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Sample records for 1-3 positive nodes

  1. Improvement of survival with postmastectomy radiotherapy in patients with 1-3 positive axillary lymph nodes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the current literature

    PubMed Central

    Headon, Hannah; Kasem, Abdul; Almukbel, Reham; Mokbel, Kefah

    2016-01-01

    In breast cancer with >4 positive axillary lymph nodes, it is common practice to deliver radiotherapy to the affected site following mastectomy. However, less is known regarding the benefits this may confer on women with 1–3 positive lymph nodes. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to assess whether post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) was beneficial for such patients. A literature review was conducted using the PubMed and Ovid databases. Selected studies were analysed and data regarding overall survival (OS) and locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates were extracted. Statistical analysis was then conducted in order to develop a combined risk ratio (RR) for both OS and LRR in the setting of PMRT in women with breast cancer with 1–3 positive lymph nodes. PMRT in women with 1–3 positive lymph nodes significantly reduced the risk of LRR, with a RR of 0.3 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.23–0.38] and also showed a minor benefit in terms of OS (RR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.00–1.07). Therefore, in breast cancer patients with 1–3 positive lymph nodes, PMRT significantly reduced the risk of LRR and was associated with a minor OS benefit. Until the results of ongoing randomised controlled trials are published, PMRT should be recommended in this group of patients following a careful multidisciplinary discussion.

  2. Improvement of survival with postmastectomy radiotherapy in patients with 1-3 positive axillary lymph nodes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the current literature

    PubMed Central

    Headon, Hannah; Kasem, Abdul; Almukbel, Reham; Mokbel, Kefah

    2016-01-01

    In breast cancer with >4 positive axillary lymph nodes, it is common practice to deliver radiotherapy to the affected site following mastectomy. However, less is known regarding the benefits this may confer on women with 1–3 positive lymph nodes. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to assess whether post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) was beneficial for such patients. A literature review was conducted using the PubMed and Ovid databases. Selected studies were analysed and data regarding overall survival (OS) and locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates were extracted. Statistical analysis was then conducted in order to develop a combined risk ratio (RR) for both OS and LRR in the setting of PMRT in women with breast cancer with 1–3 positive lymph nodes. PMRT in women with 1–3 positive lymph nodes significantly reduced the risk of LRR, with a RR of 0.3 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.23–0.38] and also showed a minor benefit in terms of OS (RR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.00–1.07). Therefore, in breast cancer patients with 1–3 positive lymph nodes, PMRT significantly reduced the risk of LRR and was associated with a minor OS benefit. Until the results of ongoing randomised controlled trials are published, PMRT should be recommended in this group of patients following a careful multidisciplinary discussion. PMID:27699038

  3. Locoregional Recurrence Risk for Patients With T1,2 Breast Cancer With 1-3 Positive Lymph Nodes Treated With Mastectomy and Systemic Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Andrew; Allen, Pamela; Woodward, Wendy; Kim, Michelle; Kuerer, Henry M.; Drinka, Eva Katherine; Sahin, Aysegul; Strom, Eric A.; Buzdar, Aman; Valero, Vicente; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Buchholz, Thomas A.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) has been shown to benefit breast cancer patients with 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes, but it is unclear how modern changes in management have affected the benefits of PMRT. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed the locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates in 1027 patients with T1,2 breast cancer with 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes treated with mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy with or without PMRT during an early era (1978-1997) and a later era (2000-2007). These eras were selected because they represented periods before and after the routine use of sentinel lymph node surgery, taxane chemotherapy, and aromatase inhibitors. Results: 19% of 505 patients treated in the early era and 25% of the 522 patients in the later era received PMRT. Patients who received PMRT had significantly higher-risk disease features. PMRT reduced the rate of LRR in the early era cohort, with 5-year rates of 9.5% without PMRT and 3.4% with PMRT (log-rank P=.028) and 15-year rates 14.5% versus 6.1%, respectively; (Cox regression analysis: adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 0.37, P=.035). However, PMRT did not appear to benefit patients treated in the later cohort, with 5-year LRR rates of 2.8% without PMRT and 4.2% with PMRT (P=.48; Cox analysis: AHR 1.41, P=.48). The most significant factor predictive of LRR for the patients who did not receive PMRT was the era in which the patient was treated (AHR 0.35 for later era, P<.001). Conclusion: The risk of LRR for patients with T1,2 breast cancer with 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes treated with mastectomy and systemic treatment is highly dependent on the era of treatment. Modern treatment advances and the selected use of PMRT for those with high-risk features have allowed for identification of a cohort at very low risk for LRR without PMRT.

  4. Refining Post-Surgical Therapy for Women with Lymph Node-Positive Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, women with HER2-negative, HR-positive breast cancer and 1-3 positive lymph nodes with recurrence scores of 25 or lower will be randomized to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy before starting endocrine therapy or to begin endocrine therapy.

  5. Comparison of clinicopathological characteristics of lymph node positive and lymph node negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Naila Irum; Jamal, Qamar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To record various clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer (BC) in our population and to find an association between these characteristics and axillary nodal metastasis. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 150 BC patients from two tertiary care centers in Karachi from 15th February, 2013 to 31st March, 2015. Frequencies, percentages, and odds ratio were estimated to find out an association between various clinicopathological characteristics and lymph node status using SPSS version 20. Results: Approximately 75.4% patients had axillary lymph node metastasis (‘1-3’ LN = 34.4% and ‘>3’ LN = 44%). Menopausal status (p <0.013), tumor grades (‘II’ p <0.03; ‘III’ p <0.01), and stages (‘III’ p <0.002; ‘IV’ p <0.0001), tumor sizes (‘T2’ p <0.014; ‘T3’ p <0.002), perineural invasion (PNI) (p <0.007), lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (p <0.0001), and skin and nipple invasion (p <0.024) were significant predictors for ‘>3’ LN metastasis. Association of these variables with ‘1-3’ LN involvement was insignificant. Conclusion: Clinical spectrum of BC remains unchanged in 2016 with most of the patients presenting with high-grade, late-stage advanced disease. Moreover, clinicopathological variables, especially primary tumor size, tumor stage and lymphovascular invasion were significant predictors of >3 lymph node metastasis with high accuracy. PMID:27648029

  6. Lymph node ratio may predict the benefit of postoperative radiotherapy in node-positive cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhen-Yu; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Lin, Huan-Xin; You, Ke-Li

    2016-01-01

    The standard treatment for node-positive cervical cancer after radical hysterectomy is pelvic radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy. Given the potential toxicity of postoperative radiotherapy, we used the lymph node ratio (LNR) to assess the benefit of postoperative radiotherapy in lymph node-positive cervical cancer patients. Data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database (1988–2010) were analyzed using Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression proportional hazard analysis. A total of 2,269 eligible patients were identified (median follow-up, 78.0 months); 1,863 (82.1%) patients received postoperative radiotherapy. In both univariate and multivariate analysis multivariate analysis, a higher LNR was significantly associated with a poorer outcome. A LNR > 0.16 was associated with poorer cervical cancer-related survival (CCSS) (hazard Ratio [HR] 1.376, confidence interval [CI] 1.082–1.750; P < 0.001) and overall survival (OS) (HR 1.287, CI 1.056–1.569; P = 0.012). Postoperative radiotherapy was only associated with survival benefits in patients with a LNR > 0.16 (CCSS, P < 0.001; OS, P < 0.001) and not in patients with a LNR ≤ 0.16 (CCSS, P = 0.620; OS, P = 0.167); these trends were not affected by number of removed lymph nodes. A higher LNR is associated with a poorer survival in lymph node-positive cervical cancer. The survival benefits of postoperative radiotherapy appear to be limited to patients with a LNR > 0.16. PMID:27105541

  7. Lymph node ratio may predict the benefit of postoperative radiotherapy in node-positive cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Juan; Chen, Qiong-Hua; Wu, San-Gang; He, Zhen-Yu; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Lin, Huan-Xin; You, Ke-Li

    2016-05-17

    The standard treatment for node-positive cervical cancer after radical hysterectomy is pelvic radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy. Given the potential toxicity of postoperative radiotherapy, we used the lymph node ratio (LNR) to assess the benefit of postoperative radiotherapy in lymph node-positive cervical cancer patients. Data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database (1988-2010) were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression proportional hazard analysis. A total of 2,269 eligible patients were identified (median follow-up, 78.0 months); 1,863 (82.1%) patients received postoperative radiotherapy. In both univariate and multivariate analysis multivariate analysis, a higher LNR was significantly associated with a poorer outcome. A LNR > 0.16 was associated with poorer cervical cancer-related survival (CCSS) (hazard Ratio [HR] 1.376, confidence interval [CI] 1.082-1.750; P < 0.001) and overall survival (OS) (HR 1.287, CI 1.056-1.569; P = 0.012). Postoperative radiotherapy was only associated with survival benefits in patients with a LNR > 0.16 (CCSS, P < 0.001; OS, P < 0.001) and not in patients with a LNR ≤ 0.16 (CCSS, P = 0.620; OS, P = 0.167); these trends were not affected by number of removed lymph nodes. A higher LNR is associated with a poorer survival in lymph node-positive cervical cancer. The survival benefits of postoperative radiotherapy appear to be limited to patients with a LNR > 0.16. PMID:27105541

  8. Prediction of additional lymph node involvement in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Pohlodek, K; Bozikova, S; Meciarova, I; Mucha, V; Bartova, M; Ondrias, F

    2016-01-01

    Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) has traditionally been the principal method for evaluating axillary lymph node status in breast cancer patients. In the past decades sentinel lymph nodes biopsy after lymphatic mapping has been used to stage the disease. The majority of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) positive patients do not have additional metastases in non-sentinel nodes (non-SLN) after additional ALND. These patients are exposed to the morbidity of ALND without any benefit from additional axillary clearence. In the present study we would like to asses the criteria for selecting those patients, who have high risk for non-SLN metastases in the axilla in cases of positive SLN. In this retrospective analysis, clinical and pathologic data from 163 patients who underwent SLN biopsy followed by ALND were collected. Following clinical and pathological characteristics were analyzed to predict the likehood of non-SLN metastases: age, staging, histologic type and grading of the tumors, hormonal receptor status, HER-2 receptor status and Ki-67 protein, angioinvasion, metastases in SLN and non-SLN. Relative frequencies of individual characteristics between sample groups were statistically tested by Chi-square test at significance level p=0.5, when sample sizes in groups were small (≤5) by Fisher´s exact test. Metastasis in SLN were present in 67 (41%) of patients, 48 patients (29,4%) had metastasis also in non-SLN. The ratio between non-SLN positive / non-SLN negative lymph nodes in patients with positive SLN increases with the stage of the disease, the difference between values for the pT1c and pT2 stadium was statistically significant (p = 0.0296). The same applies to grading, but the differences were not significant (p>0.05). We could not find significant differences for angioinvasion of the tumor, probably for small number of patients with angioinvasion (p>0.05).Only the stage of the tumor was shown to be significant in predicting the metastasis in non-SLN in our

  9. Prognostic Significance of Number of Positive Nodes: A Long-Term Study of One to Two Nodes Versus Three Nodes in Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Patricia; Yu, Edward; Joseph, Kurian

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: Previous reports of breast cancer have generally analyzed patients with one to three positive lymph nodes as a single group, often leading to controversy regarding the practical clinical applicability. The present study separately analyzed the survival outcomes of Stage T1-T2 breast cancer patients according to whether one, two, or three axillary nodes were pathologically positive. Methods and Materials: The records of 5,996 patients were available for analysis from the population-based Saskatchewan provincial registry between 1981 and 1995. Because the reliability of the nodal assessment depends on the number of lymph nodes sampled, only those 755 patients with Stage T1-T2 disease and eight or more nodes examined were analyzed further for overall survival and cause-specific survival (CSS). Results: Patients with one and two positive nodes had nearly indistinguishable survival plots, but those with three positive nodes had a distinct trend toward worse survival. The overall survival rate of patients with one, two, and three nodes at 5, 10, and 15 years was 82.7%, 77.0%, and 79.0%, 64.8%, 60.9%, and 52.8%, and 48.8%, 48.0%, and 40.9%, respectively (p = .11). The corresponding CSS rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 89.4%, 82.0%, and 81.3%, 78.87%, 72.9%, and 62.1%, and 72.7%. 69.0%, and 55.6% (p = .0004). The use of regional radiotherapy did not confer any apparent survival benefit in terms of either overall survival or CSS. Conclusion: Patients with one or two positive nodes had a similar CSS. However, those with three positive nodes fared worse, with a significantly reduced CSS compared with those with one or two involved nodes. Thus, the survival data among patients with one to three nodes positive reveals clearly relevant differences when analyzed separately.

  10. Analysis on Node Position of Imperfect Resonators for Cylindrical Shell Gyroscopes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zidan; Wu, Yulie; Xi, Xiang; Zhang, Yongmeng; Wu, Xuezhong

    2016-01-01

    For cylindrical shell gyroscopes, node position of their operating eigenmodes has an important influence on the gyroscopes' performance. It is considered that the nodes are equally separated from each other by 90° when the resonator vibrates in the standing wave eigenmode. However, we found that, due to manufacturing errors and trimming, the nodes may not be equally distributed. This paper mainly analyzes the influences of unbalanced masses on the cylindrical resonators' node position, by using FEM simulation and experimental measurement. PMID:27483284

  11. Analysis on Node Position of Imperfect Resonators for Cylindrical Shell Gyroscopes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zidan; Wu, Yulie; Xi, Xiang; Zhang, Yongmeng; Wu, Xuezhong

    2016-01-01

    For cylindrical shell gyroscopes, node position of their operating eigenmodes has an important influence on the gyroscopes’ performance. It is considered that the nodes are equally separated from each other by 90° when the resonator vibrates in the standing wave eigenmode. However, we found that, due to manufacturing errors and trimming, the nodes may not be equally distributed. This paper mainly analyzes the influences of unbalanced masses on the cylindrical resonators’ node position, by using FEM simulation and experimental measurement. PMID:27483284

  12. Predicting Likelihood of Having Four or More Positive Nodes in Patient With Sentinel Lymph Node-Positive Breast Cancer: A Nomogram Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, Bulent; Gur, Akif Serhat; Beriwal, Sushil; Tang Gong; Johnson, Ronald; Ahrendt, Gretchen; Bonaventura, Marguerite; Soran, Atilla

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Katz suggested a nomogram for predicting having four or more positive nodes in sentinel lymph node (SLN)-positive breast cancer patients. The findings from this formula might influence adjuvant radiotherapy decisions. Our goal was to validate the accuracy of the Katz nomogram. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 309 patients with breast cancer who had undergone completion axillary lymph node dissection. The factors associated with the likelihood of having four or more positive axillary nodes were evaluated in patients with one to three positive SLNs. The nomogram developed by Katz was applied to our data set. The area under the curve of the corresponding receiver operating characteristics curve was calculated for the nomogram. Results: Of the 309 patients, 80 (25.9%) had four or more positive axillary lymph nodes. On multivariate analysis, the number of positive SLNs (p < .0001), overall metastasis size (p = .019), primary tumor size (p = .0001), and extracapsular extension (p = .01) were significant factors predicting for four or more positive nodes. For patients with <5% probability, 90.3% had fewer than four positive nodes and 9.7% had four or more positive nodes. The negative predictive value was 91.7%, and sensitivity was 80%. The nomogram was accurate and discriminating (area under the curve, .801). Conclusion: The probability of four or more involved nodes is significantly greater in patients who have an increased number of positive SLNs, increased overall metastasis size, increased tumor size, and extracapsular extension. The Katz nomogram was validated in our patients. This nomogram will be helpful to clinicians making adjuvant treatment recommendations to their patients.

  13. Lymph node-positive prostate cancer: current issues, emerging technology and impact on clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Adams, Julia; Cheng, Liang

    2011-09-01

    Lymph node metastasis in patients with prostate cancer indicates a poorer prognosis compared with patients without lymph node metastasis; however, some patients with node-positive disease have long-term survival. Many studies have attempted to discern what characteristics of lymph node metastasis are prognostically significant. These characteristics include nodal tumor volume, number of positive lymph nodes, lymph node density, extranodal extension, lymphovascular invasion and tumor dedifferentiation. Favorable characteristics of regional lymph node involvement included a smaller tumor size and smaller tumor volume. However, the current staging system for prostate cancer does not provide different subclassifications for patients with node-positive prostate cancer. In recent years numerous advanced technologies for the detection of lymph node metastasis have been developed, including molecular imaging techniques and the CellSearch Circulating Tumor Cell System. With the increased detection of patients with prostate cancer, emergence of new technology to identify lymph node metastasis and the number of radical prostatectomies being performed on the rise, subclassifying patients with lymph node-positive disease is imperative. Subclassification would provide a better picture of patient prognosis and allow for a better understanding of targeted therapies to treat patients with lymph node metastasis.

  14. Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Nodes is a technology demonstration mission that is scheduled for launch to the International SpaceStation no earlier than Nov.19, 2015. The two Nodes satellites will be deployed from the Station in early 2016 todemonstrate new network capabilities critical to the operation of swarms of spacecraft. They will demonstrate the ability ofmulti spacecraft swarms to receive and distribute ground commands, exchange information periodically, andautonomously configure the network by determining which spacecraft should communicate with the ground each day ofthe mission.

  15. Simplification of Node Position Data for Interactive Visualization of Dynamic Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Paul; Popescu, Voicu

    2012-01-01

    We propose to aid the interactive visualization of time-varying spatial datasets by simplifying node position data over the entire simulation as opposed to over individual states. Our approach is based on two observations. The first observation is that the trajectory of some nodes can be approximated well without recording the position of the node for every state. The second observation is that there are groups of nodes whose motion from one state to the next can be approximated well with a single transformation. We present dataset simplification techniques that take advantage of this node data redundancy. Our techniques are general, supporting many types of simulations, they achieve good compression factors, and they allow rigorous control of the maximum node position approximation error. We demonstrate our approach in the context of finite element analysis data, of liquid flow simulation data, and of fusion simulation data. PMID:22025753

  16. Learning Collocations: Do the Number of Collocates, Position of the Node Word, and Synonymy Affect Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart; Kagimoto, Eve

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three factors (the number of collocates per node word, the position of the node word, synonymy) on learning collocations. Japanese students studying English as a foreign language learned five sets of 12 target collocations. Each collocation was presented in a single glossed sentence. The number of collocates…

  17. Inguinal or inguino-iliac/obturator lymph node dissection after positive inguinal sentinel lymph node in patients with cutaneous melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Glumac, Nebojsa; Hocevar, Marko; Zadnik, Vesna; Snoj, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to determine whether the presence of inguinal sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases smaller than 2 mm (micrometastases) subdivided according to the number of micrometastases predicts additional, non-sentinel inguinal, iliac or obturator lymph node involvement in completion lymph node dissection (CLND). Patients and methods. Positive inguinal SLN was detected in 58 patients (32 female, 26 male, median age 55 years) from 743 consecutive and prospectively enrolled patients with primary cutaneous melanoma stage I and II who were treated with SLN biopsy between 2001 and 2007. Results Micrometastases in inguinal SLN were detected in 32 patients, 14 were single, 2 were double, and 16 were multiple. Twenty-six patients had macrometastases. Conclusions No patient with any micrometastases or a single SLN macrometastasis in the inguinal region had any iliac/obturator non-sentinel metastases after CLND in our series. Furthermore, no patient with single SLN micrometastasis in the inguinal region had any non-sentinel metastases at all after CLND in our series. In these cases respective CLND might be omitted. PMID:23077465

  18. Postoperative Radiation Therapy With or Without Concurrent Chemotherapy for Node-Positive Thoracic Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Junqiang; Pan, Jianji; Liu, Jian; Li, Jiancheng; Zhu, Kunshou; Zheng, Xiongwei; Chen, Mingqiang; Chen, Ming; Liao, Zhongxing

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively compare the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy plus RT (CRT) for the postoperative treatment of node-positive thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (TESCC) and to determine the incidence and severity of toxic reactions. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed data from 304 patients who had undergone esophagectomy with 3-field lymph node dissection for TESCC and were determined by postoperative pathology to have lymph node metastasis without distant hematogenous metastasis. Of these patients, 164 underwent postoperative chemotherapy (cisplatin 80 mg/m{sup 2}, average days 1-3, plus paclitaxel 135 mg/m{sup 2}, day 1; 21-day cycle) plus RT (50 Gy), and 140 underwent postoperative RT alone. Results: The 5-year overall survival rates for the CRT and RT groups were 47.4% and 38.6%, respectively (P=.030). The distant metastasis rate, the mixed (regional lymph node and distant) metastasis rate, and the overall recurrence rate were significantly lower in the CRT group than in the RT group (P<.05). However, mild and severe early toxic reactions, including neutropenia, radiation esophagitis, and gastrointestinal reaction, were significantly more common in the CRT group than in the RT group (P<.05). No significant differences in incidence of late toxic reactions were found between the 2 groups. Conclusions: Our results show that in node-positive TESCC patients, postoperative CRT is significantly more effective than RT alone at increasing the overall survival and decreasing the rates of distant metastasis, mixed metastasis, and overall recurrence. Severe early toxic reactions were more common with CRT than with RT alone, but patients could tolerate CRT.

  19. Lifetime optimization of wireless sensor network by a better nodes positioning and energy distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J. M.; Murad, N. M.

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a method of energy distribution on a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Nodes are randomly positioned and the sink is placed at the centre of the surface. Simulations show that relay nodes around the sink are too much requested to convey data, which substantially reduces their lifetime. So, several algorithmic solutions are presented to optimize the energy distribution on each node, compared to the classical uniform energy distribution. Their performance is discussed in terms of failure rate of data transmission and network lifetime. Moreover, the total energy distributed on all nodes before the deployment is invariable and some non-uniform energy distributions are created. Finally, simulations show that every energy distributions greatly improve the WSN lifetime and decrease the failure rate of data transmission.

  20. Factors Influencing Non-sentinel Node Involvement in Sentinel Node Positive Patients and Validation of MSKCC Nomogram in Indian Breast Cancer Population.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Naveen; Ayub, Muhamed Faizal; Hussain, Khadher; Kurien, Ann; Radhakrishna, Selvi

    2015-12-01

    Current guidelines recommend completion axillary lymphnode dissection (ALND) when sentinel lymphnode (SLN) contains metastatic tumor deposit. In consequent ALND sentinel node is the only node involved by tumor in 40-70 % of cases. Recent studies demonstrate the oncologic safety of omitting completion ALND in low risk patients. Several nomograms (MSKCC, Stanford, MD Anderson score, Tenon score) had been developed in predicting the likelihood of additional nodes metastatic involvement. We evaluated accuracy of MSKCC nomogram and other clinicopathologic variables associated with additional lymph node metastasis in our patients. A total of 334 patients with primary breast cancer patients underwent SLN biopsy during the period Jan 2007 to June 2014. Clinicopathologic variables were prospectively collected. Completion ALND was done in 64 patients who had tumor deposit in SLN. The discriminatory accuracy of nomogram was analyzed using Area under Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). SLN was the only node involved with tumor in 69 % (44/64) of our patients. Additional lymph node metastasis was seen in 31 % (20/64). On univariate analysis, extracapsular infiltration in sentinel node and multiple sentinel nodes positivity were significantly associated (p < 0.05) with additional lymph node metastasis in the axilla. Area under ROC curve for nomogram was 0.58 suggesting poor performance of the nomogram in predicting NSLN involvement. Sentinel nodes are the only nodes to be involved by tumor in 70 % of the patients. Our findings indicate that multiple sentinel node positivity and extra-capsular invasion in sentinel node significantly predicted the likelihood of additional nodal metastasis. MSKCC nomogram did not reliably predict the involvement of additional nodal metastasis in our study population. PMID:27065658

  1. Significance of level v lymph node dissection in clinically node positive oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and evaluation of potential risk factors for level v lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Devendra G; Chheda, Yogen P; Shah, Shakuntala V; Patel, Ashok M; Sharma, Mohit R

    2013-09-01

    Level V lymph node (LN) dissection has been significantly associated with postoperative shoulder dysfunction as a sequel of spinal accessory nerve (SAN) dysfunction. The aim of study was to determine the role of level V LN dissection in clinically node positive (cN+) oral cavity cancer. We have prospectively evaluated 210 patients of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). During neck dissection, the contents of the level V LN were dissected, labelled, and processed separately from the neck dissection specimen. We studied the prevalence of histopathologic metastasis to level V nodes in clinically node negative (cN0), cN1 and cN2 groups. Potential risk factors for the involvement of level V LN were also analysed. Of 210 cases, 48 were cN0. Out of them 77 % were pN0 and none of cNo (48) patients had level V metastases. Out of 162 cN+ cases, 112 were cN1 and 49 cN2. Amongst cN1 (112) cases, cN1 with palpable level lb LN (99), 60 % had pN0 and none of them had level V LN involvement but cN1 with palpable ll/lll LN (13), 85 % had pN+ and 1 patient had level V LN involvement (8 %). 8 patients from cN2 (49) group had level V LN involvement (16 %). Over all level V LN involvement was 4.3 %. Tongue was the most common site to give rise to level V LN metastases and extra capsular spread (ECS) was present in 100 % patient with level V LN metastases. Thus, we concluded that, apart from cN0, patients with cN1 oral cavity cancer with level lb as only site, carefully selected cases could safely undergo SND. Potential risk factors for level V LN metastases are clinically evident ECS, multiple LN involvement and cN1 with deep jugular chain of LN involvement. PMID:24426737

  2. Number and Location of Positive Nodes, Postoperative Radiotherapy, and Survival After Esophagectomy With Three-Field Lymph Node Dissection for Thoracic Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Junqiang; Pan Jianji; Zheng Xiongwei; Zhu Kunshou; Li Jiancheng; Chen Mingqiang; Wang Jiezhong; Liao Zhongxing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze influences of the number and location of positive lymph nodes and postoperative radiotherapy on survival for patients with thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (TE-SCC) treated with radical esophagectomy with three-field lymphadenectomy. Methods and Materials: A total of 945 patients underwent radical esophagectomy plus three-field lymph node dissection for node-positive TE-SCC at Fujian Provincial Tumor Hospital between January 1993 and March 2007. Five hundred ninety patients received surgery only (S group), and 355 patients received surgery, followed 3 to 4 weeks later by postoperative radiotherapy (S+R group) to a median total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions. We assessed potential associations among patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors and overall survival. Results: Five-year overall survival rates were 32.8% for the entire group, 29.6% for the S group, and 38.0% for the S+R group (p = 0.001 for S vs. S+R). Treatment with postoperative radiotherapy was particularly beneficial for patients with {>=}3 positive nodes and for those with metastasis in the upper (supraclavicular and upper mediastinal) region or both the upper and lower (mediastinal and abdominal) regions (p < 0.05). Postoperative radiotherapy was also associated with lower recurrence rates in the supraclavicular and upper and middle mediastinal regions (p < 0.05). Sex, primary tumor length, number of positive nodes, pathological T category, and postoperative radiotherapy were all independent predictors of survival. Conclusions: Postoperative radiotherapy was associated with better survival for patients with node-positive TE-SCC, particularly those with three or more positive nodes and positive nodes in the supraclavicular and superior mediastinal regions.

  3. Structure and Electrochemistry of LiNi1/3Co1/3-yMyMn1/3O2 (M=Ti, Al, Fe) Positive Electrode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, James; Patoux, Sebastien; Doeff, Marca

    2009-01-14

    A series of materials based on the LiNi1/3Co1/3-yMyMn1/3O2 (M = Ti,Al,Fe) system has been synthesized and examined structurally and electrochemically. It is found that the changes in electrochemical performance depend highly on the nature of the substituting atom and its effect on the crystal structure. Substitution with small amounts of Ti4+ (y = 1/12) leads to the formation of a high-capacity and high-rate positive electrode material. Iron substituted materials suffer from an increased antisite defect concentration and exhibit lower capacities and poor rate capabilities. Single-phase materials are found for LiNi1/3Co1/3-yAlyMn1/3O2 when y<_ 1/4 and all exhibit decreased capacities when cycled to 4.3 V. However, an increase in rate performance and cycle stability upon aluminum substitution is correlated with an improved lamellar structure.

  4. Prognostic value of cytosolic tyrosine kinase activity in 249 node-positive breast cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Romain, S.; Chinot, O.; Klijn, J. G.; van Putten, W. L.; Guirou, O.; Look, M.; Martin, P. M.; Foekens, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Tyrosine-specific protein kinase (TPK) has been associated with the cytoplasmic domain of growth factor receptors as well as oncoproteins. Enzymatic activation appears to be a major initial event in these signal transduction pathways. In this study, TPK was determined in the cytosols of 249 node-positive primary breast tumours. Enzyme activity was measured using [32P]ATP and poly(glutamic acid-tyrosine) (4:1) as an artificial substrate. Levels of TPK varied from 0 to 35.9 pmol ATP min-1 mg-1 protein (median 11.4). No correlation was found with tumour size or number of positive lymph nodes. In contrast, levels of TPK were negatively associated with age (P = 0.01) and menopausal status (P < 0.05) of the patients. Higher concentrations of TPK were in addition found in tumours negative for oestradiol (P < 0.01) and progesterone (P < 0.05) receptors. Finally, a positive correlation was found between TPK and urokinase plasminogen activator (UPA) (P < 0.05). Patients whose tumours contained high levels of TPK had reduced disease-free (P = 0.01) and overall survival (P < 0.05). In Cox multivariate analysis, including patient's age, menopausal status, tumour size, number of positive lymph nodes, steroid receptors and UPA, TPK retained its independent prognostic importance. PMID:8054279

  5. Prognostic Significance of the Number of Positive Lymph Nodes in Women With T1-2N1 Breast Cancer Treated With Mastectomy: Should Patients With 1, 2, and 3 Positive Lymph Nodes Be Grouped Together?

    SciTech Connect

    Dai Kubicky, Charlotte; Mongoue-Tchokote, Solange

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether patients with 1, 2, or 3 positive lymph nodes (LNs) have similar survival outcomes. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry of breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2003. We identified 10,415 women with T1-2N1M0 breast cancer who were treated with mastectomy with no adjuvant radiation, with at least 10 LNs examined and 6 months of follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier method and log–rank test were used for survival analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Median follow-up was 92 months. Ten-year overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) were progressively worse with increasing number of positive LNs. Survival rates were 70%, 64%, and 60% (OS), and 82%, 76%, and 72% (CSS) for 1, 2, and 3 positive LNs, respectively. Pairwise log–rank test P values were <.001 (1 vs 2 positive LNs), <.001 (1 vs 3 positive LNs), and .002 (2 vs 3 positive LNs). Multivariate analysis showed that number of positive LNs was a significant predictor of OS and CSS. Hazard ratios increased with the number of positive LNs. In addition, age, primary tumor size, grade, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status, race, and year of diagnosis were significant prognostic factors. Conclusions: Our study suggests that patients with 1, 2, and 3 positive LNs have distinct survival outcomes, with increasing number of positive LNs associated with worse OS and CSS. The conventional grouping of 1-3 positive LNs needs to be reconsidered.

  6. [Role of radiotherapy in the management of node-positive prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Supiot, S; Doré, M; Rio, E; Cellier, P; Mesguez-Nebout, N; Goineau, A

    2016-10-01

    Node-positive prostate cancer patients represent a small proportion of all prostate cancers for whom limited prospective information is available. Most retrospective or cohort data strongly suggest however that radiotherapy combined with androgen-depriving therapies is the preferable treatment in this setting. Only randomized clinical trials would be able to better define both radiotherapy (dose? volume? fractionation?) and androgen-depriving therapies (duration? role of novel androgen-depriving therapy?) modalities. PMID:27575537

  7. Akt Phosphorylation at Ser473 Predicts Benefit of Paclitaxel Chemotherapy in Node-Positive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sherry X.; Costantino, Joseph P.; Kim, Chungyeul; Mamounas, Eleftherios P.; Nguyen, Dat; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon; Wolmark, Norman; Kidwell, Kelley; Paik, Soonmyung; Swain, Sandra M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We tested the hypothesis that Akt-Ser473 phosphorylation (pAkt) predicts benefit from the sequential addition of paclitaxel to adjuvant doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide (AC) chemotherapy in patients with node-positive breast cancer participating in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-28 trial. Patients and Methods Primary tumors from the NSABP B-28 trial tissue microarray were available from 1,581 of 3,060 patients who were randomly assigned to receive either four cycles of AC alone or followed by four cycles of paclitaxel. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative analysis of pAkt were performed at the National Cancer Institute blinded to clinical outcome. Association between pAkt and clinical outcome was assessed using multivariate Cox modeling adjusting for age, tumor size, number of positive nodes, tumor grade, estrogen receptor status, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. Results With a median follow-up of 9.1 years, there were no differences in disease-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.02; P = .81) or overall survival (HR, 0.97; P = .80) with and without receiving paclitaxel among 975 patients with pAkt-negative tumors. In 606 patients with pAkt-positive tumors, the sequential addition of paclitaxel resulted in a 26% improvement in disease-free survival (HR, 0.74; P = .02) or a 20% improvement in overall survival (HR, 0.80; P = .17). Conclusion pAkt significantly predicts disease-free benefit from the sequential addition of paclitaxel to AC chemotherapy in patients with node-positive breast cancer. Patients with pAkt-negative breast tumors do not appear to benefit from the addition of paclitaxel. PMID:20479407

  8. A Novel Endothelial L-Selectin Ligand Activity in Lymph Node Medulla That Is Regulated by α(1,3)-Fucosyltransferase-IV

    PubMed Central

    M'Rini, Christine; Cheng, Guiying; Schweitzer, Colleen; Cavanagh, Lois L.; Palframan, Roger T.; Mempel, Thorsten R.; Warnock, Richard A.; Lowe, John B.; Quackenbush, Elizabeth J.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    2003-01-01

    Lymphocytes home to peripheral lymph nodes (PLNs) via high endothelial venules (HEVs) in the subcortex and incrementally larger collecting venules in the medulla. HEVs express ligands for L-selectin, which mediates lymphocyte rolling. L-selectin counterreceptors in HEVs are recognized by mAb MECA-79, a surrogate marker for molecularly heterogeneous glycans termed peripheral node addressin. By contrast, we find that medullary venules express L-selectin ligands not recognized by MECA-79. Both L-selectin ligands must be fucosylated by α(1,3)-fucosyltransferase (FucT)-IV or FucT-VII as rolling is absent in FucT-IV+VII−/− mice. Intravital microscopy experiments revealed that MECA-79–reactive ligands depend primarily on FucT-VII, whereas MECA-79–independent medullary L-selectin ligands are regulated by FucT-IV. Expression levels of both enzymes paralleled these anatomical distinctions. The relative mRNA level of FucT-IV was higher in medullary venules than in HEVs, whereas FucT-VII was most prominent in HEVs and weak in medullary venules. Thus, two distinct L-selectin ligands are segmentally confined to contiguous microvascular domains in PLNs. Although MECA-79–reactive species predominate in HEVs, medullary venules express another ligand that is spatially, antigenically, and biosynthetically unique. Physiologic relevance for this novel activity in medullary microvessels is suggested by the finding that L-selectin–dependent T cell homing to PLNs was partly insensitive to MECA-79 inhibition. PMID:14597733

  9. Biomarkers and outcome after tamoxifen treatment in node-positive breast cancers from elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Daidone, M G; Luisi, A; Martelli, G; Benini, E; Veneroni, S; Tomasic, G; De Palo, G; Silvestrini, R

    2000-01-01

    The predictive role of tumour proliferative rate and expression of p53, bcl-2 and bax proteins, alone and in association with tumour size, nodal involvement and oestrogen receptors (ER), was analysed on 145 elderly patients (≥70 years of age) with histologically assessed node-positive breast cancers treated with radical or conservative surgery plus radiotherapy followed by adjuvant tamoxifen for at least 1 year. The 7-year probability of relapse was significantly higher for patients with tumours rapidly proliferating (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.0, P = 0.01), overexpressing p53 (HR = 4.4, P = 0.0001), weakly or not exhibiting bcl-2 (HR = 1.9, P = 0.02), without ERs (HR = 3.4, P = 0.0001) or with ≥ 4 positive lymph nodes (HR = 2.3, P = 0.003) than for patients with tumours expressing the opposite patho-biological profile. Conversely, tumour size and bax expression failed to influence relapse-free survival. Adjustment for the duration of tamoxifen treatment did not change these findings. Oestrogen receptors, cell proliferation, p53 accumulation and bcl-2 expression were also predictive for overall survival. Within ER-positive tumours, cell proliferation, p53 accumulation, bcl-2 expression and lymph node involvement provided significant and independent information for relapse and, in association, identified subgroups of patients with relapse probabilities of 20% (low-risk group, exhibiting only one unfavourable factor) to 90% (high-risk group, exhibiting three unfavourable factors). Such data could represent the initial framework for a biologically tailored therapy even for elderly patients and highlight the importance of a patho-biological characterization of their breast cancers. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10646876

  10. Management of the node-positive neck in the patient with HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Garden, Adam S.; Gunn, Gary B.; Hessel, Amy; Beadle, Beth M.; Ahmed, Salmaan; El-naggar, Adel; Fuller, Clifton D.; Byers, Lauren A.; Phan, Jack; Frank, Steven J.; Morrison, William H.; Kies, Merill S.; Rosenthal, David I.; Sturgis, Erich M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to assess the rates of recurrence in the neck for node-positive patients with HPV-associated oropharynx cancer treated with definitive radiation (with or without chemotherapy). Methods This is a single institutional retrospective study. Methodology included database search, and statistical testing including frequency analysis, Kaplan-Meier tests, and comparative tests including chi-square, logistic regression and log-rank. Results The cohort consisted of 401 node-positive patients irradiated between 2006 – June 2012. Three hundred eighty eight patients had CT restaging, and 251 had PET and/or US as a component of their post radiation staging. Eighty patients (20%) underwent neck dissection, and 21 (26%) had a positive specimen. The rate of neck dissection increased with increasing nodal stage, and was lower in patients who had PET scans or ultrasound in addition to CT restaging. The median follow-up was 30 months. The 2-year actuarial neck recurrence rate was 7% and 5% in all patients and those with local control, respectively. Nodal recurrence rates were greater in current smokers (p=.008). There was no difference in nodal recurrences rates in patients who did or did not have a neck dissection (p = .4) Conclusions A treatment strategy of (chemo)radiation with neck dissection performed based on response resulted in high rates of regional disease control in patients with HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:24898672

  11. The influence of total nodes examined, number of positive nodes, and lymph node ratio on survival after surgical resection and adjuvant chemoradiation for pancreatic cancer: A secondary analysis of RTOG 9704

    PubMed Central

    Showalter, Timothy N.; Winter, Kathryn A.; Berger, Adam C.; Regine, William F.; Abrams, Ross A.; Safran, Howard; Hoffman, John P.; Benson, Al B.; MacDonald, John S.; Willett, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Lymph node status is an important predictor of survival in pancreatic cancer. We performed a secondary analysis of RTOG 9704, an adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiation trial, to determine the influence of lymph node factors-number of positive nodes (NPN), total nodes examined (TNE), and lymph node ratio (LNR-ratio of NPN to TNE)-on OS and disease-free survival (DFS). Patient and Methods Eligible patients from RTOG 9704 form the basis of this secondary analysis of lymph node parameters. Actuarial estimates for OS and DFS were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to evaluate associations of NPN, TNE, and LNR with OS and DFS. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were also performed. Results There were 538 patients enrolled in the RTOG 9704 trial. Of these, 445 patients were eligible with lymph nodes removed. Overall median NPN was 1 (min-max, 0-18). Increased NPN was associated with worse OS (HR=1.06, p=0.001) and DFS (HR=1.05, p=0.01). In multivariate analyses, both NPN and TNE were associated with OS and DFS. TNE > 12, and >15, were associated with increased OS for all patients, but not for node-negative patients (n =142). Increased LNR was associated with worse OS (HR=1.01, p<0.0001) and DFS (HR=1.006, p=0.002). Conclusion In patients who undergo surgical resection followed by adjuvant chemoradiation, TNE, NPN, and LNR are associated with OS and DFS. This secondary analysis of a prospective, cooperative group trial supports the influence of these lymph node parameters on outcomes after surgery and adjuvant therapy using contemporary techniques. PMID:20934270

  12. Increased number of negative lymph nodes is associated with improved survival outcome in node positive gastric cancer following radical gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jun Bing; Yang, Zhen; Pan, Gaofeng; Jiang, Daowen; Liu, Weiyan

    2016-01-01

    The concept of negative lymph node (NLN) counts has recently attracted attention as a prognostic indicator in various cancer. However, the correlation between NLN counts and patient prognosis in the setting of gastric cancer is not fully studied. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER)-registered gastric cancer patients were used for analysis in this study. Clinicopathological characteristics, including race, age, gender, and tumor stage, grade, and cause specific survival were collected. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the risk factors for survival. As results, X-tile plots identified 3 and 9 as the optimal cutoff value to divide the patients into high, middle and low risk subsets in terms of cause specific survival, and NLN was validated as independently prognostic factor in mulivariate Cox analysis (P < 0.001). Further analysis showed that NLN was a prognosis factor in each N stage. Collectively, our study results firmly demonstrated that the number of NLNs was an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients, and together with the N stage, it could provide more accurate prognostic information than the N stage alone. PMID:27147564

  13. Data-based reconstruction of complex geospatial networks, nodal positioning and detection of hidden nodes

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ri-Qi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Wang, Xiao; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Given a complex geospatial network with nodes distributed in a two-dimensional region of physical space, can the locations of the nodes be determined and their connection patterns be uncovered based solely on data? We consider the realistic situation where time series/signals can be collected from a single location. A key challenge is that the signals collected are necessarily time delayed, due to the varying physical distances from the nodes to the data collection centre. To meet this challenge, we develop a compressive-sensing-based approach enabling reconstruction of the full topology of the underlying geospatial network and more importantly, accurate estimate of the time delays. A standard triangularization algorithm can then be employed to find the physical locations of the nodes in the network. We further demonstrate successful detection of a hidden node (or a hidden source or threat), from which no signal can be obtained, through accurate detection of all its neighbouring nodes. As a geospatial network has the feature that a node tends to connect with geophysically nearby nodes, the localized region that contains the hidden node can be identified. PMID:26909187

  14. Prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after esophagectomy using the log odds of positive lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Wu, San-Gang; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Yang, Li-Chao; Zhou, Juan; Li, Feng-Yan; Li, Qun; Lin, Huan-Xin; Lin, Qin; He, Zhen-Yu

    2015-11-01

    To compare the log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) with the number of positive lymph nodes (pN), lymph node ratio (LNR), removed lymph node (RLN) count, and negative lymph node (NLN) count in determining the prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) after esophagectomy. The records of patients with ESCC who received esophagectomy were retrospectively reviewed. The log-rank test was used to compare curves for overall survival (OS), and Cox regression analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors. The prognostic performance of the different lymph node staging systems were compared using the linear trend chi-square test, likelihood ratio chi-square test, and Akaike information criterion. A total of 589 patients were enrolled. Univariate Cox analysis showed that pN stage, LNR, RLN count, NLN count, and the LODDS were significantly associated with OS (p < 0.05 for all). Multivariate Cox analysis adjusted for significant factors indicated that LODDS was independent risk factor on overall survival (OS), and a higher LODDS was associated with worse OS (hazard ratio = 3.297, 95% confidence interval: 2.684-4.050, p < 0.001). The modified Tumor-LODDS-Metastasis staging system had better discriminatory ability, monotonicity, and homogeneity, and better optimistic prognostic stratification than the Tumor-Node-Metastasis staging system in determining the prognosis of patients with ESCC. The LODDS staging system was superior to other lymph node classifications in determining the prognosis of patients with ESCC after esophagectomy. LODDS may be incorporated into esophageal staging system if these results are eventually confirmed by other studies.

  15. CT-Guided Wire Localization for Involved Axillary Lymph Nodes After Neo-adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients With Initially Node-Positive Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Long; Miyake, Kanae K; Dirbas, Frederick M; Kothary, Nishita; Horst, Kathleen C; Lipson, Jafi A; Carpenter, Catherine; Thompson, Atalie C; Ikeda, Debra M

    2016-07-01

    Resection of biopsy-proven involved axillary lymph nodes (iALNs) is important to reduce the false-negative rates of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with initially node-positive breast cancer. Preoperative wire localization for iALNs marked with clips placed during biopsy is a technique that may help the removal of iALNs after NAC. However, ultrasound (US)-guided localization is often difficult because the clips cannot always be reliably visible on US. Computed tomography (CT)-guided wire localization can be used; however, to date there have been no reports on CT-guided wire localization for iALNs. The aim of this study was to describe a series of patients who received CT-guided wire localization for iALN removal after NAC and to evaluate the feasibility of this technique. We retrospectively analyzed five women with initially node-positive breast cancer (age, 41-52 years) who were scheduled for SLN biopsy after NAC and received preoperative CT-guided wire localization for iALNs. CT visualized all the clips that were not identified on post-NAC US. The wire tip was deployed beyond or at the target, with the shortest distance between the wire and the index clip ranging from 0 to 2.5 mm. The total procedure time was 21-38 minutes with good patient tolerance and no complications. In four of five cases, CT wire localization aided in identification and resection of iALNs that were not identified with lymphatic mapping. Residual nodal disease was confirmed in two cases: both had residual disease in wire-localized lymph nodes in addition to SLNs. Although further studies with more cases are required, our results suggest that CT-guided wire localization for iALNs is a feasible technique that facilitates identification and removal of the iALNs as part of SLN biopsy after NAC in situations where US localization is unsuccessful. PMID:27061012

  16. A divergent role for estrogen receptor-beta in node-positive and node-negative breast cancer classified according to molecular subtypes: an observational prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Novelli, Flavia; Milella, Michele; Melucci, Elisa; Di Benedetto, Anna; Sperduti, Isabella; Perrone-Donnorso, Raffaele; Perracchio, Letizia; Venturo, Irene; Nisticò, Cecilia; Fabi, Alessandra; Buglioni, Simonetta; Natali, Pier Giorgio; Mottolese, Marcella

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α) and progesterone receptor (PgR) are consolidated predictors of response to hormonal therapy (HT). In contrast, little information regarding the role of estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β) in various breast cancer risk groups treated with different therapeutic regimens is available. In particular, there are no data concerning ER-β distribution within the novel molecular breast cancer subtypes luminal A (LA) and luminal B (LB), HER2 (HS), and triple-negative (TN). Methods We conducted an observational prospective study using immunohistochemistry to evaluate ER-β expression in 936 breast carcinomas. Associations with conventional biopathological factors and with molecular subtypes were analyzed by multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), while univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis and classification and regression tree analysis were applied to determine the impact of ER-β on disease-free survival in the 728 patients with complete follow-up data. Results ER-β evenly distributes (55.5%) across the four molecular breast cancer subtypes, confirming the lack of correlation between ER-β and classical prognosticators. However, the relationships among the biopathological factors, analyzed by MCA, showed that ER-β positivity is located in the quadrant containing more aggressive phenotypes such as HER2 and TN or ER-α/PgR/Bcl2- tumors. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analysis identified ER-β as a significant discriminating factor for disease-free survival both in the node-negative LA (P = 0.02) subgroup, where it is predictive of response to HT, and in the node-positive LB (P = 0.04) group, where, in association with PgR negativity, it conveys a higher risk of relapse. Conclusion Our data indicated that, in contrast to node-negative patients, in node-positive breast cancer patients, ER-β positivity appears to be a biomarker related to a more aggressive clinical course. In this context, further investigations

  17. Risk Factors for Regional Nodal Relapse in Breast Cancer Patients With One to Three Positive Axillary Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, Lucy; Kirby, Anna; Crichton, Siobhan; Gillett, Cheryl; Cane, Paul; Fentiman, Ian; Sawyer, Elinor

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: In many centers, supraclavicular fossa radiotherapy (SCF RT) is not routinely offered to breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes. We aimed to identify a subgroup of these patients who are at high risk of supra or infraclavicular fossa relapse (SCFR) such that they can be offered SCFRT at the time of diagnosis to improve long term locoregional control. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of the pathological features of 1,065 cases of invasive breast cancer with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes. Patients underwent radical breast conserving surgery or mastectomy. A total of 45% of patients received adjuvant chest wall/breast RT. No patients received adjuvant SCFRT. The primary outcome was SCFR. Secondary outcomes were chest wall/breast recurrence, distant metastasis, all death, and breast-cancer specific death. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to calculate actuarial event rates and survival functions compared using log-rank tests. Multivariate analyses (MVA) of factors associated with outcome were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Median follow-up was 9.7 years. SCFR rate was 9.2%. Median time from primary diagnosis to SCFR was 3.4 years (range, 0.7-14.4 years). SCFR was associated with significantly lower 10-year survival (18% vs. 65%; p < 0.001). Higher grade and number of positive lymph nodes were the most significant predictors of SCFR on MVA (p < 0.001). 10 year SCFR rates were less than 1% in all patients with Grade 1 cancers compared with 30% in those having Grade 3 cancers with three positive lymph nodes. Additional factors associated with SCFR on univariate analysis but not on MVA included larger nodal deposits (p = 0.002) and proportion of positive nodes (p = 0.003). Conclusions: Breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes have a heterogenous risk of SCFR. Patients with two to three positive axillary nodes and/or high-grade disease may warrant

  18. The Number of Positive Pelvic Lymph Nodes and Multiple Groups of Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis Influence Prognosis in Stage IA–IIB Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Zhao, Li-Jun; Li, Ming-Zhu; Li, Ming-Xia; Wang, Jian-Liu; Wei, Li-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pelvic lymph node metastasis (LNM) is an important prognostic factor in cervical cancer. Cervical squamous cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 75–80% of all cervical cancers. Analyses of the effects of the number of positive lymph nodes (LNs), unilateral versus bilateral pelvic LNM and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma are still lacking. The study aimed to analyze the effects of the number of positive pelvic LNs and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM on survival and recurrence. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 296 patients diagnosed with Stage IA–IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma who received extensive/sub-extensive hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy/pelvic LN sampling at Peking University People's Hospital from November 2004 to July 2013. Ten clinicopathological variables were evaluated as risk factors for pelvic LNM: Age at diagnosis, gravidity, clinical stage, histological grade, tumor diameter, lymph-vascular space involvement (LVSI), depth of cervical stromal invasion, uterine invasion, parametrial invasion, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results: The incidence of pelvic LNM was 20.27% (60/296 cases). Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00) was significantly correlated with recurrence. Pelvic LNM (P = 0.00), the number of positive pelvic LNs (P = 0.04) and a single group versus multiple groups of pelvic LNM (P = 0.03) had a significant influence on survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that LVSI (P = 0.00), depth of cervical stromal invasion (P = 0.00) and parametrial invasion (P = 0.03) were independently associated with pelvic LNM. Conclusions: Patients with pelvic LNM had a higher recurrence rate and poor survival outcomes. Furthermore, more than 2 positive pelvic LNs and multiple groups of pelvic LNM appeared to identify patients with worse survival outcomes in node-positive IA-IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma. LVSI

  19. Simple Prediction Model of Axillary Lymph Node Positivity After Analyzing Molecular and Clinical Factors in Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Mi Joo; Lee, Jong Hoon; Kim, Sung Hwan; Suh, Young Jin; Choi, Hyun Joo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between pretreatment molecular and clinical factors and axillary lymph node metastases in early breast cancer. A total of 367 consecutive breast cancer patients with cT1–2NxM0 who underwent breast conserving surgery and axillary lymph node dissection followed by whole breast irradiation were enrolled. We evaluated the pathologic tumor and node status, tumor differentiation, calcification, and lymphovascular invasion, the status of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (EGFR1), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), the expression of E-cadherin, P53, and Ki-67 index. Totally, 108 (29.4%) of the 367 patients had positive axillary lymph nodes. An increased tumor size (P = 0.024), the presence of lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.001), and Ki-67 index of >20% (P = 0.038) were significantly associated with axillary lymph node metastases on the multivariate analysis. In our study, 86.2% of the patients with all the unfavorable factors had an involvement of axillary nodal metastases, and only 12.2% of the patients with all the favorable predictors had positive axillary nodes. The predictive power was significant on the receiver operating curve (P < 0.001). We found that several factors, such as tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, and the Ki-67 index, are independent factors that predict positive ALNM on multivariate analysis for the patients with cT1–2 breast cancer. Clinicians simply could predict the probability of ALNM after verifying the molecular and clinical factors in early breast cancer. PMID:27196477

  20. Simple Prediction Model of Axillary Lymph Node Positivity After Analyzing Molecular and Clinical Factors in Early Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mi Joo; Lee, Jong Hoon; Kim, Sung Hwan; Suh, Young Jin; Choi, Hyun Joo

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between pretreatment molecular and clinical factors and axillary lymph node metastases in early breast cancer. A total of 367 consecutive breast cancer patients with cT1-2NxM0 who underwent breast conserving surgery and axillary lymph node dissection followed by whole breast irradiation were enrolled. We evaluated the pathologic tumor and node status, tumor differentiation, calcification, and lymphovascular invasion, the status of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (EGFR1), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), the expression of E-cadherin, P53, and Ki-67 index. Totally, 108 (29.4%) of the 367 patients had positive axillary lymph nodes. An increased tumor size (P = 0.024), the presence of lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.001), and Ki-67 index of >20% (P = 0.038) were significantly associated with axillary lymph node metastases on the multivariate analysis. In our study, 86.2% of the patients with all the unfavorable factors had an involvement of axillary nodal metastases, and only 12.2% of the patients with all the favorable predictors had positive axillary nodes. The predictive power was significant on the receiver operating curve (P < 0.001). We found that several factors, such as tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, and the Ki-67 index, are independent factors that predict positive ALNM on multivariate analysis for the patients with cT1-2 breast cancer. Clinicians simply could predict the probability of ALNM after verifying the molecular and clinical factors in early breast cancer. PMID:27196477

  1. Unusual False-Positive Mesenteric Lymph Nodes Detected by PET/CT in a Metastatic Survey of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kamiyama, Hirohiko; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Niwa, Koichiro; Ishiyama, Shun; Takahashi, Makoto; Kojima, Yutaka; Goto, Michitoshi; Tomiki, Yuichi; Nakamichi, Itsuko; Oh, Shiaki; Suzuki, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a credible diagnostic modality for detecting primary and metastatic malignancy. PET/CT sometimes shows false positives and negatives, which make clinical diagnosis difficult. A 42-year-old man who had undergone right upper lobectomy for lung cancer 1 year previously had PET/CT for a metastatic survey of the lung. The lung cancer was stage IB (pT2N0M0) bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. PET/CT showed massive (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Because the mesentery is an unusual site of metastasis, the patient was under watchful observation. Another PET/CT after 6 months still showed FDG uptake in the same location, with a slightly increased standard uptake value. A systemic survey was performed, but it did not reveal any malignancies or inflammatory diseases. Eventually, the patient underwent probing laparoscopic surgery. For complete resection of the lymph nodes, laparoscopic ileocecal resection was performed. Histologically, the resected lymph nodes showed reactive lymphadenitis. Glucose transporter 1 immunostainings of the lung cancer and the lymph node were positive and partially positive, respectively. Although PET/CT is a powerful diagnostic modality, clinical interpretation of unusual results is difficult. PMID:27462197

  2. Unusual False-Positive Mesenteric Lymph Nodes Detected by PET/CT in a Metastatic Survey of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kamiyama, Hirohiko; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Niwa, Koichiro; Ishiyama, Shun; Takahashi, Makoto; Kojima, Yutaka; Goto, Michitoshi; Tomiki, Yuichi; Nakamichi, Itsuko; Oh, Shiaki; Suzuki, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a credible diagnostic modality for detecting primary and metastatic malignancy. PET/CT sometimes shows false positives and negatives, which make clinical diagnosis difficult. A 42-year-old man who had undergone right upper lobectomy for lung cancer 1 year previously had PET/CT for a metastatic survey of the lung. The lung cancer was stage IB (pT2N0M0) bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. PET/CT showed massive 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Because the mesentery is an unusual site of metastasis, the patient was under watchful observation. Another PET/CT after 6 months still showed FDG uptake in the same location, with a slightly increased standard uptake value. A systemic survey was performed, but it did not reveal any malignancies or inflammatory diseases. Eventually, the patient underwent probing laparoscopic surgery. For complete resection of the lymph nodes, laparoscopic ileocecal resection was performed. Histologically, the resected lymph nodes showed reactive lymphadenitis. Glucose transporter 1 immunostainings of the lung cancer and the lymph node were positive and partially positive, respectively. Although PET/CT is a powerful diagnostic modality, clinical interpretation of unusual results is difficult. PMID:27462197

  3. Fatigue in 0.5Li2MnO3:0.5Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 positive electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riekehr, Lars; Liu, Jinlong; Schwarz, Björn; Sigel, Florian; Kerkamm, Ingo; Xia, Yongyao; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    Two different Li-rich nickel-cobalt-manganese-oxide (Li-rich NCM) active materials with the same nominal composition 0.5Li2MnO3:0.5Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 but different pristine nano structure have been analyzed structurally and electrochemically in different cycling states. For structural characterization, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution synchrotron powder diffraction (S-XRD) experiments were conducted. The changes in structure with increasing cycle number are correlated with characteristic features in the corresponding electrochemical dQ/dV-profiles that were obtained by galvanostatically cycling the two different active materials. The presented data demonstrates that structural changes upon cycling, e.g. LiMnO2 and spinel formation, strongly depend on the degree oxygen is involved in the reversible charge compensation for delithiation/lithiation. According to our data, firstly a twin-like environment with nanometer dimensions is formed within the R-3m matrix during the initial cycle, which then gradually transforms into a spinel-like structure with increasing cycle number. As another result, we can show that Li2MnO3 to LiMnO2 transformation is not directly dependent in the irreversible oxygen loss in the first cycle but more importantly on transition metal migration. A model is presented explaining the dependency of LiMnO2 and spinel formation on the ability of Li-rich active materials to include oxygen in the charge compensation process.

  4. [A Case of Cystic Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis of HPV-positive Tonsil Cancer, Being Discriminated as the Branchiogenic Carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Kambara, Rumi; Tamai, Masamitsu; Horii, Arata

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal carcinomas have been increasing. The first manifestation of these tumors is frequently as cystic metastasis to cervical lymph nodes that may precede recognition of the primary tumor, so, they often result in misdiagnosis as branchial cleft cysts. We report a case of cystic cervical lymph node metastasis of HPV-positive tonsil cancer. The patient was a 70-years-old man who noticed a mass on his left neck. The tumor was large and soft, and it was diagnosed as benign in fine-needle aspiration cytology. We diagnosed the tumor as a branchial cleft cyst and undertook surgery. The histopathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma arising from a branchiogenic cyst. However, because it did not satisfy the diagnostic criteria, we diagnosed the tumor as an unknown primary tumor. One year later, left tonsil cancer was suspected based on PET-CT imaging and a left tonsillectomy was undertaken, whereafter tonsil cancer was found. In p16 immunostaining, it was positive in both cystic mass and tonsil. The cervical mass was cystic lymph node metastasis of HPV-positive tonsil cancer. It is important to investigate the oropharynx, when we found cystic cervical mass, because HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma frequently results in cystic neck metastasis.

  5. Chest Wall Radiotherapy: Middle Ground for Treatment of Patients With One to Three Positive Lymph Nodes After Mastectomy

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Shannon M.; Abi-Raad, Rita F.; Alm El-Din, Mohamed A.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Kobayashi, Wendy; McGrath, John J.; Goldberg, Saveli I.; Powell, Simon; Smith, Barbara; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes for patients with Stage II breast cancer and one to three positive lymph nodes after mastectomy who were treated with observation or adjuvant radiotherapy to the chest wall (CW) with or without the regional lymphatics. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 238 patients with Stage II breast cancer (one to three positive lymph nodes) treated with mastectomy at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1990 and 2004. The estimates of locoregional recurrence (LRR), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival were analyzed according to the delivery of radiotherapy and multiple prognostic factors. Results: LRR and DFS were significantly improved by postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT), with a 5- and 10-year LRR rate without PMRT of 6% and 11%, respectively and, with PMRT, of 0% at both 5 and 10 years (p = .02). The 5- and 10-year DFS rate without PMRT was 85% and 75%, respectively, and, with PMRT, was 93% at both 5 and 10 years (p = .03). A similar benefit was found for patients treated with RT to the CW alone. The LRR, DFS, and overall survival rate for patients treated to the CW only was 0%, 96%, and 95% at 10 years, respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggest that adjuvant PMRT to the CW alone provides excellent disease control for patients with breast cancer <5 cm with one to three positive lymph nodes.

  6. Benefit of Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection in pT3 and Node Positive Bladder Cancer Patients Treated with Radical Cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Boström, Peter J.; Mirtti, Tuomas; van Rhijn, Bas; Fleshner, Neil E.; Finelli, Antonio; Laato, Matti; Jewett, Michael A.; Moore, Malcom J.; Sridhar, Srikala; Nurmi, Martti; Tannock, Ian F.; Zlotta, Alexandre R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) and extent of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) in radical cystectomy (RC) are debated. Results from randomized trials are still expected. Objective: To analyze the effects of AC and PLND in two academic centers with opposite policies regarding their use. Methods: 581 bladder cancer patients who underwent RC without neoadjuvant chemotherapy, from Toronto (University Health Network), Canada, and Turku University Hospital, Finland were included. Disease specific survival (DSS) and failure patterns were assessed. Results: Centers differed in PLND rate (93% and 36% in Toronto and Turku respectively, p <  0.001), PLND extent (≥10 removed nodes, 58% vs. 8%, p <  0.001) and AC rate (21% vs. 2%, p <  0.001). Survival between centers among pT≤1 or pT4 patients was similar. pT3 patients in Toronto had an improved 10 year DSS (43% vs. 22%, p = 0.025). Distant failures were less common after AC (HR 0.56, 95%  CI 0.33–0.98, p <  0.042). In node positive (N+) patients, mortality was significantly higher in Turku (HR 2.19, 95%  CI 1.44–3.34, p <  0.001) and lower in patients receiving AC (HR 0.60, 95%  CI 0.37–0.99, p = 0.044). 41% DSS at 10 years was observed in N+ Toronto patients. Limitations included the non-randomized retrospective design and absence of propensity score analysis. Conclusion: Combining AC and PLND to RC is associated with improved survival in pT3 and N+ patients. PLND did not affect survival independently but helps in selecting patients for AC. Our data adds to the growing body of evidence supporting the usefulness of AC in addition to PLND in high risk patients operated by cystectomy. PMID:27376145

  7. Collagen I fiber density increases in lymph node positive breast cancers: pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kakkad, Samata M.; Solaiyappan, Meiyappan; Argani, Pedram; Sukumar, Saraswati; Jacobs, Lisa K.; Leibfritz, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Collagen I (Col1) fibers are a major structural component in the extracellular matrix of human breast cancers. In a preliminary pilot study, we explored the link between Col1 fiber density in primary human breast cancers and the occurrence of lymph node metastasis. Col1 fibers were detected by second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy in primary human breast cancers from patients presenting with lymph node metastasis (LN+) versus those without lymph node metastasis (LN−). Col1 fiber density, which was quantified using our in-house SHG image analysis software, was significantly higher in the primary human breast cancers of LN+ (fiber volume=29.22%±4.72%, inter-fiber distance=2.25±0.45  μm) versus LN− (fiber volume=20.33%±5.56%, inter-fiber distance=2.88±1.07  μm) patients. Texture analysis by evaluating the co-occurrence matrix and the Fourier transform of the Col1 fibers proved to be significantly different for the parameters of co-relation and energy, as well as aspect ratio and eccentricity, for LN+ versus LN− cases. We also demonstrated that tissue fixation and paraffin embedding had negligible effect on SHG Col1 fiber detection and quantification. High Col1 fiber density in primary breast tumors is associated with breast cancer metastasis and may serve as an imaging biomarker of metastasis. PMID:23117811

  8. Collagen I fiber density increases in lymph node positive breast cancers: pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakkad, Samata M.; Solaiyappan, Meiyappan; Argani, Pedram; Sukumar, Saraswati; Jacobs, Lisa K.; Leibfritz, Dieter; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.; Glunde, Kristine

    2012-11-01

    Collagen I (Col1) fibers are a major structural component in the extracellular matrix of human breast cancers. In a preliminary pilot study, we explored the link between Col1 fiber density in primary human breast cancers and the occurrence of lymph node metastasis. Col1 fibers were detected by second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy in primary human breast cancers from patients presenting with lymph node metastasis (LN+) versus those without lymph node metastasis (LN-). Col1 fiber density, which was quantified using our in-house SHG image analysis software, was significantly higher in the primary human breast cancers of LN+ (fiber volume=29.22%±4.72%, inter-fiber distance=2.25±0.45 μm) versus LN- (fiber volume=20.33%±5.56%, inter-fiber distance=2.88±1.07 μm) patients. Texture analysis by evaluating the co-occurrence matrix and the Fourier transform of the Col1 fibers proved to be significantly different for the parameters of co-relation and energy, as well as aspect ratio and eccentricity, for LN+ versus LN- cases. We also demonstrated that tissue fixation and paraffin embedding had negligible effect on SHG Col1 fiber detection and quantification. High Col1 fiber density in primary breast tumors is associated with breast cancer metastasis and may serve as an imaging biomarker of metastasis.

  9. Neck control after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection in node-positive head and neck cancers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck control outcomes after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection in node-positive head and neck cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records of fifty patients with node-positive head and neck cancer who received definitive radiochemotherapy. Twelve patients subsequently underwent neck dissection for suspicious recurrent or persistent disease. A median dose of 70 Gy (range 60-70.6) was delivered to involved nodes. Response evaluation was performed at a median of 5 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. Results Neck failure was observed in 11 patients and the 3-year regional control (RC) rate was 77.1%. Neck dissection was performed in 10 of the 11 patients; seven of these cases were successfully salvaged, and the ultimate rate of neck control was 92%. The remaining two patients who received neck dissection had negative pathologic results. On univariate analysis, initial nodal size > 2 cm, a less-than-complete response at the primary site, post-radiotherapy nodal size > 1.5 cm, and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were associated with RC. On multivariate analysis, less-than-complete primary site response and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were identified as independent prognostic factors for RC. Conclusions The neck failure rate after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection was 22%. Two-thirds of these were successfully salvaged with neck dissection and the ultimate neck control rate was 92%. Our results suggest that planned neck dissection might not be necessary in patients with complete response of primary site, no evidence of residual lesion > 1.5 cm, or no necrotic lymph nodes at the 1-2 months follow-up evaluation after radiotherapy. PMID:22313843

  10. Polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene are associated with recurrence risk in lymph node-positive breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Suner, Ali; Buyukhatipoglu, Hakan; Aktas, Gokmen; Kus, Tulay; Ulasli, Mustafa; Oztuzcu, Serdar; Kalender, Mehmet Emin; Sevinc, Alper; Kul, Seval; Camci, Celaletdin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between recurrence risk of breast cancer and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphisms. Patients and methods Breast cancer patients who had undergone surgery in Gaziantep University Oncology Hospital between June 2005 and June 2012 were followed-up and retrospectively enrolled in this study. Blood samples were collected from all patients to assess MTHFR C677T polymorphisms. Stage according to tumor–node–metastasis system, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status, grade of disease, menopausal status, and administered chemotherapy or hormonal therapy were recorded. Effects of these parameters on recurrence risk were evaluated using univariate analysis and multivariate binary logistic regression model. Results Association of MTHFR C677T polymorphisms with recurrence risk was evaluated in 298 patients whose median age was 47 years (range: 21–79 years). In all patients, age (odds ratio [OR] =0.953, P=0.005) and N3 lymph node status (OR =6.293, P=0.001) were found to affect the recurrence risk. While MTHFR homozygote genotype did not have an effect on recurrence risk in all patients, increased risk was observed in lymph node-positive subgroup (OR =4.271; 95% CI 1.515–12.023; P=0.006). Adjusting for age, tumor size (T), and node status (N), MTHFR homozygote genotype had more statistically significant risk for recurrence (OR =3.255; 95% CI 1.047–10.125; P=0.041). Conclusion MTHFR TT genotype was found to be associated with increased recurrence risk in patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer. PMID:27672331

  11. Polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene are associated with recurrence risk in lymph node-positive breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Suner, Ali; Buyukhatipoglu, Hakan; Aktas, Gokmen; Kus, Tulay; Ulasli, Mustafa; Oztuzcu, Serdar; Kalender, Mehmet Emin; Sevinc, Alper; Kul, Seval; Camci, Celaletdin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between recurrence risk of breast cancer and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphisms. Patients and methods Breast cancer patients who had undergone surgery in Gaziantep University Oncology Hospital between June 2005 and June 2012 were followed-up and retrospectively enrolled in this study. Blood samples were collected from all patients to assess MTHFR C677T polymorphisms. Stage according to tumor–node–metastasis system, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status, grade of disease, menopausal status, and administered chemotherapy or hormonal therapy were recorded. Effects of these parameters on recurrence risk were evaluated using univariate analysis and multivariate binary logistic regression model. Results Association of MTHFR C677T polymorphisms with recurrence risk was evaluated in 298 patients whose median age was 47 years (range: 21–79 years). In all patients, age (odds ratio [OR] =0.953, P=0.005) and N3 lymph node status (OR =6.293, P=0.001) were found to affect the recurrence risk. While MTHFR homozygote genotype did not have an effect on recurrence risk in all patients, increased risk was observed in lymph node-positive subgroup (OR =4.271; 95% CI 1.515–12.023; P=0.006). Adjusting for age, tumor size (T), and node status (N), MTHFR homozygote genotype had more statistically significant risk for recurrence (OR =3.255; 95% CI 1.047–10.125; P=0.041). Conclusion MTHFR TT genotype was found to be associated with increased recurrence risk in patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer.

  12. Phosphorylation of Ser78 of Hsp27 correlated with HER-2/neu status and lymph node positivity in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Daohai; Wong, Lee Lee; Koay, Evelyn SC

    2007-01-01

    Background Abnormal amplification/expression of HER-2/neu oncogene has been causally linked with tumorigenesis and metastasis in breast cancer and associated with shortened overall survival of patients. Recently, heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) was reported to be highly expressed in HER-2/neu positive tumors and cell lines. However, putative functional links between phosphorylation of Hsp27 with HER-2/neu status and other clinicopathological features remain to be elucidated. Results Comparative phosphoproteomic studies of HER-2/neu positive and -negative breast tumors revealed that Hsp27, one of the identified phosphoproteins, was highly phosphorylated in HER-2/neu positive tumors. The extent of Hsp27 phosphorylation at its Ser15, Ser78 and Ser82 residues were further evaluated with site-specific antibodies in tumor samples by tissue lysate array- and tissue microarray-based analyses, and in the BT474 breast cancer cell line treated with heregulin α1 (HRG α1) or the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580. The tissue lysate array study indicated that only the level of pSer78 in HER-2/neu positive tumors was more than 2-fold that in HER-2/neu negative tumors. Treatment of BT474 cells with HRG α1 and SB203580 indicated that Ser78 phosphorylation was mainly regulated by the HER-2/neu-p38 MAPK pathway. Immunohistochemical staining of sections from a tissue microarray with 97 breast tumors showed that positive staining of pSer78 significantly correlated with HER-2/neu (p = 0.004) and lymph node positivity (p = 0.026). Conclusion This investigation demonstrated the significant correlation of enhanced phosphorylation of the Ser78 residue of Hsp27 with HER-2/neu and lymph node positivity in breast cancer. PMID:17697330

  13. Is ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of adequate value in detecting breast cancer patients with three or more positive axillary lymph nodes?

    PubMed

    Kramer, G M; Leenders, M W H; Schijf, L J; Go, H L S; van der Ploeg, T; van den Tol, M P; Schreurs, W H

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of the sonographically most suspicious axillary lymph node (US/FNAC) to select early breast cancer patients with three or more tumour-positive axillary lymph nodes. Between 2004 and 2014, a total of 2130 patients with histologically proven early breast cancer were evaluated and treated in the Noordwest Clinics Alkmaar. US/FNAC was performed preoperatively in all these patients. We analysed the results of US/FNAC retrospectively. Pathological axillary node status (sentinel node biopsy and/or axillary lymph node dissection) was used as reference standard. A total of 634 (29.8 %) of 2130 patients had axillary lymph node metastases on final histology. 248 node positive patients (11.6 %) had three or more positive lymph nodes. The accuracy of US/FNAC to detect three or more positive lymph nodes was 89.8 %, sensitivity was 44.8 %, specificity was 95.7 %, PPV was 58.1 %, and NPV was 92.9 %. This study shows a more than adequate accuracy of preoperative US/FNAC to detect three or more positive lymph nodes (89.8 %). However, when US/FNAC was chosen as the only axillary staging method, 6.4 % of all patients (false negative group) would have been undertreated and 3.8 % of all patients (false positive group) would have been overtreated according to the ACOSOG Z0011 criteria. PMID:26995283

  14. Hormonal-receptor positive breast cancer: IL-6 augments invasion and lymph node metastasis via stimulating cathepsin B expression.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sherif A; El-Ghonaimy, Eslam A; Hassan, Hebatallah; Mahana, Noha; Mahmoud, Mahmoud Abdelbaky; El-Mamlouk, Tahani; El-Shinawi, Mohamed; Mohamed, Mona M

    2016-09-01

    Hormonal-receptor positive (HRP) breast cancer patients with positive metastatic axillary lymph nodes are characterized by poor prognosis and increased mortality rate. The mechanisms by which cancer cells invade lymph nodes have not yet been fully explored. Several studies have shown that expression of IL-6 and the proteolytic enzyme cathepsin B (CTSB) was associated with breast cancer poor prognosis. In the present study, the effect of different concentrations of recombinant human IL-6 on the invasiveness capacity of HRP breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was tested using an in vitro invasion chamber assay. The impact of IL-6 on expression and activity of CTSB was also investigated. IL-6 treatment promoted the invasiveness potential of MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells displayed elevated CTSB expression and activity associated with loss of E-cadherin and upregulation of vimentin protein levels upon IL-6 stimulation. To validate these results in vivo, the level of expression of IL-6 and CTSB in the carcinoma tissues of HRP-breast cancer patients with positive and negative axillary metastatic lymph nodes (pLNs and nLNs) was assessed. Western blot and immunohistochemical staining data showed that expression of IL-6 and CTSB was higher in carcinoma tissues in HRP-breast cancer with pLNs than those with nLNs patients. ELISA results showed carcinoma tissues of HRP-breast cancer with pLNs exhibited significantly elevated IL-6 protein levels by approximately 2.8-fold compared with those with nLNs patients (P < 0.05). Interestingly, a significantly positive correlation between IL-6 and CTSB expression was detected in clinical samples of HRP-breast cancer patients with pLNs (r = 0.78, P < 0.01). Collectively, this study suggests that IL-6-induced CTSB may play a role in lymph node metastasis, and that may possess future therapeutic implications for HRP-breast cancer patients with pLNs. Further studies are necessary to fully identify IL-6/CTSB

  15. The Impact of Definitive Local Therapy for Lymph Node-Positive Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rusthoven, Chad G.; Carlson, Julie A.; Waxweiler, Timothy V.; Raben, David; Dewitt, Peter E.; Crawford, E. David; Maroni, Paul D.; Kavanagh, Brian D.

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the survival outcomes for patients with lymph node-positive, nonmetastatic prostate cancer undergoing definitive local therapy (radical prostatectomy [RP], external beam radiation therapy [EBRT], or both) versus no local therapy (NLT) in the US population in the modern prostate specific antigen (PSA) era. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for patients with T1-4N1M0 prostate cancer diagnosed from 1995 through 2005. To allow comparisons of equivalent datasets, patients were analyzed in separate clinical (cN+) and pathologically confirmed (pN+) lymph node-positive cohorts. Kaplan-Meier overall survival (OS) and prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS) estimates were generated, with accompanying univariate log-rank and multivariate Cox proportional hazards comparisons. Results: A total of 796 cN+ and 2991 pN+ patients were evaluable. Among cN+ patients, 43% underwent EBRT and 57% had NLT. Outcomes for cN+ patients favored EBRT, with 10-year OS rates of 45% versus 29% (P<.001) and PCSS rates of 67% versus 53% (P<.001). Among pN+ patients, 78% underwent local therapy (RP 57%, EBRT 10%, or both 11%) and 22% had NLT. Outcomes for pN+ also favored local therapy, with 10-year OS rates of 65% versus 42% (P<.001) and PCSS rates of 78% versus 56% (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, local therapy in both the cN+ and pN+ cohorts remained independently associated with improved OS and PCSS (all P<.001). Local therapy was associated with favorable hazard ratios across subgroups, including patients aged ≥70 years and those with multiple positive lymph nodes. Among pN+ patients, no significant differences in survival were observed between RP versus EBRT and RP with or without adjuvant EBRT. Conclusions: In this large, population-based cohort, definitive local therapy was associated with significantly improved survival in patients with lymph node-positive prostate cancer.

  16. Vaccine Therapy in Preventing Cancer Recurrence in Patients With Non-Metastatic, Node Positive, HER2 Negative Breast Cancer That is in Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-28

    HER2/Neu Negative; No Evidence of Disease; One or More Positive Axillary Nodes; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  17. Comparison of Treatment Outcomes between Breast Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiotherapy and Mastectomy Alone in Patients with T1-2 Stage and 1-3 Axillary Lymph Nodes in the Era of Modern Adjuvant Systemic Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Won; Chun, Mison; Han, Sehwan; Jung, Yong Sik; Choi, Jin Hyuk; Kang, Seok Yun; Jang, Hyunsoo; Jo, Sunmi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The role of postmastectomy radiotherapy in the treatment of T1–2 primary tumor with 1–3 positive lymph nodes is controversial. We compared treatment outcomes between breast conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy (BCS+RT) and total mastectomy alone (TM) in the setting of modern adjuvant systemic treatments. Methods Patients with T1–2 primary breast cancer and 1–3 positive lymph nodes who were treated between 2001 and 2011 were divided into 2 groups based on the treatment approach: BCS+RT (n = 169) and TM (n = 117). All patients received adjuvant chemotherapy including taxanes. Adjuvant endocrine therapy was administered to patients with positive hormone receptors according to their menstrual status. Results During a median follow-up of 76.5 months, 21 patients (7.3%) experienced locoregional recurrence as the first event, including 7 patients (4.1%) in the BCS+RT group and 14 patients (12.0%) in the TM group. The 5-year cumulative incidence rate of locoregional recurrence was 2.5% for BCS+RT versus 9.5% for TM (p = 0.016). Competing risk regression analysis revealed that TM was associated with a relative risk for locoregional recurrence of 5.347 (p = 0.003). TM was also associated with a significantly lower 5-year disease-free survival rate compared with BCS+RT (hazard ratio, 2.024; 95% confidence interval, 1.090–3.759; p = 0.026). Conclusion To improve treatment outcomes for TM even after modern systemic treatments, postmastectomy radiotherapy might be required for patients with T1–2 primary breast cancer and 1–3 positive lymph nodes. PMID:27685357

  18. Stearic acids at sn-1, 3 positions of TAG are more efficient at limiting fat deposition than palmitic and oleic acids in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Gouk, Shiou-Wah; Cheng, Sit-Foon; Ong, Augustine Soon-Hock; Chuah, Cheng-Hock

    2014-04-14

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of long-acyl chain SFA, namely palmitic acid (16:0) and stearic acid (18:0), at sn-1, 3 positions of TAG on obesity. Throughout the 15 weeks of the experimental period, C57BL/6 mice were fed diets fortified with cocoa butter, sal stearin (SAL), palm mid fraction (PMF) and high-oleic sunflower oil (HOS). The sn-1, 3 positions were varied by 16:0, 18:0 and 18:1, whilst the sn-2 position was preserved with 18:1. The HOS-enriched diet was found to lead to the highest fat deposition. This was in accordance with our previous postulation. Upon normalisation of total fat deposited with food intake to obtain the fat:feed ratio, interestingly, mice fed the SAL-enriched diet exhibited significantly lower visceral fat/feed and total fat/feed compared with those fed the PMF-enriched diet, despite their similarity in SFA-unsaturated fatty acid-SFA profile. That long-chain SFA at sn-1, 3 positions concomitantly with an unsaturated FA at the sn-2 position exert an obesity-reducing effect was further validated. The present study is the first of its kind to demonstrate that SFA of different chain lengths at sn-1, 3 positions exert profound effects on fat accretion.

  19. DNA methylation profile of triple negative breast cancer-specific genes comparing lymph node positive patients to lymph node negative patients

    PubMed Central

    Mathe, Andrea; Wong-Brown, Michelle; Locke, Warwick J.; Stirzaker, Clare; Braye, Stephen G.; Forbes, John F.; Clark, Susan J.; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A.; Scott, Rodney J.

    2016-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive breast cancer subtype with no targeted treatment available. Our previous study identified 38 TNBC-specific genes with altered expression comparing tumour to normal samples. This study aimed to establish whether DNA methylation contributed to these expression changes in the same cohort as well as disease progression from primary breast tumour to lymph node metastasis associated with changes in the epigenome. We obtained DNA from 23 primary TNBC samples, 12 matched lymph node metastases, and 11 matched normal adjacent tissues and assayed for differential methylation profiles using Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. The results were validated in an independent cohort of 70 primary TNBC samples. The expression of 16/38 TNBC-specific genes was associated with alteration in DNA methylation. Novel methylation changes between primary tumours and lymph node metastases, as well as those associated with survival were identified. Altered methylation of 18 genes associated with lymph node metastasis were identified and validated. This study reveals the important role DNA methylation plays in altered gene expression of TNBC-specific genes and lymph node metastases. The novel insights into progression of TNBC to secondary disease may provide potential prognostic indicators for this hard-to-treat breast cancer subtype. PMID:27671774

  20. Influence of Lymphatic Invasion on Locoregional Recurrence Following Mastectomy: Indication for Postmastectomy Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer Patients With One to Three Positive Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunuma, Ryoichi; Oguchi, Masahiko; Fujikane, Tomoko; Matsuura, Masaaki; Sakai, Takehiko; Kimura, Kiyomi; Morizono, Hidetomo; Iijima, Kotaro; Izumori, Ayumi; Miyagi, Yumi; Nishimura, Seiichiro; Makita, Masujiro; Gomi, Naoya; Horii, Rie; Akiyama, Futoshi; Iwase, Takuji

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: The indication for postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes has been in discussion. The purpose of this study was to identify patient groups for whom PMRT may be indicated, focusing on varied locoregional recurrence rates depending on lymphatic invasion (ly) status. Methods and Materials: Retrospective analysis of 1,994 node-positive patients who had undergone mastectomy without postoperative radiotherapy between January 1990 and December 2000 at our hospital was performed. Patient groups for whom PMRT should be indicated were assessed using statistical tests based on the relationship between locoregional recurrence rate and ly status. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that the ly status affected the locoregional recurrence rate to as great a degree as the number of positive lymph nodes (p < 0.001). Especially for patients with one to three positive nodes, extensive ly was a more significant factor than stage T3 in the TNM staging system for locoregional recurrence (p < 0.001 vs. p = 0.295). Conclusion: Among postmastectomy patients with one to three positive lymph nodes, patients with extensive ly seem to require local therapy regimens similar to those used for patients with four or more positive nodes and also seem to require consideration of the use of PMRT.

  1. Health-Related Quality of Life With Adjuvant Docetaxel- and Trastuzumab-Based Regimens in Patients with Node-Positive and High-Risk Node-Negative, HER2-Positive Early Breast Cancer: Results from the BCIRG 006 Study

    PubMed Central

    Au, Heather-Jane; Eiermann, Wolfgang; Robert, Nicholas J.; Pieńkowski, Tadeusz; Crown, John; Martin, Miguel; Pawlicki, Marek; Chan, Arlene; Mackey, John; Glaspy, John; Pintér, Tamás; Liu, Mei-Ching; Fornander, Tommy; Sehdev, Sandeep; Ferrero, Jean-Marc; Bée, Valerie; Miller, Dave P.; Lalla, Deepa; Slamon, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study aims to describe and compare health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with node-positive and high-risk node-negative HER2-positive early breast cancer receiving adjuvant docetaxel and trastuzumab-based or docetaxel-based regimens alone. Methods. Eligible patients (n = 3,222) were randomly assigned to either four cycles of adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by four cycles of docetaxel (AC→T) or one of two trastuzumab-containing regimens: adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel plus trastuzumab administered for 1 year (AC→TH) or six cycles of docetaxel plus carboplatin combined with trastuzumab administered for 1 year (TCH). The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and BR-23 were administered at baseline, the start of cycle 4 (mid), and the end of chemotherapy (EOC), as well as at 6, 12, and 24 months after chemotherapy. Results. Compliance rates for the EORTC questionnaires were acceptable at 72%–93% of eligible patients out to the 12-month assessment. Systemic side effect (SE) change scores were significantly improved for TCH-treated patients compared with AC→TH and AC→T at EOC, suggesting improved tolerability. Physical functioning (PF) was only slightly worse at midpoint for those receiving TCH, compared with patients who were just starting on taxane in an AC→TH regimen, but was otherwise similar between arms. All treatment arms recovered from the deterioration in SE, PF, and Global Health Scale scores by 1 year and median future perspective change scores continued to improve throughout treatment and follow-up. Conclusion. HRQL outcomes for adjuvant docetaxel and trastuzumab-based regimens are favorable and support TCH as a more tolerable treatment option. PMID:23814044

  2. Definitive radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer with radiographically positive retropharyngeal nodes: Incomplete radiographic response does not necessarily indicate failure

    SciTech Connect

    Liauw, Stanley L.; Mancuso, Anthony A.; Morris, Christopher G. M.S.; Amdur, Robert J.; Mendenhall, William M. . E-mail: mendewil@shands.ufl.edu

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: Our aim was to report the control rate of radiographically positive retropharyngeal (RP) nodes with radiation therapy (RT) and to correlate posttreatment imaging with clinical outcome. Methods and Materials: Sixteen patients treated with definitive RT for head-and-neck cancer had radiographically positive RP nodes (size >1 cm in largest axial dimension, or presence of focal enhancement, lucency, or calcification), and both pre-RT and post-RT image sets available for review. An additional 21 patients with unconfirmed radiographically positive RP nodes had post-RT imaging, which consisted of computed tomography (CT) at a median of 4 weeks after completing RT. Patients with positive post-RT RP nodes underwent observation with serial imaging. Results: Of 16 patients with pre-RT and post-RT images available for review, 9 (56%) had a radiographic complete response, and of 21 patients with unconfirmed positive RP nodes with post-RT images available for review, 14 (67%) had a radiographic complete response. In all, 14 patients with incomplete response on post-RT imaging experienced control of their disease with no further therapy, and no RP node or neck failures were noted during a median follow-up of 2.8 years. Six patients with positive post-RT RP nodes had serial imaging available for review, and none demonstrated radiographic progression of disease. Conclusions: Radiographic response at 4 weeks may not accurately reflect long-term locoregional control, as RP nodes may continue to resolve over time. The highest index of suspicion should be reserved for patients with progressive changes in size, focal lucency, or focal enhancement on serial imaging after RT.

  3. Development and validation of a prognostic nomogram based on the log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaofang; Li, Shuaijie; Huang, Xiaojia; Xiao, Xiangsheng; Xie, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the prognostic effect of log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS) and develop a nomogram for survival prediction in breast cancer patients at the time of surgery. Results LODDS was an independent risk factor for cancer-related death in breast cancer (hazard ratio: 1.582, 95%CI: 1.190-2.104). Menopausal status, tumor size, pathological lymph node staging, estrogen receptor status and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status were also included in the nomogram. The calibration plots indicated optimal agreement between the nomogram prediction and actual observation. Discrimination of nomogram was superior to the seventh edition TNM staging system [C-index: 0.745 vs. 0.721 (p = 0.03) in training cohort; 0.796 vs. 0.726 (p < 0.01) in validation cohort]. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 2023 breast cancer patients from Jan 2002 to Dec 2008 at our center. The cohort was randomly divided into training cohort and validation cohort. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors, and nomogram was established using Cox regression model in training cohort. External validation of the nomogram was performed in the validation cohort. Conclusions The LODDS is an independent prognostic indicator in breast cancer and the novel nomogram can provide individual prediction of cancer-specific survival and help prognostic assessment for breast cancer patients. PMID:26992235

  4. Triple-Negative or HER2-Positive Status Predicts Higher Rates of Locoregional Recurrence in Node-Positive Breast Cancer Patients After Mastectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shulian; Li Yexiong; Song Yongwen; Wang Weihu; Jin Jing; Liu Yueping; Liu Xinfan; Yu Zihao

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic value of determining estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) expression in node-positive breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy. Methods and Materials: The records of 835 node-positive breast cancer patients who had undergone mastectomy between January 2000 and December 2004 were analyzed retrospectively. Of these, 764 patients (91.5%) received chemotherapy; 68 of 398 patients (20.9%) with T1-2N1 disease and 352 of 437 patients (80.5%) with T3-4 or N2-3 disease received postoperative radiotherapy. Patients were classified into four subgroups according to hormone receptor (Rec+ or Rec-) and HER2 expression profiles: Rec-/HER2- (triple negative; n = 141), Rec-/HER2+ (n = 99), Rec+/HER2+ (n = 157), and Rec+/HER2- (n = 438). The endpoints were the duration of locoregional recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Results: Patients with triple-negative, Rec-/HER2+, and Rec+/HER2+ expression profiles had a significantly lower 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival than those with Rec+/HER2- profiles (86.5% vs. 93.6%, p = 0.002). Compared with those with Rec+/HER2+ and Rec+/HER2- profiles, patients with Rec-/HER2- and Rec-/HER2+ profiles had significantly lower 5-year distant metastasis-free survival (69.1% vs. 78.5%, p = 0.000), lower disease-free survival (66.6% vs. 75.6%, p = 0.000), and lower overall survival (71.4% vs. 84.2%, p = 0.000). Triple-negative or Rec-/HER2+ breast cancers had an increased likelihood of relapse and death within the first 3 years after treatment. Conclusions: Triple-negative and HER2-positive profiles are useful markers of prognosis for locoregional recurrence and survival in node-positive breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy.

  5. Randomised trial: survival benefit and safety of adjuvant dose-dense chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kümmel, S; Krocker, J; Kohls, A; Breitbach, G-P; Morack, G; Budner, M; Blohmer, J-U; Elling, D

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the survival benefit, safety, feasibility, and tolerability of dose-dense (DD) adjuvant chemotherapy with epirubicin and paclitaxel for women with node-positive primary breast cancer. Randomised patients (n=216) received DD or conventional-schedule (CS) chemotherapy. Dose-dense regimen patients (n=108) received epirubicin 90 mg m−2 plus paclitaxel 175 mg m−2 in four 14-day cycles, then cyclophosphamide 600 mg m−2, methotrexate 40 mg m−2, and fluorouracil 600 mg m−2 (CMF 600/40/600) in three 14-day cycles, plus filgrastim 5 μg kg day−1 as growth support in every cycle. Conventional-schedule regimen patients (n=108) received epirubicin 90 mg m−2 plus cyclophosphamide 600 mg m−2 in four 21-day cycles, then CMF 600/40/600 in three 21-day cycles, plus filgrastim if required. After a median follow-up of 38.4 months, 71 patients (33%) relapsed or died: DD, 33 patients (15 deaths); CS, 38 patients (22 deaths). Dose dense showed a trend for improved disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Four-year rates of DFS and OS were 64 and 85% for DD, and 58 and 75% for CS. All seven cycles were administered to 208 patients (96%). Rates of cycle delay, discontinuation, dose reduction, and adverse events were similar in both groups. Dose-dense sequential chemotherapy with epirubicin/paclitaxel then CMF, supported by filgrastim, is safe and improves survival for patients with node-positive breast cancer. PMID:16622463

  6. Solution of the 1,3-contracted Schrödinger equation through positivity conditions on the two-particle reduced density matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazziotti, David A.

    2002-12-01

    Correlation energies and reduced density matrices (RDMs) of atoms and molecules are directly computed by solving the 1,3-contracted Schrödinger equation (1,3-CSE). The solution of the 1,3-CSE synthesizes two optimization strategies recently employed for the direct determination of the 2-RDM: (i) variational minimization of the energy with respect to a 2-RDM constrained by positivity conditions [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. A 65, 062511 (2002)] and (ii) the contracted power method for solving the 2,4-CSE [D. A. Mazziotti, J. Chem. Phys. 116, 1239 (2002)]. While both the 3- and the 4-RDMs in the 2,4-CSE are reconstructed from the 2-RDM by cumulant expansions, similar techniques cannot be directly applied to the 1,3-CSE because constructing the 2-RDM from the 1-RDM with cumulant theory does not improve upon the mean-field approximation. We, however, establish a unique mapping from the 1-RDM to the 2-RDM by searching for the 2-RDM, constrained by contraction and N-representability conditions, which minimizes the energy. The 2-RDM constrained search is practically implemented through recent advances in positive semidefinite programming. With the variational reconstruction of the 2-RDM and a cumulant reconstruction of the 3-RDM, the 1,3-CSE may be solved via a contracted power method for the ground-state energy and RDMs. The initial RDMs, it is shown, need not be N representable for the contracted power method to converge; this allows us to choose the original RDMs from a variational calculation with approximate N-representability conditions on the 2-RDM. Application of the 1,3-CSE algorithm to atoms and molecules yields highly accurate correlation energies both near and far from equilibrium geometries.

  7. The role of postmastectomy radiotherapy in clinically node-positive, stage II-III breast cancer patients with pathological negative nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: an analysis from the NCDB

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shuai; Jiang, Wen; Chen, Kai; Kim, Betty Y.S.; Liu, Qiang; Jacobs, Lisa K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The role of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in clinically node-positive, stage II-III breast cancer patients with pathological negative nodes (ypN0) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) remains controversial. Methods A total of 1560 clinically node-positive, stage II-III breast cancer patients treated with NAC and mastectomy who achieved ypN0 between 1998 and 2009 in the National Cancer Database were analyzed. The effects of PMRT on overall survival (OS) for the entire cohort and multiple subgroups were evaluated. Imputation and propensity score matching were used as sensitivity analyses to minimize biases. Results Of the entire 1560 eligible patients, 903 (57.9%) received PMRT and 657 (42.1%) didn’t. At a median follow-up of 56.0 months, no statistical difference was observed for OS between two groups by univariate and multivariate analyses (P = 0.120; HR 1.571, 95% CI 0.839-2.943). On subgroup analyses, PMRT significantly improved OS in patients with clinical stage IIIB/IIIC disease, T3/T4 tumor, or residual invasive breast cancer after NAC (P < 0.05). This improvement in OS remained significant after sensitivity analyses for the propensity score-matched patients. Conclusions This study demonstrated that PMRT showed a heterogeneous effect in clinically node-positive, stage II-III breast cancer patients with ypN0 following NAC. PMRT improved OS for patients with clinical stage IIIB/IIIC disease, T3/T4 tumor, or residual invasive breast tumor after NAC. In the absence of definitive conclusions from prospective studies, including the ongoing NSABP B-51 trial, our findings may help identify specific groups of women with clinically node-positive, stage II-III breast cancers who could benefit from PMRT after NAC. PMID:26709538

  8. [Effects and costs of adjuvant chemotherapy for operable lymph node positive breast cancer with HER2/neu overexpression].

    PubMed

    Vos, E J; Linn, S C; Rodenhuis, S

    2006-04-01

    Newer forms ofadjuvant chemotherapy can considerably improve the prognosis for breast cancer. The benefits that can be achieved are particularly high for young women (< 50 years) with an unfavourable risk profile (tumour-positive axilliary nodes). The recent application of taxans and trastuzumab has sharply increased the costs of an adjuvant treatment for high-risk mammary breast carcinoma. The cost increase can especially be attributed to trastuzumab. The additional costs of cytostatics (10,079 Euro per life-year gained) appear to be justified if the following is taken into account: women under the age of 50 years still have a life expectancy of approximately 33 years, many have socially relevant positions, and that cure also prevents such things as absence through illness and inability to work as well as expensive palliative care. The pharmaceutical industry spends approximately the same amount on research and innovation as it does on advertising. By reducing marketing costs, there will be more room to lessen the costs of new and socially relevant medications. Ultimately, the pressing question remains on why the Dutch government does not fully compensate hospitals in the Netherlands for the introduction of new, potentially life-saving medications. At present, a substantial percentage of the costs has to be paid by the hospitals themselves out of the regular hospital budget, which is not meant for this. This is happening at the expense of other care to an increasing extent.

  9. CDC-25.1 controls the rate of germline mitotic cell cycle by counteracting WEE-1.3 and by positively regulating CDK-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sunghee; Kawasaki, Ichiro; Shim, Yhong-Hee

    2012-04-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, cdc-25.1 loss-of-function mutants display a lack of germline proliferation. We found that the proliferation defect of cdc-25.1 mutants was suppressed by wee-1.3 RNAi. Further, among the seven cdk and seven cyclin homologs examined, cdk-1 and cyb-3 RNAi treatment caused the most severe germline proliferation defects in an rrf-1 mutant background, which were similar to those of the cdc-25.1 mutants. In addition, while RNAi of cyd-1 and cye-1 caused significant germline proliferation defects, RNAi of cdk-2 and cdk-4 did not. Compared with the number of germ nuclei in wee-1.3(RNAi) worms, the number in wee-1.3(RNAi);cdk-1(RNAi) and wee-1.3(RNAi);cyb-3(RNAi) worms further decreased to the level of cdk-1(RNAi) and cyb-3(RNAi) worms, respectively, indicating that cdk-1 and cyb-3 are epistatic and function downstream of cdc-25.1 and wee-1.3 in the control of the cell cycle. BrdU labeling of adult worms showed that, while 100% of the wild-type germ nuclei in the mitotic region incorporated BrdU when labeled for more than 12 h at 20°C, a small fraction of the cdc-25.1 mutant germ nuclei failed to incorporate BrdU even when labeled for 68 h. These results indicate that CDC-25.1 is required for maintaining proper rate of germline mitotic cell cycle. We propose that CDC-25.1 regulates the rate of germline mitotic cell cycle by counteracting WEE-1.3 and by positively controlling CDK-1, which forms a complex primarily with CYB-3, but also possibly with CYD-1 and CYE-1.

  10. Long-chain SFA at the sn-1, 3 positions of TAG reduce body fat deposition in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Gouk, Shiou Wah; Cheng, Sit Foon; Mok, Josephine Shiueh Lian; Ong, Augustine Soon Hock; Chuah, Cheng Hock

    2013-12-14

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of positional distribution of long-chain SFA in TAG, especially at the sn-1, 3 positions, on fat deposition using the C57BL/6 mouse model. Throughout the 15 weeks of the study, mice were fed with diets fortified with palm olein (POo), chemically interesterified POo (IPOo) and soyabean oil (SOY). Mice receiving the SOY-enriched diet gained significantly higher amounts of subcutaneous fat (P= 0·011) and total fat (P= 0·013) compared with the POo group, despite similar body mass gain being recorded. During normalisation with food consumption to obtain the fat:feed ratio, mice fed with the POo-enriched diet exhibited significantly lower visceral (P= 0·044), subcutaneous (P= 0·006) and total (P= 0·003) fat:feed than those fed with the SOY-enriched diet. It is noteworthy that mice fed with the IPOo-enriched diet gained 14·3 % more fat per food consumed when compared with the POo group (P= 0·013), despite their identical total fatty acid compositions. This was mainly attributed to the higher content of long-chain SFA at the sn-1, 3 positions of TAG in POo, which results in delayed absorption after deacylation as evidenced by the higher amounts of long-chain SFA excreted in the faeces of mice fed with the POo-enriched diet. Negative correlations were found between the subcutaneous, visceral as well as total fat accretion per food consumption and the total SFA content at the sn-1, 3 positions, while no relationships were found for MUFA and PUFA. The present results show that the positional distribution of long-chain SFA exerts a more profound effect on body fat accretion than the total SFA content.

  11. A Haptic Feedback Scheme to Accurately Position a Virtual Wrist Prosthesis Using a Three-Node Tactor Array.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Andrew; Sup, Frank C

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel haptic feedback scheme, used for accurately positioning a 1DOF virtual wrist prosthesis through sensory substitution, is presented. The scheme employs a three-node tactor array and discretely and selectively modulates the stimulation frequency of each tactor to relay 11 discrete haptic stimuli to the user. Able-bodied participants were able to move the virtual wrist prosthesis via a surface electromyography based controller. The participants evaluated the feedback scheme without visual or audio feedback and relied solely on the haptic feedback alone to correctly position the hand. The scheme was evaluated through both normal (perpendicular) and shear (lateral) stimulations applied on the forearm. Normal stimulations were applied through a prototype device previously developed by the authors while shear stimulations were generated using an ubiquitous coin motor vibrotactor. Trials with no feedback served as a baseline to compare results within the study and to the literature. The results indicated that using normal and shear stimulations resulted in accurately positioning the virtual wrist, but were not significantly different. Using haptic feedback was substantially better than no feedback. The results found in this study are significant since the feedback scheme allows for using relatively few tactors to relay rich haptic information to the user and can be learned easily despite a relatively short amount of training. Additionally, the results are important for the haptic community since they contradict the common conception in the literature that normal stimulation is inferior to shear. From an ergonomic perspective normal stimulation has the potential to benefit upper limb amputees since it can operate at lower frequencies than shear-based vibrotactors while also generating less noise. Through further tuning of the novel haptic feedback scheme and normal stimulation device, a compact and comfortable sensory substitution device for upper

  12. (1,3;1,4)-β-Glucan Biosynthesis by the CSLF6 Enzyme: Position and Flexibility of Catalytic Residues Influence Product Fine Structure.

    PubMed

    Dimitroff, George; Little, Alan; Lahnstein, Jelle; Schwerdt, Julian G; Srivastava, Vaibhav; Bulone, Vincent; Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose synthase-like F6 (CslF6) genes encode polysaccharide synthases responsible for (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan biosynthesis in cereal grains. However, it is not clear how both (1,3)- and (1,4)-linkages are incorporated into a single polysaccharide chain and how the frequency and arrangement of the two linkage types that define the fine structure of the polysaccharide are controlled. Through transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, two CSLF6 orthologs from different cereal species were shown to mediate the synthesis of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans with very different fine structures. Chimeric cDNA constructs with interchanged sections of the barley and sorghum CslF6 genes were developed to identify regions of the synthase enzyme responsible for these differences. A single amino acid residue upstream of the TED motif in the catalytic region was shown to dramatically change the fine structure of the polysaccharide produced. The structural basis of this effect can be rationalized by reference to a homology model of the enzyme and appears to be related to the position and flexibility of the TED motif in the active site of the enzyme. The region and amino acid residue identified provide opportunities to manipulate the solubility of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in grains and vegetative tissues of the grasses and, in particular, to enhance the solubility of dietary fibers that are beneficial to human health. PMID:26967377

  13. Positive and negative regulation of T cell responses by fibroblastic reticular cells within paracortical regions of lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Siegert, Stefanie; Luther, Sanjiv A.

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRC) form the structural backbone of the T cell rich zones in secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), but also actively influence the adaptive immune response. They provide a guidance path for immigrating T lymphocytes and dendritic cells (DC) and are the main local source of the cytokines CCL19, CCL21, and IL-7, all of which are thought to positively regulate T cell homeostasis and T cell interactions with DC. Recently, FRC in lymph nodes (LN) were also described to negatively regulate T cell responses in two distinct ways. During homeostasis they express and present a range of peripheral tissue antigens, thereby participating in peripheral tolerance induction of self-reactive CD8+ T cells. During acute inflammation T cells responding to foreign antigens presented on DC very quickly release pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon γ. These cytokines are sensed by FRC which transiently produce nitric oxide (NO) gas dampening the proliferation of neighboring T cells in a non-cognate fashion. In summary, we propose a model in which FRC engage in a bidirectional crosstalk with both DC and T cells to increase the efficiency of the T cell response. However, during an acute response, FRC limit excessive expansion and inflammatory activity of antigen-specific T cells. This negative feedback loop may help to maintain tissue integrity and function during rapid organ growth. PMID:22973278

  14. Adjuvant chemotherapy for colon carcinoma with positive lymph nodes: use and benefit in routine health care practice.

    PubMed

    Bouchardy, C; Queneau, P E; Fioretta, G; Usel, M; Zellweger, M; Neyroud, I; Raymond, L; de Wolf, C; Sappino, A P

    2001-11-01

    In 1990, an international consensus was reached on the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy for lymph node positive (stage III) colon carcinoma (CC). This study evaluates the use and benefit of such therapy in routine health care practice. The study includes all patients with stage III CC treated by putative curative surgery (n = 182) recorded at the Geneva cancer registry between 1990 and 1996. Factors modifying chemotherapy use were determined by logistic regression, considering patients with chemotherapy as cases (n = 55) and others as controls (n = 127). The effect of chemotherapy on the 5-year survival was evaluated by the Cox model. Analyses were adjusted for possible confounders. The use of chemotherapy increased over the period (P(trend) < 0.001). Age strongly modulated chemotherapy use. In 1996, 54% of eligible patients received chemotherapy, this proportion fell to 13% after age 70. Decisions to use chemotherapy significantly depended on stage, grade and cancer site. The chance to be treated was non-significantly lower among individuals of low social class, widowed and foreigners. Chemotherapy significantly decreased mortality rates (Hazard ratio: 0.35, 95%CI: 0.18-0.68), independently of the prognostic factors and with similar benefit regardless of stage and age group. Strong beneficial effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on stage III CC can be achieved in routine practice. However, this study shows that it is probably not optimally utilised in Switzerland, particularly among the elderly.

  15. Adjuvant chemotherapy for colon carcinoma with positive lymph nodes: use and benefit in routine health care practice

    PubMed Central

    Bouchardy, C; Queneau, P-E; Fioretta, G; Usel, M; Zellweger, M; Neyroud, I; Raymond, L; Wolf, C de; Sappino, A P

    2001-01-01

    In 1990, an international consensus was reached on the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy for lymph node positive (stage III) colon carcinoma (CC). This study evaluates the use and benefit of such therapy in routine health care practice. The study includes all patients with stage III CC treated by putative curative surgery (n= 182) recorded at the Geneva cancer registry between 1990 and 1996. Factors modifying chemotherapy use were determined by logistic regression, considering patients with chemotherapy as cases (n= 55) and others as controls (n= 127). The effect of chemotherapy on the 5-year survival was evaluated by the Cox model. Analyses were adjusted for possible confounders. The use of chemotherapy increased over the period (Ptrend < 0.001). Age strongly modulated chemotherapy use. In 1996, 54% of eligible patients received chemotherapy, this proportion fell to 13% after age 70. Decisions to use chemotherapy significantly depended on stage, grade and cancer site. The chance to be treated was non-significantly lower among individuals of low social class, widowed and foreigners. Chemotherapy significantly decreased mortality rates (Hazard ratio: 0.35, 95%CI: 0.18–0.68), independently of the prognostic factors and with similar benefit regardless of stage and age group. Strong beneficial effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on stage III CC can be achieved in routine practice. However, this study shows that it is probably not optimally utilised in Switzerland, particularly among the elderly. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11720457

  16. Lack of survival benefit of post-operative radiation therapy in prostate cancer patients with positive lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, P A S; Assikis, V; Goodman, M; Ward, K C; Riffenburgh, R H; Master, V

    2007-01-01

    Randomized data from SWOG 8794 and EORTC 22911 confirm the benefit of post-operative radiation therapy (RT) for selected patients with pT3 prostate cancer (CaP) after radical prostatectomy (RP). However, data regarding the potential benefit of RT for patients post-RP with positive lymph node (+LN) involvement are limited. We analyzed the Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) registry for population-based data on efficacy of post-operative RT for +LN patients after RP. As LN data have only been captured by SEER since 1988, we analyzed data for 1988-1992, with specific attention to 10-year relative survival (defined as observed survival divided by the survival of a gender-, age- and race-matched population cohort without disease). Specifically analyzed were data for 1921 patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer who underwent surgery alone, or surgery followed by RT, and who had +LNs documented. SEER does not code the interval between surgery and RT, so the ratio of patients receiving salvage versus adjuvant therapy is unknown. Using follow-up data through 2002, post-diagnosis survival was examined by number of +LNs. There was no significant relative survival benefit for +LN patients receiving post-operative RT (chi(2)P=0.270). These data do not support routine use of post-operative RT for patients with +LNs in the surgical specimen.

  17. Long-Term Regional Control in the Observed Neck Following Definitive Chemoradiation for Node-Positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Goenka, Anuj; Morris, Luc G.T.; Rao, Shyam S.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Wong, Richard J.; Kraus, Dennis H.; Ohri, Nisha; Setton, Jeremy; Lok, Benjamin H.; Riaz, Nadeem; Mychalczak, Borys R.; Schoder, Heiko; Ganly, Ian; Shah, Jatin P.; Pfister, David G.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for node-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (N+ OPSCC) have undergone a planned neck dissection (ND) after treatment. Recently, negative post-treatment positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging has been found to have a high negative predictive value for the presence of residual disease in the neck. Here we present the first comprehensive analysis of a large, uniform cohort of N+ OPSCC patients achieving a PET/CT-based complete response (CR) after chemoradiotherapy, and undergoing observation, rather than ND. From 2002 to 2009, 302 patients with N+ OPSCC treated with 70 Gy intensity-modulated radiation therapy and concurrent chemotherapy underwent post-treatment clinical assessment including PET/CT. CR was defined as no evidence of disease on clinical examination and post-treatment PET/CT. ND was reserved for patients with positive and negative PET/CT, respectively. We conclude that patients achieving CRs after chemoradiation, based on clinical and PET/CT assessment, have a high probability of regional control, with a 2.3% regional failure rate, and may be safely observed without planned ND. PMID:23436584

  18. Immune cell profile of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with malignant melanoma – FOXP3+ cell density in cases with positive sentinel node status is associated with unfavorable clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Besides being a preferential site of early metastasis, the sentinel lymph node (SLN) is also a privileged site of T-cell priming, and may thus be an appropriate target for investigating cell types involved in antitumor immune reactions. Methods In this retrospective study we determined the prevalence of OX40+ activated T lymphocytes, FOXP3+ (forkhead box P3) regulatory T cells, DC-LAMP+ (dendritic cell-lysosomal associated membrane protein) mature dendritic cells (DCs) and CD123+ plasmacytoid DCs by immunohistochemistry in 100 SLNs from 60 melanoma patients. Density values of each cell type in SLNs were compared to those in non-sentinel nodes obtained from block dissections (n = 37), and analyzed with regard to associations with clinicopathological parameters and disease outcome. Results Sentinel nodes showed elevated amount of all cell types studied in comparison to non-sentinel nodes. Metastatic SLNs had higher density of OX40+ lymphocytes compared to tumor-negative nodes, while no significant difference was observed in the case of the other cell types studied. In patients with positive sentinel node status, high amount of FOXP3+ cells in SLNs was associated with shorter progression-free (P = 0.0011) and overall survival (P = 0.0014), while no significant correlation was found in the case of sentinel-negative patients. The density of OX40+, CD123+ or DC-LAMP+ cells did not show significant association with the outcome of the disease. Conclusions Taken together, our results are compatible with the hypothesis of functional competence of sentinel lymph nodes based on the prevalence of the studied immune cells. The density of FOXP3+ lymphocytes showed association with progression and survival in patients with positive SLN status, while the other immune markers studied did not prove of prognostic importance. These results, together with our previous findings on the prognostic value of activated T cells and mature DCs infiltrating primary

  19. 3-Benzyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-ones as mGluR2 positive allosteric modulators: Hit-to lead and lead optimization.

    PubMed

    Duplantier, Allen J; Efremov, Ivan; Candler, John; Doran, Angela C; Ganong, Alan H; Haas, Jessica A; Hanks, Ashley N; Kraus, Kenneth G; Lazzaro, John T; Lu, Jiemin; Maklad, Noha; McCarthy, Sheryl A; O'Sullivan, Theresa J; Rogers, Bruce N; Siuciak, Judith A; Spracklin, Douglas K; Zhang, Lei

    2009-05-01

    The discovery, synthesis and SAR of a novel series of 3-benzyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-ones as positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of mGluR2 is described. Expedient hit-to-lead work on a single HTS hit led to the identification of a ligand-efficient and structurally attractive series of mGluR2 PAMs. Human microsomal clearance and suboptimal physicochemical properties of the initial lead were improved to give potent, metabolically stable and orally available mGluR2 PAMs.

  20. Lymphatic-targeted therapy following neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a promising strategy for lymph node-positive breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianghao; Yao, Qing; Wang, Hui; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Juliang; Wang, Ting; Lv, Yonggang; Han, Zenghui; Wang, Ling

    2015-07-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been increasingly used to downstage breast cancer prior to surgery recently. However, in some cases, it was observed that despite sufficient regression of primary tumors, the metastatic lymph nodes remained nonresponsive. In this study, we applied lymphatic-targeted strategy to evaluate its efficacy and safety for patients presenting refractory nodes following systemic chemotherapy. A total of 318 breast cancer patients were demonstrated with lymph node metastasis by needle biopsy and given neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Two cycles later, 72 patients were observed with responsive tumors but stable nodes, 42 of which received a subcutaneous injection of lymphatic-targeted pegylated liposomal doxorubicin during the third cycle, while the remaining 30 patients were continued with former neoadjuvant therapeutic pattern and regarded as the control. Lymphatic-targeted treatment substantially increased both clinical and pathological node response rate [62 % (26/42) vs. 13 % (4/30) and 12 % (5/42) vs. 0 (0/30), respectively], and induced a higher apoptosis level of metastatic cells (median, 41 vs. 6 %), compared with the control. Moreover, a higher disease-free survival was observed after a median follow-up of 4 years (69 vs. 56 %). Inflammatory reaction surrounding injection sites was the most common side effect. Lymphatic chemotherapy has reliable efficacy and well-tolerated toxicity for breast cancer patients presenting refractory lymph nodes following neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  1. A Wire Position Monitor System for the 1.3 FHZ Tesla-Style Cryomodule at the Fermilab New-Muon-Lab Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, N.; Fellenz, B.; Prieto, P.; Semenov, A.; Voy, D.C.; Wendt, M.; /Fermilab

    2011-08-17

    The first cryomodule for the beam test facility at the Fermilab New-Muon-Lab building is currently under RF commissioning. Among other diagnostics systems, the transverse position of the helium gas return pipe with the connected 1.3 GHz SRF accelerating cavities is measured along the {approx}15 m long module using a stretched-wire position monitoring system. An overview of the wire position monitor system technology is given, along with preliminary results taken at the initial module cooldown, and during further testing. As the measurement system offers a high resolution, we also discuss options for use as a vibration detector. An electron beam test facility, based on superconducting RF (SRF) TESLA-style cryomodules is currently under construction at the Fermilab New-Muon-Lab (NML) building. The first, so-called type III+, cryomodule (CM-1), equipped with eight 1.3 GHz nine-cell accelerating cavities was recently cooled down to 2 K, and is currently under RF conditioning. The transverse alignment of the cavity string within the cryomodule is crucial for minimizing transverse kick and beam break-up effects, generated by the high-order dipole modes of misaligned accelerating structures. An optimum alignment can only be guaranteed during the assembly of the cavity string, i.e. at room temperatures. The final position of the cavities after cooldown is uncontrollable, and therefore unknown. A wire position monitoring system (WPM) can help to understand the transverse motion of the cavities during cooldown, their final location and the long term position stability after cryo-temperatures are settled, as well as the position reproducibility for several cold-warm cycles. It also may serve as vibration sensor, as the wire acts as a high-Q resonant detector for mechanical vibrations in the low-audio frequency range. The WPM system consists out of a stretched-wire position detection system, provided with help of INFN-Milano and DESY Hamburg, and RF generation and read

  2. One-pot enzymatic synthesis of docosahexaenoic acid-rich triacylglycerols at the sn-1(3) position using by-product from selective hydrolysis of tuna oil.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Yomi; Maruyama, Kazuaki; Momokawa, Yuusuke; Kishimoto, Noriaki; Shimada, Yuji

    2011-01-31

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil has been industrially produced by selective hydrolysis of tuna oil with a lipase that acts weakly on DHA. The free fatty acids (FFAs) generated in this process as by-products contain a high DHA concentration (46wt%) but are treated as industrial waste. This study attempted to reuse these by-product FFAs using a one-pot process, and succeeded in producing triacylglycerols (TAGs) through the esterification of the by-product FFAs with glycerol using immobilized Rhizomucor miehei lipase. Regiospecific analysis of the resulting TAGs showed that the content of DHA at the sn-1(3) position (51.7mol%) was higher than the content of DHA at the sn-2 position (17.3mol%). The DHA distribution in TAGs synthesized in this study was similar to the DHA distribution in TAGs from seal oil.

  3. Intramammary lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Egan, R L; McSweeney, M B

    1983-05-15

    Radiographic, gross, and histopathologic studies on 158 whole breasts with primary operable carcinoma revealed intramammary lymph nodes in 28%, and of these breasts, 10% contained a metastatic deposit of carcinoma. Cancerous and noncancerous nodes were found in all quadrants of the breast with the positive ones being in the same quadrant as the carcinoma only 50% of the time. There was no demonstrable connection with the usual lymphatic drainage of the breast. With Stage II carcinoma, positive intramammary lymph nodes had no direct effect on prognosis, merely representing advanced disease and indicating a greater likelihood of axillary metastatic disease. There was a trend toward poorer prognosis in Stage I lesions with positive intramammary lymph nodes. This may indicate the Stage I carcinomas that have a similar prognosis as Stage II tumors. Conceivably, a Stage Ia, positive intramammary lymph node(s) but normal axillary lymph nodes, could be defined and used.

  4. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Cyclophosphamide, and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Lymph Node-Positive or High-Risk, Lymph Node-Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-30

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  5. Layered P3-NaxCo1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 versus Spinel Li4Ti5O12 as a Positive and a Negative Electrode in a Full Sodium-Lithium Cell.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Svetlana; Zhecheva, Ekaterina; Kukeva, Rositsa; Nihtianova, Diana; Mihaylov, Lyuben; Atanasova, Genoveva; Stoyanova, Radostina

    2016-07-13

    The development of lithium and sodium ion batteries without using lithium and sodium metal as anodes gives the impetus for elaboration of low-cost and environmentally friendly energy storage devices. In this contribution we demonstrate the design and construction of a new type of hybrid sodium-lithium ion cell by using unique electrode combination (Li4Ti5O12 spinel as a negative electrode and layered Na3/4Co1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 as a positive electrode) and conventional lithium electrolyte (LiPF6 salt dissolved in EC/DMC). The cell operates at an average potential of 2.35 V by delivering a reversible capacity of about 100 mAh/g. The mechanism of the electrochemical reaction in the full sodium-lithium ion cell is studied by means of postmortem analysis, as well as ex situ X-ray diffraction analysis, HR-TEM, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). The changes in the surface composition of electrodes are examined by ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). PMID:27315402

  6. Layered P3-NaxCo1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 versus Spinel Li4Ti5O12 as a Positive and a Negative Electrode in a Full Sodium-Lithium Cell.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Svetlana; Zhecheva, Ekaterina; Kukeva, Rositsa; Nihtianova, Diana; Mihaylov, Lyuben; Atanasova, Genoveva; Stoyanova, Radostina

    2016-07-13

    The development of lithium and sodium ion batteries without using lithium and sodium metal as anodes gives the impetus for elaboration of low-cost and environmentally friendly energy storage devices. In this contribution we demonstrate the design and construction of a new type of hybrid sodium-lithium ion cell by using unique electrode combination (Li4Ti5O12 spinel as a negative electrode and layered Na3/4Co1/3Ni1/3Mn1/3O2 as a positive electrode) and conventional lithium electrolyte (LiPF6 salt dissolved in EC/DMC). The cell operates at an average potential of 2.35 V by delivering a reversible capacity of about 100 mAh/g. The mechanism of the electrochemical reaction in the full sodium-lithium ion cell is studied by means of postmortem analysis, as well as ex situ X-ray diffraction analysis, HR-TEM, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). The changes in the surface composition of electrodes are examined by ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  7. High-dose Extended-Field Irradiation and High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Cervical Cancer With Positive Para-Aortic Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Jong Hoon; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Sang-wook; Shin, Seong Soo; Nam, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Young-Tak; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Choi, Eun Kyung

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy and toxicity of extended-field radiotherapy (RT) with concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma and positive para-aortic nodes. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the results for 33 women with Stage IB-IVB cervical cancer. Each patient had received 59.4 Gy, including a three-dimensional conformal boost to the para-aortic lymph nodes and 41.4-50.4 Gy of external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis. Each patient also underwent six or seven applications of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (median, 5 Gy to point A at each session). Results: The median follow-up period of surviving patients was 39 months. The most common acute toxicity was hematologic, observed in 23 women. Severe acute and late gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 3 and 4 patients, respectively. More than three-quarters of patients showed a complete response, encompassing the primary mass, metastatic pelvic, and para-aortic lymph nodes. Of the 33 women, 15 had no evidence of disease, 6 had persistent disease, 4 developed in-field failures, and 6 developed distant failures. The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rate was 47% and 42%, respectively. Conclusion: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with extended-field radiotherapy is feasible in women with uterine cervical carcinoma and positive para-aortic lymph nodes, with acceptable late morbidity and a high survival rate, although it was accompanied by substantial acute toxicity.

  8. Does Lymphovascular Invasion Predict Regional Nodal Failure in Breast Cancer Patients With Zero to Three Positive Lymph Nodes Treated With Conserving Surgery and Radiotherapy? Implications for Regional Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Boutrus, Rimoun; Abi-Raad, Rita; Niemierko, Andrzej; Brachtel, Elena F.; Rizk, Levi; Kelada, Alexandra; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and regional nodal failure (RNF) in breast cancer patients with zero to three positive nodes treated with breast-conservation therapy (BCT). Methods and Materials: The records of 1,257 breast cancer patients with zero to three positive lymph nodes were reviewed. All patients were treated with BCT at Massachusetts General Hospital from 1980 to December 2003. Lymphovascular invasion was diagnosed by hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections and in some cases supported by immunohistochemical stains. Regional nodal failure was defined as recurrence in the ipsilateral supraclavicular, axillary, or internal mammary lymph nodes. Regional nodal failure was diagnosed by clinical and/or radiologic examination. Results: The median follow-up was 8 years (range, 0.1-21 years). Lymphovascular invasion was present in 211 patients (17%). In univariate analysis, patients with LVI had a higher rate of RNF (3.32% vs. 1.15%; p = 0.02). In multivariate analysis, only tumor size, grade, and local failure were significant predictors of RNF (p = 0.049, 0.013, and 0.0001, respectively), whereas LVI did not show a significant relationship with RNF (hazard ratio = 2.07; 95% CI, 0.8-5.5; p = 0.143). The presence of LVI in the T2/3 population did not increase the risk of RNF over that for those with no LVI (p = 0.15). In addition, patients with Grade 3 tumors and positive LVI did not have a higher risk of RNF than those without LVI (p = 0.96). Conclusion: These results suggest that LVI can not be used as a sole indicator for regional nodal irradiation in breast cancer patients with zero to three positive lymph nodes treated with BCT.

  9. Preoperative [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Standardized Uptake Value of Neck Lymph Nodes Predicts Neck Cancer Control and Survival Rates in Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.-T.; Chang, J.T.-C.; Wang, H.-M.; Ng, S.-H.; Hsueh, C.; Lee, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.; Chen, I-H.; Huang, S.-F.

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: Survival in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) depends heavily on locoregional control. In this prospective study, we sought to investigate whether preoperative maximum standardized uptake value of the neck lymph nodes (SUVnodal-max) may predict prognosis in OSCC patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes were investigated. All subjects underwent a [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scan within 2 weeks before radical surgery and neck dissection. All patients were followed up for at least 24 months after surgery or until death. Postoperative adjuvant therapy was performed in the presence of pathologic risk factors. Optimal cutoff values of SUVnodal-max were chosen based on 5-year disease-free survival (DFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: The median follow-up for surviving patients was 41 months. The optimal cutoff value for SUVnodal-max was 5.7. Multivariate analyses identified the following independent predictors of poor outcome: SUVnodal-max {>=}5.7 for the 5-year neck cancer control rate, distant metastatic rate, DFS, DSS, and extracapsular spread (ECS) for the 5-year DSS and OS. Among ECS patients, the presence of a SUVnodal-max {>=}5.7 identified patients with the worst prognosis. Conclusion: A SUVnodal-max of 5.7, either alone or in combination with ECS, is an independent prognosticator for 5-year neck cancer control and survival rates in OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes.

  10. Long-term outcomes in breast cancer patients with ten or more positive axillary nodes treated with combined-modality therapy: The importance of radiation field selection

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Daniel T.; Feigenberg, Steven J.; Indelicato, Daniel J.; Morris, Christopher G.; Lightsey, Judith; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Copeland, Edward M.; Mendenhall, Nancy P. . E-mail: mendenan@shands.ufl.edu

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To determine the long-term outcome of a consistent treatment approach with electron beam postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) in breast cancer patients with {>=}10 positive nodes treated with combined-modality therapy. Methods and Materials: TSixty-three breast cancer patients with {>=}10 positive lymph nodes were treated with combined-modality therapy using an electron beam en face technique for PMRT at University of Florida. Patterns of recurrence were studied for correlation with radiation fields. Potential clinical and treatment variables were tested for possible association with local-regional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: TAt 5, 10, and 15 years, OS rates were 57%, 36%, and 27%, respectively; DFS rates were 46%, 37%, and 34%; and LRC rates were 87%, 87%, and 87%. No clinical or treatment variables were associated with OS or DFS. The use of supplemental axillary radiation (SART) (p = 0.012) and pathologic N stage (p = 0.053) were associated with improved LRC. Patients who received SART had a higher rate of LRC than those who did not. Moderate to severe arm edema developed in 17% of patients receiving SART compared with 7% in patients not treated with SART (p = 0.28). Conclusions: TA substantial percentage of patients with {>=}10 positive lymph nodes survive breast cancer. The 10-year overall survival in these patients was 36%. The addition of SART was associated with better LRC.

  11. Inhibition of SA Node at Supine Position in Right Atrial Thrombus Complicating Behçet’s Disease – From Cardiac Surgical Point of View

    PubMed Central

    Hijazi, Emad Mohamed; Ibdah, Rasheed Khaled; Rawashdeh, Sukina Ismael; Saadeh, Abdullah Mahmoud; Al-Balas, Hamzeh Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 27 Final Diagnosis: Right atrial thrombus compressing the sinoatrial node Symptoms: Dyspnea • cough and hemoptysis with supine bradycardia reaching 36/min and dizziness Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Cardiac surgical intervention removing the mechanical cause if conservative management failed can be done safely Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Behçet’s disease (BD) is a chronic multi-systemic disease of unknown cause. Intra-cardiac thrombus (ICT) complicating BD is extremely rare. In general, cardiac manifestations in BD are associated with poor prognosis. Chest computed tomography (CT) scan and echocardiogram are excellent modalities for diagnosis and patient assessment. Cardiac surgical intervention can be done safely using an on-pump technique when medical management has failed. Case Report: We report on a case of a 27-year-old Jordanian woman diagnosed with BD who presented with dyspnea, cough, and hemoptysis, with supine bradycardia reaching 36 beats/minute and dizziness which disappear on sitting or standing position, and with heart rate reaching 76 beats/minute. Right atrial thrombus was identified using transthoracic echocardiogram and chest CT scan. After medical management failed, cardiac surgical intervention became an option and targeted extraction of the right atrial thrombus compressing the sinoatrial node (SA node). Conclusions: In BD, right atrial thrombus compressing the SA node is rare. If conservative management has failed, cardiac surgical intervention removing the mechanical cause can be done safely, either using on-pump with cross clamp or on-pump with beating heart technique. PMID:27311379

  12. Fine Tuning of CaV1.3 Ca2+ Channel Properties in Adult Inner Hair Cells Positioned in the Most Sensitive Region of the Gerbil Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Zampini, Valeria; Johnson, Stuart L.; Franz, Christoph; Knipper, Marlies; Holley, Matthew C.; Magistretti, Jacopo; Russo, Giancarlo; Marcotti, Walter; Masetto, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Hearing relies on faithful signal transmission by cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) onto auditory fibres over a wide frequency and intensity range. Exocytosis at IHC ribbon synapses is triggered by Ca2+ inflow through CaV1.3 (L-type) Ca2+ channels. We investigated the macroscopic (whole-cell) and elementary (cell-attached) properties of Ca2+ currents in IHCs positioned at the middle turn (frequency ∼2 kHz) of the adult gerbil cochlea, which is their most sensitive hearing region. Using near physiological recordings conditions (body temperature and a Na+ based extracellular solution), we found that the macroscopic Ca2+ current activates and deactivates very rapidly (time constant below 1 ms) and inactivates slowly and only partially. Single-channel recordings showed an elementary conductance of 15 pS, a sub-ms latency to first opening, and a very low steady-state open probability (Po: 0.024 in response to 500-ms depolarizing steps at ∼−18 mV). The value of Po was significantly larger (0.06) in the first 40 ms of membrane depolarization, which corresponds to the time when most Ca2+ channel openings occurred clustered in bursts (mean burst duration: 19 ms). Both the Po and the mean burst duration were smaller than those previously reported in high-frequency basal IHCs. Finally, we found that middle turn IHCs are likely to express about 4 times more Ca2+ channels per ribbon than basal cells. We propose that middle-turn IHCs finely-tune CaV1.3 Ca2+ channel gating in order to provide reliable information upon timing and intensity of lower-frequency sounds. PMID:25409445

  13. Radiation Use and Long-Term Survival in Breast Cancer Patients With T1, T2 Primary Tumors and One to Three Positive Axillary Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, Thomas A. Woodward, Wendy A.; Duan Zhigang; Fang Shenying; Oh, Julia L.; Tereffe, Welela; Strom, Eric A.; Perkins, George H.; Yu, T.-K.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Giordano, Sharon H.

    2008-07-15

    Background: For patients with Stage II breast cancer with one to three positive lymph nodes, controversy exists about whether radiation as a component of treatment provides a survival benefit. Methods and Materials: We analyzed data from patients with Stage II breast cancer with one to three positive lymph nodes diagnosed from 1988-2002 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry and compared the outcome of 12,693 patients treated with breast-conservation therapy with radiation (BCT + XRT) with the 18,902 patients treated with mastectomy without radiation (MRM w/o XRT). Results: Patients treated with BCT + XRT were younger, were more likely to be treated in recent years of the study period, more commonly had T1 primary tumors, and had fewer involved nodes compared with those treated with MRM w/o XRT (p < 0.001 for all differences). The 15-year breast cancer-specific survival rate for the BCT + XRT group was 80% vs. 72% for the MRM w/o XRT group (p < 0.001). Cox regression analysis showed that MRM w/o XRT was associated with a hazard ratio for breast cancer death of 1.19 (p < 0.001) and for overall death of 1.25 (p < 0.001). The survival benefit in the BCT + XRT group was not limited to subgroups with high-risk disease features. Conclusions: Radiation use was independently associated with improved survival for patients with Stage II breast cancer with one to three positive lymph nodes. Because multivariate analyses of retrospective data cannot account for all potential biases, these data require confirmation in randomized clinical trials.

  14. Adjuvant Radiotherapy and Survival for Patients With Node-Positive Head and Neck Cancer: An Analysis by Primary Site and Nodal Stage

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Johnny Lavaf, Amir; Teng, Marita S.; Huang, Delphine; Genden, Eric M.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) is frequently recommended for node-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with primary surgery. The impact of RT on survival for various subgroups of node-positive HNSCC has not been clearly demonstrated. Methods and Materials: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Database, we identified 5297 patients with node-positive (N1 to N3) HNSCC treated with definitive surgery with or without adjuvant RT between 1988 and 2001. The median follow-up was 4.4 years. Results: Adjuvant RT significantly improved 5-year overall survival (46.3%: 95% confidence interval [CI], 44.7-48.0% for surgery + RT, vs. 35.2%: 95% CI, 32.0-38.5% for surgery alone, p < 0.001) and cancer-specific survival (54.8%: 95% CI, 53.2-56.4% for surgery + RT, vs. 46.2% for surgery alone 95% CI, 42.4-50.0%, p < 0.05). Use of adjuvant RT remained a significant predictor of survival on multivariable analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.68-0.83; p < 0.001). Subset analyses demonstrated that adjuvant RT was associated with significantly improved survival for N1 (HR, 0.78; 95% CI; 0.67-0.90; p = 0.001), N2a (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.67-0.99, p = 0.048) and N2b to N3 nodal disease (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.51-0.75; p < 0.001). Adjuvant RT increased overall survival for node-positive patients with oropharynx (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.57-0.90; p 0.004), hypopharynx (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.88; p = 0.004), larynx (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.52-0.84; p = 0.001), and oral cavity (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.98; p = 0.025) primary tumors. Conclusions: In a large population-based analysis, adjuvant RT significantly improves overall survival for patients with node-positive HNSCC. All nodal stages, including N1, appear to benefit from the addition of RT to definitive surgery.

  15. Relative Orientation and Position Detections Based on an RGB-D Sensor and Dynamic Cooperation Strategies for Jumping Sensor Nodes Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Yang, Xi; Song, Guang-Ming; Chen, Tian-Yuan; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents relative orientation and position detection methods for jumping sensor nodes (JSNs) recycling. The methods are based on motion captures of the JSNs by an RGB-D sensor mounted on a carrier robot and the dynamic cooperation between the carrier and the JSNs. A disc-like label with two different colored sides is mounted on the top of the JSNs. The RGB-D sensor can detect the motion of the label to calculate the orientations and positions of the JSNs and the carrier relative to each other. After the orientations and positions have been detected, the JSNs jump into a cabin mounted on the carrier in dynamic cooperation with the carrier for recycling. The performances of the proposed methods are tested with a prototype system. The results show that the carrier can detect a JSN from up to 2 m away and sense its relative orientation and position successfully. The errors of the JSN’s orientation and position detections relative to the carrier could be reduced to the values smaller than 1° and 1 cm, respectively, by using the dynamic cooperation strategies. The proposed methods in this paper could also be used for other kinds of mobile sensor nodes and multi-robot systems. PMID:26393589

  16. Relative Orientation and Position Detections Based on an RGB-D Sensor and Dynamic Cooperation Strategies for Jumping Sensor Nodes Recycling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Yang, Xi; Song, Guang-Ming; Chen, Tian-Yuan; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents relative orientation and position detection methods for jumping sensor nodes (JSNs) recycling. The methods are based on motion captures of the JSNs by an RGB-D sensor mounted on a carrier robot and the dynamic cooperation between the carrier and the JSNs. A disc-like label with two different colored sides is mounted on the top of the JSNs. The RGB-D sensor can detect the motion of the label to calculate the orientations and positions of the JSNs and the carrier relative to each other. After the orientations and positions have been detected, the JSNs jump into a cabin mounted on the carrier in dynamic cooperation with the carrier for recycling. The performances of the proposed methods are tested with a prototype system. The results show that the carrier can detect a JSN from up to 2 m away and sense its relative orientation and position successfully. The errors of the JSN's orientation and position detections relative to the carrier could be reduced to the values smaller than 1° and 1 cm, respectively, by using the dynamic cooperation strategies. The proposed methods in this paper could also be used for other kinds of mobile sensor nodes and multi-robot systems. PMID:26393589

  17. Relative Orientation and Position Detections Based on an RGB-D Sensor and Dynamic Cooperation Strategies for Jumping Sensor Nodes Recycling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Yang, Xi; Song, Guang-Ming; Chen, Tian-Yuan; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents relative orientation and position detection methods for jumping sensor nodes (JSNs) recycling. The methods are based on motion captures of the JSNs by an RGB-D sensor mounted on a carrier robot and the dynamic cooperation between the carrier and the JSNs. A disc-like label with two different colored sides is mounted on the top of the JSNs. The RGB-D sensor can detect the motion of the label to calculate the orientations and positions of the JSNs and the carrier relative to each other. After the orientations and positions have been detected, the JSNs jump into a cabin mounted on the carrier in dynamic cooperation with the carrier for recycling. The performances of the proposed methods are tested with a prototype system. The results show that the carrier can detect a JSN from up to 2 m away and sense its relative orientation and position successfully. The errors of the JSN's orientation and position detections relative to the carrier could be reduced to the values smaller than 1° and 1 cm, respectively, by using the dynamic cooperation strategies. The proposed methods in this paper could also be used for other kinds of mobile sensor nodes and multi-robot systems.

  18. Positive versus negative sentinel nodes in early breast cancer patients: axillary or loco-regional relapse and survival. A study spanning 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    García Fernández, A; Chabrera, C; García Font, M; Fraile, M; Lain, J M; Barco, I; González, C; Gónzalez, S; Reñe, A; Veloso, E; Cassadó, J; Pessarrodona, A; Giménez, N

    2013-10-01

    Sentinel Node Biopsy (SNB) is a minimally invasive alternative to elective axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for nodal staging in early breast cancer. The present study was conducted to evaluate prognostic implications of a negative sentinel node (SN) versus a positive SN (followed by completion ALND) in a closely followed-up sample of early breast cancer patients. We studied 889 consecutive breast cancer patients operated for 908 primaries. Patients received adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy, hormone therapy and eventually trastuzumab. Radiation therapy was based on tangential radiation fields that usually included axillary level I. Median follow-up was 47 months. Axillary recurrence was seen in 1.2% (2/162) of positive SN patients, and 0.8% (5/625) of negative SN patients (p = n.s.). There was an overall 3.2% loco-regional failure rate (29/908). Incidence of distant recurrence was 3.3% (23/693) for negative SN patients, and 4.6% (9/196) for positive SN patients (p = n.s.). Overall mortality rate was 4% (8/198) for positive SN patients, while the corresponding specific mortality rate was 2.5% (5/198). For patients with negative SNs, overall mortality was 4.9% (34/693), and the specific mortality was 1.4% (19/693) (p = n.s.). We did not find significant differences in axillary/loco-regional relapse, distant metastases, disease-free interval or mortality between SN negative and SN positive patients, with a follow-up over 4 years.

  19. Role of Axillary Clearance After a Tumor-Positive Sentinel Node in the Administration of Adjuvant Therapy in Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Straver, Marieke E.; Meijnen, Philip; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Mansel, Robert E.; Bogaerts, Jan; Demonty, Gaston; Duez, Nicole; Cataliotti, Luigi; Klinkenbijl, Jean; Westenberg, Helen A.; van der Mijle, Huub; Hurkmans, Coen; Rutgers, Emiel J.T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The After Mapping of the Axilla: Radiotherapy or Surgery? (AMAROS) phase III study compares axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and axillary radiation therapy (ART) in early breast cancer patients with tumor-positive sentinel nodes. In the ART arm, the extent of nodal involvement remains unknown, which could have implications on the administration of adjuvant therapy. In this preliminary analysis, we studied the influence of random assignment to ALND or ART on the choice for adjuvant treatment. Patients and Methods In the first 2,000 patients enrolled in the AMAROS trial, we analyzed the administration of adjuvant systemic therapy. Multivariate analysis was used to assess variables affecting the administration of adjuvant chemotherapy. Adjuvant therapy was applied according to institutional guidelines. Results Of 2,000 patients, 566 patients had a positive sentinel node and were treated per random assignment. There was no significant difference in the administration of adjuvant systemic therapy. In the ALND and ART arms, 58% (175 of 300) and 61% (162 of 266) of the patients, respectively, received chemotherapy. Endocrine therapy was administered in 78% (235 of 300) of the patients in the ALND arm and in 76% (203 of 266) of the patients in the ART arm. Treatment arm was not a significant factor in the decision, and no interactions between treatment arm and other factors were observed. Multivariate analysis showed that age, tumor grade, multifocality, and size of the sentinel node metastasis significantly affected the administration of chemotherapy. Within the ALND arm, the extent of nodal involvement remained not significant in a sensitivity multivariate analysis. Conclusion Absence of knowledge regarding the extent of nodal involvement in the ART arm appears to have no major impact on the administration of adjuvant therapy. PMID:20038733

  20. Anthracycline-based induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil and radiation therapy in surgically resected axillary node-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Francesco; Candeloro, Giampiero; Cesta, Alisia; DI Staso, Mario; Bonfili, Pierluigi; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; DI Cesare, Ernesto; Necozione, Stefano; Rea, Silvio

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to determine the toxicity and efficacy of 4 courses of anthracyclines-taxane (AT) chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy (XRT) concurrent with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (CMF) in surgically resected axillary node-positive (N+) breast cancer. A total of 200 women with N+ breast cancer were treated with adriamycin and docetaxel followed by XRT concurrent with six courses of CMF. Two courses of dose-dense chemotherapy with ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide, supported by pegfilgrastim, were administered to patients with >5 histologically confirmed axillary lymph node metastases and patients with triple-negative disease. Additional treatments included 1 year of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive patients, 5 years of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue in premenopausal women and 5 years of an aromatase inhibitor (AI) in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) patients. The mean number of positive axillary lymph nodes was 4.4 (range, 2-37), 52% of the patients were premenopausal, 74% were ER+ and 26% had triple-negative disease. After a median follow-up of 73 months, grade 2 and 3 hematological toxicity was observed in 20% of the patients. The 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 73 and 77%, respectively. There was no significant difference in DFS between ER+ and estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) patients (P>0.05), whereas the OS was better in ER+ vs. ER- patients (P<0.05) and in premenopausal vs. postmenopausal patients (P<0.005). In conclusion, induction AT concurrent CMF and XRT and dose-dense chemotherapy followed by AI in N+ high-risk breast cancer was associated with a low level of systemic and late cardiac toxicity and excellent local control, DFS and OS. PMID:24772320

  1. [A case of SPT therapy( S-1+CDDP+trastuzumab) was successful for HER2-positive gastric cancer accompanied by distant lymph node metastasis].

    PubMed

    Hyuga, Nozomu; Kobayashi, Kenji; Watanabe, Risa; Chono, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takemoto, Hiroyoshi; Takachi, Ko; Nishioka, Kiyonori; Aoki, Taro; Uemura, Yoshio; Yoshida, Kyotaro

    2013-11-01

    A 63-year-old man visited our clinic with a chief complaint of a left axillary mass, and after a series of examinations, gastric cancer was diagnosed. Histopathological examination revealed a human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2- positive( immunohistochemistry[ IHC], 2+; fluorescence in situ hybridization[ FISH], positive) poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, and SPT therapy( S-1 at 120 mg/m2/day+cisplatin[ CDDP] at 60 mg/m2+trastuzumab at 8 mg/kg) was initiated. The primary lesion and swollen lymph nodes initially decreased markedly in size; however, the lymph node swelling worsened at 186 days( 6.2 months) after the initiation of treatment. Progressive disease( PD) was diagnosed, and SPT therapy was terminated. One cycle of S-1+docetaxel was administered as second-line therapy, but the regimen was changed to docetaxel monotherapy due to adverse effects. After 5 cycles of this treatment, the primary lesion had decreased in size and the lymphadenopathy disappeared. Positron emission tomography( PET)-computed tomography (CT) revealed fluorodeoxyglucose( F18)( FDG) accumulation only in the primary lesion, and therefore, with the patient's informed consent distal gastrectomy was performed approximately 14 months after the first treatment. The postoperative diagnosis was gastric cancer fStage IA (T1a, N0, and M0). Here, we discuss a case of HER2-positive gastric cancer with references. Among the advanced recurrent gastric cancers tested between April 2011 and February 2013, 16.4% (11/67) were HER2-positive.

  2. Lymph nodes

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and conveying lymph and by producing various blood cells. Lymph nodes play an important part in the ... the microorganisms being trapped inside collections of lymph cells or nodes. Eventually, these organisms are destroyed and ...

  3. A novel truncated form of S100P predicts disease-free survival in patients with lymph node positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chung, Liping; Phillips, Leo; Lin, Mike Z; Moore, Katrina; Marsh, Deborah J; Boyle, Frances M; Baxter, Robert C

    2015-11-01

    The calcium-binding protein S100P is overexpressed in various cancers and may contribute to the oncogenic phenotype. This study used mass spectrometry to characterize a novel 9.2-kDa C-terminally truncated form of S100P (t-S100P), and to investigate its potential prognostic value in breast cancer. Univariate analysis demonstrated the association between breast tissue t-S100P levels (n = 148) and conventional pathological markers. Across all tumor samples, high t-S100P was strongly prognostic for poor disease-free survival (P = 0.005), its efficacy confined to lymph node-positive tumors (n = 74, P = 0.007). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry confirmed differential t-S100P abundance between breast cancer and unaffected adjacent tissue. t-S100P was exclusively located in the cell nucleus of breast cancer tissue, and full-length S100P was essentially undetectable by mass spectrometry. We conclude that t-S100P is the predominant form of S100P in breast cancer tissue and is strongly prognostic for disease-free survival in women with lymph node-positive disease.

  4. A novel truncated form of S100P predicts disease-free survival in patients with lymph node positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chung, Liping; Phillips, Leo; Lin, Mike Z; Moore, Katrina; Marsh, Deborah J; Boyle, Frances M; Baxter, Robert C

    2015-11-01

    The calcium-binding protein S100P is overexpressed in various cancers and may contribute to the oncogenic phenotype. This study used mass spectrometry to characterize a novel 9.2-kDa C-terminally truncated form of S100P (t-S100P), and to investigate its potential prognostic value in breast cancer. Univariate analysis demonstrated the association between breast tissue t-S100P levels (n = 148) and conventional pathological markers. Across all tumor samples, high t-S100P was strongly prognostic for poor disease-free survival (P = 0.005), its efficacy confined to lymph node-positive tumors (n = 74, P = 0.007). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry confirmed differential t-S100P abundance between breast cancer and unaffected adjacent tissue. t-S100P was exclusively located in the cell nucleus of breast cancer tissue, and full-length S100P was essentially undetectable by mass spectrometry. We conclude that t-S100P is the predominant form of S100P in breast cancer tissue and is strongly prognostic for disease-free survival in women with lymph node-positive disease. PMID:26276712

  5. Volume or Position Changes of Primary Lung Tumor During (Chemo-)Radiotherapy Cannot Be Used as a Surrogate for Mediastinal Lymph Node Changes: The Case for Optimal Mediastinal Lymph Node Imaging During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Elmpt, Wouter van; Ollers, Michel; Herwijnen, Henrieke van; Holder, Linda den; Vercoulen, Lindsay; Wouters, Monique; Lambin, Philippe; De Ruysscher, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Primary lung tumors can be visualized mostly with cone beam computed tomography (CT), whereas visualization is much more difficult for mediastinal lymph nodes (LN). If the volumetric and positional changes of the primary tumor could be used as a surrogate for the LN, this would facilitate image-guided radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the positional and volumetric changes in primary tumors and the involved LN during (chemo)radiotherapy treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Methods and Materials: [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging was performed before radiotherapy and in the second week of treatment in 35 patients. Gross tumor volumes (GTV) of the primary tumor (GTVprim) and of the involved LN (GTVlymph) were delineated. Changes in position and volume of GTVprim with respect to GTVlymph and the bony anatomy were compared. Results: In individual cases, large displacements up to 1.6 cm and volume changes of 50% of the primary tumor may occur that are not correlated to the changes in involved LN. The volume of GTVprim reduced, on average, by 5.7% {+-} 19.0% and was not correlated with the small increase of 1.4% {+-} 18.2% in involved LN volume. Compared to bony anatomy, displacement of the primary tumor was statistically correlated to the involved LN displacement. Conclusions: Volume and position changes of the primary tumor are not always predictive for LN changes. This suggests that for characterization of involved LN, repeated state-of-the-art mediastinal imaging during radiotherapy may be necessary.

  6. The Tumor-Log Odds of Positive Lymph Nodes-Metastasis Staging System, a Promising New Staging System for Gastric Cancer after D2 Resection in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-qiang; Ren, Chao; Wang, De-shen; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Luo, Hui-yan; Li, Yu-hong; Xu, Rui-hua

    2012-01-01

    Background In this study, we established a hypothetical tumor-lodds-metastasis (TLM) and tumor-ratio-metastasis (TRM) staging system. Moreover, we compared them with the 7th edition of American Joint Committee on Cancer tumor-nodes-metastasis (AJCC TNM) staging system in gastric cancer patients after D2 resection. Methods A total of 1000 gastric carcinoma patients receiving treatment in our center were selected for the analysis. Finally, 730 patients who received D2 resection were retrospectively studied. Patients were staged using the TLM, TRM and the 7th edition AJCC TNM system. Survival analysis was performed with a Cox regression model. We used two parameters to compare the TNM, TRM and TLM staging system, the −2log likelihood and the hazard ratio. Results The cut points of lymph node ratio (LNR) were set as 0, 0–0.3, 0.3–0.6, 0.6–1.0. And for the log odds of positive lymph nodes (LODDS), the cut points were established as≤−0.5, −0.5-0, 0-0.5, >0.5. There were significant differences in survival among patients in different LODDS classifications for each pN or LNR groups. When stratified by the LODDS classifications, the prognosis was highly homologous between those in the according pN or LNR classifications. Multivariate analysis showed that TLM staging system was better than the TRM or TNM system for the prognostic evaluation. Conclusions The TLM system was superior to the TRM or TNM system for prognostic assessment of gastric adenocarcinoma patients after D2 resection. PMID:22348125

  7. Inferring Positions of Tumor and Nodes in Stage III Lung Cancer From Multiple Anatomical Surrogates Using Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowski, Kathleen T.; Pantarotto, Jason R.; Senan, Suresh

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of modeling Stage III lung cancer tumor and node positions from anatomical surrogates. Methods and Materials: To localize their centroids, the primary tumor and lymph nodes from 16 Stage III lung cancer patients were contoured in 10 equal-phase planning four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) image sets. The centroids of anatomical respiratory surrogates (carina, xyphoid, nipples, mid-sternum) in each image set were also localized. The correlations between target and surrogate positions were determined, and ordinary least-squares (OLS) and partial least-squares (PLS) regression models based on a subset of respiratory phases (three to eight randomly selected) were created to predict the target positions in the remaining images. The three-phase image sets that provided the best predictive information were used to create models based on either the carina alone or all surrogates. Results: The surrogate most correlated with target motion varied widely. Depending on the number of phases used to build the models, mean OLS and PLS errors were 1.0 to 1.4 mm and 0.8 to 1.0 mm, respectively. Models trained on the 0%, 40%, and 80% respiration phases had mean ({+-} standard deviation) PLS errors of 0.8 {+-} 0.5 mm and 1.1 {+-} 1.1 mm for models based on all surrogates and carina alone, respectively. For target coordinates with motion >5 mm, the mean three-phase PLS error based on all surrogates was 1.1 mm. Conclusions: Our results establish the feasibility of inferring primary tumor and nodal motion from anatomical surrogates in 4D CT scans of Stage III lung cancer. Using inferential modeling to decrease the processing time of 4D CT scans may facilitate incorporation of patient-specific treatment margins.

  8. p53 Expression in Node Positive Breast Cancer Patients: Results from the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9344 Trial (159905)

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Jonathan F.; Thor, Ann D.; Dressler, Lynn G.; Broadwater, Gloria; Bleiweiss, Ira J.; Edgerton, Susan; Cowan, David; Goldstein, Lori J.; Martino, Silvana; Ingle, James N.; Henderson, I. Craig; Norton, Larry; Winer, Eric P.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Ellis, Matthew J.; Berry, Donald A.; Hayes, Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose p53 as a prognostic and predictive factor in early stage breast cancer, has had mixed results. We studied p53 protein expression, by immunohistochemistry, in a randomized clinical trial of stage II patients treated with adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide with or without paclitaxel (CALGB 9344, INT0148). Patients and Methods Epithelial p53 expression was evaluated using two immunohistochemical antibodies (DO7 and 1801) in formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue from patients with node positive breast cancer who were randomized to four cycles of cyclophosphamide and one of three doses of doxorubicin (60, 75, or 90 mg/m2) (AC) and to receive four subsequent cycles of paclitaxel (T) or not. Prognostic and predictive value of p53 protein expression was assessed, independent of treatment assignment, for escalating doses of doxorubicin or addition of T with endpoints of RFS and OS. Results 1887 of 3121 patient specimens treated on C9344 were obtained, passed quality control and evaluated for p53 expression. Expression was 23% and 27% for mAbs 1801 and D07 respectively, with 92% concordance. In univariate analysis, p53 positivity was associated with worse OS with either antibody, but only p53 staining with monoclonal antibody1801 had significantly worse RFS. In multivariate analysis, p53 was not predictive of RFS or OS from either doxorubicin dose escalation or addition of paclitaxel regardless of the antibody. Conclusion Nuclear staining of p53 by immunohistochemistry is associated with worse prognosis in node positive patients treated with adjuvant doxorubicin-based chemotherapy, but is not a useful predictor of benefit from doxorubicin dose escalation or the addition of paclitaxel. PMID:21693655

  9. Extracapsular tumor spread and the risk of local, axillary and supraclavicular recurrence in node-positive, premenopausal patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, G.; Cole, B. F.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Holmberg, S. B.; Lindtner, J.; Golouh, R.; Collins, J.; Crivellari, D.; Thürlimann, B.; Simoncini, E.; Fey, M. F.; Gelber, R. D.; Coates, A. S.; Price, K. N.; Goldhirsch, A.; Viale, G.; Gusterson, B. A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Extracapsular tumor spread (ECS) has been identified as a possible risk factor for breast cancer recurrence, but controversy exists regarding its role in decision making for regional radiotherapy. This study evaluates ECS as a predictor of local, axillary, and supraclavicular recurrence. Patients and methods: International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial VI accrued 1475 eligible pre- and perimenopausal women with node-positive breast cancer who were randomly assigned to receive three to nine courses of classical combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil. ECS status was determined retrospectively in 933 patients based on review of pathology reports. Cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using methods for competing risks analysis. Adjustment factors included treatment group and baseline patient and tumor characteristics. The median follow-up was 14 years. Results: In univariable analysis, ECS was significantly associated with supraclavicular recurrence (HR = 1.96; 95% confidence interval 1.23–3.13; P = 0.005). HRs for local and axillary recurrence were 1.38 (P = 0.06) and 1.81 (P = 0.11), respectively. Following adjustment for number of lymph node metastases and other baseline prognostic factors, ECS was not significantly associated with any of the three recurrence types studied. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the decision for additional regional radiotherapy should not be based solely on the presence of ECS. PMID:18385202

  10. Radiotherapy or surgery of the axilla after a positive sentinel node in breast cancer (EORTC 10981-22023 AMAROS):a randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 3 non-inferiority trial

    PubMed Central

    Donker, Mila; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Straver, Marieke E; Meijnen, Philip; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Mansel, Robert E; Cataliotti, Luigi; Westenberg, A Helen; Klinkenbijl, Jean H G; Orzalesi, Lorenzo; Bouma, Willem H; van der Mijle, Huub C J; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; Veltkamp, Sanne C; Slaets, Leen; Duez, Nicole J; de Graaf, Peter W; van Dalen, Thijs; Marinelli, Andreas; Rijna, Herman; Snoj, Marko; Bundred, Nigel J; Merkus, Jos W S; Belkacemi, Yazid; Petignat, Patrick; Schinagl, Dominic A X; Coens, Corneel; Messina, Carlo G M; Bogaerts, Jan; Rutgers, Emiel J T

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background If treatment of the axilla is indicated in patients with breast cancer who have a positive sentinel node, axillary lymph node dissection is the present standard. Although axillary lymph node dissection provides excellent regional control, it is associated with harmful side-effects. We aimed to assess whether axillary radiotherapy provides comparable regional control with fewer side-effects. Methods Patients with T1–2 primary breast cancer and no palpable lymphadenopathy were enrolled in the randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 3 non-inferiority EORTC 10981-22023 AMAROS trial. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by a computer-generated allocation schedule to receive either axillary lymph node dissection or axillary radiotherapy in case of a positive sentinel node, stratified by institution. The primary endpoint was non-inferiority of 5-year axillary recurrence, considered to be not more than 4% for the axillary radiotherapy group compared with an expected 2% in the axillary lymph node dissection group. Analyses were by intention to treat and per protocol. The AMAROS trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00014612. Findings Between Feb 19, 2001, and April 29, 2010, 4823 patients were enrolled at 34 centres from nine European countries, of whom 4806 were eligible for randomisation. 2402 patients were randomly assigned to receive axillary lymph node dissection and 2404 to receive axillary radiotherapy. Of the 1425 patients with a positive sentinel node, 744 had been randomly assigned to axillary lymph node dissection and 681 to axillary radiotherapy; these patients constituted the intention-to-treat population. Median follow-up was 6·1 years (IQR 4·1–8·0) for the patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes. In the axillary lymph node dissection group, 220 (33%) of 672 patients who underwent axillary lymph node dissection had additional positive nodes. Axillary recurrence occurred in four of 744 patients in the axillary

  11. Freedom From Local and Regional Failure of Contralateral Neck With Ipsilateral Neck Radiotherapy for Node-Positive Tonsil Cancer: Results of a Prospective Management Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rusthoven, Kyle E. Raben, David; Schneider, Charles; Witt, Robert; Sammons, Sarah; Raben, Adam

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To review the outcomes of a prospective management approach using ipsilateral neck radiotherapy in the treatment of node-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil with a well-lateralized primary lesion. Methods and Materials: Between August 2003 and June 2007, 20 patients who presented with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, without involvement of the base of the tongue or midline soft palate, and with Stage N1-N2b disease were prospectively treated with radiotherapy to the primary site and ipsilateral neck. In addition, 18 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. The actuarial freedom from contralateral nodal and in-field progression was determined. Acute and late toxicity were prospectively evaluated using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3, and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: The nodal disease was Stage N1 in 4 patients, N2a in 3 patients, and N2b in 13 patients. At a median follow-up 19 months (range, 12-40), no in-field or contralateral nodal recurrences had been observed. The 2-year freedom from distant metastasis rate was 87.4%. The actuarial 2-year disease-free and overall survival rates were both 79.5%. Late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 2 xerostomia occurred in 1 patient (5%). No late Grade 3 or greater toxicity was observed. No patient was feeding tube dependent at their last follow-up visit. Conclusion: In carefully selected patients with node-positive, lateralized tonsillar cancer, treatment of the ipsilateral neck and primary site does not appear to increase the risk of contralateral nodal failure and reduces late morbidity compared with historical controls. Although the outcomes with ipsilateral radiotherapy in the present series were promising, these findings require longer follow-up and validation in a larger patient cohort.

  12. A Phase II Study of Radiotherapy and Concurrent Paclitaxel Chemotherapy in Breast-Conserving Treatment for Node-Positive Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, William C.; Kim, Janice; Kim, Edward; Silverman, Paula; Overmoyer, Beth; Cooper, Brenda W.; Anthony, Sue; Shenk, Robert; Leeming, Rosemary; Hanks, Shelli H.; Lyons, Janice A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Administering adjuvant chemotherapy before breast radiotherapy decreases the risk of systemic recurrence, but delays in radiotherapy could yield higher local failure. We assessed the feasibility and efficacy of placing radiotherapy earlier in the breast-conserving treatment course for lymph node-positive breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between June 2000 and December 2004, 44 women with node-positive Stage II and III breast cancer were entered into this trial. Breast-conserving surgery and 4 cycles of doxorubicin (60 mg/m{sup 2})/cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m{sup 2}) were followed by 4 cycles of paclitaxel (175 mg/m{sup 2}) delivered every 3 weeks. Radiotherapy was concurrent with the first 2 cycles of paclitaxel. The breast received 39.6 Gy in 22 fractions with a tumor bed boost of 14 Gy in 7 fractions. Regional lymphatics were included when indicated. Functional lung volume was assessed by use of the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide as a proxy. Breast cosmesis was evaluated with the Harvard criteria. Results: The 5-year actuarial rate of disease-free survival is 88%, and overall survival is 93%. There have been no local failures. Median follow-up is 75 months. No cases of radiation pneumonitis developed. There was no significant change in the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide either immediately after radiotherapy (p = 0.51) or with extended follow-up (p = 0.63). Volume of irradiated breast tissue correlated with acute cosmesis, and acute Grade 3 skin toxicity developed in 2 patients. Late cosmesis was not adversely affected. Conclusions: Concurrent paclitaxel chemotherapy and radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery shortened total treatment time, provided excellent local control, and was well tolerated.

  13. The Number of Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes and Pathological Tumor Depth Predicts Prognosis in Patients With Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Chung-Jan; Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Hung-Ming; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lee, Li-Yu; Chen, I-How; Huang, Shiang-Fu; and others

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The objective of this retrospective study was twofold: (1) to investigate prognostic factors for clinical outcomes in patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and (2) to identify specific prognostic subgroups that may help to guide treatment decisions. Methods and Materials: We examined 102 patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. All patients were followed for at least 24 months after surgery or until death. The 5-year rates of local control, neck control, distant metastasis, disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival served as main outcome measures. Results: The 5-year rates were as follows: local control (79%), neck control (64%), distant metastases (27%), disease-free survival (48%), disease-specific survival (52%), and overall survival (42%). Multivariable analysis showed that the number of pathologically positive nodes ({>=}4 vs. {<=}3) was a significant predictor of neck control, distant metastasis, and disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates. In addition, the presence of tumor depth of {>=}11 mm (vs. <11 mm) was a significant predictor of distant metastasis, disease-specific survival, and overall survival rates. The combination of the two predictors (26.5%, 27/102) was independently associated with poorer neck control (p = 0.0319), distant metastasis (p < 0.0001), and disease-free (p < 0.0001), disease-specific (p < 0.0001), and overall survival (p < 0.0001) rates. Conclusions: In patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, the presence of at least 4 pathologically positive lymph nodes and of a pathological tumor depth {>=}11 mm identifies a subset of subjects with poor clinical outcomes. Patients carrying both risk factors are suitable candidates for the development of novel therapeutic approaches.

  14. Comparison of Treatment Outcome Between Breast-Conservation Surgery With Radiation and Total Mastectomy Without Radiation in Patients With One to Three Positive Axillary Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seung Il; Park, Seho; Park, Hyung Seok; Kim, Yong Bae; Suh, Chang Ok; Park, Byeong-Woo

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To test the difference in treatment outcome between breast-conservation surgery with radiation and total mastectomy without radiation, to evaluate the benefits of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Using the Severance Hospital Breast Cancer Registry, we divided the study population of T1, T2 and one to three axillary node-positive patients into two groups: breast-conservation surgery with radiation (BCS/RT) and total mastectomy without radiation (TM/no-RT). Data related to locoregional recurrence, distant recurrence, and death were collected, and survival rates were calculated. Results: The study population consisted of 125 patients treated with BCS/RT and 365 patients treated with TM/no-RT. With a median follow-up of 68.4 months, the 10-year locoregional recurrence-free survival rate with BCS/RT and TM/no-RT was 90.5% and 79.2%, respectively (p = 0.056). The 10-year distant recurrence-free survival rate was 78.8% for patients treated with BCS/RT vs. 68.0% for those treated with TM/no-RT (p = 0.012). The 10-years overall survival rate for patients treated with BCT/RT and TM/no-RT was 87.5% and 73.9%, respectively (p = 0.035). After multivariate analysis, patients treated with BCT/RT had better distant recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.527; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.297-0.934; p = 0.028), with improving locoregional recurrence-free survival (HR, 0.491; 95% CI, 0.231-1.041; p = 0.064) and overall survival trend (HR, 0.544; 95% CI, 0.277-1.067; p = 0.076). Conclusions: This study provides additional evidence that adjuvant radiation substantially reduces local recurrence, distant recurrence, and mortality for patients with one to three involved nodes.

  15. Unsaturated fatty acids show clear elicitation responses in a modified local lymph node assay with an elicitation phase, and test positive in the direct peptide reactivity assay.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guidelines (TG) adopted the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) as stand-alone skin sensitization test methods. However, unsaturated carbon-carbon double-bond and/or lipid acids afforded false-positive results more frequently in the LLNA compared to those in the GPMT and/or in human subjects. In the current study, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, fumaric, maleic, and succinic acid and squalene were tested in a modified LLNA with an elicitation phase (LLNA:DAE), and in a direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) to evaluate their skin-sensitizing potential. Oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic and maleic acid were positive in the LLNA:DAE, of which three, linoleic, linolenic, and maleic acid were positive in the DPRA. Furthermore, the results of the cross-sensitizing tests using four LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals were negative, indicating a chemical-specific elicitation response. In a previous report, the estimated concentration needed to produce a stimulation index of 3 (EC3) of linolenic acid, squalene, and maleic acid in the LLNA was < 10%. Therefore, these chemicals were classified as moderate skin sensitizers in the LLNA. However, the skin-sensitizing potential of all LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals was estimated as weak. These results suggested that oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, and maleic acid had skin-sensitizing potential, and that the LLNA overestimated the skin-sensitizing potential compared to that estimated by the LLNA:DAE.

  16. Estimation of optimal matching position for orthogonal kV setup images and minimal setup margins in radiotherapy of whole breast and lymph node areas

    PubMed Central

    Laaksomaa, Marko; Kapanen, Mika; Skyttä, Tanja; Peltola, Seppo; Hyödynmaa, Simo; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim was to find an optimal setup image matching position and minimal setup margins to maximally spare the organs at risk in breast radiotherapy. Background Radiotherapy of breast cancer is a routine task but has many challenges. We investigated residual position errors in whole breast radiotherapy when orthogonal setup images were matched to different bony landmarks. Materials and methods A total of 1111 orthogonal setup image pairs and tangential field images were analyzed retrospectively for 50 consecutive patients. Residual errors in the treatment field images were determined by matching the orthogonal setup images to the vertebrae, sternum, ribs and their compromises. The most important region was the chest wall as it is crucial for the dose delivered to the heart and the ipsilateral lung. Inter-observer variation in online image matching was investigated. Results The best general image matching position was the compromise of the vertebrae, ribs and sternum, while the worst position was the vertebrae alone (p ≤ 0.03). The setup margins required for the chest wall varied from 4.3 mm to 5.5 mm in the lung direction while in the superior–inferior (SI) direction the margins varied from 5.1 mm to 7.6 mm. The inter-observer variation increased the minimal margins by approximately 1 mm. The margin of the lymph node areas should be at least 4.8 mm. Conclusions Setup margins can be reduced by proper selection of a matching position for the orthogonal setup images. To retain the minimal margins sufficient, systematic error of the chest wall should not exceed 4 mm in the tangential field image. PMID:25337409

  17. Unsaturated fatty acids show clear elicitation responses in a modified local lymph node assay with an elicitation phase, and test positive in the direct peptide reactivity assay.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guidelines (TG) adopted the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) as stand-alone skin sensitization test methods. However, unsaturated carbon-carbon double-bond and/or lipid acids afforded false-positive results more frequently in the LLNA compared to those in the GPMT and/or in human subjects. In the current study, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, fumaric, maleic, and succinic acid and squalene were tested in a modified LLNA with an elicitation phase (LLNA:DAE), and in a direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) to evaluate their skin-sensitizing potential. Oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic and maleic acid were positive in the LLNA:DAE, of which three, linoleic, linolenic, and maleic acid were positive in the DPRA. Furthermore, the results of the cross-sensitizing tests using four LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals were negative, indicating a chemical-specific elicitation response. In a previous report, the estimated concentration needed to produce a stimulation index of 3 (EC3) of linolenic acid, squalene, and maleic acid in the LLNA was < 10%. Therefore, these chemicals were classified as moderate skin sensitizers in the LLNA. However, the skin-sensitizing potential of all LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals was estimated as weak. These results suggested that oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, and maleic acid had skin-sensitizing potential, and that the LLNA overestimated the skin-sensitizing potential compared to that estimated by the LLNA:DAE. PMID:26558466

  18. Metabolic Response of Lymph Nodes Immediately After RT Is Related With Survival Outcome of Patients With Pelvic Node-Positive Cervical Cancer Using Consecutive [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Mee Sun; Ahn, Sung-Ja; Nah, Byung-Sik; Chung, Woong-Ki; Song, Ho-Chun; Yoo, Su Woong; Song, Ju-Young; Jeong, Jae-Uk; Nam, Taek-Keun

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the metabolic response of uterine cervix and pelvic lymph nodes (LNs) using consecutive {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) immediately after RT and to correlate survival outcome with the metabolic response. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 48 patients with cervical cancer who had positive pelvic LNs by preradiation therapy (pre-RT) PET/CT. All patients underwent PET/CT scans immediately after RT (inter-RT PET/CT) after median 63 Gy to the gross LNs. The metabolic response of the LNs was assessed quantitatively and semiquantitatively by measurement of the maximal standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}). Results: Classifying the metabolic response of all nodal lesions, 37 patients (77%) had LNs with complete metabolic response on the inter-RT PET/CT (LNCMRi), and 11 patients had a non-LNCMRi, including 4 patients with progressive metabolic disease. The overall 3-year survival rates were 83% for the patients with LNCMRi and 73% for the non-LNCMRi group (P=.038). The disease-free survival for patients with LNCMRi were significantly better than that for the non-LNCMRi group (71% vs 18%, respectively, P<.001). The 3-year distant metastasis-free survival rates were 79% for the patients with LNCMRi and 27% for the non-LNCMRi group (P<.001). There were no statistically significant differences in overall survival (76% vs 86%, respectively, P=.954) and disease-free survival rates (58% vs 61%, respectively, P=.818) between the CMR of primary cervical tumor and the non-CMR groups. Conclusions: The results showed a significant correlation between survival outcome and the interim metabolic response of pelvic LNs. CMR of nodal lesion on inter-RT PET/CT had excellent overall survival, disease-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival rates. This suggested that PET/CT immediately after RT can be a useful tool for the evaluation of the interim response of the LNs and identify a subset

  19. Connecting Node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Raboin, Jasen L.; Spexarth, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    A paper describes the Octanode, a connecting node that facilitates the integration of multiple docking mechanisms, hatches, windows, and internal and external systems with the use of flat surfaces. The Octanode is a 26- faced Great Rhombicuboctahedron Archi medean solid with six octagonshaped panels, eight hexagon-shaped panels, and 12 square panels using three unique, simple, flat shapes to construct a spherical approximation. Each flat shape can be constructed with a variety of material and manufacturing techniques, such as honeycomb composite panels or a pocketed skinstringer configuration, using conventional means. The flat shapes can be connected together and sealed to create a pressurizable volume by the use of any conventional means including welding or fastening devices and sealant. The node can then be connected to other elements to allow transfer between those elements, or it could serve as an airlock. The Octanode can be manufactured on the ground and can be integrated with subsystems including hatches and ports. The node can then be transported to its intended location, whether on orbit or on surface. Any of the flat panels could be replaced by curved ones, turning the node into a copula. Windows may be placed on flat panes with optimal viewing angles that are not blocked by large connecting nodes. The advantage of using flat panels to represent a spherical approximation is that this allows for easier integration of subsystems and design features.

  20. Absence of Symptom and Intact Liver Function Are Positive Prognosticators for Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy for Lymph Node Metastasis From Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyubo; Chie, Eui Kyu; Kim, Won; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Lee, Hyo-Suk; Ha, Sung W.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: The positive role of radiotherapy for patients with lymph node (LN) metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma has recently been reported. The outcome and prognostic factors for these patients were analyzed. Methods and Materials: Between May 2004 and October 2007, 38 patients with LN metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma underwent radiotherapy. The median age was 59 years (range, 42-81). The radiation dose was 35-56 Gy with a fraction size of 1.8-3 Gy, for a biologically effective dose of 43.75-67.2 Gy{sub 10} (median, 59.0). The median follow-up period was 8 months. Results: The median survival time was 10 months. On univariate analysis, Child-Pugh class B (p = .0006), distant metastasis (p = .0095), symptoms related to metastatic LNs (p <.0001), and a biologically effective dose <60 Gy{sub 10} (p = .0042) were significant prognostic factors predicting for poor overall survival. On multivariate analysis after adjustment using the Benjamini and Hochberg (false discovery rate) method, Child-Pugh class B (p = .04095) and the presence of symptoms (p = .04095) were associated with inferior overall survival. When patients were divided into three groups according to these two risk factors, the median survival for patients with no, either, or both risk factors was 20, 7, and 4 months, respectively (p <.0001). Conclusion: Patients with intact liver function and without related symptoms had the best prognosis when undergoing radiotherapy for LN metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma.

  1. Economic evaluation of 21-gene reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay in lymph-node-negative, estrogen-receptor-positive, early-stage breast cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Masahide; Hoshi, Shu Ling; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Yoshibayashi, Hiroshi; Toi, Masakazu

    2008-11-01

    The 21-gene reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay with a patented algorithm is validated as a good predictor of prognosis and potential benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy for lymph-node-negative, estrogen-receptor-positive, early-stage breast cancer, while its high cost raises concern about how to finance it. Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing prevalent National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guideline/St Gallen recommendation-guided treatment with the assay-guided treatment is carried out with budget impact estimation in the context of Japan's health care system. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios are estimated as 2,997,495 yen/QALY (26,065 US$/QALY) in the comparison between NCCN guided-treatment vs. the assay-guided treatment, and as 1,239,055 yen/QALY (10,774 US$/QALY) in the comparison between St Gallen guided-treatment vs. the assay-guided treatment. Budget impact is estimated as yen2,638 million (US$23 million) to yen3,225 million (US$28 million) per year. The routine use of the assay is indicated as cost-effective. And the budget impact could be judged as within fundable level. PMID:18075786

  2. The Extent of Axillary Surgery Is Associated With Breast Cancer-specific Survival in T1-2 Breast Cancer Patients With 1 or 2 Positive Lymph Nodes: A SEER-Population Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Shunrong; Liu, Fengtao; Chen, Kai; Rao, Nanyan; Xie, Yufen; Su, Fengxi; Zhu, Liling

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to compare the breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) of a nonclinical trial population of T1-2 breast cancer patients with 1 to 2 positive lymph nodes who received breast-conserving surgery and either sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database to identify 17,028 patients with a median follow-up of 7.1 years. We assigned the patients into a SLNB-cohort (≤5 nodes) and an ALND-cohort (>5 nodes) based on the number of removed lymph nodes. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis to estimate the cumulative BCSS and used Cox-regression analysis to study the risk factors. We also performed subgroup analysis by the patients' age and hormonal receptor (HR) status.The cumulative BCSS and Overall Survival (OS) of the entire population were 94.4% and 91.4% at 5 years and 88.2% and 79.9% at 10 years, respectively. Axillary surgery (ALND vs SLNB) had no association with BCSS when adjusted for stage, HR status, tumor grade, or other factors. In subgroup analysis by age and HR status, ALND was associated with a significantly improved BCSS relative to SNLB (HR = 0.70, HR = 0.026, 95% confidence interval 0.51-0.96) only in patients younger than 50 years with HR- disease (N = 1281), but not in other subgroup of patients.In early-stage breast cancer patients with limited lymph node metastasis, ALND had better BCSS than SLNB only in patients younger than 50 years and with HR- disease. More studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:27057872

  3. Lymph node metastasis and lymph vascular space invasion in microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Lee, K B M; Lee, J M; Park, C Y; Lee, K B; Cho, H Y; Ha, S Y

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the depth of invasion was related to lymph vascular space invasion (LVSI) and lymph node metastasis and whether there was a correlation between LVSI and lymph node metastasis in stage IA cervical cancer. The medical records, including surgical notes and pathologic reports, of 202 patients with microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix were reviewed retrospectively. There was a positive correlation between the depth of invasion and the LVSI, and the incidence of lymph node metastasis was slightly higher than those reported hitherto for stage IA1 cervical cancer, especially in the depth of invasion of 1-3 mm group. However, among four patients with lymph node metastasis, only two patients had positive LVSI. There was no definite correlation between LVSI and lymph node metastasis. LVSI could not identify the patients with high risk for lymph node metastasis.

  4. Axillary lymph node analysis using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jenny; Christie-Brown, Jonathan; Sammon, Alastair; Stone, Nicholas

    2004-07-01

    Raman Spectroscopy is an optical diagnostic technique applied in this study to classify axillary lymph nodes from breast cancer patients as positive or negative for metastases. The mapping technique in this study is 81% sensitive and 97% specific for the correct classification of positive lymph nodes. Raman spectral images of lymph node sections are constructed to facilitate interpretation of tissue features.

  5. Real-world adjuvant TAC or FEC-D for HER2-negative node-positive breast cancer in women less than 50 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Lupichuk, S.; Tilley, D.; Kostaras, X.; Joy, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We compared the efficacy, toxicity, and use of granulocyte colony–stimulating factor (g-csf) with tac (docetaxel–doxorubicin–cyclophosphamide) and fec-d (5-fluorouracil–epirubicin–cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel) in women less than 50 years of age. Methods The study included all women more than 18 years but less than 50 years of age with her2-negative, node-positive, stage ii or iii breast cancer diagnosed in Alberta between 2008 and 2012 who received tac (n = 198) or fec-d (n = 274). Results The patient groups were well-balanced, except that radiotherapy use was higher in the tac group (91.9% vs. 79.9%, p < 0.001). At a median follow-up of 49.6 months, disease-free survival was 91.4% for tac and 92.0% for fec-d (p = 0.76). Overall survival (os) was 96% with tac and 95.3% with fec-d (p = 0.86).The incidences of grades 3 and 4 toxicities were similar in the two groups (all p > 0.05). Overall, febrile neutropenia (fn) was reported in 11.6% of tac patients and 15.7% of fec-d patients (p = 0.26). However, use of g-csf was higher in the tac group than in the fec-d group (96.4% vs. 71.5%, p < 0.001). Hospitalization for fn was required in 10.5% of tac patients and 13.0% of fec-d patients (p = 0.41). In g-csf–supported and –unsupported patients receiving tac, fn occurred at rates of 11.1% and 33.3% respectively (p = 0.08); in patients receiving the fec portion of fec-d, those proportions were 2.9% and 8.1% respectively (p = 0.24); and in patients receiving docetaxel after fec, the proportions were 4.1% and 17.6% respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions In women less than 50 years of age receiving adjuvant tac or fec-d, we observed no differences in efficacy or other nonhematologic toxicities. Based on the timing and rates of fn, use of prophylactic g-csf should be routine for the docetaxel-containing portion of treatment; however, prophylactic g-csf could potentially be avoided during the fec portion of fec-d treatment. PMID:27330344

  6. Radiotherapy Can Decrease Locoregional Recurrence and Increase Survival in Mastectomy Patients With T1 to T2 Breast Cancer and One to Three Positive Nodes With Negative Estrogen Receptor and Positive Lymphovascular Invasion Status

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, P.S.; Chen, C.M.; Liu, M.C.; Jian, J.M.; Horng, C.F.; Liu, M.J.; Yu, B.L.; Lee, M.Y.; Chi, C.W.

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: To define a subgroup of patients at high risk of locoregional recurrence (LRR) who might be benefit from postmastectomy radiotherapy in invasive breast cancer and tumor size <5 cm with one to three involved axillary lymph nodes (T1-2 N1). Methods and Materials: Between April 1991 and December 2005, 544 patients with T1-2 N1 invasive breast cancer were treated with modified radical mastectomy. Of the 544 patients, 383 patients (70.4%) had no radiotherapy, and 161 patients (29.6%) received radiotherapy. We retrospectively compared these two patient groups. Results: With a median follow-up of 40.3 months, LRR occurred in 40 (7.4%) of 544 patients. On univariate analysis, high nuclear grade (p = 0.04), negative estrogen receptor (ER) status (p = 0.001), presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (p = 0.003), and no radiotherapy (p = 0.0015) were associated with a significantly higher rate of LRR. Negative ER status (hazard ratio = 5.1) and presence of LVI (hazard ratio = 2.5) were the risk factors for LRR with statistical significance in the multivariate analysis. Radiotherapy reduced the LRR in patients with the following characteristics: age <40 years, T2 stage, high nuclear grade, negative ER status, and presence of LVI. For 41 patients with negative ER and positive LVI status, radiotherapy can reduce LRR from 10 of 25 (40%) to 2 of 16 (12.5%) and increase the 5-year overall survival from 43.7% to 87.1%. Conclusion: Radiotherapy can reduce LRR and increase survival in T1-2 N1 breast cancer patients with negative ER status and presence of LVI.

  7. Six Cycles of Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide or Paclitaxel Are Not Superior to Four Cycles As Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer in Women With Zero to Three Positive Axillary Nodes: Cancer and Leukemia Group B 40101

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Lawrence N.; Cirrincione, Constance T.; Berry, Donald A.; Becker, Heather P.; Perez, Edith A.; O'Regan, Ruth; Martino, Silvana; Atkins, James N.; Mayer, Erica; Schneider, Charles J.; Kimmick, Gretchen; Norton, Larry; Muss, Hyman; Winer, Eric P.; Hudis, Clifford

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The ideal duration of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with lower risk primary breast cancer is not known. Cancer and Leukemia Group B trial 40101 was conducted using a phase III factorial design to define whether six cycles of a chemotherapy regimen are superior to four cycles. We also sought to determine whether paclitaxel (T) is as efficacious as doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (AC), but with reduced toxicity. Patients and Methods Between 2002 and 2008, the study enrolled women with operable breast cancer and zero to three positive nodes. Patients were randomly assigned to either four or six cycles of either AC or T. Study stratifiers were estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor (ER/PgR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and menopausal status. After 2003, all treatment was administered in dose-dense fashion. The primary efficacy end point was relapse-free survival (RFS). Results A total of 3,171 patients were enrolled; 94% were node-negative and 6% had one to three positive nodes. At a median follow-up of 5.3 years, the 4-year RFS was 90.9% and 91.8% for six and four cycles, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of six to four cycles regarding RFS was 1.03 (95% CI, 0.84 to 1.28; P = .77). The 4-year OS was 95.3% and 96.3% for six and four cycles, respectively, with an HR of six to four cycles of 1.12 (95% CI, 0.84 to 1.49; P = .44). There was no interaction between treatment duration and chemotherapy regimen, ER/PgR, or HER2 status on RFS or OS. Conclusion For women with resected primary breast cancer and zero to three positive nodes, we found no evidence that extending chemotherapy regimens of AC or single-agent T from four to six cycles improves clinical outcome. PMID:22826271

  8. Heterobinuclear complexes of heavy metals with 1,3,5-triketonates and their diamine Schiff-base derivates. Synthetic strategies based on positional and geometric isomerism of mononuclear palladium (II) and UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Lintvedt, R.L.; Ahmad, N.

    1982-06-01

    Several new mononuclear complexes of Pd(II) and UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ have been prepared with the binucleating ligands 1,3,5-triketones and their Schiff-base diamine derivaties. The mononuclear complexes have been used as precursors in the preparation of heterobinuclear complexes by means of two different strategies. One depends upon the site selectivity, i.e., positional isomerism, observed for certain metal ions in the Schiff-base ligands that contain two distinctly different coordination sites. The other, which can be applied to symmetric 1,3,5-triketones, depends upon geometric isomerism. In this case, the UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ ion binds two triketonates in a cis-type configuration due to the steric constaints of a fifth equatorial ligand. The cis complex may then be used to bind a second metal ion. Under similar conditions Pd(II) forms a trans-type complex in which it is not possible to add a second metal ion. This work describes the use of preferred isomerism to design specific heterobinuclear complexes containing heavy metal ions.

  9. Positive impact of adding No.14v lymph node to D2 dissection on survival for distal gastric cancer patients after surgery with curative intent

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuexiang; Wu, Liangliang; Wang, Xiaona; Ding, Xuewei; Liu, Hongmin; Li, Bin; Wang, Baogui; Pan, Yuan; Zhang, Rupeng; Liu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Background D2 lymphadenectomy has been increasingly regarded as standard surgical procedure for advanced gastric cancer (GC), while the necessity of No.14v lymph node (14v) dissection for distal GC is still controversial. Methods A total of 920 distal GC patients receiving at least a D2 lymph node dissection in Department of Gastric Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital were enrolled in this study, of whom, 243 patients also had the 14v dissected. Other 677 patients without 14v dissection were used for comparison. Results Forty-five (18.5%) patients had 14v metastasis. There was no significant difference in 3-year overall survival (OS) rate between patients with and without 14v dissection. Following stratified analysis, in TNM stages I, II, IIIa and IV, 14v dissection did not affect 3-year OS; in contrast, patients with 14v dissection had a significant higher 3-year OS than those without in TNM stages IIIb and IIIc. In multivariate analysis, 14v dissection was found to be an independent prognostic factor for GC patients with TNM stage IIIb/IIIc disease [hazard ratio (HR), 1.568; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.186-2.072; P=0.002]. GC patients with 14v dissection had a significant lower locoregional, especially lymph node, recurrence rate than those without 14v dissection (11.7% vs. 21.1%, P=0.035). Conclusions Adding 14v to D2 lymphadenectomy may be associated with improved 3-year OS for distal GC staged TNM IIIb/IIIc. PMID:26752932

  10. 1,3-Butadiene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,3 - Butadiene ; CASRN 106 - 99 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  11. 1,3-Dichloropropene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,3 - Dichloropropene ( DCP ) ; CASRN 542 - 75 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  12. 1,3-Dichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,3 - Dichlorobenzene ; CASRN 541 - 73 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  13. Reconfigureable network node

    DOEpatents

    Vanderveen, Keith B.; Talbot, Edward B.; Mayer, Laurence E.

    2008-04-08

    Nodes in a network having a plurality of nodes establish communication links with other nodes using available transmission media, as the ability to establish such links becomes available and desirable. The nodes predict when existing communications links will fail, become overloaded or otherwise degrade network effectiveness and act to establish substitute or additional links before the node's ability to communicate with the other nodes on the network is adversely affected. A node stores network topology information and programmed link establishment rules and criteria. The node evaluates characteristics that predict existing links with other nodes becoming unavailable or degraded. The node then determines whether it can form a communication link with a substitute node, in order to maintain connectivity with the network. When changing its communication links, a node broadcasts that information to the network. Other nodes update their stored topology information and consider the updated topology when establishing new communications links for themselves.

  14. Role of postmastectomy radiation therapy in breast cancer patients with T1–2 and 1–3 positive lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Cihan, Yasemin Benderli; Sarigoz, Talha

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of radiotherapy (RT) in overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival in postmastectomy breast cancer patients with tumor size <5 cm, with 1–3 involved axillary lymph nodes (T1–2N1). Patients and methods We conducted a retrospective study of 89 postmastectomy patients with T1–2N1 disease between 2005 and 2015 at the Radiation Oncology Clinic of Kayseri Training and Research Hospital. Clinicopathologic, demographic, and laboratory findings, as well as treatment regimens were investigated. OS and disease-free survival as well as factors that can be valuable in the prognosis were evaluated. Results A total of 89 female patients with an average age of 53 years (range: 30–81 years) were included in the assessment. Five-year and 10-year local recurrence rates were found to be 6.6% in the RT group and 7.1% in the non-RT group. In the RT group, the mean OS was 110.3 months and progression-free survival was 104.4 months. In the non-RT group, the corresponding figures were 104.3 months and 92.1 months, respectively. Statistically significant correlation was observed between RT and the American Joint Committee on Cancer stage (P<0.001), histological type (P=0.013), tumor size (P<0.001), and lymph node metastasis (P<0.001). During the assessment, locoregional recurrence and/or distant metastasis occurred in nine patients (10%). Locoregional recurrence was observed mostly in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma, tumor >3.0 cm in size, grade II tumors, and perinodal invasion, and who were premenopausal at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion In T1–2N1 breast cancer patients who underwent modified radical mastectomy, when the effects of postmastectomy RT were evaluated, there were no differences in terms of OS and progression-free survival. In addition, when subgroup analysis was made, in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma, tumor diameter >2 cm, three lymph node metastasis, and stage 2b, postmastectomy RT was seen to be useful.

  15. Role of postmastectomy radiation therapy in breast cancer patients with T1–2 and 1–3 positive lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Cihan, Yasemin Benderli; Sarigoz, Talha

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of radiotherapy (RT) in overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival in postmastectomy breast cancer patients with tumor size <5 cm, with 1–3 involved axillary lymph nodes (T1–2N1). Patients and methods We conducted a retrospective study of 89 postmastectomy patients with T1–2N1 disease between 2005 and 2015 at the Radiation Oncology Clinic of Kayseri Training and Research Hospital. Clinicopathologic, demographic, and laboratory findings, as well as treatment regimens were investigated. OS and disease-free survival as well as factors that can be valuable in the prognosis were evaluated. Results A total of 89 female patients with an average age of 53 years (range: 30–81 years) were included in the assessment. Five-year and 10-year local recurrence rates were found to be 6.6% in the RT group and 7.1% in the non-RT group. In the RT group, the mean OS was 110.3 months and progression-free survival was 104.4 months. In the non-RT group, the corresponding figures were 104.3 months and 92.1 months, respectively. Statistically significant correlation was observed between RT and the American Joint Committee on Cancer stage (P<0.001), histological type (P=0.013), tumor size (P<0.001), and lymph node metastasis (P<0.001). During the assessment, locoregional recurrence and/or distant metastasis occurred in nine patients (10%). Locoregional recurrence was observed mostly in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma, tumor >3.0 cm in size, grade II tumors, and perinodal invasion, and who were premenopausal at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion In T1–2N1 breast cancer patients who underwent modified radical mastectomy, when the effects of postmastectomy RT were evaluated, there were no differences in terms of OS and progression-free survival. In addition, when subgroup analysis was made, in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma, tumor diameter >2 cm, three lymph node metastasis, and stage 2b, postmastectomy RT was seen to be useful. PMID

  16. Tumor Volume Combined With Number of Positive Lymph Node Stations Is a More Important Prognostic Factor Than TNM Stage for Survival of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With (Chemo)radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dehing-Oberije, Cary Ruysscher, Dirk de; Weide, Hiska van der; Hochstenbag, Monique; Bootsma, Gerben; Geraedts, Wiel; Pitz, Cordula; Simons, Jean; Teule, Jaap; Rahmy, Ali; Thimister, Paul; Steck, Harald; Lambin, Philippe

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: The current tumor, node, metastasis system needs refinement to improve its ability to predict survival of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with (chemo)radiation. In this study, we investigated the prognostic value of tumor volume and N status, assessed by using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET). Patients and Methods: Clinical data from 270 consecutive patients with inoperable NSCLC Stages I-IIIB treated radically with (chemo)radiation were collected retrospectively. Diagnostic imaging was performed using either integrated PET-computed tomography or computed tomography and PET separately. The Kaplan-Meier method, as well as Cox regression, was used to analyze data. Results: Univariate survival analysis showed that number of positive lymph node stations (PLNSs), as well as N stage on PET, was associated significantly with survival. The final multivariate Cox model consisted of number of PLNSs, gross tumor volume (i.e., volume of the primary tumor plus lymph nodes), sex, World Health Organization performance status, and equivalent radiation dose corrected for time; N stage was no longer significant. Conclusions: Number of PLNSs, assessed by means of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, was a significant factor for survival of patients with inoperable NSCLC treated with (chemo)radiation. Risk stratification for this group of patients should be based on gross tumor volume, number of PLNSs, sex, World Health Organization performance status, and equivalent radiation dose corrected for time.

  17. Lymph node biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - lymph nodes; Open lymph node biopsy; Fine needle aspiration biopsy; Sentinel lymph node biopsy ... then sent to the laboratory for examination. A needle biopsy involves inserting a needle into a lymph ...

  18. Is adjuvant chemotherapy of benefit for postmenopausal women who receive endocrine treatment for highly endocrine-responsive, node-positive breast cancer? International Breast Cancer Study Group Trials VII and 12-93.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Olivia; Gelber, Shari; Simoncini, Edda; Castiglione-Gertsch, Monica; Price, Karen N; Gelber, Richard D; Holmberg, Stig B; Crivellari, Diana; Collins, John; Lindtner, Jurij; Thürlimann, Beat; Fey, Martin F; Murray, Elizabeth; Forbes, John F; Coates, Alan S; Goldhirsch, Aron

    2009-08-01

    To compare the efficacy of chemoendocrine treatment with that of endocrine treatment (ET) alone for postmenopausal women with highly endocrine responsive breast cancer. In the International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) Trials VII and 12-93, postmenopausal women with node-positive, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive or ER-negative, operable breast cancer were randomized to receive either chemotherapy or endocrine therapy or combined chemoendocrine treatment. Results were analyzed overall in the cohort of 893 patients with endocrine-responsive disease, and according to prospectively defined categories of ER, age and nodal status. STEPP analyses assessed chemotherapy effect. The median follow-up was 13 years. Adding chemotherapy reduced the relative risk of a disease-free survival event by 19% (P = 0.02) compared with ET alone. STEPP analyses showed little effect of chemotherapy for tumors with high levels of ER expression (P = 0.07), or for the cohort with one positive node (P = 0.03). Chemotherapy significantly improves disease-free survival for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer, but the magnitude of the effect is substantially attenuated if ER levels are high.

  19. Variation of the Side Chain Branch Position Leads to Vastly Improved Molecular Weight and OPV Performance in 4,8-dialkoxybenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene/2,1,3-benzothiadiazole Copolymers

    DOE PAGES

    Coffin, Robert C.; MacNeill, Christopher M.; Peterson, Eric D.; Ward, Jeremy W.; Owen, Jack W.; McLellan, Claire A.; Smith, Gregory M.; Noftle, Ronald E.; Jurchescu, Oana D.; Carroll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Tmore » hrough manipulation of the solubilizing side chains, we were able to dramatically improve the molecular weight ( M w ) of 4,8-dialkoxybenzo[1,2- b :4,5- b ′ ]dithiophene (BDT)/2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BT) copolymers. When dodecyl side chains ( P1 ) are employed at the 4- and 8-positions of the BDT unit, we obtain a chloroform-soluble copolymer fraction with M w of 6.3 kg/mol. Surprisingly, by moving to the commonly employed 2-ethylhexyl branch ( P2 ), M w decreases to 3.4 kg/mol.his is despite numerous reports that this side chain increases solubility and M w . By moving the ethyl branch in one position relative to the polymer backbone (1-ethylhexyl, P3 ), M w is dramatically increased to 68.8 kg/mol. As a result of this M w increase, the shape of the absorption profile is dramatically altered, with λ max = 637 nm compared with 598 nm for P1 and 579 nm for P2 .he hole mobility as determined by thin film transistor (TFT) measurements is improved from ~ 1 × 10 − 6  cm 2 /Vs for P1 and P2 to 7 × 10 − 4  cm 2 /Vs for P3 , while solar cell power conversion efficiency in increased to 2.91 % for P3 relative to 0.31 % and 0.19 % for P1 and P2 , respectively.« less

  20. Position Estimation of Tranceivers in Communication Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, C A; Dowla, F U

    2003-10-13

    With the rapid development in wireless sensor networks, there is an important need for transceiver position estimation independent of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) [1,3]. While GPS might be useful for outdoor sensor nodes, it is not for indoor node localization. In this case, position estimation is possible through network range estimates from time-of-flight (TOF) measurements, a technique well suited to large bandwidth physical links, such as in ultra-wideband (UWB) communications. For example, in our UWB systems, with pulse duration less than 200 pico-seconds, range can easily be resolved to less than a foot. Assuming an encoded UWB or spread spectrum physical layer, we developed algorithms and simulation tools to test transceiver position localization. Simulations were designed to lend insight into system characteristics such as position error sensitivities to network geometry, to range estimation errors, and to number of sensor nodes.

  1. Hierarchy and positive/negative interplays of the hepatocyte nuclear factors HNF-1, -3 and -4 in the liver-specific enhancer for the human alpha-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor.

    PubMed Central

    Rouet, P; Raguenez, G; Tronche, F; Mfou'ou, V; Salier, J P

    1995-01-01

    Alpha-1-microglobulin and bikunin are two plasma glycoproteins encoded by an alpha-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor (AMBP) gene. The strict liver-specific expression of the AMBP gene is controlled by a potent enhancer made of six clustered boxes numbered 1-6 that have been reported to be proven or potential binding sites for the hepatocyte-enriched nuclear factors HNF-1, -4, -3, -1, -3, -4, respectively. In the present study, electromobility shift assays of wild-type or mutated probes demonstrated that the boxes 1-5 have a binding capacity for their cognate HNF protein. Box 5 is also a target for another, as yet unidentified, factor. A functional analysis of the wild-type or mutated enhancer, driving its homologous promoter and a reporter CAT gene in the HepG2 hepatoma cell line, demonstrated that all six boxes participate in the enhancer activity, with the primary influence of box 4 (HNF-1) and box 2 (HNF-4). A similar analysis in the HNF-free CHO cell line co-transfected with one or several HNF factors further demonstrated various interplays between boxes: box 3 (HNF-3 alpha and beta) has a negative influence over the major HNF-4 box 2 as well as a positive influence over the major HNF-1 box 4. Images PMID:7533900

  2. Computed Tomography–Guided Interstitial High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy in Combination With Regional Positive Lymph Node Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy in Locally Advanced Peripheral Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Phase 1 Clinical Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Li; Zhang, Jian-wen; Lin, Sheng; Luo, Hui-Qun; Wen, Qing-Lian; He, Li-Jia; Shang, Chang-Ling; Ren, Pei-Rong; Yang, Hong-Ru; Pang, Hao-Wen; Yang, Bo; He, Huai-Lin; Chen, Yue; Wu, Jing-Bo

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the technical safety, adverse events, and efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in combination with regional positive lymph node intensity modulated radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced peripheral non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Twenty-six patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC were enrolled in a prospective, officially approved phase 1 trial. Primary tumors were treated with HDR brachytherapy. A single 30-Gy dose was delivered to the 90% isodose line of the gross lung tumor volume. A total dose of at least 70 Gy was administered to the 95% isodose line of the planning target volume of malignant lymph nodes using 6-MV X-rays. The patients received concurrent or sequential chemotherapy. We assessed treatment efficacy, adverse events, and radiation toxicity. Results: The median follow-up time was 28 months (range, 7-44 months). There were 3 cases of mild pneumothorax but no cases of hemothorax, dyspnea, or pyothorax after the procedure. Grade 3 or 4 acute hematologic toxicity was observed in 5 patients. During follow-up, mild fibrosis around the puncture point was observed on the CT scans of 2 patients, but both patients were asymptomatic. The overall response rates (complete and partial) for the primary mass and positive lymph nodes were 100% and 92.3%, respectively. The 1-year and 2-year overall survival (OS) rates were 90.9% and 67%, respectively, with a median OS of 22.5 months. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that HDR brachytherapy is safe and feasible for peripheral locally advanced NSCLC, justifying a phase 2 clinical trial.

  3. Breast cancer-specific mortality in small-sized tumor with node-positive breast cancer: a nation-wide study in Korean breast cancer society.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jai Min; Lee, Hyouk Jin; Yoon, Tae In; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Soo Jung; Jung, Jin Hyang; Chae, Byung Joo; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Lee, Se Kyung; Bae, Soo Youn; Yu, Jonghan; Kim, Seok Won

    2016-10-01

    Tumor size and number of lymph node (LN) metastases are well known as the most important prognostic factors of breast cancer. We hypothesized that very small breast cancers with LN metastasis represent a progressive biologic behavior and evaluated tumor size stratified by LN metastasis. Data between 1990 and 2010 were obtained retrospectively from the Korean Breast Cancer Society Registry with inclusion criteria of female, non-metastatic, unilateral, and T1/2 breast cancer. We collected the following variables: age at surgery, tumor size, number of LN metastases, nuclear grade (NG), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, and epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status. Patient characteristics were compared by means of independent t-tests for continuous variables and the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Kaplan-Meier curves, with corresponding results of log-rank tests, were constructed for breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). Five- and eight-year breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM) was obtained in groups of 300 patients, followed by smoothing according to the confidence interval using the lowess method. We identified 39,826 breast cancer patients who met the inclusion criteria. Among them, 1433 (3.6 %) patients died due to breast cancer. The median follow-up duration was 63.4 (3-255) months. In the multivariate analysis, age at surgery, NG, LVI, subtype, and tumor size-nodal interactions were independently associated with BCSM. The N1 group had lower BCSS for T1a than T1b. The N2+ group also had lower BCSS for T1b than T1c or T2. In the N1 group of tumors smaller than 10 mm, 5- and 8-year BCSM decreased with larger tumor size. Patients with very small tumors with LN metastasis have decreased BCSM according to increase tumor size. Small tumors with LN metastasis could have aggressive biological behavior. PMID:27590199

  4. Pretreatment Primary Tumor SUVmax Measured by FDG-PET and Pathologic Tumor Depth Predict for Poor Outcomes in Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.-T.; Chang, Joseph T.-C.; Wang, H.-M.; Ng, S.-H.; Hsueh, C.; Lee, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.; Chen, I.-H.; Huang, S.-F.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: The pathologic tumor depth is an independent prognosticator for local control (LC) and survival in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We sought to investigate the prognostic value of the preoperative maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) at the primary tumor in OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: A total of 109 OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes were investigated. All patients underwent 2-deoxy-2[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography within 2 weeks before surgery and neck dissection. All patients were followed for {>=}24 months after surgery or until death. The optimal cutoff value for the primary tumor SUVmax was selected according to the 5-year LC rate. Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: The median follow-up for all patients was 26 months (39 months for surviving patients). A cutoff SUVmax of 19.3 provided the greatest prognostic information for the 5-year LC rate (55% vs. 88%, p = 0.0135). A tumor depth {>=}12 mm appeared to be the most appropriate cutoff for predicting the 5-year LC rate (76% vs. 95%, p = 0.0075). A scoring system using the primary tumor SUVmax and tumor depth was formulated to define distinct prognostic groups. Patients with both a SUVmax of {>=}19.3 and tumor depth of {>=}12 mm (n = 8) had significantly poorer 5-year LC, 5-year disease-free, 5-year disease-specific, and 5-year overall survival rates compared with the other patient groups. Conclusion: The combination of the primary tumor SUVmax ({>=}19.3) and pathologic tumor depth ({>=}12 mm) identified a subgroup of OSCC patients at greatest risk of poor LC and death.

  5. Multiple node remote messaging

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Vranas, Pavlos

    2010-08-31

    A method for passing remote messages in a parallel computer system formed as a network of interconnected compute nodes includes that a first compute node (A) sends a single remote message to a remote second compute node (B) in order to control the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message. The method includes various steps including controlling a DMA engine at first compute node (A) to prepare the single remote message to include a first message descriptor and at least one remote message descriptor for controlling the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message, including putting the first message descriptor into an injection FIFO at the first compute node (A) and sending the single remote message and the at least one remote message descriptor to the second compute node (B).

  6. Modular sensor network node

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Jesse Harper Zehring; Stark, Jr., Douglas Paul; Kershaw, Christopher Patrick; Kyker, Ronald Dean

    2008-06-10

    A distributed wireless sensor network node is disclosed. The wireless sensor network node includes a plurality of sensor modules coupled to a system bus and configured to sense a parameter. The parameter may be an object, an event or any other parameter. The node collects data representative of the parameter. The node also includes a communication module coupled to the system bus and configured to allow the node to communicate with other nodes. The node also includes a processing module coupled to the system bus and adapted to receive the data from the sensor module and operable to analyze the data. The node also includes a power module connected to the system bus and operable to generate a regulated voltage.

  7. Sentinel node biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer, allows a more accurate staging of the cancer, and leaves unaffected nodes behind to continue the important job of draining fluids. The procedure involves the injection of a dye (sometimes mildly radioactive) to pinpoint the lymph node ...

  8. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Li2/3Ni1/3Mn2/3O2 as a novel 5 V class positive electrode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Kazuki; Shikano, Masahiro; Sakaebe, Hikari

    2016-02-01

    A lithium nickel manganese oxide, O3-Li2/3Ni1/3Mn2/3O2, is synthesized from the precursor, P3-Na2/3Ni1/3Mn2/3O2, by a Na+/Li+ ion exchange reaction using molten salt. Post-heating at 300, 400, 500, 600, and 700 °C is carried out for 5 h in air. The products are characterized by powder XRD, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), SEM, 6Li-magic-angle-spinning-NMR, and electrochemical measurements. The charge/discharge profiles of O3-Li2/3Ni1/3Mn2/3O2, thermally treated at 500 °C, show a high-potential plateau region at 4.8 V. Furthermore, sloping voltage profiles are observed at an average voltage of 3.21 V. An initial discharge capacity of 257 mA h g-1 is obtained between 2.0 and 4.8 V with a current density of 15 mA g-1 at 25 °C. This capacity corresponds to 0.90 electron transfers per formula unit. This study shows that Post-heating of O3-Li2/3Ni1/3Mn2/3O2 is effective to improve its electrochemical properties.

  9. Chemical applicability domain of the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) for skin sensitisation potency. Part 3. Apparent discrepancies between LLNA and GPMT sensitisation potential: False positives or differences in sensitivity?

    PubMed

    Roberts, David W; Schultz, Terry W; Api, Anne Marie

    2016-10-01

    The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is the gold standard regulatory toxicology test for skin sensitisation along with the guinea pig maximisation test (GPMT). Compared with the GPMT, LLNA uses fewer animals, it is quantitative, and it gives a numerical prediction of potency. However several concerns have been raised with this assay, mainly related to false positives and false negatives. Over the years, many authors, including the developers of the assay, have presented cases where there have been discrepancies between the GMPT and LLNA results. Several theories have been put forward for these discrepancies, the main one being the "over-sensitivity" of the GPMT. This paper analyses the data from a systematic study, published in three papers from 2008 to 2011, covering several classes of chemicals, in particular unsaturated fatty acids, sugar surfactants and ethoxylated alcohols, with many cases of chemicals testing positive in the LLNA being negative in the GPMT. Based on consideration of reaction chemistry and structural alerts, it is concluded that these discrepancies are not LLNA false positives, but can be rationalised in terms of the different protocols of the assays. PMID:27477089

  10. Prediction of Low versus High Recurrence Scores in Estrogen Receptor-Positive, Lymph Node-Negative Invasive Breast Cancer on the Basis of Radiologic-Pathologic Features: Comparison with Oncotype DX Test Recurrence Scores.

    PubMed

    Dialani, Vandana; Gaur, Shantanu; Mehta, Tejas S; Venkataraman, Shambhavi; Fein-Zachary, Valerie; Phillips, Jordana; Brook, Alexander; Slanetz, Priscilla J

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To review mammographic, ultrasonographic (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features and pathologic characteristics of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, lymph node-negative invasive breast cancer and to determine the relationship of these characteristics to Oncotype DX (Genomic Health, Redwood City, Calif) test recurrence scores (ODRS) for breast cancer recurrence. Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved retrospective study was performed in a single large academic medical center. The study population included patients with ER-positive, lymph node-negative invasive breast cancer who underwent genomic testing from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2013. Imaging features of the tumor were classified according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon by breast imagers who were blinded to the ODRS. Mammography was performed in 86% of patients, US was performed in 84%, and MR imaging was performed in 33%, including morphologic and kinetic evaluation. Images from each imaging modality were evaluated. Each imaging finding, progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, and tumor grade were then individually correlated with ODRS. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences for each imaging feature. Regression analysis was used to calculate prediction of recurrence on the basis of imaging features combined with histopathologic features. Results The 319 patients had a mean age ± standard deviation of 55 years ± 8.7 (range, 31-82 years). Imaging features with a positive correlation with ODRS included a well-circumscribed oval mass (P = .024) at mammography, vascularity (P = .047) and posterior enhancement (P = .004) at US, and lobulated mass (P = .002) at MR imaging. Recurrence scores were predicted by using these features in combination with PR and HER2 status and tumor grade by using the threshold of more than 30 as a high recurrence score. With a regression tree, there

  11. Expandable and reconfigurable instrument node arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilliard, Lawrence M. (Inventor); Deshpande, Manohar (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An expandable and reconfigurable instrument node includes a feature detection means and a data processing portion in communication with the feature detection means, the data processing portion configured and disposed to process feature information. The instrument node further includes a phase locked loop (PLL) oscillator in communication with the data processing portion, the PLL oscillator configured and disposed to provide PLL information to the processing portion. The instrument node further includes a single tone transceiver and a pulse transceiver in communication with the PLL oscillator, the single tone transceiver configured and disposed to transmit or receive a single tone for phase correction of the PLL oscillator and the pulse transceiver configured and disposed to transmit and receive signals for phase correction of the PLL oscillator. The instrument node further includes a global positioning (GPA) receiver in communication with the processing portion, the GPS receiver configured and disposed to establish a global position of the instrument node.

  12. Concomitant Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma of Lymph Node and cMYC-Positive Burkitt Leukemia/Lymphoma of the Bone Marrow Presented Concurrently at the Time of Presentation: A Rare Combination of Discordant Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Dina S.; Fareed, Shehab; Alkuwari, Einas; El-Omri, Halima; Al-Sabbagh, Ahmad; Gameel, Amna; Yassin, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Discordant lymphoma is rare condition in which different types of malignant lymphomas occurring in different anatomic sites. The two diseases may present clinically as concurrent or sequential disease (10). Herein we are reporting a Pakistani female in her 60s, a carrier of hepatitis B virus with multiple comorbidities presented with cervical lymphadenopathy, diagnosed as Hodgkin’s lymphoma, mixed cellularity. During the staging workup, the patient was discovered to have extensive bone marrow (BM) involvement by Burkitt leukaemia/lymphoma (BL). Cytogenetic analysis revealed positivity for t(8;14)(q24;q32) confirmed by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for IGH/MYC. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was demonstrated heavily in our case, with (EBV) DNA of 24,295,560 copies/ml by PCR at time of presentation, in addition, the neoplastic cells in both diagnostic tissues (cervical lymph node and BM) demonstrated positivity for EBV. A diagnosis of concomitant EBV related discordant lymphoma (classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and Burkitt lymphoma (BL) in leukemic phase was made. Among all reported cases, this case is highly exceptional because it is the first case of discordant/composite lymphoma, with this combination and concomitant presentation. Since we are dealing with a case with an exceptionally rare combination, we found it significant to elaborate more on its clinical features, contributing factors including EBV role, response to treatment, complications, and prognosis. PMID:27512341

  13. A randomized Phase II trial of systemic chemotherapy with and without trastuzumab followed by surgery in HER2-positive advanced gastric or esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma with extensive lymph node metastasis: Japan Clinical Oncology Group study JCOG1301 (Trigger Study).

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Kozo; Tokunaga, Masanori; Mizusawa, Junki; Machida, Nozomu; Katayama, Hiroshi; Shitara, Kohei; Tomita, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Kenichi; Boku, Narikazu; Sano, Takeshi; Terashima, Masanori; Sasako, Mitsuru

    2015-11-01

    Pre-operative chemotherapy with S-1 plus cisplatin is considered to be acceptable as one of the standard treatment options for gastric cancer patients with extensive lymph node metastases in Japan. Addition of trastuzumab to chemotherapy is shown to be effective for HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer patients, and we have commenced a randomized Phase II trial in March 2015 to evaluate S-1 plus cisplatin plus trastuzumab compared with S-1 plus cisplatin alone in the neoadjuvant setting for HER2-positive gastric cancer patients with ELM, which are followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 for 1 year. A total of 130 patients will be accrued from 41 Japanese institutions over 3 years. The primary endpoint is overall survival. The secondary endpoints are progression-free survival, response rate of pre-operative chemotherapy, proportion of patients with R0 resection, proportion of patients who complete the pre-operative chemotherapy and surgery, proportion of patients who complete the protocol treatment including post-operative chemotherapy, pathological response rate and adverse events. This trial has been registered in the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN 000016920.

  14. A 1,3-Dihydro-1,3-azaborine Debuts

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Senmiao; Zakharov, Lev N.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first synthesis and characterization of a 1,3-dihydro-1,3-azaborine, a long-sought BN isostere of benzene. 1,3-Dihydro-1,3-azaborine is a stable structural motif with considerable aromatic character as evidenced by structural analysis and its reaction chemistry. Single crystal X-ray analysis indicates bonding consistent with significant electron delocalization. 1,3-Dihydro-1,3-azaborines also undergo nucleophilic substitutions at boron and electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. In view of the versatility and impact of aromatic compounds in the biomedical field and in materials science, the present study further expands the available chemical space of arenes via BN/CC isosterism. PMID:22091703

  15. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  16. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  17. High 1,3-trans stereoselectivity in nucleophilic substitution at the anomeric position and β-fragmentation of the primary alkoxyl radical in 3-amino-3-deoxy-ribofuranose derivatives: application to the synthesis of 2-epi-(-)-jaspine B.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Eleuterio, Alma; Quintero, Leticia; Sartillo-Piscil, Fernando

    2011-07-01

    The high inverse stereoselectivity in the nucleophilic substitution at the anomeric position of 3-amino-3-deoxy-ribofuranose derivatives is reported. This unprecedented stereoselectivity is explained in terms of preferential nucleophilic attack on the "inside face" of the respective five-membered ring oxocarbenium ion that orients pseudoequatorially to the benzylamine group placed at the C-3 position. In addition, an unusual β-fragmentation of a primary alkoxyl radical generated from its corresponding N-phthalimide derivative was achieved, and thus taking advantages of both reactions, the total synthesis of 2-epi-(-)-jaspine B was completed.

  18. Effect of dietary triacylglycerol structure on lipoprotein metabolism: a comparison of the effects of dioleoylpalmitoylglycerol in which palmitate is esterified to the 2- or 1(3)-position of the glycerol.

    PubMed

    Pufal, D A; Quinlan, P T; Salter, A M

    1995-08-24

    The effect on lipoprotein metabolism of diets enriched in different isomers of dioleoylpalmitoylglycerol was studied. One diet contained fat in which palmitate was esterified to the two outer positions of the glycerol (OOP) and the other in which it was esterified to the middle carbon (OPO). The lipid composition of chylomicrons was similar in rats fed either fat blend. However, triacylglycerol (TAG) in chylomicrons from OPO fed animals was relatively enriched in palmitic acid, at the expense of stearic, oleic and linoleic acids. Silver phase HPLC and 2-positional analysis clearly demonstrated that the identity of the fatty acid in the 2-position was similar in both dietary and chylomicron TAG. No significant differences could be seen in the in vitro hydrolysis of chylomicron TAG from animals fed the two fats labelled with [14C]palmitate. As expected, following hydrolysis, palmitate was released as free fatty acid from chylomicrons isolated from OOP-fed animals but within 2-monoacylglycerol from those fed OPO. The enrichment of chylomicrons with palmitate in animals fed O[14C]PO resulted in increased delivery of [14C]palmitate to the liver. In a further series of experiments Golden Syrian hamsters were fed diets containing the fat blends and either 0.005% or 0.12% (w/w) cholesterol, for 28 days. No differences in fasting plasma lipoprotein concentrations were seen in response to the dietary fats. We conclude that, while these isometric triacylglycerols had transient effects on chylomicron metabolism, no significant longer term effect on plasma concentrations of endogenous lipoproteins could be found. PMID:7654779

  19. Prognostic ability of EndoPredict compared to research-based versions of the PAM50 risk of recurrence (ROR) scores in node-positive, estrogen receptor-positive, and HER2-negative breast cancer. A GEICAM/9906 sub-study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Miguel; Brase, Jan C; Ruiz, Amparo; Prat, Aleix; Kronenwett, Ralf; Calvo, Lourdes; Petry, Christoph; Bernard, Philip S; Ruiz-Borrego, Manuel; Weber, Karsten E; Rodriguez, César A; Alvarez, Isabel M; Segui, Miguel A; Perou, Charles M; Casas, Maribel; Carrasco, Eva; Caballero, Rosalía; Rodriguez-Lescure, Alvaro

    2016-02-01

    There are several prognostic multigene-based tests for managing breast cancer (BC), but limited data comparing them in the same cohort. We compared the prognostic performance of the EndoPredict (EP) test (standardized for pathology laboratory) with the research-based PAM50 non-standardized qRT-PCR assay in node-positive estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and HER2-negative (HER2-) BC patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy followed by endocrine therapy (ET) in the GEICAM/9906 trial. EP and PAM50 risk of recurrence (ROR) scores [based on subtype (ROR-S) and on subtype and proliferation (ROR-P)] were compared in 536 ER+/HER2- patients. Scores combined with clinical information were evaluated: ROR-T (ROR-S, tumor size), ROR-PT (ROR-P, tumor size), and EPclin (EP, tumor size, nodal status). Patients were assigned to risk-categories according to prespecified cutoffs. Distant metastasis-free survival (MFS) was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier. ROR-S, ROR-P, and EP scores identified a low-risk group with a relative better outcome (10-year MFS: ROR-S 87 %; ROR-P 89 %; EP 93 %). There was no significant difference between tests. Predictors including clinical information showed superior prognostic performance compared to molecular scores alone (10-year MFS, low-risk group: ROR-T 88 %; ROR-PT 92 %; EPclin 100 %). The EPclin-based risk stratification achieved a significantly improved prediction of MFS compared to ROR-T, but not ROR-PT. All signatures added prognostic information to common clinical parameters. EPclin provided independent prognostic information beyond ROR-T and ROR-PT. ROR and EP can reliably predict risk of distant metastasis in node-positive ER+/HER2- BC patients treated with chemotherapy and ET. Addition of clinical parameters into risk scores improves their prognostic ability. PMID:26909792

  20. Role of dynamic sentinel node biopsy in carcinoma penis with or without palpable nodes

    PubMed Central

    Kathiresan, N.; Raja, Anand; Ramachandran, Krishna Kumar; Sundersingh, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to evaluate the role of dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSLNB) in patients diagnosed with carcinoma penis and clinically N0 disease using superficial inguinal dissection as the standard staging modality. Materials and Methods: Twenty consecutive men (40 groins) with carcinoma penis having clinically N0 status were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent DSLNB if fine needle aspiration cytology from the groin nodes was negative, followed by injection of radiocolloid and blue dye. The sentinel lymph node(s) were harvested. The inguinal incision was then extended and a modified superficial inguinal dissection was performed and all nodes were labeled separately and sent for frozen section. A completion deep inguinal with pelvic dissection was performed if any of the nodes were reported positive for malignancy. Results: The median age of the patients was 52.5 years. Ten patients were smokers. Phimosis was present in five patients. Lesions were present over the glans penis and shaft in 18 and two patients, respectively. Wide local excision, partial penectomy and total penectomy were performed in one, 15 and four patients, respectively. Clinically palpable nodes were found in 19 groins. Median follow-up was 26 months. Nodes were positive in 10 groins. DSLNB missed the sentinel node in one groin. The accuracy and false-negative rate of DSLNB was 97.5% and 10%, respectively. Conclusion: DSLNB is a useful and reliable technique to identify the involved node(s) in patients diagnosed as having carcinoma penis with clinical N0 status (with or without palpable nodes). It helps to avoid the morbidity associated with a staging inguinal dissection in these patients. PMID:26941496

  1. Trends in the Application of Postmastectomy Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer With 1 to 3 Positive Axillary Nodes and Tumors ≤5 cm in the Modern Treatment Era: A Retrospective Korean Breast Cancer Society Report.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jee Suk; Choi, Jung Eun; Park, Min Ho; Jung, Sung Hoo; Choi, Byung Ock; Park, Hyung Seok; Park, Seho; Kim, Yong Bae

    2016-05-01

    Despite high-level evidence, the benefit of postmastectomy RT in these patients in recent years has not been fully elucidated. We investigated postmastectomy radiotherapy (RT) use and evaluated clinicopathologic and treatment factors influencing RT use in Korean women with pT1-2N1 breast cancer.We identified women diagnosed with pT1-2N1 breast cancer between 1994 and 2009 using the Korean Breast Cancer Registry. Factors associated with RT use were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. The median follow-up was 95 months.Of the 6196 women, 11.9% underwent postmastectomy RT. RT was applied more frequently in women with 3 positive lymph nodes (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.69) and larger tumors (OR per centimeter, 1.10). RT use was not significantly associated with well-established risk factors (e.g., tumor grade, hormone receptor status, and lymphovascular space invasion). Although RT utilization increased gradually during the study period (OR per year, 1.07), factors associated with RT were similar over time. The estimated 5-year overall survival increased significantly from 84.1% in 1994 to 2000 to 94.6% in 2005 to 2009.This population-based analysis revealed that the indications for postmastectomy RT in pT1-2N1 breast cancer in Korea are based solely on conventional anatomical factors, although their survival has increased significantly in the modern treatment era. There is a significant unmet need for better risk stratification in these patients and for tailored RT with the incorporation of tumor biology-associated factors. PMID:27175662

  2. Cost-effectiveness of a 21-gene recurrence score assay versus Canadian clinical practice in women with early-stage estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-positive, axillary lymph-node negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A 21-gene recurrence score (RS) assay may inform adjuvant systematic treatment decisions in women with early stage breast cancer. We sought to investigate the cost effectiveness of using the RS-assay versus current clinical practice (CCP) in women with early-stage estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-positive, axilliary lymph-node negative breast cancer (ER+/ PR + LN- ESBC) from the perspective of the Canadian public healthcare system. Methods We developed a Markov model to project the lifetime clinical and economic consequences of ESBC. We evaluated adjuvant therapy separately in post- and pre-menopausal women with ER+/ PR + LN- ESBC. We assumed that the RS-assay would reclassify pre- and post-menopausal women among risk levels (low, intermediate and high) and guide adjuvant systematic treatment decisions. The model was parameterized using 7 year follow up data from the Manitoba Cancer Registry, cost data from Manitoba administrative databases, and secondary sources. Costs are presented in 2010 CAD. Future costs and benefits were discounted at 5%. Results The RS-assay compared to CCP generated cost-savings in pre-menopausal women and had an ICER of $60,000 per QALY gained in post-menopausal women. The cost effectiveness was most sensitive to the proportion of women classified as intermediate risk by the RS-assay who receive adjuvant chemotherapy and the risk of relapse in the RS-assay model. Conclusions The RS-assay is likely to be cost effective in the Canadian healthcare system and should be considered for adoption in women with ER+/ PR + LN- ESBC. However, ongoing assessment and validation of the assay in real-world clinical practice is warranted. PMID:23031196

  3. Underwater Sensor Nodes and Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Sensor technology has matured enough to be used in any type of environment. The appearance of new physical sensors has increased the range of environmental parameters for gathering data. Because of the huge amount of unexploited resources in the ocean environment, there is a need of new research in the field of sensors and sensor networks. This special issue is focused on collecting recent advances on underwater sensors and underwater sensor networks in order to measure, monitor, surveillance of and control of underwater environments. On the one hand, from the sensor node perspective, we will see works related with the deployment of physical sensors, development of sensor nodes and transceivers for sensor nodes, sensor measurement analysis and several issues such as layer 1 and 2 protocols for underwater communication and sensor localization and positioning systems. On the other hand, from the sensor network perspective, we will see several architectures and protocols for underwater environments and analysis concerning sensor network measurements. Both sides will provide us a complete view of last scientific advances in this research field. PMID:24013489

  4. Lymph node hyalinization in elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, I; Murakami, G; Sato, A; Fujiwara, D; Ichikawa, H; Yajima, T; Kohama, G

    2003-10-01

    Lymph node hyalinization has been comprehensively investigated using specimens obtained from elderly Japanese and white Americans. Onion-peel lesions and associated meshwork areas were often found in the medullary sinus of the thoracic node (mediastinal-type hyalinization), while eosinophilic, glassy and spotty lesions were consistently seen in B lymphocyte areas of the pelvic node (pelvic-type hyalinization). The mediastinal-type hyalinization was comprised of thin collagen fibrils (ca 50 nm in diameter), whereas the pelvic-type hyalinization had thick fibrils (ca 150 nm in diameter). This difference seemed to be consistent with a difference in composite collagen fibrils of vascular walls between the thoracic and pelvic regions. The pelvic-type hyalinization was often or sometimes seen in other nodes, such as cervical, axillary, abdominal and inguinal nodes, especially in white Americans. The mediastinal-type hyalinization, usually in combination with a sinus filled with anthracotic macrophages, tended to be observed in Japanese more frequently than in white Americans. Anthracosis seemed to be connected to the pathogenesis of the hyalinization. On the other hand, because the lesion was weakly positive for Factor VIII immunohistochemistry and because lesions were located along thin vessels, the pelvic-type hyalinization seemed to originate from vascular degeneration in the nodal cortex. Due to the high incidence and large proportion in total volume of the node, the hyalinization seems to be one of the major events that diminish the nodal filtration function and ruin the node with aging. PMID:12973685

  5. Parallel node placement method by bubble simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yufeng; Zhang, Weiwei; Qi, Nan; Li, Yiqiang

    2014-03-01

    An efficient Parallel Node Placement method by Bubble Simulation (PNPBS), employing METIS-based domain decomposition (DD) for an arbitrary number of processors is introduced. In accordance with the desired nodal density and Newton’s Second Law of Motion, automatic generation of node sets by bubble simulation has been demonstrated in previous work. Since the interaction force between nodes is short-range, for two distant nodes, their positions and velocities can be updated simultaneously and independently during dynamic simulation, which indicates the inherent property of parallelism, it is quite suitable for parallel computing. In this PNPBS method, the METIS-based DD scheme has been investigated for uniform and non-uniform node sets, and dynamic load balancing is obtained by evenly distributing work among the processors. For the nodes near the common interface of two neighboring subdomains, there is no need for special treatment after dynamic simulation. These nodes have good geometrical properties and a smooth density distribution which is desirable in the numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDEs). The results of numerical examples show that quasi linear speedup in the number of processors and high efficiency are achieved.

  6. 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,3,5 - Trinitrobenzene ; CASRN 99 - 35 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  7. Executing scatter operation to parallel computer nodes by repeatedly broadcasting content of send buffer partition corresponding to each node upon bitwise OR operation

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Ratterman, Joseph D.

    2009-11-06

    Executing a scatter operation on a parallel computer includes: configuring a send buffer on a logical root, the send buffer having positions, each position corresponding to a ranked node in an operational group of compute nodes and for storing contents scattered to that ranked node; and repeatedly for each position in the send buffer: broadcasting, by the logical root to each of the other compute nodes on a global combining network, the contents of the current position of the send buffer using a bitwise OR operation, determining, by each compute node, whether the current position in the send buffer corresponds with the rank of that compute node, if the current position corresponds with the rank, receiving the contents and storing the contents in a reception buffer of that compute node, and if the current position does not correspond with the rank, discarding the contents.

  8. Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Breast Carcinoma A Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Aoife; Brogi, Edi

    2016-01-01

    Context Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been established as the new standard of care for axillary staging in most patients with invasive breast carcinoma. Historically, all patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy result underwent axillary lymph node dissection. Recent trials show that axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in women with clinically node negative, T1 or T2 invasive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast radiotherapy. This change in practice also has implications on the pathologic examination and reporting of sentinel lymph nodes. Objective To review recent clinical and pathologic studies of sentinel lymph nodes and explore how these findings influence the pathologic evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes. Data Sources Sources were published articles from peer-reviewed journals in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) and published guidelines from the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the Union for International Cancer Control, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Conclusions The main goal of sentinel lymph node examination should be to detect all macrometastases (>2 mm). Grossly sectioning sentinel lymph nodes at 2-mm intervals and evaluation of one hematoxylin-eosin–stained section from each block is the preferred method of pathologic evaluation. Axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in clinically node-negative patients with negative sentinel lymph nodes, as well as in a selected group of patients with limited sentinel lymph node involvement. The pathologic features of the primary carcinoma and its sentinel lymph node metastases contribute to estimate the extent of non–sentinel lymph node involvement. This information is important to decide on further axillary treatment. PMID:27472237

  9. Transbronchial aspiration of subcarinal lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Blainey, A D; Curling, M; Green, M

    1988-04-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration of subcarinal lymph nodes has been undertaken in 60 consecutive patients with pulmonary malignancies undergoing routine fibreoptic bronchoscopy. Four aspirates from the subcarinal nodes contained malignant cells; three squamous cell carcinoma and one adenocarcinoma. Four of 40 (10%) of patients with non-small-cell carcinoma of the lung had a positive aspirate. We have not confirmed the high positive rate previously reported, but nevertheless transbronchial needle aspiration provided useful staging information in some patients. The technique is rapid, safe and simple, and can easily be applied in a routine bronchoscopy service for all patients with suspected cancer, or selected patients under active consideration for surgery. PMID:3166928

  10. Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Large Intestine: Clinicopathological Features and Predictive Factors of Lymph Node Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Motohiro; Ikeda, Koji; Saito, Norio; Sakuyama, Naoki; Koushi, Kenichi; Kawano, Shingo; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Sugihara, Kenichi; Ito, Masaaki; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    A new histological classification of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) was established in WHO 2010. ENET and NCCN proposed treatment algorithms for colorectal NET. Retrospective study of NET of the large intestine (colorectal and appendiceal NET) was performed among institutions allied with the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum, and 760 neuroendocrine tumors from 2001 to 2011 were re-assessed using WHO 2010 criteria to elucidate the clinicopathological features of NET in the large intestine. Next, the clinicopathological relationship with lymph node metastasis was analyzed to predict lymph node metastasis in locally resected rectal NET. The primary site was rectum in 718/760 cases (94.5%), colon in 30/760 cases (3.9%), and appendix in 12/760 cases (1.6%). Patients were predominantly men (61.6%) with a mean age of 58.7 years. Tumor size was <10 mm in 65.4% of cases. Proportions of NET G1, G2, G3, and mixed adeno-neuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) were 88.4, 6.3, 3.9, and 1.3%, respectively. Of the 760 tumors, 468 were locally resected, and 292 were surgically resected with lymph node dissection. Rectal NET showed a higher proportion of NET G1, and colonic and appendiceal NET was more commonly G3 and MANEC. Of the 292 surgically resected cases, 233 NET G1 and G2 located in the rectum were used for the prediction of lymph node metastasis. Lymphatic and blood vessel invasion were independent predictive factors of lymph node metastasis. NET G2 cases showed more frequent lymph node metastasis than that seen in NET G1 cases, but this was not an independent predictor of lymph node metastasis. Of the 98 surgically resected cases <10 mm in size, we found 9 cases with lymph node metastasis (9.2%). All cases were NET G1, and eight of the nine cases were positive either for lymphatic invasion or blood vessel invasion. Using the WHO classification, we found NET in the large intestine showed a tumor-site-dependent variety of histological and clinicopathological

  11. Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Large Intestine: Clinicopathological Features and Predictive Factors of Lymph Node Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Motohiro; Ikeda, Koji; Saito, Norio; Sakuyama, Naoki; Koushi, Kenichi; Kawano, Shingo; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Sugihara, Kenichi; Ito, Masaaki; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    A new histological classification of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) was established in WHO 2010. ENET and NCCN proposed treatment algorithms for colorectal NET. Retrospective study of NET of the large intestine (colorectal and appendiceal NET) was performed among institutions allied with the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum, and 760 neuroendocrine tumors from 2001 to 2011 were re-assessed using WHO 2010 criteria to elucidate the clinicopathological features of NET in the large intestine. Next, the clinicopathological relationship with lymph node metastasis was analyzed to predict lymph node metastasis in locally resected rectal NET. The primary site was rectum in 718/760 cases (94.5%), colon in 30/760 cases (3.9%), and appendix in 12/760 cases (1.6%). Patients were predominantly men (61.6%) with a mean age of 58.7 years. Tumor size was <10 mm in 65.4% of cases. Proportions of NET G1, G2, G3, and mixed adeno-neuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) were 88.4, 6.3, 3.9, and 1.3%, respectively. Of the 760 tumors, 468 were locally resected, and 292 were surgically resected with lymph node dissection. Rectal NET showed a higher proportion of NET G1, and colonic and appendiceal NET was more commonly G3 and MANEC. Of the 292 surgically resected cases, 233 NET G1 and G2 located in the rectum were used for the prediction of lymph node metastasis. Lymphatic and blood vessel invasion were independent predictive factors of lymph node metastasis. NET G2 cases showed more frequent lymph node metastasis than that seen in NET G1 cases, but this was not an independent predictor of lymph node metastasis. Of the 98 surgically resected cases <10 mm in size, we found 9 cases with lymph node metastasis (9.2%). All cases were NET G1, and eight of the nine cases were positive either for lymphatic invasion or blood vessel invasion. Using the WHO classification, we found NET in the large intestine showed a tumor-site-dependent variety of histological and clinicopathological

  12. Estimation of thyroglobulin in lymph node aspirates: Pilot experience from a tertiary referral cancer center

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Subramanian; Chauhan, Subhra; Naveen; Latha, B. S.; Raju, Nalini; Chandrasekhar, Naveen Hedne; Kekatpure, Vikram; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Manjunath, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Assessment of cervical lymph node involvement in patients with thyroid cancer either during preoperative surgical mapping or detection of recurrences during follow-up is a crucial step in the management of differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs). In most patients, fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) confirms the presence of metastasis in lymph node. However, in cases of paucicellular lymph node aspirate or discordant sonogram and cytology results, thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement in the lymph node aspirate (FNA-Tg) is useful and a value >1 ng/ml is considered consistent with metastatic disease. Context: The addition of FNAC to the US improves the specificity, but 5–10% are nondiagnostic and 6–8% rate of false-negative results. Several studies have reported that the detection of Tg in FNA-needle washes improves the evaluation of suspicious lymph nodes in patients with DTC.Data from Indian centers on FNA-Tg are limited. Aims: We piloted the utility of FNA-Tg in patients with sonographically suspicious cervical lymph node enlargement in the setting of suspicious thyroid nodule or in the follow-up of thyroid cancer. Settings and Design: Prospective data collection. Results: We measured Tg in 13 lymph node aspirates (12 patients, 10 females) among whom 4 patients had a total thyroidectomy and 1 had a hemithyroidectomy. Eight of the 13 lymph node aspirates had FNA-Tg values >150 ng/ml, all of them had unequivocal malignant cytology and four among them had proven metastatic DTC on surgical pathology. The median FNA-Tg of the patients with malignant cytology was 7550 ng/ml with a range of 162–30,000 ng/ml. Among the remaining 5 lymph node aspirate, 2 lymph nodes showed cytological features suggestive of reactive lymphadenitis (FNA-Tg <0.2 ng/ml) and were not operated, 1 had a high-grade malignancy consistent with anaplastic thyroid cancer (FNA-Tg <0.2 ng/ml), and 2 had nondiagnostic cytology (one had non-caseating granuloma on surgical pathology [FNA-Tg 1.3

  13. Multiplex networks with heterogeneous activities of the nodes.

    PubMed

    Cellai, Davide; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-03-01

    In multiplex networks with a large number of layers, the nodes can have different activities, indicating the total number of layers in which the nodes are present. Here we model multiplex networks with heterogeneous activity of the nodes and we study their robustness properties. We introduce a percolation model where nodes need to belong to the giant component only on the layers where they are active (i.e., their degree on that layer is larger than zero). We show that when there are enough nodes active only in one layer, the multiplex becomes more resilient and the transition becomes continuous. We find that multiplex networks with a power-law distribution of node activities are more fragile if the distribution of activity is broader. We also show that while positive correlations between node activity and degree can enhance the robustness of the system, the phase transition may become discontinuous, making the system highly unpredictable. PMID:27078361

  14. Swollen lymph nodes

    MedlinePlus

    ... fingers) include: Groin Armpit Neck (there is a chain of lymph nodes on either side of the front of the neck, both sides of the neck, and down each side of the back of the neck) Under the jaw and chin Behind the ears On the back of the head

  15. XQL and Proximal Nodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Navarro, Gonzalo

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of models that have been developed to structure text documents for information retrieval focuses on XML and its proposed query language XQL. Considers efficiency of the query engine and shows that an already existing model, Proximal Nodes, can be used as an efficient query engine behind an XQL front-end. (Author/LRW)

  16. Cervical lymph node diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Stephan; Kansy, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The lymph nodes are an essential part of the body’s immune system and as such are affected in many infectious, autoimmune, metabolic and malignant diseases. The cervical lymph nodes are particularly important because they are the first drainage stations for key points of contact with the outside world (mouth/throat/nose/eyes/ears/respiratory system) – a critical aspect especially among children – and can represent an early clinical sign in their exposed position on a child’s slim neck. Involvement of the lymph nodes in multiple conditions is accompanied by a correspondingly large number of available diagnostic procedures. In the interests of time, patient wellbeing and cost, a careful choice of these must be made to permit appropriate treatment. The basis of diagnostic decisions is a detailed anamnesis and clinical examination. Sonography also plays an important role in differential diagnosis of lymph node swelling in children and is useful in answering one of the critical diagnostic questions: is there a suspicion of malignancy? If so, full dissection of the most conspicuous lymph node may be necessary to obtain histological confirmation. Diagnosis and treatment of childhood cervical lymph node disorders present the attending pediatric and ENT physicians with some particular challenges. The spectrum of differential diagnoses and the varying degrees of clinical relevance – from banal infections to malignant diseases – demand a clear and considered approach to the child’s individual clinical presentation. Such an approach is described in the following paper. PMID:25587368

  17. Gamma-probe guided localization of lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Alex, J C; Krag, D N

    1993-01-01

    The initial draining lymph node (Sentinel node) of a tumour may reflect the status of the tumours spread to the remaining lymphatic bed. The sentinel node, which has been reported to predict metastatic melanoma, has recently been localized by a new invasive technique [1]. The goal of our pre-clinical trial was to test a non-invasive technique to localize the sentinel node. Gamma-probe guided localization was used to identify and then surgically remove the first draining lymph node(s) in 16 inguinal lymphatic basins of eight cats. This method was found to be comparable to an invasive method using a blue dye. Gamma-probe localization has several potential advantages in that it can: (a) precisely locate on the surface of the skin the position of an underlying lymph node, (b) intraoperatively guide the surgeon to the lymph node during dissection, (c) verify that the correct node has been biopsied, (d) determine the possible presence of residual lymph nodes, (e) allow lymph nodes to be harvested through a small incision as opposed to raising a skin flap, and (f) be rapidly and easily performed.

  18. Preparation, characterization of LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} film cathode.

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S. H.; Abraham, D. P.; Chemical Engineering

    2006-01-01

    Positive electrodes based on the LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} material are being evaluated in high-power lithium-ion cells for hybrid-electric vehicle applications. To determine performance degradation mechanisms that are associated with the active material, we prepared carbon- and binder-free LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} film cathode on a Pt substrate using a sol-gel spin coating technique. The material was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Initial data from cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements conducted on the electrodes are reported.

  19. The lymph node neutrophil.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Henry R; Chtanova, Tatyana

    2016-04-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs provide a specialized microenvironment tailored to foster communication between cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. These interactions allow immune cells to coordinate multilayered defense against pathogens. Until recently dendritic cells and macrophages were thought to comprise the main innate immune cell subsets responsible for delivering signals that drive the adaptive immune response, while the function of neutrophils was largely confined to the innate immune system. However, the discovery of neutrophils in lymph nodes has raised the question of whether neutrophils might play a more extensive role not only in innate immunity per se, but also in coordinating the interactions between innate and adaptive immune responses. In this review we discuss the mechanisms and consequences of neutrophil recruitment to lymph nodes and how this recruitment influences subsequent immune responses both in situ and at distant sites. PMID:27025975

  20. One node driving synchronisation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengwei; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S

    2015-01-01

    Abrupt changes of behaviour in complex networks can be triggered by a single node. This work describes the dynamical fundamentals of how the behaviour of one node affects the whole network formed by coupled phase-oscillators with heterogeneous coupling strengths. The synchronisation of phase-oscillators is independent of the distribution of the natural frequencies, weakly depends on the network size, but highly depends on only one key oscillator whose ratio between its natural frequency in a rotating frame and its coupling strength is maximum. This result is based on a novel method to calculate the critical coupling strength with which the phase-oscillators emerge into frequency synchronisation. In addition, we put forward an analytical method to approximately calculate the phase-angles for the synchronous oscillators.

  1. Anatomy and nomenclature of murine lymph nodes: Descriptive study and nomenclatory standardization in BALB/cAnNCrl mice.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Wim; Derore, Annie; Simoens, Paul

    2006-05-30

    Murine lymph nodes are intensively studied but often assigned incorrectly in scientific papers. In BALB/cAnNCrl mice, we characterized a total of 22 different lymph nodes. Peripheral nodes were situated in the head and neck region (mandibular, accessory mandibular, superficial parotid, cranial deep cervical nodes), and at the forelimb (proper axillary, accessory axillary nodes) and hindlimb (subiliac, sciatic, popliteal nodes). Intrathoracic lymph nodes included the cranial mediastinal, tracheobronchal and caudal mediastinal nodes. Abdominal lymph nodes were associated with the gastrointestinal tract (gastric, pancreaticoduodenal, jejunal, colic, caudal mesenteric nodes) or were located along the major intra-abdominal blood vessels (renal, lumbar aortic, lateral iliac, medial iliac and external iliac nodes). Comparative and nomenclative aspects of murine lymph nodes are discussed. The position of the lymph nodes of BALB/cAnNCrl mice is summarized and illustrated in an anatomical chart containing proposals for both an official nomenclature according to the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and English terms.

  2. FL V1.3

    2009-08-03

    A library of utility classes for computer vision. Contains implementations of various well-known image processing techniques, such as interest point operators and region descriptors. Includes interfaces to various libraries for image and video I/O, as well as an interface to LAPACK/BLAS. FL was developed at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) and released under an open source license. Version 1.2 was a maintenance release provided by SNL under the LGPL license. Version 1.3 is amore » maintenance release, containing the following changes: - Improved image format handling. Now handles strided and planar memory layouts and a wider range of pixel formats. - Improved image file I/O, including better support for metadata, a wider range of stored pixel types, and a couple of new file formats. - Improvements to DOG and SIFT, and efficiency improvements in low-level convolution. - Improvements to networking, including a generic TCP listener. - Various improvements to numerical processing. The HISTORY file included in the distribution contains a more detailed description of the changes.« less

  3. FL V1.3

    SciTech Connect

    Rothganger, Frederick

    2009-08-03

    A library of utility classes for computer vision. Contains implementations of various well-known image processing techniques, such as interest point operators and region descriptors. Includes interfaces to various libraries for image and video I/O, as well as an interface to LAPACK/BLAS. FL was developed at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) and released under an open source license. Version 1.2 was a maintenance release provided by SNL under the LGPL license. Version 1.3 is a maintenance release, containing the following changes: - Improved image format handling. Now handles strided and planar memory layouts and a wider range of pixel formats. - Improved image file I/O, including better support for metadata, a wider range of stored pixel types, and a couple of new file formats. - Improvements to DOG and SIFT, and efficiency improvements in low-level convolution. - Improvements to networking, including a generic TCP listener. - Various improvements to numerical processing. The HISTORY file included in the distribution contains a more detailed description of the changes.

  4. Novel method and applications for labeling and identifying lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiraly, Atilla P.; Naidich, David P.; Guendel, Lutz; Zhang, Li; Novak, Carol L.

    2007-03-01

    The lymphatic system comprises a series of interconnected lymph nodes that are commonly distributed along branching or linearly oriented anatomic structures. Physicians must evaluate lymph nodes when staging cancer and planning optimal paths for nodal biopsy. This process requires accurately determining the lymph node's position with respect to major anatomical landmarks. In an effort to standardize lung cancer staging, The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has classified lymph nodes within the chest into 4 groups and 14 sub groups. We present a method for automatically labeling lymph nodes according to this classification scheme, in order to improve the speed and accuracy of staging and biopsy planning. Lymph nodes within the chest are clustered around the major blood vessels and the airways. Our fully automatic labeling method determines the nodal group and sub-group in chest CT data by use of computed airway and aorta centerlines to produce features relative to a given node location. A classifier then determines the label based upon these features. We evaluate the efficacy of the method on 10 chest CT datasets containing 86 labeled lymph nodes. The results are promising with 100% of the nodes assigned to the correct group and 76% to the correct sub-group. We anticipate that additional features and training data will further improve the results. In addition to labeling, other applications include automated lymph node localization and visualization. Although we focus on chest CT data, the method can be generalized to other regions of the body as well as to different imaging modalities.

  5. Alternative staging of regional lymph nodes in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Szczepanik, Antoni M.; Paszko, Agata; Szura, Miroslaw; Scully-Horner, Thecla; Kulig, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The TNM pN stage based on the number of metastatic lymph nodes is an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Many studies have highlighted the phenomenon of stage migration and problems in comparing groups of patients with different numbers of total lymph nodes harvested within TNM staging. The current version of UICC/AJCC and JGCA TNM classifications postulates a minimal number of 16 lymph nodes as the base for N stage determination. Alternative systems such as lymph node ratio (LNR), positive to negative lymph node ratio (PNLNR), and LOGODDS (or LODDS), were implemented to increase the quality of LN assessment. These methods have reached the background in the literature, but to date no standard approach according to the cut-offs for the stages has been implemented. LOGODDS is the method that most reflects the number of harvested lymph nodes. The rationale for alternative staging methods, their correlations, and limitations are presented. PMID:27713774

  6. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alsaif, Abdulaziz A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To report our experience in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in early breast cancer. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2014. There were 120 patients who underwent SLNB with frozen section examination. Data collected included the characteristics of patients, index tumor, and sentinel node (SN), SLNB results, axillary recurrence rate and SLNB morbidity. Results: There were 120 patients who had 123 cancers. Sentinel node was identified in 117 patients having 120 tumors (97.6% success rate). No SN was found intraoperatively in 3 patients. Frozen section results showed that 95 patients were SN negative, those patients had no immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), whereas 25 patients were SN positive and subsequently had immediate ALND. Upon further examination of the 95 negative SN’s by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining for doubtful H&E cases, 10 turned out to have micrometastases (6 had delayed ALND and 4 had no further axillary surgery). Median follow up of patients was 35.5 months and the mean was 38.8 months. There was one axillary recurrence observed in the SN negative group. The morbidity of SLNB was minimal. Conclusion: The obtainable results from our local experience in SLNB in breast cancer, concur with that seen in published similar literature in particular the axillary failure rate. Sentinel lymph node biopsy resulted in minimal morbidity. PMID:26318461

  7. Risk of node metastasis of sentinel lymph nodes detected in level II/III of the axilla by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    SHIMA, HIROAKI; KUTOMI, GORO; SATOMI, FUKINO; MAEDA, HIDEKI; TAKAMARU, TOMOKO; KAMESHIMA, HIDEKAZU; OMURA, TOSEI; MORI, MITSURU; HATAKENAKA, MASAMITSU; HASEGAWA, TADASHI; HIRATA, KOICHI

    2014-01-01

    In breast cancer, single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) shows the exact anatomical location of sentinel nodes (SN). SPECT/CT mainly exposes axilla and partly exposes atypical sites of extra-axillary lymphatic drainage. The mechanism of how the atypical hot nodes are involved in lymphatic metastasis was retrospectively investigated in the present study, particularly at the level II/III region. SPECT/CT was performed in 92 clinical stage 0-IIA breast cancer patients. Sentinel lymph nodes are depicted as hot nodes in SPECT/CT. Patients were divided into two groups: With or without hot node in level II/III on SPECT/CT. The existence of metastasis in level II/III was investigated and the risk factors were identified. A total of 12 patients were sentinel lymph node biopsy metastasis positive and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was performed. These patients were divided into two groups: With and without SN in level II/III, and nodes in level II/III were pathologically proven. In 11 of the 92 patients, hot nodes were detected in level II/III. There was a significant difference in node metastasis depending on whether there were hot nodes in level II/III (P=0.0319). Multivariate analysis indicated that the hot nodes in level II/III and lymphatic invasion were independent factors associated with node metastasis. There were 12 SN-positive patients followed by ALND. In four of the 12 patients, hot nodes were observed in level II/III. Two of the four patients with hot nodes depicted by SPECT/CT and metastatic nodes were pathologically evident in the same lesion. Therefore, the present study indicated that the hot node in level II/III as depicted by SPECT/CT may be a risk of SN metastasis, including deeper nodes. PMID:25289038

  8. Sentinel node identification by scintigraphic methods in cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Dias Moreira, R; Altino de Almeida, S; Maliska Guimarães, C M; Resende, J F; Gutfilen, B; Barbosa da Fonseca, L M

    2005-06-01

    have at least one sentinel lymph node during surgery. Frozen section analysis of the lymph node was only able to identify the disease in 35% of the patients eventually found to have micrometastases with H&E and immunohistochemistry. Two lymph nodes were negative with H&E and positive with immunohistochemical analysis. In conclusion, lymphoscintigraphy is a simple procedure that is well tolerated by patients. It is useful in locating sentinel lymph nodes in patients with melanoma and is an important tool in the clinical practice of oncology. We recommend performing H&E, and if necessary, immunohistochemical analysis of all sentinel lymph nodes because of the high rate of false negative results with frozen sections alone.

  9. Gene promoter hypermethylation is found in sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients, in samples identified as positive by one-step nucleic acid amplification of cytokeratin 19 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sánchez, E; Pernaut-Leza, E; Mendaza, S; Cordoba, A; Vicente-Garcia, F; Monreal-Santesteban, I; Vizcaino, J Pérez; De Cerio, M J Díaz; Perez-Janices, N; Blanco-Luquin, I; Escors, D; Ulazia-Garmendia, A; Guerrero-Setas, D

    2016-07-01

    We analysed the promoter methylation status of five genes, involved in adhesion (EPB41L3, TSLC-1), apoptosis (RASSF1, RASSF2) or angiogenesis (TSP-1), in intraoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy samples from patients with breast cancer, that had been processed by the one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) technique. SLN resection is performed to estimate the risk of tumour cells in the clinically negative axilla, to avoid unnecessary axillary lymph node dissection. OSNA is currently one of the eligible molecular methods for detecting tumour cells in SLNs. It is based on the quantitative evaluation of cytokeratin 19 mRNA which allows distinguishing between macrometastasis, micrometastasis and isolated tumour cells, on the basis of the quantity of tumour cells present. There have been no prior studies on the question whether or not samples processed by OSNA can be used for further molecular studies, including epigenetic abnormalities which are some of the most important molecular alterations in breast cancer. Genomic DNA was extracted from samples obtained from 50 patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer. The content of tumour cells in SLNs was evaluated by OSNA, and the promoter methylation status of the selected genes was analysed by methylation-specific PCR. All were found to be hypermethylated to a variable degree, and RASSF1 hypermethylation was significantly associated with macrometastasis, micrometastasis and isolated tumour cells (p = 0.002). We show that samples used for OSNA are suitable for molecular studies, including gene promoter methylation. These samples provide a new source of material for the identification of additional biomarkers. PMID:27097811

  10. Identifying logical planes formed of compute nodes of a subcommunicator in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Kristan D.; Faraj, Daniel A.

    2016-03-01

    In a parallel computer, a plurality of logical planes formed of compute nodes of a subcommunicator may be identified by: for each compute node of the subcommunicator and for a number of dimensions beginning with a first dimension: establishing, by a plane building node, in a positive direction of the first dimension, all logical planes that include the plane building node and compute nodes of the subcommunicator in a positive direction of a second dimension, where the second dimension is orthogonal to the first dimension; and establishing, by the plane building node, in a negative direction of the first dimension, all logical planes that include the plane building node and compute nodes of the subcommunicator in the positive direction of the second dimension.

  11. Identifying logical planes formed of compute nodes of a subcommunicator in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Kristan D.; Faraj, Daniel

    2016-05-03

    In a parallel computer, a plurality of logical planes formed of compute nodes of a subcommunicator may be identified by: for each compute node of the subcommunicator and for a number of dimensions beginning with a first dimension: establishing, by a plane building node, in a positive direction of the first dimension, all logical planes that include the plane building node and compute nodes of the subcommunicator in a positive direction of a second dimension, where the second dimension is orthogonal to the first dimension; and establishing, by the plane building node, in a negative direction of the first dimension, all logical planes that include the plane building node and compute nodes of the subcommunicator in the positive direction of the second dimension.

  12. Coarse-node computations with an adaptive node structure

    SciTech Connect

    Tzanos, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    The analysis with COMMIX of liquid metal reactor (LMR) intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) transients that are characterized by low flows, and especially imbalanced low flows, shows that if a coarse-node structure is used the predicted temperatures are significantly different than those given by a fine-node structure. If a fine-node structure is used, for problems that involve a large part of the plant, the computation time becomes excessive. This paper presents an improved version of an adaptive node structure. At this stage this version has been applied only to one-dimensional problems.

  13. Implementation of bipartite or remote unitary gates with repeater nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Li; Nemoto, Kae

    2016-08-01

    We propose some protocols to implement various classes of bipartite unitary operations on two remote parties with the help of repeater nodes in-between. We also present a protocol to implement a single-qubit unitary with parameters determined by a remote party with the help of up to three repeater nodes. It is assumed that the neighboring nodes are connected by noisy photonic channels, and the local gates can be performed quite accurately, while the decoherence of memories is significant. A unitary is often a part of a larger computation or communication task in a quantum network, and to reduce the amount of decoherence in other systems of the network, we focus on the goal of saving the total time for implementing a unitary including the time for entanglement preparation. We review some previously studied protocols that implement bipartite unitaries using local operations and classical communication and prior shared entanglement, and apply them to the situation with repeater nodes without prior entanglement. We find that the protocols using piecewise entanglement between neighboring nodes often require less total time compared to preparing entanglement between the two end nodes first and then performing the previously known protocols. For a generic bipartite unitary, as the number of repeater nodes increases, the total time could approach the time cost for direct signal transfer from one end node to the other. We also prove some lower bounds of the total time when there are a small number of repeater nodes. The application to position-based cryptography is discussed.

  14. Identifying highly influential nodes in the complicated grief network.

    PubMed

    Robinaugh, Donald J; Millner, Alexander J; McNally, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    The network approach to psychopathology conceptualizes mental disorders as networks of mutually reinforcing nodes (i.e., symptoms). Researchers adopting this approach have suggested that network topology can be used to identify influential nodes, with nodes central to the network having the greatest influence on the development and maintenance of the disorder. However, because commonly used centrality indices do not distinguish between positive and negative edges, they may not adequately assess the nature and strength of a node's influence within the network. To address this limitation, we developed 2 indices of a node's expected influence (EI) that account for the presence of negative edges. To evaluate centrality and EI indices, we simulated single-node interventions on randomly generated networks. In networks with exclusively positive edges, centrality and EI were both strongly associated with observed node influence. In networks with negative edges, EI was more strongly associated with observed influence than was centrality. We then used data from a longitudinal study of bereavement to examine the association between (a) a node's centrality and EI in the complicated grief (CG) network and (b) the strength of association between change in that node and change in the remainder of the CG network from 6- to 18-months postloss. Centrality and EI were both correlated with the strength of the association between node change and network change. Together, these findings suggest high-EI nodes, such as emotional pain and feelings of emptiness, may be especially important to the etiology and treatment of CG. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27505622

  15. Isolated axillary lymph node tuberculosis in ultrasonography. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Urbańska-Krawiec, Dagmara; Kajor, Maciej; Stefański, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case of isolated axillary lymph node tuberculosis. A 66-year-old patient was admitted in order to perform the diagnostics of a painless tumor of the left armpit. Blood biochemistry tests and chest X-ray did not show any abnormalities. In the ultrasound examination a solid structure of the dimensions of 1.8×1 cm of irregular outline with adjacent hypoechogenic lymph nodes was visualized. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was based on histopathologic examination of the excised tumor. In the latter years an increase in extrapulmonary type of tuberculosis has been observed. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis may appear in practically each organ, nevertheless it affects pleura most often. Lymph node tuberculosis is the second, when it comes to the prevalence rate, type of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. In the majority of cases of lymph node tuberculosis it affects superficial lymph nodes. In the ultrasound examination a packet of pathological, enlarged and hypoechogenic lymph nodes is stated. In 1/3 of cases the central part of the nodes is hyperechogenic which indicates its caseation necrosis. Lymph nodes have a tendency to be matted and they have blurred outline. We observed this type of lymph node image in the presented patient. This image may be a diagnostic hint. Nevertheless, in the differentiation diagnostics one should take many other disease entities into consideration, inter alia: sarcoidosis, lymphomas, fungal infections, neoplastic metastases; the latter ones have an image most similar to tuberculosis lymph nodes. Tuberculosis ought to be considered in differential diagnosis of atypical masses. PMID:26674808

  16. Study of the consumption of the additive prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone in Li[Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33]O2/graphite pouch cells and evidence of positive-negative electrode interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petibon, R.; Madec, L.; Rotermund, L. M.; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-05-01

    The consumption of the additive prop-1-ene-1,3-sultone (PES) in Li[Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33]O2/graphite (NMC(111)/graphite) pouch cells during the first cycle and after hold periods at different cell potentials was measured using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS measurements of the electrolyte of NMC(111)/graphite pouch cells during the first charge showed that the amount of PES consumed, and the cell impedance, increased with increasing starting concentration up to a starting concentration of 5 wt% and then seemed to slow down at higher starting concentration. Additive consumption measurements after holding periods showed that PES is consumed in measurable amounts at the positive electrode, suggesting that PES oxidizes at potentials as low as 4.27 V vs. Li/Li+ on the NMC(111) surface. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on symmetric cells as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of electrodes salvaged from NMC(111)/graphite cells after hold periods at various cell potentials strongly support the existence of a positive-negative electrode interaction.

  17. Lymph node staging in colorectal cancer: Old controversies and recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Resch, Annika; Langner, Cord

    2013-01-01

    Outcome prediction based on tumor stage reflected by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) tumor node metastasis (TNM) system is currently regarded as the strongest prognostic parameter for patients with colorectal cancer. For affected patients, the indication for adjuvant therapy is mainly guided by the presence of regional lymph node metastasis. In addition to the extent of surgical lymph node removal and the thoroughness of the pathologist in dissecting the resection specimen, several parameters that are related to the pathological work-up of the dissected nodes may affect the clinical significance of lymph node staging. These include changing definitions of lymph nodes, involved lymph nodes, and tumor deposits in different editions of the AJCC/UICC TNM system as well as the minimum number of nodes to be dissected. Methods to increase the lymph node yield in the fatty tissue include methylene blue injection and acetone compression. Outcome prediction based on the lymph node ratio, defined as the number of positive lymph nodes divided by the total number of retrieved nodes, may be superior to the absolute numbers of involved nodes. Extracapsular invasion has been identified as additional prognostic factor. Adding step sectioning and immunohistochemistry to the pathological work-up may result in higher accuracy of histological diagnosis. The clinical value of more recent technical advances, such as sentinel lymph node biopsy and molecular analysis of lymph nodes tissue still remains to be defined. PMID:24379568

  18. Compression in wearable sensor nodes: impacts of node topology.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Syed Anas; Casson, Alexander J; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2014-04-01

    Wearable sensor nodes monitoring the human body must operate autonomously for very long periods of time. Online and low-power data compression embedded within the sensor node is therefore essential to minimize data storage/transmission overheads. This paper presents a low-power MSP430 compressive sensing implementation for providing such compression, focusing particularly on the impact of the sensor node architecture on the compression performance. Compression power performance is compared for four different sensor nodes incorporating different strategies for wireless transmission/on-sensor-node local storage of data. The results demonstrate that the compressive sensing used must be designed differently depending on the underlying node topology, and that the compression strategy should not be guided only by signal processing considerations. We also provide a practical overview of state-of-the-art sensor node topologies. Wireless transmission of data is often preferred as it offers increased flexibility during use, but in general at the cost of increased power consumption. We demonstrate that wireless sensor nodes can highly benefit from the use of compressive sensing and now can achieve power consumptions comparable to, or better than, the use of local memory.

  19. Compression in wearable sensor nodes: impacts of node topology.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Syed Anas; Casson, Alexander J; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2014-04-01

    Wearable sensor nodes monitoring the human body must operate autonomously for very long periods of time. Online and low-power data compression embedded within the sensor node is therefore essential to minimize data storage/transmission overheads. This paper presents a low-power MSP430 compressive sensing implementation for providing such compression, focusing particularly on the impact of the sensor node architecture on the compression performance. Compression power performance is compared for four different sensor nodes incorporating different strategies for wireless transmission/on-sensor-node local storage of data. The results demonstrate that the compressive sensing used must be designed differently depending on the underlying node topology, and that the compression strategy should not be guided only by signal processing considerations. We also provide a practical overview of state-of-the-art sensor node topologies. Wireless transmission of data is often preferred as it offers increased flexibility during use, but in general at the cost of increased power consumption. We demonstrate that wireless sensor nodes can highly benefit from the use of compressive sensing and now can achieve power consumptions comparable to, or better than, the use of local memory. PMID:24658233

  20. Molecular and functional imaging for detection of lymph node metastases in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Fortuin, Ansje; Rooij, Maarten de; Zamecnik, Patrik; Haberkorn, Uwe; Barentsz, Jelle

    2013-07-03

    Knowledge on lymph node metastases is crucial for the prognosis and treatment of prostate cancer patients. Conventional anatomic imaging often fails to differentiate benign from metastatic lymph nodes. Pelvic lymph node dissection is an invasive technique and underestimates the extent of lymph node metastases. Therefore, there is a need for more accurate non-invasive diagnostic techniques. Molecular and functional imaging has been subject of research for the last decades, in this respect. Therefore, in this article the value of imaging techniques to detect lymph node metastases is reviewed. These techniques include scintigraphy, sentinel node imaging, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI MRI) and magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL). Knowledge on pathway and size of lymph node metastases has increased with molecular and functional imaging. Furthermore, improved detection and localization of lymph node metastases will enable (focal) treatment of the positive nodes only.

  1. Node Self-Deployment Algorithm Based on an Uneven Cluster with Radius Adjusting for Underwater Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peng; Xu, Yiming; Wu, Feng

    2016-01-14

    Existing move-restricted node self-deployment algorithms are based on a fixed node communication radius, evaluate the performance based on network coverage or the connectivity rate and do not consider the number of nodes near the sink node and the energy consumption distribution of the network topology, thereby degrading network reliability and the energy consumption balance. Therefore, we propose a distributed underwater node self-deployment algorithm. First, each node begins the uneven clustering based on the distance on the water surface. Each cluster head node selects its next-hop node to synchronously construct a connected path to the sink node. Second, the cluster head node adjusts its depth while maintaining the layout formed by the uneven clustering and then adjusts the positions of in-cluster nodes. The algorithm originally considers the network reliability and energy consumption balance during node deployment and considers the coverage redundancy rate of all positions that a node may reach during the node position adjustment. Simulation results show, compared to the connected dominating set (CDS) based depth computation algorithm, that the proposed algorithm can increase the number of the nodes near the sink node and improve network reliability while guaranteeing the network connectivity rate. Moreover, it can balance energy consumption during network operation, further improve network coverage rate and reduce energy consumption.

  2. Node Self-Deployment Algorithm Based on an Uneven Cluster with Radius Adjusting for Underwater Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peng; Xu, Yiming; Wu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Existing move-restricted node self-deployment algorithms are based on a fixed node communication radius, evaluate the performance based on network coverage or the connectivity rate and do not consider the number of nodes near the sink node and the energy consumption distribution of the network topology, thereby degrading network reliability and the energy consumption balance. Therefore, we propose a distributed underwater node self-deployment algorithm. First, each node begins the uneven clustering based on the distance on the water surface. Each cluster head node selects its next-hop node to synchronously construct a connected path to the sink node. Second, the cluster head node adjusts its depth while maintaining the layout formed by the uneven clustering and then adjusts the positions of in-cluster nodes. The algorithm originally considers the network reliability and energy consumption balance during node deployment and considers the coverage redundancy rate of all positions that a node may reach during the node position adjustment. Simulation results show, compared to the connected dominating set (CDS) based depth computation algorithm, that the proposed algorithm can increase the number of the nodes near the sink node and improve network reliability while guaranteeing the network connectivity rate. Moreover, it can balance energy consumption during network operation, further improve network coverage rate and reduce energy consumption. PMID:26784193

  3. Node Self-Deployment Algorithm Based on an Uneven Cluster with Radius Adjusting for Underwater Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peng; Xu, Yiming; Wu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Existing move-restricted node self-deployment algorithms are based on a fixed node communication radius, evaluate the performance based on network coverage or the connectivity rate and do not consider the number of nodes near the sink node and the energy consumption distribution of the network topology, thereby degrading network reliability and the energy consumption balance. Therefore, we propose a distributed underwater node self-deployment algorithm. First, each node begins the uneven clustering based on the distance on the water surface. Each cluster head node selects its next-hop node to synchronously construct a connected path to the sink node. Second, the cluster head node adjusts its depth while maintaining the layout formed by the uneven clustering and then adjusts the positions of in-cluster nodes. The algorithm originally considers the network reliability and energy consumption balance during node deployment and considers the coverage redundancy rate of all positions that a node may reach during the node position adjustment. Simulation results show, compared to the connected dominating set (CDS) based depth computation algorithm, that the proposed algorithm can increase the number of the nodes near the sink node and improve network reliability while guaranteeing the network connectivity rate. Moreover, it can balance energy consumption during network operation, further improve network coverage rate and reduce energy consumption. PMID:26784193

  4. Regional lymph node staging in breast cancer: the increasing role of imaging and ultrasound-guided axillary lymph node fine needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Mainiero, Martha B

    2010-09-01

    The status of axillary lymph nodes is a key prognostic indicator in patients with breast cancer and helps guide patient management. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is increasingly being used as a less morbid alternative to axillary lymph node dissection. However, when sentinel lymph node biopsy is positive, axillary dissection is typically performed for complete staging and local control. Axillary ultrasound and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (USFNA) are useful for detecting axillary nodal metastasis preoperatively and can spare patients sentinel node biopsy, because those with positive cytology on USFNA can proceed directly to axillary dissection or neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Internal mammary nodes are not routinely evaluated, but when the appearance of these nodes is abnormal on imaging, further treatment or metastatic evaluation may be necessary. PMID:20868896

  5. Treatment plan for breast cancer with sentinel node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Efrén Bolívar; Martinez, Pedro; Betancourt, Luis; Romero, Gabriel; Godoy, Ali; Bergamo, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node involvement is considered to be one of the most important independent prognostic factors in breast cancer. In patients without palpable lymphadenopathies, the method of choice for determining this involvement is the sentinel lymph node biopsy. In the presence of macrometastases, the current standard is to perform axillary lymph node dissection in spite of the knowledge that the involvement of non-sentinel lymph nodes is approximately 50%. When lymph node involvement is micrometastasic, the decision as to whether or not to proceed with lymphadenectomy remains in dispute. We set out, on the basis of the current scientific evidence and our own experience, to create guidelines that allow us to individualise each case and decide whether or not to perform a lymphadenectomy. We will discuss the arguments that support our position. PMID:24478806

  6. 16 CFR 1.3 - Advice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advice. 1.3 Section 1.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.3 Advice. (a) On the basis of the materials submitted, as well as any...

  7. 43 CFR 8365.1-3 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vehicles. 8365.1-3 Section 8365.1-3 Public... OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.1-3 Vehicles. (a) When operating a vehicle on the public lands, no person shall exceed posted speed limits, willfully...

  8. 50 CFR 1.3 - Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service. 1.3 Section 1.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.3 Service. Service means the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior....

  9. 5 CFR 1.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 1.3 Section 1.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND DEFINITIONS (RULE I) § 1.3 Definitions. As used in the rules in this subchapter: (a) Competitive service shall have the...

  10. 45 CFR 1216.1-3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policy. 1216.1-3 Section 1216.1-3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISPLACEMENT OF EMPLOYED WORKERS AND NONIMPAIRMENT OF CONTRACTS FOR SERVICE § 1216.1-3 Policy. (a)...

  11. 45 CFR 1216.1-3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. 1216.1-3 Section 1216.1-3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISPLACEMENT OF EMPLOYED WORKERS AND NONIMPAIRMENT OF CONTRACTS FOR SERVICE § 1216.1-3 Policy. (a)...

  12. [Lymph node metastasis of osteosarcomas].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, N V

    2016-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis of osteosarcomas is a rather rare phenomenon; according to different authors, the incidence of lymph node metastasis is 4 to 11%. The detection of lymph node metastases in osteosarcoma is associated with a significant reduction in the 5-year survival of patients and allows its classification as clinical stage IV tumor. The risk factors for lymph node metastases in patients with bone sarcomas are age (≥64 years), gender (female), nosological entity (undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma), tumor depth (muscle, bone), and the size of primary tumor (>5 сm). The mechanism of lymph node metastasis of osteosarcomas seems to be related to mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. PMID:27600784

  13. Inguinal Lymph Nodes in Carcinoma Penis-Observation or Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Althaf, Syed; Gangaiah, Dinesh M.; Dev, Kapil; Kurpad, Vishnu P.; Gurawalia, Jaiprakash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Indian sub-continent the presentation of carcinoma penis is variable. Mostly presents with palpable inguinal lymph nodes but not confirm of metastases. Aim To evaluate whether all clinically positive nodes are metastatic and decide when to address inguinal lymph node. Materials and Methods A retrospective observational study on carcinoma penis from a regional cancer centre of south India over a period from 2001 to 2012. All the clinical, investigational, operative, pathology details and follow-up data were collected from patient records. Results Two hundred and thirty cases of carcinoma penis have been identified and 112 cases had clinically positive nodes. In 74 cases fine needle cytology was positive for malignancy and they have been addressed with block dissection with surgery of primary lesion. At two years follow up, 70 patients were identified with inguinal lymph node metastasis and block dissection was performed and all was were positive for malignancy on histology. The rate of recurrence is related to the T stage of the primary tumour. Conclusion It can be concluded that elective surgery is appropriate for palpable inguinal lymph nodes and prophylactic nodal dissection in high risk cases of carcinoma penis. PMID:26894163

  14. Extended lymph node dissection in robotic radical prostatectomy: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Sameer; Alemozaffar, Mehrdad; Gill, Inderbir; Aron, Monish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The role and extent of extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) during radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer patients remains unclear. Materials and Methods: A PubMed literature search was performed for studies reporting on treatment regimens and outcomes in patients with prostate cancer treated by RP and extended lymph node dissection between 1999 and 2013. Results: Studies have shown that RP can improve progression-free and overall survival in patients with lymph node-positive prostate cancer. While this finding requires further validation, it does allow urologists to question the former treatment paradigm of aborting surgery when lymph node invasion from prostate cancer occurred, especially in patients with limited lymph node tumor infiltration. Studies show that intermediate- and high-risk patients should undergo ePLND up to the common iliac arteries in order to improve nodal staging. Conclusions: Evidence from the literature suggests that RP with ePLND improves survival in lymph node-positive prostate cancer. While studies have shown promising results, further improvements and understanding of the surgical technique and post-operative treatment are required to improve treatment for prostate cancer patients with lymph node involvement. PMID:27127352

  15. Initial experience in a cancer hospital in Nepal with sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy for evaluation of axillary lymph node status in palpable invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Nirmal; Pradhan, Manohar; Neupane, Prakash Raj; Shrestha, Bhakta Man; Dhakal, Hari Prasad; Thakur, Binay Kumar; Cox, Charles Evandor

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate the performance and feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy in early breast cancer patients using patent blue dye. From March 2004, we are consecutively enrolling breast cancer patients with tumor size less than 5 cm with no clinically palpable axillary lymph nodes in this feasibility study. So far, 21 patients underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy using 1.0% patent blue dye injection around the tumor followed by axillary dissection. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was compared with axillary dissection for its ability to accurately reflect the final pathological status of the axillary nodes. Age of patients ranged form 32-67 years old with mean age of 46.72 years. Fifty seven percent of patients were postmenopausal. Patients with T1 lesions were 8 and T2 were 13. The sentinel lymph node/s were successfully identified in 20 out of 21 patients (95.0%). The number of sentinel lymph nodes ranged from 1 to 5 (average 2.0) and non-sentinel nodes ranged from 5-22 (average 12.0). Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was diagnosed in 15 patients, DCIS with early invasion in 4 patients, invasive lobular carcinoma in 1 and medullary carcinoma in 1 patient. Of the 20 patients in whom sentinel lymph nodes were successfully identified, nodes were positive in 35.0% (7/20) of patients. All the positive nodes were detected in group with T2 lesions. SLNs were the only positive nodes in 2 patients. There were no false negative patients, yielding an accuracy of 100.0%. Lymphatic mapping using patent blue dye alone is technically feasible for patients with small (T1 or T2) palpable breast tumors. The sentinel node can be reliably identified in the majority of these patients, and its histology reflects that of the axilla with a high degree of accuracy. This method is very useful in economically backward countries as it involves less expensive material.

  16. Connecting node and method for constructing a connecting node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J. (Inventor); Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Spexarth, Gary R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A connecting node comprises a polyhedral structure comprising a plurality of panels joined together at its side edges to form a spherical approximation, wherein at least one of the plurality of panels comprises a faceted surface being constructed with a passage for integrating with one of a plurality of elements comprising a docking port, a hatch, and a window that is attached to the connecting node. A method for manufacturing a connecting node comprises the steps of providing a plurality of panels, connecting the plurality of panels to form a spherical approximation, wherein each edge of each panel of the plurality is joined to another edge of another panel, and constructing at least one of the plurality of panels to include a passage for integrating at least one of a plurality of elements that may be attached to the connecting node.

  17. Axillary Lymph Node Status in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients with Sentinel Node Micrometastases (0.2-2 mm)

    PubMed Central

    Bargehr, Johannes; Edlinger, Michael; Hubalek, Michael; Marth, Christian; Reitsamer, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Omission of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is increasingly becoming the new standard of care for patients with sentinel lymph node micrometastases (SNMMs). However, a formidable proportion of patients is afflicted with non-sentinel node (NSN) macrometastatic tumor burden. Methods Over 1 decade 5,000 patients underwent sentinel node biopsies (SNB) at 2 certified breast cancer centers in Austria. All available cases of SNMM during this time period were reviewed. Clinical, tumor and lymph node parameters were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analysis to retrieve predictors for further NSN involvement. Results We identified 216 patients with SNMMs, of whom 181 subsequently underwent ALND. Of the latter patients, 16% (n = 29/181) presented with NSN axillary metastases. ALND revealed NSN macrometastases in 10.5% (n = 19/181) of all the investigated patients, and 66% of the NSN-positive patients (n = 19/29). In 28% (n = 8/29) of the NSN-positive patients, more than 1 macrometastasis was detected. The number of removed sentinel nodes was found to be a significant predictor (p = 0.007) for NSN involvement. Conclusion In this retrospective investigation of breast cancer patients with SNMMs, a substantial proportion exhibited involvement of NSNs. Macrometastases accounted for the largest fraction of NSN tumor burden. Refraining from ALND in the face of SNMMs may entail substantial micro- and macrometastatic tumor burden in the remaining axillary lymph node basin. PMID:24415968

  18. Enhanced sonographic imaging to diagnose lymph node metastasis: importance of blood vessel volume and density.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Mizuho; Sakamoto, Maya; Takahashi, Shoki; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2013-04-01

    Lymph node size is an important variable in ultrasound diagnosis of lymph node metastasis. However, the size criterion often leads to oversight of tumor-positive lymph nodes within the range of "normal" size, such that more accurate diagnostic criteria for lymph node metastasis are required. In this study, we show how diagnosis of lymph node metastasis can be improved by evaluating changes in blood vessel volume and density using a novel contrast-enhanced high-frequency ultrasound (CE-HFUS) system with Sonazoid. An MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) mouse model of lymph node metastasis was used in which lymph nodes are similar in size to humans. Metastasis via lymphatic vessels to proper axillary lymph nodes (proper ALN) was induced by injection of tumor cells into the subiliac lymph nodes. Within 21 days of injection, significant increases in blood vessel volume and density, but no increases in the size of the proper ALNs, were observed. The increase in blood vessel density was confirmed with immunohistochemical analysis and was positively related to tumor cell proliferation as measured using bioluminescence imaging. Together, our results showed that alterations in blood vessel volume and density precede alterations in lymph node size in the early stages of lymph node metastasis. Detection of these changes by ultrasonography may offer new criteria for early diagnosis of lymph node metastasis.

  19. Node weighted network upgrade problems

    SciTech Connect

    Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H.; Marathe, M.V.; Ravi, S.S.

    1996-09-01

    Consider a network where nodes represent processors and edges represent bidirectional communication links. The processor at a node v can be upgraded at an expense of cost(v). Such an upgrade reduces the delay of each link emanating from v by a fixed factor x, where 0 < x < 1. The goal is to find a minimum cost set of nodes to be upgraded so that the resulting network has a spanning tree in which edge is of delay at most a given value {delta}. The authors provide both hardness and approximation results for the problem. They show that the problem is NP-hard and cannot be approximated within any factor {beta} < ln n, unless NP {improper_subset} DTIME(n{sup log log n}), where n is the number of nodes in the network. They then present the first polynomial time approximation algorithms for the problem. For the general case, the approximation algorithm comes within a factor of 2 ln n of the minimum upgrading cost. When the cost of upgrading each node is 1, they present an approximation algorithm with a performance guarantee of 4(2 + ln {Delta}), where {Delta} is the maximum node degree. Finally, they present a polynomial time algorithm for the class of treewidth-bounded graphs.

  20. The role of sentinel lymph-node biopsy (SLNB) in the treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Marrazzo, Antonio; Taormina, Pietra; David, Massimo; Casà, Luigi; Lo Gerfo, Domenico; Noto, Antonio; Riili, Ignazio; Ficola, Umberto; Russo, Leila

    2006-01-01

    Sentinel lymph-node biopsy is an innovative method for axillary staging in breast cancer patients, based on the concept that information about the status of the entire lymphatic drainage from a tumour site could be obtained by identification and sampling of a "sentinel node". The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of sentinel lymph-node biopsy in the management of patients with early invasive breast carcinoma. Three hundred and forty-one patients with primary invasive breast carcinoma measuring less than 2 cm (less than 3 cm from January 2001) and clinically negative axillary nodes were recruited into the study. Sentinel lymph-nodes were positive for metastases in 108/341 cases (31.7%). Micrometastases were found in 22 patients and isolated tumour cells in 1 case. The mean number of sentinel lymph-nodes removed was 1.8 per patient. The sentinel lymph-node was the only positive node in 57 of 108 patients (52.8%). The percentage of axillary recurrence in sentinel lymph-node-negative patients was 0%. The accuracy of sentinel lymph-node biopsy for axillary staging has been confirmed in many studies. Axillary recurrences after sentinel lymph-node biopsy range from 0 to 1.6% in many series, while axillary recurrence after axillary lymph-node dissection is about 0-3%. In our experience we observed no axillary recurrences in 233 patients with sentinel lymph-node biopsy alone, with a median follow-up of 33 months, confirming the accuracy of the procedure, and sentinel lymph-node-negative patients with sentinel lymph-node biopsy alone are no more at risk for axillary recurrences than those undergoing axillary lymph-node dissection. PMID:16845865

  1. 41 CFR 60-1.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions. 60-1.3 Section 60-1.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts...-OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS Preliminary Matters; Equal Opportunity Clause;...

  2. 41 CFR 60-1.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Definitions. 60-1.3 Section 60-1.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts...-OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS Preliminary Matters; Equal Opportunity Clause;...

  3. 41 CFR 60-1.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions. 60-1.3 Section 60-1.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts...-OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS Preliminary Matters; Equal Opportunity Clause;...

  4. 36 CFR 1.3 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalties. 1.3 Section 1.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS... 1 through 7, 12 and 13 of this chapter, within a park area not covered in paragraphs (b) or (c)...

  5. Efficient plasma-enhanced method for layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathodes with sulfur atom-scale modification for superior-performance Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qianqian; Chen, Ning; Liu, Dongdong; Wang, Shuangyin; Zhang, Han

    2016-05-01

    In order to improve the electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as a lithium insertion positive electrode material, atom-scale modification was realized to obtain the layered oxysulfide LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx using a novel plasma-enhanced doping strategy. The structure and electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx are investigated systematically, which confirms that the S doping can make the structure stable and benefit the electrochemical performance. The phys-chemical characterizations indicate that oxygen atoms in the initial LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 have been partially replaced by S atoms. It should be pointed out that the atom-scale modification does not significantly alter the intrinsic structure of the cathode. Compared to the pristine material, the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx shows a superior performance with a higher capacity (200.4 mA h g-1) and a significantly improved cycling stability (maintaining 94.46% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 cycles). Moreover, it has an excellent rate performance especially at elevated performance, which is probably due to the faster Li+ transportation after S doping into the layered structure. All the results show that the atom-scale modification with sulfur atoms on LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, which significantly improved the electrochemical performance, offers a novel anionic doping strategy to realize the atom-scale modification of electrode materials to improve their electrochemical performance.In order to improve the electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as a lithium insertion positive electrode material, atom-scale modification was realized to obtain the layered oxysulfide LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx using a novel plasma-enhanced doping strategy. The structure and electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx are investigated systematically, which confirms that the S doping can make the structure stable and benefit the electrochemical performance. The phys

  6. Synthesis of 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine

    DOEpatents

    Hiskey, Michael A.; Coburn, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    A process of preparing 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine including forming a 5-hydroxymethyl-5-nitro-1-alkyltetrahydro-1,3-oxazine, e.g., reacting a 1,3,5-trialkyl hexahydrotriazine and tris(hydroxymethyl)nitromethane, ring opening said 5-hydroxymethyl-5-nitro-1-alkyltetrahydro-1,3-oxazine to form a 3-alkylamino-2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-1-propanol salt, ring closing said 3-alkylamino-2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-1-propanol salt to form a 3-hydroxymethyl-3-nitro-1-alkylazetidine salt, nitrating said 3-hydroxymethyl-3-nitro-1-alkylazetidine salt to form a 1-alkyl-3,3-dinitroazetidine, and converting said 1-alkyl-3,3-dinitroazetidine into 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine is disclosed.

  7. Synthesis of 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine

    DOEpatents

    Hiskey, M.A.; Coburn, M.D.

    1994-08-09

    A process of preparing 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine includes forming a 5-hydroxymethyl-5-nitro-1-alkyltetrahydro-1,3-oxazine, e.g., reacting a 1,3,5-trialkyl hexahydrotriazine and tris(hydroxymethyl)nitromethane, ring opening said 5-hydroxymethyl-5-nitro-1-alkyltetrahydro-1,3-oxazine to form a 3-alkylamino-2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-1-propanol salt, ring closing said 3-alkylamino-2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-1-propanol salt to form a 3-hydroxymethyl-3-nitro-1-alkylazetidine salt, nitrating said 3-hydroxymethyl-3-nitro-1-alkylazetidine salt to form a 1-alkyl-3,3-dinitroazetidine, and converting said 1-alkyl-3,3-dinitroazetidine into 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine is disclosed. 1 fig.

  8. Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: short time results show appropriate regional control.

    PubMed

    Fait, V; Chrenko, V

    2007-01-01

    Sentinel node biopsy becomes a standard diagnostic and therapeutic tool in breast cancer in certain indications, while in other indications its validity is still reviewed. The authors present their experience with this method. In the years 2000-2006 700 patients underwent surgery. 704 sentinel node biopsies were performed (bilaterally in 4 cases), 7 times surgery was unsuccessful. In the unsuccessful cases immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was performed. 985 sentinel nodes were found, the average was 1.4 nodes, maximum 6 nodes. In 7 patients contralateral ALND for node positive contralateral cancer was necessary along with sentinel node biopsy. A positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) was found in 188 (26.9%) patients. A strong correlation between tumor size and lymph node positivity was found, 5.3% in pT1a, and 40.4% in pT2, respectively. The sentinel node metastases could be divided according to their size. The number of affected further nodes did correlate with this size, yet with the exception of isolated tumor cell detection, small size metastases did not exclude the possibility of further affection. Our findings support the role of sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer. 332 patients reached at least 2 years of follow up by the time of statistic evaluation, 2.5% of SLN negative and 5.6% of SLN positive patients experienced a recurrence. All of these recurrences were distant with no regional (axillary) involvement to this date. We conclude that sentinel node biopsy is not only a safe and accurate diagnostic tool, but it also provides acceptable regional control of the disease. PMID:17447860

  9. Efficient plasma-enhanced method for layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathodes with sulfur atom-scale modification for superior-performance Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qianqian; Chen, Ning; Liu, Dongdong; Wang, Shuangyin; Zhang, Han

    2016-06-01

    In order to improve the electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as a lithium insertion positive electrode material, atom-scale modification was realized to obtain the layered oxysulfide LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx using a novel plasma-enhanced doping strategy. The structure and electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx are investigated systematically, which confirms that the S doping can make the structure stable and benefit the electrochemical performance. The phys-chemical characterizations indicate that oxygen atoms in the initial LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 have been partially replaced by S atoms. It should be pointed out that the atom-scale modification does not significantly alter the intrinsic structure of the cathode. Compared to the pristine material, the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx shows a superior performance with a higher capacity (200.4 mA h g(-1)) and a significantly improved cycling stability (maintaining 94.46% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 cycles). Moreover, it has an excellent rate performance especially at elevated performance, which is probably due to the faster Li(+) transportation after S doping into the layered structure. All the results show that the atom-scale modification with sulfur atoms on LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, which significantly improved the electrochemical performance, offers a novel anionic doping strategy to realize the atom-scale modification of electrode materials to improve their electrochemical performance.

  10. Node, Node-Link, and Node-Link-Group Diagrams: An Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Saket, Bahador; Simonetto, Paolo; Kobourov, Stephen; Börner, Katy

    2014-12-01

    Effectively showing the relationships between objects in a dataset is one of the main tasks in information visualization. Typically there is a well-defined notion of distance between pairs of objects, and traditional approaches such as principal component analysis or multi-dimensional scaling are used to place the objects as points in 2D space, so that similar objects are close to each other. In another typical setting, the dataset is visualized as a network graph, where related nodes are connected by links. More recently, datasets are also visualized as maps, where in addition to nodes and links, there is an explicit representation of groups and clusters. We consider these three Techniques, characterized by a progressive increase of the amount of encoded information: node diagrams, node-link diagrams and node-link-group diagrams. We assess these three types of diagrams with a controlled experiment that covers nine different tasks falling broadly in three categories: node-based tasks, network-based tasks and group-based tasks. Our findings indicate that adding links, or links and group representations, does not negatively impact performance (time and accuracy) of node-based tasks. Similarly, adding group representations does not negatively impact the performance of network-based tasks. Node-link-group diagrams outperform the others on group-based tasks. These conclusions contradict results in other studies, in similar but subtly different settings. Taken together, however, such results can have significant implications for the design of standard and domain snecific visualizations tools. PMID:26356937

  11. Intradermal administration of fluorescent contrast agents for delivery to axillary lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, John C.; Meric-Berstam, Funda; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Tan, I.-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Wagner, Jamie L.; Babiera, Gildy V.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2014-05-01

    In this proof-of-concept study we seek to demonstrate the delivery of fluorescent contrast agent to the tumor-draining lymph node basin following intraparenchymal breast injections and intradermal arm injection of micrograms of indocyanine green in 20 breast cancer patients undergoing complete axillary lymph node dissection. Individual lymph nodes were assessed ex vivo for presence of fluorescent signal. In all, 88% of tumor-negative lymph nodes and 81% of tumor-positive lymph nodes were fluorescent. These results indicate that future studies utilizing targeted fluorescent contrast agents may demonstrate improved surgical and therapeutic intervention.

  12. Minute perivascular epithelioid cell (PEC) nests in the abdominal lymph nodes--a putative precursor of PEComa.

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Toru; Murakami, Yoshiko; Sasaki, Eiichi; Hosoda, Waki; Nakanishi, Toru; Yatabe, Yasushi

    2015-04-01

    A perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a peculiar growth defined as a mesenchymal tumor composed of histologically and immunohistochemically distinct perivascular epithelioid cells (PECs). Because neither normal counterparts nor precursor lesions of PEComa have been identified, we examined minute PEC nests, ranged from 0.8 mm to 10 mm, to investigate the possible origin of the PEComa. We examined a total of 80 677 para-aortic and pelvic lymph nodes that were systematically dissected from 1656 patients for gynecological malignancies. The identified lesions were confirmed immunohistochemically with multiple PEC markers, including smooth muscle actin, HMB45, melan-A, MiTF, ER and PgR. A total of 66 minute PEC nests were found in 21 patients (1.3% of the total population) with an average frequency of 3.1 lesions per patient. In cases of multiple involvement, 11 of 13 nests were located at the same level of multiple lymph node or on continuous levels. The lesions were preferentially distributed at the level of para-aortic and high pelvic lymph nodes. All nests were positive for actin and HMB45, whereas the other markers were positive with varying frequencies. The minute PEC nests may be associated with the possible normal counterpart of PEComas.

  13. Methylene blue-assisted lymph node dissection technique is not associated with an increased detection of lymph node metastases in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Märkl, Bruno; Schaller, Tina; Krammer, Ines; Cacchi, Claudio; Arnholdt, Hans M; Schenkirsch, Gerhard; Kretsinger, Hallie; Anthuber, Matthias; Spatz, Hanno

    2013-09-01

    Lymph node staging is of paramount importance for prognosis estimation and therapy stratification in colorectal cancer. A high number of harvested lymph nodes is associated with an improved outcome. Methylene blue-assisted lymph node dissection effectively improves the lymph node harvest and ensures sufficient staging. Now, the effect on node positivity rate and stage-related outcome was investigated. The study cohort with advanced lymph node dissection consisted of 669 colorectal cancer cases of all stages, which were collected between 2007 and 2012. A historical collection of 663 cases investigated with conventional techniques between 2002 and 2004 served as control. Lymph node harvest was dramatically improved in the study group with mean lymph node numbers of 34 ± 17 vs 13 ± 5 (P<0.001) and sufficient staging rates of 98% vs 62% (P<0.001). However, neither the rate of nodal positive cases (37% vs 37%; P = 0.98) nor the rate of N2 cases differed between the two groups (14% vs 13%; P = 0.80). Furthermore, no differences were found concerning the outcome in both groups. The advanced lymph node dissection technique guarantees adequate histopathological lymph node staging in virtually all cases of colorectal cancer and is therefore extremely helpful. The hypothesis that it also provides a higher sensitivity in detecting metastases, however, could be not proved.

  14. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bembenek, Andreas E.; Rosenberg, Robert; Wagler, Elke; Gretschel, Stephan; Sendler, Andreas; Siewert, Joerg-Ruediger; Nährig, Jörg; Witzigmann, Helmut; Hauss, Johann; Knorr, Christian; Dimmler, Arno; Gröne, Jörn; Buhr, Heinz-Johannes; Haier, Jörg; Herbst, Hermann; Tepel, Juergen; Siphos, Bence; Kleespies, Axel; Koenigsrainer, Alfred; Stoecklein, Nikolas H.; Horstmann, Olaf; Grützmann, Robert; Imdahl, Andreas; Svoboda, Daniel; Wittekind, Christian; Schneider, Wolfgang; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Schlag, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The clinical impact of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in colon cancer is still controversial. The purpose of this prospective multicenter trial was to evaluate its clinical value to predict the nodal status and identify factors that influence these results. Methods: Colon cancer patients without prior colorectal surgery or irradiation were eligible. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) was identified intraoperatively by subserosal blue dye injection around the tumor. The SLN underwent step sections and immunohistochemistry (IHC), if classified free of metastases after routine hematoxylin and eosin examination. Results: At least one SLN (median, n = 2) was identified in 268 of 315 enrolled patients (detection rate, 85%). Center experience, lymphovascular invasion, body mass index (BMI), and learning curve were positively associated with the detection rate. The false-negative rate to identify pN+ patients by SLNB was 46% (38 of 82). BMI showed a significant association to the false-negative rate (P < 0.0001), the number of tumor-involved lymph nodes was inversely associated. If only slim patients (BMI ≤24) were investigated in experienced centers (>22 patients enrolled), the sensitivity increased to 88% (14 of 16). Moreover, 21% (30 of 141) of the patients, classified as pN0 by routine histopathology, revealed micrometastases or isolated tumor cells (MM/ITC) in the SLN. Conclusions: The contribution of SLNB to conventional nodal staging of colon cancer patients is still unspecified. Technical problems have to be resolved before a definite conclusion can be drawn in this regard. However, SLNB identifies about one fourth of stage II patients to reveal MM/ITC in lymph nodes. Further studies must clarify the clinical impact of these findings in terms of prognosis and the indication of adjuvant therapy. PMID:17522509

  15. Anatomy and histology of Virchow's node.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Masaomi; Nawata, Shin-ichi; Hirai, Ichiro; Murakami, Gen; Kimura, Wataru

    2005-12-01

    A regional lymphatic system is composed of the first, second, third and even fourth or much more intercalated nodes along the lymptatic route from the periphery to the venous angle or the thoracic duct. The third or fourth node is usually termed the last-intercalated node or end node along the route. Similarly, one of the supraclavicular nodes is known to correspond to the end node along the thoracic duct. It is generally called 'Virchow's node', in which the famous 'Virchow's metastasis' of advanced gastric cancer occurs. The histology of this node has not been investigated, although region-specific differences in histology are evident in human lymph nodes. We found macroscopically the end node in five of 30 donated cadavers. Serial sections were prepared for these five nodes and sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Histological investigation revealed that, on the inferior or distal side of the end node, the thoracic duct divided into three to 10 collateral ducts and these ducts surrounded the node. The node communicated with the thoracic duct and its collaterals at multiple sites in two to three hilus-like portions, as well as along the subcapsular sinus. Thus, the end node was aligned parallel to the thoracic duct. Moreover, the superficial and deep cortex areas of the end node were fragmented to make an island-like arrangement, which may cause the short-cut intranodal shunt. Consequenly, the filtration function of most of Virchow's node seemed to be quite limited.

  16. Comparison of Positron Emission Tomography Scanning and Sentinel Node Biopsy in the Detection of Inguinal Node Metastases in Patients With Anal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mistrangelo, Massimiliano; Pelosi, Ettore; Bello, Marilena; Castellano, Isabella; Cassoni, Paola; Ricardi, Umberto; Munoz, Fernando; Racca, Patrizia; Contu, Viviana; Beltramo, Giancarlo; Morino, Mario; Mussa, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    Background: Inguinal lymph node metastases in patients with anal cancer are an independent prognostic factor for local failure and overall mortality. Inguinal lymph node status can be adequately assessed with sentinel node biopsy, and the radiotherapy strategy can subsequently be changed. We compared this technique vs. dedicated 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) to determine which was the better tool for staging inguinal lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: In our department, 27 patients (9 men and 18 women) underwent both inguinal sentinel node biopsy and PET-CT. PET-CT was performed before treatment and then at 1 and 3 months after treatment. Results: PET-CT scans detected no inguinal metastases in 20 of 27 patients and metastases in the remaining 7. Histologic analysis of the sentinel lymph node detected metastases in only three patients (four PET-CT false positives). HIV status was not found to influence the results. None of the patients negative at sentinel node biopsy developed metastases during the follow-up period. PET-CT had a sensitivity of 100%, with a negative predictive value of 100%. Owing to the high number of false positives, PET-CT specificity was 83%, and positive predictive value was 43%. Conclusions: In this series of patients with anal cancer, inguinal sentinel node biopsy was superior to PET-CT for staging inguinal lymph nodes.

  17. 1,3-Diferrocenyl-1,3-alkadienes in diene synthesis reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Pushin, A.N.; Klimova, E.I.; Sazanova, V.A.

    1987-11-10

    Stable 1,3-diferrocenyl-1,3-alkadienes, which form Diels-Alder adducts with N-substituted maleimides, have been prepared. Methyldiferrocenylbutadien participates in a cycloaddition reaction less readily than 1,3-diferrocenyl-1,3-butadiene. Adducts of 1,3-diferrocenyl-1,3-butadiene with N-substituted maleimides are dehydrogenated on Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ or SiO/sub 2/ with subsequent formation of cyclohexadiene and benzene derivatives; protonation-deprotonation induces isomerization with transposition of the double bond.

  18. 21 CFR 1.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS General Provisions § 1.3 Definitions. (a) Labeling includes all written, printed, or graphic... graphic matter on the immediate container of any article, or any such matter affixed to any...

  19. 21 CFR 1.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS § 1.3 Definitions. (a) Labeling includes all written, printed, or graphic matter accompanying an... delivery in interstate commerce. (b) Label means any display of written, printed, or graphic matter on...

  20. HANSF 1.3 user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    PLYS, M.G.

    1999-05-21

    The HANSF analysis tool is an integrated model considering phenomena inside a multi-canister overpack (MCO) spent nuclear fuel container such as fuel oxidation, convective and radiative heat transfer, and the potential for fission product release. It may be used for all phases of spent fuel disposition including cold vacuum drying, transportation, and storage. This manual reflects HANSF version 1.3, a revised version of version 1.2a. HANSF 1.3 was written to add new models for axial nodalization, add new features for ease of usage, and correct errors. HANSF 1.3 is intended for use on personal computers such as IBM-compatible machines with Intel processors running under a DOS-type operating system. HANSF 1.3 is known to compile under Lahey TI and Digital Visual FORTRAN, Version 6.0, but this does not preclude operation in other environments.

  1. Advances in sentinel node dissection in prostate cancer from a technical perspective.

    PubMed

    Acar, Cenk; Kleinjan, Gijs H; van den Berg, Nynke S; Wit, Esther Mk; van Leeuwen, Fijs Wb; van der Poel, Henk G

    2015-10-01

    The most important feature of sentinel node biopsy for prostate cancer procedure is that staging can be improved. Sentinel nodes might be found outside the extended pelvic lymph node dissection template what renders the sentinel node additive of extended pelvic lymph node dissection. At the same time, staging within the template can be further refined. We reviewed the literature regarding the sentinel node biopsy procedure for prostate cancer. PubMed and Embase were searched for all English-language publications from January 1999 to September 2014 by using the keywords as "prostate cancer" and "sentinel lymph node" plus "biopsy" "dissection" and/or "procedure." The present review discusses step-by-step sentinel node biopsy for prostate cancer. Topics of discussion are: (i) preoperative sentinel node mapping (tracers and imaging); (ii) intraoperative sentinel node identification (surgical procedure and outcome); and (iii) novelties to improve sentinel node identification (pre- and intraoperative approaches). Conventional sentinel node mapping is carried out after the injection of a (99m) Tc-based tracer and subsequent preoperative imaging; for example, lymphoscintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography. This approach allowed the detection of sentinel nodes outside the extended lymph node dissection template in 3.6-36% of men with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer. Hereby, an overall false negative rate of sentinel nodes was reported between 0% and 24.4%. To further refine the intraoperative sampling procedure, novel imaging methods such as fluorescence imaging have been introduced. Prospective randomized comparison studies are required to confirm the added benefit of sentinel template directed nodal dissection. A proper and obtainable end-point of such a study could be the number of removed positive nodes for carrying out nodal dissection with or without sentinel template directed dissection. Similarly, the clinical

  2. Swiss EMBnet node web server.

    PubMed

    Falquet, Laurent; Bordoli, Lorenza; Ioannidis, Vassilios; Pagni, Marco; Jongeneel, C Victor

    2003-07-01

    EMBnet is a consortium of collaborating bioinformatics groups located mainly within Europe (http://www.embnet.org). Each member country is represented by a 'node', a group responsible for the maintenance of local services for their users (e.g. education, training, software, database distribution, technical support, helpdesk). Among these services a web portal with links and access to locally developed and maintained software is essential and different for each node. Our web portal targets biomedical scientists in Switzerland and elsewhere, offering them access to a collection of important sequence analysis tools mirrored from other sites or developed locally. We describe here the Swiss EMBnet node web site (http://www.ch.embnet.org), which presents a number of original services not available anywhere else.

  3. Breast cancer recurrence after sentinel lymph node biopsy

    PubMed Central

    AlSaif, Abdulaziz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To look into the pattern of breast cancer recurrence following mastectomy, breast conservative surgery and radiotherapy or chemotherapy after SLNB at our institution. Methods: Between January 2005 and December 2014, all patients diagnosed with breast cancer with clinically negative axilla, underwent SLNB. We reviewed their medical records to identify pattern of cancer recurrence. Results: The median follow-up was 35.5 months. Eighty five patients (70.8%) had a negative sentinel lymph node (SLN) and subsequently had no further axillary treatment, one of them (1.2%) developed axillary recurrence 25 months postoperatively. Twenty five patients (20.8%) had a positive SLN (macrometastases) and subsequently had immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Ten patients (8.3%) had a positive SLN (micrometastases). In the positive SLN patients (macrometastases and micrometastases), there were two ipsilateral breast recurrences (5.7%), seen three and four years postoperatively. Also in this group, there was one (2.9%) distant metastasis to bone three years postoperatively. Conclusion: In this series, the clinical axillary false negative rate for SLNB was 1.2% which is in accordance with the published literature. This supports the use of SLNB as the sole axillary staging procedure in breast cancer patients with negative SLNB. Axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in patients with micrometastases in their sentinel lymph node(s). PMID:26870109

  4. Patterns of lymph node metastasis in locally advanced cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhikai; Hu, Ke; Liu, An; Shen, Jie; Hou, Xiaorong; Lian, Xin; Sun, Shuai; Yan, Junfang; Zhang, Fuquan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate patterns and locations of lymph node metastasis in locally advanced cervical cancers.A total of 244 consecutive patients with stage IIb cervical cancer were retrospectively evaluated. Contrast-enhanced CT scans were used for lymph node grading. Lymph nodes with the shortest axis (>1 cm) were categorized as positive and those between 0.5 and 1 cm were categorized as suspicious. All lymph nodes (LNs) were also classified by their anatomic locations.Nine hundred thirty-one LNs (136 positive and 795 suspicious) were identified. Sixty-three (25.8%) patients had positive LNs, and 153 (62.7%) patients had only suspicious LNs. The metastatic pattern was predictable traveling from level 1 (external iliac, internal iliac, obturator, and mesorectum groups) through level 2 (common iliac and presacral groups) to level 3 (para-aortic groups). In most groups, LNs were located within 1.0 cm of main blood vessels. Our novel findings were: presacral LNs metastases were rare (2/244, 0.82%); the left common iliac group (LCI) had significantly more enlarged nodes than the right common iliac group (P = 0.00); the LCI and left down-para-aortic group were further away from blood vessels than expected (1.2 cm and 1.4 cm, respectively); no additional margin was needed in anterolateral direction for external iliac groups.The lymph node metastatic patterns are relatively predicable. Different expansions from vessels should be used to include LNs for different groups. Presacral nodes metastases are rare, and further study is warranted to see whether this region can be excluded from nodal CTV. PMID:27684810

  5. Comparison between Ultrasound and Pathologic Status of Axillary Lymph Nodes in Clinically Node-negative Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Amanda; Layne, Ginger; Shahan, Cimmie; Zhang, Jianjun; Wen, Siji; Radis, Sarah; Richmond, Bryan; Partin, Jessica; Hazard, Hannah

    2015-09-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard of care for axillary staging in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. Ultrasound (US) has shown promise when used to assess axillary lymph nodes preoperatively, thus aiding surgical decision making. We examined the correlation between preoperative US and SLNB results to further clarify the role of US in clinicopathologic staging of breast cancer when the axilla is clinically negative on physical examination. Our institutional cancer registry was used to identify clinically node-negative patients diagnosed with breast cancer from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2012. Variables including age, body mass index, date of surgery, date of diagnosis, US results, US-directed biopsy results, SLNB results, and final pathology were recorded. Incomplete charts were excluded. In all, 249 patients were included. Sensitivity/specificity of US in the clinically negative axilla were 7.4 per cent and 91.8 per cent, respectively. The false-positive rate was 80 per cent, whereas the negative predictive value was 78 per cent. The effect of time from diagnosis/US to SLNB, interpreting radiologist, year in which US was performed, and body mass index were not statistically significant. US in the clinically node-negative patient, although useful when it leads to a positive needle biopsy result, is unlikely to replace SLNB owing to its low sensitivity and a high false-positive rate. Further prospective study into the role of US in the evaluation of the clinically negative axilla is warranted. PMID:26350662

  6. Shortening treatment time in robotic radiosurgery using a novel node reduction technique

    SciTech Connect

    Water, Steven van de; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben J. M.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The fraction duration of robotic radiosurgery treatments can be reduced by generating more time-efficient treatment plans with a reduced number of node positions, beams, and monitor units (MUs). Node positions are preprogramed locations where the robot can position the focal spot of the x-ray beam. As the time needed for the robot to travel between node positions takes up a large part of the treatment time, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a node reduction technique in order to reduce the treatment time per fraction for robotic radiosurgery. Methods: Node reduction was integrated into the inverse planning algorithm, developed in-house for the robotic radiosurgery modality. It involved repeated inverse optimization, each iteration excluding low-contribution node positions from the planning and resampling new candidate beams from the remaining node positions. Node reduction was performed until the exclusion of a single node position caused a constraint violation, after which the shortest treatment plan was selected retrospectively. Treatment plans were generated with and without node reduction for two lung cases of different complexity, one oropharyngeal case and one prostate case. Plan quality was assessed using the number of node positions, beams and MUs, and the estimated treatment time per fraction. All treatment plans had to fulfill all clinical dose constraints. Extra constraints were added to maintain the low-dose conformality and restrict skin doses during node reduction. Results: Node reduction resulted in 12 residual node positions, on average (reduction by 77%), at the cost of an increase in the number of beams and total MUs of 28% and 9%, respectively. Overall fraction durations (excluding patient setup) were shortened by 25% (range of 18%-40%), on average. Dose distributions changed only little and dose in low-dose regions was effectively restricted by the additional constraints. Conclusions: The fraction duration of robotic

  7. SensorNet Node Suite

    2004-09-01

    The software in the SensorNet Node adopts and builds on IEEE 1451 interface principles to read data from and control sensors, stores the data in internal database structures, and transmits it in adapted Web Feature Services protocol packets to the SensorNet database. Failover software ensures that at least one available mode of communication remains alive.

  8. Practical azidation of 1,3-dicarbonyls.

    PubMed

    Harschneck, Tobias; Hummel, Sara; Kirsch, Stefan F; Klahn, Philipp

    2012-01-23

    An operationally simple, direct azidation of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds has been developed. The reaction proceeds readily under ambient conditions using sodium azide and an iodine-based oxidant such as I(2) or 2-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX)-SO(3)K/NaI. In particular, the latter method, as a new and well-balanced oxidizing agent, shows excellent functional group tolerance and substrate scope and thus allows access to a variety of tertiary 2-azido and 2,2-bisazido 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds that would be more difficult to access by using traditional methods. Because the azide-containing products easily undergo 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with alkynes, our report represents a novel route to analogues of sensitive complex molecules.

  9. Measures of node centrality in mobile social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhenxiang; Shi, Yan; Chen, Shanzhi

    2015-02-01

    Mobile social networks exploit human mobility and consequent device-to-device contact to opportunistically create data paths over time. While links in mobile social networks are time-varied and strongly impacted by human mobility, discovering influential nodes is one of the important issues for efficient information propagation in mobile social networks. Although traditional centrality definitions give metrics to identify the nodes with central positions in static binary networks, they cannot effectively identify the influential nodes for information propagation in mobile social networks. In this paper, we address the problems of discovering the influential nodes in mobile social networks. We first use the temporal evolution graph model which can more accurately capture the topology dynamics of the mobile social network over time. Based on the model, we explore human social relations and mobility patterns to redefine three common centrality metrics: degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality. We then employ empirical traces to evaluate the benefits of the proposed centrality metrics, and discuss the predictability of nodes' global centrality ranking by nodes' local centrality ranking. Results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed centrality metrics.

  10. Immunohistochemical delineation of the conduction system. I: The sinoatrial node.

    PubMed

    Oosthoek, P W; Virágh, S; Mayen, A E; van Kempen, M J; Lamers, W H; Moorman, A F

    1993-09-01

    We have raised a mouse monoclonal antibody that reacts specifically with the myocytes of the sinoatrial node of the bovine heart. By use of this antibody (445-6E10) and antibodies against the gap junction protein connexin43, the periphery of the sinoatrial node and the distribution of gap junctions in the nodal region were studied. The reaction patterns of 445-6E10 and anti-connexin43 are exactly complementary; ie, connexin43 was not detected in the nodal myocytes but was clearly present in the atrial myocytes. Both reaction patterns demonstrate that nodal myocytes and atrial myocytes can unambiguously be distinguished by their characteristic molecular phenotype. The transitional nodal myocytes at the periphery of the node that have intermediate morphological and electrophysiological characteristics could now clearly be defined as nodal by our immunohistochemical criteria. The center of the node is surrounded by a region of interdigitating nodal and atrial bundles. Nodal bundles, coming from the center of the node, penetrate the atrial myocardium aligned at atrial bundles, forming histological connections between nodal and atrial myocytes at regular distances. This interdigitating arrangement of bundles of connexin43-negative nodal and connexin43-positive atrial myocytes is also found in the human and rat heart. We hypothesize that the architecture of the periphery of the node is important to prevent silencing of the pacemaking nodal myocytes by the atrium while ensuring a sufficient source loading of the nodal myocytes. PMID:8394223

  11. Carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, R L; Shackelford, C C; Huff, J

    1993-01-01

    1,3-Butadiene, a high-production volume chemical used largely in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, is a multiple organ carcinogen in rats and mice. In inhalation studies conducted in mice by the National Toxicology Program, high rates of early lethal lymphomas occurring at exposure levels of 625 ppm or higher reduced the development and expression of later developing tumors at other sites. Use of survival-adjusted tumor rates to account for competing risk factors provided a clearer indication of the dose responses for 1,3-butadiene-induced neoplasms. An increase in lung tumors in female mice was observed at exposure concentrations as low as 6.25 ppm, the lowest concentration ever used in a long-term carcinogenicity study of this gas. Human exposures to 1,3-butadiene by workers employed at facilities that produce this chemical and at facilities that produce styrene-butadiene rubber have been measured at levels higher than those that cause cancer in animals. Furthermore, epidemiology studies have consistently revealed associations between occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene and excess mortality due to lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers. In response to the carcinogenicity findings for 1,3-butadiene in animals and in humans, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration has proposed lowering the occupational exposure standard for this chemical from 1000 ppm to 2 ppm. Future work is needed to understand the mechanisms of tumor induction by 1,3-butadiene; however, the pursuit of this research should not delay the reduction of human exposure to this chemical. PMID:8354171

  12. Tricyclic flavonoids with 1,3-dithiolium substructure.

    PubMed

    Bahrin, Lucian G; Jones, Peter G; Hopf, Henning

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of new 3-dithiocarbamic flavonoids has been accomplished by the reaction of the corresponding 2-hydroxyaryl dithiocarbamates with aminals. These flavonoids were obtained as a mixture of diastereoisomers, the anti isomer being the major one. The heterocyclization of these compounds provided novel tricyclic flavonoids bearing a 1,3-dithiolium-2-yl ring fused at the 3,4-carbon positions of the benzopyran moiety. PMID:23209535

  13. Synthesis, molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 1,3-bis(1-adamantyl)-2-phenylpropan-1,3-diones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babjaková, Eva; Dastychová, Lenka; Hanulíková, Barbora; Kuřitka, Ivo; Nečas, Marek; Vašková, Hana; Vícha, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The interest in the oxo-enol tautomerism of 1,3-dioxo compounds is justified by their usefulness in many synthetic fields. A series of new 1,3-bis(1-adamantyl)propan-1,3-diones with a variably substituted phenyl ring at the C2 position was prepared either by the reaction of an appropriate Grignard reagent with adamatane-1-carbonyl chloride or by SEAr on the unsubstituted 1,3-bis(1-adamantyl)-2-phenylpropan-1,3-dione. In addition to the single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of three of the prepared compounds, the experimental 1H and 13C NMR, IR and Raman spectroscopic data were assigned and compared to those obtained by DFT computations. In the solid state, the syn-dioxo forms were exclusively observed, which are shown to also predominate in CHCl3 solutions. The analysis of the Hirshfeld surface revealed that H⋯H and O⋯H contacts dominate the intermolecular interactions in the solid state, whereas π⋯π stacking plays a marginal role.

  14. Energy Efficient Sensor Scheduling with a Mobile Sink Node for the Target Tracking Application

    PubMed Central

    Maheswararajah, Suhinthan; Halgamuge, Saman; Premaratne, Malin

    2009-01-01

    Measurement losses adversely affect the performance of target tracking. The sensor network's life span depends on how efficiently the sensor nodes consume energy. In this paper, we focus on minimizing the total energy consumed by the sensor nodes whilst avoiding measurement losses. Since transmitting data over a long distance consumes a significant amount of energy, a mobile sink node collects the measurements and transmits them to the base station. We assume that the default transmission range of the activated sensor node is limited and it can be increased to maximum range only if the mobile sink node is out-side the default transmission range. Moreover, the active sensor node can be changed after a certain time period. The problem is to select an optimal sensor sequence which minimizes the total energy consumed by the sensor nodes. In this paper, we consider two different problems depend on the mobile sink node's path. First, we assume that the mobile sink node's position is known for the entire time horizon and use the dynamic programming technique to solve the problem. Second, the position of the sink node is varied over time according to a known Markov chain, and the problem is solved by stochastic dynamic programming. We also present sub-optimal methods to solve our problem. A numerical example is presented in order to discuss the proposed methods' performance PMID:22399934

  15. The structure of the atrioventricular node in the heart of the female laying ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Parto, P

    2012-02-01

    The electrical impulse for cardiac contraction is generated in the Sinoatrial node (SA node), subsequently spreads to the Atrioventricular node (AV node) and continues in the Atrioventricular bundle (AV bundle). The AV node may not always be present in different avian species and seems to differ in location and contents between species. In this study, the anatomy and histology of the AV node were studied five female adult ostriches (Struthio camelus). Routine paraffin sectioning and transmission electron microscopic method were performed. The study showed that in the ostrich, the AV node is located in the endocardium of the atrial surface of the right atrioventricular valve adjacent to the fibrous ring. The parenchyma of the AV node is formed by small specialized muscle fibres that are spread within a loose connective tissue network. The AV node is not covered by a connective tissue sheath and some arterioles are present. Nerve fibres are seen related to the node. Ultrastructurally, they stain lighter and contain fewer organized myofibrils than usual myocardial cells. The myofibril bundles run parallel to one another and have interspersed mitochondria, which display distinct cristae. The cells have a large euchromatic nucleus with a clear perinuclear area, and they connected by desmosomes. The ostrich is, thus, one of the birds that have the AV node, whose position varies from the other birds.

  16. 45 CFR 1211.1-3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-3 Definitions. (a) Volunteer means a person enrolled and currently serving as a full-time volunteer under part A of title I of the Domestic Volunteer Service Act of 1973. For the purpose of this part, a volunteer whose service has terminated shall be deemed to be...

  17. 45 CFR 1211.1-3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-3 Definitions. (a) Volunteer means a person enrolled and currently serving as a full-time volunteer under part A of title I of the Domestic Volunteer Service Act of 1973. For the purpose of this part, a volunteer whose service has terminated shall be deemed to be...

  18. 45 CFR 1211.1-3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conditions of service resulting in the denial or infringement of a right or benefit to the grieving volunteer... VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-3 Definitions. (a) Volunteer means a person enrolled and currently serving as a full-time volunteer under part A of title I of the Domestic Volunteer Service Act of...

  19. 45 CFR 1211.1-3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conditions of service resulting in the denial or infringement of a right or benefit to the grieving volunteer... VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-3 Definitions. (a) Volunteer means a person enrolled and currently serving as a full-time volunteer under part A of title I of the Domestic Volunteer Service Act of...

  20. 45 CFR 1211.1-3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conditions of service resulting in the denial or infringement of a right or benefit to the grieving volunteer... VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-3 Definitions. (a) Volunteer means a person enrolled and currently serving as a full-time volunteer under part A of title I of the Domestic Volunteer Service Act of...

  1. A Dogrib History. Grade 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Tara

    A publication on the history and traditional lifestyle of the Dogrib Tribe of Canada's Northwest Territories is intended for use in grades 1-3. Text is printed in large, clear letters and accompanied by many drawings. Some subjects covered are cooking, food, canoes, clothes, homes, and games. Sections are devoted to beavers and caribou and their…

  2. 45 CFR 1210.1-3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES General § 1210.1-3 Definitions. (a... of supporting VISTA Volunteers on a national or multi-regional basis. VISTA Volunteers may be... affiliate of a national grantee to which VISTA Volunteers are assigned under the VISTA National...

  3. Natural 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions.

    PubMed

    Baunach, Martin; Hertweck, Christian

    2015-10-19

    [3+2] in the wild: Biomimetic natural product syntheses and theoretical considerations have indicated that 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions take place in nature. Now, the structure, biosynthesis, and function of a heavily modified prenylated flavin cofactor have been elucidated. In the azomethine ylide form, it undergoes [3+2] cycloadditions with aromatic acids and promotes their decarboxylation. PMID:26465651

  4. Clinical utilities and biological characteristics of melanoma sentinel lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dale; Thomas, Daniel C; Zager, Jonathan S; Pockaj, Barbara; White, Richard L; Leong, Stanley PL

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 73870 people will be diagnosed with melanoma in the United States in 2015, resulting in 9940 deaths. The majority of patients with cutaneous melanomas are cured with wide local excision. However, current evidence supports the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) given the 15%-20% of patients who harbor regional node metastasis. More importantly, the presence or absence of nodal micrometastases has been found to be the most important prognostic factor in early-stage melanoma, particularly in intermediate thickness melanoma. This review examines the development of SLNB for melanoma as a means to determine a patient’s nodal status, the efficacy of SLNB in patients with melanoma, and the biology of melanoma metastatic to sentinel lymph nodes. Prospective randomized trials have guided the development of practice guidelines for use of SLNB for melanoma and have shown the prognostic value of SLNB. Given the rapidly advancing molecular and surgical technologies, the technical aspects of diagnosis, identification, and management of regional lymph nodes in melanoma continues to evolve and to improve. Additionally, there is ongoing research examining both the role of SLNB for specific clinical scenarios and the ways to identify patients who may benefit from completion lymphadenectomy for a positive SLN. Until further data provides sufficient evidence to alter national consensus-based guidelines, SLNB with completion lymphadenectomy remains the standard of care for clinically node-negative patients found to have a positive SLN. PMID:27081640

  5. Decellularized Lymph Nodes as Scaffolds for Tissue Engineered Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Cuzzone, Daniel A.; Albano, Nicholas J.; Aschen, Seth Z.; Ghanta, Swapna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The lymphatic system is commonly injured during cancer treatment. However, despite the morbidity of these injuries, there are currently no options for replacing damaged lymphatics. The purpose of this study was to optimize methods for decellularization of murine lymph nodes (LN) and to determine if these scaffolds can be used to tissue engineer lymph node-like structures. Methods and Results: LNs were harvested from adult mice and subjected to various decellularization protocols. The degree of decellularization and removal of nuclear material was analyzed histologically and quantitatively using DNA isolation. In addition, we analyzed histological architecture by staining for matrix proteins. After the optimal method of decellularization was identified, decellularized constructs were implanted in the renal capsule of syngeneic or allogeneic recipient mice and analyzed for antigenicity. Finally, to determine if decellularized constructs could deliver lymphocytes to recipient animals, the matrices were repopulated with splenocytes, implanted in submuscular pockets, and harvested 14 days later. Decellularization was best accomplished with the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), resulting in negligible residual cellular material but maintenance of LN architecture. Implantation of decellularized LNs into syngeneic or allogeneic mice did not elicit a significant antigenic response. In addition, repopulation of decellularized LNs with splenocytes resulted in successful in vivo cellular delivery. Conclusions: We show, for the first time, that LNs can be successfully decellularized and that these matrices have preserved extracellular matrix architecture and the potential to deliver leukocytes in vivo. Future studies are needed to determine if tissue engineered lymph nodes maintain immunologic function. PMID:25144673

  6. Adaptive node techniques for Maxwell's equations

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, D W

    2000-04-01

    The computational mesh in numerical simulation provides a framework on which to monitor the spatial dependence of function and their derivatives. Spatial mesh is therefore essential to the ability to integrate systems in time without loss of fidelity. Several philosophies have emerged to provide such fidelity (Eulerian, Lagrangian, Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian ALE, Adaptive Mesh Refinement AMR, and adaptive node generation/deletion). Regardless of the type of mesh, a major difficulty is in setting up the initial mesh. Clearly a high density of grid points is essential in regions of high geometric complexity and/or regions of intense, energetic activity. For some problems, mesh generation is such a crucial part of the problem that it can take as much computational effort as the run itself, and these tasks are now taking weeks of massively parallel CPU time. Mesh generation is no less crucial to electromagnetic calculations. In fact EM problem set up can be even more challenging without the clues given by fluid motion in hydrodynamic systems. When the mesh is advected with the fluid (Lagrangian), mesh points naturally congregate in regions of high activity. Similarly in AMR algorithms, strong gradients in the fluid flow are one of the triggers for mesh refinement. In the hyperbolic Maxwell's equations without advection, mesh point placement/motion is not so intuitive. In fixed geometry systems, it at least feasible to finely mesh high leverage, geometrically challenged areas. For other systems, where the action takes place far from the boundaries and, likely, changes position in time, the options are limited to either using a high resolution (expensive) mesh in all regions that could require such resolution or adaptively generating nodes to resolve the physics as it evolves. The authors have developed a new time of adaptive node technique for Maxwell's equations to deal with this set of issues.

  7. Lymph node staging in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sankineni, Sandeep; Brown, Anna M; Fascelli, Michele; Law, Yan Mee; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2015-05-01

    Nodal staging is important in prostate cancer treatment. While surgical lymph node dissection is the classic method of determining whether lymph nodes harbor malignancy, this is a very invasive technique. Current noninvasive approaches to identifying malignant lymph nodes are limited. Conventional imaging methods rely on size and morphology of lymph nodes and have notoriously low sensitivity for detecting malignant nodes. New imaging techniques such as targeted positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) with iron oxide particles are promising for nodal staging of prostate cancer. In this review, the strengths and limitations of imaging techniques for lymph node staging of prostate cancer are discussed.

  8. Identifying node importance in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ping; Fan, Wenli; Mei, Shengwei

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel node importance evaluation method from the perspective of the existence of mutual dependence among nodes. The node importance comprises its initial importance and the importance contributions from both the adjacent and non-adjacent nodes according to the dependence strength between them. From the simulation analyses on an example network and the ARPA network, we observe that our method can well identify the node importance. Then, the cascading failures on the Netscience and E-mail networks demonstrate that the networks are more vulnerable when continuously removing the important nodes identified by our method, which further proves the accuracy of our method.

  9. Controlling data transfers from an origin compute node to a target compute node

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2011-06-21

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for controlling data transfers from an origin compute node to a target compute node that include: receiving, by an application messaging module on the target compute node, an indication of a data transfer from an origin compute node to the target compute node; and administering, by the application messaging module on the target compute node, the data transfer using one or more messaging primitives of a system messaging module in dependence upon the indication.

  10. Metastatic lymph nodes in hilar cholangiocarcinoma: does size matter?

    PubMed Central

    Ruys, Anthony T; Ten Kate, Fiebo JW; Busch, Olivier R; Engelbrecht, Marc R; Gouma, Dirk J; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the diagnostic efficacy of the size criteria for the detection of metastatic lymph nodes (LN) in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA). Introduction LN metastasis is one of the most significant independent prognostic factors in patients with HCCA. Presently, in spite of the well known lack of sensitivity and specificity, one of the most used clinical criteria for nodal metastases is LN size. Methods Pathological slides of 147 patients who had undergone exploration for HCCA were assessed. The size (maximum and short axis diameter) of each single node was retrieved from the pathology report or measured from a section on the glass slide using a stereo microscope and a calibrated ruler integrated in the software. When a metastatic lesion was detected, the proportion of the lesion in relation to LN size was estimated. Results Out of 147 patients, 645 LN were retrieved and measured. In all, 106 nodes (16%) showed evidence of metastasis. The proportion of positive nodes was 8% in nodes <5 mm and 37% in nodes >30 mm. Ten per cent of LN smaller than 10 mm were positive, whereas only 23% of LN larger than 10 mm were metastastically involved. No clear cut-off point could be found. Similar results were found for the short axis diameter. In 50% of positive LN, the metastatic lesion accounted for 10% or less of the LN size. Conclusion No cut-off point could be determined for accurately predicting nodal involvement. Therefore, imaging studies should not rely on LN size when assessing nodal involvement. PMID:22081924

  11. Does skip metastasis or other lymph node parameters have additional effects on survival of patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Baltaci, Sumer; Aslan, Guven; Can, Cavit; Cal, Cag; Elhan, Atilla; Turkeri, Levent; Mungan, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of lymph node metastasis, skip metastasis, and other factors related to lymph node status on survival in patients who underwent radical cystectomy (RC) and extended lymph node dissection (eLND). Materials and Methods RC and eLND were performed in 85 patients with a diagnosis of bladder cancer. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined by using a Cox proportional hazards model that included the number of excised lymph nodes, the presence of pathological lymph node metastasis, the anatomical level of positive nodes, the number of positive lymph nodes, lymph node density, and the presence of skip metastasis. Results The mean number of lymph nodes removed per patient was 29.4±9.3. Lymph node positivity was detected in 85 patients (34.1%). The mean follow-up duration was 44.9±27.4 months (2-93 months). Five-year estimated OS and DFS for the 85 patients were 62.6% and 57%, respectively. Three of 29 lymph node-positive patients (10.3%) had skip metastasis. Only lymph node positivity had a significant effect on 5-year OS and DFS (p<0.001). No difference in OS and DFS was found between the three patients with skip metastasis and other lymph node-positive patients. Other factors related to lymph node status had no significant effect on 5-year OS and DFS. Conclusions No factors related to lymph node status predict DFS and OS, except for lymph node positivity. OS and DFS were comparable between patients with skip metastasis and other lymph node-positive patients. PMID:25964836

  12. Sinus Node and Atrial Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    John, Roy M; Kumar, Saurabh

    2016-05-10

    Although sinus node dysfunction (SND) and atrial arrhythmias frequently coexist and interact, the putative mechanism linking the 2 remain unclear. Although SND is accompanied by atrial myocardial structural changes in the right atrium, atrial fibrillation (AF) is a disease of variable interactions between left atrial triggers and substrate most commonly of left atrial origin. Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the genetic and pathophysiologic mechanism underlying the development and progression of SND and AF. Although some patients manifest SND as a result of electric remodeling induced by periods of AF, others develop progressive atrial structural remodeling that gives rise to both conditions together. The treatment strategy will thus vary according to the predominant disease phenotype. Although catheter ablation will benefit patients with predominantly AF and secondary SND, cardiac pacing may be the mainstay of therapy for patients with predominant fibrotic atrial cardiomyopathy. This contemporary review summarizes current knowledge on sinus node pathophysiology with the broader goal of yielding insights into the complex relationship between sinus node disease and atrial arrhythmias.

  13. Para-aortic lymph node radiation in advanced cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Emami, B.; Watring, W.G.; Tak, W.; Anderson, B.; Piro, A.J.

    1980-09-01

    Thirty-six patients with advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix and with iliac or para-aortic nodes interpreted as un-equivocally positive on lymphangiography have received radiation therapy to the para-aortic area at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology at Tufts-New England Medical Center Hospital. Of 29 patients who received para-aortic area irradiation as part of their initial treatment, local control was achieved in 18 patients (62%). Overall, four patients developed major complications requiring surgical intervention. Detailed results and our current pre-treatment evaluation policy including lymphangiography, percutaneous needle biopsy and selective extra-peritoneal lymph node biopsy will be discussed.

  14. Microfluidic ultrasonic particle separators with engineered node locations and geometries

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Klint A.; Fisher, Karl A.; Wajda, Douglas A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher; Dehlinger, Dietrich; Shusteff, Maxim; Jung, Byoungsok; Ness, Kevin D.

    2016-04-26

    An ultrasonic microfluidic system includes a separation channel for conveying a sample fluid containing small particles and large particles, flowing substantially parallel, adjacent to a recovery fluid, with which it is in contact. An acoustic transducer produces an ultrasound standing wave, that generates a pressure field having at least one node of minimum pressure amplitude. An acoustic extension structure is located proximate to said separation channel for positioning said acoustic node off center in said acoustic area and concentrating the large particles in said recovery fluid stream.

  15. Microfluidic ultrasonic particle separators with engineered node locations and geometries

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Klint A; Fisher, Karl A; Wajda, Douglas A; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P; Bailey, Christopher; Dehlinger, Dietrich; Shusteff, Maxim; Jung, Byoungsok; Ness, Kevin D

    2015-03-31

    An ultrasonic microfluidic system includes a separation channel for conveying a sample fluid containing small particles and large particles, flowing substantially parallel, adjacent to a recovery fluid, with which it is in contact. An acoustic transducer produces an ultrasound standing wave, that generates a pressure field having at least one node of minimum, pressure amplitude. An acoustic extension structure is located proximate to said separation channel for positioning said acoustic node off center in said acoustic area and concentrating the large particles in said recovery fluid stream.

  16. Microfluidic ultrasonic particle separators with engineered node locations and geometries

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Klint A; Fisher, Karl A; Wajda, Douglas A; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P; Bailey, Christoppher; Dehlinger, Dietrich; Shusteff, Maxim; Jung, Byoungsok; Ness, Kevin D

    2014-05-20

    An ultrasonic microfluidic system includes a separation channel for conveying a sample fluid containing small particles and large particles, flowing substantially parallel, adjacent to a recovery fluid, with which it is in contact. An acoustic transducer produces an ultrasound standing wave, that generates a pressure field having at least one node of minimum pressure amplitude. An acoustic extension structure is located proximate to said separation channel for positioning said acoustic node off center in said acoustic area and concentrating the large particles in said recovery fluid stream.

  17. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and lymph node calcification].

    PubMed

    Higashihara, E; Fujime, M; Niijima, T

    1987-05-01

    A female patient with calculi in the left kidney and calcified lymph nodes in the vicinity of the left renal pelvis was treated successfully with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. The simultaneous action of the shock waves on the calcified lymph nodes did not cause any alteration of the lymph node structure. Thus a shock-wave treatment can be carried out even in the presence of a calcified lymph node without complications.

  18. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hexahydro - 1,3,5 - trinitro - 1,3,5 - triazine ( RDX ) ; CASRN 121 - 82 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health

  19. Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Octahydro - 1,3,5,7 - tetranitro - 1,3,5,7 - tetr . . . ( HMX ) ; CASRN 2691 - 41 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I

  20. T.Node, industrial version of supernode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flieller, Sylvain

    1989-12-01

    The Esprit I P1085 "SuperNode" project developed a modular reconfigurable archtecture, based on transputers. This highly parallel machine is now marketed by Telmat Informatique under the name T.Node. This paper presents the P1085 project, the architecture of SuperNode, its industrial implementation and its software enviroment.

  1. 41 CFR 60-1.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... guarantee, or any application or modification thereof approved by the Government for a grant, contract, loan.... (i) Example A: Contractor A posts on its web site an opening for a Mechanical Engineer position and... that position. The web site also advises potential applicants that they can send a hard copy resume...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Lymphography-Guided Selective High-Dose Lymph Node Irradiation in Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, Hanneke J.M.; Debats, Oscar A.; Kunze-Busch, Martina; Kollenburg, Peter van; Leer, Jan Willem; Witjes, J. Alfred; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Lin, Emile N.J.Th. van

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) -guided delineation of a boost volume and an elective target volume for pelvic lymph node irradiation in patients with prostate cancer. The feasibility of irradiating these volumes with a high-dose boost to the MRL-positive lymph nodes in conjunction with irradiation of the prostate using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was also investigated. Methods and Materials: In 4 prostate cancer patients with a high risk of lymph node involvement but no enlarged lymph nodes on CT and/or MRI, MRL detected pathological lymph nodes in the pelvis. These lymph nodes were identified and delineated on a radiotherapy planning CT to create a boost volume. Based on the location of the MRL-positive lymph nodes, the standard elective pelvic target volume was individualized. An IMRT plan with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) was created with dose prescriptions of 42 Gy to the pelvic target volume, a boost to 60 Gy to the MRL-positive lymph nodes, and 72 Gy to the prostate. Results: All MRL-positive lymph nodes could be identified on the planning CT. This information could be used to delineate a boost volume and to individualize the pelvic target volume for elective irradiation. IMRT planning delivered highly acceptable radiotherapy plans with regard to the prescribed dose levels and the dose to the organs at risk (OARs). Conclusion: MRL can be used to select patients with limited lymph node involvement for pelvic radiotherapy. MRL-guided delineation of a boost volume and an elective pelvic target volume for selective high-dose lymph node irradiation with IMRT is feasible. Whether this approach will result in improved outcome for these patients needs to be investigated in further clinical studies.

  3. [Lymph node eosinophilic granuloma. Apropos of 2 cases of Langerhans-cell histiocytosis with isolated lymph node involvement].

    PubMed

    Robert, M; Marty-Double, C

    1996-01-01

    The authors report two cases of isolated lymph node involvement by Langerhans' cell histiocytosis which affected two young children. The histologic aspect reveals that lymph nodes have been modified by a proliferation of large histiocyte-like cells, associated with eosinophils. An immunohistochemical study on paraffin sections and for one case on frozen sections, reveals the usual phenotype of Langerhans' cells: these cells stain positively with S 100 protein and CD1 and are negative for both lysozyme and al antichymotrypsine. After a period of two years for one child and four years for the other, these children are in total remission, one spontaneously, the other after chemotherapy. PMID:9339010

  4. Node Detection and Internode Length Estimation of Tomato Seedlings Based on Image Analysis and Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Guo, Wei; Ninomiya, Seishi

    2016-01-01

    Seedling vigor in tomatoes determines the quality and growth of fruits and total plant productivity. It is well known that the salient effects of environmental stresses appear on the internode length; the length between adjoining main stem node (henceforth called node). In this study, we develop a method for internode length estimation using image processing technology. The proposed method consists of three steps: node detection, node order estimation, and internode length estimation. This method has two main advantages: (i) as it uses machine learning approaches for node detection, it does not require adjustment of threshold values even though seedlings are imaged under varying timings and lighting conditions with complex backgrounds; and (ii) as it uses affinity propagation for node order estimation, it can be applied to seedlings with different numbers of nodes without prior provision of the node number as a parameter. Our node detection results show that the proposed method can detect 72% of the 358 nodes in time-series imaging of three seedlings (recall = 0.72, precision = 0.78). In particular, the application of a general object recognition approach, Bag of Visual Words (BoVWs), enabled the elimination of many false positives on leaves occurring in the image segmentation based on pixel color, significantly improving the precision. The internode length estimation results had a relative error of below 15.4%. These results demonstrate that our method has the ability to evaluate the vigor of tomato seedlings quickly and accurately.

  5. Stage migration vs immunology: The lymph node count story in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Märkl, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Lymph node staging is of crucial importance for the therapy stratification and prognosis estimation in colon cancer. Beside the detection of metastases, the number of harvested lymph nodes itself has prognostic relevance in stage II/III cancers. A stage migration effect caused by missed lymph node metastases has been postulated as most likely explanation for that. In order to avoid false negative node staging reporting of at least 12 lymph nodes is recommended. However, this threshold is met only in a minority of cases in daily practice. Due to quality initiatives the situation has improved in the past. This, however, had no influence on staging in several studies. While the numbers of evaluated lymph nodes increased continuously during the last decades the rate of node positive cases remained relatively constant. This fact together with other indications raised doubts that understaging is indeed the correct explanation for the prognostic impact of lymph node harvest. Several authors assume that immune response could play a major role in this context influencing both the lymph node detectability and the tumor’s behavior. Further studies addressing this issue are need. Based on the findings the recommendations concerning minimal lymph node numbers and adjuvant chemotherapy should be reconsidered. PMID:26604632

  6. Stage migration vs immunology: The lymph node count story in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Märkl, Bruno

    2015-11-21

    Lymph node staging is of crucial importance for the therapy stratification and prognosis estimation in colon cancer. Beside the detection of metastases, the number of harvested lymph nodes itself has prognostic relevance in stage II/III cancers. A stage migration effect caused by missed lymph node metastases has been postulated as most likely explanation for that. In order to avoid false negative node staging reporting of at least 12 lymph nodes is recommended. However, this threshold is met only in a minority of cases in daily practice. Due to quality initiatives the situation has improved in the past. This, however, had no influence on staging in several studies. While the numbers of evaluated lymph nodes increased continuously during the last decades the rate of node positive cases remained relatively constant. This fact together with other indications raised doubts that understaging is indeed the correct explanation for the prognostic impact of lymph node harvest. Several authors assume that immune response could play a major role in this context influencing both the lymph node detectability and the tumor's behavior. Further studies addressing this issue are need. Based on the findings the recommendations concerning minimal lymph node numbers and adjuvant chemotherapy should be reconsidered. PMID:26604632

  7. Node Detection and Internode Length Estimation of Tomato Seedlings Based on Image Analysis and Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Guo, Wei; Ninomiya, Seishi

    2016-01-01

    Seedling vigor in tomatoes determines the quality and growth of fruits and total plant productivity. It is well known that the salient effects of environmental stresses appear on the internode length; the length between adjoining main stem node (henceforth called node). In this study, we develop a method for internode length estimation using image processing technology. The proposed method consists of three steps: node detection, node order estimation, and internode length estimation. This method has two main advantages: (i) as it uses machine learning approaches for node detection, it does not require adjustment of threshold values even though seedlings are imaged under varying timings and lighting conditions with complex backgrounds; and (ii) as it uses affinity propagation for node order estimation, it can be applied to seedlings with different numbers of nodes without prior provision of the node number as a parameter. Our node detection results show that the proposed method can detect 72% of the 358 nodes in time-series imaging of three seedlings (recall = 0.72, precision = 0.78). In particular, the application of a general object recognition approach, Bag of Visual Words (BoVWs), enabled the elimination of many false positives on leaves occurring in the image segmentation based on pixel color, significantly improving the precision. The internode length estimation results had a relative error of below 15.4%. These results demonstrate that our method has the ability to evaluate the vigor of tomato seedlings quickly and accurately. PMID:27399708

  8. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy: abandon or persist?

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peng-Fei; Liu, Yan-Bing; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Although the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer incorporated the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) concept, there has been little change in surgical practice patterns due to the low visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes with the traditional injection technique. Meanwhile, as internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLN) metastases are mostly found concomitantly with axillary lymph nodes (ALN) metastases, previous IM-SLNB clinical trials fail to evaluate the status of IMLN in patients who are really in need (only in clinically ALN negative patients). Our modified injection technique (periareolar intraparenchymal, high volume, and ultrasonographic guidance) significantly improved the visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes, making the routine IM-SLNB possible in daily practice. IM-SLNB could provide individual minimally invasive staging, prognosis, and decision-making for breast cancer patients, especially for patients with clinically positive ALN. Moreover, IMLN radiotherapy should be tailored and balanced between the potential benefit and toxicity, and IM-SLNB-guided IMLN radiotherapy could achieve this goal. In the era of effective adjuvant therapy, within the changing treatment approach - more systemic therapy, less loco-regional therapy - clinicians should deliberate the application of regional IMLN therapy. PMID:27390528

  9. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy in ipsilateral breast cancer relapse.

    PubMed

    Tasevski, R; Gogos, A J; Mann, G B

    2009-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is controversial following ipsilateral breast tumour relapse (IBTR) and previous axillary surgery. We retrospectively assessed the feasibility, outcomes and utility of this procedure. Eighteen patients with IBTR who underwent reoperative SLNB were identified. Fifteen women had previously undergone axillary lymph node dissection and three SLNB for breast cancer. Twelve of 16 patients underwent successful lymphoscintigraphy (LSG). Lymphatic drainage patterns varied widely - ipsilateral axilla (5), contralateral axilla (5), and ipsilateral internal mammary (5). Two patients had drainage to more than one nodal basin. Nine of 12 patients demonstrated drainage outside of the ipsilateral axilla. Reoperative SLNB was successful in 12/18 of patients - 4 ipsilateral axilla, 1 ipsilateral internal mammary, 1 ipsilateral intramammary, 4 contralateral axilla. Two patients had sentinel nodes in multiple nodal basins. Positive sentinel node was found in one successful case (contralateral axilla) and isolated tumour cells in two (1 contralateral axilla, 1 ipsilateral internal mammary). In conclusion, reoperative SLNB is feasible. Lymphatic drainage patterns vary widely and preoperative LSG is vital to facilitate identification of sentinel nodes in unusual sites. Its prognostic and therapeutic significance warrants further study. PMID:19819141

  10. Biodegradation of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, N. G.; Cornell, J. H.; Kaplan, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    Biodegradation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) occurs under anaerobic conditions, yielding a number of products, including: hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine, hydrazine, 1,1-dimethyl-hydrazine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, formaldehyde, and methanol. A scheme for the biodegradation of RDX is proposed which proceeds via successive reduction of the nitro groups to a point where destabilization and fragmentation of the ring occurs. The noncyclic degradation products arise via subsequent reduction and rearrangement reactions of the fragments. The scheme suggests the presence of several additional compounds, not yet identified. Several of the products are mutagenic or carcinogenic or both. Anaerobic treatment of RDX wastewaters, which also contain high nitrate levels, would permit the denitrification to occur, with concurrent degradation of RDX ultimately to a mixture of hydrazines and methanol. The feasibility of using an aerobic mode in the further degradation of these products is discussed. PMID:16345884

  11. Approach to intensely enhancing neck nodes

    PubMed Central

    Karandikar, Amit; Gummalla, Krishna Mohan; Loke, Siu Cheng; Goh, Julian; Tan, Tiong Yong

    2016-01-01

    Cervical node evaluation is one of the most common problems encountered by a radiologist. Here, we present a pictorial review of intensely enhancing neck nodes. While enhancement in a cervical node is a common radiologic finding on contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan, only few conditions cause intense enhancement in cervical nodes. We discuss the common causes of intensely enhancing neck nodes along with pertinent radiologic features and key differentiating points that aid radiologists in reaching a diagnosis. In addition, we discuss certain potential non-nodal mimics, which need to be excluded. PMID:26782154

  12. Untraceable Mobile Node Authentication in WSN

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyusuk; Kim, Kwangjo; Shon, Taeshik

    2010-01-01

    Mobility of sensor node in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) brings security issues such as re-authentication and tracing the node movement. However, current security researches on WSN are insufficient to support such environments since their designs only considered the static environments. In this paper, we propose the efficient node authentication and key exchange protocol that reduces the overhead in node re-authentication and also provides untraceability of mobile nodes. Compared with previous protocols, our protocol has only a third of communication and computational overhead. We expect our protocol to be the efficient solution that increases the lifetime of sensor network. PMID:22399886

  13. Black sentinel lymph node and 'scary stickers'.

    PubMed

    Yang, Arthur S; Creagh, Terrence A

    2013-04-01

    An unusual case is presented of a young adult patient with two black-stained, radio-nucleotide tracer-active sentinel lymph nodes biopsied following her primary cutaneous melanoma treatment. This was subsequently confirmed to be secondary to cutaneous tattoos, averting the need of an elective regional node dissection. History of tattooing and tattoo removal should therefore be obtained as a routine in all melanoma patients considered for sentinel node biopsy (SLN). SLN biopsy and any subsequent completion node dissection should be strictly staged so that proper histologic diagnosis of the sentinel node is available for correct decision making and treatment. PMID:23010587

  14. Node assignment in heterogeneous computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Som, Sukhamoy

    1993-01-01

    A number of node assignment schemes, both static and dynamic, are explored for the Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM). The architecture under consideration consists of heterogeneous processors and implements dataflow models of real-time applications. Terminology is developed for heterogeneous computing. New definitions are added to the ATAMM for token and assignment classifications. It is proved that a periodic execution is possible for dataflow graphs. Assignment algorithms are developed and proved. A design procedure is described for satisfying an objective function in an heterogeneous architecture. Several examples are provided for illustration.

  15. Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Robert R.; Eckert, Philip D.; Hommes, Gregg

    2006-07-25

    A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

  16. Sentinel lymph node identification by blue dye in patients with breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiar, Nighat; Jaleel, Farhat; Moosa, Foad Ali; Qureshi, Naeem Akhtar; Jawaid, Masood

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of methylene blue dye to detect axillary lymph node metastases in patients with breast carcinoma by taking histopathology as gold standard. Methods: This quasi experimental study was done at Department of Surgery of Dow University Hospital Karachi during January 2013 to September 2015 after the approval of Hospital Ethical Committee. A total number of 85 patients with biopsy proven carcinoma were included in the study.1% methylene blue dye was infiltrated in the peri tumoural area of the diseased breast. The blue stained node called sentinel lymph node (SLN) was recognized and carefully dissected out. SLN and mastectomy with axillary clearance specimen was sent for histopathology in two separate bottles and the report of the histopathology was compared. Results: The axillary lymph nodes were positive for carcinoma in 61 cases out of 85(71.7%). Two of the patients had negative sentinel lymph node but positive non sentinel lymph node (false negative), and in three cases sentinel lymph node were involved only but not the rest of the axilla (False positive). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 96.8%,86.36% and 94.1% respectively. Conclusion: Methylene blue dye technique is a reliable and safe diagnostic modality for detection of Sentinel lymph node in breast cancer patient because of its high accuracy. PMID:27182259

  17. Silyl- and disilanyl-1,3-butadiyne polymers from hexachloro-1,3-butadiene

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina

    1990-10-23

    Organosilane polymers having recurring silylene-1,3-butadiyne and/or disilylene-1,3-butadiyne units are prepared in a one-pot synthesis from hexachlorobutadiene. Depending on the organic substituents (R and R'), these polymers have useful film-forming properties, and are converted to the ceramic, silicon carbide upon heating a very uniform high char yields. They can also be pulled into fibers. The polymers are thermally crosslinked above 100.degree. C.

  18. Silyl- and disilanyl-1,3-butadiyne polymers from hexachloro-1,3-butadiene

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.

    1990-10-23

    Organosilane polymers having recurring silylene-1,3-butadiyne and/or disilylene-1,3-butadiyne units are prepared in a one-pot synthesis from hexachlorobutadiene. Depending on the organic substituents (R and R[prime]), these polymers have useful film-forming properties, and are converted to the ceramic, silicon carbide upon heating a very uniform high char yields. They can also be pulled into fibers. The polymers are thermally crosslinked above 100 C.

  19. On the non-planarity of 1,3-dioxole and 1,3-dioxolane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, Antonio; Mosquera, Ricardo A.

    2010-03-01

    The conformational preferences of 1,3-dioxole and 1,3-dioxolane are explained on the basis of the QTAIM electron density analysis of B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) electron distributions, supporting the interpretation of the anomeric effect previously proposed by Vila and Mosquera [14]. Thus, distances from methylenic hydrogens to oxygen lone pairs and H-C-O- lp dihedral angles sufficiently explain the atomic population and energy variations, thereby explaining the ring puckering preference.

  20. Quantitative Molecular Analysis of Sentinel Lymph Node May Be Predictive of Axillary Node Status in Breast Cancer Classified by Molecular Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Buglioni, Simonetta; Di Filippo, Franco; Terrenato, Irene; Casini, Beatrice; Gallo, Enzo; Marandino, Ferdinando; Maini, Carlo L.; Pasqualoni, Rossella; Botti, Claudio; Di Filippo, Simona; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Mottolese, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    To determine the performance of intraoperative one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay in detecting sentinel lymph node metastases compared to postoperative histology taking into account breast cancer molecular classification and to evaluate whether the level of cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number may be useful in predicting the likelihood of a positive axillary lymph node dissection. OSNA assay was performed in a prospective series of 903 consecutive sentinel lymph nodes from 709 breast cancer patients using 2 alternate slices of each sentinel lymph node. The remaining 2 slices were investigated by histology. Cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number, which distinguishes negative cases (<250 copies), micrometastases (+, ≥250≤5000 copies) and macrometastases (++, >5000 copies), was compared to axillary lymph node dissection status and to the biological tumor profile. Concordance between OSNA and histopathology was 95%, specificity 95% and sensitivity 93%. Multiple Corresponce Analysis and logistic regression evidenced that positive axillary lymph node dissection was significantly associated with a higher cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number (>5000; p<0.0001), HER2 subtype (p = 0.007) and lymphovascular invasion (p<0.0001). Conversely, breast cancer patients with cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number <2000 mostly presented a luminal subtype and a negative axillary lymph node dissection. We confirmed that OSNA assay can provide standardized and reproducible results and that it represents a fast and quantitative tool for intraoperative evaluation of sentinel lymph node. Omission of axillary lymph node dissection could be proposed in patients presenting a sentinel lymph node with a cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number <2000 and a Luminal tumor phenotype. PMID:23533593

  1. 2,4,6-Triamino-1,3,5-triazine-1H-isoindole-1,3(2H)-dione (1/3).

    PubMed

    Perpétuo, Genivaldo Júlio; Janczak, Jan

    2007-05-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C(3)H(6)N(6).3C(8)H(5)NO(2), contains a melamine and a phthalimide [1H-isoindole-1,3(2H)-dione] molecule, both residing on a mirror plane, and a second phthalimide molecule residing on a general position. The two components are linked by almost linear N-H...O and N-H...N hydrogen bonds, forming an essentially planar superstructure. These aggregates, related by a twofold screw axis, interact through weak C-H...O contacts, forming chains parallel to the b axis, while those related by translation along the c axis interact via pi-pi interactions between the pi clouds of the aromatic triazine and phthalimide rings to form a stacked structure.

  2. 28nm node process optimization: a lithography centric view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltmann, Rolf

    2014-10-01

    Many experts claim that the 28nm technology node will be the most cost effective technology node forever. This results from primarily from the cost of manufacturing due to the fact that 28nm is the last true Single Patterning (SP) node. It is also affected by the dramatic increase of design costs and the limited shrink factor of the next following nodes. Thus, it is assumed that this technology still will be alive still for many years. To be cost competitive, high yields are mandatory. Meanwhile, leading edge foundries have optimized the yield of the 28nm node to such a level that that it is nearly exclusively defined by random defectivity. However, it was a long way to go to come to that level. In my talk I will concentrate on the contribution of lithography to this yield learning curve. I will choose a critical metal patterning application. I will show what was needed to optimize the process window to a level beyond the usual OPC model work that was common on previous nodes. Reducing the process (in particular focus) variability is a complementary need. It will be shown which improvements were needed in tooling, process control and design-mask-wafer interaction to remove all systematic yield detractors. Over the last couple of years new scanner platforms were introduced that were targeted for both better productivity and better parametric performance. But this was not a clear run-path. It needed some extra affords of the tool suppliers together with the Fab to bring the tool variability down to the necessary level. Another important topic to reduce variability is the interaction of wafer none-planarity and lithography optimization. Having an accurate knowledge of within die topography is essential for optimum patterning. By completing both the variability reduction work and the process window enhancement work we were able to transfer the original marginal process budget to a robust positive budget and thus ensuring high yield and low costs.

  3. Hysteretic Behavior of Proprotein Convertase 1/3 (PC1/3)

    PubMed Central

    Icimoto, Marcelo Y.; Barros, Nilana M.; Ferreira, Juliana C.; Marcondes, Marcelo F.; Andrade, Douglas; Machado, Mauricio F.; Juliano, Maria A.; Júdice, Wagner A.; Juliano, Luiz; Oliveira, Vitor

    2011-01-01

    The proprotein convertases (PCs) are calcium-dependent proteases responsible for processing precursor proteins into their active forms in eukariotes. The PC1/3 is a pivotal enzyme of this family that participates in the proteolytic maturation of prohormones and neuropeptides inside the regulated secretory pathway. In this paper we demonstrate that mouse proprotein convertase 1/3 (mPC1/3) has a lag phase of activation by substrates that can be interpreted as a hysteretic behavior of the enzyme for their hydrolysis. This is an unprecedented observation in peptidases, but is frequent in regulatory enzymes with physiological relevance. The lag phase of mPC1/3 is dependent on substrate, calcium concentration and pH. This hysteretic behavior may have implications in the physiological processes in which PC1/3 participates and could be considered an additional control step in the peptide hormone maturation processes as for instance in the transformation of proinsulin to insulin. PMID:21935423

  4. Node Topology Effect on Target Tracking Based on UWSNs Using Quantized Measurements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Meiqin; Zhang, Senlin

    2015-10-01

    On one hand, due to the energy and bandwidth constraint of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs), local data quantization/compression is not only a necessity, but also an integral part of the design of UWSNs; on the other hand, since underwater nodes provide measurements for target tracking based on UWSNs, node topology, which is made up of the underwater nodes, may affect the performance of target tracking. This paper studies the effect of node topology on the target tracking in UWSNs using quantized measurements. Firstly, by using the knowledge of geometry, the effects of four typical topologies on target tracking using quantized measurements are analyzed qualitatively. The four typical topologies include two nodes are close to each other, three nodes are close to each other, three nodes are co-linear, and three nodes form a regular triangle. Secondly, under the condition of quantized measurements, the relationship between the posterior Cramer-Rao lower bound (PCRLB) and node's position is derived to evaluate the arbitrary topology. Thirdly, our target tracking scheme consisting of the optimal topology selection scheme by minimizing PCRLB, the optimal fusion center selection scheme by minimizing energy consumption, and the multisensor particle filter with quantized measurements is designed. Last, simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  5. Variable-Position Acoustic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Stoneburner, J. D.; Jacobi, N.; Wang, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Method of acoustic levitation supports objects at positions other than acoustic nodes. Acoustic force is varied so it balances gravitational (or other) force, thereby maintaining object at any position within equilibrium range. Levitation method applicable to containerless processing. Such objects as table-tennis balls, hollow plastic spheres, and balsa-wood spheres levitated in laboratory by new method.

  6. The conformational energies of 2-methyl- and 4-methyl-1,3-dithiane. The breakdown of 1,3- syn diaxial repulsion hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Douglas S.; Rittner, Roberto

    2003-09-01

    The conformational enthalpies (Δ H) of 2-methyl- (-1.76 kcal mol -1) and 4-methyl-1,3-dithiane (-1.75 kcal mol -1) were obtained by the analysis of 13C chemical shifts as a function of temperature. These energies are in excellent agreement both with calculated values (B3LYP/6-31G(d,p)) and with literature values based on 2,4-dialkyl-1,3-dithiane. The results confirm the similarity between the conformational energies of the methyl group at the 2 and 4 positions of the dithiane ring and that of methylcyclohexane, despite the larger distances between ring 1,3- syn- axial hydrogens and the closest methyl axial hydrogen in the dithiane ring. The possibility of a buttressing effect on the 2,4-dialkyl-1,3-dithianes previously studied and the rationale of 1,3- syn-axial steric interaction are discussed.

  7. The action modes of an extracellular beta-1,3-glucanase isolated from Bacillus clausii NM-1 on beta-1,3-glucooligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Miyanishi, Nobumitsu; Matsubara, Yasuhito; Hamada, Naoko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Imada, Chiaki; Watanabe, Etsuo

    2003-01-01

    The mode of action of an extracellular -1,3-glucanase from Bacillus clausii NM-1 on beta-1,3-3glucooligosaccharides and their alditols was studied. The enzyme could not hydrolyze laminaribiose or laminaritriose. beta-1,3-Glucooligosaccharides higher than laminarihexaose were rapidly hydrolyzed, while laminaritetraose was slowly hydrolyzed. The k(cat)/K(m) ratios for a series of beta-1,3-glucooligosaccharides from laminaritetraose to laminariheptaose showed that the substrate binding site of the enzyme covered a wide range of beta-1,3-glucooligosaccharides having six glucose residues. The action pattern of the enzyme on the alditols corresponding to each laminarioligosaccharide suggested that the catalytic site of the enzyme existed between the third and fourth glucose residue from the non-reducing terminal. The value of k(cat)/K(m) also suggested that the sixth binding position contributed to the catalytic efficiency and stability. PMID:16233479

  8. Expression of TYMS in lymph node metastasis from low-grade glioma

    PubMed Central

    DING, BINGQIAN; GAO, MING; LI, ZHENJIANG; XU, CHENYANG; FAN, SHAOKANG; HE, WEIYA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of thymidylate synthase (TYMS) in the primary foci and metastatic lymph nodes of low-grade glioma, and to analyze the function of TYMS in the lymph node metastases from low-grade glioma. The study included 93 cases of surgically resected and pathologically confirmed low-grade glioma, form patients treated at Huaihe Hospital of Henan University (Kaifeng, China). The following clinical data was obtained from each patient: Gender, age, subjective symptoms (dizziness, headache, a feeling of pressure in the head, etc.), site of disease, tumor type, pathological stage, degree of differentiation and lymph node involvement. The surgically resected gliomas and dissected cervical lymph nodes were immunohistochemically stained, and DNA was extracted from the tumor and lymph node tissues samples for polymerase chain reaction sequencing and amplification. The expression of TYMS in the primary foci and metastatic lymph nodes of low-grade glioma was examined. Additionally, the association between pathological features and the postoperative survival rate of the patients was analyzed. The primary lesions of all 93 cases exhibited positive TYMS expression and 43/157 (27.39%) lymph nodes exhibited positive TYMS expression. Factors that significantly influenced the postoperative survival rate of the patients, included the metastasis of the cervical lymph nodes (P<0.01), the number of dissected cervical lymph nodes (P<0.01) and the degree of differentiation (P<0.05). The metastasis of the cervical lymph nodes was the only independent risk factor affecting postoperative disease-free survival. The risk of recurrence in patients with metastasis of the cervical lymph nodes was 6.3-fold higher than in those without metastasis (P<0.01). Thus, the results of the present study provide a theoretical basis for accurately predicting the prognosis of patients with low-grade malignant brain glioma, reducing the conjecture involved in

  9. Bodega Ocean Observing Node (BOON).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Largier, J. L.; Chow, V. I.; Williams, S. L.; Botsford, L. W.; Morgan, S. G.; Nyden, B.; Tustin, J. A.; McAfee, S.; Shideler, D.

    2004-12-01

    The Bodega Ocean Observing Node (BOON) is comprised of radar mapping of surface currents, a moored current profiler, and shoreline oceanographic and meteorological observations. Ongoing shoreline data on temperature and salinity date back to 1955, with continuous records of sealevel, wind, meteorology, and chlorophyll fluorescence starting more recently. Radar observations started in 2001 with deployment of two CODAR antennae. Together with a third CODAR unit deployed in 2002, these provide coverage from Pt Reyes north to the CODE line. Real-time ADCP data from the mooring started in late 2004. Plans include nearshore wave data, CTD/fluorescence data from the mooring, and deployment of a nutrient sensor at the shoreline. This coastal ocean observing node is part of the state-funded COCMP-NC program and the CeNCOOS regional association for central and northern California. Ancillary regional data are available on offshore winds (NDBC buoys), offshore waves (CDIP buoy), river flow, and satellite observations. The value of this suite of measurements is built on (1) detailed understanding of circulation, derived from WEST, CODE, and other prior studies of this region, including mesoscale atmosphere and ocean modeling, (2) active integration of circulation patterns in ongoing studies of planktonic and benthic ecology, and (3) direct interaction with local, state and federal agencies with interest in this region. To-date, the ongoing data series have shown potential for improved understanding and monitoring of fishery populations such as salmon and crab, as well as water quality concerns including oil spills and toxic pollutants. Through an active involvement in local studies and environmental management issues, BOON seeks to develop alternatives to supply-side thinking in the design of coastal ocean observing systems. BOON is based at the Bodega Marine Laboratory and thus provides invaluable support for academic study of more fundamental questions, such as carbon budgets

  10. (E)-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole derivatives containing O-benzyl oxime moiety as potential immunosuppressive agents: Design, synthesis, molecular docking and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xian-Hai; Li, Qing-Shan; Ren, Zi-Li; Chu, Ming-Jie; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Xin; Xing, Man; Zhu, Hai-Liang; Cao, Hai-Qun

    2016-01-27

    A series of novel (E)-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole derivatives containing O-benzyl oxime moiety were firstly synthesized and their immunosuppressive activities were evaluated. Among all the compounds, 4n exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity (IC50 = 1.18 μM for lymph node cells and IC50 = 0.28 μM for PI3Kγ), which was comparable to that of positive control. Moreover, selected compounds were tested for their inhibitory activities against IL-6 released in ConA-simulated mouse lymph node cells, 4n exhibited the most potent inhibitory ability. Furthermore, in order to study the preliminary mechanism of the compounds with potent inhibitory activity, the RT-PCR experiment was performed to assay the effect of selected compounds on mRNA expression of IL-6. Among them, compound 4n strongly inhibited the expression of IL-6 mRNA.

  11. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine translocation in poplar trees

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.L.; Ramer, L.A.; Schnoor, J.L.

    1999-02-01

    This article evaluates the translocation of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in hybrid poplar trees (Populus deltoides x nigra, DN34) grown in hydroponic solutions. Mass balances with [U-{sup 14}C]RDX were used to assess RDX translocation. Up to 60% of the RDX uptaken by the tree accumulated in leaf tissues. Analysis of plant extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with radiochemical detection indicated that RDX was not significantly transformed during exposure periods of up to 7 d. The bioaccumulation of RDX may be an important concern for phytoremediation efforts.

  12. Scintigraphic visualization of an epigastric sentinel node in recurrent breast cancer after lumpectomy and postoperative radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Milardovic, Renata; Castellon, Ivan; Mills, Christopher; Altinyay, M Erkan; Raphael, Barbara; Abdel-Dayem, Hussein M

    2006-04-01

    Sentinel node imaging and biopsy have become standard procedures for staging early breast cancer. Positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy necessitates the need for axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Failure to visualize a sentinel lymph node in recurrent breast cancer after treatment by surgery, chemotherapy, and high-dose postoperative radiation therapy is almost the case in every patient. The reason for failure to visualize the sentinel node is the fibrosis that follows high-dose radiotherapy and blocks the lymphatics preventing spread of the tumor cells to the lymph nodes. Alternative pathways for the drainage of lymph from the breast are developed in these patients. We have previously reported on the alternative pathways of lymphatics to the contralateral axilla, supraclavicular area, and also reported on the development of intramammary lymph nodes. In this report, we are presenting another alternative pathway of lymphatics to the region of the epigastrium below the lower end of the sternum. PMID:16550014

  13. micrOMEGAs: Version 1.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bélanger, G.; Boudjema, F.; Pukhov, A.; Semenov, A.

    2006-04-01

    We present the latest version of micrOMEGAs, a code that calculates the relic density of the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). All tree-level processes for the annihilation of the LSP are included as well as all possible coannihilation processes with neutralinos, charginos, sleptons, squarks and gluinos. The cross-sections extracted from CalcHEP are calculated exactly using loop-corrected masses and mixings as specified in the SUSY Les Houches Accord. Relativistic formulae for the thermal average are used and care is taken to handle poles and thresholds by adopting specific integration routines. The input parameters can be either the soft SUSY parameters in a general MSSM or the parameters of a SUGRA model specified at the GUT scale. In the latter case, a link with Suspect, SOFTSUSY, Spheno and Isajet allows one to calculate the supersymmetric spectrum, Higgs masses, as well as mixing matrices. Higher-order corrections to Higgs couplings to quark pairs including QCD as well as some SUSY corrections ( Δm) are implemented. Routines calculating (, b→sγ and B→μμ are also included. In particular the b→sγ routine includes an improved NLO for the SM and the charged Higgs while the SUSY large tanβ effects beyond leading-order are included. This new version also provides cross-sections for any 2→2 process as well as partial decay widths for two-body final states in the MSSM allowing for easy simulation at colliders. Program summaryProgram title:micrOMEGAs1.3 Catalogue identifier:ADQR_v1_3 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADQR_v1_3 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:none Computer:PC, Alpha, Silicon graphics, Sun Programming language:C and Fortran Operating system:UNIX (Linux, OSF1, IRIX64, SunOS) RAM:20 MB depending on the number of processes required No of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc

  14. Isoxazolium N-ylides and 1-oxa-5-azahexa-1,3,5-trienes on the way from isoxazoles to 2H-1,3-oxazines

    PubMed Central

    Novikov, Mikhail S; Gorbunova, Yelizaveta G; Galenko, Ekaterina E; Mikhailov, Kirill I; Pakalnis, Viktoriia V; Avdontceva, Margarita S

    2014-01-01

    Summary Theoretical and experimental studies of the reaction of isoxazoles with diazo compounds show that the formation of 2H-1,3-oxazines proceeds via the formation of (3Z)-1-oxa-5-azahexa-1,3,5-trienes which undergo a 6π-cyclization. The stationary points corresponding to the probable reaction intermediates, isoxazolium N-ylides, were located by DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level only for derivatives without a substituent in position 3 of the isoxazole ring. These isoxazolium N-ylides are thermodynamically and kinetically very unstable. According to the calculations and experimental results 2H-1,3-oxazines are usually more thermodynamically stable than the corresponding open-chain isomers, (3Z)-1-oxa-5-azahexa-1,3,5-trienes. The exception are oxaazahexatrienes derived from 5-alkoxyisoxazoles, which are thermodynamically more stable than the corresponding 2H-1,3-oxazines. Therefore, the reaction of diazo esters with 5-alkoxyisoxazoles is a good approach to 1,4-di(alkoxycarbonyl)-2-azabuta-1,3-dienes. The reaction conditions for the preparation of aryl- and halogen-substituted 2H-1,3-oxazines and 1,4-di(alkoxycarbonyl)-2-azabuta-1,3-dienes from isoxazoles were investigated. PMID:25246948

  15. Sentinel lymph node metastasis after neoadjuvant treatment in breast cancer: Any size matters?

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Isabel T

    2015-01-01

    One of the advantages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) treatments is its ability to convert patients who need a mastectomy in breast conservative surgery. NAC has also increased the conversion of node positive patients into node negative in around 40% allowing the use of sentinel node biopsy (SLN) in this setting. Timing of SLN biopsy after NAC has been a subject of debate. In patients with clinically node negative before NAC, rates of success and false negative rates of SLN after NAC are similar to those in the adjuvant setting, so SLN after NAC in previous negative axilla has been incorporated in the staging of the axilla. More controversial is its use in patients with positive axillary nodes before NAC who convert to node negative after NAC. Several randomized studies have reported the identification rates and the false negative rates of the SLN after NAC, concordant in the importance of surgical technique. As there is an agreement in the abandon of the immunohistochemistry (IHC) for SLN in the adjuvant setting as SLN IHC detected metastasis appear to have no impact on overall survival, in patients with SLN after NAC the inclusion of isolated tumor cell (ITC) as positive nodes lowers the false negative rates of the technique, suggesting the importance of assessing the SLN by IHC after NAC and considering it as residual disease. Longer follow up is needed to determine the prognostic implications of ITC in the SLN after NAC. PMID:26677431

  16. Soft-core processor study for node-based architectures.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Houten, Jonathan Roger; Jarosz, Jason P.; Welch, Benjamin James; Gallegos, Daniel E.; Learn, Mark Walter

    2008-09-01

    Node-based architecture (NBA) designs for future satellite projects hold the promise of decreasing system development time and costs, size, weight, and power and positioning the laboratory to address other emerging mission opportunities quickly. Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based modules will comprise the core of several of the NBA nodes. Microprocessing capabilities will be necessary with varying degrees of mission-specific performance requirements on these nodes. To enable the flexibility of these reconfigurable nodes, it is advantageous to incorporate the microprocessor into the FPGA itself, either as a hardcore processor built into the FPGA or as a soft-core processor built out of FPGA elements. This document describes the evaluation of three reconfigurable FPGA based processors for use in future NBA systems--two soft cores (MicroBlaze and non-fault-tolerant LEON) and one hard core (PowerPC 405). Two standard performance benchmark applications were developed for each processor. The first, Dhrystone, is a fixed-point operation metric. The second, Whetstone, is a floating-point operation metric. Several trials were run at varying code locations, loop counts, processor speeds, and cache configurations. FPGA resource utilization was recorded for each configuration. Cache configurations impacted the results greatly; for optimal processor efficiency it is necessary to enable caches on the processors. Processor caches carry a penalty; cache error mitigation is necessary when operating in a radiation environment.

  17. Investigation of the dermal sensitization potential of various essential oils in the local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Lalko, J; Api, A M

    2006-05-01

    Essential oils are commonly used fragrance ingredients. The oils themselves are complex mixtures, which may contain naturally occurring contact sensitizers. The local lymph node assay was used to evaluate the dermal sensitization potential of basil, citronella, clove leaf, geranium, litsea cubeba, lemongrass, and palmarosa oils. Three of the major components--citral, eugenol, and geraniol--were included to investigate any difference in sensitization potential arising from their exposure in a mixture. Each fragrance material was tested at five concentration ranging from 2.5% to 50% w/v in 1:3 ethanol:diethyl phthalate. The stimulation index (SI) values were calculated for each dose level, an SI > or = 3 was considered a positive response. The estimated concentration (EC3) required to elicit a positive was calculated and taken as a measure of relative potency. The EC3 values and potency classification for basil, clove leaf, litsea cubeba, lemongrass and palmarosa oils were calculated to be <2.5% (> or = moderate), 7.1% (weak), 8.4% (weak), 6.5% (weak) and 9.6% (weak), respectively. Citronella and geranium oils were negative. The individual components citral, eugenol and geraniol resulted in EC3 values of 6.3%, 5.4% and 11.4%, respectively. In general, the potency of each essential oil did not differ significantly from that observed for its main individual component.

  18. Investigation of the dermal sensitization potential of various essential oils in the local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Lalko, J; Api, A M

    2006-05-01

    Essential oils are commonly used fragrance ingredients. The oils themselves are complex mixtures, which may contain naturally occurring contact sensitizers. The local lymph node assay was used to evaluate the dermal sensitization potential of basil, citronella, clove leaf, geranium, litsea cubeba, lemongrass, and palmarosa oils. Three of the major components--citral, eugenol, and geraniol--were included to investigate any difference in sensitization potential arising from their exposure in a mixture. Each fragrance material was tested at five concentration ranging from 2.5% to 50% w/v in 1:3 ethanol:diethyl phthalate. The stimulation index (SI) values were calculated for each dose level, an SI > or = 3 was considered a positive response. The estimated concentration (EC3) required to elicit a positive was calculated and taken as a measure of relative potency. The EC3 values and potency classification for basil, clove leaf, litsea cubeba, lemongrass and palmarosa oils were calculated to be <2.5% (> or = moderate), 7.1% (weak), 8.4% (weak), 6.5% (weak) and 9.6% (weak), respectively. Citronella and geranium oils were negative. The individual components citral, eugenol and geraniol resulted in EC3 values of 6.3%, 5.4% and 11.4%, respectively. In general, the potency of each essential oil did not differ significantly from that observed for its main individual component. PMID:16324777

  19. Study of the surface modification of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode material for lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashem, A. M. A.; Abdel-Ghany, A. E.; Eid, A. E.; Trottier, J.; Zaghib, K.; Mauger, A.; Julien, C. M.

    2011-10-01

    The surface of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (LNMCO) particles has been studied for material synthesized at 900 °C by a two-step process from a mixture of LiOH·H2O and metal oxalate [(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)C2O4] obtained by co-precipitation. Samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), Raman scattering (RS) spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements. We have investigated the effect of the heat treatment of particles at 600 °C with organic substances such as sucrose and starch. HRTEM images and RS spectra indicate that the surface of particles has been modified. The annealing does not lead to any carbon coating but it leads to the crystallization of the thin disordered layer on the surface of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2. The beneficial effect has been tested on the electrochemical properties of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode materials. The capacity at 10C-rate is enhanced by 20% for post-treated LNMCO particles at 600 °C for half-an-hour.

  20. Effects of incision and irradiation on regional lymph node metastasis in carcinoma of the hamster tongue

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtake, K.; Shingaki, S.; Nakajima, T. )

    1990-07-01

    The effects of incision and irradiation on regional lymph node metastasis in DMBA-induced squamous cell carcinomas of the hamster tongue are reported. Metastasis to the submandibular lymph nodes was confirmed histologically in 48.0% of the animals. The incidence of lymph node metastasis was significantly increased (65.9%) after repeated incisions of tongue carcinomas. Three gray whole-body irradiation also increased the rate of metastasis from 31.0% to 46.3%. Higher incidences of lymphatic vessel invasion after incision and concomitant lymph node metastasis in the lymphatic invasion-positive group indicated a stepwise relationship leading to an increase in lymph node metastasis after incision. Because of the high incidence of metastases and close resemblance to human carcinomas in the tumor cell deposition and establishment of metastatic foci, DMBA-induced tongue carcinoma with invasion may serve as an experimental model of human oral carcinomas.

  1. Classification between Failed Nodes and Left Nodes in Mobile Asset Tracking Systems †

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Jae-Yeon; Jin, Seong-il

    2016-01-01

    Medical asset tracking systems track a medical device with a mobile node and determine its status as either in or out, because it can leave a monitoring area. Due to a failed node, this system may decide that a mobile asset is outside the area, even though it is within the area. In this paper, an efficient classification method is proposed to separate mobile nodes disconnected from a wireless sensor network between nodes with faults and a node that actually has left the monitoring region. The proposed scheme uses two trends extracted from the neighboring nodes of a disconnected mobile node. First is the trend in a series of the neighbor counts; the second is that of the ratios of the boundary nodes included in the neighbors. Based on such trends, the proposed method separates failed nodes from mobile nodes that are disconnected from a wireless sensor network without failures. The proposed method is evaluated using both real data generated from a medical asset tracking system and also using simulations with the network simulator (ns-2). The experimental results show that the proposed method correctly differentiates between failed nodes and nodes that are no longer in the monitoring region, including the cases that the conventional methods fail to detect. PMID:26901200

  2. Sinus node dysfunction complicating viper bite.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashish; Kumar, Tarun; Ravindranath, Khandenahally S; Bhat, Prabhavathi; Manjunath, Cholenahally N; Agarwal, Neena

    2015-02-01

    Viper venom toxicities comprise mainly bleeding disorders and nephrotoxicity. Cardiotoxicity is a rare manifestation of viper bite. We describe the case of a previously healthy 35-year-old man who developed coagulopathy and sinus node dysfunction following a viper bite. Electrocardiography showed sinus arrest and junctional escape rhythm. This is the first account of sinus node dysfunction caused by a viper bite.

  3. Sinus node dysfunction: recognition and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rusk, Karla; Scordo, Kristine

    2012-12-10

    Sinus node dysfunction (SND) refers to a wide range of abnormalities involving sinus node and atrial impulse generation and propagation. SND occurs at any age and is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Clinicians must be able to accurately diagnose this syndrome, which can present from asymptomatic bradycardia to atrial standstill.

  4. A multiple node software development environment

    SciTech Connect

    Heinicke, P.; Nicinski, T.; Constanta-Fanourakis, P.; Petravick, D.; Pordes, R.; Ritchie, D.; White, V.

    1987-06-01

    Experimenters on over 30 DECnet nodes at Fermilab use software developed, distributed, and maintained by the Data Acquisition Software Group. A general methodology and set of tools have been developed to distribute, use and manage the software on different sites. The methodology and tools are of interest to any group developing and using software on multiple nodes.

  5. Testnodes: a Lightweight Node-Testing Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, R.; Bland, J.

    2014-06-01

    A key aspect of ensuring optimum cluster reliability and productivity lies in keeping worker nodes in a healthy state. Testnodes is a lightweight node testing solution developed at Liverpool. While Nagios has been used locally for general monitoring of hosts and services, Testnodes is optimised to answer one question: is there any reason this node should not be accepting jobs? This tight focus enables Testnodes to inspect nodes frequently with minimal impact and provide a comprehensive and easily extended check with each inspection. On the server side, Testnodes, implemented in python, interoperates with the Torque batch server to control the nodes production status. Testnodes remotely and in parallel executes client-side test scripts and processes the return codes and output, adjusting the node's online/offline status accordingly to preserve the integrity of the overall batch system. Testnodes reports via log, email and Nagios, allowing a quick overview of node status to be reviewed and specific node issues to be identified and resolved quickly. This presentation will cover testnodes design and implementation, together with the results of its use in production at Liverpool, and future development plans.

  6. Mediastinal lymph node size in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Libshitz, H.I.; McKenna, R.J. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    Using a size criterion of 1 cm or greater as evidence for abnormality, the size of mediastinal lymph nodes identified by computed tomography (CT) was a poor predictor of mediastinal lymph node metastases in a series of 86 patients who had surgery for bronchogenic carcinoma. The surgery included full nodal sampling in all patients. Of the 86 patients, 36 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm identified by CT. Of the 21 patients with mediastinal metastases proven at surgery, 14 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm (sensitivity = 67%). Of the 65 patients without mediastinal metastases, 22 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm. Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse distal to the cancer was present in 39 patients (45%). Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse is a common occurrence in bronchogenic carcinoma, but mediastinal nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm in this circumstance cannot be presumed to represent metastatic disease. Metastatic mediastinal lymph node involvement was related to nodal size also in patients with evidence of prior granulomatous disease and in patients with no putative benign cause for nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm.

  7. High speed polling protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs a remote node polling process performed by a master node by transmitting a polling message generically addressed to all remote nodes associated with the master node. Each remote node responds upon receipt of the generically addressed polling message by transmitting a poll-answering informational message and by relaying the polling message to other adjacent remote nodes.

  8. Sentinel lymph node biopsy: technique validation at the Setúbal Medical Centre, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, P; Baía, R; António, A; Almeida, J; Simões, J; Amaro, JC; Quintana, C; Branco, L; Rigueira, MV; Gonçalves, M; Pereira, EV; Ferreira, LM

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients at this institution, using combined technetium-99m (99mTc) sulphur colloid and patent blue vital dye. Methods: From March 2007 to July 2008, 50 patients with a tumour of less than 3 cm and with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), followed by axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Sub-areolar 99mTc sulphur colloid injection was performed the day before surgery, and patent blue vital dye was also injected sub-areolarly at least 5 minutes before surgery. Sentinel lymph node was identified during the surgical procedure, using a gamma probe and direct vision. All sentinel nodes underwent frozen section analysis. Later haematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical analysis were performed. Finally, SLNB was compared with standard ALND for its ability to accurately reflect the final pathological status of the axillary nodes. Results: The sentinel lymph node (SLN) was identified in 48 of 50 patients (96%). The number of sentinel lymph nodes ranged from one to four (mean 1.48) and non-sentinel nodes ranged from seven to 27 (mean 14.33). Of the 48 patients with successfully identified SLNs, 29.17% (14/48) were histologically positive. Sensivity of the SLN to predict axilla was 93.75%; accuracy was 97.96%. The SLN was falsely negative in one patient—6.25% (1/16). Conclusions: The SLNB represents a major advance in the surgical treatment of breast cancer as a minimally invasive procedure predicting the axillary lymph node status. This validation study demonstrates the accuracy of the SLNB and its reasonable false negative rate when performed in our institute. It can now be used as the standard method of staging in patients with early breast cancer at this institution. PMID:22275996

  9. Locating influential nodes in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Malliaros, Fragkiskos D.; Rossi, Maria-Evgenia G.; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling spreading processes in networks is an important topic with many diverse applications, including information dissemination, disease propagation and viral marketing. It is of crucial importance to identify which entities act as influential spreaders that can propagate information to a large portion of the network, in order to ensure efficient information diffusion, optimize available resources or even control the spreading. In this work, we capitalize on the properties of the K-truss decomposition, a triangle-based extension of the core decomposition of graphs, to locate individual influential nodes. Our analysis on real networks indicates that the nodes belonging to the maximal K-truss subgraph show better spreading behavior compared to previously used importance criteria, including node degree and k-core index, leading to faster and wider epidemic spreading. We further show that nodes belonging to such dense subgraphs, dominate the small set of nodes that achieve the optimal spreading in the network. PMID:26776455

  10. Locating influential nodes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malliaros, Fragkiskos D.; Rossi, Maria-Evgenia G.; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling spreading processes in networks is an important topic with many diverse applications, including information dissemination, disease propagation and viral marketing. It is of crucial importance to identify which entities act as influential spreaders that can propagate information to a large portion of the network, in order to ensure efficient information diffusion, optimize available resources or even control the spreading. In this work, we capitalize on the properties of the K-truss decomposition, a triangle-based extension of the core decomposition of graphs, to locate individual influential nodes. Our analysis on real networks indicates that the nodes belonging to the maximal K-truss subgraph show better spreading behavior compared to previously used importance criteria, including node degree and k-core index, leading to faster and wider epidemic spreading. We further show that nodes belonging to such dense subgraphs, dominate the small set of nodes that achieve the optimal spreading in the network.

  11. Exploiting node mobility for energy optimization in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Moukaddem, Fatme Mohammad

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have become increasingly available for data-intensive applications such as micro-climate monitoring, precision agriculture, and audio/video surveillance. A key challenge faced by data-intensive WSNs is to transmit the sheer amount of data generated within an application's lifetime to the base station despite the fact that sensor nodes have limited power supplies such as batteries or small solar panels. The availability of numerous low-cost robotic units (e.g. Robomote and Khepera) has made it possible to construct sensor networks consisting of mobile sensor nodes. It has been shown that the controlled mobility offered by mobile sensors can be exploited to improve the energy efficiency of a network. In this thesis, we propose schemes that use mobile sensor nodes to reduce the energy consumption of data-intensive WSNs. Our approaches differ from previous work in two main aspects. First, our approaches do not require complex motion planning of mobile nodes, and hence can be implemented on a number of low-cost mobile sensor platforms. Second, we integrate the energy consumption due to both mobility and wireless communications into a holistic optimization framework. We consider three problems arising from the limited energy in the sensor nodes. In the first problem, the network consists of mostly static nodes and contains only a few mobile nodes. In the second and third problems, we assume essentially that all nodes in the WSN are mobile. We first study a new problem called max-data mobile relay configuration (MMRC ) that finds the positions of a set of mobile sensors, referred to as relays, that maximize the total amount of data gathered by the network during its lifetime. We show that the MMRC problem is surprisingly complex even for a trivial network topology due to the joint consideration of the energy consumption of both wireless communication and mechanical locomotion. We present optimal MMRC algorithms and practical distributed

  12. Fluorescent properties of merocyanines based on 1,3-indandione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulinich, A. V.; Mikitenko, E. K.; Ishchenko, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    We have studied the fluorescent properties of vinylogous series of merocyanine dyes based on 1,3-indandione and heterocycles of different electron-donating powers. Using a set of solvents with polarities lying in a wide range, we have analyzed the dependence of their solvatofluorochromism on the key structural parameters—the donor heterocyclic group and the length of the polymethine chain. It has been found that the signs of solvatochromism and solvatofluorochromism of merocyanines under study coincide. However, the solvent more weakly affects the position and the shape of their fluorescence bands than in the case of absorption spectra, especially, for negatively solvatochromic derivatives of 1,3-diphenylbenzimidazole. We have found that, upon passage from polar aprotic solvents to alcohols, the fluorescence quantum yields of dyes under investigation (irrespective of the sign of their solvatochromism) decrease. We have performed quantum-chemical calculations of merocyanine molecules by the DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and TDDFT methods, including calculations taking into account the polarity of the medium by the PCM method. Based on the analysis of electronic transitions, we have explained the fluorescence quenching of indandione merocyanines in alcohol, which is unusual for carbonyl-containing intraionic dyes.

  13. Towards the development of tamper-resistant, ground-based mobile sensor nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascarenas, David; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles

    2011-11-01

    Mobile sensor nodes hold great potential for collecting field data using fewer resources than human operators would require and potentially requiring fewer sensors than a fixed-position sensor array. It would be very beneficial to allow these mobile sensor nodes to operate unattended with a minimum of human intervention. In order to allow mobile sensor nodes to operate unattended in a field environment, it is imperative that they be capable of identifying and responding to external agents that may attempt to tamper with, damage or steal the mobile sensor nodes, while still performing their data collection mission. Potentially hostile external agents could include animals, other mobile sensor nodes, or humans. This work will focus on developing control policies to help enable a mobile sensor node to identify and avoid capture by a hostile un-mounted human. The work is developed in a simulation environment, and demonstrated using a non-holonomic, ground-based mobile sensor node. This work will be a preliminary step toward ensuring the cyber-physical security of ground-based mobile sensor nodes that operate unattended in potentially unfriendly environments.

  14. Ultrasonography of the supramammary lymph nodes for diagnosis of bovine chronic subclinical mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Khoramian, B.; Vajhi, A.; Ghasemzadeh-Nava, H.; Ahrari-Khafi, M. S.; Bahonar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial culture are considered as the gold standard of detecting subclinical Mastitis. Mastitis leads to proliferation of lymphocytes in the supramammary lymph nodes and subsequent enlargement of ipsilateral lymph node. Ultrasonography can be used to survey these changes. A portable ultrasound machine with a 2-5 MHz convex transducer was used to identify the supramammary lymph node size in 35 cows in a herd with chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. After pre-milking udder preparation, a California mastitis test (CMT) was performed and individual milk samples were taken from each quarter for bacterial culture and somatic cell count (SCC) in accordance with NMC recommendations. The mean length (range 5.77-12.90 cm) and width (range 2.07-7.41 cm) of the lymph node were 9.2 and 4.03 cm, respectively. There was a positive correlation between lymph node size (length and depth) and culture of milk samples on ipsilateral quarters. Also, there was a significant difference correlation between CMT or mean log SCC of each side and size of supramammary lymph node in the same side. This study showed significant changes in supramammary lymph node dimensions in mastitis cases, so ultrasonography of this lymph node is probably a useful method for mastitis detection, especially in situations that test on milk is impossible. PMID:27175155

  15. Tattoo-pigmented cervical lymph node that masqueraded as the sentinel lymph node in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Amith; Wieshmann, Hulya; Triantafyllou, Asterios; Shaw, Richard

    2015-11-01

    We describe a case of a pigmented cervical lymph node mimicking the sentinel node during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) on a patient with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The patient had extensive tattoos on his neck. This pigmented lymph node was not identified to be the sentinel lymph node using static and dynamic lymphoscintigraphy. Subsequent histological analysis revealed tattoo pigment within this lymph node. It is important during cervical SLNB to be aware that cutaneous tattoos can pigment lymph nodes. PMID:26188933

  16. Deep rooting in winter wheat: rooting nodes of deep roots in two cultivars with deep and shallow root systems.

    PubMed

    Araki, H; Iijima, M

    2001-09-01

    Deep rooting of wheat has been suggested that it influences the tolerance to various environmental stresses. In this study, the nodes from which the deepest penetrated roots had emerged were examined in winter wheat. The wheat was grown in long tubes with or without mechanical stress and in large root boxes. The length and growth angle of each axile root were examined to analyze the difference in the vertical distribution of the roots between the two wheat cultivars, one with a deep and one with a shallow root system. In Shiroganekomugi, a Japanese winter wheat cultivar with a shallow root system, the rooting depths of the seminal and nodal roots decreased as the rooting nodes advanced acropetally. Six out of nine deepest roots were seminal root in the non-mechanical stress conditions. In Mutsubenkei, a Japanese winter wheat cultivar with a deep root system, grown in root boxes, not only the seminal roots but also the coleoptilar and the first nodal roots penetrated to a depth of more than 1.3 m in the root box, and became the deepest roots. In both cultivars, the seminal roots became the deepest roots under the mechanical stress conditions. There were no clear tendencies in the root growth angles among the rooting nodes in the wheat root system. This indicates that the length of the axile roots can explain the differences in the rooting depths among axile roots in a wheat root system. On the other hand, the axile roots of Mutsubenkei elongated significantly more vertically than those of Shiroganekomugi. This suggests that not only seminal but also nodal roots exhibit strong positive gravitropism and penetrate deeply in a cultivar with a deep root system. In wheat cultivars, it is likely that the extent of its Root Depth Index results partly from the gravitropic responses of both seminal and nodal roots.

  17. The vibrational spectra of 1,3-dithiane-1-oxide and 1,3-dithia-1-oxocyclohept-5-ene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noskov, A. I.; Fishman, A. I.; Galjautdinova, A. N.; Klimovitskii, E. N.

    2010-09-01

    The IR spectra of 1,3-dithiane-1-oxide (I) and 1,3-dithia-1-oxocyclohept-5-ene (II) were recorded in solution, solid and liquid phase over 4000-400 cm -1 spectral range. It was found that both (I) and (II) in liquid phase and solutions exist in two conformations: (I) chair-e ( Ce) and chair-a ( Ca) with equatorial and axial positions of the S dbnd O bond, respectively, and (II) chair-e ( Ce) and boat-e ( Be). The intensity variations with temperature (300-180 K) of the bands 632 ( Ca) and 644 cm -1 ( Ce) of (I) in acetone-d 6 and the bands 482 ( Be) и 448 cm -1 ( Ce) of (II) in melt were employed in Van't Hoff plot and gave the values Δ H°( Ca - Ce) = 380 ± 40 cal mol -1 (I) and Δ H° ( Be - Ce) = 400 ± 100 cal mol -1 (II). Ab initio calculations were carried out with the Gaussian 98 program using the basis set 6-31G(d) for (I) and 6-311++G(d,p) for (II). The energy difference between Ca and Ce conformations for (I) and Be and Ce for (II) are in a good agreement with experimental results. Vibrational frequencies for both conformations (I) and (II) were calculated. After appropriate scaling a reasonably good agreement between the experimental and calculated wave numbers was obtained.

  18. Comparison of flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy and scalene lymph node biopsy in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Stjernberg, N; Thunell, M; Lundgren, R

    1983-09-01

    The diagnostic accuracy achieved by taking bronchial mucosal and lung biopsies through flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopes was compared with scalene lymph node biopsy in 55 patients with sarcoidosis. The diagnostic yield with flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy was 62 per cent in the whole material and increased to 76 per cent in patients with stage II sarcoidosis. Scalene lymph node biopsy was positive in 80 per cent. Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy is a useful method for obtaining biopsy material in sarcoidosis, especially in stage II sarcoidosis. We consider flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy and scalene lymph node biopsy the methods of choice in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. PMID:6628338

  19. [Anaphylactic shock after injection of patent blue for sentinel lymph node biopsy].

    PubMed

    van der Horst, J C; de Bock, M J; Klinkenbijl, J H

    2001-10-27

    After being diagnosed with a melanoma, an 18-year-old woman developed anaphylactic shock following an intracutaneous injection of patent blue during a sentinel lymph node biopsy procedure. Intracutaneous allergy tests revealed positive reactions with patent blue (Bleu patenté V 'Guerbet') as well as with several anaesthetics and morphine. It was concluded that patent blue was the most probable causative agent for the anaphylactic reaction and that the possibility of such a reaction should be taken into consideration during sentinel node procedures. After a few days the operation was completed under epidural anaesthesia with technetium Tc 99m sulphur colloid being used to detect the sentinel node. PMID:11715597

  20. [Anaphylactic shock after injection of patent blue for sentinel lymph node biopsy].

    PubMed

    van der Horst, J C; de Bock, M J; Klinkenbijl, J H

    2001-10-27

    After being diagnosed with a melanoma, an 18-year-old woman developed anaphylactic shock following an intracutaneous injection of patent blue during a sentinel lymph node biopsy procedure. Intracutaneous allergy tests revealed positive reactions with patent blue (Bleu patenté V 'Guerbet') as well as with several anaesthetics and morphine. It was concluded that patent blue was the most probable causative agent for the anaphylactic reaction and that the possibility of such a reaction should be taken into consideration during sentinel node procedures. After a few days the operation was completed under epidural anaesthesia with technetium Tc 99m sulphur colloid being used to detect the sentinel node.

  1. Towards accurate node-based detection of P2P botnets.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chunyong

    2014-01-01

    Botnets are a serious security threat to the current Internet infrastructure. In this paper, we propose a novel direction for P2P botnet detection called node-based detection. This approach focuses on the network characteristics of individual nodes. Based on our model, we examine node's flows and extract the useful features over a given time period. We have tested our approach on real-life data sets and achieved detection rates of 99-100% and low false positives rates of 0-2%. Comparison with other similar approaches on the same data sets shows that our approach outperforms the existing approaches.

  2. Towards Accurate Node-Based Detection of P2P Botnets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Botnets are a serious security threat to the current Internet infrastructure. In this paper, we propose a novel direction for P2P botnet detection called node-based detection. This approach focuses on the network characteristics of individual nodes. Based on our model, we examine node's flows and extract the useful features over a given time period. We have tested our approach on real-life data sets and achieved detection rates of 99-100% and low false positives rates of 0–2%. Comparison with other similar approaches on the same data sets shows that our approach outperforms the existing approaches. PMID:25089287

  3. Sentinel node evaluation in gynecologic cancer.

    PubMed

    Plante, Marie; Renaud, Marie-Claude; Roy, Michel

    2004-01-01

    The sentinel node evaluation has revolutionized the modern surgical management of cutaneous melanoma and breast cancer. In gynecologic oncology, sentinel node mapping has been mainly studied in vulvar and cervical cancer. In vulvar cancer, data from 12 studies including 353 cases indicate that the sentinel node detection rate is 92% and the negative-predictive value is 99%. Three groin recurrences have been documented so far (< 1%). The technique has more recently been studied in cervical cancer. Data from 12 studies including 323 cases indicate a lower sentinel node detection rate of 80% to 86% and a negative-predictive value of 99%. Three false-negative cases have been reported so far (< 1%). Review of the literature suggests that the combined approach with blue dye and lymphoscintigraphy is superior to the blue dye alone for sentinel node detection. It also suggests that the sentinel node mapping technique is feasible in vulvar and cervical cancer and that it may become a valuable alternative to the traditional groin and pelvic lymphadenectomy. However, results have not been duplicated in large multi-institutional trials, and the technique should still be performed in the context of clinical trials. Complications of the sentinel node mapping technique are rare and usually benign but physicians should be aware of the serious risk of anaphylactic reaction to the blue dye (1% to 2%). Before this technique becomes a standard approach in the management of gynecologic malignancies, more data will be needed to clarify some of the related controversies.

  4. Transport optimization considering the node aggregation ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Li, Lian; Guo, Jiawei; Li, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Using the theories of complex networks and gravitational field, we study the dynamic routing process under the framework of node gravitational field, define the equation of gravitation of travel path to data package and introduce two parameters α and γ for adjusting the dependences of transmission data on the unblocked degree of node, the transmission capacity of node and the path length. Based on the path's attraction, a gravitational field routing strategy under node connection ability constraint is proposed with considering the affect of node aggregation ability to transport process, and a parameter is used to adjust the control strength of routing process to node aggregation ability. In order to clarify the efficiency of suggested method, we introduce an order parameter η to measure the throughput of the network by the critical value of phase transition from free state to congestion state, and analyze the distribution of betweenness centrality and traffic jam. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional shortest path routing strategy, our method greatly improve the throughput of a network, balance the network traffic load and most of the network nodes are used efficiently. Moreover, the network throughput is maximized under μ = -1, and the transmission performance of the algorithm is independent of the values of α and γ, which indicate the routing strategy is stable and reliable.

  5. Inguinal Lymph Node Anthracosis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Biguria, Rafael; Soto, Carlos Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Anthracosis is defined as black, dense pigments in tissues, usually carbon deposits. We, as surgeons, have to make decisions during surgery to the best of our knowledge and based on what the literature provides us. We present the case of a 30-year-old female patient who underwent abdominoplasty. During surgery, bilateral inguinal pigmented and enlarged lymph nodes were seen. Biopsy of the nodes was done to rule out any malignancy. The results showed tattoo pigments on all lymph nodes. We present this case as tattoo pigment migration, which has been rarely described. PMID:27536493

  6. Checkpointing for a hybrid computing node

    DOEpatents

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-03-08

    According to an aspect, a method for checkpointing in a hybrid computing node includes executing a task in a processing accelerator of the hybrid computing node. A checkpoint is created in a local memory of the processing accelerator. The checkpoint includes state data to restart execution of the task in the processing accelerator upon a restart operation. Execution of the task is resumed in the processing accelerator after creating the checkpoint. The state data of the checkpoint are transferred from the processing accelerator to a main processor of the hybrid computing node while the processing accelerator is executing the task.

  7. Inguinal Lymph Node Anthracosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Anthracosis is defined as black, dense pigments in tissues, usually carbon deposits. We, as surgeons, have to make decisions during surgery to the best of our knowledge and based on what the literature provides us. We present the case of a 30-year-old female patient who underwent abdominoplasty. During surgery, bilateral inguinal pigmented and enlarged lymph nodes were seen. Biopsy of the nodes was done to rule out any malignancy. The results showed tattoo pigments on all lymph nodes. We present this case as tattoo pigment migration, which has been rarely described. PMID:27536493

  8. Short and general procedure for synthesizing cis-1,2-fused 1,3-oxathiolan-, 1,3-oxaselenolan-, and 1,3-oxazolidin-2-imine carbohydrate derivatives.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Javier; Marín, Irene; Matheu, M Isabel; Díaz, Yolanda; Castillón, Sergio

    2010-01-15

    Novel cis-1,2-fused 1,3-oxathiolan-, 1,3-oxaselenolan-, and 1,3-oxazolidin-2-imine carbohydrate derivatives have been prepared by treatment of the corresponding 1,2-anhydrosugars with potassium thiocyanate, potassium selenocyanate, and sodium cyanamide, respectively. The procedure is compatible with several protecting groups such as acyl, benzyl, and silyl and also with sugars of different configurations.

  9. Concomitant Mycobacterium avium infection and Hodgkin's disease in a lymph node from an HIV-negative child.

    PubMed

    de Armas, Yaxsier; Capó, Virginia; González, Ida; Mederos, Lilian; Díaz, Raúl; de Waard, Jacobus H; Rodríguez, Alberto; García, Yarmila; Cabanas, Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    We report a case of an immunocompetent child with simultaneously an infection with Mycobacterium avium and Hodgkin's disease in a cervical lymph node. A positive PCR result for M. avium on a biopsy of the lymph node directed the definitive diagnosis for both etiologies and avoided a possible dissemination of this infection after chemotherapy was started.

  10. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Etnier, E L

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.

  11. Water quality criteria for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence of the munitions compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in groundwater surrounding Army ammunition plants may result in contamination of local drinking water supplies. RDX exerts its primary toxic effect in humans on the central nervous system, but also involves gastrointestinal and renal effects. Symptomatic effects following acute exposure include hyperirritability, nausea, vomiting, generalized epileptiform seizures, and prolonged postictal confusion and amnesia. Health effects data were analyzed for RDX, and although no controlled human studies exist concerning the acute or chronic toxic effects of exposure to RDX, sufficient animal toxicity data are available to derive an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health. This paper summarizes the available literature on metabolism of RDX and human and animal toxicity. Based on noncarcinogenic mammalian toxicity data, and following the methodologies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, an ambient water quality criterion for the protection of human health of 103 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water and aquatic foodstuffs. A criterion of 105 micrograms/liter is proposed for ingestion of drinking water alone.54 references.

  12. Wireless body area network node localization using small-scale spatial information.

    PubMed

    Lo, Geoffrey; Gonzalez-Valenzuela, Sergio; Leung, Victor C M

    2013-05-01

    We present a new scheme to automatically identify the locations of wearable sensor nodes in a wireless body area network (WBAN). Instantaneous atmospheric air pressure readings are compared to map nodes in physical space. This enhancement enables unassisted sensor node placement, providing a practical solution to obtain and continuously monitor node locations without anchor nodes or beacons. To validate this localization scheme, a statistical analysis is conducted on a set of air pressure sensors and a prototype WBAN to examine the performance and limitations. Based on a 60 cm separation between nodes, indicative of the expected separation between limbs and placement positions along a patient's body, the measurements consistently exceeded p -value reliability within a 95% confidence interval. We also present and experimentally demonstrate an enhancement aiming to reduce false-positive (Type I) errors in conventional accelerometer-based on-body fall detection schemes. Our statistical analysis has shown that by continuously monitoring the patient's limb positions, the WBAN would be better able to discriminate “fall-like” motions from actual falls. PMID:24592472

  13. Wireless body area network node localization using small-scale spatial information.

    PubMed

    Lo, Geoffrey; Gonzalez-Valenzuela, Sergio; Leung, Victor C M

    2013-05-01

    We present a new scheme to automatically identify the locations of wearable sensor nodes in a wireless body area network (WBAN). Instantaneous atmospheric air pressure readings are compared to map nodes in physical space. This enhancement enables unassisted sensor node placement, providing a practical solution to obtain and continuously monitor node locations without anchor nodes or beacons. To validate this localization scheme, a statistical analysis is conducted on a set of air pressure sensors and a prototype WBAN to examine the performance and limitations. Based on a 60 cm separation between nodes, indicative of the expected separation between limbs and placement positions along a patient's body, the measurements consistently exceeded p -value reliability within a 95% confidence interval. We also present and experimentally demonstrate an enhancement aiming to reduce false-positive (Type I) errors in conventional accelerometer-based on-body fall detection schemes. Our statistical analysis has shown that by continuously monitoring the patient's limb positions, the WBAN would be better able to discriminate “fall-like” motions from actual falls.

  14. Synchronizing compute node time bases in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Faraj, Daniel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip

    2015-01-27

    Synchronizing time bases in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes organized for data communications in a tree network, where one compute node is designated as a root, and, for each compute node: calculating data transmission latency from the root to the compute node; configuring a thread as a pulse waiter; initializing a wakeup unit; and performing a local barrier operation; upon each node completing the local barrier operation, entering, by all compute nodes, a global barrier operation; upon all nodes entering the global barrier operation, sending, to all the compute nodes, a pulse signal; and for each compute node upon receiving the pulse signal: waking, by the wakeup unit, the pulse waiter; setting a time base for the compute node equal to the data transmission latency between the root node and the compute node; and exiting the global barrier operation.

  15. Synchronizing compute node time bases in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Faraj, Daniel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip

    2014-12-30

    Synchronizing time bases in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes organized for data communications in a tree network, where one compute node is designated as a root, and, for each compute node: calculating data transmission latency from the root to the compute node; configuring a thread as a pulse waiter; initializing a wakeup unit; and performing a local barrier operation; upon each node completing the local barrier operation, entering, by all compute nodes, a global barrier operation; upon all nodes entering the global barrier operation, sending, to all the compute nodes, a pulse signal; and for each compute node upon receiving the pulse signal: waking, by the wakeup unit, the pulse waiter; setting a time base for the compute node equal to the data transmission latency between the root node and the compute node; and exiting the global barrier operation.

  16. Ensemble lymph node detection from CT volumes combining local intensity structure analysis approach and appearance learning approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Nimura, Yukitaka; Oda, Masahiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Hidemi; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Misawa, Kazunari; Mori, Kensaku

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an ensemble lymph node detection method combining two automated lymph node detection methods from CT volumes. Detecting enlarged abdominal lymph nodes from CT volumes is an important task for the pre-operative diagnosis and planning done for cancer surgery. Although several research works have been conducted toward achieving automated abdominal lymph node detection methods, such methods still do not have enough accuracy for detecting lymph nodes of 5 mm or larger. This paper proposes an ensemble lymph node detection method that integrates two different lymph node detection schemes: (1) the local intensity structure analysis approach and (2) the appearance learning approach. This ensemble approach is introduced with the aim of achieving high sensitivity and specificity. Each component detection method is independently designed to detect candidate regions of enlarged abdominal lymph nodes whose diameters are over 5 mm. We applied the proposed ensemble method to 22 cases using abdominal CT volumes. Experimental results showed that we can detect about 90.4% (47/52) of the abdominal lymph nodes with about 15.2 false-positives/case for lymph nodes of 5mm or more in diameter.

  17. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty in Painful Schmorl Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Masala, Salvatore Pipitone, Vincenzo; Tomassini, Marco; Massari, Francesco; Romagnoli, Andrea; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2006-02-15

    The Schmorl node represents displacement of intervertebral disc tissue into the vertebral body. Both Schmorl nodes and degenerative disc disease are common in the human spine. We performed a retrospective study, for the period from January 2003 to February 2005, evaluating 23 patients affected by painful Schmorl nodes, who underwent in our department percutaneous transpedicular injection of polymethylmethacrylate (vertebroplasty) in order to solve their back pain not responsive to medical and physical management. Eighteen patients reported improvement of the back pain and no one reported a worsening of symptoms. Improvement was swift and persistent in reducing symptoms. Painful Schmorl nodes, refractory to medical or physical therapy, should be considered as a new indication within those vertebral lesions adequately treatable utilizing Vertebroplasty procedure.

  18. Mesenteric lymph node cavitation in coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, G K

    1986-01-01

    A patient with coeliac disease and mesenteric lymph node cavitation is reported. This is a rare occurrence and has received very little attention in the English literature. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3721297

  19. Earth transportation node requirements and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, W. Ray; Ayers, J. Kirk; Cirillo, William M.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to establish the requirements for an inhabited earth orbiting transportation node and to develop design concepts for such a facility. The use of an earth orbiting transportation node is required to support many of the space flight projects proposed for the beginning of the 21st century. The requirements for such an orbiting facility are derived from the missions which they support. Future missions investigated include automated and human exploration of the solar system, support of a lunar base, and missions to planet earth. Design concepts are presented for transportation nodes based on a variation of the current Space Station Freedom design. Designs accommodate a variety of earth-to-orbit, orbit-to-orbit, and deep-space probe transportation systems. Finally, the technology needed to develop such a transportation node is summarized.

  20. The local lymph node assay being too sensitive?

    PubMed

    Hans-Werner, Vohr; Jürgen, Ahr Hans

    2005-12-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) and modifications thereof were recently recognized by the OECD as stand-alone methods for the detection of skin-sensitizing potential. However, although the validity of the LLNA was acknowledged by the ICCVAM, attention was drawn to one major problem, i.e., the possibility of false positive results caused by non-specific cell activation as a result of inflammatory processes in the skin (irritation). This is based on the fact that inflammatory processes in the skin may lead to non-specific activation of dendritic cells, cell migration and non-specific proliferation of lymph node cells. Measuring cell proliferation by radioactive or non-radioactive methods, without taking the irritating properties of test items into account, leads thus to false positive reactions. In this paper, we have compared both endpoints: (1) cell proliferation alone and (2) cell proliferation in combination with inflammatory (irritating) processes. It turned out that a considerable number of tests were "false positive" to the definition mentioned above. By excluding such false positive results the LLNA seems not to be more sensitive than relevant guinea pig assays. These various methods and results are described here.

  1. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews what we know about the interior and surface of the moon and the need to establish a robotic set of geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon for the purpose of providing significant scientific value to the exploration of the Moon. The ILN Anchor Nodes will provide the backbone of the network in a way that accomplishes new science and allows other nodes to be flexible contributors to the network.

  2. 21 CFR 573.225 - 1,3-Butylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.225 1,3-Butylene glycol. The food additive 1,3-butylene glycol (1,3-butanediol) may... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 1,3-Butylene glycol. 573.225 Section 573.225...

  3. 21 CFR 573.225 - 1,3-Butylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.225 1,3-Butylene glycol. The food additive 1,3-butylene glycol (1,3-butanediol) may... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 1,3-Butylene glycol. 573.225 Section 573.225...

  4. 21 CFR 573.225 - 1,3-Butylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.225 1,3-Butylene glycol. The food additive 1,3-butylene glycol (1,3-butanediol) may... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 1,3-Butylene glycol. 573.225 Section 573.225...

  5. 21 CFR 573.225 - 1,3-Butylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.225 1,3-Butylene glycol. The food additive 1,3-butylene glycol (1,3-butanediol) may... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 1,3-Butylene glycol. 573.225 Section 573.225...

  6. 21 CFR 573.225 - 1,3-Butylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.225 1,3-Butylene glycol. The food additive 1,3-butylene glycol (1,3-butanediol) may... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 1,3-Butylene glycol. 573.225 Section 573.225...

  7. Ruthenium hydride-promoted dienyl isomerization: access to highly substituted 1,3-dienes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Joseph R; Griffiths, Justin R; Diver, Steven T

    2013-03-01

    Ruthenium hydrides were found to promote the positional isomerization of 1,3-dienes into more highly substituted 1,3-dienes in a stereoconvergent manner. The reaction can be conducted in one pot starting with terminal alkynes and alkenes by triggering decomposition of the Grubbs catalyst into a ruthenium hydride, which promotes the dienyl isomerization. The presence of an alcohol additive plays a helpful role in the reaction, significantly increasing the chemical yields. Mechanistic studies are consistent with hydrometalation of the geminally substituted alkene of the 1,3-diene and transit of the ruthenium atom across the diene framework via a π-allylruthenium intermediate. PMID:23427813

  8. Pigmentation in the sentinel node correlates with increased sentinel node tumor burden in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    van Lanschot, Cornelia G F; Koljenović, Senada; Grunhagen, Dirk-Jan; Verhoef, Cornelis; van Akkooi, Alexander C J

    2014-06-01

    The prognosis of sentinel node (SN)-positive melanoma patients is predicted by a number of characteristics such as size and site of the metastases in the SN. The pathway and prognosis of strong pigmentation of melanoma metastases in the SN is unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of pigmentation and growth pattern of metastases in the SN with respect to survival. A total of 389 patients underwent an SN procedure (1997-2011). Ninety-five patients had a positive SN and material from 75 patients was available for review. The median follow-up time was 75 months (range 6-164). Pigmentation was scored from 0 to 2 using the following scale: 0=absent, 1=slight, and 2=strong. Growth pattern was scored as either eccentric (1) or infiltrative (2). SN tumor burden was measured according to the Rotterdam criteria. The primary melanoma had a median Breslow thickness of 2.90 mm (0.8-12.00 mm). Ulceration was present in 34 patients (45.3%). There was a median SN tumor burden of 0.5 mm (0.05-7.00 mm). In a total of 75 patients, 59 patients (79%) had no pigmentation, 13 patients (17%) had slight pigmentation, and three patients (4%) had strong pigmentation in the SN. Because of the small numbers, the classification was modified to either absent 59 (79%) or present 16 (21%) pigmentation, respectively. The SN tumor burden was significantly higher (P=0.031) for patients with pigmentation. Patients with pigmentation had a 5-year melanoma-specific survival (MSS) of 47% and a 10-year MSS of 33%. Patients without pigmentation had a 5-year MSS of 70% and a 10-year MSS of 59% (P=0.06). There was no difference in MSS for patients with an eccentric or an infiltrative growth pattern, nor did it correlate with other prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis for MSS showed five significant factors associated with worse prognosis: male sex (P=0.036), nodular melanoma (P=0.001), truncal site (P=0.0001), SN tumor burden more than 1.0 mm (P=0.022), and positive completion lymph node

  9. [Regional lymph nodes at a distance].

    PubMed

    Kroon, B B R; Hoefnagel, C A; Valdés Olmos, R A; Nieweg, O E

    2008-09-13

    In 3 patients, two men aged 22 years and 38 years with melanoma, and one woman aged 46 years with breast cancer, local tumour growth recurred following regional lymph node dissection. All three developed metastasis in new distant regional basins, which were once more dissected. The first melanoma patient died from haematogenous metastasis, 2 years after the excision of his primary melanoma. The other melanoma patient was alive, without evidence of disease, 8 years after the treatment of his primary tumour. The breast cancer patient, who underwent contralateral axillary lymph node dissection, was also alive, without evidence of disease, 27 years after the treatment of her primary tumour. Diversion of lymphatic flow as a result of regional lymph node dissection for cancer may lead to metastasis to a distant lymph node basin if tumour growth recurs in the original area. Knowledge of this usually unknown phenomenon is important since metastasis to these new regional basins can still be treated curatively, in the form of another lymph node dissection. These distant lymph node basins must therefore be carefully checked during follow-up monitoring.

  10. [Regional lymph nodes at a distance].

    PubMed

    Kroon, B B R; Hoefnagel, C A; Valdés Olmos, R A; Nieweg, O E

    2008-09-13

    In 3 patients, two men aged 22 years and 38 years with melanoma, and one woman aged 46 years with breast cancer, local tumour growth recurred following regional lymph node dissection. All three developed metastasis in new distant regional basins, which were once more dissected. The first melanoma patient died from haematogenous metastasis, 2 years after the excision of his primary melanoma. The other melanoma patient was alive, without evidence of disease, 8 years after the treatment of his primary tumour. The breast cancer patient, who underwent contralateral axillary lymph node dissection, was also alive, without evidence of disease, 27 years after the treatment of her primary tumour. Diversion of lymphatic flow as a result of regional lymph node dissection for cancer may lead to metastasis to a distant lymph node basin if tumour growth recurs in the original area. Knowledge of this usually unknown phenomenon is important since metastasis to these new regional basins can still be treated curatively, in the form of another lymph node dissection. These distant lymph node basins must therefore be carefully checked during follow-up monitoring. PMID:18825884

  11. 14 CFR 1.3 - Rules of construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rules of construction. 1.3 Section 1.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS § 1.3 Rules of construction. (a) In Subchapters A through K of this chapter,...

  12. 10 CFR 960.3-1-3 - Regionality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regionality. 960.3-1-3 Section 960.3-1-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-3 Regionality. In making site recommendations for...

  13. Production of α1,3-Galactosyltransferase–Deficient Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Phelps, Carol J.; Koike, Chihiro; Vaught, Todd D.; Boone, Jeremy; Wells, Kevin D.; Chen, Shu-Hung; Ball, Suyapa; Specht, Susan M.; Polejaeva, Irina A.; Monahan, Jeff A.; Jobst, Pete M.; Sharma, Sugandha B.; Lamborn, Ashley E.; Garst, Amy S.; Moore, Marilyn; Demetris, Anthony J.; Rudert, William A.; Bottino, Rita; Bertera, Suzanne; Trucco, Massimo; Starzl, Thomas E.; Dai, Yifan; Ayares, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The enzyme α1,3-galactosyltransferase (α1,3GT or GCTA1) synthesizes α1,3-galactose (α1,3Gal) epitopes (Galα1,3Galβ1,4GlcNAc-R), which are the major xenoantigens causing hyperacute rejection in pig-to-human xenotransplantation. Complete removal of α1,3Gal from pig organs is the critical step toward the success of xenotransplantation. We reported earlier the targeted disruption of one allele of the α1,3GT gene in cloned pigs. A selection procedure based on a bacterial toxin was used to select for cells in which the second allele of the gene was knocked out. Sequencing analysis demonstrated that knockout of the second allele of the α1,3GT gene was caused by a T-to-G single point mutation at the second base of exon 9, which resulted in inactivation of the α1,3GT protein. Four healthy α1,3GT double-knockout female piglets were produced by three consecutive rounds of cloning. The piglets carrying a point mutation in the α1,3GT gene hold significant value, as they would allow production of α1,3Gal-deficient pigs free of antibiotic-resistance genes and thus have the potential to make a safer product for human use. PMID:12493821

  14. 7 CFR 1.3 - Agency implementing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency implementing regulations. 1.3 Section 1.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.3 Agency implementing regulations. Each agency of the Department shall promulgate regulations setting forth...

  15. 49 CFR 1.3 - Exercise of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exercise of authority. 1.3 Section 1.3... § 1.3 Exercise of authority. (a) In exercising powers and performing duties delegated by this part or..., the Assistant Secretaries, the Inspector General, and the Administrators exercise the powers...

  16. 49 CFR 1.3 - Exercise of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exercise of authority. 1.3 Section 1.3... § 1.3 Exercise of authority. (a) In exercising powers and performing duties delegated by this part or..., the Assistant Secretaries, the Inspector General, and the Administrators exercise the powers...

  17. 49 CFR 1.3 - Exercise of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exercise of authority. 1.3 Section 1.3... § 1.3 Exercise of authority. (a) In exercising powers and performing duties delegated by this part or..., the Assistant Secretaries, the Inspector General, and the Administrators exercise the powers...

  18. 49 CFR 1.3 - Organization of the Department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organization of the Department. 1.3 Section 1.3 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES General § 1.3 Organization of the Department. (a) The Secretary of Transportation is the head of the Department. (b) The Department is...

  19. 7 CFR 1.3 - Agency implementing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency implementing regulations. 1.3 Section 1.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.3 Agency implementing regulations. Each agency of the Department shall promulgate regulations setting forth...

  20. Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin compute node to a target compute node

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2011-05-24

    Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin node to a target node includes: sending, by an origin DMA engine, an RTS message, the RTS message specifying an application message for transfer to the target node from the origin node; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, a remote get message containing a data descriptor for the message and a completion notification descriptor, the completion notification descriptor specifying a local direct put transfer operation for transferring data locally on the origin node; inserting, by the origin DMA engine in an injection FIFO buffer, the data descriptor followed by the completion notification descriptor; transferring, by the origin DMA engine to the target node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; and notifying, by the origin DMA engine, the application that transfer of the message is complete in dependence upon the completion notification descriptor.

  1. Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin compute node to a target compute node

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.

    2011-02-15

    Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin node to a target node includes: sending, by an origin DMA engine, an RTS message, the RTS message specifying an application message for transfer to the target node from the origin node; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, a remote get message containing a data descriptor for the message and a completion notification descriptor, the completion notification descriptor specifying a local memory FIFO data transfer operation for transferring data locally on the origin node; inserting, by the origin DMA engine in an injection FIFO buffer, the data descriptor followed by the completion notification descriptor; transferring, by the origin DMA engine to the target node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; and notifying, by the origin DMA engine, the application that transfer of the message is complete in dependence upon the completion notification descriptor.

  2. Dynamically reassigning a connected node to a block of compute nodes for re-launching a failed job

    SciTech Connect

    Budnik, Thomas A.; Knudson, Brant L.; Megerian, Mark G.; Miller, Samuel J.; Stockdell, William M.

    2012-03-20

    Methods, systems, and products for dynamically reassigning a connected node to a block of compute nodes for re-launching a failed job that include: identifying that a job failed to execute on the block of compute nodes because connectivity failed between a compute node assigned as at least one of the connected nodes for the block of compute nodes and its supporting I/O node; and re-launching the job, including selecting an alternative connected node that is actively coupled for data communications with an active I/O node; and assigning the alternative connected node as the connected node for the block of compute nodes running the re-launched job.

  3. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines on the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Sondak, Vernon K; Wong, Sandra L; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Thompson, John F

    2013-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was introduced in 1992 to allow histopathologic evaluation of the "sentinel" node, that is, the first node along the lymphatic drainage pathway from the primary melanoma. This procedure has less risk of complications than a complete lymphadenectomy, and if the sentinel node is uninvolved by tumor the likelihood a complete lymphadenectomy would find metastatic disease in that nodal basin is very low. SLNB is now widely used worldwide in the staging of melanoma as well as breast and Merkel cell carcinomas. SLNB provides safe, reliable staging for patients with clinically node-negative melanomas 1 mm or greater in thickness, with an acceptably low rate of failure in the sentinel node-negative basin. Evidence-based guidelines jointly produced by ASCO and the Society of Surgical Oncology (SSO) recommend SLNB for patients with intermediate-thickness melanomas and also state that SLNB may be recommended for patients with thick melanomas. Major remaining areas of uncertainty include the indications for SLNB in patients with thin melanomas, pediatric patients, and patients with atypical melanocytic neoplasms; the optimal radiotracers and dyes for lymphatic mapping; and the necessity of complete lymphadenectomy in all sentinel node-positive patients.

  4. [Interest of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy on sentinel lymph node identification in patients with breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Tulpin, L; Morel, O; Akerman, G; Malartic, C; Desfeux, P; Barranger, E

    2008-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is nowadays an accepted method of staging breast cancer patients. In case of an injection of radioactive colloid, preoperative lymphoscintigraphy is recommended to establish a lymphatic mapping and to predict the number of sentinel lymph nodes identified during surgery. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy does not decrease the false-negative rate. However, positive preoperative lymphoscintigraphy significantly improves the identification rate of intraoperative sentinel nodes comparing with negative preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. Detecting extra-axillary sentinel lymph nodes, because of its minimal therapeutic consequences, does not appear to be an indication for preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. Given logistics and cost required, preoperative lymphoscintigraphy should be only performed for patients with a high risk of intraoperative failed localization. In case of negative preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, sentinel lymph node biopsy must be tried because sentinel nodes are still identified in the majority of these patients. Another possibility, with important cost and logistic, should consist in performing a later lymphoscintigraphy on the day after radioactive injection to ameliorate sentinel lymph nodes identification.

  5. Ethanol and diethyl phthalate: vehicle effects in the local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Lalko, J; Isola, D; Api, A M

    2004-01-01

    The vehicle in which an allergen is presented to the skin has been recognized to have an effect on the skin-sensitizing potency of the allergen. Typical vehicles used to evaluate the skin sensitization potential of fragrance materials include ethanol, diethyl phthalate, or a combination of the two. The authors conducted a series of studies to evaluate each of these vehicles for their utility in the murine local lymph node assay and to investigate the potential differences in skin sensitization resulting from their use. Four fragrance materials were tested in four different vehicles. The test materials were p-t-butyl-alpha-methylhydrocinnamic aldehyde, geraniol, eugenol, and hydroxycitronellal. The vehicles were diethyl phthalate, 1:3 ethanol:diethyl phthalate, 3:1 ethanol:diethyl phthalate, and ethanol. Each of the fragrance materials was tested at five dose levels ranging from 0.3% to 50% w/v. In all four vehicles, each material tested elicited positive responses, exhibiting weak to moderate skin sensitization potential. Overall, p-t-butyl-alpha-methylhydrocinnamic aldehyde exhibited the most potency, followed by eugenol, geraniol, and hydroxycitronellal. The sensitization potential of both p-t-butyl-alpha-methylhydrocinnamic aldehyde and geraniol was greatest when the vehicle was ethanol. The sensitization potential of eugenol was greatest in 3:1 ethanol:diethyl phthalate, but the sensitization potential for hydroxycitronellal was greatest in 1:3 ethanol:diethyl phthalate. The strength of the sensitization response was observed to vary with the vehicle; however, the results did not show any clear pattern of one vehicle over another regarding skin sensitization.

  6. Lymph node revealing solution: a new method for lymph node sampling: results in gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Koren, R; Kyzer, S; Levin, I; Klein, B; Halpern, M; Rath-Wolfson, L; Paz, A; Melloul, M M; Mishali, M; Gal, R

    1998-01-01

    Staging of gastric carcinoma depends on exact lymph node status. However, very small nodes are not easily found as they are obscured by the surrounding adipose tissue. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the usefulness of a Olymph node revealing solutionO (LNRS) in gastric cancer. The perigastric adipose tissue of ten OproblematicO cases of gastric carcinoma, in which <10 lymph nodes were found using the traditional method, was immersed in LNRS for 6-12 h. Subsequently, the lymph nodes stood out as white chalky nodules. They were excised and processed routinely. The traditional method yielded a total of 30 lymph nodes with a mean size of 6.69 +/- 3.43 mm. The LNRS revealed 89 additional nodes with a mean size of 3.03 +/- 3.43 mm, which was significantly smaller. The Node (N) stage was changed in four cases from Nx to N0, in one case from N1 to N2, and in one case from N0 to N2. LNRS seems to be the technique of choice for staging of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma in whom <10 lymph nodes were found with the traditional method and accurate staging was not possible. PMID:9468553

  7. Implication of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake by affected lymph nodes in cases with differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Takaaki; Yajima, Reina; Tatsuki, Hironori; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of positron emission tomography using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) to detect metastatic lymph nodes in differentiated thyroid cancer. We also investigated whether certain factors, including the size of the metastasis to the lymph nodes, are associated with FDG avidity. A total of 22 consecutive patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who underwent FDG-PET preoperatively were enrolled in this study. Lymph node metastasis was diagnosed in the final pathology in 10 of the 22 patients (45.5%). The mean maximum standardized uptake value of the metastatic lymph nodes was 4.53 (range, 0–23.5). The 22 cases with differentiated thyroid cancer were divided into two groups based on lymph node metastasis. Clinicopathological variables other than FDG uptake of metastatic lymph nodes were not predictors of lymph node metastasis of thyroid cancer. The sensitivity, specificity, overall accuracy and false-negative rates of preoperative FDG-PET in the prediction of lymph node status were 40.0, 100, 72.7 and 60.0%, respectively. The false-positive rate of FDG-PET evaluation was 0%. The mean largest dimension of metastasis was 23.0 mm for FDG-positive cases and 10.9 mm for FDG-negative cases. There was a marked difference in the size of metastases between FDG-positive and -negative cases; however, even in patients with node metastasis >10 mm, the false-negative rate was 50.0%. Therefore, FDG-PET imaging was not found to be sufficient for the evaluation of lymph node status, particularly in cases with small metastases. Our findings indicate that preoperative FDG-PET evaluation of the lymph nodes cannot be considered predictive of the final pathology. PMID:27600496

  8. Novel 1,3-dioxanes from apple juice and cider.

    PubMed

    Kavvadias, D; Beuerle, T; Wein, M; Boss, B; König, T; Schwab, W

    1999-12-01

    Extracts obtained by XAD solid-phase extraction of apple juice and cider were separated by liquid chromatography on silica gel. Several new 1,3-dioxanes including the known 2-methyl-4-pentyl-1,3-dioxane and 2-methyl-4-[2'(Z)-pentenyl]-1,3-dioxane, were identified in the nonpolar fractions by GC/MS analysis and confirmed by chemical synthesis. The enantioselective synthesis of the stereoisomers of the 1,3-dioxanes was performed using (R)- and (R,S)-octane-1,3-diol and (R)- and (R,S)-5(Z)-octene-1,3-diol as starting material. Comparison with the isolated products indicated that the natural products consisted of a mixture of (2S,4R) and (2R,4R) stereoisomers in the ratio of approximately 10:1, except for 1,3-dioxanes generated from acetone and 2-butanone. It is assumed that the 1, 3-dioxanes are chemically formed in the apples and cider from the natural apple ingredients (R)-octane-1,3-diol, (R)-5(Z)-octene-1, 3-diol, (3R,7R)- and (3R,7S)-octane-1,3,7-triol, and the appropriate aldehydes and ketones, which are produced either by the apples or by yeast during fermentation of the apple juice.

  9. [Bilateral axillary nodes. 30-year-old patient, housewife].

    PubMed

    Rodak, R; Ramseier, E

    2007-11-14

    A 20-year old patient who had been adequately treated for lymph node tuberculosis 14 years ago presented 1 week after giving birth to a healthy daughter. She complained about painful lumps in both axillae. During pregnancy the patient suffered from hyperemesis gravidarum, lost 6 kg of weight, and had night sweats. During the last three months of her pregnancy she had a deep vein thrombosis in her right lower leg. The clinical examination showed soft axillary lumps up to 3 cm. The lab showed the following pathological findings: blood sedimentation rate 51 mm/h, CRP 44.8 mg/l, LDH 221 U/l and INR 1.3 (indicating insufficient anticoagulation with phenprocoumon). The chest x-ray showed no infiltrate or indications of a past tuberculosis. A fine needle aspiration cytology was performed on an accessible node. Gram stain, Ziehl Neelsen stain, as well as the bacteriological cultures were all negative. An ultrasound examination of the axilla showed a thickened subcutis without a mass. Cytology showed lobular epithelium, consistent wih ductal mamma epithelium without atypical cells. The diagnosis of an accessory mamma tissue in both axillae was made. During the course of the following weeks the glands decreased in size and the patient was free of symptoms.

  10. Does Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Improve Outcomes In pT1-3N0 Oral Cavity Cancer With Tumor-Free Margins and Perineural Invasion?

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.-T.; Chang, J.T.-C.; Wang, H.-M.; Ng, S.-H.; Hsueh Chuen; Lee, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: The criteria for administration of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain controversial, and it is unclear whether patients with pT1-3N0 disease benefit from adjuvant radiation in the presence of free margins and perineural invasion. The goal of this report was to determine whether this group would benefit from adjuvant radiation therapy in terms of 5-year local control rate and overall survival rate. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed our case records from January 1996 to May 2005. In all, 460 pT1-3N0 OSCC patients had tumor-free margins, of whom 68 had perineural invasion. Postoperative adjuvant RT was performed in patients with pT4 tumors, positive lymph nodes, or close margins ({<=}4 mm). In addition, selected OSCC patients with large pT3 tumors or perineural invasion received postoperative adjuvant RT. Local control and overall survival rates were plotted by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: There were no significant differences in 5-year local control (p 0.1936) and overall survival (p = 0.5580) rates between patients with perineural invasion compared with those without. Among patients with perineural invasion, the addition of adjuvant radiotherapy did not significantly alter the 5-year local control rate (p = 0.3170) or the overall survival rate (p = 0.0935). Conclusion: Altogether, these data seem to indicate that radical surgical resection alone should be considered a sufficient treatment for OSCC patients with pT1-3N0 disease, even in the presence of perineural invasion.

  11. Breast Cancer Nodes Detection Using Ultrasonic Microscale Subarrayed MIMO RADAR

    PubMed Central

    Siwamogsatham, Siwaruk; Pomalaza-Ráez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of ultrasonic microscale subarrayed MIMO RADARs to estimate the position of breast cancer nodes. The transmit and receive antenna arrays are divided into subarrays. In order to increase the signal diversity each subarray is assigned a different waveform from an orthogonal set. High-frequency ultrasonic transducers are used since a breast is considered to be a superficial structure. Closed form expressions for the optimal Neyman-Pearson detector are derived. The combination of the waveform diversity present in the subarrayed deployment and traditional phased-array RADAR techniques provides promising results. PMID:25309591

  12. Gas levitator having fixed levitation node for containerless processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berge, L. H.; Oran, W. A.; Theiss, M. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for levitating a specimen of material in a containerless environment at a stable nodal position independent of gravity. An elongated levitation tube has a contoured interior in the form of convergent section, constriction, and a divergent section in which the levitation node is created. A gas flow control means prevents separation of flow from the interior walls in the region of a specimen. The apparatus provides for levitating and heating the specimen simultaneously by combustion of a suitable gas mixture combined with an inert gas.

  13. Astronaut Susan Helms in the ISS Unity Node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In this photograph, Astronaut Susan Helms, Expedition Two flight engineer, is positioned near a large amount of water temporarily stored in the Unity Node aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Astronaut Helms accompanied the STS-105 crew back to Earth after having spent five months with two crewmates aboard the ISS. The 11th ISS assembly flight, the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery STS-105 mission was launched on August 10, 2001, and landed on August 22, 2001 at the Kennedy Space Center after the completion of the successful 12-day mission.

  14. Soybean fruit development and set at the node level under combined photoperiod and radiation conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nico, Magalí; Mantese, Anita I.; Miralles, Daniel J.; Kantolic, Adriana G.

    2016-01-01

    In soybean, long days during post-flowering increase seed number. This positive photoperiodic effect on seed number has been previously associated with increments in the amount of radiation accumulated during the crop cycle because long days extend the duration of the crop cycle. However, evidence of intra-nodal processes independent of the availability of assimilates suggests that photoperiodic effects at the node level might also contribute to pod set. This work aims to identify the main mechanisms responsible for the increase in pod number per node in response to long days; including the dynamics of flowering, pod development, growth and set at the node level. Long days increased pods per node on the main stems, by increasing pods on lateral racemes (usually dominated positions) at some main stem nodes. Long days lengthened the flowering period and thereby increased the number of opened flowers on lateral racemes. The flowering period was prolonged under long days because effective seed filling was delayed on primary racemes (dominant positions). Long days also delayed the development of flowers into pods with filling seeds, delaying the initiation of pod elongation without modifying pod elongation rate. The embryo development matched the external pod length irrespective of the pod’s chronological age. These results suggest that long days during post-flowering enhance pod number per node through a relief of the competition between pods of different hierarchy within the node. The photoperiodic effect on the development of dominant pods, delaying their elongation and therefore postponing their active growth, extends flowering and allows pod set at positions that are usually dominated. PMID:26512057

  15. Expression and Prognostic Value of Aquaporin 1, 3 in Cervical Carcinoma in Women of Uygur Ethnicity from Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Shi, Yonghua; Amiduo, Reshalaity; Tuokan, Talaf; Suzuk, Lalai

    2014-01-01

    Background Overexpression of several aquaporins has been reported in different types of human cancer but the role of aquaporins in carcinogenesis has not yet been clearly defined. There is few report concerning role of aquaporins in human cervical carcinogenesis so far. Here, we determined the expression and prognostic value of aquaporin 1, 3 in cervical carcinoma in Chinese women of Uygur ethnicity. Methods and Results Real-time PCR analyses demonstrated aquaporin 1, 3 mRNA were differentially expressed in cervical carcinoma, CIN 2-3 and mild cervicitis. Immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated aquaporin 1 was predominantly localized to stromal endothelial cells in cervical lesions. Aquaporin 3 was localized to the membrane of normal squamous epithelium, CIN and carcinoma cells. Aquaporin 1 and 3 were upregulated in cervical cancer compared to mild cervicitis and CIN2-3 (P<0.05); Tumor expression of aquaporin 1, 3 significantly increased in advanced stage disease, and patients with deeper tumor infiltration, lymph node metastases or larger tumor volume (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that aquaporin 1, 3 were not independent prognostic factors in cervical carcinoma. Conclusion Aquaporins may participate in the initiation and progression of cervical carcinoma by promoting tumor growth, invasion or lymph node metastasis. Further study is required to determine whether aquaporins have potential as prognostic factors in cervical cancer. PMID:24918928

  16. Novel Handheld Magnetometer Probe Based on Magnetic Tunnelling Junction Sensors for Intraoperative Sentinel Lymph Node Identification

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, A.; Balalis, G. L.; Thompson, S. K.; Forero Morales, D.; Mohtar, A.; Wedding, A. B.; Thierry, B.

    2015-01-01

    Using magnetic tunnelling junction sensors, a novel magnetometer probe for the identification of the sentinel lymph node using magnetic tracers was developed. Probe performance was characterised in vitro and validated in a preclinical swine model. Compared to conventional gamma probes, the magnetometer probe showed excellent spatial resolution of 4.0 mm, and the potential to detect as few as 5 μg of magnetic tracer. Due to the high sensitivity of the magnetometer, all first-tier nodes were identified in the preclinical experiments, and there were no instances of false positive or false negative detection. Furthermore, these preliminary data encourage the application of the magnetometer probe for use in more complex lymphatic environments, such as in gastrointestinal cancers, where the sentinel node is often in close proximity to other non-sentinel nodes, and high spatial resolution detection is required. PMID:26038833

  17. A Novel Complex Networks Clustering Algorithm Based on the Core Influence of Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Bin; Xie, Zhongyu

    2014-01-01

    In complex networks, cluster structure, identified by the heterogeneity of nodes, has become a common and important topological property. Network clustering methods are thus significant for the study of complex networks. Currently, many typical clustering algorithms have some weakness like inaccuracy and slow convergence. In this paper, we propose a clustering algorithm by calculating the core influence of nodes. The clustering process is a simulation of the process of cluster formation in sociology. The algorithm detects the nodes with core influence through their betweenness centrality, and builds the cluster's core structure by discriminant functions. Next, the algorithm gets the final cluster structure after clustering the rest of the nodes in the network by optimizing method. Experiments on different datasets show that the clustering accuracy of this algorithm is superior to the classical clustering algorithm (Fast-Newman algorithm). It clusters faster and plays a positive role in revealing the real cluster structure of complex networks precisely. PMID:24741359

  18. Anchor node localization for wireless sensor networks using video and compass information fusion.

    PubMed

    Pescaru, Dan; Curiac, Daniel-Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Distributed sensing, computing and communication capabilities of wireless sensor networks require, in most situations, an efficient node localization procedure. In the case of random deployments in harsh or hostile environments, a general localization process within global coordinates is based on a set of anchor nodes able to determine their own position using GPS receivers. In this paper we propose another anchor node localization technique that can be used when GPS devices cannot accomplish their mission or are considered to be too expensive. This novel technique is based on the fusion of video and compass data acquired by the anchor nodes and is especially suitable for video- or multimedia-based wireless sensor networks. For these types of wireless networks the presence of video cameras is intrinsic, while the presence of digital compasses is also required for identifying the cameras' orientations. PMID:24594614

  19. Anchor Node Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Video and Compass Information Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Pescaru, Dan; Curiac, Daniel-Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Distributed sensing, computing and communication capabilities of wireless sensor networks require, in most situations, an efficient node localization procedure. In the case of random deployments in harsh or hostile environments, a general localization process within global coordinates is based on a set of anchor nodes able to determine their own position using GPS receivers. In this paper we propose another anchor node localization technique that can be used when GPS devices cannot accomplish their mission or are considered to be too expensive. This novel technique is based on the fusion of video and compass data acquired by the anchor nodes and is especially suitable for video- or multimedia-based wireless sensor networks. For these types of wireless networks the presence of video cameras is intrinsic, while the presence of digital compasses is also required for identifying the cameras' orientations. PMID:24594614

  20. Novel handheld magnetometer probe based on magnetic tunnelling junction sensors for intraoperative sentinel lymph node identification.

    PubMed

    Cousins, A; Balalis, G L; Thompson, S K; Forero Morales, D; Mohtar, A; Wedding, A B; Thierry, B

    2015-06-03

    Using magnetic tunnelling junction sensors, a novel magnetometer probe for the identification of the sentinel lymph node using magnetic tracers was developed. Probe performance was characterised in vitro and validated in a preclinical swine model. Compared to conventional gamma probes, the magnetometer probe showed excellent spatial resolution of 4.0 mm, and the potential to detect as few as 5 μg of magnetic tracer. Due to the high sensitivity of the magnetometer, all first-tier nodes were identified in the preclinical experiments, and there were no instances of false positive or false negative detection. Furthermore, these preliminary data encourage the application of the magnetometer probe for use in more complex lymphatic environments, such as in gastrointestinal cancers, where the sentinel node is often in close proximity to other non-sentinel nodes, and high spatial resolution detection is required.

  1. Nodes Localization in 3D Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Multidimensional Scaling Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the recent years, there has been a huge advancement in wireless sensor computing technology. Today, wireless sensor network (WSN) has become a key technology for different types of smart environment. Nodes localization in WSN has arisen as a very challenging problem in the research community. Most of the applications for WSN are not useful without a priory known nodes positions. Adding GPS receivers to each node is an expensive solution and inapplicable for indoor environments. In this paper, we implemented and evaluated an algorithm based on multidimensional scaling (MDS) technique for three-dimensional (3D) nodes localization in WSN using improved heuristic method for distance calculation. Using extensive simulations we investigated our approach regarding various network parameters. We compared the results from the simulations with other approaches for 3D-WSN localization and showed that our approach outperforms other techniques in terms of accuracy. PMID:27437480

  2. A study of sentinel node biopsy in T1 breast cancer treatment: experience of 48 cases.

    PubMed

    Mechella, M; De Cesare, A; Di Luzio, E; Di Paolo, M; Bolognese, A; Scopinaro, F

    2000-01-01

    Axillary clearance in breast cancer has been proven to be unnecessary in more than 50% of cases. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is a new technique that can be used to avoid unnecessary axillary clearance in breast cancer surgery. Our integrated team, consisting of surgeons, pathologists and nuclear medicine physicians, studied 48 cases of T1 breast cancer with lymphoscintigraphy-guided SNB. Before starting this study, the team performed 20 SNBs as a learning procedure. 500 microCi of 99mTc-nanocoll in 0.2 mL were injected around the lesion, under US or x-ray guidance if necessary. Static images in anterior, lateral and lateral oblique view collected at the end of a 20 min dynamic study were used to mark the SN on the skin. During surgery a gamma probe was used to guide SN resection, and node invasion was assessed with cytokeratin immunohistochemistry. In 14 patients tracer uptake was observed in a single node, in 30 patients in 2-4 nodes, whereas in four patients the nodes were scintigraphically missed. Surgical resection was possible in 42 nodes out of 54. All but two patients with negative immunohistochemistry for cancer cell clusters showed metastasis-free axillary nodes. All patients with positive SNBs (13) showed involved axilla. In four patients the lymphatic drainage was towards the intramammary chain; one node was juxtaclavicular and one node was intramammary in the upper outer quadrant. The overall sensitivity of the method was about 80%, the specificity about 90% with a diagnostic accuracy about 80%. SNB is a promising method for surgical decision-making regarding axillary clearance in breast cancer. Adequate training of an interdisciplinary team is needed in order to successfully perform SNB and assess SN invasion. Its unusual anatomic location can be encountered and technical care is necessary to correctly identify and remove them.

  3. Confocal laser endoscopy in the diagnosis for abdominal lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Huang, Jin; Yang, Yunsheng; Fan, Nannan; Zhang, Xiuli; Wang, Shufang; Li, Jie; Meng, Jiangyun

    2015-01-01

    Confocal laser endoscopy (CLE) diagnostic criteria for lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer was established and evaluated to provide a basis for CLE clinical application in the diagnosis of abdominal lymph node metastasis. CLE scanning (surface scanning and sectional scanning) and pathology examination were conducted in gastric cancer tissues and lymph nodes of 5 cases. Characteristics of lymphatic metastasis in CLE imaging were observed and summarized in combination with pathology. The diagnostic criteria were corroborated in 124 lymph nodes of another 14 cases and CLE detection time needed for diagnosis was recorded. The CLE diagnostic criteria were tested and evaluated, and the effect of lymph node size on the diagnosis accuracy was determined. All the 19 participants were confirmed as gastric cancer. Sectional scanning can get comprehensive observation for internal structures of lymph nodes, in which abnormal large heterocyst appeared with special structural changes. CLE scanning could detect 88.75% of the positive metastasis and 68.18% of the negative metastasis examined by the pathology methods based on the established CLE diagnostic criteria. In comparison with pathological diagnosis, specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of CLE diagnosis were 88.75%, 68.18% and 81.45%, respectively. Accuracies of CLE diagnosis on the lymph nodes grouped by size were 85.29%, 77.78% and 88.89%, respectively, with no significant difference between groups (P > 0.05). Complete internal structures of lymph nodes can be observed clearly by CLE sectional scanning. The size of lymph nodes had no effects on diagnosis accuracy. CLE shows better sensitivity and specificity than traditional pathological diagnosis. PMID:26309544

  4. Confocal laser endoscopy in the diagnosis for abdominal lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Huang, Jin; Yang, Yunsheng; Fan, Nannan; Zhang, Xiuli; Wang, Shufang; Li, Jie; Meng, Jiangyun

    2015-01-01

    Confocal laser endoscopy (CLE) diagnostic criteria for lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer was established and evaluated to provide a basis for CLE clinical application in the diagnosis of abdominal lymph node metastasis. CLE scanning (surface scanning and sectional scanning) and pathology examination were conducted in gastric cancer tissues and lymph nodes of 5 cases. Characteristics of lymphatic metastasis in CLE imaging were observed and summarized in combination with pathology. The diagnostic criteria were corroborated in 124 lymph nodes of another 14 cases and CLE detection time needed for diagnosis was recorded. The CLE diagnostic criteria were tested and evaluated, and the effect of lymph node size on the diagnosis accuracy was determined. All the 19 participants were confirmed as gastric cancer. Sectional scanning can get comprehensive observation for internal structures of lymph nodes, in which abnormal large heterocyst appeared with special structural changes. CLE scanning could detect 88.75% of the positive metastasis and 68.18% of the negative metastasis examined by the pathology methods based on the established CLE diagnostic criteria. In comparison with pathological diagnosis, specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of CLE diagnosis were 88.75%, 68.18% and 81.45%, respectively. Accuracies of CLE diagnosis on the lymph nodes grouped by size were 85.29%, 77.78% and 88.89%, respectively, with no significant difference between groups (P > 0.05). Complete internal structures of lymph nodes can be observed clearly by CLE sectional scanning. The size of lymph nodes had no effects on diagnosis accuracy. CLE shows better sensitivity and specificity than traditional pathological diagnosis. PMID:26309544

  5. Motion Analysis of 100 Mediastinal Lymph Nodes: Potential Pitfalls in Treatment Planning and Adaptive Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Pantarotto, Jason R.; Piet, Anna H.M.; Vincent, Andrew; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van; Senan, Suresh

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: The motion of mediastinal lymph nodes may undermine local control with involved-field radiotherapy. We studied patterns of nodal and tumor motion in 41 patients with lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography planning scans were retrospectively evaluated to identify patients with clearly visible mediastinal lymph nodes. One hundred nodes from 14 patients with Stage I and 27 patients with Stage III were manually contoured in all 4D computed tomography respiratory phases. Motion was derived from changes in the nodal center-of-mass position. Primary tumors were also delineated in all phases for 16 patients with Stage III disease. Statistical analysis included a multivariate mixed-effects model of grouped data. Results: Average 3D nodal motion during quiet breathing was 0.68 cm (range, 0.17-1.64 cm); 77% moved greater than 0.5 cm, and 10% moved greater than 1.0 cm. Motion was greatest in the lower mediastinum (p = 0.002), and nodes measuring 2 cm or greater in diameter showed motion similar to that in smaller nodes. In 11 of 16 patients studied, at least one node moved more than the corresponding primary tumor. No association between 3D primary tumor motion and nodal motion was observed. For mobile primary tumors, phase offsets between the primary tumor and nodes of two or more and three or more phases were observed for 33% and 12% of nodes, respectively. Conclusions: Mediastinal nodal motion is common, with phase offsets seen between the primary tumor and different nodes in the same patient. Patient-specific information is needed to ensure geometric coverage, and adaptive strategies based solely on the primary tumor may be misleading.

  6. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles.

  7. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles. PMID:25932635

  8. Capacity improvement by deficit of transition metals in inverse spinel LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3VO4 cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitajou, Ayuko; Yoshida, Jun; Nakanishi, Shinji; Matsuda, Yasuaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Okajima, Toshihiro; Okada, Shigeto

    2016-01-01

    Although inverse spinel materials have attracted attention because of their unusually high voltage characteristics, their rechargeable capacities are generally less than 50 mAh g-1, as a result of the coexistence of Li and transition metal ions at 16d octahedral sites. This work attempted to improve cathode functioning by optimizing the quantities of Li and transition metal ions residing at the 16d sites of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3VO4. The rechargeable capacity of the LiNi0.28Co0.28Mn0.26V0.80O4 synthesized in the present study was found to be above 120 mAh g-1, representing the largest capacity reported to date for an inverse spinel material. The results of in-situ XANES analysis demonstrated that the charge-discharge reactions of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3VO4 corresponds to the Mn2+/Mn4+ and Co2+/Co3+ redox couples, mainly.

  9. Synthesis of high performance LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 from lithium ion battery recovery stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa, Qina; Gratz, Eric; He, Meinan; Lu, Wenquan; Apelian, Diran; Wang, Yan

    2015-05-01

    Spent lithium ion batteries that contain valuable metal elements such as Co, Ni, Mn, Cu are being landfilled in many countries and raising resources depletion and human toxicity potentials. Low cost and high efficiency recovery process is highly desired. In this work we confirmed that high performance Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3(OH)2 precursor and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathode material can be synthesized from leaching solution of a lithium ion battery recovery stream. The precursor was synthesized from a typical co-precipitation process with carefully controlling the reaction parameters. Electrochemical properties including rate capacity and cycle life were tested to evaluate the final product. The results show that the cathode material synthesized from spent lithium ion battery recovery stream is performing a discharge capacity of 158 mAh/g at first cycle of 0.1C and 139 mAh/g at first cycle of 0.5C cycle life test. After 100 and 200 cycles, still over 80% and 65% of capacity is remained, respectively. The materials are also evaluated independently at Argonne National Laboratory.

  10. Communication: Fixed-node errors in quantum Monte Carlo: Interplay of electron density and node nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Rasch, Kevin M.; Hu, Shuming; Mitas, Lubos

    2014-01-28

    We elucidate the origin of large differences (two-fold or more) in the fixed-node errors between the first- vs second-row systems for single-configuration trial wave functions in quantum Monte Carlo calculations. This significant difference in the valence fixed-node biases is studied across a set of atoms, molecules, and also Si, C solid crystals. We show that the key features which affect the fixed-node errors are the differences in electron density and the degree of node nonlinearity. The findings reveal how the accuracy of the quantum Monte Carlo varies across a variety of systems, provide new perspectives on the origins of the fixed-node biases in calculations of molecular and condensed systems, and carry implications for pseudopotential constructions for heavy elements.

  11. Clock Agreement Among Parallel Supercomputer Nodes

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jones, Terry R.; Koenig, Gregory A.

    2014-04-30

    This dataset presents measurements that quantify the clock synchronization time-agreement characteristics among several high performance computers including the current world's most powerful machine for open science, the U.S. Department of Energy's Titan machine sited at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These ultra-fast machines derive much of their computational capability from extreme node counts (over 18000 nodes in the case of the Titan machine). Time-agreement is commonly utilized by parallel programming applications and tools, distributed programming application and tools, and system software. Our time-agreement measurements detail the degree of time variance between nodes and how that variance changes over time. The dataset includes empirical measurements and the accompanying spreadsheets.

  12. Space Station resource node flow field analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kania, Lee; Kumar, Ganesh; Mcconnaughey, Paul

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of the flow field within the Space Station Freedom resource node with operational intermodule ventilation and temperature/humidity control ventilation systems has been conducted. The INS3D code, an incompressible, steady-state Navier-Stokes solver has been used to assess the design of the ventilation system via quantification of the level of fluid mixing and identification of 'dead air' regions and short-circuit ventilation. Numerical results indicate significant short-circuit ventilation in the forward and midsections of the node and insufficient fluid mixing is found to exist in the aft node section. These results as well as results from a solution grid dependence study are presented.

  13. Vital nodes identification in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Linyuan; Chen, Duanbing; Ren, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Tao

    2016-09-01

    Real networks exhibit heterogeneous nature with nodes playing far different roles in structure and function. To identify vital nodes is thus very significant, allowing us to control the outbreak of epidemics, to conduct advertisements for e-commercial products, to predict popular scientific publications, and so on. The vital nodes identification attracts increasing attentions from both computer science and physical societies, with algorithms ranging from simply counting the immediate neighbors to complicated machine learning and message passing approaches. In this review, we clarify the concepts and metrics, classify the problems and methods, as well as review the important progresses and describe the state of the art. Furthermore, we provide extensive empirical analyses to compare well-known methods on disparate real networks, and highlight the future directions. In spite of the emphasis on physics-rooted approaches, the unification of the language and comparison with cross-domain methods would trigger interdisciplinary solutions in the near future.

  14. Energy Options for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Chris; Davidson, Joshua; Behrens, Sam

    2008-01-01

    Reduction in size and power consumption of consumer electronics has opened up many opportunities for low power wireless sensor networks. One of the major challenges is in supporting battery operated devices as the number of nodes in a network grows. The two main alternatives are to utilize higher energy density sources of stored energy, or to generate power at the node from local forms of energy. This paper reviews the state-of-the art technology in the field of both energy storage and energy harvesting for sensor nodes. The options discussed for energy storage include batteries, capacitors, fuel cells, heat engines and betavoltaic systems. The field of energy harvesting is discussed with reference to photovoltaics, temperature gradients, fluid flow, pressure variations and vibration harvesting.

  15. SpicyNodes Radial Map Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.; Ligierko, G.; Angelov, I.

    2008-10-01

    The need for information has increased exponentially over the past decades. The current systems for constructing, exploring, classifying, organizing, and searching information face the growing challenge of enabling their users to operate efficiently and intuitively in knowledge-heavy environments. This paper presents SpicyNodes, an advanced user interface for difficult interaction contexts. It is based on an underlying structure known as a radial map, which allows users to manipulate and interact in a natural manner with entities called nodes. This technology overcomes certain limitations of existing solutions and solves the problem of browsing complex sets of linked information. SpicyNodes is also an organic system that projects users into a living space, stimulating exploratory behavior and fostering creative thought. Our interactive radial layout is used for educational purposes and has the potential for numerous other applications.

  16. Saddle-node bifurcation of viscous profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achleitner, Franz; Szmolyan, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Traveling wave solutions of viscous conservation laws, that are associated to Lax shocks of the inviscid equation, have generically a transversal viscous profile. In the case of a non-transversal viscous profile we show by using Melnikov theory that a parametrized perturbation of the profile equation leads generically to a saddle-node bifurcation of these solutions. An example of this bifurcation in the context of magnetohydrodynamics is given. The spectral stability of the traveling waves generated in the saddle-node bifurcation is studied via an Evans function approach. It is shown that generically one real eigenvalue of the linearization of the viscous conservation law around the parametrized family of traveling waves changes its sign at the bifurcation point. Hence this bifurcation describes the basic mechanism of a stable traveling wave which becomes unstable in a saddle-node bifurcation.

  17. Crystal and magnetic structures of Cr1/3NbSe2 from neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubkin, A. F.; Proskurina, E. P.; Kousaka, Y.; Sherokalova, E. M.; Selezneva, N. V.; Miao, P.; Lee, S.; Zhang, J.; Ishikawa, Y.; Torii, S.; Kamiyama, T.; Campo, J.; Akimitsu, J.; Baranov, N. V.

    2016-01-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements of the Cr intercalated niobium diselenide Cr1/3NbSe2 together with magnetization measurements have revealed that this compound exhibits ferromagnetic ordering below TC = 96 K unlike a chiral helimagnetic order observed in the sulfide compound Cr1/3NbS2. As derived from neutron diffraction data, the Cr magnetic moments μCr = 2.83 ± 0.03 μB in Cr1/3NbSe2 are aligned within basal plane. The discrepancy in the magnetic states of Cr1/3NbS2 and Cr1/3NbSe2 is ascribed to the difference in the preferential site occupation of Cr ions in crystal lattices. In Cr1/3NbSe2, the Cr ions are predominantly distributed over 2b Wyckoff site, which determines a centrosymmetric character of the crystal structure unlike Cr1/3NbS2, where the Cr ions are mainly located in 2c position and the crystal structure is non-centrosymmetric.

  18. Spatiotemporal modeling of node temperatures in supercomputers

    DOE PAGES

    Storlie, Curtis Byron; Reich, Brian James; Rust, William Newton; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Bonnie, Amanda Marie; Montoya, Andrew J.; Michalak, Sarah E.

    2016-06-10

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is home to many large supercomputing clusters. These clusters require an enormous amount of power (~500-2000 kW each), and most of this energy is converted into heat. Thus, cooling the components of the supercomputer becomes a critical and expensive endeavor. Recently a project was initiated to investigate the effect that changes to the cooling system in a machine room had on three large machines that were housed there. Coupled with this goal was the aim to develop a general good-practice for characterizing the effect of cooling changes and monitoring machine node temperatures in this andmore » other machine rooms. This paper focuses on the statistical approach used to quantify the effect that several cooling changes to the room had on the temperatures of the individual nodes of the computers. The largest cluster in the room has 1,600 nodes that run a variety of jobs during general use. Since extremes temperatures are important, a Normal distribution plus generalized Pareto distribution for the upper tail is used to model the marginal distribution, along with a Gaussian process copula to account for spatio-temporal dependence. A Gaussian Markov random field (GMRF) model is used to model the spatial effects on the node temperatures as the cooling changes take place. This model is then used to assess the condition of the node temperatures after each change to the room. The analysis approach was used to uncover the cause of a problematic episode of overheating nodes on one of the supercomputing clusters. Lastly, this same approach can easily be applied to monitor and investigate cooling systems at other data centers, as well.« less

  19. Underwater Multi-Node Radio Communication Solutions for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawar, Zaid Fares Yousef; Haddad, Sanad Atef Sari; Mestariheh, Feras R. M.; Jonsson, Lars Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The exploration of the presumably life harboring subsurface ocean of Europa will provide scientists with extensive new knowledge in the search for extraterrestrial life. A highly miniaturized payload is required to penetrate a narrow passage through the thick ice crust covering Europa's surface. Underwater wireless communications may be the most viable means of communication for such exploratory missions, accounting for size and weight restrictions. This presents a challenge to achieve satisfactory data rates and a range that permits autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to communicate within their region of operation, as well as with a surface lander or orbiter. This work presents thorough prototype experimentation on an underwater communication system established between several nodes using RF signals. During an eight-week internship experience at NASA's Ames Research Center in September-October 2014, our team developed a Europa exploration mission concept, built representative hardware, and carried out tests to assess the feasibility of key aspects of the concept. Experiments demonstrating the viability of RF communication underwater comprised inspecting the effect of depth and horizontal distance on signal strength as well as the optimum positioning of antennas. To test the system's performance, two submersibles were designed and built. A commercially available remotely operated vehicle (ROV) was also modified and used as a main communication node. The two submersibles were wirelessly connected and accommodated sensors capable of characterizing water properties and equipped with 2.4 GHz, 1 mW transceivers to communicate the measured data. The communication procedure is that the main communication node requests the collected data from the two submersibles when in range and receives it instantly through RF. This work models what may take place during an actual mission to Europa. The developed mission concept involved a hybrid communication system consisting of

  20. Incidence of metastasis in circumflex iliac nodes distal to the external iliac nodes in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Kazuhira; Kato, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Objective A causal relationship between removal of circumflex iliac nodes distal to the external iliac nodes (CINDEIN) and lower leg edema has been recently suggested. The aim of this study was to elucidate the incidence of CINDEIN metastasis in cervical cancer. Methods A retrospective chart review was carried out for 531 patients with cervical cancer who underwent lymph node dissection between 1993 and 2014. CINDEIN metastasis was pathologically identified by microscopic investigation. After 2007, sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed selectively in patients with non-bulky cervical cancer. The sentinel node was identified using 99mTc-phytate and by scanning the pelvic cavity with a γ probe. Results Two hundred and ninety-seven patients (55.9%) underwent CINDEIN dissection and 234 (44.1%) did not. The percentage of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIb to IV (42.4% vs. 23.5%, p<0.001) was significantly higher in patients who underwent CINDEIN dissection than those who did not. CINDEIN metastasis was identified in 1.9% overall and in 3.4% of patients who underwent CINDEIN dissection. For patients with stage Ia to IIa disease, CINDEIN metastasis was identified in 0.6% overall and in 1.2% of patients who underwent CINDEIN dissection. Of 115 patients with sentinel node mapping, only one (0.9%) had CINDEIN detected as a sentinel node. In this case, the other three lymph nodes were concurrently detected as sentinel lymph nodes. Conclusion CINDEIN dissection can be eliminated in patients with stage Ia to IIa disease. CINDEIN might not be regional lymph nodes in cervical cancer. PMID:27102250

  1. Intravertebral disk herniations: cartilaginous (Schmorl's) nodes.

    PubMed

    Resnick, D; Niwayama, G

    1978-01-01

    Cartilaginous (Schmorl's) nodes are related to prolapses of intervertebral disk material into the vertebral body. These nodes can be produced by any process which weakens either the cartilaginous plate covering the superior and inferior surfaces of the vertebral body or the subchondral trabeculae of the vertebra. Such processes include juvenile kyphosis, trauma, metabolic and neoplastic disorders, and degenerative disk disease. Radiographic abnormalities include indentations of vertebral outline and radiolucencies within the vertebral body with varying degrees of sclerosis. These can be readily differentiated from other vertebral alterations such as "butterfly", "fish", and "H" vertebrae.

  2. Functional morphology of the pig sinoatrial node.

    PubMed

    Opthof, T; de Jonge, B; Jongsma, H J; Bouman, L N

    1987-12-01

    The porcine sinoatrial node in an isolated right atrium preparation is characterized by unifocal impulse generation. It has a rather elongated shape and the larger part of its volume is taken up by collagen and fibroblasts. The impulse appears to emerge from a site where the percentage of myofilaments is relatively low. The impulse is propagated faster towards the crista terminalis than to the interatrial septum with preference for the oblique-upward direction. A very large zone of cells with low excitability is located at the interatrial septal side of the node.

  3. Searching for nodes in random graphs.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, David

    2011-11-01

    We consider the problem of searching for a node on a labeled random graph according to a greedy algorithm that selects a route to the desired node using metric information on the graph. Motivated by peer-to-peer networks two types of random graph are proposed with properties particularly amenable to this kind of algorithm. We derive equations for the probability that the search is successful and also study the number of hops required, finding both numerical and analytic evidence of a transition as the number of links is varied.

  4. Anatomic Distribution of Fluorodeoxyglucose-Avid Para-aortic Lymph Nodes in Patients With Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Takiar, Vinita; Fontanilla, Hiral P.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Jhingran, Anuja; Kelly, Patrick; Iyer, Revathy B.; Levenback, Charles F.; Zhang, Yongbin; Dong, Lei; Klopp, Ann

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Conformal treatment of para-aortic lymph nodes (PAN) in cervical cancer allows dose escalation and reduces normal tissue toxicity. Currently, data documenting the precise location of involved PAN are lacking. We define the spatial distribution of this high-risk nodal volume by analyzing fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lymph nodes (LNs) on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We identified 72 PANs on pretreatment PET/CT of 30 patients with newly diagnosed stage IB-IVA cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation. LNs were classified as left-lateral para-aortic (LPA), aortocaval (AC), or right paracaval (RPC). Distances from the LN center to the closest vessel and adjacent vertebral body were calculated. Using deformable image registration, nodes were mapped to a template computed tomogram to provide a visual impression of nodal frequencies and anatomic distribution. Results: We identified 72 PET-positive para-aortic lymph nodes (37 LPA, 32 AC, 3 RPC). All RPC lymph nodes were in the inferior third of the para-aortic region. The mean distance from aorta for all lymph nodes was 8.3 mm (range, 3-17 mm), and from the inferior vena cava was 5.6 mm (range, 2-10 mm). Of the 72 lymph nodes, 60% were in the inferior third, 36% were in the middle third, and 4% were in the upper third of the para-aortic region. In all, 29 of 30 patients also had FDG-avid pelvic lymph nodes. Conclusions: A total of 96% of PET positive nodes were adjacent to the aorta; PET positive nodes to the right of the IVC were rare and were all located distally, within 3 cm of the aortic bifurcation. Our findings suggest that circumferential margins around the vessels do not accurately define the nodal region at risk. Instead, the anatomical extent of the nodal basin should be contoured on each axial image to provide optimal coverage of the para-aortic nodal compartment.

  5. Potassium Channel Kv1.3 Is Highly Expressed by Microglia in Human Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rangaraju, Srikant; Gearing, Marla; Jin, Lee-Way; Levey, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Recent genetic studies suggest a central role for innate immunity in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis, wherein microglia orchestrate neuroinflammation. Kv1.3, a voltage-gated potassium channel of therapeutic relevance in autoimmunity, is upregulated by activated microglia and mediates amyloid-mediated microglial priming and reactive oxygen species production in vitro. We hypothesized that Kv1.3 channel expression is increased in human AD brain tissue. In a blinded postmortem immunohistochemical semi-quantitative analysis performed on ten AD patients and ten non-disease controls, we observed a significantly higher Kv1.3 staining intensity (p = 0.03) and Kv1.3-positive cell density (p = 0.03) in the frontal cortex of AD brains, compared to controls. This paralleled an increased number of Iba1-positive microglia in AD brains. Kv1.3-positive cells had microglial morphology and were associated with amyloid-β plaques. In immunofluorescence studies, Kv1.3 channels co-localized primarily with Iba1 but not with astrocyte marker GFAP, confirming that elevated Kv1.3 expression is limited to microglia. Higher Kv1.3 expression in AD brains was also confirmed by western blot analysis. Our findings support that Kv1.3 channels are biologically relevant and microglia-specific targets in human AD. PMID:25362031

  6. Enhancement of node connectivity for mobile ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiyu; Li, Fanzhi; Adams, Christopher

    2006-05-01

    For secure mobile wireless networks whose topologies are changed dynamically in insecure environments, mobile users need to keep in contact with each other for the purpose of user authentications. For instance, the network formed by a group of soldiers equipped with wireless devices in a battlefield. Maintaining a high connectivity is crucial in such networks in order to authenticate scattered individuals and to be able to communicate with each other. To establish connections, different mobile ad hoc network routing protocols have been developed. However, much research has shown that these protocols are incapable of maintaining high connectivity when the node density is lower in the network. This paper proposes a mechanism to enhance the node connectivity, which is specifically effective for mobile ad hoc networks with lower node densities. It selects some nodes with larger transmission power as strategic nodes to assist in establishing connections with remote nodes, which are unable to connect with otherwise. The strategic nodes have the ability to connect with each other. Whenever a remote mobile node has a request to connect to another remote mobile node, the strategic nodes function as normal mobile nodes and may forward the connection requests to the desired remote destination node. The mechanism is simulated in different scenarios with various node densities, and the results show that the node connectivity is generally enhanced with the benefit of lower node density network, gaining significant improvement.

  7. Copper Impurity Effects on LiNi(1/3)Mn(1/3)Co(1/3)O2 Cathode Material.

    PubMed

    Sa, Qina; Heelan, Joseph A; Lu, Yuan; Apelian, Diran; Wang, Yan

    2015-09-23

    The crystal structure and electrochemical properties of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) synthesized from a lithium ion battery recovery stream have been studied previously. In this report, we study the Cu impurity effects on NMC in detail. The difference in crystal structures and electrochemical properties were examined for pure and copper impurity included products. Scanning electron microscopy figures show that the precursor particles of NMC are slightly bigger than that of NMC with copper impurity. After undergoing 150 cycles at 2C, X-ray diffraction refinements results show that the lattice parameters for impurity containing NMC and pure NMC change to different extents. Furthermore, due to the minor change of lattice parameters, copper-containing NMC offers a more stable capacity retention compared to pure NMC.

  8. Evidence for the Presence of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) in Geranium Plant Materials.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Thomas D

    2013-01-01

    1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) is an aliphatic amine with stimulant properties that are reportedly found naturally only in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants was first reported in a paper published in 1996, but some have questioned the identification of 1,3-DMAA in that study. Since then, a number of additional studies have been published, largely reporting the absence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants and commercial geranium oils. However, in two recent studies, 1,3-DMAA was detected in geranium plant tissues and a geranium oil sample using a simplified extraction approach on tissues and oil sourced from China. Whether or not 1,3-DMAA is found naturally in plants has significant implications as to how commercial products containing 1,3-DMAA are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. In this paper, differences in source materials, extraction procedures, and analytical approaches are reviewed in an attempt to rationalize the apparently conflicting evidence for the presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plant materials. PMID:23843687

  9. Evidence for the Presence of 1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) in Geranium Plant Materials

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) is an aliphatic amine with stimulant properties that are reportedly found naturally only in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants was first reported in a paper published in 1996, but some have questioned the identification of 1,3-DMAA in that study. Since then, a number of additional studies have been published, largely reporting the absence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants and commercial geranium oils. However, in two recent studies, 1,3-DMAA was detected in geranium plant tissues and a geranium oil sample using a simplified extraction approach on tissues and oil sourced from China. Whether or not 1,3-DMAA is found naturally in plants has significant implications as to how commercial products containing 1,3-DMAA are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. In this paper, differences in source materials, extraction procedures, and analytical approaches are reviewed in an attempt to rationalize the apparently conflicting evidence for the presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plant materials. PMID:23843687

  10. 43 CFR 9185.1-3 - Mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mining claims. 9185.1-3 Section 9185.1-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Mining claims. (a) Application for survey. Application for the survey of a mining claim should be...

  11. 43 CFR 9185.1-3 - Mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mining claims. 9185.1-3 Section 9185.1-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Mining claims. (a) Application for survey. Application for the survey of a mining claim should be...

  12. 43 CFR 9185.1-3 - Mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mining claims. 9185.1-3 Section 9185.1-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Mining claims. (a) Application for survey. Application for the survey of a mining claim should be...

  13. 43 CFR 9185.1-3 - Mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mining claims. 9185.1-3 Section 9185.1-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Mining claims. (a) Application for survey. Application for the survey of a mining claim should be...

  14. 10 CFR 960.3-1-3 - Regionality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Regionality. 960.3-1-3 Section 960.3-1-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... repositories. Such consideration shall take into account the proximity of sites to locations at which waste...

  15. 10 CFR 960.3-1-3 - Regionality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regionality. 960.3-1-3 Section 960.3-1-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... repositories. Such consideration shall take into account the proximity of sites to locations at which waste...

  16. 10 CFR 960.3-1-3 - Regionality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regionality. 960.3-1-3 Section 960.3-1-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... repositories. Such consideration shall take into account the proximity of sites to locations at which waste...

  17. 10 CFR 960.3-1-3 - Regionality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Regionality. 960.3-1-3 Section 960.3-1-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... repositories. Such consideration shall take into account the proximity of sites to locations at which waste...

  18. 43 CFR 2201.1-3 - Assumption of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assumption of costs. 2201.1-3 Section 2201... Exchanges-Specific Requirements § 2201.1-3 Assumption of costs. (a) Generally, parties to an exchange will...-Federal party; and (5) There are no other practicable means available to the authorized officer of...

  19. Distributed estimation of sensors position in underwater wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandi, Rahman; Kamarei, Mahmoud; Amiri, Hadi

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a localisation method for determining the position of fixed sensor nodes in an underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN) is introduced. In this simple and range-free scheme, the node localisation is achieved by utilising an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) that transverses through the network deployment area, and that periodically emits a message block via four directional acoustic beams. A message block contains the actual known AUV position as well as a directional dependent marker that allows a node to identify the respective transmit beam. The beams form a fixed angle with the AUV body. If a node passively receives message blocks, it could calculate the arithmetic mean of the coordinates existing in each messages sequence, to find coordinates at two different time instants via two different successive beams. The node position can be derived from the two computed positions of the AUV. The major advantage of the proposed localisation algorithm is that it is silent, which leads to energy efficiency for sensor nodes. The proposed method does not require any synchronisation among the nodes owing to being silent. Simulation results, using MATLAB, demonstrated that the proposed method had better performance than other similar AUV-based localisation methods in terms of the rates of well-localised sensor nodes and positional root mean square error.

  20. Difference of perceiving object softness during palpation through single-node and multi-node contacts.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Antoine; Hu, Yaoping

    2012-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) simulators can offer alternatives for training procedures in the medical field. Most current VR simulators consider single-node contact for interacting with an object to convey displacement and force on a discrete mesh. However, a single-node contact does not closely simulate palpation, which requires a surface made of a multi-node contact to touch a soft object. Thus, we hypothesize that the softness of a deformable object (such as a virtual breast phantom) palpated through a single-node contact would be perceived differently from that of the same phantom palpated through a multi-node contact with various force arrays. We conducted a study to investigate this hypothesis. Using a co-located VR setup that aligns visual and haptic stimuli onto a spatial location, we tested 15 human participants under conditions of both visual and haptic stimuli available and only visual (or haptic) stimulus available. In a trial, each participant palpated and discriminated two virtual breast phantoms of same softness through different contacts with varying force arrays. The results of this study revealed that virtual breast phantoms palpated through a single-node contact were constantly perceived harder than their counterparts palpated through a multi-node contact with varying force arrays, when visual stimuli were available. These results imply a constraint for developing a VR system of training palpation.

  1. Breast cancer axillary lymph node metastasis detection by a high-resolution dedicated breast camera: a comparative study with SPECT and pinhole SPECT.

    PubMed

    Spanu, Angela; Chessa, Francesca; Sanna, Daniela; Cottu, Pierina; Manca, Alessandra; Nuvoli, Susanna; Madeddu, Giuseppe

    2007-12-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin planar scintigraphy acquired with a high-resolution (HR) dedicated breast camera in comparison with conventional single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and pinhole-SPECT (P-SPECT) in breast cancer (BC) axillary lymph node metastasis detection in a consecutive series of 76 BC patients, 28 of whom had axillary lymph node metastases, including 9 positive at clinical examination. HR planar scintigraphy was true positive in only 7 patients with >3 palpable metastases (sensitivity: 25%), while SPECT was true positive in 23 of 28 cases (sensitivity: 82.1%) and P-SPECT in 25 of 28 (sensitivity: 89.3%). SPECT was false negative in 5 patients with nonpalpable nodes, including 2 with one micrometastatic node, while P-SPECT was false negative in the latter 2 cases, and in another of the cases, false negative at SPECT with one macrometastatic node. Neither planar nor SPECT had false-positive findings (specificity: 100%), while P-SPECT had two (specificity: 95.8%). P-SPECT presented the best resolution in showing the metastatic nodes and was the only procedure able to define the number of involved nodes, thus delivering important prognostic information. HR planar scintigraphy appears an ineffective diagnostic tool in BC axillary lymph node metastasis detection, only succeeding in identifying palpable and >3 metastatic nodes. SPECT should be preferred, significantly improving the sensitivity of planar scintigraphy, especially when using a pinhole collimator.

  2. Degradation of 1,3-dichloropropene in aerobic soils

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, F.; Balcer, J.L.; Wolt, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    The degradation of the soil fumigant, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), was investigated to determine its rate of degradation and the identify of metabolites in aerobic soils. Studies were conducted in the dark at 25{degrees}C with uniformly {sup 14}C-labeled 1,3-D at a concentration of approximately 100 ug/g on three soils: Wahiawa silty clay, Catlin silt loam and Fuquay loamy sand. Aerobic soil half-lives for 1,3-D were 1.8, 11.5 and 52.5 days on the Wahiawa silty clay, Catlin silt loam, and Fuquay loamy sand, respectively. Degradation of 1,3-D resulted in the formation of cis- and trans-3-chloroallyl alcohol, cis- and trans-3-chloroacrylic acid, numerous minor carboxylic acid metabolites, and carbon dioxide. In addition, there was also extensive incorporation of {sup 14}C labeled material into the soil organic matter of both soils.

  3. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mollgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H.; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships. PMID:27300084

  4. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the United States' contribution to the International Lunar Network (ILN) project, the Anchor Nodes project. The ILN is an initiative of 9 national space agencies to establish a set of robotic geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon. The project is aimed at furthering the understanding of the lunar composition, and interior structure.

  5. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks.

    PubMed

    Mollgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships. PMID:27300084

  6. The lymph node in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dick, F R; Maca, R D

    1978-01-01

    Lymph nodes were examined from 41 cases of typical chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Degree of immaturity was graded as absent to minimal (Grade I), moderate (Grade II) and marked (Grade III). A moderate degree of immaturity was found in the lymph node in 14 of 41 cases even though the cells seen on the initial bone marrow and peripheral blood smears obtained from these patients were essentially all mature. The morphology of these nodes could be confused with poorly differentiated lymphocytic or mixed lymphocytic-histiocytic lymphoma in terms of the degree of immaturity present. A marked degree of immaturity present. A marked degree of immaturity was found in 5 cases; the morphology of these cases resembled histiocytic lymphoma. In the remaining 22 cases immaturity was essentially absent. The morphology of these cases was similar to that of diffuse well differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma. Our studies suggest that a moderate degree of immaturity in the lymph node of patients with CLL does not indicate that these patients will have a marked shortening of their survival. PMID:580071

  7. Use of a Hybrid Edge Node-Centroid Node Approach to Thermal Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume L.

    2010-01-01

    A recent proposal submitted for an ESA mission required that models be delivered in ESARAD/ESATAN formats. ThermalDesktop was the preferable analysis code to be used for model development with a conversion done as the final step before delivery. However, due to some differences between the capabilities of the two codes, a unique approach was developed to take advantage of the edge node capability of ThermalDesktop while maintaining the centroid node approach used by ESARAD. In essence, two separate meshes were used: one for conduction and one for radiation. The conduction calculations were eliminated from the radiation surfaces and the capacitance and radiative calculations were eliminated from the conduction surfaces. The resulting conduction surface nodes were coincident with all nodes of the radiation surface and were subsequently merged, while the nodes along the edges remained free. Merging of nodes on the edges of adjacent surfaces provided the conductive links between surfaces. Lastly, all nodes along edges were placed into the subnetwork and the resulting supernetwork included only the nodes associated with radiation surfaces. This approach had both benefits and disadvantages. The use of centroid, surface based radiation reduces the overall size of the radiation network, which is often the most computationally intensive part of the modeling process. Furthermore, using the conduction surfaces and allowing ThermalDesktop to calculate the conduction network can save significant time by not having to manually generate the couplings. Lastly, the resulting GMM/TMM models can be exported to formats which do not support edge nodes. One drawback, however, is the necessity to maintain two sets of surfaces. This requires additional care on the part of the analyst to ensure communication between the conductive and radiative surfaces in the resulting overall network. However, with more frequent use of this technique, the benefits of this approach can far outweigh the

  8. Can methylene blue only be used in sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Golshan, Mehra; Nakhlis, Faina

    2006-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become an accepted standard of care to stage the axilla for clinically node-negative early stage breast cancer. In experienced hands, studies have shown an acceptable rate of identification of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) with blue dye only. Lymphazurin is occasionally associated with severe allergic reaction, including anaphylaxis and death. The use of methylene blue alone as a method of identifying the SLN in breast cancer has been reported once previously in the literature. Methylene blue may be an acceptable alternative with fewer deleterious side effects. Medical records of patients, who underwent sentinel node mapping between September 2003 and March 2005 by two surgeons at an academic medical center were reviewed. SLN mapping was performed by periareolar injection of 5 cc of 1% methylene blue. All patients with positive SLNs underwent completion axillary node dissection. During the study period, 141 consecutive patients with clinically node-negative axillas and without evidence of inflammatory breast cancer underwent SLNB with injection of methylene blue only. A SLN was identified in 136 of 141 patients (96.5%). Thirty-three of 136 SLNs (24%) harbored metastatic disease. No cases of anaphylaxis were noted. In experienced hands, methylene blue alone is a highly sensitive method of detecting SLNs. Avoiding the greater frequency of allergic reactions seen with lymphazurin is an important advantage of methylene blue.

  9. MUSIC algorithm DoA estimation for cooperative node location in mobile ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warty, Chirag; Yu, Richard Wai; ElMahgoub, Khaled; Spinsante, Susanna

    In recent years the technological development has encouraged several applications based on distributed communications network without any fixed infrastructure. The problem of providing a collaborative early warning system for multiple mobile nodes against a fast moving object. The solution is provided subject to system level constraints: motion of nodes, antenna sensitivity and Doppler effect at 2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz. This approach consists of three stages. The first phase consists of detecting the incoming object using a highly directive two element antenna at 5.0 GHz band. The second phase consists of broadcasting the warning message using a low directivity broad antenna beam using 2× 2 antenna array which then in third phase will be detected by receiving nodes by using direction of arrival (DOA) estimation technique. The DOA estimation technique is used to estimate the range and bearing of the incoming nodes. The position of fast arriving object can be estimated using the MUSIC algorithm for warning beam DOA estimation. This paper is mainly intended to demonstrate the feasibility of early detection and warning system using a collaborative node to node communication links. The simulation is performed to show the behavior of detecting and broadcasting antennas as well as performance of the detection algorithm. The idea can be further expanded to implement commercial grade detection and warning system

  10. Can Rouvière's lymph nodes in non-malignant subjects be identified with MRI?

    PubMed

    Ichimura, K

    1993-01-01

    The lateral retropharyngeal lymph nodes lie between the carotid artery and prevertebral muscles. These are most obvious anterior to the arch of C1, but can be seen to the level of the soft palate. The uppermost-positioning nodes anterior to the atlas are called as the nodes of Rouvière. Introduction of CT and MR has provided us the chance to detect them. In order to find out the frequency of identifying them in normal subjects, I examined axial MR images which had been taken for the last 3 years. A total of 90 patients (86 adults and 4 children) with a variety of diseases except for malignancies were selected. All 4 children showed Rouvière's nodes bilaterally, while only 5 of 86 adults (5.8%) depicted them. The lymph nodes were identified as isointense masses as nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissues (adenoids), when presented, with the size ranged from 4 to 13 mm. The nodes with a diameter of 5 mm or more were easily identified particularly with T2-weighted images. The benign reactive adenopathy appeared indistinguishable from that demonstrated in patients with malignant tumors in the head and neck.

  11. IDIS Small Bodies and Dust Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sanctis, M. C.; Capria, M. T.; Carraro, F.; Fonte, S.; Giacomini, L.; Turrini, D.

    2009-04-01

    The EuroPlaNet information service provides access to lists of researchers, laboratories and data archives relevant to many aspects of planetary and space physics. Information can be accessed through EuroPlaNet website or, for advanced searches, via web-services available at the different thematic nodes. The goal of IDIS is to provide easy-to-use access to resources like people, laboratories, modeling activities and data archives related to planetary sciences. The development of IDIS is an international effort started under the European Commission's 6th Framework Programme and which will expand its capabilities during the 7th Framework Programme, as part of the Capacities Specific Programme/Research Infrastructures. IDIS is complemented by a set of other EuroPlaNet web-services maintained under the responsibility of separate institutions. Each activity maintains its own web-portal with cross-links pointing to the other elements of EuroPlaNet. General access is provided via the EuroPlaNet Homepage. IDIS is not a repository of original data but rather supports the access to various data sources. The final goal of IDIS is to provide Virtual Observatory tools for the access to data from laboratory measurements and ground- and spaced-based observations to modeling results, allowing the combination of as divergent data sources as feasible. IDIS is built around four scientific nodes located in different European countries. Each node deals with a subset of the disciplines related to planetary sciences and, working in cooperation with international experts in these fields, provides a wealth of information to the international planetary science community. The EuroPlaNet IDIS thematic node "Small Bodies and Dust Node" is hosted by the Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario and is established in close cooperation with the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale. Both these institutes are part of the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF). The IDIS Small Bodies and Dust

  12. Iterative resource allocation based on propagation feature of node for identifying the influential nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lin-Feng; Liu, Jian-Guo; Shang, Ming-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    The identification of the influential nodes in networks is one of the most promising domains. In this paper, we present an improved iterative resource allocation (IIRA) method by considering the centrality information of neighbors and the influence of spreading rate for a target node. Comparing with the results of the Susceptible Infected Recovered (SIR) model for four real networks, the IIRA method could identify influential nodes more accurately than the tradition IRA method. Specially, in the Erdös network, Kendall's tau could be enhanced 23% when the spreading rate is 0.12. In the Protein network, Kendall's tau could be enhanced 24% when the spreading rate is 0.08.

  13. Node link stability in wireless mobile networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hökelek, İbrahim; Uyar, M. Ümit; Fecko, Mariusz A.

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents an improvement of a novel analytic model for ad hoc networks based on Markov chains whose states represent node degree and the number of link failures. The model divides a geographic area into logical hexagonal cells, where random walk with probabilistic state-transition matrix determines link creation/failure. We can thus compute two important metrics characterizing the dynamics of a node's random movement: the expected times for the number of link changes to drop below and for the node degree to exceed a threshold. We obtained the two-dimensional Markov chain that allows us to apply these two metrics as the selection rules for the virtual backbone formation algorithm. Hence, our model is used to analyze the performance of service discovery architectures based on virtual backbone in mobile ad-hoc networks. We also plan to extend the created modeling framework to derive a number of additional metrics that characterize network connectivity, capacity, and survivability. Because the model is capable of computing the dynamics and the expected value of the number of a node's neighbors, it can also be used to estimate the level of interference as well as achievable and sustainable routing path diversity, degree of network connectivity, and the stability of routing tables. We expect to apply our modeling framework to analytic assessment of the stability of routing domains. The rate and expected values at which the nodes move in and out of domains characterize the rate of degradation of optimally built routing domains, and hence the resulting routing scalability and overhead.

  14. [INTRAOPERATIVE DETECTION OF SENTINEL LYMPH NODES USING INFRARED IMAGING SYSTEM IN LOCAL NON-SMALL CELL CARCINOMA OF LUNG].

    PubMed

    Akopov, A L; Papayan, G V; Chistyakov, I V; Karlson, A; Gerasin, A V; Agishev, A S

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of the first domestic experience of intraoperative fluorescence mapping of sentinel lymph nodes in lung cancer. The research included 10 patients, who underwent surgery over the period of time from September 2013 to May 2014. After performing thoracotomy, the solution of indocyanine green (ICG) was injected using subpleural position above the tumor in 3-4 points. Fluorescence (ICG) image guided surgery was carried out by using infrared radiation (wave length 808 nm) on lung surface, root of lung, mediastinum in real time. Fluorescence lymph nodes were mapped. In case that metastatic lesions weren't revealed in sentinel lymph nodes, they weren't noted in other nodes. Method specificity consisted of 100%. Biopsy and histological study of sentinel lymph nodes mapped during fluorescence (ICG) image guided surgery could be useful for prevention of lymphodissection in patients with non-small cell carcinoma of lung. PMID:26601511

  15. Nodal Basin Recurrence After Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmer, Lutz; Bertsch, Hans Peter; Zapf, Antonia; Mitteldorf, Christina; Satzger, Imke; Thoms, Kai-Martin; Völker, Bernward; Schön, Michael Peter; Gutzmer, Ralf; Starz, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze different types of nodal basin recurrence after sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for melanoma. Patients and Methods: Kaplan–Meier estimates and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to study 2653 patients from 3 German melanoma centers retrospectively. The estimated 5-year negative predictive value of SLNB was 96.4%. The estimated false-negative (FN) rates after 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 years were 2.5%, 4.6%, 6.4%, 8.7%, and 12.6%, respectively. Independent factors associated with false negativity were older age, fewer SLNs excised, and head or neck location of the primary tumor. Compared with SLN-positive patients, the FNs had a significantly lower survival. In SLN-positive patients undergoing completion lymphadenectomy (CLND), the 5-year nodal basin recurrence rate was 18.3%. The recurrence rates for axilla, groin, and neck were 17.2%, 15.5%, and 44.1%, respectively. Significant factors predicting local relapse after CLND were older age, head, or neck location of the primary tumor, ulceration, deeper penetration of the metastasis into the SLN, tumor-positive CLND, and >2 lymph node metastases. All kinds of nodal relapse were associated with a higher prevalence of in-transit metastases. The FN rate after SLNB steadily increases over the observation period and should, therefore, be estimated by the Kaplan–Meier method. False-negativity is associated with fewer SLNs excised. The beneficial effect of CLND on nodal basin disease control varies considerably across different risk groups. This should be kept in mind about SLN-positive patients when individual decisions on prophylactic CLND are taken. PMID:26356697

  16. Identification of ovine ruminal microbes capable of biotransforming hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioremediation is of great interest in the detoxification of soil contaminated with residues from explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Although there are numerous forms of in situ and ex situ bioremediation, ruminants would provide the option of an in situ bioreactor tha...

  17. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine mineralization by zerovalent iron and mixed anaerobic cultures.

    PubMed

    Oh, B T; Just, C L; Alvarez, P J

    2001-11-01

    Soil microcosms were used to evaluate the potential benefits of an integrated microbial-Fe0 system to treat groundwater contamination by RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine). Microcosms amended with both Fe0 filings and municipal anaerobic sludge mineralized RDX faster and to a greater extent than separate treatments, with up to 51% 14CO2 recovery after 77 d. The nitroso byproducts 1,3-dinitro-5-nitroso-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (MNX), 1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (DNX), and 1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (TNX) were detected in all microcosms, although these compounds never accumulated above 5% of the added RDX on a molar basis. A soluble intermediate that was tentatively identified as methylenedinitramine [(O2NNH)2CH2] was relatively persistent, although it accumulated to a much lower extent in combined-treatment reactors than in sets with Fe0 or sludge alone. Some of the radiolabel was bound to soil and Fe0 and could not be extracted with CH3CN. This fraction, which was recovered by combustion with a biological oxidizer, was also found at lower concentrations in combined-treatment reactors. This work suggests that permeable reactive Fe0 barriers might be an effective approach to intercept and degrade RDX plumes and that treatment efficiency might be enhanced by biogeochemical interactions through bioaugmentation.

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On March 10, 2016, the public comment draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for public review and comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by othe...

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (Public Comment Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and has released the draft assessment for public comment. When final, the assessment will appear on the IRIS database.

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (Rdx) (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) was released for external peer review in September 2016. The EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis suppor...

  1. Regulation of aldosterone secretion by Cav1.3.

    PubMed

    Xie, Catherine B; Shaikh, Lalarukh Haris; Garg, Sumedha; Tanriver, Gizem; Teo, Ada E D; Zhou, Junhua; Maniero, Carmela; Zhao, Wanfeng; Kang, Soosung; Silverman, Richard B; Azizan, Elena A B; Brown, Morris J

    2016-01-01

    Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) vary in phenotype and genotype. Zona glomerulosa (ZG)-like APAs frequently have mutations of an L-type calcium channel (LTCC) CaV1.3. Using a novel antagonist of CaV1.3, compound 8, we investigated the role of CaV1.3 on steroidogenesis in the human adrenocortical cell line, H295R, and in primary human adrenal cells. This investigational drug was compared with the common antihypertensive drug nifedipine, which has 4.5-fold selectivity for the vascular LTCC, CaV1.2, over CaV1.3. In H295R cells transfected with wild-type or mutant CaV1.3 channels, the latter produced more aldosterone than wild-type, which was ameliorated by 100 μM of compound 8. In primary adrenal and non-transfected H295R cells, compound 8 decreased aldosterone production similar to high concentration of nifedipine (100 μM). Selective CaV1.3 blockade may offer a novel way of treating primary hyperaldosteronism, which avoids the vascular side effects of CaV1.2-blockade, and provides targeted treatment for ZG-like APAs with mutations of CaV1.3. PMID:27098837

  2. Regulation of aldosterone secretion by Cav1.3

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Catherine B.; Haris Shaikh, Lalarukh; Garg, Sumedha; Tanriver, Gizem; Teo, Ada E. D.; Zhou, Junhua; Maniero, Carmela; Zhao, Wanfeng; Kang, Soosung; Silverman, Richard B.; Azizan, Elena A. B.; Brown, Morris J.

    2016-01-01

    Aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) vary in phenotype and genotype. Zona glomerulosa (ZG)-like APAs frequently have mutations of an L-type calcium channel (LTCC) CaV1.3. Using a novel antagonist of CaV1.3, compound 8, we investigated the role of CaV1.3 on steroidogenesis in the human adrenocortical cell line, H295R, and in primary human adrenal cells. This investigational drug was compared with the common antihypertensive drug nifedipine, which has 4.5-fold selectivity for the vascular LTCC, CaV1.2, over CaV1.3. In H295R cells transfected with wild-type or mutant CaV1.3 channels, the latter produced more aldosterone than wild-type, which was ameliorated by 100 μM of compound 8. In primary adrenal and non-transfected H295R cells, compound 8 decreased aldosterone production similar to high concentration of nifedipine (100 μM). Selective CaV1.3 blockade may offer a novel way of treating primary hyperaldosteronism, which avoids the vascular side effects of CaV1.2-blockade, and provides targeted treatment for ZG-like APAs with mutations of CaV1.3. PMID:27098837

  3. Predicting axillary lymph node metastasis from kinetic statistics of DCE-MRI breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Ahmed B.; Lin, Lilie; Gavenonis, Sara C.; Mies, Carolyn; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Kontos, Despina

    2012-03-01

    The presence of axillary lymph node metastases is the most important prognostic factor in breast cancer and can influence the selection of adjuvant therapy, both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this work we present a set of kinetic statistics derived from DCE-MRI for predicting axillary node status. Breast DCE-MRI images from 69 women with known nodal status were analyzed retrospectively under HIPAA and IRB approval. Axillary lymph nodes were positive in 12 patients while 57 patients had no axillary lymph node involvement. Kinetic curves for each pixel were computed and a pixel-wise map of time-to-peak (TTP) was obtained. Pixels were first partitioned according to the similarity of their kinetic behavior, based on TTP values. For every kinetic curve, the following pixel-wise features were computed: peak enhancement (PE), wash-in-slope (WIS), wash-out-slope (WOS). Partition-wise statistics for every feature map were calculated, resulting in a total of 21 kinetic statistic features. ANOVA analysis was done to select features that differ significantly between node positive and node negative women. Using the computed kinetic statistic features a leave-one-out SVM classifier was learned that performs with AUC=0.77 under the ROC curve, outperforming the conventional kinetic measures, including maximum peak enhancement (MPE) and signal enhancement ratio (SER), (AUCs of 0.61 and 0.57 respectively). These findings suggest that our DCE-MRI kinetic statistic features can be used to improve the prediction of axillary node status in breast cancer patients. Such features could ultimately be used as imaging biomarkers to guide personalized treatment choices for women diagnosed with breast cancer.

  4. Dielectric properties of multiatomic alcohols: 1,3-butanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. I.

    2016-10-01

    The dielectric spectra of 1,3-butanediol in the temperature range of 298-423 K are analyzed using a variety of theoretical approaches. It is shown that the dielectric spectra of 1,3-butanediol are described by the Davidson-Cole equation. Conclusions as to possible mechanisms of dispersion are drawn using the Debye theory. The relaxation times of 1,3-butanediol, calculated in different ways, are compared. The dipole moments of clusters are calculated for the first time using the Dissado-Hill cluster model.

  5. Dirac-node arc in the topological line-node semimetal HfSiS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takane, D.; Wang, Zhiwei; Souma, S.; Nakayama, K.; Trang, C. X.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Ando, Yoichi

    2016-09-01

    We have performed angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on HfSiS, which has been predicted to be a topological line-node semimetal with square Si lattice. We found a quasi-two-dimensional Fermi surface hosting bulk nodal lines, alongside the surface states at the Brillouin-zone corner exhibiting a sizable Rashba splitting and band-mass renormalization due to many-body interactions. Most notably, we discovered an unexpected Dirac-like dispersion extending one dimensionally in k space—the Dirac-node arc—near the bulk node at the zone diagonal. These novel Dirac states reside on the surface and could be related to hybridizations of bulk states, but currently we have no explanation for its origin. This discovery poses an intriguing challenge to the theoretical understanding of topological line-node semimetals.

  6. Sentinel Lymph Node Detection Using Laser-Assisted Indocyanine Green Dye Lymphangiography in Patients with Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vikalp; Phillips, Brett T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a vital component of staging and management of multiple cancers. The current gold standard utilizes technetium 99 (tech99) and a blue dye to detect regional nodes. While the success rate is typically over 90%, these two methods can be inconclusive or inconvenient for both patient and surgeon. We evaluated a new technique using laser-assisted ICG dye lymphangiography to identify SLN. Methods. In this retrospective analysis, we identified patients with melanoma who were candidates for SLN biopsy. In addition to tech99 and methylene blue, patients received a dermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG). The infrared signal was detected with the SPY machine (Novadaq), and nodes positive by any method were excised. Results. A total of 15 patients were evaluated, with 40 SLNs removed. Four patients were found to have nodal metastases on final pathology. 100% of these 4 nodes were identified by ICG, while only 75% (3/4) were positive for tech99 and/or methylene blue. Furthermore, none of the nodes missed by ICG (4/40) had malignant cells. Conclusion. ICG dye lymphangiography is a reasonable alternative for locating SLNs in patients with melanoma. Prospective studies are needed to better ascertain the full functionality of this technique. PMID:24382997

  7. Improving minimum cost spanning trees by upgrading nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H.; Wirth, H.C.; Marathe, M.V.; Ravi, R.; Ravi, S.S.; Sundaram, R.

    1998-11-01

    The authors study budget constrained network upgrading problems. The authors are given an undirected edge weighted graph (G = V, E) where node v {element_of} V can be upgraded at a cost of c(v). This upgrade reduces the weight of each edge incident on v. The goal is to find a minimum cost set of nodes to be upgraded so that the resulting network has a minimum spanning tree of weight no more than a given budget D. The results obtained in the paper include the following: (1) on the positive side, they provide a polynomial time approximation algorithm for the above upgrading problem when the difference between the maximum and minimum edge weights is bounded by a polynomial in n, the number of nodes in the graph, the solution produced by the algorithm satisfies the budget constrain, and the cost of the upgrading set produced by the algorithm is O (log n) times the minimum upgrading cost needed to obtain a spanning tree of weight at most D; (2) in contrast , they show that, unless NP {improper_subset} DTIME (n{sup O(log log n)}), there can be no polynomial time approximation algorithm for the problem that produces a solution with upgrading cost at most {alpha} < ln n times the optimal upgrading cost even if the budget can be violated by a factor f(n), for any polynomial time computable function f(n), this result continues to hold, with f(n) = n{sup k} being any polynomial, even when the difference between the maximum and minimum edge weights is bounded by a polynomial in n; and (3) finally, they show that using a simple binary search over the set of admissible values, the dual problem can be solved with an appropriate performance guarantee.

  8. Improved Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Bovine Lymph Node Tissue Using Immunomagnetic Separation (IMS)-Based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Linda D.; McNair, James; McCallan, Lyanne; Gordon, Alan; Grant, Irene R.

    2013-01-01

    Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) can selectively isolate and concentrate Mycobacterium bovis cells from lymph node tissue to facilitate subsequent detection by PCR (IMS-PCR) or culture (IMS-MGIT). This study describes application of these novel IMS-based methods to test for M. bovis in a survey of 280 bovine lymph nodes (206 visibly lesioned (VL), 74 non-visibly lesioned (NVL)) collected at slaughter as part of the Northern Ireland bovine TB eradication programme. Their performance was evaluated relative to culture. Overall, 174 (62.1%) lymph node samples tested positive by culture, 162 (57.8%) by IMS-PCR (targeting IS6110), and 191 (68.2%) by IMS-MGIT culture. Twelve (6.9%) of the 174 culture positive lymph node samples were not detected by either of the IMS-based methods. However, an additional 79 M. bovis positive lymph node samples (27 (13.1%) VL and 52 (70.3%) NVL) were detected by the IMS-based methods and not by culture. When low numbers of viable M. bovis are present in lymph nodes (e.g. in NVLs of skin test reactor cattle) decontamination prior to culture may adversely affect viability, leading to false negative culture results. In contrast, IMS specifically captures whole M. bovis cells (live, dead or potentially dormant) which are not subject to any deleterious treatment before detection by PCR or MGIT culture. During this study only 2.7% of NVL lymph nodes tested culture positive, whereas 70.3% of the same samples tested M. bovis positive by the IMS-based tests. Results clearly demonstrate that not only are the IMS-based methods more rapid but they have greater detection sensitivity than the culture approach currently used for the detection of M. bovis infection in cattle. Adoption of the IMS-based methods for lymph node testing would have the potential to improve M. bovis detection in clinical samples. PMID:23469275

  9. [Lymph node staging in gastrointestinal cancer. Combination of methylene blue-assisted lymph node dissection and ex vivo sentinel lymph node mapping].

    PubMed

    Märkl, B; Arnholdt, H

    2012-11-01

    The histopathological lymph node staging is of crucial importance for the prognosis estimation and therapy stratification in gastrointestinal cancer. However, the recommended numbers of lymph nodes that should be evaluated are often not reached in routine practice. Methylene blue assisted lymph node dissection was introduced as a new, simple and efficient technique to improve lymph node harvest in gastrointestinal cancer. This method is inexpensive, causes no delay and needs no toxic substances. All studies performed revealed a highly significantly improved lymph node harvest in comparison to the conventional technique. Moreover, this technique can be combined with a new ex vivo sentinel lymph node mapping that for the first time is based on histological sentinel lymph node detection. The success rate of this method is similar to conventional techniques and it enables an efficient application of extended investigation methods, such as immunohistochemistry or the polymerase chain reaction.

  10. Investigation of the Lack of Angiogenesis in the Formation of Lymph Node Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Han-Sin; Jones, Dennis; Liao, Shan; Wattson, Daniel A.; Cui, Cheryl H.; Duda, Dan G.; Willett, Christopher G.; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: To date, antiangiogenic therapy has failed to improve overall survival in cancer patients when used in the adjuvant setting (local-regional disease with no detectable systemic metastasis). The presence of lymph node metastases worsens prognosis, however their reliance on angiogenesis for growth has not been reported. Methods: Here, we introduce a novel chronic lymph node window (CLNW) model to facilitate new discoveries in the growth and spread of lymph node metastases. We use the CLNW in multiple models of spontaneous lymphatic metastases in mice to study the vasculature of metastatic lymph nodes (n = 9–12). We further test our results in patient samples (n = 20 colon cancer patients; n = 20 head and neck cancer patients). Finally, we test the ability of antiangiogenic therapy to inhibit metastatic growth in the CLNW. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Using the CLNW, we reveal the surprising lack of sprouting angiogenesis during metastatic growth, despite the presence of hypoxia in some lesions. Treatment with two different antiangiogenic therapies showed no effect on the growth or vascular density of lymph node metastases (day 10: untreated mean = 1.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.7% to 1.7%; control mean = 0.7%, 95% CI = 0.1% to 1.3%; DC101 mean = 0.4%, 95% CI = 0.0% to 3.3%; sunitinib mean = 0.5%, 95% CI = 0.0% to 1.0%, analysis of variance P = .34). We confirmed these findings in clinical specimens, including the lack of reduction in blood vessel density in lymph node metastases in patients treated with bevacizumab (no bevacizumab group mean = 257 vessels/mm2, 95% CI = 149 to 365 vessels/mm2; bevacizumab group mean = 327 vessels/mm2, 95% CI = 140 to 514 vessels/mm2, P = .78). Conclusion: We provide preclinical and clinical evidence that sprouting angiogenesis does not occur during the growth of lymph node metastases, and thus reveals a new mechanism of treatment resistance to antiangiogenic therapy in adjuvant settings. The

  11. Differential Motion Between Mediastinal Lymph Nodes and Primary Tumor in Radically Irradiated Lung Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Schaake, Eva E.; Rossi, Maddalena M.G.; Buikhuisen, Wieneke A.; Burgers, Jacobus A.; Smit, Adrianus A.J.; Belderbos, José S.A.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2014-11-15

    Purpose/Objective: In patients with locally advanced lung cancer, planning target volume margins for mediastinal lymph nodes and tumor after a correction protocol based on bony anatomy registration typically range from 1 to 1.5 cm. Detailed information about lymph node motion variability and differential motion with the primary tumor, however, is lacking from large series. In this study, lymph node and tumor position variability were analyzed in detail and correlated to the main carina to evaluate possible margin reduction. Methods and Materials: Small gold fiducial markers (0.35 × 5 mm) were placed in the mediastinal lymph nodes of 51 patients with non-small cell lung cancer during routine diagnostic esophageal or bronchial endoscopic ultrasonography. Four-dimensional (4D) planning computed tomographic (CT) and daily 4D cone beam (CB) CT scans were acquired before and during radical radiation therapy (66 Gy in 24 fractions). Each CBCT was registered in 3-dimensions (bony anatomy) and 4D (tumor, marker, and carina) to the planning CT scan. Subsequently, systematic and random residual misalignments of the time-averaged lymph node and tumor position relative to the bony anatomy and carina were determined. Additionally, tumor and lymph node respiratory amplitude variability was quantified. Finally, required margins were quantified by use of a recipe for dual targets. Results: Relative to the bony anatomy, systematic and random errors ranged from 0.16 to 0.32 cm for the markers and from 0.15 to 0.33 cm for the tumor, but despite similar ranges there was limited correlation (0.17-0.71) owing to differential motion. A large variability in lymph node amplitude between patients was observed, with an average motion of 0.56 cm in the cranial-caudal direction. Margins could be reduced by 10% (left-right), 27% (cranial-caudal), and 10% (anteroposterior) for the lymph nodes and −2%, 15%, and 7% for the tumor if an online carina registration protocol replaced a

  12. 1.3 GHz superconducting RF cavity program at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsburg, C.M.; Arkan, T.; Barbanotti, S.; Carter, H.; Champion, M.; Cooley, L.; Cooper, C.; Foley, M.; Ge, M.; Grimm, C.; Harms, E.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    At Fermilab, 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are prepared, qualified, and assembled into cryomodules (CMs) for Project X, an International Linear Collider (ILC), or other future projects. The 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program includes targeted R&D on 1-cell 1.3 GHz cavities for cavity performance improvement. Production cavity qualification includes cavity inspection, surface processing, clean assembly, and one or more cryogenic low-power CW qualification tests which typically include performance diagnostics. Qualified cavities are welded into helium vessels and are cryogenically tested with pulsed high-power. Well performing cavities are assembled into cryomodules for pulsed high-power testing in a cryomodule test facility, and possible installation into a beamline. The overall goals of the 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program, supporting facilities, and accomplishments are described.

  13. Waste form characteristics report, revision 1.3

    SciTech Connect

    Leider, H.R.; Stout, R.B.

    1998-07-01

    This Waste Form Characteristics Report (WFCR) update, Version 1.3, incorporates substantial additions and changes to following 10 sections of the WFCR: 2.1.3.1 Cladding Degradation; 2.1.3.2 UO2 Oxidation in Fuel; 2.1.3.5 Dissolution Release from UO{sub 2}; 2.2.1.5 Fracture /Fragmentation Studies of Glass; 2.2.2.2 Dissolution Radionuclide Release from Glass; 2.2.2.3 Soluble-Precipitated/Colloidal Species from Glass; 3.2.2 Spent-Fuel Oxidation Models; 3.4.2 Spent-Fuel Dissolution Models; 3.5.1 Glass Dissolution Experimental Parameters; and 3.5.2 Glass Dissolution Models.

  14. 1. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NE. Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NE. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  15. Solid-Phase Synthesis of 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Derivatives via Desulfurative Cyclization of Thiosemicarbazide Intermediate Resin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Ju; Choe, Ji-Hye; Gong, Young-Dae

    2016-08-01

    A 1,3,4-thiadiazole library was constructed by solid-phase organic synthesis. The key step of this solid-phase synthesis involves the preparation of polymer-bound 2-amido-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole resin by the cyclization of thiosemicarbazide resin using p-TsCl as the desulfurative agent, followed by the functionalization of the resin by alkylation, acylation, alkylation/acylation, and Suzuki coupling reactions. Both the alkylation and acylation reactions chemoselectively occurred at the 2-amide position of 2-amido-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole resin and the 5-amine position of 2-amido-5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole resin, respectively. Finally, these functionalized 1,3,4-thiadiazole resins were treated with trifluoroacetic acid in dichloromethane, affording diverse 1,3,4-thiadiazole analogs in high yields and purities. The 1,3,4-thiadiazole analogs show a different distribution of physicochemical and biological properties compared with our previously constructed 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole libraries in a range of orally available drug properties. PMID:27362292

  16. Process to prepare 1,3-diamino-5-pentafluorosulfanylbenzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); St.clair, Anne K. (Inventor); Thrasher, Joseph S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process was developed to prepare 1,3-diamino- 5-pentafluoro sulfanylbenzene. This process involved two steps: preparing the dinitro compound, 1,3-dinitro- 5-pentafluoro sulfanylbenzene, and reducing this compound to form the corresponding diamine. This diamine was reacted with various dianhydrides, diacidchlorides, and epoxy resins to form polyimides, polyamides, and cross linked epoxies. These polymers were used to prepare semi-permeable membranes, wire coatings, and films.

  17. Postoperative recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng‐Hsuan; Kuo, Sheng‐Fong; Hsueh, Chuen; Chao, Tzu‐Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives : The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze the features of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) presenting with neck lymph node (LN) metastasis. Methods : The study enrolled 909 patients with PTC who had undergone total thyroidectomy. After a median follow‐up of 14.6 years, 73 (8.0%) patients died of thyroid cancer. A total of 536 patients had the tumor confined to the thyroid (intra‐thyroid), 111 had lymph node (LN) metastasis, 225 showed soft tissue invasion, and 37 had distant metastasis. Results : Compared with the intra‐thyroid group, the group with LN metastases showed larger tumor size, higher postoperative thyroglobulin levels, advanced TNM stage, higher recurrence rates (5.2% vs. 31.5%), and higher disease‐specific mortality (1.3% vs. 12.6%). Of the 111 patients with PTC and LN metastases, 35 (31.5%) were diagnosed with recurrence during a mean follow‐up period of 16.9 ± 0.6 years. Among the 35 patients with recurrent PTC, 14 (40.0%) died of thyroid cancer. The mortality group was characterized by older, mostly male patients who presented with larger initial tumor size compared with survivors. Conclusions : In patients with PTC, the rates of recurrence and cancer mortality were higher in the group with LN metastasis than that in the intra‐thyroid tumor group. J. Surg. Oncol. 2015 111:149–154. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Surgical Oncology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26175314

  18. Metabolic engineering for the production of 1,3-propanediol

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, D.C.; Tong, I.T., Skraly, F.A.

    1993-12-31

    Metabolic engineering involves the use of recombinant DNA techniques for the modification of intermediary metabolic pathways. Microorganisms have recently been engineered to produce compounds such as indigo, ethanol, fatty acids and polyhydroxyalkanoates. As a model system for research in metabolic engineering, the authors have constructed a strain of the bacterium Escherichia coli, that is able to produce 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) from glycerol. This strain contains the genes for the glycerol deydratase and the 1,3-PD oxidoreductase from Klebsiella pneumoniae. The authors have also investigated genetic and environmental strategies for improving the yield and productivity of 1,3-PD by the engineered organism. In addition to being a useful model system, 1,3-PD production is of current practical interest. First 1,3-PD (also known as trimethylene glycol) and 1,4-butanediol, the more readily available diols. Second, the volume of feedstock (glycerol) is expected to grow, as it is a by-product of the production of polyglycoside surfactants and biodiesel fluids.

  19. Key enzymes catalyzing glycerol to 1,3-propanediol.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Shizhen; Wang, Yuanpeng; Fang, Baishan

    2016-01-01

    Biodiesel can replace petroleum diesel as it is produced from animal fats and vegetable oils, and it produces about 10 % (w/w) glycerol, which is a promising new industrial microbial carbon, as a major by-product. One of the most potential applications of glycerol is its biotransformation to high value chemicals such as 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD), dihydroxyacetone (DHA), succinic acid, etc., through microbial fermentation. Glycerol dehydratase, 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase (1,3-propanediol-oxydoreductase), and glycerol dehydrogenase, which were encoded, respectively, by dhaB, dhaT, and dhaD and with DHA kinase are encompassed by the dha regulon, are the three key enzymes in glycerol bioconversion into 1,3-PD and DHA, and these are discussed in this review article. The summary of the main research direction of these three key enzyme and methods of glycerol bioconversion into 1,3-PD and DHA indicates their potential application in future enzymatic research and industrial production, especially in biodiesel industry. PMID:26966462

  20. Development of 1.3GHz HTc rf SQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin-Yuan; Xie, Fei-Xiang; Meng, Shu-Chao; Dai, Yuan-Dong; Li, Zhuang-Zhi; Ma, Ping; Yang, Tao; Nie, Rui-Juan; Wang, Fu-Ren

    2004-01-01

    A new HTc rf SQUID working at around 1.3GHz has been developed to avoid electromagnetic interference such as growing mobile communication jamming. This new system works in a frequency range from 1.23 to 1.42GHz (centred at 1.3GHz), which is not occupied by commercial communication. The sensor used in the 1.3GHz rf SQUID is made of a HTc coplanar superconducting resonator and a large-area HTc superconducting film concentrator. We have achieved in the 1.3GHz HTc rf SQUID system a minimal flux noise of 2.5×10-5Phi0/(Hz)1/2 and a magnetic field sensitivity of 38fT/(Hz)1/2 in white noise range, respectively. The effective area of the concentrator fabricated on a 15×15mm2 substrate is 1.35mm2. It is shown that the 1.3GHz rf SQUID system has a high field sensitivity. Design and implementation of 1.3GHz HTc rf SQUID offers a promising direction of rf SQUID development for higher working frequency ranges.

  1. Facile 1,3- and 1,5-Chlorine Migration.

    PubMed

    Koch, Rainer; Wong, Ming Wah; Wentrup, Curt

    1996-10-01

    High-level ab initio molecular orbital calculations, using the G2(MP2,SVP) theory (and semiempirical methods) have been used to examine several 1,3- and 1,5-chlorine migrations. It is found that the interaction of chlorine lone pair electrons with a low-lying LUMO accelerates the Cl shift dramatically (lone pair-LUMO-mediated pericyclic reaction). The activation barriers for the 1,3-migration in chloro oxo ketene 1 (Cl(C=O)CH=C=O) and the 1,5-migration in (2-(chlorocarbonyl)vinyl)ketene 2 (Cl(C=O)CH=CHCH=C=O) are only 53 and 61 kJ mol(-)(1), respectively, compared to the 216 and 173 kJ mol(-)(1) barriers for the corresponding unassisted 1,3- and 1,5-sigmatropic shifts of Cl in 3-chloro-1-propene and 5-chloro-1,3-pentadiene. The transition structures for 1 and 2 reveal that migration of the chlorine atoms takes place in the molecular planes. The 1,5-chlorine shift in 6-chlorocyclohexa-2,4-dienone (3) has a significantly higher barrier due to a lack of appropriate orbital interaction. The related 1,3-shift in the (chlorocarbonyl)imine-alpha-chloro isocyanate system is also dramatically accelerated compared with conventional pericyclic 1,3-Cl migration.

  2. Postlumpectomy Focal Brachytherapy for Simultaneous Treatment of Surgical Cavity and Draining Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hrycushko, Brian A.; Li Shihong; Shi Chengyu; Goins, Beth; Liu Yaxi; Phillips, William T.; Otto, Pamela M.; Bao, Ande

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: The primary objective was to investigate a novel focal brachytherapy technique using lipid nanoparticle (liposome)-carried {beta}-emitting radionuclides (rhenium-186 [{sup 186}Re]/rhenium-188 [{sup 188}Re]) to simultaneously treat the postlumpectomy surgical cavity and draining lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Cumulative activity distributions in the lumpectomy cavity and lymph nodes were extrapolated from small animal imaging and human lymphoscintigraphy data. Absorbed dose calculations were performed for lumpectomy cavities with spherical and ellipsoidal shapes and lymph nodes within human subjects by use of the dose point kernel convolution method. Results: Dose calculations showed that therapeutic dose levels within the lumpectomy cavity wall can cover 2- and 5-mm depths for {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re liposomes, respectively. The absorbed doses at 1 cm sharply decreased to only 1.3% to 3.7% of the doses at 2 mm for {sup 186}Re liposomes and 5 mm for {sup 188}Re liposomes. Concurrently, the draining sentinel lymph nodes would receive a high focal therapeutic absorbed dose, whereas the average dose to 1 cm of surrounding tissue received less than 1% of that within the nodes. Conclusions: Focal brachytherapy by use of {sup 186}Re/{sup 188}Re liposomes was theoretically shown to be capable of simultaneously treating the lumpectomy cavity wall and draining sentinel lymph nodes with high absorbed doses while significantly lowering dose to surrounding healthy tissue. In turn, this allows for dose escalation to regions of higher probability of containing residual tumor cells after lumpectomy while reducing normal tissue complications.

  3. Cryptands with 1,3,5-tris(1',3'-dioxan-2'-yl)-benzene units: synthesis and structural investigations.

    PubMed

    Cîrcu, Monica; Soran, Albert; Hădade, Niculina Daniela; Rednic, Monica; Terec, Anamaria; Grosu, Ion

    2013-09-01

    Various cryptands based on 1,3-dioxane decorated 1,3,5-trisubstituted-benzene building blocks, connected by different chains (exhibiting ester, ether, or triazol groups) to several units with C3 symmetry, are reported. The structure of the compounds was investigated by single crystal X-ray diffraction, NMR, and MS. The role of the 1,3-dioxane units was targeted to ensure the preorganization of the substrate for the macrocyclization reactions on one side, and for easier NMR assignment of the structure of the cryptands on the other side. PMID:23924384

  4. Scheduling applications for execution on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer to manage temperature of the nodes during execution

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Peters, Amanda E; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2012-10-16

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for scheduling applications for execution on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer to manage temperature of the plurality of compute nodes during execution that include: identifying one or more applications for execution on the plurality of compute nodes; creating a plurality of physically discontiguous node partitions in dependence upon temperature characteristics for the compute nodes and a physical topology for the compute nodes, each discontiguous node partition specifying a collection of physically adjacent compute nodes; and assigning, for each application, that application to one or more of the discontiguous node partitions for execution on the compute nodes specified by the assigned discontiguous node partitions.

  5. A systematic review of tests for lymph node status in primary endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Selman, Tara J; Mann, Christopher H; Zamora, Javier; Khan, Khalid S

    2008-01-01

    Background The lymph node status of a patient is a key determinate in staging, prognosis and adjuvant treatment of endometrial cancer. Despite this, the potential additional morbidity associated with lymphadenectomy makes its role controversial. This study systematically reviews the accuracy literature on sentinel node biopsy; ultra sound scanning, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computer tomography (CT) for determining lymph node status in endometrial cancer. Methods Relevant articles were identified form MEDLINE (1966–2006), EMBASE (1980–2006), MEDION, the Cochrane library, hand searching of reference lists from primary articles and reviews, conference abstracts and contact with experts in the field. The review included 18 relevant primary studies (693 women). Data was extracted for study characteristics and quality. Bivariate random-effect model meta-analysis was used to estimate diagnostic accuracy of the various index tests. Results MRI (pooled positive LR 26.7, 95% CI 10.6 – 67.6 and negative LR 0.29 95% CI 0.17 – 0.49) and successful sentinel node biopsy (pooled positive LR 18.9 95% CI 6.7 – 53.2 and negative LR 0.22, 95% CI 0.1 – 0.48) were the most accurate tests. CT was not as accurate a test (pooled positive LR 3.8, 95% CI 2.0 – 7.3 and negative LR of 0.62, 95% CI 0.45 – 0.86. There was only one study that reported the use of ultrasound scanning. Conclusion MRI and sentinel node biopsy have shown similar diagnostic accuracy in confirming lymph node status among women with primary endometrial cancer than CT scanning, although the comparisons made are indirect and hence subject to bias. MRI should be used in preference, in light of the ASTEC trial, because of its non invasive nature. PMID:18457596

  6. [Genetic predictors of sick sinus node syndrome].

    PubMed

    Chernova, A A; Nikulina, S Iu; Tret'iakova, S S

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the role of heredity in development of the sick sinus node syndrome (SSNS). We have examined 14 probands and 110 their relatives from families with idiopathic SSNS and established the role in development of hereditary SSNS of polymorphisms of the following genes: -2-adrenoreceptor, enzyme endothelial NO synthase, protein connexin 40, voltage dependent cardiac sodium channels, cardiac myosin heavy chains. We also revealed associations of clinical variants of idiopathic SSNS with genotypes of the studied genes.

  7. [Sonoelastography in differential diagnosis of thyroid nodes].

    PubMed

    Zubarev, A V; Bashilov, V P; Gazhonova, V E; Kartavykh, A A; Churkina, S O; Selivanov, E S

    2011-01-01

    The study was aimed to assess the diagnostic possibilities of the new method of sonoelastography. 68 patients with different thyroid nodes were studied. Sonoelastography increased the sensitivity of the routine ultrasound investigation from 89 to 94.8%, the specificity from the 83 to 93%, and the accuracy of the method from 76 to 89%. The method assignes the information of the structural changes of the thyroid, unavailable by the routine ultrasound investigation. PMID:21606917

  8. Running Geant on T. Node parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Jejcic, A.; Maillard, J.; Silva, J. ); Mignot, B. )

    1990-08-01

    AnInmos transputer-based computer has been utilized to overcome the difficulties due to the limitations on the processing abilities of event parallelism and multiprocessor farms (i.e., the so called bus-crisis) and the concern regarding the growing sizes of databases typical in High Energy Physics. This study was done on the T.Node parallel computer manufactured by TELMAT. Detailed figures are reported concerning the event parallelization. (AIP)

  9. Vulnerability of critical infrastructures : identifying critical nodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Roger Gary; Robinson, David Gerald

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this research was the development of tools and techniques for the identification of critical nodes within critical infrastructures. These are nodes that, if disrupted through natural events or terrorist action, would cause the most widespread, immediate damage. This research focuses on one particular element of the national infrastructure: the bulk power system. Through the identification of critical elements and the quantification of the consequences of their failure, site-specific vulnerability analyses can be focused at those locations where additional security measures could be effectively implemented. In particular, with appropriate sizing and placement within the grid, distributed generation in the form of regional power parks may reduce or even prevent the impact of widespread network power outages. Even without additional security measures, increased awareness of sensitive power grid locations can provide a basis for more effective national, state and local emergency planning. A number of methods for identifying critical nodes were investigated: small-world (or network theory), polyhedral dynamics, and an artificial intelligence-based search method - particle swarm optimization. PSO was found to be the only viable approach and was applied to a variety of industry accepted test networks to validate the ability of the approach to identify sets of critical nodes. The approach was coded in a software package called Buzzard and integrated with a traditional power flow code. A number of industry accepted test networks were employed to validate the approach. The techniques (and software) are not unique to power grid network, but could be applied to a variety of complex, interacting infrastructures.

  10. Electrolyte additive to improve performance of MCMB/LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2 Li-ion cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yan; Chen, Zonghai; Lu, Wenquan; Amine, Khalil

    The electrolyte additive, 3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5,5] undecane (TOS), was investigated as a means to improve the life of mesocarbon microbead (MCMB)/Li 1.1[Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3] 0.9O 2 (NCM) cells for high-power applications. With the addition of an appropriate amount of TOS (no more than 1 wt%) to MCMB/NCM cells, the capacity retention was significantly improved at 55 °C compared with cells containing pristine electrolyte. Aging tests at 55 °C indicated that the capacity retention of the negative electrode had benefited as a result of the formation of a stable passivation film at the surface of the carbon electrode due to TOS reduction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that a TOS addition of more than 0.5 wt% increased the cell interfacial impedance. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the thermal stability of lithiated MCMB was also improved with the TOS addition.

  11. [Assessment of sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer: before or after?].

    PubMed

    Coutant, C; Jankowski, C; Portha, H; Barranger, E

    2016-06-01

    The main goal of preoperative chemotherapy is to reduce the size of the tumor and allow conservative treatment. Neoadjuvant treatment can affect axillary status with a downstaging in one third of the cases. For these patients, the benefit of axillary node dissection is questioned and the sentinel node biopsy (SLNB) seems to be a relevant option. However, the timing of performing SLNB is still debated especially for clinical negative patients with negative axillary ultrasound before preoperative chemotherapy. For axillary positive nodes proved by biopsy/cytology before preoperative chemotherapy, SLNB can be an option if there is a good clinical and radiological response. PMID:27234216

  12. Sinus node recovery time in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kulbertus, H E; Leval-Rutten, F; Mary, L; Casters, P

    1975-04-01

    Measurement of the sinus node recovery time has been proposed as a diagnostic tool for recognition of the sick sinus syndrome. The latter is most frequently encountered in elderly patients with hypertension, coronary heart disease, and atherosclerosis. In order to provide normal values for the sinus node recovery time in this particular population group, atrial pacing studies were carried out in 30 subjects over 50 years of age, all with peripheral vascular disease and some with angina pectoris (10), residua of infarction (6), or hypertension (7). On stimulation, 7 patients maintained a I:I atrioventricular conduction up to the rate of 180/min. Second degree atrioventricular block developed in all other cases. On six occasions, Wenckebach's periods appeared at the relatively slow pacing rate of 120/min. The maximum postoverdrive pause ranged from 680 to 1600 ms with an average of 1100 ms plus or minus 190 (10). For each pacing speed, a correlation was found between the duration of the pause and the control intrinsic cardiac rate, longer pauses being associated with longer resting PP intervals. Beyond 120/min, the duration of the pause was seen to shorten progressively as the driving rate was increased. Finally, the behavior of the sinus node pacemaker following interruption of pacing showed individual variations. After pacing at relatively slow rates, a prompt return to near control values was consistently observed, whereas, after fast rates of driving, a phase of secondary depression developed in about one-half of the studied cases.

  13. Spaceport aurora: An orbiting transportation node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    With recent announcements of the development of permanently staffed facilities on the Moon and Mars, the national space plan is in need of an infrastructure system for transportation and maintenance. A project team at the University of Houston College of Architecture and the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture, recently examined components for a low Earth orbit (LEO) transportation node that supports a lunar build-up scenario. Areas of investigation included identifying transportation node functions, identifying existing space systems and subsystems, analyzing variable orbits, determining logistics strategies for maintenance, and investigating assured crew return systems. The information resulted in a requirements definition document, from which the team then addressed conceptual designs for a LEO transportation node. The primary design drivers included: orbital stability, maximizing human performance and safety, vehicle maintainability, and modularity within existing space infrastructure. For orbital stability, the power tower configuration provides a gravity gradient stabilized facility and serves as the backbone for the various facility components. To maximize human performance, human comfort is stressed through zoning of living and working activities, maintaining a consistent local vertical orientation, providing crew interaction and viewing areas and providing crew return vehicles. Vehicle maintainability is accomplished through dual hangars, dual work cupolas, work modules, telerobotics and a fuel depot. Modularity is incorporated using Space Station Freedom module diameter, Space Station Freedom standard racks, and interchangeable interior partitions. It is intended that the final design be flexible and adaptable to provide a facility prototype that can service multiple mission profiles using modular space systems.

  14. Simplified Dynamic Analysis of Grinders Spindle Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demec, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The contribution deals with the simplified dynamic analysis of surface grinding machine spindle node. Dynamic analysis is based on the use of the transfer matrix method, which is essentially a matrix form of method of initial parameters. The advantage of the described method, despite the seemingly complex mathematical apparatus, is primarily, that it does not require for solve the problem of costly commercial software using finite element method. All calculations can be made for example in MS Excel, which is advantageous especially in the initial stages of constructing of spindle node for the rapid assessment of the suitability its design. After detailing the entire structure of spindle node is then also necessary to perform the refined dynamic analysis in the environment of FEM, which it requires the necessary skills and experience and it is therefore economically difficult. This work was developed within grant project KEGA No. 023TUKE-4/2012 Creation of a comprehensive educational - teaching material for the article Production technique using a combination of traditional and modern information technology and e-learning.

  15. PDS Lunar Data Node - Apollo Data Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Alfred B.; Williams, D. R.; Guinness, E. A.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Data Node (LDN) was formed under the auspices of the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences (GEO) Node to restore selected Apollo data sets to a modern format. The Apollo lunar missions returned a wealth of information, including long-term (1969-1977) surface data collected by autonomous ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package) stations emplaced by the crews of the Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 missions, surface point measurements, and orbital data. Much of the ALSEP and other surface and orbital data housed at NSSDC are in forms which are not readily usable, such as microfilm, hardcopy, and magnetic tapes with older, seldom-used formats. The LDN is prioritizing these data based on their scientific and engineering value for hazard and resource assessment and the level of effort required for archiving. Data from three experiments, X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS), Cold Cathode Ion Gage (CCIG), and Solar Wind Spectrometer (SWS), comprising eight unique data sets, have been restored and are in peer review process. The CCIG data have completed peer review and have been delivered to PDS GEO Node. We will report on progress made and plans for future data restorations.

  16. The Charles Perkins Centre's Twins Research Node.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lucas C; Craig, Jeffrey M; Hopper, John L; Carrick, Susan E

    2016-08-01

    Twins can help researchers disentangle the roles of genes from those of the environment on human traits, health, and diseases. To realize this potential, the Australian Twin Registry (ATR), University of Melbourne, and the Charles Perkins Centre (CPC), University of Sydney, established a collaboration to form the Twins Research Node, a highly interconnected research facility dedicated specifically to research involving twins. This collaboration aims to foster the adoption of twin designs as important tools for research in a range of health-related domains. The CPC hosted their Twins Research Node's launch seminar entitled 'Double the power of your research with twin studies', in which experienced twin researchers described how twin studies are supporting scientific discoveries and careers. The launch also featured twin pairs who have actively participated in research through the ATR. Researchers at the CPC were surveyed before the event to gauge their level of understanding and interest in utilizing twin research. This article describes the new Twins Research Node, discusses the survey's main results and reports on the launch seminar. PMID:27302367

  17. Improving spanning trees by upgrading nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H.; Wirth, H.C.

    1997-01-16

    We study budget constrained optimal network upgrading problems. Such problems aim at finding optimal strategies for improving a network under some cost measure subject to certain budget constraints. A general problem in this setting is the following. We are given an edge weighted graph G = (V, E) where nodes represent processors and edges represent bidirectional communication links. The processor at a node v {element_of} V can be upgraded at a cost of c(v). Such an upgrade reduces the delay of each link emanating from v. The goal is to find a minimum cost set of nodes to be upgraded so that the resulting network has the best performance with respect to some measure. We consider the problem under two measures, namely, the weight of a minimum spanning tree and the bottleneck weight of a minimum bottleneck spanning tree. We present approximation and hardness results for the problem. Our results are tight to within constant factors. We also show that these approximation algorithms can be used to construct good approximation algorithms for the dual versions of the problems where there is a budget constraint on the upgrading cost and the objectives are minimum weight spanning tree and minimum bottleneck weight spanning tree respectively.

  18. Sarcoidal granuloma in cervical lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Chien; Kang, Bor-Hwang; Lai, Chuan-Tsai; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang

    2005-07-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multiorgan granulomatous disease, the most common head and neck manifestation of which is cervical lymphadenopathy. Only the presentation of sarcoidal granuloma in cervical lymph nodes without typical manifestations of systemic sarcoidosis poses a diagnostic difficulty. We describe the case of a 39-year-old male who had a 2-month history of a progressively increasing mass with soreness in his right neck. The biopsy from the neck mass demonstrated non-caseating epithelioid cell granuloma of the lymph nodes. The differential diagnoses of mycobacterial or fungal infections were excluded. Thoracic evaluations, including chest X-ray and high-resolution computed tomography, revealed no abnormal findings. Treatment with systemic corticosteroids resulted in improved clinical symptoms. No recurrence of the neck mass or other signs of systemic sarcoidosis were noted during 1.5 years of follow-up. Although our patient's definitive diagnosis could not be determined, the case highlights 2 important issues: sarcoidal granuloma in lymph nodes may be a precursor of sarcoidosis, even in the absence of pulmonary or other systemic involvement; and regular follow-up is recommended in such cases.

  19. Discordance of Intraoperative Frozen Section Analysis with Definitive Histology of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer Surgery: Complementary Axillary Lymph Node Dissection is Irrelevant for Subsequent Systemic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Geertsema, D.; Gobardhan, P. D.; Madsen, E. V. E.; Albregts, M.; van Gorp, J.; de Hooge, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background In breast cancer surgery, intraoperative frozen section (FS) analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) enables axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) during the same operative procedure. In case of discordance between a “negative” FS analysis and definitive histology, an ALND as a second operation is advocated since additional lymph node metastases may be present. The clinical implications of the subsequent ALND in these patients were evaluated. Materials and Methods Between November 2000 and May 2008, 879 consecutive breast cancer patients underwent surgery including sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) with intraoperative FS analysis of 2 central cuts from axillary SLNs. Following fixation and serial sectioning, SLNs were further examined postoperatively with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical techniques. For patients with a discordant FS examination, the effect of the pathology findings of the subsequent ALND specimen on subsequent nonsurgical therapy were evaluated. Results FS analysis detected axillary metastases in the SLN(s) in 200 patients (23%), while the definitive pathology examination detected metastases in SLNs in another 151 patients (17%). A complementary ALND was performed in 108 of the 151 patients with discordant FS. Additional tumor positive axillary lymph nodes were found in 17 patients (16%), leading to “upstaging” in 7 (6%). Subsequent nonsurgical treatment was adjusted in 4 patients (4%): all 4 had more extensive locoregional radiotherapy; no patient received additional hormonal and/or chemotherapy. Conclusion Discordance between intraoperative FS analysis and definitive histology of SLNs is common. In this selection of patients, a substantial proportion had additional lymph node metastases, but postsurgical treatment was rarely adjusted based on the findings of the complementary ALND. PMID:20422461

  20. Detection of isolated ipsilateral regional lymph node recurrences by F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-CT in follow-up of postoperative breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ohsumi, Shozo; Inoue, Takeshi; Kiyoto, Sachiko; Hara, Fumikata; Takahashi, Mina; Takabatake, Daisuke; Takashima, Seiki; Aogi, Kenjiro; Takashima, Shigemitsu

    2011-11-01

    Imaging diagnostic methods except for mammograms are not recommended for follow-up of postoperative breast cancer patients in order to detect small recurrences because of the poor survival improvement in earlier randomized trials. However, the use of new imaging modalities may improve survival by detection of small isolated regional lymph node recurrences which are potentially curable. Between April 2006 and December 2008, we used PET-CT to find small recurrences in follow-up of 1,907 postoperative breast cancer patients. A total of 3,280 PET-CT imagings were performed. The median age at PET-CT imaging was 58 years, with a median 48-month interval from definitive surgery to the PET-CT imaging. Twenty-two patients were found to have isolated ipsilateral regional recurrences only by PET-CT (axillary node recurrences in 6, infraclavicular node recurrences in 5, supraclavicular node recurrences in 6, and parasternal node recurrences in 5). All of those recurrences were missed by palpation or were nonpalpable. The pathological lymph node status at the definitive surgery for the primary breast cancer of 22 patients with the isolated ipsilateral regional lymph node recurrences was positive in 17 patients. If patients are limited to those who had pathologically positive node(s) at definitive surgery, the incidence of patients with isolated regional lymph node recurrences found only by PET-CT would be 2.6% (17/663 patients). Seventeen other asymptomatic cancers including contralateral breast cancers were found only by PET-CT. Early detection of isolated loco-regional recurrences of breast cancer is suggested to result in improved survival. Therefore, the use of PET-CT in follow-up of postoperative node-positive breast cancer patients may improve their survival because of early detection of isolated regional lymph node recurrences which are still potentially curable, and screening of other asymptomatic cancers. PMID:21590272