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Sample records for 1-3-c-ethynyl-beta-d-ribo-pentofuranosylcytosine ecyd elicits

  1. Ludic Elicitation: Using Games for Knowledge Elicitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge elicitation from human beings is important for many fields, such as decision support systems, risk communication, and customer preference studying. Traditional approaches include observations, questionnaires, structured and semi-structured interviews, and group discussions. Many publications have been studying different techniques for a…

  2. Issues in Requirements Elicitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    systems approach: characterized by Checkland’s Soft Systems Methodology (SSM), which is discussed briefly in Appendix A.6; emphasizes the subjectivity of...methodology for requirements elicitation. A.6 Notes on SSM Both the definition of methodology and the philosophy behind soft systems methodology (SSM...1986. [Checkland 89a] Checkland, Peter. Soft Systems Methodology . Rational Analysis for a Problematic World. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 71-100

  3. A Knowledge Elicitation Study of Military Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    66027-0347 Ba. NAME OF FUNDING/SPONSORING 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORPANIZATION U.S. Army Research (If...Method (CDM) has been developed as a knowledge elicitation tool for probing proficient decision making. This report describes the use of CDM during...knowledge elicitation can be used in Army Command and Control (Ce) exercises as a means of understanding decision-making dynamics. Such a tool could

  4. Stereoscopy Amplifies Emotions Elicited by Facial Expressions.

    PubMed

    Hakala, Jussi; Kätsyri, Jari; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2015-12-01

    Mediated facial expressions do not elicit emotions as strongly as real-life facial expressions, possibly due to the low fidelity of pictorial presentations in typical mediation technologies. In the present study, we investigated the extent to which stereoscopy amplifies emotions elicited by images of neutral, angry, and happy facial expressions. The emotional self-reports of positive and negative valence (which were evaluated separately) and arousal of 40 participants were recorded. The magnitude of perceived depth in the stereoscopic images was manipulated by varying the camera base at 15, 40, 65, 90, and 115 mm. The analyses controlled for participants' gender, gender match, emotional empathy, and trait alexithymia. The results indicated that stereoscopy significantly amplified the negative valence and arousal elicited by angry expressions at the most natural (65 mm) camera base, whereas stereoscopy amplified the positive valence elicited by happy expressions in both the narrowed and most natural (15-65 mm) base conditions. Overall, the results indicate that stereoscopy amplifies the emotions elicited by mediated emotional facial expressions when the depth geometry is close to natural. The findings highlight the sensitivity of the visual system to depth and its effect on emotions.

  5. Stereoscopy Amplifies Emotions Elicited by Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Kätsyri, Jari; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Mediated facial expressions do not elicit emotions as strongly as real-life facial expressions, possibly due to the low fidelity of pictorial presentations in typical mediation technologies. In the present study, we investigated the extent to which stereoscopy amplifies emotions elicited by images of neutral, angry, and happy facial expressions. The emotional self-reports of positive and negative valence (which were evaluated separately) and arousal of 40 participants were recorded. The magnitude of perceived depth in the stereoscopic images was manipulated by varying the camera base at 15, 40, 65, 90, and 115 mm. The analyses controlled for participants’ gender, gender match, emotional empathy, and trait alexithymia. The results indicated that stereoscopy significantly amplified the negative valence and arousal elicited by angry expressions at the most natural (65 mm) camera base, whereas stereoscopy amplified the positive valence elicited by happy expressions in both the narrowed and most natural (15–65 mm) base conditions. Overall, the results indicate that stereoscopy amplifies the emotions elicited by mediated emotional facial expressions when the depth geometry is close to natural. The findings highlight the sensitivity of the visual system to depth and its effect on emotions. PMID:27551358

  6. Rational elicitation of cold-sensitive phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Baliga, Chetana; Majhi, Sandipan; Mondal, Kajari; Bhattacharjee, Antara; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2016-01-01

    Cold-sensitive phenotypes have helped us understand macromolecular assembly and biological phenomena, yet few attempts have been made to understand the basis of cold sensitivity or to elicit it by design. We report a method for rational design of cold-sensitive phenotypes. The method involves generation of partial loss-of-function mutants, at either buried or functional sites, coupled with selective overexpression strategies. The only essential input is amino acid sequence, although available structural information can be used as well. The method has been used to elicit cold-sensitive mutants of a variety of proteins, both monomeric and dimeric, and in multiple organisms, namely Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Drosophila melanogaster. This simple, yet effective technique of inducing cold sensitivity eliminates the need for complex mutations and provides a plausible molecular mechanism for eliciting cold-sensitive phenotypes. PMID:27091994

  7. Methods of Eliciting Information from Experts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    Itzhak Perlman) or a concertmeister in an orchestra, or simply one of its violinists . Differences in amount of expertise may supply different...would lead to becoming a world class violinist . Underlying Assumptions In attempting to elicit information from experts, one makes a number of

  8. Realistic Real World Contexts: Model Eliciting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doruk, Bekir Kürsat

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have proposed a variety of methods to make a connection between real life and mathematics so that it can be learned in a practical way and enable people to utilise mathematics in their daily lives. Model-eliciting activities (MEAs) were developed to fulfil this need and are very capable of serving this purpose. The reason MEAs are so…

  9. Eliciting User Requirements Using Appreciative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Carol Kernitzki

    2010-01-01

    Many software development projects fail because they do not meet the needs of users, are over-budget, and abandoned. To address this problem, the user requirements elicitation process was modified based on principles of Appreciative Inquiry. Appreciative Inquiry, commonly used in organizational development, aims to build organizations, processes,…

  10. Video Elicitation of the Semiotic Self.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockall, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the power of video recording to elicit the thinking of teachers as they reflect on their teaching practices. Draws on the work of Wiley (1994), which identified the internal conversation as a critical feature of the semiotic self. (Author/VWL)

  11. Learning from Expert Elicitation in Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    Since the early 1990's the author has been involved in the design and execution of six detailed expert elicitations that, among other things, have obtained subjective judgments from experts that reflect their best judgment in the form of subjective probability density functions, about the value of key climate variables, climate impacts and a technology for mitigation (Morgan and Keith, 1995; Morgan Pitelka and Shevliakova, 2001; Morgan, Adams and Keith, 2006; Zickfeld et al, 2007; Curtright, Morgan and Keith, 2008; Zickfeld, Morgan Keith and Frame, in review). This paper builds on that experience to draw insights about the design and use of expert elicitation in the assessment and analysis of climate change and its impacts. Several trends in responses will be noted. Methodological pitfalls will be discussed. Comparisons will be drawn with the consensus-based methods employed by IPCC, which appear to have produced tighter uncertainty bounds than individual elicitation. The paper will close with thoughts on the possible use of expert elicitation in future IPCC assessments. Support for this work is from the Climate Decision Making Center through a cooperative agreement between the National Science Foundation (SES-0345798) and Carnegie Mellon University. References: M. Granger Morgan and David Keith, "Subjective Judgments by Climate Experts," Environmental Science & Technology, 29(10), 468A-476A, October 1995. M. Granger Morgan, Louis F. Pitelka and Elena Shevliakova, "Elicitation of Expert Judgments of Climate Change Impacts on Forest Ecosystems," Climatic Change, 49, 279-307, 2001. M. Granger Morgan, Peter Adams, and David W. Keith, "Elicitation of Expert Judgments of Aerosol Forcing," Climatic Change, 75, 195-214, 2006. Kirsten Zickfeld, Anders Levermann, Till Kuhlbrodt. Stefan Rahmstorf, M. Granger Morgan and David Keith, "Expert Judgements on the Response on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation to Climate Change," Climatic Change, 82, 235-265, 2007

  12. Elicitation of secondary metabolism in actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Grkovic, Tanja; Balasubramanian, Srikkanth; Kamel, Mohamed Salah; Quinn, Ronald J; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-11-01

    Genomic sequence data have revealed the presence of a large fraction of putatively silent biosynthetic gene clusters in the genomes of actinomycetes that encode for secondary metabolites, which are not detected under standard fermentation conditions. This review focuses on the effects of biological (co-cultivation), chemical, as well as molecular elicitation on secondary metabolism in actinomycetes. Our review covers the literature until June 2014 and exemplifies the diversity of natural products that have been recovered by such approaches from the phylum Actinobacteria.

  13. Essays on probability elicitation scoring rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmino, Paulo Renato A.; dos Santos Neto, Ademir B.

    2012-10-01

    In probability elicitation exercises it has been usual to considerer scoring rules (SRs) to measure the performance of experts when inferring about a given unknown, Θ, for which the true value, θ*, is (or will shortly be) known to the experimenter. Mathematically, SRs quantify the discrepancy between f(θ) (the distribution reflecting the expert's uncertainty about Θ) and d(θ), a zero-one indicator function of the observation θ*. Thus, a remarkable characteristic of SRs is to contrast expert's beliefs with the observation θ*. The present work aims at extending SRs concepts and formulas for the cases where Θ is aleatory, highlighting advantages of goodness-of-fit and entropy-like measures. Conceptually, it is argued that besides of evaluating the personal performance of the expert, SRs may also play a role when comparing the elicitation processes adopted to obtain f(θ). Mathematically, it is proposed to replace d(θ) by g(θ), the distribution that model the randomness of Θ, and do also considerer goodness-of-fit and entropylike metrics, leading to SRs that measure the adherence of f(θ) to g(θ). The implications of this alternative perspective are discussed and illustrated by means of case studies based on the simulation of controlled experiments. The usefulness of the proposed approach for evaluating the performance of experts and elicitation processes is investigated.

  14. Antagonist-Elicited Cannabis Withdrawal in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Gorelick, David A.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M.; Darwin, William D.; Kelly, Deanna L.; McMahon, Robert P.; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40–120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0–8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses. PMID:21869692

  15. Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Coppersmith, K. J.

    1997-05-30

    This report presents results of the Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation (UZFMEE) project at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The objective of this project was to identify and assess the uncertainties associated with certain key components of the unsaturated zone flow system at Yucca Mountain. This assessment reviewed the data inputs, modeling approaches, and results of the unsaturated zone flow model (termed the ''UZ site-scale model'') being developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the US Geological Survey (USGS). In addition to data input and modeling issues, the assessment focused on percolation flux (volumetric flow rate per unit cross-sectional area) at the potential repository horizon. An understanding of unsaturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the unsaturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent physical controls on unsaturated zone flow and the parameter values used in the models. To ensure that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and uncertainties about key issues regarding the unsaturated zone at the Yucca Mountain site.

  16. Antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal in humans.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2011-10-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40-120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0-8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses.

  17. Eliciting promises from children reduces cheating.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Gail D; Fu, Genyue; Lin, Jianyan; Qian, Miao K; Lee, Kang

    2015-11-01

    Widespread cheating can undermine rules that are necessary for maintaining social order. Preventing cheating can be a challenge, especially with regard to children, who as a result of their limited executive function skills may have particular difficulty with resisting temptation to cheat. We examined one approach designed to help children resist this temptation: eliciting a verbal commitment to not cheat. We tested 4- to 7-year-olds (total N = 330) and found that starting at 5 years of age, a verbal commitment to not cheat led to a substantial reduction in cheating. The results suggest that verbal commitments can be used to help children overcome temptations and comply with rules.

  18. Multiple faces elicit augmented neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Puce, Aina; McNeely, Marie E.; Berrebi, Michael E.; Thompson, James C.; Hardee, Jillian; Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie

    2013-01-01

    How do our brains respond when we are being watched by a group of people?Despite the large volume of literature devoted to face processing, this question has received very little attention. Here we measured the effects on the face-sensitive N170 and other ERPs to viewing displays of one, two and three faces in two experiments. In Experiment 1, overall image brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, whereas in Experiment 2 local contrast and brightness of individual faces were not manipulated. A robust positive-negative-positive (P100-N170-P250) ERP complex and an additional late positive ERP, the P400, were elicited to all stimulus types. As the number of faces in the display increased, N170 amplitude increased for both stimulus sets, and latency increased in Experiment 2. P100 latency and P250 amplitude were affected by changes in overall brightness and contrast, but not by the number of faces in the display per se. In Experiment 1 when overall brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, later ERP (P250 and P400) latencies showed differences as a function of hemisphere. Hence, our data indicate that N170 increases its magnitude when multiple faces are seen, apparently impervious to basic low-level stimulus features including stimulus size. Outstanding questions remain regarding category-sensitive neural activity that is elicited to viewing multiple items of stimulus categories other than faces. PMID:23785327

  19. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy.

  20. Assessing pragmatic skills in elicited production.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Peter

    2004-02-01

    In developing a test of pragmatic skills for children ages 4 to 9 years, we focused on a number of functional language skills that are important for children's success in early schooling and for the development of fluent reading and writing. They included (1) wh-question asking, (2) communicative role taking, (3) linking events in a cohesive narrative, and (4) articulating the mental states of the characters in a story. All of the proposed items provide specific referential support and pragmatic motivation for the forms and content to be produced by the child. The pictured materials and elicitation prompts constrain the range of appropriate utterances, so the children's productions are more easily scored than an open-ended spontaneous speech sample. All tasks described show a clear developmental trend, a clear separation between the performance of typically developing and language-impaired children, and no performance differences between African American English- and Mainstream American English-speaking children.

  1. Expert elicitation of population-level effects of disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleishman, Erica; Burgman, Mark; Runge, Michael C.; Schick, Robert S; Krauss, Scott; Popper, Arthur N.; Hawkins, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Expert elicitation is a rigorous method for synthesizing expert knowledge to inform decision making and is reliable and practical when field data are limited. We evaluated the feasibility of applying expert elicitation to estimate population-level effects of disturbance on marine mammals. Diverse experts estimated parameters related to mortality and sublethal injury of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). We are now eliciting expert knowledge on the movement of right whales among geographic regions to parameterize a spatial model of health. Expert elicitation complements methods such as simulation models or extrapolations from other species, sometimes with greater accuracy and less uncertainty.

  2. Expert Elicitation of Population-Level Effects of Disturbance.

    PubMed

    Fleishman, Erica; Burgman, Mark; Runge, Michael C; Schick, Robert S; Kraus, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Expert elicitation is a rigorous method for synthesizing expert knowledge to inform decision making and is reliable and practical when field data are limited. We evaluated the feasibility of applying expert elicitation to estimate population-level effects of disturbance on marine mammals. Diverse experts estimated parameters related to mortality and sublethal injury of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). We are now eliciting expert knowledge on the movement of right whales among geographic regions to parameterize a spatial model of health. Expert elicitation complements methods such as simulation models or extrapolations from other species, sometimes with greater accuracy and less uncertainty.

  3. Eliciting and using expert knowledge in metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hagan, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    The expression of uncertainty has hitherto been seen as an add-on—first an estimate is obtained and then uncertainty in that estimate is evaluated. We argue that quantification of uncertainty should be an intrinsic part of measurement and that the measurement result should be a probability distribution for the measurand. Full quantification of uncertainties in measurement, recognizing and quantifying all sources of uncertainty, is rarely simple. Many potential sources of uncertainty can effectively only be quantified by the application of expert judgement. Scepticism about the validity or reliability of expert judgement has meant that these sources of uncertainty have often been overlooked, ignored or treated in a qualitative, narrative way. But the consequence of this is that reported expressions of uncertainty regularly understate the true degree of uncertainty in measurements. This article first discusses the concept of quantifying uncertainty in measurement, and then considers some of the areas where expert judgement is needed in order to quantify fully the uncertainties in measurement. The remainder of the article is devoted to describing methodology for eliciting expert knowledge.

  4. Basic emotions elicited by odors and pictures.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Olgun, Selda; Joraschky, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The sense of olfaction is often reported to have a special relationship with emotional processing. Memories triggered by olfactory cues often have a very emotional load. On the other hand, basic negative or positive emotional states should be sufficient to cover the most significant functions of the olfactory system including ingestion, hazard avoidance, and social communication. Thus, we investigated whether different basic emotions can be evoked in healthy people through the sense of olfaction. We asked 119 participants which odor evokes one of the six basic emotions (happiness, disgust, anger, anxiety, sadness, and surprise); another 97 participants were asked about pictures evoking those emotions. The results showed that almost every participant could name an olfactory elicitor for happiness or disgust. Olfactory elicitors of anxiety were reported less frequently, but they were still reported by three-quarters of the participants. However, for sadness and anger only about half of the participants reported an olfactory elicitor, whereas significantly more named a visual cue. Olfactory emotion elicitors were mainly related to the classes of culture, plants, and food, and visual emotion elicitors were largely related to humans. This data supports the hypothesis that in the vast majority of people, few differentiated emotions can be elicited through the olfactory channel. These emotions are happiness, disgust, and anxiety.

  5. Acting green elicits a literal warm glow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Environmental policies are often based on the assumption that people only act environmentally friendly if some extrinsic reward is implicated, usually money. We argue that people might also be motivated by intrinsic rewards: doing the right thing (such as acting environmentally friendly) elicits psychological rewards in the form of positive feelings, a phenomenon known as warm glow. Given the fact that people's psychological state may affect their thermal state, we expected that this warm glow could express itself quite literally: people who act environmentally friendly may perceive the temperature to be higher. In two studies, we found that people who learned they acted environmentally friendly perceived a higher temperature than people who learned they acted environmentally unfriendly. The underlying psychological mechanism pertains to the self-concept: learning you acted environmentally friendly signals to yourself that you are a good person. Together, our studies show that acting environmentally friendly can be psychologically rewarding, suggesting that appealing to intrinsic rewards can be an alternative way to encourage pro-environmental actions.

  6. Octave illusion elicited by overlapping narrowband noises.

    PubMed

    Jonas Brännström, K; Nilsson, Patrik

    2011-05-01

    The octave or Deutsch illusion occurs when two tones, separated by about one octave, are presented simultaneously but alternating between ears, such that when the low tone is presented to the left ear the high tone is presented to the right ear and vice versa. Most subjects hear a single tone that alternates both between ears and in pitch; i.e., they hear a low pitched tone in one ear alternating with a high pitched tone in the other ear. The present study examined whether the illusion can be elicited by aperiodic signals consisting of low-frequency band-pass filtered noises with overlapping spectra. The amount of spectral overlap was held constant, but the high- and low-frequency content of the signals was systematically varied. The majority of subjects perceived an auditory illusion in terms of a dominant ear for pitch and lateralization by frequency, as proposed by Deutsch [(1975a) Sci. Am. 233, 92-104]. Furthermore, the salience of the illusion increased as the high frequency of the content in the signal increased. Since no harmonics were present in the stimuli, it is highly unlikely that this illusion is perceived on the basis of binaural diplacusis or harmonic binaural fusion.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INSTRUMENT FOR ELICITING AND EVALUATING VOCATIONAL IMAGERY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MATHEWSON, ROBERT H.; ORTON, JOHN W.

    THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO (1) PRODUCE AN INSTRUMENT FOR ELICITING VOCATIONAL IMAGERY FOR USE IN THE EDUCATIONAL-VOCATIONAL ORIENTATION AND COUNSELING OF HIGH SCHOOL YOUTH, AND (2) DEVELOP A SCALE FOR EVALUATING THE MATURITY OF THE VOCATIONAL IMAGERY ELICITED BY THE INSTRUMENT. A PREVIOUSLY DESIGNED INSTRUMENT "WHAT I THINK OF MYSELF"…

  8. Freeze or Flee? Negative Stimuli Elicit Selective Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Zachary; Verges, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Humans preferentially attend to negative stimuli. A consequence of this automatic vigilance for negative valence is that negative words elicit slower responses than neutral or positive words on a host of cognitive tasks. Some researchers have speculated that negative stimuli elicit a general suppression of motor activity, akin to the freezing…

  9. Eliciting Spontaneous Speech in Bilingual Students: Methods & Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornejo, Ricardo J.; And Others

    Intended to provide practical information pertaining to methods and techniques for speech elicitation and production, the monograph offers specific methods and techniques to elicit spontaneous speech in bilingual students. Chapter 1, "Traditional Methodologies for Language Production and Recording," presents an overview of studies using…

  10. Introducing Forum Theatre to Elicit and Advocate Children's Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Eliciting and advocating the voice of the child remains at the heart of international political agenda and also remains a central role for educational psychologists (EPs). Previous research indicates that EPs tend to use language-based methods for eliciting and advocating views of children. However, these approaches are often limited. Taking a…

  11. Pedagogical use of ELICIT for Leadership Training: Survey and Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    classroom training as part of leadership development programs. ELICIT is particularly helpful in teaching the strengths and weakness of various...organizational structures (edge organization vs. traditional command and control hierarchy.) This paper reviews some of the pedagogical uses of the classroom ...training to date, and provides recommendations for the use of ELICIT in various classroom settings. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  12. Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and…

  13. Picturing Masculinities: Using Photo-elicitation in Men's Health Research.

    PubMed

    Creighton, Genevieve M; Brussoni, Mariana; Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina

    2015-10-18

    This article explores the use of photo-elicitation methods in two men's health studies. Discussed are the ways that photo-elicitation can facilitate conversation about health issues that might be otherwise challenging to access. In the first study, researchers explored 35 young men's experiences of grief following the accidental death of a male peer. In the second study, researchers describe 64 fathers' perceptions about their roles and identity with respect to child safety and risk. Photographs and accompanying narratives were analyzed and results were theorized using a masculinities framework. Discussed are the benefits of photo-elicitation, which include facilitating conversation about emotions, garnering insight into the structures and identities of masculinity in the context of men's health. Considered also are some methodological challenges amid recommendations for ensuring reflexive practices. Based on the findings it is concluded that photo-elicitation can innovatively advance qualitative research in men's health.

  14. CCSI Risk Estimation: An Application of Expert Elicitation

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.

    2012-10-01

    The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a multi-laboratory simulation-driven effort to develop carbon capture technologies with the goal of accelerating commercialization and adoption in the near future. One of the key CCSI technical challenges is representing and quantifying the inherent uncertainty and risks associated with developing, testing, and deploying the technology in simulated and real operational settings. To address this challenge, the CCSI Element 7 team developed a holistic risk analysis and decision-making framework. The purpose of this report is to document the CCSI Element 7 structured systematic expert elicitation to identify additional risk factors. We review the significance of and established approaches to expert elicitation, describe the CCSI risk elicitation plan and implementation strategies, and conclude by discussing the next steps and highlighting the contribution of risk elicitation toward the achievement of the overarching CCSI objectives.

  15. Subjective Probability Distribution Elicitation in Cost Risk Analysis: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    where reasonable, to counteract known biases in elicitation). 1 For the triangle distribution, the probability is set to zero outside the endpoints...probability is set to zero outside the endpoints, while between the endpoints the density rises linearly from the lower value to the most-likely values...Wheeler, T. A., S. C. Hora , W. R. Cramond, and S. D. Unwin, Analysis of Core Damage Frequency from Internal Events: Expert Judgment Elicitation

  16. Knowledge Elicitation: Phase 1 Final Report. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    artificial intelligence has been focused on methods for eliciting and representing expert knowledge (e.g., Newell and Simon, 1972; Schank and Abelson...methods. These issues have not yet been dealt with in a satisfactory way, either in the artificial intelligence community or by cognitive psychologists...ELICITATION 2.1 The Myth of "Mining for Nugets" of Knowledge The central question in the field of artificial intelligence, whether computers can be

  17. Elicitability of muscle cramps in different leg and foot muscles.

    PubMed

    Minetto, Marco Alessandro; Botter, Alberto

    2009-10-01

    To explore the efficacy of muscle motor point stimulation in eliciting muscle cramps, 11 subjects underwent eight sessions of electrical stimulation of the following muscles bilaterally: abductor hallucis flexor hallucis brevis, and both heads of the gastrocnemius muscles. Bursts of 150 square wave stimuli (duration: 152 micros; current intensity: 30% supramaximal) were applied. The stimulation frequency was increased from 4 pulses per second (pps) at increments of 2 pps until a cramp was induced. The number of cramps that could be elicited was smaller in flexor hallucis brevis than in abductor hallucis (16 vs. 22 out of 22 trials each; P < 0.05) and in the lateral gastrocnemius than in the medial gastrocnemius (5 vs. 20 out of 22 trials each; P < 0.0001). We show that leg and foot muscles have different cramp susceptibility, and the intermuscle variability in the elicitability profile for electrically induced cramps supports the use of the proposed method for cramp research.

  18. Biologically inspired robots elicit a robust fear response in zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladu, Fabrizio; Bartolini, Tiziana; Panitz, Sarah G.; Butail, Sachit; Macrı, Simone; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the behavioral response of zebrafish to three fear-evoking stimuli. In a binary choice test, zebrafish are exposed to a live allopatric predator, a biologically-inspired robot, and a computer-animated image of the live predator. A target tracking algorithm is developed to score zebrafish behavior. Unlike computer-animated images, the robotic and live predator elicit a robust avoidance response. Importantly, the robotic stimulus elicits more consistent inter-individual responses than the live predator. Results from this effort are expected to aid in hypothesis-driven studies on zebrafish fear response, by offering a valuable approach to maximize data-throughput and minimize animal subjects.

  19. Modification of commercially available simulators to elicit decision making behavior.

    PubMed

    Salud, Jonathan; Ononye, Chiagozie; Salud, Lawrence; Pugh, Carla

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, simulation training has emerged as an innovative method for decreasing error and teaching complex procedures. Simulation has also been a valuable tool for evaluating investigatory and analytic thinking. By adding a specific, clinically oriented modification to a commercially available simulator, we were able to elicit first-year emergency medicine resident perceptions, actions, and decisions.

  20. Elicited Production of Relative Clauses in Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zukowski, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Relative clauses have been implicated alternately as a strength and a weakness in the language of people with Williams Syndrome (WS). To clarify the facts, an elicited production test was administered to 10 people with WS (age 10-16 years), 10 typically developing children (age 4-7 years), and 12 typically developing adults. Nearly every WS…

  1. Intermediary's Information Seeking, Inquiring Minds, and Elicitation Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Mei-Mei; Liu, Ying-Hsang

    2003-01-01

    Explores how intermediaries seek information from patrons by analyzing intermediaries' elicitation utterances through three dimensions: linguistic forms, utterance purposes, and communicative functions. Reports on results of questionnaires given to patrons and intermediaries in academic and research libraries in Taiwan and investigates…

  2. A Study of the Affective Responses Elicited by Occupational Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoon, Craig G.

    1976-01-01

    The semantic differential was used to assess the properties of affect elicited by occupational stimuli. Vocationally committed men studying medicine, business, and engineering responded to a semantic differential containing occupational concepts. Results show a semantic space for all three groups composed of three orthogonal dimensions of affect…

  3. Eliciting Student Views Using an Interview-About-Instances Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, John K.; And Others

    An exposition is made of a method to elicit students' comprehension of the meaning of words commonly used in science, which may be influential in determining what they learn. The method's aim is to elucidate features in students' understanding of childrens' science (that found before formal teaching of science), student science (that found after…

  4. Transfer of Aversive Respondent Elicitation in Accordance with Equivalence Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valverde, Miguel Rodriguez; Luciano, Carmen; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the transfer of aversively conditioned respondent elicitation through equivalence classes, using skin conductance as the measure of conditioning. The first experiment is an attempt to replicate Experiment 1 in Dougher, Augustson, Markham, Greenway, and Wulfert (1994), with different temporal parameters in the…

  5. The Role of Elicited Verbal Imitation in Toddlers' Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Rosemary; Munro, Natalie; Baker, Elise; McGregor, Karla; Docking, Kimberley; Arciuli, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    This study is about the role of elicited verbal imitation in toddler word learning. Forty-eight toddlers were taught eight nonwords linked to referents. During training, they were asked to imitate the nonwords. Naming of the referents was tested at three intervals (one minute later [uncued], five minutes, and 1-7 days later [cued]) and recognition…

  6. Photo-Elicitation: Reflexivity on Method, Analysis, and Graphic Portraits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Veronica M.; Lahman, Maria K. E.

    2015-01-01

    In this methodological discussion, the authors detail and reflect on the processes of using photo-elicitation interviewing as a way to align with positive qualitative methodologies, to gain access to participant beliefs and values, and to highlight participant voices through their choices of words and visuals. A review of the literature and an…

  7. Engaging Young Children in Research through Photo Elicitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Embracing the new sociology of childhood, this paper describes a participatory research method built on a belief in the competency of young children. The paper begins with a critical review of the photo elicitation literature exploring the varied levels of children's participation. Drawing on the strengths of the previous research, a multi-step…

  8. Using Automatic Speech Recognition Technology with Elicited Oral Response Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Troy L.; Davies, Randall S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the use of automatic speech recognition (ASR) scored elicited oral response (EOR) tests to assess the speaking ability of English language learners. It also examined the relationship between ASR-scored EOR and other language proficiency measures and the ability of the ASR to rate speakers without bias to gender or native…

  9. Web-Based Elicitation Tasks in SLA Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoun, Dalila

    2000-01-01

    Studied second language acquisition (SLA) designed with Web-based elicitation tasks to obtain greater internal and external validity. Tested the acquisition of the properties subsumed under the verb movement parameter and the null subject parameter by English native speakers enrolled in college French. (Author/VWL)

  10. Eliciting Students' Beliefs about Who Is Good at Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morge, Shelby P.

    2007-01-01

    This article highlights a series of activities designed to elicit students' mathematics-related beliefs, particularly those related to gender. As a result of the activities, females in upper-level classes rated themselves as having less confidence than males, and viewing a movie clip was sufficient for some students to modify their descriptions of…

  11. Elicitation Support Requirements of Multi-Expertise Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Martens, Rob; Jochems, Wim

    2005-01-01

    Tools to support knowledge elicitation are used more and more in situations where employees or students collaborate using the computer. Studies indicate that differences exist between experts and novices regarding their methods of work and reasoning. However, the commonly preferred approach tends to deal with team members as a single system with…

  12. Preparing Beginning Teachers to Elicit and Interpret Students' Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleep, Laurie; Boerst, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how teacher education assignments can be designed to support beginning teachers in learning to do the work of teaching. We examined beginners' formative assessment practices--in particular, their eliciting and interpreting of students' mathematical thinking--in the context of an elementary mathematics methods assignment,…

  13. Creating a Framework: Art Therapy Elicits the Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harber, Karen

    2011-01-01

    A case study illustrates how art therapy was used to elicit the narrative of an adolescent male student in transition from incarceration to a transfer school setting. Childhood trauma was addressed in individual sessions and within a literacy group co-led by a reading specialist. The art therapist responded to the client's needs by broadening the…

  14. Eliciting Design Patterns for E-Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retalis, Symeon; Georgiakakis, Petros; Dimitriadis, Yannis

    2006-01-01

    Design pattern creation, especially in the e-learning domain, is a highly complex process that has not been sufficiently studied and formalized. In this paper, we propose a systematic pattern development cycle, whose most important aspects focus on reverse engineering of existing systems in order to elicit features that are cross-validated through…

  15. Clinicians as Communication Partners: Developing a Mediated Discourse Elicitation Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hengst, Julie A.; Duff, Melissa C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development and piloting of a mediated discourse elicitation protocol. Grounded in situated theories of communication and informed by mediated discourse analysis, this protocol selectively samples familiar discourse types in a manner designed to preserve interactional aspects of communication. Critically, the mediated…

  16. Eliciting Production of L2 Target Structures through Priming Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Kim; Trofimovich, Pavel; Neumann, Heike

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the pedagogical applications of structural priming research in an English for academic purposes (EAP) context, investigating whether priming activities are an effective tool for eliciting production of target grammatical structures. University students across four EAP classes carried out a total of 6 information-exchange…

  17. Visual emotional context modulates brain potentials elicited by unattended tones.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Sayaka; Nittono, Hiroshi; Hori, Tadao

    2007-10-01

    To examine whether brain electrical responses to environmental stimuli were influenced by emotional contexts, event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by nonstartle probe tones were recorded from 13 student volunteers while they were viewing emotionally positive, neutral, and negative slides of the International Affective Picture System. The auditory stimuli consisted of high-deviant (2000 Hz, p=.08), low-deviant (1050 Hz, p=.08), and standard (1000 Hz, p=.84) tones with a mean onset-to-onset interval of 600 ms. Participants were told to ignore the tones. High-deviant tones elicited a larger N1 (peaking around 100 ms) when participants were viewing negative slides than when viewing positive slides. The amplitude of the P2 elicited by standard tones (peaking around 170 ms) was smaller when participants were viewing positive slides than when viewing negative and neutral slides. The amplitude of the mismatch negativity (150-200 ms) tended to reduce during positive slide presentation, but this difference appeared to be due to reduction of the P2 elicited by standard tones. These findings suggest that visually induced emotional states have a sequential effect on auditory information processing, in that the influence of negative emotion appears at an earlier stage than that of positive emotion.

  18. Photo-Elicitation Method Gives Voice and Reactions of Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. Zoe; Woodward, Anne-Marie

    1999-01-01

    Describes a research assignment (called "photo-elicitation") in a graduate course on the role of photography in society in which students interview people similar to the subjects in the photographs to discover how the photographs affect them. Includes material from one research project interviewing three recovering drug addicts responding to Larry…

  19. Computational Support for Early Elicitation and Classification of Tone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Steven; Lee, Haejoong

    2014-01-01

    Investigating a tone language involves careful transcription of tone on words and phrases. This is challenging when the phonological categories--the tones or melodies--have not been identified. Effects such as coarticulation, sandhi, and phrase-level prosody appear as obstacles to early elicitation and classification of tone. This article presents…

  20. A Task that Elicits Reasoning: A Dual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankelewitz, Dina; Mueller, Mary; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the forms of reasoning elicited as fourth grade students in a suburban district and sixth grade students in an urban district worked on similar tasks involving reasoning with the use of Cuisenaire rods. Analysis of the two data sets shows similarities in the reasoning used by both groups of students on specific tasks, and the…

  1. Nonlinear Analyses of Elicited Modal, Raised, and Pressed Rabbit Phonation

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Novaleski, Carolyn K.; Rousseau, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The purpose of this study was to use nonlinear dynamic analysis methods such as phase space portraits and correlation dimension (D2) as well as descriptive spectrographic analyses to characterize acoustic signals produced during evoked rabbit phonation. Methods Seventeen New Zealand white breeder rabbits were used to perform the study. A Grass S-88 stimulator (SA Instrumentation, Encinitas, CA) and constant current isolation unit (Grass Telefactor, model PSIU6; West Warwick, RI) were used to provide electrical stimulation to laryngeal musculature, and transglottal airflow rate and stimulation current (mA) were manipulated to elicit modal, raised intensity, and pressed phonations. Central 1 second portions of the most stable portion of the acoustic waveform for modal, raised intensity, and pressed phonations were edited, and then analyzed via phase space portraits, Poincaré sections, and the estimation of the correlation dimension (D2). In an attempt to limit the effects of the highly variable and nonstationary characteristics of some of the signals being analyzed, D2 analysis was also performed on the most stable central 200 ms portion of the acoustic waveform. Descriptive analysis of each phonation was also conducted using sound spectrograms. Results Results showed that the complexity of phonation and the subsequent acoustic waveform is increased as transglottal airflow rate and degree of glottal adduction is manipulated in the evoked rabbit phonation model. In particular, phonatory complexity, as quantified via correlation dimension analyses and demonstrated via spectrographic characteristics, increases from “modal” (i.e., phonation elicited at just above the phonation threshold pressure) to raised intensity (phonation elicited by increasing transglottal airflow rate) to pressed (phonation elicited by increasing the stimulation current delivered to the larynx). Variations in a single dynamic dimension (airflow rate or adductory force

  2. Elicitation of specific syntactic structures in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Deleon, Jessica; Gesierich, Benno; Besbris, Max; Ogar, Jennifer; Henry, Maya L; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Wilson, Stephen M

    2012-12-01

    Many patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) are impaired in syntactic production. Because most previous studies of expressive syntax in PPA have relied on quantitative analysis of connected speech samples, which is a relatively unconstrained task, it is not well understood which specific syntactic structures are most challenging for these patients. We used an elicited syntactic production task to identify which syntactic structures pose difficulties for 31 patients with three variants of PPA: non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic and logopenic. Neurodegenerative and healthy age-matched participants were included as controls. As expected, non-fluent/agrammatic patients made the most syntactic errors. The structures that resulted in the most errors were constructions involving third person singular present agreement, and constructions involving embedded clauses. Deficits on this elicited production task were associated with atrophy of the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus.

  3. Expert elicitation for a national-level volcano hazard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebbington, Mark; Stirling, Mark; Cronin, Shane; Wang, Ting; Jolly, Gill

    2016-04-01

    The quantification of volcanic hazard at national level is a vital pre-requisite to placing volcanic risk on a platform that permits meaningful comparison with other hazards such as earthquakes. New Zealand has up to a dozen dangerous volcanoes, with the usual mixed degrees of knowledge concerning their temporal and spatial eruptive history. Information on the 'size' of the eruptions, be it in terms of VEI, volume or duration, is sketchy at best. These limitations and the need for a uniform approach lend themselves to a subjective hazard analysis via expert elicitation. Approximately 20 New Zealand volcanologists provided estimates for the size of the next eruption from each volcano and, conditional on this, its location, timing and duration. Opinions were likewise elicited from a control group of statisticians, seismologists and (geo)chemists, all of whom had at least heard the term 'volcano'. The opinions were combined via the Cooke classical method. We will report on the preliminary results from the exercise.

  4. Conditioned craving cues elicit an automatic approach tendency.

    PubMed

    Van Gucht, Dinska; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Van den Bergh, Omer; Beckers, Tom

    2008-10-01

    In two experiments, we used a Pavlovian differential conditioning procedure to induce craving for chocolate. As a result of repeated pairing with chocolate intake, initially neutral cues came to elicit an automatic approach tendency in a speeded stimulus-response compatibility reaction time task. This automatic approach tendency, moreover, seemed to be sensitive to manipulations of extinction and renewal in the Pavlovian conditioning procedure. These findings corroborate and extend previous reports of automatic approach tendencies elicited by substance-relevant cues in addiction, while controlling for alternative accounts for such observations. Moreover, our data lend support to and extend learning models of cue-induced craving and addiction. Finally, we argue that the procedure we present here provides an ecologically valid behavioural tool that allows studying processes involved in cue-induced craving, addiction and relapse without relying on verbal report.

  5. Simplified Expert Elicitation Procedure for Risk Assessment of Operating Events

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Julie Marble; William Galyean; Larry Blackwood; Harold Blackman

    2005-06-01

    This report describes a simplified, tractable, and usable procedure within the US Nuclear Regulator Commission (NRC) for seeking expert opinion and judgment. The NRC has increased efforts to document the reliability and risk of nuclear power plants (NPPs) through Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) models. The Significance Determination Process (SDP) and Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) programs at the NRC utilize expert judgment on the probability of failure, human error, and the operability of equipment in cases where otherwise insufficient operational data exist to make meaningful estimates. In the past, the SDP and ASP programs informally sought the opinion of experts inside and outside the NRC. This document represents a formal, documented procedure to take the place of informal expert elicitation. The procedures outlined in this report follow existing formal expert elicitation methodologies, but are streamlined as appropriate to the degree of accuracy required and the schedule for producing SDP and ASP analyses.

  6. Elicitation of Diacetylenic Compounds in Suspension Cultured Cells of Eggplant

    PubMed Central

    Imoto, Setsuko; Ohta, Yoshimoto

    1988-01-01

    Induction of stress metabolites in the suspension cultured cells of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) was examined. When autoclaved RNase A or nigeran, both of which are nonspecific phytoalexin elicitors in bean cells, were added to the cell culture of eggplant, greatly enhanced levels of three compounds were observed. One of them was cis-pentadeca-6-ene-1,3-diyne-5,15-diol, a novel diacetylenic compound. This compound has considerable fungitoxic activity. Also identified was falcarindiol, another fungitoxic diacetylenic compound previously reported as one of the phytoalexins in infected tomato fruits and leaves. Elicited compounds preferentially accumulated in the culture medium rather than in the cells and decreased to original levels during prolonged culturing. The elicitation of these compounds was closely correlated with cellular damage in terms of the decrease of growth rate and was inhibited by 10 micromolar cycloheximide. PMID:16665862

  7. Modified repetition in poems elicited from young children.

    PubMed

    Dowker, A D

    1991-10-01

    Attempts were made to elicit poems from 133 children between the ages of 2;3 and 6;11. Seventy-eight of the children produced 606 poems between them. Forty-five per cent of the poems contained the syntactic device of modified repetition: a substitution exercise where a grammatical frame is repeated and the substitution occurs in part of the grammatical frame. This was so despite the fact that modified repetition was not present in the examples that were used to elicit poems from the children. The frequency and types of modified repetition used by the children did not vary much with age. The question of whether children's use of modified repetition in their rhythmical poems has the function of helping them to practise grammatical forms, or whether it is simply one reflection of a general human tendency towards the use of pattern in language, is discussed.

  8. Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Coppersmith, Kevin J.; Perman, Roseanne C.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents results of the Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation (SZEE) project for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (referred to as the YMP) is intended to evaluate the suitability of the site for construction of a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The SZEE project is one of several that involve the elicitation of experts to characterize the knowledge and uncertainties regarding key inputs to the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The objective of the current project was to characterize the uncertainties associated with certain key issues related to the saturated zone system in the Yucca Mountain area and downgradient region. An understanding of saturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the saturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent the physical processes controlling saturated zone flow and transport, and the parameter values used in the models. So that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and

  9. A Step-Wise Approach to Elicit Triangular Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    Adapt/combine known methods to demonstrate an expert judgment elicitation process that: 1.Models expert's inputs as a triangular distribution, 2.Incorporates techniques to account for expert bias and 3.Is structured in a way to help justify expert's inputs. This paper will show one way of "extracting" expert opinion for estimating purposes. Nevertheless, as with most subjective methods, there are many ways to do this.

  10. Nicotine Elicits Convulsive Seizures by Activating Amygdalar Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Iha, Higor A.; Kunisawa, Naofumi; Shimizu, Saki; Tokudome, Kentaro; Mukai, Takahiro; Kinboshi, Masato; Ikeda, Akio; Ito, Hidefumi; Serikawa, Tadao; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of epileptic disorders; however, the mechanisms of nACh receptors in seizure generation remain unknown. Here, we performed behavioral and immunohistochemical studies in mice and rats to clarify the mechanisms underlying nicotine-induced seizures. Treatment of animals with nicotine (1–4 mg/kg, i.p.) produced motor excitement in a dose-dependent manner and elicited convulsive seizures at 3 and 4 mg/kg. The nicotine-induced seizures were abolished by a subtype non-selective nACh antagonist, mecamylamine (MEC). An α7 nACh antagonist, methyllycaconitine, also significantly inhibited nicotine-induced seizures whereas an α4β2 nACh antagonist, dihydro-β-erythroidine, affected only weakly. Topographical analysis of Fos protein expression, a biological marker of neural excitation, revealed that a convulsive dose (4 mg/kg) of nicotine region-specifically activated neurons in the piriform cortex, amygdala, medial habenula, paratenial thalamus, anterior hypothalamus and solitary nucleus among 48 brain regions examined, and this was also suppressed by MEC. In addition, electric lesioning of the amygdala, but not the piriform cortex, medial habenula and thalamus, specifically inhibited nicotine-induced seizures. Furthermore, microinjection of nicotine (100 and 300 μg/side) into the amygdala elicited convulsive seizures in a dose-related manner. The present results suggest that nicotine elicits convulsive seizures by activating amygdalar neurons mainly via α7 nACh receptors. PMID:28232801

  11. Conditioned cues for smoking elicit preparatory responses in healthy smokers

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Markus H.; Weyers, Peter; Mucha, Ronald F.; Stippekohl, Bastian; Stark, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Smoking cues are theorized to be conditioned stimuli (CSs) formed by repeated pairing with drug. Smoking paraphernalia can elicit subjective and physiological responses in smokers, indicative of positive affect and motivation to consume. Although these responses are probably the result of conditioning, direct evidence from human conditioning studies with physiological measures of motivational valence is rare. Objective The present study investigated the motivational properties of experimentally conditioned cues for smoking. Methods Thirty-nine smokers completed a differential conditioning protocol. Abstract pictures were used as CSs and single puffs on a cigarette as unconditioned stimulus (US). Skin conductance responses and facial electromyography of the zygomatic, corrugator, and orbicularis oris muscles were measured during conditioning. Results The conditioned cue for smoking (CS+) elicited stronger skin conductance responses and more activity of the zygomatic and orbicularis oris muscles than the CS−. Conclusions These results support the notion that through pairing with smoking, neutral stimuli acquire the ability to elicit preparatory physiological responses, which are assumed to play an important role in the maintenance of addiction and relapse in the natural environment. PMID:20953588

  12. Elicited versus emitted behavior: Time to abandon the distinction.

    PubMed

    Domjan, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The concept of emitted behavior was formulated as a part of the original argument for the validity of a new kind of learning called operant conditioning. The rationale for operant conditioning contrasted it with Pavlovian or classical conditioning, which was (and remains) fundamentally based on responses to conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. Classical conditioned responses were said to be elicited. In contrast, operant behavior was viewed as emitted and controlled primarily by response consequences rather than antecedents. I argue that the distinction between emitted and elicited behavior is no longer warranted for three major reasons. First, the distinction was based on a view of Pavlovian conditioning that is no longer viable. Second, the distinction is incompatible with both empirical data and contemporary conceptualizations of operant behavior. Third, the only way to overcome these problems is to define emitted and elicited in terms of the type of conditioning (operant and classical) that produces these behaviors, but that approach makes the definitions circular and does not avoid implications of the terms that are misleading and counterproductive in light of contemporary research and thinking.

  13. Elicitation of macrophages from the peritoneal cavity of channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, J.A.; Klesius, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    Four chemicals were evaluated for elicitation of macrophages in peritoneal cavities of 250-300g healthy channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Cellular exudates were collected at 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 20 d following intraperitoneal injections with squalene, Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA), goat serum, thioglycollate, or as a control, phosphate-buffered saline. Injection with either squalene or FIA induced significantly greater (P ??? 0.0001) macrophage recruitment than the other chemicals. The effectiveness of squalene and FIA was compared further by macrophage collection daily for 7 d. Squalene and FIA elicited similarly high macrophage responses (P ??? 0.0450), the highest being 3.43 x 106 macrophages/mL (SE, 2.4 x l06) at 99% purity at day 2 and 2.1 X 106 macrophages/mL (SE, 0.7 x 106) at day 14 at 80% purity, respectively. In both experiments, the time after injection was not statistically significant, nor was there an interaction between time and chemicals. The occurrence of cells other than macrophages decreased with time to yield macrophage recoveries of 47-99% for squalene and 30-80% for FIA. Two subsets of macrophages were observed by means of flow cytometry. As demonstrated by chemiluminescence, the squalene-elicited cells produced high-energy oxygen compounds important to the phagocytic process.

  14. Physiological responses induced by emotion-eliciting films.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Cristina; Pascual, Juan C; Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Portella, Maria J; Fernández-Abascal, Enrique

    2012-06-01

    Emotion-eliciting films are commonly used to evoke subjective emotional responses in experimental settings. The main aim of the present study was to investigate whether a set of film clips with discrete emotions were capable to elicit measurable objective physiological responses. The convergence between subjective and objective measures was evaluated. Finally, the effect of gender on emotional responses was investigated. A sample of 123 subjects participated in the study. Individuals were asked to view a set of emotional film clips capable to induce seven emotions: anger, fear, sadness, disgust, amusement, tenderness and neutral state. Skin conductance level (SCL), heart rate (HR) and subjective emotional responses were measured for each film clip. In comparison with neutral films, SCL was significantly increased after viewing fear films, and HR was also significantly incremented for anger and fear films. Physiological variations were associated with arousal measures indicating a convergence between subjective and objective reactions. Women appeared to display significantly greater SCL and HR responses for films inducing sadness. The findings suggest that physiological activation would be more easily induced by emotion-eliciting films that tap into emotions with higher subjective arousal such as anger and fear.

  15. Elicitation of andrographolide in the suspension cultures of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Gandi, Suryakala; Rao, Kiranmayee; Chodisetti, Bhuvaneswari; Giri, Archana

    2012-12-01

    Andrographis paniculata belonging to the family Acanthaceae produces a group of diterpene lactones, one of which is the pharmaceutically important-andrographolide. It is known to possess various important biological properties like anticancer, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, etc. This is the first report on the production of andrographolide in the cell suspension cultures of Andrographis paniculata by 'elicitation'. Elicitation was attempted to enhance the andrographolide content in the suspension cultures of Andrographis paniculata and also to ascertain its stimulation under stress conditions or in response to pathogen attack. The maximum andrographolide production was found to be 1.53 mg/g dry cell weight (DCW) at the end of stationary phase during the growth curve. The biotic elicitors (yeast, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Agrobacterium rhizogenes 532 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens C 58) were more effective in eliciting the response when compared to the abiotic elicitors (CdCl(2), AgNO(3), CuCl(2) and HgCl(2)). Yeast has shown to stimulate maximum accumulation of 13.5 mg/g DCW andrographolide, which was found to be 8.82-fold higher than the untreated cultures.

  16. Developing Socio-Cultural Scaffolding Model to Elicit Learners's Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englishtina, Inti

    2015-01-01

    This study is concerned with developing scaffolding model to elicit bilingual kindergarten children's English speech production. It is aimed at describing what the teachers need in eliciting their students' speech production; how a scaffolding model should be developed to elicit the children's speech production; and how effective is the…

  17. Research Dilemmas Associated with Photo Elicitation in Comparative Early Childhood Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkeland, Asta

    2013-01-01

    Photo elicitation has become an important method to produce data in qualitative research. There is quite an extensive literature indicating the benefits of photo elicitation in order to facilitate collaboration in meaning making between researcher and the interviewee. This article addresses dilemmas associated with using photo elicitation in a…

  18. Sample Size for Measuring Grammaticality in Preschool Children from Picture-Elicited Language Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Guo, Ling-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a shorter language sample elicited with fewer pictures (i.e., 7) would yield a percent grammatical utterances (PGU) score similar to that computed from a longer language sample elicited with 15 pictures for 3-year-old children. Method: Language samples were elicited by asking forty…

  19. Sustained Hypoxia Elicits Competing Spinal Mechanisms of Phrenic Motor Facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Devinney, Michael J.; Nichols, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) induces phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF), a form of spinal motor plasticity. Competing mechanisms give rise to phrenic motor facilitation (pMF; a general term including pLTF) depending on the severity of hypoxia within episodes. In contrast, moderate acute sustained hypoxia (mASH) does not elicit pMF. By varying the severity of ASH and targeting competing mechanisms of pMF, we sought to illustrate why moderate AIH (mAIH) elicits pMF but mASH does not. Although mAIH elicits serotonin-dependent pLTF, mASH does not; thus, mAIH-induced pLTF is pattern sensitive. In contrast, severe AIH (sAIH) elicits pLTF through adenosine-dependent mechanisms, likely from greater extracellular adenosine accumulation. Because serotonin- and adenosine-dependent pMF interact via cross talk inhibition, we hypothesized that pMF is obscured because the competing mechanisms of pMF are balanced and offsetting during mASH. Here, we demonstrate the following: (1) blocking spinal A2A receptors with MSX-3 reveals mASH-induced pMF; and (2) sASH elicits A2A-dependent pMF. In anesthetized rats pretreated with intrathecal A2A receptor antagonist injections before mASH (PaO2 = 40–54 mmHg) or sASH (PaO2 = 25–36 mmHg), (1) mASH induced a serotonin-dependent pMF and (2) sASH induced an adenosine-dependent pMF, which was enhanced by spinal serotonin receptor inhibition. Thus, competing adenosine- and serotonin-dependent mechanisms contribute differentially to pMF depending on the pattern/severity of hypoxia. Understanding interactions between these mechanisms has clinical relevance as we develop therapies to treat severe neuromuscular disorders that compromise somatic motor behaviors, including breathing. Moreover, these results demonstrate how competing mechanisms of plasticity can give rise to pattern sensitivity in pLTF. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Intermittent hypoxia elicits pattern-sensitive spinal plasticity and improves motor function after spinal injury or

  20. Nicotine elicits prolonged calcium signaling along ventral hippocampal axons.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chongbo; Talmage, David A; Role, Lorna W

    2013-01-01

    Presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have long been implicated in the modulation of CNS circuits. We previously reported that brief exposure to low concentrations of nicotine induced sustained potentiation of glutamatergic transmission at ventral hippocampal (vHipp)-striatal synapses. Here, we exploited nAChR subtype-selective antagonists and agonists and α7*nAChR knockout mutant mice (α7-/-) to elucidate the signaling mechanisms underlying nAChR-mediated modulation of synaptic transmission. Using a combination of micro-slices culture from WT and α7-/-mice, calcium imaging, and immuno-histochemical techniques, we found that nicotine elicits localized and oscillatory increases in intracellular Ca(2+) along vHipp axons that persists for up to 30 minutes. The sustained phase of the nicotine-induced Ca(2+) response was blocked by α-BgTx but not by DHβE and was mimicked by α7*nAChR agonists but not by non-α7*nAChR agonists. In vHipp slices from α7-/- mice, nicotine elicited only transient increases of axonal Ca(2+) signals and did not activate CaMKII. The sustained phase of the nicotine-induced Ca(2+) response required localized activation of CaMKII, phospholipase C, and IP3 receptor mediated Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR). In conclusion, activation of presynaptic nAChRs by nicotine elicits Ca(2+) influx into the presynaptic axons, the sustained phase of the nicotine-induced Ca(2+) response requires that axonal α7*nAChR activate a downstream signaling network in the vHipp axons.

  1. Estimating unknown parameters in haemophilia using expert judgement elicitation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, K; Lewandowski, D; Janssen, M P

    2013-09-01

    The increasing attention to healthcare costs and treatment efficiency has led to an increasing demand for quantitative data concerning patient and treatment characteristics in haemophilia. However, most of these data are difficult to obtain. The aim of this study was to use expert judgement elicitation (EJE) to estimate currently unavailable key parameters for treatment models in severe haemophilia A. Using a formal expert elicitation procedure, 19 international experts provided information on (i) natural bleeding frequency according to age and onset of bleeding, (ii) treatment of bleeds, (iii) time needed to control bleeding after starting secondary prophylaxis, (iv) dose requirements for secondary prophylaxis according to onset of bleeding, and (v) life-expectancy. For each parameter experts provided their quantitative estimates (median, P10, P90), which were combined using a graphical method. In addition, information was obtained concerning key decision parameters of haemophilia treatment. There was most agreement between experts regarding bleeding frequencies for patients treated on demand with an average onset of joint bleeding (1.7 years): median 12 joint bleeds per year (95% confidence interval 0.9-36) for patients ≤ 18, and 11 (0.8-61) for adult patients. Less agreement was observed concerning estimated effective dose for secondary prophylaxis in adults: median 2000 IU every other day The majority (63%) of experts expected that a single minor joint bleed could cause irreversible damage, and would accept up to three minor joint bleeds or one trauma related joint bleed annually on prophylaxis. Expert judgement elicitation allowed structured capturing of quantitative expert estimates. It generated novel data to be used in computer modelling, clinical care, and trial design.

  2. Electronic health records: eliciting behavioral health providers' beliefs.

    PubMed

    Shank, Nancy; Willborn, Elizabeth; Pytlikzillig, Lisa; Noel, Harmonijoie

    2012-04-01

    Interviews with 32 community behavioral health providers elicited perceived benefits and barriers of using electronic health records. Themes identified were (a) quality of care, (b) privacy and security, and (c) delivery of services. Benefits to quality of care were mentioned by 100% of the providers, and barriers by 59% of providers. Barriers involving privacy and security concerns were mentioned by 100% of providers, and benefits by 22%. Barriers to delivery of services were mentioned by 97% of providers, and benefits by 66%. Most providers (81%) expressed overall positive support for electronic behavioral health records.

  3. Understanding, eliciting and negotiating clients' multicultural health beliefs.

    PubMed

    Jackson, L E

    1993-04-01

    People of many cultures explain and treat illness in ways that are different from and that may conflict with the biomedical beliefs and practices on which the American health care system is based. Eliciting clients' health beliefs and negotiating treatment plans with them can help avoid problems caused by discrepancies in belief systems. This article presents three major categories of belief systems commonly found in the United States as well as other countries. Questions designed to discover clients' health beliefs are included, along with guidelines for arriving at plans of care that accommodate those beliefs. Case studies are provided that illustrate this process of negotiation.

  4. Simplifying Probability Elicitation and Uncertainty Modeling in Bayesian Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, Patrick R; Carroll, Thomas E; Sivaraman, Chitra; Neorr, Peter A; Unwin, Stephen D; Hossain, Shamina S

    2011-04-16

    In this paper we contribute two methods that simplify the demands of knowledge elicitation for particular types of Bayesian networks. The first method simplify the task of providing probabilities when the states that a random variable takes can be described by a new, fully ordered state set in which a state implies all the preceding states. The second method leverages Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence to provide a way for the expert to express the degree of ignorance that they feel about the estimates being provided.

  5. Interviewing strategically to elicit admissions from guilty suspects.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Serra; Granhag, Pär Anders; Strömwall, Leif; Giolla, Erik Mac; Vrij, Aldert; Hartwig, Maria

    2015-06-01

    In this article we introduce a novel interviewing tactic to elicit admissions from guilty suspects. By influencing the suspects' perception of the amount of evidence the interviewer holds against them, we aimed to shift the suspects' counterinterrogation strategies from less to more forthcoming. The proposed tactic (SUE-Confrontation) is a development of the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) framework and aims to affect the suspects' perception by confronting them with statement-evidence inconsistencies. Participants (N = 90) were asked to perform several mock criminal tasks before being interviewed using 1 of 3 interview techniques: (a) SUE-Confrontation, (b) Early Disclosure of Evidence, or (c) No Disclosure of Evidence. As predicted, the SUE-Confrontation interview generated more statement-evidence inconsistencies from suspects than the Early Disclosure interview. Importantly, suspects in the SUE-Confrontation condition (vs. Early and No disclosure conditions) admitted more self-incriminating information and also perceived the interviewer to have had more information about the critical phase of the crime (the phase where the interviewer lacked evidence). The findings show the adaptability of the SUE-technique and how it may be used as a tool for eliciting admissions.

  6. Experimental elicitation with hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde-containing deodorants.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Pia Haslund; Jensen, Charlotte Devantier; Rastogi, Suresh; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2007-03-01

    Hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC) known as Lyral is a frequent allergen. It is used in more than 50% of marketed deodorants. The aim of the present study was to determine elicitation thresholds for HICC under simulated conditions of deodorant use. 15 patients with previously diagnosed contact allergy to HICC were patch tested with 5 solutions of HICC-scented and HICC-unscented deodorants. Patients and 10 healthy controls performed a use test in the axillae using deodorants scented with HICC in increasing concentrations and unscented deodorants as control. The concentration of HICC was increased every second week (200, 600, and 1800 p.p.m.) until either a reaction developed or for 6 weeks. 14 patients completed the study, and all developed unilateral eczema from the HICC-containing deodorant, while controls were all negative (P= 0.004). In 9/14 patients, a positive use test developed during the first 2 weeks to the deodorant containing 200 p.p.m. HICC. Positive correlations were found between the day of positive use and patch test threshold concentration of the HICC solutions (r= 0.71, P= 0.01) as well as the patch test thresholds of the HICC-scented deodorants (r= 0.74, P= 0.007). In conclusion, HICC elicits allergic contact dermatitis in a high proportion of sensitized individuals at common usage concentrations in deodorants.

  7. Expert elicitation survey on future wind energy costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiser, Ryan; Jenni, Karen; Seel, Joachim; Baker, Erin; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Smith, Aaron

    2016-10-01

    Wind energy supply has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, the long-term contribution of wind to future energy supply, and the degree to which policy support is necessary to motivate higher levels of deployment, depends—in part—on the future costs of both onshore and offshore wind. Here, we summarize the results of an expert elicitation survey of 163 of the world’s foremost wind experts, aimed at better understanding future costs and technology advancement possibilities. Results suggest significant opportunities for cost reductions, but also underlying uncertainties. Under the median scenario, experts anticipate 24-30% reductions by 2030 and 35-41% reductions by 2050 across the three wind applications studied. Costs could be even lower: experts predict a 10% chance that reductions will be more than 40% by 2030 and more than 50% by 2050. Insights gained through expert elicitation complement other tools for evaluating cost-reduction potential, and help inform policy and planning, R&D and industry strategy.

  8. Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses from copepod hosts.

    PubMed

    Almada, Amalia A; Tarrant, Ann M

    2016-06-01

    Copepods are abundant crustaceans that harbor diverse bacterial communities, yet the nature of their interactions with microbiota are poorly understood. Here, we report that Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses in the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis We pre-treated E. affinis with an antibiotic cocktail and exposed them to either a zooplankton specialist (Vibrio sp. F10 9ZB36) or a free-living species (Vibrio ordalii 12B09) for 24 h. We then identified via RNA-Seq a total of 78 genes that were differentially expressed following Vibrio exposure, including homologs of C-type lectins, chitin-binding proteins and saposins. The response differed between the two Vibrio treatments, with the greatest changes elicited upon inoculation with V. sp. F10 We suggest that these differentially regulated genes play important roles in cuticle integrity, the innate immune response, and general stress response, and that their expression may enable E. affinis to recognize and regulate symbiotic vibrios. We further report that V. sp. F10 culturability is specifically altered upon colonization of E. affinis These findings suggest that rather than acting as passive environmental vectors, copepods discriminately interact with vibrios, which may ultimately impact the abundance and activity of copepod-associated bacteria.

  9. Cognitive constraints on constituent order: Evidence from elicited pantomime

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew L.; Mayberry, Rachel I.; Ferreira, Victor S.

    2014-01-01

    To what extent does human cognition influence the structure of human language? Recent experiments using elicited pantomime suggest that the prevalence of Subject-Object-Verb (SOV) order across the world's languages may arise in part because SOV order is most compatible with how we conceptually represent transitive events (Goldin-Meadow, So, Özyürek, & Mylander, 2008). However, this raises the question as to why non-SOV orders exist. Two recent studies (Meir, Lifshitz, Ilkbasaran, & Padden, 2010; Gibson et al., 2013) suggest that SOV might be suboptimal for describing events in which both the agent and patient are plausible agents (e.g. a woman pushing a boy); we call these “reversible” events. We replicate these findings using elicited pantomime and offer a new interpretation. Meir et al.'s (2010) account is framed largely in terms of constraints on comprehension, while Gibson et al.'s (2013) account involves minimizing the risk of information loss or memory degradation. We offer an alternative hypothesis that is grounded in constraints on production. We consider the implications of these findings for the distribution of constituent order in the world's spoken languages and for the structure of emerging sign languages. PMID:23792806

  10. Expert elicitation survey on future wind energy costs

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Jenni, Karen; Seel, Joachim; Baker, Erin; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Smith, Aaron

    2016-09-12

    Wind energy supply has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, the long-term contribution of wind to future energy supply, and the degree to which policy support is necessary to motivate higher levels of deployment, depends -- in part -- on the future costs of both onshore and offshore wind. Here, we summarize the results of an expert elicitation survey of 163 of the world's foremost wind experts, aimed at better understanding future costs and technology advancement possibilities. Results suggest significant opportunities for cost reductions, but also underlying uncertainties. Under the median scenario, experts anticipate 24-30% reductions by 2030 and 35-41% reductions by 2050 across the three wind applications studied. Costs could be even lower: experts predict a 10% chance that reductions will be more than 40% by 2030 and more than 50% by 2050. Insights gained through expert elicitation complement other tools for evaluating cost-reduction potential, and help inform policy and planning, R&D and industry strategy.

  11. Bee threat elicits alarm call in African elephants.

    PubMed

    King, Lucy E; Soltis, Joseph; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Savage, Anne; Vollrath, Fritz

    2010-04-26

    Unlike the smaller and more vulnerable mammals, African elephants have relatively few predators that threaten their survival. The sound of disturbed African honeybees Apis meliffera scutellata causes African elephants Loxodonta africana to retreat and produce warning vocalizations that lead other elephants to join the flight. In our first experiment, audio playbacks of bee sounds induced elephants to retreat and elicited more head-shaking and dusting, reactive behaviors that may prevent bee stings, compared to white noise control playbacks. Most importantly, elephants produced distinctive "rumble" vocalizations in response to bee sounds. These rumbles exhibited an upward shift in the second formant location, which implies active vocal tract modulation, compared to rumbles made in response to white noise playbacks. In a second experiment, audio playbacks of these rumbles produced in response to bees elicited increased headshaking, and further and faster retreat behavior in other elephants, compared to control rumble playbacks with lower second formant frequencies. These responses to the bee rumble stimuli occurred in the absence of any bees or bee sounds. This suggests that these elephant rumbles may function as referential signals, in which a formant frequency shift alerts nearby elephants about an external threat, in this case, the threat of bees.

  12. Emotion Elicitation: A Comparison of Pictures and Films

    PubMed Central

    Uhrig, Meike K.; Trautmann, Nadine; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Henrich, Florian; Hiller, Wolfgang; Marschall, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Pictures and film clips are widely used and accepted stimuli to elicit emotions. Based on theoretical arguments it is often assumed that the emotional effects of films exceed those of pictures, but to date this assumption has not been investigated directly. The aim of the present study was to compare pictures and films in terms of their capacity to induce emotions verified by means of explicit measures. Stimuli were (a) single pictures presented for 6 s, (b) a set of three consecutive pictures with emotionally congruent contents presented for 2 s each, (c) short film clips with a duration of 6 s. A total of 144 participants rated their emotion and arousal states following stimulus presentation. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed that the film clips and 3-picture version were as effective as the classical 1-picture method to elicit positive emotions, however, modulation toward positive valence was little. Modulation toward negative valence was more effective in general. Film clips were less effective than pictorial stimuli in producing the corresponding emotion states (all p < 0.001) and were less arousing (all p ≤ 0.02). Possible reasons for these unexpected results are discussed. PMID:26925007

  13. Voice Pitch Elicited Frequency Following Response in Chinese Elderlies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo; Hu, Jiong; Dong, Ruijuan; Liu, Dongxin; Chen, Jing; Musacchia, Gabriella; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perceptual and electrophysiological studies have found reduced speech discrimination in quiet and noisy environment, delayed neural timing, decreased neural synchrony, and decreased temporal processing ability in elderlies, even those with normal hearing. However, recent studies have also demonstrated that language experience and auditory training enhance the temporal dynamics of sound encoding in the auditory brainstem response (ABR). The purpose of this study was to explore the pitch processing ability at the brainstem level in an aging population that has a tonal language background. Method: Mandarin speaking younger (n = 12) and older (n = 12) adults were recruited for this study. All participants had normal audiometric test results and normal suprathreshold click-evoked ABR. To record frequency following responses (FFRs) elicited by Mandarin lexical tones, two Mandarin Chinese syllables with different fundamental frequency pitch contours (Flat Tone and Falling Tone) were presented at 70 dB SPL. Fundamental frequencies (f0) of both the stimulus and the responses were extracted and compared to individual brainstem responses. Two indices were used to examine different aspects of pitch processing ability at the brainstem level: Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation. Results: Lexical tone elicited FFR were overall weaker in the older adult group compared to their younger adult counterpart. Measured by Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation, statistically significant group differences were only found when the tone with a falling f0 (Falling Tone) were used as the stimulus. Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrated that in a tonal language speaking population, pitch processing ability at the brainstem level of older adults are not as strong and robust as their younger counterparts. Findings of this study are consistent with previous reports on brainstem responses of older adults whose native language is English. On the other hand, lexical tone elicited

  14. Reliance on luck: identifying which achievement goals elicit superstitious behavior.

    PubMed

    Hamerman, Eric J; Morewedge, Carey K

    2015-03-01

    People often resort to superstitious behavior to facilitate goal achievement. We examined whether the specific type of achievement goal pursued influences the propensity to engage in superstitious behavior. Across six studies, we found that performance goals were more likely than learning goals to elicit superstitious behavior. Participants were more likely to engage in superstitious behavior at high than at low levels of chronic performance orientation, but superstitious behavior was not influenced by chronic learning orientation (Studies 1 and 2). Similarly, participants exhibited stronger preferences for lucky items when primed to pursue performance goals rather than learning goals (Studies 3 and 4). As uncertainty of goal achievement increased, superstitious behavior increased when participants pursued performance goals but not learning goals (Study 5). Finally, assignment to use a lucky (vs. unlucky) item resulted in greater confidence of achieving performance goals but not learning goals (Study 6).

  15. Inflectional morphology in primary progressive aphasia: an elicited production study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen M; Brandt, Temre H; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda; Ogar, Jennifer M; Salli, Chelsey; Wilson, Lisa; Peralta, Karen; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2014-09-01

    Inflectional morphology lies at the intersection of phonology, syntax and the lexicon, three language domains that are differentially impacted in the three main variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). To characterize spared and impaired aspects of inflectional morphology in PPA, we elicited inflectional morphemes in 48 individuals with PPA and 13 healthy age-matched controls. We varied the factors of regularity, frequency, word class, and lexicality, and used voxel-based morphometry to identify brain regions where atrophy was predictive of deficits on particular conditions. All three PPA variants showed deficits in inflectional morphology, with the specific nature of the deficits dependent on the anatomical and linguistic features of each variant. Deficits in inflecting low-frequency irregular words were associated with semantic PPA, with lexical/semantic deficits, and with left temporal atrophy. Deficits in inflecting pseudowords were associated with non-fluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants, with phonological deficits, and with left frontal and parietal atrophy.

  16. Inflectional morphology in primary progressive aphasia: An elicited production study

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stephen M.; Brandt, Temre H.; Henry, Maya L.; Babiak, Miranda; Ogar, Jennifer M.; Salli, Chelsey; Wilson, Lisa; Peralta, Karen; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Inflectional morphology lies at the intersection of phonology, syntax and the lexicon, three language domains that are differentially impacted in the three main variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). To characterize spared and impaired aspects of inflectional morphology in PPA, we elicited inflectional morphemes in 48 individuals with PPA and 13 healthy age-matched controls. We varied the factors of regularity, frequency, word class, and lexicality, and used voxel-based morphometry to identify brain regions where atrophy was predictive of deficits on particular conditions. All three PPA variants showed deficits in inflectional morphology, with the specific nature of the deficits dependent on the anatomical and linguistic features of each variant. Deficits in inflecting low-frequency irregular words were associated with semantic PPA, with lexical/semantic deficits, and with left temporal atrophy. Deficits in inflecting pseudowords were associated with non-fluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants, with phonological deficits, and with left frontal and parietal atrophy. PMID:25129631

  17. Eliciting the Level of Health Inequality Aversion in England.

    PubMed

    Robson, Matthew; Asaria, Miqdad; Cookson, Richard; Tsuchiya, Aki; Ali, Shehzad

    2016-09-20

    Health inequality aversion parameters can be used to represent alternative value judgements about policy concern for reducing health inequality versus improving total health. In this study, we use data from an online survey of the general public in England (n = 244) to elicit health inequality aversion parameters for both Atkinson and Kolm social welfare functions. We find median inequality aversion parameters of 10.95 for Atkinson and 0.15 for Kolm. These values suggest substantial concern for health inequality among the English general public which, at current levels of quality adjusted life expectancy, implies weighting health gains to the poorest fifth of people in society six to seven times as highly as health gains to the richest fifth. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Elicitation: a tool for enriching the bioactive composition of foods.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A

    2014-09-01

    Elicitation is a good strategy to induce physiological changes and stimulate defense or stress-induced responses in plants. The elicitor treatments trigger the synthesis of phytochemical compounds in fruits, vegetables and herbs. These metabolites have been widely investigated as bioactive compounds responsible of plant cell adaptation to the environment, specific organoleptic properties of foods, and protective effects in human cells against oxidative processes in the development of neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancer. Biotic (biological origin), abiotic (chemical or physical origin) elicitors and phytohormones have been applied alone or in combinations, in hydroponic solutions or sprays, and in different selected time points of the plant growth or during post-harvest. Understanding how plant tissues and their specific secondary metabolic pathways respond to specific treatments with elicitors would be the basis for designing protocols to enhance the production of secondary metabolites, in order to produce quality and healthy fresh foods.

  19. Some properties of probability inversion algorithms to elicit expert opinion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lark, Murray

    2015-04-01

    Probability inversion methods have been developed to infer underlying expert utility functions from rankings that experts offer of subsets of scenarios. The method assumes that the expert ranking reflects an underlying utility, which can be modelled as a function of predictive covariates. This is potentially useful as a method for the extraction of expert opinions for prediction in new scenarios. Two particular algorithms are considered here, the IPF algorithm and the PURE algorithm. The former always converges for consistent sets of rankings and finds a solution which minimizes the mutual information of the estimated utilities and an initial random sample of proposed utilities drawn in the algorithm. In this poster I report some empirical studies on the probability inversion procedure, investigating the effects of the size of the expert panel, the consistency and quality of the expert panel and the validity of the predictive covariates. These results have practical implications for the design of elicitation by probability inversion methods.

  20. Biomimetic Antigenic Nanoparticles Elicit Controlled Protective Immune Response to Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Dustin P.; Rynda-Apple, Agnieszka; Harmsen, Ann L.; Harmsen, Allen G.; Douglas, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Here we present a biomimetic strategy towards nanoparticle design for controlled immune response through encapsulation of conserved internal influenza proteins on the interior of virus like particles (VLPs) to direct CD8+ cytotoxic T cell protection. Programmed encapsulation and sequestration of the conserved nucleoprotein (NP) from influenza on the interior of a VLP, derived from the bacteriophage P22, results in a vaccine that provides multi-strain protection against 100 times lethal doses of influenza in an NP specific CD8+ T cell-dependent manner. VLP assembly and encapsulation of the immunogenic NP cargo protein is the result of a genetically programmed self-assembly making this strategy amendable to the quick production of vaccines to rapidly emerging pathogens. Addition of adjuvants or targeting molecules were not required for eliciting the protective response. PMID:23540530

  1. Molecular mimicry and horror autotoxicus: do chlamydial infections elicit autoimmunity?

    PubMed

    Swanborg, Robert H; Boros, Dov L; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A; Hudson, Alan P

    2006-11-30

    All species of the order Chlamydiales are obligate intracellular eubacterial pathogens of their various hosts. Two chlamydial species, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae, are primarily human pathogens, and each is known to cause important diseases. Some strains of C. trachomatis are sexually transmitted and frequently cause severe reproductive problems, primarily in women. Other strains of the organism serve as the aetiological agents for blinding trachoma, still the leading cause of preventable blindness in underdeveloped nations. C. pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen known to cause community-acquired pneumonia. Importantly, both organisms engender an immunopathogenic response in the human host, and both have been associated with widely diverse, relatively common and currently idiopathic chronic diseases, most of which include an important autoimmune component. In this article, we explore the available experimental data regarding the possible elicitation of autoimmunity in various contexts by chlamydial infection, and we suggest several avenues for research to explore this potentially important issue further.

  2. Cripto-1 vaccination elicits protective immunity against metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ligtenberg, M A; Witt, K; Galvez-Cancino, F; Sette, A; Lundqvist, A; Lladser, A; Kiessling, R

    2016-05-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a fatal disease that responds poorly to classical treatments but can be targeted by T cell-based immunotherapy. Cancer vaccines have the potential to generate long-lasting cytotoxic CD8(+) T cell responses able to eradicate established and disseminated tumors. Vaccination against antigens expressed by tumor cells with enhanced metastatic potential represents a highly attractive strategy to efficiently target deadly metastatic disease. Cripto-1 is frequently over-expressed in human carcinomas and melanomas, but is expressed only at low levels on normal differentiated tissues. Cripto-1 is particularly upregulated in cancer-initiating cells and is involved in cellular processes such as cell migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, which are hallmarks of aggressive cancer cells able to initiate metastatic disease. Here, we explored the potential of Cripto-1 vaccination to target metastatic melanoma in a preclinical model. Cripto-1 was overexpressed in highly metastatic B16F10 cells as compared to poorly metastatic B16F1 cells. Moreover, B16F10 cells grown in sphere conditions to enrich for cancer stem cells (CSC) progressively upregulated cripto1 expression. Vaccination of C57Bl/6 mice with a DNA vaccine encoding mouse Cripto-1 elicited a readily detectable/strong cytotoxic CD8(+) T cell response specific for a H-2 Kb-restricted epitope identified based on its ability to bind H-2(b) molecules. Remarkably, Cripto-1 vaccination elicited a protective response against lung metastasis and subcutaneous challenges with highly metastatic B16F10 melanoma cells. Our data indicate that vaccination against Cripto-1 represents a novel strategy to be tested in the clinic.

  3. Cripto-1 vaccination elicits protective immunity against metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ligtenberg, M. A.; Witt, K.; Galvez-Cancino, F.; Sette, A.; Lundqvist, A.; Lladser, A.; Kiessling, R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metastatic melanoma is a fatal disease that responds poorly to classical treatments but can be targeted by T cell-based immunotherapy. Cancer vaccines have the potential to generate long-lasting cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses able to eradicate established and disseminated tumors. Vaccination against antigens expressed by tumor cells with enhanced metastatic potential represents a highly attractive strategy to efficiently target deadly metastatic disease. Cripto-1 is frequently over-expressed in human carcinomas and melanomas, but is expressed only at low levels on normal differentiated tissues. Cripto-1 is particularly upregulated in cancer-initiating cells and is involved in cellular processes such as cell migration, invasion and epithelial–mesenchymal transition, which are hallmarks of aggressive cancer cells able to initiate metastatic disease. Here, we explored the potential of Cripto-1 vaccination to target metastatic melanoma in a preclinical model. Cripto-1 was overexpressed in highly metastatic B16F10 cells as compared to poorly metastatic B16F1 cells. Moreover, B16F10 cells grown in sphere conditions to enrich for cancer stem cells (CSC) progressively upregulated cripto1 expression. Vaccination of C57Bl/6 mice with a DNA vaccine encoding mouse Cripto-1 elicited a readily detectable/strong cytotoxic CD8+ T cell response specific for a H-2 Kb-restricted epitope identified based on its ability to bind H-2b molecules. Remarkably, Cripto-1 vaccination elicited a protective response against lung metastasis and subcutaneous challenges with highly metastatic B16F10 melanoma cells. Our data indicate that vaccination against Cripto-1 represents a novel strategy to be tested in the clinic. PMID:27467944

  4. A novel mimetic antigen eliciting protective antibody to Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Granoff, D M; Moe, G R; Giuliani, M M; Adu-Bobie, J; Santini, L; Brunelli, B; Piccinetti, F; Zuno-Mitchell, P; Lee, S S; Neri, P; Bracci, L; Lozzi, L; Rappuoli, R

    2001-12-01

    Molecular mimetic Ags are of considerable interest as vaccine candidates. Yet there are few examples of mimetic Ags that elicit protective Ab against a pathogen, and the functional activity of anti-mimetic Abs has not been studied in detail. As part of the Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B genome sequencing project, a large number of novel proteins were identified. Herein, we provide evidence that genome-derived Ag 33 (GNA33), a lipoprotein with homology to Escherichia coli murein transglycosylase, elicits protective Ab to meningococci as a result of mimicking an epitope on loop 4 of porin A (PorA) in strains with serosubtype P1.2. Epitope mapping of a bactericidal anti-GNA33 mAb using overlapping peptides shows that the mAb recognizes peptides from GNA33 and PorA that share a QTP sequence that is necessary but not sufficient for binding. By flow cytometry, mouse antisera prepared against rGNA33 and the anti-GNA33 mAb bind as well as an anti-PorA P1.2 mAb to the surface of eight of nine N. meningitidis serogroup B strains tested with the P1.2 serosubtype. Anti-GNA33 Abs also are bactericidal for most P1.2 strains and, for susceptible strains, the activity of an anti-GNA33 mAb is similar to that of an anticapsular mAb but less active than an anti-P1.2 mAb. Anti-GNA Abs also confer passive protection against bacteremia in infant rats challenged with P1.2 strains. Thus, GNA33 represents one of the most effective immunogenic mimetics yet described. These results demonstrate that molecular mimetics have potential as meningococcal vaccine candidates.

  5. Tactile stimulation of the oropharynx elicits sympathoexcitation in conscious humans

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Matthew D.; Mast, Jessica L.; Cui, Jian; Heffernan, Matthew J.; McQuillan, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Tactile stimulation of the oropharynx (TSO) elicits the gag reflex and increases heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in anesthetized patients. However, the interaction between upper-airway defense reflexes and the sympathetic nervous system has not been investigated in conscious humans. In Experiment 1, beat-by-beat measurements of HR, MAP, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and renal vascular resistance (RVR) were measured during TSO and tactile stimulation of the hard palate (Sham) in the supine posture. In Experiment 2, TSO was performed before (pre) and after (post) inhalation of 4% lidocaine via nebulizer. Rate pressure product (RPP) was determined. Compared with Sham, TSO elicited the gag reflex and increased RPP [absolute change (Δ)36 ± 6 vs. 17 ± 5%], MSNA (Δ122 ± 39 vs. 19 ± 19%), and RVR (Δ55 ± 11 vs. 4 ± 4%). This effect occurred within one to two cardiac cycles of TSO. The ΔMAP (12 ± 3 vs. 6 ± 1 mmHg) and the ΔHR (10 ± 3 vs. 3 ± 3 beats/min) were also greater following TSO compared with Sham. Lidocaine inhalation blocked the gag reflex and attenuated increases in MAP (Δpre: 16 ± 2; Δpost: 5 ± 2 mmHg) and HR (Δpre: 12 ± 3; Δpost: 2 ± 2 beats/min) in response to TSO. When mechanically stimulated, afferents in the oropharynx not only serve to protect the airway but also cause reflex increases in MSNA, RVR, MAP, and HR. An augmented sympathoexcitatory response during intubation and laryngoscopy may contribute to perioperative cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:23599399

  6. Nest sanitation elicits egg discrimination in cuckoo hosts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Canchao; Chen, Min; Wang, Longwu; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-11-01

    Nest sanitation is a nearly universal behavior in birds, while egg discrimination is a more specific adaptation that has evolved to counter brood parasitism. These two behaviors are closely related with nest sanitation being the ancestral behavior, and it has been hypothesized to constitute a preadaptation for egg discrimination. However, previous studies found little evidence to support this hypothesis. Here, we conducted an empirical test of the association between nest sanitation and egg discrimination in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) by inserting a single non-mimetic model egg or a non-mimetic model egg plus half a peanut shell into host nests. Compared to the rejection rate of single model eggs, barn swallows significantly increased egg rejection frequency if a half peanut shell was simultaneously introduced. Our result for the first time shows the impact of nest sanitation on egg discrimination and demonstrates that nest sanitation can elicit egg discrimination in hosts of brood parasites. This study provided evidence for nest sanitation being a preadaptation to egg discrimination by facilitating egg rejection, thereby significantly advancing our understanding of avian cognition of foreign objects. Furthermore, we suggest that egg discrimination behavior in many accepters and intermediate rejecters may be lost or diluted. Such egg discrimination can be elicited and restored after nest sanitation, implying a sensitive and rapid phenotypic response to increased risk of parasitism. Our study offers a novel perspective for investigating the role of so-called intermediate rejecter individuals or species in the long-term coevolutionary cycle between brood parasites and their hosts.

  7. Outer membrane vesicles displaying engineered glycotopes elicit protective antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Jenny L.; Huang, Chung-Jr; Endicott, Christine E.; Moeller, Tyler D.; Rasmussen, Jed A.; Fletcher, Joshua R.; Boll, Joseph M.; Rosenthal, Joseph A.; Dobruchowska, Justyna; Wang, Zhirui; Heiss, Christian; Azadi, Parastoo; Putnam, David; Trent, M. Stephen; Jones, Bradley D.; DeLisa, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    The O-antigen polysaccharide (O-PS) component of lipopolysaccharides on the surface of gram-negative bacteria is both a virulence factor and a B-cell antigen. Antibodies elicited by O-PS often confer protection against infection; therefore, O-PS glycoconjugate vaccines have proven useful against a number of different pathogenic bacteria. However, conventional methods for natural extraction or chemical synthesis of O-PS are technically demanding, inefficient, and expensive. Here, we describe an alternative methodology for producing glycoconjugate vaccines whereby recombinant O-PS biosynthesis is coordinated with vesiculation in laboratory strains of Escherichia coli to yield glycosylated outer membrane vesicles (glycOMVs) decorated with pathogen-mimetic glycotopes. Using this approach, glycOMVs corresponding to eight different pathogenic bacteria were generated. For example, expression of a 17-kb O-PS gene cluster from the highly virulent Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis (type A) strain Schu S4 in hypervesiculating E. coli cells yielded glycOMVs that displayed F. tularensis O-PS. Immunization of BALB/c mice with glycOMVs elicited significant titers of O-PS–specific serum IgG antibodies as well as vaginal and bronchoalveolar IgA antibodies. Importantly, glycOMVs significantly prolonged survival upon subsequent challenge with F. tularensis Schu S4 and provided complete protection against challenge with two different F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (type B) live vaccine strains, thereby demonstrating the vaccine potential of glycOMVs. Given the ease with which recombinant glycotopes can be expressed on OMVs, the strategy described here could be readily adapted for developing vaccines against many other bacterial pathogens. PMID:27274048

  8. Knowledge elicitation techniques and application to nuclear plant maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, E. Kevin

    The new millennium has brought with it the opportunity of global trade which in turn requires the utmost in efficiency from each individual industry. This includes the nuclear power industry, a point which was emphasized when the electrical generation industry began to be de regulated across North America the late 1990s and re-emphasized when the northeast power grid of North America collapsed in the summer of 2003. This dissertation deals with reducing the cost of the maintenance function of Candu nuclear power plants and initiating a strong link between universities and the Canadian nuclear industry. Various forms of RCM (reliability-centred maintenance) have been the tools of choice in industry for improving the maintenance function during the last 20 years. In this project, pilot studies, conducted at Bruce Power between 1999 and 2005, and reported on in this dissertation, lay out a path to implement statistical improvements as the next step after RCM in reducing the cost of the maintenance. Elicitation protocols, designed for the age group being elicited, address the much-documented issue of a lack of data. Clear, graphical, inferential statistical interfaces are accentuated and developed to aid in building the teams required to implement the various methodologies and to help in achieving funding targets. Graphical analysis and Crow/AMSAA (army materials systems analysis activity) plots are developed and demonstrated from the point of view of justifying the expenditures of cost reduction efforts. This dissertation ultimately speaks to the great opportunity being presented by this approach at this time: of capturing the baby-boom generation's huge pool of knowledge before those people retire. It is expected that the protocols and procedures referenced here will have applicability across the many disciplines where collecting expert information from a similar age group is required.

  9. Evaluating Residents' Readiness to Elicit Advance Care Plans

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Deborah; Strand, Jacob; McMahon, Graham T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trainees are responsible for conducting advance care discussions but are often stressed by this role. Objective We developed an instrument to determine whether residents could identify a clinical scenario that necessitated an examination of a patient's goals and preferences as they pertain to clinical care, and subsequently measured their readiness to engage in such discussions. Methods Participants responded verbally to open-ended case presentations and completed survey items. We scored responses according to proximity to idealized answers. Results The sample consisted of 44 internal medicine residents, 12 students, 5 hospitalists, and 3 palliative care attendings, all of whom volunteered for the study and participated in standard interviews. Residents had widely varying scores (range 0–12, maximum score of 15) on the scored open response items. For eliciting values, mean score increased with training, and students, trainees, and attending physicians had mean scores of 3.7, 5.7, and 8.7, respectively (P = .01). For recommending care, mean scores were 3.0, 6.5, and 9.3, respectively (P < .001). Scores were correlated closely with increasing clinical experience and inversely with self-reported stress when conducting a goals-of-care discussion. The Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 reliability for the instrument was 0.52. Interrater reliability for sections about eliciting and recommending care were 0.64 (P < .001) and 0.50 (P < .001), respectively. The 1-week test-retest reliability was 0.91 for open response items and 0.76 for Likert responses. Conclusions A verbally administered instrument can readily and rapidly characterize a trainee's readiness to participate in advance care planning with patients. PMID:26457140

  10. Promoting environmental sustainability via an expert elicitation process

    SciTech Connect

    Swor, Tom; Canter, Larry

    2011-09-15

    Environmental sustainability (ES) planning was applied to the 981-mile, commercially navigable Ohio River. Navigation improvement needs were identified within the broad study along with actions to restore aquatic and riparian ecological resources to a higher state of sustainability. The actions were identified via an Expert Elicitation Process (EEP) involving aquatic and riparian/terrestrial experts knowledgeable of Ohio River resources. The received information was synthesized into goals for the selected resources (Valued Ecosystem Components - or VECs), actions or measures to attain the goals, and monitoring to evaluate conditions. Finally, 26 types of ES actions were identified and classified into three ES alternatives. These alternatives were then evaluated relative to key decision criteria, and such evaluations, based on pertinent decision criteria, were also conducted for four navigation improvement alternatives. Finally, the best combination of ES and navigation alternatives was identified. The key lessons derived from this use of EEP were that: (1) EEP can support the preliminary identification of ES measures; however, more detailed study of specific designs and cost evaluations will be necessary; (2) the method promotes collaboration between key scientists and policymakers from governmental agencies and private sectors, and such collaboration will ultimately provide the foundation for implementation of sustainability actions; and (3) an effective EEP does not occur by accident, it requires careful planning, implementation, and documentation. - Research Highlights: > Use of an Expert Elicitation Process (EEP) is demonstrated in this study. > EEP was used to identify Environmental Sustainability (ES) needs for the Ohio River. > EEP helped develop consensus among resource experts on ES needs. > EEP promotes collaboration to identify and contribute to common resource goals. > EEP may be used in assessing cumulative effects and formulating restoration plans.

  11. Application and Evaluation of an Expert Judgment Elicitation Procedure for Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Zondervan-Zwijnenburg, Mariëlle; van de Schoot-Hubeek, Wenneke; Lek, Kimberley; Hoijtink, Herbert; van de Schoot, Rens

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to apply and evaluate a procedure to elicit expert judgments about correlations, and to update this information with empirical data. The result is a face-to-face group elicitation procedure with as its central element a trial roulette question that elicits experts' judgments expressed as distributions. During the elicitation procedure, a concordance probability question was used to provide feedback to the experts on their judgments. We evaluated the elicitation procedure in terms of validity and reliability by means of an application with a small sample of experts. Validity means that the elicited distributions accurately represent the experts' judgments. Reliability concerns the consistency of the elicited judgments over time. Four behavioral scientists provided their judgments with respect to the correlation between cognitive potential and academic performance for two separate populations enrolled at a specific school in the Netherlands that provides special education to youth with severe behavioral problems: youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and youth with diagnoses other than ASD. Measures of face-validity, feasibility, convergent validity, coherence, and intra-rater reliability showed promising results. Furthermore, the current study illustrates the use of the elicitation procedure and elicited distributions in a social science application. The elicited distributions were used as a prior for the correlation, and updated with data for both populations collected at the school of interest. The current study shows that the newly developed elicitation procedure combining the trial roulette method with the elicitation of correlations is a promising tool, and that the results of the procedure are useful as prior information in a Bayesian analysis. PMID:28197115

  12. Micafungin Elicits an Immunomodulatory Effect in Galleria mellonella and Mice.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Li, Yan; Li, Dedong; Johnston, Tatiana; Hendricks, Gabriel; Li, Gang; Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2016-02-01

    The echinocandin family of drugs is well characterized for antifungal function that inhibits β-D-glucan synthesis. The aim of this work was to study whether micafungin, a member of the echinocandin family, elicits additional activities that prime the host's immune response. We found that in a Galleria mellonella model, prophylactic treatment with micafungin extended the life of Staphylococcus aureus-infected larvae (a pathogen to which the drug demonstrates no direct antimicrobial activity) compared to insects that did not receive micafungin (P < 0.05). The inhibition of pathogens in the G. mellonella infection model was characterized by a 2.43-fold increase in hemocyte density, compared to larvae inoculated with PBS. In a murine model where animals were provided micafungin prophylaxis 3 days prior to macrophage collection, macrophages were found associated with an average 0.9 more fungal cells per macrophage as compared to saline-treated animals. Interestingly, micafungin-stimulated macrophages killed 11.6 ± 6.2 % of fungal cells compared to 3.8 ± 2.4 % of macrophages from saline-treated animals. The prophylactic provision of micafungin prior to Candida albicans infection was characterized by an increase in the proinflammatory cytokines CXCL13 and SPP1 by 11- and 6.9-fold, respectively. In conclusion, micafungin demonstrated the ability to stimulate phagocytic cells and promote an immune response that can inhibit microbial infections.

  13. Dreamed movement elicits activation in the sensorimotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Martin; Koch, Stefan P; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I; Holsboer, Florian; Steiger, Axel; Sämann, Philipp G; Obrig, Hellmuth; Czisch, Michael

    2011-11-08

    Since the discovery of the close association between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and dreaming, much effort has been devoted to link physiological signatures of REM sleep to the contents of associated dreams [1-4]. Due to the impossibility of experimentally controlling spontaneous dream activity, however, a direct demonstration of dream contents by neuroimaging methods is lacking. By combining brain imaging with polysomnography and exploiting the state of "lucid dreaming," we show here that a predefined motor task performed during dreaming elicits neuronal activation in the sensorimotor cortex. In lucid dreams, the subject is aware of the dreaming state and capable of performing predefined actions while all standard polysomnographic criteria of REM sleep are fulfilled [5, 6]. Using eye signals as temporal markers, neural activity measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was related to dreamed hand movements during lucid REM sleep. Though preliminary, we provide first evidence that specific contents of REM-associated dreaming can be visualized by neuroimaging.

  14. Multiple Membrane Interactions and Versatile Vesicle Deformations Elicited by Melittin

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Tomoyoshi; Nomura, Fumimasa; Yokoyama, Yasunori; Tanaka-Takiguchi, Yohko; Homma, Michio; Takiguchi, Kingo

    2013-01-01

    Melittin induces various reactions in membranes and has been widely studied as a model for membrane-interacting peptide; however, the mechanism whereby melittin elicits its effects remains unclear. Here, we observed melittin-induced changes in individual giant liposomes using direct real-time imaging by dark-field optical microscopy, and the mechanisms involved were correlated with results obtained using circular dichroism, cosedimentation, fluorescence quenching of tryptophan residues, and electron microscopy. Depending on the concentration of negatively charged phospholipids in the membrane and the molecular ratio between lipid and melittin, melittin induced the “increasing membrane area”, “phased shrinkage”, or “solubilization” of liposomes. In phased shrinkage, liposomes formed small particles on their surface and rapidly decreased in size. Under conditions in which the increasing membrane area, phased shrinkage, or solubilization were mainly observed, the secondary structure of melittin was primarily estimated as an α-helix, β-like, or disordered structure, respectively. When the increasing membrane area or phased shrinkage occurred, almost all melittin was bound to the membranes and reached more hydrophobic regions of the membranes than when solubilization occurred. These results indicate that the various effects of melittin result from its ability to adopt various structures and membrane-binding states depending on the conditions. PMID:23594437

  15. Reading the lesson: eliciting requirements for a mammography training application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartswood, M.; Blot, L.; Taylor, P.; Anderson, S.; Procter, R.; Wilkinson, L.; Smart, L.

    2009-02-01

    Demonstrations of a prototype training tool were used to elicit requirements for an intelligent training system for screening mammography. The prototype allowed senior radiologists (mentors) to select cases from a distributed database of images to meet the specific training requirements of junior colleagues (trainees) and then provided automated feedback in response to trainees' attempts at interpretation. The tool was demonstrated to radiologists and radiographers working in the breast screening service at four evaluation sessions. Participants highlighted ease of selecting cases that can deliver specific learning objectives as important for delivering effective training. To usefully structure a large data set of training images we undertook a classification exercise of mentor authored free text 'learning points' attached to training case obtained from two screening centres (n=333, n=129 respectively). We were able to adduce a hierarchy of abstract categories representing classes of lesson that groups of cases were intended to convey (e.g. Temporal change, Misleading juxtapositions, Position of lesion, Typical/Atypical presentation, and so on). In this paper we present the method used to devise this classification, the classification scheme itself, initial user-feedback, and our plans to incorporated it into a software tool to aid case selection.

  16. Genuine eye contact elicits self-referential processing.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, Jonne O; Hietanen, Jari K

    2017-03-16

    The effect of eye contact on self-awareness was investigated with implicit measures based on the use of first-person singular pronouns in sentences. The measures were proposed to tap into self-referential processing, that is, information processing associated with self-awareness. In addition, participants filled in a questionnaire measuring explicit self-awareness. In Experiment 1, the stimulus was a video clip showing another person and, in Experiment 2, the stimulus was a live person. In both experiments, participants were divided into two groups and presented with the stimulus person either making eye contact or gazing downward, depending on the group assignment. During the task, the gaze stimulus was presented before each trial of the pronoun-selection task. Eye contact was found to increase the use of first-person pronouns, but only when participants were facing a real person, not when they were looking at a video of a person. No difference in self-reported self-awareness was found between the two gaze direction groups in either experiment. The results indicate that eye contact elicits self-referential processing, but the effect may be stronger, or possibly limited to, live interaction.

  17. PEGylated graphene oxide elicits strong immunological responses despite surface passivation

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Nana; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Wang, Shuang; Luan, Binquan; Yue, Hua; Xi, Xiaobo; Du, Jing; Yang, Zaixing; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Ruhong; Ma, Guanghui

    2017-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials promise to transform medicine at the bio–nano interface. However, it is important to elucidate how synthetic nanomaterials interact with critical biological systems before such products can be safely utilized in humans. Past evidence suggests that polyethylene glycol-functionalized (PEGylated) nanomaterials are largely biocompatible and elicit less dramatic immune responses than their pristine counterparts. We here report results that contradict these findings. We find that PEGylated graphene oxide nanosheets (nGO-PEGs) stimulate potent cytokine responses in peritoneal macrophages, despite not being internalized. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations support a mechanism by which nGO-PEGs preferentially adsorb onto and/or partially insert into cell membranes, thereby amplifying interactions with stimulatory surface receptors. Further experiments demonstrate that nGO-PEG indeed provokes cytokine secretion by enhancing integrin β8-related signalling pathways. The present results inform that surface passivation does not always prevent immunological reactions to 2D nanomaterials but also suggest applications for PEGylated nanomaterials wherein immune stimulation is desired. PMID:28233871

  18. Naturalistic Enactment to Elicit and Recognize Caregiver State Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Darien; Favela, Jesus; Ibarra, Catalina; Cruz, Netzahualcoyotl

    2016-09-01

    Caring for people with dementia imposes significant stress on family members and caregivers. Often, these informal caregivers have no coping strategy to deal with these behaviors. Anxiety and stress episodes are often triggered by problematic behaviors exhibited by the person who suffers from dementia. Detecting these behaviors could help them in dealing with them and reduce caregiver burden. However, work on anxiety detection using physiological signals has mostly been done under controlled conditions. In this paper we describe an experiment aimed at inducing anxiety among caregivers of people with dementia under naturalistic conditions. We report an experiment, using the naturalistic enactment technique, in which 10 subjects were asked to care for an older adult who acts as if she experiences dementia. We record physiological signals from the participants (GSR, HR, EEG) during the sessions that lasted for approximately 30 min. We explain how we obtained ground truth from self-report and observation data. We conducted two different tests using the Support Vector Machine technique. We obtained an average precision of 77.8 % and 38.1 % recall when classifying two different possible states: "Anxious" and "Not anxious". Analysis of the data provides evidence that the experiment elicits state anxiety and that it can be detected using wearable sensors. Furthermore, if episodes of problematic behaviors can also be detected, the recognition of anxiety in the caregiver can be improved, leading to the enactment of appropriate interventions to help caregivers cope with anxiety episodes.

  19. Rod-shaped nanocrystals elicit neuronal activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Malvindi, Maria Ada; Carbone, Luigi; Quarta, Alessandra; Tino, Angela; Manna, Liberato; Pellegrino, Teresa; Tortiglione, Claudia

    2008-10-01

    The development of novel nanomaterials has raised great interest in efforts to evaluate their effect on biological systems, ranging from single cells to whole animals. In particular, there exists an open question regarding whether nanoparticles per se can elicit biological responses, which could interfere with the phenomena they are intended to measure. Here it is reported that challenging the small cnidaria Hydra vulgaris in vivo with rod-shaped semiconductor nanoparticles, also known as quantum rods (QRs), results in an unexpected tentacle-writhing behavior, which is Ca(2+) dependent and relies on the presence of tentacle neurons. Due to the absence of surface functionalization of the QRs with specific ligands, and considering that spherical nanoparticles with same composition as the QRs fail to induce any in vivo behavior on the same experimental model, it is suggested that unique shape-tunable electrical properties of the QRs may account for the neuronal stimulation. This model system may represent a widely applicable tool for screening neuronal response to nanoparticles in vivo.

  20. Comparison of physiological responses to affect eliciting pictures and music.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Wedell, Douglas H

    2016-03-01

    Recent investigations of the neural correlates of affect elicited from different modalities have found both modality-general and modality-specific representations (Chikazoe et al., 2014). The implications for how physiological responses to affect differ across stimulus modalities have not been fully investigated. This study examined similarities and differences between physiological signatures of affect derived from two different modes of presentation: visual pictures and auditory music sampled from an affective space defined by valence and arousal. Electromyography recordings for the zygomaticus major (EMGZ) and corrugator supercilii (EMGC) were measured along with heart rate and skin conductance level (SCL). Multidimensional scaling was used to visualize relationships from physiological and behavioral responses, and the observed relationships were statistically evaluated using multivariate and univariate analyses. Results for physiological measures demonstrated that valence was represented in the same general way across modalities, primarily reflected in EMGC responses. Arousal, however, was represented in a modality-specific manner, with SCL and EMGZ sensitive to music-based arousal but not picture-based arousal. Stimulus modality itself was predicted from EMGC. Thus, physiological responses to valence were similar across modalities but physiological responses to arousal differed across modalities. These results support the utility of testing for affective markers across modalities within the same experimental setting to reveal how physiological responses are linked to either affect, stimulus modality or both.

  1. PEGylated graphene oxide elicits strong immunological responses despite surface passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Nana; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Wang, Shuang; Luan, Binquan; Yue, Hua; Xi, Xiaobo; Du, Jing; Yang, Zaixing; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Ruhong; Ma, Guanghui

    2017-02-01

    Engineered nanomaterials promise to transform medicine at the bio-nano interface. However, it is important to elucidate how synthetic nanomaterials interact with critical biological systems before such products can be safely utilized in humans. Past evidence suggests that polyethylene glycol-functionalized (PEGylated) nanomaterials are largely biocompatible and elicit less dramatic immune responses than their pristine counterparts. We here report results that contradict these findings. We find that PEGylated graphene oxide nanosheets (nGO-PEGs) stimulate potent cytokine responses in peritoneal macrophages, despite not being internalized. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations support a mechanism by which nGO-PEGs preferentially adsorb onto and/or partially insert into cell membranes, thereby amplifying interactions with stimulatory surface receptors. Further experiments demonstrate that nGO-PEG indeed provokes cytokine secretion by enhancing integrin β8-related signalling pathways. The present results inform that surface passivation does not always prevent immunological reactions to 2D nanomaterials but also suggest applications for PEGylated nanomaterials wherein immune stimulation is desired.

  2. Naturalistic Observations of Elicited Expressive Communication of Children with Autism: An Analysis of Teacher Instructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Hsu-Min

    2009-01-01

    This study observed expressive communication of 17 Australian and 15 Taiwanese children with autism who were mute or had limited spoken language during 2 hour regular school routines and analyzed teacher instructions associated with elicited expressive communication. Results indicated: (a) the frequency of occurrence of elicited expressive…

  3. Stone Soup: Photo-Elicitation as a Learning Tool in the Food Geography Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Hilda E.; Wood, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This paper showcases self-reflective and inclusive pedagogy using photo-elicitation in a food geography course assignment. The Stone Soup project positions students as both researchers and participant-subjects in a participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE) study of students' foodways. Student papers for this assignment demonstrate rich…

  4. Model-Eliciting Activities (MEAs) as a Bridge between Engineering Education Research and Mathematics Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Eric; Lesh, Richard; Lester, Frank; Brilleslyper, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces Model-Eliciting Activities (MEAs) as a form of case study team problem-solving. MEA design focuses on eliciting from students conceptual models that they iteratively revise in problem-solving. Though developed by mathematics education researchers to study the evolution of mathematical problem-solving expertise in middle…

  5. Translation Elicitation Techniques and Mother-Tongue Interference: Any Significant Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattar, Hameed

    1999-01-01

    Examined the validity of Dulay, Burt, and Krashen's hypothesis that the use of translation as an elicitation technique in foreign or second language (L2) research artificially increases L2 learners' reliance on the mother tongue, and accordingly, the proportion of interference errors. Examined interference errors on two elicitation tasks: an…

  6. Uncovering Pre-Service Teacher Beliefs about Young Children: A Photographic Elicitation Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockall, Nancy; Davis, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This illustrative paper provides an introduction to using mixed qualitative methods of photo-elicitation, face to face interviews and semiotic analysis to uncover pre-service students' beliefs about young children. The researchers share their experience on conducting a study using photo-elicitation and engaging pre-service teachers in a discussion…

  7. Effects of Race and Dialect of Examiner on Language Samples Elicited from Southern African American Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agerton, Emily P.; Moran, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Language samples were elicited from 17 African American preschoolers by 3 examiners; a white female using standard English and 2 African American females using either standard English or black English. Samples elicited by the African American examiners contained more different Black English features, with examiner usage of Black English eliciting…

  8. Eliciting Covert Mental Operations, Concepts and Oral Language Skills in Young Bilingual Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollomon, John W.; And Others

    The purpose of this investigation was to design and test an information-eliciting question instrument in order to determine whether the structures in the verbal responses of young Mexican-American, bilingual children entering school would reveal the covert mental operations, concepts and oral language skills elicited. The basic objective was to…

  9. Identifying and Responding to Personal Stressors: Utilizing Photo Elicitation in Health Education Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    The "Photo Elicitation Project" teaching idea applies the techniques of photo elicitation to stress prevention and management. This activity is designed to help students identify their personal stressors and to determine which stress prevention strategies are most useful for them. Objectives: students will be able to (a) identify current…

  10. Numerical Algorithms for the Analysis of Expert Opinions Elicited in Text Format

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    applied to subject matter expert text data elicited through carefully constructed decision support workshops. In the main these workshops address...various stake-holder groups. These workshops are carefully designed to address specific defence questions and to elicit, record and analyse expert...each of these topics. • Differential Analysis: Differential analysis concerns identifying and quantifying the differences between subsets of text, where

  11. Photo-Elicitation and Visual Semiotics: A Unique Methodology for Studying Inclusion for Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockall, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The methodology in this paper discusses the use of photographs as an elicitation strategy that can reveal the thinking processes of participants in a qualitatively rich manner. Photo-elicitation techniques combined with a Piercian semiotic perspective offer a unique method for creating a frame of action for later participant analysis. Illustrative…

  12. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  13. Characteristics of Late Negative ERG Responses Elicited By Sawtooth Flicker

    PubMed Central

    Gowrisankaran, Sowjanya; Genead, Mohamed A.; Anastasakis, Anastasios; Alexander, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine whether the properties of the late negative responses (LNRs) of the electroretinogram (ERG) elicited by sawtooth flicker are consistent with the characteristics of the photopic negative response generated by a light pulse (PhNRpulse). Methods ERG recordings were obtained from 10 visually normal individuals and from 6 patients with optic atrophy (OA) in response to 8-Hz rapid-on and rapid-off sawtooth flicker and to brief (4 ms) light pulses. All stimuli were either long-wavelength (R), middle-wavelength (G), or a combination of equal luminances of long and middle-wavelengths (Y) presented on a short-wavelength, rod-saturating adapting field. Amplitudes of LNRs were obtained in response to rapid-on (LNRon) and rapid-off (LNRoff) sawtooth flicker, and were also derived from the sum of the ERG waveforms to the two sawtooth phases (LNRadd). Results For the control subjects, PhNRpulse amplitude varied with stimulus wavelength, being largest in response to a long-wavelength pulse, as expected. However, the amplitudes of LNRon, LNRoff, and LNRadd were not significantly different for R, Y, and G sawtooth flicker. Despite the absence of a chromatic effect, LNRoff and LNRadd amplitudes were significantly smaller in the OA patients than in the controls, similar to the results for the PhNRpulse, implying an inner retinal origin for the LNRoff and LNRadd. However, LNRon amplitudes did not differ significantly between the OA patients and controls, although there was a significant correlation between the LNRon and PhNRpulse for R stimuli. Conclusion We conclude that LNRoff and LNRadd but not LNRon can be useful measures to assess the integrity of the inner retina that can complement the PhNRpulse. PMID:23054159

  14. Role of phosphodiesterase-4 on ethanol elicited locomotion and narcosis.

    PubMed

    Baliño, Pablo; Ledesma, Juan Carlos; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2016-02-01

    The cAMP signaling pathway has emerged as an important modulator of the pharmacological effects of ethanol. In this respect, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase has been shown to play an important role in the modulation of several ethanol-induced behavioral actions. Cellular levels of cAMP are maintained by the activity of adenylyl cyclases and phosphodiesterases. In the present work we have focused on ascertaining the role of PDE4 in mediating the neurobehavioral effects of ethanol. For this purpose, we have used the selective PDE4 inhibitor Ro 20-1724. This compound has been proven to enhance cellular cAMP response by PDE4 blockade and can be administered systemically. Swiss mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with Ro 20-1724 (0-5 mg/kg; i.p.) at different time intervals before ethanol (0-4 g/kg; i.p.) administration. Immediately after the ethanol injection, locomotor activity, loss of righting reflex, PKA footprint and enzymatic activity were assessed. Pretreatment with Ro 20-1724 increased ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. Doses that increased locomotor stimulation did not modify basal locomotion or the suppression of motor activity produced by high doses of this alcohol. Ro 20-1724 did not alter the locomotor activation produced by amphetamine or cocaine. The time of loss of righting reflex evoked by ethanol was increased after pretreatment with Ro 20-1724. This effect was selective for the narcotic effects of ethanol since Ro 20-1724 did not affect pentobarbital-induced narcotic effects. Moreover, Ro 20-1724 administration increased the PKA footprint and enzymatic activity response elicited by ethanol. These data provide further evidence of the key role of the cAMP signaling pathway in the central effects of ethanol.

  15. Feeding-elicited cataplexy in orexin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Clark, E L; Baumann, C R; Cano, G; Scammell, T E; Mochizuki, T

    2009-07-21

    Mice lacking orexin/hypocretin signaling have sudden episodes of atonia and paralysis during active wakefulness. These events strongly resemble cataplexy, episodes of sudden muscle weakness triggered by strong positive emotions in people with narcolepsy, but it remains unknown whether murine cataplexy is triggered by positive emotions. To determine whether positive emotions elicit murine cataplexy, we placed orexin knockout (KO) mice on a scheduled feeding protocol with regular or highly palatable food. Baseline sleep/wake behavior was recorded with ad libitum regular chow. Mice were then placed on a scheduled feeding protocol in which they received 60% of their normal amount of chow 3 h after dark onset for the next 10 days. Wild-type and KO mice rapidly entrained to scheduled feeding with regular chow, with more wake and locomotor activity prior to the feeding time. On day 10 of scheduled feeding, orexin KO mice had slightly more cataplexy during the food-anticipation period and more cataplexy in the second half of the dark period, when they may have been foraging for residual food. To test whether more palatable food increases cataplexy, mice were then switched to scheduled feeding with an isocaloric amount of Froot Loops, a food often used as a reward in behavioral studies. With this highly palatable food, orexin KO mice had much more cataplexy during the food-anticipation period and throughout the dark period. The increase in cataplexy with scheduled feeding, especially with highly palatable food, suggests that positive emotions may trigger cataplexy in mice, just as in people with narcolepsy. Establishing this connection helps validate orexin KO mice as an excellent model of human narcolepsy and provides an opportunity to better understand the mechanisms that trigger cataplexy.

  16. Functional Changes in the Snail Statocyst System Elicited by Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Balaban, Pavel M.; Malyshev, Aleksey Y.; Ierusalimsky, Victor N.; Aseyev, Nikolay; Korshunova, Tania A.; Bravarenko, Natasha I.; Lemak, M. S.; Roshchin, Matvey; Zakharov, Igor S.; Popova, Yekaterina; Boyle, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Background The mollusk statocyst is a mechanosensing organ detecting the animal's orientation with respect to gravity. This system has clear similarities to its vertebrate counterparts: a weight-lending mass, an epithelial layer containing small supporting cells and the large sensory hair cells, and an output eliciting compensatory body reflexes to perturbations. Methodology/Principal Findings In terrestrial gastropod snail we studied the impact of 16- (Foton M-2) and 12-day (Foton M-3) exposure to microgravity in unmanned orbital missions on: (i) the whole animal behavior (Helix lucorum L.), (ii) the statoreceptor responses to tilt in an isolated neural preparation (Helix lucorum L.), and (iii) the differential expression of the Helix pedal peptide (HPep) and the tetrapeptide FMRFamide genes in neural structures (Helix aspersa L.). Experiments were performed 13–42 hours after return to Earth. Latency of body re-orientation to sudden 90° head-down pitch was significantly reduced in postflight snails indicating an enhanced negative gravitaxis response. Statoreceptor responses to tilt in postflight snails were independent of motion direction, in contrast to a directional preference observed in control animals. Positive relation between tilt velocity and firing rate was observed in both control and postflight snails, but the response magnitude was significantly larger in postflight snails indicating an enhanced sensitivity to acceleration. A significant increase in mRNA expression of the gene encoding HPep, a peptide linked to ciliary beating, in statoreceptors was observed in postflight snails; no differential expression of the gene encoding FMRFamide, a possible neurotransmission modulator, was observed. Conclusions/Significance Upregulation of statocyst function in snails following microgravity exposure parallels that observed in vertebrates suggesting fundamental principles underlie gravi-sensing and the organism's ability to adapt to gravity changes. This

  17. Metaphors of Distress: Photo-Elicitation Enhances a Discourse Analysis of Parents' Accounts.

    PubMed

    Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira; Vandermause, Roxanne

    2016-07-01

    In research on sensitive topics, photo-elicitation can be a profound aid to data collection and interpretation processes. Photo-elicitation methods were used in this manner in a discourse analysis of parents' distress at least 6 months after preterm birth. After an initial interview, participants were asked to take digital photographs representing their distress and to return for a second interview to discuss the photographs. The elicited photo representations supported participants' engagement with their current or past distress and generated new meanings from the reappraisal of old photographs. Photo-elicitation demonstrated the embodiment of parents' distress in the child and the placement of distress in specific locations. Photographs of documents showed the power of the written word in generating and maintaining distress. Participants used existing photographs from their child's photo history to generate rich metaphors for their distress as parents. These findings have implications for enhancing interpretive health research by incorporating photo-elicitation methods.

  18. Comparison of elicitation methods for moral and affective beliefs in the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dean, M; Arvola, A; Vassallo, M; Lähteenmäki, L; Raats, M M; Saba, A; Shepherd, R

    2006-09-01

    Although the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) has been applied successfully in the area of food choice, it has been criticized for its pure utilitarian approach to the factors determining behaviour. Despite the increase in predictive power of the model with added components such as affective attitude and moral and ethical concerns, in most studies the elicitation process still only addresses people's utilitarian beliefs about the behaviour with little attention paid to other aspects. This study compares the traditional method of elicitation of advantages and disadvantages with two other methods (word association and open-ended) in the elicitations of beliefs, attitudes and moral concerns in relation to the consumption of organic foods. Results show the traditional method to be best for eliciting cognitive beliefs, open-ended emotion task for eliciting emotional beliefs and open-ended beliefs task best for moral concerns. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.

  19. Minocycline inhibits D-amphetamine-elicited action potential bursts in a central snail neuron.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-H; Lin, P-L; Wong, R-W; Wu, Y-T; Hsu, H-Y; Tsai, M-C; Lin, M-J; Hsu, Y-C; Lin, C-H

    2012-10-25

    Minocycline is a second-generation tetracycline that has been reported to have powerful neuroprotective properties. In our previous studies, we found that d-amphetamine (AMPH) elicited action potential bursts in an identifiable RP4 neuron of the African snail, Achatina fulica Ferussac. This study sought to determine the effects of minocycline on the AMPH-elicited action potential pattern changes in the central snail neuron, using the two-electrode voltage clamping method. Extracellular application of AMPH at 300 μM elicited action potential bursts in the RP4 neuron. Minocycline dose-dependently (300-900 μM) inhibited the action potential bursts elicited by AMPH. The inhibitory effects of minocycline on AMPH-elicited action potential bursts were restored by forskolin (50 μM), an adenylate cyclase activator, and by dibutyryl cAMP (N(6),2'-O-Dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate; 1mM), a membrane-permeable cAMP analog. Co-administration of forskolin (50 μM) plus tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA; 5mM) or co-administration of TEA (5mM) plus dibutyryl cAMP (1mM) also elicited action potential bursts, which were prevented and inhibited by minocycline. In addition, minocycline prevented and inhibited forskolin (100 μM)-elicited action potential bursts. Notably, TEA (50mM)-elicited action potential bursts in the RP4 neuron were not affected by minocycline. Minocycline did not affect steady-state outward currents of the RP4 neuron. However, minocycline did decrease the AMPH-elicited steady-state current changes. Similarly, minocycline decreased the effects of forskolin-elicited steady-state current changes. Pretreatment with H89 (N-[2-(p-Bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide dihydrochloride; 10 μM), a protein kinase A inhibitor, inhibited AMPH-elicited action potential bursts and decreased AMPH-elicited steady-state current changes. These results suggest that the cAMP-protein kinase A signaling pathway and the steady-state current are involved in

  20. Video elicitation interviews: a qualitative research method for investigating physician-patient interactions.

    PubMed

    Henry, Stephen G; Fetters, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    We describe the concept and method of video elicitation interviews and provide practical guidance for primary care researchers who want to use this qualitative method to investigate physician-patient interactions. During video elicitation interviews, researchers interview patients or physicians about a recent clinical interaction using a video recording of that interaction as an elicitation tool. Video elicitation is useful because it allows researchers to integrate data about the content of physician-patient interactions gained from video recordings with data about participants' associated thoughts, beliefs, and emotions gained from elicitation interviews. This method also facilitates investigation of specific events or moments during interactions. Video elicitation interviews are logistically demanding and time consuming, and they should be reserved for research questions that cannot be fully addressed using either standard interviews or video recordings in isolation. As many components of primary care fall into this category, high-quality video elicitation interviews can be an important method for understanding and improving physician-patient interactions in primary care.

  1. Auditory Evoked Fields Elicited by Spectral, Temporal, and Spectral–Temporal Changes in Human Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Hidehiko; Teismann, Henning; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo

    2012-01-01

    Natural sounds contain complex spectral components, which are temporally modulated as time-varying signals. Recent studies have suggested that the auditory system encodes spectral and temporal sound information differently. However, it remains unresolved how the human brain processes sounds containing both spectral and temporal changes. In the present study, we investigated human auditory evoked responses elicited by spectral, temporal, and spectral–temporal sound changes by means of magnetoencephalography. The auditory evoked responses elicited by the spectral–temporal change were very similar to those elicited by the spectral change, but those elicited by the temporal change were delayed by 30–50 ms and differed from the others in morphology. The results suggest that human brain responses corresponding to spectral sound changes precede those corresponding to temporal sound changes, even when the spectral and temporal changes occur simultaneously. PMID:22593751

  2. Eyeglasses elicit effects similar to face-like perceptual expertise: evidence from the N170 response.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaohua; Yang, Qi; Hu, Fengpei

    2016-03-01

    Studies of event-related potentials show that the specific N170 response has become a stable electrophysiological hallmark of objects related to expertise in early perceptual processing. In the present study, we investigated whether eyeglasses can elicit N170 effects similar to those elicited by objects of expertise. Our results showed that the N170 response elicited by eyeglasses was larger than the response elicited by objects that do not generate perceptual expertise (e.g., houses). Importantly, we found that eyeglasses could produce a within-category N170 adaptation effect, similar to that produced in response to objects of expertise (e.g., faces). Our results have revealed for the first time that with a large amount of experience, eyeglasses could evoke the face-like N170 response, which suggested that eyeglasses may become an object of perceptual expertise to some human observers.

  3. Practical Guidance and Ethical Considerations for Studies Using Photo-Elicitation Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Bugos, Eva; Frasso, Rosemary; FitzGerald, Elizabeth; True, Gala; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    Photo-elicitation is a qualitative interviewing technique that has gained popularity in recent years. It is the foundation for photovoice projects and is a tool well-suited for community-based participatory research. Photo-elicitation yields rich data, and interview participants say these interviews encourage community awareness and engagement. This article draws on 9 studies, conducted by researchers at 3 institutions (the University of Pennsylvania, the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth) in partnership with community-based organizations and students, in which 303 participants completed photo-elicitation interviews. We offer 8 practical suggestions for overcoming challenges encountered during photo-elicitation research and for managing ethical concerns about the use of visual data in public health research. Our guidelines can inform study design, protocol development, and institutional review board approval. PMID:25357257

  4. ACTH acts via an anterior ventral third ventricular site to elicit grooming behavior.

    PubMed

    Dunn, A J; Hurd, R W

    1986-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular but not parenteral application of ACTH has been shown to elicit excessive grooming behavior in rats and mice. This behavior is elicited by administration of ACTH into the lateral, third, or fourth ventricles. Plugging of the cerebral aqueduct with cold cream fails to prevent grooming in response to lateral ventricle injection of ACTH. However, cold cream plugs in the third ventricle can prevent the subsequent induction of grooming behavior by lateral ventricle injection of ACTH, but only when the plugs are located in the anterior ventral third ventricle in the region of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) and median eminence. These data suggest the anterior ventral third ventricle as the periventricular site of action of ACTH in eliciting excessive grooming, although it is possible that peptides taken up in this area are transported to other regions to elicit the behavioral response.

  5. Variation in accumulation of isoflavonoids in Phaseoleae seedlings elicited by Rhizopus.

    PubMed

    Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Andini, Silvia; Bettonvil, Monique; Severing, Edouard; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Seeds from seven species of tribe Phaseoleae, i.e. Phaseolus, Vigna, Lablab and Psophocarpus, were investigated for inducibility of isoflavonoids by germination with or without subsequent elicitation with Rhizopus oryzae. Germination alone poorly induced isoflavonoid production (in the range of 0.2-0.7 mg representative compound equivalents (RCE)/g DW), whereas application of Rhizopus onto the seedlings increased the isoflavonoid content considerably (in the range of 0.5-3.3 mg RCE/g DW). The inducibility of different isoflavonoid subclasses in seedlings with Rhizopus varied per species. Isoflavones and isoflavanones were mainly found in elicited seedlings of Phaseolus, Vigna and Lablab, whereas pterocarpans were mainly observed in those of Psophocarpus. Despite their phylogenetic relatedness, the seeds of various species within Phaseoleae appeared to respond differently towards elicitation by Rhizopus during germination. The kind of molecules induced followed the phylogenetic relationship of the various species, but their amounts induced during germination, alone or combined with elicitation, did not.

  6. Practical guidance and ethical considerations for studies using photo-elicitation interviews.

    PubMed

    Bugos, Eva; Frasso, Rosemary; FitzGerald, Elizabeth; True, Gala; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Cannuscio, Carolyn

    2014-10-30

    Photo-elicitation is a qualitative interviewing technique that has gained popularity in recent years. It is the foundation for photovoice projects and is a tool well-suited for community-based participatory research. Photo-elicitation yields rich data, and interview participants say these interviews encourage community awareness and engagement. This article draws on 9 studies, conducted by researchers at 3 institutions (the University of Pennsylvania, the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth) in partnership with community-based organizations and students, in which 303 participants completed photo-elicitation interviews. We offer 8 practical suggestions for overcoming challenges encountered during photo-elicitation research and for managing ethical concerns about the use of visual data in public health research. Our guidelines can inform study design, protocol development, and institutional review board approval.

  7. Implementation of the PR&PP methodology: the role of formal expert elicitations

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F

    2010-01-01

    The application of the methodology developed by the GenIV International Forum's (GIF's) Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP) Working Group is an expert elicitation. Although the framework of the methodology is structured and systematic, it does not by itself constitute or require a formal elicitation. However, formal elicitation can be utilized in the PR&PP context to provide a systematic, credible and transparent qualitative analysis and develop input for quantitative analyses. This section provides an overview of expert elicitations, a discussion of the role formal expert elicitations can play in the PR&PP methodology, an outline of the formal expert elicitation process and a brief practical guide to conducting formal expert elicitations. Expert elicitation is a process utilizing knowledgeable people in cases, for example, when an assessment is needed but physically based data is absent or open to interpretation. More specifically, it can be used to: (1) predict future events; (2) provide estimates on new, rare, complex or poorly understood phenomena; (3) integrate or interpret existing information; or (4) determine what is currently known, how well it is known or what is worth learning in a field. Expert elicitation can be informal or formal. The informal application of expert judgment is frequently used. Although it can produce good results, it often provides demonstrably biased or otherwise flawed answers to problems. This along with the absence of transparency can result in a loss of confidence when experts speak on issues. More formal expert elicitation is a structured process that makes use of people knowledgeable in certain areas to make assessments. The reason for advocating formal use is that the quality and accuracy of expert judgment comes from the completeness of the expert's understanding of the phenomena and the process used to elicit and analyze the data. The use of a more formal process to obtain, lU1derstand and analyze expert

  8. Extending Hypothesis Testing of Edge Organizations Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) During ELICIT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    task difficulty and response correctness on neural systems supporting fluid reasoning. Cognitive Neurodynamics 1 (1): 71-84. Kaplan, J.T., Iacoboni...dynamic influences on decision-making and trust during social interaction. ELICITing Behavior ELICIT is designed to explore social and cognitive ...a person’s own self-awareness in the game experience, (2) their cognitive processes of reasoning, and (3) the modulation of uncertainty that primes

  9. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potentials of Nigella sativa L. Suspension Cultures under Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Hera; Fatima, Nida; Ahmad, Iffat Zareen

    2015-01-01

    Nigella sativa L. (family Ranunculaceae) is an annual herb of immense medicinal properties because of its major active components (i.e., thymoquinone (TQ), thymohydroquinone (THQ), and thymol (THY)). Plant tissue culture techniques like elicitation, Agrobacterium mediated transformation, hairy root culture, and so on, are applied for substantial metabolite production. This study enumerates the antibacterial and antioxidant potentials of N. sativa epicotyl suspension cultures under biotic and abiotic elicitation along with concentration optimization of the elicitors for enhanced TQ and THY production. Cultures under different concentrations of pectin and manganese chloride (MnCl2) elicitation (i.e., 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, and 15 mg/L) showed that the control, MnCl2 10 mg/L, and pectin 15 mg/L suspension extracts greatly inhibited the growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, and S. aureus (MIC against E. coli, i.e., 2.35 ± 0.8, 2.4 ± 0.2, and 2.46 ± 0.5, resp.). Elicitation decreased SOD enzyme activity whereas CAT enzyme activity increased remarkably under MnCl2 elicitation. MnCl2 10 mg/L and pectin 15 mg/L elicitation enhanced the DPPH radical inhibition ability, but ferric scavenging activity was comparable to the control. TQ and THY were quantified by LC-MS/MS in the cultures with high bioactive properties revealing maximum content under MnCl2 10 mg/L elicitation. Therefore, MnCl2 elicitation can be undertaken on large scale for sustainable metabolite production. PMID:26347883

  10. Low zone tolerance requires ICAM-1 expression to limit contact hypersensitivity elicitation.

    PubMed

    Komura, Kazuhiro; Iwata, Yohei; Ogawa, Fumihide; Yoshizaki, Ayumi; Yamaoka, Toshifumi; Akiyama, Yuichiro; Hara, Toshihide; Hasegawa, Minoru; Fujimoto, Manabu; Sato, Shinichi

    2009-11-01

    Painting subsensitizing doses of contact sensitizers on skin (low-dose tolerization) induces antigen (Ag)-specific tolerance, known as low zone tolerance (LZT), which has been experimentally demonstrated by the inhibition of contact hypersensitivity (CHS). Although LZT resulted from the inhibition of the sensitization phase, the effects on the effector/elicitation phase remain unknown. L-selectin and ICAM-1 regulate leukocyte influx into inflamed tissues during the elicitation phase of CHS. LZT was investigated in mice lacking either L-selectin or ICAM-1 to evaluate the roles these leukocyte receptors play in LZT during the elicitation phase. Low-dose tolerization effectively suppressed CHS in wild-type and L-selectin-deficient mice, but not in ICAM-1-deficient mice. Low-dose-tolerized ICAM-1-deficient splenocytes effectively suppressed the elicitation phase in naive wild-type recipients. Sensitized ICAM-1-deficient splenocytes showed normal proliferative responses to the sensitizing Ag and generated normal CHS in wild-type recipients. Thus, ICAM-1 deficiency did not affect sensitization. LZT was associated with a lack of ICAM-1 upregulation after elicitation, suggesting a potentially mechanistic role for ICAM-1. The blockade of IL-10, a possible mediator of LZT, produced by hapten-specific suppressor cells, abrogated LZT and restored ICAM-1 upregulation. These results indicate that low-dose tolerization controls CHS by abrogating ICAM-1 upregulation during the elicitation phase.

  11. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noohi, Fatemeh; Kinnaird, Catherine; Wood, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Seidler, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to characterize the brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit saccular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMP) (Colebatch & Halmagyi 1992; Colebatch et al. 1994). Some researchers have reported that airconducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects (Curthoys et al. 2009, Wackym et al., 2012). However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying the vestibular disorders related to otolith deficits. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, pre and post central gyri, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation (Bottini et al., 1994; Dieterich et al., 2003; Emri et al., 2003; Schlindwein et al., 2008; Janzen et al., 2008). Here we hypothesized that the skull tap elicits the similar pattern of cortical activity as the auditory tone burst. Subjects put on a set of MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in supine position, with eyes closed. All subjects received both forms of the stimulation, however, the order of stimulation with auditory tone burst and air-conducted skull tap was counterbalanced across subjects. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular cortex, resulting in vestibular response (Halmagyi et al., 1995). Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate

  12. The use of expert elicitation in environmental health impact assessment: a seven step procedure

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Environmental health impact assessments often have to deal with substantial uncertainties. Typically, the knowledge-base is limited with incomplete, or inconsistent evidence and missing or ambiguous data. Consulting experts can help to identify and address uncertainties. Methods Formal expert elicitation is a structured approach to systematically consult experts on uncertain issues. It is most often used to quantify ranges for poorly known parameters, but may also be useful to further develop qualitative issues such as definitions, assumptions or conceptual (causal) models. A thorough preparation and systematic design and execution of an expert elicitation process may increase the validity of its outcomes and transparency and trustworthiness of its conclusions. Various expert elicitation protocols and methods exist. However, these are often not universally applicable, and need customization to suite the needs of a specific study. In this paper, we set out to develop a widely applicable method for the use of expert elicitation in environmental health impact assessment. Results We present a practical yet flexible seven step procedure towards organising expert elicitation in the context of environmental health impact assessment, based on existing protocols. We describe how customization for specific applications is always necessary. In particular, three issues affect the choice of methods for a particular application: the types of uncertainties considered, the intended use of the elicited information, and the available resources. We outline how these three considerations guide choices regarding the design and execution of expert elicitation. We present signposts to sources where the issues are discussed in more depth to give the newcomer the insights needed to make the protocol work. The seven step procedure is illustrated using examples from earlier published elicitations in the field of environmental health research. Conclusions We conclude that, despite

  13. Rhizobium meliloti exopolysaccharide mutants elicit feedback regulation of nodule formation in alfalfa

    SciTech Connect

    Caetano-Anolles, G.; Lagares, A.; Bauer, W.D. )

    1990-02-01

    Nodule formation by wild-type Rhizobium meliloti is strongly suppressed in younger parts of alfalfa (Medicago sativum L.) root systems as a feedback response to development of the first nodules. Mutants of R. meliloti deficient in exopolysaccharide synthesis can induce the formation of organized nodular structures (pseudonodules) on alfalfa roots but are defective in their ability to invade and multiply within host tissues. The formation of empty pseudonodules by exo mutants was found to elicit a feedback suppression of nodule formation similar to that elicited by the wild-type bacteria. Inoculation of an exo mutant onto one side of a split-root system 24 hours before inoculation of the second side with wild-type cells suppressed wild-type nodule formation on the second side in proportion to the extent of pseudonodule formation by the exo mutants. The formation of pseudonodules is thus sufficient to elicit systemic feedback control of nodulation in the host root system: infection thread development and internal proliferation of the bacteria are not required for elicitation of feedback. Pseudonodule formation by the exo mutants was found to be strongly suppressed in split-root systems by prior inoculation on the opposite side with the wild type. Thus, feedback control elicited by the wild-type inhibits Rhizobium-induced redifferentiation of host root cells.

  14. Use (and abuse) of expert elicitation in support of decision making for public policy

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, M. Granger

    2014-01-01

    The elicitation of scientific and technical judgments from experts, in the form of subjective probability distributions, can be a valuable addition to other forms of evidence in support of public policy decision making. This paper explores when it is sensible to perform such elicitation and how that can best be done. A number of key issues are discussed, including topics on which there are, and are not, experts who have knowledge that provides a basis for making informed predictive judgments; the inadequacy of only using qualitative uncertainty language; the role of cognitive heuristics and of overconfidence; the choice of experts; the development, refinement, and iterative testing of elicitation protocols that are designed to help experts to consider systematically all relevant knowledge when they make their judgments; the treatment of uncertainty about model functional form; diversity of expert opinion; and when it does or does not make sense to combine judgments from different experts. Although it may be tempting to view expert elicitation as a low-cost, low-effort alternative to conducting serious research and analysis, it is neither. Rather, expert elicitation should build on and use the best available research and analysis and be undertaken only when, given those, the state of knowledge will remain insufficient to support timely informed assessment and decision making. PMID:24821779

  15. The capsaicin cough reflex in eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume.

    PubMed

    Elberling, Jesper; Dirksen, Asger; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Mosbech, Holger

    2006-03-01

    Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the site of airway symptoms elicited by perfume and cough responsiveness to bronchial challenge with capsaicin. 21 eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire and underwent a bronchial challenge with capsaicin. Lower, but not upper, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. Having severe symptoms to perfume (n=11) did not relate to the site of the symptoms in the airways and was not associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. In conclusion, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume may reflect local hyperreactivity related to defensive reflexes in the airways, and measurements of the capsaicin cough reflex are relevant when patients with lower respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume exposures are investigated.

  16. Enhanced scratching elicited by a pruritogen and an algogen in a mouse model of contact hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kai; Qu, Lintao; Shimada, Steven G; Nie, Hong; LaMotte, Robert H

    2014-09-05

    Chemical pruritogens and algogens evoke primarily itch and pain, respectively, when administered to the skin of healthy human subjects. However, the dominant sensory quality elicited by an algesic chemical stimulus may change in patients with chronic itch where bradykinin, elicits itch in addition to pain. Here we tested whether normally pruritic and algesic chemicals evoked abnormal itch- or pain-like behaviors in the mouse after the development of contact hypersensitivity (CHS), an animal model of allergic contact dermatitis. Mice previously sensitized to a hapten (squaric acid dibutylester) applied to the abdomen, exhibited spontaneous itch-like scratching and pain-like wiping directed to the site on the cheek of the CHS elicited by a subsequent challenge with the same hapten. In comparison with responses of control mice, CHS mice exhibited a significant increase in the scratching evoked by bovine adrenal medulla 8-22, a peptide that elicits a histamine-independent itch, but did not alter the scratching to histamine. Bradykinin, an algogen that elicited only wiping in control mice, additionally evoked significant scratching in CHS mice. Thus, within an area of CHS, histamine-independent itch is enhanced and chemically evoked pain is accompanied by itch.

  17. Does alexithymia explain variation in cue-elicited craving reported by methamphetamine-dependent individuals?

    PubMed

    Saladin, Michael E; Santa Ana, Elizabeth J; LaRowe, Steven D; Simpson, Annie N; Tolliver, Bryan K; Price, Kimber L; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Brady, Kathleen T

    2012-01-01

    Drug craving is an important motivational phenomenon among addicted individuals, and successful management of craving is essential to both the initiation and maintenance of abstinence. Although craving in response to drug cues is common in drug-dependent individuals, it is not universal. At the present time, it is not known why approximately 20-30% of all addicted persons fail to report appreciable craving in laboratory-based cue reactivity studies. This study examined the possibility that alexithymia, a personality attribute characterized by a difficulty identifying and describing emotions, may contribute to the impoverished cue-elicited craving experienced by some addicts. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that alexithymia, as measured by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), would be inversely related to the magnitude of cue-elicited craving obtained in a cue reactivity protocol. Forty methamphetamine-dependent individuals completed the TAS and provided craving ratings for methamphetamine after presentation of methamphetamine-associated cues. Thirteen participants (32%) reported no methamphetamine cue-elicited craving. Contrary to expectation, TAS factor 1 (a measure of difficulty identifying feelings) scores were positively associated with cue-elicited craving. Thus, the results suggest that increasing difficulty-identifying feelings may be associated with higher cue-elicited craving. Clinical implications for this finding are discussed.

  18. 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production in elicited hairy roots culture of Eurycoma longifolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nazirah; Ismail, Ismanizan; Hassan, Nor Hasnida; Basherudin, Norlia

    2016-11-01

    Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) is a highly sought after medicinal plant in Malaysia. Propagation of E. longifolia through tissue culture has been reported in order to cater the industry demands for planting and raw materials as well as for conservation purposes. E. longifolia hairy roots culture has been developed using Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the production of Tongkat Ali phytochemicals. Effects of three elicitors; methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and yeast extract at different concentrations were evaluated on the production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one in E. longifolia hairy roots. The cultures were elicited at early exponential growth phase, followed by extraction of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one using methanol and HPLC analysis. Elicitation with methyl jasmonate at all concentrations increased 9-methoxycanthin-6-one up to 1-3 fold and treatment with (0.1 mM) was most efficient in enhancing 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production up to 3.902 mg/g dry weight after 7 days (168 hours) elicitation.

  19. Ecstasy and methamphetamine elicit action potential bursts via different mechanisms in a central snail neuron.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Lin; Tsai, Ming-Cheng; Lu, Guan-Ling; Lu, Dah-Yuu; Chuang, Chieh-Min; Yang, Han-Yin; Huang, Shiang-Suo; Chen, Yi-Hung

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effects of (+) methamphetamine (METH) and its ring-substituted analog (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) on electrophysiological behavior and their relationships to second messenger systems in an identifiable RP4 neuron of the African snail, Achatina fulica Ferussac. Extracellular application of MDMA at 1mM and METH at 3mM elicited action potential bursts that were not blocked after immersing the neurons in Ca(2+)-free solution. Notably, MDMA- (1mM) elicited action potential bursts were blocked by pretreatment with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors chelerythrine (20 microM) and Ro 31-8220 (20 microM), but not by the PKA inhibitors KT-5720 (10 microM) and H89 (10 microM). The PKC activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu; 3 microM), but not the PKA activator forskolin (50 microM), facilitated the induction of bursts elicited by MDMA at a lower concentration (0.3mM). In contrast, METH- (3mM) elicited action potential bursts were blocked by pretreatment with KT-5720 (10 microM) and H89 (10 microM), but not by chelerythrine (20 microM) and Ro 31-8220 (20 microM). Forskolin (50 microM), but not PDBu (3 microM) facilitated the induction of bursts elicited by METH at a lower concentration (1mM). Tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), a blocker of the delayed rectifying K(+) current (I(KD)), did not elicit bursts at a concentration of 5mM but did facilitate the induction of action potential bursts elicited by both METH and MDMA. Voltage clamp studies revealed that both METH and MDMA decreased the TEA-sensitive I(KD) of the RP4 neuron. Forskolin (50 microM) or dibutyryl cAMP (1mM), a membrane-permeable cAMP analog, alone did not elicit action potential bursts. However, co-administration with forskolin (50 microM) and TEA (5mM) or co-administration with dibutyryl cAMP (1mM) and TEA (50mM) elicited action potential bursts in the presence of the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine (20 microM). Similarly, PDBu (10 microM) or phorbol

  20. Naturalistic observations of elicited expressive communication of children with autism: an analysis of teacher instructions.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsu-Min

    2009-03-01

    This study observed expressive communication of 17 Australian and 15 Taiwanese children with autism who were mute or had limited spoken language during 2 hour regular school routines and analyzed teacher instructions associated with elicited expressive communication. Results indicated: (a) the frequency of occurrence of elicited expressive communication was very low; (b) the incidence of elicited expressive communication was negatively correlated with autism severity; (c) verbal prompt and a combination of verbal prompt and modeling were the most common types of teacher instruction and the use of physical prompt was a rate event; (d) modeling and verbal prompt were positively correlated with speech and unaided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) and a combination of verbal prompt and modeling was positively associated with aided AAC; and (e) modeling, verbal prompt, and a combination of modeling and verbal prompt were positively correlated with requesting function and commenting function was positively correlated with modeling and verbal prompt.

  1. Auditory modulation of wind-elicited walking behavior in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Fukutomi, Matasaburo; Someya, Makoto; Ogawa, Hiroto

    2015-12-01

    Animals flexibly change their locomotion triggered by an identical stimulus depending on the environmental context and behavioral state. This indicates that additional sensory inputs in different modality from the stimulus triggering the escape response affect the neuronal circuit governing that behavior. However, how the spatio-temporal relationships between these two stimuli effect a behavioral change remains unknown. We studied this question, using crickets, which respond to a short air-puff by oriented walking activity mediated by the cercal sensory system. In addition, an acoustic stimulus, such as conspecific 'song' received by the tympanal organ, elicits a distinct oriented locomotion termed phonotaxis. In this study, we examined the cross-modal effects on wind-elicited walking when an acoustic stimulus was preceded by an air-puff and tested whether the auditory modulation depends on the coincidence of the direction of both stimuli. A preceding 10 kHz pure tone biased the wind-elicited walking in a backward direction and elevated a threshold of the wind-elicited response, whereas other movement parameters, including turn angle, reaction time, walking speed and distance were unaffected. The auditory modulations, however, did not depend on the coincidence of the stimulus directions. A preceding sound consistently altered the wind-elicited walking direction and response probability throughout the experimental sessions, meaning that the auditory modulation did not result from previous experience or associative learning. These results suggest that the cricket nervous system is able to integrate auditory and air-puff stimuli, and modulate the wind-elicited escape behavior depending on the acoustic context.

  2. Design and Implementation of Tools to Increase User Control and Knowledge Elicitation in a Virtual Battlespace.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-11-01

    S ELU.gTE, JAN 0 3 1994% OF ’Origi•,l oOntainzs colorplates: All DTIC reproduot.. ions will be in black and white- DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF TOOLS ...1I994 DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF TOOLS TO INCREASE USER CONTROL AND KNOWLEDGE ELICITATION IN A VIRTUAL BATTLESPACE _SFJ7 h- For THESIS •! -Jim J...AFIT/GCS/ENG/94-20 Design and Implementation of Tools to Increase User Control and Knowledge Elicitation in a Virtual Battlespace THESIS Presented to

  3. The Relation Between Molecular Weight of Antigen and Ability to Elicit Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis*

    PubMed Central

    Leskowitz, S.; Ovary, Z.

    1962-01-01

    Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in the guinea pig has been studied with rabbit antibody to a series of antigens of differing molecular weight. The results indicated that at a given antibody level the weight of antigen needed to elicit a reaction increases with its molecular weight. Previous observations have been confirmed that the amount of antigen needed to elicit a reaction at a high level of antibody is less than that required at a lower level. The results suggest that extremely small amounts of small molecular weight antigens might be sufficient to produce anaphylactic symptoms in highly sensitive individuals. PMID:14464304

  4. Intensity versus type of affect elicited by dissociative cognitions in moderating acute pain.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M J; Rogers, R M

    1990-12-01

    75 undergraduates were trained to use cognitions that elicited either high or low pleasure, high or low fear, or received an expectancy manipulation. Groups high in pleasure showed greater tolerance for pressure pain than other treatment groups but did not differ from expectancy; differences were not found on discomfort ratings. Results were not attributable to differential compliance with instructions, perceived effectiveness of cognitions used, or the number of cognitions used. The percentage of time during stimulation that assigned cognitions were used appeared to mediate tolerance. Expectations for improved tolerance elicited by appealing cognitions and compelling placebos may also mediate tolerance.

  5. Expert Elicitation Methods in Quantifying the Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance from Offshore Renewable Energy Developments.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Carl; Harwood, John; King, Stephanie; Booth, Cormac; Caneco, Bruno; Walker, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    There are many developments for offshore renewable energy around the United Kingdom whose installation typically produces large amounts of far-reaching noise, potentially disturbing many marine mammals. The potential to affect the favorable conservation status of many species means extensive environmental impact assessment requirements for the licensing of such installation activities. Quantification of such complex risk problems is difficult and much of the key information is not readily available. Expert elicitation methods can be employed in such pressing cases. We describe the methodology used in an expert elicitation study conducted in the United Kingdom for combining expert opinions based on statistical distributions and copula-like methods.

  6. The interplay of elicitation and evaluation of trait-expressive behavior: Evidence in assessment center exercises.

    PubMed

    Lievens, Filip; Schollaert, Eveline; Keen, Gert

    2015-07-01

    In assessment centers (ACs), research on eliciting candidate behavior and evaluating candidate behavior have largely followed independent paths. This study integrates trait activation and trait rating models to posit hypotheses about the effects of behavior elicitation via situational cues on key assessor observation and rating variables. To test the hypotheses, a series of experimental and field studies are conducted. Only when trait-expressive behavior activation and evaluation models work in conjunction, increases in observability are coupled with increases in the interrater reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and accuracy of AC ratings. Implications of these findings for AC theory and practice are formulated.

  7. Tritherapy (Spinalon)-Elicited Spinal Locomotor Network Activation: Phase I-IIa Clinical Trial in Spinal Cord-Injured Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    PROTOCOL SPIN-01 Tri- therapy (SPINALON)-elicited spinal locomotor network activation: Phase I-Ila clinicaltrials in spinalcord-injured patients Clinical...STUDY) described in the Protocol SPIN-01 (PROTOCOL) being entitled: "Tri- therapy (SPINALON)-elicited spinal locomotor network activation: Phase I...Report SC100155 SPIN-01 Tri- therapy (SPINALON)-elicited spinal locomotor network activation: Phase I-IIa clinical trials in spinal cord-injured

  8. Eliciting Children's Recall of Events: How Do Computers Compare with Humans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Martine B.; Wilson, J. Clare; Thomson, Donald M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the usefulness of an interactive computer program in eliciting children's reports about an event. Compared results of interviews by computer with interviews with humans with children aged five through eight that showed little benefit in computers over face-to-face interviews. (Author/LRW)

  9. Comparison of Increasingly Detailed Elicitation Methods for the Assessment of Adverse Events in Pediatric Psychopharmacology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhill, Laurence L.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Fisher, Prudence; Levine, Jerome; Davies, Mark; Abikoff, Howard; Chrisman, Allan K.; Chuang, Shirley; Findling, Robert L.; March, John; Scahill, Lawrence; Walkup, John; Riddle, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To improve the gathering of adverse events (AEs) in pediatric psychopharmacology by examining the value and acceptability of increasingly detailed elicitation methods. Method: Trained clinicians administered the Safety Monitoring Uniform Report Form (SMURF) to 59 parents and outpatients (mean age [+ or -] SD = 11.9 [+ or -] 3.2 years)…

  10. Immune response elicited by the oral administration of an intermediate strain of IBDV in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Carballeda, Juan Manuel; Zoth, Silvina Chimeno; Gómez, Evangelina; Lucero, María Soledad; Gravisaco, María José; Berinstein, Analía

    2014-01-01

    The immune response elicited by the oral inoculation of an intermediate strain of infectious bursal disease virus was studied in chickens. A strong over expression of IL-6, IL-8, IFNα and IFNγ was observed in bursa at 3 days post inoculation together with an increase in splenic NO2 release. An influx of T-lymphocytes was also detected. PMID:25763062

  11. Infection-derived lipids elicit a novel immune deficiency circuitry in arthropods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insect Immune Deficiency (IMD) pathway resembles the tumor necrosis factor receptor network in mammals and senses diaminopimelic-type peptidoglycans present in Gram-negative bacteria. Whether unidentified chemical moieties elicit the IMD signaling cascade remains unknown. Here, we disclose thoug...

  12. Elicited Imitation as a Measure of Second Language Proficiency: A Narrative Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Xun; Maeda, Yukiko; Lv, Jing; Ginther, April

    2016-01-01

    Elicited imitation (EI) has been widely used to examine second language (L2) proficiency and development and was an especially popular method in the 1970s and early 1980s. However, as the field embraced more communicative approaches to both instruction and assessment, the use of EI diminished, and the construct-related validity of EI scores as a…

  13. Deriving Childhood Temperament Measures from Emotion-Eliciting Behavioral Episodes: Scale Construction and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Aksan, Nazan; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the development and initial validation of a home-based version of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB), which was designed to assess childhood temperament with a comprehensive series of emotion-eliciting behavioral episodes. This article provides researchers with general guidelines for assessing specific…

  14. Differential Neural Activity during Search of Specific and General Autobiographical Memories Elicited by Musical Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies that have examined autobiographical memory specificity have utilized retrieval cues associated with prior searches of the event, potentially changing the retrieval processes being investigated. In the current study, musical cues were used to naturally elicit memories from multiple levels of specificity (i.e., lifetime…

  15. Collage Life Story Elicitation Technique: A Representational Technique for Scaffolding Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Schalkwyk, Gertina J.

    2010-01-01

    A basic premise in narrative therapy and inquiry is that life story telling is a mechanism by which experiences are rendered meaningful within some form of structure. However, narrative inquiry has to take cognisance of difficulties ensuing from discursive practices for different populations when eliciting their life stories. In this article I…

  16. Does Technology Elicit Desired Behaviors in Emotionally Disturbed Students?: Perceptions of Elementary Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to identify the perceptions of educators regarding the potential impact of technology as a motivator to elicit desirable behaviors within students that have been identified with an educational diagnosis of emotional disturbance at the elementary school level. A review of the literature focused on key…

  17. Elicited Response in the Pre-Kindergarten Setting: Good or Bad Idea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Nicole S.; Meza-Zaragosa, Elsa

    This paper argues in favor of dual language programs over typical bilingual education programs because in the dual language program the minority language has a status equal to the majority language. Through the use of the language experience approach, this study examines the role of elicited response from a small sample of English and Spanish…

  18. Fostering and Eliciting Emergent Literacy Skills in Potentially English Proficient Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Elizabeth A.

    This report describes an early intervention program to elicit emergent literacy skills in Potentially English Proficient kindergarten students. The school is located in a suburb of a large city near a naval base. The problem, lack of literacy readiness skills, was documented with a battery of tests given prior to entrance in kindergarten and the…

  19. Using Model-Eliciting Activities as a Tool to Identify and Develop Mathematically Creative Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxbill, Emmy; Chamberlin, Scott A.; Weatherford, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Traditional classroom methods for identifying mathematically creative students have been inadequate. Identifying students who could potentially be mathematically creative is instrumental in the development of students and in meeting their affective and educational needs. One prospective identification tool is the use of model-eliciting activities…

  20. Model-Eliciting Activities as a Tool to Develop and Identify Creatively Gifted Mathematicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlin, Scott A.; Moon, Sidney M.

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the use of Model-Eliciting Activities (MEAs) as a (curricular) tool to develop mathematical creativity and identify students who are creatively gifted in mathematics. The thesis of this article is that by using MEAs, gifted educators can: (a) provide students with opportunities to develop creative and applied mathematical…

  1. Sequential Immunization Elicits Broadly Neutralizing Anti-HIV-1 Antibodies in Ig Knockin Mice.

    PubMed

    Escolano, Amelia; Steichen, Jon M; Dosenovic, Pia; Kulp, Daniel W; Golijanin, Jovana; Sok, Devin; Freund, Natalia T; Gitlin, Alexander D; Oliveira, Thiago; Araki, Tatsuya; Lowe, Sarina; Chen, Spencer T; Heinemann, Jennifer; Yao, Kai-Hui; Georgeson, Erik; Saye-Francisco, Karen L; Gazumyan, Anna; Adachi, Yumiko; Kubitz, Michael; Burton, Dennis R; Schief, William R; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2016-09-08

    A vaccine that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 is likely to be protective, but this has not been achieved. To explore immunization regimens that might elicit bNAbs, we produced and immunized mice expressing the predicted germline PGT121, a bNAb specific for the V3-loop and surrounding glycans on the HIV-1 spike. Priming with an epitope-modified immunogen designed to activate germline antibody-expressing B cells, followed by ELISA-guided boosting with a sequence of directional immunogens, native-like trimers with decreasing epitope modification, elicited heterologous tier-2-neutralizing responses. In contrast, repeated immunization with the priming immunogen did not. Antibody cloning confirmed elicitation of high levels of somatic mutation and tier-2-neutralizing antibodies resembling the authentic human bNAb. Our data establish that sequential immunization with specifically designed immunogens can induce high levels of somatic mutation and shepherd antibody maturation to produce bNAbs from their inferred germline precursors.

  2. "Dare I Ask?": Eliciting Prior Knowledge and Its Implications for Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dávila, Liv Thorstensson

    2015-01-01

    This article examines high school teachers' engagement of newcomer English learner students' prior knowledge. Three central research questions guided this study: 1) To what extent do teachers function as mediators of their students' prior knowledge? 2) What goes into teachers' thinking about how and when to elicit prior knowledge? and 3) How do…

  3. Use of expert judgment elicitation to estimate seismic vulnerability of selected building types

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaiswal, K.S.; Aspinall, W.; Perkins, D.; Wald, D.; Porter, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Pooling engineering input on earthquake building vulnerability through an expert judgment elicitation process requires careful deliberation. This article provides an overview of expert judgment procedures including the Delphi approach and the Cooke performance-based method to estimate the seismic vulnerability of a building category.

  4. Assessing Measurement Invariance for Spanish Sentence Repetition and Morphology Elicitation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapantzoglou, Maria; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Gray, Shelley; Restrepo, M. Adelaida

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate evidence supporting the construct validity of two grammatical tasks (sentence repetition, morphology elicitation) included in the Spanish Screener for Language Impairment in Children (Restrepo, Gorin, & Gray, 2013). We evaluated if the tasks measured the targeted grammatical skills in the same…

  5. A drug-paired taste cue elicits withdrawal and predicts cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Nyland, Jennifer E; Grigson, Patricia S

    2013-03-01

    Addiction is a chronic disease where periods of abstinence are riddled with instances of craving, withdrawal, and eventual relapse to escalated drug use. Cues previously associated with drug use can have a deleterious effect on this cycle by precipitating withdrawal symptoms. Here we focus specifically on the relationship between avoidance of a drug-paired taste cue and the ability of the drug-paired cue to elicit withdrawal and, ultimately, drug seeking and taking. We used a rat model of drug addiction and naloxone-induced loss of body weight to test whether a taste cue elicits withdrawal in anticipation of drug availability. Experiment 1 investigated the ability of a taste cue to elicit signs of withdrawal when it predicted experimenter-administered morphine (15 mg/kg, i.p.). In Experiment 2, a saccharin taste cue was paired with the opportunity to actively self-administer cocaine (0.167 mg/infusion, i.v.). The results show that presentation of a morphine- or cocaine-paired taste cue is sufficient to elicit naloxone-induced withdrawal symptoms, and greater withdrawal predicts greater cocaine self-administration in rats.

  6. Eliciting, Identifying, Interpreting, and Responding to Students' Ideas: Teacher Candidates' Growth in Formative Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Birmingham, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    With the goal of helping teacher candidates become well-started beginners, it is important that methods courses in teacher education programs focus on high-leverage practices. Using responsive teaching practices, specifically eliciting, identifying, interpreting, and responding to students' science ideas (i.e., formative assessment), can be used…

  7. Differences between Spontaneous and Elicited Expressive Communication in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Hsu-Min

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between spontaneous and elicited expressive communication in Australian and Taiwanese children with autism who were nonverbal or had limited speech. Thirty-four children with autism (17 Australian and 17 Taiwanese children) participated in this study. Each participant was observed for 2…

  8. Business Process Elicitation, Modeling, and Reengineering: Teaching and Learning with Simulated Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeyaraj, Anand

    2010-01-01

    The design of enterprise information systems requires students to master technical skills for elicitation, modeling, and reengineering business processes as well as soft skills for information gathering and communication. These tacit skills and behaviors cannot be effectively taught students but rather experienced and learned by students. This…

  9. Elicitation and Reformulation and Their Relationship with Learner Repair in Dyadic Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassaji, Hossein

    2007-01-01

    This research investigates the usefulness of two major types of interactional feedback (elicitation and reformulation) in dyadic interaction. The focus is on the different ways in which each feedback type is provided and their relationship with learner repair. The participants were 42 adult intermediate English as a second language learners and…

  10. On a Method of Eliciting True/False Judgments from Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Peter; Donaldson, Margaret

    1976-01-01

    Experiments in eliciting true/false judgments from young children aged 3-5 used a "talking doll," a toy panda with a speaker installed. The procedure has been used in studies of language comprehension, communication skills, and free conversation experiments. (CHK)

  11. The Experimental State of Mind in Elicitation: Illustrations from Tonal Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Kristine M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper illustrates how an "experimental state of mind", i.e. principles of experimental design, can inform hypothesis generation and testing in structured fieldwork elicitation. The application of these principles is demonstrated with case studies in toneme discovery. Pike's classic toneme discovery procedure is shown to be a special…

  12. Linguistic Proficiency Assessment in Second Language Acquisition Research: The Elicited Imitation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaillard, Stéphanie; Tremblay, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the elicited imitation task (EIT) as a tool for measuring linguistic proficiency in a second/foreign (L2) language, focusing on French. Nonnative French speakers (n = 94) and native French speakers (n = 6) completed an EIT that included 50 sentences varying in length and complexity. Three raters evaluated productions on…

  13. Dilemmas in Continuing Professional Learning: Learning Inscribed in Frameworks or Elicited from Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Ann; Rooney, Donna; Boud, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a dilemma in continuing professional learning: the way learning is typically inscribed in continuing professional education (CPE) frameworks differs from that elicited from practice. It examines these differences in relation to both different underlying assumptions about learning and varying epistemological perspectives as well…

  14. Prospective Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Thought Processes on a Model Eliciting Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eraslan, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical model and modeling are one of the topics that have been intensively discussed in recent years. The purpose of this study is to examine prospective elementary mathematics teachers' thought processes on a model eliciting activity and reveal difficulties or blockages in the processes. The study includes forty-five seniors taking the…

  15. Early Morphological Productivity in Hungarian: Evidence from Sentence Repetition and Elicited Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabor, Balint; Lukacs, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates early productivity of morpheme use in Hungarian children aged between 2 ; 1 and 5 ; 3. Hungarian has a rich morphology which is the core marker of grammatical functions. A new method is introduced using the novel word paradigm in a sentence repetition task with masked inflections (i.e. a disguised elicited production task).…

  16. Keeping the Hands in Mind: What Elicited Pantomime Reveals about Language Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation contains three studies that investigate whether attested patterns of constituent order distribution and change in the world's languages can be attributed, in part, to cognitive preferences for some constituent orders over others. To assess these preferences, seven experiments employed an "elicited pantomime" task.…

  17. Quantifying Aluminum Crystal Size Part 1: The Model-Eliciting Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Hjalmarson, Margret; Zawojewski, Judith S.; Bowman, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Model-eliciting activities (MEA), specially designed client-drive, open-ended problems, have been implemented in a first-year engineering course and in secondary schools. The educational goals and settings are different, but the design of an MEA enables it to be versatile. This paper will introduce the reader to the principles that guide MEA…

  18. Exploring Technology as a Tool for Eliciting and Encouraging Beginning Teacher Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Molly; Schwartz, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    As beginning teachers experience and process new information during their initial acts of teaching, reflection is an inherent part of the process. The following study was designed to explore technology as a tool for reflection by introducing first-year teachers to three technology tools designed to elicit and encourage their reflections on…

  19. Using Art Elicitation to Deliver and Evaluate a Grade 4 Climate Change Instructional Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jillian; Loxton, Jason; Sherren, Kate

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a climate change module delivered to 48 Grade 3/4 students in Nova Scotia, Canada. We tested for prior knowledge and evaluated interventional effectiveness using art elicitation. Common climate change misconceptions were demonstrated in their preintervention artwork, while postintervention artwork showed improved…

  20. Speech Error Elicitation and Co-Occurrence Restrictions in Two Ethiopian Semitic Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Sharon; King, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the results of speech error elicitation experiments investigating the role of two consonant co-occurrence restrictions in the productive grammar of speakers of two Ethiopian Semitic languages, Amharic and Chaha. Higher error rates were found with consonant combinations that violated co-occurrence constraints than with those…

  1. Comparing Elicited Imitation and Word Monitoring as Measures of Implicit Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Yuichi; DeKeyser, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The present study challenges the validity of elicited imitation (EI) as a measure for implicit knowledge, investigating to what extent online error detection and subsequent sentence repetition draw on implicit knowledge. To assess online detection during listening, a word monitoring component was built into an EI task. Advanced-level Japanese L2…

  2. Eliciting and Developing Teachers' Conceptions of Random Processes in a Probability and Statistics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Toni M.; Hjalmarson, Margret A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine prospective mathematics specialists' engagement in an instructional sequence designed to elicit and develop their understandings of random processes. The study was conducted with two different sections of a probability and statistics course for K-8 teachers. Thirty-two teachers participated. Video analyses…

  3. Elicitation Techniques: Getting People to Talk about Ideas They Don't Usually Talk About

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    Elicitation techniques are a category of research tasks that use visual, verbal, or written stimuli to encourage participants to talk about their ideas. These tasks are particularly useful for exploring topics that may be difficult to discuss in formal interviews, such as those that involve sensitive issues or rely on tacit knowledge. Elicitation…

  4. Sample Size for Measuring Grammaticality in Preschool Children From Picture-Elicited Language Samples

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ling-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a shorter language sample elicited with fewer pictures (i.e., 7) would yield a percent grammatical utterances (PGU) score similar to that computed from a longer language sample elicited with 15 pictures for 3-year-old children. Method Language samples were elicited by asking forty 3-year-old children with varying language skills to talk about pictures in response to prompts. PGU scores were computed for each of two 7-picture sets and for the full set of 15 pictures. Results PGU scores for the two 7-picture sets did not differ significantly from, and were highly correlated with, PGU scores for the full set and with each other. Agreement for making pass–fail decisions between each 7-picture set and the full set and between the two 7-picture sets ranged from 80% to 100%. Conclusion The current study suggests that the PGU measure is robust enough that it can be computed on the basis of 7, at least in 3-year-old children whose language samples were elicited using similar procedures. PMID:25615691

  5. Children with Autism Respond Differently to Spontaneous, Elicited and Deferred Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimann, M.; Nordqvist, E.; Strid, K.; Connant Almrot, J.; Tjus, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Imitation, a key vehicle for both cognitive and social development, is often regarded as more difficult for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than for children with Down syndrome (DS) or typically developing (TD) children. The current study investigates similarities and differences in observed elicited, spontaneous and…

  6. Emotion-Eliciting Qualities of Television Campaign Advertising as a Predictor of Voting Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, John T.; Biggers, Thompson

    1986-01-01

    Relates political candidates' television advertising to voters' emotional reactions and voting behavior. Suggests that television campaign advertising elicits emotion along three continua: pleasure-displeasure, arousal-nonarousal, and dominance-submissiveness. Suggests that emotional response to such advertising is systematically related to voting…

  7. Effect of schedule of reinforcement on cue-elicited reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Jazmin I; Thiel, Kenneth J; Sanabria, Federico; Browning, Jenny R; Neisewander, Janet L

    2008-03-01

    Cocaine-associated cues can elicit incentive motivational effects that drive cocaine-seeking behavior and contribute to relapse. The extinction/reinstatement model is commonly used to measure these effects in animals. This study examined the influence of training and testing schedules of reinforcement on cue-elicited reinstatement. Lever presses during training resulted in cues and cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/IV) on either continuous or partial reinforcement schedules [fixed ratio (FR) 1 or 11, variable ratio (VR) 5 or 11]. Animals then underwent extinction training, followed by a test for cue-elicited reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior by response-contingent cue presentations on either a continuous (FR 1) or a partial reinforcement schedule (FR 11). Partial reinforcement during training resulted in higher response rates during cue-elicited reinstatement relative to continuous reinforcement. In contrast, delivery of cues on a continuous reinforcement schedule during testing yielded higher response rates relative to delivery on a partial reinforcement schedule. Finally, the shift from a partial to a continuous reinforcement schedule across training and testing phases did not alter response rates. These findings provide important information for choosing parameters for reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior that would allow the most sensitive method to detect changes in response rate after an experimental manipulation.

  8. Feedback on Feedback: Eliciting Learners' Responses to Written Feedback through Student-Generated Screencasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Toro, María; Furnborough, Concha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potential benefits of assignment feedback, learners often fail to use it effectively. This study examines the ways in which adult distance learners engage with written feedback on one of their assignments. Participants were 10 undergraduates studying Spanish at the Open University, UK. Their responses to feedback were elicited by means…

  9. Production Deficiencies in Elicited Language but Not in the Spontaneous Verbalizations of Hyperactive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentall, Sydney S.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-two hyperactive children were more spontaneously talkative than controls during transitions and nonverbal tasks (nonelicited conditions), but less talkative when asked to tell stories (elicited conditions). Findings suggest that minimal stimulus input precipitate excessive verbal activity from hyperactive children, while stories requiring…

  10. Using a Text-Based Verbal Protocol to Elicit Secondary English Teachers' Perspectives on New Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Elizabeth C.; Chandler-Olcott, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the use of a text-based verbal protocol (Afflerbach, 2000) situated within individual interviews to elicit secondary English teachers' perspectives on new literacies (Albers & Harste, 2007; Coiro, Knobel, Lankshear, & Leu, 2008). Ranging significantly in their teaching experience and comfort with new media and…

  11. A Comparison of English Reading Passages for Elicitation of Speech Samples from Clinical Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas W.

    2006-01-01

    Oral reading passages are often used to elicit speech samples from clinical populations. Few objective guidelines exist, however, to guide one's selection from among the many existing passages. Therefore, this study was undertaken to describe phonetic, lexical, and structural characteristics of 15 oral reading passages. The passages differed…

  12. Improving the Communication Skills of IS Developers during Requirements Elicitation Using Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qurban, Mustafa H.; Austria, Richmond D.

    2009-01-01

    The improvement of communication skills among Information Systems (IS) developers can be considered as a strategy to mitigate the risk of project failure during IS design. This paper addresses issues on various communication barriers normally encountered during its requirements elicitation (RE) stage. This study aims to adopt experiential learning…

  13. Bursts of potential elicited by d-amphetamine in central snail neuron: effect of sodium azide.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Lin; Lu, Kuan-Ling; Lee, Ya-Ling; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chang, Yu-Chi; Chou, Hong-Nong; Tsai, Ming-Cheng

    2007-10-01

    Effects of sodium azide (NaN(3)) on spontaneously generated action potential and bursts of potential elicited by d-amphetamine (d-amphetamine-elicited BoP) were studied on the right parietal 4 (RP4) neuron of the snail Achatina fulica Ferussac in vitro. Sodium azide altered the spontaneous action potential of RP4 neuron in a concentration-dependent manner. In lower concentrations, neither NaN(3) (30, 100, 300 microM; 1 and 3 mM) nor d-amphetamine (135 microM) affect the resting membrane potential, amplitude and frequency of RP4 neurons, while in the higher concentrations NaN(3) (30 mM) did abolish the spontaneous action potential on RP4 neurons and depolarized the RP4 neurons reversibly. At lower concentration, NaN(3) (30 microM) facilitated the d-amphetamine-elicited BoP. The BoP elicited by NaN(3) (30 microM) and d-amphetamine (135 microM) were decreased following treatment with KT5720 (protein kinase A inhibitor), or intracellular injection of EGTA [ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid]. However, the BoP was not affected by applying U73122 (1-[6-[((17beta)-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5[10]-trien-17-yl)amino]hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione) or neomycin (phospholipase inhibitors). Voltage clamp studies revealed that NaN(3) (30 microM) did not alter the total fast inwards currents (70 msec.) and the steady-state outwards currents (5 sec.). It appeared that the BoP elicited by NaN(3) (30 microM) and d-amphetamine (135 microM) was mainly due to protein kinase A-related messenger system and intracellular calcium. It is concluded that d-amphetamine-elicited BoP was not mainly due to inhibition of the function of mitochondria in the neuron while the function of mitochondria did alter the BoP elicited by amphetamine.

  14. Elicitation of broadly neutralizing influenza antibodies in animals with previous influenza exposure.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chih-Jen; Yassine, Hadi M; McTamney, Patrick M; Gall, Jason G D; Whittle, James R R; Boyington, Jeffrey C; Nabel, Gary J

    2012-08-15

    The immune system responds to influenza infection by producing neutralizing antibodies to the viral surface protein, hemagglutinin (HA), which regularly changes its antigenic structure. Antibodies that target the highly conserved stem region of HA neutralize diverse influenza viruses and can be elicited through vaccination in animals and humans. Efforts to develop universal influenza vaccines have focused on strategies to elicit such antibodies; however, the concern has been raised that previous influenza immunity may abrogate the induction of such broadly protective antibodies. We show here that prime-boost immunization can induce broadly neutralizing antibody responses in influenza-immune mice and ferrets that were previously infected or vaccinated. HA stem-directed antibodies were elicited in mice primed with a DNA vaccine and boosted with inactivated vaccine from H1N1 A/New Caledonia/20/1999 (1999 NC) HA regardless of preexposure. Similarly, gene-based vaccination with replication-defective adenovirus 28 (rAd28) and 5 (rAd5) vectors encoding 1999 NC HA elicited stem-directed neutralizing antibodies and conferred protection against unmatched 1934 and 2007 H1N1 virus challenge in influenza-immune ferrets. Indeed, previous exposure to certain strains could enhance immunogenicity: The strongest HA stem-directed immune response was observed in ferrets previously infected with a divergent 1934 H1N1 virus. These findings suggest that broadly neutralizing antibodies against the conserved stem region of HA can be elicited through vaccination despite previous influenza exposure, which supports the feasibility of developing stem-directed universal influenza vaccines for humans.

  15. Safety Risk Knowledge Elicitation in Support of Aeronautical R and D Portfolio Management: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Ann T.; Ancel, Ersin; Jones, Sharon Monica; Reveley, Mary S.; Luxhoj, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Aviation is a problem domain characterized by a high level of system complexity and uncertainty. Safety risk analysis in such a domain is especially challenging given the multitude of operations and diverse stakeholders. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) projects that by 2025 air traffic will increase by more than 50 percent with 1.1 billion passengers a year and more than 85,000 flights every 24 hours contributing to further delays and congestion in the sky (Circelli, 2011). This increased system complexity necessitates the application of structured safety risk analysis methods to understand and eliminate where possible, reduce, and/or mitigate risk factors. The use of expert judgments for probabilistic safety analysis in such a complex domain is necessary especially when evaluating the projected impact of future technologies, capabilities, and procedures for which current operational data may be scarce. Management of an R&D product portfolio in such a dynamic domain needs a systematic process to elicit these expert judgments, process modeling results, perform sensitivity analyses, and efficiently communicate the modeling results to decision makers. In this paper a case study focusing on the application of an R&D portfolio of aeronautical products intended to mitigate aircraft Loss of Control (LOC) accidents is presented. In particular, the knowledge elicitation process with three subject matter experts who contributed to the safety risk model is emphasized. The application and refinement of a verbal-numerical scale for conditional probability elicitation in a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) is discussed. The preliminary findings from this initial step of a three-part elicitation are important to project management practitioners as they illustrate the vital contribution of systematic knowledge elicitation in complex domains.

  16. Severity of dependence modulates smokers' neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving elicited by tobacco advertisement.

    PubMed

    Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Kobiella, Andrea; Bühler, Mira; Graf, Caroline; Fehr, Christoph; Mann, Karl; Smolka, Michael N

    2011-01-01

    Smoking-related cues elicit craving and mesocorticolimbic brain activation in smokers. Severity of nicotine dependence seems to moderate cue reactivity, but the direction and mechanisms of its influence remains unclear. Although tobacco control policies demand a ban on tobacco advertising, cue reactivity studies in smokers so far have not employed tobacco advertisement as experimental stimuli. We investigated whether tobacco advertisement elicits cue reactivity at a behavioral (subjective craving) and a neural level (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) in 22 smokers and 21 never-smokers. Moreover, we studied the influence of severity of dependence on cue reactivity. In smokers, tobacco advertisement elicited substantially more craving than control advertisement whereas never-smokers reported no cue induced craving. Surprisingly, neuronal cue reactivity did not differ between smokers and never-smokers. Moderately dependent smokers' craving increased over the course of the experiment, whereas highly dependent smokers' craving was unaffected. Moderately dependent smokers' brain activity elicited by tobacco advertisement was higher in the amygdala, hippocampus, putamen and thalamus compared with highly dependent smokers. Furthermore, limbic brain activation predicted picture recognition rates after the scanning session, even in never-smokers. Our findings show that tobacco advertisement elicits cigarette craving and neuronal cue reactivity primarily in moderately dependent smokers, indicating that they might be particularly responsive towards external smoking-related cues. On the other hand, neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving in highly dependent smokers is more likely triggered by internal cues such as withdrawal symptoms. Tobacco advertisement seems to likewise appeal to smokers and non-smokers, clarifying the potential danger especially for young non-smokers.

  17. 75 FR 76467 - Draft Concept for Government-Wide “ExpertNet” Platform and Process To Elicit Expert Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Draft Concept for Government-Wide ``ExpertNet'' Platform and Process To Elicit Expert Public...) requests input, comment, and ideas from the public on a draft concept for next-generation citizen consultation, namely a government- wide software tool and process to elicit expert public...

  18. A Measure of Proficiency or Short-Term Memory? Validation of an Elicited Imitation Test for SLA Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Youjin; Tracy-Ventura, Nicole; Jung, Yeonjoo

    2016-01-01

    Elicited imitation requires listeners to listen and repeat sentences as accurately as possible. In second language acquisition (SLA) research it has been used for a variety of purposes. Recently, versions of the same elicited imitation test (EIT) have been created in 6 languages with the purpose of measuring second language proficiency (Ortega…

  19. Research Synthesis Methods in an Age of Globalized Risks: Lessons from the Global Burden of Foodborne Disease Expert Elicitation.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    We live in an age that increasingly calls for national or regional management of global risks. This article discusses the contributions that expert elicitation can bring to efforts to manage global risks and identifies challenges faced in conducting expert elicitation at this scale. In doing so it draws on lessons learned from conducting an expert elicitation as part of the World Health Organizations (WHO) initiative to estimate the global burden of foodborne disease; a study commissioned by the Foodborne Disease Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG). Expert elicitation is designed to fill gaps in data and research using structured, transparent methods. Such gaps are a significant challenge for global risk modeling. Experience with the WHO FERG expert elicitation shows that it is feasible to conduct an expert elicitation at a global scale, but that challenges do arise, including: defining an informative, yet feasible geographical structure for the elicitation; defining what constitutes expertise in a global setting; structuring international, multidisciplinary expert panels; and managing demands on experts' time in the elicitation. This article was written as part of a workshop, "Methods for Research Synthesis: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach" held at the Harvard Center for Risk Analysis on October 13, 2013.

  20. Pre-Service Teachers' Modelling Processes through Engagement with Model Eliciting Activities with a Technological Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daher, Wajeeh M.; Shahbari, Juhaina Awawdeh

    2015-01-01

    Engaging mathematics students with modelling activities helps them learn mathematics meaningfully. This engagement, in the case of model eliciting activities, helps the students elicit mathematical models by interpreting real-world situation in mathematical ways. This is especially true when the students utilize technology to build the models.…

  1. Caffeine in hot drinks elicits cephalic phase responses involving cardiac activity.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Michael K; Whitehouse, Julie M; Shine, Gillian; Whitton, Peter A; Towell, Anthony

    2012-09-01

    Caffeine stimulates both oropharyngeal and gut bitter taste receptors (hTAS2Rs) and so has the potential to elicit reflex autonomic responses. Coffee containing 130 mg caffeine has been reported to increase heart rate for 30 min post-ingestion. Whereas added-caffeine, in doses of 25 to 200 mg, ingested with decaffeinated coffee/tea decreases heart rate 10 to 30 min post-ingestion. This study aimed to clarify caffeine's chemosensory impact. Double-espresso coffees were compared to a placebo-control capsule in a double-blind between-measures design. Coffees tested were regular coffee (130 mg caffeine) and decaffeinated coffee with added-caffeine (0, 67 and 134 mg). Cardiovascular measures from three post-ingestion phases: 1) 0 to 5; 2) 10 to 15; and 3) 25 to 30 min; were compared to pre-ingestion measures. Participants comprised 11 women in the control group and 10 women in the test group. Decaffeinated coffee elicited no changes. Decaffeinated coffee with 67 mg caffeine: decreased dp/dt in Phase 1. Decaffeinated coffee with 134 mg caffeine: increased heart rate in Phases 1 and 2; decreased spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in Phase 1; and increased diastolic pressure in Phases 2 and 3. Regular coffee: increased heart rate in Phases 1 and 2; decreased dp/dt in all phases; and decreased systolic pressure in Phase 1. Caffeine is the substance in regular coffee which elicits chemosensory autonomic reflex responses, which involves heart activity and the baroreflex. Compared to the caffeine in regular coffee, added-caffeine elicits somewhat different chemosensory responses including a more pronounced pressor effect and resetting of the baroreflex. Caffeine in commonly consumed amounts, as well as modulating body processes by blocking adenosine receptors, can elicit reflex autonomic responses during the ingestion of caffeinated drinks. It is plausible that caffeine stimulates hTAS2Rs, during the ingestion of coffee, eliciting cephalic phase responses. These cephalic phase

  2. Development of a respiratory sensitization/elicitation protocol of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in Brown Norway rats to derive an elicitation-based occupational exposure level.

    PubMed

    Pauluhn, Jürgen

    2014-05-07

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI), a known human asthmagen, was investigated in skin-sensitized Brown Norway rats for its concentration×time (C×t)-response relationship on elicitation-based endpoints. The major goal of study was to determine the elicitation inhalation threshold dose in sensitized, re-challenged Brown Norway rats, including the associated variables affecting the dosimetry of inhaled TDI-vapor in rats and as to how these differences can be translated to humans. Attempts were made to duplicate at least some traits of human asthma by using skin-sensitized rats which were subjected to single or multiple inhalation-escalation challenge exposures. Two types of dose-escalation protocols were used to determine the elicitation-threshold C×t; one used a variable C (Cvar) and constant t (tconst), the other a constant C (Cconst) and variable t (tvar). The selection of the "minimal irritant" C was based an ancillary pre-studies. Neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNs) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) were considered as the endpoint of choice to integrate the allergic pulmonary inflammation. These were supplemented by physiological measurements characterizing nocturnal asthma-like responses and increased nitric oxide in exhaled breath (eNO). The Cconst×tvar regimen yielded the most conclusive dose-response relationship as long C was high enough to overcome the scrubbing capacity of the upper airways. Based on ancillary pre-studies in naïve rats, the related human-equivalent respiratory tract irritant threshold concentration was estimated to be 0.09ppm. The respective 8-h time-adjusted asthma-related human-equivalent threshold C×t-product (dose), in 'asthmatic' rats, was estimated to be 0.003ppm. Both thresholds are in agreement of the current ACGIH TLV(®) of TDI and published human evidence. In summary, the findings from this animal model suggest that TDI-induced respiratory allergy is likely to be contingent on two interlinked, sequentially occurring mechanisms

  3. Eliciting change in at-risk elders (ECARE): evaluation of an elder abuse intervention program.

    PubMed

    Mariam, Lydia Morris; McClure, Regina; Robinson, J B; Yang, Janet A

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a community-based elder abuse intervention program that assists suspected victims of elder abuse and self-neglect through a partnership with local law enforcement. This program, Eliciting Change in At-Risk Elders, involves building alliances with the elder and family members, connecting the elder to supportive services that reduce risk of further abuse, and utilizing motivational interviewing-type skills to help elders overcome ambivalence regarding making difficult life changes. Risk factors of elder abuse decreased over the course of the intervention and nearly three-quarters of participants made progress on their treatment goal, advancing at least one of Prochaska and DiClemente's (1983) stages of change (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance). Forty-three percent of elders moved into the stages of action and maintenance regarding their goal. The usefulness of eliciting change via longer-term relationships with vulnerable elders in entrenched elder abuse situations is discussed.

  4. CXCL10/XCL1 fusokine elicits in vitro and in vivo chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Lugo, Yessica E; Perez-Trujillo, Jose J; Gutierrez-Puente, Yolanda; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Barboza-Quintana, Oralia; Muñoz-Maldonado, Gerardo E; Saucedo-Cardenas, Odila; de Oca-Luna, Roberto Montes; Loera-Arias, Maria J

    2015-04-01

    Fusokines are proteins formed by the fusion of two cytokines. They have greater bioavailability and therapeutic potential than individual cytokines or a combination of different cytokines. Interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 (CXCL10) and lymphotactin (XCL1) are members of the chemotactic family of cytokines, which induce tumor regression by eliciting immune-system cell chemotaxis. We engineered a replication-deficient adenoviral system expressing CXCL10/XCL1 fusokine (Ad FIL) and assessed its chemotactic response in vitro and in vivo. The CXCL10/XCL1 fusokine elicited a greater chemotactic effect in IL-2 stimulated lymphocytes than individual or combined cytokines in vitro. CXCL10/XCL1 fusokine biological activity was demonstrated in vivo by intratumoral chemoattraction of CXCR3+ cells. Thus, this novel CXCL10/XCL1 fusokine may represent a potential tool for gene therapy treatment of cancer and other illnesses that require triggering immune-system cell recruitment.

  5. Cluster headache: interictal asymmetric increment in intraocular pressure elicited by Valsalva manoeuvre.

    PubMed

    Barriga, F J; Sánchez-del-Río, M; Barón, M; Dobato, J l; Gili, P; Yangüela, J; Bueno, A; Pareja, J A

    2004-03-01

    Changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) elicited by a Valsalva manoeuvre were studied in 11 male patients (mean age 39.8 years) suffering from episodic cluster headache (CH), and 12 healthy male controls (mean age 39.9 years). The tests were performed at rest and while exhaling hard through a mouthpiece connected to a mercury manometer. In the CH group, during symptomatic periods, between attacks, Valsalva manoeuvre elicited an asymmetric increase in IOP with significantly higher values on the symptomatic side (P = 0011), whereas no asymmetric increments in IOP were found during asymptomatic periods. Outside the cluster period the IOP values both baseline and with Valsalva manoeuvre did not differ from controls. The increment in IOP took place within a few seconds, as in spontaneous CH attacks, thus pointing to a rapid increase in intraocular blood volume or vasodilatation. These findings may reflect a latent increased vascular reactivity of the symptomatic orbit during CH period.

  6. The elicitation of steady-state visual evoked potentials during sleep.

    PubMed

    Norton, James J S; Umunna, Stephen; Bretl, Timothy

    2017-04-01

    This study confirmed the hypothesis that it is possible to elicit SSVEPs through closed eyelids during NREM sleep. To test this hypothesis, SSVEP amplitudes were measured in eight subjects across two conditions of stimulation (stimulation on and stimulation off) and three brain states (waking, light sleep, and deep sleep). Results showed a significant interaction between stimulation and brain state. In particular, EEG activity at the frequency of stimulation was higher during both light sleep and deep sleep in the stimulation on condition than in the stimulation off condition. The fact that it is possible to elicit SSVEPs during sleep may provide a new way to study how SSVEPs are generated in the brain-one that might help resolve open questions such as identifying the SSVEP activation sequence or deciding if SSVEPs derive from evoked or oscillatory neural processes.

  7. Eliciting health care priorities in developing countries: experimental evidence from Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Font, Joan Costa; Forns, Joan Rovira; Sato, Azusa

    2016-02-01

    Although some methods for eliciting preferences to assist participatory priority setting in health care in developed countries are available, the same is not true for poor communities in developing countries whose preferences are neglected in health policy making. Existing methods grounded on self-interested, monetary valuations that may be inappropriate for developing country settings where community care is provided through 'social allocation' mechanisms. This paper proposes and examines an alternative methodology for eliciting preferences for health care programmes specifically catered for rural and less literate populations but which is still applicable in urban communities. Specifically, the method simulates a realistic collective budget allocation experiment, to be implemented in both rural and urban communities in Guatemala. We report evidence revealing that participatory budget-like experiments are incentive compatible mechanisms suitable for revealing collective preferences, while simultaneously having the advantage of involving communities in health care reform processes.

  8. No Association between Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) Gene Polymorphisms and Experimentally Elicited Social Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Apicella, Coren L.; Cesarini, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Dawes, Christopher T.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Wallace, Björn; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Westberg, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Background Oxytocin (OXT) has been implicated in a suite of complex social behaviors including observed choices in economic laboratory experiments. However, actual studies of associations between oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene variants and experimentally elicited social preferences are rare. Methodology/Principal Findings We test hypotheses of associations between social preferences, as measured by behavior in two economic games, and 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the OXTR gene in a sample of Swedish twins (n = 684). Two standard economic games, the dictator game and the trust game, both involving real monetary consequences, were used to elicit such preferences. After correction for multiple hypothesis testing, we found no significant associations between any of the 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and behavior in either of the games. Conclusion We were unable to replicate the most significant association reported in previous research between the amount donated in a dictator game and an OXTR genetic variant. PMID:20585395

  9. Impacts of motivational valence on the error-related negativity elicited by full and partial errors.

    PubMed

    Maruo, Yuya; Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner; Masaki, Hiroaki

    2016-02-01

    Affect and motivation influence the error-related negativity (ERN) elicited by full errors; however, it is unknown whether they also influence ERNs to correct responses accompanied by covert incorrect response activation (partial errors). Here we compared a neutral condition with conditions, where correct responses were rewarded or where incorrect responses were punished with gains and losses of small amounts of money, respectively. Data analysis distinguished ERNs elicited by full and partial errors. In the reward and punishment conditions, ERN amplitudes to both full and partial errors were larger than in the neutral condition, confirming participants' sensitivity to the significance of errors. We also investigated the relationships between ERN amplitudes and the behavioral inhibition and activation systems (BIS/BAS). Regardless of reward/punishment condition, participants scoring higher on BAS showed smaller ERN amplitudes in full error trials. These findings provide further evidence that the ERN is related to motivational valence and that similar relationships hold for both full and partial errors.

  10. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noohi, F.; Kinnaird, C.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A.; Seidler, R.

    2016-01-01

    The current study characterizes brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit either the vestibulo-spinal reflex (saccular-mediated colic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMP)), or the ocular muscle response (utricle-mediated ocular VEMP (oVEMP)). Some researchers have reported that air-conducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle-mediated VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects. However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying otolith-specific deficits, including gait and balance problems that astronauts experience upon returning to earth. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation. Here we hypothesized that skull taps elicit similar patterns of cortical activity as the auditory tone bursts, and previous vestibular imaging studies. Subjects wore bilateral MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in the supine position, with eyes closed. Subjects received both forms of the stimulation in a counterbalanced fashion. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular system, resulting in the vestibular cortical response. Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate our stimulation method, we measured the ocular VEMP outside of the scanner. This measurement showed that both skull tap and auditory

  11. Immunization with live Neisseria lactamica protects mice against meningococcal challenge and can elicit serum bactericidal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanwen; Zhang, Qian; Winterbotham, Megan; Mowe, Eva; Gorringe, Andrew; Tang, Christoph M

    2006-11-01

    Natural immunity against Neisseria meningitidis is thought to develop following nasopharyngeal colonization with this bacterium or other microbes expressing cross-reactive antigens. Neisseria lactamica is a commensal of the upper respiratory tract which is often carried by infants and young children; epidemiological evidence indicates that colonization with this bacterium can elicit serum bactericidal activity (SBA) against Neisseria meningitidis, the most validated correlate of protective immunity. Here we demonstrate experimentally that immunization of mice with live N. lactamica protects animals against lethal meningococcal challenge and that some, but not all, strains of N. lactamica elicit detectable SBA in immunized animals regardless of the serogroup of N. meningitidis. While it is unlikely that immunization with live N. lactamica will be implemented as a vaccine against meningococcal disease, understanding the basis for the induction of cross-protective immunity and SBA should be valuable in the design of subunit vaccines for the prevention of this important human infection.

  12. Prey-rolling behavior of coatis ( Nasua spp.) is elicited by benzoquinones from millipedes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldon, Paul J.; Cranmore, Catherine F.; Chatfield, Jenifer A.

    2006-01-01

    Coatis ( Nasua spp.), gregarious, omnivorous carnivores that range in forests from the southwestern USA to south America, dispatch millipedes by rolling them on the ground using rapid, alternating movements of their forepaws. Prey rolling of millipedes is thought to stimulate the depletion of their defensive secretions and to wipe off secretions before millipedes are consumed. We report that prey-rolling behavior in Nasua spp. is elicited by 1,4-benzoquinone; 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone; and 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, the chief components of the defensive secretions of julidan, spirobolidan, and spirostreptidan millipedes. Chemicals elaborated for defense sometimes evolutionarily “backfire,” providing cues to predators on the presence or identity of prey. The elicitation of prey-rolling behavior in Nasua spp. by benzoquinones illustrates this effect for millipedes (and possibly other arthropods) that defensively discharge these compounds.

  13. Prey-rolling behavior of coatis (Nasua spp.) is elicited by benzoquinones from millipedes.

    PubMed

    Weldon, Paul J; Cranmore, Catherine F; Chatfield, Jenifer A

    2006-01-01

    Coatis (Nasua spp.), gregarious, omnivorous carnivores that range in forests from the southwestern USA to south America, dispatch millipedes by rolling them on the ground using rapid, alternating movements of their forepaws. Prey rolling of millipedes is thought to stimulate the depletion of their defensive secretions and to wipe off secretions before millipedes are consumed. We report that prey-rolling behavior in Nasua spp. is elicited by 1,4-benzoquinone; 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone; and 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, the chief components of the defensive secretions of julidan, spirobolidan, and spirostreptidan millipedes. Chemicals elaborated for defense sometimes evolutionarily "backfire," providing cues to predators on the presence or identity of prey. The elicitation of prey-rolling behavior in Nasua spp. by benzoquinones illustrates this effect for millipedes (and possibly other arthropods) that defensively discharge these compounds.

  14. Developing a job-exposure matrix with exposure uncertainty from expert elicitation and data modeling.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Heidi J; Vergara, Ximena P; Yost, Michael; Silva, Michael; Lombardi, David A; Kheifets, Leeka

    2017-01-01

    Job exposure matrices (JEMs) are tools used to classify exposures for job titles based on general job tasks in the absence of individual level data. However, exposure uncertainty due to variations in worker practices, job conditions, and the quality of data has never been quantified systematically in a JEM. We describe a methodology for creating a JEM which defines occupational exposures on a continuous scale and utilizes elicitation methods to quantify exposure uncertainty by assigning exposures probability distributions with parameters determined through expert involvement. Experts use their knowledge to develop mathematical models using related exposure surrogate data in the absence of available occupational level data and to adjust model output against other similar occupations. Formal expert elicitation methods provided a consistent, efficient process to incorporate expert judgment into a large, consensus-based JEM. A population-based electric shock JEM was created using these methods, allowing for transparent estimates of exposure.

  15. Enhancing stakeholder participation in land-based adaptation to environmental change with photo elicitation and photovoice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Barron; Kong, Taryn; Kellner, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Land degradation is one of the main environmental changes confronting South Africa. Active participation from local land users to adopt land-based adaptation to land degradation is necessary for at least two obvious reasons. Firstly, most of the lands in South Africa are privately owned. Secondly, the costs for adapting to land degradation are substantial and are not feasible for an individual entity to afford. Land-based adaptation includes management practices that can reduce the vulnerability of land users to the threats posed by land degradation. To engage land users to participate in land-based adaptation, approaches to allow diverse stakeholders to effectively communicate their observations, knowledge and perspectives are needed. In addition to semi-structured interviews, photo elicitation and photovoice were implemented to engage 25 local livestock farmers from two rural areas in the South African Kalahari - Mier and Molopo - in a participatory research project. The results showed that photo elicitation enhanced stakeholder interaction relative to semi-structured interviews in a number of ways. Firstly, photo elicitation provided more details and new information beyond those in semi-structured interviews. Secondly, photo elicitation also allowed stakeholders to more easily communicate personal or concrete examples, comparisons, contrasts, explanatory information, attitudes and values. The results also showed that photovoice created opportunities for mutual learning among the participants. These enhancements have the potential to improve co-production of knowledge and quality of stakeholder engagement. Improvement in stakeholder engagement can in turn contribute toward land-based adaptation that is more locally relevant and a greater degree of translation of scientific advancement into actual adaptation practices.

  16. Skin conductance responses are elicited by the airway sensory effects of puffs from cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Nasir H; Bechara, Antoine

    2006-07-01

    The airway sensations stimulated by smoking are an important source of hedonic impact (pleasure) for dependent smokers. The learning process by which these sensations become pleasurable is not well understood. The classical conditioning model predicts that airway sensory stimulation will elicit sympathetic arousal that is positively correlated with the hedonic impact that is elicited by airway sensory stimulation. To test this prediction, we measured skin conductance responses (SCRs) and subjective hedonic impact elicited by a series of individual puffs from nicotinized, denicotinized and unlit cigarettes. Nicotinized puffs elicited more subjective hedonic impact than denicotinized and unlit puffs partly as a result of the fact that they provided a greater level of airway sensory stimulation. We found that SCRs were not larger for nicotinized puffs than for denicotinized puffs, but that they were larger for both nicotinized and denicotinized puffs than for unlit puffs. We also found that the average SCR of a subject to denicotinized puffs was positively correlated with the average hedonic impact that a subject obtained from denicotinized puffs. Together, this suggests that SCR magnitude does not reflect within-subject variations in hedonic impact that are due to variations in the level of airway sensory stimulation, but that it does reflect individual differences in the amount of hedonic impact that is derived from a given level of airway sensory stimulation. The results of a post hoc correlation analysis suggest that these individual differences may have been due to variations in the prevailing urge to smoke. The implications of these findings for the classical conditioning model, as well as for other learning models, are discussed.

  17. Flammable gas double shell tank expert elicitation presentations (Part A and Part B)

    SciTech Connect

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1998-04-17

    This document is a compilation of presentation packages and white papers for the Flammable Gas Double Shell Tank Expert Elicitation Workshop {number_sign}2. For each presentation given by the different authors, a separate section was developed. The purpose for issuing these workshop presentation packages and white papers as a supporting document is to provide traceability and a Quality Assurance record for future reference to these packages.

  18. D-cycloserine to enhance extinction of cue-elicited craving for alcohol: a translational approach.

    PubMed

    MacKillop, J; Few, L R; Stojek, M K; Murphy, C M; Malutinok, S F; Johnson, F T; Hofmann, S G; McGeary, J E; Swift, R M; Monti, P M

    2015-04-07

    Cue-elicited craving for alcohol is well established but extinction-based treatment to extinguish this response has generated only modest positive outcomes in clinical trials. Basic and clinical research suggests that D-cycloserine (DCS) enhances extinction to fear cues under certain conditions. However, it remains unclear whether DCS would also accelerate extinction of cue-elicited craving for alcohol. The goal of the current study was to examine whether, compared with placebo (PBO), DCS enhanced extinction of cue-elicited craving among treatment-seeking individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Participants were administered DCS (50 mg) or PBO 1 h before an alcohol extinction paradigm in a simulated bar environment on two occasions. The extinction procedures occurred 1 week apart and were fully integrated into outpatient treatment. Subjective craving for alcohol was the primary variable of interest. Follow-up cue reactivity sessions were conducted 1 week and 3 weeks later to ascertain persisting DCS effects. Drinking outcomes and tolerability were also examined. DCS was associated with augmented reductions in alcohol craving to alcohol cues during the first extinction session and these effects persisted through all subsequent sessions, suggesting facilitation of extinction. Participants in the DCS condition reported significant short-term reductions in drinking, although these did not persist to follow-up, and found the medication highly tolerable. These findings provide evidence that DCS enhances extinction of cue-elicited craving for alcohol in individuals with AUDs in the context of outpatient treatment. The potential clinical utility of DCS is discussed, including methodological considerations and context-dependent learning.

  19. Concordance of occupational and environmental exposure information elicited from patients with Alzheimer's disease and surrogate respondents

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, J.P.; Turpie, I.; Haines, T.; Muir, G.; Farnworth, H.; Cruttenden, K.; Julian, J.; Verma, D.; Hillers, T.

    1989-01-01

    Identification of risk factors for Alzheimer's disease through the use of well designed case-control studies has been described as a research priority. Increasing recognition of the neurotoxic potential of many industrial chemicals such as organic solvents raises the question of the occupational and environmental contribution to the etiology of this high-priority health problem. The intention of this study was to develop and evaluate a methodology that could be used in a large scale case-control study of the occupational and environmental risk factors for dementia or a population-based surveillance system for neurotoxic disorders. The specific objectives of this study were to investigate: (1) the reliability of exposure-eliciting, interviewer-administered questionnaires given to patients with Alzheimer's disease (SDAT); (2) the reliability of exposure-eliciting interviewer-administered questionnaires given to the family of patients with SDAT and the agreement with the responses of the patient or surrogate respondents; (3) the reliability and agreement of responses of age- and sex-matched control patients and their families selected from geriatric care institutions and the community, with respect to the same exposure-eliciting and interviewer-administered questionnaire; and (4) the reliability of agent-based exposure ascertainment by a single, trained rater. The results of the study demonstrate that occupational and environmental histories from which exposure information can be derived is most reliably elicited from job descriptions of cases and control subjects rather than job titles alone or detailed probes for potential neurotoxic exposures. This will necessitate the use of standardized interviewer-administered instruments to derive this information in case-control studies of Alzheimer's disease or population-based surveillance systems for occupational and environmental neurotoxicity.

  20. Eliciting Preferences on Secondary Findings: The Preferences Instrument for Genomic Secondary Results (PIGSR)

    PubMed Central

    Brothers, Kyle B.; East, Kelly M.; Kelley, Whitley V.; Frances Wright, M.; Westbrook, Matthew J.; Rich, Carla A.; Bowling, Kevin M.; Lose, Edward J.; Martina Bebin, E.; Simmons, Shirley; Myers, John A.; Barsh, Greg; Myers, Richard M.; Cooper, Greg M.; Pulley, Jill M.; Rothstein, Mark A.; Wright Clayton, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Eliciting and understanding patient and research participant preferences regarding return of secondary test results is a key aspect of genomic medicine. A valid instrument should be easily understood without extensive pre-test counseling, while still faithfully eliciting patients’ preferences. Methods We conducted focus groups with 110 adults to understand patient perspectives on secondary genomic findings and the role preferences should play. We then developed and refined a draft instrument, and used it to elicit preferences from parents participating in a genomic sequencing study in children with intellectual disabilities. Results Patients preferred filtering of secondary genomic results to avoid information overload and to avoid learning what the future holds, among other reasons. Patients preferred to make autonomous choices about which categories of results to receive and to have their choices applied automatically before results are returned to them and their clinicians. The Preferences Instrument for Genomic Secondary Results (PIGSR) is designed to be completed by patients or research participants without assistance and to guide bioinformatic analysis of genomic raw data. Most participants wanted to receive all secondary results, but a significant minority indicated other preferences. Conclusions Our novel instrument – PIGSR – should be useful in a wide range of clinical and research settings. PMID:27561086

  1. Abiotic elicitation of gymnemic acid in the suspension cultures of Gymnema sylvestre.

    PubMed

    Ch, Bhuvaneswari; Rao, Kiranmayee; Gandi, Suryakala; Giri, Archana

    2012-02-01

    Elicitation is one of the few strategies that find commercial application in the enhancement of secondary metabolite production from plants as well as cell culture systems. Due to their immense medicinal value, production of saponins in suspension cultures has been attempted by many researchers. Gymnema sylvestre is a rich source of gymnemic acids (saponins) that find application in the treatment of diabetes. The present study is an attempt to evaluate the effect of various metal salts (cadmium chloride, mercuric chloride, silver nitrate, cupric chloride, cobaltous chloride and calcium chloride) in eliciting the response from G. sylvestre suspension cultures. The maximum gymnemic acid production in the suspensions was achieved on day 12 of culture, though the maximum biomass was obtained on day 16. Among the different salts, CdCl(2) gave maximum response (59.97 mg/gDCW) at 2 mM concentration after a 24 h time period, while, AgNO(3) gave the least response (18.35 mg/gDCW) on incubation of 48 h at 1 mM concentration, in terms of gymnemic acid accumulation. The accumulation of gymnemic acid was found to be dependent on treatment time and concentration of the elicitor. The enhanced gymnemic acid production shown by the suspensions in response to the metal salts indicates their role in evoking the plant defense mechanisms. These elicitation studies help in providing a platform for improved commercial supply of bioactive gymnemic acids.

  2. Expert elicitation, uncertainty, and the value of information in controlling invasive species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Smith, Brian J.; Bonneau, Mathieu; Martin, Julien; Romagosa, Christina; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Waddle, Hardin; Reed, Robert; Eckles, Jennifer Kettevrlin; Vitt, Laurie J.

    2017-01-01

    We illustrate the utility of expert elicitation, explicit recognition of uncertainty, and the value of information for directing management and research efforts for invasive species, using tegu lizards (Salvator merianae) in southern Florida as a case study. We posited a post-birth pulse, matrix model in which four age classes of tegus are recognized: hatchlings, 1 year-old, 2 year-olds, and 3 + year-olds. This matrix model was parameterized using a 3-point process to elicit estimates of tegu demographic rates in southern Florida from 10 herpetology experts. We fit statistical distributions for each parameter and for each expert, then drew and pooled a large number of replicate samples from these to form a distribution for each demographic parameter. Using these distributions, as well as the observed correlations among elicited values, we generated a large sample of matrix population models to infer how the tegu population would respond to control efforts. We used the concepts of Pareto efficiency and stochastic dominance to conclude that targeting older age classes at relatively high rates appears to have the best chance of minimizing tegu abundance and control costs. We conclude that expert opinion combined with an explicit consideration of uncertainty can be valuable in conducting an initial assessment of what control strategy, effort, and monetary resources are needed to reduce and eventually eliminate the invader. Scientists, in turn, can use the value of information to focus research in a way that not only increases the efficacy of control, but minimizes costs as well.

  3. Tanshinol Rescues the Impaired Bone Formation Elicited by Glucocorticoid Involved in KLF15 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yajun; Su, Yanjie; Wang, Dongtao; Chen, Yahui; Liu, Yuyu; Luo, Shiying; Wu, Tie

    2016-01-01

    Decreased bone formation is responsible for the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid- (GC-) induced osteoporosis (GIO), while the mechanism remains to be elucidated. The aim was to investigate how natural antioxidant tanshinol attenuates oxidative stress and rescues impaired bone formation elicited by GC in Sprague-Dawley rats and in C2C12 cells and/or MC3T3-E1 cells. The results showed that tanshinol prevented bone loss and decreased biomechanical characteristics and suppressed reduction of biomarkers related to osteogenesis in GIO rats. Further study revealed that tanshinol reversed decrease of transcription activity of Osterix-luc and rescued impairment of osteoblastic differentiation and bone formation involved in induction of KLF15 mRNA. Meanwhile, tanshinol diminished inhibition of protein expression of β-catenin and Tcf4 and transcription activity of Tcf4-luc induced by GC, especially under conditions of KLF siRNA in vitro. Additionally, tanshinol attenuated increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, phosphorylation of p66Shc expression, TUNEL-positive cells, and caspase-3 activity elicited by KLF15 under conditions of GC. Taken together, the present findings suggest that tanshinol attenuated the decrease of bone formation and bone mass and bone quality elicited by GC involved in KLF15/Wnt signaling transduction and counteracted GC-evoked oxidative stress and subsequent cell apoptosis involved in KLF15/p66Shc pathway cascade. PMID:27051474

  4. Sensitization and elicitation of an allergic reaction to wheat gliadins in mice.

    PubMed

    Bodinier, M; Leroy, M; Ah-Leung, S; Blanc, F; Tranquet, O; Denery-Papini, S; Wal, J-M; Adel-Patient, K

    2009-02-25

    We developed a mouse model of allergy to wheat flour gliadins, a protein fraction containing major wheat allergens. We compared the antibody responses (i.e., specific IgE and IgG1) and the profiles of cytokines secreted by reactivated splenocytes induced after intraperitoneal injections of gliadins in three strains of mice, namely, Balb/cJ, B10.A, and C3H/HeJ. The intensities of the allergic reactions elicited by intranasal challenge were also compared. Both the sensitization and elicitation were the highest in Balb/cJ mice, whereas weak or no reaction was observed in the others strains. Interestingly, the specificity of the mouse IgE against the different gliadins (i.e., alpha-, beta-, gamma-, omega 1,2-, and omega 5-gliadin) was similar to that observed in children allergic to wheat flour. Balb/cJ mice may thus provide a relevant model for the study of sensitization and elicitation by wheat gliadins and for improving our understanding of the specific role and mechanisms of action of the different classes of gliadins.

  5. Hybrid Approach for Automatic Evaluation of Emotion Elicitation Oriented to People with Intellectual Disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, R.; de Ipiña, K. López; Irigoyen, E.; Asla, N.

    People with intellectual disabilities and elderly need physical and intellectual support to ensuring independent living. This is one of the main issues in applying Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into Assistive Technology field. In this sense the development of appropriated Intelligent Systems (ISs) offers new perspectives to this community. In our project a new IS system (LAGUNTXO) which adds user affective information oriented to people with intellectual disabilities has been developed. The system integrates a Human Emotion Analysis System (HEAS) which attempts to solve critical situations for this community as block stages. In the development of the HEAS one of the critical issues was to create appropriated databases to train the system due to the difficulty to simulate pre-block stages in laboratory. Finally a films and real sequences based emotion elicitation database was created. The elicitation material was categorized with more actual features based on discrete emotions and dimensional terms (pleasant, unpleasant). Classically the evaluation is carried out by a specialist (psychologist). In this work we present a hybrid approach for Automatic Evaluation of Emotion Elicitation databases based on Machine Learning classifiers and K-means clustering. The new categorization and the automatic evaluation show a high level of accuracy with respect to others methodologies presented in the literature.

  6. Real-time elicitation of moral emotions using a prejudice paradigm.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Melike M; Kilchenmann, Nadine; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2012-01-01

    Moral emotions are critically important in guiding appropriate social conduct. Empirical investigation of these emotions remains a challenge, however, because of the difficulty in eliciting them reliably in controlled settings. Here we describe a novel prejudice paradigm that aimed to elicit both negatively and positively valenced moral emotions in real-time. Low-prejudice females (N = 46) who met highly specific demographic and personality-based screening criteria completed a series of Implicit Association Tests (IATs). Feedback following these IATs was pre-programmed to either endorse participants' non-prejudiced self-standards (positive condition), or to contradict their self-standards (negative condition), in response to sensitive social topics. Neutral condition IATs reflected participants' attitudes toward non-sensitive social topics. Results demonstrated that the IATs were successful in eliciting moral-positive emotions (satisfaction and pride) and moral-negative emotions (primarily guilt). In addition, participants high in self-reported punishment sensitivity, as assessed by the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) scale, reported greater guilt.

  7. Different neurotropic pathogens elicit neurotoxic CCR9- or neurosupportive CXCR3-expressing microglia.

    PubMed

    Li, He; Gang, Zhou; Yuling, He; Luokun, Xie; Jie, Xiong; Hao, Lei; Li, Wei; Chunsong, Hu; Junyan, Liu; Mingshen, Jiang; Youxin, Jin; Feili, Gong; Boquan, Jin; Jinquan, Tan

    2006-09-15

    What mechanism that determines microglia accomplishing destructive or constructive role in CNS remains nebulous. We report here that intracranial priming and rechallenging with Toxoplasma gondii in mice elicit neurotoxic CCR9+ Irg1+ (immunoresponsive gene 1) microglia, which render resistance to apoptosis and produce a high level of TNF-alpha; priming and rechallenging with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus elicit neurosupportive CXCR3+ Irg1- microglia, which are sensitive to apoptosis and produce a high level of IL-10 and TGF-beta. Administration of CCR9 and/or Irg1 small interfering RNA alters the frequency and functional profiles of neurotoxic CCR9+ Irg1+ and neurosupportive CXCR3+ Irg1- microglia in vivo. Moreover, by using a series of different neurotropic pathogens, including intracellular parasites, chronic virus, bacteria, toxic substances, and CNS injury to intracranially prime and subsequent rechallenge mice, the bi-directional elicitation of microglia has been confirmed as neurotoxic CCR9+ Irg1+ and neurosupportive CXCR3+ Irg1- cells in these mouse models. These data suggest that there exist two different types of microglia, providing with a novel insight into microglial involvement in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory pathogenesis such as Alzheimer's disease and AIDS dementia.

  8. Real-Time Elicitation of Moral Emotions Using a Prejudice Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Fourie, Melike M.; Kilchenmann, Nadine; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Thomas, Kevin G. F. 

    2012-01-01

    Moral emotions are critically important in guiding appropriate social conduct. Empirical investigation of these emotions remains a challenge, however, because of the difficulty in eliciting them reliably in controlled settings. Here we describe a novel prejudice paradigm that aimed to elicit both negatively and positively valenced moral emotions in real-time. Low-prejudice females (N = 46) who met highly specific demographic and personality-based screening criteria completed a series of Implicit Association Tests (IATs). Feedback following these IATs was pre-programmed to either endorse participants’ non-prejudiced self-standards (positive condition), or to contradict their self-standards (negative condition), in response to sensitive social topics. Neutral condition IATs reflected participants’ attitudes toward non-sensitive social topics. Results demonstrated that the IATs were successful in eliciting moral-positive emotions (satisfaction and pride) and moral-negative emotions (primarily guilt). In addition, participants high in self-reported punishment sensitivity, as assessed by the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) scale, reported greater guilt. PMID:22888322

  9. Accumulated Bending Energy Elicits Neutral Sphingomyelinase Activity in Human Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    López, David J.; Egido-Gabas, Meritxell; López-Montero, Iván; Busto, Jon V.; Casas, Josefina; Garnier, Marie; Monroy, Francisco; Larijani, Banafshé; Goñi, Félix M.; Alonso, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    We propose that accumulated membrane bending energy elicits a neutral sphingomyelinase (SMase) activity in human erythrocytes. Membrane bending was achieved by osmotic or chemical processes, and SMase activity was assessed by quantitative thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The activity induced by hypotonic stress in erythrocyte membranes had the pH dependence, ion dependence, and inhibitor sensitivity of mammalian neutral SMases. The activity caused a decrease in SM contents, with a minimum at 6 min after onset of the hypotonic conditions, and then the SM contents were recovered. We also elicited SMase activity by adding lysophosphatidylcholine externally or by generating it with phospholipase A2. The same effect was observed upon addition of chlorpromazine or sodium deoxycholate at concentrations below the critical micellar concentration, and even under hypertonic conditions. A unifying factor of the various agents that elicit this SMase activity is the accumulated membrane bending energy. Both hypo-and hypertonic conditions impose an increased curvature, whereas the addition of surfactants or phospholipase A2 activation increases the outer monolayer area, thus leading to an increased bending energy. The fact that this latent SMase activity is tightly coupled to the membrane bending properties suggests that it may be related to the general phenomenon of stress-induced ceramide synthesis and apoptosis. PMID:22824271

  10. Eliciting, Identifying, Interpreting, and Responding to Students' Ideas: Teacher Candidates' Growth in Formative Assessment Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotwals, Amelia Wenk; Birmingham, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    With the goal of helping teacher candidates become well-started beginners, it is important that methods courses in teacher education programs focus on high-leverage practices. Using responsive teaching practices, specifically eliciting, identifying, interpreting, and responding to students' science ideas (i.e., formative assessment), can be used to support all students in learning science successfully. This study follows seven secondary science teacher candidates in a yearlong practice-based methods course. Course assignments (i.e., plans for and reflections on teaching) as well as teaching videos were analyzed using a recursive qualitative approach. In this paper, we present themes and patterns in teacher candidates' abilities to elicit, identify, interpret, and respond to students' ideas. Specifically, we found that those teacher candidates who grew in the ways in which they elicited students' ideas from fall to spring were also those who were able to adopt a more balanced reflection approach (considering both teacher and student moves). However, we found that even the teacher candidates who grew in these practices did not move toward seeing students' ideas as nuanced; rather, they saw students' ideas in a dichotomous fashion: right or wrong. We discuss implications for teacher preparation, specifically for how to promote productive reflection and tools for better understanding students' ideas.

  11. Using expert elicitation to quantify catchment water balances and their uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebok, E.; Refsgaard, J. C.; Warmink, J. J.; Stisen, S.; Jensen, K. H.

    2016-07-01

    Expert elicitation with the participation of 35 experts was used to estimate a water balance for the nested Ahlergaarde and Holtum catchments in Western Denmark. Average annual values of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and surface runoff as well as subsurface outflow and recharge and their uncertainty were estimated in a multistep elicitation, where experts first gave their opinion on the probability distribution of their water balance component of interest, then the average annual values and uncertainty of water balance components and catchment-scale water balances were obtained by reaching consensus during group discussions. The obtained water balance errors for the 1055 km2 Ahlergaarde catchment and 120 km2 Holtum catchment were -5 and -62 mm/yr, respectively, with an uncertainty of 66 and 86 mm/yr, respectively. As an advantage of the expert elicitation, drawing on the intuitive experience and capabilities of experts to assess complex, site-specific problems, the contribution of independent sources of uncertainties to the total uncertainty was also evaluated similarly to the subsurface outflow component, which traditionally is estimated as the residual of the water balance.

  12. iMPACT3: Internet-based development and administration of utility elicitation protocols.

    PubMed

    Lenert, L A; Sturley, A; Watson, M E

    2002-01-01

    iMPACT3 (Internet Multimedia Preference Assessment Instrument Construction Tool, version 3) is a software development environment that helps researchers build Internet-capable multimedia utility elicitation software programs. The program is a free, openly accessible Web site (http.// preferences.ucsd.edu/impact3/asp). To develop a utility elicitation software program using iMPACT3, a researcher selects modular protocol components from a library and custom tailors the components to the details of his or her research protocol. iMPACT3 builds a Web site implementing the protocol and downloads it to the researcher's computer. In a study of 75 HIV-infected patients, an iMPACT3-generated protocol showed substantial evidence of construct validity and good internal consistency (logic error rates of 4% to 10% and procedural invariance error rates of 10% to 28%, depending on the elicitation method) but only fair 3- to 6-week test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient= 0.42 to 0.55). Further work may be needed on specific utility assessment procedures, but this study's results confirm iMPACT3's feasibility in facilitating the collection of health state utility data.

  13. Gender differences in flashbulb memories elicited by the Clarence Thomas hearings.

    PubMed

    Morse, C K; Woodward, E M; Zweigenhaft, R L

    1993-08-01

    American students and other adults aged 19-75 completed a questionnaire about flashbulb memories and recollections of autobiographical events elicited by the Senate hearings for confirmation of Clarence Thomas as a Supreme Court Justice. The respondents were less likely to recall vivid image memories than were respondents in earlier studies about memories of the assassinations of John Kennedy, Robert Kennedy, and Martin Luther King. Women were significantly more likely than men to report vivid image memories and recall of autobiographical events elicited by the hearings, but they did not differ significantly from men in the ratings of these memories. Women were also significantly more likely than men to report specific memories of having been victims of sexual harassment and abuse. Women recalled reconsidering incidents in which they might have been victims of sexual harassment more often than men did. Exposure to media coverage did not differ by gender, although the amount of coverage paid attention to did correlate with the number of personal memories elicited.

  14. Eliciting steady-state visual evoked potentials by means of stereoscopic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calore, Enrico; Gadia, Davide; Marini, Daniele

    2014-03-01

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) provide users communication and control capabilities by analyzing their brain activity. A technique to implement BCIs, used recently also in Virtual Reality (VR) environments, is based on the Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs) detection. Exploiting the SSVEP response, BCIs could be implemented showing targets flickering at different frequencies and detecting which is gazed by the observer analyzing her/his electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. In this work, we evaluate the use of stereoscopic displays for the presentation of SSVEP eliciting stimuli, comparing their effectiveness between monoscopic and stereoscopic stimuli. Moreover we propose a novel method to elicit SSVEP responses exploiting the stereoscopic displays capability of presenting dichoptic stimuli. We have created an experimental scene to present flickering stimuli on an active stereoscopic display, obtaining reliable control of the targets' frequency independently for the two stereo views. Using an EEG acquisition device, we analyzed the SSVEP responses from a group of subjects. From the preliminary results, we got evidence that stereoscopic displays represent valid devices for the presentation of SSVEP stimuli. Moreover, the use of different flickering frequencies for the two views of a single stimulus proved to elicit non-linear interactions between the stimulation frequencies, clearly visible in the EEG signal. This suggests interesting applications for SSVEP-based BCIs in VR environments able to overcome some limitations imposed by the refresh frequency of standard displays, but also the use of commodity stereoscopic displays to implement binocular rivalry experiments.

  15. Pharmacological blockade of the vanilloid receptor TRPV1 elicits marked hyperthermia in humans.

    PubMed

    Gavva, Narender R; Treanor, James J S; Garami, Andras; Fang, Liang; Surapaneni, Sekhar; Akrami, Anna; Alvarez, Francisco; Bak, Annette; Darling, Mary; Gore, Anu; Jang, Graham R; Kesslak, James P; Ni, Liyun; Norman, Mark H; Palluconi, Gabrielle; Rose, Mark J; Salfi, Margaret; Tan, Edward; Romanovsky, Andrej A; Banfield, Christopher; Davar, Gudarz

    2008-05-01

    The vanilloid receptor TRPV1 has been identified as a molecular target for the treatment of pain associated with inflammatory diseases and cancer. Hence, TRPV1 antagonists have been considered for therapeutic evaluation in such diseases. During Phase I clinical trials with AMG 517, a highly selective TRPV1 antagonist, we found that TRPV1 blockade elicited marked, but reversible, and generally plasma concentration-dependent hyperthermia. Similar to what was observed in rats, dogs, and monkeys, hyperthermia was attenuated after repeated dosing of AMG 517 (at the highest dose tested) in humans during a second Phase I trial. However, AMG 517 administered after molar extraction (a surgical cause of acute pain) elicited long-lasting hyperthermia with maximal body temperature surpassing 40 degrees C, suggesting that TRPV1 blockade elicits undesirable hyperthermia in susceptible individuals. Mechanisms of AMG 517-induced hyperthermia were then studied in rats. AMG 517 caused hyperthermia by inducing tail skin vasoconstriction and increasing thermogenesis, which suggests that TRPV1 regulates vasomotor tone and metabolic heat production. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that: (a) TRPV1-selective antagonists like AMG 517 cannot be developed for systemic use as stand alone agents for treatment of pain and other diseases, (b) individual susceptibility influences magnitude of hyperthermia observed after TRPV1 blockade, and (c) TRPV1 plays a pivotal role as a molecular regulator for body temperature in humans.

  16. Accumulated bending energy elicits neutral sphingomyelinase activity in human red blood cells.

    PubMed

    López, David J; Egido-Gabas, Meritxell; López-Montero, Iván; Busto, Jon V; Casas, Josefina; Garnier, Marie; Monroy, Francisco; Larijani, Banafshé; Goñi, Félix M; Alonso, Alicia

    2012-05-02

    We propose that accumulated membrane bending energy elicits a neutral sphingomyelinase (SMase) activity in human erythrocytes. Membrane bending was achieved by osmotic or chemical processes, and SMase activity was assessed by quantitative thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The activity induced by hypotonic stress in erythrocyte membranes had the pH dependence, ion dependence, and inhibitor sensitivity of mammalian neutral SMases. The activity caused a decrease in SM contents, with a minimum at 6 min after onset of the hypotonic conditions, and then the SM contents were recovered. We also elicited SMase activity by adding lysophosphatidylcholine externally or by generating it with phospholipase A(2). The same effect was observed upon addition of chlorpromazine or sodium deoxycholate at concentrations below the critical micellar concentration, and even under hypertonic conditions. A unifying factor of the various agents that elicit this SMase activity is the accumulated membrane bending energy. Both hypo-and hypertonic conditions impose an increased curvature, whereas the addition of surfactants or phospholipase A(2) activation increases the outer monolayer area, thus leading to an increased bending energy. The fact that this latent SMase activity is tightly coupled to the membrane bending properties suggests that it may be related to the general phenomenon of stress-induced ceramide synthesis and apoptosis.

  17. Oncolytic Immunotherapy: Dying the Right Way is a Key to Eliciting Potent Antitumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zong Sheng; Liu, Zuqiang; Bartlett, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are novel immunotherapeutic agents whose anticancer effects come from both oncolysis and elicited antitumor immunity. OVs induce mostly immunogenic cancer cell death (ICD), including immunogenic apoptosis, necrosis/necroptosis, pyroptosis, and autophagic cell death, leading to exposure of calreticulin and heat-shock proteins to the cell surface, and/or released ATP, high-mobility group box 1, uric acid, and other damage-associated molecular patterns as well as pathogen-associated molecular patterns as danger signals, along with tumor-associated antigens, to activate dendritic cells and elicit adaptive antitumor immunity. Dying the right way may greatly potentiate adaptive antitumor immunity. The mode of cancer cell death may be modulated by individual OVs and cancer cells as they often encode and express genes that inhibit/promote apoptosis, necroptosis, or autophagic cell death. We can genetically engineer OVs with death-pathway-modulating genes and thus skew the infected cancer cells toward certain death pathways for the enhanced immunogenicity. Strategies combining with some standard therapeutic regimens may also change the immunological consequence of cancer cell death. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of danger signals, modes of cancer cell death induced by OVs, the induced danger signals and functions in eliciting subsequent antitumor immunity. We also discuss potential combination strategies to target cells into specific modes of ICD and enhance cancer immunogenicity, including blockade of immune checkpoints, in order to break immune tolerance, improve antitumor immunity, and thus the overall therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24782985

  18. The perspective awareness model - Eliciting multiple perspectives to formulate high quality decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, Laurel

    2013-07-01

    A great deal of attention is given to the importance of communication in environmental remediation and radioactive waste management. However, very little attention is given to eliciting multiple perspectives so as to formulate high quality decisions. Plans that are based on a limited number of perspectives tend to be narrowly focused whereas those that are based on a wide variety of perspectives tend to be comprehensive, higher quality, and more apt to be put into application. In addition, existing methods of dialogue have built-in limitations in that they typically draw from the predominant thinking patterns which focus in some areas but ignore others. This can result in clarity but a lack of comprehensiveness. This paper presents a Perspective Awareness Model which helps groups such as partnering teams, interagency teams, steering committees, and working groups elicit a wide net of perspectives and viewpoints. The paper begins by describing five factors that makes cooperation among such groups challenging. Next, a Perspective Awareness Model that makes it possible to manage these five factors is presented. The two primary components of this model --- the eight 'Thinking Directions' and the 'Shared Documentation' --- are described in detail. Several examples are given to illustrate how the Perspective Awareness Model can be used to elicit multiple perspectives to formulate high quality decisions in the area of environmental remediation and radioactive waste management. (authors)

  19. The alpha-naphthoxyacetic acid-elicited retching involves dopaminergic inhibition in mice.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, T; Yamada, K

    1980-05-01

    Alpha-naphthoxyacetic acid (alpha-NOAA), one of the jumping-inducers, elicited a dose-dependent retching behavior at doses ranging from 250 to 550 mg/kg in mice and vomiting at a dose of 550 mg/kg in pigeons. Protoveratrine-A (PV-A, 0.1 mg/kg), a veratrum alkaloid, also induced retching in mice and vomiting in pigeons, while apomorphine (2 mg/kg) produced neither retching in mice nor vomiting in pigeons though it induced feeding in pigeons. The retching elicited by alpha-NOAA or PV-A was not significantly affected by scopolamine, aminooxyacetic acid and gamma-butyrolactone, but was markedly inhibited by apomorphine (2 mg/kg), this inhibitory effect being antagonized without significance by haloperidol which did not itself augment the retching. These results imply that the retching elicited by alpha-NOAA or PV-A seems to involve at least in part an inhibition of dopaminergic neuron activity.

  20. Mirth and laughter elicited by electrical stimulation of the human anterior cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Caruana, Fausto; Avanzini, Pietro; Gozzo, Francesca; Francione, Stefano; Cardinale, Francesco; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2015-10-01

    Laughter is a complex motor behavior that, typically, expresses mirth. Despite its fundamental role in social life, knowledge about the neural basis of laughter is very limited and mostly based on a few electrical stimulation (ES) studies carried out in epileptic patients. In these studies laughter was elicited from temporal areas where it was accompanied by mirth and from frontal areas plus an anterior cingulate case where laughter without mirth was observed. On the basis of these findings, it has been proposed a dichotomy between temporal lobe areas processing the emotional content of laughter and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and motor areas responsible of laughter production. The present study is aimed to understand the role of ACC in laughter. We report the effects of stimulation of 10 rostral, pregenual ACC (pACC) patients in which the ES elicited laughter. In half of the patients ES elicited a clear burst of laughter with mirth, while in the other half mirth was not evident. This large dataset allow us to offer a more reliable picture of the functional contribute of this region in laughter, and to precisely localize it in the cingulate cortex. We conclude that the pACC is involved in both the motor and the affective components of emotions, and challenge the validity of a sharp dichotomy between motor and emotional centers for laughing. Finally, we suggest a possible anatomical network for the production of positive emotional expressions.

  1. Impact of Elicitation on Antioxidant and Potential Antihypertensive Properties of Lentil Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Peñas, Elena; Limón, Rocío I; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Restani, Patrizia; Pihlanto, Anne; Frias, Juana

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the application of elicitors (500 μM ascorbic acid, 50 μM folic acid, 5 mM glutamic acid and 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM glutamic acid) during lentil germination up to 8 days as a strategy to increase germination rate and to enhance the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and phenolic compounds. The effect of elicitation on the protein profile and antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of sprouted lentils was also evaluated. The application of elicitors did not negatively affect the germination yield of lentils and no significant changes on the protein pattern of lentils germinated in the presence of elicitors were observed. Chitosan/glutamic acid increased by 1.6-fold the GABA content in lentil sprouts, whilst ascorbic and folic acids as well as chitosan/glutamic acid were highly effective to enhance the total content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of sprouted lentils. All elicited lentil sprouts showed ability to inhibit ACE activity (IC50: 9.5-11.9 μg peptides/mL). Therefore, elicitation can be considered a promising approach to improve the content of compounds with antioxidant and potential antihypertensive activities in lentil sprouts.

  2. A structured review of health utility measures and elicitation in advanced/metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yanni; Wolfram, Verena; Cook, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background Health utilities are increasingly incorporated in health economic evaluations. Different elicitation methods, direct and indirect, have been established in the past. This study examined the evidence on health utility elicitation previously reported in advanced/metastatic breast cancer and aimed to link these results to requirements of reimbursement bodies. Methods Searches were conducted using a detailed search strategy across several electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and EconLit databases), online sources (Cost-effectiveness Analysis Registry and the Health Economics Research Center), and web sites of health technology assessment (HTA) bodies. Publications were selected based on the search strategy and the overall study objectives. Results A total of 768 publications were identified in the searches, and 26 publications, comprising 18 journal articles and eight submissions to HTA bodies, were included in the evidence review. Most journal articles derived utilities from the European Quality of Life Five-Dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D). Other utility measures, such as the direct methods standard gamble (SG), time trade-off (TTO), and visual analog scale (VAS), were less frequently used. Several studies described mapping algorithms to generate utilities from disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments such as European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire – Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire – Breast Cancer 23 (EORTC QLQ-BR23), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – General questionnaire (FACT-G), and Utility-Based Questionnaire-Cancer (UBQ-C); most used EQ-5D as the reference. Sociodemographic factors that affect health utilities, such as age, sex, income, and education, as well as disease progression, choice of utility elicitation method, and country settings, were identified

  3. Salicylic acid-induced elicitation of folates in coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) improves bioaccessibility and reduces pro-oxidant status.

    PubMed

    Puthusseri, Bijesh; Divya, Peethambaran; Lokesh, Veeresh; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2013-01-15

    Foliage of Coriandrum sativum is a rich source of natural folates amenable for enhancement through salicylic acid-mediated elicitation, thereby holding a great promise for natural-mode alleviation of this vitamin (B(9)) deficiency. In the present study we report salicylic acid-mediated differential elicitation of different forms of folates - 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, 5-formyltetrahydrofolate and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate - their stabilities during microwave-drying and bioaccessibilities from fresh and dried foliage. The first two compounds nearly doubled and the third increased sixfold post-elicitation, with all three showing concomitant increase in bioaccessibilities. Although a slight decrease in bioaccessibility was observed in dried foliage, over twofold increase of each form of folate upon elicitation would deliver much higher levels of natural folates from this traditional culinary foliage, which is widely used in many cuisines. Elicitor-mediated folate enhancement also imparted reduction of oxidative status and the enhancement of antioxidant enzyme activities in coriander foliage.

  4. Novel concept of iSALT (inducible skin-associated lymphoid tissue) in the elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    HONDA, Tetsuya; KABASHIMA, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is one of the most common inflammatory skin diseases, which is classified as a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune response. The development of ACD is divided into two phases: sensitization and elicitation. In the sensitization phase, antigen-specific effector T cells are induced in the draining lymph nodes by antigen-captured cutaneous dendritic cells (DCs) that migrate from the skin. In the elicitation phase, the effector T cells are activated in the skin by antigen-captured cutaneous DCs and produce various chemical mediators, which create antigen-specific inflammation. In this review, we discuss the recent advancements in the immunological mechanisms of ACD, focusing on the mechanisms in the elicitation phase. The observations of elicitation of CHS lead to the emerging novel concept of iSALT (inducible skin-associated lymphoid tissue). PMID:26755397

  5. The effect of butaclamol and of other neuroleptic agents on the apomorphine-elicited inhibition of synaptosomal tyrosine hydroxylase activity.

    PubMed

    Bronaugh, R L; Tabak, J; Ohashi, T; Goldstein, M

    1975-01-01

    The effects of the two enantiomers of butaclamol and of several neuroleptics on the apomorphine-elicited inhibition of synaptosomal tyrosine hydroxylase activity was investigated. The (+) but not the (-) enantiomer of butaclamol reverses the apomorphine-elicited enzyme inhibition. (+) Butaclamol is more potent than the other tested neuroleptics. All the tested neuroleptics reverse the apomorphine-elicited enzyme inhibition but their relative potency differs. Using two criteria, namely the concentrations of neuroleptics required to reverse enzyme inhibition maximally or by 25%, the order of decreasing potency is as follows: (+) butaclamol, fluphenazine, haloperidol, pimozide, chlorpromazine. The results suggest that the reversal of apomorphine-elicited inhibition of synaptosomal tyrosine hydroxylase activity is a valid test model for screening antipsychotic drugs.

  6. Conformational Nature of the Borrelia burgdorferi Decorin Binding Protein A Epitopes That Elicit Protective Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ulbrandt, Nancy D.; Cassatt, David R.; Patel, Nita K.; Roberts, William C.; Bachy, Christine M.; Fazenbaker, Christine A.; Hanson, Mark S.

    2001-01-01

    Decorin binding protein A (DbpA) has been shown by several laboratories to be a protective antigen for the prevention of experimental Borrelia burgdorferi infection in the mouse model of Lyme borreliosis. However, different recombinant forms of the antigen having either lipidated amino termini, approximating the natural secretion and posttranslational processing, or nonprocessed cytosolic forms have elicited disparate levels of protection in the mouse model. We have now used the unique functional properties of this molecule to investigate the structural requirements needed to elicit a protective immune response. Genetic and physicochemical alterations to DbpA showed that the ability to bind to the ligand decorin is indicative of a potent immunogen but is not conclusive. By mutating the two carboxy-terminal nonconserved cysteines of DbpA from B. burgdorferi strain N40, we have determined that the stability afforded by the putative disulfide bond is essential for the generation of protective antibodies. This mutated protein was more sensitive to thermal denaturation and proteolysis, suggesting that it is in a less ordered state. Immunization with DbpA that was thermally denatured and functionally inactivated stimulated an immune response that was not protective and lacked bactericidal antibodies. Antibodies against conformationally altered forms of DbpA also failed to kill heterologous B. garinii and B. afzelii strains. Additionally, nonsecreted recombinant forms of DbpAN40 were found to be inferior to secreted lipoprotein DbpAN40 in terms of functional activity and antigenic potency. These data suggest that elicitation of a bactericidal and protective immune response to DbpA requires a properly folded conformation for the production of functional antibodies. PMID:11447153

  7. Targeting HIV-1 Env gp140 to LOX-1 Elicits Immune Responses in Rhesus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Zurawski, Gerard; Zurawski, Sandra; Flamar, Anne-Laure; Richert, Laura; Wagner, Ralf; Tomaras, Georgia D; Montefiori, David C; Roederer, Mario; Ferrari, Guido; Lacabaratz, Christine; Bonnabau, Henri; Klucar, Peter; Wang, Zhiqing; Foulds, Kathryn E; Kao, Shing-Fen; Yates, Nicole L; LaBranche, Celia; Jacobs, Bertram L; Kibler, Karen; Asbach, Benedikt; Kliche, Alexander; Salazar, Andres; Reed, Steve; Self, Steve; Gottardo, Raphael; Galmin, Lindsey; Weiss, Deborah; Cristillo, Anthony; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Levy, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Improved antigenicity against HIV-1 envelope (Env) protein is needed to elicit vaccine-induced protective immunity in humans. Here we describe the first tests in non-human primates (NHPs) of Env gp140 protein fused to a humanized anti-LOX-1 recombinant antibody for delivering Env directly to LOX-1-bearing antigen presenting cells, especially dendritic cells (DC). LOX-1, or 1ectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-1, is expressed on various antigen presenting cells and endothelial cells, and is involved in promoting humoral immune responses. The anti-LOX-1 Env gp140 fusion protein was tested for priming immune responses and boosting responses in animals primed with replication competent NYVAC-KC Env gp140 vaccinia virus. Anti-LOX-1 Env gp140 vaccination elicited robust cellular and humoral responses when used for either priming or boosting immunity. Co-administration with Poly ICLC, a TLR3 agonist, was superior to GLA, a TLR4 agonist. Both CD4+ and CD8+ Env-specific T cell responses were elicited by anti-LOX-1 Env gp140, but in particular the CD4+ T cells were multifunctional and directed to multiple epitopes. Serum IgG and IgA antibody responses induced by anti-LOX-1 Env gp140 against various gp140 domains were cross-reactive across HIV-1 clades; however, the sera neutralized only HIV-1 bearing sequences most similar to the clade C 96ZM651 Env gp140 carried by the anti-LOX-1 vehicle. These data, as well as the safety of this protein vaccine, justify further exploration of this DC-targeting vaccine approach for protective immunity against HIV-1.

  8. A tingling sanshool derivative excites primary sensory neurons and elicits nocifensive behavior in rats

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Amanda H.; Sawyer, Carolyn M.; Zanotto, Karen L.; Ivanov, Margaret A.; Cheung, Susan; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Furrer, Stephan; Simons, Christopher T.; Slack, Jay P.

    2011-01-01

    Szechuan peppers contain hydroxy-α-sanshool that imparts desirable tingling, cooling, and numbing sensations. Hydroxy-α-sanshool activates a subset of sensory dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons by inhibiting two-pore potassium channels. We presently investigated if a tingle-evoking sanshool analog, isobutylalkenyl amide (IBA), excites rat DRG neurons and, if so, if these neurons are also activated by agonists of TRPM8, TRPA1, and/or TRPV1. Thirty-four percent of DRG neurons tested responded to IBA, with 29% of them also responding to menthol, 29% to cinnamic aldehyde, 66% to capsaicin, and subsets responding to two or more transient receptor potential (TRP) agonists. IBA-responsive cells had similar size distributions regardless of whether they responded to capsaicin or not; cells only responsive to IBA were larger. Responses to repeated application of IBA at a 5-min interstimulus interval exhibited self-desensitization (tachyphylaxis). Capsaicin did not cross-desensitize responses to IBA to any greater extent than the tachyphylaxis observed with repeated IBA applications. These findings are consistent with psychophysical observations that IBA elicits tingle sensation accompanied by pungency and cooling, with self-desensitization but little cross-desensitization by capsaicin. Intraplantar injection of IBA elicited nocifensive responses (paw licking, shaking-flinching, and guarding) in a dose-related manner similar to the effects of intraplantar capsaicin and serotonin. IBA had no effect on thermal sensitivity but enhanced mechanical sensitivity at the highest dose tested. These observations suggest that IBA elicits an unfamiliar aversive sensation that is expressed behaviorally by the limited response repertoire available to the animal. PMID:21273322

  9. Experimental muscle pain decreases the frequency threshold of electrically elicited muscle cramps.

    PubMed

    Serrao, Mariano; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Ge, Hong-You; Pierelli, Francesco; Sandrini, Giorgio; Farina, Dario

    2007-09-01

    This study in humans tested the hypothesis that nociceptive muscle afferent input facilitates the occurrence of muscle cramps. In 13 healthy adults, muscle cramps were experimentally induced in the foot by stimulating the tibialis posterior nerve at the ankle with 2-s bursts of stimuli separated by 30 s, with stimulation frequency increasing by 2-Hz increments from 10 Hz until the cramp appeared. The minimum stimulation frequency that induced the cramp was defined "cramp frequency threshold". In 2 days, elicitation of the cramp was performed in the two-feet with and without (baseline condition) injection of hypertonic (painful condition) or isotonic (control condition) saline into the deep midportion of the flexor hallucis brevis muscle, from where surface EMG signals were recorded. The cramp frequency threshold was lower for the painful condition with respect to its baseline (mean +/- SE, hypertonic saline: 25.7 +/- 2.1 Hz, corresponding baseline: 31.2 +/- 2.8 Hz; P < 0.01) while there was no difference between the threshold with isotonic injection with respect to baseline. EMG average rectified value and power spectral frequency were higher during the cramp than immediately before the stimulation that elicited the cramp (pre-cramp: 13.9 +/- 1.6 muV and 75.4 +/- 3.8 Hz, respectively; post-cramp: 19.9 +/- 3.2 muV and 101.6 +/- 6.0 Hz; P < 0.05). The results suggest that nociceptive muscle afferent activity induced by injection of hypertonic saline facilitates the generation of electrically elicited muscle cramps.

  10. Electrical stimulation with a penetrating optic nerve electrode array elicits visuotopic cortical responses in cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yiliang; Yan, Yan; Chai, Xinyu; Ren, Qiushi; Chen, Yao; Li, Liming

    2013-06-01

    Objective. A visual prosthesis based on penetrating electrode stimulation within the optic nerve (ON) is a potential way to restore partial functional vision for blind patients. We investigated the retinotopic organization of ON stimulation and its spatial resolution. Approach. A five-electrode array was inserted perpendicularly into the ON or a single electrode was advanced to different depths within the ON (˜1-2 mm behind the eyeball, 13 cats). A sparse noise method was used to map ON electrode position and the visual cortex. Cortical responses were recorded by a 5 × 6 array. The visuotopic correspondence between the retinotopic position of the ON electrode was compared with the visual evoked cortical map and the electrical evoked potentials elicited in response to ON stimulation. Main results. Electrical stimulation with penetrating ON electrodes elicited cortical responses in visuotopographically corresponding areas of the cortex. Stimulation of the temporal side of the ON elicited cortical responses corresponding to the central visual field. The visual field position shifted from the lower to central visual field as the electrode penetrated through the depth of the ON. A spatial resolution of ˜ 2° to 3° within a limited cortical visuotopic representation could be obtained by this approach. Significance. Visuotopic electrical stimulation with a relatively fine spatial resolution can be accomplished using penetrating electrodes implanted at multiple sites and at different depths within the ON just behind the globe. This study also provides useful experimental data for the design of electrode density and the distribution of penetrating ON electrodes for a visual prosthesis.

  11. Superior protection elicited by live-attenuated vaccines in the murine model of paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pallab; Shippy, Daniel C; Talaat, Adel M

    2015-12-16

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) causes Johne's disease, a chronic enteric infection in ruminants with severe economic impact on the dairy industry in the USA and worldwide. Currently, available vaccines have limited protective efficacy against disease progression and does not prevent spread of the infection among animals. Because of their ability to elicit wide-spectrum immune responses, we adopted a live-attenuated vaccine approach based on a sigH knock-out strain of M. paratuberculosis (ΔsigH). Earlier analysis of the ΔsigH mutant in mice indicated their inadequate ability to colonize host tissues, unlike the isogenic wild-type strain, validating the role of this sigma factor in M. paratuberculosis virulence. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of the ΔsigH mutant compared to inactivated vaccine constructs in a vaccine/challenge model of murine paratuberculosis. The presented analysis indicated that ΔsigH mutant with or without QuilA adjuvant is capable of eliciting strong immune responses (such as interferon gamma-γ, IFN-γ) suggesting their immunogenicity and ability to potentially initiate effective vaccine-induced immunity. Following a challenge with virulent strains of M. paratuberculosis, ΔsigH conferred protective immunity as indicated by the reduced bacterial burden accompanied with reduced lesions in main body organs (liver, spleen and intestine) usually infected with M. paratuberculosis. More importantly, our data indicated better ability of the ΔsigH vaccine to confer protection compared to the inactivated vaccine constructs even with the presence of oil-adjuvant. Overall, our approach provides a rational basis for using live-attenuated mutant strains to develop improved vaccines that elicit robust immunity against this chronic infection.

  12. Evaluation of a Performance-Based Expert Elicitation: WHO Global Attribution of Foodborne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Aspinall, W. P.; Cooke, R. M.; Havelaar, A. H.; Hoffmann, S.; Hald, T.

    2016-01-01

    For many societally important science-based decisions, data are inadequate, unreliable or non-existent, and expert advice is sought. In such cases, procedures for eliciting structured expert judgments (SEJ) are increasingly used. This raises questions regarding validity and reproducibility. This paper presents new findings from a large-scale international SEJ study intended to estimate the global burden of foodborne disease on behalf of WHO. The study involved 72 experts distributed over 134 expert panels, with panels comprising thirteen experts on average. Elicitations were conducted in five languages. Performance-based weighted solutions for target questions of interest were formed for each panel. These weights were based on individual expert’s statistical accuracy and informativeness, determined using between ten and fifteen calibration variables from the experts' field with known values. Equal weights combinations were also calculated. The main conclusions on expert performance are: (1) SEJ does provide a science-based method for attribution of the global burden of foodborne diseases; (2) equal weighting of experts per panel increased statistical accuracy to acceptable levels, but at the cost of informativeness; (3) performance-based weighting increased informativeness, while retaining accuracy; (4) due to study constraints individual experts’ accuracies were generally lower than in other SEJ studies, and (5) there was a negative correlation between experts' informativeness and statistical accuracy which attenuated as accuracy improved, revealing that the least accurate experts drive the negative correlation. It is shown, however, that performance-based weighting has the ability to yield statistically accurate and informative combinations of experts' judgments, thereby offsetting this contrary influence. The present findings suggest that application of SEJ on a large scale is feasible, and motivate the development of enhanced training and tools for remote

  13. Proteins differentially expressed in elicited cell suspension culture of Podophyllum hexandrum with enhanced podophyllotoxin content

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Podophyllotoxin (PTOX), the precursor for semi-synthesis of cancer therapeutics like etoposide, teniposide and etophos, is primarily obtained from an endangered medicinal herb, Podophyllum hexandrum Royle. PTOX, a lignan is biosynthetically derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. The aim of this study is to investigate changes in the P. hexandrum cell proteome potentially related to PTOX accumulation in response to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicitation. High-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by colloidal Coomassie staining and mass spectrometric analysis was used to detect statistically significant changes in cell’s proteome. Result The HPLC analysis showed approximately 7–8 fold change in accumulation of PTOX, in the 12day old cell suspension culture (i.e. after 9days of elicitation) elicited with 100 μM MeJA as compared to the control. Using 2-DE a total of 233 spots was detected, out of which 105 spots were identified by MALDI TOF-TOF MS/MS. Data were subjected to functional annotation from a biological point of view through KEGG. The phenylpropanoid and monolignol pathway enzymes were identified, amongst these, chalcone synthase, polyphenol oxidase, caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferases, caffeic acid-O-methyl transferase etc. are noted as important. The relation of other differentially accumulated proteins with varied effects caused by elicitors on P. hexandrum cells namely stress and defense related protein, transcription and DNA replication and signaling are also discussed. Conclusions Elicitor-induced PTOX accumulation in P. hexandrum cell cultures provides a responsive model system to profile modulations in proteins related to phenylpropanoid/monolignol biosynthesis and other defense responses. Present findings form a baseline for future investigation on a non-sequenced medicinal herb P. hexandrum at molecular level. PMID:22621772

  14. Glucose elicits cephalic-phase insulin release in mice by activating KATP channels in taste cells.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, John I; Frim, Yonina G; Hochman, Ayelet; Lubitz, Gabrielle S; Basile, Anthony J; Sclafani, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    The taste of sugar elicits cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR), which limits the rise in blood glucose associated with meals. Little is known, however, about the gustatory mechanisms that trigger CPIR. We asked whether oral stimulation with any of the following taste stimuli elicited CPIR in mice: glucose, sucrose, maltose, fructose, Polycose, saccharin, sucralose, AceK, SC45647, or a nonmetabolizable sugar analog. The only taste stimuli that elicited CPIR were glucose and the glucose-containing saccharides (sucrose, maltose, Polycose). When we mixed an α-glucosidase inhibitor (acarbose) with the latter three saccharides, the mice no longer exhibited CPIR. This revealed that the carbohydrates were hydrolyzed in the mouth, and that the liberated glucose triggered CPIR. We also found that increasing the intensity or duration of oral glucose stimulation caused a corresponding increase in CPIR magnitude. To identify the components of the glucose-specific taste-signaling pathway, we examined the necessity of Calhm1, P2X2+P2X3, SGLT1, and Sur1. Among these proteins, only Sur1 was necessary for CPIR. Sur1 was not necessary, however, for taste-mediated attraction to sugars. Given that Sur1 is a subunit of the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (KATP) channel and that this channel functions as a part of a glucose-sensing pathway in pancreatic β-cells, we asked whether the KATP channel serves an analogous role in taste cells. We discovered that oral stimulation with drugs known to increase (glyburide) or decrease (diazoxide) KATP signaling produced corresponding changes in glucose-stimulated CPIR. We propose that the KATP channel is part of a novel signaling pathway in taste cells that mediates glucose-induced CPIR.

  15. Identification of cuticular lipids eliciting interspecific courtship in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Eliyahu, Dorit; Nojima, Satoshi; Capracotta, Sonja S; Comins, Daniel L; Schal, Coby

    2008-05-01

    The cuticular surface of sexually mature females of the German cockroach contains a sex pheromone that, upon contact with the male's antennae, elicits a characteristic species-specific courtship behavior. This female-specific pheromone is a blend of several long-chain methyl ketones, alcohols and aldehydes, all derived from prominent cuticular hydrocarbons found in all life stages of this cockroach. We found that contact with the antennae of 5 out of 20 assayed cockroach species elicited courtship behavior in German cockroach males. The heterospecific courtship-eliciting compounds were isolated by behaviorally guided fractionation of the active crude extracts and compared to the native sex pheromone components. We identified two active compounds from the cuticular extract of the Oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis -- 11-methylheptacosan-2-one and 27-oxo-11-methylheptacosan-2-one; the former compound was confirmed by synthesis and proved to independently stimulate courtship in German cockroach males. These compounds share common features with, but are distinct from, any of the known contact sex pheromone components. This suggests that sex pheromone reception in the male German cockroach is unusually promiscuous, accepting a wide range of compounds that share certain features with its native pheromone, thus resulting in a broad spectrum of behavioral response to other species. We propose that several characteristics of their mating system -- chiefly, absence of closely related species in the anthropogenic environment, resulting in relaxation of selection on sexual communication, and a highly male-biased operational sex ratio -- have driven males to respond with extremely low thresholds to a wide spectrum of related compounds.

  16. Using Psychophysiological Measures to Examine the Temporal Profile of Verbal Humor Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Fiacconi, Chris M.; Owen, Adrian M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite its pervasiveness in popular culture, there remains much to be learned about the psychological and physiological processes that underlie our experience of humor. In the present study, we examined the temporal profile of verbal humor elicitation using psychophysiological measures of heart rate (HR) and facial electromyography (EMG). Consistent with recent prior research on cardiovascular changes to perceived humor, we found that HR acceleration was greater for jokes relative to non-jokes, and was positively related to the level of perceived humor elicited by these jokes. In addition, activity recorded from the zygomaticus major muscle that controls smiling was found to be greater for jokes relative to non-jokes. To link these physiological changes to the psychological processes that govern humor comprehension, we took the initial inflection point of the zygomatic EMG response as a marker for the onset of humor comprehension, and used this marker to probe the pattern of cardiovascular activity at this time-point. We estimated the onset of the humor response to occur during the initial HR deceleration phase, and found that jokes relative to non-jokes elicited a decreased HR response at this time-point. This result questions the previously forwarded notion that the psychological “moment of insight” that signals the start of the humor response is always associated with heightened cardiovascular activity. This discrepancy is discussed in relation to possible differences in the cognitive processes required to comprehend different forms of humor. At a broader level, our results also demonstrate the advantages of combining different psychophysiological measures to examine psychological phenomena, and illustrate how one such measure can constrain the interpretation of others. PMID:26332843

  17. Differential accumulation of monolignol-derived compounds in elicited flax (Linum usitatissimum) cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Hano, C; Addi, M; Bensaddek, L; Crônier, D; Baltora-Rosset, S; Doussot, J; Maury, S; Mesnard, F; Chabbert, B; Hawkins, S; Lainé, E; Lamblin, F

    2006-04-01

    Lignin and lignans share monolignols as common precursors and are both potentially involved in plant defence against pathogens. In this study, we investigated the effects of fungal elicitors on lignin and lignan metabolism in flax (Linum usitatissimum) cell suspensions. Cell suspension cultures of flax were treated with elicitor preparations made from mycelium extracts of Botrytis cinerea, Phoma exigua and Fusarium oxysporum F ssp lini. Elicitors induced a rapid stimulation of the monolignol pathway, as confirmed by the increase in PAL (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, EC 4.1.3.5), CCR (cinnamoyl-CoA reductase EC 1.2.1.44) and CAD (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.195) gene expression and PAL activity. At the same time, CCR activity only increased significantly in F. oxysporum-treated cells 24 h post elicitation. On the other hand, CAD activity measured for coniferyl alcohol formation was transiently decreased but a substrate-specific activation of CAD activity was observed in F. oxysporum-treated cells when using sinapyl alcohol as substrate. The accumulation of monolignol-derived products varied according to the elicitor used. B. cinerea or P. exigua-elicited cell cultures were characterised by a reinforcement of the cell wall by a deposit of 8-O-4'-linked non-condensed lignin structures and phenolic monomers, while at the same time no stimulation of 8-8'-linked lignan or 8-5'-linked phenylcoumaran lignan accumulation was observed. Additionally, elicitation of cell cultures with F. oxysporum extracts even triggered a strong incorporation of monolignols in the non condensed labile ether-linked lignin fraction concomitantly with a decrease in lignan and phenylcoumaran lignan accumulation. Several hypotheses are proposed to explain the putative role of these compounds in the defence response of flax cells against pathogens.

  18. Identification of cuticular lipids eliciting interspecific courtship in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliyahu, Dorit; Nojima, Satoshi; Capracotta, Sonja S.; Comins, Daniel L.; Schal, Coby

    2008-05-01

    The cuticular surface of sexually mature females of the German cockroach contains a sex pheromone that, upon contact with the male’s antennae, elicits a characteristic species-specific courtship behavior. This female-specific pheromone is a blend of several long-chain methyl ketones, alcohols and aldehydes, all derived from prominent cuticular hydrocarbons found in all life stages of this cockroach. We found that contact with the antennae of 5 out of 20 assayed cockroach species elicited courtship behavior in German cockroach males. The heterospecific courtship-eliciting compounds were isolated by behaviorally guided fractionation of the active crude extracts and compared to the native sex pheromone components. We identified two active compounds from the cuticular extract of the Oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis—11-methylheptacosan-2-one and 27-oxo-11-methylheptacosan-2-one; the former compound was confirmed by synthesis and proved to independently stimulate courtship in German cockroach males. These compounds share common features with, but are distinct from, any of the known contact sex pheromone components. This suggests that sex pheromone reception in the male German cockroach is unusually promiscuous, accepting a wide range of compounds that share certain features with its native pheromone, thus resulting in a broad spectrum of behavioral response to other species. We propose that several characteristics of their mating system—chiefly, absence of closely related species in the anthropogenic environment, resulting in relaxation of selection on sexual communication, and a highly male-biased operational sex ratio—have driven males to respond with extremely low thresholds to a wide spectrum of related compounds.

  19. Event-Related Potentials Elicited by Pre-Attentive Emotional Changes in Temporal Context

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Tomomi; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect emotional change in the environment is essential for adaptive behavior. The current study investigated whether event-related potentials (ERPs) can reflect emotional change in a visual sequence. To assess pre-attentive processing, we examined visual mismatch negativity (vMMN): the negative potentials elicited by a deviant (infrequent) stimulus embedded in a sequence of standard (frequent) stimuli. Participants in two experiments pre-attentively viewed visual sequences of Japanese kanji with different emotional connotations while ERPs were recorded. The visual sequence in Experiment 1 consisted of neutral standards and two types of emotional deviants with a strong and weak intensity. Although the results indicated that strongly emotional deviants elicited more occipital negativity than neutral standards, it was unclear whether these negativities were derived from emotional deviation in the sequence or from the emotional significance of the deviants themselves. In Experiment 2, the two identical emotional deviants were presented against different emotional standards. One type of deviants was emotionally incongruent with the standard and the other type of deviants was emotionally congruent with the standard. The results indicated that occipital negativities elicited by deviants resulted from perceptual changes in a visual sequence at a latency of 100–200 ms and from emotional changes at latencies of 200–260 ms. Contrary to the results of the ERP experiment, reaction times to deviants showed no effect of emotional context; negative stimuli were consistently detected more rapidly than were positive stimuli. Taken together, the results suggest that brain signals can reflect emotional change in a temporal context. PMID:23671693

  20. Differential Specificity and Immunogenicity of Adenovirus Type 5 Neutralizing Antibodies Elicited by Natural Infection or Immunization▿

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cheng; Gall, Jason G. D.; Nason, Martha; King, C. Richter; Koup, Richard A.; Roederer, Mario; McElrath, M. Juliana; Morgan, Cecilia A.; Churchyard, Gavin; Baden, Lindsey R.; Duerr, Ann C.; Keefer, Michael C.; Graham, Barney S.; Nabel, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    A recent clinical trial of a T-cell-based AIDS vaccine delivered with recombinant adenovirus type 5 (rAd5) vectors showed no efficacy in lowering viral load and was associated with increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Preexisting immunity to Ad5 in humans could therefore affect both immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy. We hypothesized that vaccine-induced immunity is differentially affected, depending on whether subjects were exposed to Ad5 by natural infection or by vaccination. Serum samples from vaccine trial subjects receiving a DNA/rAd5 AIDS vaccine with or without prior immunity to Ad5 were examined for the specificity of their Ad5 neutralizing antibodies and their effect on HIV-1 immune responses. Here, we report that rAd5 neutralizing antibodies were directed to different components of the virion, depending on whether they were elicited by natural infection or vaccination in HIV vaccine trial subjects. Neutralizing antibodies elicited by natural infection were directed largely to the Ad5 fiber, while exposure to rAd5 through vaccination elicited antibodies primarily to capsid proteins other than fiber. Notably, preexisting immunity to Ad5 fiber from natural infection significantly reduced the CD4 and CD8 cell responses to HIV Gag after DNA/rAd5 vaccination. The specificity of Ad5 neutralizing antibodies therefore differs depending on the route of exposure, and natural Ad5 infection compromises Ad5 vaccine-induced immunity to weak immunogens, such as HIV-1 Gag. These results have implications for future AIDS vaccine trials and the design of next-generation gene-based vaccine vectors. PMID:19846512

  1. Brief environmental enrichment elicits metaplasticity of hippocampal synaptic potentiation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Buschler, Arne; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Long-term environmental enrichment (EE) elicits enduring effects on the adult brain, including altered synaptic plasticity. Synaptic plasticity may underlie memory formation and includes robust (>24 h) and weak (<2 h) forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Most studies of the effect of EE on synaptic efficacy have examined the consequences of very prolonged EE-exposure. It is unclear whether brief exposure to EE can alter synaptic plasticity. Clarifying this issue could help develop strategies to address cognitive deficits arising from neglect in children or adults. We assessed whether short-term EE elicits alterations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and if social context may play a role. Adult mice were exposed to EE for 14 consecutive days. We found that robust late-LTP (>24 h) and short-term depression (<2 h) at Schaffer-collateral-CA1 synapses in freely behaving mice were unaltered, whereas early-LTP (E-LTP, <2 h) was significantly enhanced by EE. Effects were transient: E-LTP returned to control levels 1 week after cessation of EE. Six weeks later, animals were re-exposed to EE for 14 days. Under these conditions, E-LTP was facilitated into L-LTP (>24 h), suggesting that metaplasticity was induced during the first EE experience and that EE-mediated modifications are cumulative. Effects were absent in mice that underwent solitary enrichment or were group-housed without EE. These data suggest that EE in naïve animals strengthens E-LTP, and also promotes L-LTP in animals that underwent EE in the past. This indicates that brief exposure to EE, particularly under social conditions can elicit lasting positive effects on synaptic strength that may have beneficial consequences for cognition that depends on synaptic plasticity. PMID:23248592

  2. Brain response to empathy-eliciting scenarios involving pain in incarcerated psychopaths

    PubMed Central

    Decety, Jean; Skelly, Laurie R.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2013-01-01

    Context A marked lack of empathy is a hallmark characteristic of individuals with psychopathy. However, neural response associated to empathic processing has not yet been directly examined in psychopathy especially in response to the perception of other people in pain and distress. Objective To identify potential differences in patterns of neural activity in incarcerated psychopaths and incarcerated controls during the perception of empathy-eliciting stimuli depicting other people in pain. Design In a case-control study, brain activation patterns elicited by dynamic stimuli depicting individuals being harmed and facial expression of pain were compared between incarcerated psychopaths and incarcerated controls. Setting Participants were scanned in on the grounds of a correctional facility using the Mind Research Network's mobile 1.5 T MRI system. Participants Eighty incarcerated males were classified according to scores on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) as high (n = 27; PCL-R =30), intermediate (n = 28; PCL-R between 21–29), or low (n = 25; PCL-R ≤20) on psychopathy. Main Outcome Measure Neuro-hemodynamic response to empathy-eliciting dynamic scenarios revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results Psychopaths exhibited significantly less activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and periaqueductal gray relative to controls, but showed greater activation in the insula. Conclusion In response to pain cues expressed by others, psychopaths exhibit deficits in vmPFC and OFC regardless of stimulus type, but display selective impairment in processing facial cues of distress in regions associated with cognitive mentalizing. PMID:23615636

  3. Elicitation, a new window into plant chemodiversity and phytochemical drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Poulev, Alexander; O'Neal, Joseph M; Logendra, Sithes; Pouleva, Reneta B; Timeva, Vesa; Garvey, Alison S; Gleba, Doloressa; Jenkins, Ivan S; Halpern, Barbara T; Kneer, Ralf; Cragg, Gordon M; Raskin, Ilya

    2003-06-05

    Plant extracts collected from the wild are important sources for drug discovery. However, these extracts suffer from a lack of reproducible bioactivity and chemical composition caused by the highly inducible, variable, and transitory nature of plant secondary metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that exposing roots of hydroponically grown plants to chemical elicitors selectively and reproducibly induced the production of bioactive compounds, dramatically increased the hit rate, and more than doubled the number of plant species showing in vitro activity against bacteria, fungi, or cancer. Elicitation performed under controlled conditions dramatically improves reliability and efficiency of plant extracts in drug discovery while preserving wild species and their habitats.

  4. A methodology for uncertainty quantification in quantitative technology valuation based on expert elicitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akram, Muhammad Farooq Bin

    The management of technology portfolios is an important element of aerospace system design. New technologies are often applied to new product designs to ensure their competitiveness at the time they are introduced to market. The future performance of yet-to- be designed components is inherently uncertain, necessitating subject matter expert knowledge, statistical methods and financial forecasting. Estimates of the appropriate parameter settings often come from disciplinary experts, who may disagree with each other because of varying experience and background. Due to inherent uncertain nature of expert elicitation in technology valuation process, appropriate uncertainty quantification and propagation is very critical. The uncertainty in defining the impact of an input on performance parameters of a system makes it difficult to use traditional probability theory. Often the available information is not enough to assign the appropriate probability distributions to uncertain inputs. Another problem faced during technology elicitation pertains to technology interactions in a portfolio. When multiple technologies are applied simultaneously on a system, often their cumulative impact is non-linear. Current methods assume that technologies are either incompatible or linearly independent. It is observed that in case of lack of knowledge about the problem, epistemic uncertainty is the most suitable representation of the process. It reduces the number of assumptions during the elicitation process, when experts are forced to assign probability distributions to their opinions without sufficient knowledge. Epistemic uncertainty can be quantified by many techniques. In present research it is proposed that interval analysis and Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence are better suited for quantification of epistemic uncertainty in technology valuation process. Proposed technique seeks to offset some of the problems faced by using deterministic or traditional probabilistic approaches for

  5. An HIV gp120-CD4 Immunogen Does Not Elicit Autoimmune Antibody Responses in Cynomolgus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jennifer A; Prado, Ilia; Misamore, Johnathan; Weiss, Deborah; Francis, Jesse; Pal, Ranajit; Huaman, Maria; Cristillo, Anthony; Lewis, George K; Gallo, Robert C; DeVico, Anthony L; Fouts, Timothy R

    2016-07-01

    A promising concept for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines focuses immunity on the highly conserved transition state structures and epitopes that appear when the HIV glycoprotein gp120 binds to its receptor, CD4. We are developing chimeric antigens (full-length single chain, or FLSC) in which gp120 and CD4 sequences are flexibly linked to allow stable intrachain complex formation between the two moieties (A. DeVico et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:17477-17482, 2007, doi:10.1073/pnas.0707399104; T. R. Fouts et al., J Virol 74:11427-11436, 2000, doi:10.1128/JVI.74.24.11427-11436.2000). Proof of concept studies with nonhuman primates show that FLSC elicited heterologous protection against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) (T. R. Fouts et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112:E992-E999, 2016, doi:10.1073/pnas.1423669112), which correlated with antibodies against transition state gp120 epitopes. Nevertheless, advancement of any vaccine that comprises gp120-CD4 complexes must consider whether the CD4 component breaks tolerance and becomes immunogenic in the autologous host. To address this, we performed an immunotoxicology study with cynomolgus macaques vaccinated with either FLSC or a rhesus variant of FLSC containing macaque CD4 sequences (rhFLSC). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) binding titers, primary CD3(+) T cell staining, and temporal trends in T cell subset frequencies served to assess whether anti-CD4 autoantibody responses were elicited by vaccination. We find that immunization with multiple high doses of rhFLSC did not elicit detectable antibody titers despite robust responses to rhFLSC. In accordance with these findings, immunized animals had no changes in circulating CD4(+) T cell counts or evidence of autoantibody reactivity with cell surface CD4 on primary naive macaque T cells. Collectively, these studies show that antigens using CD4 sequences to stabilize transition state gp120 structures

  6. An HIV gp120-CD4 Immunogen Does Not Elicit Autoimmune Antibody Responses in Cynomolgus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jennifer A.; Prado, Ilia; Misamore, Johnathan; Weiss, Deborah; Francis, Jesse; Pal, Ranajit; Huaman, Maria; Cristillo, Anthony; Lewis, George K.; Gallo, Robert C.; DeVico, Anthony L.

    2016-01-01

    A promising concept for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines focuses immunity on the highly conserved transition state structures and epitopes that appear when the HIV glycoprotein gp120 binds to its receptor, CD4. We are developing chimeric antigens (full-length single chain, or FLSC) in which gp120 and CD4 sequences are flexibly linked to allow stable intrachain complex formation between the two moieties (A. DeVico et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:17477–17482, 2007, doi:10.1073/pnas.0707399104; T. R. Fouts et al., J Virol 74:11427–11436, 2000, doi:10.1128/JVI.74.24.11427-11436.2000). Proof of concept studies with nonhuman primates show that FLSC elicited heterologous protection against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) (T. R. Fouts et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112:E992–E999, 2016, doi:10.1073/pnas.1423669112), which correlated with antibodies against transition state gp120 epitopes. Nevertheless, advancement of any vaccine that comprises gp120-CD4 complexes must consider whether the CD4 component breaks tolerance and becomes immunogenic in the autologous host. To address this, we performed an immunotoxicology study with cynomolgus macaques vaccinated with either FLSC or a rhesus variant of FLSC containing macaque CD4 sequences (rhFLSC). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) binding titers, primary CD3+ T cell staining, and temporal trends in T cell subset frequencies served to assess whether anti-CD4 autoantibody responses were elicited by vaccination. We find that immunization with multiple high doses of rhFLSC did not elicit detectable antibody titers despite robust responses to rhFLSC. In accordance with these findings, immunized animals had no changes in circulating CD4+ T cell counts or evidence of autoantibody reactivity with cell surface CD4 on primary naive macaque T cells. Collectively, these studies show that antigens using CD4 sequences to stabilize transition state gp120 structures

  7. Speech error elicitation and co-occurrence restrictions in two Ethiopian Semitic languages.

    PubMed

    Rose, Sharon; King, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the results of speech error elicitation experiments investigating the role of two consonant co-occurrence restrictions in the productive grammar of speakers of two Ethiopian Semitic languages, Amharic and Chaha. Higher error rates were found with consonant combinations that violated co-occurrence constraints than with those that had only a high degree of shared phonological similarity or low frequency of co-occurrence. Sequences that violated two constraints had the highest error rates. The results indicate that violations of consonant co-occurrence restrictions significantly increase error rates in the productions of native speakers, thereby supporting the psychological reality of the constraints.

  8. Discrete emotions predict changes in cognition, judgment, experience, behavior, and physiology: a meta-analysis of experimental emotion elicitations.

    PubMed

    Lench, Heather C; Flores, Sarah A; Bench, Shane W

    2011-09-01

    Our purpose in the present meta-analysis was to examine the extent to which discrete emotions elicit changes in cognition, judgment, experience, behavior, and physiology; whether these changes are correlated as would be expected if emotions organize responses across these systems; and which factors moderate the magnitude of these effects. Studies (687; 4,946 effects, 49,473 participants) were included that elicited the discrete emotions of happiness, sadness, anger, and anxiety as independent variables with adults. Consistent with discrete emotion theory, there were (a) moderate differences among discrete emotions; (b) differences among discrete negative emotions; and (c) correlated changes in behavior, experience, and physiology (cognition and judgment were mostly not correlated with other changes). Valence, valence-arousal, and approach-avoidance models of emotion were not as clearly supported. There was evidence that these factors are likely important components of emotion but that they could not fully account for the pattern of results. Most emotion elicitations were effective, although the efficacy varied with the emotions being compared. Picture presentations were overall the most effective elicitor of discrete emotions. Stronger effects of emotion elicitations were associated with happiness versus negative emotions, self-reported experience, a greater proportion of women (for elicitations of happiness and sadness), omission of a cover story, and participants alone versus in groups. Conclusions are limited by the inclusion of only some discrete emotions, exclusion of studies that did not elicit discrete emotions, few available effect sizes for some contrasts and moderators, and the methodological rigor of included studies.

  9. L-β,β-Dimethylcysteine attenuates the haemodynamic responses elicited by systemic injections of peroxynitrite in anaesthetized rats

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Jonathan E; Kooy, Neil W; Lewis, Stephen J

    2006-01-01

    There is direct chemical evidence that L-β,β-dimethylcysteine (L-penicillamine (L-PEN)) is a scavenger of peroxynitrite. The aim of this study was to determine whether L-PEN attenuates the haemodynamic responses elicited by peroxynitrite in pentobarbital-anaesthetized rats. Peroxynitrite (1–20 μmol kg−1, i.v.) elicited dose-dependent reductions in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and mesenteric and hindquarter vascular resistances. L-PEN (2 mmol kg−1, i.v.) elicited relatively minor but significant increases in MAP and vascular resistances. The initial reductions in MAP and vascular resistances elicited by peroxynitrite were not diminished after administration of L-PEN whereas they were much shorter in duration. As such, the total reductions in MAP and vascular resistances were markedly reduced by L-PEN. The finding that L-PEN (2 mmol kg−1, i.v.) did not affect the hypotensive or vasodilator responses elicited of the ATP-dependent potassium-channel agonist, cromakalim (3–18 μg kg−1, i.v.), suggests that this dose of L-PEN is not a nonselective inhibitor of vasodilation. These findings suggest that L-PEN may effectively scavenge peroxynitrite in vivo and/or interfere with the mechanisms by which peroxynitrite elicits its vasodilator responses. PMID:16491097

  10. A modeling comparison of projection neuron- and neuromodulator-elicited oscillations in a central pattern generating network.

    PubMed

    Kintos, Nickolas; Nusbaum, Michael P; Nadim, Farzan

    2008-06-01

    Many central pattern generating networks are influenced by synaptic input from modulatory projection neurons. The network response to a projection neuron is sometimes mimicked by bath applying the neuronally-released modulator, despite the absence of network interactions with the projection neuron. One interesting example occurs in the crab stomatogastric ganglion (STG), where bath applying the neuropeptide pyrokinin (PK) elicits a gastric mill rhythm which is similar to that elicited by the projection neuron modulatory commissural neuron 1 (MCN1), despite the absence of PK in MCN1 and the fact that MCN1 is not active during the PK-elicited rhythm. MCN1 terminals have fast and slow synaptic actions on the gastric mill network and are presynaptically inhibited by this network in the STG. These local connections are inactive in the PK-elicited rhythm, and the mechanism underlying this rhythm is unknown. We use mathematical and biophysically-realistic modeling to propose potential mechanisms by which PK can elicit a gastric mill rhythm that is similar to the MCN1-elicited rhythm. We analyze slow-wave network oscillations using simplified mathematical models and, in parallel, develop biophysically-realistic models that account for fast, action potential-driven oscillations and some spatial structure of the network neurons. Our results illustrate how the actions of bath-applied neuromodulators can mimic those of descending projection neurons through mathematically similar but physiologically distinct mechanisms.

  11. Eliciting preferences for alternative cancer drug treatments. The influence of framing, medium, and rater variables.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, A M; Boyd, N F; Tritchler, D L; Kriukov, Y; Sutherland, H; Till, J E

    1985-01-01

    In oncology there is increasing interest in the development of techniques to help patients choose between alternative therapies in ways that are consistent with their preferences. The purpose of this study was to examine some methodological problems associated with the elicitation of preferences. Preferences for alternative drug therapies were sought from 208 visitors to an open house at the Ontario Cancer Institute and from 216 university nursing students. Preferences were not significantly dependent on the sex, age or professional status of the respondents, nor on the medium used for elicitation of preferences (computer terminal versus pencil-and-paper questionnaire). In contrast, the importance of the way decision problems are framed was confirmed. Comparison of a positive frame (outcomes expressed as the probability of surviving) with a negative frame (outcomes expressed as the probability of dying) and a mixed frame (probabilities of surviving and dying were both given) pointed to the presence or absence of the word "survive" in the outcome description as the main source of framing bias. The framing effect was in the opposite direction to that hypothesized.

  12. Acinetobacter baumannii Outer Membrane Vesicles Elicit a Potent Innate Immune Response via Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jun, So Hyun; Lee, Jung Hwa; Kim, Bo Ra; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Tae In

    2013-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is increasingly becoming a major nosocomial pathogen. This opportunistic pathogen secretes outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that interact with host cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of A. baumannii OMVs to elicit a pro-inflammatory response in vitro and the immunopathology in response to A. baumannii OMVs in vivo. OMVs derived from A. baumannii ATCC 19606T induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, and chemokine genes, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, in epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Disintegration of OMV membrane with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid resulted in low expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes, as compared with the response to intact OMVs. In addition, proteinase K-treated A. baumannii OMVs did not induce significant increase in expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes above the basal level, suggesting that the surface-exposed membrane proteins in intact OMVs are responsible for pro-inflammatory response. Early inflammatory processes, such as vacuolization and detachment of epithelial cells and neutrophilic infiltration, were clearly observed in lungs of mice injected with A. baumannii OMVs. Our data demonstrate that OMVs produced by A. baumannii elicit a potent innate immune response, which may contribute to immunopathology of the infected host. PMID:23977136

  13. Adaptation aftereffects in vocal emotion perception elicited by expressive faces and voices.

    PubMed

    Skuk, Verena G; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2013-01-01

    The perception of emotions is often suggested to be multimodal in nature, and bimodal as compared to unimodal (auditory or visual) presentation of emotional stimuli can lead to superior emotion recognition. In previous studies, contrastive aftereffects in emotion perception caused by perceptual adaptation have been shown for faces and for auditory affective vocalization, when adaptors were of the same modality. By contrast, crossmodal aftereffects in the perception of emotional vocalizations have not been demonstrated yet. In three experiments we investigated the influence of emotional voice as well as dynamic facial video adaptors on the perception of emotion-ambiguous voices morphed on an angry-to-happy continuum. Contrastive aftereffects were found for unimodal (voice) adaptation conditions, in that test voices were perceived as happier after adaptation to angry voices, and vice versa. Bimodal (voice + dynamic face) adaptors tended to elicit larger contrastive aftereffects. Importantly, crossmodal (dynamic face) adaptors also elicited substantial aftereffects in male, but not in female participants. Our results (1) support the idea of contrastive processing of emotions (2), show for the first time crossmodal adaptation effects under certain conditions, consistent with the idea that emotion processing is multimodal in nature, and (3) suggest gender differences in the sensory integration of facial and vocal emotional stimuli.

  14. Distinct contractile and cytoskeletal protein patterns in the Antarctic midge are elicited by desiccation and rehydration.

    PubMed

    Li, Aiqing; Benoit, Joshua B; Lopez-Martinez, Giancarlo; Elnitsky, Michael A; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L

    2009-05-01

    Desiccation presents a major challenge for the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica. In this study, we use proteomic profiling to evaluate protein changes in the larvae elicited by dehydration and rehydration. Larvae were desiccated at 75% relative humidity (RH) for 12 h to achieve a body water loss of 35%, approximately half of the water that can be lost before the larvae succumb to dehydration. To evaluate the rehydration response, larvae were first desiccated, then rehydrated for 6 h at 100% RH and then in water for 6 h. Controls were held continuously at 100% RH. Protein analysis was performed using 2-DE and nanoscale capillary LC/MS/MS. Twenty-four identified proteins changed in abundance in response to desiccation: 16 were more abundant and 8 were less abundant; 84% of these proteins were contractile or cytoskeletal proteins. Thirteen rehydration-regulated proteins were identified: 8 were more abundant and 5 were less abundant, and 69% of these proteins were also contractile or cytoskeletal proteins. Additional proteins responsive to desiccation and rehydration were involved in functions including stress responses, energy metabolism, protein synthesis, glucogenesis and membrane transport. We conclude that the major protein responses elicited by both desiccation and rehydration are linked to body contraction and cytoskeleton rearrangements.

  15. Immunization of N terminus of enterovirus 71 VP4 elicits cross-protective antibody responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is major cause of hand, foot and mouth disease. Large epidemics of EV71 infection have been recently reported in the Asian-Pacific region. Currently, no vaccine is available to prevent EV71 infection. Results The peptide (VP4N20) consisting of the first 20 amino acids at the N-terminal of VP4 of EV71 genotype C4 were fused to hepatitis B core (HBcAg) protein. Expression of fusion proteins in E. coli resulted in the formation of chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs). Mice immunized with the chimeric VLPs elicited anti-VP4N20 antibody response. In vitro microneutralization experiments showed that anti-chimeric VLPs sera were able to neutralize not only EV71 of genotype C4 but also EV71 of genotype A. Neonatal mice model confirmed the neutralizing ability of anti-chimeric VLPs sera. Eiptope mapping led to the identification of a “core sequence” responsible for antibody recognition within the peptide. Conclusions Immunization of chimeric VLPs is able to elicit antibodies displaying a broad neutralizing activity against different genotypes of EV71 in vitro. The “core sequence” of EV71-VP4 is highly conserved across EV71 genotypes. The chimeric VLPs have a great potential to be a novel vaccine candidate with a broad cross-protection against different EV71 genotypes. PMID:24320792

  16. Insect herbivory elicits genome-wide alternative splicing responses in Nicotiana attenuata.

    PubMed

    Ling, Zhihao; Zhou, Wenwu; Baldwin, Ian T; Xu, Shuqing

    2015-10-01

    Changes in gene expression and alternative splicing (AS) are involved in many responses to abiotic and biotic stresses in eukaryotic organisms. In response to attack and oviposition by insect herbivores, plants elicit rapid changes in gene expression which are essential for the activation of plant defenses; however, the herbivory-induced changes in AS remain unstudied. Using mRNA sequencing, we performed a genome-wide analysis on tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) feeding-induced AS in both leaves and roots of Nicotiana attenuata. Feeding by M. sexta for 5 h reduced total AS events by 7.3% in leaves but increased them in roots by 8.0% and significantly changed AS patterns in leaves and roots of existing AS genes. Feeding by M. sexta also resulted in increased (in roots) and decreased (in leaves) transcript levels of the serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins that are involved in the AS machinery of plants and induced changes in SR gene expression that were jasmonic acid (JA)-independent in leaves but JA-dependent in roots. Changes in AS and gene expression elicited by M. sexta feeding were regulated independently in both tissues. This study provides genome-wide evidence that insect herbivory induces changes not only in the levels of gene expression but also in their splicing, which might contribute to defense against and/or tolerance of herbivory.

  17. Factors influencing the aggressiveness elicited by marihuana in food-deprived rats

    PubMed Central

    Carlini, E. A.; Hamaoui, A.; Märtz, Regina M. W.

    1972-01-01

    1. Aggressive behaviour was elicited in rats that had been deprived of food for 20 h daily (starved), by chronic administration of Cannabis sativa extract or (-)-Δ9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol. 2. The influence of intraperitoneal (i.p.) or oral glucose administration, cold environment, acidosis, and corn, and protein-free diets on this aggressiveness was studied. 3. Intraperitoneal injections of glucose (100-1,600 mg/kg) did not alter the aggressiveness induced by marihuana in starved rats; glucose given orally, however, blocked this behaviour. 4. Low temperature (14° C) strongly potentiated the aggressive behaviour induced by marihuana in the starved rats. 5. Lactic acid in doses capable of potentiating thiopental anaesthesia, failed to alter the marihuana-aggressiveness of starved rats or to facilitate this effect of marihuana in rats fed ad libitum. The same negative results were obtained with ammonium chloride. 6. In rats fed ad libitum with protein-free or corn diets, marihuana administered chronically did not elicit aggressive behaviour. However, aggressiveness appeared when rats were fed for only 2 h daily on those diets. 7. The results suggest that the stress of hunger (and not hypoglycaemia, acidosis or lack of specific nutrients due to starvation) is the factor that facilitates the development of aggressive behaviour by chronic administration of marihuana. PMID:5064930

  18. Event-related potentials elicited by social commerce and electronic-commerce reviews.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan; Yao, Zhong; Cong, Fengyu; Zhang, Linlin

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing interest regarding the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in social commerce and electronic commerce (e-commerce) research. There are several reviews in the field of social commerce or e-commerce; these have great potential value and mining them is fundamental and significant. To our knowledge, EEG is rarely applied to study these. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of social commerce reviews (SCRs) and e-commerce reviews (ECRs) by using them as stimuli to evoke event-related potentials. All SCRs were from friends through a social media platform, whereas ECRs were from strangers through an e-commerce platform. The experimental design was similar to that of a priming paradigm, and included 40 pairs of stimuli consisting of product information (prime stimulus) and reviews (target stimulus). The results showed that the P300 component was successfully evoked by SCR and ECR stimuli. Moreover, the P300 components elicited by SCRs had higher amplitudes than those elicited by ECRs. These findings indicate that participants paid more attention to SCRs than to ECRs. In addition, the associations between neural responses and reviews in social commerce have the potential to assist companies in studying consumer behaviors, thus permitting them to enhance their social commerce strategies.

  19. Intranasal oxytocin dampens cue-elicited cigarette craving in daily smokers: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Melissa A; Bershad, Anya; King, Andrea C; Lee, Royce; de Wit, Harriet

    2016-12-01

    Despite moderate success with pharmacological and behavioral treatments, smoking relapse rates remain high, and many smokers report that smoking cues lead to relapse. Therefore, treatments that target cue reactivity are needed. One candidate for reducing craving is the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT). Here, we investigated the effects of intranasal OT on two types of craving for cigarettes: craving following overnight abstinence and craving elicited by smoking-related cues. In this within-subject, placebo-controlled pilot study, smokers (N=17) abstained from smoking for 12 h before attending two sessions randomized to intranasal OT or placebo (i.e. saline nasal spray). On each session, participants received two doses of OT (20 IU) or placebo at 1-h intervals, and rated craving before and after each dose. Spontaneous cigarette craving was assessed after the first spray, and cue-elicited craving was assessed following the second spray. OT did not reduce levels of spontaneous craving after the first spray, but significantly dampened cue-induced smoking craving. These results provide preliminary evidence that OT can reduce cue-induced smoking craving in smokers. These findings provide an important link between preclinical and clinical studies aimed at examining the effectiveness of OT as a novel treatment for drug craving.

  20. Human Neoplasms Elicit Multiple Specific Immune Responses in the Autologous Host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Ugur; Tureci, Ozlem; Schmitt, Holger; Cochlovius, Bjorn; Johannes, Thomas; Schmits, Rudolf; Stenner, Frank; Luo, Guorong; Schobert, Ingrid; Pfreundschuh, Michael

    1995-12-01

    Expression of cDNA libraries from human melanoma, renal cancer, astrocytoma, and Hodgkin disease in Escherichia coli and screening for clones reactive with high-titer IgG antibodies in autologous patient serum lead to the discovery of at least four antigens with a restricted expression pattern in each tumor. Besides antigens known to elicit T-cell responses, such as MAGE-1 and tyrosinase, numerous additional antigens that were overexpressed or specifically expressed in tumors of the same type were identified. Sequence analyses suggest that many of these molecules, besides being the target of a specific immune response, might be of relevance for tumor growth. Antibodies to a given antigen were usually confined to patients with the same tumor type. The unexpected frequency of human tumor antigens, which can be readily defined at the molecular level by the serological analysis of autologous tumor cDNA expression cloning, indicates that human neoplasms elicit multiple specific immune responses in the autologous host and provides diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to human cancer.

  1. High Frequency Electric Stimulation of Retinal Neurons Elicits Physiological Signaling Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Shelley I.; Cai, Changsi; Ren, Qiushi

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of retinal prosthetics will depend on their ability to elicit patterns of neural activity that can be recognized by the visual cortex. While conventional short-duration pulses activate retinal neurons effectively, many nearby neurons are thought to respond similarly to a given pulse train – a situation that is non-physiological. Use of pulse trains delivered at rates > 1000 pulses per second (PPS) in cochlear prosthetics help to avoid phase-locked responses but have not been evaluated in the retina; here, we explored the response to trains of 2000 PPS. We found that ganglion cells respond robustly to these stimuli but that the properties of the response were highly sensitive to stimulus amplitude. At low amplitudes the response patterns were burst-like while at higher amplitudes elicited spikes had intervals that were more uniform. Because burst responses were insensitive to synaptic blockers, our results suggest that they arise from direct activation. This was surprising because previous studies indicated that burst responses arise only through indirect activation. Thus, our results suggest multiple mechanisms of burst creation may exist. Further, histograms of interspike intervals revealed that the response properties were different in different types of ganglion cells. While further testing is needed, the ability to create different patterns of activity in different types of ganglion cells raises the possibility that more natural spike patterns can be created. PMID:22254500

  2. Eliciting mixed emotions: a meta-analysis comparing models, types, and measures

    PubMed Central

    Berrios, Raul; Totterdell, Peter; Kellett, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The idea that people can experience two oppositely valenced emotions has been controversial ever since early attempts to investigate the construct of mixed emotions. This meta-analysis examined the robustness with which mixed emotions have been elicited experimentally. A systematic literature search identified 63 experimental studies that instigated the experience of mixed emotions. Studies were distinguished according to the structure of the underlying affect model—dimensional or discrete—as well as according to the type of mixed emotions studied (e.g., happy-sad, fearful-happy, positive-negative). The meta-analysis using a random-effects model revealed a moderate to high effect size for the elicitation of mixed emotions (dIG+ = 0.77), which remained consistent regardless of the structure of the affect model, and across different types of mixed emotions. Several methodological and design moderators were tested. Studies using the minimum index (i.e., the minimum value between a pair of opposite valenced affects) resulted in smaller effect sizes, whereas subjective measures of mixed emotions increased the effect sizes. The presence of more women in the samples was also associated with larger effect sizes. The current study indicates that mixed emotions are a robust, measurable and non-artifactual experience. The results are discussed in terms of the implications for an affect system that has greater versatility and flexibility than previously thought. PMID:25926805

  3. Changes in room acoustics elicit a Mismatch Negativity in the absence of overall interaural intensity differences.

    PubMed

    Frey, Johannes Daniel; Wendt, Mike; Löw, Andreas; Möller, Stephan; Zölzer, Udo; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2017-02-15

    Changes in room acoustics provide important clues about the environment of sound source-perceiver systems, for example, by indicating changes in the reflecting characteristics of surrounding objects. To study the detection of auditory irregularities brought about by a change in room acoustics, a passive oddball protocol with participants watching a movie was applied in this study. Acoustic stimuli were presented via headphones. Standards and deviants were created by modelling rooms of different sizes, keeping the values of the basic acoustic dimensions (e.g., frequency, duration, sound pressure, and sound source location) as constant as possible. In the first experiment, each standard and deviant stimulus consisted of sequences of three short sounds derived from sinusoidal tones, resulting in three onsets during each stimulus. Deviant stimuli elicited a Mismatch Negativity (MMN) as well as two additional negative deflections corresponding to the three onset peaks. In the second experiment, only one sound was used; the stimuli were otherwise identical to the ones used in the first experiment. Again, an MMN was observed, followed by an additional negative deflection. These results provide further support for the hypothesis of automatic detection of unattended changes in room acoustics, extending previous work by demonstrating the elicitation of an MMN by changes in room acoustics.

  4. Elicitation of trans-resveratrol by laser resonant irradiation of table grapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez Sánchez, J. B.; Crespo Corral, E.; Orea, J. M.; Santos Delgado, M. J.; González Ureña, A.

    2007-05-01

    Table grapes were irradiated with UV nanosecond laser pulses in searching for resonant photo-elicitation of trans-resveratrol, a known antioxidant compound naturally produced by grapevines and other plants. To this end, the irradiation time as well as the wavelength dependence of the induced trans-resveratrol content was investigated by comparing the elicitation level of this compound at two laser wavelengths. One wavelength was selected right at the maximum of the absorption band (302.1 nm, the resonant wavelength for this compound) while the second was selected (300 nm, a non-resonant wavelength) such that trans-resveratrol absorption is negligible. It was found that the resonant irradiation enhances the resveratrol content in grapes by up to six times more than that of non-resonant irradiation, the rest of the conditions being the same. This work demonstrates how selective laser excitation of fruits can open new possibilities for the development of functional foods with enhanced nutritional and beneficial properties.

  5. Eliciting Metacognitive Experiences and Reflection in a Year 11 Chemistry Classroom: An Activity Theory Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gregory P.; McRobbie, Campbell J.

    2013-06-01

    Concerns regarding students' learning and reasoning in chemistry classrooms are well documented. Students' reasoning in chemistry should be characterized by conscious consideration of chemical phenomenon from laboratory work at macroscopic, molecular/sub-micro and symbolic levels. Further, students should develop metacognition in relation to such ways of reasoning about chemistry phenomena. Classroom change eliciting metacognitive experiences and metacognitive reflection is necessary to shift entrenched views of teaching and learning in students. In this study, Activity Theory is used as the framework for interpreting changes to the rules/customs and tools of the activity systems of two different classes of students taught by the same teacher, Frances, who was teaching chemical equilibrium to those classes in consecutive years. An interpretive methodology involving multiple data sources was employed. Frances explicitly changed her pedagogy in the second year to direct students attention to increasingly consider chemical phenomena at the molecular/sub-micro level. Additionally, she asked students not to use the textbook until toward the end of the equilibrium unit and sought to engage them in using their prior knowledge of chemistry to understand their observations from experiments. Frances' changed pedagogy elicited metacognitive experiences and reflection in students and challenged them to reconsider their metacognitive beliefs about learning chemistry and how it might be achieved. While teacher change is essential for science education reform, students are not passive players in change efforts and they need to be convinced of the viability of teacher pedagogical change in the context of their goals, intentions, and beliefs.

  6. Aviation Safety Risk Modeling: Lessons Learned From Multiple Knowledge Elicitation Sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luxhoj, J. T.; Ancel, E.; Green, L. L.; Shih, A. T.; Jones, S. M.; Reveley, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aviation safety risk modeling has elements of both art and science. In a complex domain, such as the National Airspace System (NAS), it is essential that knowledge elicitation (KE) sessions with domain experts be performed to facilitate the making of plausible inferences about the possible impacts of future technologies and procedures. This study discusses lessons learned throughout the multiple KE sessions held with domain experts to construct probabilistic safety risk models for a Loss of Control Accident Framework (LOCAF), FLightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP), and Runway Incursion (RI) mishap scenarios. The intent of these safety risk models is to support a portfolio analysis of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). These models use the flexible, probabilistic approach of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) and influence diagrams to model the complex interactions of aviation system risk factors. Each KE session had a different set of experts with diverse expertise, such as pilot, air traffic controller, certification, and/or human factors knowledge that was elicited to construct a composite, systems-level risk model. There were numerous "lessons learned" from these KE sessions that deal with behavioral aggregation, conditional probability modeling, object-oriented construction, interpretation of the safety risk results, and model verification/validation that are presented in this paper.

  7. Alcohol delays the emergence of the fetal elicited startle response, but only transiently.

    PubMed

    Hepper, Peter G; Dornan, James C; Lynch, Catherine; Maguire, Jennifer F

    2012-08-20

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol may exert a significant detrimental effect on the functioning of the individual's brain, however few studies have examined this before birth. This longitudinal study examined the effect of maternal alcohol consumption on the elicited startle response of the fetus. Two groups of fetuses were examined: one whose mothers drank alcohol (approximately 10 units per week); the other whose mothers did not drink alcohol. Fetuses were examined at 29, 32 and 35 weeks gestation and their startle response observed using ultrasound in response to 2 presentations of a pink noise (70-250Hz) at 90dB(A) separated by 30s. Fetuses exposed to alcohol exhibited a weaker startle response at 29 weeks gestation than did fetuses not exposed to alcohol. There was no difference in the response at 32 and 35 weeks gestation. To ensure that the effects were not due to a more general effect of alcohol on fetal movement, a second experiment compared the spontaneous movements (observed on ultrasound for 45 min) of fetuses whose mothers drank alcohol and fetuses of mothers who didn't drink alcohol. There were no differences in movements exhibited by the fetuses. The results suggest that exposure to alcohol delays the emergence of the elicited startle response at 29 weeks gestation but this delay has disappeared by 32 weeks gestation. The possible role of altered neural development, acute exposure to alcohol and disruptions to the fetus's behavioural repertoire, in mediating these effects are discussed.

  8. Protein modification elicited by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in endothelial cells: protection by (-)-epicatechin.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Yvonne; Jung, Tobias; Klotz, Lars-Oliver; Schewe, Tankred; Grune, Tilman; Sies, Helmut

    2007-04-01

    The action of oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) on vascular endothelial cells has been proposed to be a crucial process leading to endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis. OxLDL was shown here to elicit oxidative stress in bovine aortic endothelial cells or human umbilical vein endothelial cells, as judged by an increase in 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein fluorescence and elevated levels of carbonylated, nitrated, and 2-hydroxynonenal-coupled proteins. These effects were sensitive to apocynin, indicating involvement of NADPH oxidase. A 170-kDa polypeptide carbonylated upon exposure of cells to oxLDL was identified by immunoprecipitation as EGF receptor. Immunocytochemical visualization by confocal microscopy revealed the highest levels of modified proteins in the perinuclear region. Exposure of endothelial cells to oxLDL led to modulation of the expression levels of *NO synthases; the endothelial isoform (eNOS) was down-regulated via proteasomal degradation, whereas the inducible isoform (iNOS) was up-regulated in an enzymatically active state. eNOS protein was found to be both carbonylated and nitrated upon exposure of cells to oxLDL. iNOS contributed to the generation of modified proteins as judged by the effects of the selective inhibitor L-NIO. These oxLDL-elicited changes in vascular endothelial cells described were suppressed by (-)-epicatechin, a dietary polyphenol, which inhibited NADPH oxidase activity in these cells.

  9. Previously seen and expected stimuli elicit surprise in the context of visual search.

    PubMed

    Retell, James D; Becker, Stefanie I; Remington, Roger W

    2016-04-01

    In the context of visual search, surprise is the phenomenon by which a previously unseen and unexpected stimulus exogenously attracts spatial attention. Capture by such a stimulus occurs, by definition, independent of task goals and is thought to be dependent on the extent to which the stimulus deviates from expectations. However, the relative contributions of prior-exposure and explicit knowledge of an unexpected event to the surprise response have not yet been systematically investigated. Here observers searched for a specific color while ignoring irrelevant cues of different colors presented prior to the target display. After a brief familiarization period, we presented an irrelevant motion cue to elicit surprise. Across conditions we varied prior exposure to the motion stimulus - seen versus unseen - and top-down expectations of occurrence - expected versus unexpected - to assess the extent to which each of these factors contributes to surprise. We found no attenuation of the surprise response when observers were pre-exposed to the motion cue and or had explicit knowledge of its occurrence. Our results show that it is neither sufficient nor necessary that a stimulus be new and unannounced to elicit surprise and suggest that the expectations that determine the surprise response are highly context specific.

  10. Differential sweetness of commercial sour liquids elicited by miracle fruit in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Go; Higuchi, Ryota; Yamazaki, Takako; Ito, Naoko; Ashida, Ichiro; Miyaoka, Yozo

    2013-06-01

    Miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) contains the glycoprotein miraculin which turns a sour taste into a sweet one. Chemical analyses and sensory evaluation experiments were conducted to examine the sweetening effect of miracle fruit with regard to five different commercial sour liquids which were diluted until they were subjectively equally sour. HPLC-based analyses revealed that (1) the predominating acids in two and three of the liquids were citric acid and acetic acid, respectively and (2) all five liquids contained fructose and glucose. Healthy young adults (eight males and 10 females) in the sensory evaluation experiments were asked to chew a miracle fruit and apply their saliva to the oral mucosae. They were asked to score the sweetness elicited by the five liquids relative to a sucrose standard at 0, 15, 25 and 35 min thereafter. The citric acid-based liquids were perceived as being sweeter than the acetic acid-based liquids at all timepoints. Thus, commercial sour liquids that mainly contain citric acid are more effective than acetic acid-based liquids in eliciting a perception of sweetness after the miracle fruit application, while the sugars in the liquids seemed to play a minimal role as determinants of sweetness.

  11. Manipulating anthocyanin composition in Vitis vinifera suspension cultures by elicitation with jasmonic acid and light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Chris; Zhang, Wei; Franco, Chris

    2003-07-01

    Jasmonic acid altered the accumulation of major anthocyanins in Vitis vinifera cell culture. Peonidin 3-glucoside content at day three was increased from 0.3 to 1.7 mg g(-1) dry cell wt while other major anthocyanins were increased by smaller increments. By day 14, the content of methylated and acylated anthocyanins (peonidin 3-p-coumaroylglucoside and malvidin 3-p-coumaroylglucoside) was 6.3 mg g(-1) DCW, in response to treatment with jasmonic acid, and comprising approximately 45% (w/w) of total anthocyanins. In comparison, the untreated control culture contained 1.2 mg g(-1) DCW which made up approximately 32% (w/w) of total anthocyanins. Light further enhanced anthocyanin accumulation induced by jasmonic acid elicitation. The content of peonidin 3-glucoside at day 3 was 6.6 mg g(-1) DCW, 22-fold higher than control cultures while the content in response to light irradiation alone was 0.6 mg g(-1) DCW. When a highly pigmented cell line was elicited with jasmonic acid total anthocyanins increased from 9.2 to 20.7 mg g(-1) DCW, but there was no change in the anthocyanin composition.

  12. Music-Elicited Emotion Identification Using Optical Flow Analysis of Human Face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniaz, V. V.; Smirnova, Z. N.

    2015-05-01

    Human emotion identification from image sequences is highly demanded nowadays. The range of possible applications can vary from an automatic smile shutter function of consumer grade digital cameras to Biofied Building technologies, which enables communication between building space and residents. The highly perceptual nature of human emotions leads to the complexity of their classification and identification. The main question arises from the subjective quality of emotional classification of events that elicit human emotions. A variety of methods for formal classification of emotions were developed in musical psychology. This work is focused on identification of human emotions evoked by musical pieces using human face tracking and optical flow analysis. Facial feature tracking algorithm used for facial feature speed and position estimation is presented. Facial features were extracted from each image sequence using human face tracking with local binary patterns (LBP) features. Accurate relative speeds of facial features were estimated using optical flow analysis. Obtained relative positions and speeds were used as the output facial emotion vector. The algorithm was tested using original software and recorded image sequences. The proposed technique proves to give a robust identification of human emotions elicited by musical pieces. The estimated models could be used for human emotion identification from image sequences in such fields as emotion based musical background or mood dependent radio.

  13. Differential activation of vasotocin neurons in contexts that elicit aggression and courtship.

    PubMed

    Loveland, Jasmine L; Fernald, Russell D

    2017-01-15

    Despite continued study on the neurobiological bases of aggressive and sexual behaviors, it is still not well understood how the brain integrates social information with physiological and neural states to produce context-specific behavioral outcomes. In fishes, manipulation of endogenous levels of arginine vasotocin (AVT) through peripheral and intracerebroventricular pharmacological injections results in significant changes in social behaviors, including aggressive and reproduction-related behaviors. In addition, many features of AVT neurons have been shown to correlate with social status and associated behavioral phenotypes. In this study, we used the immediate early gene egr-1 as a marker for neuronal activity and quantified the number of AVT neurons that were positive for egr-1 mRNA by in situ hybridization in Astatotilapia burtoni males that were exposed to either a social context that would elicit aggression or to one that would elicit courtship. In these social settings, focal males readily displayed context- appropriate bouts of aggression (towards the opponent) or bouts of courting (towards females). We found that males that fought had higher levels of egr-1 expression in the preoptic area compared to courting males. A greater proportion of AVT cells was positive for egr-1 after a fight than after a bout of courting. We mapped mRNA distribution of AVT V1a receptor subtypes v1a1 and v1a2 in the brain and identified overlapping areas of expression in nuclei in the ventral telencephalon, hypothalamus and thalamus as key areas for AVT signaling in males.

  14. Involvement of reactive oxygen species derived from mitochondria in neuronal injury elicited by methylmercury

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Tsuji, Mayumi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Yamazaki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury induces oxidative stress and subsequent neuronal injury. However, the mechanism by which methylmercury elicits reactive oxygen species (ROS) production remains under debate. In this study, we investigated the involvement of mitochondrial ROS in methylmercury-induced neuronal cell injury using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y-derived ρ0 cells, which have a deletion of mitochondrial DNA and thus decreased respiratory activity. SH-SY5Y cells were cultured for 60 days in the presence of ethidium bromide to produce ρ0 cells. Our ρ0 cells showed decreases in the cytochrome c oxidase expression and activity as well as oxygen consumption compared with original SH-SY5Y cells. Methylmercury at a concentration of 1 µM induced cell death with oxidative stress in original SH-SY5Y cells, but not ρ0 cells, indicating that ρ0 cells are resistant to methylmercury-induced oxidative stress. ρ0 cells also showed tolerance against hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion, suggesting that ρ0 cells are resistant to total ROS. These data indicate that mitochondrial ROS are clearly involved in oxidative stress and subsequent cell death induced by methylmercury. Considering that the dominant mechanism of ROS generation elicited by methylmercury is due to direct antioxidant enzyme inhibition, mitochondria might play a role in amplifying ROS in methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:27895385

  15. Videos of conspecifics elicit interactive looking patterns and facial expressions in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Clayton P; Zimmerman, Prisca E; Gothard, Katalin M

    2011-08-01

    A broader understanding of the neural basis of social behavior in primates requires the use of species-specific stimuli that elicit spontaneous, but reproducible and tractable behaviors. In this context of natural behaviors, individual variation can further inform about the factors that influence social interactions. To approximate natural social interactions similar to those documented by field studies, we used unedited video footage to induce in viewer monkeys spontaneous facial expressions and looking patterns in the laboratory setting. Three adult male monkeys (Macaca mulatta), previously behaviorally and genetically (5-HTTLPR) characterized, were monitored while they watched 10 s video segments depicting unfamiliar monkeys (movie monkeys) displaying affiliative, neutral, and aggressive behaviors. The gaze and head orientation of the movie monkeys alternated between "averted" and "directed" at the viewer. The viewers were not reinforced for watching the movies, thus their looking patterns indicated their interest and social engagement with the stimuli. The behavior of the movie monkey accounted for differences in the looking patterns and facial expressions displayed by the viewers. We also found multiple significant differences in the behavior of the viewers that correlated with their interest in these stimuli. These socially relevant dynamic stimuli elicited spontaneous social behaviors, such as eye-contact induced reciprocation of facial expression, gaze aversion, and gaze following, that were previously not observed in response to static images. This approach opens a unique opportunity to understanding the mechanisms that trigger spontaneous social behaviors in humans and nonhuman primates.

  16. Which individual therapist behaviors elicit client change talk and sustain talk in motivational interviewing?

    PubMed Central

    Apodaca, Timothy R.; Jackson, Kristina M.; Borsari, Brian; Magill, Molly; Longabaugh, Richard; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Barnett, Nancy P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify individual therapist behaviors which elicit client change talk or sustain talk in motivational interviewing sessions. Method Motivational interviewing sessions from a single-session alcohol intervention delivered to college students were audio-taped, transcribed, and coded using The Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC), a therapy process coding system. Participants included 92 college students and eight therapists who provided their treatment. The MISC was used to code 17 therapist behaviors related to the use of motivational interviewing, and client language reflecting movement toward behavior change (change talk), away from behavior change (sustain talk), or unrelated to the target behavior (follow/neutral). Results Client change talk was significantly more likely to immediately follow individual therapist behaviors [affirm (p = .013), open question (p < .001), simple reflection (p < .001), and complex reflection (p < .001)], but significantly less likely to immediately follow others (giving information (p < .001) and closed question (p < .001)]. Sustain talk was significantly more likely to follow therapist use of open questions (p < .001), simple reflections (p < .001), and complex reflections (p < .001), and significantly less likely to occur following therapist use of therapist affirm (p = .012), giving information (p < .001), and closed questions (p < .001). Conclusions Certain individual therapist behaviors within motivational interviewing can either elicit both client change talk and sustain talk or suppress both types of client language. Affirm was the only therapist behavior that both increased change talk and also reduced sustain talk. PMID:26547412

  17. Cancer-targeted BikDD gene therapy elicits protective antitumor immunity against lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chang, Chun-Mien; Lien, Shu-Pei; Chen, Chien-Hua; Han, Zhenbo; Li, Long-Yuan; Chen, Jin-Shing; Wu, Cheng-Wen; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2011-04-01

    Targeted cancer-specific gene therapy is a promising strategy for treating metastatic lung cancer, which is a leading cause of lung cancer-related deaths. Previously, we developed a cancer-targeted gene therapy expression system with high tumor specificity and strong activity that selectively induced lung cancer cell killing without affecting normal cells in immunocompromised mice. Here, we found this cancer-targeted gene therapy, SV-BikDD, composed of the survivin promoter in the VP16-GAL4-WPRE integrated systemic amplifier system to drive the apoptotic gene BikDD, not only caused cytotoxic effects in cancer cells but also elicited a cancer-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to synergistically increase the therapeutic effect and further develop an effective systemic antitumoral immunity against rechallenges of tumorigenic dose of parental tumor cells inoculated at distant sites in immunocompetent mice. In addition, this cancer-targeted gene therapy does not elicit an immune response against normal tissues, but CMV-BikDD treatment does. The therapeutic vector could also induce proinflammatory cytokines to activate innate immunity and provide some benefits in antitumor gene therapy. Thus, this study provides a promising strategy with benefit of antitumoral immune response worthy of further development in clinical trials for treating lung cancer via cancer-targeted gene therapy.

  18. Nest sanitation does not elicit egg ejection in a brown-headed cowbird host.

    PubMed

    Peer, Brian D

    2017-03-01

    Most passerine birds practice nest sanitation whereby they remove debris from their nest. Nest sanitation has been posited as a pre-adaptation for egg ejection by hosts of avian brood parasites. However, relatively few North American hosts of the brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) eject cowbird eggs to the detriment of their fitness. In this study, I added either a piece of flagging tape or a pine cone bract scale along with an artificial cowbird egg to nests of the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) to determine whether the act of nest sanitation would elicit egg ejection. All red-winged blackbirds removed the debris within 24 h, but all individuals also accepted the cowbird eggs and this rate of ejection did not differ from that in nests that only received a cowbird egg. While nest cleaning and egg ejection are similar mechanically, they differ cognitively and egg ejection is not elicited in red-winged blackbirds during the act of removing debris from their nests.

  19. Anger Elicitation in Tonga and Germany: The Impact of Culture on Cognitive Determinants of Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrea; Spada, Hans; Rothe-Wulf, Annelie; Traber, Simone; Rauss, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    The cognitive appraisal of an event is crucial for the elicitation and differentiation of emotions, and causal attributions are an integral part of this process. In an interdisciplinary project comparing Tonga and Germany, we examined how cultural differences in attribution tendencies affect emotion assessment and elicitation. Data on appraising causality and responsibility and on emotional responses were collected through questionnaires based on experimentally designed vignettes, and were related to culture-specific values, norms, and the prevailing self-concept. The experimental data support our hypothesis that – driven by culturally defined self-concepts and corresponding attribution tendencies – members of the two cultures cognitively appraise events in diverging manners and consequently differ in their emotional responses. Ascription of responsibility to self and/or circumstances, in line with a more interdependent self-concept, co-varies with higher ratings of shame, guilt, and sadness, whereas ascription of responsibility to others, in line with a less interdependent self-concept, co-varies with higher ratings of anger. These findings support the universal contingency hypothesis and help to explain cultural differences in this domain on a fine-grained level. PMID:23112780

  20. NMDA receptor blockade attenuates locomotion elicited by intrastriatal dopamine D1-receptor stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kreipke, Christian W; Walker, Paul D

    2004-07-01

    Previous behavioral studies suggest that the striatum mediates a hyperactive response to systemic NMDA receptor antagonism in combination with systemic D1 receptor stimulation. However, many experiments conducted at the cellular level suggest that inhibition of NMDA receptors should block D1 receptor-mediated locomotor activity. Therefore, we investigated the consequences of NMDA receptor blockade on the ability of striatal D1 receptors to elicit locomotor activity using systemic and intrastriatal injections of the NMDA antagonist MK-801 combined with intrastriatal injections of the D1 full agonist SKF 82958. Following drug treatment locomotor activity was measured via computerized activity monitors designed to quantify multiple parameters of rodent open-field behavior. Both systemic (0.1 mg/kg) and intrastriatal (1.0 microg) MK-801 pretreatments completely blocked locomotor and stereotypic activity elicited by 10 microg of SKF 82958 directly infused into the striatum. Further, increased activity triggered by intrastriatal SKF 82958 was attenuated by a posttreatment with intrastriatal infusion of 1 microg MK-801. These data suggest that D1-stimulated locomotor behaviors controlled by the striatum require functional NMDA channels.

  1. A novel emotion elicitation index using frontal brain asymmetry for enhanced EEG-based emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Petrantonakis, Panagiotis C; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J

    2011-09-01

    This paper aims at providing a novel method for evaluating the emotion elicitation procedures in an electroencephalogram (EEG)-based emotion recognition setup. By employing the frontal brain asymmetry theory, an index, namely asymmetry Index (AsI), is introduced, in order to evaluate this asymmetry. This is accomplished by a multidimensional directed information analysis between different EEG sites from the two opposite brain hemispheres. The proposed approach was applied to three-channel (Fp1, Fp2, and F3/F4 10/20 sites) EEG recordings drawn from 16 healthy right-handed subjects. For the evaluation of the efficiency of the AsI, an extensive classification process was conducted using two feature-vector extraction techniques and a SVM classifier for six different classification scenarios in the valence/arousal space. This resulted in classification results up to 62.58% for the user independent case and 94.40% for the user-dependent one, confirming the efficacy of AsI as an index for the emotion elicitation evaluation.

  2. Serelaxin Elicits Bronchodilation and Enhances β-Adrenoceptor-Mediated Airway Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Maggie; Royce, Simon G.; Donovan, Chantal; Jelinic, Maria; Parry, Laura J.; Samuel, Chrishan S.; Bourke, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment with β-adrenoceptor agonists does not fully overcome the symptoms associated with severe asthma. Serelaxin elicits potent uterine and vascular relaxation via its cognate receptor, RXFP1, and nitric oxide (NO) signaling, and is being clinically evaluated for the treatment of acute heart failure. However, its direct bronchodilator efficacy has yet to be explored. Tracheal rings were prepared from male Sprague-Dawley rats (250–350 g) and tricolor guinea pigs, and precision cut lung slices (PCLSs) containing intrapulmonary airways were prepared from rats only. Recombinant human serelaxin (rhRLX) alone and in combination with rosiglitazone (PPARγ agonist; recently described as a novel dilator) or β-adrenoceptor agonists (isoprenaline, salbutamol) were added either to pre-contracted airways, or before contraction with methacholine or endothelin-1. Regulation of rhRLX responses by epithelial removal, indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor), L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), SQ22536 (adenylate cyclase inhibitor) and ODQ (guanylate cyclase inhibitor) were also evaluated. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize RXFP1 to airway epithelium and smooth muscle. rhRLX elicited relaxation in rat trachea and PCLS, more slowly than rosiglitazone or isoprenaline, but potentiated relaxation to both these dilators. It markedly increased β-adrenoceptor agonist potency in guinea pig trachea. rhRLX, rosiglitazone, and isoprenaline pretreatment also inhibited the development of rat tracheal contraction. Bronchoprotection by rhRLX increased with longer pre-incubation time, and was partially reduced by epithelial removal, indomethacin and/or L-NAME. SQ22536 and ODQ also partially inhibited rhRLX-mediated relaxation in both intact and epithelial-denuded trachea. RXFP1 expression in the airways was at higher levels in epithelium than smooth muscle. In summary, rhRLX elicits large and small airway relaxation via epithelial-dependent and -independent mechanisms, likely

  3. Elicitation of Phenolics from the Micropropagated Endangered Medicinal Plant Calligonum polygonoides L. (Polygonoaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Owis, Asmaa I.; Abdelwahab, Nada S.; Abul-Soad, Adel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Calligonum polygonoides L. subsp. comosum (L’Hér.) Sosk. is a plant species belonging to family Polygonaceae. Susceptibility to threaten, presence of various chemical constituents, and many medicinal effects reported for this plant in addition to rareness of in vitro culture studies have fuelled the need for its micropropagation and phytochemical investigations of the produced cultures. Objectives: To employ in vitro culture technique for ex situ conservation of C. polygonoides, using the fruit as an explant; establish callus and cell suspension cultures from in vitro germinated plantlets; investigate the production of phenolics through callus, redifferentiated shoot, and cell suspension cultures; attempt to enhance cell capacity to accumulate phenolics using salicylic acid and yeast extract and provide a brief demonstration of biosynthetic pathway leading to phenolic production. Materials and Methods: Modified Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with growth hormones such as kinetin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, 6-benzylaminopurine, and indole-3-acetic acid were used to establish callus, redifferentiated shoots, and cell suspension cultures. Elicitation of cell suspension culture was performed using salicylic acid and yeast extracts. A reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of phenolic content in the aforementioned cultures was developed. Results: The unorganized callus and cell suspension cultures contained fewer amounts of phenolic compounds than redifferentiated shoots. Elicitation produced massive quantitative reprogramming of phenolic content. Conclusion: The present study offers an alternative and renewable source for this valuable natural plant, provide a chance to improve secondary metabolite yield and serve as a useful tool for studying the biosynthesis of these compounds and its regulation in plant cells. SUMMARY In vitro culture techniques provided a strategy for ex situ conservation of the

  4. Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Denise Lach, Principle Investigator; Stephanie Sanford, Co-P.I.

    2003-03-01

    During the summer of 2002, we developed and implemented a ''consensus workshop'' with Idaho citizens to elicit their concerns and issues regarding the use of bioremediation as a cleanup technology for radioactive nuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The consensus workshop is a derivation of a technology assessment method designed to ensure dialogue between experts and lay people. It has its origins in the United States in the form of ''consensus development conferences'' used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to elicit professional knowledge and concerns about new medical treatments. Over the last 25 years, NIH has conducted over 100 consensus development conferences. (Jorgensen 1995). The consensus conference is grounded in the idea that technology assessment and policy needs to be socially negotiated among many different stakeholders and groups rather than narrowly defined by a group of experts. To successfully implement new technology, the public requires access to information that addresses a full complement of issues including understanding the organization proposing the technology. The consensus conference method creates an informed dialogue, making technology understandable to the general public and sets it within perspectives and priorities that may differ radically from those of the expert community. While specific outcomes differ depending on the overall context of a conference, one expected outcome is that citizen panel members develop greater knowledge of the technology during the conference process and, sometimes, the entire panel experiences a change in attitude toward the technology and/or the organization proposing its use (Kluver 1995). The purpose of this research project was to explore the efficacy of the consensus conference model as a way to elicit the input of the general public about bioremediation of radionuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy sites. Objectives of the research included: (1

  5. Novel Cl- currents elicited by follicle stimulating hormone and acetylcholine in follicle-enclosed Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Voltage-clamp techniques were used to study the membrane currents elicited by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and acetylcholine (ACh) in follicle-enclosed oocytes of Xenopus laevis (follicles). Both agonists caused complex responses that were more evident when the follicles were in hypotonic Ringer solution (HR; 190.4 mosM). In this medium, currents activated by FSH regularly showed three phases whereas currents activated by ACh displayed three to six phases. At a holding potential of -60 mV, FSH, and ACh responses involved combinations of inward and outward currents. Both FSH and ACh responses included a slow smooth inward component that was associated with an increase in membrane conductance, mainly to Cl- (S(in)). This current was strongly dependent on the osmolarity of the external solution: an increase in osmolarity of the HR solution of 18-20 mosM caused a 50% decrease in S(in). In contrast, a fast and transient Cl- current (F(in)) specifically elicited by ACh was not dependent on osmolarity. Both, F(in) and S(in) currents required the presence of follicular cells, since defolliculation using three different methods abolished all the response to FSH and at least four components of the ACh responses. The membrane channels carrying F(in) and oscillatory Cl- currents elicited by stimulation of ACh or serum receptors, were much more permeable to I- and Br- than Cl-, whereas S(in) channels were equally permeable to these anions. Unlike the oscillatory Cl- currents generated in the oocyte itself, S(in) and F(in) currents in follicle-enclosed oocytes were not abolished by chelation of intracellular Ca2+, either with EGTA or BAPTA, which suggests that intracellular Ca2+ does not play a critical role in the activation of these currents. Our experiments show that S(in) and F(in) currents are quite distinct from the previously characterized oscillatory Cl- responses of oocytes. Moreover, the results strongly suggest that the FSH and ACh receptors, the Cl- channels

  6. Stimulus-Elicited Connectivity Influences Resting-State Connectivity Years Later in Human Development: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Dylan Grace; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Telzer, Eva; Humphreys, Kathryn Leigh; Lumian, Daniel Stephen; Fareri, Dominic Stephen; Caldera, Christina; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-01-01

    Although the functional architecture of the brain is indexed by resting-state connectivity networks, little is currently known about the mechanisms through which these networks assemble into stable mature patterns. The current study posits and tests the long-term phasic molding hypothesis that resting-state networks are gradually shaped by recurring stimulus-elicited connectivity across development by examining how both stimulus-elicited and resting-state functional connections of the human brain emerge over development at the systems level. Using a sequential design following 4- to 18-year-olds over a 2 year period, we examined the predictive associations between stimulus-elicited and resting-state connectivity in amygdala-cortical circuitry as an exemplar case (given this network's protracted development across these ages). Age-related changes in amygdala functional connectivity converged on the same regions of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and inferior frontal gyrus when elicited by emotional stimuli and when measured at rest. Consistent with the long-term phasic molding hypothesis, prospective analyses for both connections showed that the magnitude of an individual's stimulus-elicited connectivity unidirectionally predicted resting-state functional connectivity 2 years later. For the amygdala-mPFC connection, only stimulus-elicited connectivity during childhood and the transition to adolescence shaped future resting-state connectivity, consistent with a sensitive period ending with adolescence for the amygdala-mPFC circuit. Together, these findings suggest that resting-state functional architecture may arise from phasic patterns of functional connectivity elicited by environmental stimuli over the course of development on the order of years. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A fundamental issue in understanding the ontogeny of brain function is how resting-state (intrinsic) functional networks emerge and relate to stimulus-elicited functional connectivity. Here, we

  7. Exploring the Ecological Validity of Thinking on Demand: Neural Correlates of Elicited vs. Spontaneously Occurring Inner Speech.

    PubMed

    Hurlburt, Russell T; Alderson-Day, Ben; Kühn, Simone; Fernyhough, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Psychology and cognitive neuroscience often use standardized tasks to elicit particular experiences. We explore whether elicited experiences are similar to spontaneous experiences. In an MRI scanner, five participants performed tasks designed to elicit inner speech (covertly repeating experimenter-supplied words), inner seeing, inner hearing, feeling, and sensing. Then, in their natural environments, participants were trained in four days of random-beep-triggered Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES). They subsequently returned to the scanner for nine 25-min resting-state sessions; during each they received four DES beeps and described those moments (9 × 4 = 36 moments per participant) of spontaneously occurring experience. Enough of those moments included spontaneous inner speech to allow us to compare brain activation during spontaneous inner speech with what we had found in task-elicited inner speech. ROI analysis was used to compare activation in two relevant areas (Heschl's gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus). Task-elicited inner speech was associated with decreased activation in Heschl's gyrus and increased activation in left inferior frontal gyrus. However, spontaneous inner speech had the opposite effect in Heschl's gyrus and no significant effect in left inferior frontal gyrus. This study demonstrates how spontaneous phenomena can be investigated in MRI and calls into question the assumption that task-created phenomena are often neurophysiologically and psychologically similar to spontaneously occurring phenomena.

  8. Quantifying the Effects of Expert Selection and Elicitation Design on Experts' Confidence in Their Judgments About Future Energy Technologies.

    PubMed

    Nemet, Gregory F; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Verdolini, Elena

    2016-03-31

    Expert elicitations are now frequently used to characterize uncertain future technology outcomes. However, their usefulness is limited, in part because: estimates across studies are not easily comparable; choices in survey design and expert selection may bias results; and overconfidence is a persistent problem. We provide quantitative evidence of how these choices affect experts' estimates. We standardize data from 16 elicitations, involving 169 experts, on the 2030 costs of five energy technologies: nuclear, biofuels, bioelectricity, solar, and carbon capture. We estimate determinants of experts' confidence using survey design, expert characteristics, and public R&D investment levels on which the elicited values are conditional. Our central finding is that when experts respond to elicitations in person (vs. online or mail) they ascribe lower confidence (larger uncertainty) to their estimates, but more optimistic assessments of best-case (10th percentile) outcomes. The effects of expert affiliation and country of residence vary by technology, but in general: academics and public-sector experts express lower confidence than private-sector experts; and E.U. experts are more confident than U.S. experts. Finally, extending previous technology-specific work, higher R&D spending increases experts' uncertainty rather than resolves it. We discuss ways in which these findings should be seriously considered in interpreting the results of existing elicitations and in designing new ones.

  9. Postauricular reflexes elicited by soft acoustic clicks and loud noise probes: Reliability, prepulse facilitation, and sensitivity to picture contents.

    PubMed

    Aaron, Rachel V; Benning, Stephen D

    2016-12-01

    The startle blink reflex is facilitated during early picture viewing, then inhibited by attention during pleasant and aversive pictures compared to neutral pictures, and finally potentiated during aversive pictures specifically. However, it is unclear whether the postauricular reflex, which is elicited by the same loud acoustic probe as the startle blink reflex but enhanced by appetitive instead of defensive emotion, has the same pattern and time course of emotional modulation. We examined this issue in a sample of 90 undergraduates using serially presented soft acoustic clicks that elicited postauricular (but not startle blink) reflexes in addition to standard startle probes. Postauricular reflexes elicited by both clicks and probes correlated during food and nurturant contents, during which they were potentiated compared to neutral pictures, suggesting clicks effectively elicit emotionally modulated postauricular reflexes. The postauricular reflex was initially facilitated during the first 500 ms of picture processing but was larger during pleasant than neutral pictures throughout picture processing, with larger effect sizes during the latter half of picture processing. Across reflexes and eliciting stimuli, measures of emotional modulation had higher coefficient alphas than magnitudes during specific picture contents within each valence, indicating that only emotional modulation measures assess higher-order appetitive or defensive processing.

  10. Exploring the Ecological Validity of Thinking on Demand: Neural Correlates of Elicited vs. Spontaneously Occurring Inner Speech

    PubMed Central

    Hurlburt, Russell T.; Alderson-Day, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Psychology and cognitive neuroscience often use standardized tasks to elicit particular experiences. We explore whether elicited experiences are similar to spontaneous experiences. In an MRI scanner, five participants performed tasks designed to elicit inner speech (covertly repeating experimenter-supplied words), inner seeing, inner hearing, feeling, and sensing. Then, in their natural environments, participants were trained in four days of random-beep-triggered Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES). They subsequently returned to the scanner for nine 25-min resting-state sessions; during each they received four DES beeps and described those moments (9 × 4 = 36 moments per participant) of spontaneously occurring experience. Enough of those moments included spontaneous inner speech to allow us to compare brain activation during spontaneous inner speech with what we had found in task-elicited inner speech. ROI analysis was used to compare activation in two relevant areas (Heschl’s gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus). Task-elicited inner speech was associated with decreased activation in Heschl’s gyrus and increased activation in left inferior frontal gyrus. However, spontaneous inner speech had the opposite effect in Heschl’s gyrus and no significant effect in left inferior frontal gyrus. This study demonstrates how spontaneous phenomena can be investigated in MRI and calls into question the assumption that task-created phenomena are often neurophysiologically and psychologically similar to spontaneously occurring phenomena. PMID:26845028

  11. Elicitation of the Acoustic Change Complex to Long-Duration Speech Stimuli in Four-Month-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke Heng; Small, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic change complex (ACC) is an auditory-evoked potential elicited to changes within an ongoing stimulus that indicates discrimination at the level of the auditory cortex. Only a few studies to date have attempted to record ACCs in young infants. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the elicitation of ACCs to long-duration speech stimuli in English-learning 4-month-old infants. ACCs were elicited to consonant contrasts made up of two concatenated speech tokens. The stimuli included native dental-dental /dada/ and dental-labial /daba/ contrasts and a nonnative Hindi dental-retroflex /daDa/ contrast. Each consonant-vowel speech token was 410 ms in duration. Slow cortical responses were recorded to the onset of the stimulus and to the acoustic change from /da/ to either /ba/ or /Da/ within the stimulus with significantly prolonged latencies compared with adults. ACCs were reliably elicited for all stimulus conditions with more robust morphology compared with our previous findings using stimuli that were shorter in duration. The P1 amplitudes elicited to the acoustic change in /daba/ and /daDa/ were significantly larger compared to /dada/ supporting that the brain discriminated between the speech tokens. These findings provide further evidence for the use of ACCs as an index of discrimination ability. PMID:26798343

  12. Elicitation of the Acoustic Change Complex to Long-Duration Speech Stimuli in Four-Month-Old Infants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke Heng; Small, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic change complex (ACC) is an auditory-evoked potential elicited to changes within an ongoing stimulus that indicates discrimination at the level of the auditory cortex. Only a few studies to date have attempted to record ACCs in young infants. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the elicitation of ACCs to long-duration speech stimuli in English-learning 4-month-old infants. ACCs were elicited to consonant contrasts made up of two concatenated speech tokens. The stimuli included native dental-dental /dada/ and dental-labial /daba/ contrasts and a nonnative Hindi dental-retroflex /daDa/ contrast. Each consonant-vowel speech token was 410 ms in duration. Slow cortical responses were recorded to the onset of the stimulus and to the acoustic change from /da/ to either /ba/ or /Da/ within the stimulus with significantly prolonged latencies compared with adults. ACCs were reliably elicited for all stimulus conditions with more robust morphology compared with our previous findings using stimuli that were shorter in duration. The P1 amplitudes elicited to the acoustic change in /daba/ and /daDa/ were significantly larger compared to /dada/ supporting that the brain discriminated between the speech tokens. These findings provide further evidence for the use of ACCs as an index of discrimination ability.

  13. GABA and glycine receptors in the nucleus ambiguus mediate tachycardia elicited by chemical stimulation of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Chitravanshi, Vineet C; Kawabe, Kazumi; Sapru, Hreday N

    2015-07-01

    We have previously reported that stimulation of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARCN) by microinjections of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) elicits tachycardia, which is partially mediated via inhibition of vagal inputs to the heart. The neuronal pools and neurotransmitters in them mediating tachycardia elicited from the ARCN have not been identified. We tested the hypothesis that the tachycardia elicited from the ARCN may be mediated by inhibitory neurotransmitters in the nucleus ambiguus (nAmb). Experiments were done in urethane-anesthetized, artificially ventilated, male Wistar rats. In separate groups of rats, unilateral and bilateral microinjections of muscimol (1 mM), gabazine (0.01 mM), and strychnine (0.5 mM) into the nAmb significantly attenuated tachycardia elicited by unilateral microinjections of NMDA (10 mM) into the ARCN. Histological examination of the brains showed that the microinjections sites were within the targeted nuclei. Retrograde anatomic tracing from the nAmb revealed direct bilateral projections from the ARCN and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus to the nAmb. The results of the present study suggest that tachycardia elicited by stimulation of the ARCN by microinjections of NMDA is mediated via GABAA and glycine receptors located in the nAmb.

  14. Parameterizing Bayesian network Representations of Social-Behavioral Models by Expert Elicitation

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Dalton, Angela C.; Whitney, Paul D.; White, Amanda M.

    2010-05-23

    Bayesian networks provide a general framework with which to model many natural phenomena. The mathematical nature of Bayesian networks enables a plethora of model validation and calibration techniques: e.g parameter estimation, goodness of fit tests, and diagnostic checking of the model assumptions. However, they are not free of shortcomings. Parameter estimation from relevant extant data is a common approach to calibrating the model parameters. In practice it is not uncommon to find oneself lacking adequate data to reliably estimate all model parameters. In this paper we present the early development of a novel application of conjoint analysis as a method for eliciting and modeling expert opinions and using the results in a methodology for calibrating the parameters of a Bayesian network.

  15. The cognitive interview method of conducting police interviews: eliciting extensive information and promoting therapeutic jurisprudence.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Ronald P; Geiselman, R Edward

    2010-01-01

    Police officers receive little or no training to conduct interviews with cooperative witnesses, and as a result they conduct interviews poorly, eliciting less information than is available and providing little support to assist victims overcome psychological problems that may have arisen from the crime. We analyze the components of a typical police interview that limits the amount of information witnesses communicate, and which militate against victims' overcoming psychological problems. We then describe an alternative interviewing protocol, the Cognitive Interview, which enhances witness recollection and also likely contributes to victims' well being. The component elements of the Cognitive Interview are described, with emphasis on those elements that likely promote better witness recollection and also help to assist victims' psychological health.

  16. Coxsackievirus B3 VLPs purified by ion exchange chromatography elicit strong immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Koho, Tiia; Koivunen, Minni R L; Oikarinen, Sami; Kummola, Laura; Mäkinen, Selina; Mähönen, Anssi J; Sioofy-Khojine, Amirbabak; Marjomäki, Varpu; Kazmertsuk, Artur; Junttila, Ilkka; Kulomaa, Markku S; Hyöty, Heikki; Hytönen, Vesa P; Laitinen, Olli H

    2014-04-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is an important cause of acute and chronic viral myocarditis, and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Although vaccination against CVB3 could significantly reduce the incidence of serious or fatal viral myocarditis and various other diseases associated with CVB3 infection, there is currently no vaccine or therapeutic reagent in clinical use. In this study, we contributed towards the development of a CVB3 vaccine by establishing an efficient and scalable ion exchange chromatography-based purification method for CVB3 virus and baculovirus-insect cell-expressed CVB3 virus-like particles (VLPs). This purification system is especially relevant for vaccine development and production on an industrial scale. The produced VLPs were characterized using a number of biophysical methods and exhibited excellent quality and high purity. Immunization of mice with VLPs elicited a strong immune response, demonstrating the excellent vaccine potential of these VLPs.

  17. Elicitation Approaches for Withanolide Production in Hairy Root Culture of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan

    2016-01-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is a versatile medicinal plant extensively utilized for production of phytochemical drug preparations. The roots and whole plants are traditionally used in Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha medicines, as well as in homeopathy. Several studies provide evidence for an array of pharmaceutical properties due to the presence of steroidal lactones named "withanolides." A number of research groups have focused their attention on the effects of biotic and abiotic elicitors on withanolide production using cultures of adventitious roots, cell suspensions, shoot suspensions, and hairy roots in large-scale bioreactor for producing withanolides. This chapter explains the detailed procedures for induction and establishment of hairy roots from leaf explants of W. somnifera, proliferation and multiplication of hairy root cultures, estimation of withanolide productivity upon elicitation with salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, and quantification of major withanolides by HPLC. The protocol herein described could be implemented for large-scale cultivation of hairy root biomass to improve withanolide production.

  18. Continuously varying skin potentials elicited by sinusoidally varying electric shock potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senders, J. W.; Senders, V. L.; Tursky, B.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine whether a form of quasi-linear systems analysis can be applied to electrodormal responses to yield new insights into the nature of the response mechanisms and their interrelationships. The response investigated was the electrodermal response (galvanic skin potential, GSP) as elicited by an electric shock stimulus applied to the skin. The response subsequent to this stimulation was examined and its characteristics measured. A series of experimental runs on three Ss was accomplished, using sinusoidal modulation envelopes of frequencies. Results showed that it was possible to drive the GSP and to achieve relatively high coherence between the driving frequency and the response itself. The analysis was limited to Fourier analysis of the response in order to determine the relative energies at the driving frequency and at successive harmonics of that driving frequency, and correlational analysis in order to determine the degree of linear relationship between the driving frequency and the driven response.

  19. NT3-chitosan elicits robust endogenous neurogenesis to enable functional recovery after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Aifeng; Duan, Hongmei; Zhang, Sa; Hao, Peng; Ye, Keqiang; Sun, Yi E.; Li, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) hold the key to neural regeneration through proper activation, differentiation, and maturation, to establish nascent neural networks, which can be integrated into damaged neural circuits to repair function. However, the CNS injury microenvironment is often inhibitory and inflammatory, limiting the ability of activated NSCs to differentiate into neurons and form nascent circuits. Here we report that neurotrophin-3 (NT3)-coupled chitosan biomaterial, when inserted into a 5-mm gap of completely transected and excised rat thoracic spinal cord, elicited robust activation of endogenous NSCs in the injured spinal cord. Through slow release of NT3, the biomaterial attracted NSCs to migrate into the lesion area, differentiate into neurons, and form functional neural networks, which interconnected severed ascending and descending axons, resulting in sensory and motor behavioral recovery. Our study suggests that enhancing endogenous neurogenesis could be a novel strategy for treatment of spinal cord injury. PMID:26460015

  20. Drinking a hot blood meal elicits a protective heat shock response in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Joshua B; Lopez-Martinez, Giancarlo; Patrick, Kevin R; Phillips, Zachary P; Krause, Tyler B; Denlinger, David L

    2011-05-10

    The mosquito's body temperature increases dramatically when it takes a blood meal from a warm-blooded, vertebrate host. By using the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, we demonstrate that this boost in temperature following a blood meal prompts the synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). This response, elicited by the temperature of the blood meal, is most robust in the mosquito's midgut. When RNA interference is used to suppress expression of hsp70, protein digestion of the blood meal is impaired, leading to production of fewer eggs. We propose that Hsp70 protects the mosquito midgut from the temperature stress incurred by drinking a hot blood meal. Similar increases in hsp70 were documented immediately after blood feeding in two other mosquitoes (Culex pipiens and Anopheles gambiae) and the bed bug, Cimex lectularius, suggesting that this is a common protective response in blood-feeding arthropods.

  1. Being in a "Green" Building Elicits "Greener" Recycling, but Not Necessarily "Better" Recycling.

    PubMed

    Wu, David W-L; DiGiacomo, Alessandra; Lenkic, Peter J; Wong, Vanessa K; Kingstone, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Previous observational work revealed that transient populations in a sustainable building disposed of waste more accurately when compared to patrons in a non-sustainable building. The current study uses an experimental design to replicate this observed effect and to investigate whether or not the built environment influences motivational factors to impact behavior. We find support that a building designed and built to communicate an atmosphere of sustainability can influence waste disposal behavior. Participants in the sustainable building used the garbage receptacle significantly less and compensated by tending to select the containers and organics receptacle more, which actually resulted in more errors overall. Our findings suggest that building atmospherics can motivate people to recycle more. However, atmospherics alone do not appear to be sufficient to elicit the desired performance outcome.

  2. Production of phytoalexins in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seed elicited by selected microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Victor S

    2013-02-27

    Under favorable conditions, the peanut plant demonstrates appreciable resistance to fungal invasion by producing and accumulating phytoalexins, antimicrobial stilbenoids. This mechanism for resistance is little understood, yet it is crucial for breeding and genetically modifying peanut plants to develop new cultivars with fungal resistance. The dynamics of phytoalexin production in peanut seeds and embryos challenged by selected important fungi and bacteria was investigated. Different biotic agents selectively elicited production of major peanut stilbenoids, resveratrol, arachidin-1, arachidin-3, and SB-1. Aspergillis species, compared to other biotic agents, were more potent elicitors of stilbenoids. Embryos demonstrated significantly higher production of stilbenoids compared to cotyledons and may serve as a convenient source of genetic material in isolating genes for peanut plant defense enhancement.

  3. Antiangiogenic Therapy Elicits Malignant Progression of Tumors to Increased Local Invasion and Distant Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Pàez-Ribes, Marta; Allen, Elizabeth; Hudock, James; Takeda, Takaaki; Okuyama, Hiroaki; Viñals, Francesc; Inoue, Masahiro; Bergers, Gabriele; Hanahan, Douglas; Casanovas, Oriol

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Multiple angiogenesis inhibitors have been therapeutically validated in preclinical cancer models, and several in clinical trials. Here we report that angiogenesis inhibitors targeting the VEGF pathway demonstrate antitumor effects in mouse models of pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma and glioblastoma but concomitantly elicit tumor adaptation and progression to stages of greater malignancy, with heightened invasiveness and in some cases increased lymphatic and distant metastasis. Increased invasiveness is also seen by genetic ablation of the Vegf-A gene in both models, substantiating the results of the pharmacological inhibitors. The realization that potent angiogenesis inhibition can alter the natural history of tumors by increasing invasion and metastasis warrants clinical investigation, as the prospect has important implications for the development of enduring antiangiogenic therapies. PMID:19249680

  4. Somatic and axonal LIGHT signaling elicit degenerative and regenerative responses in motoneurons, respectively

    PubMed Central

    Otsmane, Belkacem; Moumen, Anice; Aebischer, Julianne; Coque, Emmanuelle; Sar, Chamroeun; Sunyach, Claire; Salsac, Céline; Valmier, Jean; Salinas, Sara; Bowerman, Melissa; Raoul, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    A receptor–ligand interaction can evoke a broad range of biological activities in different cell types depending on receptor identity and cell type-specific post-receptor signaling intermediates. Here, we show that the TNF family member LIGHT, known to act as a death-triggering factor in motoneurons through LT-βR, can also promote axon outgrowth and branching in motoneurons through the same receptor. LIGHT-induced axonal elongation and branching require ERK and caspase-9 pathways. This distinct response involves a compartment-specific activation of LIGHT signals, with somatic activation-inducing death, while axonal stimulation promotes axon elongation and branching in motoneurons. Following peripheral nerve damage, LIGHT increases at the lesion site through expression by invading B lymphocytes, and genetic deletion of Light significantly delays functional recovery. We propose that a central and peripheral activation of the LIGHT pathway elicits different functional responses in motoneurons. PMID:24668263

  5. Insect regurgitant and wounding elicit similar defense responses in poplar leaves: not something to spit at?

    PubMed

    Major, Ian T; Constabel, C Peter

    2007-01-01

    How plants perceive insect attacks is an area of active research. Numerous studies have shown that regurgitant from feeding insects elicits a defense response in plants, which is often assumed to be distinct from a wound response. We have characterized the inducible defense response in hybrid poplar and found it to be qualitatively similar between wounding and application of regurgitant from forest tent caterpillar. We suggest that this is likely attributable to our wounding treatment which is much more intense compared to most other studies. These overlapping responses appear to be activated via jasmonic acid signaling, and we speculate that they are both triggered by elicitors of plant origin. Wounding would release such elicitor molecules when leaf cells are disrupted, and regurgitant may contain them in a modified or processed form. This hypothesis could explain why some other necrosis-inducing stresses also induce herbivore defense genes.

  6. Synthetic B-Cell Epitopes Eliciting Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies: Strategies for Future Dengue Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Chit Laa; Kirk, Kristin; McBride, William John Hannan; Aaskov, John; Grollo, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a major public health threat worldwide. A key element in protection from dengue fever is the neutralising antibody response. Anti-dengue IgG purified from DENV-2 infected human sera showed reactivity against several peptides when evaluated by ELISA and epitope extraction techniques. A multi-step computational approach predicted six antigenic regions within the E protein of DENV-2 that concur with the 6 epitopes identified by the combined ELISA and epitope extraction approach. The selected peptides representing B-cell epitopes were attached to a known dengue T-helper epitope and evaluated for their vaccine potency. Immunization of mice revealed two novel synthetic vaccine constructs that elicited good humoral immune responses and produced cross-reactive neutralising antibodies against DENV-1, 2 and 3. The findings indicate new directions for epitope mapping and contribute towards the future development of multi-epitope based synthetic peptide vaccine. PMID:27223692

  7. Agency elicits body-ownership: proprioceptive drift toward a synchronously acting external proxy.

    PubMed

    Asai, Tomohisa

    2016-05-01

    Awareness of our own bodies (sense of body-ownership) and actions (sense of agency) is fundamental for self-consciousness. In the rubber hand illusion, watching a rubber hand being stroked synchronously as one's own unseen hand is also stroked causes the observer to attribute the rubber hand to their own body. The findings of the series of experiments reported here suggest that body-ownership, measured using proprioceptive drift, is elicited by the external acting proxy that drives the sense of agency. While participants clasped and unclasped their left hand for 60 s, they focused on video feedback on a monitor in front of them. Proprioceptive drift was observed only under the conditions, including synchronized conditions, where the sense of agency for the acting proxy occurred, suggesting an essential interaction between body-ownership and agency.

  8. Characterizing the Immune-Eliciting Activity of Putative Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Christopher R; Vinatzer, Boris A

    2017-01-01

    Detection of conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), such as bacterial flagellin, is the first line of active defense in plants against pathogenic invaders. Successful pathogens must subvert this immune response to grow to high population density and cause disease. Flagellin from the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas was the first identified bacterial MAMP and many species across the plant kingdom have sensitive perception systems for detecting the 22-amino acid epitope known as flg22. Tomato and several other solanaceous plants are also able to independently detect a second epitope of flagellin known as flgII-28. This chapter details four experimental protocols to identify and confirm the immune response-eliciting activity of flagellin and putative MAMPs with focus on the Pseudomonas-tomato pathosystem.

  9. Enhanced rosmarinic acid production by Lavandula vera MM cell suspension culture through elicitation with vanadyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Milen; Kuzeva, Sonya; Pavlov, Atanas; Kovacheva, Elena; Ilieva, Mladenka

    2006-01-01

    The influence of elicitation on rosmarinic acid biosynthesis by Lavandula vera MM cell suspension culture was investigated using vanadyl sulfate as an abiotic elicitor. It was established that 12 h after treatment with 25 mg/l vanadyl sulfate the rosmarinic acid production was increased up to 3.92 g/l (2.8 times higher compared to the control cultivation). No significant amounts of rosmarinic acid were detected in the culture medium in comparison with its intracellular content. However, it was observed that the extracellular content of rosmarinic acid is 3.3 times higher compared to the control variant (4 h after treatment at elicitor concentration 25 mg/l).

  10. The anal reflex elicited by cough and sniff: validation of a neglected clinical sign

    PubMed Central

    Chan, C; Ponsford, S; Swash, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether contraction of the external anal sphincter (EAS) following a voluntary cough is an integral component of the cough response itself, or a reflex response to the abdominal and pelvic floor dynamics induced by the cough. Clinical experience suggests a reflex origin for this response. Objective: To compare motor latencies for intercostal, abdominal, and EAS muscle contraction after transcranial magnetic stimulation with those following voluntary coughing and sniffing. Methods: A needle electrode inserted into the EAS measured responses, which were confirmed by tonic electromyographic recording. Direct motor latencies from the cerebral cortex to the intercostal, rectus abdominis and EAS muscles were obtained using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Sniff and cough induced responses were also recorded in these muscles. Results: The results suggest that EAS responses following a voluntary cough or sniff represent a polysynaptic reflex. Conclusions: As the cough induced anal reflex response is consistent and easily elicited, its use in clinical neurological examination is appropriate. PMID:15377694

  11. 8-OH-DPAT suppresses vomiting in the cat elicited by motion, cisplatin or xylazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.

    1989-01-01

    Vomiting was suppressed in cats pretreated with 8-OH-DPAT and then challenged with an emetic stimulus; motion, xylazine or cisplatin. The antiemetic effect is likely due to stimulation of postsynaptic serotonin-1A receptors. The most parsimonious explanation is that it acts at a convergent structure, presumably at or near the vomiting center. If so, 8-OH-DPAT may block emesis elicited by virtually any other stimulus. A supplementary experiment revealed that lorazepam suppressed motion sickness at a dose that produced ataxia, but did not suppress xylazine-induced emesis. These results do not support the possibility that the antiemetic effects of 8-OH-DPAT were the result of anxiolytic activity.

  12. The role of self-aspects in emotions elicited by threats to physical health.

    PubMed

    Uskul, Ayse K; Hynie, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    In two studies, we examined the relationship between self-aspects and socially engaging and socially disengaging emotions elicited by imagined and real physical health problems. In Study 1, participants imagined themselves experiencing a health problem described in a hypothetical scenario and rated the extent to which they would experience a list of emotions. The experience of socially engaging emotions such as shame and embarrassment was predicted by the endorsement of collective self. In Study 2, participants recalled a past health problem and emotions they experienced during its course. Again, collective self predicted the extent to which people mentioned socially engaging emotions in their free recall of emotions. Independent self was not related to the imagined experience of socially disengaging emotions in Study 1 or the recollection of such emotions in Study 2.

  13. Genetic immunization is a simple method for eliciting an immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, De-Chu; Devit, Michael; Johnston, Stephen A.

    1992-03-01

    To produce an immune reaction against a foreign protein usually requires purification of that protein, which is then injected into an animal. The isolation of enough pure protein is time-consuming and sometimes difficult. Here we report that such a response can also be elicited by introducing the gene encoding a protein directly into the skin of mice. This is achieved using a hand-held form of the biolistic system1-4 which can propel DNA-coated gold micro-projectiles directly into cells in the living animal3,5,6. Genetic immunization may be time- and labour-saving in producing antibodies and may offer a unique method for vaccination.

  14. Synthetic B-Cell Epitopes Eliciting Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies: Strategies for Future Dengue Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Babu; Poh, Chit Laa; Kirk, Kristin; McBride, William John Hannan; Aaskov, John; Grollo, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a major public health threat worldwide. A key element in protection from dengue fever is the neutralising antibody response. Anti-dengue IgG purified from DENV-2 infected human sera showed reactivity against several peptides when evaluated by ELISA and epitope extraction techniques. A multi-step computational approach predicted six antigenic regions within the E protein of DENV-2 that concur with the 6 epitopes identified by the combined ELISA and epitope extraction approach. The selected peptides representing B-cell epitopes were attached to a known dengue T-helper epitope and evaluated for their vaccine potency. Immunization of mice revealed two novel synthetic vaccine constructs that elicited good humoral immune responses and produced cross-reactive neutralising antibodies against DENV-1, 2 and 3. The findings indicate new directions for epitope mapping and contribute towards the future development of multi-epitope based synthetic peptide vaccine.

  15. Tectonic risk forecasting through expert elicitation for geological repositories: the TOPAZ project

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Junichi; Kawamura, Hideki; Chapman, Neil

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a probabilistic methodology for the evaluation of tectonic hazards to geological repositories in Japan. The approach is a development of NUMO's ITM methodology, which produced probabilistic hazard maps for volcanism and rock deformation for periods up to about 100,000 years in a set of Case Studies that covered a large area of the country. To address potential regulatory requirements, the TOPAZ project has extended the ITM methodology to look into the period between 100,000 and 1 million years, where significant uncertainties begin to emerge about the tectonic framework within which quantitative forecasting can be made. Part of this methodology extension has been to adopt expert elicitation techniques to capture differing expert views as a means of addressing such uncertainties. This paper briefly outlines progress in this development work to date. (authors)

  16. Development of an Expert Judgement Elicitation and Calibration Methodology for Risk Analysis in Conceptual Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit; Keating, Charles; Conway, Bruce; Chytka, Trina

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive expert-judgment elicitation methodology to quantify input parameter uncertainty and analysis tool uncertainty in a conceptual launch vehicle design analysis has been developed. The ten-phase methodology seeks to obtain expert judgment opinion for quantifying uncertainties as a probability distribution so that multidisciplinary risk analysis studies can be performed. The calibration and aggregation techniques presented as part of the methodology are aimed at improving individual expert estimates, and provide an approach to aggregate multiple expert judgments into a single probability distribution. The purpose of this report is to document the methodology development and its validation through application to a reference aerospace vehicle. A detailed summary of the application exercise, including calibration and aggregation results is presented. A discussion of possible future steps in this research area is given.

  17. A Glycoprotein Subunit Vaccine Elicits a Strong Rift Valley Fever Virus Neutralizing Antibody Response in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lebedev, Maxim; McVey, D. Scott; Wilson, William; Morozov, Igor; Young, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a member of the Bunyaviridae family, is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen that causes serious morbidity and mortality in livestock and humans. The recent spread of the virus beyond its traditional endemic boundaries in Africa to the Arabian Peninsula coupled with the presence of susceptible vectors in nonendemic countries has created increased interest in RVF vaccines. Subunit vaccines composed of specific virus proteins expressed in eukaryotic or prokaryotic expression systems are shown to elicit neutralizing antibodies in susceptible hosts. RVFV structural proteins, amino-terminus glycoprotein (Gn), and carboxyl-terminus glycoprotein (Gc), were expressed using a recombinant baculovirus expression system. The recombinant proteins were reconstituted as a GnGc subunit vaccine formulation and evaluated for immunogenicity in a target species, sheep. Six sheep were each immunized with a primary dose of 50 μg of each vaccine immunogen with the adjuvant montanide ISA25; at day 21, postvaccination, each animal received a second dose of the same vaccine. The vaccine induced a strong antibody response in all animals as determined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT80) showed the primary dose of the vaccine was sufficient to elicit potentially protective virus neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 40 to 160, and the second vaccine dose boosted the titer to more than 1280. Furthermore, all animals tested positive for neutralizing antibodies at day 328 postvaccination. ELISA analysis using the recombinant nucleocapsid protein as a negative marker antigen indicated that the vaccine candidate is DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals) compatible and represents a promising vaccine platform for RVFV infection in susceptible species. PMID:25325319

  18. The peptide specificities of the autoantibodies elicited by mouse hepatitis virus A59.

    PubMed

    Duhalde-Vega, Maite; Loureiro, María E; Mathieu, Patricia A; Retegui, Lilia A

    2006-11-01

    Synthetic decapeptides (N=206) covering the entire sequence of mouse liver fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) were used to analyze the specificities of the autoantibodies (autoAb) elicited towards this enzyme in mice infected with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). These autoAb bound mainly to N- and C-terminal FAH peptides, the most reactive sequences being 1-50 and 390-420, respectively. Surprisingly, although FAH sequence 1-50 shares a high degree of homology with various MHV proteins, the C-terminal portion does not. Moreover, whereas the autoAb reacted with homologous peptides surrounding residues 70, 160 and 360, non-similar sequences around residues 130, 210, 240, 250, and 300 were also recognized, indicating that autoAb were not restricted to epitopes with sequence homologies. There was also a lack of correlation between the amount of anti-MHV or anti-FAH antibodies produced and the reactivity towards the peptides. Moreover, the spectrum of peptides recognized by the autoAb of a given mouse did not change significantly with time, which suggests that the MHV-elicited autoimmune response does not induce an epitope recognition spreading. Finally, anti-FAH Ab produced after immunization with rat liver FAH recognized essentially the same mouse FAH regions than autoAb from MHV-infected mice. Results indicated that the induction of the autoAb is not only related to molecular or structural mimicry, but rather supports the Danger model, in which any aggression, in this case the MHV infection, is susceptible to trigger the production of autoAb.

  19. HIV protease inhibitors elicit volume-sensitive Cl− current in cardiac myocytes via mitochondrial ROS

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wu; Baki, Lia; Yin, Jun; Zhou, Huiping; Baumgarten, Clive M.

    2010-01-01

    HIV protease inhibitors (HIV PI) reduce morbidity and mortality of HIV infection but cause multiple untoward effects. Because certain HIV PI evoke production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and volume-sensitive Cl− current (ICl,swell) is activated by ROS, we tested whether HIV PI stimulate ICl,swell in ventricular myocytes. Ritonavir and lopinavir elicited outwardly-rectifying Cl− currents under isosmotic conditions that were abolished by the selective ICl,swell-blocker DCPIB. In contrast, amprenavir, nelfinavir, and raltegravir, an integrase inhibitor, did not modulate ICl,swell acutely. Ritonavir also reduced action potential duration, but amprenavir did not. ICl,swell activation was attributed to ROS because ebselen, an H2O2, scavenger, suppressed ritonavir- and lopinavir-induced ICl,swell. Major ROS sources in cardiomyocytes are sarcolemmal NADPH oxidase and mitochondria. The specific NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin failed to block ritonavir- or lopinavir-induced currents, although it blocks ICl,swell elicited by osmotic swelling or stretch. In contrast, rotenone, a mitochondrial e− transport inhibitor, suppressed both ritonavir- and lopinavir-induced ICl,swell. ROS production was measured in HL-1 cardiomyocytes with C-H2DCFDA-AM and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) with JC-1. Flow cytometry confirmed that ritonavir and lopinavir but not amprenavir, nelfinavir, or raltegravir augmented ROS production, and HIV PI-induced ROS production was suppressed by rotenone but not NADPH oxidase blockade. Moreover, ritonavir, but not amprenavir, depolarized ΔΨm. These data suggest ritonavir and lopinavir activated ICl,swell via mitochondrial ROS production that was independent of NADPH oxidase. ROS-dependent modulation of ICl,swell and other ion channels by HIV PI may contribute to some of their actions in heart and perhaps other tissues. PMID:20736017

  20. Cytokine, antibody and proliferative cellular responses elicited by Taenia solium calreticulin upon experimental infection in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Ávila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis.

  1. Evaluation of immune response elicited by inulin as an adjuvant with filarial antigens in mice model.

    PubMed

    Mahalakshmi, N; Aparnaa, R; Kaliraj, P

    2014-10-01

    Filariasis caused by infectious parasitic nematodes has been identified as the second leading source of permanent and long-term disability in Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. Several vaccine candidates were identified from infective third-stage larvae (L3) which involves in the critical transition from arthropod to human. Hitherto studies of these antigens in combination with alum adjuvant have shown to elicit its characteristic Th2 responses. Inulin is a safe, non-toxic adjuvant that principally stimulates the innate immune response through the alternative complement pathway. In the present study, the immune response elicited by inulin and alum as adjuvants were compared with filarial antigens from different aetiological agents: secreted larval acidic protein 1 (SLAP1) from Onchocerca volvulus and venom allergen homologue (VAH) from Brugia malayi as single or as cocktail vaccines in mice model. The study revealed that inulin can induce better humoral response against these antigens than alum adjuvant. Antibody isotyping disclosed inulin's ability to elevate the levels of IgG2a and IgG3 antibodies which mediates in complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), respectively, in mice. Splenocyte analysis showed that T cells prestimulated with inulin have higher stimulation index (P < 0.05) than alum except for BmVAH antigen. In vitro ADCC assay showed that inulin formulation had induced higher cytotoxicity with filarial antigens (as single P < 0.01 and as cocktail P < 0.05, respectively) than alum. The results had confirmed the capability of inulin to deplete the levels of Treg and brought a balance in Th1/Th2 arms against filarial antigens in mice.

  2. Hospital workers' perceptions of waste: a qualitative study involving photo-elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Sarah L.; Kleppel, Reva; Lindenauer, Peter K.; Rothberg, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To elicit sources of waste as viewed by hospital workers Design Qualitative study using photo-elicitation, an ethnographic technique for prompting in-depth discussion Setting U.S. academic tertiary care hospital Participants Physicians, nurses, pharmacists, administrative support personnel, administrators and respiratory therapists Methods A purposive sample of personnel at an academic tertiary care hospital was invited to take up to 10 photos of waste. Participants discussed their selections using photos as prompts during in-depth interviews. Transcripts were analyzed in an iterative process using grounded theory; open and axial coding was performed, followed by selective and thematic coding to develop major themes and sub-themes. Results Twenty-one participants (9 women, average number of years in field=19.3) took 159 photos. Major themes included types of waste and recommendations to reduce waste. Types of waste comprised four major categories: Time, Materials, Energy and Talent. Participants emphasized time wastage (50% of photos) over other types of waste such as excess utilization (2.5%). Energy and Talent were novel categories of waste. Recommendations to reduce waste included interventions at the micro-level (e.g. individual/ward), meso-level (e.g. institution) and macro-level (e.g., payor/public policy). Conclusions The waste hospital workers identified differed from previously described waste both in the types of waste described and the emphasis placed on wasted time. The findings of this study represent a possible need for education of hospital workers about known types of waste, an opportunity to assess the impact of novel types of waste described and an opportunity to intervene to reduce the waste identified. PMID:23748192

  3. Molecular Basis of the Increase in Invertase Activity Elicited by Gravistimulation of Oat-Shoot Pulvini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liu-Lai; Song, Il; Kim, Donghern; Kaufman, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    An asymmetric (top vs. bottom) increase in invertase activity is elicited by gravistimulation in oatshoot pulvini starting within 3h after treatment. In order to analyze the regulation of invertase gene expression in this system, we examined the effect of gravistimulation on invertase mRNA induction. Total RNA and poly(A)(+)RNA, isolated from oat pulvini, and two oligonucleotide primers, corresponding to two conserved amino-acid sequences (NDPNG and WECPD) found in invertase from other species, were used for the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). A partial-length cDNA (550 base pairs) was obtained and characterized. There was a 52 % deduced amino-acid sequence homology to that of carrot beta-fructosi- dase and a 48 % homology to that of tomato invertase. Northern blot analysis showed that there was an obvious transient accumulation of invertase mRNA elicited by gravistimulation of oat pulvini. The mRNA was rapidly induced to a maximum level at 1h following gravistimulation treatment and gradually decreased afterwards. The mRNA level in the bottom half of the oat pulvinus was significantly higher (five-fold) than that in the top half of the pulvinus tissue. The induction of invertase mRNA was consistent with the transient enhancement of invertase activity during the graviresponse of the pulvinus. These data indicate that the expression of the invertase gene(s) could be regulated by gravistimulation at the transcriptional and/or translational levels. Southern blot analysis showed that there were four genomic DNA fragments hybridized to the invertase cDNA. This suggests that an invertase gene family may exist in oat plants.

  4. Serotonergic modulation of plasticity of the auditory cortex elicited by fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Ji, Weiqing; Suga, Nobuo

    2007-05-02

    In the awake big brown bat, 30 min auditory fear conditioning elicits conditioned heart rate decrease and long-term best frequency (BF) shifts of cortical auditory neurons toward the frequency of the conditioned tone; 15 min conditioning elicits subthreshold cortical BF shifts that can be augmented by acetylcholine. The fear conditioning causes stress and an increase in the cortical serotonin (5-HT) level. Serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei associated with stress and fear project to the cerebral cortex and cholinergic basal forebrain. Recently, it has been shown that 5-HT(2A) receptors are mostly expressed on pyramidal neurons and their activation improves learning and memory. We applied 5-HT, an agonist (alpha-methyl-5-HT), or an antagonist (ritanserin) of 5-HT(2A) receptors to the primary auditory cortex and discovered the following drug effects: (1) 5-HT had no effect on the conditioned heart rate change, although it reduced the auditory responses; (2) 4 mm 5-HT augmented the subthreshold BF shifts, whereas 20 mm 5-HT did not; (3) 20 mm 5-HT reduced the long-term BF shifts and changed them into short-term; (4) alpha-methyl-5-HT increased the auditory responses and augmented the subthreshold BF shifts as well as the long-term BF shifts; (5) in contrast, ritanserin reduced the auditory responses and reversed the direction of the BF shifts. Our data indicate that the BF shift can be modulated by serotonergic neurons that augment or reduce the BF shift or even reverse the direction of the BF shift. Therefore, not only the cholinergic system, but also the serotonergic system, plays an important role in cortical plasticity according to behavioral demands.

  5. Evidence that potential fish predators elicit the production of carapace vibrations by the American lobster.

    PubMed

    Ward, Daniel; Morison, Françoise; Morrissey, Elizabeth; Jenks, Kyle; Watson, Winsor H

    2011-08-01

    American lobsters (Homarus americanus) will on rare occasions produce sounds by vibrating their dorsal carapace. Although this behavior can be elicited in the laboratory by handling lobsters, the stimulus that triggers the production of sounds in the lobster's natural habitat is not known. We investigated the influence of two fish that are known to prey on lobsters, cod (Gadus morhua) and striped bass (Morone saxatilis), on the production of sounds by American lobsters. In addition, we examined the response of the same fish to the sounds the lobsters produced. Although solitary lobsters spontaneously produced sounds at a low rate of 1.2 ± 0.23 sound events per 30 min, the presence of a single cod or striped bass led to an increase in the rate of sound production (cod: 51.1 ± 13.1 events per 30 min; striped bass: 17.0 ± 7.0 events per 30 min). Most (74.6 ± 6.6%) of the 292 sound events recorded occurred when a fish came within 0.5 m of a lobster, but a fish did not have to come into contact with a lobster to elicit sounds. Immediately following the production of a sound by a lobster, fish turned and swam away significantly faster than when they encountered a lobster that did not make a sound. Moreover, after striped bass (but not cod) experienced a number of these sound events, they subsequently tended to avoid swimming close to the lobsters. These data, taken together, suggest that sound production by American lobsters may serve to deter potential fish predators.

  6. Lessons Learned- The Use of Formal Expert Elicitation in Probablistic Seismic Hazard

    SciTech Connect

    K.J. Coppersmith; R.C. Perman; R.R. Youngs

    2006-05-10

    Probabilistic seismic hazard analyses provide the opportunity, indeed the requirement, to quantify the uncertainties in important inputs to the analysis. The locations of future earthquakes, their recurrence rates and maximum size, and the ground motions that will result at a site of interest are all quantities that require careful consideration because they are uncertain. The earliest PSHA models [Cornell, 1968] provided solely for the randomness or aleatory variability in these quantities. The most sophisticated seismic hazard models today, which include quantified uncertainties, are merely more realistic representations of this basic aleatory model. All attempts to quantify uncertainties require expert judgment. Further, all uncertainty models should endeavor to consider the range of views of the larger technical community at the time the hazard analysis is conducted. In some cases, especially for large projects under regulatory review, formal structured methods for eliciting expert judgments have been employed. Experience has shown that certain key elements are required for these assessments to be successful, including: (1) experts should be trained in probability theory, uncertainty quantification, and ways to avoid common cognitive biases; (2) comprehensive and user-friendly databases should be provided to the experts; (3) experts should be required to evaluate all potentially credible hypotheses; (4) workshops and other interactions among the experts and proponents of published viewpoints should be encouraged; (5) elicitations are best conducted in individual interview sessions; (6) feedback should be provided to the experts to give them insight into the significance of alternative assessments to the hazard results; and (7) complete documentation should include the technical basis for all assessments. Case histories are given from seismic hazard analyses in Europe, western North America, and the stable continental region of the United States.

  7. A glycoprotein subunit vaccine elicits a strong Rift Valley fever virus neutralizing antibody response in sheep.

    PubMed

    Faburay, Bonto; Lebedev, Maxim; McVey, D Scott; Wilson, William; Morozov, Igor; Young, Alan; Richt, Juergen A

    2014-10-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a member of the Bunyaviridae family, is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen that causes serious morbidity and mortality in livestock and humans. The recent spread of the virus beyond its traditional endemic boundaries in Africa to the Arabian Peninsula coupled with the presence of susceptible vectors in nonendemic countries has created increased interest in RVF vaccines. Subunit vaccines composed of specific virus proteins expressed in eukaryotic or prokaryotic expression systems are shown to elicit neutralizing antibodies in susceptible hosts. RVFV structural proteins, amino-terminus glycoprotein (Gn), and carboxyl-terminus glycoprotein (Gc), were expressed using a recombinant baculovirus expression system. The recombinant proteins were reconstituted as a GnGc subunit vaccine formulation and evaluated for immunogenicity in a target species, sheep. Six sheep were each immunized with a primary dose of 50 μg of each vaccine immunogen with the adjuvant montanide ISA25; at day 21, postvaccination, each animal received a second dose of the same vaccine. The vaccine induced a strong antibody response in all animals as determined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT80) showed the primary dose of the vaccine was sufficient to elicit potentially protective virus neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 40 to 160, and the second vaccine dose boosted the titer to more than 1280. Furthermore, all animals tested positive for neutralizing antibodies at day 328 postvaccination. ELISA analysis using the recombinant nucleocapsid protein as a negative marker antigen indicated that the vaccine candidate is DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals) compatible and represents a promising vaccine platform for RVFV infection in susceptible species.

  8. Periodic modulation of repetitively elicited monosynaptic reflexes of the human lumbosacral spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Hofstoetter, Ursula S; Danner, Simon M; Freundl, Brigitta; Binder, Heinrich; Mayr, Winfried; Rattay, Frank; Minassian, Karen

    2015-07-01

    In individuals with motor-complete spinal cord injury, epidural stimulation of the lumbosacral spinal cord at 2 Hz evokes unmodulated reflexes in the lower limbs, while stimulation at 22-60 Hz can generate rhythmic burstlike activity. Here we elaborated on an output pattern emerging at transitional stimulation frequencies with consecutively elicited reflexes alternating between large and small. We analyzed responses concomitantly elicited in thigh and leg muscle groups bilaterally by epidural stimulation in eight motor-complete spinal cord-injured individuals. Periodic amplitude modulation of at least 20 successive responses occurred in 31.4% of all available data sets with stimulation frequency set at 5-26 Hz, with highest prevalence at 16 Hz. It could be evoked in a single muscle group only but was more strongly expressed and consistent when occurring in pairs of antagonists or in the same muscle group bilaterally. Latencies and waveforms of the modulated reflexes corresponded to those of the unmodulated, monosynaptic responses to 2-Hz stimulation. We suggest that the cyclical changes of reflex excitability resulted from the interaction of facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms emerging after specific delays and with distinct durations, including postactivation depression, recurrent inhibition and facilitation, as well as reafferent feedback activation. The emergence of large responses within the patterns at a rate of 5.5/s or 8/s may further suggest the entrainment of spinal mechanisms as involved in clonus. The study demonstrates that the human lumbosacral spinal cord can organize a simple form of rhythmicity through the repetitive activation of spinal reflex circuits.

  9. Differential Gene Expression Analysis in Polygonum minus Leaf upon 24 h of Methyl Jasmonate Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Rahnamaie-Tajadod, Reyhaneh; Loke, Kok-Keong; Goh, Hoe-Han; Noor, Normah M.

    2017-01-01

    Polygonum minus is an herbal plant that grows in Southeast Asian countries and traditionally used as medicine. This plant produces diverse secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds and their derivatives, which are known to have roles in plant abiotic and biotic stress responses. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a plant signaling molecule that triggers transcriptional reprogramming in secondary metabolism and activation of defense responses against many biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the effect of MeJA elicitation on the genome-wide expression profile in the leaf tissue of P. minus has not been well-studied due to the limited genetic information. Hence, we performed Illumina paired-end RNA-seq for de novo reconstruction of P. minus leaf transcriptome to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to MeJA elicitation. A total of 182,111 unique transcripts (UTs) were obtained by de novo assembly of 191.57 million paired-end clean reads using Trinity analysis pipeline. A total of 2374 UTs were identified to be significantly up-/down-regulated 24 h after MeJA treatment. These UTs comprising many genes related to plant secondary metabolite biosynthesis, defense and stress responses. To validate our sequencing results, we analyzed the expression of 21 selected DEGs by quantitative real-time PCR and found a good correlation between the two analyses. The single time-point analysis in this work not only provides a useful genomic resource for P. minus but also gives insights on molecular mechanisms of stress responses in P. minus. PMID:28220135

  10. Comparison of different methods for eliciting exercise-to-music for clients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cevasco, Andrea M; Grant, Roy E

    2003-01-01

    Many of the noted problems associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) sometimes can be delayed, retarded, or even reversed with proper exercise and interaction with the environment. An overwhelming body of research efforts has revealed that music activity brings about the greatest degree of responsiveness, including exercise, in clients with AD; yet, specific techniques which elicit the greatest amount of physical responses during the music activities remain unidentified. The purpose of this study was two-fold: comparing two methods of intervention and comparing responses to vocal versus instrumental music during exercise and exercise with instruments. In Experiment 1 the authors compared 2 treatment conditions to facilitate exercise during music activities: (a) verbalizing the movement for each task once, one beat before commencing, followed by visual cueing for the remainder of the task; (b) verbal and visual cueing for each revolution or change in rhythm for the duration of the task. Data collection over 38 sessions consisted of recording the participation of each client at 30-second intervals for the duration of each treatment condition, indicating at each interval whether the client was participating in the designated movement (difficult), participating in exercise approximating the designated movement (easy), or not participating. Results indicated that the continuous verbal cueing/easy treatment elicited significantly greater participation than one verbal cue/difficult treatment, p <.05. Furthermore, the approximation/precise response (easy) resulted in significantly greater responses than the precise response (difficult), p < .001. In Experiment 2 the responses to types of music, vocal versus instrumental, during types of activities, exercise with and without instruments, were examined. Data were collected over 26 sessions, 52 activities, in the same 2 assisted living facilities as those in Experiment 1, but one year later Results indicated that both the type

  11. Live predators, robots, and computer-animated images elicit differential avoidance responses in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Ladu, Fabrizio; Bartolini, Tiziana; Panitz, Sarah G; Chiarotti, Flavia; Butail, Sachit; Macrì, Simone; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    Emotional disturbances constitute a major health issue affecting a considerable portion of the population in western countries. In this context, animal models offer a relevant tool to address the underlying biological determinants and to screen novel therapeutic strategies. While rodents have traditionally constituted the species of choice, zebrafish are now becoming a viable alternative. As zebrafish gain momentum in biomedical sciences, considerable efforts are being devoted to developing high-throughput behavioral tests. Here, we present a comparative study of zebrafish behavioral response to fear-evoking stimuli offered via three alternative methodologies. Specifically, in a binary-choice test, we exposed zebrafish to an allopatric predator Astronotus ocellatus, presented in the form of a live subject, a robotic replica, and a computer-animated image. The robot's design and operation were inspired by the morphology and tail-beat motion of its live counterpart, thereby offering a consistent three-dimensional stimulus to focal fish. The computer-animated image was also designed after the live subject to replicate its appearance. We observed that differently from computer-animated images, both the live predator and its robotic replica elicited robust avoidance response in zebrafish. In addition, in response to the robot, zebrafish exhibited increased thrashing behavior, which is considered a valid indicator of fear. Finally, inter-individual response to a robotic stimulus is more consistent than that shown in response to live stimuli and animated images, thereby increasing experimental statistical power. Our study supports the view that robotic stimuli can constitute a promising experimental tool to elicit targeted behavioral responses in zebrafish.

  12. Cytokine, Antibody and Proliferative Cellular Responses Elicited by Taenia solium Calreticulin upon Experimental Infection in Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Ávila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis. PMID:25811778

  13. Rod Electroretinograms Elicited by Silent Substitution Stimuli from the Light-Adapted Human Eye

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, John; Parry, Neil R. A.; Kremers, Jan; Kommanapalli, Deepika; Murray, Ian J.; McKeefry, Declan J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate that silent substitution stimuli can be used to generate electroretinograms (ERGs) that effectively isolate rod photoreceptor function in humans without the need for dark adaptation, and that this approach constitutes a viable alternative to current clinical standard testing protocols. Methods Rod-isolating and non-isolating sinusoidal flicker stimuli were generated on a 4 primary light-emitting diode (LED) Ganzfeld stimulator to elicit ERGs from participants with normal and compromised rod function who had not undergone dark-adaptation. Responses were subjected to Fourier analysis, and the amplitude and phase of the fundamental were used to examine temporal frequency and retinal illuminance response characteristics. Results Electroretinograms elicited by rod-isolating silent substitution stimuli exhibit low-pass temporal frequency response characteristics with an upper response limit of 30 Hz. Responses are optimal between 5 and 8 Hz and between 10 and 100 photopic trolands (Td). There is a significant correlation between the response amplitudes obtained with the silent substitution method and current standard clinical protocols. Analysis of signal-to-noise ratios reveals significant differences between subjects with normal and compromised rod function. Conclusions Silent substitution provides an effective method for the isolation of human rod photoreceptor function in subjects with normal as well as compromised rod function when stimuli are used within appropriate parameter ranges. Translational Relevance This method of generating rod-mediated ERGs can be achieved without time-consuming periods of dark adaptation, provides improved isolation of rod- from cone-based activity, and will lead to the development of faster clinical electrophysiologic testing protocols with improved selectivity. PMID:27617180

  14. Cut! that’s a wrap: regulating negative emotion by ending emotion-eliciting situations

    PubMed Central

    Vujovic, Lara; Opitz, Philipp C.; Birk, Jeffrey L.; Urry, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the potentially powerful set of emotion regulation (ER) processes that target emotion-eliciting situations. We thus studied the decision to end emotion-eliciting situations in the laboratory. We hypothesized that people would try to end negative situations more frequently than neutral situations to regulate distress. In addition, motivated by the selection, optimization, and compensation with ER framework, we hypothesized that failed attempts to end the situation would prompt either (a) greater negative emotion or (b) compensatory use of a different ER process, attentional deployment (AD). Fifty-eight participants (18–26 years old, 67% women) viewed negative and neutral pictures and pressed a key whenever they wished to stop viewing them. After key press, the picture disappeared (“success”) or stayed (“failure”) on screen. To index emotion, we measured corrugator and electrodermal activity, heart rate, and self-reported arousal. To index overt AD, we measured eye gaze. As their reason for ending the situation, participants more frequently reported being upset by high- than low-arousal negative pictures; they more frequently reported being bored by low- than high-arousal neutral pictures. Nevertheless, participants’ negative emotional responding did not increase in the context of ER failure nor did they use overt AD as a compensatory ER strategy. We conclude that situation-targeted ER processes are used to regulate emotional responses to high-arousal negative and low-arousal neutral situations; ER processes other than overt AD may be used to compensate for ER failure in this context. PMID:24592251

  15. Green love is ugly: emotions elicited by synesthetic grapheme-color perceptions.

    PubMed

    Callejas, Alicia; Acosta, Alberto; Lupiáñez, Juan

    2007-01-05

    Synesthetes who experience grapheme-color synesthesia often report feeling uneasy when dealing with incongruently colored graphemes although no empirical data is available to confirm this phenomenon. We studied this affective reaction related to synesthetic perceptions by means of an evaluation task. We found that the perception of an incorrectly colored word affects the judgments of emotional valence. Furthermore, this effect competed with the word's emotional valence in a categorization task thus supporting the automatic nature of this synesthetically elicited affective reaction. When manipulating word valence and word color-photism congruence, we found that responses were slower (and less accurate) for inconsistent conditions than for consistent conditions. Inconsistent conditions were defined as those where semantics and color-photism congruence did not produce a similar assessment and therefore gave rise to a negative affective reaction (i.e., positive-valence words presented in a color different from the synesthete's photism or negative-valence words presented in the photism's color). We therefore observed a modulation of the congruency effect (i.e., faster reaction times to congruently colored words than incongruently colored words). Although this congruence effect has been taken as an index of the true experience of synesthesia, we observed that it can be reversed when the experimental manipulations turn an incongruently colored word into a consistent stimulus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an affective reaction elicited by the congruency between the synesthetically induced color of a word and the color in which the word is actually presented. The underlying neural mechanisms that might be involved in this phenomenon are discussed.

  16. Intermittent Hypoxia Does not Elicit Memory Impairment in Spinal Cord Injury Patients.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Opazo, Angela; Alcayaga, Julio; Testa, Denisse; Quinteros, Ana Luisa

    2016-06-01

    There is a critical need for new therapeutic strategies to restore motor function in patients with spinal cord injuries (SCIs), without unwanted effects. Intermittent hypoxia (IH) induces plasticity in spared synaptic pathways to motor neurons below the level of injury, which can be harnessed to elicit motor recovery in incomplete SCI patients. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of IH on memory function. The aim of this study was to assess episodic verbal and visual memory function with the Complutense verbal learning test (TAVEC) and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF), respectively, before and after a 4-week protocol of repetitive IH combined with body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) in incomplete ASIA C and D SCI subjects. Subjects received either IH (cycling 9%/21% FiO2 every 1.5 min, 15 cycles per day) or continued normoxia (Nx, 21% FiO2) combined with 45 min of BWSTT for 5 consecutive days, followed by 3 times per week IH and BWSTT for 3 additional weeks. ROCF Z scores between IH plus BWSTT and Nx plus BWSTT were not significantly different (p = .43). Compared with baseline, IH and BWSTT group showed a significantly greater (p < .05) verbal memory performance for immediate, short-term, and long-term recall; however, it was not different from Nx plus BWSTT group in all verbal memory components (p > .05). Our results suggest that a 4-week protocol of moderate IH does not elicit visual or verbal memory impairment. Thus, repetitive IH may be a safe therapeutic approach to incomplete spinal cord injury patients, without deleterious cognitive effects.

  17. Small caliber arterial endothelial cells calcium signals elicited by PAR2 are preserved from endothelial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hennessey, John C; Stuyvers, Bruno D; McGuire, John J

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC)-dependent vasodilation by proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is preserved in small caliber arteries in disease states where vasodilation by muscarinic receptors is decreased. In this study, we identified and characterized the PAR2-mediated intracellular calcium (Ca2+)-release mechanisms in EC from small caliber arteries in healthy and diseased states. Mesenteric arterial EC were isolated from PAR2 wild-type (WT) and null mice, after saline (controls) or angiotensin II (AngII) infusion, for imaging intracellular calcium and characterizing the calcium-release system by immunofluorescence. EC Ca2+ signals comprised two forms of Ca2+-release events that had distinct spatial-temporal properties and occurred near either the plasmalemma (peripheral) or center of EC. In healthy EC, PAR2-dependent increases in the densities and firing rates of both forms of Ca2+-release were abolished by inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) inhibitor, but partially reduced by transient potential vanilloid channels inhibitor ruthenium red (RR). Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced less overall Ca2+-release than PAR2 activation, but enhanced selectively the incidence of central events. PAR2-dependent Ca2+-activity, inhibitors sensitivities, IP3R, small- and intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels expressions were unchanged in EC from AngII WT. However, the same cells exhibited decreases in ACh-induced Ca2+-release, RR sensitivity, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, indicating AngII-induced dysfunction was differentiated by receptor, Ca2+-release, and downstream targets of EC activation. We conclude that PAR2 and muscarinic receptors selectively elicit two elementary Ca2+ signals in single EC. PAR2-selective IP3R-dependent peripheral Ca2+-release mechanisms are identical between healthy and diseased states. Further study of PAR2-selective Ca2+-release for eliciting pathological and/or normal EC functions is warranted. PMID:25729579

  18. Elicitation of expert judgments of uncertainty in the risk assessment of herbicide-tolerant oilseed crops.

    PubMed

    Krayer von Krauss, Martin P; Casman, Elizabeth A; Small, Mitchell J

    2004-12-01

    One of the lay public's concerns about genetically modified (GM) organisms (GMO) and related emerging technologies is that not all the important risks are evaluated or even identified yet--and that ignorance of the unanticipated risks could lead to severe environmental or public health consequences. To some degree, even the scientists who participated in the analysis of the risks from GMOs (arguably the people most qualified to critique these analyses) share some of this concern. To formally explore the uncertainty in the risk assessment of a GM crop, we conducted detailed interviews of seven leading experts on GM oilseed crops to obtain qualitative and quantitative information on their understanding of the uncertainties associated with the risks to agriculture from GM oilseed crops (canola or rapeseed). The results of these elicitations revealed three issues of potential concern that are currently left outside the scope of risk assessments. These are (1) the potential loss of the agronomic and environmental benefits of glyphosate (a herbicide widely used in no-till agriculture) due to the combined problems of glyphosate-tolerant canola and wheat volunteer plants, (2) the growing problem of seed lot contamination, and (3) the potential market impacts. The elicitations also identified two areas where knowledge is insufficient. These are: the occurrence of hybridization between canola and wild relatives and the ability of the hybrids to perpetuate themselves in nature, and the fate of the herbicide-tolerance genes in soil and their interaction with soil microfauna and -flora. The methodological contribution of this work is a formal approach to analyzing the uncertainty surrounding complex problems.

  19. Eye as a key element of conspecific image eliciting lateralized response in fish.

    PubMed

    Karenina, Karina A; Giljov, Andrey N; Malashichev, Yegor B

    2013-03-01

    Visual lateralization in different aspects of social behaviour has been found for numerous species of vertebrates ranging from fish to mammals. For inspection of a shoal mate, many fishes show a left eye-right hemisphere preference. Here, we tested the hypothesis that in fish, there is a key cue in the conspecific appearance, which elicits lateralized response to the whole image of the conspecific. In a series of eight experiments, we explored eye preferences in cryptic-coloured Amur sleeper, Perccottus glenii, fry. Fish displayed left-eye preferences at the population level for inspection of a group of conspecifics, their own mirror image, and a motionless flat model of a conspecific. In contrast, no population bias was found for scrutinizing an empty environment or a moving cylinder. When fry were showed a model of a conspecific in a lateral view with the eye displaced from the head to the tail, they again showed a significant preference for left-eye use. On the other hand, 'eyeless' conspecific model elicited no lateralized viewing in fry. Finally, the left-eye preference was revealed for scrutiny of the image of a conspecific eye alone. We argue that in Amur sleeper fry, eye is the element of the conspecific image, which can serve as a 'key' for the initiation of lateralized social response. This key element may serve as a trigger for the rapid recognition of conspecifics in the left eye-right hemisphere system. Possible causes and advantages of lateralized perception of social stimuli and their key elements are discussed in the context of current theories of brain lateralization.

  20. Compositional changes in (iso)flavonoids and estrogenic activity of three edible Lupinus species by germination and Rhizopus-elicitation.

    PubMed

    Aisyah, Siti; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Andini, Silvia; Mardiah, Zahara; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-02-01

    The effects of germination and elicitation on (iso)flavonoid composition of extracts from three edible lupine species (Lupinus luteus, Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius) were determined by RP-UHPLC-MS(n). The total (iso)flavonoid content of lupine increased over 10-fold upon germination, with the total content and composition of isoflavonoids more affected than those of flavonoids. Glycosylated isoflavones were the most predominant compounds found in lupine seedlings. Lesser amounts of isoflavone aglycones, including prenylated ones, were also accumulated. Elicitation with Rhizopus oryzae, in addition to germination, raised the content of isoflavonoids further: the total content of 2'-hydroxygenistein derivatives was increased considerably, without increasing that of genistein derivatives. Elicitation by fungus triggered prenylation of isoflavonoids, especially of the 2'-hydroxygenistein derivatives. The preferred positions of prenylation differed among the three lupine species. The change in isoflavone composition increased the agonistic activity of the extracts towards the human estrogen receptors, whereas no antagonistic activity was observed.

  1. DNA vaccines expressing pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) elicit protection levels comparable to recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Daniela M; Miyaji, Eliane N; Oliveira, Maria Leonor S; Darrieux, Michelle; Arêas, Ana Paula M; Ho, Paulo L; Leite, Luciana C C

    2006-04-01

    Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a promising candidate for the development of cost-effective vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae. In the present study, BALB/c mice were immunized with DNA vaccine vectors expressing the N-terminal region of PspA. Animals immunized with a vector expressing secreted PspA developed higher levels of antibody than mice immunized with the vector expressing the antigen in the cytosol. However, both immunogens elicited similar levels of protection against intraperitoneal challenge. Furthermore, immunization with exactly the same fragment in the form of a recombinant protein, with aluminium hydroxide as an adjuvant, elicited even higher antibody levels, but this increased humoral response did not correlate with enhanced protection. These results show that DNA vaccines expressing PspA are able to elicit protection levels comparable to recombinant protein, even though total anti-PspA IgG response is considerably lower.

  2. Reduced respiratory neural activity elicits a long-lasting decrease in the CO2 threshold for apnea in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Baertsch, N A; Baker, T L

    2017-01-01

    Two critical parameters that influence breathing stability are the levels of arterial pCO2 at which breathing ceases and subsequently resumes - termed the apneic and recruitment thresholds (AT and RT, respectively). Reduced respiratory neural activity elicits a chemoreflex-independent, long-lasting increase in phrenic burst amplitude, a form of plasticity known as inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF). The physiological significance of iPMF is unknown. To determine if iPMF and neural apnea have long-lasting physiological effects on breathing, we tested the hypothesis that patterns of neural apnea that induce iPMF also elicit changes in the AT and RT. Phrenic nerve activity and end-tidal CO2 were recorded in urethane-anesthetized, ventilated rats to quantify phrenic nerve burst amplitude and the AT and RT before and after three patterns of neural apnea that differed in their duration and ability to elicit iPMF: brief intermittent neural apneas, a single brief "massed" neural apnea, or a prolonged neural apnea. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found that patterns of neural apnea that elicited iPMF also resulted in changes in the AT and RT. Specifically, intermittent neural apneas progressively decreased the AT with each subsequent neural apnea, which persisted for at least 60min. Similarly, a prolonged neural apnea elicited a long-lasting decrease in the AT. In both cases, the magnitude of the AT decrease was proportional to iPMF. In contrast, the RT was transiently decreased following prolonged neural apnea, and was not proportional to iPMF. No changes in the AT or RT were observed following a single brief neural apnea. Our results indicate that the AT and RT are differentially altered by neural apnea and suggest that specific patterns of neural apnea that elicit plasticity may stabilize breathing via a decrease in the AT.

  3. The interactive effects of environmental enrichment and extinction interventions in attenuating cue-elicited cocaine-seeking behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Kenneth J; Engelhardt, Ben; Hood, Lauren E; Peartree, Natalie A; Neisewander, Janet L

    2011-01-01

    Cues associated with cocaine can elicit craving and relapse. Attempts have been made to employ extinction therapy, which is aimed at attenuating the incentive motivational effects of cocaine cues, as a treatment for cocaine addiction; however, this approach has been largely unsuccessful perhaps due to the inability to extinguish all cues associated with cocaine use while in a clinic. Recently, environmental enrichment (EE) during abstinence has been proposed as a strategy to attenuate cue-elicited cocaine craving. The present study used an animal model to examine whether the utility of extinction toward attenuating cue-elicited cocaine-seeking behavior could be enhanced by also providing EE. All rats were trained to self-administer cocaine while housed in isolated conditions and then subsequently underwent 17 days of forced abstinence, during which they were either housed in pairs or under EE and they either received daily 1-h extinction sessions or similar handling without exposure to the self-administration environment. Following this intervention period, all rats were tested for cue-elicited cocaine-seeking behavior. To examine whether effects of these interventions persist, all rats were subsequently single-housed for an additional 7-day forced abstinence period, followed by a second test for cue-elicited cocaine-seeking behavior. We found that although daily extinction training and EE each attenuated subsequent cue-elicited cocaine-seeking behavior, the combined treatment of extinction training+EE completely prevented it. However, once these interventions were discontinued, their protective effects diminished. These findings suggest that combining behavioral therapy approaches may improve outcomes; however, future work is needed to improve the longevity of these strategies beyond their implementation.

  4. Common features of mucosal and peripheral antibody responses elicited by candidate HIV-1 vaccines in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Li, Hualin; Stephenson, Kathryn E; Kang, Zi Han; Lavine, Christy L; Seaman, Michael S; Barouch, Dan H

    2014-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines that elicit protective antibody responses at mucosal sites would be highly desirable. Here, we report that intramuscular immunization of candidate HIV-1 vaccine vectors and purified Env proteins elicited potent and durable humoral immune responses in colorectal mucosa in rhesus monkeys. The kinetics, isotypes, functionality, and epitope specificity of these mucosal antibody responses were similar to those of peripheral responses in serum. These data suggest a close immunological relationship between mucosal and systemic antibody responses following vaccination in primates.

  5. Pilot randomized controlled trial of Reciprocal Imitation Training for teaching elicited and spontaneous imitation to children with autism.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Brooke

    2010-09-01

    Children with autism exhibit significant deficits in imitation skills. Reciprocal Imitation Training (RIT), a naturalistic imitation intervention, was developed to teach young children with autism to imitate during play. This study used a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of RIT on elicited and spontaneous imitation skills in 21 young children with autism. Results found that children in the treatment group made significantly more gains in elicited and spontaneous imitation, replicating previous single-subject design studies. Number of spontaneous play acts at pre-treatment was related to improvements in imitation during the intervention, suggesting that children with a greater play repertoire make greater gains during RIT.

  6. The R3 component of the electrically elicited blink reflex is present in patients with congenital insensitivity to pain.

    PubMed

    Téllez, Maria J; Axelrod, Felicia; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2009-01-01

    To clarify whether the R3 component of the electrically elicited blink reflex is a nociceptive response we studied two patients with congenital insensitivity to pain due to the impaired development of Adelta and C nerve fibers (hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy types III and IV). We postulated that if the R3 component is a nociceptive reflex, it should be absent in these patients. The R3 responses were elicited in both sides in both the patients at all intensities, strongly suggesting that the R3 component of the blink reflex is not a nociceptive response.

  7. Intranasal Protollin(Trademark)/F1-V Vaccine Elicits Respiratory and Serum Antibody Responses and Protects Mice Against Lethal Aerosolized Plague Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-29

    elicited modest specific serum antibody responses [30]; ironically in this same study, an intranasal prime-boost reg- imen proved that two doses of...Vaccine 24 (2006) 1625–1632 Intranasal ProtollinTM/F1-V vaccine elicits respiratory and serum antibody responses and protects mice against lethal... Intranasal immunization of mice with F1-V formulated with a Proteosome- ased adjuvant (ProtollinTM), elicited high titers of specific IgA in lungs whereas

  8. Relative effectiveness of electrically- vs mechanically-elicited EMGs in detecting pedicle wall perforation and surgically-induced nerve root damage.

    PubMed

    Kobara, N; Owen, J H; Kostuik, J; Huckell, C; Tooke, S M

    2000-02-01

    Electrical stimulation of a pedicle hole and screw with recording EMGs from the lower extremities has been used as an indicator in detecting perforations of the pedicle. Mechanically-elicited EMGs are reported to be sensitive to mechanical irritation of nerve roots. This study analyzed the sensitivity of the data elicited by two EMG monitoring methods in the presence of a neurologic deficit caused by a malpositioned screw to determine the relative effectiveness of electrically- vs mechanically-elicited EMGs in detecting pedicle wall perforations and nerve root damage in patients undergoing spinal surgery utilizing transpedicular instrumentation. One hundred and four surgeries were monitored using the two EMG methods. Six hundred and fifty-four pedicle holes were prepared and 650 placed pedicle screws were electrically tested. Mechanically-elicited EMGs were monitored from a total of 618 muscles. Electrically-elicited EMGs showed a 62% true-positive rate and a 0.2% false-negative rate in detecting pedicle wall perforations. None of the patients who initially demonstrated abnormal electrically-elicited EMGs demonstrated any post-operative neurologic problems due to an incorrect screw placement. Only one patient who had abnormal mechanically-elicited EMGs during the procedures related to instrumentation developed new L4 radiculopathy immediately post-operatively which was consistent with the level of mechanically-elicited EMGs. Mechanically-elicited EMGs showed a 100% true-positive rate for nerve root irritation and a 3.5% false-negative rate in detecting pedicle wall perforations by malpositioned screw. In conclusion, although mechanically-elicited EMGs were an insensitive technique in detecting a perforation of the pedicle, mechanically-elicited EMGs were more beneficial than electrically-elicited EMGs in detecting the risk of nerve root irritation.

  9. IBMX-elicited Inhibition of Water Permeability in the Isolated Rabbit Conjunctival Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Candia, Oscar A.; Kong, Chi-Wing; Alvarez, Lawrence J.

    2008-01-01

    Agents expected to increase intracellular cAMP levels were tested on the diffusional water permeability (Pdw) of isolated rabbit conjunctival epithelia given recent indications of the apical expression of AQP5, a water channel homologue regulated by cAMP in other cell systems. For these experiments, segments of conjunctivae were mounted between Ussing-type hemichambers under short-circuit conditions. Unidirectional water fluxes (Jdw) were measured by adding 3H2O to one hemichamber and sampling from the other, while the electrical parameters (Isc and Rt) were recorded simultaneously. Jdw were determined under control conditions and after the introduction of forskolin, dibutyryl-cAMP, rolipram and IBMX. All agents reduced Jdw, with rolipram and IBMX the most effective inhibitors (≈ 28% reduction), while simultaneously evoking stimulations of the Isc; suggesting that cAMP regulates ionic transport and Pdw independently. This observation was consistent with the elimination of the IBMX-elicited Isc stimulations by the PKA inhibitor, H89, and the ineffectiveness of the sulfonamide in preventing the Jdw reductions produced by the xanthine. Data from mannitol fluxes and Arrhenius plots indicated that the IBMX-elicited Pdw reduction occurred at the level of water-transporting channels, but the specific moiety was not identified. Instead it was observed that lipophiles commonly used in other systems to uncouple cellular communication precluded the effects of IBMX on Jdw, but the mechanism for these results was not directly linked to gap-junction blockade in the conjunctiva, as assessed by the transepithelial electrical parameters. Putatively, agents such as heptanol, by also fluidizing the bilayer, may have changed the conformation of a water channel in a manner preventing down-regulation by IBMX. Nevertheless, this study uncovered an apparently unique response to cAMP elevation exhibited by the conjunctiva, namely that Pdw declines via an H89-insensitive pathway under

  10. Elicitation Based Enhancement of Secondary Metabolites in Rauwolfia serpentina and Solanum khasianum Hairy Root Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Mrinalini; Sharma, Swati; Misra, Pratibha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rauwolfia serpentina and Solanum khasianum are well-known medicinally important plants contained important alkaloids in their different parts. Elicitation of these alkaloids is important because of associated pharmaceutical properties. Targeted metabolites were ajmaline and ajmalicine in R. serpentina; solasodine and α-solanine in S. khasianum. Objective: Enhancement of secondary metabolites through biotic and abiotic elicitors in hairy root cultures of R. serpentina and S. khasianum. Materials and Methods: In this report, hairy root cultures of these two plants were established through Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation by optimizing various parameters as age of explants, duration of preculture, and co-cultivation period. NaCl was used as abiotic elicitors in these two plants. Cellulase from Aspergillus niger was used as biotic elicitor in S. khasianum and mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used in R. serpentina. Results: First time we have reported the effect of biotic and abiotic elicitors on the production of important metabolites in hairy root cultures of these two plants. Ajmalicine production was stimulated up to 14.8-fold at 100 mM concentration of NaCl after 1 week of treatment. Ajmaline concentration was also increased 2.9-fold at 100 mg/l dose of mannan after 1 week. Solasodine content was enhanced up to 4.0-fold and 3.6-fold at 100 mM and 200 mM NaCl, respectively, after 6 days of treatments. Conclusion: This study explored the potential of the elicitation strategy in A. rhizogenes transformed cell cultures and this potential further used for commercial production of these pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites. SUMMARY Hairy roots of Rauwolfia serpentina were subjected to salt (abiotic stress) and mannan (biotic stress) treatment for 1 week. Ajmaline and ajmalicine secondary metabolites were quantified before and after stress treatmentAjmalicine yield was enhanced up to 14.8-fold at 100 mM concentration of Na

  11. Children's Depressive Symptoms and Their Regulation of Negative Affect in Response to Vignette Depicted Emotion-Eliciting Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reijntjes, Albert; Stegge, Hedy; Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Hurkens, Edith

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between sub-clinical depressive symptoms and children's anticipated cognitive and behavioral reactions to two written vignettes depicting emotion-eliciting stressors (i.e., fight with one's best friend and failure at a roller blade contest). Participants (N = 244) ranging in age between 10 and 13 were…

  12. Using a Concept Mapping Tool with a Photograph Association Technique (CoMPAT) to Elicit Children's Ideas about Microbial Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Jenny; Grace, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Concept mapping is a technique used to provide a visual representation of an individual's ideas about a concept or set of related concepts. This paper describes a concept mapping tool using a photograph association technique (CoMPAT) that is considered to be a novel way of eliciting children's ideas. What children at 11 years of age know about…

  13. Parents' Strategies to Elicit Autobiographical Memories in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Developmental Language Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Sylvie; DeNigris, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Conversations about the past support the development of autobiographical memory. Parents' strategies to elicit child's participation and recall during past event conversations were compared across three school-age diagnostic groups: autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 11), developmental language disorders (n = 11) and typically developing (TD,…

  14. Elicited Production of Relative Clauses in German: Evidence from Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adani, Flavia; Stegenwallner-Schütz, Maja; Haendler, Yair; Zukowski, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We elicited the production of various types of relative clauses in a group of German-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing controls in order to test the movement optionality account of grammatical difficulty in SLI. The results show that German-speaking children with SLI are impaired in relative clause…

  15. Gleaning bat echolocation calls do not elicit antipredator behaviour in the Pacific field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

    PubMed

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Killow, Joanne; Fullard, James H

    2009-08-01

    Bats that glean prey (capture them from surfaces) produce relatively inconspicuous echolocation calls compared to aerially foraging bats and could therefore be difficult predators to detect, even for insects with ultrasound sensitive ears. In the cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus, an auditory interneuron (AN2) responsive to ultrasound is known to elicit turning behaviour, but only when the cricket is in flight. Turning would not save a cricket from a gleaning bat so we tested the hypothesis that AN2 elicits more appropriate antipredator behaviours when crickets are on the ground. The echolocation calls of Nyctophilus geoffroyi, a sympatric gleaning bat, were broadcast to singing male and walking female T. oceanicus. Males did not cease singing and females did not pause walking more than usual in response to the bat calls up to intensities of 82 dB peSPL. Extracellular recordings from the cervical connective revealed that the echolocation calls elicited AN2 action potentials at high firing rates, indicating that the crickets could hear these stimuli. AN2 appears to elicit antipredator behaviour only in flight, and we discuss possible reasons for this context-dependent function.

  16. Elicited Imitation: A Vehicle for Assessing the Language Functioning Level of Echolalic Autistic Children. Final Report 53.8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Gudrun

    The booklet discusses and reports on a study of elicited imitation as a vehicle for assessing the language-functioning level of echolalic autistic children. An historical overview is presented of the diagnosis of early infantile autism. The question of whether or not early infantile autism is a distinct syndrome is addressed. The theoretical and…

  17. Analysis of an Informed Peer Review Matching Algorithm and Its Impact on Student Work on Model-Eliciting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verleger, Matthew Alan

    2009-01-01

    Model-Eliciting Activities (MEAs) are realistic, open-ended, client-driven engineering problems designed to foster students' mathematical modeling abilities. Since 2005, the MEAs used in Purdue University's first-year engineering core course have included a double-blind peer review wherein individuals in the course (peers) are randomly assigned a…

  18. What Is This Thing Called Geoscience? Epistemological Dimensions Elicited with the Repertory Grid and Their Implications for Scientific Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezzi, Alfredo

    1999-01-01

    Investigates conceptions of the geosciences held by a university geology instructor and five students before and after a teaching intervention. Argues for the use of repertory grids to elicit personal constructs. Advocates targeting the societal aims of geological education within a constructivist framework. Contains 54 references. (Author/WRM)

  19. Skin scarification with Plasmodium falciparum peptide vaccine using synthetic TLR agonists as adjuvants elicits malaria sporozoite neutralizing immunity

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Robert A.; Altszuler, Rita; Frevert, Ute; Nardin, Elizabeth H.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria eradication will require a combination of vector control, chemotherapy and an easily administered vaccine. Sterile immunity can be elicited in humans by immunization with sporozoites, the infective stage injected by bite of the mosquito vector, however, whole parasite vaccines present formidable logistical challenges for production, storage and administration. The “gold standard” for infectious disease eradiation, the Smallpox Eradication Programme, utilized mass immunization using the skin scarification (SS) route. SS may more closely mimic the natural route of malaria infection initiated by sporozoites injected by mosquito bite which elicits both neutralizing antibodies and protective cell mediated immunity. We investigated the potential of SS immunization using a malaria repeat peptide containing a protective B cell epitope of Plasmodium falciparum, the most lethal human species, and delivery vehicles containing TLR agonists as adjuvants. In a murine model, SS immunization with peptide in combination with TLR-7/8 and -9 agonists elicited high levels of systemic sporozoite neutralizing antibody, Th1- type CD4+ T cells and resistance to challenge by bites of infected mosquitoes. SS provides the potential to elicit humoral immunity to target Plasmodium at multiple stages of its complex life cycle. PMID:27624667

  20. Enhancement of Self-Concept Through Elicitation of Positive Self-Assertive Statements and Positive Social Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Frances T.

    1974-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a planned program designed to enhance the self concepts of primary children having negative self concepts. The data indicated that the self concepts of 30 children in kindergarten through grade four were enhanced through a sequentially planned program of elicitation of positive…

  1. Phenylpropanoid defence responses in transgenic Lotus corniculatus 1. Glutathione elicitation of isoflavan phytoalexins in transformed root cultures.

    PubMed

    Robbins, M P; Hartnoll, J; Morris, P

    1991-06-01

    When Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformed root cultures of Lotus corniculatus were treated with glutathione, isoflavan phytoalexins accumulated in both tissue and culture medium. This accumulation of phytoalexins was preceded by a transient increase in the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). Elicitation of PAL occurred throughout the growth curve of Lotus 'hairy roots' and in different sectors of transformed root material.

  2. Die another day: molecular mechanisms of effector-triggered immunity elicited by type III secreted effector proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial pathogens inject type III secreted effector (T3SE) proteins into their hosts where they display dual roles depending on the host genotype. T3SEs promote bacterial virulence in susceptible hosts, and elicit immunity in resistant hosts. T3SEs are typically recognized when they modify a host ...

  3. Analysis of High-Frequency Electroencephalographic-Electromyographic Coherence Elicited by Speech and Oral Nonspeech Tasks in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caviness, John N.; Liss, Julie M.; Adler, Charles; Evidente, Virgilio

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Corticomuscular electroencephalographic-electromyographic (EEG-EMG) coherence elicited by speech and nonspeech oromotor tasks in healthy participants and those with Parkinson's disease (PD) was examined. Hypotheses were the following: (a) corticomuscular coherence is demonstrable between orbicularis oris (OO) muscles' EMG and scalp EEG…

  4. Going Rogue in the Spatial Cuing Paradigm: High Spatial Validity Is Insufficient to Elicit Voluntary Shifts of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Gregory J.; Gibson, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary shifts of attention are often motivated in experimental contexts by using well-known symbols that accurately predict the direction of targets. The authors report 3 experiments, which showed that the presentation of predictive spatial information does not provide sufficient incentive to elicit voluntary shifts of attention. For instance,…

  5. A Pilot Study on the Efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy for Eliciting Speech in Nonverbal Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandiford, Givona A.; Mainess, Karen J.; Daher, Noha S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy (MBCT) to traditional speech and language therapy for eliciting speech in nonverbal children with autism. Participants were 12 nonverbal children with autism ages 5 through 7 randomly assigned to either treatment group. Both groups made significant…

  6. Cyclic lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis ABS-S14 elicit defense-related gene expression in citrus fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of cyclic lipopeptides obtained from B. subtilis ABS-S14 on eliciting defense-related gene transcription and activity of defense-related enzymes glucanase (GLU), chitinase (CHI), peroxidase (POX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in Citrus sinensis cv. Valencia fruit were determined. The maximum level ...

  7. Pictures and Spoken Descriptions Elicit Similar Eye Movements during Mental Imagery, Both in Light and in Complete Darkness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Roger; Holsanova, Jana; Holmqvist, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    This study provides evidence that eye movements reflect the positions of objects while participants listen to a spoken description, retell a previously heard spoken description, and describe a previously seen picture. This effect is equally strong in retelling from memory, irrespective of whether the original elicitation was spoken or visual. In…

  8. Yersinia ruckeri lipopolysaccharide is necessary and sufficient for eliciting a protective immune response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric redmouth disease (ERM), caused by Yersinia ruckeri, has been controlled successfully using immersion-applied bacterin vaccines for several decades. While the host response to vaccination and the mechanism of protection of this vaccine have been elucidated, the bacterial components eliciting ...

  9. Different Vaccine Vectors Delivering the Same Antigen Elicit CD8+ T Cell Responses with Distinct Clonotype and Epitope Specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, M.; Robinson, H.; Wang, R.; Kong, W.-P.; Kanekiyo, M.; Akahata, W.; Xu, L.; Matsuo, K.; Natarajan, K.; Asher, T. E.; Price, D. A.; Douek, D. C.; Margulies, D. H.; Nabel, G. J.

    2009-08-15

    Prime-boost immunization with gene-based vectors has been developed to generate more effective vaccines for AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. Although these vectors elicit potent T cell responses, the mechanisms by which they stimulate immunity are not well understood. In this study, we show that immunization by a single gene product, HIV-1 envelope, with alternative vector combinations elicits CD8{sup +} cells with different fine specificities and kinetics of mobilization. Vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells recognized overlapping third V region loop peptides. Unexpectedly, two anchor variants bound H-2D{sup d} better than the native sequences, and clones with distinct specificities were elicited by alternative vectors. X-ray crystallography revealed major differences in solvent exposure of MHC-bound peptide epitopes, suggesting that processed HIV-1 envelope gave rise to MHC-I/peptide conformations recognized by distinct CD8{sup +} T cell populations. These findings suggest that different gene-based vectors generate peptides with alternative conformations within MHC-I that elicit distinct T cell responses after vaccination.

  10. Analyzing the Statistical Reasoning Levels of Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers in the Context of a Model Eliciting Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkas Ulusoy, Cigdem; Kayhan Altay, Mesture

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the statistical reasoning levels of preservice elementary school teachers. With this purpose, pre-service teachers consisting of 29 groups worked on a model eliciting activity (MEA) in scope of an elective course they were taking. At the end of the class, they were asked to present their solutions while…

  11. Experiencing the Elicitation of User Requirements and Recording Them in Use Case Diagrams through Role-Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costain, Gay; McKenna, Brad

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a role-play exercise used in a second-year tertiary Systems Analysis and Design course, and the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the students' responses to a survey that solicited their perceptions of that role-play experience. The role-play involved students in eliciting user requirements from customers during a Joint…

  12. Learning about Children's School Preparation through Photographs: The Use of Photo Elicitation Interviews with Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    As part of a larger project on the transition to kindergarten, eight families volunteered for a photography-based study. The purpose of this study was to gain further insight into how low-income families prepare children for kindergarten. Following a photo elicitation approach, eight families used a digital camera for 1 week to document activities…

  13. Enhancing the Application and Evaluation of a Discrete Trial Intervention Package for Eliciting First Words in Preverbal Preschoolers with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsiouri, Ioanna; Simmons, Elizabeth Schoen; Paul, Rhea

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of an intervention package including a discrete trial program (Rapid Motor Imitation Antecedent Training (Tsiouri and Greer, "J Behav Educat" 12:185-206, 2003) combined with parent education for eliciting first words in children with ASD who had little or no spoken language. Evaluation of the approach…

  14. Biphasic gene expression changes elicited by Phakopsora pachyrhizi in soybean correlates with fungal penetration and haustoria formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inoculation of soybean plants with Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal organism of Asian soybean rust, elicits a biphasic response characterized by a burst of differential gene expression in the first 12 h. A quiescent period occurs from 24 to 48 h after inoculation in which P. pachyrhizi continues t...

  15. Different Vaccine Vectors Delivering the Same Antigen Elicit CD8plus T Cell Responses with Distinct Clonotype and Epitope Specificity

    SciTech Connect

    M Honda; R Wang; W Kong; M Kanekiyo; Q Akahata; L Xu; K Matsuo; K Natarajan; H Robinson; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Prime-boost immunization with gene-based vectors has been developed to generate more effective vaccines for AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. Although these vectors elicit potent T cell responses, the mechanisms by which they stimulate immunity are not well understood. In this study, we show that immunization by a single gene product, HIV-1 envelope, with alternative vector combinations elicits CD8{sup +} cells with different fine specificities and kinetics of mobilization. Vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells recognized overlapping third V region loop peptides. Unexpectedly, two anchor variants bound H-2D{sup d} better than the native sequences, and clones with distinct specificities were elicited by alternative vectors. X-ray crystallography revealed major differences in solvent exposure of MHC-bound peptide epitopes, suggesting that processed HIV-1 envelope gave rise to MHC-I/peptide conformations recognized by distinct CD8{sup +} T cell populations. These findings suggest that different gene-based vectors generate peptides with alternative conformations within MHC-I that elicit distinct T cell responses after vaccination.

  16. Eliciting Children's Perspectives of Risk and Protection in Liberia: How to Do It and Why Does It Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Casares, Mónica; Rousseau, Cécile; Morlu, Joeta; Browne, Celestine

    2013-01-01

    Background: After 14 years of civil war and two rounds of democratic elections, Liberia is working to reduce child abuse and exploitation. Young children's perceptions on protection and risk are rarely elicited to inform program planning and intervention. Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore young children's perceptions of child…

  17. Discrete Emotions Predict Changes in Cognition, Judgment, Experience, Behavior, and Physiology: A Meta-Analysis of Experimental Emotion Elicitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lench, Heather C.; Flores, Sarah A.; Bench, Shane W.

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose in the present meta-analysis was to examine the extent to which discrete emotions elicit changes in cognition, judgment, experience, behavior, and physiology; whether these changes are correlated as would be expected if emotions organize responses across these systems; and which factors moderate the magnitude of these effects. Studies…

  18. Uncertainty in geological linework: communicating the expert's tacit model to the data user(s) by expert elicitation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawley, Russell; Barron, Mark; Lark, Murray

    2015-04-01

    At BGS, expert elicitation has been used to evaluate uncertainty of surveyed boundaries in several, common, geological scenarios. As a result, a 'collective' understanding of the issues surrounding each scenario has emerged. The work has provoked wider debate in three key areas: a) what can we do to resolve those scenarios where a 'consensus' of understanding cannot be achieved b) what does it mean for survey practices and subsequent use of maps in 3D models c) how do we communicate the 'collective' understanding of geological mapping (with or without consensus for specific scenarios). Previous work elicited expert judgement for uncertainty in six contrasting mapping scenarios. In five cases it was possible to arrive at a consensus model; in a sixth case experts with different experience (length of service, academic background) took very different views of the nature of the mapping problem. The scenario concerned identification of the boundary between two contrasting tills (one derived from Triassic source materials being red in colour; the other, derived from Jurassic materials being grey in colour). Initial debate during the elicitation identified that the colour contrast should provide some degree of confidence in locating the boundary via traditional auger-traverse survey methods. However, as the elicitation progressed, it became clear that the complexities of the relationship between the two Tills were not uniformly understood across the experts and the panel could not agree a consensus regarding the spatial uncertainty of the boundary. The elicitation process allowed a significant degree of structured knowledge-exchange between experts of differing backgrounds and was successful in identifying a measure of uncertainty for what was considered a contentious scenario. However, the findings have significant implications for a boundary-scenario that is widely mapped across the central regions of Great Britain. We will discuss our experience of the use of

  19. Dual targeting of glutaminase 1 and thymidylate synthase elicits death synergistically in NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Seon; Kang, Joon H; Lee, Seon-Hyeong; Hong, Dongwan; Son, Jaekyoung; Hong, Kyeong M; Song, Jaewhan; Kim, Soo-Youl

    2016-01-01

    Glutaminase 1 (GLS1) expression is increased in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). GLS1 knockdown using siRNA or inhibition using bis-2-(5-phenylacetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide (BPTES) induced cell cycle arrest with significant reduction of ATP level while levels of reactive oxygen species or glutathione were not affected in NSCLC cell lines. Recently we found that NSCLC significantly depends on cytosol NADH for ATP production. GLS1 remarkably contributes to ATP production through transferring cytosolic NADH into mitochondria via malate-aspartate shuttle by supply of glutamate in NSCLC. Regulation of malate-aspartate shuttle by knockdown or inhibition of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2 or malate dehydrogenase 2 mimicked GLS1 knockdown, which induced cell death with ATP reduction in NSCLC. Therefore, GLS1 inhibition induced cell cycle arrest with ATP depletion by glutamate reduction. Dual inhibition with BPTES and thymidylate synthase inhibitor, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), elicits cell death synergistically through cell cycle arrest in NSCLC. A preclinical xenograft model of NSCLC showed remarkable anti-tumour effect synergistically in the BPTES and 5-FU dual therapy group. PMID:27929535

  20. Preference elicitation approach for measuring the willingness to pay for liver cancer treatment in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Donghun

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The Korean government has expanded the coverage of the national insurance scheme for four major diseases: cancers, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and rare diseases. This policy may have a detrimental effect on the budget of the national health insurance agency. Like taxes, national insurance premiums are levied on the basis of the income or wealth of the insured. Methods Using a preference elicitation method, we attempted to estimate how much people are willing to pay for insurance premiums that would expand their coverage for liver cancer treatment. Results We calculated the marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) through the marginal rate of substitution between the two attributes of the insurance premium and the total annual treatment cost by adopting conditional logit and mixed logit models. Conclusions The effects of various other terms that could interact with socioeconomic status were also estimated, such as gender, income level, educational attainment, age, employment status, and marital status. The estimated MWTP values of the monthly insurance premium for liver cancer treatment range from 4,130 KRW to 9,090 KRW. PMID:26523270

  1. Maspin expression in prostate tumor elicits host anti-tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Dzinic, Sijana H.; Chen, Kang; Thakur, Archana; Kaplun, Alexander; Daniel Bonfil, R.; Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Jason; Margarida Bernardo, M.; Saliganan, Allen; Back, Jessica B.; Yano, Hiroshi; Schalk, Dana L.; Tomaszewski, Elyse N.; Beydoun, Ahmed S.; Dyson, Gregory; Mujagic, Adelina; Krass, David; Dean, Ivory; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Heath, Elisabeth; Sakr, Wael; Lum, Lawrence G.; Sheng, Shijie

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the current study is to examine the biological effects of epithelial-specific tumor suppressor maspin on tumor host immune response. Accumulated evidence demonstrates an anti-tumor effect of maspin on tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. The molecular mechanism underlying these biological functions of maspin is thought to be through histone deacetylase inhibition, key to the maintenance of differentiated epithelial phenotype. Since tumor-driven stromal reactivities co-evolve in tumor progression and metastasis, it is not surprising that maspin expression in tumor cells inhibits extracellular matrix degradation, increases fibrosis and blocks hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. Using the athymic nude mouse model capable of supporting the growth and progression of xenogeneic human prostate cancer cells, we further demonstrate that maspin expression in tumor cells elicits neutrophil- and B cells-dependent host tumor immunogenicity. Specifically, mice bearing maspin-expressing tumors exhibited increased systemic and intratumoral neutrophil maturation, activation and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity, and decreased peritumoral lymphangiogenesis. These results reveal a novel biological function of maspin in directing host immunity towards tumor elimination that helps explain the significant reduction of xenograft tumor incidence in vivo and the clinical correlation of maspin with better prognosis of several types of cancer. Taken together, our data raised the possibility for novel maspin-based cancer immunotherapies. PMID:25373490

  2. Sketching Awareness: A Participatory Study to Elicit Designs for Supporting Ad Hoc Emergency Medical Teamwork

    PubMed Central

    Kusunoki, Diana; Sarcevic, Aleksandra; Zhang, Zhan; Yala, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Prior CSCW research on awareness in clinical settings has mostly focused on higher-level team coordination spanning across longer-term trajectories at the department and inter-department levels. In this paper, we offer a perspective on what awareness means within the context of an ad hoc, time- and safety-critical medical setting by looking at teams treating severely ill patients with urgent needs. We report findings from four participatory design workshops conducted with emergency medicine clinicians at two regional emergency departments. Workshops were developed to elicit design ideas for information displays that support awareness in emergency medical situations. Through analysis of discussions and clinicians’ sketches of information displays, we identified five features of teamwork that can be used as a foundation for supporting awareness from the perspective of clinicians. Based on these findings, we contribute rich descriptions of four facets of awareness that teams manage during emergency medical situations: team member awareness, elapsed time awareness, teamwork-oriented and patient-driven task awareness, and overall progress awareness. We then discuss these four awareness types in relation to awareness facets found in the CSCW literature. PMID:25870498

  3. Impaired respiration elicits SrrAB-dependent programmed cell lysis and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Mashruwala, Ameya A; van de Guchte, Adriana; Boyd, Jeffrey M

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms are communities of microorganisms attached to a surface or each other. Biofilm-associated cells are the etiologic agents of recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infections. Infected human tissues are hypoxic or anoxic. S. aureus increases biofilm formation in response to hypoxia, but how this occurs is unknown. In the current study we report that oxygen influences biofilm formation in its capacity as a terminal electron acceptor for cellular respiration. Genetic, physiological, or chemical inhibition of respiratory processes elicited increased biofilm formation. Impaired respiration led to increased cell lysis via divergent regulation of two processes: increased expression of the AtlA murein hydrolase and decreased expression of wall-teichoic acids. The AltA-dependent release of cytosolic DNA contributed to increased biofilm formation. Further, cell lysis and biofilm formation were governed by the SrrAB two-component regulatory system. Data presented support a model wherein SrrAB-dependent biofilm formation occurs in response to the accumulation of reduced menaquinone. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23845.001 PMID:28221135

  4. Eliciting and characterizing students' mental models within the context of engineering design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dankenbring, Chelsey

    Recently, science education reform documents have called for the incorporation of engineering principles and practices into the K-12 science standards and curriculum. One way this has been done is through the use of engineering design tasks as a way for students to apply their scientific understandings to real-world problems. However, minimal studies have documented students' conceptions within the context of engineering design. Thus, the first chapter of this thesis outlines the steps taken to develop a draw-and-explain item that elicited students' mental models regarding the cause of the four seasons after finishing an engineering design task. Students' mental models regarding the reason for the seasons are also described. The second chapter characterizes students' conceptions regarding sun-Earth relationships, specifically the amount of daylight hours throughout the year, for students who completed either an engineering design task or more traditional learning activities. Results from these studies indicate that draw-and-explain items are an effective way of obtaining students' mental models and that students harbor a variety of alternate conceptions on astronomy related concepts within various learning contexts. Implications from this study include the need for further research regarding how engineering design is used in the classroom and how engineering design facilitates science learning. Also, professional development that allows in-service teachers to gain experience teaching engineering design is needed, as are teacher preparation programs that expose pre-service teachers to engineering design.

  5. Left medial orbitofrontal cortex volume correlates with skydive-elicited euphoric experience.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Joshua M; Cha, Jiook; Fekete, Tomer; Greenberg, Tsafrir; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R

    2016-11-01

    The medial orbitofrontal cortex has been linked to the experience of positive affect. Greater medial orbitofrontal cortex volume is associated with greater expression of positive affect and reduced medial orbital frontal cortex volume is associated with blunted positive affect. However, little is known about the experience of euphoria, or extreme joy, and how this state may relate to variability in medial orbitofrontal cortex structure. To test the hypothesis that variability in euphoric experience correlates with the volume of the medial orbitofrontal cortex, we measured individuals' (N = 31) level of self-reported euphoria in response to a highly anticipated first time skydive and measured orbitofrontal cortical volumes with structural magnetic resonance imaging. Skydiving elicited a large increase in self-reported euphoria. Participants' euphoric experience was predicted by the volume of their left medial orbitofrontal cortex such that, the greater the volume, the greater the euphoria. Further analyses indicated that the left medial orbitofrontal cortex and amygdalo-hippocampal complex independently explain variability in euphoric experience and that medial orbitofrontal cortex volume, in conjunction with other structures within the mOFC-centered corticolimbic circuit, can be used to predict individuals' euphoric experience.

  6. A common bacterial metabolite elicits prion-based bypass of glucose repression

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, David M; Dietrich, David; Clardy, Jon; Jarosz, Daniel F

    2016-01-01

    Robust preference for fermentative glucose metabolism has motivated domestication of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This program can be circumvented by a protein-based genetic element, the [GAR+] prion, permitting simultaneous metabolism of glucose and other carbon sources. Diverse bacteria can elicit yeast cells to acquire [GAR+], although the molecular details of this interaction remain unknown. Here we identify the common bacterial metabolite lactic acid as a strong [GAR+] inducer. Transient exposure to lactic acid caused yeast cells to heritably circumvent glucose repression. This trait had the defining genetic properties of [GAR+], and did not require utilization of lactic acid as a carbon source. Lactic acid also induced [GAR+]-like epigenetic states in fungi that diverged from S. cerevisiae ~200 million years ago, and in which glucose repression evolved independently. To our knowledge, this is the first study to uncover a bacterial metabolite with the capacity to potently induce a prion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17978.001 PMID:27906649

  7. Registered report: Tumour micro-environment elicits innate resistance to RAF inhibitors through HGF secretion

    PubMed Central

    Blum, David; LaBarge, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replications of 50 papers in the field of cancer biology published between 2010 and 2012. This Registered Report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from ‘Tumour micro-environment elicits innate resistance to RAF inhibitors through HGF secretion’ by Straussman and colleagues, published in Nature in 2012 (Straussman et al., 2012). The key experiments being replicated in this study are from Figure 2A, C, and D (and Supplemental Figure 11) and Figure 4C (and Supplemental Figure 19) (Straussman et al., 2012). Figure 2 demonstrates resistance to drug sensitivity conferred by co-culture with some stromal cell lines and identifies the secreted factor responsible as HGF. In Figure 4, Straussman and colleagues show that blocking the HGF receptor MET abrogates HGF’s rescue of drug sensitivity. The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange, and the results of the replications will be published by eLife. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04034.001 PMID:25490933

  8. Adolescent sunscreen use in springtime: a prospective predictive study informed by a belief elicitation investigation.

    PubMed

    Araujo-Soares, V; Rodrigues, A; Presseau, J; Sniehotta, F F

    2013-04-01

    Two studies aimed to understand springtime sunscreen use amongst adolescents and to compare the predictive utility of the theory of planned behavior, descriptive norms, prototype perceptions and planning. In Study 1, a belief elicitation study with N = 67 adolescents identified beliefs about, and strategies for, sunscreen use. In Study 2, N = 177 adolescents completed measures of direct and belief-based theory of planned behavior measures prototype evaluation and similarity, descriptive norms and planning. Sunscreen use was reported 2 months later. In Study 1, sunburn prevention and skin care emerged as the most relevant consequences of sunscreen use. Facilitators were supportive family norms. Sunscreen properties, costs and forgetting were main barriers which were commonly addressed with preparatory actions such as carrying sunscreen. In Study 2, gender, intention and prototype evaluation were predictive of sunscreen use. Positive evaluations of those who use sunscreen were related to lower sunscreen use when controlling for intention, descriptive norm and gender. Belief-based measures were the best predictors of intention. Behavioral, normative and control beliefs are crucial for understanding sunscreen. Future interventions should focus on these beliefs to change intentions.

  9. Recombinant Encephalomyocarditis Viruses Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies against PRRSV and CSFV in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shu; Guo, Xin; Keyes, Lisa R.; Yang, Hanchun; Ge, Xinna

    2015-01-01

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is capable of infecting a wide range of species and the infection can cause myocarditis and reproductive failure in pigs as well as febrile illness in human beings. In this study, we introduced the entire ORF5 of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) or the neutralization epitope regions in the E2 gene of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV), into the genome of a stably attenuated EMCV strain, T1100I. The resultant viable recombinant viruses, CvBJC3m/I-ΔGP5 and CvBJC3m/I-E2, respectively expressed partial PRRSV envelope protein GP5 or CSFV neutralization epitope A1A2 along with EMCV proteins. These heterologous proteins fused to the N-terminal of the nonstructural leader protein could be recognized by anti-GP5 or anti-E2 antibody. We also tested the immunogenicity of these fusion proteins by immunizing BALB/c mice with the recombinant viruses. The immunized animals elicited neutralizing antibodies against PRRSV and CSFV. Our results suggest that EMCV can be engineered as an expression vector and serve as a tool in the development of novel live vaccines in various animal species. PMID:26076449

  10. Investigating Constituent Order Change with Elicited Pantomime: A Functional Account of SVO Emergence

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew L.; Ferreira, Victor S.; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most basic functions of human language is to convey who did what to whom. In the world’s languages, the order of these three constituents (subject (S), verb (V), and object (O)) is uneven, with SOV and SVO being most common. Recent experiments using experimentally-elicited pantomime provide a possible explanation for the prevalence of SOV, but extant explanations for the prevalence of SVO could benefit from further empirical support. Here, we test whether SVO might emerge because (a) SOV is not well suited for describing reversible events (a woman pushing a boy), and (b) pressures to be efficient and mention subjects before objects conspire to rule out many other alternatives. We tested this by asking participants to describe reversible and non-reversible events in pantomime, and instructed some participants to be consistent in the form of their gestures and to teach them to the experimenter. These manipulations led to the emergence of SVO in speakers of both English (SVO) and Turkish (SOV). PMID:24641486

  11. Brain and Muscle Redox Imbalance Elicited by Acute Ethylmalonic Acid Administration

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Milanez, Ana Paula; Felisberto, Francine; Galant, Leticia Selinger; Machado, Jéssica Luca; Furlanetto, Camila Brulezi; Petronilho, Fabricia; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa

    2015-01-01

    Ethylmalonic acid (EMA) accumulates in tissues and biological fluids of patients affected by short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) and ethylmalonic encephalopathy, illnesses characterized by neurological and muscular symptoms. Considering that the mechanisms responsible for the brain and skeletal muscle damage in these diseases are poorly known, in the present work we investigated the effects of acute EMA administration on redox status parameters in cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle from 30-day-old rats. Animals received three subcutaneous injections of EMA (6 μmol/g; 90 min interval between injections) and were killed 1 h after the last administration. Control animals received saline in the same volumes. EMA administration significantly increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels in cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle, indicating increased lipid peroxidation. In addition, carbonyl content was increased in EMA-treated animal skeletal muscle when compared to the saline group. EMA administration also significantly increased 2’,7’-dihydrodichlorofluorescein oxidation and superoxide production (reactive species markers), and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in cerebral cortex, while glutathione levels were decreased only in skeletal muscle. On the other hand, respiratory chain complex I-III activity was altered by acute EMA administration neither in cerebral cortex nor in skeletal muscle. The present results show that acute EMA administration elicits oxidative stress in rat brain and skeletal muscle, suggesting that oxidative damage may be involved in the pathophysiology of the brain and muscle symptoms found in patients affected by SCADD and ethylmalonic encephalopathy. PMID:26010931

  12. Children's Elicitation of Changes in Parenting during the Early Childhood Years

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Using a subsample of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; n = 1,550), this study identified parents who engaged in more developmentally problematic parenting—in the form of low investment, above average television watching, and use of spanking—when their children were very young (M = 24.41 months, SD = 1.23) but changed their parenting in more positive directions over time. Latent profile analysis and other techniques revealed that parents who demonstrated less optimal parenting behaviors when their children were 2 years old were more likely to be African American, from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, and experiencing greater depressive symptoms. Approximately half of such parents, however, made positive changes in their parenting practices, with 5% in the profile characterized by high investment and low use of spanking by the time that their children were in elementary school. These positive changes in parenting behavior were more likely to occur among parents whose children were already demonstrating early reading skills and less problem behavior. These potential “child effects”, suggesting that children elicited improvements in parenting, were more pronounced among higher income families but did not vary according to parents’ educational attainment. Findings from this study have important implications for intervention programs, suggesting that children's academic and behavioral skills can be leveraged as one means of facilitating positive parenting. PMID:26124539

  13. Visualizing social photos on a Hasse diagram for eliciting relations and indexing new photos.

    PubMed

    Crampes, Michel; de Oliveira-Kumar, Jeremy; Ranwez, Sylvie; Villerd, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Social photos, which are taken during family events or parties, represent individuals or groups of people. We show in this paper how a Hasse diagram is an efficient visualization strategy for eliciting different groups and navigating through them. However, we do not limit this strategy to these traditional uses. Instead we show how it can also be used for assisting in indexing new photos. Indexing consists of identifying the event and people in photos. It is an integral phase that takes place before searching and sharing. In our method we use existing indexed photos to index new photos. This is performed through a manual drag and drop procedure followed by a content fusion process that we call 'propagation'. At the core of this process is the necessity to organize and visualize the photos that will be used for indexing in a manner that is easily recognizable and accessible by the user. In this respect we make use of an Object Galois Sub-Hierarchy and display it using a Hasse diagram. The need for an incremental display that maintains the user's mental map also leads us to propose a novel way of building the Hasse diagram. To validate the approach, we present some tests conducted with a sample of users that confirm the interest of this organization, visualization and indexation approach. Finally, we conclude by considering scalability, the possibility to extract social networks and automatically create personalised albums.

  14. OmpW is a potential target for eliciting protective immunity against Acinetobacter baumannii infections.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiwei; Wang, Shijie; Yao, Yufeng; Xia, Ye; Yang, Xu; Long, Qiong; Sun, Wenjia; Liu, Cunbao; Li, Yang; Ma, Yanbing

    2015-08-26

    Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is an important conditioned pathogen that causes nosocomial and community-associated infections. In this study, we sought to investigate whether outer membrane protein W (OmpW) is a potential target for eliciting protective immunity against A. baumannii infections. Mice immunized with the fusion protein thioredoxin-OmpW generated strong OmpW-specific IgG responses. In a sepsis model, both active and passive immunizations against OmpW effectively protected mice from A. baumannii infections. This protection was demonstrated by a significantly improved survival rate, reduced bacterial burdens within organs, and the suppressed accumulation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in sera. Opsonophagocytic assays with murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells indicated that the bactericidal effects of the antisera derived from the immunized mice are mediated synergistically by specific antibodies and complement components. The antisera presented significant opsonophagocytic activities against homologous strains and clonally distinct clinical isolates in vitro. Protein data analysis showed that the sequence of OmpW, which has a molecule length of 183 amino acids, is more than 91% conserved in reported A. baumannii strains. In conclusion, we identified OmpW as a highly immunogenic and conserved protein as a valuable antigen candidate for the development of an effective vaccine or the preparation of antisera to control A. baumannii infections.

  15. Differences in end-point force trajectories elicited by electrical stimulation of individual human calf muscles

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, S B; Segal, R L; Abelew, T A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the end-point force trajectories of the fibularis longus (FIB), lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. Most information about individual muscle function has come from studies which use models based on electromyographic (EMG) recordings. In this study (N=20 subjects) we used electrical stimulation (20Hz) to elicit activity in individual muscles, recorded the end-point forces at the foot and verified the selectivity of stimulation by using magnetic resonance imaging. Unexpectedly, no significant differences were found between LG and MG force directions. Stimulation of LG and MG resulted in downward and medial or lateral forces depending on the subject. We found FIB end-point forces to be significantly different than those of LG and MG. In all subjects, stimulation of FIB resulted in downward and lateral forces. Based on our results, we suggest that there are multiple factors determining when and whether LG or MG will produce a medial or lateral force and FIB consistently plays a significant role in eversion/abduction and plantarflexion. We suggest that the inter-subject variability we found is not simply an artifact of experimental or technical error but is functionally relevant and should be addressed in future studies and models. PMID:20095454

  16. A corrole nanobiologic elicits tissue-activated MRI contrast enhancement and tumor-targeted toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sims, Jessica D; Hwang, Jae Youn; Wagner, Shawn; Alonso-Valenteen, Felix; Hanson, Chris; Taguiam, Jan Michael; Polo, Richard; Harutyunyan, Ira; Karapetyan, Gevorg; Sorasaenee, Karn; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Marban, Eduardo; Moats, Rex; Gray, Harry B; Gross, Zeev; Medina-Kauwe, Lali K

    2015-11-10

    Water-soluble corroles with inherent fluorescence can form stable self-assemblies with tumor-targeted cell penetration proteins, and have been explored as agents for optical imaging and photosensitization of tumors in pre-clinical studies. However, the limited tissue-depth of excitation wavelengths limits their clinical applicability. To examine their utility in more clinically-relevant imaging and therapeutic modalities, here we have explored the use of corroles as contrast enhancing agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and evaluated their potential for tumor-selective delivery when encapsulated by a tumor-targeted polypeptide. We have found that a manganese-metallated corrole exhibits significant T1 relaxation shortening and MRI contrast enhancement that is blocked by particle formation in solution but yields considerable MRI contrast after tissue uptake. Cell entry but not low pH enables this. Additionally, the corrole elicited tumor-toxicity through the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytoskeletal breakdown when delivered by the targeted polypeptide. The protein-corrole particle (which we call HerMn) exhibited improved therapeutic efficacy compared to current targeted therapies used in the clinic. Taken together with its tumor-preferential biodistribution, our findings indicate that HerMn can facilitate tumor-targeted toxicity after systemic delivery and tumor-selective MR imaging activatable by internalization.

  17. Extracellular microRNAs activate nociceptor neurons to elicit pain via TLR7 and TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Kyu; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Berta, Temugin; Han, Qingjian; Chen, Gang; Liu, Xing-Jun; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2014-04-02

    Intracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression. The role of extracellular miRNAs in neuronal activation and sensory behaviors are unknown. Here we report an unconventional role of extracellular miRNAs for rapid excitation of nociceptor neurons via toll-like receptor-7 (TLR7) and its coupling to TRPA1 ion channel. miRNA-let-7b induces rapid inward currents and action potentials in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. These responses require the GUUGUGU motif, only occur in neurons coexpressing TLR7 and TRPA1, and are abolished in mice lacking Tlr7 or Trpa1. Furthermore, let-7b induces TLR7/TRPA1-dependent single-channel activities in DRG neurons and HEK293 cells overexpressing TLR7/TRPA1. Intraplantar injection of let-7b elicits rapid spontaneous pain via TLR7 and TRPA1. Finally, let-7b can be released from DRG neurons by neuronal activation, and let-7b inhibitor reduces formalin-induced TRPA1 currents and spontaneous pain. Thus, secreted extracellular miRNAs may serve as novel pain mediators via activating TLR7/TRPA1 in nociceptor neurons.

  18. Interviewing to develop Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) measures for clinical research: eliciting patients' experience.

    PubMed

    Brédart, Anne; Marrel, Alexia; Abetz-Webb, Linda; Lasch, Kathy; Acquadro, Catherine

    2014-02-05

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures must provide evidence that their development followed a rigorous process for ensuring their content validity. To this end, the collection of data is performed through qualitative interviews that allow for the elicitation of in-depth spontaneous reports of the patients' experiences with their condition and/or its treatment. This paper provides a review of qualitative research applied to PRO measure development. A clear definition of what is a qualitative research interview is given as well as information about the form and content of qualitative interviews required for developing PRO measures. Particular attention is paid to the description of interviewing approaches (e.g., semi-structured and in-depth interviews, individual vs. focus group interviews). Information about how to get prepared for a qualitative interview is provided with the description of how to develop discussion guides for exploratory or cognitive interviews. Interviewing patients to obtain knowledge regarding their illness experience requires interpersonal and communication skills to facilitate patients' expression. Those skills are described in details, as well as the skills needed to facilitate focus groups and to interview children, adolescents and the elderly. Special attention is also given to quality assurance and interview training. The paper ends on ethical considerations since interviewing for the development of PROs is performed in a context of illness and vulnerability. Therefore, it is all the more important that, in addition to soliciting informed consent, respectful interactions be ensured throughout the interview process.

  19. Acute changes elicited by a nonablative wrinkle reduction laser: an ultrastructural study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omi, Tokuya; Kawana, Seiji; Sato, Shigeru; Honda, Mitsuyoshi

    2002-10-01

    Background and objective: Cosmeceuticals, chemical peels and collagen injections are used to rejuvenate skin, but none of those methods is effective or permanent. Recently, laser resurfacing has been found to be effective, but the incidence of side effects is relatively high. Last year, the non-ablative wrinkle reduction laser (N-Lite, ICN Photonics, UK) was developed, and there have been several reports about its clinical effectiveness. In this study, we have investigated ultrastructural changes elicited by N-Lite laser exposure. Material and methods: 6 adult volunteers were recruited for this study. They were treated with the N-Lite laser and a single 3-nm punch skin biopsy was obtained immediately after the inadiation, as well as 3 hours and 3 days later. These specimens were examined under an electron microscope. Results: Immediately after the laser exposure, capillary endothelial cells showed marked edema and inflamed mast cells were observed, but erythrocytes were intact. 3 hours after the laser therapy, capillary cells were stagnant and monocytes had moved out into the dermis. 3 days after the laser therapy, interstitial edema around the capillaries was observed, and elaunin fibres were also observed. Melanin granules were observed in fibroblasts and in capillaries. Conclusion: N-Lite laser irradiation leads to marked edema of endothelial cells and dermal coirnective tissue, although endothelial cell necrosis was not observed.

  20. Using Conjoint Analysis to Elicit GPs’ Preferences for Family Physician Contracts: A Case Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar Ezatabadi, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Shariati, Mohammad; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Family physician plans in Iran face several challenges, one of which is developing attractive and efficient contracts that motivate physicians to participate in the plan. Objectives This study aimed to elicit GPs’ preferences for family physician contracts. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study using the conjoint analysis technique, 580 GPs selected from the family physician database in Iran in 2014. Through qualitative and quantitative methods, 18 contract scenarios were developed via orthogonal design i.e., the impact of each attribute is measured independently from changes in other attributes and a questionnaire was developed. Data were collected through this questionnaire and analyzed using the ordered logistic regression (OLR) model. Results The results show that “quotas for admission to specialized courses” is the strongest preference of GPs (β = 1.123). In order of importance, the other preferences are having the right to provide services outside of the specified package (β = 0.962), increased number of covered population (β = 0.814), capitation payment + 15% bonus (β = 0.644), increased catchment area to 5 km (β = 0.349), and increased length of contract to five years (β = 0.345). Conclusions The conjoint analysis results show that GPs concerned about various factors of family physician contracts. These results can be helpful for policy-makers as they complete the process of creating family physician plans, which can help increase the motivation of GPs to participate in the plan. PMID:28191339

  1. A5 cells are silenced when REM sleep-like signs are elicited by pontine carbachol.

    PubMed

    Fenik, Victor; Marchenko, Vitaliy; Janssen, Patrick; Davies, Richard O; Kubin, Leszek

    2002-10-01

    The A5 noradrenergic neurons are considered important for cardiorespiratory regulation. We hypothesized that A5 cells are silenced during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, thereby contributing to cardiorespiratory changes and suppression of hypoglossal (XII) motoneuronal activity. We used an anesthetized, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated rat in which pontine microinjections of carbachol trigger signs of REM sleep, including hippocampal theta rhythm, motor suppression, and silencing of locus coeruleus neurons. All 16 putative noradrenergic A5 cells recorded were strongly suppressed when the REM sleep-like episodes were elicited and also after intravenous clonidine. Antidromic mapping showed that none of six neurons tested projected to the XII nucleus, whereas three of five projected to the nucleus of the solitary tract and two of four to the rostral ventrolateral medulla. Bilateral microinjections of clonidine into the A5 regions did not alter XII nerve activity. These data suggest that A5 neurons are silenced during natural REM sleep. This will lead to decreased norepinephrine release and may alter synaptic transmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract and rostral ventrolateral medulla without, however, a detectable impact on XII motoneurons.

  2. Mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction-elicited oxidative stress and posttranslational protein modification in mitochondrial diseases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Ting; Wu, Shi-Bei; Lee, Wan-Yu; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2010-07-01

    Pathogenic mutation in mtDNA and mitochondrial dysfunction are associated with mitochondrial diseases. In this review, we discuss the oxidative stress-elicited mitochondrial protein modifications that may contribute to the pathophysiology of mitochondrial diseases. We demonstrated that excess ROS produced by defective mitochondria could increase the acetylation of microtubule proteins through the suppression of Sirt2, which results in perinuclear distribution of mitochondria in skin fibroblasts of patients with CPEO syndrome. Our recent work showed that mitochondrial dysfunction-induced oxidative stress can disrupt protein degradation system by inhibiting the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and protease activity in human cells harboring mutant mtDNA. This in turn causes accumulation of aberrant proteins in mitochondria and renders the mutant cells more susceptible to apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. Furthermore, oxidative stress can modulate phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins, which can affect metabolism in a number of diseases. Taken together, we suggest that oxidative stress-triggered protein modifications and defects in protein turnover play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of mitochondrial diseases.

  3. Dear Enemies Elicit Lower Androgen Responses to Territorial Challenges than Unfamiliar Intruders in a Cichlid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Tânia F.; Ros, Albert F. H.; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2015-01-01

    In many territorial species androgen hormones are known to increase in response to territorial intrusions as a way to adjust the expression of androgen-dependent behaviour to social challenges. The dear enemy effect has also been described in territorial species and posits that resident individuals show a more aggressive response to intrusions by strangers than by other territorial neighbours. Therefore, we hypothesized that the dear enemy effect may also modulate the androgen response to a territorial intrusion. Here we tested this hypothesis in male cichlid fish (Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus) using a paradigm of four repeated territorial intrusions, either by the same neighbour or by four different unfamiliar intruders. Neighbour intruders elicited lower aggression and a weaker androgen response than strangers on the first intrusion of the experiment. With repeated intrusions, the agonistic behaviour of the resident males against familiar intruders was similar to that displayed towards strangers. By the fourth intrusion the androgen response was significantly reduced and there was no longer a difference between the responses to the two types of intruders. These results suggest that the dear enemy effect modulates the androgen response to territorial intrusions and that repeated intrusions lead to a habituation of the androgen response. PMID:26379045

  4. Melody effects on ERANm elicited by harmonic irregularity in musical syntax.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan Hee; Lee, Sojin; Kim, June Sic; Seol, Jaeho; Yi, Suk Won; Chung, Chun Kee

    2014-04-29

    Recent studies have reported that early right anterior negativity (ERAN) and its magnetic counterpart (ERANm) are evoked by harmonic irregularity in Western tonal music; however, those studies did not control for differences of melody. Because melody and harmony have an interdependent relationship and because melody (in this study melody is represented by the highest voice part) in a chord sequence may dominate, there is controversy over whether ERAN (or ERANm) changes arise from melody or harmony differences. To separate the effects of melody differences and harmonic irregularity on ERANm responses, we designed two magnetoencephalography experiments and behavioral test. Participants were presented with three types of chord progression sequences (Expected, Intermediate, and Unexpected) with different harmonic regularities in which melody differences were or were not controlled. In the uncontrolled melody difference experiment, the unexpected chord elicited a significantly largest ERANm, but in the controlled melody difference experiment, the amplitude of the ERANm peak did not differ among the three conditions. However, ERANm peak latency was delayed more than that in the uncontrolled melody difference experiment. The behavioral results show the difference between the two experiments even if harmonic irregularity was discriminated in the uncontrolled melody difference experiment. In conclusion, our analysis reveals that there is a relationship between the effects of harmony and melody on ERANm. Hence, we suggest that a melody difference in a chord progression is largely responsible for the observed changes in ERANm, reaffirming that melody plays an important role in the processing of musical syntax.

  5. Classification of Listeria monocytogenes persistence in retail delicatessen environments using expert elicitation and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Vangay, P; Steingrimsson, J; Wiedmann, M; Stasiewicz, M J

    2014-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in food processing plants has been the underlying cause of a number of human listeriosis outbreaks. This study extracts criteria used by food safety experts in determining bacterial persistence in the environment, using retail delicatessen operations as a model. Using the Delphi method, we conducted an expert elicitation with 10 food safety experts from academia, industry, and government to classify L. monocytogenes persistence based on environmental sampling results collected over six months for 30 retail delicatessen stores. The results were modeled using variations of random forest, support vector machine, logistic regression, and linear regression; variable importance values of random forest and support vector machine models were consolidated to rank important variables in the experts' classifications. The duration of subtype isolation ranked most important across all expert categories. Sampling site category also ranked high in importance and validation errors doubled when this covariate was removed. Support vector machine and random forest models successfully classified the data with average validation errors of 3.1% and 2.2% (n = 144), respectively. Our findings indicate that (i) the frequency of isolations over time and sampling site information are critical factors for experts determining subtype persistence, (ii) food safety experts from different sectors may not use the same criteria in determining persistence, and (iii) machine learning models have potential for future use in environmental surveillance and risk management programs. Future work is necessary to validate the accuracy of expert and machine classification against biological measurement of L. monocytogenes persistence.

  6. Raw drone milk of honeybees elicits uterotrophic effect in rats: evidence for estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Seres, Adrienn B; Ducza, Eszter; Báthori, Mária; Hunyadi, Attila; Béni, Zoltán; Dékány, Miklós; Gáspár, Róbert

    2013-05-01

    Numerous honeybee products are used in medicine, but the literature furnishes no information concerning the effects of the drone milk (DM), although drone brood, which is similar to DM, was reported to elicit a hormone-like strengthening effect. In certain countries, DM is traditionally used to treat infertility and to promote vitality in both men and women. The aim of this study was to determine the putative estrogen hormone-like effect of raw DM in rats and to identify the effective compounds. Uterotrophic assays revealed that DM increased the relative weight of the immature rat uterus. This effect was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain-reaction and Western blot methods, in which the mRNA and protein expression of the estrogen-dependent peptide complement component C3 was determined. Column chromatography and uterotrophic assays were used to fractionate and check bioactivity, respectively. The active compound after the last fractionation was identified by the nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry techniques as E-dec-2-enedioic acid, which is very similar to the fatty acids with estrogenic activity that were previously isolated from royal jelly. These results lead us to suppose that E-dec-2-enedioic acid is responsible for the estrogen-like effect of DM. This appears to be the first report on the pharmacological effects of DM and E-dec-2-enedioic acid in mammals.

  7. Pharyngeal swallowing elicited by fluid infusion: role of volition and vallecular containment.

    PubMed

    Pouderoux, P; Logemann, J A; Kahrilas, P J

    1996-02-01

    Nonalimentary swallows minimize aspiration by clearing accumulated fluid from the pharynx. This study aimed to define 1) the pharyngeal sensory field to elicit swallowing and 2) the effect of infusion rate, volition, taste, and temperature on pharyngeal swallows. Test solutions were directed into the valleculae at 6.5, 11.5, and 32 ml/min through a catheter in eight healthy volunteers. Deglutition was signaled with electromyography and electroglottography. Spatial distribution of infusate before swallowing was studied using videofluoroscopy coupled with a video timer. Volitional control was assessed with rapid or restrained swallows. Pharyngeal swallow latency decreased as the instillation rate increased, was potently modified with volition, and was unchanged by infusate taste or temperature. Water infusion into the valleculae did not trigger pharyngeal swallowing until liquids overflowed and reached the aryepiglottic folds or pyriform sinuses. The variation in swallow latency among flow rates was mainly due to the duration of liquid containment within the valleculae. This suggests that the valleculae act to contain pharyngeal secretions and residue and prevent aspiration by diverting their contents around the larynx before swallowing.

  8. Hydroxyproline-rich glycopeptide signals in potato elicit signalling associated with defense against insects and pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Ramcharan; Koramutla, Murali Krishna; Negi, Manisha; Pearce, Gregory; Ryan, Clarence A

    2013-06-01

    HypSys peptides are 18-20 amino acids glycopeptide defense signal first discovered in tobacco and tomato that activate expression of defensive genes against insect-herbivores. Discovery of their orthologs in other Solanaceaous and nonsolanaceous plants demonstrated their possible ubiquitous nature and species specific functional diversity. In our continued search to establish the paradigm of defense signalling by HypSys peptides, we isolated a cDNA from potato leaves encoding putative analogs of tomato HypSys peptides flanked by conserved proteolytic cleavage sites. The gene encoding the cDNA was a member of a gene family in the tetraploid genome of potato and its expression was transcriptionally activated by wounding and methyl jasmonate. The deduced precursor protein contained a leader peptidase splice site and three putative HypSys peptides with conserved N- and C-termini along with central proline-rich motifs. In defense signalling, the three HypSys peptides elicit H₂O₂ generation in vivo and activate several antioxidant defensive enzymes in young potato leaves. Similar to potato systemin, the HypSys peptides activate the expression of octadecanoid pathway genes and protease inhibitors for insect defense. In addition, the HypSys peptides also activate the essential genes of the innate pathogen defense response in young potato leaves, acting as common elicitors of signalling associated with anti-herbivore and anti-pathogen defense in potato.

  9. Eliciting Affect via Immersive Virtual Reality: A Tool for Adolescent Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Houck, Christopher D.; Barker, David H.; Garcia, Abbe Marrs; Spitalnick, Josh S.; Curtis, Virginia; Roye, Scott; Brown, Larry K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A virtual reality environment (VRE) was designed to expose participants to substance use and sexual risk-taking cues to examine the utility of VR in eliciting adolescent physiological arousal. Methods 42 adolescents (55% male) with a mean age of 14.54 years (SD = 1.13) participated. Physiological arousal was examined through heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and self-reported somatic arousal. A within-subject design (neutral VRE, VR party, and neutral VRE) was utilized to examine changes in arousal. Results The VR party demonstrated an increase in physiological arousal relative to a neutral VRE. Examination of individual segments of the party (e.g., orientation, substance use, and sexual risk) demonstrated that HR was significantly elevated across all segments, whereas only the orientation and sexual risk segments demonstrated significant impact on RSA. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence that VREs can be used to generate physiological arousal in response to substance use and sexual risk cues. PMID:24365699

  10. A biomimetic gelatin-based platform elicits a pro-differentiation effect on podocytes through mechanotransduction

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Mufeng; Azeloglu, Evren U.; Ron, Amit; Tran-Ba, Khanh-Hoa; Calizo, Rhodora C.; Tavassoly, Iman; Bhattacharya, Smiti; Jayaraman, Gomathi; Chen, Yibang; Rabinovich, Vera; Iyengar, Ravi; Hone, James C.; He, John C.; Kaufman, Laura J.

    2017-01-01

    Using a gelatin microbial transglutaminase (gelatin-mTG) cell culture platform tuned to exhibit stiffness spanning that of healthy and diseased glomeruli, we demonstrate that kidney podocytes show marked stiffness sensitivity. Podocyte-specific markers that are critical in the formation of the renal filtration barrier are found to be regulated in association with stiffness-mediated cellular behaviors. While podocytes typically de-differentiate in culture and show diminished physiological function in nephropathies characterized by altered tissue stiffness, we show that gelatin-mTG substrates with Young’s modulus near that of healthy glomeruli elicit a pro-differentiation and maturation response in podocytes better than substrates either softer or stiffer. The pro-differentiation phenotype is characterized by upregulation of gene and protein expression associated with podocyte function, which is observed for podocytes cultured on gelatin-mTG gels of physiological stiffness independent of extracellular matrix coating type and density. Signaling pathways involved in stiffness-mediated podocyte behaviors are identified, revealing the interdependence of podocyte mechanotransduction and maintenance of their physiological function. This study also highlights the utility of the gelatin-mTG platform as an in vitro system with tunable stiffness over a range relevant for recapitulating mechanical properties of soft tissues, suggesting its potential impact on a wide range of research in cellular biophysics. PMID:28262745

  11. Brain and muscle redox imbalance elicited by acute ethylmalonic acid administration.

    PubMed

    Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Milanez, Ana Paula; Felisberto, Francine; Galant, Leticia Selinger; Machado, Jéssica Luca; Furlanetto, Camila Brulezi; Petronilho, Fabricia; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa

    2015-01-01

    Ethylmalonic acid (EMA) accumulates in tissues and biological fluids of patients affected by short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) and ethylmalonic encephalopathy, illnesses characterized by neurological and muscular symptoms. Considering that the mechanisms responsible for the brain and skeletal muscle damage in these diseases are poorly known, in the present work we investigated the effects of acute EMA administration on redox status parameters in cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle from 30-day-old rats. Animals received three subcutaneous injections of EMA (6 μmol/g; 90 min interval between injections) and were killed 1 h after the last administration. Control animals received saline in the same volumes. EMA administration significantly increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels in cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle, indicating increased lipid peroxidation. In addition, carbonyl content was increased in EMA-treated animal skeletal muscle when compared to the saline group. EMA administration also significantly increased 2',7'-dihydrodichlorofluorescein oxidation and superoxide production (reactive species markers), and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in cerebral cortex, while glutathione levels were decreased only in skeletal muscle. On the other hand, respiratory chain complex I-III activity was altered by acute EMA administration neither in cerebral cortex nor in skeletal muscle. The present results show that acute EMA administration elicits oxidative stress in rat brain and skeletal muscle, suggesting that oxidative damage may be involved in the pathophysiology of the brain and muscle symptoms found in patients affected by SCADD and ethylmalonic encephalopathy.

  12. Glycol porphyrin derivatives and temoporfin elicit resistance to photodynamic therapy by different mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kralova, Jarmila; Kolar, Michal; Kahle, Michal; Truksa, Jaroslav; Lettlova, Sandra; Balusikova, Kamila; Bartunek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The development of drug resistance is a major problem which often occurs during anticancer chemotherapies. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been studied as an alternative treatment modality for drug-resistant tumors, however the question of resistance to PDT and potential cross-resistance with chemotherapy has yet to be fully answered. To investigate the mechanism of resistance to PDT, we developed an in vitro experimental model system in a mouse mammary carcinoma cell line 4T1. We used two ethylene glycol derivatives of tetraphenylporphyrin, and tetraphenylchlorin derivative, temoporfin, as photosensitizers (PS). PDT-resistant clones were obtained by exposure to a set concentration of PS followed by irradiation with increasing light doses. PDT resistance to soluble glycol porphyrins was mediated mainly by increased drug efflux through ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) as we demonstrated by specific ABCB1 knockdown experiments, which in turn rescued the sensitivity of resistant cells to PDT. In contrast, resistance raised to temoporfin, which is generally more lipophilic than glycol porphyrins, elicited mechanism based on sequestration of the drug to lysosomes. The resistance that is acquired from a particular PS could be overcome by using a different PS, which is not susceptible to the same mechanism(s) of resistance. Elucidation of the underlying mechanisms in various types of resistance might facilitate improvements in PDT treatment design. PMID:28295025

  13. Sartorial symbols of social class elicit class-consistent behavioral and physiological responses: a dyadic approach.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Michael W; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2014-12-01

    Social rank in human and nonhuman animals is signaled by a variety of behaviors and phenotypes. In this research, we examined whether a sartorial manipulation of social class would engender class-consistent behavior and physiology during dyadic interactions. Male participants donned clothing that signaled either upper-class (business-suit) or lower-class (sweatpants) rank prior to engaging in a modified negotiation task with another participant unaware of the clothing manipulation. Wearing upper-class, compared to lower-class, clothing induced dominance--measured in terms of negotiation profits and concessions, and testosterone levels--in participants. Upper-class clothing also elicited increased vigilance in perceivers of these symbols: Relative to perceiving lower-class symbols, perceiving upper-class symbols increased vagal withdrawal, reduced perceptions of social power, and catalyzed physiological contagion such that perceivers' sympathetic nervous system activation followed that of the upper-class target. Discussion focuses on the dyadic process of social class signaling within social interactions.

  14. Responses of the Smooth Muscle Membrane of Guinea Pig Jejunum Elicited by Field Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, T.; Kuriyama, H.

    1969-01-01

    Field stimulation of the jejunum elicited successively an action potential of spike form, a slow excitatory depolarization, a slow inhibitory hyperpolarization, and a postinhibitory depolarization as a rebound excitation. The slow depolarization often triggered the spike. The inhibitory potential showed lower threshold than did the excitatory potential. Both the excitatory potentials were abolished by atropine and tetrodotoxin. Effective membrane resistance measured by the intracellular polarizing method was reduced during the peak of the excitatory potential, but the degree of reduction was smaller than that evoked by iontophoretic application of acetylcholine. Conditioning hyperpolarization of the muscle membrane modified the amplitude of the excitatory potential. The estimated reversal potential level for the excitatory potenialt was about 0 mv. No changes could be observed in the amplitude of the inhibitory potential when hyperpolarization was induced with intracellularly applied current. Low [K]o and [Ca]o blocked the generation of the excitatory potential but the amplitude of the inhibitory potential was enhanced in low [K]o. Low [Ca]o and high [Mg]o had no effect on the inhibitory potential. PMID:5778319

  15. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Elicits Extracellular Traps in Primary Neutrophil Culture While Suppressing the Oxidative Burst

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, Carl W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT  Neisseria gonorrhoeae (the gonococcus) causes gonorrhea and is uniquely adapted to survive within the human reproductive tract. Gonococci evade host immune surveillance in part by varying their pili and opacity-associated proteins. These variable surface antigens influence interactions with host epithelial and immune cells. A potent polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) response is a hallmark of symptomatic gonococcal infection, with vast numbers of PMNs recruited to the site of infection. A large body of literature describes gonococcus-PMN interactions, but the factors driving the outcome of infection are not fully understood. Gonococci have been described to both induce and suppress the PMN oxidative burst, but we determined that gonococci differentially affect induction of the PMN oxidative burst depending on the multiplicity of infection (MOI). Infecting PMN at an MOI of <20 gonococci elicits an oxidative burst, while an MOI of >20 suppresses the burst. Oxidative burst in response to gonococci is enhanced by, but does not require, expression of pili or opacity proteins. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were observed in gonococcus-infected PMNs, a process which requires an oxidative burst, yet gonococci induced NETs under suppressing conditions. The NETs were unable to kill gonococci despite killing the common vaginal bacterium Lactobacillus crispatus. Thus, gonococci influence PMN biology to promote their own survival by suppressing the oxidative burst of PMNs and stimulating the formation of NETs, which do not effectively kill gonococci, illustrating how N. gonorrhoeae has evolved to modulate PMN responses to promote infection. PMID:25670773

  16. Antihelminth compound niclosamide downregulates Wnt signaling and elicits antitumor responses in tumors with activating APC mutations.

    PubMed

    Osada, Takuya; Chen, Minyong; Yang, Xiao Yi; Spasojevic, Ivan; Vandeusen, Jeffrey B; Hsu, David; Clary, Bryan M; Clay, Timothy M; Chen, Wei; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2011-06-15

    Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation caused by adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutations occurs in approximately 80% of sporadic colorectal cancers (CRC). The antihelminth compound niclosamide downregulates components of the Wnt pathway, specifically Dishevelled-2 (Dvl2) expression, resulting in diminished downstream β-catenin signaling. In this study, we determined whether niclosamide could inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in human CRCs and whether its inhibition might elicit antitumor effects in the presence of APC mutations. We found that niclosamide inhibited Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation, downregulated Dvl2, decreased downstream β-catenin signaling, and exerted antiproliferative effects in human colon cancer cell lines and CRC cells isolated by surgical resection of metastatic disease, regardless of mutations in APC. In contrast, inhibition of NF-κB or mTOR did not exert similar antiproliferative effects in these CRC model systems. In mice implanted with human CRC xenografts, orally administered niclosamide was well tolerated, achieved plasma and tumor levels associated with biologic activity, and led to tumor control. Our findings support clinical explorations to reposition niclosamide for the treatment of CRC.

  17. Induction of Cd36 expression elicited by fish oil PUFA in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Alexander Aguilera, Alfonso; Hernández Díaz, Guillermo; Lara Barcelata, Martín; Angulo Guerrero, Ofelia; Oliart Ros, Rosa M

    2006-11-01

    Cd36 is an integral membrane glycoprotein expressed on the surface of cells active in fatty acid metabolism (adipocytes, muscle cells, platelets, monocytes, heart and intestine cells). This protein plays diverse functions including uptake of long-chain fatty acids and oxidized low-density lipoproteins. A recent report demonstrates that Cd36 deficiency underlies insulin resistance, defective fatty acid metabolism and hypertriglyceridemia in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Cd36 is a tightly regulated protein whose expression is modulated through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) transcription factors, by conditions that alter lipid metabolism such as diabetes mellitus and high-fat feeding. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fish oil, rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), on metabolic parameters and on the expression levels of Cd36 in adipose tissue in the SHR. Spontaneously hypertensive rats showed lower Cd36 mRNA levels when compared to Kyoto-Wistar (KW) rats (control). After 6 weeks of fish oil (FO) administration, this group of SHRs (FO-SHR) presented increased levels of Cd36 mRNA, concomitantly with decreased insulin, free fatty acids (FFAs), triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, total lipids and blood pressure, in comparison to control rats that received a corn-canola oil diet. The study confirmed the beneficial effects of fish oil administration on the metabolic syndrome, suggesting that the induction of Cd36 expression could be one of the molecular mechanisms elicited by fish oil PUFAs.

  18. Mephedrone (‘bath salt’) elicits conditioned place preference and dopamine-sensitive motor activation

    PubMed Central

    Lisek, Renata; Xu, Wei; Yuvasheva, Ekaterina; Chiu, Yi-Ting; Reitz, Allen B.; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan; Rawls, Scott M.

    2012-01-01

    Abuse of a dangerous street drug called mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) has become commonplace in the United States. Mephedrone is hypothesized to possess abuse liability, share pharmacological properties with psychostimulants, and display toxicity that has been linked to fatalities and non-fatal overdoses. Knowledge about the pharmacology of mephedrone has been obtained primarily from surveys of drug abusers and emergency room visits rather than experimental studies. The present study used motor activity and conditioned place preference (CPP) assays to investigate behavioral effects of mephedrone. Acute mephedrone (3, 5, 10, 30 mg/kg, ip) administration increased ambulatory activity in rats. Mephedrone (5 mg/kg, ip)-induced ambulation was inhibited by pretreatment with a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) (0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg, ip) and enhanced by pretreatment with a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist (sulpiride) (2 mg/kg, ip). Rats injected for 5 days with low dose mephedrone (0.5 mg/kg, ip) and then challenged with mephedrone (0.5 mg/kg, ip) following 10 days of abstinence displayed sensitization of ambulatory activity. In CPP experiments, mephedrone (30 mg/kg, ip) conditioning elicited a preference shift in both rats and mice. The CPP and dopamine-sensitive motor activation produced by mephedrone is suggestive of abuse liability and indicates commonalities between the neuropharmacological profiles of mephedrone and established drugs of abuse. PMID:22652295

  19. Hawk calls elicit alarm and defensive reactions in captive Geoffroy's marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi).

    PubMed

    Searcy, Yvonne M; Caine, Nancy G

    2003-01-01

    Most descriptions of callitrichid antipredator behavior have come from observations of visual encounters with predators, but there is also anecdotal evidence suggesting that callitrichids may use auditory cues associated with raptors for the early detection of potential danger. In the present study, Geoffroy's marmosets consistently reacted to the tape-recorded calls of a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) with high-intensity antipredator behaviors. Compared to the taped calls of a raven (Corvus corax) and the taped sound of a power drill, the hawk calls elicited more startle reactions, more alarm calls, longer freeze times, increased use of safe areas of their enclosure and greater disruption in ongoing behavior. Once in a relatively safe location in the enclosure, the marmosets visually monitored the site of origin of the calls for 10 min and minimized locomotion for 30 min, but resumed baseline levels of other activities that had been disrupted by the hawk calls. Marmosets may use the auditory cues associated with predators for early detection, and subsequent avoidance, of a potential predator in the vicinity.

  20. The use of theory based semistructured elicitation questionnaires: formative research for CDC's Prevention Marketing Initiative.

    PubMed Central

    Middlestadt, S E; Bhattacharyya, K; Rosenbaum, J; Fishbein, M; Shepherd, M

    1996-01-01

    Through one of its many HIV prevention programs, the Prevention Marketing Initiative, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention promotes a multifaceted strategy for preventing the sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS among people less than 25 years of age. The Prevention Marketing Initiative is an application of marketing and consumer-oriented technologies that rely heavily on behavioral research and behavior change theories to bring the behavioral and social sciences to bear on practical program planning decisions. One objective of the Prevention Marketing Initiative is to encourage consistent and correct condom use among sexually active young adults. Qualitative formative research is being conducted in several segments of the population of heterosexually active, unmarried young adults between 18 and 25 using a semistructured elicitation procedure to identify and understand underlying behavioral determinants of consistent condom use. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of this type of qualitative research methodology in designing effective theory-based behavior change interventions. Issues of research design and data collection and analysis are discussed. To illustrate the methodology, results of content analyses of selected responses to open-ended questions on consistent condom use are presented by gender (male, female), ethnic group (white, African American), and consistency of condom use (always, sometimes). This type of formative research can be applied immediately to designing programs and is invaluable for valid and relevant larger-scale quantitative research. PMID:8862153

  1. Cortical responses elicited by photovoltaic subretinal prostheses exhibit similarities to visually evoked potentials

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Yossi; Goetz, Georges; Lavinsky, Daniel; Huie, Philip; Mathieson, Keith; Wang, Lele; Kamins, Theodore; Manivanh, Richard; Harris, James; Palanker, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We have previously developed a wireless photovoltaic retinal prosthesis, in which camera-captured images are projected onto the retina using pulsed near-IR light. Each pixel in the subretinal implant directly converts pulsed light into local electric current to stimulate the nearby inner retinal neurons. Here we report that implants having pixel sizes of 280, 140 and 70μm implanted in the subretinal space in rats with normal and degenerate retina elicit robust cortical responses upon stimulation with pulsed near-IR light. Implant-induced eVEP has shorter latency than visible light-induced VEP, its amplitude increases with peak irradiance and pulse duration, and decreases with frequency in the range of 2-20Hz, similar to the visible light response. Modular design of the arrays allows scalability to a large number of pixels, and combined with the ease of implantation, offers a promising approach to restoration of sight in patients blinded by retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:23778557

  2. Modulation of Auditory Evoked Magnetic Fields Elicited by Successive Frequency-Modulated (FM) Sweeps

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Hidehiko; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2017-01-01

    In our daily life, we are successively exposed to frequency-modulated (FM) sounds that play an important role in speech and species-specific communication. Previous studies demonstrated that repetitive exposure to identical pure tones resulted in decreased neural activity. However, the effects of repetitively presented FM sounds on neural activity in the human auditory cortex remain unclear. In the present study, we used magnetoencephalography to investigate auditory evoked N1m responses elicited by four successive temporally repeated and superimposed FM sweeps in three sequences: (1) four FM sweeps were identical, (2) four FM sweeps had the same FM direction and rate, but different carrier frequencies, (3) four FM sweeps differed with respect to the FM rate and/or direction and their carrier frequencies. In contrast to our expectations, the results obtained demonstrated that N1m responses were maximal when the four FM sweeps were identical and minimal when they were distinct. These results suggest that the neural processing of repetitive FM sweeps in the human auditory cortex may differ from that of repetitive pure tones. PMID:28220066

  3. A Picture Is Worth … ? Photo Elicitation Interviewing With Formerly Homeless Adults

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Deborah K.; Smith, Bikki Tran; Derejko, Katie-Sue; Henwood, Benjamin F.; Tiderington, Emmy

    2014-01-01

    We report on the use of photo elicitation interviewing (PEI) with 13 participants in a qualitative study of formerly homeless men and women with serious mental illness. Following a respondent-controlled approach, participants were asked to take up to 18 photographs visually portraying positive and negative aspects of their lives and to subsequently narrate the meaning of the photos in a one-on-one interview. Thematic analysis of the photos (N = 205) revealed two approaches to PEI: (a) a “slice of life” and (b) “then vs. now.” Examples show how PEIs yielded deeper, more elaborate accounts of participants’ lives compared to earlier verbal-only interviews. Participants spoke of the benefits of PEI and preferred taking positive as opposed to negative photographs depicting their lives. Implications of PEI as a means of complementing verbal-only data are discussed. By moving away from predetermined content and meaning, respondent-controlled PEIs enhance empowerment and enable creativity. PMID:24122520

  4. Resveratrol treatment in mice does not elicit the bradycardia and hypothermia associated with calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Mayers, Jared R; Iliff, Benjamin W; Swoap, Steven J

    2009-04-01

    Dietary supplementation with resveratrol may produce calorie restriction-like effects on metabolic and longevity endpoints in mice. In this study, we sought to determine whether resveratrol treatment elicited other hallmark changes associated with calorie restriction, namely bradycardia and decreased body temperature. We found that during short-term treatment, wild-type mice on a calorie-restricted diet experienced significant decreases in both heart rate and body temperature after only 1 day whereas those receiving resveratrol exhibited no such change after 1 wk. We also used ob/ob mice to study the effects of long-term treatment because previous studies had indicated the therapeutic value of resveratrol against the linked morbidities of obesity and diabetes. After 12 wk, resveratrol treatment had produced no changes in either heart rate or body temperature. Strikingly, and in contrast to previous findings, we found that resveratrol-treated mice had significantly reduced endurance in a treadmill test. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction suggested that a proposed target of resveratrol, Sirt1, was activated in resveratrol-treated ob/ob mice. Thus, we conclude that the bradycardia and hypothermia associated with calorie restriction occur through mechanisms unaffected by the actions of resveratrol and that further studies are needed to examine the differential effects of resveratrol in a leptin-deficient background.

  5. Context and cardiovascular risk modification in two regions of Ontario, Canada: a photo elicitation study.

    PubMed

    Angus, Jan E; Rukholm, Ellen; Michel, Isabelle; Larocque, Sylvie; Seto, Lisa; Lapum, Jennifer; Timmermans, Katherine; Chevrier-Lamoureux, Renée; Nolan, Robert P

    2009-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, which include coronary heart diseases (CHD), remain the leading cause of death in Canada and other industrialized countries. This qualitative study used photo-elicitation, focus groups and in-depth interviews to understand health behaviour change from the perspectives of 38 people who were aware of their high risk for CHD and had received information about cardiovascular risk modification while participating in a larger intervention study. Participants were drawn from two selected regions: Sudbury and District (northern Ontario) and the Greater Toronto Area (southern Ontario). Analysis drew on concepts of place and space to capture the complex interplay between geographic location, sociodemographic position, and people's efforts to understand and modify their risk for CHD. Three major sites of difference and ambiguity emerged: 1) place and access to health resources; 2) time and food culture; and 3) itineraries or travels through multiple locations. All participants reported difficulties in learning and adhering to new lifestyle patterns, but access to supportive health resources was different in the two regions. Even within regions, subgroups experienced different patterns of constraint and advantage. In each region, "fast" food and traditional foods were entrenched within different temporal and social meanings. Finally, different and shifting strategies for risk modification were required at various points during daily and seasonal travels through neighbourhoods, to workplaces, or on vacation. Thus health education for CHD risk modification should be place-specific and tailored to the needs and resources of specific communities.

  6. Children's Elicitation of Changes in Parenting during the Early Childhood Years.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert

    Using a subsample of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; n = 1,550), this study identified parents who engaged in more developmentally problematic parenting-in the form of low investment, above average television watching, and use of spanking-when their children were very young (M = 24.41 months, SD = 1.23) but changed their parenting in more positive directions over time. Latent profile analysis and other techniques revealed that parents who demonstrated less optimal parenting behaviors when their children were 2 years old were more likely to be African American, from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, and experiencing greater depressive symptoms. Approximately half of such parents, however, made positive changes in their parenting practices, with 5% in the profile characterized by high investment and low use of spanking by the time that their children were in elementary school. These positive changes in parenting behavior were more likely to occur among parents whose children were already demonstrating early reading skills and less problem behavior. These potential "child effects", suggesting that children elicited improvements in parenting, were more pronounced among higher income families but did not vary according to parents' educational attainment. Findings from this study have important implications for intervention programs, suggesting that children's academic and behavioral skills can be leveraged as one means of facilitating positive parenting.

  7. Premalignant Oral Lesion Cells Elicit Increased Cytokine Production and Activation of T-cells

    PubMed Central

    JOHNSON, SARA D.; LEVINGSTON, CORINNE; YOUNG, M. RITA I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are known to evade the host immune response. How premalignant oral lesions modulate the immune response, however, has yet to be elucidated. Materials and Methods A mouse model of oral carcinogenesis was used to determine how mediators from premalignant oral lesion cells vs. HNSCC cells impact on immune cytokine production and activation. Results Media conditioned by premalignant lesion cells elicited an increased production of T cell-associated cytokines and proinflammatory mediators from cervical lymph node cells compared to media conditioned by HNSCC cells or media alone. In the presence of premalignant lesion cell-conditioned media, CD4+ T cell expression of the IL-2 receptor CD25 and CD8+ T cell expression of the activation marker CD69 was greater, compared to what was induced in HNSCC cell-conditioned media or media alone. Conclusion Premalignant lesion cells promote a proinflammatory environment and induce immune changes before HNSCC tumors are established. PMID:27354582

  8. Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) Crude Venom Injection Elicits Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Response in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bruschetta, Giuseppe; Impellizzeri, Daniela; Morabito, Rossana; Marino, Angela; Ahmad, Akbar; Spanò, Nunziacarla; La Spada, Giuseppa; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Esposito, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Cnidarian toxins represent a rich source of biologically active compounds. Since they may act via oxidative stress events, the aim of the present study was to verify whether crude venom, extracted from the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca, elicits inflammation and oxidative stress processes, known to be mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production, in rats. In a first set of experiments, the animals were injected with crude venom (at three different doses 6, 30 and 60 µg/kg, suspended in saline solution, i.v.) to test the mortality and possible blood pressure changes. In a second set of experiments, to confirm that Pelagia noctiluca crude venom enhances ROS formation and may contribute to the pathophysiology of inflammation, crude venom-injected animals (30 µg/kg) were also treated with tempol, a powerful antioxidant (100 mg/kg i.p., 30 and 60 min after crude venom). Administration of tempol after crude venom challenge, caused a significant reduction of each parameter related to inflammation. The potential effect of Pelagia noctiluca crude venom in the systemic inflammation process has been here demonstrated, adding novel information about its biological activity. PMID:24727391

  9. Reactance to Transgressors: Why Authorities Deliver Harsher Penalties When the Social Context Elicits Expectations of Leniency

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Celia; Pierce, Lamar

    2016-01-01

    This paper combines experimental and field data to examine how authorities with discretion over how rules are enforced penalize transgressors when the social context of the transgression elicits expectations of leniency. Specifically, we test how transgressors are punished when it is their birthday: a day that triggers expectations of lenient treatment. First, in three scenario studies we explore individuals’ intuitions about how they would behave and expect to be treated if they transgressed on their birthdays, as well as how they would imagine penalizing a birthday transgressor. Second, using more than 134,000 arrest records for drunk driving in Washington State, we establish that police officers penalize drivers more harshly when it is their birthday. Then, in a lab experiment in which we grant participants discretion over enforcing the rules of an essay-writing contest, we test psychological reactance toward transgressors who make their birthday salient, even subtly, as the mechanism behind this increased stringency. We rule out several alternative explanations for this effect, including public safety concerns, negative affect and overcompensation for bias. We conclude with a discussion of the theoretical and practical implications of our findings for the literatures on punishment, rule-breaking, and legal transgressions. PMID:27242560

  10. Context and Cardiovascular Risk Modification in Two Regions of Ontario, Canada: A Photo Elicitation Study

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Jan E.; Rukholm, Ellen; Michel, Isabelle; Larocque, Sylvie; Seto, Lisa; Lapum, Jennifer; Timmermans, Katherine; Chevrier-Lamoureux, Renée; Nolan, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, which include coronary heart diseases (CHD), remain the leading cause of death in Canada and other industrialized countries. This qualitative study used photo-elicitation, focus groups and in-depth interviews to understand health behaviour change from the perspectives of 38 people who were aware of their high risk for CHD and had received information about cardiovascular risk modification while participating in a larger intervention study. Participants were drawn from two selected regions: Sudbury and District (northern Ontario) and the Greater Toronto Area (southern Ontario). Analysis drew on concepts of place and space to capture the complex interplay between geographic location, sociodemographic position, and people’s efforts to understand and modify their risk for CHD. Three major sites of difference and ambiguity emerged: 1) place and access to health resources; 2) time and food culture; and 3) itineraries or travels through multiple locations. All participants reported difficulties in learning and adhering to new lifestyle patterns, but access to supportive health resources was different in the two regions. Even within regions, subgroups experienced different patterns of constraint and advantage. In each region, “fast” food and traditional foods were entrenched within different temporal and social meanings. Finally, different and shifting strategies for risk modification were required at various points during daily and seasonal travels through neighbourhoods, to workplaces, or on vacation. Thus health education for CHD risk modification should be place-specific and tailored to the needs and resources of specific communities. PMID:19826558

  11. Eliciting antibiotics active against the ESKAPE pathogens in a collection of actinomycetes isolated from mountain soils.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hua; Swierstra, Jasper; Wu, Changsheng; Girard, Geneviève; Choi, Young Hae; van Wamel, Willem; Sandiford, Stephanie K; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2014-08-01

    The rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens poses a major threat for human health. In recent years, genome sequencing has unveiled many poorly expressed antibiotic clusters in actinomycetes. Here, we report a well-defined ecological collection of >800 actinomycetes obtained from sites in the Himalaya and Qinling mountains, and we used these in a concept study to see how efficiently antibiotics can be elicited against MDR pathogens isolated recently from the clinic. Using 40 different growth conditions, 96 actinomycetes were identified - predominantly Streptomyces - that produced antibiotics with efficacy against the MDR clinical isolates referred to as ESKAPE pathogens: Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and/or Enterobacter cloacae. Antimicrobial activities that fluctuated strongly with growth conditions were correlated with specific compounds, including borrelidin, resistomycin, carbomethoxy-phenazine, and 6,7,8- and 5,6,8-trimethoxy-3-methylisocoumarin, of which the latter was not described previously. Our work provided insights into the potential of actinomycetes as producers of drugs with efficacy against clinical isolates that have emerged recently and also underlined the importance of targeting a specific pathogen.

  12. Dermal inflammation elicited by synthetic analogs of Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Norgard, M V; Riley, B S; Richardson, J A; Radolf, J D

    1995-04-01

    The membrane lipoproteins of Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi have potent immunostimulatory properties in vitro, implicating them as major inflammatory mediators in syphilis and Lyme disease. Recently, we reported that synthetic lipohexapeptide analogs (lipopeptides) of the lipoproteins could be used as surrogates for native spirochetal lipoproteins in immune cell activation studies in vitro. The present study was designed to evaluate the inflammatory properties of the lipopeptides in vivo and to correlate the cellular responses to these synthetic analogs with the histopathology of syphilis and Lyme disease. Lipopeptides corresponding to the 47-kDa major membrane lipoprotein of T. pallidum and the outer surface protein A of B. burgdorferi injected intradermally induced dose-dependent dermal inflammation in mice; the initial predominantly neutrophilic (mice) or heterophilic (rabbits) cellular infiltrates were followed by infiltrates consisting predominantly of mononuclear cells. The intradermal response of rabbits to the 47-kDa lipopeptide was strikingly similar to that observed for animals infected intradermally with T. pallidum. In all cases, lipopolysaccharide was substantially more potent as an inflammatory mediator than the spirochetal lipopeptides. In contrast to the lipopeptides, nonacylated hexapeptides elicited minimal or no dermal lesions in mice or rabbits, underscoring the importance of acyl modification to the inflammatory properties of the lipopeptides. This study provides the first in vivo evidence that the spirochetal lipoproteins/lipopeptides contribute to the immunopathogenesis of syphilis and Lyme disease.

  13. A psychophysiological investigation of laterality in human emotion elicited by pleasant and unpleasant film clips

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Research on laterality in emotion suggests a dichotomy between the brain hemispheres. The present study aimed to investigate this further using a modulated startle reflex paradigm. Methods We examined the effects of left and the right ear stimulation on the modulated startle reflex (as indexed by eyeblink magnitude, measured from the right eye) employing short (2 min) film clips to elicit emotions in 16 right-handed healthy participants. The experiment consisted of two consecutive sessions on a single occasion. The acoustic startle probes were presented monaurally to one of the ears in each session, counterbalanced across order, during the viewing of film clips. Results The findings showed that eyeblink amplitude in relation to acoustic startle probes varied linearly, as expected, from pleasant through neutral to unpleasant film clips, but there was no interaction between monaural probe side and foreground valence. Conclusions Our data indicate the involvement of both hemispheres when affective states, and associated startle modulations, are produced, using materials with both audio and visual properties. From a methodological viewpoint, the robustness of film clip material including audio properties might compensate for the insufficient information reaching the ipsilateral hemisphere when using static pictures. From a theoretical viewpoint, a right ear advantage for verbal processing may account for the failure to detect the expected hemispheric difference. The verbal component of the clips would have activated the left hemisphere, possibly resulting in an increased role for the left hemisphere in both positive and negative affect generation. PMID:21108802

  14. Magnaporthe oryzae-Secreted Protein MSP1 Induces Cell Death and Elicits Defense Responses in Rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiming; Wu, Jingni; Kim, Sang Gon; Tsuda, Kenichi; Gupta, Ravi; Park, Sook-Young; Kim, Sun Tae; Kang, Kyu Young

    2016-04-01

    The Magnaporthe oryzae snodprot1 homolog (MSP1), secreted by M. oryzae, is a cerato-platanin family protein. msp1-knockout mutants have reduced virulence on barley leaves, indicating that MSP1 is required for the pathogenicity of rice blast fungus. To investigate the functional roles of MSP1 and its downstream signaling in rice, recombinant MSP1 was produced in Escherichia coli and was assayed for its functionality. Application of MSP1 triggered cell death and elicited defense responses in rice. MSP1 also induced H2O2 production and autophagic cell death in both suspension-cultured cells and rice leaves. One or more protein kinases triggered cell death, jasmonic acid and abscisic acid enhanced cell death, while salicylic acid suppressed it. We demonstrated that the secretion of MSP1 into the apoplast is a prerequisite for triggering cell death and activating defense-related gene expression. Furthermore, pretreatment of rice with a sublethal MSP1 concentration potentiated resistance to the pathogen. Taken together, our results showed that MSP1 induces a high degree of cell death in plants, which might be essential for its virulence. Moreover, rice can recognize MSP1, resulting in the induction of pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity.

  15. Salmonella DNA Adenine Methylase Mutants Elicit Protective Immune Responses to Homologous and Heterologous Serovars in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Dueger, E. L.; House, J. K.; Heithoff, D. M.; Mahan, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    Salmonella DNA adenine methylase (Dam) mutants that lack or overproduce Dam are highly attenuated for virulence in mice and confer protection against murine typhoid fever. To determine whether vaccines based on Dam are efficacious in poultry, a Salmonella Dam− vaccine was evaluated in the protection of chicken broilers against oral challenge with homologous and heterologous Salmonella serovars. A Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Dam− vaccine strain was attenuated for virulence in day-of-hatch chicks more than 100,000-fold. Vaccination of chicks elicited cross-protective immune responses, as evidenced by reduced colonization (10- to 10,000-fold) of the gastrointestinal tract (ileum, cecum, and feces) and visceral organs (bursa and spleen) after challenge with homologous (Typhimurium F98) and heterologous (Enteritidis 4973 and S. enterica O6,14,24: e,h-monophasic) Salmonella serovars that are implicated in Salmonella infection of poultry. The protection conferred was observed for the organ or the maximum CFU/tissue/bird as a unit of analysis, suggesting that Dam mutant strains may serve as the basis for the development of efficacious poultry vaccines for the containment of Salmonella. PMID:11705984

  16. Reducing social stress elicits emotional contagion of pain in mouse and human strangers.

    PubMed

    Martin, Loren J; Hathaway, Georgia; Isbester, Kelsey; Mirali, Sara; Acland, Erinn L; Niederstrasser, Nils; Slepian, Peter M; Trost, Zina; Bartz, Jennifer A; Sapolsky, Robert M; Sternberg, Wendy F; Levitin, Daniel J; Mogil, Jeffrey S

    2015-02-02

    Empathy for another's physical pain has been demonstrated in humans [1] and mice [2]; in both species, empathy is stronger between familiars. Stress levels in stranger dyads are higher than in cagemate dyads or isolated mice [2, 3], suggesting that stress might be responsible for the absence of empathy for the pain of strangers. We show here that blockade of glucocorticoid synthesis or receptors for adrenal stress hormones elicits the expression of emotional contagion (a form of empathy) in strangers of both species. Mice and undergraduates were tested for sensitivity to noxious stimulation alone and/or together (dyads). In familiar, but not stranger, pairs, dyadic testing was associated with increased pain behaviors or ratings compared to isolated testing. Pharmacological blockade of glucocorticoid synthesis or glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors enabled the expression of emotional contagion of pain in mouse and human stranger dyads, as did a shared gaming experience (the video game Rock Band) in human strangers. Our results demonstrate that emotional contagion is prevented, in an evolutionarily conserved manner, by the stress of a social interaction with an unfamiliar conspecific and can be evoked by blocking the endocrine stress response.

  17. Infection with diverse immune-modulating poxviruses elicits different compositional shifts in the mouse gut microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Hernáez, Bruno; Rastrojo, Alberto; Alcamí, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    It is often not possible to demonstrate causality within the context of gut microbiota dysbiosis-linked diseases. Thus, we need a better understanding of the mechanisms whereby an altered host immunophysiology shapes its resident microbiota. In this regard, immune-modulating poxvirus strains and mutants could differentially alter gut mucosal immunity in the context of a natural immune response, providing a controlled natural in vivo setting to deepen our understanding of the immune determinants of microbiome composition. This study represents a proof-of-concept that the use of an existing collection of different immune-modulating poxviruses may represent an innovative tool in gut microbiome research. To this end, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and RNAseq transcriptome profiling were employed as proxies for microbiota composition and gut immunophysiological status in the analysis of caecal samples from control mice and mice infected with various poxvirus types. Our results show that different poxvirus species and mutants elicit different shifts in the mice mucosa-associated microbiota and, in some instances, significant concomitant shifts in gut transcriptome profiles, thus providing an initial validation to the proposed model. PMID:28282449

  18. Modification of plasma membrane organization in tobacco cells elicited by cryptogein.

    PubMed

    Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia; Der, Christophe; Thomas, Dominique; Anca, Iulia-Andra; Grosjean, Kevin; Roche, Yann; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Mongrand, Sébastien; Simon-Plas, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Lipid mixtures within artificial membranes undergo a separation into liquid-disordered and liquid-ordered phases. However, the existence of this segregation into microscopic liquid-ordered phases has been difficult to prove in living cells, and the precise organization of the plasma membrane into such phases has not been elucidated in plant cells. We developed a multispectral confocal microscopy approach to generate ratiometric images of the plasma membrane surface of Bright Yellow 2 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension cells labeled with an environment sensitive fluorescent probe. This allowed the in vivo characterization of the global level of order of this membrane, by which we could demonstrate that an increase in its proportion of ordered phases transiently occurred in the early steps of the signaling triggered by cryptogein and flagellin, two elicitors of plant defense reactions. The use of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed an increase in plasma membrane fluidity induced by cryptogein, but not by flagellin. Moreover, we characterized the spatial distribution of liquid-ordered phases on the membrane of living plant cells and monitored their variations induced by cryptogein elicitation. We analyze these results in the context of plant defense signaling, discuss their meaning within the framework of the "membrane raft" hypothesis, and propose a new mechanism of signaling platform formation in response to elicitor treatment.

  19. In Vivo Visualization of Tumor Antigen-containing Microparticles Generated in Fluorescent-protein-elicited Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fei; Liu, Shun; Liu, Xiuli; Liu, Lei; Luo, Meijie; Qi, Shuhong; Xu, Guoqiang; Qiao, Sha; Lv, Xiaohua; Li, Xiangning; Fu, Ling; Luo, Qingming; Zhang, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    In vivo optical spatio-temporal imaging of the tumor microenvironment is useful to explain how tumor immunotherapies work. However, the lack of fluorescent antigens with strong immunogenicity makes it difficult to study the dynamics of how tumors are eliminated by any given immune response. Here, we develop an effective fluorescent model antigen based on the tetrameric far-red fluorescent protein KatushkaS158A (tfRFP), which elicits both humoral and cellular immunity. We use this fluorescent antigen to visualize the dynamic behavior of immunocytes as they attack and selectively eliminate tfRFP-expressing tumors in vivo; swarms of immunocytes rush toward tumors with high motility, clusters of immunocytes form quickly, and numerous antigen-antibody complexes in the form of tfRFP+ microparticles are generated in the tumor areas and ingested by macrophages in the tumor microenvironment. Therefore, tfRFP, as both a model antigen and fluorescent reporter, is a useful tool to visualize specific immune responses in vivo. PMID:27375792

  20. Snapchat elicits more jealousy than Facebook: a comparison of Snapchat and Facebook use.

    PubMed

    Utz, Sonja; Muscanell, Nicole; Khalid, Cameran

    2015-03-01

    Recent news in the media has suggested that younger people are using popular social media such as Facebook less and are quickly adopting newer media, such as the self-destructing app Snapchat. Snapchat is unique in that it erases messages several seconds after they have been sent, affording its users a higher level of privacy. Yet, little research exists on Snapchat use in general, let alone its broader psychological implications. This article offers a preliminary comparison of Snapchat and Facebook use and psychological effects on romantic jealousy. General motives for using Snapchat and Facebook are examined, as well as the nature of the content that Snapchat users most frequently share. Further, because of the differences in privacy and persistence of information, potential psychological effects in the domain of romantic jealousy are also examined, which has been widely studied on Facebook in the last few years. Findings show that the main difference in motives were that Snapchat was used more for flirting and finding new love interests, whereas Facebook was still the main social networking site used for keeping in touch with friends. Further, when presenting users with a series of potentially jealousy provoking scenarios, Snapchat elicited higher levels of jealousy than did Facebook. These findings are explained based on an affordance approach.

  1. Targeting CD47 and autophagy elicited enhanced antitumor effects in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuyao; Fan, Jiajun; Wang, Shaofei; Li, Yubin; Wang, Yichen; Li, Song; Luan, Jingyun; Wang, Ziyu; Song, Ping; Chen, Qicheng; Tian, Wenzhi; Ju, Dianwen

    2017-03-28

    CD47-specific antibodies and fusion proteins that block CD47-SIRPα signaling are employed as antitumor agents for several cancers. Here, we investigated the synergistic antitumor effect of simultaneously targeting CD47 and autophagy in NSCLC. SIRPαD1-Fc, a novel CD47-targeting fusion protein, was generated and was found to increase the phagocytic and cytotoxic activities of macrophages against NSCLC cells. During this process, autophagy was markedly triggered, which was characterized by the three main stages of autophagic flux. including formation and accumulation of autophagosomes, fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes, and degradation of autophagosomes in lysosomes. Meanwhile, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inactivation of mTOR were shown to be involved in autophagy initiation in SIRPαD1-Fc-treated cells, indicating a probable mechanism for autophagy activation after targeting CD47 by SIRPαD1-Fc. Inhibition of autophagy enhanced macrophage-mediated phagocytosis and cytotoxicity against SIRPαD1-Fc-treated NSCLC cells. In addition, simultaneously targeting both CD47 and autophagy in NSCLC xenograft models elicited enhanced antitumor effects, with recruitment of macrophages, activated caspase 3, and over-production of ROS at the tumor site. Our data elucidated the cytoprotective role of autophagy in CD47-targeted therapy and highlighted the potential approach for NSCLC treatment by simultaneously targeting CD47 and autophagy.

  2. Eliciting information from experts on the likelihood of rapid climate change.

    PubMed

    Arnell, Nigel W; Tompkins, Emma L; Adger, W Neil

    2005-12-01

    The threat of so-called rapid or abrupt climate change has generated considerable public interest because of its potentially significant impacts. The collapse of the North Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation or the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, for example, would have potentially catastrophic effects on temperatures and sea level, respectively. But how likely are such extreme climatic changes? Is it possible actually to estimate likelihoods? This article reviews the societal demand for the likelihoods of rapid or abrupt climate change, and different methods for estimating likelihoods: past experience, model simulation, or through the elicitation of expert judgments. The article describes a survey to estimate the likelihoods of two characterizations of rapid climate change, and explores the issues associated with such surveys and the value of information produced. The surveys were based on key scientists chosen for their expertise in the climate science of abrupt climate change. Most survey respondents ascribed low likelihoods to rapid climate change, due either to the collapse of the Thermohaline Circulation or increased positive feedbacks. In each case one assessment was an order of magnitude higher than the others. We explore a high rate of refusal to participate in this expert survey: many scientists prefer to rely on output from future climate model simulations.

  3. Translation elicits a growth rate-dependent, genome-wide, differential protein production in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, Olivier; Goelzer, Anne; Schaffer, Marc; Calabre, Magali; Mäder, Ulrike; Aymerich, Stéphane; Jules, Matthieu; Fromion, Vincent

    2016-05-17

    Complex regulatory programs control cell adaptation to environmental changes by setting condition-specific proteomes. In balanced growth, bacterial protein abundances depend on the dilution rate, transcript abundances and transcript-specific translation efficiencies. We revisited the current theory claiming the invariance of bacterial translation efficiency. By integrating genome-wide transcriptome datasets and datasets from a library of synthetic gfp-reporter fusions, we demonstrated that translation efficiencies in Bacillus subtilis decreased up to fourfold from slow to fast growth. The translation initiation regions elicited a growth rate-dependent, differential production of proteins without regulators, hence revealing a unique, hard-coded, growth rate-dependent mode of regulation. We combined model-based data analyses of transcript and protein abundances genome-wide and revealed that this global regulation is extensively used in B. subtilis We eventually developed a knowledge-based, three-step translation initiation model, experimentally challenged the model predictions and proposed that a growth rate-dependent drop in free ribosome abundance accounted for the differential protein production.

  4. Low self-esteem elicits greater mobilization of attentional resources toward emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Li, Haijiang; Yang, Juan

    2013-08-26

    Previous findings are generally consistent with the notion that individuals with low self-esteem tends to easily orient their attention on negative stimuli. The main objective of the present study was to further investigate the time course of attention deployment to positive (happy) and negative (angry) facial expressions in visual probe task using event-related potentials (ERP) technology in 15 high versus 15 low self-esteem participants while they viewed pairs of faces (e.g., happy face paired with neutral face or angry face paired with neutral face) shown for 500 ms and followed by a probe. Behavioral results showed that individuals with low self-esteem simply had faster manual reaction times on the entire task. ERP results showed that individuals with low self-esteem, but not high self-esteem, displayed increased P1 and N1 activity to both happy and angry facial expression. These findings suggest that emotional stimuli (angry faces and happy faces) elicited greater mobilization of attentional resources in individuals with low self-esteem.

  5. Extracellular calcium elicits a chemokinetic response from monocytes in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olszak, I. T.; Poznansky, M. C.; Evans, R. H.; Olson, D.; Kos, C.; Pollak, M. R.; Brown, E. M.; Scadden, D. T.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Recruitment of macrophages to sites of cell death is critical for induction of an immunologic response. Calcium concentrations in extracellular fluids vary markedly, and are particularly high at sites of injury or infection. We hypothesized that extracellular calcium participates in modulating the immune response, perhaps acting via the seven-transmembrane calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) on mature monocytes/macrophages. We observed a dose-dependent increase in monocyte chemotaxis in response to extracellular calcium or the selective allosteric CaR activator NPS R-467. In contrast, monocytes derived from mice deficient in CaR lacked the normal chemotactic response to a calcium gradient. Notably, CaR activation of monocytes bearing the receptor synergistically augmented the transmigration response of monocytes to the chemokine MCP-1 in association with increased cell-surface expression of its cognate receptor, CCR2. Conversely, stimulation of monocytes with MCP-1 or SDF-1alpha reciprocally increased CaR expression, suggesting a dual-enhancing interaction of Ca(2+) with chemokines in recruiting inflammatory cells. Subcutaneous administration in mice of Ca(2+), MCP-1, or (more potently) the combination of Ca(2+) and MCP-1, elicited an inflammatory infiltrate consisting of monocytes/macrophages. Thus extracellular calcium functions as an ionic chemokinetic agent capable of modulating the innate immune response in vivo and in vitro by direct and indirect actions on monocytic cells. Calcium deposition may be both consequence and cause of chronic inflammatory changes at sites of injury, infection, and atherosclerosis.

  6. The smell of death: evidence that putrescine elicits threat management mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wisman, Arnaud; Shrira, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to detect and respond to chemosensory threat cues in the environment plays a vital role in survival across species. However, little is known about which chemical compounds can act as olfactory threat signals in humans. We hypothesized that brief exposure to putrescine, a chemical compound produced by the breakdown of fatty acids in the decaying tissue of dead bodies, can function as a chemosensory warning signal, activating threat management responses (e.g., heightened alertness, fight-or-flight responses). This hypothesis was tested by gaging people’s responses to conscious and non-conscious exposure to putrescine. In Experiment 1, putrescine increased vigilance, as measured by a reaction time task. In Experiments 2 and 3, brief exposure to putrescine (vs. ammonia and a scentless control condition) prompted participants to walk away faster from the exposure site. Experiment 3 also showed that putrescine elicited implicit cognitions related to escape and threat. Experiment 4 found that exposure to putrescine, presented here below the threshold of conscious awareness, increased hostility toward an out-group member. Together, the results are the first to indicate that humans can process putrescine as a warning signal that mobilizes protective responses to deal with relevant threats. The implications of these results are briefly discussed. PMID:26379597

  7. Influence of fungal elicitation on glycyrrhizin production in transformed cell cultures of Abrus precatorius Linn

    PubMed Central

    Karwasara, Vijai Singh; Tomar, Priti; Dixit, Vinod K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Glycyrrhizin, obtained from Abrus precatorius (Indian liquorice), is a phytoconstituent of importance for pharmaceutical and food industries. Materials and Methods: High producing and fast growing cell lines of A. precatorius were developed by transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens for glycyrrhizin production. Its maximum transformation efficiency of 85% was obtained by infecting leaves with A. tumefaciens MTCC-431 supplemented with 50 μM acetosyringone. Thorough culture growth kinetics with sugar consumption profiles was established. Results: A twofold increase in glycyrrhizin productivity was obtained in transformed A. precatorius cell suspension cultures over the untransformed cultures. The fungal elicitors prepared from Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer were tested at different concentrations to enhance glycyrrhizin production in transformed cell suspension cultures of A. precatorius. Maximum enhancement of 4.9- and 3.8-fold in glycyrrhizin contents, were obtained with A. niger (7.5% v/v) and R. stolonifer (5.0% v/v), respectively, on the 5th day after elicitor treatment. Conclusion: This study indicates the prospective of the amalgamation of elicitation methodology with transformed cell cultures for the large-scale production of glycyrrhizin. PMID:22262933

  8. Glycol porphyrin derivatives and temoporfin elicit resistance to photodynamic therapy by different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kralova, Jarmila; Kolar, Michal; Kahle, Michal; Truksa, Jaroslav; Lettlova, Sandra; Balusikova, Kamila; Bartunek, Petr

    2017-03-15

    The development of drug resistance is a major problem which often occurs during anticancer chemotherapies. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been studied as an alternative treatment modality for drug-resistant tumors, however the question of resistance to PDT and potential cross-resistance with chemotherapy has yet to be fully answered. To investigate the mechanism of resistance to PDT, we developed an in vitro experimental model system in a mouse mammary carcinoma cell line 4T1. We used two ethylene glycol derivatives of tetraphenylporphyrin, and tetraphenylchlorin derivative, temoporfin, as photosensitizers (PS). PDT-resistant clones were obtained by exposure to a set concentration of PS followed by irradiation with increasing light doses. PDT resistance to soluble glycol porphyrins was mediated mainly by increased drug efflux through ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) as we demonstrated by specific ABCB1 knockdown experiments, which in turn rescued the sensitivity of resistant cells to PDT. In contrast, resistance raised to temoporfin, which is generally more lipophilic than glycol porphyrins, elicited mechanism based on sequestration of the drug to lysosomes. The resistance that is acquired from a particular PS could be overcome by using a different PS, which is not susceptible to the same mechanism(s) of resistance. Elucidation of the underlying mechanisms in various types of resistance might facilitate improvements in PDT treatment design.

  9. Legume-Rhizobium Interactions: Cowpea Root Exudate Elicits Faster Nodulation Response by Rhizobium Species

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwat, Arvind A.; Thomas, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    Preinfection events in legume-Rhizobium symbiosis were analyzed by studying the different nodulation behaviors of two rhizobial strains in cowpeas (Vigna sinensis). Log-phase cultures of Rhizobium sp. strain 1001, an isolate from the plant nodule, initiated host responses leading to infection within 2 h after inoculation, whereas log-phase cultures of Rhizobium sp. strain 32H1 took at least 7 h to trigger a discernible response. The delay observed with strain 32H1 could be eliminated by incubating the rhizobial suspension, before inoculation, for 4.5 h either in the cowpea rhizosphere/rhizoplane condition or in the root exudate of cowpea plants, grown without NH4+ in the rooting medium. The delay could not be eliminated by incubating the rhizobial suspension in the rooting medium of plants grown in the presence of 5 mM NH4+, indicating that there is a regulatory role of combined nitrogen in triggering preinfection events by the legume. The substance(s) in the root exudate which elicited the faster nodulation response by Rhizobium sp. strain 32H1 could be separated into a high-molecular-weight fraction by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. The data support the notion that legume roots release substances that favor the development of rhizobial features essential for infection and nodulation. PMID:16345989

  10. Eliciting Neutralizing Antibodies with gp120 Outer Domain Constructs Based on M-Group Consensus Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yali; Banasik, Marisa; Kim, SoonJeung; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Habte, Habtom H; Labranche, Celia; Montefiori, David C; Wang, Chong; Cho, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    One strategy being evaluated for HIV-1 vaccine development is focusing immune responses towards neutralizing epitopes on the gp120 outer domain (OD) by removing the immunodominant, but non-neutralizing, inner domain. Previous OD constructs have not elicited strong neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). We constructed two immunogens, a monomeric gp120-OD and a trimeric gp120-OD×3, based on an M group consensus sequence (MCON6). Their biochemical and immunological properties were compared with intact gp120. Results indicated better preservation of critical neutralizing epitopes on gp120-OD×3. In contrast to previous studies, our immunogens induced potent, cross-reactive nAbs in rabbits. Although nAbs primarily targeted Tier 1 viruses, they exhibited significant breadth. Epitope mapping analyses indicated that nAbs primarily targeted conserved V3 loop elements. Although the potency and breadth of nAbs were similar for all three immunogens, nAb induction kinetics indicated that gp120-OD×3 was superior to gp120-OD, suggesting that gp120-OD×3 is a promising prototype for further gp120 OD-based immunogen development. PMID:25046154

  11. Nitrosative stress elicited by nNOSµ delocalization inhibits muscle force in dystrophin-null mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Dejia; Yue, Yongping; Lai, Yi; Hakim, Chady H; Duan, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of force reduction is not completely understood in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a dystrophin-deficient lethal disease. Nitric oxide regulates muscle force. Interestingly, neuronal nitric oxide synthase µ (nNOSµ), a major source of muscle nitric oxide, is lost from the sarcolemma in DMD muscle. We hypothesize that nNOSµ delocalization contributes to force reduction in DMD. To test this hypothesis, we generated dystrophin/nNOSµ double knockout mice. Genetic elimination of nNOSµ significantly enhanced force in dystrophin-null mice. Pharmacological inhibition of nNOS yielded similar results. To further test our hypothesis, we studied δ-sarcoglycan-null mice, a model of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. These mice had minimal sarcolemmal nNOSµ delocalization and muscle force was less compromised. Annihilation of nNOSµ did not improve their force either. To determine whether nNOSµ delocalization itself inhibited force, we corrected muscle disease in dystrophin-null mice with micro-dystrophins that either restored or did not restore sarcolemmal nNOSµ. Similar muscle force was obtained irrespective of nNOSµ localization. Additional studies suggest that nNOSµ delocalization selectively inhibits muscle force in dystrophin-null mice via nitrosative stress. In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time that nitrosative stress elicited by nNOSµ delocalization is an important mechanism underlying force loss in DMD.

  12. Amphetamine-elicited striatal Fos expression is attenuated in neurotensin null mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Fadel, Jim; Dobner, Paul R; Deutch, Ariel Y

    2006-07-10

    Neurotensin (NT) has been suggested to interact with dopamine systems in different forebrain sites to exert both antipsychotic- and psychostimulant-like effects. We previously found that genetic or pharmacological manipulations that disrupt endogenous NT signaling attenuate antipsychotic drug-induced Fos expression in the dorsolateral and central striatum but not other striatal regions. To assess the role of NT in psychostimulant responses, we examined the ability of d-amphetamine (AMP) to induce Fos in wild-type and NT null mutant mice. AMP-elicited Fos expression was significantly attenuated in the medial striatum of NT null mutant mice, but was unaffected in other striatal territories. Similar results were obtained in rats and mice pretreated with the high affinity neurotensin receptor (NTR1) antagonist SR 48692. The effect of the NTR1 antagonist was particularly apparent in the striatal patch (striosome) compartment, as defined by mu-opioid receptor immunoreactivity. These data suggest that NT is required for the full activation by AMP of medial striatal neurons.

  13. Common problems in the elicitation and analysis of expert opinion affecting probabilistic safety assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.A.; Booker, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Expert opinion is frequently used in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), particularly in estimating low probability events. In this paper, we discuss some of the common problems encountered in eliciting and analyzing expert opinion data and offer solutions or recommendations. The problems are: that experts are not naturally Bayesian. People fail to update their existing information to account for new information as it becomes available, as would be predicted by the Bayesian philosophy; that experts cannot be fully calibrated. To calibrate experts, the feedback from the known quantities must be immediate, frequent, and specific to the task; that experts are limited in the number of things that they can mentally juggle at a time to 7 {plus minus} 2; that data gatherers and analysts can introduce bias by unintentionally causing an altering of the expert's thinking or answers; that the level of detail the data, or granularity, can affect the analyses; and the conditioning effect poses difficulties in gathering and analyzing of the expert data. The data that the expert gives can be conditioned on a variety of factors that can affect the analysis and the interpretation of the results. 31 refs.

  14. Intraneural stimulation elicits discrimination of textural features by artificial fingertip in intact and amputee humans

    PubMed Central

    Oddo, Calogero Maria; Raspopovic, Stanisa; Artoni, Fiorenzo; Mazzoni, Alberto; Spigler, Giacomo; Petrini, Francesco; Giambattistelli, Federica; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Zollo, Loredana; Di Pino, Giovanni; Camboni, Domenico; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Faraguna, Ugo; Micera, Silvestro

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of touch after hand amputation is a desirable feature of ideal prostheses. Here, we show that texture discrimination can be artificially provided in human subjects by implementing a neuromorphic real-time mechano-neuro-transduction (MNT), which emulates to some extent the firing dynamics of SA1 cutaneous afferents. The MNT process was used to modulate the temporal pattern of electrical spikes delivered to the human median nerve via percutaneous microstimulation in four intact subjects and via implanted intrafascicular stimulation in one transradial amputee. Both approaches allowed the subjects to reliably discriminate spatial coarseness of surfaces as confirmed also by a hybrid neural model of the median nerve. Moreover, MNT-evoked EEG activity showed physiologically plausible responses that were superimposable in time and topography to the ones elicited by a natural mechanical tactile stimulation. These findings can open up novel opportunities for sensory restoration in the next generation of neuro-prosthetic hands. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09148.001 PMID:26952132

  15. Quinidine elicits proarrhythmic changes in ventricular repolarization and refractoriness in guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Osadchii, Oleg E

    2013-04-01

    Quinidine is a class Ia Na(+) channel blocker that prolongs cardiac repolarization owing to the inhibition of I(Kr), the rapid component of the delayed rectifier current. Although quinidine may induce proarrhythmia, the contributing mechanisms remain incompletely understood. This study examined whether quinidine may set proarrhythmic substrate by inducing spatiotemporal abnormalities in repolarization and refractoriness. The monophasic action potential duration (APD), effective refractory periods (ERPs), and volume-conducted electrocardiograms (ECGs) were assessed in perfused guinea-pig hearts. Quinidine was found to produce the reverse rate-dependent prolongation of ventricular repolarization, which contributed to increased steepness of APD restitution. Throughout the epicardium, quinidine elicited a greater APD increase in the left ventricular chamber compared with the right ventricle, thereby enhancing spatial repolarization heterogeneities. Quinidine prolonged APD to a greater extent than ERP, thus extending the vulnerable window for ventricular re-excitation. This change was attributed to increased triangulation of epicardial action potential because of greater APD lengthening at 90% repolarization than at 30% repolarization. Over the transmural plane, quinidine evoked a greater ERP prolongation at endocardium than epicardium and increased dispersion of refractoriness. Premature ectopic beats and monomorphic ventricular tachycardia were observed in 50% of quinidine-treated heart preparations. In summary, abnormal changes in repolarization and refractoriness contribute greatly to proarrhythmic substrate upon quinidine infusion.

  16. Admissibility and per se exclusion of hypnotically elicited recall in American courts of law.

    PubMed

    Perry, C

    1997-07-01

    State v. Mack (1980) ruled that hypnotically elicited testimony is per se excluded from Minnesota law courts; this court also ruled that police could employ hypnosis in an attempt to construct an independently corroborated case. In recent years, there have been moves to rescind this exclusion; this raises a question of the probative value of such additional information when it is uncorroborated. This situation is compared with that of the polygraph as an index of deception: Like hypnosis, it is excluded per se in most American jurisdictions. Some legal decisions in Wisconsin are used to illustrate one alternative to the per se exclusion approach. Admissibility of scientific evidence in American courts of law has been based on a criterion of "general acceptability within the relevant scientific community," as first elucidated in Frye v. United States (1923). Recently, the U.S. Supreme Court overturned the Frye decision in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (1993), by making general acceptability but one of several admissibility criteria. Three Daubert-based decisions, one involving hypnosis and all concerned with "recovered repressed memories," indicate some problems in law posed by Daubert.

  17. Feasibility of using a humanoid robot to elicit communicational response in children with mild autism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Norjasween Abdul; Shamsuddin, Syamimi; Yussof, Hanafiah; Azfar Miskam, Mohd; Che Hamid, Aminullah

    2013-12-01

    Research evidences are accumulating with regards to the potential use of robots for the rehabilitation of children with autism. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the results of communicational response in two children with autism during interaction with the humanoid robot NAO. Both autistic subjects in this study have been diagnosed with mild autism. Following the outcome from our first pilot study; the aim of this current experiment is to explore the application of NAO robot to engage with a child and further teach about emotions through a game-centered and song-based approach. The experiment procedure involved interaction between humanoid robot NAO with each child through a series of four different modules. The observation items are based on ten items selected and referenced to GARS-2 (Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-second edition) and also input from clinicians and therapists. The results clearly indicated that both of the children showed optimistic response through the interaction. Negative responses such as feeling scared or shying away from the robot were not detected. Two-way communication between the child and robot in real time significantly gives positive impact in the responses towards the robot. To conclude, it is feasible to include robot-based interaction specifically to elicit communicational response as a part of the rehabilitation intervention of children with autism.

  18. Optimizing elicitation and seed priming to enrich broccoli and radish sprouts in glucosinolates.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Villaño, Debora; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-08-01

    Elicitation is a cheaper and socially acceptable tool for improving plant food functionality. Our objective was to optimize the treatment doses of the elicitors: methyl jasmonate (MeJA), jasmonic acid (JA) and DL-methionine (MET), in order to find a successful and feasible treatment to produce broccoli and radish sprouts with enhanced levels of health-promoting glucosinolates. Also a priming of seeds as a novel strategy to trigger the glucosinolates content was carried out with water (control), MeJA (250μM), JA (250μM) and MET (10mM) before the elicitor exogenous treatment. The results showed that almost all treatments could enhance effectively the total glucosinolates content in the sprouts, achieving the most significant increases from 34% to 100% of increase in broccoli and from 45% to 118% of increase in radish sprouts after MeJA priming and treatments. Consequently, our work demonstrates the feasibility of using elicitors, such as plant stress hormones, by priming and exogenously, as a way of increase the phytochemical profile of these sprouts to enhance their consumption in the diet.

  19. Re-live and learn - Interlocutor-induced elicitation of phenomenal experiences in learning offline.

    PubMed

    Schilhab, Theresa

    2015-12-01

    Contemporary neuroscience studies propose that sensory-motor experiences in the form of 're-enactments' or 'simulations' are significant to the individual's development of concepts and language use. To a certain extent, such studies align with non-Cartesian perspectives on situated cognition. Since perceptual activity is reflected neurally, however, the neural perspective of experiences and re-enactments allows us to distinguish between online and offline conditions within situated cognition, thereby addressing the extent to which direct experiences contribute to a particular learning episode. Whereas online situated cognition reflects the 'traditional' 4e's (minds as embodied, embedded, enacted, and extended) and focus is on cognitive processes confined to the individual, offline situated cognition introduces Others as significant contributors to cognitive processes in the individual. In this paper, I analyse how offline situated cognition entails a hitherto underdescribed but radical receptivity to the social world that works through language. Based on the unfolding of how we acquire the concepts of mental states as part of theory of mind, I establish that in the hands of interlocutors, words cultivate minds by first eliciting phenomenal sensations and then facilitating an association of these to experiences that originate with a different phenomenal content. Thus, I conclude both that phenomenal experiences online are central to conceptual learning offline through re-enactions and that Others are profoundly essential in forming cognising Selves.

  20. Short and long latency jaw-opening reflex responses elicited by mechanical stimulation in man.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Y; Stohler, C S; Shimada, K; Ash, M M

    1985-01-01

    Jaw-opening reflex responses elicited by tapping the chin during maximum clenching in incisal edge-to-edge contact position were studied in 10 healthy subjects. Stimuli were also delivered during weak clenching on a rubber stamp, separating the incisors by approx. 10 mm and protruding the mandible to the edge-to-edge incisor relationship. All four central incisors were stimulated simultaneously. With weak stimuli, there was a short-latency (9.5 ms) digastric response which may have had a disynaptic pathway. Taps of moderate strength produced long-latency (20 ms) responses, and sometimes a short-latency (9.5 ms) component as well. Strong (non-painful) taps produced an even longer-latency digastric response, 30 ms or more following the stimulus with less synchronization than earlier responses. Jaw-jerk reflexes occurred 8.5 ms following the tap, independently of the magnitude of the stimulus. Local anaesthesia of the upper and lower incisors abolished the digastric muscle response. Thus large periodontal afferents may be responsible for the early digastric reflex activity and smaller fibres for later effects. Temporal summation of the reflex response probably occurred when all incisors were stimulated simultaneously.