaluative information. A subject heading list and a subject index to the film titles are included, as well as a sample of the…

  17. The 19 mm data recorders similarities and differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Confusion over the use of non-video 19 mm data recorders is becoming more pronounced as we enter the world of high performance computing. This paper addresses the following: the differences between ID-1, ID-2, MIL-STD-2179 and DD-2; what the proper machine is for various applications; how the machine can be integrated into an environment; and any misconceptions there might be about 19 mm tape recorders. DD-2 and 19 mm instrumentation recorders have missions for which each is well designed. While the differences may appear subtle, understanding the difference between the two is the key to picking the right recorder for a particular application.

  18. 120MM Mortar MIL-STD-1660 Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    AD-A285 065 FINAL REPORT JULY 1994 REPORT NO. 91-18 120MM MORTAR MIL- STD - 1660 TESTS 94-309 󈧷 Prepared for: Dist.iviiior Unlimited I I U.S. Army...Inidude Securt Ciassificz ion) 120MM Mortar MIL- STD - i660 Tests 12- PERSONAL AUTHOR IS) William R. Meyer ~13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TINE COVERED 14...Armnament Re- earch, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC), SMCAR-AEP, to conduct MIL- STD - 1660 tests on 120M,\\M mortar rounds on wooden p~allets

  19. Growth of 450 mm diameter semiconductor grade silicon crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zheng; Kimbel, Steven

    2011-03-01

    Research and development of the next generation 450 mm semiconductor grade silicon crystal and related technology have been carried out in MEMC following the company's philosophy to stay one generation ahead on research and development. The first 450 mm dislocation free crystal was grown in early 2009 and the first 450 mm semiconductor wafer was produced shortly after. General challenges in crystal growth process, puller, and hot zone designs, as well as control, automation, and handling are discussed in this paper. General considerations on working with customers and equipment manufacturers on fundamental crystal and wafer quality characteristics are also discussed.

  20. Factors Influencing Endometrial Thickness in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Hebbar, S; Chaya, V; Rai, L; Ramachandran, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cut-off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. Aim: To study the various factors influencing the ET in postmenopausal women. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective observational study. A total of 110 postmenopausal women underwent detailed history taking, clinical examination, and transvaginal scan for uterine volume and ovarian volume. The volumes were calculated by using ellipsoid formula: Width × thickness × height × 0.523. The variation in ET with respect to the influencing factors such as age, duration of menopause, parity, body mass index (BMI), medical illness like diabetes/hypertension, drugs like tamoxifen, presence of myoma, uterine volume, ovarian volume, and serum estradiol (in selected patients) were measured. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16, Chicago II, USA) to obtain mean, standard deviation (SD), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and inter quartile ranges. Comparison of means was carried out using analysis of variance. Results: The mean (SD) age of the patients was 55.4 (6.91) years (95% CI, 54.1, 56.7). The mean (SD) age at menopause was 47.95 (3.90) years (95% CI, 47.2, 48.7) and the mean (SD) duration of menopause was 7.27 (6.65) years (95% CI, 6.01, 8.53). The mean (SD) ET was 3.8 (2.3) mm (95% CI, 3.36, 4.23). Medical illness like diabetes and hypertension did not alter the ET. ET increased as BMI increased and it was statistically significant. The presence of myoma increased uterine volume significantly and was associated with thick endometrial stripe. Similarly, whenever the ovaries were visualized and as the ovarian volume increased, there was an increase in ET. When ET was > 4 mm (n = 37), they were offered endocel, of which 16 agreed to undergo the procedure. None were found to have endometrial cancer

  1. Macular Microcysts in Mitochondrial Optic Neuropathies: Prevalence and Retinal Layer Thickness Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Carbonelli, Michele; La Morgia, Chiara; Savini, Giacomo; Cascavilla, Maria Lucia; Borrelli, Enrico; Chicani, Filipe; do V. F. Ramos, Carolina; Salomao, Solange R.; Parisi, Vincenzo; Sebag, Jerry; Bandello, Francesco; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Carelli, Valerio; Barboni, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the thickness of the retinal layers and to assess the prevalence of macular microcysts (MM) in the inner nuclear layer (INL) of patients with mitochondrial optic neuropathies (MON). Methods All patients with molecularly confirmed MON, i.e. Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) and Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA), referred between 2010 and 2012 were enrolled. Eight patients with MM were compared with two control groups: MON patients without MM matched by age, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and visual acuity, as well as age-matched controls. Retinal segmentation was performed using specific Optical coherence tomography (OCT) software (Carl Zeiss Meditec). Macular segmentation thickness values of the three groups were compared by one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc corrections. Results MM were identified in 5/90 (5.6%) patients with LHON and 3/58 (5.2%) with DOA. The INL was thicker in patients with MON compared to controls regardless of the presence of MM [133.1±7μm vs 122.3±9μm in MM patients (p<0.01) and 128.5±8μm vs. 122.3±9μm in no-MM patients (p<0.05)], however the outer nuclear layer (ONL) was thicker in patients with MM (101.4±1mμ) compared to patients without MM [77.5±8mμ (p<0.001)] and controls [78.4±7mμ (p<0.001)]. ONL thickness did not significantly differ between patients without MM and controls. Conclusion The prevalence of MM in MON is low (5-6%), but associated with ONL thickening. We speculate that in MON patients with MM, vitreo-retinal traction contributes to the thickening of ONL as well as to the production of cystic spaces. PMID:26047507

  2. Reflectance dependence of polytetrafluoroethylene on thickness for xenon scintillation light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefner, J.; Neff, A.; Arthurs, M.; Batista, E.; Morton, D.; Okunawo, M.; Pushkin, K.; Sander, A.; Stephenson, S.; Wang, Y.; Lorenzon, W.

    2017-06-01

    Many rare event searches including dark matter direct detection and neutrinoless double beta decay experiments take advantage of the high VUV reflective surfaces made from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) reflector materials to achieve high light collection efficiency in their detectors. As the detectors have grown in size over the past decade, there has also been an increased need for ever thinner detector walls without significant loss in reflectance to reduce dead volumes around active noble liquids, outgassing, and potential backgrounds. We report on the experimental results to measure the dependence of the reflectance on thickness of two PTFE samples at wavelengths near 178 nm. No change in reflectance was observed as the wall thickness of a cylindrically shaped PTFE vessel immersed in liquid xenon was varied between 1 mm to 9.5 mm.

  3. System for measuring film thickness

    DOEpatents

    Batishko, Charles R.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Peters, Timothy J.; Rasmussen, Donald E.

    1990-01-01

    A system for determining the thicknesses of thin films of materials exhibiting fluorescence in response to exposure to excitation energy from a suitable source of such energy. A section of film is illuminated with a fixed level of excitation energy from a source such as an argon ion laser emitting blue-green light. The amount of fluorescent light produced by the film over a limited area within the section so illuminated is then measured using a detector such as a photomultiplier tube. Since the amount of fluorescent light produced is a function of the thicknesses of thin films, the thickness of a specific film can be determined by comparing the intensity of fluorescent light produced by this film with the intensity of light produced by similar films of known thicknesses in response to the same amount of excitation energy. The preferred embodiment of the invention uses fiber optic probes in measuring the thicknesses of oil films on the operational components of machinery which are ordinarily obscured from view.

  4. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  5. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  6. CdZnTe position-sensitive drift detectors with thicknesses up to 5 cm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda, G. S.; Chen, E.; Cheng, S.; Cui, Y.; Gul, R.; Gallagher, R.; Dedic, V.; De Geronimo, G.; Ocampo Giraldo, L.; Fried, J.; Hossain, A.; MacKenzie, J. M.; Sellin, P.; Taherion, S.; Vernon, E.; Yang, G.; El-hanany, U.; James, R. B.

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the feasibility of long-drift-time CdZnTe (CZT) gamma-ray detectors, fabricated from CZT material produced by Redlen Technologies. CZT crystals with cross-section areas of 5 × 5 mm2 and 6 × 6 mm2 and thicknesses of 20-, 30-, 40-, and 50-mm were configured as 3D position-sensitive drift detectors and were read out using a front-end ASIC. By correcting the electron charge losses caused by defects in the crystals, we demonstrated high performance for relatively thick detectors fabricated from unselected CZT material.

  7. Estimation of skull table thickness with clinical CT and validation with microCT.

    PubMed

    Lillie, Elizabeth M; Urban, Jillian E; Weaver, Ashley A; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    Brain injuries resulting from motor vehicle crashes (MVC) are extremely common yet the details of the mechanism of injury remain to be well characterized. Skull deformation is believed to be a contributing factor to some types of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Understanding biomechanical contributors to skull deformation would provide further insight into the mechanism of head injury resulting from blunt trauma. In particular, skull thickness is thought be a very important factor governing deformation of the skull and its propensity for fracture. Current computed tomography (CT) technology is limited in its ability to accurately measure cortical thickness using standard techniques. A method to evaluate cortical thickness using cortical density measured from CT data has been developed previously. This effort validates this technique for measurement of skull table thickness in clinical head CT scans using two postmortem human specimens. Bone samples were harvested from the skulls of two cadavers and scanned with microCT to evaluate the accuracy of the estimated cortical thickness measured from clinical CT. Clinical scans were collected at 0.488 and 0.625 mm in plane resolution with 0.625 mm thickness. The overall cortical thickness error was determined to be 0.078 ± 0.58 mm for cortical samples thinner than 4 mm. It was determined that 91.3% of these differences fell within the scanner resolution. Color maps of clinical CT thickness estimations are comparable to color maps of microCT thickness measurements, indicating good quantitative agreement. These data confirm that the cortical density algorithm successfully estimates skull table thickness from clinical CT scans. The application of this technique to clinical CT scans enables evaluation of cortical thickness in population-based studies.

  8. Estimation of skull table thickness with clinical CT and validation with microCT

    PubMed Central

    Lillie, Elizabeth M; Urban, Jillian E; Weaver, Ashley A; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    Brain injuries resulting from motor vehicle crashes (MVC) are extremely common yet the details of the mechanism of injury remain to be well characterized. Skull deformation is believed to be a contributing factor to some types of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Understanding biomechanical contributors to skull deformation would provide further insight into the mechanism of head injury resulting from blunt trauma. In particular, skull thickness is thought be a very important factor governing deformation of the skull and its propensity for fracture. Current computed tomography (CT) technology is limited in its ability to accurately measure cortical thickness using standard techniques. A method to evaluate cortical thickness using cortical density measured from CT data has been developed previously. This effort validates this technique for measurement of skull table thickness in clinical head CT scans using two postmortem human specimens. Bone samples were harvested from the skulls of two cadavers and scanned with microCT to evaluate the accuracy of the estimated cortical thickness measured from clinical CT. Clinical scans were collected at 0.488 and 0.625 mm in plane resolution with 0.625 mm thickness. The overall cortical thickness error was determined to be 0.078 ± 0.58 mm for cortical samples thinner than 4 mm. It was determined that 91.3% of these differences fell within the scanner resolution. Color maps of clinical CT thickness estimations are comparable to color maps of microCT thickness measurements, indicating good quantitative agreement. These data confirm that the cortical density algorithm successfully estimates skull table thickness from clinical CT scans. The application of this technique to clinical CT scans enables evaluation of cortical thickness in population-based studies. PMID:25441171

  9. Advanced Applications Flight Equipment (AAFE) 125mm ultraviolet spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    The conceptual work is reported for the 125 mm ultraviolet spectrometer to measure atmospheric ozone as a function of height, latitude, and time. The instrument is described along with the assembly, test, and calibration.

  10. Building 931, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 931, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Central Battery Charging Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  11. Building 904, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  12. Building 1204, oblique view to west, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 1204, oblique view to west, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Squadron Operations & Readiness Crew Facility, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  13. Building 909, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 909, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. Building 908 at extreme right for context. - Travis Air Force Base, Handling Crew Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  14. Building 1204, oblique view to east, 90 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 1204, oblique view to east, 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Squadron Operations & Readiness Crew Facility, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  15. Building 904, oblique view to northeast, 210mm lens Travis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to northeast, 210mm lens - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  16. Building 932, oblique view to northwest, 90 mm lens. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 932, oblique view to northwest, 90 mm lens. Building 933-935 at extreme left. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Plant 5, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  17. Building 931, oblique view to northwest, 210 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 931, oblique view to northwest, 210 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Central Battery Charging Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  18. Building 904, oblique view to northwest, 135 mm lens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to northwest, 135 mm lens - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  19. QM/MM methods for studying enzymatic reactions of glycosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Tvaroška, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods have become a powerful tool to provide an accurate and effective description of complex biological systems. The QM treatment of the electronic structure of an active site region and the rest of the enzyme by molecular mechanics allows enzymatic reaction to being modeled with including the impact of environment. Different reaction pathways of the enzymatic mechanism can be tested--transition states (TS) and intermediates characterized using QM/MM methods, leading to significant advances in understanding enzymatic reactions. This chapter discusses the ideas and the setting up of the structural and computational models for calculations with QM/MM software. The use of QM/MM methodology is also illustrated using the case of the inverting glycosyltransferase GnT-I.

  20. Optimal slice thickness for cone-beam CT with on-board imager

    PubMed Central

    Seet, KYT; Barghi, A; Yartsev, S; Van Dyk, J

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To find the optimal slice thickness (Δτ) setting for patient registration with kilovoltage cone-beam CT (kVCBCT) on the Varian On Board Imager (OBI) system by investigating the relationship of slice thickness to automatic registration accuracy and contrast-to-noise ratio. Materials and method: Automatic registration was performed on kVCBCT studies of the head and pelvis of a RANDO anthropomorphic phantom. Images were reconstructed with 1.0 ≤ Δτ (mm) ≤ 5.0 at 1.0 mm increments. The phantoms were offset by a known amount, and the suggested shifts were compared to the known shifts by calculating the residual error. A uniform cylindrical phantom with cylindrical inserts of various known CT numbers was scanned with kVCBCT at 1.0 ≤ Δτ (mm) ≤ 5.0 at increments of 0.5 mm. The contrast-to-noise ratios for the inserts were measured at each Δτ. Results: For the planning CT slice thickness used in this study, there was no significant difference in residual error below a threshold equal to the planning CT slice thickness. For Δτ > 3.0 mm, residual error increased for both the head and pelvis phantom studies. The contrast-to-noise ratio is proportional to slice thickness until Δτ = 2.5 mm. Beyond this point, the contrast-to-noise ratio was not affected by Δτ. Conclusion: Automatic registration accuracy is greatest when 1.0 ≤ Δτ (mm) ≤ 3.0 is used. Contrast-to-noise ratio is optimal for the 2.5 ≤ Δτ (mm) ≤ 5.0 range. Therefore 2.5 ≤ Δτ (mm) ≤ 3.0 is recommended for kVCBCT patient registration where the planning CT is 3.0 mm. PMID:21611047

  1. The 19 mm date recorders: Similarities and differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, Steve

    1991-01-01

    Confusion over the use of non-video 19 mm data recorders is becoming more pronounced in the world of high performance computing. The following issues are addressed: (1) the difference between ID-1, ID-2, MIL-STD-2179, and DD-2; (2) the proper machine for the necessary application; and (3) integrating the machine into an existing environment. Also, an attempt is made to clear up any misconceptions there might be about 19 mm tape recorders.

  2. [Degradation of oil derivatives by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus MM5].

    PubMed

    Marín, M M; Ortiz, M L; Laborda, F

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the isolation of microorganisms from polluted heating oil. The growth of one of them has been studied (Acinetobacter calcoaceticus MM5) in several linear and branched hydrocarbons as well as the effect of its growth on commercial diesel oil. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus MM5 is not capable of using glucose as its only source of carbon, and it needs the presence of nitrogen and phosphorus sources to degrade any petroleum by-product.

  3. Regiospecific synthesis of 3-substituted imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines, imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines, and imidazo[1,2-c]pyrimidine.

    PubMed

    Katritzky, Alan R; Xu, Yong-Jiang; Tu, Hongbin

    2003-06-13

    3-Substituted imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines, imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines, and imidazo[1,2-c]pyrimidine were obtained regiospecifically in yields of 35-92% in one pot by reaction of 2-aminopyridines or 2-(or 4-)aminopyrimidines, respectively, with 1,2-bis(benzotriazolyl)-1,2-(dialkylamino)ethanes.

  4. Fabrication of 200 mm Diameter Sintering Body of Skutterudite Thermoelectric Material by Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomida, T.; Sumiyoshi, A.; Nie, G.; Ochi, T.; Suzuki, S.; Kikuchi, M.; Mukaiyama, K.; Guo, J. Q.

    2016-11-01

    Filled skutterudite is a promising material for thermoelectric power generation because its ZT value is relatively high. However, mass production of high-performance thermoelectric materials remains a challenge. This study focused on the sintering process of thermoelectric materials. Large-diameter n-type (Yb or La, Ca, Al, Ga, In)0.8(Co, Fe)4Sb12 skutterudite sintering bodies with a small thickness were successfully produced by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. When direct current flows through the thermoelectric sintering body during the SPS pulse, the Peltier effect causes a temperature difference within the sintering body. To eliminate the Peltier effect, an electrical insulating material was inserted between the punch (electrode) and the sintering body. In this way, an n-type La-filled skutterudite sample with a diameter of 200 mm, thickness of 21 mm, and weight of 5 kg was successfully produced. The thermoelectric properties and microstructures of the sample were almost the same throughout the whole sintering body, and the dimensionless figure of merit reached 1.0 at 773 K.

  5. Lunar Brightness Variations with Phase at 4.3-MM Wave Length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Robert J.

    1961-01-01

    The lunar radio observations and interpretations of Piddington and Minnett (1949) and Gibson (1958) show that the lunar brightness variation with phase at millimeter wave lengths can be used to determine the physical properties of the lunar surface. They found that the millimeter-wave brightness lagged the optical phase, and their interpretation was that the millimeter radiation originates below a surface layer that is a very good thermal insulator. The thickness of this layer could not be determined from observations at one frequency. Observations at different frequencies give different results because of the wave-length dependence of the radio absorption by the surface material. The attenuation in the material increases with decreasing wave length, and therefore it is possible, in principle, to determine surface layer thickness from radio observations at several wave lengths. For this reason, observations of lunar radiation were started at the Naval Research Laboratory at a wave length of 4.3 mm. This is half the wave length used by Gibson (1958) in his earlier studies. The radio telescope used for these observations has been described in detail in a previous publication (Coates 1958). The antenna is a parabolic reflector 10 feet in diameter, and it has a beam width of 6.7 minutes of arc at the wave length of 4.3 mm. This is about one-fifth the diameter of the moon. The receiver was a Dicke-type radiometer.

  6. How thick are lunar mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, F.

    1978-01-01

    It is argued that De Hon's estimates of the thickness of lunar mare basalts, made by analyzing 'ghost' craters on mare surfaces, were inflated as the result of the crater morphometric data of Pike (1977) to reconstruct rim heights of degraded craters. Crater rim heights of 82 randomly selected highland craters of various states of degradation were determined, and median rim height was compared to that of corresponding fresh impact structures. Results indicate that the thickness estimates of De Hon may be reduced by a factor of 2, and that the total volume of mare basalt produced throughout lunar history could be as little as 1-2 million cubic kilometers. A survey of geochemical and petrographic evidence indicates that lateral transport of regolith components over distances of much greater than 10 km is relatively inefficient; it is suggested that vertical mixing of a highland substrate underlying the basaltic fill may have had a primordial role in generating the observed mare width distributions and high concentrations of exotic components in intrabasin regoliths.

  7. QM/MM free energy simulations: recent progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiya; Fang, Dong; Ito, Shingo; Okamoto, Yuko; Ovchinnikov, Victor; Cui, Qiang

    Due to the higher computational cost relative to pure molecular mechanical (MM) simulations, hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) free energy simulations particularly require a careful consideration of balancing computational cost and accuracy. Here we review several recent developments in free energy methods most relevant to QM/MM simulations and discuss several topics motivated by these developments using simple but informative examples that involve processes in water. For chemical reactions, we highlight the value of invoking enhanced sampling technique (e.g., replica-exchange) in umbrella sampling calculations and the value of including collective environmental variables (e.g., hydration level) in metadynamics simulations; we also illustrate the sensitivity of string calculations, especially free energy along the path, to various parameters in the computation. Alchemical free energy simulations with a specific thermodynamic cycle are used to probe the effect of including the first solvation shell into the QM region when computing solvation free energies. For cases where high-level QM/MM potential functions are needed, we analyze two different approaches: the QM/MM-MFEP method of Yang and co-workers and perturbative correction to low-level QM/MM free energy results. For the examples analyzed here, both approaches seem productive although care needs to be exercised when analyzing the perturbative corrections.

  8. LTCC Thick Film Process Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Girardi, M. A.; Peterson, K. A.; Vianco, P. T.

    2016-05-01

    Low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) technology has proven itself in military/space electronics, wireless communication, microsystems, medical and automotive electronics, and sensors. The use of LTCC for high frequency applications is appealing due to its low losses, design flexibility and packaging and integration capability. Moreover, we summarize the LTCC thick film process including some unconventional process steps such as feature machining in the unfired state and thin film definition of outer layer conductors. The LTCC thick film process was characterized to optimize process yields by focusing on these factors: 1) Print location, 2) Print thickness, 3) Drying of tapes and panels, 4) Shrinkage upon firing, and 5) Via topography. Statistical methods were used to analyze critical process and product characteristics in the determination towards that optimization goal.

  9. LTCC Thick Film Process Characterization

    DOE PAGES

    Girardi, M. A.; Peterson, K. A.; Vianco, P. T.

    2016-05-01

    Low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) technology has proven itself in military/space electronics, wireless communication, microsystems, medical and automotive electronics, and sensors. The use of LTCC for high frequency applications is appealing due to its low losses, design flexibility and packaging and integration capability. Moreover, we summarize the LTCC thick film process including some unconventional process steps such as feature machining in the unfired state and thin film definition of outer layer conductors. The LTCC thick film process was characterized to optimize process yields by focusing on these factors: 1) Print location, 2) Print thickness, 3) Drying of tapes and panels,more » 4) Shrinkage upon firing, and 5) Via topography. Statistical methods were used to analyze critical process and product characteristics in the determination towards that optimization goal.« less

  10. Applications of film thickness equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1983-01-01

    A number of applications of elastohydrodynamic film thickness expressions were considered. The motion of a steel ball over steel surfaces presenting varying degrees of conformity was examined. The equation for minimum film thickness in elliptical conjunctions under elastohydrodynamic conditions was applied to roller and ball bearings. An involute gear was also introduced, it was again found that the elliptical conjunction expression yielded a conservative estimate of the minimum film thickness. Continuously variable-speed drives like the Perbury gear, which present truly elliptical elastohydrodynamic conjunctions, are favored increasingly in mobile and static machinery. A representative elastohydrodynamic condition for this class of machinery is considered for power transmission equipment. The possibility of elastohydrodynamic films of water or oil forming between locomotive wheels and rails is examined. The important subject of traction on the railways is attracting considerable attention in various countries at the present time. The final example of a synovial joint introduced the equation developed for isoviscous-elastic regimes of lubrication.

  11. Fermion localization on thick branes

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Tempo, Jose David

    2006-02-15

    We consider chiral fermion confinement in scalar thick branes, which are known to localize gravity, coupled through a Yukawa term. The conditions for the confinement and their behavior in the thin-wall limit are found for various different BPS branes, including double walls and branes interpolating between different AdS{sub 5} spacetimes. We show that only one massless chiral mode is localized in all these walls, whenever the wall thickness is keep finite. We also show that, independently of wall's thickness, chiral fermionic modes cannot be localized in dS{sub 4} walls embedded in a M{sub 5} spacetime. Finally, massive fermions in double wall spacetimes are also investigated. We find that, besides the massless chiral mode localization, these double walls support quasilocalized massive modes of both chiralities.

  12. Room-temperature 1.2-J Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe laser

    SciTech Connect

    Velikanov, S D; Zaretsky, N A; Zotov, E A; Maneshkin, A A; Yutkin, I M; Kazantsev, S Yu; Kononov, I G; Firsov, K N; Korostelin, Yu V; Frolov, M P

    2016-01-31

    The characteristics of a laser based on a Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe single crystal pumped by an electric-discharge HF laser at room temperature are studied. The HF laser beam diameter on the crystal surface was 17 mm. The achieved laser energy was 1.2 J with an efficiency of ∼ 25% with respect to the pump energy. (letters)

  13. 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloro - 1,2,2 - trifluoroethane ( CFC - 113 ) ; CASRN 76 - 13 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health

  14. SPECTRAL LINE SURVEY TOWARD THE YOUNG MASSIVE PROTOSTAR NGC 2264 CMM3 IN THE 4 mm, 3 mm, AND 0.8 mm BANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; López-Sepulcre, Ana; Furuya, Ryuta; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sakai, Takeshi; Hirota, Tomoya; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Su, Yu-Nung

    2015-08-20

    Spectral line survey observations are conducted toward the high-mass protostar candidate NGC 2264 CMM3 in the 4, 3, and 0.8 mm bands with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope and the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) 10 m telescope. In total, 265 emission lines are detected in the 4 and 3 mm bands, and 74 emission lines in the 0.8 mm band. As a result, 36 molecular species and 30 isotopologues are identified. In addition to the fundamental molecular species, many emission lines of carbon-chain molecules such as HC{sub 5}N, C{sub 4}H, CCS, and C{sub 3}S are detected in the 4 and 3 mm bands. Deuterated molecular species are also detected with relatively strong intensities. On the other hand, emission lines of complex organic molecules such as HCOOCH{sub 3} and CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} are found to be weak. For the molecules for which multiple transitions are detected, rotation temperatures are derived to be 7–33 K except for CH{sub 3}OH. Emission lines with high upper-state energies (E{sub u} > 150 K) are detected for CH{sub 3}OH, indicating the existence of a hot core. In comparison with the chemical composition of the Orion KL, carbon-chain molecules and deuterated molecules are found to be abundant in NGC 2264 CMM3, while sulfur-bearing species and complex organic molecules are deficient. These characteristics indicate the chemical youth of NGC 2264 CMM3 in spite of its location at the center of the cluster forming core, NGC 2264 C.

  15. Spectral Line Survey toward the Young Massive Protostar NGC 2264 CMM3 in the 4 mm, 3 mm, and 0.8 mm Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; López-Sepulcre, Ana; Furuya, Ryuta; Sakai, Takeshi; Hirota, Tomoya; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Su, Yu-Nung; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-08-01

    Spectral line survey observations are conducted toward the high-mass protostar candidate NGC 2264 CMM3 in the 4, 3, and 0.8 mm bands with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope and the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) 10 m telescope. In total, 265 emission lines are detected in the 4 and 3 mm bands, and 74 emission lines in the 0.8 mm band. As a result, 36 molecular species and 30 isotopologues are identified. In addition to the fundamental molecular species, many emission lines of carbon-chain molecules such as HC5N, C4H, CCS, and C3S are detected in the 4 and 3 mm bands. Deuterated molecular species are also detected with relatively strong intensities. On the other hand, emission lines of complex organic molecules such as HCOOCH3 and CH3OCH3 are found to be weak. For the molecules for which multiple transitions are detected, rotation temperatures are derived to be 7-33 K except for CH3OH. Emission lines with high upper-state energies (Eu > 150 K) are detected for CH3OH, indicating the existence of a hot core. In comparison with the chemical composition of the Orion KL, carbon-chain molecules and deuterated molecules are found to be abundant in NGC 2264 CMM3, while sulfur-bearing species and complex organic molecules are deficient. These characteristics indicate the chemical youth of NGC 2264 CMM3 in spite of its location at the center of the cluster forming core, NGC 2264 C.

  16. Near-infrared imaging equipment that detects small organic substances in thick foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phetchalern, Souphaphone; Tashima, Hiroto; Ishii, Yuya; Ishiyama, Takeshi; Arai, Shinichi; Fukuda, Mitsuo

    2014-09-01

    We have developed near-infrared imaging equipment that can detect small organic substances in foodstuffs with thicknesses of more than 1 mm. The equipment is composed of a high output laser diode and a CMOS camera. The irradiated light power distribution was highly uniform with a maximum optical density of 1.3 W/cm2. A 0.3-mmdiameter wooden stick covered with a 2-mm-thick layer of ham can easily be distinguished in the images. The bones in fish and in chicken wing sticks could also be distinguished. The thicknesses of the fish and the chicken wing sticks were approximately 30 mm and 20 mm, respectively. We eliminated the low spatial frequency components from the images to improve the image contrast.

  17. Influence of internal temperature development during manufacturing on thick laminates compression fatigue properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahuerta, F.; Nijssen, RPL

    2016-07-01

    Thick laminates (above 6 mm) are increasingly present in large composite structures such as wind turbine blades. Blade designs are based on static and fatigue coupon tests on 14mm thick laminates. However, a thickness effect has been observed, showing significantly shorter fatigue life in thick laminates. Different factors are suspected to be involved in the decreased static and dynamic performance of thick laminates. These include the effect of selfheating during fatigue testing, scaling effects, and the influence of residual stresses due to temperature gradients during manufacturing. This work studies the influence of the temperature gradients during resin infusion on the through-thickness fatigue properties in thick laminates. Coupons from thick laminates cured at different curing rates have been tested in fatigue. The work reports the compression fatigue properties of a thick laminate and relates the results with the curing rate. Safety factors between 1.23 and 1.60 regarding the influence of the curing cycles in thick laminates are reported.

  18. Macular thickness and macular volume measurements using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in normal Nepalese eyes

    PubMed Central

    Pokharel, Amrit; Shrestha, Gauri Shankar; Shrestha, Jyoti Baba

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To record the normative values for macular thickness and macular volume in normal Nepalese eyes. Methods In all, 126 eyes of 63 emmetropic subjects (mean age: 21.17±6.76 years; range: 10–37 years) were assessed for macular thickness and macular volume, using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography over 6×6 mm2 in the posterior pole. A fast macular thickness protocol was employed. Statistics such as the mean, median, standard deviation, percentiles, and range were used, while a P-value was set at 0.05 to test significance. Results Average macular thickness and total macular volume were larger in males compared to females. With each year of increasing age, these variables decreased by 0.556 μm and 0.0156 mm3 for average macular thickness and total macular volume, respectively. The macular thickness was greatest in the inner superior section and lowest at the center of the fovea. The volume was greatest in the outer nasal section and thinnest in the fovea. The central subfield thickness (r=−0.243, P=0.055) and foveal volume (r=0.216, P=0.09) did not correlate with age. Conclusion Males and females differ significantly with regard to macular thickness and macular volume measurements. Reports by other studies that the increase in axial length reduced thickness and volume, were negated by this study which found a positive correlation among axial length, thickness, and volume. PMID:27041990

  19. [A preliminary study on macular retinal and choroidal thickness and blood flow change after posterior scleral reinforcement by optical coherence tomography angiography].

    PubMed

    Zhang, X F; Qiao, L Y; Li, X X; Ma, N; Li, M; Guan, Z; Wang, H Z; Wang, N L

    2017-01-11

    Objective: To investigate macular retinal and choroidal thickness and blood flow change using optical coherence tomography angiography after posterior scleral reinforcement (PSR) surgery. Methods: Prospective study. Twenty eyes of 10 patients with high myopia were enrolled in this open-label, single-treatment group and prospective study. Radial lines and Angio retina (3 mm×3 mm) module were performed for 20 eyes using Angio-vue optical coherence tomography (Avanti, Optovue) without pupil dilation, and best corrected visual acuity, spherical equivalent and axial length were compared before and 60 days after surgery. Retinal and choroidal thickness was measured in the fovea, 1 mm superior, 1 mm inferior, 1 mm nasal and 1 mm temporal to the fovea. Flow area, flow density and flow index were recorded using self-provided software in the superficial retina layer, deep retina layer, outer retina layer and choroid capillary layer, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0. Data that followed normal distribution were compared with paired two-sample t-test, while others were compared with Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Of the patients participating in this preliminary study, the mean age was (35.5±4.2) years, and 50% were female. No significant difference was found between before and 60 days after PSR surgery in best corrected visual acuity (t=0.99, P=0.33), spherical equivalent (t=-1.89, P=0.07) and axial length (t=0.2, P=0.08). The retinal thickness in the fovea was thinner (Z=-2.58, P=0.01), while there was no significant difference in the 1 mm superior (t=0.44, P=0.67) , 1 mm inferior (t=0.05, P=0.96) , 1 mm nasal (Z=0.87, P=0.64) and 1 mm temporal (Z=-0.78, P=0.99) to the fovea. No significant difference was found in choroidal thickness (t=-0.12, P=0.87; t=-0.25, P=0.81. t=0.53, P=0.61; t=-0.91, P=0.38. t=1.2, P=0.25) before and after surgery. The postoperative flow density in the superficial and deep retinal layers (48.18±4.56% and 31.47

  20. Fabrication of 30 mm long baseline single-layer 2nd-order high- Tc SQUID gradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soon-Gul; Oh, Soo-Ho; Kang, Chan Seok; Kim, In-Seon

    2007-09-01

    We have designed and fabricated a 30 mm long baseline 2nd-order SQUID gradiometer from a single-layer YBa 2Cu 3O 7 film. The design rule was the same as that of our previous study on short baseline gradiometers. Three linearly aligned 10.2 mm × 10.2 mm pickup loops were coupled directly to a dc SQUID to measure ∂ 2Bz/∂ x2. The device had an overall size of 70.2 mm × 10.6 mm and was patterned from a single layer of YBa 2Cu 3O 7 film on a sapphire substrate by argon ion milling with a photoresist mask. The Josephson element of the SQUID was YBa 2Cu 3O 7 nanobridges formed by focused ion beam writing technique. Balancing of the device was achieved by optimizing the inductance of the center loop. Estimated sensitivity of the gradiometer was ∼1.8 × 10 -10 T/m 2/Hz 1/2, which is equivalent to a field noise of 160 fT/Hz 1/2, for an intrinsic SQUID flux noise of 10 -5 ϕ0/Hz 1/2.

  1. Determination of the effective sample thickness via radiative capture

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, A. M.; Summers, N. C.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Firestone, R. B.; Basunia, M. S.; Escher, J. E.; Sleaford, B. W.

    2015-09-14

    Our procedure for determining the effective thickness of non-uniform irregular-shaped samples via radiative capture is described. In this technique, partial γ-ray production cross sections of a compound nucleus produced in a neutron-capture reaction are measured using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis and compared to their corresponding standardized absolute values. For the low-energy transitions, the measured cross sections are lower than their standard values due to significant photoelectric absorption of the γ rays within the bulk-sample volume itself. Using standard theoretical techniques, the amount of γ-ray self absorption and neutron self shielding can then be calculated by iteratively varying the sample thickness until the observed cross sections converge with the known standards. The overall attenuation provides a measure of the effective sample thickness illuminated by the neutron beam. This procedure is illustrated through radiative neutron capture using powdered oxide samples comprising enriched 186W and 182W from which their tungsten-equivalent effective thicknesses are deduced to be 0.077(3) mm and 0.042(8) mm, respectively.

  2. The effect of zirconia thickness on the biaxial flexural strength of zirconiaceramic bilayered discs.

    PubMed

    Sinmazisik, Gulden; Tarcin, Bilge; Demirbas, Bulent; Gulmez, Turgut; Bor, Emire; Ozer, Fusun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of zirconia core thickness on the biaxial flexural strength values of zirconia-porcelain bilayered discs. A total of 60 discs with 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 mm thickness were obtained from a fully sintered zirconia block. A 1.5-mm thick layer of veneer porcelain was fired on the zirconia specimens and biaxial flexural strength tests were performed on the bilayered discs. In each group, the loading surface was the veneer porcelain in half of the specimens (core in tension) and the zirconia core surface in the other half (core in compression). The zirconia core thickness had no effect on the biaxial flexural strength of zirconiaporcelain bilayered discs when the core was in tension (p>0.05). Whereas, when the core was in compression, an increase in the zirconia core thickness resulted in an increase in the biaxial flexural strength (p<0.05).

  3. Spin-1/2 Optical Lattice Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, N. D.; Ludlow, A. D.; Barber, Z. W.; Fortier, T. M.; Diddams, S. A.; Jiang, Y.; Jefferts, S. R.; Heavner, T. P.; Parker, T. E.; Oates, C. W.

    2009-08-01

    We experimentally investigate an optical clock based on Yb171 (I=1/2) atoms confined in an optical lattice. We have evaluated all known frequency shifts to the clock transition, including a density-dependent collision shift, with a fractional uncertainty of 3.4×10-16, limited principally by uncertainty in the blackbody radiation Stark shift. We measured the absolute clock transition frequency relative to the NIST-F1 Cs fountain clock and find the frequency to be 518 295 836 590 865.2(0.7) Hz.

  4. Eddy current thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Rosen, Gary J.; Sinclair, Frank; Soskov, Alexander; Buff, James S.

    2015-06-16

    A sheet of a material is disposed in a melt of the material. The sheet is formed using a cooling plate in one instance. An exciting coil and sensing coil are positioned downstream of the cooling plate. The exciting coil and sensing coil use eddy currents to determine a thickness of the solid sheet on top of the melt.

  5. The same-source parallel MM{sub 5}.

    SciTech Connect

    Michalakes, J.

    1999-08-23

    The set of architectures available to users of the Penn State/NCAR MM5 has been expanded to included distributed-memory parallel computers, providing cost-effective scalable performance and memory capacity for large problem sizes. The same-source approach uses high-level parallel library and source-translation technology for adapting MM5, simplifying maintenance and allowing new physics modules to be incorporated without modification. The approach facilitates maintenance of the DM-parallel option to MM5 as an option within the official version, rather than as a separate stand-alone version. As a result, the DM-parallel option to MM5 (now at Version 3.1) has been a part of six subsequent model releases since MM5 Version 2.8 in March 1998. The same-source approach is applicable to other, similarly constructed codes when there is a need or desire to develop the code for distributed memory parallel machines without impacting the pre-existing source code. The approach is also compatible with pre-existing loop-level multithreading directives so that the code will run in distributed-memory/shared-memory mode on SMP clusters.

  6. CMOS mm-wave transceivers for Gbps wireless communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baoyong, Chi; Zheng, Song; Lixue, Kuang; Haikun, Jia; Xiangyu, Meng; Zhihua, Wang

    2016-07-01

    The challenges in the design of CMOS millimeter-wave (mm-wave) transceiver for Gbps wireless communication are discussed. To support the Gbps data rate, the link bandwidth of the receiver/transmitter must be wide enough, which puts a lot of pressure on the mm-wave front-end as well as on the baseband circuit. This paper discusses the effects of the limited link bandwidth on the transceiver system performance and overviews the bandwidth expansion techniques for mm-wave amplifiers and IF programmable gain amplifier. Furthermore, dual-mode power amplifier (PA) and self-healing technique are introduced to improve the PA's average efficiency and to deal with the process, voltage, and temperature variation issue, respectively. Several fully-integrated CMOS mm-wave transceivers are also presented to give a short overview on the state-of-the-art mm-wave transceivers. Project supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61331003).

  7. Taming the 1.2 m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, S.; Edwards, M.; Greenwald, D.; Kono, D.; Liang, D.; Lohnes, K.; Wright, V.; Spillar, E.

    2013-09-01

    Achievable residual jitter on the 1.2 m telescope at MSSS shown in Figure 1 has historically been limited to 10-20 arc-sec. peak in moderate wind conditions due to the combination of the dynamics associated with the twin telescopes on the common declination axis shaft, and the related control system behavior. Figure 1 1.2 m Telescope The lightly damped, low frequency fundamental vibration mode shape of the telescopes rotating out of phase on the common declination axis shaft severely degraded the performance of the prior controllers. This vibration mode is easily excited by external forces such as wind loading and internal torque commands from the mount control system. The relatively poor historic performance was due to a combination of the low error rejection of external disturbances, and the controller exciting the mode. A radical new approach has been implemented that has resulted in a decrease of jitter to less than 1 arcsec under most conditions. The new approach includes minor hardware modifications to provide active damping with accelerometers as feedback sensors. This architecture has allowed a bandwidth increase of almost an order of magnitude and eliminated the large amplitude motions at the mode natural frequency, resulting in much improved pointing and jitter performance. A representative comparison of historical versus new architecture performance is shown in Figure 2 for the declination axis.

  8. Thick resist for MEMS processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Joe; Hamel, Clifford

    2001-11-01

    The need for technical innovation is always present in today's economy. Microfabrication methods have evolved in support of the demand for smaller and faster integrated circuits with price performance improvements always in the scope of the manufacturing design engineer. The dispersion of processing technology spans well beyond IC fabrication today with batch fabrication and wafer scale processing lending advantages to MEMES applications from biotechnology to consumer electronics from oil exploration to aerospace. Today the demand for innovative processing techniques that enable technology is apparent where only a few years ago appeared too costly or not reliable. In high volume applications where yield and cost improvements are measured in fractions of a percent it is imperative to have process technologies that produce consistent results. Only a few years ago thick resist coatings were limited to thickness less than 20 microns. Factors such as uniformity, edge bead and multiple coatings made high volume production impossible. New developments in photoresist formulation combined with advanced coating equipment techniques that closely controls process parameters have enable thick photoresist coatings of 70 microns with acceptable uniformity and edge bead in one pass. Packaging of microelectronic and micromechanical devices is often a significant cost factor and a reliability issue for high volume low cost production. Technologies such as flip- chip assembly provide a solution for cost and reliability improvements over wire bond techniques. The processing for such technology demands dimensional control and presents a significant cost savings if it were compatible with mainstream technologies. Thick photoresist layers, with good sidewall control would allow wafer-bumping technologies to penetrate the barriers to yield and production where costs for technology are the overriding issue. Single pass processing is paramount to the manufacturability of packaging

  9. Absolute thickness metrology with submicrometer accuracy using a low-coherence distance measuring interferometer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Schmidt, Greg; Moore, Duncan T; Ellis, Jonathan D

    2015-09-01

    Absolute physical thickness across the sample aperture is critical in determining the index of a refraction profile from the optical path length profile for gradient index (GRIN) materials, which have a designed inhomogeneous refractive index. Motivated by this application, instrumentation was established to measure the absolute thickness of samples with nominally plane-parallel surfaces up to 50 mm thick. The current system is capable of measuring absolute thickness with 120 nm (1σ) repeatability and submicrometer expanded measurement uncertainty. Beside GRIN materials, this method is also capable of measuring other inhomogeneous and opaque materials.

  10. New Methods for Exploring QM:MM Potential Energy Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hratchian, Hrant P.

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, the applicability of quantum chemical methods for large system studies has been greatly enhanced by the development of hybrid QM:MM techniques. Despite these advancements, exploring the associated potential energy surfaces continues to present two key challenges. First, the QM energy and derivative evaluations may be too costly for simulations; and second, the system size for many QM:MM cases are too large to effectively store or use second-order information, an approach often used in QM studies to allow for larger integration steps and fewer QM evaluations of the potential energy surface. Our most recent work is focused on overcoming both computational bottlenecks. Using surface fitting models together with direct Hessian-vector and diagonalization algorithms, we are developing models that can accurately and efficiently explore QM:MM potential energy landscapes for very large systems. Our current development status and results from initial applications will be described.

  11. QM/MM X-ray Refinement of Zinc Metalloenzymes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue; Hayik, Seth A.; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Zinc metalloenzymes play an important role in biology. However, due to the limitation of molecular force field energy restraints used in X-ray refinement at medium or low resolutions, the precise geometry of the zinc coordination environment can be difficult to distinguish from ambiguous electron density maps. Due to the difficulties involved in defining accurate force fields for metal ions, the QM/MM (Quantum-Mechanical /Molecular-Mechanical) method provides an attractive and more general alternative for the study and refinement of metalloprotein active sites. Herein we present three examples that indicate that QM/MM based refinement yields a superior description of the crystal structure based on R and Rfree values and on the inspection of the zinc coordination environment. It is concluded that QM/MM refinement is a useful general tool for the improvement of the metal coordination sphere in metalloenzyme active sites. PMID:20116858

  12. Crystal Growth and Electrical Properties of Lead-Free Piezoelectric Material (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Yasuharu; Harada, Kouichi; Yamashita, Yohachi

    2001-09-01

    Single crystals of lead-free piezoelectric material x(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-yBaTiO3 (NBBT 100x/100y) have been successfully grown by the flux method and the Bridgman method. Using the flux method, crystals having an edge length of 2-8 mm were obtained using Bi2O3 flux with cooling from 1350°C to 800°C at a rate of 3.5°C/h. Using the Bridgman method, comparatively good crystal of 15 mm diameter and 50 mm length was obtained using Bi2O3 flux with the Pt crucible driven down through the heat zone at a speed of 1.0 mm/h. The resulting crystals showed single-phase perovskite structure. Inductively charged plasma (ICP) chemical analysis revealed that the composition of the pulverized powder of these crystals is NBBT 97/3, which is slightly different from the charged composition of NBBT 94/6. One of the single crystals grown by the Bridgman method showed a dielectric constant of 1230 at room temperature and a dielectric constant peak at 313°C.

  13. 450mm wafer patterning with jet and flash imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Ecron; Hellebrekers, Paul; Hofemann, Paul; LaBrake, Dwayne L.; Resnick, Douglas J.; Sreenivasan, S. V.

    2013-09-01

    The next step in the evolution of wafer size is 450mm. Any transition in sizing is an enormous task that must account for fabrication space, environmental health and safety concerns, wafer standards, metrology capability, individual process module development and device integration. For 450mm, an aggressive goal of 2018 has been set, with pilot line operation as early as 2016. To address these goals, consortiums have been formed to establish the infrastructure necessary to the transition, with a focus on the development of both process and metrology tools. Central to any process module development, which includes deposition, etch and chemical mechanical polishing is the lithography tool. In order to address the need for early learning and advance process module development, Molecular Imprints Inc. has provided the industry with the first advanced lithography platform, the Imprio® 450, capable of patterning a full 450mm wafer. The Imprio 450 was accepted by Intel at the end of 2012 and is now being used to support the 450mm wafer process development demands as part of a multi-year wafer services contract to facilitate the semiconductor industry's transition to lower cost 450mm wafer production. The Imprio 450 uses a Jet and Flash Imprint Lithography (J-FILTM) process that employs drop dispensing of UV curable resists to assist high resolution patterning for subsequent dry etch pattern transfer. The technology is actively being used to develop solutions for markets including NAND Flash memory, patterned media for hard disk drives and displays. This paper reviews the recent performance of the J-FIL technology (including overlay, throughput and defectivity), mask development improvements provided by Dai Nippon Printing, and the application of the technology to a 450mm lithography platform.

  14. Simulation on the Effect of Bottle Wall Thickness Distribution using Blow Moulding Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suraya, S.; Azman, M. D.; Fatchurrohman, N.; Jaafar, A. A.; Yusoff, A. R.

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the deformation behavior of a polymeric material during a blow moulding process. Transient computations of two dimensional model of a PP bottle were performed using ANSYS Polyflow computer code to predict the wall thickness distribution at four different parison's diameter; 8mm, 10mm, 18mm, and 20mm. Effects on the final wall thickness diameter and time step are studied. The simulated data shows that the inflation performance degrades with increasing parison diameter. It is concluded that the blow moulding process using 10mm parison successfully meet the product processing requirements. Factors that contribute to the variation in deformation behaviour of the plastic during the manufacturing process are discussed.

  15. Novel Processing of 81-mm Cu Shaped Charge Liners

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A; Korzekwa, D

    2002-01-16

    A seven-step procedure was developed for producing shaped charge liner blanks by back extrusion at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Starting with a 38.1-mm diameter, 101.6-mm long cylinder at 77K, three forging steps with a flat-top die are required to produce the solid cone while maintaining low temperature. The solid cone is forged in four individual back extrusions at 77K to produce the rough liner blank. This procedure is capable of being run in batch processes to improve the time efficiency.

  16. Effect of subcooling and wall thickness on pool boiling from downward-facing curved surfaces in water

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, M.S.; Glebov, A.G.

    1995-09-01

    Quenching experiments were performed to investigate the effects of water subcooling and wall thickness on pool boiling from a downward-facing curved surface. Experiments used three copper sections of the same diameter (50.8 mm) and surface radius (148 mm), but different thickness (12.8, 20 and 30 mm). Local and average pool boiling curves were obtained at saturation and 5 K, 10 K, and 14 K subcooling. Water subcooling increased the maximum heat flux, but decreased the corresponding wall superheat. The minimum film boiling heat flux and the corresponding wall superheat, however, increased with increased subcooling. The maximum and minimum film boiling heat fluxes were independent of wall thickness above 20 mm and Biot Number > 0.8, indicating that boiling curves for the 20 and 30 thick sections were representative of quasi steady-state, but not those for the 12.8 mm thick section. When compared with that for a flat surface section of the same thickness, the data for the 12.8 mm thick section showed significant increases in both the maximum heat flux (from 0.21 to 0.41 MW/m{sup 2}) and the minimum film boiling heat flux (from 2 to 13 kW/m{sup 2}) and about 11.5 K and 60 K increase in the corresponding wall superheats, respectively.

  17. Continuous transformation of a -1/2 wedge disclination line to a +1/2 one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Jun-Ichi

    2010-04-01

    It is known that, in the order-parameter space S2/Z2 (a typical example being a uniaxial nematic liquid crystal in three dimensions), a -1/2 wedge disclination line and a +1/2 one are topologically equivalent and can thus be transformed continuously into each other. Here we report the realization of this transformation in a simulation of a cholesteric blue phase under an electric field.

  18. Influence of light curing unit and ceramic thickness on temperature rise during resin cement photo-activation.

    PubMed

    Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Consani, Simonides; Mastrofrancisco, Sarina; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different ceramic thickness on heat generation during resin cement photo-activation by QTH (quartz-tungsten-halogen), LED (light emitting diode), and PAC (plasma arc-curing) LCUs (light curing units). The resin cement used was Rely X ARC (3M-ESPE), and the ceramic was IPS Empress Esthetic (Ivoclar-Vivadent), of which 0.7-, 1.4- and 2.0-mm thick disks, 0.8 mm in diameter were made. Temperature increase was recorded with a type-K thermocouple connected to a digital thermometer (Iopetherm 46). An acrylic resin base was built to guide the thermocouple and support the 1.0-mm thick dentin disk. A 0.1-mm thick black adhesive paper matrix with a perforation 6 mm in diameter was placed on the dentin to contain the resin cement and support the ceramic disks of different thicknesses. Three LCUs were used: QTH, LED and PAC. Nine groups were formed (n=10) according to the interaction: 3 ceramic thicknesses, 1 resin cement and 3 photo-activation methods. Temperature increase data were submitted to Tukey's test (5%). For all ceramic thicknesses, a statistically significant difference in temperature increase was observed among the LCUs, with the highest mean value for the QTH LCU (p<0.05). For all the LCUs, a thickness of 0.7 mm produced the highest temperatures (1.4 and 2.0mm, p<0.05). There was no difference in temperature values between the latter two thicknesses (p>0.05). The interaction of higher energy density with smaller ceramic thickness showed higher temperature increase values.

  19. MR Imaging Detection of Cerebral Microbleeds: Effect of Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging, Section Thickness, and Field Strength

    PubMed Central

    Nandigam, R.N.K.; Viswanathan, A.; Delgado, P.; Skehan, M.E.; Smith, E.E.; Rosand, J.; Greenberg, S.M.; Dickerson, B.C.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The emergence of cerebral microbleeds (CMB) as common MR imaging findings raises the question of how MR imaging parameters influence CMB detection. To evaluate the effects of modified gradient recalled-echo (GRE) MR imaging methods, we performed an analysis of sequence, section thickness, and field strength on CMB imaging properties and detection in subjects with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), a condition associated with microhemorrhage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multiple MR images were obtained from subjects with probable CAA, with varying sequences (GRE versus susceptibility-weighted imaging [SWI]), section thicknesses (1.2–1.5 versus 5 mm), and magnetic field strengths (1.5T versus 3T). Individual CMB were manually identified and analyzed for contrast index (lesion intensity normalized to normal-appearing white matter signal intensity) and diameter. CMB counts were compared between 1.5T thick-section GRE and thin-section SWI for 3 subjects who underwent both protocols in the same scanning session. RESULTS: With other parameters constant, use of SWI, thinner sections, and a higher field strength yielded medium-to-large gains in CMB contrast index (CI; Cohen d 0.71–1.87). SWI was also associated with small increases in CMB diameter (Cohen d <0.3). Conventional thick-section GRE identified only 33% of CMB (103 of 310) seen on thin-section SWI. Lesions prospectively identified on GRE had significantly greater CI and diameter measured on the GRE image than those not prospectively identified. CONCLUSIONS: The examined alternatives to conventional GRE MR imaging yield substantially improved CMB contrast and sensitivity for detection. Future studies based on these techniques will most likely yield even higher prevalence estimates for CMB. PMID:19001544

  20. 1,2-hydroxypyridonates as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging: TREN-1,2-HOPO.

    PubMed

    Jocher, Christoph J; Moore, Evan G; Xu, Jide; Avedano, Stefano; Botta, Mauro; Aime, Silvio; Raymond, Kenneth N

    2007-10-29

    1,2-Hydroxypyridinones (1,2-HOPO) form very stable lanthanide complexes that may be useful as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). X-ray diffraction of single crystals established that the solid-state structures of the Eu(III) and the previously reported [Inorg. Chem. 2004, 43, 5452] Gd(III) complex are identical. The recently discovered sensitizing properties of 1,2-HOPO chelates for Eu(III) luminescence [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 10 067] allow for direct measurement of the number of water molecules coordinated to the metal center. Fluorescence measurements of the Eu(III) complex corroborate that, in solution, two water molecules coordinate the lanthanide (q = 2) as proposed from the analysis of NMRD profiles. In addition, fluorescence measurements have verified the anion binding interactions of lanthanide TREN-1,2-HOPO complexes in solution, studied by relaxivity, revealing only very weak oxalate binding (KA = 82.7 +/- 6.5 M-1). Solution thermodynamic studies of the metal complex and free ligand have been carried out using potentiometry, spectrophotometry, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The metal ion selectivity of TREN-1,2-HOPO supports the feasibility of using 1,2-HOPO ligands for selective lanthanide binding [pGd = 19.3 (2), pZn = 15.2 (2), pCa = 8.8 (3)].

  1. Endothelial Dysfunction and Brachial Intima-Media Thickness: Long Term Cardiovascular Risk with Claudication Related to Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, Franz; Kieninger, Andrea; Meinitzer, Andreas; Gary, Thomas; Froehlich, Harald; Haas, Elke; Hackl, Gerald; Eller, Philipp; Brodmann, Marianne; Seinost, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Objective Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the development, progression, and clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis, and in symptomatic peripheral arterial disease, endothelial dysfunction and enlarged intima-media thickness might be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Flow-mediated dilatation and serologic parameters are used to evaluate individual endothelial function. Brachial intima-media thickness, a less recognized parameter of cardiovascular risk, is independently associated with coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of ultrasound and serologic parameters of endothelial function in relation to cardiovascular mortality in peripheral arterial disease. Design monocentric, prospective cohort study. Methods Flow mediated dilatation and brachial intima-media thickness were assessed in 184 (124 male) patients with peripheral arterial disease (Rutherford stages 2–3). Serologic parameters of endothelial function included asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), and L-homoarginine. Cardiovascular events were recorded during a follow-up of 99.1±11.1 months. Subjects who died of noncardiovascular causes were excluded from further analysis. Results Eighty-two patients (44.6%) died during follow-up after a mean duration of 49.7±28.3 months. There were 49 cardiovascular deaths (59.8%) and 33 other deaths (40.2%). Flow mediated dilatation was associated with cardiovascular death [1.17% (0.0, 4.3) vs. 4.1% (1.2, 6.4), p<0.001]. Intima-media thickness was greater in patients who succumbed to cardiovascular disease [0.37 mm (0.30, 0.41)] than in survivors [0.21 mm (0.15, 0.38), p<0.001]. Brachial intima-media thickness above 0.345 mm was most predictive of cardiovascular death, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.714 and 0.657, respectively (p<0.001). Furthermore, ADMA levels above 0.745 µmol/l and SDMA levels above 0.825 µmol/l were significantly associated with

  2. Impact cratering experiments in brittle targets with variable thickness: Implications for deep pit craters on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michikami, T.; Hagermann, A.; Miyamoto, H.; Miura, S.; Haruyama, J.; Lykawka, P. S.

    2014-06-01

    High-resolution images reveal that numerous pit craters exist on the surface of Mars. For some pit craters, the depth-to-diameter ratios are much greater than for ordinary craters. Such deep pit craters are generally considered to be the results of material drainage into a subsurface void space, which might be formed by a lava tube, dike injection, extensional fracturing, and dilational normal faulting. Morphological studies indicate that the formation of a pit crater might be triggered by the impact event, and followed by collapse of the ceiling. To test this hypothesis, we carried out laboratory experiments of impact cratering into brittle targets with variable roof thickness. In particular, the effect of the target thickness on the crater formation is studied to understand the penetration process by an impact. For this purpose, we produced mortar targets with roof thickness of 1-6 cm, and a bulk density of 1550 kg/m3 by using a mixture of cement, water and sand (0.2 mm) in the ratio of 1:1:10, by weight. The compressive strength of the resulting targets is 3.2±0.9 MPa. A spherical nylon projectile (diameter 7 mm) is shot perpendicularly into the target surface at the nominal velocity of 1.2 km/s, using a two-stage light-gas gun. Craters are formed on the opposite side of the impact even when no target penetration occurs. Penetration of the target is achieved when craters on the opposite sides of the target connect with each other. In this case, the cross section of crater somehow attains a flat hourglass-like shape. We also find that the crater diameter on the opposite side is larger than that on the impact side, and more fragments are ejected from the crater on the opposite side than from the crater on the impact side. This result gives a qualitative explanation for the observation that the Martian deep pit craters lack a raised rim and have the ejecta deposit on their floor instead. Craters are formed on the opposite impact side even when no penetration

  3. Julius F. Neumueller Award Paper--1977. Static fracture resistance of Schott S-1005 lenses as a function of thickness.

    PubMed

    Scaief, A L; Wood, S A

    1978-01-01

    High-Lite S-1005 lenses (Schott Optical Company) of various center thicknesses were tested for static load fracture resistance. Chemically tempered High-Lite lenses of 1.7-mm center thickness were found to be equivalent in strength to 3.0-mm heat-tempered crown lenses; 1.34-mm chemically tempered High-Lite lenses were equivalent in strength to 2.07-mm heat-tempered crown lenses. These findings agree closely with earlier data on chemically tempered crown glass and therefore illustrate that chemically hardened lenses can be made significantly thinner than Z-80 specifications and still meet FDA strength requirements.

  4. Effect of ceramic thickness and composite bases on stress distribution of inlays--a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Durand, Letícia Brandão; Guimarães, Jackeline Coutinho; Monteiro Junior, Sylvio; Baratieri, Luiz Narciso

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cavity depth, ceramic thickness, and resin bases with different elastic modulus on von Mises stress patterns of ceramic inlays. Tridimensional geometric models were developed with SolidWorks image software. The differences between the models were: depth of pulpal wall, ceramic thickness, and presence of composite bases with different thickness and elastic modulus. The geometric models were constrained at the proximal surfaces and base of maxillary bone. A load of 100 N was applied. The stress distribution pattern was analyzed with von Mises stress diagrams. The maximum von Mises stress values ranged from 176 MPa to 263 MPa and varied among the 3D-models. The highest von Mises stress value was found on models with 1-mm-thick composite resin base and 1-mm-thick ceramic inlay. Intermediate values (249-250 MPa) occurred on models with 2-mm-thick composite resin base and 1-mm-thick ceramic inlay and 1-mm-thick composite resin base and 2-mm-thick ceramic inlay. The lowest values were observed on models restored exclusively with ceramic inlay (176 MPa to 182 MPa). It was found that thicker inlays distribute stress more favorably and bases with low elastic modulus increase stress concentrations on the internal surface of the ceramic inlay. The increase of ceramic thickness tends to present more favorable stress distribution, especially when bonded directly onto the cavity without the use of supporting materials. When the use of a composite base is required, composite resin with high elastic modulus and reduced thickness should be preferred.

  5. Coal thickness guage using RRAS techniques, parts 2 and 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. D.; Rollwitz, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Electron magnetic resonance was investigated as a sensing technique for use in measuring the thickness of the layer of coal overlying the rock substrate. The goal is development of a thickness gauge which will be usable for control of mining machinery to maintain the coal thickness within selected bounds. A sensor must be noncontracting, have a measurement range of 6 inches or more, and an accuracy of 1/2 inch or better. The sensor should be insensitive to variations in spacing between the sensor and the surface, the response speed should be adequate to permit use on continuous mining equipment, and the device should be rugged and otherwise suited for operation under conditions of high vibration, moisture, and dust. Finally, the sensor measurement must not be adversely affected by the natural effects occurring in coal such as impurities, voids, cracks, layering, high moisture level, and other conditions that are likely to be encountered.

  6. Effect of the amount of thickness reduction on color and translucency of dental monolithic zirconia ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jai-Bong

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study investigated the effect of amount of thickness reduction on color and translucency of dental monolithic zirconia ceramics. MATERIALS AND METHODS One-hundred sixty-five monolithic zirconia specimens (16.3 mm × 16.3 mm × 2.0 mm) were divided into 5 groups (Group I to V) according to the number of A2-coloring liquid applications. Each group was then divided into 11 subgroups by reducing the thickness up to 1.0 mm in 0.1-mm increments (Subgroup 0 to 10, n=3). Colors and spectral distributions were measured according to CIELAB on a reflection spectrophotometer. All measurements were performed on five different areas of each specimen. Color difference (ΔE*ab) and translucency parameter (TP) were calculated. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and multiple comparison Scheffé test (α=.05). RESULTS There were significant differences in CIE L* between Subgroup 0 and other subgroups in all groups. CIE a* increased (0.52thickness reduction. Perceptible color differences (ΔE* ab>3.7) were obtained between Subgroup 0 and other subgroups. TP values generally increased as the thickness reduction increased in all groups (R2>0.89, P<.001). CONCLUSION Increasing thickness reduction reduces lightness and increases a reddish, bluish appearance, and translucency of monolithic zirconia ceramics. PMID:26949486

  7. Thickness and fit of mouthguards adjusted by notching thermoplastic sheets under different heating conditions.

    PubMed

    Mizuhashi, Fumi; Koide, Kaoru; Takahashi, Mutsumi

    2015-08-01

    This study examines the thickness and fit of mouthguards by notching thermoplastic copolymer ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) sheets and then heating them to various degrees. The material used was a 3.8-mm-thick sports mouthguard. Notches with a length of 90 and 80 mm were cut into an EVA sheet 20 mm from the anterior and posterior margins and 15 mm from the right and left margins, respectively, and the sheet was compared with the original. The sheets were formed using a vacuum former when the sheets were heated until they hung 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 cm from the baseline. We measured the thickness and fit of the mouthguard at the central incisor and first molar. Differences in thickness and fit according to the measurement parts, sheet type, and heating conditions were analyzed by three-way anova. The measurement parts and sheet type significantly differed (P < 0.01), and the notched sheet maintained the required thickness. Fit differed among the measurement parts and by heating conditions (P < 0.01), but was not affected by the notching. The mouthguard fit was optimal when the sheets were heated to a hanging distance of 3.0 cm. These results suggest that the thickness and fit of the EVA sheet could be maintained by notching and heating the sheet to a hanging distance of 3.0 cm. These findings could be useful for fabricating appropriate mouthguards.

  8. Measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness by near-infrared.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Yang, Zeqiang; Hao, Dongmei; Zhang, Song; Yang, Yimin; Zeng, Yanjun

    2013-06-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with the risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and there is a need to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) layer thickness and to understand the distribution of body fat. A device was designed to illuminate the body parts by near-infrared (NIR), measure the backscattered light, and predict the SAT layer thickness. The device was controlled by a single-chip microcontroller (SCM), and the thickness value was presented on a liquid crystal display (LCD). There were 30 subjects in this study, and the measurements were performed on 14 body parts for each subject. The paper investigated the impacts of pressure and skin colour on the measurement. Combining with principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector regression (SVR), the measurement accuracy of SAT layer thickness was 89.1 % with a mechanical caliper as reference. The measuring range was 5-11 mm. The study provides a non-invasive and low-cost technique to detect subcutaneous fat thickness, which is more accessible and affordable compared to other conventional techniques. The designed device can be used at home and in community.

  9. Transmission of vibration through gloves: effects of material thickness.

    PubMed

    Md Rezali, Khairil Anas; Griffin, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    It might be assumed that increasing the thickness of a glove would reduce the vibration transmitted to the hand. Three material samples from an anti-vibration glove were stacked to produce three thicknesses: 6.4, 12.8 and 19.2 mm. The dynamic stiffnesses of all three thicknesses, the apparent mass at the palm and the finger and the transmission of vibration to the palm and finger were measured. At frequencies from 20 to 350 Hz, the material reduced vibration at the palm but increased vibration at the finger. Increased thickness reduced vibration at the palm but increased vibration at the finger. The measured transmissibilities could be predicted from the material dynamic stiffness and the apparent mass of the palm and finger. Reducing the dynamic stiffness of glove material may increase or decrease the transmission of vibration, depending on the material, the frequency of vibration and the location of measurement (palm or finger). Practitioner Summary: Transmission of vibration through gloves depends on the dynamic response of the hand and the dynamic stiffness of glove material, which depends on material thickness. Measuring the transmission of vibration through gloves to the palm of the hand gives a misleading indication of the transmission of vibration to the fingers.

  10. A Biomechanical Comparison of Three 1.5-mm Plate and Screw Configurations and a Single 2.0-mm Plate for Internal Fixation of a Mandibular Condylar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Aquilina, Peter; Parr, William C.H.; Chamoli, Uphar; Wroe, Stephen; Clausen, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The most stable pattern of internal fixation for mandibular condyle fractures is an area of ongoing discussion. This study investigates the stability of three patterns of plate fixation using readily available, commercially pure titanium implants. Finite element models of a simulated mandibular condyle fracture were constructed. The completed models were heterogeneous in bone material properties, contained approximately 1.2 million elements and incorporated simulated jaw adducting musculature. Models were run assuming linear elasticity and isotropic material properties for bone. No human subjects were involved in this investigation. The stability of the simulated condylar fracture reduced with the different implant configurations, and the von Mises stresses of a 1.5-mm X-shaped plate, a 1.5-mm rectangular plate, and a 1.5-mm square plate (all Synthes (Synthes GmbH, Zuchwil, Switzerland) were compared. The 1.5-mm X plate was the most stable of the three 1.5-mm profile plate configurations examined and had comparable mechanical performance to a single 2.0-mm straight four-hole plate. This study does not support the use of rectangular or square plate patterns in the open reduction and internal fixation of mandibular condyle fractures. It does provide some support for the use of a 1.5-mm X plate to reduce condylar fractures in selected clinical cases. PMID:25136411

  11. Lonsdaleite Films with Nanometer Thickness.

    PubMed

    Kvashnin, Alexander G; Sorokin, Pavel B

    2014-02-06

    We investigate the properties of potentially the stiffest quasi-2-D films with lonsdaleite structure. Using a combination of ab initio and empirical potential approaches, we analyze the elastic properties of lonsdaleite films in both elastic and inelastic regimes and compare them with graphene and diamond films. We review possible fabrication methods of lonsdaleite films using the pure nanoscale "bottom-up" paradigm: by connecting carbon layers in multilayered graphene. We propose the realization of this method in two ways: by applying direct pressure and by using the recently proposed chemically induced phase transition. For both cases, we construct the phase diagrams depending on temperature, pressure, and film thickness. Finally, we consider the electronic properties of lonsdaleite films and establish the nonlinear dependence of the band gap on the films' thicknesses and their lower effective masses in comparison with bulk crystal.

  12. Measurement of opaque film thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Jaarinen, J.; Reyes, C.; Oppenheim, I. C.; Favro, L. D.; Kuo, P. K.

    1987-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental framework for thickness measurements of thin metal films by low frequency thermal waves is described. Although it is assumed that the films are opaque and the substrates are comparatively poor thermal conductors, the theory is easily extended to other cases of technological interest. A brief description is given of the thermal waves and the experimental arrangement and parameters. The usefulness of the technique is illustrated for making absolute measurements of the thermal diffusivities of isotropic substrate materials. This measurement on pure elemental solids provides a check on the three dimensional theory in the limiting case of zero film thickness. The theoretical framework is then presented, along with numerical calculations and corresponding experimental results for the case of copper films on a glass substrate.

  13. Brown dwarf disks with Herschel: Linking far-infrared and (sub)-mm fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daemgen, Sebastian; Natta, Antonella; Scholz, Alexander; Testi, Leonardo; Jayawardhana, Ray; Greaves, Jane; Eastwood, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Brown dwarf disks are excellent laboratories to test our understanding of disk physics in an extreme parameter regime. In this paper we investigate a sample of 29 well-characterized brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, for which Herschel far-infrared fluxes and (sub)-mm fluxes are available. We measured new Herschel/PACS fluxes for 11 objects and complement these with (sub)-mm data and Herschel fluxes from the literature. We analyze their spectral energy distributions in comparison with results from radiative transfer modeling. Fluxes in the far-infrared are strongly affected by the shape and temperature of the disk (and hence stellar luminosity), whereas the (sub)-mm fluxes mostly depend on disk mass. Nevertheless, there is a clear correlation between far-infrared and (sub)-mm fluxes. We argue that the link results from the combination of the stellar mass-luminosity relation and a scaling between disk mass and stellar mass. We find strong evidence of dust settling to the disk midplane. The spectral slopes between near- and far-infrared are mostly between -0.5 and -1.2 in our sample, which is comparable to more massive T Tauri stars; this may imply that the disk shapes are similar as well, although highly flared disks are rare among brown dwarfs. We find that dust temperatures in the range of 7-15 K, calculated with T ≈ 25 (L/L⊙)0.25 K, are appropriate for deriving disk masses from (sub)-mm fluxes for these low luminosity objects. About half of our sample hosts disks with at least one Jupiter mass, confirming that many brown dwarfs harbor sufficient material for the formation of Earth-mass planets in their midst. Herschel is a ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  14. Surgical Management of Tibial Plateau Fractures With 3.5 mm Simple Plates

    PubMed Central

    Bagherifard, Abolfazl; Jabalameli, Mahmoud; Hadi, Hosseinali; Rahbar, Mohammad; Minator Sajjadi, Mohammadreza; Jahansouz, Ali; Karimi Heris, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Tibial plateau fractures can be successfully fixed utilizing 3.5 mm locking plates. However, there are some disadvantages to using these plates. Objectives In the current prospective study, we investigated the outcome of treating different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates which, to our knowledge, has not been evaluated in previous studies. Materials and Methods Between 2011 and 2013, 32 patients aged 40 ± 0.2 years underwent open reduction and internal fixation for tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple plates. The patients were followed for 16.14 ± 2.1 months. At each patient’s final visit, the articular surface depression, medial proximal tibial angle, and slope angle were measured and compared with measurements taken early after the operation. The functional outcomes were measured with the WOMAC and Lysholm knee scores. Results The mean union time was 13 ± 1.2 weeks. The mean knee range of motion was 116.8° ± 3.3°. The mean WOMAC and Lysholm scores were 83.5 ± 1.8 and 76.8 ± 1.6, respectively. On the early postoperative and final X-rays, 87.5% and 84% of patients, respectively, had acceptable reduction. Medial proximal tibial and slope angles did not change significantly by the last visit. No patient was found to have complications related to the type of plate. Conclusions In this case series study, the fixation of different types of tibial plateau fractures with 3.5 mm simple non-locking and non-precontoured plates was associated with acceptable clinical, functional, and radiographic outcomes. Based on the advantages and costs of these plates, the authors recommend using 3.5 mm simple plates for different types of tibial plateau fractures. PMID:27626010

  15. High thickness acrylamide photopolymer for peristrophic multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortuño, M.; Fernández, E.; Márquez, A.; Gallego, S.; Neipp, C.; Pascual, I.

    2006-05-01

    The acrylamide photolymers are considered interesting materials for holographic media. They have high diffraction efficiency (ratio of the intensities of the diffracted and the incident beams), an intermediate energetic sensitivity among other materials and post-processing steps are not necessary, therefore the media is not altered. The layers of these materials, about 1 mm thick, are a suitable media for recording many diffraction gratings in the same volume of photopolymer using peristrophic multiplexing technique, with great practical importance in the field of holographic memories type WORM (write once read many). In this work we study the recording of diffraction gratings by peristrophic multiplexing with axis of rotation perpendicular to the recording media. The photopolymer is composed of acrylamide as the polymerizable monomer, triethanolamine as radical generator, yellowish eosin as sensitizer and a binder of polyvinyl alcohol. We analyze the holographic behaviour of the material during recording and reconstruction of diffraction gratings using a continuous Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) at an intensity of 5 mW/cm2 as recording laser. The response of the material is monitored after recording with an He-Ne laser. We study the recording process of unslanted diffraction gratings of 1125 lines/mm. The diffraction efficiency of each hologram is seen to decrease as the number of holograms recorded increases, due to consumption of the available dynamic range, in a constant exposure scheduling. It can be seen that the photopolymer works well with high energy levels, without excessive dispersion of light by noise gratings. In order to homogenize the diffraction efficiency of each hologram we use the method proposed by Pu. This method is designed to share all or part of the avaliable dynamic range of the recording material among the holograms to be multiplexed. Using exposure schedules derived from this method we have used 3 scheduling recordings from the algorithm used

  16. Laser hole drilling in thick polypropylene sheets for alignment sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergen, D. E.; Chapman, Glenn H.; Samra, Taranjit S.; Weeks, T. S.

    1996-04-01

    Laser micromachining of polypropylene for transducer applications has the advantage of creating small (< 100 micron) structures through very thick materials (> 400 micron). Normally translucent polypropylene formed using carbon as a dye is an excellent laser machining material having a high optical absorption, and a low thermal conductivity. For an optical alignment system a matrix of high aspect ratio holes of < 130 microns diameter with < 300 micron spacing was needed through thick (> 400 micron) sheets. This alignment sensor is to be used on the end of a robot arm and will aid in the manipulation of the arm. Using an argon ion laser focused through a 50 mm lens (5.2 micron R1/e2 spot, 55.2 micron focal depth), holes as small as 30 microns on 150 micron spacing were achieved in 400 - 500 micron thick black polypropylene sheets with consistent results. Best results currently are achieved with a laser power of only 0.3 W, using 10 - 100 pulse stream of 10 - 100 microsec pulses, and duty cycles of < 10%. Shorter duty cycles require more power, as do shorter pulse durations, and both result in larger holes at wider spacings. Minimum repeatable hole separation is controlled by the lip of material formed around the hole. These settings have achieved 41 X 29 (1189 hole) arrays on a sample, with a computer driven submicron XYZ positioning system. Commercially available opaque white polypropylene required 17 times the power, and achieved holes of only 127 microns, with 500 microns spacing in 500 micron thick material. Thicker (1 mm) black polypropylene produces 144 micron holes on 500 micron spacings due to the lip material, and required a 100 mm lens.

  17. Guide to Free-Loan Sports Films (16mm).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1974

    This catalog provides information on free 16 mm films dealing with a wide variety of individual and team sports, such as football, golf, water sports, snow sports, racing, and baseball, as well as on general sports competition and safety. Unless otherwise noted, the films are in color and with sound. Titles are listed alphabetically under their…

  18. Propellant Residues Deposition from Firing of 40-mm Grenades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    the snow surface downrange of the firing positions in three sampling units on each pad. Samples were analyzed and results compo- sited to derive an...Processing and Analysis ..................................................................... 10 3.1 Snow samples...mm howitzers, propel- lant residues containing DNT were collected from the snow -covered area in front of one of the guns (Walsh, M.E. et al. 2004

  19. Downslope windstorm in Iceland - WRF/MM5 model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rögnvaldsson, Ó.; Bao, J.-W.; Ágústsson, H.; Ólafsson, H.

    2011-01-01

    A severe windstorm downstream of Mt. Öræfajökull in Southeast Iceland is simulated on a grid of 1 km horizontal resolution by using the PSU/NCAR MM5 model and the Advanced Research WRF model. Both models are run with a new, two equation planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme as well as the ETA/MYJ PBL schemes. The storm is also simulated using six different micro-physics schemes in combination with the MYJ PBL scheme in WRF, as well as one "dry" run. Output from a 3 km MM5 domain simulation is used to initialise and drive both the 1 km MM5 and WRF simulations. Both models capture gravity-wave breaking over Mt. Öræfajökull, while the vertical structure of the lee wave differs between the two models and the PBL schemes. The WRF simulated downslope winds, using both the MYJ and 2EQ PBL schemes, are in good agreement with the strength of the observed downslope windstorm. The MM5 simulated surface winds, with the new two equation model, are in better agreement to observations than when using the ETA scheme. Micro-physics processes are shown to play an important role in the formation of downslope windstorms and a correctly simulated moisture distribution is decisive for a successful windstorm prediction. Of the micro-physics schemes tested, only the Thompson scheme captures the downslope windstorm.

  20. Advisory List of Instructional Media--16MM Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Educational Media.

    These two advisory lists include information on 16mm films appropriate for the K-12 instructional program. In both bibliographies films are listed in the following categories: communication skills; guidance; health, physical education, safety, and sports; science; and social studies. The list for the 1982-1983 school year also includes categories…

  1. Guide to Films (16 mm) About Ecology, Adaptation and Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    Synopses of 350 films (16 mm.) on ecology, adaptation of plants and animals to their environment, and environmental pollution are listed alphabetically by title in this guide. It specifies whether the film is black-and-white or color, its running time, and its source. An abbreviated subject index and a directory of sources are also provided. The…

  2. IMPLEMENTATION OF AN URBAN CANOPY PARAMETERIZATION IN MM5

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) (Grell et al. 1994) has been modified to include an urban canopy parameterization (UCP) for fine-scale urban simulations (~1-km horizontal grid spacing). The UCP accounts for drag ...

  3. Bell & Howell Introduces an 8mm Cartridge Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educ Screen Audiovisual Guide, 1970

    1970-01-01

    "Bell & Howell has developed a highly versatile cartidge projector system for cine and super 8mm formats. Because Bell & Howell believes that standardization is an important factor in the development of a cartridge system, it has built in a flexibility which will allow this standardization. (Author)

  4. Minimum thickness anterior porcelain restorations.

    PubMed

    Radz, Gary M

    2011-04-01

    Porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs) provide the dentist and the patient with an opportunity to enhance the patient's smile in a minimally to virtually noninvasive manner. Today's PLV demonstrates excellent clinical performance and as materials and techniques have evolved, the PLV has become one of the most predictable, most esthetic, and least invasive modalities of treatment. This article explores the latest porcelain materials and their use in minimum thickness restoration.

  5. Studies on CDP-choline:1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase activity in rat arterial wall.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, N; Matsuoka, N; Shirai, K; Saito, Y; Kumagai, A

    1982-06-01

    The properties of CDP-choline:1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (CPT) (EC 2.7.8.2.), which catalyzes de novo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, were studied in rat arterial wall. The optimal pH of CPT of the arterial wall was about 8.5. On subcellular fractionation of the arterial wall, the highest activity was found in the microsome-rich fraction; the cytosolic fraction showed only a trace of activity. The Michaelis constant (KM) for CDP-choline was 0.019 mM. The CPT activity of a homogenate of arterial wall increased linearly with increase in concentration of diolein up to 3.2 mM. 20 mM magnesium and 0.2 mM manganese ions caused marked activation respectively and essential for the activity. Calcium, barium, cobalt, copper, and ferrous ions were inhibitory. 0.5 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and 0.5 mM glycoletherdiamine-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (GEDTA) increased the activity in the presence of 10 mM magnesium ion. Sonication of the enzyme solution and addition of high concentration of detergent, such as Triton X-100 and Tween 20, markedly decreased the activity. Porcine liver phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and especially polyenephosphatidylcholine increased CPT activity of the arterial wall, while lysophosphatidylcholine was strongly inhibitory. The properties of arterial CPT activity under various conditions are discussed.

  6. Thickness of western mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    An isopach map of the basalt thickness in the western mare basins is constructed from measurements of the exposed external rim height of partially buried craters. The data, although numerically sparse, is sufficiently distributed to yield gross thickness variations. The average basalt thickness in Oceanus Procellarum and adjacent regions is 400 m with local lenses in excess of 1500 m in the circular maria. The total volume of basalt in the western maria is estimated to be in the range of 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power cu km. The chief distinction between the eastern and western maria appears to be one of basalt volumes erupted to the surface. Maximum volumes of basalt are deposited west of the central highlands and flood subjacent terrain to a greater extent than on the east. The surface structures of the western maria reflect the probability of a greater degree of isostatic response to a larger surface loading by the greater accumulation of mare basalt.

  7. VLA 7-mm Observations of Massive Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, Hendrik; Hofner, Peter; Araya, Esteban; Stecklum, Bringfried

    2003-07-01

    The early stages during the formation of massive stars are deeply enshrouded due to the presence of dense and dusty natal material. This prevents observations in the optical and often also in the near-infrared. The emission of the star-forming regions peaks in the far-infrared and sub-mm regime, but at these wavelengths, single-dish observations are restricted in spatial resolution and can give only upper limits on the energetics of the objects of interest. Interferometry at mm wavelengths is one appropriate technique to overcome these limitations. We have started an extensive programme to observe pre-selected massive star-forming regions. Our tool is the VLA and its 7-mm receiver system. The VLA can be operated in several antenna configurations delivering resolutions from 1.5 arcsec down to 0.05 arcsec, which is superior to other current mm-interferometers. Sub-arcsec resolution is strongly needed to disentangle the often crowded regions of high-mass star formation and to clearly separate our objects of interest from the adjacent ultracompact HII regions. At 7 mm we are on the save ground of the Rayleigh-Jeans limit even for emission of cold dust (a fact that is not always true for observations at smaller wavelengths). Almost all circumstellar density configurations are optically thin at 7 mm, thus, the observations will trace the total dust content. However, at 7 mm also the free-free emission from ionised gas (caused by the UV emission of the young massive stars) can contribute to the observed signal. Therefore, we have to identify and remove these "parasitic" constituents by extrapolating interferometric data obtained at cm-wavelengths. The targets are either taken from the list of Molinari (Molinari et al. 2000, A&A, 355, 617) or are well-known massive star-forming complexes, for which we have already acquired additional data at other wavelengths. We have started with observations at lower and medium resolution (1.5 - 0.5 arcsec) to distinguish candidates for

  8. Measuring Rind Thickness on Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C.; Miller, J.; Brown, H.

    1985-01-01

    Nondestructive test determines rind thickness of polyurethane foam. Surface harness of foam measured by Shore durometer method: hardness on Shore D scale correlates well with rind thickness. Shore D hardness of 20, for example, indicates rind thickness of 0.04 inch (1 millimeter). New hardness test makes it easy to determine rind thickness of sample nondestructively and to adjust fabrication variables accordingly.

  9. Influence of light curing and sample thickness on microhardness of a composite resin.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Flávio Hb; Andrade, Kelly Rm; Leite Lima, Débora An; Ambrosano, Gláucia Mb; Lovadino, José R

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of light-curing units and different sample thicknesses on the microhardness of a composite resin. Composite resin specimens were randomly prepared and assigned to nine experimental groups (n = 5): considering three light-curing units (conventional quartz tungsten halogen [QTH]: 550 mW/cm(2) - 20 s; high irradiance QTH: 1160 mW/cm(2) - 10 s; and light-emitting diode [LED]: 360 mW/cm(2) - 40 s) and three sample thicknesses (0.5 mm, 1 mm, and 2 mm). All samples were polymerized with the light tip 8 mm away from the specimen. Knoop microhardness was then measured on the top and bottom surfaces of each sample. The top surfaces, with some exceptions, were almost similar; however, in relation to the bottom surfaces, statistical differences were found between curing units and thicknesses. In all experimental groups, the 0.5-mm-thick increments showed microhardness values statistically higher than those observed for 1- and -2-mm increments. The conventional and LED units showed higher hardness mean values and were statistically different from the high irradiance unit. In all experimental groups, microhardness mean values obtained for the top surface were higher than those observed for the bottom surface. In conclusion, higher levels of irradiance or thinner increments would help improve hybrid composite resin polymerization.

  10. Influence of light curing and sample thickness on microhardness of a composite resin

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Flávio HB; Andrade, Kelly RM; Leite Lima, Débora AN; Ambrosano, Gláucia MB; Lovadino, José R

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of light-curing units and different sample thicknesses on the microhardness of a composite resin. Composite resin specimens were randomly prepared and assigned to nine experimental groups (n = 5): considering three light-curing units (conventional quartz tungsten halogen [QTH]: 550 mW/cm2 – 20 s; high irradiance QTH: 1160 mW/cm2 – 10 s; and light-emitting diode [LED]: 360 mW/cm2 – 40 s) and three sample thicknesses (0.5 mm, 1 mm, and 2 mm). All samples were polymerized with the light tip 8 mm away from the specimen. Knoop microhardness was then measured on the top and bottom surfaces of each sample. The top surfaces, with some exceptions, were almost similar; however, in relation to the bottom surfaces, statistical differences were found between curing units and thicknesses. In all experimental groups, the 0.5-mm-thick increments showed microhardness values statistically higher than those observed for 1- and -2-mm increments. The conventional and LED units showed higher hardness mean values and were statistically different from the high irradiance unit. In all experimental groups, microhardness mean values obtained for the top surface were higher than those observed for the bottom surface. In conclusion, higher levels of irradiance or thinner increments would help improve hybrid composite resin polymerization. PMID:23674901

  11. Measuring joint cartilage thickness using reflectance spectroscopy non-invasively and in real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canpolat, Murat; Denkceken, Tuba; Karagol, Cosar; Aydin, Ahmet T.

    2011-03-01

    Joint cartilage thickness has been estimated using spatially resolved steady-state reflectance spectroscopy noninvasively and in-real time. The system consists of a miniature UV-VIS spectrometer, a halogen tungsten light source, and an optical fiber probe with six 400 um diameter fibers. The first fiber was used to deliver the light to the cartilage and the other five were used to detect back-reflected diffused light. Distances from the detector fibers to the source fiber were 0.8 mm, 1.6 mm, 2.4 mm, 3.2 mm and 4 mm. Spectra of back-reflected diffused light were taken on 40 bovine patella cartilages. The samples were grouped into four; the first group was the control group with undamaged cartilages, in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups cartilage thickness was reduced approximately 25%, 50% and 100%, respectively. A correlation between cartilage thicknesses and hemoglobin absorption of light in the wavelength range of 500 nm- 600 nm for source-detector pairs was found. The proposed system with an optical fiber probe less than 4 mm in diameter has the potential for cartilage thickness assessment through an arthroscopy channel in real-time without damaging the cartilage.

  12. Energy dependent chest wall thickness equations for male lung monitoring with germanium detectors.

    PubMed

    Broggio, D; Lechaftois, X; Abline, O; Fleury, B; Vial, A; Corrèze, P; Franck, D; Merzoug, V

    2014-03-01

    The thickness and fat fraction of the chest wall are important parameters for in vivo lung monitoring. They have been measured from ultrasonic images on 374 male workers of the French nuclear industry using four measurement locations, as dictated by the size and position of the germanium detectors used for monitoring. The plastic muscle equivalent chest wall thickness (PMECWT) and the plastic 50% muscle-50% adipose equivalent chest wall thickness (X5050) have been calculated for each worker at 17, 59.5, and 185.7 keV, respectively. Multi-linear regression models have been tested to predict PMECWT and X5050 as a function of anthropometric measurements. Finally, it was considered whether the average chest wall thickness could be used instead of the material equivalent chest wall thickness. It was found that the mean chest wall thickness was (27 ± 5) mm and the mean fat fraction was (25 ± 8)%. The best and more convenient model for material equivalent chest wall thickness is a linear function of the body mass index. Depending on the energy, the standard errors of estimate for this model range between 3.2-3.4 mm for PMECWT and between 3.2-3.7 mm for X5050. At 59.5 and 185.7 keV, it was determined, to an excellent approximation, that the fat fraction and consideration of an equivalent material are unnecessary, contrary to the case at 17 keV.

  13. Convergence in the QM-only and QM/MM modeling of enzymatic reactions: A case study for acetylene hydratase.

    PubMed

    Liao, Rong-Zhen; Thiel, Walter

    2013-10-15

    We report systematic quantum mechanics-only (QM-only) and QM/molecular mechanics (MM) calculations on an enzyme-catalyzed reaction to assess the convergence behavior of QM-only and QM/MM energies with respect to the size of the chosen QM region. The QM and MM parts are described by density functional theory (typically B3LYP/def2-SVP) and the CHARMM force field, respectively. Extending our previous work on acetylene hydratase with QM regions up to 157 atoms (Liao and Thiel, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2012, 8, 3793), we performed QM/MM geometry optimizations with a QM region M4 composed of 408 atoms, as well as further QM/MM single-point calculations with even larger QM regions up to 657 atoms. A charge deletion analysis was conducted for the previously used QM/MM model (M3a, with a QM region of 157 atoms) to identify all MM residues with strong electrostatic contributions to the reaction energetics (typically more than 2 kcal/mol), which were then included in M4. QM/MM calculations with this large QM region M4 lead to the same overall mechanism as the previous QM/MM calculations with M3a, but there are some variations in the relative energies of the stationary points, with a mean absolute deviation (MAD) of 2.7 kcal/mol. The energies of the two relevant transition states are close to each other at all levels applied (typically within 2 kcal/mol), with the first (second) one being rate-limiting in the QM/MM calculations with M3a (M4). QM-only gas-phase calculations give a very similar energy profile for QM region M4 (MAD of 1.7 kcal/mol), contrary to the situation for M3a where we had previously found significant discrepancies between the QM-only and QM/MM results (MAD of 7.9 kcal/mol). Extension of the QM region beyond M4 up to M7 (657 atoms) leads to only rather small variations in the relative energies from single-point QM-only and QM/MM calculations (MAD typically about 1-2 kcal/mol). In the case of acetylene hydratase, a model with 408 QM atoms thus seems

  14. The Effect of Braze Interlayer Thickness on the Mechanical Strength of Alumina Brazed with Ag-CuO Braze Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, Kevin M.; Meier, Alan; Joshi, Vineet V.; Pilgrim, Steven M.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of braze interlayer thickness on the strength of alumina brazed with silver-copper oxide reactive air braze (RAB) alloys was evaluated using a four point bend test configuration. The brazed samples had an average fracture strength of 180 MPa or approximately 60 percent of the average monolithic alumina strength. The joint strength values obtained exceeded the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the silver interlayer indicating strong ceramic to metal adhesion and the development of a triaxial stress state in the braze interlayer. The average fracture strength was relatively constant (190 ± 60 MPa) in the thickness range of 0.030 mm to 0.230 mm for all test conditions. The braze fracture strength then decreased down to 100 ± 30 MPa as the braze thickness increased from 0.230 mm to 0.430 mm indicating a loss of triaxial constraint with increasing interlayer thickness. In addition, four different fracture modes were observed.

  15. Thickness and marking quality of different occlusal contact registration strips

    PubMed Central

    TOLEDO, Maria Fernanda de Souza Mauá Serapião; JÓIAS, Renata Pilli; MARQUES-IASI, Yves Santini; NEVES, Ana Christina Claro; RODE, Sigmar de Mello

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate the thickness and the marking quality of different occlusal contact registration strips (OCRS) and a possible correlation between them. Material and Methods The following OCRS were selected: Accufilm II, BK20, BK21, BK22, BK23, BK28, and BK31. The thickness was measured in three points of the OCRS with an electronic measuring device (TESA), and the mean was calculated. To produce the marks on the strips, composite resin specimens were adapted to a universal testing machine (Versat 2000) with 40 kgf load cell at a speed of 1.0 mm/min. The mark images were photographed with a stereoscopic microscope (Stemi SV11) and processed and analyzed by the 550-Leica Qwin® analyzer. Results Values (μm) found in the 1st and 2nd thickness measurements were: Accufilm II - 16.4 and 14.2; BK20 - 10.0 and 8.1; BK21 - 9.5 and 8.0; BK22 - 9.7 and 8.7; BK23 - 9.8 and 7.9; BK28 - 12.8 and 10.0; and BK31 - 8.4 and 8.0, respectively. The mean (mm2) values found in the mark areas were: Accufilm II - 0.078; BK20 - 0.035; BK21 - 0.045; BK22 - 0.012; BK23 - 0.022; BK28 - 0.024; and BK31 - 0.024. The results were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis (p<0.05) and Pearson’s correlation tests. Conclusions Only in the 2nd measurement, the OCRS thickness observed was similar to the value indicated by the manufacturers; the Accufilm II and the BK28 strips showed the better marks; and no correlation was found between the thickness and the marking area. PMID:25591020

  16. 77 FR 30407 - 1,2-Ethanediamine, N

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 1,2-Ethanediamine, N1-(2-aminoethyl)-, polymer with 2, 4- diisocyanato-1...-ethanediamine, N1-(2-aminoethyl)-, polymer with 2,4-diisocyanato-1-methylbenzene, when used as an inert... residues of 1,2- ethanediamine, N1-(2-aminoethyl)-, polymer with 2,4-diisocyanato-1- methylbenzene on...

  17. Effect of patellar thickness on knee flexion in total knee arthroplasty: a biomechanical and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Abolghasemian, Mansour; Samiezadeh, Saeid; Sternheim, Amir; Bougherara, Habiba; Barnes, C Lowry; Backstein, David J

    2014-01-01

    A biomechanical computer-based model was developed to simulate the influence of patellar thickness on passive knee flexion after arthroplasty. Using the computer model of a single-radius, PCL-sacrificing knee prosthesis, a range of patella-implant composite thicknesses was simulated. The biomechanical model was then replicated using two cadaveric knees. A patellar-thickness range of 15 mm was applied to each of the knees. Knee flexion was found to decrease exponentially with increased patellar thickness in both the biomechanical and experimental studies. Importantly, this flexion loss followed an exponential pattern with higher patellar thicknesses in both studies. In order to avoid adverse biomechanical and functional consequences, it is recommended to restore patellar thickness to that of the native knee during total knee arthroplasty.

  18. The minimum thickness of a multilayer porcelain restoration required for masking severe tooth discoloration

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Niloofar; Kandi, Saeideh Gorji; Ebrahimi, Shahram Farzin; Shoul, Maryam Azizi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although studies have shown that porcelain veneers are very efficient for treating discolored teeth, they did not address in particular the minimum thickness of a multilayer IPS e.max Press (IvoclarVivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) restoration required to mask discolored tooth. The aim of this study was to determine the minimum thickness of a multilayer porcelain restoration required for masking severe tooth discoloration. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 disk-shaped multilayer specimens were prepared from IPS e.max Press with the diameter of 13 mm and four different thicknesses (core/veneer: 0.4/0.4 mm, 0.5/0.5 mm, 0.6/0.6 mm and 0.8/0.7 mm). Two backgrounds, C4-shade body porcelain and an opaque background from the selected IPS e.max ceramic itself were fabricated to mimic a discolored or stained natural tooth structure and to determine the masking ability. After applying the resin cement layer (Panavia F2.0) with 0.01 mm thickness on each background, all specimens were measured on both background using a spectrophotometer and values of L*, a* and b* were calculated to determine the color differences (ΔE*ab). One-way ANOVA and post-hoc tests of specimen average one-to-one comparison (Tukey HSD) were conducted and P ≤ 0.05 was set as the level of significance. Results: ΔE*ab of all groups were within the range of the clinically acceptable color difference (ΔE≤3.3), thus all the groups could mask the C4 background even group 1 with only 0.8 mm thickness. A trend was shown in the results as by increasing the thickness, ΔE*ab is was decreased. The mean ΔE*1*a*b between different thicknesses were statistically significant (P < 0.05) only between group 4 with groups 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, all studied thicknesses could mask the C4 background. However, the minimum thickness of a multilayer porcelain restoration (IPS e.max Press) required for masking severe tooth discoloration was 0.8 mm. PMID

  19. Novel fermentation: the production of R(-)-1,2-propanediol and acetol by Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, D.C.; Cooney, C.L.

    1986-07-01

    Three strains of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum were found that produce R(-)-1,2-propanediol from a variety of sugars, including D-glucose and D-xylose. The fermentation of glucose by strain HG-8 (ATCC 31960) gave 7.9 g/l of R(-)-1,2-propanediol with a best yield of 0.27 g/g glucose and an enantiomeric excess of greater than 99%. Acetol accumulated to 1.47 g/l. Product formation was not affected by phosphate concentrations up to 113 mM. A possible pathway to these products involves a variation of the methylglyoxal bypass. Methylglyoxal is reduced to acetol, which is further reduced to %(-)-1,2-propanediol. This fermentation provides a unique route to R(-)-1,2-propanediol and acetol from inexpensive, readily available substrates.

  20. Reducing shield thickness and backscattered radiation using a multilayered shield for 6–10 MeV electron beams.

    PubMed

    Butson, Martin; Chen, Tom; Rattanavoang, Somkhit; Hellyer, James; Gray, Alison; Nelson, Vinod; Short, Richard; Rajapakse, Satya; Lee, James; Fogarty, Gerald; Izard, Michael; Hill, Robin

    2015-12-01

    Intraoral and external electron shields used in radiotherapy are designed to minimize radiation exposure to non-treatment tissue. Sites where shields are used include but are not limited to, the treatment of lips, cheeks and ears whilst shielding the underlying oral cavity, tongue, gingival or temporal region. A commonly known and published effect, concerns the enhancement in dose that can occur on the beam side on an electron shield caused by an increase in electron backscatter radiation. In this work a lead shield has been designed incorporating copper, aluminium and wax in a step down filter arrangement to minimise backscatter whilst minimizing overall shield thickness for better clinical setup and ease of use. For electron beams ranging from 6 to 10 MeV, a standard shield design of 4 mm lead, 0.6 mm copper, 1.0 mm aluminium and 1.5 mm wax (3.1 mm added filtration, 7.1 mm total thickness) provided adequate backscatter and transmission reduction to match a standard 4.5 mm lead and 10 mm wax (total thickness 14.5 mm) electron shield. Dose enhancement values of no more than 10 % were measured utilising this shield design with a 50 % reduction in shield thickness. The thinner shield will not only allow easier patient set up but should be tolerated better by patients when mucosal reactions occur as they place less physical pressure on these sites during treatment due to their smaller size.

  1. Distributed ice thickness and glacier volume in southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Davies, Bethan J.; James, William H. M.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Glasser, Neil F.

    2016-11-01

    South American glaciers, including those in Patagonia, presently contribute the largest amount of meltwater to sea level rise per unit glacier area in the world. Yet understanding of the mechanisms behind the associated glacier mass balance changes remains unquantified partly because models are hindered by a lack of knowledge of subglacial topography. This study applied a perfect-plasticity model along glacier centre-lines to derive a first-order estimate of ice thickness and then interpolated these thickness estimates across glacier areas. This produced the first complete coverage of distributed ice thickness, bed topography and volume for 617 glaciers between 41°S and 55°S and in 24 major glacier regions. Maximum modelled ice thicknesses reach 1631 m ± 179 m in the South Patagonian Icefield (SPI), 1315 m ± 145 m in the North Patagonian Icefield (NPI) and 936 m ± 103 m in Cordillera Darwin. The total modelled volume of ice is 1234.6 km3 ± 246.8 km3 for the NPI, 4326.6 km3 ± 865.2 km3 for the SPI and 151.9 km3 ± 30.38 km3 for Cordillera Darwin. The total volume was modelled to be 5955 km3 ± 1191 km3, which equates to 5458.3 Gt ± 1091.6 Gt ice and to 15.08 mm ± 3.01 mm sea level equivalent (SLE). However, a total area of 655 km2 contains ice below sea level and there are 282 individual overdeepenings with a mean depth of 38 m and a total volume if filled with water to the brim of 102 km3. Adjusting the potential SLE for the ice volume below sea level and for the maximum potential storage of meltwater in these overdeepenings produces a maximum potential sea level rise (SLR) of 14.71 mm ± 2.94 mm. We provide a calculation of the present ice volume per major river catchment and we discuss likely changes to southern South America glaciers in the future. The ice thickness and subglacial topography modelled by this study will facilitate future studies of ice dynamics and glacier isostatic adjustment, and will be important for projecting water resources and

  2. 26. A sepia photograph, 7 1/2" x 8 1/2" oh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. A sepia photograph, 7 1/2" x 8 1/2" oh semi-matte paper, aerial oblique of central Terre Haute with negative inscribed letters (prints on positive as white) along the bottom margin, "(02105-631K-118) (3-10-37. 10:30A) (R-1000) (State Normal College, Terre Haute, Ind.)" This view taken looking east shows the gas building in the near foreground right. On the reverse in red pencil, "Campus Scenes 10" and in black pencil, "1937". Source: Indiana State University Archives. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  3. Clinical evaluation of a high-resolution (2. 6-mm) positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Valk, P.E.; Jagust, W.J.; Derenzo, S.E.; Huesman, R.H.; Geyer, A.B.; Budinger, T.F. )

    1990-09-01

    The intrinsic resolution of the Donner 600-crystal positron emission tomograph (PET 600) is 2.6 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) in-plane and 6 mm FWHM axially. More than 100 patients with glioma, radiation necrosis, Alzheimer disease, or epilepsy have been studied with this system. Approximately 1 million events are acquired in 15 minutes, starting 1 hour after injection of 10 mCi (370 MBq) of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose. Normal structures as small as the superior colliculi and the external capsule have been resolved. Improved separation of the cortical ribbon from adjacent white matter has allowed more accurate determination of cortical metabolic rate. In two of 15 patients undergoing evaluation for recurrent glioma, the PET 600 images showed tumor uptake that was not apparent on a lower-resolution study. A high-activity orbiting transmission source with electronic collimation allows accurate, short-duration transmission measurements to be made after radiopharmaceutical administration. The anatomic detail seen on the transmission images can be used for reproducible patient positioning with an accuracy of 1-2 mm perpendicular to the image plane. These findings demonstrate the practicality and clinical effectiveness of high-resolution positron emission tomography.

  4. New layer thickness parameterization of diffusive convection in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Sheng-Qi; Lu, Yuan-Zheng; Song, Xue-Long; Fer, Ilker

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, a new parameterization is proposed to describe the convecting layer thickness in diffusive convection. By using in situ observational data of diffusive convection in the lakes and oceans, a wide range of stratification and buoyancy flux is obtained, where the buoyancy frequency N varies between 10-4 and 0.1 s-1 and the heat-related buoyancy flux qT varies between 10-12 and 10-7 m2 s-3. We construct an intrinsic thickness scale, H0 =[qT3 / (κTN8) ] 1 / 4, here κT is the thermal diffusivity. H0 is suggested to be the scale of an energy-containing eddy and it can be alternatively represented as H0 = ηRebPr1/4, here η is the dissipation length scale, Reb is the buoyant Reynolds number, and Pr is the Prandtl number. It is found that the convective layer thickness H is directly linked to the stability ratio Rρ and H0 with the form of H ∼ (Rρ - 1)2H0. The layer thickness can be explained by the convective instability mechanism. To each convective layer, its thickness H reaches a stable value when its thermal boundary layer develops to be a new convecting layer.

  5. Fine Structure in the Mm-Wavelength Spectra of the Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, H. S.; Cecatto, J. R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Faltan observaciones solares espectrosc6picas en la longitud de onda milimetrica. Hay sugerencias de que se puede superponer una fi na estructura en frecuencia a la componente-S de la regi6n solar activa, asi como a la componente del brote en las longitudes de onda milimetri- cas. Se ha desarrollado un receptor de alta sensibilidad de pasos de frecuencia que opera en el intervalo de 23-18 GHz con una resoluci6n de 1 GHz y resoluci6n de tiempo variable entre 1.2 y 96 sec, usando la an- tena de Itapetinga de 13.7-m para estudiar la estructura fina en frecuencia y tiempo. Discutimos el espectro en longitud de onda-mm en re- giones activas y su evoluci6n en el tiempo. El estudio de Ia evoluci6n en el tiempo de la regi6n activa en AR 5569 observada el 29 de junio de 1989, sugiere la existencia de estructuras finas como funci6n deltiempo. ABSTRACT. There is a lack of mm-wavelength spectroscopic solar observations. There are suggestions that a fine structure in frequency may be superimposed on the S-component of solar active region as well as on the burst component at inm-wavelengths. To study fine structure in frequency and time, a high sensitivity step frequency receiver operating in the frequency range 23-18 GHz with frequency resolution of 1 GHz and variable time resolution 1.2 to 96 sec, using 13.7 m diameter Itapetinga radome covered antenna, has been developed. Here, we discuss mm-wavelength spectra of active regions and their time evolution. Study of time evolution of an active region AR 5569 observed on 29th June, 1989 suggests existence of fine structures as a function of time. ( Ck : SUN-ACTIVITY - SUN-RADIO RADIATION

  6. A 10-mm MR-Conditional Unidirectional Pneumatic Stepper Motor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yue; Mershon, Christopher D.; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) conditional robotic devices facilitate accurate interventional procedures under MR imaging (MRI) guidance. For this purpose, a compact (10-mm diameter) MR-conditional stepper motor is presented. The device features seven key components, which contribute to a dense and easy to fabricate design. Alternating bursts of pressurized air and vacuum can drive the motor in 60° per step to achieve a maximum torque of 2.4 mNm. The relationship between torque and angular speed was investigated to demonstrate motor performance under different loading conditions. The stepper motor was tested in a GE 3T MRI scanner to verify its MR-compatibility. A maximum artifact width of 3 mm was measured in MRI images and a maximum signal-to-noise ratio reduction of 2.49% was recorded. PMID:25419104

  7. Robotic QM/MM-driven maturation of antibody combining sites.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Ivan V; Golovin, Andrey V; Chatziefthimiou, Spyros D; Stepanova, Anastasiya V; Peng, Yingjie; Zolotareva, Olga I; Belogurov, Alexey A; Kurkova, Inna N; Ponomarenko, Natalie A; Wilmanns, Matthias; Blackburn, G Michael; Gabibov, Alexander G; Lerner, Richard A

    2016-10-01

    In vitro selection of antibodies from large repertoires of immunoglobulin (Ig) combining sites using combinatorial libraries is a powerful tool, with great potential for generating in vivo scavengers for toxins. However, addition of a maturation function is necessary to enable these selected antibodies to more closely mimic the full mammalian immune response. We approached this goal using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations to achieve maturation in silico. We preselected A17, an Ig template, from a naïve library for its ability to disarm a toxic pesticide related to organophosphorus nerve agents. Virtual screening of 167,538 robotically generated mutants identified an optimum single point mutation, which experimentally boosted wild-type Ig scavenger performance by 170-fold. We validated the QM/MM predictions via kinetic analysis and crystal structures of mutant apo-A17 and covalently modified Ig, thereby identifying the displacement of one water molecule by an arginine as delivering this catalysis.

  8. A 300-nm compact mm-wave linac FEL design

    SciTech Connect

    Nassiri, A.; Kustom, R.L.; Kang, Y.W.

    1995-12-31

    Microfabrication technology offers an alternative method for fabricating precision, miniature-size components suitable for use in accelerator physics and commercial applications. The original R&D work at Argonne, in collaboration with the University of Illinois at Chicago, has produced encouraging results in the area of rf accelerating structure design, optical and x-ray masks production, deep x-ray lithography (LIGA exposures), and precision structural alignments. In this paper we will present a design study for a compact single pass mm-linac FEL to produce short wavelength radiation. This system will consists of a photocathode rf gun operated at 30 GHz, a 50-MeV superconducting constant gradient structure operated at 60 GHz, and a microundulator with 1-mm period. Initial experimental results on a scale model rf gun and microundulator will be presented.

  9. Mechanical property anisotropy in ultra-thick copper electrodeposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overman, N. R.; Overman, C. T.; Edwards, D. J.; Hoppe, E. W.

    2015-09-01

    Electroplating was used as a purification method and produced thick (3.2-12.2 mm) copper deposits of ultra-high radiopurity. Due to the extreme thickness of these electrodeposits compared to traditional electroplating, characterization is necessary to prevent costly failures and ensure device reliability. The deposition rate was carefully controlled to maintain a uniform growth front and required plating for a continuous 8 months in order to produce the 12.2-mm-thick copper specimen. Tensile testing shows the electroplated copper to exhibit significant strain hardening as would be expected with face-centered cubic materials, indicating that the material is free of significant defects and voids. Testing of eight tensile samples machined according to ASTM-E8 specifications exhibited yield strengths of 95 ± 4 MPa. Hardness was measured to be 79.8 ± 5.3 HV using a 200-gf load. Microstructure and deformation showed the grains to be highly aligned with respect to the growth direction, and electron backscatter diffraction showed the development of a (110) texture.

  10. Determination of the effective sample thickness via radiative capture

    DOE PAGES

    Hurst, A. M.; Summers, N. C.; Szentmiklosi, L.; ...

    2015-09-14

    Our procedure for determining the effective thickness of non-uniform irregular-shaped samples via radiative capture is described. In this technique, partial γ-ray production cross sections of a compound nucleus produced in a neutron-capture reaction are measured using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis and compared to their corresponding standardized absolute values. For the low-energy transitions, the measured cross sections are lower than their standard values due to significant photoelectric absorption of the γ rays within the bulk-sample volume itself. Using standard theoretical techniques, the amount of γ-ray self absorption and neutron self shielding can then be calculated by iteratively varying the sample thicknessmore » until the observed cross sections converge with the known standards. The overall attenuation provides a measure of the effective sample thickness illuminated by the neutron beam. This procedure is illustrated through radiative neutron capture using powdered oxide samples comprising enriched 186W and 182W from which their tungsten-equivalent effective thicknesses are deduced to be 0.077(3) mm and 0.042(8) mm, respectively.« less

  11. Association between choroidal thickness and anterior chamber segment in eyes with narrow or open-angle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Song-Feng; Wu, Ge-Wei; Chen, Chang-Xi; Shen, Ling; Zhang, Zhi-Bao; Gao, Fei; Wang, Ning-Li

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the relationship between choroidal thickness and anterior chamber segment in subjects with eyes with narrow or open-angle. METHODS The subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured with enhanced depth-imaging optical coherence tomography and anterior chamber parameters were measured with ultrasound biomicroscopy in one eye of 23 subjects with open-angle eyes and 38 subjects with narrow-angle eyes. The mean age was 59.52±7.04y for narrow-angle subjects and 60.76±7.23y for open-angle subjects (P=0.514). Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to assess the association between choroidal thickness and narrow-angle parameters. RESULTS There were no differences in subfoveal choroidal thickness between open- and narrow-angle subjects (P=0.231). Anterior chamber parameters, including central anterior chamber depth, trabecular iris angle, iris thickness 500 µm from the scleral spur (IT500), and ciliary body thickness at 1 mm and 2 mm from the scleral spur (CBT1, CBT2) showed significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05). Subfoveal choroidal thickness showed negative correlation (β=-0.496, P=0.016) only with anterior chamber depth in the open-angle group and with age (β=-0.442, P=0.003) and IT500 (β=-0.399, P=0.008) in the narrow-angle group. However, subfoveal choroidal thickness was not correlated with trabecular iris angle, anterior chamber depth, ciliary body thickness, or central corneal thickness in the narrow-angle group. CONCLUSION Choroidal thickness does not differ in the two groups and has not correlated with anterior chamber parameters in narrow-angle subjects, suggesting a lack of relationship between choroidal thickness and primary angle-closure glaucoma. PMID:27588269

  12. S-I-S mm-Wave Mixers and Detectors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    286 (19849 ’Y. TOa L. Yml md U. Kawaks AppL fly. LaL 37,239 ’WM. 3 Ushy ad ClJ.huky. h idmuMX ku~ubkSdlme--(’N9 M&Vikapw. pbki.mm mW ApN~um, ussk by...amorphous barriers poses both potential advantages and disadvantages c nared to alternate fabrication techniques for both super-Schottky and Josephson

  13. Perforated Brake Efficiency Measurements Using a 20-mm Cannon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    and exterior surfaces. Pb is the time- dependent breech pressure of the propellant gas, P0 is atmospheric pressure , and A is the bore area. The second...term is the sum of the integrals of the pressure forces generated by the N individual vents. P, is the time- and position- dependent pressure acting...brake ........................................ 37 Bla. Pressure histories for round 19534, 120-mm standard brake at 30 calibers. Data used in report

  14. Residues from Live Fire Detonations of 155-mm Howitzer Rounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    tests were conducted on an ice- and snow-covered range, which allowed us to sample the residues on an explosives- free surface and to visually...manufacturing impurity in RDX. We selected 155-mm rounds for testing because they are one of the top five most commonly used rounds in the U.S. arsenal...Delta River is a large anastomosing river with a cobble and gravel flood plain characterized, in winter, by intermixed ice and cobble bars. Although

  15. MM&T: Bibliography on Optical Testing with Appendix.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-26

    I963-A ITI to TECHNICAL REPORT RH-CR-82-6’.-4 MM&T: BIBLIOGRAPHY ON OPTICAL TESTING WITH APPENDIX A. Comejo-Rodriguez Apdo..Postal 216 Puebla , Puebla ...15 Refs.). Descriptors: LENSES; OPTICAL TESTING; INTERFEROMETERS; LIGHT REFRACTION; VISION Identifiers: TALBOT INTERFEROMETERS; MOIRE FRINGES; LENS...here described. MARTIN, S. "INFLUENCE OF SURFACE DEFECTS ON THE GLARE CHARACTERISTICS OF A NIGHT VISION SYSTEM WITH REFRACTIVE OPTICS" Opt. Acta, 25

  16. A 37-mm Ceramic Gun Nozzle Stress Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    A 37-mm Ceramic Gun Nozzle Stress Analysis by Xiaogang Huang , James Garner, and Paul Conroy ARL-TR-3804 May 2006...Gun Nozzle Stress Analysis Xiaogang Huang , James Garner, and Paul Conroy Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...622618.H8011 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Xiaogang Huang , James Garner, and Paul Conroy 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  17. Electric Field Tunable Microwave and MM-wave Ferrite Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-30

    Electric Field Tunable Microwave and MM-wave Ferrite Devices (N00014-06-01-0167) Period of Performance: May 1, 2006-April 30, 2010 Principal...modes as a function of E. The coupling was strong and ranged from 1 to 30 MHz/(kV/cm). Ferrite - ferroelectric composites were used in microwave and...2005, focused on ME effects at microwave and millimeter wave frequencies in ferrite -ferroelectric composites. Studies were performed on basic

  18. 120mm Prestressed Carbon Fiber/Thermoplastic Overwrapped Gun Tubes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    YYYY) 30-10-2008 2. REPORT TYPE FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 120mm Prestressed Carbon Fiber/Thermoplastic...successfully test fired. The first barrel was not prestressed and was reported on previously. This paper will focus on the other three barrels. The... prestress in the jacket. Dealing with these issues greatly complicated the manufacturing process to the point where mass-producing the barrels would

  19. mm-wave observations of stratospheric HCN at tropical latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaramillo, M.; De Zafra, R. L.; Barrett, J. W.; Parrish, A.; Solomon, P. M.

    1988-01-01

    Middle and upper stratospheric HCN has been measured using ground-based mm-wave emission spectroscopy during a series of observations made in Mauna Kea, HI, in June 1986. A volume mixing ratio of 190 + or - 40 pptv at about 40 km, and a decrease of concentration with altitude that is considerably slower than that predicted by current models are found. This could be an indication of an atmospheric source of HCN as yet unidentified.

  20. Experimental investigations of 3 mm aperture PPLN structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolker, D.; Pronyushkina, A.; Boyko, A.; Kostyukova, N.; Trashkeev, S.; Nuyshkov, B.; Shur, V.

    2017-01-01

    We are reporting about investigation of domestic 3 mm aperture periodically polled lithium niobate (PPLN) structures for cascaded mid-IR OPO. Wide aperture periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate (LiNbO3) structures at multigrating, fan-out and multi fan-out configuration were prepared at “Labfer LTD”. Laser source based on such structures can be used for special applications. Four different PPLN structures were investigated and effective aperture for effective pumping was defined.

  1. The crustal thickness of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clitheroe, G.; Gudmundsson, O.; Kennett, B.L.N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure of the Australian continent using the temporary broadband stations of the Skippy and Kimba projects and permanent broadband stations. We isolate near-receiver information, in the form of crustal P-to-S conversions, using the receiver function technique. Stacked receiver functions are inverted for S velocity structure using a Genetic Algorithm approach to Receiver Function Inversion (GARFI). From the resulting velocity models we are able to determine the Moho depth and to classify the width of the crust-mantle transition for 65 broadband stations. Using these results and 51 independent estimates of crustal thickness from refraction and reflection profiles, we present a new, improved, map of Moho depth for the Australian continent. The thinnest crust (25 km) occurs in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia; the thickest crust (61 km) occurs in Proterozoic central Australia. The average crustal thickness is 38.8 km (standard deviation 6.2 km). Interpolation error estimates are made using kriging and fall into the range 2.5-7.0 km. We find generally good agreement between the depth to the seismologically defined Moho and xenolith-derived estimates of crustal thickness beneath northeastern Australia. However, beneath the Lachlan Fold Belt the estimates are not in agreement, and it is possible that the two techniques are mapping differing parts of a broad Moho transition zone. The Archean cratons of Western Australia appear to have remained largely stable since cratonization, reflected in only slight variation of Moho depth. The largely Proterozoic center of Australia shows relatively thicker crust overall as well as major Moho offsets. We see evidence of the margin of the contact between the Precambrian craton and the Tasman Orogen, referred to as the Tasman Line. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Colour stability of temporary restorations with different thicknesses submitted to artificial accelerated aging.

    PubMed

    Silame, F D J; Tonani, R; Alandia-Roman, C C; Chinelatti, M; Panzeri, H; Pires-de-Souza, F C P

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the colour stability of temporary prosthetic restorations with different thicknesses submitted to artificial accelerated aging. The occlusal surfaces of 40 molars were grinded to obtain flat enamel surfaces. Twenty acrylic resin specimens [Polymethyl methacrylate (Duralay) and Bis-methyl acrylate (Luxatemp)] were made with two different thicknesses, 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm. Temporary restorations were fixed on enamel and CIE L*a*b* colour parameters of each specimen were assessed before and after artificial accelerated aging. All groups showed colour alterations above the clinically acceptable limit. Luxatemp showed the lowest colour alteration regardless its thickness and Duralay showed the greatest alteration with 0.5 mm.

  3. Interfacial adaptation and thickness of bioceramic-based root canal sealers.

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, Afaf; Abu Kasim, Noor Hayaty; Che Ab Aziz, Zeti Adura

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated and compared the sealer thickness and interfacial adaptation of bioceramic sealers (Sankin Apatite III, MTA Fillapex(®), EndoSequence(®) BC) to root dentin against AH Plus(®) sealer. Sixty extracted single-root premolars were prepared and equally divided into four groups. Sealers were labeled with 0.1% Rhodamine B fluorescent dye. Roots were dissected along the transverse plane at 1 mm (apical), 3 mm (middle), and 6 mm (coronal) levels. Sealer-to-whole canal area ratio was evaluated. Percentage of gap-containing region to canal circumference was calculated using a confocal laser microscope. Sealer thickness was significantly higher at apical and middle levels than at coronal level. EndoSequence BC had the significantly highest thickness compared with MTA Fillapex and AH Plus. The coronal level had significantly less interfacial gaps compared with apical and middle levels. Bioceramic sealers showed more gaps compared with AH Plus, with no significant differences among them.

  4. Enhancing Paradynamics for QM/MM Sampling of Enzymatic Reactions.

    PubMed

    Lameira, Jerônimo; Kupchencko, Ilya; Warshel, Arieh

    2016-03-10

    Despite the enormous increase in computer power, it is still extremely challenging to obtain computationally converging sampling of ab initio QM/MM (QM(ai)/MM) free energy surfaces in condensed phases. The sampling problem can be significantly reduced by the use of the reference potential paradynamics (PD) approach, but even this approach still requires major computer time in studies of enzymatic reactions. To further reduce the sampling problem we developed here a new PD version where we use an empirical valence bond reference potential that has a minimum rather than a maximum at the transition state region of the target potential (this is accomplished conveniently by shifting the EVB of the product state). Hence, we can map the TS region in a more efficient way. Here, we introduce and validate the inverted EVB PD approach. The validation involves the study of the S(N)2 step of the reaction catalyzed by haloakene dehalogenase (DhlA) and the GTP hydrolysis in the RasGAP system. In addition, we have also studied the corresponding reaction in water for each of the systems described here and the reaction involving trimethylsulfonium and dimethylamine in solution. The results are encouraging and the new strategy appears to provide a powerful way of evaluating QM(ai)/MM activation free energies.

  5. Burning Heptane Droplets in 1/2 Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Fuel ignites and burns in the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) on STS-94 on July 11, 1997. This round of experiments burned heptane droplets in 1/2 atmosphere pressure consisting of oxygen and helium. During this mission, scientists have seen for the first time droplets which stop burning due to heat loss by radiation. From these data, the investigators hope to understand the physical and chemical processes that take place in droplet combustion in different environments, including conditions under which the flames extinguish, the chemistry of the combustion reaction, and the production of pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and soot particles. The DCE was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (244KB JPEG, 1350 x 2016 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300173.html.

  6. The Bulging Behavior of Thick-Walled 6063 Aluminum Alloy Tubes Under Double-Sided Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Xiao-Song; Yuan, Shi-Jian

    2015-05-01

    To make further exploration on the deformation behavior of tube under double-sided pressures, the thick-walled 6063 aluminum alloy tubes with an outer diameter of 65 mm and an average thickness of 7.86 mm have been used to be bulged under the combined action of internal and external pressures. In the experiment, two ends of the thick-walled tubes were fixed using the tooth and groove match. Three levels of external pressure (0 MPa, 40 MPa, and 80 MPa), in conjunction with the internal pressure, were applied on the tube outside and inside simultaneously. The effect of external pressure on the bulging behavior of the thick-walled tubes, such as the limiting expansion ratio, the bulging zone profile, and the thickness distribution, has been investigated. It is shown that the limiting expansion ratio, the bulging zone profile, and the thickness distribution in the homogeneous bulging area are all insensitive to the external pressure. However, the external pressure can make the thick-walled tube achieve a thinner wall at the fracture area. It reveals that the external pressure can only improve the fracture limit of the thick-walled 6063 tubes, but it has very little effect on their homogeneous bulging behavior. It might be because the external pressure can only increase the magnitude of the hydrostatic pressure for the tube but has no effect on the Lode parameter.

  7. Thickness measuring of electroconductive pipe walls using the dual-frequency eddy-current method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakimov, Evgeny; Galtseva, Olga; Ustyugov, Daniil

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes a dual-frequency method for reducing the impact of changes in the gap size between the eddy-current transducer and the pipe, as well as the pipe electrical conductivity on the eddy-current thickness gauge readings. A block-diagram of the dual-frequency eddy-current thickness gauge is proposed for light-alloy drill pipes. The amplitude and signal phase dependencies on the wall thickness in the range from 6 to 17 mm and the gap in the range from 0 to 13.5 mm were studied, the results are presented. The digital signal processing algorithms based on the piecewise-linear approximation of low-frequency and high-frequency signal phase dependencies on the wall thickness are proposed. It is shown that the proposed correction algorithms can reduce the error caused by variations of electrical conductivity and the gap between the transducer and the pipe.

  8. Influence of dentine thickness and repeated firing on the colour of IPS e.max press.

    PubMed

    Al-Dwairi, Z N; Al-Hamad, K Q; Khasawneh, M I; Lynch, E

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the possible effects of the veneering porcelain thickness, and of repeated firing on the final shade of IPS e.max Press. Sixty disc-shaped IPS e.max Press specimens were fabricated and divided into 6groups according to shade (A2, C2) and porcelain thickness (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mm). Repeated firing (3, 5 and 7firings) was performed and the colour differences (AE) were determined. With increased thickness, A2 specimens showed a significant reduction in L* values and increase in a* and b* values while C2 specimens showed reductions in L*a*b values (P < 0.01). We would conclude that clinically, the preparation should provide at least 1 mm of thickness for the aesthetic potential of this dentine porcelain to be realized.

  9. Simultaneous measurement of thickness and refractive index using phase shifted Coherent Gradient Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disawal, Reena; Suzuki, Takamasa; Prakash, Shashi

    2016-12-01

    We report simultaneous measurement of thickness and refractive index (RI) using Coherent Gradient Sensing (CGS) based interferometric setup. The collimated light beam transmitted through the specimen is analyzed using two gratings in tandem and a spatial filtering arrangement. At the imaging plane, the desired orders superpose yielding interference fringes. Phase shifting interferometric (PSI) technique has been used to obtain the phase information directly. For decoding the information of thickness and RI, the specimen is rotated and the variation in interferometric phase before and after the specimen rotation determined. Simultaneous measurement on a glass plate of thickness 6.019 mm and refractive index of 1.4570 has been demonstrated. Detailed uncertainty analysis is also reported. The expanded uncertainty for thickness and RI in the measurement process was determined to be ±0.005 mm and ±0.00008 respectively.

  10. A Novel Nude Mouse Model of Hypertrophic Scarring Using Scratched Full Thickness Human Skin Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Alrobaiea, Saad M.; Ding, Jie; Ma, Zengshuan; Tredget, Edward E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hypertrophic scar (HTS) is a dermal form of fibroproliferative disorder that develops following deep skin injury. HTS can cause deformities, functional disabilities, and aesthetic disfigurements. The pathophysiology of HTS is not understood due to, in part, the lack of an ideal animal model. We hypothesize that human skin with deep dermal wounds grafted onto athymic nude mice will develop a scar similar to HTS. Our aim is to develop a representative animal model of human HTS. Approach: Thirty-six nude mice were grafted with full thickness human skin with deep dermal scratch wound before or 2 weeks after grafting or without scratch. The scratch on the human skin grafts was made using a specially designed jig that creates a wound >0.6 mm in depth. The xenografts were morphologically analyzed by digital photography. Mice were euthanized at 1, 2, and 3 months postoperatively for histology and immunohistochemistry analysis. Results: The mice developed raised and firm scars in the scratched xenografts with more contraction, increased infiltration of macrophage, and myofibroblasts compared to the xenografts without deep dermal scratch wound. Scar thickness and collagen bundle orientation and morphology resembled HTS. The fibrotic scars in the wounded human skin were morphologically and histologically similar to HTS, and human skin epithelial cells persisted in the remodeling tissues for 1 year postengraftment. Innovation and Conclusions: Deep dermal injury in human skin retains its profibrotic nature after transplantation, affording a novel model for the assessment of therapies for the treatment of human fibroproliferative disorders of the skin. PMID:27366591

  11. Assosiation of Epicardial and Pericardial Fat Thickness with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderi, Fereshteh; Eshraghi, Ali; Shamloo, Alireza Sepehri; Mousavi, Sareh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Visceral adipose tissue is a known important risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). While some studies have suggested relationship between epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and CAD, there are no adequate studies for pericardial fat thickness (PFT). The aim of this study was to determine the association of EFT and PFT with CAD. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients who were candidates for elective coronary artery angiography, referred to Emam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran during Jan 2014–2016. Demographic and laboratory data were collected. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed to determine average EFT and PFT at the standard parasternal long-axis view at end-systole for 3 cardiac cycles. SCA was performed on the same day. The patients were divided into two groups: CAD (n=59) and non-CAD (n=41) based on presence or absence of epicardial coronary artery stenosis of > 50%. Chi-square, independent T-test, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used by SPSS Version 16 for data analysis. Results One hundred patients (44 women and 56 men) with an average age of 56.4 ± 9.9 years were studied. The two groups were not significantly different in demographic profile and cronary risk factors. While PFT was not significantly different between the two groups, EFT was significantly higher in CAD group (3.0 ± 3.69 vs. 1.2 ± 3.6, p <0.0001). Moreover, with the increase of the affected coronary arteries, EFT increased (p <0.0001). Gensini score had a strong correlation with amount of EFT (r = 0.765, p <0.0001). EFT with a cutoff value of 4.25 mm (sensitivity=79%, specificity=68%) was specified in predicting CAD. Conclusion EFT measured by echocardiography can be used as an independent marker to predict CAD. More studies are needed to determine the predictive role of PFT for CAD. PMID:27790354

  12. Beam profile measurements for dental phototherapy: the effect of distance, wavelength and tissue thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palin, William M.; Hadis, Mohammed A.; Milward, Michael R.; Carroll, James D.; Cooper, Paul R.

    2015-03-01

    Light delivery for potential bacterial disinfection (UV/blue) and photobiomodulation (near-IR) requires specific, concentrated and controllable local irradiance and dose. Dental targets for light irradiation involve dentine, which scatters, absorbs and reflects light, reducing local irradiance. This study compared the effectiveness of LEDs (400-900nm) and lasers (660nm and 810nm) to penetrate dentine. Caries-free wisdom teeth were sectioned through the Pulpchamber by either cutting perpendicular to the crown, the buccal aspect or obliquely. Specimens were wet-polished to 1, 2 or 3mm thicknesses to expose the dentine on opposing surfaces. The beam profile of the LEDs/lasers were measured through dentine specimens (n=5) to obtain beam width following optical calibration, and spatial irradiance distribution following photodiode power calibration. There were no significant differences in the percentage power and irradiance transmitted through different dentine specimens between LEDs and lasers (P>0.05). However, light penetration through tissue was wavelength dependent and highest for red and near-IR wavelengths (P<0.05) for specimens cut perpendicular to the crown compared with buccal and oblique specimens. The beam diameters increased and irradiance decreased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing specimen thickness/distance for both LEDs and lasers. There was a noticeable shift in beam position for all light sources in buccal and oblique specimens. Data indicated that dentine tubule orientation may alter the direction of light through the tissue. Optimal light penetration and distribution through dentine at specific distance is best achieved with a flat-top beam distribution vertically through the crown of the tooth.

  13. Experimental observations of Z-dependence of saturation thickness of 662 keV gamma rays in metals and glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravindraswami, K.; Kiran, K. U.; Eshwarappa, K. M.; Somashekarappa, H. M.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper the energy, intensity and angular distributions of multiple scattering of 662 keV gamma photons, emerging from targets of aluminium, copper, iron and glass samples are studied as a function of target thickness. An intense collimated beam obtained from a 137Cs source of 5.8 mCi is allowed to impinge on samples of varying thickness. The scattered photons are detected by a properly shielded 76 mm × 76 mm NaI (Tl) scintillation detector. In Compton scattering experiments, it is observed that the number of multiple backscattered photons increase with an increase in target thickness and become almost constant for particular target thickness called saturation thickness. The saturation thickness decreases with increasing atomic number. The multiple scattering, an interfering background noise in Compton profile, has been successfully used to assign effective atomic number (Z eff ) to composite materials. The experimental results are compared with the Monte Carlo calculations using Monte Carlo nuclear particle code.

  14. Optical thickness measurement of mask blank glass plate by the excess fraction method using a wavelength-tuning interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yangjin; Hibino, Kenichi; Sugita, Naohiko; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2013-10-01

    The absolute optical thickness of a 140-mm2 mask blank glass plate 3.1 mm thickness was measured by three-surface interferometry using a wavelength-tuning Fizeau interferometer. The interference order was determined by the excess fraction method. The wavelength of a tunable laser diode was scanned linearly from 632 to 642 nm, and a CCD detector recorded 2000 interference images. Two kinds of optical thicknesses measured by discrete Fourier analysis and phase-shifting were synthesized to obtain the optical thickness with respect to the ordinary refractive index. The optical thickness defined by the group refractive index at the 637 nm central wavelength was measured by wavelength scanning. The optical thickness deviation defined by the ordinary refractive index was measured using tunable phase-shifting. The systematic errors caused by nonlinearity in the wavelength tuning were corrected through correlation analysis between the theoretical and observed interference fringes.

  15. Relation of epicardial fat thickness with carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Mustafa; Cakici, Musa; Polat, Mustafa; Suner, Arif; Zencir, Cemil; Ardic, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Aims. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness (EFT) with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods and Results. A total of 139 patients with T2DM (mean age 54.3 ± 9.2 and 49.6% male) and 40 age and sex-matched control subjects were evaluated. Echocardiographic EFT and ultrasonographic CIMT were measured in all subjects. Patients with T2DM had significantly increased EFT and CIMT than those of the controls (6.0 ± 1.5 mm versus 4.42 ± 1.0 mm, P < 0.001 and 0.76 ± 0.17 mm versus 0.57 ± 0.14 mm, P < 0.001, resp.). EFT was correlated with CIMT, waist circumference, BMI, age, duration of T2DM, HbA1c in the type 2 diabetic patients. Linear regression analysis showed that CIMT (β = 3.52, t = 3.72, P < 0.001) and waist circumference (β = 0.36, t = 2.26, P = 0.03) were found to be independent predictors of EFT. A cutoff high risk EFT value of 6.3 mm showed a sensitivity and specificity of 72.5% and 71.7%, respectively, for the prediction of subclinical atherosclerosis. Conclusion. We found that echocardiographic EFT was significantly higher in patients with T2DM. Our study also showed that EFT was strongly correlated with waist circumference and CIMT as being independent of sex.

  16. The effect of lumbar-pelvic alignment and abdominal muscle thickness on primary dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moon-jeong; Baek, Il-hun; Goo, Bong-oh

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify effects of malalignment of the lumbar pelvis, as a passive element, and the thicknesses of abdominal muscles, as active elements, on primary dysmenorrhea. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were divided into a primary dysmenorrhea group and normal group according to Visual Analogue Scale, and ultimately there were 28 subjects in the dysmenorrhea group and 22 subjects in the normal group. Alignment of the lumbar pelvis was measured by using a Formetric 4D analysis system, and the thicknesses of abdominal muscles were measured by using ultrasound imaging. [Result] Scoliosis was 6.7 ± 4.3° in the primary dysmenorrhea group and 3.8 ± 2.0° in the normal group, and the lordotic angles of the two groups were 0.6 ± 0.5° and 0.1 ± 0.3°, respectively. The thickness of the internal oblique was 3.8 ± 1.3 mm in the primary dysmenorrhea group and 6.0 ± 1.9 mm in the thicknesses of the transverse abdominis in the two groups were 2.6 ± 6.8 mm and 3.5 ± 6.1 mm, respectively. Furthermore, the thickness of the normal group, and the external oblique was 4.0 ± 0.8 mm in the primary dysmenorrhea group and 5.4 ± 1.4 mm in the normal group. [Conclusion] This study showed significant differences between the primary dysmenorrhea group and the normal group in lumbar-pelvic alignment and thicknesses of abdominal muscles. PMID:27821975

  17. Lambmeat colour values (HunterLab CIE and reflectance) are influenced by aperture size (5 mm v. 25 mm).

    PubMed

    Holman, Benjamin W B; Ponnampalam, Eric N; van de Ven, Remy J; Kerr, Matthew G; Hopkins, David L

    2015-02-01

    The effect of aperture size on the assessment of lamb meat colour values (L*, a*, b* and R630/580)was investigated. Two experiments using 2 HunterLab MiniScan colorimeters (large [25 mm] and small [5 mm] apertures) were conducted: 1) coloured tiles were measured and 2) unaged lamb (n = 65) m. longissimus lumborum (LL) and m. semimembranosus (SM) muscles were measured over 2.5 d under simulated retail display. For Experiment three, 2 different colorimeters were used on lamb (n = 36) LL aged for 6 weeks before measurement over 4 don simulated retail display. Coloured tile a* and b* values were unaffected by aperture size, but L* values and the R630/580 ratio were influenced by aperture size. The effect of aperture size on lamb meat colour measurements varied with display time and muscle type. The large aperture size generally provided the highest colorimetric values, and is recommended for measuring lamb meat colour.

  18. 1,2,5,6-Diepoxyhexane and 1,2,7,8-diepoxyoctane cross-link duplex DNA at 5'-GNC sequences.

    PubMed

    Yunes, M J; Charnecki, S E; Marden, J J; Millard, J T

    1996-09-01

    The carcinogenicity of epoxide compounds has been attributed to covalent binding to DNA. Whereas monoepoxides form only monoadducts, diepoxides can form both monoadducts and interstrand cross-links. The latter are believed to be the more significant cytotoxic lesions as diepoxides are frequently more carcinogenic and mutagenic than their monoepoxide analogues. We therefore examined the relative DNA interstrand cross-linking capabilities of several diepoxides with respect to chain length, molecular flexibility, reported carcinogenic potential, and DNA sequences targeted. Using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we found that 1,2,5,6-diepoxyhexane and 1,2,7,8-diepoxyoctane share the 5'-GNC target sequence previously found for 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane [Millard, J.T., and White, M.M. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 2120-2124] and that the efficiency of cross-linking this sequence may reflect carcinogenicity, 1,2,5,6-Diepoxycyclooctane, the biologically inactive rigid analogue of 1,2,5,6-diepoxyhexane, was found to be a poor cross-linker of all DNA sequences examined. Moreover, increasing the diepoxyalkane chain length did not result in enhanced cross-linking ability.

  19. Optimization of Thick Negative Photoresist for Fabrication of Interdigitated Capacitor Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    ARL-TR-7258 ● APR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Optimization of Thick Negative Photoresist for Fabrication of Interdigitated...TR-7258 ● APR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Optimization of Thick Negative Photoresist for Fabrication of Interdigitated Capacitor...REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) April 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 May–30 November 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Optimization

  20. Comparison of Maximal Wall Thickness in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Differs Between Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Transthoracic Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Bois, John P; Geske, Jeffrey B; Foley, Thomas A; Ommen, Steve R; Pellikka, Patricia A

    2017-02-15

    Left ventricular (LV) wall thickness is a prognostic marker in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). LV wall thickness ≥30 mm (massive hypertrophy) is independently associated with sudden cardiac death. Presence of massive hypertrophy is used to guide decision making for cardiac defibrillator implantation. We sought to determine whether measurements of maximal LV wall thickness differ between cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Consecutive patients were studied who had HC without previous septal ablation or myectomy and underwent both cardiac MRI and TTE at a single tertiary referral center. Reported maximal LV wall thickness was compared between the imaging techniques. Patients with ≥1 technique reporting massive hypertrophy received subset analysis. In total, 618 patients were evaluated from January 1, 2003, to December 21, 2012 (mean [SD] age, 53 [15] years; 381 men [62%]). In 75 patients (12%), reported maximal LV wall thickness was identical between MRI and TTE. Median difference in reported maximal LV wall thickness between the techniques was 3 mm (maximum difference, 17 mm). Of the 63 patients with ≥1 technique measuring maximal LV wall thickness ≥30 mm, 44 patients (70%) had discrepant classification regarding massive hypertrophy. MRI identified 52 patients (83%) with massive hypertrophy; TTE, 30 patients (48%). Although guidelines recommend MRI or TTE imaging to assess cardiac anatomy in HC, this study shows discrepancy between the techniques for maximal reported LV wall thickness assessment. In conclusion, because this measure clinically affects prognosis and therapeutic decision making, efforts to resolve these discrepancies are critical.

  1. Influence and Modeling of Residual Stresses in Thick Walled Pressure Vessels with Through Holes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-28

    Technical Report ARWSB-TR-12003 INFLUENCE AND MODELING OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN THICK WALLED PRESSURE VESSELS WITH...DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 28/02/2012 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Influence and Modeling of...Residual Stresses in Thick Walled Pressure Vessels with Through Holes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  2. Study of structure-activity relationship in Aurein 1.2 analogs.

    PubMed

    Soufian, Safieh; Hassani, Leila

    2011-07-15

    Two new analogs of Aurein 1.2 antimicrobial peptide were synthesized and the antimicrobial activities were investigated. The results showed that the activity of G1R/F3W analog was higher than the native peptide and the F3W analog. Circular dichroism studies also showed that the secondary structure of the F3W was concentration-dependent, whereas, there was no such relationship seen in the case of G1R/F3W analog. It has been proposed that G1R/F3W activity was based on a single mechanism (snorkeling), while Aurein 1.2 and F3W utilized the snorkeling mechanism at low concentrations (0-0.01 mM) and the carpet mechanism at higher concentrations (0.01-0.1 mM). This study suggests that one pay attention to the concentration of biomolecules in peptide-based drug design.

  3. A pilot search for mm-RRLs in pre-Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Contreras, C.; Báez-Rubio, A.; Alcolea, J.; Bujarrabal, V.; Martín-Pintado, J.

    2017-03-01

    We carried out pilot search for radio recombination line (RRL) emission at millimeter wavelengths in a small sample of pre-Planetary Nebulae (pPNe) and young PNe (yPNe) with emerging central ionized winds. RRLs at mm-wavelengths are excellent probes of the dense inner (<150 au) regions of these objects, where the yet unknown agents for PN-shaping operate, and which are usually heavily obscured at shorter wavelengths by optically thick circumstellar dust shells. We detect mm-RRLs in three objects: CRL 618, MWC 922, and M 2-9. We present the results from detailed line + continuum non-LTE 3D radiative transfer models for these targets, which enables constraning the structure, kinematics, and physical conditions (electron temperature and density) of their ionized cores. Amongst other parameters, we derive mass-loss rates of M_{pAGB} ≈ 10^{-6} - 10^{-7} M_{⊙} yr^{-1}, which are significantly higher than the values adopted by stellar evolution models currently in use.

  4. A minimum thickness gate valve with integrated ion optics for mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Jason L; O'Connor, Peter B

    2005-04-01

    A minimum thickness gate valve design for mass spectrometry is described in detail. The ion optics required to transmit ions from the source to the ICR cell are integrated into the design to minimize fringe field effects on the ions as they travel through the gate valve. The total thickness of the complete gate valve assembly is 1.03 in. (26.2 mm) with a maximum fringe field distance of 0.065 in. (1.7 mm). The gate valve is able to maintain a vacuum of <10(-10) mbar at the ICR cell when the source is vented to atmosphere and the estimated ion transfer efficiency is >95%.

  5. Formation of asteroids from mm-cm sized grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, D.; Johansen, A.; Davies, M. B.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Asteroids and comets are intricately connected to life in the universe. Asteroids are the building blocks of terrestrial planets; water-rich asteroids and comets are likely to be the primary source of water for Earth's oceans and other volatiles (Morbidelli et al. 2000; Hartogh et al. 2011); and they may play role in mass extinctions. Yet, the formation of these objects is poorly understood. There is mounting evidence that the traditional picture of the formation of asteroids must be revised. The size distribution of asteroids is hard to reconcile with a traditional bottomup formation scenario. Instead, asteroids may form top-down, with large 100 - 1000 km sized objects forming first by the gravitational collapse of dense clumps of small particles. Experiments and simulations suggest that dust grains cannot grow to sizes larger than mm-cm in protoplanetary disks (Zsom et al. 2010). Also, primitive meteorites from the asteroid belt contain a large mass fraction in chondrules of sizes from 0.1 mm to a few mm. Hence, it is desirable to find a model for asteroid formation from mm-sized particles. Aims. In this work, we model the dynamics of mm-cm sized grains in dust-enriched inner regions of protoplanetary disks. We model the dust-gas interaction to determine whether dust grains of this size can form dense, self-gravitating clouds that can collapse to form asteroids. Methods. We perform shearing box simulations of the inner disk using the Pencil Code (Brandenburg & Dobler 2002). The simulations start with a Solar-type solids-to-gas ratio of 0.01 and we gradually increase the particle concentration. In a real protoplanetary disk, solid particles are expected to migrate from the outer regions and concentrate in the inner disk. Results. Our simulations show that mm-sized particles can form very dense clumps, driven by a run-away convergence in the radial-drift flow of these particles - this dynamic is known as the streaming instability (Youdin & Goodman 2005

  6. TNT particle size distributions from detonated 155-mm howitzer rounds.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan; Hewitt, Alan; Lever, James; Hayes, Charlotte; Perovich, Laura; Thorne, Phil; Daghlian, Chuck

    2004-04-01

    To achieve sustainable range management and avoid or minimize environmental contamination, the Army needs to know the amount of explosives deposited on ranges from different munitions and how these are degraded and transported under different geological and climatic conditions. The physical form of the deposited explosives has a bearing on this problem, yet the shapes and size distributions of the explosive particles remaining after detonations are not known. We collected residues from 8 high-order and 6 low-order non-tactical detonations of TNT-filled 155-mm rounds. We found significant variation in the amount of TNT scattered from the high-order detonations, ranging from 0.00001 to 2% of the TNT in the original shell. All low-order detonations scattered percent-level amounts of TNT. We imaged thousands of TNT particles and determined the size, mass and surface-area distributions of particles collected from one high-order and one low-order detonation. For the high-order detonation, particles smaller than 1 mm contribute most of the mass and surface area of the TNT scattered. For the low-order detonation, most of the scattered TNT mass was in the form of un-heated, centimeter-sized pieces whereas most of the surface area was again from particles smaller than 1 mm. We also observed that the large pieces of TNT disintegrate readily, giving rise to many smaller particles that can quickly dissolve. We suggest picking up the large pieces of TNT before they disintegrate to become point sources of contamination.

  7. Slime thickness evaluation of bored piles by electrical resistivity probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Ok-Hyun; Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Park, Min-Chul; Lee, Jong-Sub

    2014-09-01

    The bottoms of bored piles are generally stacked with soil particles, both while boreholes are being drilled, and afterward. The stacked soils are called slime, and when loads are applied on the pile, increase the pile settlement. Thus to guarantee the end bearing capacity of bored piles, the slime thickness should be precisely detected. The objective of this study is to suggest a new method for evaluating the slime thickness, using temperature compensated electrical resistivity. Laboratory studies are performed in advance, to estimate and compare the resolution of the electrical resistivity probe (ERP) and time domain reflectometry (TDR). The electrical properties of the ERP and TDR are measured using coaxial type electrodes and parallel type two-wire electrodes, respectively. Penetration tests, conducted in the fully saturated sand-clay mixtures, demonstrate that the ERP produces a better resolution of layer detection than TDR. Thus, field application tests using the ERP with a diameter of 35.7 mm are conducted for the investigation of slime thickness in large diameter bored piles. Field tests show that the slime layers are clearly identified by the ERP: the electrical resistivity dramatically increases at the interface between the slurry and slime layer. The electrical resistivity in the slurry layer inversely correlates with the amount of circulated water. This study suggests that the new electrical resistivity method may be a useful method for the investigation of the slime thickness in bored piles.

  8. Multilayer injection moulding of thick-walled optical plastics parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Neuss, A.; Weber, M.; Walach, P.

    2014-05-01

    Optical components are often thick-walled. The cycle time of precise polymer optics with a wall thickness of more than 20 mm exceeds several minutes. The multilayer injection moulding or compression moulding lowers the cycle time and increases the quality of the moulded parts. For the production of multilayer moulded lenses the mould design plays an important role. An innovative mould concept is presented with the possiblity to produce double or triple layer lenses. To ensure the quality and the endurance of multilayer moulded optical components in their applications, the cohesion in the interface is important. Tensile shear tests show the ability of multilayer moulded parts with high cohesion values for optical applications.

  9. Slow Slip Events on a 760 mm Long Granite Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mclaskey, G.; Yamashita, F.

    2015-12-01

    We describe slow slip events and dynamic rupture events generated on a newly constructed large-scale biaxial friction apparatus at Cornell University that provide insights into the mechanisms of aseismic and seismic slip. We find that, under nominally similar experimental conditions, the 760 mm long granite sample sometimes slips in dynamic stick-slip events and sometimes relieves accumulated shear stress through slow slip events. To provide insights into this curious behavior and the underlying mechanisms, fault slip and shear stress are each measured at 8 locations along the 760 mm long fault. This allows us to map slow slip fronts and the nucleation and propagation of dynamic fault rupture. The granite sample is also instrumented with an array of piezoelectric sensors that are the laboratory equivalent of a seismic network. When the sample is loaded relatively slowly, at 0.03 MPa/s, slow slip occurs on large sections of the fault and the slow slipping region soon expands to the sample boundary. In this case, stress is released in a slow slip event with peak slip velocities < 2 mm/s. Alternatively, when one end of the sample is loaded rapidly (4 MPa/s), or the sample is allowed to heal in stationary contact for a few minutes, slow slip initiates near the load point and accelerates to slip velocities exceeding 200 mm/s before the slow slipping region expands all the way to the sample boundary. This produces a dynamic slip event (stick-slip). The dynamic slip events radiate seismic waves equivalent to a M = -2.5 earthquake. In contrast, the laboratory-generated slow slip events are predominantly aseismic and produce only bursts of tiny and discrete seismic events (M = -6) reminiscent of swarms of microseismicity. The experiments illustrate how a single fault can slide slowly and aseismically or rapidly and dynamically depending on stress state and loading conditions. We compare the behavior observed on this Cornell apparatus to the behavior of other large

  10. Gas Analysis by Fourier Transform Mm-Wave Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Brent J.; Steber, Amanda L.; Lehmann, Kevin K.; Pate, Brooks H.

    2013-06-01

    Molecular rotational spectroscopy of low pressure, room temperature gases offers high chemical selectivity and sensitivity with the potential for a wide range of applications in gas analysis. A strength of the technique is the potential to identify molecules that have not been previously studied by rotational spectroscopy by comparing experimental results to predictions of the spectroscopic parameters from quantum chemistry -6 so called library-free detection. The development of Fourier transform mm-wave spectrometers using high peak power (30 mW) active multiplier chain mm-wave sources brings new measurement capabilities to the analysis of complex gas mixtures. Strategies for gas analysis based on high-throughput mm-wave spectroscopy and arbitrary waveform generator driven mm-wave sources are described. Several new measurement capabilities come from the intrinsic time-domain measurement technique. High-sensitivity double-resonance measurements can be performed to speed the analysis of a complex gas sample containing several species. This technique uses a "pi-pulse" to selectively invert the population of two selected rotational energy levels and the effect of this excitation pulse on all other transitions in the spectrometer operating range is monitored using segmented chirped-pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy. This method can lead to automated determination of the molecular rotational constants. Rapid pulse duration scan experiments can be used to estimate the magnitude and direction of the dipole moment of the molecule from an unknown spectrum. Coherent pulse echo experiments, using the traditional Hahn sequence or two-color population recovery methods, can be used to determine the collisional relaxation rate of the unknown molecule. This rate determination improves the ability to estimate the mass of the unknown molecule from the determination of the Doppler dephasing rate. By performing a suite of automated, high-throughput measurements, there is the

  11. A 4MM-Wave composite mode multimode conical feedhorn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhisheng; Du, Zhengmi; Chen, Shener

    1996-10-01

    A 4MM-Wave composite mode multimode conical feedhorn has been developed. Its mode-ratios are calculated and its formulas of the radiation patterns are derived. The measurement results of one and two dimension radiation patterns, measured by the automatic measurement system which we had researched, and the properties of band width and sidelobe are given. Theoretical analyses and measurements show that at the centre frequency 69.1GHZ, down to -23dB, the radiation pattern is rotationally symmetric, in this range there is not any sidelobe existing, the band width is 4.5 GHZ. The multimode feedhorn is thus of certain practical using value.

  12. Advanced accelerator and mm-wave structure research at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Simakov, Evgenya Ivanovna

    2016-06-22

    This document outlines acceleration projects and mm-wave structure research performed at LANL. The motivation for PBG research is described first, with reference to couplers for superconducting accelerators and structures for room-temperature accelerators and W-band TWTs. These topics are then taken up in greater detail: PBG structures and the MIT PBG accelerator; SRF PBG cavities at LANL; X-band PBG cavities at LANL; and W-band PBG TWT at LANL. The presentation concludes by describing other advanced accelerator projects: beam shaping with an Emittance Exchanger, diamond field emitter array cathodes, and additive manufacturing of novel accelerator structures.

  13. Maps based on 53 GHz (5.7 mm wavelength)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Maps based on 53 GHz (5.7 mm wavelength) observations made with the DMR over the entire 4-year mission (top) on a scale from 0 - 4 K, showing the near-uniformity of the CMB brightness, (middle) on a scale intended to enhance the contrast due to the dipole described in the slide 19 caption, and (bottom) following subtraction of the dipole component. Emission from the Milky Way Galaxy is evident in the bottom image. See slide 19 caption for information about map smoothing and projection.

  14. Over 1.0 mm-long boron nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua; Chen, Ying; Liu, Yun; Fu, Lan; Huang, Cheng; Llewellyn, David

    2008-09-01

    Over 1.0 mm boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were successfully synthesized by an optimized ball milling and annealing method. The annealing temperature of 1100 °C is crucial for the growth of the long BNNTs because at this temperature there is a fast nitrogen dissolution rate in Fe and the B/N ratio in Fe is 1. Such long BNNTs enable a reliable single tube configuration for electrical property characterization and consequently the average resistivity of the long BNNTs is determined to be 7.1 ± 0.9 × 10 4 Ω cm. Therefore, these BNNTs are promising insulators for three dimensional microelectromechanical system.

  15. Dynamic impact analysis of the M1 105mm projectile

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, J.C.; Webb, D.S.

    1993-06-01

    Evaluation of the effects of [open quotes]rough-handling[close quotes]-induced stresses in the nose region of a 105mm artillery projectile was performed to determine if these stresses could have contributed to the premature explosion of a projectile during a Desert Shield training mission of the 101st Army Airborne in Saudi Arabia. The rough-handling evaluations were simulated by dynamic impact analysis. It was concluded that the combined residual stress and dynamic impact-induced stress would not be of sufficient magnitude to cause cracking of the projectile in the nose region.

  16. Dynamic impact analysis of the M1 105mm projectile

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, J.C.; Webb, D.S.

    1993-06-01

    Evaluation of the effects of {open_quotes}rough-handling{close_quotes}-induced stresses in the nose region of a 105mm artillery projectile was performed to determine if these stresses could have contributed to the premature explosion of a projectile during a Desert Shield training mission of the 101st Army Airborne in Saudi Arabia. The rough-handling evaluations were simulated by dynamic impact analysis. It was concluded that the combined residual stress and dynamic impact-induced stress would not be of sufficient magnitude to cause cracking of the projectile in the nose region.

  17. Electrical properties of Ba(Dy1/2Nb1/2)O3 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, K. Amar; Chandra, K. P.; Dubey, K.; Prasad, K.

    2016-05-01

    Polycrystalline Ba(Dy1/2Nb1/2)O3 was prepared using a high-temperature solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the formation of a single-phase cubic structure having space group Pm3m. AC impedance plots as a function of frequency at different temperatures were used to analyse the electrical behaviour of the sample, which indicated the negative temperature coefficient of resistance character. Complex impedance analysis targeted non-Debye type dielectric relaxation. Frequency dependent ac conductivity data obeyed Jonscher's power law. The apparent activation energy was estimated to be 0.97 eV at 1 kHz.

  18. A new look at the fetus: thick-slab T2-weighted sequences in fetal MRI.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Peter C; Mittermayer, Christoph; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-02-01

    Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the fetus is considered an established adjunct to fetal ultrasound, stacks of images alone cannot provide an overall impression of the fetus. The present study evaluates the use of thick-slab T2-weighted MR images to obtain a three-dimensional impression of the fetus using MRI. A thick-slab T2-weighted sequence was added to the routine protocol in 100 fetal MRIs obtained for various indications (19th to 37th gestational weeks) on a 1.5 T magnet using a five-element phased-array surface coil. Slice thickness adapted to fetal size and uterine geometry varied between 25 and 50mm, as did the field of view (250-350 mm). Acquisition of one image took less than 1s. The pictorial essay shows that these images visualize fetal anatomy in a more comprehensive way than is possible with a series of 3-4mm thick slices. These thick-slab images facilitate the assessment of the whole fetus, fetal proportions, surface structures, and extremities. Fetal pathology may be captured in one image. Thick-slab T2-weighted images provide additional information that cannot be gathered from a series of images and are considered a valuable adjunct to conventional 2D MR images.

  19. Assessment of Macular Thickness in Healthy Eyes Using Cirrus HD-OCT: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    SABOURI, Mohammad Rasoul; KAZEMNEZHAD, Ehsan; HAFEZI, Vahideh

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine normal macular thickness using Cirrus high definition optical coherence tomography. In this cross-sectional survey, 112 subjects were selected using random sampling from the Rasht telephone directory. All subjects underwent complete eye examinations. Both eyes of each patient were evaluated. The creation of a macular thickness map using a macular cube 512 × 128 combo was optional. The average thickness of the retina was determined in 9 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) regions. To assess reproducibility and system reliability, the thickness of the retina was measured up to 5 times in 10 healthy subjects. The coefficient of variation was then calculated for each individual. The coefficient of variation of macular thickness within 1 mm of the center was 0.15 - 1.33%. The means and standard deviations of central subfield thickness (CST), macular thickness (MT), and macular volume (MV) were 245.44 ± 20.39 µm, 277.9 ± 12.0 µm, and 9.98 ± 0.43 mm3, respectively. The mean CST (P < 0.0001), MT (P = 0.038), and MV (P = 0.030) were significantly higher in men than in women. In addition, regardless of age or sex, macular thickness increased when moving from within 1 mm of the center to 3 mm and 6 mm away from the center, so that the upper 3 mm (S3) was the thickest region, and the temporal 6 mm (T6) was the thinnest region in the ETDRS regions. The mean MT of healthy subjects was 280.67 ± 12.79 µm in men and 276.63 ± 11.61 µm in women. Therefore, the macula is significantly thicker in men than in women (P = 0.038). PMID:28293656

  20. A study of sub-occlusal secondary dentine thickness in overgrown equine cheek teeth.

    PubMed

    Marshall, R; Shaw, D J; Dixon, P M

    2012-07-01

    The presence of cheek tooth loss or defects, with subsequent overgrowth of the opposing teeth, is common in horses. Little is known about the factors that control the deposition of sub-occlusal secondary dentine (SO2D) in normal equine teeth, but these are likely to include stimulation of the occlusal surface. There appears to be no information on the possible alterations to this process when teeth develop overgrowths and, consequently, of the net effect on SO2D thickness caused by reduced stimulation of the occlusal surface and of absent/reduced normal occlusal wear (attrition). Knowledge of the likely thickness of SO2D in overgrown teeth may help reduce the risks of pulp horn exposure or thermal damage during therapeutic reduction of overgrowths. This study utilised 24 permanent cheek teeth (CT) with overgrowths (mean overgrowth height: 9.5 mm; range, 3.4-17.9 mm), and 18 control CT obtained from 15 horses of different breeds and ages. The thickness of SO2D was measured above 94 matched pulp horns in control and overgrown CT and showed a mean value of 12.14 mm (range 1.87-36.02 mm) in overgrown teeth and of 10.25 mm (range 2.64-17.26 mm) in controls. There was no significant difference between SO2D thickness in overgrown (mean 11.38 mm) and control (11.41 mm) mandibular CT, but SO2D was significantly thicker in overgrown (mean 12.57 mm) as compared to control maxillary (9.41 mm) CT. A comparison of SO2D thickness above the 94 matched pulp horns in overgrown and control teeth showed that 49% (46/94) of pulps in overgrown teeth had less SO2D overlying them than had control teeth. Of major clinical relevance was that the height of dental overgrowths was greater than SO2D thickness over one or more pulp horns in 14/24 overgrown teeth. Consequently, reduction of these overgrown teeth to the level of adjacent normal-height teeth would cause occlusal pulp exposure in 58% of teeth, in addition to possible thermal damage to additional pulp horns. It was concluded that

  1. Analysis of stress on mucosa and basal bone underlying complete dentures with different reliner material thicknesses: a three-dimensional finite element study.

    PubMed

    Lima, J B G; Orsi, I A; Borie, E; Lima, J H F; Noritomi, P Y

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimal thickness of reliner material that provides the least amount of stress on thin mucosa and supporting bone in patients with complete removable dentures using a three-dimensional finite element analyses. The model was obtained from two CT scans of edentulous mandibles with dentures supported by the alveolar ridge. After virtual reconstruction, the three-dimensional models were exported to the solidworks cad software and divided into six groups based on the thickness of the reliner material as follows: (i) without material, (ii) 0·5 mm, (iii) 1 mm, (iv) 1·5 mm, (v) 2 mm and (vi) 2·5 mm. The applied load was 60 N and perpendicular to the long axis of the alveolar ridge of all the prosthetic teeth, and the mucosal thickness used was 1 mm. The analyses were based on the maximum principal stress in the fibromucosa and the minimum principal stress in the basal bone. Stress concentration was observed in the anterior zone of the mandible in the mucosa and in the bone. The maximum and minimum principal stress in the mucosa and bone, respectively, decreased, whereas the thickness of the reliner material increased until 2 mm, which transmitted the lowest stress, compared with the control. Reliner materials with a thickness of 2·5 mm showed higher stress values than those with a thickness of 2 mm. In conclusion, reliner material with a thickness of 2 mm transmitted the lowest amount of stress to the mucosa and bone in 1 mm of mucosa thickness.

  2. QM/MM Molecular Dynamics Studies of Metal Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Vidossich, Pietro; Magistrato, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Mixed quantum-classical (quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM)) simulations have strongly contributed to providing insights into the understanding of several structural and mechanistic aspects of biological molecules. They played a particularly important role in metal binding proteins, where the electronic effects of transition metals have to be explicitly taken into account for the correct representation of the underlying biochemical process. In this review, after a brief description of the basic concepts of the QM/MM method, we provide an overview of its capabilities using selected examples taken from our work. Specifically, we will focus on heme peroxidases, metallo-β-lactamases, α-synuclein and ligase ribozymes to show how this approach is capable of describing the catalytic and/or structural role played by transition (Fe, Zn or Cu) and main group (Mg) metals. Applications will reveal how metal ions influence the formation and reduction of high redox intermediates in catalytic cycles and enhance drug metabolism, amyloidogenic aggregate formation and nucleic acid synthesis. In turn, it will become manifest that the protein frame directs and modulates the properties and reactivity of the metal ions. PMID:25006697

  3. Using 70-mm aerial photography to identify rangeland sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everitt, J. H.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Alaniz, M. A.; Bowen, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A south Texas rangeland area was used as a study site to test the use of microdensitometry on 70-mm color-infrared and black-and-white photographs (scale 1:19,000) for distinguishing among 11 range sites (two brushland, seven grassland, two barren land) during the winter (February), spring (May), and summer (August) of 1976. Color-infrared photographs were also taken at a scale of 1:42,000 for the summer date. Film optical density readings were made on one color-infrared film with white light only. The best separations among density readings for all range sites were obtained using white light exposed on color-infrared film in the summer when vegetation was at peak foliage development. Results from this study indicate that 70-mm aerial color-infrared photography at a scale of 1:19,000 or 1:42,000 has good potential for identifying range sites in large and inaccessible areas, and could be a useful tool for range management.

  4. Robotic QM/MM-driven maturation of antibody combining sites

    PubMed Central

    Smirnov, Ivan V.; Golovin, Andrey V.; Chatziefthimiou, Spyros D.; Stepanova, Anastasiya V.; Peng, Yingjie; Zolotareva, Olga I.; Belogurov, Alexey A.; Kurkova, Inna N.; Ponomarenko, Natalie A.; Wilmanns, Matthias; Blackburn, G. Michael; Gabibov, Alexander G.; Lerner, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro selection of antibodies from large repertoires of immunoglobulin (Ig) combining sites using combinatorial libraries is a powerful tool, with great potential for generating in vivo scavengers for toxins. However, addition of a maturation function is necessary to enable these selected antibodies to more closely mimic the full mammalian immune response. We approached this goal using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations to achieve maturation in silico. We preselected A17, an Ig template, from a naïve library for its ability to disarm a toxic pesticide related to organophosphorus nerve agents. Virtual screening of 167,538 robotically generated mutants identified an optimum single point mutation, which experimentally boosted wild-type Ig scavenger performance by 170-fold. We validated the QM/MM predictions via kinetic analysis and crystal structures of mutant apo-A17 and covalently modified Ig, thereby identifying the displacement of one water molecule by an arginine as delivering this catalysis. PMID:27774510

  5. CHARMM-GUI Input Generator for NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM Simulations Using the CHARMM36 Additive Force Field

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jumin; Cheng, Xi; Swails, Jason M.; Yeom, Min Sun; Eastman, Peter K.; Lemkul, Justin A.; Wei, Shuai; Buckner, Joshua; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Qi, Yifei; Jo, Sunhwan; Pande, Vijay S.; Case, David A.; Brooks, Charles L.; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Klauda, Jeffery B.; Im, Wonpil

    2015-11-12

    Here we report that proper treatment of nonbonded interactions is essential for the accuracy of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, especially in studies of lipid bilayers. The use of the CHARMM36 force field (C36 FF) in different MD simulation programs can result in disagreements with published simulations performed with CHARMM due to differences in the protocols used to treat the long-range and 1-4 nonbonded interactions. In this study, we systematically test the use of the C36 lipid FF in NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM. A wide range of Lennard-Jones (LJ) cutoff schemes and integrator algorithms were tested to find the optimal simulation protocol to best match bilayer properties of six lipids with varying acyl chain saturation and head groups. MD simulations of a 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer were used to obtain the optimal protocol for each program. MD simulations with all programs were found to reasonably match the DPPC bilayer properties (surface area per lipid, chain order parameters, and area compressibility modulus) obtained using the standard protocol used in CHARMM as well as from experiments. The optimal simulation protocol was then applied to the other five lipid simulations and resulted in excellent agreement between results from most simulation programs as well as with experimental data. AMBER compared least favorably with the expected membrane properties, which appears to be due to its use of the hard-truncation in the LJ potential versus a force-based switching function used to smooth the LJ potential as it approaches the cutoff distance. The optimal simulation protocol for each program has been implemented in CHARMM-GUI. This protocol is expected to be applicable to the remainder of the additive C36 FF including the proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and small molecules.

  6. CHARMM-GUI Input Generator for NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM Simulations Using the CHARMM36 Additive Force Field

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Jumin; Cheng, Xi; Swails, Jason M.; ...

    2015-11-12

    Here we report that proper treatment of nonbonded interactions is essential for the accuracy of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, especially in studies of lipid bilayers. The use of the CHARMM36 force field (C36 FF) in different MD simulation programs can result in disagreements with published simulations performed with CHARMM due to differences in the protocols used to treat the long-range and 1-4 nonbonded interactions. In this study, we systematically test the use of the C36 lipid FF in NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM. A wide range of Lennard-Jones (LJ) cutoff schemes and integrator algorithms were tested to find themore » optimal simulation protocol to best match bilayer properties of six lipids with varying acyl chain saturation and head groups. MD simulations of a 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer were used to obtain the optimal protocol for each program. MD simulations with all programs were found to reasonably match the DPPC bilayer properties (surface area per lipid, chain order parameters, and area compressibility modulus) obtained using the standard protocol used in CHARMM as well as from experiments. The optimal simulation protocol was then applied to the other five lipid simulations and resulted in excellent agreement between results from most simulation programs as well as with experimental data. AMBER compared least favorably with the expected membrane properties, which appears to be due to its use of the hard-truncation in the LJ potential versus a force-based switching function used to smooth the LJ potential as it approaches the cutoff distance. The optimal simulation protocol for each program has been implemented in CHARMM-GUI. This protocol is expected to be applicable to the remainder of the additive C36 FF including the proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and small molecules.« less

  7. Evaluation of choroidal thickness changes after phacoemulsification surgery

    PubMed Central

    Aslan Bayhan, Seray; Bayhan, Hasan Ali; Muhafiz, Ersin; Kırboğa, Kadir; Gürdal, Canan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of uneventful phacoemulsification surgery on choroidal thickness (CT) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods In this prospective study, 38 eyes of 38 patients having phacoemulsification surgery were included. All patients underwent detailed ophthalmologic examination, including preoperative axial length (AXL) measurement with optical biometry and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement preoperatively and 1 month postoperatively. The CT was measured perpendicularly at the fovea and 1.5 mm temporal, 3.0 mm temporal, 1.5 mm nasal, and 3.0 mm nasal using SD-OCT preoperatively and 1 month postoperatively. Changes in the CT after surgery and correlation of this change with age, AXL, preoperative IOP, and IOP change were evaluated. Results There was a statistically significant increase in the CT at all regions evaluated. This increment was more prominent in the nasal and subfoveal regions. The IOP decreased significantly 1 month after surgery (16.14±4.94 mmHg vs 13.91±4.86 mmHg; P<0.001). The change in IOP was correlated with the CT changes at all regions, whereas age, AXL, and preoperative IOP had no significant correlations with the changes in CT. Conclusion Phacoemulsification surgery may cause significant increase in CT, which is correlated with surgery-induced IOP change in the short term. Long-term follow-up of eyes having phacoemulsification surgery may provide further insight into the effects of cataract surgery on the choroid. PMID:27307699

  8. Static pressure drives proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells via caveolin-1/ERK1/2 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Di-xian; Cheng, Jiming; Xiong, Yan; Li, Junmo; Xia, Chenglai; Xu, Canxin; Wang, Chun; Zhu, Bingyang; Hu, Zhuowei; Liao, Duan-fang

    2010-01-22

    Intimal hyperplasia plays an important role in various types of vascular remodeling. Mechanical forces derived from blood flow are associated with the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). This contributes to many vascular disorders such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and restenosis after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). In this study, we show that static pressure induces the proliferation of VSMC and activates its related signal pathway. VSMC from a rat aorta were treated with different pressures (0, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 mm Hg) in a custom-made pressure incubator for 24 h. The most active proliferation of VSMC was detected at a pressure of 120 mm Hg. VSMC was also incubated under a static pressure of 120 mm Hg for different time intervals (0, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h). We found that static pressure significantly stimulates VSMC proliferation. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation showed a peak at the pressure of 120 mm Hg at 4-h time point. Moreover, caveolin-1 expression was significantly inhibited by rising static pressure. Downregulation of VSMC proliferation could be found after PD98059 (ERK1/2 phosphorylation inhibitor) treatment. Our data also showed that a siRNA-mediated caveolin-1 knock down increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and VSMC proliferation. These results demonstrate that static pressure promotes VSMC proliferation via the Caveolin-1/ERK1/2 pathway.

  9. Melanoma Thickness and Survival Trends in the United States, 1989–2009

    PubMed Central

    Dusza, Stephen W.; Weinstock, Martin A.; Oliveria, Susan A.; Geller, Alan C.; Halpern, Allan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: With melanoma incidence rising and mortality stable, some question whether the melanoma epidemic is real. Melanoma thickness and survival trends may provide insights, but previous studies have been limited because of missing data on thickness. Methods: With a validated imputation method for missing thickness data, we characterized melanoma thickness and survival trends among men and women in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)–9 registries between 1989 and 2009. A total of 98,498 cases of invasive melanoma were identified. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Incidence per 100 000 person-years increased (13.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 13.65 to 14.23, to 21.87, 95% CI = 21.56 to 22.19, P < .001) between 1989 to 1991 and 2007 to 2009, fatal incidence remained stable (2.32, 95% CI = 2.2 to 2.4, to 2.08, 95% CI = 2.0 to 2.2, P = .20) between 1989 to 1991 and 1998 to 2000, and five-year survival increased (88.29%, 95% CI = 87.60% to 88.95%, to 91.68%, 95% CI = 91.22% to 92.12%, P < .001) between 1989 to 1991 and 2001 to 2003. Increase in incidence occurred across all thickness groups. Median thickness decreased (0.73 to 0.58mm). Geometric mean thickness decreased (0.77 to 0.65mm) 4.6% (95% CI = 4.2% to 5.0%) every three years in multivariable analysis. Thickness decreased among T1/T2 tumors (0.01–1.00 and 1.01–2.00mm) and among all age and sex groups, whites, non-Hispanics, and all body sites. However, thickness increased among T3/T4 tumors (2.01–4.00 and > 4.00mm) and nodular melanomas; acral lentiginous melanomas approached statistical significance. Thickness remained unchanged among some racial minorities. Melanoma-specific survival improved (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.88 to 0.91) every three years in multivariable analysis. Improvements in survival occurred across all subgroups except nonblack minorities, and nodular and acral lentiginous subtypes. Conclusions: Increasing incidence across all

  10. PULSED EDDY CURRENT THICKNESS MEASUREMENT OF SELECTIVE PHASE CORROSION ON NICKEL ALUMINUM BRONZE VALVES

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, T. W.; Harlley, D.; Babbar, V. K.; Wannamaker, K.

    2010-02-22

    Nickel Aluminum Bronze (NAB) is a material with marine environment applications that under certain conditions can undergo selective phase corrosion (SPC). SPC involves the removal of minority elements while leaving behind a copper matrix. Pulsed eddy current (PEC) was evaluated for determination of SPC thickness on a NAB valve section with access from the surface corroded side. A primarily linear response of PEC amplitude, up to the maximum available SPC thickness of 4 mm was observed. The combination of reduced conductivity and permeability in the SPC phase relative to the base NAB was used to explain the observed sensitivity of PEC to SPC thickness variations.

  11. Influence of increment thickness on light transmission, degree of conversion and micro hardness of bulk fill composites.

    PubMed

    Garoushi, Sufyan; Vallittu, Pekka; Shinya, Akikazu; Lassila, Lippo

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated characteristics of light transmission, degree of monomer conversion and surface microhardness of bulk fill, conventional and fiber-reinforced resin based composites (RBCs) through different incremental thicknesses of resin composite. Working hypotheses was that there are differences in transmission of blue light through RBCs of different kinds and that the thickness of the increments influence the degree of monomer conversion of RBCs. Six bulk fill, three conventional nanohybrid, one short fiber reinforced and one flowable RBCs were evaluated. For each material, four different incremental thicknesses (1, 2, 3 and 4 mm) were considered (n = 5). The specimens were prepared in cylindrical Teflon molds that are open at the top and the bottom sides and cured for 40 s by applying the curing unit. After curing process, the specimens were ground with a silicon carbide paper with a grit size of 1200 and 4000, and then stored dry at 37 °C for 24 h. Light transmission, degree of monomer conversion, surface microhardness were measured and data were analyzed using ANOVA (p = 0.05). There were differences in light transmission of resin composites of various types and brands. Low-viscous bulk fill and short fiber-reinforced RBCs presented higher light transmission compared to resin composites of higher viscosity. Reduced light transmission and lower surface microhardness and DC % at bottom side of the specimen suggests that more attention needs to be paid to ensure proper curing of the resin composite in deep cavities.

  12. Metabolism of 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,3,5-, and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene in the squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Benoit, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of three tetrachlorobenzene isomers (TeCB) was investigated in the squirrel monkey. The animals were administered orally 6 single doses of /sup 14/C-labeled 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,4,5-, or 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene over a 3-wk period at levels ranging from 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w) and kept in individual metabolism cages to collect urine and feces for radioassay. Approximately 38% (1,2,3,4-TeCB), 36% (1,2,3,5-TeCB), and 18% (1,2,4,5-TeCB) of the doses were excreted respectively in the feces 48 h post administration. In monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,4-TeCB, unchanged compound accounted for 50% of the fecal radioactivity. Unchanged compound accounted for more than 50% of the fecal radioactivity found in the monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,5-TeCB. The fecal metabolites were identified in both groups. No metabolites were detected in the feces of monkeys dosed with 1,2,4,5-TeCB. While the fecal route represented the major route of excretion for 1,2,3,4-TeCB, the other two isomers were eliminated exclusively in the feces. The above data in the squirrel monkey are different from those obtained with the rat and the rabbit, and demonstrate the different metabolic pathways for the isomers.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10345 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...(methylcyclohexyl) ester. 721.10345 Section 721.10345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10345 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester. (a... 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester (PMN P-05-110; CAS No. 27987-25-3)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10345 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...(methylcyclohexyl) ester. 721.10345 Section 721.10345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10345 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester. (a... 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester (PMN P-05-110; CAS No. 27987-25-3)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10345 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...(methylcyclohexyl) ester. 721.10345 Section 721.10345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10345 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester. (a... 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester (PMN P-05-110; CAS No. 27987-25-3)...

  16. Methodology Investigation of 120-mm Differential Weapon Chamber Pressure Measurement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    FOR YPG TOURMALINE EXTERNAL GAGES Gage 1st Order 2nd Order 3rd Order 4th Order Pressure Output Fit Error Fit Error Fit Error Fit Error(Doi) (29 (Doi...designed by Welton Phillips of Yuma Proving Ground. It has an encapsulated tourmaline sensing element and is installed using a 1-1/8-12 thread. Its nominal...encapsulated tourmaline crystal and is installed using a 1/2-20 thread. Its nominal scale .factor is 1.5 psi/pcb, and it has been tested up to 120,000

  17. Effects of different dentin thicknesses and air cooling on pulpal temperature rise during laser welding.

    PubMed

    Secilmis, Asli; Bulbul, Mehmet; Sari, Tugrul; Usumez, Aslihan

    2013-01-01

    The neodymium/yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd/YAG) laser has been suggested to repair broken prostheses in the mouth. This study investigated the effects of different dentin thicknesses and air cooling on pulpal temperature rise during laser welding. Three intact human maxillary molars were prepared for full-veneer crown. For each tooth, dentin thicknesses in mesiobuccal cusp was 2, 3, or 4 mm. Twenty dies were duplicated from each of the prepared teeth. For metal copings with 0.5-mm thickness, wax patterns were prepared with dip wax technique directly onto each of dies. All patterns were sprued and invested. The castings were made using a nickel-chromium alloy (Nicromed Premium, Neodontics). A hole with 0.5-mm diameter was prepared on the mesiobuccal cusp of each crown. The Nd/YAG laser (9.85 W; 1 Hz repetition rate; fluence, 1.230 J/cm(2); Fidelis Plus 3, Fotona) was used for welding with or without air cooling (n = 10). The temperature rise was measured in pulpal chamber with a J-type thermocouple wire that was connected to a data logger. Differences between start and highest temperature reading were taken, and temperature rise values were compared using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference tests (α = .05). Pulpal temperature rise varied significantly depending on the dentin thickness and air cooling (p < 0.05). The non-air cooling group induced significantly the highest temperature increases. There were no significant differences between 2- and 3-mm dentin thicknesses groups (p > 0.05); however, pulpal temperature rise was the lowest for 4-mm dentin thickness group (p < 0.05). The highest values of thermal increase were found in the pulp chamber (6.8°C) when no air cooling was used in 2-mm dentin thickness group. Laser welding on base metal castings with Nd/YAG laser can be applied with air cooling to avoid temperature rises known to adversely affect pulpal health when dentin thickness is 2 or 3 mm.

  18. Radiation dose differences between digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis are dependent on breast thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alakhras, Maram M.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Bourne, Roger; Rickard, Mary; Diffey, Jennifer; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose To evaluate the radiation dose derived from digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) at different tube current-exposure time product (mAs) and at 6 phantom thicknesses from 10 to 60 mm. Materials and Methods A total of 240 DM and DBT cranio-caudal (CC) phantom images were acquired at each thickness and at four exposure levels (the baseline mAs, 50%, 25% and 12.5% the baseline mAs). The incident Air Kerma (K) at the surface of the phantoms was measured using a solid state dosimeter. Mean Glandular Doses (MGD) were calculated for both modalities (DM and DBT). Results DBT dose was greater than that of DM for all mAs at each phantom thickness. For a breast thickness of 50 mm (close to average sized breast), the dose for DBT (2.32 mGy) was 13% higher than that for DM (2.05 mGy). The results also show that the difference in MGD between DM and DBT was less for the thicker compared with the thinner phantom, this difference being approximately a factor of 2.58 at 10 mm compared with a factor of 1.08 at 60 mm. While the MGD increased with increasing phantom thickness for both modalities, the dose increase with DBT was less than for DM, with the difference between 10 and 60 mm being a factor of 7 for DM and 3 for DBT. Conclusion The radiation dose from DBT was higher than that of DM and the difference in dose between DM and DBT decreases as phantom thickness increases.

  19. Measurement of cortical thickness asymmetry in carotid occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Asllani, Iris; Slattery, Pamelia; Fafard, Alexander; Pavol, Marykay; Lazar, Ronald M; Marshall, Randolph S

    2016-01-01

    Despite being considered an important anatomical parameter directly related to neuronal density, cortical thickness is not routinely assessed in studies of the human brain in vivo. This paucity has been largely due to the size and convoluted shape of the human cortex, which has made it difficult to develop automated algorithms that can measure cortical thickness efficiently and reliably. Since the development of such an algorithm by Fischl and Dale in 2000, the number of studies investigating the relationship between cortical thickness and other physiological parameters in the brain has been on the rise. There have been no studies however that have validated cortical asymmetry against known vascular anatomy. To this aim, using high-resolution MRI, we measured cortical thickness and volume in the primary motor (M1) and primary visual (V1) cortex in patients with unilateral, high-grade carotid occlusive disease (n = 29, age = 74 ± 10 years). These regions were selected based on the hypothesis that there will be thinning of the cortical thickness of M1 in the territory supplied by the occluded carotid artery, whereas V1 will show no asymmetry since its blood supply is provided by unaffected posterior arteries. To test for an effect of handedness, cortical thickness and volume were also measured in healthy volunteers (n = 8, age = 37 ± 13 years). In patients, we found thinner cortex in M1 on the occluded side (mean = 2.07 ± 0.19 mm vs 2.15 ± 0.20 mm, p = 0.0008) but no hemispheric difference in V1 (1.80 ± 0.17 mm in occluded vs 1.78 ± 0.16 mm in unoccluded, p = 0.31). Although the mean cortical volume of M1 in the occluded hemisphere was also lower, the difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.09). Similarly, in healthy controls, the results showed no hemispheric asymmetry in either cortical thickness or volume in either region (p > 0.1). To test for an orientation bias in the method, the analysis was repeated

  20. A densitometric analysis of commercial 35mm films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Ruffin, Christopher, III

    IIaO films have been subjected to various sensitometric tests. The have included thermal and aging effects and reciprocity failure studies. In order to compare the special IIaO film with popular brands of 35 mm films and their possible use in astrophotography, Agfa, Fuji and Kodak print and slide formats, as well as black and white and color formats, were subjected to sensitometric, as well as densitometric analysis. A scanning electron microscope was used to analyze grain structure size, and shape as a function of both speed and brand. Preliminary analysis of the grain structure using an ISI-SS40 scanning electron microscope indicates that the grain sizes for darker densities are much larger than the grain size for lighter densities. Researchers analyze the scanning electron microscope findings of the various grains versus densities as well as enhancement of the grains, using the IP-8500 Digital Image Processor.

  1. Walk through screening with multistatic mmW technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbmann, Frank; Ahmed, Sherif Sayed

    2016-10-01

    Active imaging systems for security screening at the airport or other checkpoints have proven to offer good results. Present systems require a specific position and posture,13 or a specific movement2 of the passenger in front of the imaging system. Walk Through Systems (WTS) which screen the passenger while passing the imaging system or a screening hallway would be more pleasant for the passenger and would result in a great improvement in the throughput. Furthermore the detection performance could be enhanced since possible threats are visible from different perspectives and could be tracked within different frames. The combination of all frames is equivalent to a full illumination of the passenger. This paper presents the concept of a WTS basing on a multistatic imaging system in the mmW range. The benefit is that the technology of existing portals can we reused and updated to a WTS. First results are demonstrated with an experimental system.

  2. Quantum Phase Slips in 6 mm Long Niobium Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiwei; Liu, Xin; Chan, M H W

    2016-02-10

    Transport measurements were made to study the superconducting transition of four 6 mm long niobium nanowires with different cross-sectional dimensions. A low-temperature residual resistance tail measured with an excitation current of 5 nA is found in the thinnest wire down to 50 mK or 7.7% of Tc of Nb. The functional form of the residual resistance is consistent with quantum phase slip (QPS) processes. Resistance measured at high bias excitation current switches among many discrete values that are well below the normal state resistance. These discrete resistance values as a function of temperature fall into several parallel curves all showing QPS-like decay in the low temperature limit similar to that found at low current. The coexistence of QPS-like resistance tails and resistance jumps found in the same wire unifies results from previous experiments where these two distinct sets of evidence for QPS are exclusive of each other.

  3. Developing adaptive QM/MM computer simulations for electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Dohm, Sebastian; Spohr, Eckhard; Korth, Martin

    2017-01-05

    We report the development of adaptive QM/MM computer simulations for electrochemistry, providing public access to all sources via the free and open source software development model. We present a modular workflow-based MD simulation code as a platform for algorithms for partitioning space into different regions, which can be treated at different levels of theory on a per-timestep basis. Currently implemented algorithms focus on targeting molecules and their solvation layers relevant to electrochemistry. Instead of using built-in forcefields and quantum mechanical methods, the code features a universal interface, which allows for extension to a range of external forcefield programs and programs for quantum mechanical calculations, thus enabling the user to readily implement interfaces to those programs. The purpose of this article is to describe our codes and illustrate its usage. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Magnetic design of a 14 mm period prototype superconducting undulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehlot, Mona; Mishra, G.; Trillaud, Frederic; Sharma, Geetanjali

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we report the design of a 14 mm period prototype superconducting undulator that is under fabrication at Insertion Device Development Laboratory (IDDL) at Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore, India. The field computations are made in RADIA and results are presented in an analytical form for computation of the on axis field and the field on the surface of the coil. On the basis of the findings, a best fit is presented for the model to calculate the field dependence on the gap and the current density. The fit is compared with Moser-Rossmanith formula proposed earlier to predict the magnetic flux density of a superconducting undulator. The field mapping is used to calculate the field integrals and its dependence on gap and current densities as well.

  5. Phase correlator reduces mm-wave radar cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, R., Sr.; Hobbs, P.; Locatelli, J.

    1986-03-01

    A technique involving the IC storage of magnetron phase for reference has been developed to make possible the use of the low-cost efficient magnetron in obtaining phase coherent signals for pulse Doppler radar. In the new external coherence method, the recorded random midpulse-region phase is compared with the frequency of the echo allowing Doppler information, free of phase noise, to be extracted. The gated magnetron was tested at Ka-band in a 35-GHz radar, and good agreement with the CP-4 5.5 GHz radar was shown. With good accuracy down to 10 cm/s, the present system, especially in the mm-wave region, has important applications to meteorological and military radar.

  6. A densitometric analysis of commercial 35mm films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Ruffin, Christopher, III

    1989-01-01

    IIaO films have been subjected to various sensitometric tests. The have included thermal and aging effects and reciprocity failure studies. In order to compare the special IIaO film with popular brands of 35 mm films and their possible use in astrophotography, Agfa, Fuji and Kodak print and slide formats, as well as black and white and color formats, were subjected to sensitometric, as well as densitometric analysis. A scanning electron microscope was used to analyze grain structure size, and shape as a function of both speed and brand. Preliminary analysis of the grain structure using an ISI-SS40 scanning electron microscope indicates that the grain sizes for darker densities are much larger than the grain size for lighter densities. Researchers analyze the scanning electron microscope findings of the various grains versus densities as well as enhancement of the grains, using the IP-8500 Digital Image Processor.

  7. Lunar polarization studies at 3.1 mm wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, T. L.; Cogdell, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Observations of the distribution of linearly polarized lunar thermal emission were made at a wavelength of 3.1 mm with The University of Texas 4.88 m parabolic reflector (0.042 deg HPBW). A shadow corrected, rough surface, thermal emission model for a homogeneous moon was least-squares-fitted to the polarization data. Results indicate an effective lunar dielectric constant of 1.34 plus or minus 0.04 with surface roughness characterized by a standard deviation of 17 (plus or minus 5) deg for surface slopes with a normal probability density, independent of lunar phase. A comparison of these results with published values at other wavelengths suggests that the effective lunar dielectric constant, as obtained by lunar emission measurements, decreases with decreasing wavelength of observation. This wavelength dependence may be interpreted in terms of an inhomogeneous surface and/or a surface that possesses intermediate scale surface roughness.

  8. The Apollo 15 coarse fines (4-10 mm)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham; Sherman, Sarah Bean

    1989-01-01

    A new catalog of the Apollo 15 coarse fines particles is presented. Powell's macroscopic descriptions, resulting from his 1972 particle by particle binocular examination of all of the Apollo 15 4 to 10 mm fines samples, are retained. His groupings are also retained, but petrographic, chemical, and other data from later analyses are incorporated into this catalog to better characterize individual particles and describe the groups. A large number of particles have no characterization beyond that done by Powell. Complete descriptions of the particles and all known references are provided. The catalog is intended for anyone interested in the rock types collected by Dave Scott and Jim Irwin in the Hadley-Appenine region, and particularly for researchers requiring sample allocations.

  9. Expulsion of the intrauterine devices Lippes loop size 30 mm.

    PubMed

    el-Zeneiny, A H; Ammar, A R; Badawi, S Z

    1969-01-01

    To determine the factors controlling IUD expulsion (Lippes loop 30 mm), Cairo's Ain-Shams Birth Control Clinic investigated 25 women with regard to the following: 1) detailed obstetric history; 2) hystergram; 3) Lipiodol hysterosalpinography (postmenstrual cases); 4) measurement of uterine cavity; 5) dilation (Hegar's No. 8) to determine internal os integrity. In 40% of the expulsions congenital abnormalities of the uterus was found while another 40% revealed a patulous internal os. In septate and arcuate uteruses, continuous pressure on the upper part of the loop found to cause expulsion. Uterine contractions occurring during menstruation were also seen to increase chances of expulsion, particularly in cases of patulous internal os. In 20% of the cases, no anomoly was detected and expulsion was thought to have resulted from faulty insertion or irrigation of the uterus by a foreign body.

  10. Assembly of mm-scale macrobridges with carbon nanotube bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Anyuan; Ajayan, P. M.; Ramanath, G.

    2003-07-01

    We report a chemical vapor deposition method for in situ bridging of mm-scale metal-contact patterns with bundles of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The nanotube bundles synthesized from a hexane-ferrocene-thiophene mixture have a diameter of <50 μm and lengths up to millimeters, typically consisting of tens to hundreds of aligned nanotubes. These bundles are transported to the downstream end of the furnace, where they are captured by relief patterns of metal-contact tips. We can control the orientation and length of the nanotube bridges by preorganizing the metal tips to receive the bundles. This method is amenable to both scaling up, e.g., to create large-area arrays of nanotubes with contact electrodes, as well as scaling down, e.g., to bridge closely spaced contact structures.

  11. Modelling and performance of Nb SIS mixers in the 1.3 mm and 0.8 mm bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpov, A.; Carter, M.; Lazareff, B.; Billon-Pierron, D.; Gundlach, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the modeling and subsequent improvements of SIS waveguide mixers for the 200-270 and 330-370 GHz bands (Blundell, Carter, and Gundlach 1988, Carter et al 1991). These mixers are constructed for use in receivers on IRAM radiotelescopes on Pico Veleta (Spain, Sierra Nevada) and Plateau de Bure (French Alps), and must meet specific requirements. The standard reduced height waveguide structure with suspended stripline is first analyzed and a model is validated through comparison with scale model and working scale measurements. In the first step, the intrinsic limitations of the standard mixer structure are identified, and the parameters are optimized bearing in mind the radioastronomical applications. In the second step, inductive tuning of the junctions is introduced and optimized for minimum noise and maximum bandwidth. In the 1.3 mm band, a DSB receiver temperature of less than 110 K (minimum 80 K) is measured from 180 through 260 GHz. In the 0.8 mm band, a DSB receiver temperature of less than 250 K (minimum 175 K) is obtained between 325 and 355 GHz. All these results are obtained with room-temperature optics and a 4 GHz IF chain having a 500 MHz bandwidth and a noise temperature of 14 K.

  12. Modelling and performance of Nb SIS mixers in the 1.3 mm and 0.8 mm bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, A.; Carter, M.; Lazareff, B.; Billon-Pierron, D.; Gundlach, K. H.

    We describe the modeling and subsequent improvements of SIS waveguide mixers for the 200-270 and 330-370 GHz bands (Blundell, Carter, and Gundlach 1988, Carter et al 1991). These mixers are constructed for use in receivers on IRAM radiotelescopes on Pico Veleta (Spain, Sierra Nevada) and Plateau de Bure (French Alps), and must meet specific requirements. The standard reduced height waveguide structure with suspended stripline is first analyzed and a model is validated through comparison with scale model and working scale measurements. In the first step, the intrinsic limitations of the standard mixer structure are identified, and the parameters are optimized bearing in mind the radioastronomical applications. In the second step, inductive tuning of the junctions is introduced and optimized for minimum noise and maximum bandwidth. In the 1.3 mm band, a DSB receiver temperature of less than 110 K (minimum 80 K) is measured from 180 through 260 GHz. In the 0.8 mm band, a DSB receiver temperature of less than 250 K (minimum 175 K) is obtained between 325 and 355 GHz. All these results are obtained with room-temperature optics and a 4 GHz IF chain having a 500 MHz bandwidth and a noise temperature of 14 K.

  13. Pavement thickness evaluation using ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Dwayne Arthur

    Accurate knowledge of pavement thickness is important information to have both at a network and project level. This information aids in pavement management and design. Much of the time this information is missing, out of date, or unknown for highway sections. Current technologies for determining pavement thickness are core drilling, falling weight deflectometer (FWD), and ground penetrating radar (GPR). Core drilling provides very accurate pin point pavement thickness information; however, it is also time consuming, labor intensive, intrusive to traffic, destructive, and limited in coverage. FWD provides nondestructive estimates of both a surface thickness and total pavement structure thickness, including pavement, base and sub-base. On the other hand, FWD is intrusive to traffic and affected by the limitations and assumptions the method used to estimate thickness. GPR provides pavement surface course thickness estimates with excellent data coverage at highway speed. Yet, disadvantages include the pavement thickness estimation being affected by the electrical properties of the pavement, limitations of the system utilized, and heavy post processing of the data. Nevertheless, GPR has been successfully utilized by a number of departments of transportation (DOTs) for pavement thickness evaluation. This research presents the GPR thickness evaluation methods, develops GPRPAVZ the software used to implement the methodologies, and addresses the quality of GPR pavement thickness evaluation.

  14. Thickness and Closure Kinetics of the Suprachoroidal Space Following Microneedle Injection of Liquid Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Bryce; Venugopal, Nitin; Grossniklaus, Hans E.; Jung, Jae Hwan; Edelhauser, Henry F.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of injection volume and formulation of a microneedle injection into the suprachoroidal space (SCS) on SCS thickness and closure kinetics. Methods Microneedle injections containing 25 to 150 μL Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) were performed in the rabbit SCS ex vivo. Distribution of SCS thickness was measured by ultrasonography and three-dimensional (3D) cryo-reconstruction. Microneedle injections were performed in the rabbit SCS in vivo using HBSS, Discovisc, and 1% to 5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in HBSS. Ultrasonography was used to track SCS thickness over time. Results Increasing HBSS injection volume increased the area of expanded SCS, but did not increase SCS thickness ex vivo. With SCS injections in vivo, the SCS initially expanded to thicknesses of 0.43 ± 0.06 mm with HBSS, 1.5 ± 0.4 mm with Discovisc, and 0.69 to 2.1 mm with 1% to 5% CMC. After injection with HBSS, Discovisc, and 1% CMC solution, the SCS collapsed to baseline with time constants of 19 minutes, 6 hours, and 2.4 days, respectively. In contrast, injections with 3% to 5% CMC solution resulted in SCS expansion to 2.3 to 2.8 mm over the course of 2.8 to 9.1 hours, after which the SCS collapsed to baseline with time constants of 4.5 to 9.2 days. Conclusions With low-viscosity formulations, SCS expands to a thickness that remains roughly constant, independent of the volume of fluid injected. Increasing injection fluid viscosity significantly increased SCS thickness. Expansion of the SCS is hypothesized to be controlled by a balance between the viscous forces of the liquid formulation and the resistive biomechanical forces of the tissue. PMID:28125842

  15. Synergistic Activity of Carfilzomib and Panobinostat in Multiple Myeloma Cells via Modulation of ROS Generation and ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lu; Gao, Minjie; Yang, Guang; Tao, Yi; Kong, Yuanyuan; Yang, Ruixue; Meng, Xiuqin; Ai, Gongwen; Wei, Rong; Wu, Huiqun; Wu, Xiaosong; Shi, Jumei

    2015-01-01

    Relapse of disease and subsequent resistance to established therapies remain as major challenges in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). New therapeutic options are needed for these extensively pretreated patients. To explore an optimized combinational therapy, interactions between the irreversible proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib exhibiting a well-tolerated side-effect profile and histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) panobinostat (LBH589) were examined in MM cells. Coadministration of carfilzomib and LBH589 led to a synergistic inhibition of proliferation in MM cells. Further studies showed that the combined treatment synergistically increased mitochondrial injury, caspase activation, and apoptosis in MM cells. Lethality of the carfilzomib/LBH589 combination was associated with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ERK1/2 inactivation. In addition, the free radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could block carfilzomib and LBH589-induced oxidative stress and the subsequent apoptosis. Together, these findings argue that the strategy of combining carfilzomib and LBH589 warrants attention in MM.

  16. THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zachary D.; Garritano, James; Sung, Shijun; Bajwa, Neha; Bennett, David B.; Nowroozi, Bryan; Tewari, Priyamvada; Sayre, James W.; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Deng, Sophie X.; Brown, Elliott R.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    2015-01-01

    A pulsed terahertz (THz) imaging system and millimeter-wave reflectometer were used to acquire images and point measurements, respectively, of five rabbit cornea in vivo. These imaging results are the first ever produced of in vivo cornea. A modified version of a standard protocol using a gentle stream of air and a Mylar window was employed to slightly dehydrate healthy cornea. The sensor data and companion central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements were acquired every 10–15 min over the course of two hours using ultrasound pachymmetry.. Statistically significant positive correlations were established between CCT measurements and millimeter wave reflectivity. Local shifts in reflectivity contrast were observed in the THz imagery; however, the THz reflectivity did not display a significant correlation with thickness in the region probed by the 100 GHz and CCT measurements. This is explained in part by a thickness sensitivity at least 10× higher in the mm-wave than the THz systems. Stratified media and effective media modeling suggest that the protocol perturbed the thickness and not the corneal tissue water content (CTWC). To further explore possible etalon effects, an additional rabbit was euthanized and millimeter wave measurements were obtained during death induced edema. These observations represent the first time that the uncoupled sensing of CTWC and CCT have been achieved in vivo. PMID:26161292

  17. Lens thickness assessment: anterior segment optical coherence tomography versus A-scan ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Hamzeh, Nikoo; Moghimi, Sasan; Latifi, Golshan; Mohammadi, Massood; Khatibi, Nassim; Lin, Shan C.

    2015-01-01

    AIM To assess lens thickness measurements with anterior segment-optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) in comparison with A-scan ultrasonography (A-scan US). METHODS There were 218 adult subjects (218 eyes) aged 59.2±9.2y enrolled in this prospective cross-sectional study. Forty-three eyes had open angles and 175 eyes had narrow angles. Routine ophthalmic exam was performed and nuclear opacity was graded using the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III). Lens thickness was measured by AS-OCT (Visante OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA). The highest quality image was selected for each eye and lens thickness was calculated using ImageJ software. Lens thickness was also measured by A-scan US. RESULTS Interclass correlations showed a value of 99.7% for intra-visit measurements and 95.3% for inter-visit measurements. The mean lens thickness measured by AS-OCT was not significantly different from that of A-scan US (4.861±0.404 vs 4.866±0.351 mm, P=0.74). Lens thickness values obtained from the two instruments were highly correlated overall (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.81, P<0.001), and in all LOCS III specific subgroups except in grade 5 of nuclear opacity. Bland-Altman analysis revealed a 95% limit of agreement from -0.45 to 0.46 mm. Lens thickness difference between the two instruments became smaller as the lens thickness increased and AS-OCT yielded smaller values than A-scan US in thicker lens (β=-0.29, P<0.001) CONCLUSION AS-OCT-derived lens thickness measurement is valid and comparable to the results obtained by A-scan US. It can be used as a reliable noncontact method for measuring lens thickness in adults with or without significant cataract. PMID:26682164

  18. Cortical thickness in untreated transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Junque, Carme; Gómez-Gil, Esther; Segovia, Santiago; Carrillo, Beatriz; Rametti, Giuseppina; Guillamon, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Sex differences in cortical thickness (CTh) have been extensively investigated but as yet there are no reports on CTh in transsexuals. Our aim was to determine whether the CTh pattern in transsexuals before hormonal treatment follows their biological sex or their gender identity. We performed brain magnetic resonance imaging on 94 subjects: 24 untreated female-to-male transsexuals (FtMs), 18 untreated male-to-female transsexuals (MtFs), and 29 male and 23 female controls in a 3-T TIM-TRIO Siemens scanner. T1-weighted images were analyzed to obtain CTh and volumetric subcortical measurements with FreeSurfer software. CTh maps showed control females have thicker cortex than control males in the frontal and parietal regions. In contrast, males have greater right putamen volume. FtMs had a similar CTh to control females and greater CTh than males in the parietal and temporal cortices. FtMs had larger right putamen than females but did not differ from males. MtFs did not differ in CTh from female controls but had greater CTh than control males in the orbitofrontal, insular, and medial occipital regions. In conclusion, FtMs showed evidence of subcortical gray matter masculinization, while MtFs showed evidence of CTh feminization. In both types of transsexuals, the differences with respect to their biological sex are located in the right hemisphere.

  19. Crystalline 1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidenes

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, Guy; Gulsado-Barrios, Gregorio; Bouffard, Jean; Donnadieu, Bruno

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides novel and stable crystalline 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of making 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of using 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes in catalytic reactions.

  20. Non-destructive evaluation of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates by accurate ultrasonic scanning technique

    SciTech Connect

    Borring, J.; Gundtoft, H.E.; Borum, K.K.; Toft, P.

    1997-08-01

    In an effort to improve their ultrasonic scanning technique for accurate determination of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates, new equipment and modifications to the existing hardware and software have been tested and evaluated. The authors are now able to measure an aluminium thickness down to 0.25 mm instead of the previous 0.35 mm. Furthermore, they have shown how the measuring sensitivity can be improved from 0.03 mm to 0.01 mm. It has now become possible to check their standard fuel plates for DR3 against the minimum cladding thickness requirements non-destructively. Such measurements open the possibility for the acceptance of a thinner nominal cladding than normally used today.

  1. Mammographic calcification cluster detection and threshold gold thickness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, L. M.; Mackenzie, A.; Cooke, J.; Given-Wilson, R.; Wallis, M. G.; Chakraborty, D. P.; Dance, D. R.; Young, K. C.

    2012-03-01

    European Guidelines for quality control in digital mammography specify acceptable and achievable standards of image quality (IQ) in terms of threshold gold thickness using the CDMAM test object. However, there is little evidence relating such measurements to cancer detection. This work investigated the relationship between calcification detection and threshold gold thickness. An observer study was performed using a set of 162 amorphous selenium direct digital (DR) detector images (81 no cancer and 81 with 1-3 inserted calcification clusters). From these images four additional IQs were simulated: different digital detectors (computed radiography (CR) and DR) and dose levels. Seven observers marked and rated the locations of suspicious regions. DBM analysis of variances was performed on the JAFROC figure of merit (FoM) yielding 95% confidence intervals for IQ pairs. Automated threshold gold thickness (Tg) analysis was performed for the 0.25mm gold disc diameter on CDMAM images at the same IQs (16 images per IQ). Tg was plotted against FoM and a power law fitted to the data. There was a significant reduction in FoM for calcification detection for CR images compared with DR; FoM decreased from 0.83 to 0.63 (p<=0.0001). Detection was also sensitive to dose. There was a good correlation between FoM and Tg (R2=0.80, p<0.05), consequently threshold gold thickness was a good predictor of calcification detection at the same IQ. Since the majority of threshold gold thicknesses for the various IQs were above the acceptable standard despite large variations in calcification detection by radiologists, current EU guidelines may need revising.

  2. Optical monitoring of thin oil film thickness in extrusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanowicz, Robert; Wroczyński, Piotr; Graczyk, Jan; Gnyba, Marcin

    2005-09-01

    We have used reflectance spectroscopy for the in-situ, non-invasive monitoring of a thin oil film thickness during extrusion process of ceramic paste in capillary rheometer. Investigated pastes are disperse solid liquid systems prepared from the silicone oil AK106 (Wacker) and ceramic powder AlOOH. The thin oil film, extracted from the extruded paste, appears on walls of the rheometer die. A borosilicate view-port-glass provides optical access to the thin film inside the die. Reflectance spectroscopy enables the thin film thickness measurements by wideband spectral analysis of light back reflected from the sample. This spectrum includes extremes, which results from interference between beams reflected from glass-oil boundary and oil-paste boundary. Position and intensity of this extremes were determined by thickness of the thin film as well as refractive indices of the oil and the paste. Optoelectronic system dedicated for process monitoring by means of reflectance spectroscopy had been designed and built. The system comprises tungsten halogen lamp and fiber optic spectrometer. Optical signals are transmitted through bifurcated fibers, focusing optics and the view-port-window. Spectroscopic monitoring was carried out in VIS-NIR range from 400 to 900 nm as a function of extrusion velocity (0.01-5mm/s) and paste particle granulation (5-20 μm). Computer calculation, performed using dedicated software, enables fast determination of thickness even for reflectance spectra interfered by high noise level. Fast development of ceramic components technology requires detailed description of complex rheometric processes. Monitoring of the most important process parameter - oil layer thickness - enables pre-determination of rheometric factors required for proper paste extrusion and accurate shape filling.

  3. Thickness and fit of mouthguards according to heating methods.

    PubMed

    Mizuhashi, Fumi; Koide, Kaoru; Takahashi, Mutsumi

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in the thickness and fit of mouthguards made by four different heating methods of the mouthguard sheet material. A Sports Mouthguard(®) of 3.8-mm thickness was used in this study. Four heating methods were performed. In one method, the sheet was heated only one side. In the other methods, one side of the sheet was heated first until the center of the sheet was displaced by 0.5 cm, 1.0 cm, and 1.5 cm from the baseline, and then turned upside down and heated. The sheets were adapted using a vacuum former when the heated sheets hung 1.5 cm from the baseline. We measured the thickness and fit of the mouthguard at the areas of the central incisor and first molar. The difference in thickness at the central incisor and first molar regions was analyzed by two-way anova. The difference in fit with different heating methods was analyzed by one-way anova. The results showed that the thickness of the mouthguard differed in the central incisor and first molar areas (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), but not with the heating methods. The fit of the mouthguard at the central incisor and first molar areas was significantly different among the heating methods (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). These results suggested that the fit of the mouthguard was superior when the heated surface of the sheet contacted the surface of the working model. This finding may help to fabricate accurate mouthguards.

  4. Mm-size bistable zipping dielectric elastomer actuators for integrated microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffli, Luc; Rosset, Samuel; Shea, Herbert R.

    2013-04-01

    We report on a new structure of Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (DEAs) called zipping DEAs, which have a set of unique characteristics that are a good match for the requirements of electrically-powered integrated microfluidic pumping and/or valving units as well as Braille displays. The zipping DEAs operate by pulling electrostatically an elastomer membrane in contact with the rigid sidewalls of a sloped chamber. In this work, we report on fully functional mm-size zipping DEAs that demonstrate a complete sealing of the chamber sidewalls and a tunable bistable behavior, and compare the measurements with an analytical model. Compared to our first generation of devices, we are able vary the sidewall angle and benefit therefore from more flexibility to study the requirements to make fully functional actuators. In particular, we show that with Nusil CF19 as membrane material (1.2 MPa Young's modulus), it is possible to zip completely 2.3 mm diameter chambers with 15° and 21° sidewalls angle equibiaxially prestretched to λ0=1.12 and 15° chambers with λ0=1.27.

  5. Fine Scale Structure of AGN Jets with 1.3 mm VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Rusen; Fish, V. L.; Weintroub, J.; Doeleman, S.; Bower, G. C.; Freund, R.; Friberg, P.; Ho, P. T.; Honma, M.; Inoue, M.; Jorstad, S. G.; Krichbaum, T.; Marrone, D. P.; Marscher, A. P.; Moran, J. M.; Oyama, T.; Plambeck, R. L.; Primiani, R.; Shen, Z.; Tilanus, R.; Wright, M.; Young, K.; Ziurys, L. M.; Zensus, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report results from 1.3 mm VLBI observations of AGN jets with the Event Horizon Telescope focusing on the southern blazar 1921-293. We show the first 1.3 mm VLBI model image of 1921-293 using closure phase techniques obtained with four telescopes at three observatories: the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, the Arizona Radio Observatory's Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) in Arizona, and two telescopes of the Combined Array for Research in Millimeterwave Astronomy (CARMA) in California in April 2009. With the greatly improved resolution compared with previous observations and robust closure phase measurement, the inner jet structure of 1921-293 was spatially resolved. The inner jet extends to the northwest along a position angle of -53° degree at a distance of 0.38 mas from the tentatively identified core, in agreement with the inner jet structure inferred from lower frequencies, and making a position angle difference of ~80° with respect to the cm-jet. The size of the compact core is 0.15 pc with a brightness temperature of 1.2 ×1011 K. Compared with those measured at lower frequencies, the low brightness temperature may argue in favor of the decelerating jet model or particle-cascade models. Some results for another blazar 3C 279 will also be presented.

  6. Crystal thickness dependence of the photoinduced crystal bending of 1-(5-methyl-2-(4-(p-vinylbenzoyloxymethyl)phenyl)-4-thiazolyl)-2-(5-methyl-2-phenyl-4-thiazolyl)perfluorocyclopentene.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Daichi; Kobatake, Seiya

    2014-05-01

    Rod-like crystals of 1-(5-methyl-2-(4-(p-vinylbenzoyloxymethyl)phenyl)-4-thiazolyl)-2-(5-methyl-2-phenyl-4-thiazolyl)perfluorocyclopentene with lengths of over 1 mm showed photoreversible bending over 100 cycles upon irradiation with alternating ultraviolet (UV) and visible light. The crystals bent toward the incident light due to a contraction of the crystal length and a gradient of the crystal thickness, which depend on the extent of photoisomerization. It was observed that the bending speed depends on the crystal thickness, and the curvature change on changing the crystal thickness agrees well with Timoshenko's bimetal model, as well as with the observation that crystals of 1,2-bis(2-methyl-5-(4-(1-naphthoyloxymethyl)phenyl)-3-thienyl)perfluorocyclopentene bend away from the incident light due to an expansion of the crystal length and a gradient of the crystal thickness, which depend on the extent of photoisomerization. It was revealed that Timoshenko's bimetal model can be applied to photoinduced crystal bending behaviors caused by both contraction and expansion. These findings are very useful for evaluating and designing photomechanical actuators.

  7. Ultrasonographic measurement of the axillary recess thickness in an asymptomatic shoulder

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to measure the axillary recess (AR) thickness in an asymptomatic shoulder by using ultrasonography (US) and to analyze the factors affecting it. Methods We recruited 141 patients (52 males; 89 females; age, 57.7±9.9 years) with unilateral shoulder pain and performed US on the unaffected shoulder. Two physiatrists measured the AR thickness of the unaffected shoulder independently. All patients were examined in an upright sitting position with 90° shoulder abduction. The ultrasonographic transducer was placed longitudinally on the mid-axillary line and along the long axis of the humeral shaft. The factors affecting the AR thickness values were analyzed, and intra-class correlation coefficients were used for assessing the reproducibility of each measurement. Results The intrarater reliability values for the two physiatrists were 0.98 and 0.96, respectively. The inter-rater reliability of the mean AR thickness measurements was 0.91. The mean AR thickness in all subjects, males, and females was 2.8±0.6 mm, 3.1±0.6 mm, and 2.6±0.5 mm (P<0.01), respectively. No difference between the left and the right sides (males, P=0.086; females, P=0.535) or between the dominant and the non-dominant sides (males, P=0.173; female, P=0.244) was found. The AR thickness correlated positively with the height (r=0.313, P<0.01) and the weight (r=0.319, P<0.01). However, it did not correlate with the body mass index (r=0.152, P=0.077) or the age (r=-0.056, P=0.515). Conclusion US measurements of the AR thickness in asymptomatic shoulders demonstrated excellent intrarater and inter-rater reliabilities. The AR thickness showed anatomical variation with sex, height, and weight. PMID:27764911

  8. Dilatation and Curettage Effect on the Endometrial Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Davar, Robab; Dehghani Firouzabadi, Razieh; Chaman Ara, Kefayat

    2013-01-01

    Background Endometrial receptivity is required for successful implantation and pregnancy. Despite the remaining controversy, many studies have shown that ultrasonographic endometrial thickness can be considered as an indicator of endometrial receptivity. Objective The study objective was to investigate the effect of dilatation and curettage on the endometrial thickness. Materials and Methods Enrolled in the study were 444 patients visited in Obstetrics & Gynecology clinic of Shahid Sadoughi hospital between Jan. 2011 to Sep. 2012. Only patients whose menstrual cycle was regular were included in study. Patients with myoma, adenomyosis, endometrial polyps or other uterine anomaly, those who smoked, whose BMI was greater than 30 and who were taking medications that could affect endometrial thickness were excluded. Endometrial thickness was measured one day before evolution (n = 444) and 5-7 days after it (n = 444) using transvaginal ultrasonography. The endometrial thicknesses were correlated to the patients’ history of dilatation and curettage. Data analysis was done through SPSS software version 16 and using descriptive statistics, independent T-test and Anova. Results Endometrial thickness in patients who had 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 D&C were 10.00 ± 0.58, 9.83 ± 0.47, 8.90 ± 0.92, 7.42 ± 0.18 and 7.40 ± 0.07, respectively one day before ovulation (spearman’s correlation coefficient = -0.33) and 10.62 ± 0.68, 9.64 ± 0.49, 8.48 ± 0.96, 6.32 ± 0.15 and 6.90 ± 0.04, respectively, 5-7 days after ovulation (spearman’s correlation coefficient = -0.66) estradiol and progesterone levels, measured in the day of 2nd ultrasonography had not statistic relation with endometrial thickness (P = 0.27 and 0.31). The relation of endometrial thickness and age was not significant (P = 0.54 and 0.06). Conclusions Dilatation and curettage has a significant effect on the endometrial thinning. PMID:24083012

  9. Planar waveguide yields mm-wave monopulse comparators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrigos, H.; Crossland, D.; van Wyck, B.

    1984-03-01

    The miniature monopulse comparator assemblies are machined from small split blocks of aluminum 3.000 in. in diameter and 0.375 in. thick at 94 GHz; at 35 GHz, the dimensions are 3.500 in. and 0.750 in., respectively. A computerized milling machine ensures very close control of the machining tolerances. The feed distribution lines are designed on the top of the comparator block without introducing waveguide runs. This allows the four balanced output ports to be distributed from their wide separation inside the comparator to a small cluster for proper feedhorn excitation. It is noted that these signals are then coupled to a unique multimode scalar feed horn through a sensitive resonant cavity. The horn throat of this feed is circular and sufficiently large to accommodate the HE(11) mode for the sum and HE(01) and HE(21) for the difference modes. It is pointed out that miniature monopulse comparators for 35 and 94 GHz employ planar waveguide technology to give a performance that is equivalent to much larger designs.

  10. First characterization of a digital SiPM based time-of-flight PET detector with 1 mm spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Stefan; van der Lei, Gerben; van Dam, Herman T; Schaart, Dennis R

    2013-05-07

    Monolithic scintillator detectors can offer a combination of spatial resolution, energy resolution, timing performance, depth-of-interaction information, and detection efficiency that make this type of detector a promising candidate for application in clinical, time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET). In such detectors the scintillation light is distributed over a relatively large number of photosensor pixels and the light intensity per pixel can be relatively low. Therefore, monolithic scintillator detectors are expected to benefit from the low readout noise offered by a novel photosensor called the digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM). Here, we present a first experimental characterization of a TOF PET detector comprising a 24 × 24 × 10 mm(3) LSO:Ce,0.2%Ca scintillator read out by a dSiPM array (DPC-6400-44-22) developed by Philips Digital Photon Counting. A spatial resolution of ~1 mm full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) averaged over the entire crystal was obtained (varying from just below 1 mm FWHM in the detector center to ~1.2 mm FWHM close to the edges). Furthermore, the bias in the position estimation at the crystal edges that is typically found in monolithic scintillators is well below 1 mm even in the corners of the crystal.

  11. Experimental characteristics of a high-gain free-electron laser amplifier operating at 8-mm and 2-mm wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Throop, A.L.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Anderson, B.R.; Chambers, F.W.; Clark, J.C.; Fawley, W.M.; Jong, R.A.; Halbach, K.; Hopkins, D.B.; Sessler, A.M.

    1987-06-08

    The Electron Laser Facility (ELF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses a high-current induction linac (3.5 MeV, 1000 A), in conjunction with a pulsed electromagnetic wiggler (4.0 M, 4000 G), to operate a free electron laser (FEL) that produces intense radiation in the microwave regime (2 to 8 mm). ELF is a high-gain, single-pass amplifier, using a commercial microwave source as an oscillator input (200 W-50 kW). Previous experiments at 35 GHz produced exponential gains of 40 dB/m, peak powers exceeding 1 GW, and beam-to-rf conversion efficiencies of 34%. Recent experiments at 140 GHz have demonstrated exponential gains of 22 dB/m, peak powers exceeding 50 MW, and total gains of 65 dB. In this paper, we describe the experimental results at these two frequencies and compare then with the predictions of simulation codes.

  12. Subducted sediment thickness and Mw 9 earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seno, Tetsuzo

    2017-01-01

    I measure the thickness of subducted sediment (Δss) beneath the décollement in the fore-arc wedge and show that the average value of Δss over a subduction zone segment (Δss>¯) is greater than 1.3 km in segments where Mw ≥ 9 earthquakes have occurred and less than 1.2 km in segments without such large earthquakes. In a previous study, I showed that the stress drop (Δσ) of large earthquakes (Mw ≥ 7) averaged over a subduction zone segment (Δσ>¯) is larger in segments where Mw ≥ 9 earthquakes have occurred than in segments without such an event. It has also been shown that Δσ>¯ is linearly related to 1 - λ (λ = the pore fluid pressure ratio in the interplate megathrust). In this study, I revise the previous estimates of Δσ>¯ and λ and show that there is a positive correlation between Δss>¯, Δσ>¯, and 1 - λ. I present a model that relates Δss to 1 - λ based on the porous flow of H2O in the subducted sediments, which gives a theoretical basis for the correlation between Δss>¯ and Δσ>¯. The combination of these parameters thus provides a better indicator for identifying segments where Mw ≥ 9 earthquakes may occur. Based on this, I propose that the tectonic environments where such huge events are likely to occur are (1) near collision zones, (2) near subduction of spreading centers, and (3) erosive margins with compressional fore arcs. Near the Japanese islands, SE Hokkaido is prone to such an event, but the Nankai Trough is not.

  13. Endometrial thickness predicts endometrial hyperplasia in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Betsy A; Wilburn, Rochelle D; Thomas, Michael A; Williams, Daniel B; Maxwell, Rose; Aubuchon, Mira

    2011-06-30

    Body mass index is predictive of sonographic endometrial stripe thickness, which in turn is predictive of endometrial hyperplasia in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. For every 1-mm increase in endometrial stripe, the odds ratio of hyperplasia increased by 1.48 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.10).

  14. Temperature effects on failure thickness and deflagration-to-detonation transition in PBX 9502 and TATB

    SciTech Connect

    Asay, B.W.; McAfee, J.B.

    1993-04-01

    The deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) behavior of TATB has been investigated at high temperatures and severe confinement. comparison is made to other common explosives under similar confinement. TATB did not DDT under these conditions. The failure thickness of PBX 9502 at 250{degrees}C has also been determined. Two mm appears to be the limiting value at this temperature.

  15. Temperature effects on failure thickness and deflagration-to-detonation transition in PBX 9502 and TATB

    SciTech Connect

    Asay, B.W.; McAfee, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    The deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) behavior of TATB has been investigated at high temperatures and severe confinement. comparison is made to other common explosives under similar confinement. TATB did not DDT under these conditions. The failure thickness of PBX 9502 at 250[degrees]C has also been determined. Two mm appears to be the limiting value at this temperature.

  16. The influence of change in slice thickness on the accuracy of reconstruction of cranium geometry.

    PubMed

    Budzik, Grzegorz; Turek, Paweł; Traciak, Julian

    2017-03-01

    The article presents a comparative study of change in slice thickness on the accuracy of reconstruction of cranium geometry. Research was performed on 10 different patients. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine data were obtained on the Siemens Somatom Sensation Open 40 scanner. At the stage of reconstruction, the same parameters were utilized, while only slice thickness was changed. Modeling with voxel dimensions of 0.4 mm × 0.4 mm × 2.4 mm was chosen as the gold standard over the modeling approach comprising voxel dimensions of 0.4 mm × 0.4 mm × 4.8 mm. The influence of layer thickness on the accuracy of cranium geometry is very similar for the 10 presented patients. The average results show a distribution with a positive skew and kurtosis. The value of skewness is 0.284 (small asymmetry) and kurtosis is 3.746 (a distribution more peaked). Based on 95% confidence, the changes in layer thickness from 2.4 to 4.8 mm generated errors reconstructing the geometry of the cranium by 0.516 mm ± 1.345 mm. The presented research highlights new opportunities to control deviations at the stage of data processing and modeling geometry of the cranium.

  17. Vibrational analysis of 1,2-dichloro-2-methylpropane and 1,2-dibromo-2-methylpropane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, G. A.; Richardson, Mary Townsend

    1982-02-01

    Liquid-state IR and Raman spectra and solid-state IR spectra have been obtained for 1,2-dichloro-2-methylpropane and l,2-dibromo-2-methylpropane. Carbon-halogen stretching bands are observed in the liquid-state spectrum of the dichloro compound at 751, 725, 624 and 574 cm -1 and at 677, 640, 551 and 507 cm -1 in the liquid-state spectrum of the dibromo compound. Both compounds exist as P CTt HHH and P XT XHH conformations in the liquid, but only the P XT XHH conformer is present for each in the crystalline solid. Further Interpretation of the spectra was aided by normal coordinate calculations.

  18. A method based on reflection theory to test the attenuation performance of an absorption coat to 8mm waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuanyu

    2016-09-01

    A testing method has been set up to evaluate the attenuation performance of an absorption coat to 8mm waves, which is based on a set of detecting system included by an 8mm wave emitter, a millimeter power meter, a point to point collimator and a reflecting plate. The power meter was aimed at the 8 mm wave emitter along the reflection optical path instead of the direction observation between incident and reflected millimeter wave. Some Al, Fe and aluminum alloy sample plates were made and painted by the dope which was complexed with chopped carbon fibers. A naked metal plate was first used to adjust the transmission path of the millimeter wave. Then the power meter was adjusted to phase locking after preheating, and the millimeter wave power was sampled as the background value. Then the other painted plates were tested under the same conditions. When the concentration of chopped carbon fibers is 0.5mg/ml and the thickness of the absorption coat is 0.5mm, the attenuation percentages of Al, Fe and aluminum alloy painted plates respectively is 54.29%, 58.31% and 41.12%. By the result, the reflection testing method may be widely used to measure the reflection capacity or attenuation performance of various surfaces to millimeter waves.

  19. Threshold thickness for applying diffusion equation in thin tissue optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunyao; Zhu, Jingping; Cui, Weiwen; Nie, Wei; Li, Jie; Xu, Zhenghong

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the suitability of the semi-infinite model of the diffusion equation when using diffuse optical imaging (DOI) to image thin tissues with double boundaries. Both diffuse approximation and Monte Carlo methods were applied to simulate light propagation in the thin tissue model with variable optical parameters and tissue thicknesses. A threshold value of the tissue thickness was defined as the minimum thickness in which the semi-infinite model exhibits the same reflected intensity as that from the double-boundary model and was generated as the final result. In contrast to our initial hypothesis that all optical properties would affect the threshold thickness, our results show that only absorption coefficient is the dominant parameter and the others are negligible. The threshold thickness decreases from 1 cm to 4 mm as the absorption coefficient grows from 0.01 mm-1 to 0.2 mm-1. A look-up curve was derived to guide the selection of the appropriate model during the optical diagnosis of thin tissue cancers. These results are useful in guiding the development of the endoscopic DOI for esophageal, cervical and colorectal cancers, among others.

  20. Effect of midsole thickness of dance shoes on dynamic postural stability.

    PubMed

    Wyon, Matthew A; Cloak, Ross; Lucas, Josephine; Clarke, Frances

    2013-12-01

    Landing from jumps is one of the main causes of injury within dance. A number of studies have reported a negative effect of shoe midsole thickness on lower limb kinematics during running due to the reduction in afferent sensory outputs from the foot's epithelium. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of varying midsole thicknesses in dance shoes on dynamic postural stability during a single-leg landing. Twenty-eight female undergraduate dance participants volunteered for the study. They carried out three trials under four conditions: barefoot and in ballet flats (2 mm midsole thickness), jazz shoes (7 mm), and dance sneakers (30 mm). The task consisted of a single-leg forward jump over a hurdle at 50% of their maximal vertical jump height, landing on a force platform, and balancing for 3 seconds. The stability indices for vertical stability (VSI), anterior-posterior stability (APSI), medial-lateral stability (MLSI), and dynamic postural stability (DPSI) were calculated using Wikstrom's revised method. Significant differences were reported between the midsole thicknesses for both DPSI and VSI (p<0.01). No statistical differences were noted for the indices SPSI or MLSI. The present data agree with the running studies in that increased midsole thickness has a negative influence on landing stability.

  1. Mapping protein electron transfer pathways with QM/MM methods

    PubMed Central

    Guallar, Victor; Wallrapp, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods offer a valuable computational tool for understanding the electron transfer pathway in protein–substrate interactions and protein–protein complexes. These hybrid methods are capable of solving the Schrödinger equation on a small subset of the protein, the quantum region, describing its electronic structure under the polarization effects of the remainder of the protein. By selectively turning on and off different residues in the quantum region, we are able to obtain the electron pathway for short- and large-range interactions. Here, we summarize recent studies involving the protein–substrate interaction in cytochrome P450 camphor, ascorbate peroxidase and cytochrome c peroxidase, and propose a novel approach for the long-range protein–protein electron transfer. The results on ascorbate peroxidase and cytochrome c peroxidase reveal the importance of the propionate groups in the electron transfer pathway. The long-range protein–protein electron transfer has been studied on the cytochrome c peroxidase–cytochrome c complex. The results indicate the importance of Phe82 and Cys81 on cytochrome c, and of Asn196, Ala194, Ala176 and His175 on cytochrome c peroxidase. PMID:18445553

  2. Digital Frequency Domain Multiplexer for mm-Wavelength Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Spieler, Helmuth G; Dobbs, Matt; Bissonnette, Eric; Spieler, Helmuth G.

    2007-07-23

    An FPGA based digital signal processing (DSP) system for biasing and reading out multiplexed bolometric detectors for mm-wavelength telescopes is presented. This readout system is being deployed for balloon-borne and ground based cosmology experiments with the primary goal of measuring the signature of inflation with the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. The system consists of analog superconducting electronics running at 250 mK and 4 K, coupled to digital room temperature backend electronics described here. The digital electronics perform the real time functionality with DSP algorithms implemented in firmware. A soft embedded processor provides all of the slow housekeeping control and communications. Each board in the system synthesizes multi-frequency combs of 8 to 32 carriers in the MHz band to bias the detectors. After the carriers have been modulated with the sky-signal by the detectors, the same boards digitize the comb directly. The carriers are mixed down to base-band and low pass filtered. The signal bandwidth of 0.050Hz-100 Hz places extreme requirements on stability and requires powerful filtering techniques to recover the sky-signal from the MHz carriers.

  3. rf breakdown tests of mm-wave metallic accelerating structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Forno, Massimo; Dolgashev, Valery; Bowden, Gordon; Clarke, Christine; Hogan, Mark; McCormick, Doug; Novokhatski, Alexander; Spataro, Bruno; Weathersby, Stephen; Tantawi, Sami G.

    2016-01-01

    We are exploring the physics and frequency-scaling of vacuum rf breakdowns at sub-THz frequencies. We present the experimental results of rf tests performed in metallic mm-wave accelerating structures. These experiments were carried out at the facility for advanced accelerator experimental tests (FACET) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The rf fields were excited by the FACET ultrarelativistic electron beam. We compared the performances of metal structures made with copper and stainless steel. The rf frequency of the fundamental accelerating mode, propagating in the structures at the speed of light, varies from 115 to 140 GHz. The traveling wave structures are 0.1 m long and composed of 125 coupled cavities each. We determined the peak electric field and pulse length where the structures were not damaged by rf breakdowns. We calculated the electric and magnetic field correlated with the rf breakdowns using the FACET bunch parameters. The wakefields were calculated by a frequency domain method using periodic eigensolutions. Such a method takes into account wall losses and is applicable to a large variety of geometries. The maximum achieved accelerating gradient is 0.3 GV /m with a peak surface electric field of 1.5 GV /m and a pulse length of about 2.4 ns.

  4. The LMT Galaxies' 3 mm Spectroscopic Survey: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa González, D.; Schloerb, P.; Vega, O.; Hunt, L.; Narayanan, G.; Calzetti, D.; Yun, M.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.; Mayya, Y. D.; Chávez, M.; Montaña, A.; Pérez García, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    The molecular phase of the interstellar medium (ISM) in galaxies offers fundamental insight for understanding star-formation processes and how stellar feedback affects the nuclear activity of certain galaxies. We present here Large Millimeter Telescope spectra obtained with the Redshift Search Receiver, a spectrograph that covers simultaneously the 3 mm band from 74 to 111 GHz with a spectral resolution of around 100 km/s. Our selected galaxies, have been detected previously in HCN, and have different degrees of nuclear activity — one normal galaxy (NGC 6946), the starburst prototype (M82) and two %ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs, IRAS 17208-0014 and Mrk 231). We plotted our data in the HCO+/HCN vs. HCN/13CO diagnostic diagram finding that NGC 6946 and M82 are located close to other normal galaxies; and that both IRAS 17208-0014 and Mrk 231 are close to the position of the well known ULIRG Arp 220 reported by Snell et al. (2011). We found that in Mrk 231 - a galaxy with a well known active galactic nucleus - the HCO+/HCN ratio is similar to the ratio observed in normal galaxies.

  5. 100 mm dynamic stencils pattern sub-micrometre structures.

    PubMed

    Savu, Veronica; Xie, Shenqi; Brugger, Juergen

    2011-07-01

    Dynamic stencil lithography uses a moving shadow-mask to draw patterns by having directionally evaporated material deposited through the stencil apertures onto the substrate. Sub-micrometre, two-dimensional patterning is demonstrated at full 100 mm wafer scale, with two examples emphasizing this technique's unique features. Structures having a width-modulated height below a certain aperture size are fabricated by moving the stencil according to a two-dimensional trajectory. Variable-period gratings are obtained by translating a row of apertures at different orientations with respect to the row's axis. Despite the long deposition sequences one could envision for a stencil in dynamic mode, the apertures' active life-time in the sub-micrometre domain remains limited by the material's accretion on the membrane, resulting in the eventual clogging of the openings. A novel solution to this problem containing a micro-heater embedded in the membrane is described and its effectiveness in preventing material from clogging the apertures is demonstrated.

  6. COSMOG: Cosmology Oriented Sub-mm Modeling of Galactic Foregrounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashlinsky, A.; Leisawitz, D.

    2004-01-01

    With upcoming missions in mid- and far-Infrared there is a need for software packages to reliably simulate the planned observations. This would help in both planning the observation and scanning strategy and in developing the concepts of the far-off missions. As this workshop demonstrated, many of the new missions are to be in the far-IR range of the electromagnetic spectrum and at the same time will map the sky with a sub-arcsec angular resolution. We present here a computer package for simulating foreground maps for the planned sub-mm and far-IR missions. such as SPECS. The package allows to study confusion limits and simulate cosmological observations for specified sky location interactively and in real time. Most of the emission at wavelengths long-ward of approximately 50 microns is dominated by Galactic cirrus and Zodiacal dust emission. Stellar emission at these wavelengths is weak and is for now neglected. Cosmological sources (distant and not-so-distant) galaxies for specified cosmologies will be added. Briefly, the steps that the algorithm goes through is described.

  7. A 24mm diameter fibre positioner for spectroscopic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörler, Philipp; Kronig, Luzius; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Bleuler, Hannes; Bouri, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    One of the big research topics in modern cosmology is the mystery of dark Energy. To unveil the secret, cosmologists want to measure precisely the evolution of large scale structures in the universe. One way of doing so is to measure the 3D location of a high number of galaxies. By measuring the redshift of a galaxy, it is possible to find its distance. In order to measure a high number of galaxies in a practical amount of time, we need to observe multiple objects in parallel. Instead of a spectrograph, thousands of optical fibres are placed in the focal plane of a telescope. They will transmit the light of many objects to a spectrograph. Each fibre has to be positioned to several μm precision in the focal plane of a telescope for each exposure. Each fibre is positioned by a 2-axis fibre positioner. In this paper such a fibre positioner with 24-mm diameter is presented. It is driven by two brushless DC motors in combination with a backlash free gearbox. The positioner has an optimal central fibre path and improved angular alignment. The fibre runs through the centre of the positioner and is only bent at the top to reach its target position. In this way, the flexion and torsion of the fibre are minimal. In addition to the high positioning accuracy, the design is optimized to allow a minimal tilt error of the fibre. This is demonstrated using a novel optical tilt measurement system.

  8. Manufacturing and performance test of an 800-mm space optic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krödel, Matthias R.; Ozaki, Tsuyoshi; Kume, Masami; Furuya, Akira; Yui, Yukari Y.; Imai, Hiroko; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Tange, Yoshio; Nakagawa, Takao; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2008-07-01

    Next generation space telescopes, which are currently being developed in the US and Europe, require large-scale light-weight reflectors with high specific strength, high specific stiffness, low CTE, and high thermal conductivity. To meet budget constraints, they also require materials that produce surfaces suitable for polishing without expensive over-coatings. HB-Cesic - a European and Japanese trademark of ECM - is a Hybrid Carbon-Fiber Reinforced SiC composite developed jointly by ECM and MELCO to meet these challenges. The material's mechanical performance, such as stiffness, bending strength, and fracture toughness are significantly improved compared to the classic ECM Cesic material (type MF). Thermal expansion and thermal conductivity of HB-Cesic at cryogenic temperatures are now partly established; and excellent performance for large future space mirrors and structures are expected. This paper presents the design and manufacturing of an 800-mm mirror for space application, starting with the C/C raw material preparation to the finishing of the components, including the polishing of the mirror. The letters "HB" in HB-Cesic stand for "hybrid" to indicate that the C/C raw material is composed of a mixture of different types of chopped, short carbon-fibers.

  9. Mapping wetlands on beaver flowages with 35-mm photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Beaver flowages and associated wetlands on the Chippewa National Forest, north-central Minnesota, were photographed from the ground and from the open side window of a small high-wing monoplane. The 35-mm High Speed Ektachrome transparencies obtained were used to map the cover-type associations visible on the aerial photographs. Nearly vertical aerial photos were rectified by projecting the slides onto a base map consisting ofcontrol points located by plane-table survey. Maps were prepared by tracing the recognizable stands of vegetation in the rectified projection at the desired map scale. Final map scales ranging from 1:260 to 1:571 permitted identification and mapping of 26 cover-type associations on 10 study flowages in 1971. This cover-mapping technique was economical and substituted for detailed ground surveys. Comparative data from 10 flowages were collected serially throughout the entire open-water season. Although developed for analysis of waterfowl habitat, the technique has application to other areas of wildlife management and ecological investigation.

  10. Rh-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation of 1,2-Dicyanoalkenes.

    PubMed

    Li, Meina; Kong, Duanyang; Zi, Guofu; Hou, Guohua

    2017-01-06

    A highly efficient enantioselective hydrogenation of 1,2-dicyanoalkenes catalyzed by the complex of rhodium and f-spiroPhos has been developed. A series of 1,2-dicyanoalkenes were successfully hydrogenated to the corresponding chiral 1,2-dicyanoalkanes under mild conditions with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 98% ee). This methodology provides efficient access to the asymmetric synthesis of chiral diamines.

  11. Acyl migration kinetics of vegetable oil 1,2-diacylglycerols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acyl migration kinetics of long-chain 1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DAG) to form 1,3-diacylglycerol (1,3-DAG) over the temperature range of 25 to 80 degrees Celsius were examined using proton NMR spectroscopy. The 1,2-DAG mole fraction of 0.32 at equilibrium was found to be insensitive to temperature...

  12. 43 CFR 3471.1-2 - Land description in lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Land description in lease. 3471.1-2 Section 3471.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Coal Management Provisions and Limitations § 3471.1-2 Land description in lease. (a) All...

  13. 43 CFR 3430.1-2 - Commercial quantities defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial quantities defined. 3430.1-2 Section 3430.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Leases § 3430.1-2 Commercial quantities defined. For the purpose of § 3430.1-1 of this title,...

  14. 45 CFR 1216.1-2 - Applicability of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability of this part. 1216.1-2 Section 1216.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISPLACEMENT OF EMPLOYED WORKERS AND NONIMPAIRMENT OF CONTRACTS FOR SERVICE § 1216.1-2 Applicability of this part. (a)...

  15. 43 CFR § 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2015-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2015-10-01 2015-10-01 false Contents. § 2812.1-2 Section § 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  16. Degree of conversion of a resin cement light-cured through ceramic veneers of different thicknesses and types.

    PubMed

    Runnacles, Patrício; Correr, Gisele Maria; Baratto Filho, Flares; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    During the cementation of ceramic veneers the polymerization of resin cements may be jeopardized if the ceramics attenuate the irradiance of the light-curing device. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different types and thicknesses of ceramic veneers on the degree of conversion of a light-cured resin-based cement (RelyX Veneer). The cement was light-cured after interposing ceramic veneers [IPS InLine, IPS Empress Esthetic, IPS e.max LT (low translucency) and IPS e.max HT (high translucency) - Ivoclar Vivadent] of four thicknesses (0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm and 2.0 mm). As control, the cement was light-cured without interposition of ceramics. The degree of conversion was evaluated by FTIR spectroscopy (n=5). Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Significant differences were observed among groups (p<0.001). The degree of conversion was similar to the control for all light-cured groups with interposition of ceramics of 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm (p>0.05). Among 1.5-mm-thick veneers, IPS e.max LT was the only one that showed different results from the control (p<0.05). At the thickness of 2.0 mm, only the IPS e.max LT and HT veneers were able to produce cements with degrees of conversion similar to the control (p>0.05). The degree of conversion of the evaluated light-cured resin cement depends on the thickness and type of ceramics employed when veneers thicker than 1.5 mm are cemented.

  17. Hair growth in human split-thickness skin grafts transplanted onto nude rats: the role of cyclosporin.

    PubMed

    Gilhar, A; Etzioni, A; Krueger, G G

    1990-01-01

    To date, there have been no descriptions of hair growth following transplantation of human split-thickness skin grafts (HSTSG) to congenitally athymic (nude) mice or rats. Recently, we noted hair growth in HSTSG from scalp skin (HSTSG-SS) transplanted onto rats treated with ciclosporin (CS). By definition, HSTSG-SS of 0.4 mm had all the anagen hairs cut from the papillae. Two months after engraftment, there was histological evidence of the formation of new papillae. Density of hair correlated with thickness of HSTSG, i.e. there were more hairs/square centimeter in HSTSG-SS of 1 mm thickness than in those of 0.4 mm thickness. New hairs appeared on an average of 1 cm2/week in HSTSG-SS that were 1 mm thick; by 10 weeks, the mean density was 7.9 hairs/cm2. In the thinner grafts, the density was 3.5 hairs/cm2 (p less than 0.025). The rate of growth in the thicker grafts ranged from 0 to 0.25 mm/day, with an average of 0.1 mm/day. At 10 weeks after grafting, the hairs had a mean length of 4.4 mm in the thicker and 1.7 mm in the thinner grafts (p less than 0.001). The average diameter of the hair shafts was 0.05 mm at the various times tested. These observations identify a previously unrecognized process of hair growth and present an in vivo model to study human hair growth process, including the role of CS in hair growth.

  18. Ice thickness in the Northwest Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Christian; Howell, Stephen E. L.

    2015-09-01

    Recently, the feasibility of commercial shipping in the ice-prone Northwest Passage (NWP) has attracted a lot of attention. However, very little ice thickness information actually exists. We present results of the first ever airborne electromagnetic ice thickness surveys over the NWP carried out in April and May 2011 and 2015 over first-year and multiyear ice. These show modal thicknesses between 1.8 and 2.0 m in all regions. Mean thicknesses over 3 m and thick, deformed ice were observed over some multiyear ice regimes shown to originate from the Arctic Ocean. Thick ice features more than 100 m wide and thicker than 4 m occurred frequently. Results indicate that even in today's climate, ice conditions must still be considered severe. These results have important implications for the prediction of ice breakup and summer ice conditions, and the assessment of sea ice hazards during the summer shipping season.

  19. Distinct localizations and repression activities of MM-1 isoforms toward c-Myc.

    PubMed

    Hagio, Yuko; Kimura, Yumiko; Taira, Takahiro; Fujioka, Yuko; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2006-01-01

    MM-1 was identified as a c-Myc-binding protein and has been reported to repress the E-box-dependent transcription activity of c-Myc by recruiting HDAC1 complex via TIF1 beta/KAP1. In this study, originally isolated MM-1 was found to be a fusion protein comprised of the N-terminal 13 amino acids from the sequence of chromosome 14 and of the rest of the amino acids from that of chromosome 12 and was found to be expressed ubiquitously in all human tissues. Four splicing isoforms of MM-1, MM-1alpha, MM-1beta, MM-1gamma, and MM-1delta, which are derived from the sequence of chromosome 12, were then identified. Of these isoforms, MM-1alpha, MM-1gamma, and MM-1delta were found to be expressed in tissue-specific manners and MM-1beta was found to be expressed ubiquitously. Although all of the isoforms potentially possessed c-Myc- and TIF1beta-binding activities, MM-1beta and MM-1delta were found to be mainly localized in the cytoplasm and MM-1alpha and MM-1gamma were found to be localized in the nucleus together with both c-Myc and TIF1beta. Furthermore, when repression activities of MM-1 isoforms toward c-Myc transcription activity were examined by reporter gene assays in HeLa cells, MM-1alpha, MM-1gamma, and MM-1gamma, but not MM-1beta, were found to repress transcription activity of c-Myc, and the degrees of repression by MM-1gamma and MM-1delta were smaller than those by MM-1 and MM-1alpha. These results suggest that each MM-1 isoform distinctly regulates c-Myc transcription activity in respective tissues.

  20. Effect of Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy on Choroidal Thickness in Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Yiu, Glenn; Manjunath, Varsha; Chiu, Stephanie J.; Farsiu, Sina; Mahmoud, Tamer H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy on choroidal thickness in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) Design A retrospective, cohort analysis of 59 eyes from 59 patients with DME without prior anti-VEGF therapy Methods Choroidal thickness was measured using semi-automated segmentation of enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) images at 0.5mm intervals from 2.5mm nasal to 2.5mm temporal to the fovea. Changes in choroidal thickness with and without anti-VEGF treatment over 6 months were compared. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central foveal thickness (CFT) were analyzed to evaluate the association of choroidal thickness with functional and anatomical outcomes. Results Of the 59 eyes with DME, 26 eyes were observed without treatment, while 33 underwent intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy (mean number of injections = 2.73) over 6 months. In untreated eyes, there was no significant change in BCVA (p=0.098), CFT (p=0.472), or choroidal thickness at all measurements along the macula (p=0.057 at the fovea). In eyes treated with anti-VEGF injections, choroidal thickness significantly decreased at the fovea (246.6μm to 224.8μm; p<0.001) and at 0.5 mm nasal (240.9μm to 221.9μm; p = 0.002) and 0.5 mm temporal (249.3μm to 224.8μm; p=0.011) to the fovea. The decrease in subfoveal choroidal thickness after anti-VEGF treatment was not associated with the cumulative number of anti-VEGF injections (R2=0.031, p=0.327), or to changes in BCVA (R2=0.017; p=0.470) or CFT (R2=0.040; p=0.263). Conclusions Central choroidal thickness decreases after anti-VEGF therapy for DME after 6 months, but may not be associated with functional or anatomical outcomes in eyes with DME. PMID:24952275