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Sample records for 1-30 micrograms kg-1

  1. Estradiol: micrograms or milligrams

    PubMed Central

    Wickramasuriya, Nalin; Shaw, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    Summary Estrogen is used to induce puberty in peripubertal girls with hypogonadism. Although both synthetic and natural forms are available, along with different routes of administration, in the UK oral ethinyl estradiol and the low-dose oral contraceptive pill are commonly used as hormone replacement therapy for practical reasons. We present five peripubertal girls (aged 12.5–14.9 years) with hypogonadism (two with primary hypogonadism due to Turner syndrome and three with central (secondary) hypogonadism as part of multiple pituitary hormone deficiency) who for a variety of reasons have received milligram doses of estradiol (E2) in error for between 6 weeks and 6 months, instead of the expected microgram doses of ethinyl estradiol. Although there are no direct comparisons in peripubertal girls between synthetic and natural estrogens, all girls had vaginal bleeding whilst receiving the milligram doses and have ended up with reduced final heights, below the 9th centile in 1 and below the 2nd centile in 4. Whilst reduction in final height may be part of the underlying condition (especially in Turner syndrome) the two girls with height predictions performed prior to receiving the estrogen overdose have not achieved their predicted height. Estrogen is one of the few drugs which is available in both milligram and microgram formulations. Clinicians need to be alert to the possibility of patients receiving the wrong formulation and dosage in error. Learning points Girls with primary and secondary gonadal failure require assistance with pubertal induction. Although several different formulations and route of administration are available, for practical reasons, the majority of girls in the UK receive oral ethinyl estradiol. Estrogen preparations are available in both milligram and microgram formulations, with potential for receiving the wrong dose. Girls receiving milligram rather than microgram preparations all had vaginal bleeding and a short final height. PMID

  2. Effects of 180 micrograms and 250 micrograms norgestimate on pituitary-ovarian function and cervical mucus.

    PubMed

    Eyong, E; Buchi, K; Elstein, M

    1988-11-01

    A double-blind cross-over study of 16 healthy women was carried out to evaluate the effects of norgestimate, a new progestogen, on pituitary ovarian function and cervical mucus. Treatment from cycle day 7 to 16 with 180 micrograms and 250 micrograms norgestimate led to suppression of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels, while progesterone (P) remained suppressed in 28 of 32 cycles studied, indicating inhibition of ovulation. Lack of ovulation in 30 cycles was associated in all but 3 with functional follicles, 2 of which luteinized. With 250 micrograms norgestimate, estradiol (E2) concentrations reached levels similar to those achieved during control follicular phase, but significantly higher concentrations of E2 were achieved with 180 micrograms norgestimate. Cervical mucus score was significantly depressed in all but 5 cycles (3 norgestimate 180 micrograms and 2 norgestimate 250 micrograms cycles). In conclusion, both dosages of norgestimate show good suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and cervical mucus.

  3. Reevaluation of interpretive criteria for Haemophilus influenzae by using meropenem (10-microgram), imipenem (10-microgram), and ampicillin (2- and 10-microgram) disks.

    PubMed Central

    Zerva, L; Biedenbach, D J; Jones, R N

    1996-01-01

    A collection of 300 Haemophilus influenzae clinical strains was used to assess in vitro susceptibility to carbapenems (meropenem, imipenem) by MIC and disk diffusion methods and to compare disk diffusion test results with two potencies of ampicillin disks (2 and 10 micrograms). The isolates included ampicillin-susceptible or- intermediate (167 strains), beta-lactamase-positive (117 strains), and beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR; 16 strains) organisms. Disk diffusion testing was performed with 10-micrograms meropenem disks from two manufacturers. Meropenem was highly active against H. influenzae strains (MIC50, 0.06 microgram/ml; MIC90, 0.25 microgram/ml; MIC50 and MIC90, MICs at which 50 and 90%, respectively, of strains are inhibited) and was 8- to 16-fold more potent than imipenem (MIC50, 1 microgram/ml; MIC90, 2 micrograms/ml). Five non-imipenem-susceptible strains were identified (MIC, 8 micrograms/ml), but the disk diffusion test indicated susceptibility (zone diameters, 18 to 21 mm). MIC values of meropenem, doxycycline, ceftazidime, and ceftriaxone for BLNAR strains were two- to fourfold greater than those for other strains. The performance of both meropenem disks was comparable and considered acceptable. A single susceptible interpretive zone diameter of > or = 17 mm (MIC, < = or 4 micrograms/ml) was proposed for meropenem. Testing with the 2-micrograms ampicillin disk was preferred because of an excellent correlation between MIC values and zone diameters (r = 0.94) and superior interpretive accuracy with the susceptible criteria at > or = 17 mm (MIC, < or = 1 microgram/ml) and the resistant criteria at < or = 13 mm (MIC, > or = 4 micrograms/ml). Among the BLNAR strains tested, 81.3% were miscategorized as susceptible or intermediate when the 10-micrograms ampicillin disk was used, while the 2-micrograms disk produced only minor interpretive errors (12.5%). Use of these criteria for testing H. influenzae against meropenem and ampicillin

  4. Bacterial treatment of alkaline cement kiln dust using Bacillus halodurans strain KG1

    PubMed Central

    Kunal; Rajor, Anita; Siddique, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate an acid-producing, alkaliphilic bacterium to reduce the alkalinity of cement industry waste (cement kiln dust). Gram-positive isolate KG1 grew well at pH values of 6–12, temperatures of 28–50 °C, and NaCl concentrations of 0–16% and thus was further screened for its potential to reduce the pH of an alkaline medium. Phenotypic characteristics of the KG1 isolate were consistent with those of the genus Bacillus, and the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497 (94.7%). On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness from other phylogenetic neighbors belonging to alkaliphilic Bacillus species, the isolated strain was designated B. halodurans strain KG1, with GenBank accession number JQ307184 (= NCIM 5439). Isolate KG1 reduced the alkalinity (by 83.64%) and the chloride content (by 86.96%) of cement kiln dust and showed a potential to be used in the cement industry for a variety of applications. PMID:26887220

  5. Bacterial treatment of alkaline cement kiln dust using Bacillus halodurans strain KG1.

    PubMed

    Kunal; Rajor, Anita; Siddique, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate an acid-producing, alkaliphilic bacterium to reduce the alkalinity of cement industry waste (cement kiln dust). Gram-positive isolate KG1 grew well at pH values of 6-12, temperatures of 28-50°C, and NaCl concentrations of 0-16% and thus was further screened for its potential to reduce the pH of an alkaline medium. Phenotypic characteristics of the KG1 isolate were consistent with those of the genus Bacillus, and the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497 (94.7%). On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness from other phylogenetic neighbors belonging to alkaliphilic Bacillus species, the isolated strain was designated B. halodurans strain KG1, with GenBank accession number JQ307184 (= NCIM 5439). Isolate KG1 reduced the alkalinity (by 83.64%) and the chloride content (by 86.96%) of cement kiln dust and showed a potential to be used in the cement industry for a variety of applications.

  6. Bacterial treatment of alkaline cement kiln dust using Bacillus halodurans strain KG1.

    PubMed

    Kunal; Rajor, Anita; Siddique, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate an acid-producing, alkaliphilic bacterium to reduce the alkalinity of cement industry waste (cement kiln dust). Gram-positive isolate KG1 grew well at pH values of 6-12, temperatures of 28-50°C, and NaCl concentrations of 0-16% and thus was further screened for its potential to reduce the pH of an alkaline medium. Phenotypic characteristics of the KG1 isolate were consistent with those of the genus Bacillus, and the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497 (94.7%). On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness from other phylogenetic neighbors belonging to alkaliphilic Bacillus species, the isolated strain was designated B. halodurans strain KG1, with GenBank accession number JQ307184 (= NCIM 5439). Isolate KG1 reduced the alkalinity (by 83.64%) and the chloride content (by 86.96%) of cement kiln dust and showed a potential to be used in the cement industry for a variety of applications. PMID:26887220

  7. Augmented sensitivity to methotrexate by curcumin induced overexpression of folate receptor in KG-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, Sugapriya; Biswal, Bijesh K; Sumantran, Venil N; Verma, Rama S

    2013-08-01

    Folate receptors are targets of various strategies aimed at efficient delivery of anti-cancer drugs. Folate receptors also play a role in the uptake of antifolate drugs which are used for therapeutic intervention in leukemia. Therefore, it is important to identify compounds which regulate expression of folate receptors in leukemic cells. The present study examined if curcumin could modulate the uptake and cytotoxicity of the antifolate drug methotrexate, in KG-1 leukemic cells. This is the first report to show that curcumin (10-50 μM) causes a significant, dose-dependent, 2-3 fold increase in uptake of radiolabelled folic acid and methotrexate into KG-1 cells both at 24 h and 48 h of treatment. Interestingly, pre-treatment of KG-1 leukemic cells with curcumin (10 μM and 25 μM) also caused a statistically significant enhancement in the cytotoxicity of methotrexate. We performed Real Time Quantitative RT-PCR to confirm the upregulation of FRβ mRNA in curcumin treated cells. Immunocytochemistry and Western blotting showed that curcumin caused increased expression of folate receptor βin KG-1 cells. Our data show that the mechanism of curcumin action involves up-regulation of folate receptor β mRNA and protein in KG-1 cells. Therefore, combination of non-toxic concentrations of curcumin and methotrexate, may be a viable strategy for therapeutic intervention for leukemias using a folate receptor-targeted drug delivery system. PMID:23624207

  8. Effects of the combination of decitabine and homoharringtonine in SKM-1 and Kg-1a cells.

    PubMed

    Geng, Suxia; Yao, Han; Weng, Jianyu; Tong, Jiaqi; Huang, Xin; Wu, Ping; Deng, Chengxin; Li, Minming; Lu, Zesheng; Du, Xin

    2016-05-01

    The methylation inhibitor decitabine (DAC) has great therapeutic value for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, DAC monotherapy is associated with relatively low rates of overall response and complete remission. Previous studies have shown promising results for combination treatment regimens including DAC. Homoharringtonine (HHT), an alkaloid from Chinese natural plants and Cephalotaxus, has demonstrated potential for leukemia treatment. Our studies have suggested that the combination of DAC and HHT has synergistic effects for inhibiting the viability of SKM-1 and Kg-1a cells. This combination leads to enhanced inhibition of colony formation and apoptosis induction compared with DAC alone in SKM-1 but not Kg-1a cells. Only high-dose DAC and HHT significantly up-regulate caspase-3 and caspase-9 and inhibit BCL-XL in the SKM-1 cell line. The combined effects of DAC plus HHT on apoptosis may not only depend on regulation of the apoptosis-related genes we examined but others as well. HHT had no demethylation effects, and HHT in combination with DAC had no enhanced effects on hypomethylation and DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B mRNA expression in SKM-1 cells. Overall, these results suggest that DAC used in combination with HHT may have clinical potential for MDS treatment.

  9. Calcium kinetics with microgram stable isotope doses and saliva sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Wastney, M. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C. Y.; Wiesmann, H.; Nillen, J. L.; Lane, H. W.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of calcium kinetics require administration of tracer doses of calcium and subsequent repeated sampling of biological fluids. This study was designed to develop techniques that would allow estimation of calcium kinetics by using small (micrograms) doses of isotopes instead of the more common large (mg) doses to minimize tracer perturbation of the system and reduce cost, and to explore the use of saliva sampling as an alternative to blood sampling. Subjects received an oral dose (133 micrograms) of 43Ca and an i.v. dose (7.7 micrograms) of 46Ca. Isotopic enrichment in blood, urine, saliva and feces was well above thermal ionization mass spectrometry measurement precision up to 170 h after dosing. Fractional calcium absorptions determined from isotopic ratios in blood, urine and saliva were similar. Compartmental modeling revealed that kinetic parameters determined from serum or saliva data were similar, decreasing the necessity for blood samples. It is concluded from these results that calcium kinetics can be assessed with micrograms doses of stable isotopes, thereby reducing tracer costs and with saliva samples, thereby reducing the amount of blood needed.

  10. Radiocarbon dating organic residues at the microgram level

    SciTech Connect

    Kirner, D.L.; Burky, R.; Taylor, R.E.; Southon, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Relation between submilligram sample size and {sup 14}C activity for sample blanks (wood from Pliocene sediments) and a contemporary standard (oxalic acid) for catalytically reduced graphitic carbon was examined down to 20 micrograms. Mean age of the 1 mg wood sample blanks is now about 51.3 ka (0.168 pMC) while the mean for 20 microgram sample blanks is about 42.9 ka. So far, the lowest value for a 1-mg wood sample blank is about 60.5 ka (0.056 pMC). We have determined a mean {sup 14}C age of about 9.4 ka from a suite of 7 organic extracts from hair, bone, and matting from a mummified human skeleton from Spirit Cave, Nevada. These data indicate that the Spirit Cave human is the third, oldest directly-dated, human skeleton currently known from North America.

  11. 40 CFR 86.112-91 - Weighing chamber (or room) and microgram balance specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... microgram balance specifications. 86.112-91 Section 86.112-91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... chamber (or room) and microgram balance specifications. (a) Ambient conditions—(1) Temperature. The... filters shall be the same size and material as the sample filters. (b) Microgram balance...

  12. 40 CFR 86.112-91 - Weighing chamber (or room) and microgram balance specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... microgram balance specifications. 86.112-91 Section 86.112-91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... chamber (or room) and microgram balance specifications. (a) Ambient conditions—(1) Temperature. The... filters shall be the same size and material as the sample filters. (b) Microgram balance...

  13. 40 CFR 86.112-91 - Weighing chamber (or room) and microgram balance specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... microgram balance specifications. 86.112-91 Section 86.112-91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... chamber (or room) and microgram balance specifications. (a) Ambient conditions—(1) Temperature. The... filters shall be the same size and material as the sample filters. (b) Microgram balance...

  14. 40 CFR 86.112-91 - Weighing chamber (or room) and microgram balance specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... microgram balance specifications. 86.112-91 Section 86.112-91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... chamber (or room) and microgram balance specifications. (a) Ambient conditions—(1) Temperature. The... filters shall be the same size and material as the sample filters. (b) Microgram balance...

  15. 40 CFR 86.112-91 - Weighing chamber (or room) and microgram balance specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... microgram balance specifications. 86.112-91 Section 86.112-91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... chamber (or room) and microgram balance specifications. (a) Ambient conditions—(1) Temperature. The... filters shall be the same size and material as the sample filters. (b) Microgram balance...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1312-88 - Weighing chamber and microgram balance specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weighing chamber and microgram balance... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1312-88 Weighing chamber and microgram balance specifications. (a) Ambient... reference filters shall be the same size and material as the sample filters. (b) Weighing...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1312-88 - Weighing chamber and microgram balance specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weighing chamber and microgram balance... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1312-88 Weighing chamber and microgram balance specifications. (a) Ambient... reference filters shall be the same size and material as the sample filters. (b) Weighing...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1312-88 - Weighing chamber and microgram balance specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weighing chamber and microgram balance... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1312-88 Weighing chamber and microgram balance specifications. (a) Ambient... reference filters shall be the same size and material as the sample filters. (b) Weighing...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1312-88 - Weighing chamber and microgram balance specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weighing chamber and microgram balance... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1312-88 Weighing chamber and microgram balance specifications. (a) Ambient... reference filters shall be the same size and material as the sample filters. (b) Weighing...

  20. Mass by Energy Loss Quantitation as a Practical Sub-Microgram Balance

    SciTech Connect

    Palmblad, M; Bench, G; Vogel, J S

    2004-09-28

    A simple device integrating a thin film support and a standard microcentrifuge tube can be used for making solutions of accurately known concentration of any organic compound in a single step, avoiding serial dilution and the use of microgram balances. Nanogram to microgram quantities of organic material deposited on the thin film are quantified by ion energy loss and transferred to the microcentrifuge tube with high recovery.

  1. Salinomycin overcomes ABC transporter-mediated multidrug and apoptosis resistance in human leukemia stem cell-like KG-1a cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Dominik; Daniel, Volker; Sadeghi, Mahmoud; Opelz, Gerhard; Naujokat, Cord

    2010-04-16

    Leukemia stem cells are known to exhibit multidrug resistance by expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters which constitute transmembrane proteins capable of exporting a wide variety of chemotherapeutic drugs from the cytosol. We show here that human promyeloblastic leukemia KG-1a cells exposed to the histone deacetylase inhibitor phenylbutyrate resemble many characteristics of leukemia stem cells, including expression of functional ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein, BCRP and MRP8. Consequently, KG-1a cells display resistance to the induction of apoptosis by various chemotherapeutic drugs. Resistance to apoptosis induction by chemotherapeutic drugs can be reversed by cyclosporine A, which effectively inhibits the activity of P-glycoprotein and BCRP, thus demonstrating ABC transporter-mediated drug resistance in KG-1a cells. However, KG-1a are highly sensitive to apoptosis induction by salinomycin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic that has recently been shown to kill human breast cancer stem cell-like cells and to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells displaying multiple mechanisms of drug and apoptosis resistance. Whereas KG-1a cells can be adapted to proliferate in the presence of apoptosis-inducing concentrations of bortezomib and doxorubicin, salinomycin does not permit long-term adaptation of the cells to apoptosis-inducing concentrations. Thus, salinomycin should be regarded as a novel and effective agent for the elimination of leukemia stem cells and other tumor cells exhibiting ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance.

  2. 76 FR 19997 - Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet, 300 Micrograms, Was Not Withdrawn...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet... determined that FENTORA (fentanyl citrate) buccal tablet, 300 micrograms (mcg), was not withdrawn from sale... drug applications (ANDAs) for fentanyl citrate buccal tablet, 300 mcg, if all other legal...

  3. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of microgram quantities of copper in tea after solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Aziz-Alrahman, A M

    1985-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectrophotometric method is described for determining trace amounts of copper in tea. The method is based on the solvent extraction of the metal as tetraiodocuprate (I), from 2 M HCl solutions of tea samples which contain 12% (w/v) KI, into methylisobutyl ketone. The organic extracts, containing the ion-association complex of copper are atomized into an air-acetylene flame. The limit of detection is 1.14 micrograms g-1 Cu. PMID:4077371

  4. Consequences of combining siRNA-mediated DNA methyltransferase 1 depletion with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine in human leukemic KG1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Vispé, Stéphane; Deroide, Arthur; Davoine, Emeline; Desjobert, Cécile; Lestienne, Fabrice; Fournier, Lucie; Novosad, Natacha; Bréand, Sophie; Besse, Jérôme; Busato, Florence; Tost, Jörg; De Vries, Luc; Cussac, Didier; Riond, Joëlle; Arimondo, Paola B.

    2015-01-01

    5-azacytidine and 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine are clinically used to treat patients with blood neoplasia. Their antileukemic property is mediated by the trapping and the subsequent degradation of a family of proteins, the DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B) leading to DNA demethylation, tumor suppressor gene re-expression and DNA damage. Here we studied the respective role of each DNMT in the human leukemia KG1 cell line using a RNA interference approach. In addition we addressed the role of DNA damage formation in DNA demethylation by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. Our data show that DNMT1 is the main DNMT involved in DNA methylation maintenance in KG1 cells and in mediating DNA damage formation upon exposure to 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. Moreover, KG1 cells express the DNMT1 protein at a level above the one required to ensure DNA methylation maintenance, and we identified a threshold for DNMT1 depletion that needs to be exceeded to achieve DNA demethylation. Most interestingly, by combining DNMT1 siRNA and treatment with low dose of 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, it is possible to uncouple DNA damage formation from DNA demethylation. This work strongly suggests that a direct pharmacological inhibition of DNMT1, unlike the use of 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, should lead to tumor suppressor gene hypomethylation and re-expression without inducing major DNA damage in leukemia. PMID:25948775

  5. Preparation of microgram quantities of carrier-free iodine for AMS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiou, Françoise; Diel, Karl; Martin, François-Xavier; Raisbeck, Grant

    2000-10-01

    We report a procedure for the carrier-free extraction of microgram quantities of iodine for AMS measurements. The procedure relies on the affinity of molecular iodine for silver. Thus, by forming molecular iodine in aqueous solution and adding silver powder, the iodine reacts with the silver, which can then be loaded into a cathode of the normal AMS sputter ion source. Although the procedure was developed for seawater, it can be applied to any sample in which the iodine can be brought into aqueous solution.

  6. X-ray analysis on the nanogram to microgram scale using porous complexes.

    PubMed

    Inokuma, Yasuhide; Yoshioka, Shota; Ariyoshi, Junko; Arai, Tatsuhiko; Hitora, Yuki; Takada, Kentaro; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Rissanen, Kari; Fujita, Makoto

    2013-03-28

    X-ray single-crystal diffraction (SCD) analysis has the intrinsic limitation that the target molecules must be obtained as single crystals. Here we report a protocol for SCD analysis that does not require the crystallization of the sample. In our method, tiny crystals of porous complexes are soaked in a solution of the target, such that the complexes can absorb the target molecules. Crystallographic analysis clearly determines the absorbed guest structures along with the host frameworks. Because the SCD analysis is carried out on only one tiny crystal of the complex, the required sample mass is of the nanogram-microgram order. We demonstrate that as little as about 80 nanograms of a sample is enough for the SCD analysis. In combination with high-performance liquid chromatography, our protocol allows the direct characterization of multiple fractions, establishing a prototypical means of liquid chromatography SCD analysis. Furthermore, we unambiguously determined the structure of a scarce marine natural product using only 5 micrograms of the compound.

  7. Proteomic Challenges: Sample Preparation Techniques for Microgram-Quantity Protein Analysis from Biological Samples

    PubMed Central

    Feist, Peter; Hummon, Amanda B.

    2015-01-01

    Proteins regulate many cellular functions and analyzing the presence and abundance of proteins in biological samples are central focuses in proteomics. The discovery and validation of biomarkers, pathways, and drug targets for various diseases can be accomplished using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. However, with mass-limited samples like tumor biopsies, it can be challenging to obtain sufficient amounts of proteins to generate high-quality mass spectrometric data. Techniques developed for macroscale quantities recover sufficient amounts of protein from milligram quantities of starting material, but sample losses become crippling with these techniques when only microgram amounts of material are available. To combat this challenge, proteomicists have developed micro-scale techniques that are compatible with decreased sample size (100 μg or lower) and still enable excellent proteome coverage. Extraction, contaminant removal, protein quantitation, and sample handling techniques for the microgram protein range are reviewed here, with an emphasis on liquid chromatography and bottom-up mass spectrometry-compatible techniques. Also, a range of biological specimens, including mammalian tissues and model cell culture systems, are discussed. PMID:25664860

  8. Amino acid analysis in micrograms of meteorite sample by nanoliquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Michael P; Martin, Mildred G; Burton, Aaron S; Glavin, Daniel P; Dworkin, Jason P

    2014-03-01

    Amino acids and their enantiomers in a 360 microgram sample of Murchison meteorite were unambiguously identified and quantified using chemical derivatization and nanoliquid chromatography coupled to nanoelectrospray ionization high resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry techniques. The distribution and abundance of amino acids were similar to past studies of Murchison meteorite but the samples used here were three orders of magnitude lower. The analytical method was also highly sensitive, and some amino acid reference standards were successfully detected at a level of ∼200 attomoles (on column). These results may open up the possibility for investigating other less studied, sample-limited extraterrestrial samples (e.g., micrometeorites, interplanetary dust particles, and cometary particles) for biologically-relevant organic molecules. PMID:24529954

  9. Amino acid analysis in micrograms of meteorite sample by nanoliquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Michael P; Martin, Mildred G; Burton, Aaron S; Glavin, Daniel P; Dworkin, Jason P

    2014-03-01

    Amino acids and their enantiomers in a 360 microgram sample of Murchison meteorite were unambiguously identified and quantified using chemical derivatization and nanoliquid chromatography coupled to nanoelectrospray ionization high resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry techniques. The distribution and abundance of amino acids were similar to past studies of Murchison meteorite but the samples used here were three orders of magnitude lower. The analytical method was also highly sensitive, and some amino acid reference standards were successfully detected at a level of ∼200 attomoles (on column). These results may open up the possibility for investigating other less studied, sample-limited extraterrestrial samples (e.g., micrometeorites, interplanetary dust particles, and cometary particles) for biologically-relevant organic molecules.

  10. Transfer Partial Molar Isentropic Compressibilities of ( l-Alanine/ l-Glutamine/Glycylglycine) from Water to 0.512 {mol} \\cdot {kg}^{-1} Aqueous {KNO}3/0.512 {mol} \\cdot {kg}^{-1} Aqueous {K}2{SO}4 Solutions Between 298.15 K and 323.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riyazuddeen; Gazal, Umaima

    2013-03-01

    Speeds of sound of ( l-alanine/ l-glutamine/glycylglycine + 0.512 {mol}\\cdot {kg}^{-1} aqueous {KNO}3/0.512 {mol}\\cdot {kg}^{-1} aqueous {K}2{SO}4) systems have been measured for several molal concentrations of amino acid/peptide at different temperatures: T = (298.15 to 323.15) K. Using the speed-of-sound and density data, the parameters, partial molar isentropic compressibilities φ _{kappa }0 and transfer partial molar isentropic compressibilities Δ _{tr} φ _{kappa }0, have been computed. The trends of variation of φ _{kappa }0 and Δ _{tr} φ _{kappa }0 with changes in molal concentration of the solute and temperature have been discussed in terms of zwitterion-ion, zwitterion-water dipole, ion-water dipole, and ion-ion interactions operative in the systems.

  11. Comparison of Digestion Protocols for Microgram Quantities of Enriched Protein Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Hervey, IV, William Judson; Strader, Michael B; Strader, Michael Brad; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B

    2007-01-01

    Standard biochemical techniques that are used for protein enrichments, such as affinity isolation and density gradient centrifugation, frequently yield high nanogram to low microgram quantities at a significant expenditure of resources and time. The characterization of selected protein enrichments by the "shotgun" mass spectrometry approach is often compromised by the lack of effective and efficient in-solution proteolysis protocols specifically tailored for these small quantities of proteins. This study compares the results of five different digestion protocols that were applied to 2.5 g portions of protein isolates from two disparate sources: Rhodopseudomonas palustris 70S ribosomal proteins, and Bos taurus microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Proteolytic peptides produced according to each protocol in each type of protein isolate were analyzed by one-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The effectiveness of each digestion protocol was assessed on the basis of three parameters: number of peptide identifications, number of protein identifications, and sequence coverage. The two protocols using a solvent containing 80% acetonitrile (CH3CN) for trypsin digestions performed as well as, and in some instances better than, protocols employing other solvents and chaotropes in both types of protein isolates. A primary advantage of the 80% CH3CN protocol is that it requires fewer sample manipulation steps.

  12. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K73: Amount content of H+ in hydrochloric acid (0.1 mol kg-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Kenneth W.; Ortiz-Aparicio, Jose Luis; Matehuala-Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Pawlina, Monika; Kozlowski, Wladyslaw; Borges, Paulo P.; da Silva Junior, Wiler B.; Borinsky, Mónica B.; Hernandez-Mabel Puelles, Ana; Hatamleh, Nadia; Acosta, Osvaldo; Nunes, João; Guiomar Lito, M. J.; Camões, M. Filomena; Filipe, Eduarda; Hwang, Euijin; Lim, Youngran; Bing, Wu; Qian, Wang; Chao, Wei; Hioki, Akiharu; Asakai, Toshiaki; Máriássy, Michal; Hanková, Zuzana; Nagibin, Sergey; Manska, Olexandra; Gavrilkin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This key comparison (KC), CCQM-K73, was performed to demonstrate the capability of the participating National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) to measure the amount content of H+, νH+, in an HCl solution with a nominal νH+ of 0.1 mol kg-1. The comparison was a joint activity of the Electrochemical Working Group (EAWG) and Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of the CCQM and was coordinated by NIST (USA) and CENAM (Mexico). The agreement of the results was not commensurate with the claimed uncertainties of the subset of participants that claimed small uncertainties for this determination. A workshop on technical issues relating to the CCQM-K73 measurements was conducted at the joint IAWG-EAWG meeting at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), Paris (Sèvres) in April 2010. Several possible sources of bias were investigated, but none could explain the observed dispersion among the participants' results. In the absence of a specific cause for the dispersion, the IAWG and EAWG decided to assign a Key Comparison Reference Value, KCRV, and standard uncertainty of the KCRV, uKCRV, based on the DerSimonian-Laird statistical estimator. The uKCRV is dominated by the between-laboratory scatter of results in CCQM-K73. The uncertainty estimates from the participants with the lowest reported uncertainties remain unsupported by this KC. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Scalp psoriasis: topical calcipotriol 50 micrograms/g/ml solution vs. betamethasone valerate 1% lotion.

    PubMed

    Duweb, G A; Abuzariba, O; Rahim, M; al-Taweel, M; Abdulla, S A

    2000-01-01

    Forty-two patients aged between 6 and 61 years (mean: 33.5 years) with psoriasis of the scalp were enrolled in this study. Twenty-seven patients (69%) were males and 15 (31%) were females. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of topical calcipotriol 50 micrograms/g/ml solution vs. betamethasone valerate 1% lotion in the treatment of psoriasis of the scalp. The study was randomized with the twice-daily application of either calcipotriol solution or betamethasone valerate lotion for 6 weeks. Treatment evaluation was clinically based on signs of psoriasis (thickness, redness, scaliness) which were scored from 0 = absent to 4 = severest possible involvement and was performed at the start of treatment and at weeks 2 and 6 of treatment. The results showed a marked improvement and clearance at the end of treatment in 15 (72.8%) of the 24 patients in the calcipotriol group and in 13 of the 18 patients (72%) in the betamethasone group. The mean total sign score at baseline was 5.1 in the calcipotriol group and 5.4 in the betamethasone valerate group. At the end of treatment, this score was decreased to 2.1 and 1.49, respectively. No significant adverse effects were reported in either group except in two patients (8.3%) in the calcipotriol group who developed signs of irritation including itching and erythema. In conclusion, both drugs were effective and well tolerated in the treatment of scalp psoriasis but in some patients calcipotriol had to be given for more prolonged courses.

  14. The hydrolysis and precipitation of Pd(II) in 0.6 mol kg-1 NaCl: A potentiometric, spectrophotometric, and EXAFS study

    SciTech Connect

    Boily, Jean F.; Seward, Terry M.; Charnock, John M.

    2007-10-15

    The hydrolysis of palladium was investigated in 0.6 mol•kg-1 NaCl at 298.2 K. Potentiometric titrations of solutions at various total concentrations of palladium(II) revealed that dilute (millimolar) conditions can be used to monitor the proton release due to hydrolysis reactions up to 2 protons per palladium(II) as long as the equilibration time is kept small. Spectrophotometric titrations were used to corroborate the homogeneous changes in speciation for the PdCl3OH2- species and to extract its correlative molar absorption coefficients in the 210-320 nm range. The molar absorption coefficients are similar to those of PdCl42- but exhibit a broader distribution of excitation energies resulting from the blue shift of the dominant charge transfer bands due to the presence of OH-. The longer-term potentiometric titrations systematically yielded, on the other hand, precipitates which matured over a period of 6 weeks and resulted in a more extensive release of protons to the solution. Precipitation experiments at six different total palladium(II) concentrations in the 3-11 pH range showed the dominant precipitating phase as Pd(OH)1.72Cl0.28. The coordination environment of Pd in this solid was investigated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and yielded an average 1.75 O and 0.25 Cl per Pd atoms with a Pd-O distance of 2.0 Å and Pd-Cl of 2.1 Å. Finally, the precipitation experiments showed the final products to be of larger solubility than a literature Pd(OH)2 solubility study in which the KCl media induced a solid phase transformation to Pd(OH)1.72Cl0.28. Polynuclear complexes Pdq(OH)r2q-r with q=r=[3,9] explain the combined precipitation and hydrolysis data and may represent subsets of [Pd(OH)2]n and/or [Pd(OH)1.72Cl0.28]n chains coiled into nanometer-sized spheroids previously described in the literature.

  15. 41 CFR 60-1.30 - Notification of agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Notification of agencies. 60-1.30 Section 60-1.30 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... 1-OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS General Enforcement; Compliance Review and...

  16. Prenatal Rh-immune prophylaxis with 300 micrograms immune globulin anti-D in the 28th week of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Trolle, B

    1989-01-01

    As immune globulin anti-D given in the immediate post partum period fails to prevent the development of anti-D antibodies in about 1.5-2% of women at risk, probably as a result of feto-maternal bleeding during pregnancy, 300 micrograms of immune globulin anti-D was administered to 609 Rh-negative women in the 28th gestational week. Three hundred and forty-six had Rh-positive babies, and were given additionally 200 micrograms anti-D post partum. Of these, 291 had an antibody screen test done 10 months after delivery. No anti-D antibodies were found. The test results of the study group were compared with those of a control group of 354 women who did not receive prenatal immune globulin, but otherwise the same examinations and treatment. In this group, 322 had a screen test performed 10 months post partum or in their next pregnancy, when 1.8% had anti-D antibodies. The difference in immunization incidence between the groups was significant (p less than 0.05). There was no difference between the groups regarding the number of women with fetal erythrocytes in serum after delivery, but the number of fetal erythrocytes found was significantly lower in the group receiving prenatal prophylaxis (p less than 0.001). No adverse effects were found in the infants exposed to anti-D prenatally.

  17. Analysis of methylphosphonic acid, ethyl methylphosphonic acid and isopropyl methylphosphonic acid at low microgram per liter levels in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Sega, G A; Tomkins, B A; Griest, W H

    1997-11-28

    A method is described for determining methylphosphonic acid, ethyl methylphosphonic acid and isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, which are hydrolysis products of the nerve agents VX (S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothiolate) and GB (sarin, isopropylmethyl phosphonofluoridate). The analytes are extracted from 50 ml groundwater using a solid-phase extraction column packed with 500 mg of silica with a bonded quaternary amine phase, and are eluted and derivatized with methanolic trimethylphenylammonium hydroxide. Separation and quantitation are achieved using a capillary column gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector operated in its phosphorus-selective mode. Two independent statistically-unbiased procedures were employed to determine the detection limits, which ranged between 3 and 9 micrograms/l, for the three analytes. PMID:9435117

  18. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of atrazine and desethylatrazine at sub-microgram per liter concentrations in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Schreglmann, Kathrin; Hoeche, Martina; Steinbeiss, Sibylle; Reinnicke, Sandra; Elsner, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Environmental degradation of organic micropollutants is difficult to monitor due to their diffuse and ubiquitous input. Current approaches-concentration measurements over time, or daughter-to-parent compound ratios-may fall short, because they do not consider dilution, compound-specific sorption characteristics or alternative degradation pathways. Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) offers an alternative approach based on evidence from isotope values. Until now, however, the relatively high limits for precise isotope analysis by gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) have impeded CSIA of sub-microgram-per-liter scale micropollutant concentrations in field samples. This study presents the first measurements of C and N isotope ratios of the herbicide atrazine and its metabolite desethylatrazine at concentrations of 100 to 1,000 ng/L in natural groundwater samples. Solid-phase extraction and preparative HPLC were tested and validated for preconcentration and cleanup of groundwater samples of up to 10 L without bias by isotope effects. Matrix interferences after solid-phase extraction could be greatly reduced by a preparative HPLC cleanup step prior to GC-IRMS analysis. Sensitivity was increased by a factor of 6 to 8 by changing the injection method from large-volume to cold-on-column injection on the GC-IRMS system. Carbon and nitrogen isotope values of field samples showed no obvious correlation with concentrations or desethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratios. Contrary to expectations, however, δ (13) C values of desethylatrazine were consistently less negative than those of atrazine from the same sites. Potentially, this line of evidence may contain information about further desethylatrazine degradation. In such a case, the common practice of using desethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratios would underestimate natural atrazine degradation. PMID:23274558

  19. Efficient and Specific Trypsin Digestion of Microgram to Nanogram Quantities of Proteins in Organic-Aqueous Solvent Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Strader, Michael B; Tabb, Dave L; Hervey, IV, William Judson; Pan, Chongle; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B

    2006-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based identification of the components of multiprotein complexes often involves solution-phase proteolytic digestion of the complex. The affinity purification of individual protein complexes often yields nanogram to low-microgram amounts of protein, which poses several challenges for enzymatic digestion and protein identification. We tested different solvent systems to optimize trypsin digestions of samples containing limited amounts of protein for subsequent analysis by LC-MS-MS. Data collected from digestion of 10-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2- g portions of a protein standard mixture indicated that an organicaqueous solvent system containing 80% acetonitrile consistently provided the most complete digestion, producing more peptide identifications than the other solvent systems tested. For example, a 1-h digestion in 80% acetonitrile yielded over 52% more peptides than the overnight digestion of 1 g of a protein mixture in purely aqueous buffer. This trend was also observed for peptides from digested ribosomal proteins isolated from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. In addition to improved digestion efficiency, the shorter digestion times possible with the organic solvent also improved trypsin specificity, resulting in smaller numbers of semitryptic peptides than an overnight digestion protocol using an aqueous solvent. The technique was also demonstrated for an affinityisolated protein complex, GroEL. To our knowledge, this report is the first using mass spectrometry data to show a linkage between digestion solvent and trypsin specificity. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a widely used method for studying proteins, protein complexes, and whole proteomes because of innovations in soft ionization techniques, bioinformatics, and chromatographic separation techniques.1-7 An example of a high-throughput mass spectrometry strategy commonly used for this purpose is a variation of the "shotgun" approach, involving in-solution digestion of a protein complex followed by

  20. Compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of volatile organic compounds in the low-microgram per liter range.

    PubMed

    Zwank, Luc; Berg, Michael; Schmidt, Torsten C; Haderlein, Stefan B

    2003-10-15

    Compound-specific carbon isotope analysis (CSIA) has become an important tool in biological, archeological, and geological studies as well as in forensics, food sciences, and organic chemistry. If sensitivity could be enhanced, CSIA would further have an improved potential for environmental applications such as, for example, in situ remediation studies to assess contaminated environments, identification of pollutant degradation pathways and kinetics, distinction between degradation/formation mechanisms, or, verification of contaminant sources. With this goal in mind, we have developed methods to determine delta13C values of commonly reported groundwater contaminants in low-microgram per liter concentrations. Several injection and preconcentration techniques were evaluated for this purpose, i.e., on-column injection, split/ splitless injection, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and purge and trap (P&T) in combination with gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The delta13C values of the target compounds were determined by liquid injections of the analytes dissolved in diethyl ether or, in the case of P&T and SPME, by extraction from water spiked with the analytes. P&T extraction was the most efficient preconcentration technique reaching method detection limits (MDLs) from 0.25 to 5.0 microg/L. These are the lowest MDLs reported so far for continuous-flow isotope ratio determinations, using a commercially available and fully automated system. Isotopic fractionation resulting from preconcentration and injection was investigated and quantified for the priority groundwater pollutants methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), chloroform, tetrachloromethane, chlorinated ethylenes, benzene, and toluene. The isotopic fractionations caused by the extraction techniques were small but highly reproducible and could therefore be corrected for. P&T was characterized by a higher reproducibility and smaller isotopic fractionations than SPME. Among the liquid injection

  1. Release of MCNP5_RSICC_1.30.

    SciTech Connect

    Goorley, T.; Bull, J. S.; Brown, F. B.; Booth, Thomas Edward; Hughes, H. G.; Mosteller, R. D.; Forster, R. A.; Post, S. E.; Prael, R. E.; Selcow, Elizabeth Carol,; Sood, A.; Sweezy, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    In July of 2004, an updated version of MCNP5{trademark} (MCNP5-RSICC-1.30) was released to the Radiation Shielding Information Computational Center. This updated version has three new features, thirteen bug fixes and several minor coding improvements. The new features are: support for 8 byte integers, specialized tally treatment of large lattices, and mesh tally enhancements. Of the thirteen bug fixes, only four resulted in incorrect answers in specific circumstances. In addition to the standard RSICC distribution of the MCNP5 source, executables and patches, the patch file (only) is available on the MCNP website: http://www-xdiv.lanl.gov/x5/MCNP/theresources.html. The three new MCNP5 features are discussed. Several new improvements have also been made to the manual and development environment. All of the features, bug fixes, coding improvement issues and related documentation are now maintained in Sourceforge. Fortran and C source code and regression test problems are now under version control with CVS.

  2. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of microgram levels of Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Zn in soil and sediment extracts containing large amounts of Mn and Fe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1973-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of seven metal ions in the hydroxylamine extract of soils and sediments. Mn, Fe, and Zn are directly determined in the aqueous extract upon dilution. Co, Ni, Cu, and Pb in a separate aliquot of the extract are chelated with APDC (ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate) and extracted into MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone) before determination. Data are presented to show the quantitative recovery of microgram levels of Co, Ni, Cu, and Pb by APDC-MIBK chelation-extraction from synthetic solutions containing as much as 2,000 ug/ml (micrograms per milliliter) Mn or 50 ug/ml Fe. Recovery of known amounts of the metal ions from sample solutions is equally satisfactory. Reproducible results are obtained by replicate analyses of two sediment samples for the seven metals.

  3. Determination of ultralow level 129I/127I in natural samples by separation of microgram carrier free iodine and accelerator mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weijian; Chen, Ning; Zhang, Luyuan; Liu, Qi; Luo, Maoyi; Fan, Yukun; Liang, Wangguo; Fu, Yunchong

    2010-09-15

    Separation of carrier free iodine from low iodine level samples and accurate measurement of ultralow level (129)I in micrograms of iodine target are essential but a bottleneck in geological dating of terrestrial system and tracer research using naturally produced (129)I. In this work, we present a carrier free method using coprecipitation of AgI with AgCl for preparing micrograms of iodine target, associated with combustion using a tube furnace for separating iodine from solid samples and anion exchange chromatography for preconcentrating iodine from a large volume of water. An accelerator mass spectrometry was used to measure ultralow level (129)I in micrograms of iodine target. The recovery of iodine in the entire separation procedure is higher than 80% and 65% for solid and water samples, respectively. One microgram iodine in the target (AgI-AgCl) can produce a stable (127)I signal for AMS measurement of (129)I/(127)I, and a detection limit of this method for (129)I is calculated to be 10(5) atoms. This will allow us to accurately determine (129)I in prenuclear geological samples of low iodine concentration with (129)I/(127)I of 10(-12), such as loess, soil, coral, rock, sediment, and groundwater. Some samples with low iodine content have been successfully analyzed, and the lowest value of the (129)I/(127)I ratio of 2 × 10(-11) was observed in 23.5 and 63.5 m loess samples collected in the Loess Plateau, China. The developed method sheds light on a wide application in earth science. PMID:20735008

  4. Investigation and reduction of sub-microgram peptide loss using molecular weight cut-off fractionation prior to mass spectrometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Robert; Wang, Jingxin; Wellner, Daniel; Li, Lingjun

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the suitability of molecular weight cut-off membrane-based centrifugal filter devices (MWCO) for sub-microgram peptide enrichment passing through the membrane by introduction of methanol and a salt modifier. Using a neuropeptide standard, bradykinin, a reduction in sample loss of over two orders of magnitude is demonstrated with and without undigested protein present. Additionally, a bovine serum albumin (BSA) tryptic digestion was investigated and 27 tryptic peptides were identified using MALDI mass spectrometry whereas only two BSA tryptic peptides were identified after MWCO separation using H2O. The protocol presented here enhances recovery from MWCO separation for sub-μg peptide samples. PMID:23019164

  5. Intradermal vaccination of adults with three low doses (2 micrograms) of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. II. Persistence of immunity and induction of immunologic memory.

    PubMed

    Elisbão, Maria do Carmo M; Baldy, José Luís da S; Bonametti, Ana Maria; Reiche, Edna Maria V; Morimoto, Helena K; Pontello, Rubens; Matsuo, Tiemi; Ferelle, Antônio; Neves, Jayme

    2003-12-01

    Of the 110 dentists who had presented seroconversion 50 days after the intradermal application of three 2 micrograms doses of the Belgian recombinant vaccine against hepatitis B (HB), administered eight years before at an interval of one month between the 1st and 2nd doses and of five months between the 2nd and 3rd doses, 51 were included for the assessment of the persistence of immunity. None of the dentists had hepatitis or had received HB vaccine during this period. All subjects were submitted to serological tests for the detection of the following markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection: HBsAg, anti-HBc, HBeAg, anti-HBe, and anti-HBs, with no HBsAg, anti-HBc, HBeAg or anti-HBe being detected. A microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA) revealed the presence of anti-HBs at protective titers (> or = 10 mIU/ml) in 42 dentists (82.4%), with the anti-HBs titer being higher than 100 mIU/ml in 36 of them (70.6%) (good responders), between 10 and 100 mIU/ml in 6 (11.8%) (poor responders), and lower than 10 mIU/ml in 9 (17.6%) (non-responders). According to clinical data and serological tests, none of the dentists had presented disease or latent HBV infection during the eight years following the first vaccination. A 2 micrograms booster dose was administered intradermally to eight dentists with anti-HBs titers lower than 10 mIU/ml (non-responders) and to six dentists with titers ranging from 10 to 100 mIU/ml (poor responders); the determination of anti-HBs one month later demonstrated the occurrence of seroconversion in the eight non-responders and an increase in anti-HBs titer in the six poor responders. In summary, the present results demonstrated the prolonged persistence of protection against HBV infection and the development of immunologic memory provided by vaccination against HB--with intradermal application of three 2 micrograms doses of the Belgian recombinant vaccine at 0, 1, and 6 months--carried out eight years before in 51 dentists.

  6. Polysaccharides and Proteins Added to Flowing Drinking Water at Microgram-per-Liter Levels Promote the Formation of Biofilms Predominated by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sack, Eveline L. W.; van der Kooij, Dick

    2014-01-01

    Biopolymers are important substrates for heterotrophic bacteria in (ultra)oligotrophic freshwater environments, but information about their utilization at microgram-per-liter levels by attached freshwater bacteria is lacking. This study aimed at characterizing biopolymer utilization in drinking-water-related biofilms by exposing such biofilms to added carbohydrates or proteins at 10 μg C liter−1 in flowing tap water for up to 3 months. Individually added amylopectin was not utilized by the biofilms, whereas laminarin, gelatin, and caseinate were. Amylopectin was utilized during steady-state biofilm growth with simultaneously added maltose but not with simultaneously added acetate. Biofilm formation rates (BFR) at 10 μg C liter−1 per substrate were ranked as follows, from lowest to highest: blank or amylopectin (≤6 pg ATP cm−2 day−1), gelatin or caseinate, laminarin, maltose, acetate alone or acetate plus amylopectin, and maltose plus amylopectin (980 pg ATP cm−2 day−1). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that the predominant maltose-utilizing bacteria also dominated subsequent amylopectin utilization, indicating catabolic repression and (extracellular) enzyme induction. The accelerated BFR with amylopectin in the presence of maltose probably resulted from efficient amylopectin binding to and hydrolysis by inductive enzymes attached to the bacterial cells. Cytophagia, Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteriia grew during polysaccharide addition, and Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, Cytophagia, Flavobacteriia, and Sphingobacteriia grew during protein addition. The succession of bacterial populations in the biofilms coincided with the decrease in the specific growth rate during biofilm formation. Biopolymers can clearly promote biofilm formation at microgram-per-liter levels in drinking water distribution systems and, depending on their concentrations, might

  7. Polysaccharides and proteins added to flowing drinking water at microgram-per-liter levels promote the formation of biofilms predominated by bacteroidetes and proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Sack, Eveline L W; van der Wielen, Paul W J J; van der Kooij, Dick

    2014-04-01

    Biopolymers are important substrates for heterotrophic bacteria in (ultra)oligotrophic freshwater environments, but information about their utilization at microgram-per-liter levels by attached freshwater bacteria is lacking. This study aimed at characterizing biopolymer utilization in drinking-water-related biofilms by exposing such biofilms to added carbohydrates or proteins at 10 μg C liter(-1) in flowing tap water for up to 3 months. Individually added amylopectin was not utilized by the biofilms, whereas laminarin, gelatin, and caseinate were. Amylopectin was utilized during steady-state biofilm growth with simultaneously added maltose but not with simultaneously added acetate. Biofilm formation rates (BFR) at 10 μg C liter(-1) per substrate were ranked as follows, from lowest to highest: blank or amylopectin (≤6 pg ATP cm(-2) day(-1)), gelatin or caseinate, laminarin, maltose, acetate alone or acetate plus amylopectin, and maltose plus amylopectin (980 pg ATP cm(-2) day(-1)). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that the predominant maltose-utilizing bacteria also dominated subsequent amylopectin utilization, indicating catabolic repression and (extracellular) enzyme induction. The accelerated BFR with amylopectin in the presence of maltose probably resulted from efficient amylopectin binding to and hydrolysis by inductive enzymes attached to the bacterial cells. Cytophagia, Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteriia grew during polysaccharide addition, and Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, Cytophagia, Flavobacteriia, and Sphingobacteriia grew during protein addition. The succession of bacterial populations in the biofilms coincided with the decrease in the specific growth rate during biofilm formation. Biopolymers can clearly promote biofilm formation at microgram-per-liter levels in drinking water distribution systems and, depending on their concentrations, might

  8. 31 CFR 1.30 - Application to system of records maintained by Government contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... by Government contractors. When a component contracts for the operation of a system of records, to... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application to system of records maintained by Government contractors. 1.30 Section 1.30 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the...

  9. 26 CFR 1.30-1 - Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. 1.30-1 Section 1.30-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.30-1 Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture...

  10. 26 CFR 1.30-1 - Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. 1.30-1 Section 1.30-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. (a) Definition...

  11. 26 CFR 1.30-1 - Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. 1.30-1 Section 1.30-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. (a) Definition...

  12. 26 CFR 1.30-1 - Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. 1.30-1 Section 1.30-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. (a) Definition...

  13. Comparative anticalculus effect of dentifrices containing 1.30% soluble pyrophosphate with and without a copolymer.

    PubMed

    Schiff, T G; Volpe, A R; Gaffar, A; Afflito, J; Mitchell, R L

    1990-01-01

    A six-month, double blind, clinical study was conducted to determine the effect on supragingival calculus formation of a dentifrice containing 1.30% soluble pyrophosphate (from 2.0% tetrasodium pyrophosphate) and 1.50% of a copolymer of methoxyethylene and maleic acid, as compared to a dentifrice containing the same amount of soluble pyrophosphate but without the copolymer. This pyrophosphate/copolymer dentifrice contained the optimal ratio of pyrophosphate anion to copolymer required for obtaining a comparable anticalculus effect to a clinically proven anticalculus dentifrice containing 3.3% soluble pyrophosphate and 1.0% of a copolymer. The optimal pyrophosphate/copolymer ratio was determined by a series of in vitro laboratory and in vivo animal studies. Male and female adult subjects were stratified into three balanced groups according to baseline calculus scores. They received an oral prophylaxis and were assigned to the use of either the dentifrice containing soluble pyrophosphate and the copolymer, or to the dentifrice containing soluble pyrophosphate but without the copolymer, or to a placebo dentifrice that did not contain an anticalculus ingredient. The results of the three-month calculus examination indicated that the dentifrice containing soluble pyrophosphate and the copolymer provided a 33.66% reduction in supragingival calculus formation after an oral prophylaxis as compared to the placebo dentifrice. This reduction was statistically significant at the 99 percent level of confidence. The results of the six-month calculus examination indicated that the dentifrice containing the soluble pyrophosphate and the copolymer provided a 36.10% reduction in supragingival calculus formation after an oral prophylaxis, as compared to the placebo dentifrice. This reduction was also statistically significant at the 99% level of confidence.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Determination of total sulfur at microgram per gram levels in geological materials by oxidation of sulfur into sulfate with in situ generation of bromine using isotope dilution high-resolution ICPMS.

    PubMed

    Makishima, A; Nakamura, E

    2001-06-01

    We have developed a new, simple, and accurate method for the determination of total sulfur at microgram per gram levels in milligram-sized silicate materials with isotope dilution high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry equipped with a flow injection system. In this method, sulfur can be quantitatively oxidized by bromine into sulfate with achievement of isotope equilibrium between the sample and spike. Detection limits for 32S+ and 34S+ in the ideal solution and silicate samples were 1 and 6 ng mL(-1) and 0.07 and 0.3 microg g(-1), respectively. The total blank was 46 ng, so that a 40-mg silicate sample containing 10 mirog g(-1) sulfur can be measured with a blank correction of < 10%. This total blank can be lowered to 8 ng if a low-blank air system is used for evaporations. To evaluate the applicability of this method, we analyzed not only silicate reference materials with sulfur content of 5.25-489 microg g(-1) and sample sizes of 13-40 mg but also the Allende meteorite with a sulfur content of 2%. The reproducibility for various rock types was < 9%, even though blank corrections in some samples of low sulfur content were up to 24%. This method is suitable for analyzing geological samples as well environmental samples such as soils, sediments, and water samples.

  15. Spin-Tunnel Investigation of a 1/30-Scale Model of the North American A-5 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Henry A.

    1964-01-01

    An investigation has been made to determine the erect and. inverted spin and recovery characteristics of a 1/30-scale dynamic model of the North American A-5A airplane. Tests were made for the basic flight design loading with the center of gravity at 30-percent mean aerodynamic chord and also for a forward position and a rearward position with the center of gravity at 26-percent and 40-percent mean aerodynamic chord, respectively. Tests were also made to determine the effect of full external wing tanks on both wings, and of an asymmetrical condition when only one full tank is carried.

  16. Spin Tunnel Investigation of a 1/30 Scale Model of the North American A-5A Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Henry A.

    1964-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley spin tunnel to determine the erect and inverted spin and recovery characteristics of a 1/30-scale dynamic model of the North American A-5A airplane. Tests were made for the basic flight design loading with the center of gravity at 30-percent mean aerodynamic chord and also for a forward position and a rearward position with the center of gravity at 26-percent and 40-percent mean aerodynamic chord, respectively. Tests were also made to determine the effect of full external wing tanks on both wings, and of an asymmetrical condition when only one full tank is carried.

  17. Immunoreactive prohormone atrial natriuretic peptides 1-30 and 31-67 - Existence of a single circulating amino-terminal peptide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yu-Ming; Whitson, Peggy A.; Cintron, Nitza M.

    1990-01-01

    Sep-Pak C18 extraction of human plasma and radioimmunoassay using antibodies which recognize atrial natriuretic peptide (99-128) and the prohormone sequences 1-30 and 31-67 resulted in mean values from 20 normal subjects of 26.2 (+/- 9.2), 362 (+/- 173) and 368 (+/- 160) pg/ml, respectively. A high correlation coefficient between values obtained using antibodies recognizing prohormone sequences 1-30 and 31-67 was observed (R = 0.84). Extracted plasma immunoreactivity of 1-30 and 31-67 both eluted at 46 percent acetonitrile. In contrast, chromatographic elution of synthetic peptides 1-30 and 31-67 was observed at 48 and 39 percent acetonitrile, respectively. Data suggest that the radioimmunoassay of plasma using antibodies recognizing prohormone sequences 1-30 and 31-67 may represent the measurement of a unique larger amino-terminal peptide fragment containing antigenic sites recognized by both antisera.

  18. Gamma rays of 1-30 MeV from the Vela Pulsar PSR 0833-45

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, T.; Long, J.; Oneill, T.; Zych, A.; White, R. S.; Dayton, B.

    1983-01-01

    Results are reported for observations of gamma rays of 1-30 MeV from the Vela Pulsar PSR 0833 - 45 carried out with the UCR double scatter gamma ray telescope on a balloon launched from Alice Springs, Australia on November 10, 1981. An integrated flux of (5.3 + or - 1.3) x 10 to the -4th photons/sq cm/s is found for the Vela region above 2 MeV. This value, together with those for the energy intervals of 2-4, 4-7, and 7-15 MeV are in reasonable agreement with the power law found by COS-B at energies above 50 MeV. A sky contour map of the fluxes is shown.

  19. Equilibrium charge state distributions of 1--30 keV atomic projectiles transiting thin carbon foils

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.O.; Barraclough, B.L.; McComas, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the exit charge state distributions of 1--30 keV H, He, C, N, O, Ne, and Ar ions that transit thin carbon foils. In this velocity regime which is less than the Bohr velocity, the dominant charge states are neutrals and singly positive ions. Therefore, the charge state distributions are dependent primarily on electron loss by neutrals with an associated electron loss cross section al and electron capture by singly ionized species with an associated electron capture cross section {sigma}{sub c}. Using empirical charge state distributions, the ratio {sigma}{sub 1}/{sigma}{sub c} is shown to have a quadratic dependence on the projectile velocity and is fit to the equation A(E{sub F}-E{sub T})/m where E{sub F} is the exit projectile energy, m is its mass, and A and E{sub T} are constants. A pronounced shell effect is observed: the constant A is dependent on the principle quantum number of the projectile, and E{sub T} depends on the number of projectile valence electrons.

  20. Equilibrium charge state distributions of 1--30 keV atomic projectiles transiting thin carbon foils

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, H.O.; Barraclough, B.L.; McComas, D.J.

    1992-10-01

    We have investigated the exit charge state distributions of 1--30 keV H, He, C, N, O, Ne, and Ar ions that transit thin carbon foils. In this velocity regime which is less than the Bohr velocity, the dominant charge states are neutrals and singly positive ions. Therefore, the charge state distributions are dependent primarily on electron loss by neutrals with an associated electron loss cross section al and electron capture by singly ionized species with an associated electron capture cross section {sigma}{sub c}. Using empirical charge state distributions, the ratio {sigma}{sub 1}/{sigma}{sub c} is shown to have a quadratic dependence on the projectile velocity and is fit to the equation A(E{sub F}-E{sub T})/m where E{sub F} is the exit projectile energy, m is its mass, and A and E{sub T} are constants. A pronounced shell effect is observed: the constant A is dependent on the principle quantum number of the projectile, and E{sub T} depends on the number of projectile valence electrons.

  1. Effect of heparin and a low-molecular weight heparinoid on PAF-induced airway responses in neonatally immunized rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, M.; Herd, C. M.; Page, C. P.

    1993-01-01

    1. We have investigated the effect of an unfractionated heparin preparation, a low-molecular weight heparinoid (Org 10172) and the polyanionic molecule polyglutamic acid against PAF-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary cell infiltration in neonatally immunized rabbits in vivo. 2. Exposure of neonatally immunized rabbits to aerosolized platelet activating factor (PAF) (80 micrograms ml-1 for 60 min) elicited an increase in airway responsiveness to inhaled histamine 24 h and 72 h following challenge which was associated with an infiltration of inflammatory cells into the airways, as assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). 3. A significant increase in the total numbers of cells recovered from BAL fluid was associated with significantly increased cell numbers of neutrophils, eosinophils and mononuclear cells 24 h following PAF exposure. The numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils in the airways remained elevated 72 h after challenge. 4. The intravenous administration of an unfractionated preparation of heparin (100 units kg-1) or Org 10172 (100 micrograms kg-1) 30 min prior to PAF exposure significantly inhibited the airway hyperresponsiveness induced by PAF, 24 h and 72 h following challenge. PAF-induced hyperresponsiveness was not significantly affected by prior intravenous administration of polyglutamic acid (100 micrograms kg-1). 5. The intravenous administration of unfractionated heparin (100 units kg-1), Org 10172 (100 micrograms kg-1) or polyglutamic acid (100 micrograms kg-1) 30 min prior to PAF exposure significantly inhibited the expected increase in total cell infiltration. 6. This study shows that unfractionated heparin and a low-molecular weight heparinoid, Org 10172, are capable of inhibiting both the airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary cell infiltration induced by PAF in the rabbit. PMID:7693273

  2. The impact of the SZ effect on cm-wavelength (1-30 GHz) observations of galaxy cluster radio relics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Kaustuv; Vazza, Franco; Erler, Jens; Sommer, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Radio relics in galaxy clusters are believed to be associated with powerful shock fronts that originate during cluster mergers, and are a testbed for the acceleration of relativistic particles in the intracluster medium. Recently, radio relic observations have pushed into the cm-wavelength domain (1-30 GHz) where a break from the standard synchrotron power law spectrum has been found, most noticeably in the famous "Sausage" relic. Such spectral steepening is seen as an evidence for non-standard relic models, such as ones requiring seed electron population with a break in their energy spectrum. In this paper, however, we point to an important effect that has been ignored or considered insignificant while interpreting these new high-frequency radio data, namely the contamination due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect that changes the observed synchrotron flux. Even though the radio relics reside in the cluster outskirts, the shock-driven pressure boost increases the SZ signal locally by roughly an order of magnitude. The resulting flux contamination for some well-known relics are non-negligible already at 10 GHz, and at 30 GHz the observed synchrotron fluxes can be diminished by a factor of several from their true values. At higher redshift the contamination gets stronger due to the redshift independence of the SZ effect. Interferometric observations are not immune to this contamination, since the change in the SZ signal occurs roughly at the same length scale as the synchrotron emission, although there the flux loss is less severe than single-dish observations. Besides presenting this warning to observers, we suggest that the negative contribution from the SZ effect can be regarded as one of the best evidence for the physical association between radio relics and shock waves. We present a simple analytical approximation for the synchrotron-to-SZ flux ratio, based on a theoretical radio relic model that connects the nonthermal emission to the thermal gas properties

  3. Field determination of microgram quantities of niobium in rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, F.N.; Marranzino, A.P.

    1955-01-01

    A rapid, simple, and moderately accurate method was needed for the determination of traces of niobium in rocks. The method developed is based on the reaction of niobium(V) with thiocyanate ion in a 4M hydrochloric acid and 0.5M tartaric acid medium, after which the complex is extracted with ethyl ether. The proposed procedure is applicable to rocks containing from 50 to 2000 p.p.m. of niobium, and, with modifications, can be used on rocks containing larger amounts. Five determinations on two rocks containing 100 p.p.m. or less of niobium agree within 5 p.p.m. of the mean, and the confidence limits at the 95% level are, respectively, ??6 and ??4 p.p.m. The addition of acetone to the ether extract of the niobium thiocyanate inhibits the polymerization of the thiocyanate ion and stabilizes the solution for at least 20 hours. The proposed procedure permits the determination of 20 ?? of niobium in the presence of 1000 ?? of iron, titanium, or uranium; 500 ?? of vanadium; or 100 ?? of tungsten or molybdenum or both.

  4. Experimental and analytical investigation of axisymmetric supersonic cruise nozzle geometry at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.30

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, G. T., Jr.; Lee, E. E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative pressure and force data for five axisymmetric boattail nozzle configurations were examined. These configurations simulate the variable-geometry feature of a single nozzle design operating over a range of engine operating conditions. Five nozzles were tested in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.30. The experimental data were also compared with theoretical predictions.

  5. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with Huntington's Disease: increased NPY levels and differential degradation of the NPY1-30 fragment.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Leona; Björkqvist, Maria; Lundh, Sofia Hult; Wolf, Raik; Börgel, Arne; Schlenzig, Dagmar; Ludwig, Hans-Henning; Rahfeld, Jens-Ulrich; Leavitt, Blair; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Petersén, Åsa; von Hörsten, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited and fatal polyglutamine neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion of the CAG triplet repeat coding region within the HD gene. Progressive dysfunction and loss of striatal GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs) may account for some of the characteristic symptoms in HD patients. Interestingly, in HD, MSNs expressing neuropeptide Y (NPY) are spared and their numbers is even up-regulated in HD patients. Consistent with this, we report here on increased immuno-linked NPY (IL-NPY) levels in human cerebrospinal fluid (hCSF) from HD patients (Control n = 10; early HD n = 9; mid HD n = 11). As this antibody-based detection of NPY may provide false positive differences as a result of the antibody-based detections of only fragments of NPY, the initial finding was validated by investigating the proteolytic stability of NPY in hCSF using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and selective inhibitors. A comparison between resulting NPY-fragments and detailed epitope analysis verified significant differences in IL-NPY1-36/3-36 and NPY1-30 levels between HD patients and control subjects with no significant differences between early vs mid HD cases. Ex vivo degradomics analysis demonstrated that NPY is initially degraded to NPY1-30 by cathepsin D in both HD patients and control subjects. Yet, NPY1-30 is then further differentially hydrolyzed by thimet oligopeptidase (TOP) in HD patients and by neprilysin (NEP) in control subjects. Furthermore, altered hCSF TOP-inhibitor Dynorphin A1-13 (Dyn-A1-13 ) and TOP-substrate Dyn-A1-8 levels indicate an impaired Dyn-A-TOP network in HD patients. Thus, we conclude that elevated IL-NPY-levels in conjunction with TOP-/NEP-activity/protein as well as Dyn-A1-13 -peptide levels may serve as a potential biomarker in human CSF of HD. Huntington's disease (HD) patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) exhibits higher neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels. Further

  6. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with Huntington's Disease: increased NPY levels and differential degradation of the NPY1-30 fragment.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Leona; Björkqvist, Maria; Lundh, Sofia Hult; Wolf, Raik; Börgel, Arne; Schlenzig, Dagmar; Ludwig, Hans-Henning; Rahfeld, Jens-Ulrich; Leavitt, Blair; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Petersén, Åsa; von Hörsten, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited and fatal polyglutamine neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion of the CAG triplet repeat coding region within the HD gene. Progressive dysfunction and loss of striatal GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs) may account for some of the characteristic symptoms in HD patients. Interestingly, in HD, MSNs expressing neuropeptide Y (NPY) are spared and their numbers is even up-regulated in HD patients. Consistent with this, we report here on increased immuno-linked NPY (IL-NPY) levels in human cerebrospinal fluid (hCSF) from HD patients (Control n = 10; early HD n = 9; mid HD n = 11). As this antibody-based detection of NPY may provide false positive differences as a result of the antibody-based detections of only fragments of NPY, the initial finding was validated by investigating the proteolytic stability of NPY in hCSF using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and selective inhibitors. A comparison between resulting NPY-fragments and detailed epitope analysis verified significant differences in IL-NPY1-36/3-36 and NPY1-30 levels between HD patients and control subjects with no significant differences between early vs mid HD cases. Ex vivo degradomics analysis demonstrated that NPY is initially degraded to NPY1-30 by cathepsin D in both HD patients and control subjects. Yet, NPY1-30 is then further differentially hydrolyzed by thimet oligopeptidase (TOP) in HD patients and by neprilysin (NEP) in control subjects. Furthermore, altered hCSF TOP-inhibitor Dynorphin A1-13 (Dyn-A1-13 ) and TOP-substrate Dyn-A1-8 levels indicate an impaired Dyn-A-TOP network in HD patients. Thus, we conclude that elevated IL-NPY-levels in conjunction with TOP-/NEP-activity/protein as well as Dyn-A1-13 -peptide levels may serve as a potential biomarker in human CSF of HD. Huntington's disease (HD) patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) exhibits higher neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels. Further

  7. VO1.30 ordered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villars, P.; Cenzual, K.; Daams, J.; Gladyshevskii, R.; Shcherban, O.; Dubenskyy, V.; Kuprysyuk, V.; Savysyuk, I.

    This document is part of Subvolume A9 `Structure Types. Part 9: Space Groups (148) R-3 - (141) I41' of Volume 43 `Crystal Structures of Inorganic Compounds' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'.

  8. Pro Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (1-30) and 6-keto PGF1α Activity Affects Na(+) Homeostasis in Non-modulating Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Ramiro A; Gilbert, Bernardo H; Masnatta, Lucas; Giannone, Carlos; Pesiney, Carlina; Ramirez, Agustin J

    2015-01-01

    Non-modulating hypertension (NMHT) is a high renin subtype of salt sensitive hypertension, which fails to achieve renal vasodilatation and a correct Na(+) handling during sodium load. We investigate, in MHT and NMHT, the role of ANP, the renin-angiotensin system and PgI2, in the renal sodium handling mechanisms. After 10 days of low (20mmol.L) or after 72hs of high (250mmol.L) sodium intake, 13 NMHT (34±5y; 9 male) and 13 MHT (32±4y; 10male) were studied. Pro-ANP (1-30) PgI2, PRA and total exchangeable Na(+)24 (ENa(+)) were measured. Under low sodium intake, PRA (4.2±0.5ng.ml.h; p<0.05) and Pro-ANP (78.6±2pg/ml, p<0.05) were higher than in NMHT under (3.1±0.4ng.ml.h and 69.8±3 pg/ml). After 72h of high Na(+) intake, Pro-ANP (1-30) increased significantly only in MHT (82.1±3pg/ml, p<0.05). PgI2, under low sodium intake (1.83±0.2pg/24h), increased in MHT after 72h under high sodium (2.58±0.5pg/ 24h, p<0.02). Under low sodium diet, PgI2 (2.16±0.11pg/24h) was as higher in NMHT, as in MHT. After 72h under high Na+ intake, it failed to show any change (2.61±0.36 pg/24h; p=ns). A significant correlation between variations in ENa(+) and mean blood pressure (r=0.50, p<0.01), variations in Pro-ANP (1-30) values and ENa(+) in MHT (r=0.95; p<0.001) while a negative correlation between ENa(+) variations and ENa(+) (r=0.81, p<0.05) was observed in NMHT. ENa(+) variations were only significantly related to variations in FF in MHT. Thus, in NMHT, there is an unbalanced relationship between vasonstrictor and vasodilator mediators. From these, as an extrarenal homeostatic mediator, ANP seems to play an important role to compensate the altered renal sodium handling.

  9. Accurate Monte Carlo simulations on FCC and HCP Lennard-Jones solids at very low temperatures and high reduced densities up to 1.30.

    PubMed

    Adidharma, Hertanto; Tan, Sugata P

    2016-07-01

    Canonical Monte Carlo simulations on face-centered cubic (FCC) and hexagonal closed packed (HCP) Lennard-Jones (LJ) solids are conducted at very low temperatures (0.10 ≤ T(∗) ≤ 1.20) and high densities (0.96 ≤ ρ(∗) ≤ 1.30). A simple and robust method is introduced to determine whether or not the cutoff distance used in the simulation is large enough to provide accurate thermodynamic properties, which enables us to distinguish the properties of FCC from that of HCP LJ solids with confidence, despite their close similarities. Free-energy expressions derived from the simulation results are also proposed, not only to describe the properties of those individual structures but also the FCC-liquid, FCC-vapor, and FCC-HCP solid phase equilibria.

  10. Accurate Monte Carlo simulations on FCC and HCP Lennard-Jones solids at very low temperatures and high reduced densities up to 1.30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adidharma, Hertanto; Tan, Sugata P.

    2016-07-01

    Canonical Monte Carlo simulations on face-centered cubic (FCC) and hexagonal closed packed (HCP) Lennard-Jones (LJ) solids are conducted at very low temperatures (0.10 ≤ T∗ ≤ 1.20) and high densities (0.96 ≤ ρ∗ ≤ 1.30). A simple and robust method is introduced to determine whether or not the cutoff distance used in the simulation is large enough to provide accurate thermodynamic properties, which enables us to distinguish the properties of FCC from that of HCP LJ solids with confidence, despite their close similarities. Free-energy expressions derived from the simulation results are also proposed, not only to describe the properties of those individual structures but also the FCC-liquid, FCC-vapor, and FCC-HCP solid phase equilibria.

  11. NMR solution structure and SRP54M predicted interaction of the N-terminal sequence (1-30) of the ovine Doppel protein.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Jorge; Viegas, Aldino; Sardinha, João; Martins, Ivo C; Cabrita, Eurico J; Fontes, Carlos M G A; Prates, José A; Pereira, Rosa M L N

    2013-11-01

    Prion protein (PrP(C)) biosynthesis involves a multi-step process that includes translation and post-translational modifications. While PrP has been widely investigated, for the homolog Doppel (Dpl), limited knowledge is available. In this study, we focused on a vital step of eukaryotic protein biosynthesis: targeting by the signal recognition particle (SRP). Taking the ovine Dpl (OvDpl(1-30)) peptide as a template, we studied its behavior in two different hydrophobic environments using CD and NMR spectroscopy. In both trifluoroethanol (TFE) and dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DHPC), the OvDpl(1-30) peptide revealed to fold in an alpha-helical conformation with a well-defined central region extending from residue Cys8 until Ser22. The NMR structure was subsequently included in a computational docking complex with the conserved M-domain of SRP54 protein (SRP54M), and further compared with the N-terminal structures of mouse Dpl and bovine PrP(C) proteins. This allowed the determination of (i) common predicted N-terminal/SRP54M polar contacts (Asp331, Gln335, Glu365 and Lys432) and (ii) different N-C orientations between prion and Dpl peptides at the SRP54M hydrophobic groove, that are in agreement with each peptide electrostatic potential. Together, these findings provide new insights into the biosynthesis of prion-like proteins. Besides they also show the role of protein conformational switches in signalization toward the endoplasmic membrane, a key event of major significance in the cell cycle. They are thus of general applicability to the study of the biological function of prion-like as well as other proteins.

  12. Inhibition of the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor in vitro and in vivo by dipeptides containing NG-nitro-L-arginine.

    PubMed Central

    Thiemermann, C.; Mustafa, M.; Mester, P. A.; Mitchell, J. A.; Hecker, M.; Vane, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    1. We have shown that dipeptides containing NG-nitro-L-arginine (NO2Arg) inhibit the biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) in vitro and in vivo. 2. In anaesthetized rats, intravenous administration at 1-30 mg kg-1 of the methyl ester of NO2Arg, NO2-Arg-L-phenylalanine (NO2Arg-Phe), L-alanyl-NO2Arg (Ala-NO2Arg) or NO2Arg-L-arginine (NO2Arg-Arg) produced dose-related increases in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) which were unaffected by D-arginine (D-Arg; 20 mg kg-1 min-1 for 15 min), but prevented by co-infusions of L-arginine (L-Arg; 20 mg kg-1 min-1 for 15 min) or by their parent dipeptides. 3. NO2Arg methyl ester, NO2Arg-Phe methyl ester or Ala-NO2Arg methyl ester (10 mg kg-1, i.v.) also inhibited the reduction in MABP caused by the endothelium-dependent vasodilator, acetylcholine (30 micrograms kg-1 min-1 for 3 min), but not those induced by glycerly trinitrate (20 micrograms kg-1 min-1 for 3 min) or iloprost (6 micrograms kg-1 min-1 for 3 min) which act directly on the vascular smooth muscle. 4. Moreover, NO2Arg methyl ester, NO2Arg-Phe methyl ester or NO2Arg-Arg methyl ester (100 microM) inhibited the acetylcholine-induced relaxation of rabbit aortic strips, and NO2Arg-Phe methyl ester (30 microM) blocked the stimulated (bradykinin, 30 pmol) release of EDRF from bovine aortic endothelial cells grown on microcarrier beads.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1786515

  13. Relationship between peak spatial-averaged specific absorption rate and peak temperature elevation in human head in frequency range of 1-30 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Ryota; Laakso, Ilkka; De Santis, Valerio; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the peak temperature elevation and the peak specific absorption rate (SAR) averaged over 10 g of tissue in human head models in the frequency range of 1-30 GHz. As a wave source, a half-wave dipole antenna resonant at the respective frequencies is located in the proximity of the pinna. The bioheat equation is used to evaluate the temperature elevation by employing the SAR, which is computed by electromagnetic analysis, as a heat source. The computed SAR is post-processed by calculating the peak spatial-averaged SAR with six averaging algorithms that consider different descriptions provided in international guidelines and standards, e.g. the number of tissues allowed in the averaging volume, different averaging shapes, and the consideration of the pinna. The computational results show that the SAR averaging algorithms excluding the pinna are essential when correlating the peak temperature elevation in the head excluding the pinna. In the averaging scheme considering an arbitrary shape, for better correlation, multiple tissues should be included in the averaging volume rather than a single tissue. For frequencies higher than 3-4 GHz, the correlation for peak temperature elevation in the head excluding the pinna is modest for the different algorithms. The 95th percentile value of the heating factor as well as the mean and median values derived here would be helpful for estimating the possible temperature elevation in the head.

  14. Free-spinning-tunnel Investigation of a 1/30 Scale Model of a Twin-jet-swept-wing Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, James S., Jr.; Healy, Frederick M.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel to determine the erect and inverted spin and recovery characteristics of a 1/30-scale dynamic model of a twin-jet swept-wing fighter airplane. The model results indicate that the optimum erect spin recovery technique determined (simultaneous rudder reversal to full against the spin and aileron deflection to full with the spin) will provide satisfactory recovery from steep-type spins obtained on the airplane. It is considered that the air-plane will not readily enter flat-type spins, also indicated as possible by the model tests, but developed-spin conditions should be avoided in as much as the optimum recovery procedure may not provide satisfactory recovery if the airplane encounters a flat-type developed spin. Satisfactory recovery from inverted spins will be obtained on the airplane by neutralization of all controls. A 30-foot- diameter (laid-out-flat) stable tail parachute having a drag coefficient of 0.67 and a towline length of 27.5 feet will be satisfactory for emergency spin recovery.

  15. Cosmic-ray Electrons and Atmospheric Gamma-rays in 1-30 GeV observed with Balloon-borne CALET prototype detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niita, Tae; Fuke, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Kenji; Katayose, Yusaku; Torii, Shoji; Akaike, Yosui; Katsuaki Kasahara, ., , prof.; Tamura, Tadahisa; Ueyama, Yoshitaka; Ozawa, Shunsuke; Shimizu, Yuki; Kyutan, Marie; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Ito, Daijiro; Karube, Mikihiko; Kondo, Keinosuke

    2012-07-01

    We carried out the balloon experiments using CALET (CALorimetric Electron Telescope) proto-type detectors in May 2006 (bCALET-1) and in August 2009 (bCALET-2) for verification of the detector performance and of the capability of measuring cosmic rays at high altitude. The bCALET-2 instrument for observing electrons and gamma-rays is composed of an imaging calorimeter, consisting of 4096 scintillating fibers and 7 tungsten plates of 3.6 radiation lengths depth in total, and a total absorption calorimeter, consisting of 60 BGO logs of 13.4 radiation lengths depth. The bCALET-2 was launched at the Taiki Aerospace Research Field, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, in Hokkaido, and flew successfully for 2.5 hours at a level altitude of 35 km. We will present energy spectra of the 1ry and 2ry electrons and the atmospheric gamma-rays in the energy range of 1-30 GeV observed by bCALET-2. The results will be compared with our previous observations, bCALET-1 and BETS.

  16. Ground state lasing at 1.30 microm from InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Guimard, Denis; Ishida, Mitsuru; Bordel, Damien; Li, Lin; Nishioka, Masao; Tanaka, Yu; Ekawa, Mitsuru; Sudo, Hisao; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Kondo, Hayato; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2010-03-12

    We investigated the effects of post-growth annealing on the photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The onset temperature at which both the peak linewidth and the PL intensity degraded and the blueshift of the ground state emission wavelength occurred was found to depend on both the QD density and the In composition of the capping layer. This behavior is particularly important in view of QD integration in photonic devices. From the knowledge of the dependences of the PL characteristics after annealing on the QD and capping growth conditions, ground state lasing at 1.30 microm could be demonstrated from InAs/GaAs QDs grown by MOCVD. Finally, we compared the laser characteristics of InAs/GaAs QDs with those of InAs/Sb:GaAs QDs, grown according to the antimony-mediated growth technique, and showed that InAs/Sb:GaAs QDs are more appropriate for laser fabrication at 1.3 microm by MOCVD.

  17. Educational Institutions; A Study of the Economic Effects of The $1.30 Minimum Wage and 40 Hour Maximum Workweek Standards Under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Economics Effects Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wage and Labor Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The 1966 amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act extended enterprise coverage to all public and private educational institutions. In October 1968, one out of seven of the 2 million nonsupervisory nonteaching employees working in schools was paid below the $1.30 minimum wage which became effective on February 1, 1969. Three-fifths of those below…

  18. Propofol and alfentanil in children: infusion technique and dose requirement for total i.v. anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Browne, B L; Prys-Roberts, C; Wolf, A R

    1992-12-01

    We estimated the dose of propofol (initial dose followed by a stepped infusion) when given with two different infusion rates of alfentanil for total i.v. anaesthesia in 59 children aged 3-12 yr. Patients in series 1 (four groups) received an alfentanil loading dose of 85 micrograms kg-1 and an infusion of 65 micrograms kg-1 h-1. Patients in series 2 (groups 5 and 6) received an alfentanil loading dose of 65 micrograms kg-1 and infusion of 50 micrograms kg-1 h-1. Parents gave their informed consent. Premedication comprised temazepam 0.3 mg kg-1. Glycopyrronium 5 micrograms kg-1 was administered and anaesthesia induced and maintained with alfentanil (loading dose and infusion) followed by propofol (loading dose and three-stage manual infusion scheme). Suxamethonium 1 mg kg-1 was used to facilitate tracheal intubation and the lungs were ventilated artificially to normocapnia with 30% oxygen in air. Probit analysis was used to determine the dose requirement of propofol. In series 1, the ED50 was 6.0 mg kg-1 h-1 (95% confidence limits 5.5-6.2 mg kg-1 h-1) and ED95 8.6 (6.8-7.8) mg kg-1 h-1. Corresponding values for series 2 were ED50 7.5 (8.0-9.8) mg kg-1 h-1 and ED95 10.5 (9.6-13.1) mg kg-1 h-1.

  19. Propofol and alfentanil in children: infusion technique and dose requirement for total i.v. anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Browne, B L; Prys-Roberts, C; Wolf, A R

    1992-12-01

    We estimated the dose of propofol (initial dose followed by a stepped infusion) when given with two different infusion rates of alfentanil for total i.v. anaesthesia in 59 children aged 3-12 yr. Patients in series 1 (four groups) received an alfentanil loading dose of 85 micrograms kg-1 and an infusion of 65 micrograms kg-1 h-1. Patients in series 2 (groups 5 and 6) received an alfentanil loading dose of 65 micrograms kg-1 and infusion of 50 micrograms kg-1 h-1. Parents gave their informed consent. Premedication comprised temazepam 0.3 mg kg-1. Glycopyrronium 5 micrograms kg-1 was administered and anaesthesia induced and maintained with alfentanil (loading dose and infusion) followed by propofol (loading dose and three-stage manual infusion scheme). Suxamethonium 1 mg kg-1 was used to facilitate tracheal intubation and the lungs were ventilated artificially to normocapnia with 30% oxygen in air. Probit analysis was used to determine the dose requirement of propofol. In series 1, the ED50 was 6.0 mg kg-1 h-1 (95% confidence limits 5.5-6.2 mg kg-1 h-1) and ED95 8.6 (6.8-7.8) mg kg-1 h-1. Corresponding values for series 2 were ED50 7.5 (8.0-9.8) mg kg-1 h-1 and ED95 10.5 (9.6-13.1) mg kg-1 h-1. PMID:1467099

  20. Second generation laser-heated microfurnace for the preparation of microgram-sized graphite samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Smith, A. M.; Long, S.

    2015-10-01

    We present construction details and test results for two second-generation laser-heated microfurnaces (LHF-II) used to prepare graphite samples for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at ANSTO. Based on systematic studies aimed at optimising the performance of our prototype laser-heated microfurnace (LHF-I) (Smith et al., 2007 [1]; Smith et al., 2010 [2,3]; Yang et al., 2014 [4]), we have designed the LHF-II to have the following features: (i) it has a small reactor volume of 0.25 mL allowing us to completely graphitise carbon dioxide samples containing as little as 2 μg of C, (ii) it can operate over a large pressure range (0-3 bar) and so has the capacity to graphitise CO2 samples containing up to 100 μg of C; (iii) it is compact, with three valves integrated into the microfurnace body, (iv) it is compatible with our new miniaturised conventional graphitisation furnaces (MCF), also designed for small samples, and shares a common vacuum system. Early tests have shown that the extraneous carbon added during graphitisation in each LHF-II is of the order of 0.05 μg, assuming 100 pMC activity, similar to that of the prototype unit. We use a 'budget' fibre packaged array for the diode laser with custom built focusing optics. The use of a new infrared (IR) thermometer with a short focal length has allowed us to decrease the height of the light-proof safety enclosure. These innovations have produced a cheaper and more compact device. As with the LHF-I, feedback control of the catalyst temperature and logging of the reaction parameters is managed by a LabVIEW interface.

  1. Production of microgram amounts of einsteinium 253 by irradiating californium in a reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kulyukhin, S.A.; Averman, L.N.; Mikheev, N.B.; Novichenko, V.L.; Rumer, I.A.

    1986-07-01

    /sup 253/Es has been made by irradiating 250 microg of /sup 252/Cf in a neutron flux of 5.10/sup 14/ n/cm/sup 2/.sec for 500 h. The product, about 1 microg of einsteinium, was separated chromatographically on Aminex resin of particle size 20-25 microm. The eluent was ammonium alpha-hydroxyisobutyrate (0.14 mole/liter) at pH 4.95. The purification coefficient for Es from Cf was about 1.10/sup 5/. More extensive purification can be provided by repeating the process on another column with the same parameters.

  2. Absolute specific heat measurements of a microgram Pb crystal using ac nanocalorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliati, S.; Rydh, A.

    2012-12-01

    Heat capacity measurements using the ac steady state method are often considered difficult to provide absolute accuracy. By adjusting the working frequency to maintain a constant phase and using the phase information to obtain the heat capacity, we have found that it is possible to achieve good absolute accuracy. Here we present a thermodynamic study of a ~ 2.6 μg Pb superconducting crystal to demonstrate the newly opened capabilities. The sample is measured using a differential membrane-based calorimeter. The custom-made calorimetric cell is a pile of thin film Ti heater, insulation layer and Ge1-xAux thermometer fabricated in the center of two Si3N4 membranes. It has a background heat capacity < 100 nJ/K at 300 K, decreasing to 9 pJ/K at 1 K. The sample is characterized at temperatures down to 0.5 K. The zero field transition at Tc = 7.21 K has a width asymp 20 mK and displays no upturn in C. From the heat capacity jump at Tc and the extrapolated Sommerfeld term we find ΔC/γTc = 2.68. The latent heat curve obtained from the zero field heat capacity measurement, and the deviations of the thermodynamic critical field from the empirical expression Hc = Hc (0) [1 - (T/Tc)2] are discussed. Both analyses give results in good agreement with literature.

  3. U-Pb Homogeneity of Duluth Gabbro Baddeleyite from Microgram to Nanogram Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, A. K.; Chamberlain, K.; Swapp, S. M.; Harrison, T. M.

    2009-12-01

    Baddeleyite has significant potential for U-Pb geochronology of mafic rocks, but due to small crystal sizes it can be exceedingly difficult to extract by conventional mineral separation techniques. We therefore developed in-situ dating of baddeleyite crystals with lateral dimensions between 5 and 20 μm (micro-baddeleyite) in polished petrographic thin sections using a CAMECA ims 1270 ion microprobe, and tested the homogeneity of a baddeleyite standard from Duluth gabbro complex over a wide range of grain sizes. Large (100 - 200 μm in diameter) baddeleyite crystals were separated from sample FC4-b from the Duluth gabbro complex and individually analyzed by isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS). Three FC-4b baddeleyite analyses overlap within error with a weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb date of 1099.6±1.5 Ma that closely agrees with published Duluth gabbro zircon dates. The weighted mean ID-TIMS 206Pb/238U date for FC4-b baddeleyite crystal separates (1096.8±0.3 Ma) is slightly younger than those for zircon. Large FC4-b baddeleyite crystals were also mounted along with pieces of polished thin-sections containing micro-baddeleyite and analyzed by ion microprobe using oxygen flooding to enhance sensitivity for positively charged Pb ions by a factor of ten. Ion microprobe 207Pb/206Pb ages for micro-baddeleyite (average 1096.9±2.6 Ma; MSWD = 1.2; n = 27) agree with the ID-TIMS age. With U-Pb relative sensitivities calibrated on FC4-b crystal separates, the weighted average 206Pb/238U micro-baddeleyite date is 1113±11 Ma (MSWD = 2.6; n = 27). This demonstrates that ion microprobe U-Pb baddeleyite analyses are unbiased by crystallographic orientation or grain size, and that 207Pb/206Pb and 206Pb/238U dates for Precambrian micro-baddeleyite are accurate and precise to within <0.3% and <2% relative uncertainty, respectively. For Phanerozoic samples, we anticipate similar 206Pb/238U age uncertainty if radiogenic yields are high. This opens new possibilities for dating silica-undersaturated rocks for which little alternatives exist.

  4. Structure and Absolute Configuration of Jurassic Polyketide-Derived Spiroborate Pigments Obtained from Microgram Quantities.

    PubMed

    Wolkenstein, Klaus; Sun, Han; Falk, Heinz; Griesinger, Christian

    2015-10-28

    Complete structural elucidation of natural products is often challenging due to structural complexity and limited availability. This is true for present-day secondary metabolites, but even more for exceptionally preserved secondary metabolites of ancient organisms that potentially provide insights into the evolutionary history of natural products. Here, we report the full structure and absolute configuration of the borolithochromes, enigmatic boron-containing pigments from a Jurassic putative red alga, from samples of less than 50 μg using microcryoprobe NMR, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations and reveal their polyketide origin. The pigments are identified as spiroborates with two pentacyclic sec-butyl-trihydroxy-methyl-benzo[gh]tetraphen-one ligands and less-substituted derivatives. The configuration of the sec-butyl group is found to be (S). Because the exceptional benzo[gh]tetraphene scaffold is otherwise only observed in the recently discovered polyketide clostrubin from a present-day Clostridium bacterium, the Jurassic borolithochromes now can be unambiguously linked to the modern polyketide, providing evidence that the fossil pigments are almost originally preserved secondary metabolites and suggesting that the pigments in fact may have been produced by an ancient bacterium. The borolithochromes differ fundamentally from previously described boronated polyketides and represent the first boronated aromatic polyketides found so far. Our results demonstrate the potential of microcryoprobe NMR in the analysis of previously little-explored secondary metabolites from ancient organisms and reveal the evolutionary significance of clostrubin-type polyketides. PMID:26443920

  5. Blood lead in the 21st Century: The sub-microgram challenge

    PubMed Central

    Amaya, Maria A; Jolly, Kevin W; Pingitore, Nicholas E

    2010-01-01

    In the US the dominant sources of lead through much of the 20th Century (eg, vehicular emissions, plumbing, household paint) have been significantly diminished. The reductions in adult and pediatric average blood lead levels in the US have been extraordinary. Progress continues: the US Environmental Protection Agency recently developed a new air standard for lead. In the 21st Century, the average blood lead level in a society may be seen as a marker of the status of their public’s health. However, the threat of lead exposure remains a significant public health problem among subpopulation groups in the US and in many less developed countries. This paper examines some of the specific issues involved in the reduction of blood lead in a post-industrial era. These involve the control of the remaining exogenous primary sources, both general (eg, industrial emissions) and specific (eg, at-risk occupations), exogenous secondary sources (eg, contaminated urban soils, legacy lead-based paints), an endogenous source (ie, cumulative body lead burden) and emergent sources. PMID:22282686

  6. Milestone Report - Demonstrate Braided Material with 3.5 g U/kg Sorption Capacity under Seawater Testing Condition (Milestone M2FT-15OR0310041 - 1/30/2015)

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, Christopher James; Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Yatsandra; Mayes, Richard T; Gill, Gary; Kuo, Li-Jung; Wood, Jordana

    2015-01-01

    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-15OR0310041 (1/30/2015) entitled, Demonstrate braided material with 3.5 g U/kg sorption capacity under seawater testing condition . This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent braided materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed four braided fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 3.5 g U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. The braided adsorbents were synthesized by braiding or leno weaving high surface area polyethylene fibers and conducting radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile monomers onto the braided materials followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. The four braided adsorbents demonstrated capacity values ranging from 3.7 to 4.2 g U/kg adsorbent after 56 days of exposure in natural coastal seawater at 20 oC. All data are normalized to a salinity of 35 psu.

  7. Experimental study of the dynamics of the H+D2 --> HD+D reaction at collision energies of 0.55 and 1.30 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerrity, Daniel P.; Valentini, James J.

    1984-08-01

    We report here experimental measurement of the nascent HD product quantum state distributions for the H+D2 → HD+D reaction. Pulsed laser photolysis of HI in an HI/D2 gas mixture produces hydrogen atoms giving H+D2 collision energies of 0.55 and 1.30 eV. Nanosecond-time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy is used to record rotationally and vibrationally resolved spectra of the HD reaction product under nearly single-collision conditions. The spectra are analyzed to determine the nascent, single-collision HD product quantum state distributions. These distributions are compared to the results of related experiments by E. E. Marinero, C. T. Rettner, and R. N. Zare and to the results of recent quasiclassical trajectory calculations of N. C. Blais and D. G. Truhlar. Our results are in qualitative agreement with those of Marinero et al., but there are some quantitative differences. The trajectory calculations yield HD quantum state distributions which are very close to those we have measured. We find that our HD product quantum state distributions are fairly well summarized by a linear surprisal analysis with a rotational surprisal of 3.0 and a vibrational surprisal of 2.6. The quantum state distributions indicate that 71%±1% of the energy available to the products appears in translation, while 19%±2% is in HD rotation, and 10%±2% is in vibration. These results are discussed in terms of the dynamics of the reaction.

  8. Pharmacological characterization of RS 25259-197, a novel and selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Eglen, R M; Lee, C H; Smith, W L; Johnson, L G; Clark, R; Whiting, R L; Hegde, S S

    1995-01-01

    1. The pharmacological effects in vivo, of RS 25259-197, a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, have been investigated. 2. In anaesthetized rats, RS 25259-197, administered by the intravenous, intraduodenal or transdermal route, dose-dependently inhibited the von Bezold-Jarisch reflex induced by 2-methyl 5-HT (ID50 = 0.04 micrograms kg-1, i.v., 3.2 micrograms kg-1, i.d. and 32.8 micrograms per chamber, respectively). In this regard, when administered intraduodenally, RS 25259-197 was more potent and exhibited a longer duration of action than either ondansetron or granisetron. 3. In conscious ferrets, RS 25259-197, administered intravenously or orally, dose-dependently inhibited emesis induced by cisplatin. The ID50 estimates of RS 25259-197 were 1.1 micrograms kg-1, i.v. and 3.2 micrograms kg-1, p.o. In this respect, RS 25259-197 was more potent than ondansetron and equipotent with granisetron. 4. In conscious dogs, RS 25259-197, administered intravenously or orally, dose-dependently inhibited emesis induced by cisplatin (ID50 = 1.9 micrograms kg-1, i.v. and 8.5 micrograms kg-1, p.o.), dacarbazine (ID50 = 4.1 micrograms kg-1, i.v. and 9.7 micrograms kg-1, p.o.), actinomycin D (ID50 = 4.9 micrograms kg-1, i.v. and 2.5 micrograms kg-1, p.o.) and mechlorethamine (ID50 = 4.4 micrograms kg-1, i.v. and 3.0 micrograms kg-1, p.o.). Against each of the emetogenic agents, RS 25259-197 was very much more potent than ondansetron. When tested at equi-effective intravenous doses against cisplatin-induced emesis in dogs, RS 25259-197 had a longer duration of anti-emetic activity (7 h) than ondansetron (4 h).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7773547

  9. Extragalactic stellar populations in the near and mid-infrared: 1-30 mum emission from evolved populations, young and dusty star forming regions and the earliest stellar populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentuch, Erin

    2010-11-01

    The near- through mid-infrared offers a unique and, as this thesis aims to show, essential view of extragalactic stellar populations both nearby, at intermediate redshifts and at very high redshift. In chapter 2, I demonstrate that rest-frame near-IR photometry obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope provides more robust stellar mass estimates for a spectroscopic sample of ˜ 100 galaxies in the redshift desert (0:5 < z < 2), and is crucial for modeling galaxies with young star-forming populations. From this analysis, a surprising result emerges in the data. Although the rest-frame light short of 2 mum improves stellar mass estimates, the models and observations disagree beyond 2 mum and emission from non-stellar sources becomes significant. At wavelengths from 1--30 mum, stellar and non-stellar emission contribute equally to a galaxy's global spectral energy distribution. This is unlike visible wavelengths where stellar emission dominates or the far-IR where dust emission provides the bulk of a galaxy's luminosity. Using the sample of high-z galaxies, in chapter 3, I quantify the statistical significance of the excess emission at 2-5 mum and find the emission to correlate with the O II luminosity, suggesting a link between the excess emission and star formation. The origin of the excess emission is not clear, although I explore a number of non-stellar candidates in this chapter. Nearby resolved observations provide a clearer picture of the excess by spatially resolving 68 nearby galaxies. By analyzing the pixel-by-pixel near-IR colours within each galaxy at ˜1-5 mum, increasingly red near-IR colors are mapped to spatial regions in chapter 4. For regions with red NIR colors and high star formation rates, I find the broad near- through mid-IR spectrum is constant, varying only in amplitude as a function of the intensity of star formation, suggesting the infrared emission of a young, dusty stellar populations can be added to stellar population synthesis models as an

  10. Developmental responses to opioids reveals a lack of effect on stress-induced corticosterone levels in neonatal rats.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, C. C.; Kitchen, I.

    1987-01-01

    The neonate has an unusual capacity for survival and the possibility exists that mechanisms for controlling stress responses may differ in the developing animal. In adults both endogenous and exogenous opioids can modulate the corticosterone responses to stress. We have studied this effect in neonatal rats and found that opioid modulation is absent in early postnatal development. Neonatal rats of either sex were injected with morphine (5-50 mg kg-1), fentanyl (10-100 micrograms kg-1), buprenorphine (0.1-30 mg kg-1) or naloxone (0.1-10 mg kg-1) and plasma corticosterone measured fluorimetrically 15 or 20 min later. In addition naloxone reversibility studies (1 mg kg-1, co-administered) were carried out for the opioid agonists. In adult rats, elevations in plasma corticosterone caused by injection stress were potentiated by morphine, fentanyl and buprenorphine. In neonates, though injection stress-induced rises in plasma corticosterone were absent at 10 days, elevations were observed at 21 days and later. However, significant potentiation of this corticosterone response by fentanyl was absent at 21 days and at later ages (30 and 40 days) for morphine and buprenorphine. The potentiating effect of all three agonists did not become fully effective until day 45. In addition, in animals acclimatized to injection stress by 7 day injection pretreatment, fentanyl did not significantly alter corticosterone levels in 30 day old neonates. High doses of naloxone (10 mg kg-1) significantly increased the corticosterone response to injection stress in adult rats but this effect was absent in 30 day old animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3594070

  11. Effects of isoproterenol on the metabolism of normal and ischemic heart.

    PubMed

    Andrieu, J L; Vial, C; Font, B; Goldschmidt, D; Ollagnier, M; Faucon, G

    1980-04-01

    A study has been made of the simultaneous evolution of cardiac activity and metabolism in the dog heart in situ, during the perfusion of isoproterenol in a dose comparable to therapeutic doses (1 micrograms x kg-1 x min-1, 30 min). A total cardiopulmonary by-pass system allowed of taking the repeated myocardial tissue samples necessary for the determination of the main energetic substrate and high-energy phosphate content. Samples were taken from subendocardial and subepicardial layers separately. The acceleration of heart rate due to isoproterenol was quickly regressive but, in the well-irrigated heart, the drug elicited a rapid fall in glycogen content and a considerable rise in lactate content, a slower reduction in free fatty acid concentration restricted to the subendocardial layer, and no significant variation of creatine phosphate or ATP. In the ischemic heart, isoproterenol aggravated the glycolysis disturbances without completely losing its effects on lipolysis when the ischemia was not too marked.

  12. Determination of small dialkyl organophosphonates at microgram/l concentrations in contaminated groundwaters using multiple extraction membrane disks

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkins, B.A.; Griest, W.H.; Hearle, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    Di-isopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) and dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) are byproducts and surrogates for Sarin (GB) and VX; they are readily quantitated at {mu}g/L concentrations in groundwaters. Liter aqueous samples are fortified with triethylphosphate, then passed through a sandwich of 3 preconditioned extraction disks: glass fiber filter to remove particulates, C{sub 18}-based extraction disk to collect DIMP, and carbon-based extraction disk to collect DMMP. The two extraction disks are dried and extracted with MeOH. After the extract is fortified with with diethyl ethylphosphonate internal standard, it is analyzed using a gas chromatograph with a nitrogen- phosphorus detector. When the pump and treat criterion is used, detection limits for DMMP and DIMP are 2 {mu}g/L. Method recovery is 40-50%, based on synthetic groundwaters containing 0.2-50 {mu}g/L of each analyte. DIMP and DMMP are cleanly resolved.

  13. 40Ar/39Ar dating of microgram feldspar grains from the paired feldspathic achondrites GRA 06128 and 06129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Fara N.; Herzog, Gregory F.; Park, Jisun; Delaney, Jeremy S.; Turrin, Brent D.; Swisher, Carl C.

    2014-03-01

    40Ar/39Ar ages of single feldspar grains from the paired meteorites Graves Nunatak 06128 (GRA8; 8 grains) and 06129 (GRA9; 26 grains) are presented. Plateau ages (⩾70% of the 39Ar released) ranged from 4000 to 4600 Ma with an average 1-σ uncertainty of ±90 Ma. The most precise ages obtained were 4267 ± 17 Ma for a grain from GRA8 and 4437 ± 19 Ma and 4321 ± 18 Ma for two grains from GRA9. Isotope correlation diagrams yield less precise ages ranging from 3800 to 5200 Ma with an average 1-σ uncertainty of 250 Ma; they indicate a negligible trapped component. Plateau ages, integrated total fusion ages, and isochron ages are internally concordant at the 95% confidence level. The distribution of the plateau ages for GRA9 is bimodal with peaks at 4400 and 4300 Ma. In contrast, the plateau age distribution for GRA8 peaks at about 4260 Ma with broad wings extending toward younger and older ages. To explain the distributions of grain ages we prefer a scenario that includes a major post-formation event about 4400 Ma ago and a later melt intrusion event that heated GRA8 more than some parts of GRA9.

  14. Determination of mercaptans at microgram-per-cubic-meter levels in air by gas chromatography with photoionization detection

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, V.B.; Narang, R.S.

    1982-05-01

    A method for the gas chromatographic (GC) determination of ethyl, tert-butyl, propyl, sec-butyl, and n-butyl mercaptans in air using a photoionization detector (PID) was established by using air sampling bags. Up to 5 mL of sample was injected into a Hewlett-Packard Model 588OA GC fitted with a 9 ft glass column packed with 100/120 mesh Chromosorb W AW DMCS and coated with 15% SF-96 and 6% OV-225. The oven was held at 65 /sup 0/C and the nitrogen flow rate was 30 mL/min. The photoionization detector was attached to the GC and held at 200 /sup 0/C. The GC detection limit was determined to be 0.06 ng for n-butyl mercaptan and 0.02 ng for the remaining mercaptans with precisions (n = 8, 1sigma, 4 ng) of +/- 7.3, +/- 8.5, +/- 8.1, and +/- 10% for ethyl, tert-butyl, propyl, sec-butyl, and n-butyl mercaptan, respectively. With a 5-mL injection volume, sensitivity is about 2 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ which is as sensitive as detection by smell since the oder threshold is about 2-4 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/.

  15. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides, November 1-30, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of November 1997, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Topics include: U.S. leaders call for the use of force as Iraq refuses to permit access…

  16. LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-30 November 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Standard Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which las been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  17. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. January 1-30, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of January, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Topics include: the first mission to the moon in 25 years, Kenya reelects Daniel Arap Moi to…

  18. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. September 1-30, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides for the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of August provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Topics covered by the guides include: (1) truce in Northern Ireland, school censorship, scientific method, burial…

  19. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides, November 1-30, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of November, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Topics covered by the guides include: the Bosnia peace talks, hot-air balloons, salt…

  20. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides, August 1-30, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily Cable News Network Newsroom broadcasts for August, 1996, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and lists of related news terms. Top stories covered include: investigation into the Centennial Olympic Park bombing; and Whitewater trial…

  1. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. April 1-30, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of April, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Headlines include: Arab League boycott, Zaire peace talks, Russia and Belarus sign agreement,…

  2. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. November 1-30, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of November, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Topics include: presidential candidates travel the United States searching for votes, FBI…

  3. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. April 1-30, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    CNN Newsroom is a daily 15-minute commercial-free news program specifically produced for classroom use and provided free to participating schools. These daily Classroom Guides are designed to accompany the broadcast, and contain activities for discussing top stories, headlines, and other current events topics; each guide also includes World Wide…

  4. Innovation Abstracts, Volume X, Numbers 1-30. 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This series of one- to two-page abstracts highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) staff development; (2) integrating computers into the curriculum; (3) a strategy for selecting and hiring good teachers; (4) faculty involvement in support services…

  5. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. June 1-30, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides for the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of June provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussions, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Topics covered by the guides include: (1) amusement park physics, media resources and literacy, and the war in Bosnia…

  6. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. June 1-30, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides for the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of June provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Topics covered by the guides include: (1) Congressman Dan Rostenkowski, D-Day, cars and Singapore, Rodney King civil…

  7. Family Connections Pre-K, Issue No. 1 - 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers Robert D. Ed.; Penn, Patricia, Ed.; McClure, Carla, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This document is comprised of the 30 issues of learning guides for parents and family members providing suggestions regarding activities for young children. Each learning guide is organized similarly and contains: (1) a message for family members who care for young children; (2) suggested fun-learning activities using items found at home to help…

  8. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. September 1-30, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of September, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Topics covered by the guides include: the women's conference in China, "No Man Is an Island"…

  9. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides, April 1-30, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily Cable News Network Newsroom broadcasts for the month of April, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Topics covered include: the Montana standoff between federal authorities and the Freemen; debunking…

  10. Pu-238 fuel form activities, June 1-30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-18

    This monthly report for Pu-238 Fuel Form Activities has two main sections: SRP-PuFF Pu-238 Fuel Form Production Processes and SRL Pu-238 Fuel Form Research and Development. The program status, budget information, and milestone information are discussed in each main section. The Work Breakdown Structures (WBS) for this program is outlined. Only one monthly report per year is processed for EDB.

  11. The profiles of interaction of yohimbine with anxiolytic and putative anxiolytic agents to modify 5-HT release in the frontal cortex of freely-moving rats.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, C. H.; Costall, B.; Ge, J.; Naylor, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    1. The interaction of yohimbine with anxiolytic and putative anxiolytic agents to modify 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release in the frontal cortex of the freely-moving rat was assessed using the microdialysis technique. 2. The alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine (5.0 mg kg-1, i.p.) increased maximally the extracellular levels of 5-HT in the rat frontal cortex by approximately 230% of the basal levels. 3. The alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine (30-100 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) decreased dose-dependently the extracellular levels of 5-HT in the rat frontal cortex by approximately 0-60% of the basal levels. A 5 min pretreatment with clonidine (50 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) prevented the yohimbine-induced increase in the extracellular 5-HT levels. 4. The benzodiazepine receptor agonist, diazepam (2.5 mg kg-1, i.p.) and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron (100 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) (5 min pretreatment) completely prevented the yohimbine (5.0 mg kg-1, i.p.)-induced increases in the extracellular levels of 5-HT. The 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (0.32 mg kg-1, s.c.) partially antagonized the yohimbine response. 5. A 5 min pretreatment with the 5-HT3/5-HT4 receptor ligand R(+)-zacopride (10 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) reversed the yohimbine (5.0 mg kg-1, i.p.)-induced increase in the extracellular levels of 5-HT to approximately 30% below the basal levels. A 5 min pretreatment with S(-)-zacopride (100 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) failed to modify the response to yohimbine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7507776

  12. Oesophageal contractility during total i.v. anaesthesia with and without glycopyrronium.

    PubMed

    Raftery, S; Enever, G; Prys-Roberts, C

    1991-05-01

    Somatic movement and spontaneous and provoked oesophageal contractions were noted at time of incision in 51 patients receiving total i.v. anaesthesia with alfentanil and propofol. Probit analysis of the dose of propofol required to prevent spontaneous movement revealed an ED50 (95% confidence limits) of 2.5 (1.8-2.9) mg kg(-1) h(-1) and ED95 of 4.7 (4.0-7.5) mg kg(-1) h(-1). Corresponding venous blood concentrations gave an EC50 of 1.2 (0.4-1.6) micrograms ml(-1) and an EC95 of 4.0 (2.8-18.5) micrograms ml(-1). ED50 of propofol for preventing spontaneous oesophageal contraction was 3.0 (1.9-3.6) mg kg(-1) h(-1). ED95 was 6.9 (5.0-27.3) mg kg(-1) h(-1); EC50 for oesophageal contractions was 1.7 (0.7-2.3) micrograms ml(-1) and EC95 was 5.9 (3.7-70.6) micrograms ml(-1). Another group of 10 patients were given glycopyrronium 5 micrograms kg(-1) at induction; oesophageal contractility was significantly reduced in this group. PMID:2031816

  13. Effects of apamin on alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated changes in plasma potassium in guinea-pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Coats, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    An intravenous K+-sensitive electrode has been used to monitor plasma [K+] changes induced by adrenaline (1.4-6.8 micrograms kg-1) and amidephrine (14-340 micrograms kg-1) in anaesthetized guinea-pigs. A biphasic response consisting of an initial increase in [K+] followed, within 1 min, by a fall below baseline was observed with both agonists. Apamin (0.4-40 micrograms kg-1) reduced the hyperkalaemic phase of the response to amidephrine in a dose-related, non-competitive manner. The response to adrenaline was also reduced but to a lesser extent. Apamin caused little or no reduction of the hypokalaemic phase of the response to either agonist. PMID:6139136

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis pncA Polymorphisms That Do Not Confer Pyrazinamide Resistance at a Breakpoint Concentration of 100 Micrograms per Milliliter in MGIT

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Michael G.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Sampson, Samantha L.; Sirgel, Frik A.; van Helden, Paul D.; Mercante, Alexandra; Willby, Melisa; Hughes, Kelsey; Birkness, Kris; Morlock, Glenn; van Rie, Annelies; Posey, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis pncA gene allows for pyrazinamide susceptibility testing. We summarize data on pncA polymorphisms that do not confer resistance at a susceptibility breakpoint of 100 μg/ml pyrazinamide in MGIT within a cohort of isolates from South Africa and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:26292310

  15. Position-Specific Gene Expression Analysis Using a Microgram Dissection Method Combined with On-Bead cDNA Library Construction.

    PubMed

    Kajiyama, Tomoharu; Fujii, Akihiko; Arikawa, Kouji; Habu, Toru; Mochizuki, Nobuyoshi; Nagatani, Akira; Kambara, Hideki

    2015-07-01

    Gene expression analysis is a key technology that is used to understand living systems. Multicellular organisms, including plants, are composed of various tissues and cell types, each of which exhibits a unique gene expression pattern. However, because of their rigid cell walls, plant cells are difficult to isolate from the whole plant. Although laser dissection has been used to circumvent this problem, the plant sample needs to be fixed beforehand, which presents several problems. In the present study, we developed an alternative method to conduct highly reliable gene expression profiling. First, we assembled a dissection apparatus that used a narrow, sharpened needle to dissect out a microsample of fresh plant tissue (0.1-0.2 mm on each side) automatically from a target site within a short time frame. Then, we optimized a protocol to synthesize a high-quality cDNA library on magnetic beads using a single microsample. The cDNA library was amplified and subjected to high-throughput sequencing. In this way, a stable and reliable system was developed to conduct gene expression profiling in small regions of a plant. The system was used to analyze the gene expression patterns at successive 50 µm intervals in the shoot apex of a 4-day-old Arabidopsis seedling. Clustering analysis of the data demonstrated that two small, adjacent domains, the shoot apical meristem and the leaf primordia, were clearly distinguishable. This system should be broadly applicable in the investigation of the spatial organization of gene expression in various contexts. PMID:26092972

  16. Position-Specific Gene Expression Analysis Using a Microgram Dissection Method Combined with On-Bead cDNA Library Construction.

    PubMed

    Kajiyama, Tomoharu; Fujii, Akihiko; Arikawa, Kouji; Habu, Toru; Mochizuki, Nobuyoshi; Nagatani, Akira; Kambara, Hideki

    2015-07-01

    Gene expression analysis is a key technology that is used to understand living systems. Multicellular organisms, including plants, are composed of various tissues and cell types, each of which exhibits a unique gene expression pattern. However, because of their rigid cell walls, plant cells are difficult to isolate from the whole plant. Although laser dissection has been used to circumvent this problem, the plant sample needs to be fixed beforehand, which presents several problems. In the present study, we developed an alternative method to conduct highly reliable gene expression profiling. First, we assembled a dissection apparatus that used a narrow, sharpened needle to dissect out a microsample of fresh plant tissue (0.1-0.2 mm on each side) automatically from a target site within a short time frame. Then, we optimized a protocol to synthesize a high-quality cDNA library on magnetic beads using a single microsample. The cDNA library was amplified and subjected to high-throughput sequencing. In this way, a stable and reliable system was developed to conduct gene expression profiling in small regions of a plant. The system was used to analyze the gene expression patterns at successive 50 µm intervals in the shoot apex of a 4-day-old Arabidopsis seedling. Clustering analysis of the data demonstrated that two small, adjacent domains, the shoot apical meristem and the leaf primordia, were clearly distinguishable. This system should be broadly applicable in the investigation of the spatial organization of gene expression in various contexts.

  17. Determination of sub-microgram amounts of selenium in geological materials by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry with electrothermal atomisation after solvent extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzolone, R.F.; Chao, T.T.

    1981-01-01

    An atomic-absorption spectrophotometric method with electrothermal atomisation has been developed for the determination of selenium in geological materials. The sample is decomposed with a mixture of nitric, perchloric and hydrofluoric acids and heated with hydrochloric acid to reduce selenium to selenium (IV). Selenium is then extracted into toluene from a hydrochloric acid - hydrobromic acid medium containing iron. A few microlitres of the toluene extract are injected into a carbon rod atomiser, using a nickel solution as a matrix modifier. The limits of determination are 0.2-200 p.p.m. of selenium in a geological sample. For concentrations between 0.05 and 0.2 p.p.m., back-extraction of the selenium into dilute hydrochloric acid is employed before atomisation. Selenium values for reference samples obtained by replicate analysis are in general agreement with those reported by other workers, with relative standard deviations ranging from 4.1 to 8.8%. Recoveries of selenium spiked at two levels were 98-108%. Major and trace elements commonly encountered in geological materials do not interfere. Arsenic has a suppressing effect on the selenium signals, but only when its concentration is greater than 1000 p.p.m. Nitric acid interferes seriously with the extraction of selenium and must be removed by evaporation in the sample-digestion step.

  18. Evidence for increased beta-adrenoreceptor responsiveness induced by 14 days of simulated microgravity in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Polet, J. L.; Engelke, K. A.; Hoffler, G. W.; Lane, L. D.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Eckberg, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    We studied hemodynamic responses to alpha- and beta-receptor agonists in eight healthy men before and after 14 days of 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) to test the hypothesis that increased adrenoreceptor responsiveness is induced by prolonged exposure to simulated microgravity. Steady-state infusions of isoproterenol (Iso) at rates of 0.005, 0.01, and 0.02 microgram.kg-1.min-1 were used to assess beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoreceptor responsiveness. Infusions of phenylephrine (PE) at rates of 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 microgram.kg-1.min-1 were used to assess responsiveness of alpha 1-vascular adrenoreceptors. Slopes calculated from linear regressions between Iso and PE doses and changes in beat-to-beat heart rate, blood pressure, and leg vascular resistance (occlusion plethysmography) for each subject were used as an index of alpha- and beta-adrenoreceptor responsiveness. HDT increased the slopes of heart rate (1,056 +/- 107 to 1,553 +/- 83 beats micrograms-1.kg-1.min-1; P = 0.014) and vasodilation (-469 +/- 111 to -1,446 +/- 309 peripheral resistance units.microgram-1.kg-1.min-1; P = 0.0224) to Iso infusion. There was no alteration in blood pressure or vascular resistance responses to PE infusion after HDT. Our results provide evidence that simulated microgravity causes selective increases in beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoreceptor responsiveness without affecting alpha 1-vascular adrenoreceptor responses.

  19. Title list of documents made publicly available, April 1--30 1997, Vol. 19, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, E.B.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the information received and published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes: (1) material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) material received and published by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. In this report, 7 items of the first type are included, and 25 regulatory type items are listed. The report is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index.

  20. Title list of documents made publicly available: November 1--30, 1997. Volume 19, Number 11

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This document is a monthly publication containing descriptions of information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. The following indexes are included: Personal Author, Corporate source, Report Number, and Cross Reference of Enclosures to Principal Documents.

  1. Title list of documents made publicly available, April 1-30, 1995. Volume 17, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This document is NUREG-0540, Volume 17, Number 4. The Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available is a monthly publication, It contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US NRC. This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials, and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by the NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which the NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a personal author index, a corporate source index, and a report number index.

  2. Observations of 1-30 MeV gamma rays from the galactic center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanrosso, E.; Long, J. L.; Zych, A. D.; White, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary results are reported for gamma ray observations of the galactic center region made during a 15-hour balloon flight from Alice Springs, Australia on April 18, 1979. The observations were carried out with the UGR double-scatter gamma-ray telescope at energies of 1 to 30 MeV. The observations are compatible with a galactic source of approximately equal brightness along the region of system II galactic longitudes between 300 and 60 deg. The energy distribution joins smoothly to previous spark chamber results at energies above 30 MeV and to scintillator results below 1 MeV. It appears to be a combination of nuclear gamma ray lines superimposed on a power-law bremsstrahlung spectrum. The metastable C-12 line at 4.4 MeV appears to be present with a significance of about 16 standard deviations. The flux in the line is 0.0006 + or - 0.0003 photons/sq cm per sec per rad. The oxygen line at 6.1 MeV does not seem to appear significantly above background.

  3. A liquid xenon imaging telescope for 1-30 MeV gamma-ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena; Mukherjee, Reshmi; Suzuki, Masayo

    1989-01-01

    A study of the primary scintillation light in liquid xenon excited by 241 Am alpha particles and 207 Bi internal conversion electrons are discussed. The time dependence and the intensity of the light at different field strengths have been measured with a specifically designed chamber, equipped with a CaF sub 2 light transmitting window coupled to a UV sensitive PMT. The time correlation between the fast light signal and the charge signal shows that the scintillation signals produced in liquid xenon by ionizing particles provides an ideal trigger in a Time Projection type LXe detector aiming at full imaging of complex gamma-ray events. Researchers also started Monte Carlo calculations to establish the performance of a LXe imaging telescope for high energy gamma-rays.

  4. Title list of documents made publicly available, September 1--30,1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This monthly publication contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index. The docketed information contained in the Title List includes the information formerly issued through the Department of Energy publication Power Reactor Docket Information, last published in January 1979. Microfiche of the docketed information listed in the Title List is available for sale on a subscription basis from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS).

  5. Title list of documents made publicly available, April 1--30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available is a monthly publication. It contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index. The docketed information contained in the Title List includes the information formerly issued through the Department of Energy publication Power Reactor Docket Information, last published in January 1979.

  6. Title list of documents made publicly available, November 1--30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This monthly publication contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index. The docketed information contained in the Title List includes the information formerly issued through the Department of Energy publication Power Reactor Docket Information, last published in January 1979. Microfiche of the docketed information listed in the Title List is available for sale on a subscription basis from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS).

  7. Title list of documents made publicly available, June 1-30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    The Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available is a monthly publication. It contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index. The docketed information contained in the Title List includes the information formerly issued through the Department of Energy publication Power Reactor Docket Information, last published in January 1979. Microfiche of the docketed information listed in the Title List is available for sale on a subscription basis from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). See Notes at the end of the Preface for the complete NTIS address. We encourage your comments, criticisms, and suggestions. In particular, if there are title descriptions that are not meaningful, please let us know so that we can correct the data base. In so far as possible, we would like this document to be a valuable part of your reference material.

  8. Title list of documents made publicly available, November 1-30, 1985. Volume 7, No. 11

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    The Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) during November 1985. This information includes: (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency.

  9. Title list of documents made publicly available, November 1--30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This monthly publication contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other used of radioactive materials and nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets: it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index. The docketed information contained in the Title List includes the information formerly issued through the Department of Energy publication Power Reactor Docket Information, last published in January 1979.

  10. Title list of documents made publicly available, April 1-30, 1983. Vol. 5, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available is a monthly publication. It contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index. The docketed information contained in the Title List includes the information formerly issued through the Department of Energy publication Power Reactor Docket Information, last published in January 1979. Microfiche of the docketed information listed in the Title List is available for sale on a subscription basis from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). See Notes at the end of the Preface for the complete NTIS address. We encourage your comments, criticisms, and suggestions. In particular, if there are title descriptions that are not meaningful, please let us know so that we can correct the data base. In so far as possible, we would like this document to be a valuable part of your reference material.

  11. Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available, November 1-30, 1984. Volume 6, No. 11

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available is a monthly publication. It contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index.

  12. Title list of documents made publicly available, June 1--30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This monthly publication, contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index. The docketed information contained in the Title List includes the information formerly issued through the Department of Energy publication Power Reactor Docket Information, last published in January 1979.

  13. Title list of documents made publicly available, September 1-30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    The Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available is a monthly publication. It contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes: (1) docketed material asociated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials; and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index. The docketed information contained in the Title List includes the information formerly issued through the Department of Energy publication Power Reactor Docket Information, last published in January 1979.

  14. Title list of documents made publicly available, April 1--30, 1989: Volume 2, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This monthly publication contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personnel Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index. The docketed information contained in the Title List includes the information formerly issued through the Department of Energy publication Power Reactor Docket Information, last published in January 1979. Microfiche of the docketed information listed in the Title List is available for sale on a subscription basis from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS).

  15. Title list of documents made publicly available, June 1-30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This document is a monthly publication describing information received and published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and published by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, {open_quotes}docketed{close_quotes} does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records.

  16. Title list of documents made publicly available, November 1--30, 1994. Volume 16, No. 11

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This document is a monthly publication containing descriptions of information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials, and nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. The following indexes are included: Personal Author, Corporate Source, Report Number, and Cross Reference of Enclosures to Principal Documents.

  17. Title list of documents made publicly available: June 1--30, 1995. Volume 17, Number 6

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This monthly publication contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index.

  18. LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-30 April 1976. [LANDSAT imagery for April, 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles. Sections 4 and 5 cover LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 coverage, respectively.

  19. Progress reports for period November 1--30, 1994 -- Joint UK/US Radar Program

    SciTech Connect

    Twogood, R.E.; Brase, J.M.; Mantrom, D.D.; Chambers, D.H.; Robey, H.F.

    1994-12-19

    This report gives the principle investigator, objectives, recent accomplishments, milestones for reporting period, expected milestones for ensuing period, other issues and planned expenditures for the following programs: airborne RAR/SAR; radar data processor; ground-based SAR signal processing workstation; static airborne radar; multi-aperture space-time array radar; radar field experiments; data analysis and detection theory; management; E-2C radar data analysis;modeling and analysis; current meter array; UCSB wave tank; stratified flow facility; and IR sensor system. Budget status is also given.

  20. 17 CFR 1.30 - Loans by futures commission merchants; treatment of proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shall prevent a futures commission merchant from lending its own funds to commodity or option customers..., or commodity options of commodity or option customers shall be treated and dealt with by a futures... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loans by futures...

  1. Title List of documents made publicly available, September 1--30, 1993. Volume 15, No. 9

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is a monthly publication containing descriptions of information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials, and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. The following indexes are included: Personal Author, Corporate Source, Report Number, and Cross Reference of Enclosures to Principals Documents.

  2. Title list of documents made publicly available: April 1--30, 1996. Volume 18, Number 4

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This publication describes the information received and published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) non-docketed material received and published by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index.

  3. Title list of documents made publicly available: September 1--30, 1996. Volume 18, Number 9

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The report describes the information received and published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) non-docketed material received and published by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index.

  4. Title list of documents made publicly available, November 1-30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available is a monthly publication. It contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index and a Report Number Index. The docketed information contained in the Title List includes the information formerly issued through the Department of Energy publication Power Reactor Docker Information, last published in January 1979. NRC documents that are publicly available may be examined without charge at the NRC Public Document Room (PDR). Duplicate copies may be obtained for a fee. Standing orders for certain categories of documents are also available. Clients may search for and order desired titles through the PDR computerized Bibliographic Retrieval System, which is accessible both at the PDR and remotely. The PDR is staffed by professional technical librarians, who provide reference assistance to users.

  5. Title list of documents made publicly available, September 1--30, 1994. Volume 16, No. 9

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This document is a monthly publication containing descriptions of information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials, and nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. The following indexes are included: Personal Author, Corporate Source, Report Number, and Cross Reference of Enclosures to Principal Documents.

  6. Title list of documents made publicly available, September 1-30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available is a monthly publication. It describes the information received and published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and published by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index.

  7. LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-30 September 1977. [LANDSAT imagery for September, 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The U. S. Standard Catalog lists U. S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover, and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  8. Further characterization of the putative 5-HT receptor which mediates blockade of neurogenic plasma extravasation in rat dura mater.

    PubMed

    Buzzi, M G; Moskowitz, M A; Peroutka, S J; Byun, B

    1991-06-01

    1. We describe the effects of pretreatment with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor agonists and antagonists on neurogenically-mediated plasma protein extravasation ([125I]-albumin) in rat dura mater and in extracranial tissues (temporalis muscle fascia, conjunctiva, eyelid and lip) induced by electrical stimulation of the right trigeminal ganglion. 2. Leakage of [125I]-bovine serum albumin from blood vessels in dura mater following high intensity stimulation (1.2 mA, 5 ms, 5 Hz for 5 min) was significantly reduced by the intravenous administration of drugs active at 5-HT receptors with some selectivity for the 5-HT1 receptor subtypes: 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) (threshold dose, 1 ng kg-1); 5-benzyloxytryptamine (5-BT) (10, 30 or 100 micrograms kg-1); 8-hydroxydipropylaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT) (300 micrograms kg-1); and as previously reported, sumatriptan (100 micrograms kg-1), dihydroergotamine (DHE) (50 micrograms kg-1); ergotamine tartrate (100 micrograms kg-1) and chronically administered methysergide (1 mg kg-1). 3. The putative 5-HT receptor antagonist, metergoline 100 micrograms kg-1, inhibited partially the effect of sumatriptan in dura mater providing additional evidence for a 5-HT1 receptor subtype-mediated mechanism, although it was not effective against 5-CT (1 ng kg-1). Methiothepin (300 micrograms kg-1) did not affect the response to sumatriptan. When administered at high concentrations (1 mg kg-1) methiothepin and metergoline decreased plasma protein extravasation in rat dura mater. 4. Pretreatment with the 5-HT2 receptor antagonists pizotifen, 300pugkg 1, or ketanserin, 300,ugkg ', or the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists MDL 72222, 300,ugkg-1, or ICS 205-930, 300pgkg-1, did not affect plasma protein leakage following electrical trigeminal stimulation. Blockade by sumatriptan of plasma protein extravasation was not inhibited by pizotifen (300,ug kg-1) or MDL 72222 (300pg kg- '). 5. The 5-HT receptor(s) mediating this response were present only on

  9. Changes in nitric oxide release in vivo in response to vasoactive substances.

    PubMed Central

    Nava, E.; Wiklund, N. P.; Salazar, F. J.

    1996-01-01

    1. Changes in the release of nitric oxide (NO) in vivo were studied in rats following the administration of endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilators as well as the NO synthesis inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). NO production was assessed by measuring variations of nitrate in plasma by capillary ion analysis. 2. Intravenous administration of the endothelium-dependent vasodilators, bradykinin (2 and 10 micrograms kg-1 min-1) or substance P (0.3-3 micrograms kg-1 min-1) caused a transient dose-dependent hypotension followed by an increase in plasma nitrate concentration (maximal increments: 33 +/- 5% and 38 +/- 6%, for bradykinin and substance P, respectively). Prior administration of L-NAME (10 mg kg-1 min-1) inhibited the hypotension and increase in plasma nitrate caused by these substances. Intravenous administration of sodium nitrate (200 micrograms kg-1) also produced a transitory elevation in plasma nitrate which was similar in magnitude as that caused by the vasodilators. A rapid and transitory increment in plasma nitrate was observed after i.v. administration of authentic NO (400 micrograms kg-1). 3. Rats receiving the endothelium-dependent vasodilators, prostacyclin (0.6 micrograms kg-1 min-1) or adenosine (3 mg kg-1 min-1) intravenously showed a drop in blood pressure paralleled by a decrease in plasma nitrate (maximal decreases: 34 +/- 5% and 24 +/- 4%, for prostacyclin and adenosine, respectively). A similar effect on the plasmatic concentration of nitrate was observed when L-NAME (10 mg kg-1 min-1, i.v.) was administered to the animals. 4. This study demonstrates that (i) changes in plasma nitrate can be detected in vivo after stimulation or inhibition of NO synthase, (ii) an increased production of NO, measured as plasma nitrate, is related to the hypotension caused by bradykinin and substance P and (iii) a diminished concentration of plasmatic nitrate is associated to the hypotension induced by adenosine or prostacyclin

  10. [The phosphorus supply of pigs in the body weight category of 11-38 kg. 1. The effect of the phosphorus supply on the performance, nutrient digestibility, protein and fat content in soft tissue and skeleton and protein and fat deposits].

    PubMed

    Lüdke, H; Schöne, F; Gruhn, K

    1989-01-01

    The influence of phosphorus supply on performance and nutrient composition of the empty body was studied in two individual feeding experiments with two and three groups resp. (7 or 8 animals per group). The phosphorus content of the unsupplemented diet was in the experiments I and II 2.97 and 2.41 g/kg, the supplemented phosphorus (as monocalcium phosphate) amounted of 2.5 and 2.33 g/kg diet respectively. The phosphorus supplementation increased live weight gain in both experiments by 84 and 45% and improved feed conversion by 35 and 23% respectively. Phosphorus deficiency did not influence the digestibility of nutrients. The fat content of soft tissue and skeleton of the phosphorus deficient animals was increased. They deposited 0.7 kg more fat (in both experiments) and 1.5 or 0.7 kg less protein in experiment I and II respectively. The utilisation of energy for deposition was not influenced by the different phosphorus supply.

  11. The role of TNF-alpha in fever: opposing actions of human and murine TNF-alpha and interactions with IL-beta in the rat.

    PubMed

    Stefferl, A; Hopkins, S J; Rothwell, N J; Luheshi, G N

    1996-08-01

    1. The role of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in fever is controversial. Some studies have indicated that TNF-alpha acts as a cryogen to inhibit fever, while others suggest that TNF-alpha is an endogenous pyrogen which mediates fever. The majority of studies in experimental animals supporting a cryogenic action have been conducted using human (h)TNF-alpha, which has been shown to bind only to one (p55) of the two TNF-alpha receptors in rodents. 2. The aim of the present investigation was to study the role of TNF-alpha in fever by comparing effects of hTNF-alpha, which binds only to the p55 receptor, with those of murine (m) TNF-alpha, which binds to both p55 and p75 TNF-alpha receptors, and to investigate the relationship between TNF-alpha and interleukin-1 (IL-1), an important endogenous pyrogen. 3. Injection of hTNF-alpha (0.3-10 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) had no effect on core temperature in conscious rats (measured by remote radiotelemetry), whereas mTNF-alpha (3 micrograms kg-1) induced fever which was maximal 1 h after the injection (38.2 +/- 0.2 degrees C compared to 37.3 +/- 0.1 degrees C in controls). Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of either form of TNF-alpha elicited dose-dependent fever at doses higher than 0.12 microgram kg-1. 4. Peripheral injection of hIL-1 beta (1 microgram kg-1) resulted in fever (38.3 +/- 0.2 degree C compared to 37.2 +/- 0.1 degrees C in controls at 2 h), which was significantly attenuated (P < 0.01) by co-administration of a sub-pyrogenic dose of hTNF-alpha (1 microgram kg-1), but was unaffected by co-administration of mTNF-alpha (0.1 or 0.3 microgram kg-1, i.p.). In contrast, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) co-administration of a sub-pyrogenic dose (0.12 microgram kg-1) of hTNF-alpha did not attenuate fever induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of IL-1 beta, and sub-pyrogenic dose (0.12 microgram kg-1, i.c.v.) of mTNF-alpha significantly prolonged the febrile response to IL-1 beta. Pretreatment of

  12. Propofol infusion and the suppression of consciousness: the EEG and dose requirements.

    PubMed

    Forrest, F C; Tooley, M A; Saunders, P R; Prys-Roberts, C

    1994-01-01

    We have used Median Power Frequency (MPF) to study changes in the electroencephalogram during propofol infusions in 52 women about to undergo gynaecological surgery. Patients were allocated to receive propofol by one of nine different manually-controlled infusion schemes designed to achieve and maintain a stable blood propofol concentration between 1.0 and 6.0 micrograms ml-1, covering a range of states between conscious sedation and full anaesthesia. We recorded the changes in MPF and the response to clinical signs of loss of consciousness at these different doses and concentrations of propofol. Using probit analysis, we derived MPF values corresponding to 50% and 95% suppression of response to verbal (9.3 Hz and 6.8 Hz), eyelash (8.9 Hz and 6.7 Hz) and venepuncture (5.7 Hz and 3.0 Hz) stimuli. Likewise, we obtained dose and concentration requirements for propofol to suppress these stimuli. The mean (95% confidence intervals) ED50 (5.8 (3.5-6.8) mg kg-1 h-1) and ED95 (8.3 (7.1-16.9) mg kg-1 h-1) propofol doses for suppression of consciousness were similar to the values for suppression of the eyelash reflex (6.2 (5.3-6.8) mg kg-1 h-1 and 8.6 (7.8-10.8) mg kg-1 h-1, respectively). The EC50 for loss of consciousness was a propofol concentration of 2.3 (1.8-2.7) micrograms ml-1 and for 50% suppression of MPF was 3.1 (2.7-3.5) micrograms ml-1. The dose required for 50% suppression of MPF was 7.1 (6.2-8.0) mg kg-1 h-1. After 30 min, at blood propofol concentrations > 4.0 micrograms ml-1, consistent with stable anaesthesia, the mean MPF was 5.6 (4.5-6.3) Hz.

  13. Toxicity of microcystin-LR, isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa, against various insect species.

    PubMed

    Delaney, J M; Wilkins, R M

    1995-06-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), isolated from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Kuetzing emend. Elenkin strain CCAP 1450/4 was tested for biological activity against four species of insect and the invertebrate Artemia salina. The efficacy of pesticidal activity was compared with various insecticides. The 24 hr LD50 value for third instar diamond-backed moth, Plutella xylostella, on ingestion from a treated leaf surface was 1.0 micrograms cm2, compared with a 72 hr LD50 value for rotenone of 2.0 micrograms cm-2. The 24 hr LD50 values of MC-LR and malathion on intrathoracic injection into adult house flies (Musca domestica) were 0.5 and 3.7 mg kg-1, respectively. MC-LR had no effect on M. domestica when applied topically at dosages up to 32 mg kg-1. MC-LR and malathion gave 24 hr LD50 values of 4.7 and 13.1 mg kg-1, respectively when injected into third instar cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis). In fourth instar cabbage white butterfly larvae (Pieris brassicae) MC-LR injected gave 24 and 48 hr LD50 values of 3.9 and 1.9 mg kg-1, respectively, whilst the 24 and 48 hr LD50 values for carbofuran were 0.4 and 0.3 mg kg-1, respectively. An immersion bioassay with 1-day-old brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina) gave 24 hr LD50 values of 3.8 micrograms ml-1 for MC-LR and 1.8 micrograms ml-1 for carbofuran. MC-LR has appreciable insect toxicity, comparable to the three insecticides tested. The toxin look 24-48 hr to exert its full lethal effect in insects, much longer than the 1-3 hr it takes in mammals. The potential use of MC-LR as an insecticide is discussed. PMID:7676468

  14. Propofol infusion and the suppression of consciousness: the EEG and dose requirements.

    PubMed

    Forrest, F C; Tooley, M A; Saunders, P R; Prys-Roberts, C

    1994-01-01

    We have used Median Power Frequency (MPF) to study changes in the electroencephalogram during propofol infusions in 52 women about to undergo gynaecological surgery. Patients were allocated to receive propofol by one of nine different manually-controlled infusion schemes designed to achieve and maintain a stable blood propofol concentration between 1.0 and 6.0 micrograms ml-1, covering a range of states between conscious sedation and full anaesthesia. We recorded the changes in MPF and the response to clinical signs of loss of consciousness at these different doses and concentrations of propofol. Using probit analysis, we derived MPF values corresponding to 50% and 95% suppression of response to verbal (9.3 Hz and 6.8 Hz), eyelash (8.9 Hz and 6.7 Hz) and venepuncture (5.7 Hz and 3.0 Hz) stimuli. Likewise, we obtained dose and concentration requirements for propofol to suppress these stimuli. The mean (95% confidence intervals) ED50 (5.8 (3.5-6.8) mg kg-1 h-1) and ED95 (8.3 (7.1-16.9) mg kg-1 h-1) propofol doses for suppression of consciousness were similar to the values for suppression of the eyelash reflex (6.2 (5.3-6.8) mg kg-1 h-1 and 8.6 (7.8-10.8) mg kg-1 h-1, respectively). The EC50 for loss of consciousness was a propofol concentration of 2.3 (1.8-2.7) micrograms ml-1 and for 50% suppression of MPF was 3.1 (2.7-3.5) micrograms ml-1. The dose required for 50% suppression of MPF was 7.1 (6.2-8.0) mg kg-1 h-1. After 30 min, at blood propofol concentrations > 4.0 micrograms ml-1, consistent with stable anaesthesia, the mean MPF was 5.6 (4.5-6.3) Hz. PMID:8110547

  15. Teratology of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in a complex environmental mixture from the Love Canal

    SciTech Connect

    Silkworth, J.B.; Cutler, D.S.; Antrim, L.; Houston, D.; Tumasonis, C.; Kaminsky, L.S. )

    1989-07-01

    The organic phase of a leachate (OPL) from the Love Canal chemical dump site contains more than 100 organic compounds including 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The teratogenic potential of OPL was determined in two inbred and one hybrid mouse strain which differ in their sensitivity to aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-mediated toxicity. OPL was orally administered in corn oil on Days 6-15 of gestation to C57BL/6J mice (Ahb/Ahb) at doses of 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g kg-1 day-1 and to DBA/2J (Ahd/Ahd) females, which were mated with either DBA/2J or C57BL/6J males, at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2.0 g kg-1 day-1. In C57BL/6J mice, which express a high-affinity Ah receptor that avidly binds TCDD, the ED50's of OPL for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 0.44 and 0.11 g OPL kg-1 day-1, respectively. Maternal mortality was 5% at the highest dose. In DBA/2J fetuses, which express a low-affinity receptor, neither treatment-related cleft palate nor hydronephrosis was induced by dose levels that caused 36% maternal mortality. In hybrid D2B6F1 fetuses, the incidence of cleft palate reached only 8% at 2 g OPL kg-1 day-1 but the ED50 for hydronephrosis was 0.76 g OPL kg-1 day-1. TCDD was similarly administered to pregnant C57BL/6J mice at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 micrograms kg-1 day-1 and to DBA/2J mice at 0, 0.5, 2, 4, and 8 micrograms kg-1 day-1. In C57BL/6J fetuses, the ED50's for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 4.6 and 0.73 microgram TCDD kg-1 day-1, respectively. In DBA/2J fetuses the ED50's for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 15.0 and 6.4 micrograms TCDD kg-1 day-1, respectively. Both the OPL and TCDD caused maternal hepatomegaly and thymic atrophy in all strains, but increased only C57BL/6J fetal weights. OPL decreased the number of fetuses per C57BL/6J dam at the two highest doses but there were no other reproductive effects in any of the groups.

  16. Pharmacokinetics and food interaction of MK-462 in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Cheng, H; Polvino, W J; Sciberras, D; Yogendran, L; Cerchio, K A; Christie, K; Olah, T V; McLoughlin, D; James, I; Rogers, J D

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of single intravenous (IV) doses of 5-90 micrograms kg-1 of MK-462, and the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of MK-462 administered orally to healthy males. Results of this study indicate that IV doses of MK-462 from 5 to 90 micrograms kg-1 are well tolerated. The disposition kinetics of MK-462 were linear for IV doses up to and including 60 micrograms kg-1. The values of the plasma clearance (CL), steady-state volume of distribution (Vss), plasma terminal half-life (t1/2), and mean residence time in the body (MRT) of MK-462 averaged 1376 mL min-1, 140 L, 1.8 h, and 1.7 h, respectively, and remained essentially constant over the dosage range of 10-60 micrograms kg-1 of IV MK-462. However, as the dose increased from 60 to 90 micrograms kg-1, the mean value of the apparent CL decreased from 1376 to 807 mL min-1. Thus, elimination of MK-462 was dose dependent in this dosage range. Based on the disposition decomposition analysis (DDA), it was shown that the Vss value of MK-462 remained essentially constant over the dosage range of 10-90 micrograms kg-1 of IV MK-462. The following values of two dose-independent parameters were also calculated by using DDA: distribution clearance (CLd) = 2028 mL min-1, and mean transit time in the peripheral tissues (MTTT) = 0.74 h. The mean values of AUC, Cmax, tmax, and apparent t1/2 of MK-462 in 12 subjects each receiving a 40 mg tablet of MK-462 without breakfast were 330 ng.h mL-1, 77 ng mL-1, 1.6 h, and 1.8 h, respectively. Although administration of a standard breakfast prior to dosing increased the AUC value (by approximately 20%) of MK-462 and delayed its absorption, there were no significant effects of the meal on the values of Cmax and apparent t1/2 of MK-462. PMID:8991488

  17. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase causes anxiolytic-like behaviour in an elevated plus-maze.

    PubMed

    Volke, V; Kõks, S; Vasar, E; Bourin, M; Bradwejn, J; Männistö, P T

    1995-07-10

    The action of inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (1-20 mg kg-1) on the exploratory behaviour of rats in the elevated plus-maze was studied. L-NAME induced an anxiolytic-like effect in the plus-maze test, showing a reverse U-shape action behaviour, with a maximal effect at 10 mg kg-1. This effect was not related to a non-specific increase in motor activity, since in the open field test L-NAME did not affect locomotor activity of rats. Pretreatment of rats with L-NAME (1-10 mg kg-1) also tended to attenuate the anti-exploratory action of CCK agonist caerulein (5 micrograms kg-1), but this action was not significant. In conclusion, it appears that NO may be involved in the process that can lead to anxiety in the rat.

  18. [Sedation with propofol and fentanyl in patients under intensive care].

    PubMed

    Beauvoir, C; Chardon, P; d'Athis, F; Mathieu-Daudé, J C; du Cailar, J

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of a constant rate infusion of propofol and fentanyl in thirty patients requiring artificial ventilation for more than 24 h. A loading dose, which differed according to the patient's age, was administered over a 30 min period: 2.5 mg.kg-1 for patients less than 50 (G1) (n = 9), 2 mg.kg-1 for patients between 50 and 60 years old (G2) (n = 9), and 1.5 mg.kg-1 for patients over 60 (G3) (n = 12). This was followed by an infusion of 3 mg.kg-1.h-1 in G1 and G2, and 2 mg.kg-1.h-1 in G3. A 1 microgram.kg-1.h-1 infusion of fentanyl was also given. The degree of sedation was assessed with the Ramsay scale before starting, after induction, and every four hours thereafter. When this proved to be insufficient, the dose of propofol was increased by 0.5 mg.kg-1.h-1 as well as that of fentanyl by 0.5 microgram.kg-1.h-1. Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, blood propofol, creatinine, transaminase and lipid levels, and urine output were measured before, during, and after the infusion. The blood propofol level increased during the infusion, being correlated to the doses given (r = 0.64, p less than 0.001). Sedation lasted 91.7 +/- 57.7 h. After stopping the infusion of propofol, mean recovery times were 7.5 +/- 5.9 min (G1), 11.4 +/- 11.4 min, and 14.4 +/- 13.5 min (G3) (p less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Total i.v. anaesthesia with propofol and alfentanil: dose requirements for propofol and the effect of premedication with clonidine.

    PubMed

    Richards, M J; Skues, M A; Jarvis, A P; Prys-Roberts, C

    1990-08-01

    We determined in 51 healthy patients undergoing body surface surgery the dose requirements for propofol, as part of a total i.v. anaesthesia technique with an alfentanil infusion. After premedication with temazepam, patients received alfentanil 50 micrograms kg-1 followed by an infusion of 50 micrograms kg-1 h-1. Patients were anaesthetized with a loading dose of propofol followed by a three-stage infusion designed to reach one of five preselected blood concentrations of propofol. The motor response to the initial surgical incision was noted and probit analysis was used to derive the ED50 (2.94 mg kg-1 h-1; 95% confidence limits: 2.35-3.37 mg kg-1 h-1) and ED95 (4.98 mg kg-1 h-1; 95% limits: 4.13-8.8 mg kg-1 h-1) for the final propotol infusion rate under these conditions. Whole blood concentration!of propofol at the time of the incision was related linearly to the inf!sion rate and the EC50 and EC95 (probit analysis) were derived as !.44 (95% confidence limits 0.62-1.87) and 4.05 (95% confidence lim!ts 2.78-30.5) micrograms ml-1, respectively. Post-operative recovery was!rapid, uncomplicated and uneventful. In a subgroup of eight patients,!the addition of clonidine 0.6 mg to the premedication significantly decreased the requirement for propofol (P less than 0.05) during surgery, but resulted in prolonged recovery times. PMID:2223330

  20. A new dosing schedule for gentamicin in blood pythons (Python curtus): a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Hilf, M; Swanson, D; Wagner, R; Yu, V L

    1991-03-01

    Gentamicin is frequently used in the treatment of aerobic Gram-negative infections in reptiles. Pharmacokinetic data to ensure proper dosing are scant, especially for large snakes. A pharmacokinetic study of gentamicin was therefore conducted in four blood pythons. Snakes were given intramuscular injections of either 2.5 mg kg-1 or 3.0 mg kg-1 loading dose followed by 1.5 mg kg-1 at 72 and 96 hours. A linear pharmacokinetic relationship between gentamicin serum concentrations and time was demonstrated in each of the four snakes studied. Peak serum concentrations occurred six to 10 hours after injection and ranged from 4.6 to 8.9 micrograms ml-1. Half-life was variable and ranged from 32 to 110 hours. Total body clearance and apparent volume of distribution varied little between the individual snakes studied. There was no evidence of renal toxicity. For blood pythons a loading dose of 2.5 mg kg-1 followed by 1.5 mg kg-1 at 96 hour intervals is recommended. If higher concentrations are desired, a loading dose of 3.0 mg kg-1 followed by 1.5 mg kg-1 at 96 hours can be given. These dosing schedules will provide serum concentrations in excess of the minimum inhibitory concentrations for most aerobic Gram-negative bacilli that are pathogenic in snakes; gentamicin accumulation with subsequent renal dysfunction should not occur.

  1. [Diltiazem poisoning: hemodynamic aspects].

    PubMed

    Beauvoir, C; Passeron, D; du Cailar, G; Millet, E

    1991-01-01

    A case is reported of a 50-year-old man who took a massive overdose of diltiazem (5,400 mg), together with 1,350 mg potassium clorazepate and 390 mg nordazepate, five months after having experienced a myocardial infarction (MI). On admission, systolic blood pressure was 80 mmHg, with an irregular heart rate of 60 b.min-1. There was superficial polypnea (40 c.min-1) with hypoxia (PaO2: 63.5 mmHg). The ECG revealed, besides the MI scar, complete sinus arrest. Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation were rapidly required. The patient then had gastric lavage, and was given activated charcoal. Treatment with 1.5 mg atropine and 2 g intravenous calcium chloride were unable to amend the cardiac dysrhythmia. A continuous isoproterenol infusion restored a sinus rhythm, but this was not maintained because of the risk of side-effects. Cardiovascular collapse was treated with dobutamine (10 micrograms.kg-1.min-1). As the peripheral and pulmonary vascular resistances were greatly diminished (464 dyn.s.cm-5 and 86 dyn.s.cm-5 respectively), alpha and beta mimetics were used: 1 microgram.kg-1.min-1 noradrenaline and 15 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 dobutamine. After 7 h of this treatment, spontaneous sinus rhythm returned abruptly. Noradrenaline and dobutamine were replaced thereafter with adrenaline (0.25 microgram.kg-1.min-1), which was stopped 24 h later. There was a marked respiratory and haemodynamic improvement, the patient leaving the intensive care unit on the fourth day and returning home one week after the overdose. The relationships between cellular calcium movements and the adrenergic system are discussed, as well as the possible mechanism of cardiac failure.

  2. Molybdenum intake of adults in Germany and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, S; Anke, M; Röhrig, B; Gonzalez, D

    1998-03-01

    Molybdenum is an essential micronutrient. It plays a complex role in the ecosystem, because the metal is a part of a cofactor for several important enzymes in human, animal and plant metabolism. The physiological requirement for this element is relatively low. Our investigations were aimed at determining the Mo intake of adults in Germany and Mexico by means of duplicate portion technique. Molybdenum was estimated in the food duplicate samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. In 1988, 1992 and 1996 the Mo consumption of humans was investigated in 14 test groups of persons with mixed diets. Each test population consisted of seven men and seven women. Furthermore, in 1996 the Mo intake of 10 female and 10 male vegetarians and of two Mexican test groups was also determined. Different factors, such as sex, time of investigation, location and eating habits have an effect on the individual Mo intake, Molybdenum intake of adults with mixed diets has increased significantly from 1988 to 1996. Furthermore, results of our study showed that Mo intake of German adults differs depending on location and the kind of diet. German women with a mixed diet consumed 89 micrograms d-1 in 1996 and men 100 micrograms d-1. In comparison, female and male vegetarians consumed 179 micrograms d-1 and 170 micrograms d-1, respectively. There was a significant difference in Mo consumption between German and Mexican test persons. Mexican women consumed on average 162 micrograms d-1 and Mexican men 208 micrograms d-1. The Mo requirement of adults amounts to about 25 micrograms d-1. Our investigations showed that the Mo requirement is met by normal intake. An intake of 150 micrograms kg-1 body weight may be toxic for humans. Therefore, people in Germany and Mexico are not endangered by Mo exposure.

  3. The effects of stimulating carotid chemoreceptors on renal haemodynamics and function in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Karim, F; Poucher, S M; Summerill, R A

    1987-01-01

    1. Dogs were anaesthetized with chloralose and artificially ventilated. The carotid chemoreceptors were stimulated by changing the perfusion of vascularly isolated carotid sinus regions from arterial to venous blood. The mean carotid sinus pressure and the mean arterial blood pressure were held constant at 124 +/- 3 and 122 +/- 3 mmHg, respectively. Both vagosympathetic trunks were sectioned in the neck and propranolol (17 micrograms kg-1 min-1 I.V.) and gallamine triethiodide (0.2-2.0 mg kg-1 30 min-1 I.V.) were infused. Renal blood flow was measured by an electromagnetic flow probe, glomerular filtration rate by creatinine clearance, sodium excretion by flame photometry and solute excretion by osmometry. 2. In sixteen tests in thirteen dogs perfusion of the carotid sinus regions with venous blood resulted in significant decreases in renal blood flow from 271 +/- 24 to 198 +/- 21 ml min-1 100 g-1 renal mass; glomerular filtration rate from 41.0 +/- 4.8 to 22.1 +/- 3.1 ml min-1 100 g-1; filtration fraction from 0.25 +/- 0.02 to 0.19 +/- 0.02; urine flow from 0.48 +/- 1.0 to 0.21 +/- 0.03 ml min-1 100 g-1; sodium excretion from 18.1 +/- 4.1 to 12.9 +/- 4.2 mumol min-1 100 g-1; and osmolar excretion 327 +/- 42 to 171 +/- 26 mu osmol min-1 100 g-1. The right atrial pressure did not change significantly from 4.6 +/- 1.2 cmH2O. 3. In seven dogs, tying renal sympathetic nerves abolished all the responses except that of sodium excretion which was now reversed; sodium excretion increased from 68 +/- 19 to 116 +/- 38 mumol min-1 100 g-1 without significant change in right atrial pressure from 7.4 +/- 1.9 cmH2O. Crushing the carotid bodies, however, abolished all the responses. 4. The results show that carotid chemoreceptor stimulation can cause significant reflex effects on renal haemodynamics and function which are mediated via renal sympathetic nerves. They also show that the chemoreceptor stimulation can cause natriuresis in the absence of haemodynamic changes, in the

  4. Comparison of diclofenac and tenoxicam for postoperative analgesia with and without fentanyl in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy or tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Mendham, J E; Mather, S J

    1996-01-01

    127 children scheduled for elective tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy were studied. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with a volatile agent. At induction the child received either rectal diclofenac 1 mg.kg-1 with or without fentanyl 0.75 microgram.kg-1 i.v., or intravenous tenoxicam 0.4 mg.kg-1 with or without fentanyl 0.75 microgram.kg-1 i.v. Blood loss was measured peroperatively. Nausea and vomiting scores, sedation scores and pain scores were recorded in the recovery room, at one, two, four and eight h postoperatively and at discharge. There were no significant differences in blood loss between the groups or between nausea and vomiting scores. Pain scores in the tenoxicam without fentanyl group were significantly higher in recovery (P < 0.05) than the diclofenac group without fentanyl and both fentanyl groups. This group required supplemental analgesia earlier although this was not significant. The pain scores in the diclofenac with fentanyl group were significantly lower at one h and four h than the group receiving diclofenac alone (P = 0.008 and 0.02 respectively).

  5. Repeated stimulation of D1 dopamine receptors enhances (-)-11-hydroxy-delta 8-tetrahydrocannabinol-dimethyl-heptyl-induced catalepsy in male rats.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Fonseca, F; Martín Calderón, J L; Mechoulam, R; Navarro, M

    1994-03-21

    Dopaminergic and cannabinoid receptors are localized in the outflow nuclei of the basal ganglia. We have investigated the possible interrelation of these receptors in the regulation of motor activity in male rats. To this end we have first studied the behavioural effects of the highly potent cannabinoid receptor agonist (-)11-hydroxy-delta 8-tetrahydrocannabinol-dimethylheptyl (HU-210, 20 micrograms mg) after chronic stimulation of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. The catalepsy induced by the synthetic cannabinoid, measured as the descent latency in the bar test, was enhanced in male rats chronically treated with the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF38393 (8 mg kg-1, twice a day during 21 days). However, animals exposed to the dopamine D2 agonist quinpirole (1 mg kg-1 daily during 21 days) displayed the same degree of catalepsy as those exposed to HU-210 alone. Although a possible involvement of D2 receptors cannot be excluded, this finding suggests a predominant role for dopamine D1 receptors in the regulation of the cataleptic response to cannabinoids. The possible cross-talk between dopamine D1 and cannabinoid receptors is further supported by the decreased responsiveness to the acute behavioural effects of SKF38393 (8 mg kg-1) observed in animals chronically exposed to HU-210 (20 micrograms kg-1 daily during 14 days).

  6. Repeated stimulation of D1 dopamine receptors enhances (-)-11-hydroxy-delta 8-tetrahydrocannabinol-dimethyl-heptyl-induced catalepsy in male rats.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Fonseca, F; Martín Calderón, J L; Mechoulam, R; Navarro, M

    1994-03-21

    Dopaminergic and cannabinoid receptors are localized in the outflow nuclei of the basal ganglia. We have investigated the possible interrelation of these receptors in the regulation of motor activity in male rats. To this end we have first studied the behavioural effects of the highly potent cannabinoid receptor agonist (-)11-hydroxy-delta 8-tetrahydrocannabinol-dimethylheptyl (HU-210, 20 micrograms mg) after chronic stimulation of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. The catalepsy induced by the synthetic cannabinoid, measured as the descent latency in the bar test, was enhanced in male rats chronically treated with the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF38393 (8 mg kg-1, twice a day during 21 days). However, animals exposed to the dopamine D2 agonist quinpirole (1 mg kg-1 daily during 21 days) displayed the same degree of catalepsy as those exposed to HU-210 alone. Although a possible involvement of D2 receptors cannot be excluded, this finding suggests a predominant role for dopamine D1 receptors in the regulation of the cataleptic response to cannabinoids. The possible cross-talk between dopamine D1 and cannabinoid receptors is further supported by the decreased responsiveness to the acute behavioural effects of SKF38393 (8 mg kg-1) observed in animals chronically exposed to HU-210 (20 micrograms kg-1 daily during 14 days). PMID:7912554

  7. Comparison of diclofenac and tenoxicam for postoperative analgesia with and without fentanyl in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy or tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Mendham, J E; Mather, S J

    1996-01-01

    127 children scheduled for elective tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy were studied. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with a volatile agent. At induction the child received either rectal diclofenac 1 mg.kg-1 with or without fentanyl 0.75 microgram.kg-1 i.v., or intravenous tenoxicam 0.4 mg.kg-1 with or without fentanyl 0.75 microgram.kg-1 i.v. Blood loss was measured peroperatively. Nausea and vomiting scores, sedation scores and pain scores were recorded in the recovery room, at one, two, four and eight h postoperatively and at discharge. There were no significant differences in blood loss between the groups or between nausea and vomiting scores. Pain scores in the tenoxicam without fentanyl group were significantly higher in recovery (P < 0.05) than the diclofenac group without fentanyl and both fentanyl groups. This group required supplemental analgesia earlier although this was not significant. The pain scores in the diclofenac with fentanyl group were significantly lower at one h and four h than the group receiving diclofenac alone (P = 0.008 and 0.02 respectively). PMID:8936545

  8. Surface gravity waves and their acoustic signatures, 1-30 Hz, on the mid-Pacific sea floor.

    PubMed

    Farrell, W E; Munk, Walter

    2013-10-01

    In 1999, Duennebier et al. deployed a hydrophone and geophone below the conjugate depth in the abyssal Pacific, midway between Hawaii and California. Real time data were transmitted for 3 yr over an abandoned ATT cable. These data have been analyzed in the frequency band 1 to 30 Hz. Between 1 and 6 Hz, the bottom data are interpreted as acoustic radiation from surface gravity waves, an extension to higher frequencies of a non-linear mechanism proposed by Longuet-Higgins in 1950 to explain microseisms. The inferred surface wave spectrum for wave lengths between 6 m and 17 cm is saturated (wind-independent) and roughly consistent with the traditional Phillips κ(-4) wave number spectrum. Shorter ocean waves have a strong wind dependence and a less steep wave number dependence. Similar features are found in the bottom record between 6 and 30 Hz. But this leads to an enigma: The derived surface spectrum inferred from the Longuet-Higgins mechanism with conventional assumptions for the dispersion relation is associated with mean square slopes that greatly exceed those derived from glitter. Regardless of the generation mechanism, the measured bottom intensities between 10 and 30 Hz are well below minimum noise standards reported in the literature.

  9. 26 CFR 1.30-1 - Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... personal use on October 11, 1994, a qualified electric vehicle costing $20,000. On B's 1994 federal income... reduced to $18,000 ($20,000−$2,000). On March 8, 1996, B sells the vehicle to a tax-exempt entity. Because... business use on January 1, 1994, a qualified electric vehicle costing $30,000. On X's 1994 federal...

  10. High homogeneity B(1) 30.2 MHz Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Probe for off-resonance relaxation times measurements.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, M; Woźniak-Braszak, A; Jurga, K

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on design and construction of a double coil high-homogeneity ensuring Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Probe for off-resonance relaxation time measurements. NMR off-resonance experiments pose unique technical problems. Long irradiation can overheat the sample, dephase the spins because of B(1) field inhomogeneity and degrade the signal received by requiring the receiver bandwidth to be broader than that needed for normal experiment. The probe proposed solves these problems by introducing a separate off-resonance irradiation coil which is larger than the receiver coil and is wound up on the dewar tube that separates it from the receiver coil thus also thermally protects the sample from overheating. Large size of the irradiation coil also improves the field homogeneity because as a ratio of the sample diameter to the magnet (coil) diameter increases, the field inhomogeneity also increases (Blümich et al., 2008) [1]. The small receiver coil offers maximization of the filling factor and a high signal to the noise ratio.

  11. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 attenuates gastric lesions induced by alloxan in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Petek, M; Sikiric, P; Anic, T; Buljat, G; Separovic, J; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Seiwerth, S; Grabarevic, Z; Rucman, R; Mikus, D; Zoricic, I; Prkacin, I; Sebecic, B; Ziger, T; Coric, V; Turkovic, B; Aralica, G; Rotkvic, I; Mise, S; Hahn, V

    1999-12-01

    A diabetogenic alloxan regimen produced lesions in all stomachs of treated animals, either rats (200 mg x kg(-1) s.c.) or mice (400 mg x kg(-1) i.p.). In control animals, the lesions, when developed (i.e. 24 h following application), appear to be quite sustained, and consistently present also after 1 or 2 weeks. The application of the pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (10 microg or 10 ng x kg(-1) i.p. coadministered together with alloxan) would significantly attenuate these lesions' appearance. This beneficial effect seems to be present in either rats or mice and in either of the tested intervals. Importantly, the beneficial effect seems to be shared by both microgram and nanogram regimens. PMID:10672996

  12. Selective anti-platelet aggregation synergism between a prostacyclin-mimetic, RS93427 and the nitrodilators sodium nitroprusside and glyceryl trinitrate.

    PubMed

    Willis, A L; Smith, D L; Loveday, M; Fulks, J; Lee, C H; Hedley, L; VanAntwerp, D

    1989-12-01

    1. Citrated platelet-rich plasma from human donors was used to examine turbidometrically the platelet aggregation response to collagen (2.5 micrograms ml-1) and ADP (1.6 microgram ml-1). 2. With collagen as an aggregating agent, the limited (35% maximal inhibition) inhibitory effects of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN, 0.78-50 micrograms ml-1) were markedly potentiated by threshold (3.3-10 ng ml-1) concentrations of RS93427, an orally active prostacyclin-mimetic. Almost complete inhibition of aggregation could then be produced. 3. A threshold concentration of RS93427 (3.3 ng ml-1) similarly potentiated the ability of sodium nitroprusside (NaNp, 0.78-10 micrograms ml-1) to inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation. There was an 8 fold reduction in the IC25 concentration of NaNp. 4. Threshold concentrations of the nitrodilators were also able to potentiate the anti-aggregatory effects of RS93427 (0.03-30 ng ml-1) on collagen-induced platelet aggregation. With threshold concentrations of either GTN (6.3-25 micrograms ml-1) or NaNp (0.3-1.3 microgram ml-1), the mean IC50 concentration of RS93427 was reduced 4 or 6 fold, respectively, while the IC25 concentration was reduced 6 or 10 fold, respectively. 5. No similar synergistic interactions were seen between RS93427 and the nitrodilators when ADP was used as an aggregating agent. 6. In spontaneously hypertensive rats, the dose-response for the hypotensive response to bolus doses of RS93427 was not altered by concomitant steady state infusion of a threshold dose (1 micrograms kg-1 min-1) of GTN. 7. Possible therapeutic implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. Antipyretic actions of human recombinant lipocortin-1.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J; Flower, R J; Milton, A S; Peers, S H; Rotondo, D

    1991-01-01

    The effect of human recombinant lipocortin-1 (hrLC-1) on the pyrogenic actions of the synthetic polyribonucleotide polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) has been studied in conscious rabbits. Poly I:C (2.5 micrograms kg-1) given i.v. produced a biphasic fever with a first peak after 90-105 min and a second peak between 225-240 min. hrLC-1 (50 micrograms kg-1) given i.v. simultaneously with the poly I:C produced a significant reduction in the febrile response but without complete suppression. The thermal response index over 5 h (TRI5) was 4.69 +/- 0.51 for poly I:C given with saline and the TRI5 for poly I:C given with hrLC-1 was 2.66 +/- 0.45 (values are for n = 5 +/- s.e. mean, P less than 0.05). hrLC-1 administered alone had no effect on body temperature and its antipyretic activity was lost on heating. In a separate series of experiments 1 h pretreatment with dexamethasone (1 mg kg-1) given i.v. reduced the pyrogenic response (TRI5) to poly I:C (2.5 micrograms kg-1) from 4.87 +/- 0.54 without dexamethasone to 2.00 +/- 0.25 (n = 5, P less than 0.05) and dexamethasone given alone had no effect on body temperature. These data demonstrate that LC-1 possesses antipyretic actions and raises the possibility that the antipyretic actions of dexamethasone are mediated through the induction of LC-1.

  14. Alpha-adrenergic stimulation of thermogenesis in a rat kangaroo (Marsupialia, Bettongia gaimardi).

    PubMed

    Ye, J M; Edwards, S J; Rose, R W; Steen, J T; Clark, M G; Colquhoun, E Q

    1996-09-01

    The Tasmanian bettong (Bettongia gaimardi) is a small rat kangaroo without detectable brown adipose tissue (BAT). In view of our previous findings of norepinephrine-mediated increase in O2 consumption (Vo2) in the perfused hindlimb of this species, the present study examined the effect of alpha-adrenoceptors on the thermogenesis of conscious bettongs at rest by infusing adrenergic agents via an indwelling catheter in the tail vein. The resting Vo2 was 22.9 +/- 1.9 mmol.kg-1.h-1. Norepinephrine (10-80 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) stimulated Vo2 in a dose-dependent manner with the maximal increment of 46.7%. Naphazoline (an alpha 1,alpha 2-adrenergic agonist) and phenylephrine (an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist) also elicited increases in Vo2 with maximal values of 29.6 and 34.8%, respectively. In contrast, the alpha 2-adrenergic agonist clonidine had no significant effects. Both alpha- and beta-adrenergic blockers were used to antagonize the submaximal increase in Vo2 elicited by norepinephrine. As a dose of 10 micrograms.kg-1.min-1, the alpha-adrenergic blocker phentolamine abolished the effects of naphazoline and phenylephrine and reduced norepinephrine-induced Vo2 by 45.5%. The beta-adrenergic blocker propranolol inhibited the norepinephrine-induced Vo2 by 58.8% at 20 micrograms.kg-1.min-1. A combination of the two antagonists blocked 82.5% of the norepinephrine-induced Vo2. Pretreatment of the animal with indomethacin (1 mg/kg), a known inhibitor of prostaglandin cyclooxygenase, had no effect on phenylephrine-elicited Vo2. Taken together, these results indicate that alpha 1-adrenoceptors are directly involved in norepinephrine-induced thermogenesis in non-BAT tissue(s).

  15. Evidence for the participation of glutamate in reflexes involving afferent, substance P-containing nerve fibres in the rat.

    PubMed

    Juránek, I; Lembeck, F

    1996-01-01

    1. Responses mediated, either peripherally or centrally, by substance P-containing primary afferent C-fibres were investigated in the rat following impairment of axonal transport by colchicine (120 micrograms kg-1, i.p., daily for 3 days), and after treatment with the tachykinin antagonist SR-140333 (10-100 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) or the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist MK-801 (100 micrograms kg-1). 2. Peripheral effects mediated by afferent C-fibres were measured by plasma protein extravasation (Evans blue method), following antidromic stimulation of the sciatic nerve, topical application of mustard oil and, as control, i.v. injection of substance P. SR-140333 (100 micrograms kg-1) reduced the effects by 86%, 75% and 74%, respectively. Colchicine reduced the effects of the first two stimuli by 31% and 33% and, as expected not the effect of substance P. The increase of paw skin temperature following capsaicin i.v. was inhibited by SR-140333, but not by colchicine. MK-801 had no effect on the plasma protein extravasation following antidromic sciatic nerve stimulation or on the rise of paw skin temperature induced by capsaicin i.v., thus excluding an effect of MK-801 on peripheral terminals of afferent neurones. 3. Depressor reflexes, which are known to be mediated by capsaicin-sensitive afferent neuones, such as those elicited (A) by a stimulating dose of 30 ng capsaicin i.a., (B) by distension of the ascending colon or (C) by afferent sciatic nerve stimulation were studied. Colchicine significantly reduced depressor reflexes A and B, but had no effect on reflex C. None of the reflexes was affected by SR-140333. MK-801 significantly inhibited all three reflexes. 4. Capsaicin, injected either i.v. (200 micrograms kg-1) or into the nucleus caudatus/putamen (i.c., 30 micrograms), induced an increase in paw skin temperature and a decrease in colon temperature. The rise in fore paw skin temperature (delta t = 2.3 +/- 0.4 degrees C) evoked by capsaicin i.v. was

  16. The pharmacokinetics of 8-methoxypsoralen following i.v. administration in humans.

    PubMed

    Billard, V; Gambus, P L; Barr, J; Minto, C F; Corash, L; Tessman, J W; Stickney, J L; Shafer, S L

    1995-10-01

    1. 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) is a naturally occurring photoreactive substance which, in the presence of u.v. light, forms covalent adducts with pyrimidine bases in nucleic acids. For many years, 8-MOP has been used in PUVA therapy for treatment of psoriasis. Recently, the drug has been found to inactivate effectively bacteria spiked into platelet concentrates. The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics and safety of 8-MOP administered intravenously in the bactericidal dosage range. 2. Eighteen volunteers were divided into three treatment groups to receive, respectively, 5, 10, and 15 mg 8-MOP infused over 60 min. Frequent arterial samples were gathered, and the blood and plasma were assayed for 8-MOP concentration. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by moment and compartmental population analysis, the latter performed with the program NONMEM. Haemodynamics, ventilatory pattern, and subjective effects were recorded throughout the study. 3. The intravenously administered 8-MOP was well tolerated in all individuals, and no acute toxicity was observed. 4. The pharmacokinetics of 8-MOP were best described by a three-compartment mammillary model in which the volumes and clearances were proportional to weight. The mean pharmacokinetic parameters for the plasma concentrations were: V1 = 0.045 1 kg-1, V2 = 0.57 1 kg-1, V3 = 0.15 1 kg-1, CL1 (systemic) = 0.010 1 kg-1 min-1, CL2 = 0.0067 1 kg-1 min-1, CL3 = 0.012 1 kg-1 min-1. The mean pharmacokinetic parameters for the blood concentrations were: V1 = 0.061 1 kg-1, V2 = 1.15 1 kg-1, V3 = 0.21 1 kg-1, CL1 (systemic) = 0.015 1 kg-1 min-1, CL2 = 0.011 1 kg-1 min-1 and CL3 = 0.015 1 kg-1 min-1. 5. The plasma pharmacokinetic model described the observations with a median absolute error of 17%, and the blood pharmacokinetic model described the observations with a median absolute error of 18%. Analysis of the relative concentration of 8-MOP between plasma and red blood cells suggested concentration

  17. Pharmacokinetics of a novel retinoid AGN 190168 and its metabolite AGN 190299 after intravenous administration of AGN 190168 to rats.

    PubMed

    Hsyu, P H; Bowen, B; Tang-Liu, D

    1994-07-01

    The pharmacokinetics of AGN 190168, a novel synthetic retinoid, and its major metabolite, AGN 190299, in rat blood after intravenous administration was investigated. Approximately 4.4 mg kg-1 (high dose) or 0.49 mg kg-1 (low dose) of AGN 190168 was administered to rats via the femoral vein. Blood was collected from the femoral artery at various time points during an 8 h period. Blood concentrations of AGN 190168 and AGN 190299 were determined by a specific and sensitive high-pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. AGN 190168 was rapidly metabolized in rats. The only detectable drug-related species in the blood was AGN 190299. Therefore, only pharmacokinetics of AGN 190299 were calculated. Elimination of AGN 190299 appeared to be non-linear after administration of the high dose, and linear after administration of the low dose. The maximum elimination rate (Vmax) and the concentration at half of the Vmax (km), as estimated by a Michaelis-Menten one-compartment model, were 7.58 +/- 2.42 micrograms min-1 (mean +/- SD) and 6.10 +/- 1.58 micrograms mL-1, respectively. The value of the area under the blood concentration time curve (AUC) was 9.54 +/- 1.68 micrograms h mL-1 after administration of the high dose and 0.594 +/- 0.095 micrograms h mL-1 after administration of the low dose. The clearance value was 7.79 +/- 1.20 mL min-1 kg-1 after the high dose, statistically significantly different from that after the low dose (p < 0.05), 14.0 +/- 2.2 mL min-1 kg-1. The terminal half-life (t1/2) was 1.25 +/- 0.74 h for the high-dose group and 0.95 +/- 0.16 h for the low-dose group. Study results demonstrate rapid systemic metabolism of AGN 190168 to AGN 190299, non-linear pharmacokinetics of AGN 190299 after the 4.4 mg kg-1 dose, and the lack of difference in disposition profiles between sexes after intravenous administration of AGN 190168 to rats.

  18. Mobilization of heavy metals and arsenic in polluted wetland soils and its dependence on dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Kalbitz, K; Wennrich, R

    1998-01-01

    The wetland soils of the Mulde river in the industrial district of Bitterfeld-Wolfen (Germany) are highly contaminated with heavy metals and arsenic. We studied the mobility of accumulated heavy metals and arsenic and the influence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on element mobility. Undisturbed soil cores were taken from five different sites to represent a wide range of heavy-metal contamination, soil properties and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. The acid-soluble concentrations (mostly equal to the total content) were up to 1100 mg kg-1 for Zn, 800 mg kg-1 for Cr, 364 mg kg-1 for Cu, 265 mg kg-1 for As and 37 mg kg-1 for Hg, depending on the sampling site. Percolation experiments using small lysimeters with undisturbed topsoil cores illustrated a considerable mobilization of Zn, Cd, Cu, Cr and Hg, depending on soil properties. Up to 80 micrograms l-1 Cd, 8 mg 1-1 Zn, 130 micrograms l-1 Cr, 160 micrograms l-1 Cu and 7 micrograms l-1 Hg were detected in the soil percolates. Arsenic mobilization was low. The concentration of Cr, Hg, Cu and As in the soil percolates was positively correlated with DOM. Besides the element content (mobile or acid-soluble), soil pH and soil characteristics describing the soil potential for heavy-metal adsorption (clay, oxides, cation exchange capacity), the DOC concentration in the soil solution should be known to access the potential mobilization of Hg, Cr, Cu and As. In contrast, Cd and Zn mobilization depends on soil pH and mobile element content, but not on DOM. Additional studies on two soil profiles (down to 1.5 m) confirmed the translocation of heavy metals from the highly contaminated topsoil into deeper soil horizons and into the groundwater and the influence of DOM as revealed with the percolation experiment. Our results also showed that DOM is of minor importance on the mobilization of heavy metals in soils with a low soil pH (< 4.5).

  19. Effects of Hoe 140, a bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist, on renal function in conscious normotensive rats.

    PubMed Central

    Madeddu, P.; Anania, V.; Parpaglia, P. P.; Demontis, M. P.; Varoni, M. V.; Pisanu, G.; Troffa, C.; Tonolo, G.; Glorioso, N.

    1992-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to determine if endogenous kinins are involved in the regulation of arterial blood pressure and renal function in conscious rats given deoxycorticosterone enantate (DOC, 25 mg kg-1, s.c., weekly) or vehicle for two weeks. 2. The bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist, D-Arg[Hyp3,Thi5,D-Tic7,Oic8]- bradykinin (Hoe 140), at a dose of 300 micrograms kg-1, s.c., blocked the hypotensive effect of 300 ng kg-1 bradykinin i.a., but it did not alter the blood pressure lowering action of 300 ng kg-1 acetylcholine or prostaglandin E2. Inhibition of the response to bradykinin persisted up to 6 h after the administration of Hoe 140. 3. Administration of 300 micrograms kg-1 Hoe 140 s.c. four times a day did not alter mean blood pressure, renal blood flow, or renal function in rats given DOC-vehicle. However, it decreased urinary volume by 70% (from 48.2 +/- 3.8 to 14.3 +/- 3.7 ml 24 h-1, P less than 0.01) and urinary secretion of sodium by 54% (from 1.02 +/- 0.05 to 0.47 +/- 0.16 mmol 24 h-1, P less than 0.01) and potassium by 30% (from 2.93 +/- 0.15 to 2.04 +/- 0.15 mmol 24 h-1, P less than 0.05) in DOC-treated rats. Mean blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate and total renal blood flow remained unchanged. 4. Our results suggest that endogenous kinins play a role in the regulation of renal excretion of water and sodium in the presence of elevated levels of DOC. PMID:1327379

  20. Analgesics and ENT surgery. A clinical comparison of the intraoperative, recovery and postoperative effects of buprenorphine, diclofenac, fentanyl, morphine, nalbuphine, pethidine and placebo given intravenously with induction of anaesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, A A; Honjol, N M; Prabhu, N V; Datta, S; Rozario, C J; Muraleedaran, R; Savva, D

    1994-01-01

    1. Vomiting and restlessness following ENT and eye surgery are undesirable, and may be related to the emetic and analgesic effects of any analgesic given to augment anaesthesia during surgery. 2. To rationalise the choice of analgesic for routine ENT surgery we examined the intraoperative, recovery and postoperative effects following the administration of either buprenorphine (3.0 to 4.5 micrograms kg-1), diclofenac (1 mg kg-1), fentanyl (1.5 to 2.0 micrograms kg-1), morphine (0.1 to 0.15 mg kg-1), nalbuphine (0.1 to 0.15 mg kg-1), pethidine (1.0 to 1.5 mg kg-1) or saline (as control) given with the induction of anaesthesia in 374 patients. A standardised anaesthetic technique with controlled ventilation using 0.6-0.8% isoflurane in nitrous oxide and oxygen was employed. The study population constituted 7 similar groups of patients. 3. Intraoperatively, their effects on heart rate and blood pressure, airway pressure and intraocular pressure, were similar. This implies, most surprisingly, that neither their analgesic nor their histamine releasing effects were clinically evident during surgery. By prolonging the time to extubation at the end of anaesthesia, only buprenorphine, fentanyl, morphine and pethidine provided evidence of intraoperative respiratory depression. 4. Postoperatively, buprenorphine was associated with severe respiratory depression, prolonged somnolence, profound analgesia and the highest emesis rate. Diclofenac exhibited no sedative, analgesic, analgesic sparing, emetic or antipyretic effects. Fentanyl provided no sedative or analgesic effects, but was mildly emetic. Morphine provided poor sedation and analgesia, delayed the requirement for re-medication and was highly emetic. Nalbuphine and pethidine produced sedation with analgesia during recovery, a prolonged time to re-medication and a mild emetic effect. None provided evidence, from analysis of postoperative re-medication times and analgesic consumption, of any pre-emptive analgesic effect. 5

  1. Teratology of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in a complex environmental mixture from the love canal.

    PubMed

    Silkworth, J B; Cutler, D S; Antrim, L; Houston, D; Tumasonis, C; Kaminsky, L S

    1989-07-01

    The organic phase of a leachate (OPL) from the Love Canal chemical dump site contains more than 100 organic compounds including 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The teratogenic potential of OPL was determined in two inbred and one hybrid mouse strain which differ in their sensitivity to aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-mediated toxicity. OPL was orally administered in corn oil on Days 6-15 of gestation to C57BL/6J mice (Ahb/Ahb) at doses of 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g kg-1 day-1 and to DBA/2J (Ahd/Ahd) females, which were mated with either DBA/2J or C57BL/6J males, at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2.0 g kg-1 day-1. In C57BL/6J mice, which express a high-affinity Ah receptor that avidly binds TCDD, the ED50's of OPL for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 0.44 and 0.11 g OPL kg-1 day-1, respectively. Maternal mortality was 5% at the highest dose. In DBA/2J fetuses, which express a low-affinity receptor, neither treatment-related cleft palate nor hydronephrosis was induced by dose levels that caused 36% maternal mortality. In hybrid D2B6F1 fetuses, the incidence of cleft palate reached only 8% at 2 g OPL kg-1 day-1 but the ED50 for hydronephrosis was 0.76 g OPL kg-1 day-1. TCDD was similarly administered to pregnant C57BL/6J mice at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 micrograms kg-1 day-1 and to DBA/2J mice at 0, 0.5, 2, 4, and 8 micrograms kg-1 day-1. In C57BL/6J fetuses, the ED50's for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 4.6 and 0.73 microgram TCDD kg-1 day-1, respectively. In DBA/2J fetuses the ED50's for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 15.0 and 6.4 micrograms TCDD kg-1 day-1, respectively. Both the OPL and TCDD caused maternal hepatomegaly and thymic atrophy in all strains, but increased only C57BL/6J fetal weights. OPL decreased the number of fetuses per C57BL/6J dam at the two highest doses but there were no other reproductive effects in any of the groups. It was concluded that the OPL is teratogenic and that hydronephrosis is a sensitive measure of TCDD toxicity in a

  2. Teratology of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in a complex environmental mixture from the love canal.

    PubMed

    Silkworth, J B; Cutler, D S; Antrim, L; Houston, D; Tumasonis, C; Kaminsky, L S

    1989-07-01

    The organic phase of a leachate (OPL) from the Love Canal chemical dump site contains more than 100 organic compounds including 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The teratogenic potential of OPL was determined in two inbred and one hybrid mouse strain which differ in their sensitivity to aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-mediated toxicity. OPL was orally administered in corn oil on Days 6-15 of gestation to C57BL/6J mice (Ahb/Ahb) at doses of 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g kg-1 day-1 and to DBA/2J (Ahd/Ahd) females, which were mated with either DBA/2J or C57BL/6J males, at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2.0 g kg-1 day-1. In C57BL/6J mice, which express a high-affinity Ah receptor that avidly binds TCDD, the ED50's of OPL for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 0.44 and 0.11 g OPL kg-1 day-1, respectively. Maternal mortality was 5% at the highest dose. In DBA/2J fetuses, which express a low-affinity receptor, neither treatment-related cleft palate nor hydronephrosis was induced by dose levels that caused 36% maternal mortality. In hybrid D2B6F1 fetuses, the incidence of cleft palate reached only 8% at 2 g OPL kg-1 day-1 but the ED50 for hydronephrosis was 0.76 g OPL kg-1 day-1. TCDD was similarly administered to pregnant C57BL/6J mice at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 micrograms kg-1 day-1 and to DBA/2J mice at 0, 0.5, 2, 4, and 8 micrograms kg-1 day-1. In C57BL/6J fetuses, the ED50's for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 4.6 and 0.73 microgram TCDD kg-1 day-1, respectively. In DBA/2J fetuses the ED50's for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 15.0 and 6.4 micrograms TCDD kg-1 day-1, respectively. Both the OPL and TCDD caused maternal hepatomegaly and thymic atrophy in all strains, but increased only C57BL/6J fetal weights. OPL decreased the number of fetuses per C57BL/6J dam at the two highest doses but there were no other reproductive effects in any of the groups. It was concluded that the OPL is teratogenic and that hydronephrosis is a sensitive measure of TCDD toxicity in a

  3. Delayed circulatory failure due to the induction of nitric oxide synthase by lipoteichoic acid from Staphylococcus aureus in anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed Central

    De Kimpe, S J; Hunter, M L; Bryant, C E; Thiemermann, C; Vane, J R

    1995-01-01

    1. This study investigates the effect of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus, a micro-organism without endotoxin, on haemodynamics and induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the anaesthetized rat. 2. Intravenous injection of LTA (10 mg kg-1) resulted in a decrease in blood pressure from 123 +/- 1 mmHg to 83 +/- 7 mmHg after 270 min (P < 0.001) and a reduction of the pressor response to noradrenaline (1 microgram kg-1) from 33 +/- 1 mmHg.min to 23 +/- 3 mmHg.min after 270 min (P < 0.05). 3. The delayed circulatory failure (hypotension and vascular hyporeactivity) caused by LTA was prevented by pretreatment of rats with dexamethasone (10 mg kg-1, 60 min prior to LTA) or the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 10 mg kg-1 h-1, i.v. infusion starting 30 min prior to LTA). 4. In contrast, treatment of rats with polymyxin B (0.05 mg kg-1), an agent which binds endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS), did not affect the delayed circulatory failure caused by LTA. Polymyxin B, however, attenuated the hypotension and vascular hyporeactivity to noradrenaline afforded by endotoxaemia (2 mg kg-1 LPS, i.v.) for 270 min. 5. The delayed circulatory failure caused by LTA was associated with a time-dependent increase in (i) the expression of iNOS protein in the lung (Western blot analysis), and (ii) iNOS activity. This increase in iNOS protein and activity was prevented by pretreatment of LTA-rats with dexamethasone (10 mg kg-1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 6 PMID:7542534

  4. Circulating [Met]enkephalin and catecholamine responses to acute hypotension and hypertension in anaesthetized greyhounds.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, D. F.; Medbak, S.; Rees, L. H.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of either hypotension induced by sodium nitroprusside or hexamethonium or hypertension produced by angiotensin II or noradrenaline on the circulating levels of methionine enkephalin ([Met]enkephalin)-like immunoreactivity (MLI), adrenaline and noradrenaline in anaesthetized greyhounds were examined. Nitroprusside infusions (200 and 400 micrograms min-1) induced a fall in blood pressure accompanied by significant rises in plasma MLI and catecholamine concentrations. Concomitant administration of a high dose of naloxone did not alter the fall in blood pressure produced by nitroprusside but was associated with greater rises in circulating MLI and catecholamines when compared to nitroprusside alone, suggesting that [Met]enkephalin is not involved in the hypotensive action of nitroprusside. Intravenous hexamethonium (2.5 mg kg-1) provoked a fall in blood pressure which was not associated with any changes in plasma MLI. However, it produced a fall in plasma noradrenaline and a rise in plasma adrenaline. Thus it appears that neural mechanisms are required, at least in part, for the release of MLI. Angiotensin II (1.25 micrograms kg-1 min-1) and noradrenaline (8 micrograms kg-1 min-1) infusions produced an elevation in blood pressure without altering the circulating MLI levels. Study of the molecular forms of circulating MLI, before and during hypotension, revealed that the large molecular weight enkephalin-containing peptides with approximate molecular sizes of 18kD and 8kD were the predominant forms both in the basal and stimulated states. It is concluded that circulating [Met]enkephalin is not involved in the tonic control of blood pressure but it may modulate catecholamine release following hypotension as part of the stress response. PMID:3594068

  5. Role of nitric oxide in modulating the long-term renal and hypertensive actions of norepinephrine.

    PubMed

    Granger, J; Schnackenberg, C; Novak, J; Tucker, B; Miller, T; Morgan, S; Kassab, S

    1997-01-01

    We have previously reported that nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in protecting the renal vasculature from acute norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of this interaction between NO and norepinephrine in long-term control of renal hemodynamics and arterial pressure. To achieve this goal, we examined the effects of an intrarenal infusion of norepinephrine (NE) (0.1 microgram.kg-1.min-1) for 7 days in conscious, chronically instrumented control dogs and in dogs pretreated with a synthesis inhibitor, L-NAME (3 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 intrarenally). Both groups of dogs also received captopril (15 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) plus angiotensin I] intravenously to clamp the renin-angiotensin system throughout the protocol. In control dogs (n = 6), intrarenal infusion of NE decreased renal plasma flow by 9% (134 +/- 10 to 122 +/- 14 mL/min) and glomerular filtration rate by 16% (49 +/- 4 to 41 +/- 5 mL/min) while having no effect on mean arterial pressure (100 +/- 3 to 98 +/- 4 mm Hg). In marked contrast, in dogs pretreated with intrarenal L-NAME (n = 9), NE decreased renal plasma flow by 37% (129 +/- 8 to 81 +/- 16 mL/min) and glomerular filtration rate by 32% (47 +/- 3 to 32 +/- 5 mL/min) while increasing mean arterial pressure from 104 +/- 5 to 113 +/- 6 mm Hg. The results of this study demonstrate that NO plays an important role in modulating the long-term actions of NE on renal function and arterial pressure.

  6. Aqueous and vitreous penetration of ciprofloxacin following different modes of systemic administration.

    PubMed

    Madu, A A; Mayers, M; Perkins, R; Liu, W; Drusano, G L; Aswani, R; Madu, C N; Miller, M H

    1996-08-01

    The overall importance of the peak or the mean serum concentrations as predictors of ocular drug penetration is unknown. To address this fundamental question with an agent which shows promise as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of endophthalmitis, we studied the penetration of ciprofloxacin into the aqueous and vitreous humors following three different modes of systemic administration. New Zealand white rabbits received either a single bolus dose (40 mg kg-1), three intermittent doses of 13.33 mg kg-1 evenly spaced over an 8 hr period, or a continuous infusion of 40 mg kg-1 over an 8 hr period. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using RSTRIP II, a non-linear, least square regression model analysis program. The serum area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values for each mode of drug administration were similar: 32.9 micrograms hr ml-1 for single dose, 31.9 micrograms hr ml-1 for intermittent dose, and 33.8 micrograms hr ml-1 for continuous infusion modes. The percentage penetration into the aqueous and vitreous were also similar; 30.5% and 6.5% for a single dose, 31.6% and 7.4% for intermittent doses and 30.0% and 7.5% for continuous infusion. The penetration into the aqueous and vitreous humors was not influenced by mode of administration. As with other quinolones we have studied, elimination rates were similar for the central and peripheral compartments in the post-distributive phase. Vitreous humor ciprofloxacin concentrations achieved were below that which inhibits most Staphylococcus epidermidis, the most common isolate in patients with post-operative endophthalmitis.

  7. Cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity after inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis in conscious goats.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, N.; García, J. L.; García-Villalón, A. L.; Monge, L.; Gómez, B.; Diéguez, G.

    1993-01-01

    1. The role of nitric oxide in the cerebral circulation under basal conditions and after vasodilator stimulation was studied in instrumented, conscious goats, by examining the action of inhibiting endogenous nitric oxide production with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). 2. In 6 unanaesthetized goats, blood flow to one brain hemisphere (electromagnetically measured), systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate were continuously recorded. L-NAME (35 mg kg-1 by i.v. bolus) decreased resting cerebral blood flow by 43 +/- 3%, increased mean arterial pressure by 21 +/- 2%, and decreased heart rate by 41 +/- 2%; cerebrovascular resistance increased by 114 +/- 13% (P < 0.01); the immediate addition of i.v. infusion of L-NAME (0.15-0.20 mg kg-1 during 60-80 min) did not significantly modify these effects. Cerebral blood flow recovered at 72 h, arterial pressure and cerebrovascular resistance at 48 h, and heart rate at 6 days after L-NAME treatment. 3. A second treatment with L-NAME scheduled as above reproduced the immediate haemodynamic effects of the first treatment, which (except bradycardia) reversed with L-arginine (200-300 mg kg-1 by i.v. bolus). 4. Acetylcholine (0.01-0.3 micrograms), sodium nitroprusside (3-100 micrograms) and diazoxide (0.3-9 mg), injected into the cerebral circulation of 5 conscious goats, produced dose-dependent increases in cerebral blood flow, and decreases in cerebrovascular resistance; sodium nitroprusside (30 and 100 micrograms) also caused hypotension and tachycardia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8220904

  8. Drug modulation of antigen-induced paw oedema in guinea-pigs: effects of lipopolysaccharide, tumour necrosis factor and leucocyte depletion.

    PubMed

    da Motta, J I; Cunha, F Q; Vargaftig, B B; Ferreira, S H

    1994-05-01

    1. In guinea-pigs previously sensitized with ovalbumin, the intra-plantar administration of the antigen induced dose-dependent and sustained oedema. An intense infiltrate of neutrophils and eosinophils was observed at the peak of the oedema (4 h). 2. Oedema induced by ovalbumin at the doses of 50 or 200 micrograms/paw was not inhibited by antihistamines (meclizine and cetirizine), a PAF antagonist (BN 50730), a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin), a lipoxygenase inhibitor (MK-886), a dual type lipo- and cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor (NDGA), a bradykinin antagonist (Hoe 140) or the combination of cetirizine, MK-886, indomethacin and BN 50730. These drugs did inhibit paw oedema induced by their specific agonists or by carrageenin. These results suggest that histamine, PAF, prostaglandins, leukotrienes or bradykinin are not important in the development of immune paw oedema in guinea-pigs. 3. Dexamethasone (10 mg kg-1) inhibited oedema induced by ovalbumin (50 or 200 micrograms/paw, P < 0.05). This effect apparently does not result from inhibition of arachidonate metabolism, since indomethacin, MK-886 and NDGA were without effect. 4. Oedema induced by ovalbumin (50 or 200 micrograms/paw) was also inhibited by azelastine. This effect was not due to the anti-histaminic property of azelastine since two other potent-antihistamines, meclizine and cetirizine, were ineffective. 5. Intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) dose-dependently inhibited the oedema induced by ovalbumin (200 micrograms/paw). This effect could not be attributed to hypotension or leucopenia since the maximal dose applied (81 micrograms kg-1) did not induce significant changes in the blood pressure or in the white blood cell levels of the animals. It is suggested that the effect of LPS is mediated by the endogenous release of cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor (TNF alpha). Murine TNF alpha dose dependently(9-81 microg kg-1) inhibited the paw oedema induced by ovalbumin.7. The anti

  9. The mutagenic activity of razoxane (ICRF 159): an anticancer agent.

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, R.; Watkins, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    The mutagenic activity of razoxane (ICRF 159) was studied using the Salmonella/microsome assay and rodent bone-marrow micronucleus and metaphase assays. Razoxane (up to 5000 micrograms/plate) did not cause an increase in the mutation frequency in the Salmonella/microsome assay. In the mouse micronucleus assay razoxane (200 and 400 mg kg-1 i.p.) was cytotoxic to the bone marrow cells (which limited the analysis) but an increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was observed in razoxane dosed animals (5-fold compared to control value). In the Chinese hamster metaphase assay razoxane (up to 500 mg kg-1 orally) induced abnormal chromosome condensation and an increase in structural chromosome aberrations (7 fold compared to control value) as well as an increase in the number of polypoid cells (8-fold compared to control value). The mutagenic effect of razoxane was restricted to eukaryotic organisms and was associated with specific chromosomal changes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3904803

  10. Midazolam for sedation in the paediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Rosen, D A; Rosen, K R

    1991-01-01

    This retrospective study examines data from 55 patients sedated in a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with midazolam. Midazolam sedation was initiated with a bolus of 0.25 mg.kg-1 followed by a continuous infusion of 0.4-4 micrograms.kg-1.min-1. Physiological and metabolic parameters, infusion rates, duration, and sedation scores were monitored. Midazolam infusions were effective in sedating all the children studied during all or part of their PICU admission. The median duration of sedation was 74 h with a range of 4 to 1272 h. Haemodynamics were unchanged. Of the patients 46% were effectively alimented by the enteral route, and enteral alimentation was successful in all patients in whom it was attempted. Unassisted ventilation occurred in 44% of the patients during infusion. Oxygen consumption was 28% lower than in the control. Disadvantages of midazolam infusion have included inability to sedate during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and development of acute tolerance.

  11. Antitussive activity of sigma-1 receptor agonists in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Brown, Claire; Fezoui, Malika; Selig, William M; Schwartz, Carl E; Ellis, James L

    2004-01-01

    1. Current antitussive medications have limited efficacy and often contain the opiate-like agent dextromethorphan (DEX). The mechanism whereby DEX inhibits cough is ill defined. DEX displays affinity at both NMDA and sigma receptors, suggesting that the antitussive activity may involve central or peripheral activity at either of these receptors. This study examined and compared the antitussive activity of DEX and various putative sigma receptor agonists in the guinea-pig citric-acid cough model. 2. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DEX (30 mg kg(-1)) and the sigma-1 agonists SKF-10,047 (1-5 mg kg(-1)), Pre-084 (5 mg kg(-1)), and carbetapentane (1-5 mg kg(-1)) inhibited citric-acid-induced cough in guinea-pigs. Intraperitoneal administration of a sigma-1 antagonist, BD 1047 (1-5 mg kg(-1)), reversed the inhibition of cough elicited by SKF-10,047. In addition, two structurally dissimilar sigma agonists SKF-10,047 (1 mg ml(-1)) and Pre-084 (1 mg ml(-1)) inhibited cough when administered by aerosol. 3. Aerosolized BD 1047 (1 mg ml(-1), 30 min) prevented the antitussive action of SKF-10,047 (5 mg kg(-1)) or DEX (30 mg kg(-1)) given by i.p. administration and, likewise, i.p. administration of BD 1047 (5 mg kg(-1)) prevented the antitussive action of SKF-10,047 given by aerosol (1 mg ml(-1)). 4. These results therefore support the argument that antitussive effects of DEX may be mediated via sigma receptors, since both systemic and aerosol administration of sigma-1 receptor agonists inhibit citric-acid-induced cough in guinea-pigs. While significant systemic exposure is possible with aerosol administration, the very low doses administered (estimated <0.3 mg kg(-1)) suggest that there may be a peripheral component to the antitussive effect.

  12. Gastroprotection and effect of the simultaneous administration of Cuachalalate (Amphipterygium adstringens) on the pharmacokinetics and anti-inflammatory activity of diclofenac in rats.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Andrés; Oliva, Iván; Sánchez-Mendoza, María Elena; Arrieta, Jesús; Cruz-Antonio, Leticia; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto

    2005-12-01

    This work aimed to study the effect of Cuachalalate methanol extract (CME) on the anti-inflammatory activity and pharmacokinetics of diclofenac sodium, a frequently prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The gastroprotective effect of CME on the gastric injury induced by diclofenac was studied in rats. CME showed a gastroprotective effect of 15.7% at 1 mg kg(-1) and 72.5% at dose of 300 mg kg(-1). Omeprazole, used as anti-ulcer reference drug, showed gastroprotective effects of 50-89.7% at doses tested (1-30 mg kg(-1)). The value of the 50% effective dose for the anti-inflammatory effect of diclofenac sodium (ED50 = 1.14 +/- 0.23 mg kg(-1)) using carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model, was not modified by the concomitant administration of 30 or 100 mg kg(-1) of CME. The effect of CME (30, 100 and 300 mg kg(-1), p.o.) on the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac sodium was studied. It was observed that the simultaneous administration of diclofenac sodium and 300 mg kg(-1) of CME decreased significantly the values of Cmax (7.08 +/- 1.42 microg mL(-1)) and AUC (12.67 +/- 2.97 microg h mL(-1)), but not the value of tmax (0.13 (0.1-0.25)h) obtained with the administration of diclofenac alone. The simultaneous administration of 30 or 100 mg kg(-1) of CME did not modify the pharmacokinetic parameters of diclofenac. The experimental findings in rats suggest that CME at doses lower than 100 mg kg(-1) protects the gastric mucosa from the damage induced by diclofenac sodium without altering either the anti-inflammatory activity or the pharmacokinetics of this NSAID.

  13. Detection of an anatoxin-a(s)-like anticholinesterase in natural blooms and cultures of cyanobacteria/blue-green algae from Danish lakes and in the stomach contents of poisoned birds.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, P; Carmichael, W W; An, J; Moestrup, O

    1997-06-01

    Ten natural bloom samples of cyanobacteria from the Danish lakes Knud sø (5), Ravn sø (4), and Salten Langsø (1) collected during 1993-1995 were assayed for toxicity by mouse bioassay, for acetylcholinesterase inhibiting activity by a colorimetric method, and for microcystins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the mouse bioassay, seven samples were neurotoxic, two were non-toxic and one gave a protracted toxic response. One of the non-toxic and the single protracted toxic sample both contained anticholinesterase activity equivalent to 4 micrograms anatoxin-a(s) g-1. The neurotoxic samples contained equivalents to 20-3300 micrograms anatoxin-a(s) g-1. The highest anticholinesterase activities (equivalent to 2300 and 3300 micrograms anatoxin-a(s) g-1, respectively) were found in samples collected from Lake Knud sø in connection with bird-kills in 1993 and 1994. Small amounts of microcystins (0.1-0.9 microgram g-1) were detected in all samples but one. All Lake Knud sø and Lake Ravn sø samples were dominated by Anabaena lemmermannii, and the Lake Salten Langsø sample by several species of Anabaena. Gel filtration profiles indicated similarity between the toxic component from the Lake Knud sø 1994 bloom with registered bird-kills and anatoxin-a(s) isolated from Anabaena flos-aquae NRC-525-17. Anticholinesterase-producing cultures of A. lemmermannii were isolated from the Lake Knud sø 1993 bloom. These laboratory cultures produced anatoxin-a(s) equivalents of 29-743 micrograms g-1. Other cultures of A. lemmermannii isolated from Lake Knud sø and Lake Ravn sø were hepatotoxic or non-toxic. Dead birds collected from Lake Knud sø during the neurotoxic 1993 Anabaena bloom possibly died from cyanobacterial toxicosis. The stomach contents contained colonies and single trichomes of Anabaena, and anticholinesterase activities equivalent to 2.1-89.7 micrograms anatoxin-a(s) kg-1 body weight and microcystins (53-95 ng kg-1) were also detected. PMID:9241784

  14. Pesticides in surface water, sediment, and rainfall of the northeastern Pantanal basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Laabs, Volker; Amelung, Wulf; Pinto, Alicio A; Wantzen, Matthias; da Silva, Carolina J; Zech, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    Within the last 25 years an intensive agriculture has developed in the highland regions of Mato Grosso state (Brazil), which involves frequent pesticide use in highly mechanized cash-crop cultures. To provide information on pesticide distribution and dynamics in the northeastern Pantanal basin (located in southern Mato Grosso), we monitored 29 pesticides and 3 metabolites in surface water, sediment, and rainwater of the study area during the main application season. In environmental samples, 19 pesticides and 3 metabolites were detected in measurable quantities, resulting in at least one pesticide detection in 68% of surface water samples (n = 139), 62% of sediment samples (n = 26), and 87% of rainwater samples (n = 91). Surface water samples were most frequently contaminated by endosulfan compounds (alpha-, beta-, -sulfate), ametryn, metolachlor, and metribuzin, although in low (< 0.1 microgram L-1) concentrations. Sediment samples exhibited concentrations up to 4.5 micrograms kg-1 of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, endosulfan-sulfate, beta-endosulfan, and ametryn. In contrast, rainwater was polluted with substantial amounts of endosulfan, alachlor, metolachlor, trifluralin, monocrotofos, and profenofos (maximum concentrations = 0.3 to 2.3 micrograms L-1) in the highlands. Lowland rainwater samples taken 75 km from the next application area contained 5- to 10-fold lower mean pesticide concentration than in the highlands. Cumulative deposition rates of the pesticide sum within the study period ranged from 423 micrograms m-2 in the highlands to 14 micrograms m-2 in the lowlands. The atmospheric input of pesticides to ecosystems seemed to be of higher relevance in the tropical study area than known from temperate regions. PMID:12371181

  15. The effect of a selective 5-HT2 antagonist, ketanserin, on the pulmonary responses to Escherichia coli endotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Ball, H. A.; Parratt, J. R.; Rodger, I. W.

    1983-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, 5-160 microgram kg-1) injected intravenously in pentobarbitone-anaesthetized, open-chest cats caused dose-dependent increases in pulmonary arterial and intratracheal pressures. There was also a marked systemic hypotension and bradycardia. The pulmonary effects were completely prevented by ketanserin (0.2 mg kg-1), a selective 5-HT2 blocking drug. Ketanserin (0.2 mg kg-1) itself lowered arterial pressure (by 30-40 mmHg) but this systemic hypotension was relatively transient. Endotoxin (E. coli) administration resulted in pulmonary hypertension, increases in intratracheal pressure and airways resistance and reductions in lung compliance and in arterial PO2. Only the airways resistance response was modified by ketanserin (0.2 mg kg-1), suggesting a relatively unimportant role for 5-HT in mediating the acute, pulmonary effects of endotoxin in this species. The reductions in arterial (mixed venous) pH and in PO2 that resulted from endotoxin administration were not affected by pretreatment with ketanserin. PMID:6360280

  16. 5-HT1 agonists reduce 5-hydroxytryptamine release in rat hippocampus in vivo as determined by brain microdialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, T.; Bramwell, S. R.; Grahame-Smith, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    1. An intracerebral perfusion method, brain microdialysis, was used to assess changes of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release in the ventral hippocampus of the chloral hydrate-anaesthetized rat in response to systemic administration of a variety of 5-HT1 receptor agonists. 2. A stable output of reliably detectable endogenous 5-HT was measured in dialysates collected from ventral hippocampus with the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, citalopram, present in the perfusion medium. 3. Under these conditions the putative 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) caused a dose-dependent (5-250 micrograms kg-1, s.c.) reduction of 5-HT in hippocampal dialysates. 4. Similarly, the putative 5-HT1A agonists gepirone (5 mg kg-1, s.c.), ipsapirone (5 mg kg-1, s.c.) and buspirone (5 mg kg-1, s.c.) markedly reduced levels of 5-HT in hippocampal perfusates whereas their common metabolite 1-(2-pyrimidinyl) piperazine (5 mg kg-1, s.c.), which does not bind to central 5-HT1A recognition sites, had no effect. 5. 5-Methoxy-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridinyl)-1H-indole (RU 24969), a drug with reported high affinity for brain 5-HT1B binding sites, also produced a dose-dependent (0.25-5 mg kg-1, s.c.) decrease of hippocampal 5-HT output. 6. These data are direct biochemical evidence that systemically administered putative 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B agonists markedly inhibit 5-HT release in rat ventral hippocampus in vivo. PMID:2466516

  17. Antibody responses to tetanus toxoid and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT).

    PubMed

    Chan, C Y; Molrine, D C; Antin, J H; Wheeler, C; Guinan, E C; Weinstein, H J; Phillips, N R; McGarigle, C; Harvey, S; Schnipper, C; Ambrosino, D M

    1997-07-01

    Accelerated granulocyte and platelet recovery following peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) are well documented. We hypothesize that functional immunity may also be enhanced in PBSCT and performed a phase II trial of immunizations in patients with lymphoma undergoing autologous transplantation with peripheral blood stem cells or bone marrow. Seventeen BMT and 10 PBSCT recipients were immunized at 3, 6, 12, and 24-months post-transplantation with Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB)-conjugate and tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccines. IgG anti-HIB and anti-TT antibody concentrations were measured and compared between the two groups. Geometric mean IgG anti-HIB antibody concentrations were significantly higher for PBSCT recipients compared to BMT recipients at 24 months post-transplantation (11.3 micrograms/ml vs 0.93 microgram/ml, P = 0.051) and following the 24 month immunization (66.2 micrograms/ml vs 1.30 micrograms/ml, P = 0.006). Similar results were noted for IgG anti-TT antibody with significantly higher geometric mean antibody concentrations in the PBSCT group at 24 months post-transplantation (182 micrograms/ml vs 21.6 micrograms/ml, P = 0.039). Protective levels of total anti-HIB antibody were achieved earlier in PBSCT recipients compared with those of BMT recipients. PBSCT recipients had higher antigen-specific antibody concentrations following HIB and TT immunizations. These results suggest enhanced recovery of humoral immunity in PBSCT recipients and earlier protection against HIB with immunization.

  18. Strategies and Procedures in Developing and Implementing Curriculum. Report of a Sub-Regional Training Workshop on Curriculum Development (Seoul, August 1-30, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand).

    Nine representatives of Thailand, Nepal, Iran, and the Republic of Korea met in Seoul during the month of August, 1977, for a curriculum development training workshop co-sponsored by the Korean National Commission for UNESCO and the Asian Centre of Educational Innovation for Development (ACEID). One aim of the workshop was to improve the…

  19. Extensive air showers generated by gamma-quanta from Geminga and Tycho's SNR at energy range 1 30 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinitsyna, V. G.; Arsov, T. P.; Alaverdian, A. Y.; Borisov, S. S.; Musin, F. I.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Sinitsyna, V. Y.; Platonov, G. F.

    2006-01-01

    The gamma-quantum emitting objects in our Galaxy are supernova remnants and binary. The observed results of gamma-quantum sources Tycho Brahe and Geminga by the SHALON gamma-telescope are presented. The integral spectra of events from the source - k and background events, observing simultaneously with source's events - k, and the source image are presented. The energy spectra of Tycho's SNR and Geminga supernova remnant F(E>0.8TeV)˜E are harder than the Crab Nebula spectrum. Tycho's SNR has long been considered as a candidate cosmic ray source in Northern Hemisphere. A non-linear kinetic model of cosmic ray acceleration in supernova remnants was used for Tycho's SNR. The expected π°-decay gamma-quanta flux F˜Eγ-1 extends up to ˜30TeV, whereas the Inverse Compton gamma-ray flux has a cut-off above a few TeV. So, the detection of gamma-rays at energies of ˜10-30TeV by SHALON is evidence for hadron origin.

  20. Curriculum for Development: Analysis and Review of Processes, Products and Outcomes. Final Report: Sub-Regional Curriculum Workshop (Colombo, Sri Lanka, October 1-30, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Presenting proceedings and materials covered at an Asian curriculum workshop involving 15 participants from 7 countries (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, India, and Sri Lanka), this document includes: a discussion of criteria for curriculum analysis re: health education and nutrition instruction for grades 6-10; a…

  1. Renal electrolyte excretion and renin release during calcium and parathormone infusions in conscious rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Peart, W S; Roddis, S A; Unwin, R J

    1986-01-01

    Following a random block experimental design in each case, three repeated measurement studies were carried out in three different groups of conscious rabbits, to investigate the renal effects of increasing doses of intravenous calcium chloride (CaCl2) and bovine parathyroid hormone (PTH). In the first study, each rabbit received either CaCl2 (0.15, 0.3, 0.5 or 1.0 mg kg-1 min-1) or vehicle alone (control) for 160 min. In the second study, rabbits were given either PTH (0.15 microgram kg-1 min-1), CaCl2 (1.0 mg kg-1 min-1), PTH plus CaCl2 (0.15 microgram kg-1 min-1 and 1.0 mg kg-1 min-1, respectively) or vehicle alone; PTH was infused for just over 60 min. In the third study, a much smaller dose (0.05 mg kg-1 min-1) of CaCl2 was infused for 100 min. CaCl2 infusion produced a striking fall in fractional excretion of sodium of at least 50% (P less than 0.01), but this was not dose related, being almost maximal at the smaller doses infused. Although this effect was evident in the absence of any changes in total plasma calcium concentration at the lower doses of CaCl2, renal calcium excretion was increased between 2- and 20-fold (P less than 0.01) at all doses infused. Fractional excretion of chloride doubled at the two higher doses of CaCl2 (P less than 0.01), but potassium excretion was unchanged. There were no consistent alterations in mean arterial blood pressure, effective renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate or plasma renin activity (PRA); total plasma calcium concentration was consistently elevated only during infusion of the high dose by just under 1 mmol l-1. PTH infusion had no measured effect on fractional excretion of sodium or renal calcium excretion, but doubled fractional potassium excretion (P less than 0.05). Heart rate and PRA increased (P less than 0.01 and less than 0.05, respectively), the latter by 50%, but systemic pressure and renal haemodynamics were not significantly affected. By contrast, PTH infused with CaCl2 produced a 4-fold rise

  2. Plasma arginine and ornithine are the main citrulline precursors in mice infused with arginine-free diets.

    PubMed

    Marini, Juan C; Didelija, Inka Cajo; Castillo, Leticia; Lee, Brendan

    2010-08-01

    Dietary arginine is the main dietary precursor for citrulline synthesis, but it is not known if other precursors can compensate when arginine is absent in the diet. To address this question, the contributions of plasma and dietary precursors were determined by using multitracer protocols in conscious mice infused i.g. either an arginine-sufficient diet [Arg(+)] or an arginine-free diet [Arg(-)]. The plasma entry rate of citrulline and arginine did not differ between the 2 diet groups (156 +/- 6 and 564 +/- 30 micromol kg(-1) h(-1), respectively); however, the entry rate of ornithine was greater in the mice fed the Arg(+) than the Arg(-) diet (332 +/- 33 vs. 180 +/- 16 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)). There was a greater utilization of plasma ornithine for the synthesis of citrulline (49 +/- 4 vs. 36 +/- 3 micromol kg(-1) h(-1), 30 +/- 3% vs. 24 +/- 2% of citrulline entry rate) in the mice fed the Arg(-) diet than the Arg(+) diet. The utilization of plasma arginine did not differ between the 2 diet groups for citrulline synthesis, either through plasma ornithine (approximately 29 +/- 3 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)) or at the site of citrulline synthesis (approximately 12 +/- 3 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)). The contribution of dietary proline to the synthesis of citrulline was mainly at the site of citrulline production (17 +/- 1 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)), rather than through plasma ornithine (5 +/- 0.4 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)). Dietary glutamine was utilized only at the site of citrulline synthesis (4 +/- 0.2 micromol kg(-1) h(-1)). Dietary glutamine and proline made a greater contribution to the synthesis of citrulline in mice fed the Arg(-) diet but remained minor sources for citrulline production. Plasma arginine and ornithine are able to support citrulline synthesis during arginine-free feeding.

  3. Comparison of i.v. and intra-tracheal administration of adrenaline.

    PubMed

    McCrirrick, A; Monk, C R

    1994-05-01

    Adrenaline is the single most important therapeutic agent used in advanced cardiac life support (ACLS). Ideally it should be given into a large central vein but the European Resuscitation Council, the American Heart Association and the Resuscitation Council (U.K.) advise that adrenaline may be given into the trachea if i.v. access is not available. We have studied the effects of intra-tracheal and i.v. adrenaline in 16 patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Log dose-response curves were constructed for systolic arterial pressure and heart rate responses. Intra-tracheal doses of adrenaline up to 10 micrograms kg-1, approximately one-third of that recommended for resuscitation, had no effect on arterial pressure or heart rate, whereas adrenaline 0.1 microgram kg-1 i.v. produced a mean increase in systolic pressure of 24 mm Hg. The intra-tracheal doses recommended for resuscitation (2-3 mg) are likely to be ineffective and consideration should be given to abandoning the tracheal route for adrenaline in ACLS.

  4. Epidural blood flow during prostaglandin E1 or trimethaphan induced hypotension.

    PubMed

    Abe, K; Kakiuchi, M; Shimada, Y

    1993-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) or trimethaphan (TMP) induced hypotension on epidural blood flow (EBF) during spinal surgery, EBF was measured using the heat clearance method in 30 patients who underwent postero-lateral interbody fusion under isoflurane anaesthesia. An initial dose of 0.1 microgram.kg-1.min-1 of PGE1 (15 patients), or 10 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 of TMP (15 patients) was administered intravenously after the dural opening and the dose was adjusted to maintain the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) at about 60 mmHg. The hypotensive drug was discontinued at the completion of the operative procedure. After starting PGE1 or TMP, MAP and rate pressure product (RPP) decreased significantly compared with preinfusion values (P < 0.01), and the degree of hypotension due to PGE1 remained constant until 60 min after its discontinuation. Heart rate (HR) did not change in either group. EBFF did not change during PGE1 infusion whereas in the TMP group, EBF decreased significantly at 30 and 60 min after the start of TMP (preinfusion: 45.9 +/- 13.9 ml/100g/min. 30 min: 32.3 +/- 9.9 ml/100 g/min (P < 0.05). 60 min: 30 +/- 7.5 ml/100 g/min (P < 0.05)). These results suggest that PGE1 may be preferable to TMP for hypotensive anaesthesia in spinal surgery because TMP decreased EBF.

  5. Suspected resistance of Ostertagia ostertagi in cattle to levamisole.

    PubMed

    Geerts, S; Brandt, J; Kumar, V; Biesemans, L

    1987-01-01

    Observations on a beef cattle farm in Flanders led to the suspicion of resistance to levamisole in a strain of Ostertagia ostertagi. After treating a group of six animals with levamisole (5 mg kg-1 L.W., i.m.) the reduction in the number of trichostrongylid eggs per gram of faeces varied between 0 and 66.6%, whereas a similar group treated with fenbendazole (7.5 mg kg-1 L.W., p.o.) showed a reduction in worm burdens of 100%. Coproculture showed that the remaining eggs in the first treatment group were all Ostertagia sp. The suspected field strain was compared with a reference strain of O. ostertagi by means of the in vitro larval paralysis test. This test showed LC95 values of 9.12 micrograms ml-1 and of 99.04 micrograms ml-1 for the reference and the field strain respectively, which indicates a resistance factor for the latter of 10.9. These results were not unequivocally confirmed by the post mortem findings on a tracer calf necropsied 4 days after treatment with levamisole.

  6. [Anesthetic management for removal of a giant ovarian tumor using FloTrac x Vigileo monitoring system].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Tsubasa; Kurasako, Naoko; Nishitani, Kyoko; Okada, Shohei; Arai, Tatsuru

    2014-04-01

    We successfully managed anesthesia in a patient with a giant ovarian tumor weighting 22 kg, using FloTrac x Vigileo monitoring system. A 43-year-old woman (67.2 kg, 154.5 cm and abdominal girth 111.3 cm) was admitted for removal of a giant ovarian tumor. Arterial blood pressure (ABP), heart rate, percutaneous arterial oxygen saturation, cardiac index (CI) and stroke volume variation (SVV) were monitored. General anesthesia was induced, with the patient in the supine position, using 50 mg propofol, 0.25 microgram x kg(-1) x min(-1) remifentanil. 30 mg rocuronium bromide and inhalation of 100% oxygen, and maintained with sevoflurane 1.5% and remifentanil administration between 0.1-0.3 microgram x kg(-1) x min(-1). Following 6 l fluid drainage from the ovarian tumor, ABP and CI decreased, but SVV remained within normal ranges. Therefore, we only decreased the drainage speed without increasing fluid administration rate. When the tumor was lifted up, both CI and SVV increased, but the increase of SVV was 10%, still within normal ranges. Therefore, we did not increase fluid administration rate to avoid excessive hydration. After tracheal extubation, respiratory and hemodynamic states were stable, and the patient had no postoperative complication. We conclude that FloTrac x Vigileo System is useful for monitoring cardiac performance parameters, and helps anesthesiologists adjust drainage speed of the content and infusion rate to maintain the stability of circulatory state, in removal of a giant cyst.

  7. Interaction between the effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine and adrenaline on the growth of platelet thrombi in the coronary artery of the anaesthetized dog.

    PubMed Central

    McAuliffe, S. J.; Snow, H. M.; Cox, B.; Smith, C. C.; Noble, M. I.

    1993-01-01

    1. The interaction between adrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has been quantitated on the rate of thrombus formation, in the stenosed coronary artery with damaged endothelium of the anaesthetized dog. 2. Changes in the plasma concentration of adrenaline were produced by varying the rate of an intravenous infusion of adrenaline and in the effects of 5-HT, by intravenous injections of the selective 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ICI 170809. 3. Increases in the plasma concentration of adrenaline, which did not cause significant changes in blood pressure and heart rate, increased the rate of thrombus formation. 4. Antagonism of the 5-HT2 receptor by ICI 170809, in the absence of an infusion of adrenaline, abolished thrombus formation (mean ED50 0.41 microgram kg-1, i.v.). 5. The effects of adrenaline were non-competitively antagonized by ICI 170809; maximum effects were obtained in the dose-range 50-200 micrograms kg-1, i.v., when the mean dose-ratio increase in adrenaline required to restore equivalent rates of thrombus formation was 39 fold. 6. These results are consistent with a synergism between adrenaline and 5-HT and emphasize the importance of both on thrombus formation. PMID:8358542

  8. [The effect of prostaglandin E1 on body temperature, catecholamines and stress hormones during prolonged surgery].

    PubMed

    Okuda, M; Amano, H; Furuhashi, K; Nakai, Y

    1996-01-01

    The effects of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) on body temperature, catecholamines and stress hormones were evaluated in 10 patients undergoing elective prolonged surgery over 12 hours. PGE1 (0.03 microgram.kg-1.min-1) was administered in 5 patients and was not administered in 5 patients. Deep skin-surface temperature gradients were 5.1 +/- 2.3 degrees C in PGE1 non-administered group and 0.8 +/- 0.9 degree C in PGE1 administered group (P < 0.05). Pharyngeal-skin surface temperature gradients were 8.8 +/- 2.1 degrees C in PGE1 non-administered group and 1.5 +/- 1.5 degrees C in PGE1 administered group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in respects to catecholamines, stress hormones, lactate level and blood sugar. PGE1 0.03 microgram.kg-1.min-1 is effective in maintaining peripheral circulation without causing body temperature changes during prolonged surgery.

  9. Comparative observations of fever and associated clinical hematological and blood biochemical changes after intravenous administration of staphylococcal enterotoxins B and F (toxic shock syndrome toxin-1) in goats.

    PubMed Central

    Van Miert, A S; Van Duin, C T; Schotman, A J

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to examine the characteristics of purified toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (staphylococcal enterotoxin F) given intravenously to dwarf goats (dose, 0.02 to 20 micrograms kg-1). Rectal temperature, heart rate, rumen motility, plasma zinc and iron concentrations, and certain other blood biochemical and hematological values were studied and compared with the changes seen after intravenous administration of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (dose, 0.02 to 0.5 micrograms kg-1). Similar changes such as fever, tachycardia, inhibition of rumen contractions, drop in plasma zinc and iron concentrations, lymphopenia, and a decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase activity were observed. In contrast to the effects of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, staphylococcal enterotoxin B induced colic, watery diarrhea with pseudomembranes, hemoconcentration, and a more pronounced increase in blood urea nitrogen. The results obtained demonstrate that (i) in the goat staphylococcal enterotoxin B is much more potent than toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and (ii) the goat is a useful model to study the gastro-intestinal effects caused by staphylococcal enterotoxin B. The present finding that no clear relationship could be found between the temperature response and the alterations in zinc and iron levels in plasma support the theory that the febrile reactions and the changes in plasma trace metals are mediated by different polypeptides released by activated macrophages. PMID:6500695

  10. Renovascular effects of neuropeptide-Y in the split hydronephrotic rat kidney: non-uniform pattern of vascular reactivity.

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, M S; Fretschner, M; Nobiling, R; Persson, P B; Steinhausen, M

    1991-01-01

    1. The renovascular effects of neuropeptide-Y (NPY) were examined in the split hydronephrotic rat kidney. 2. Systemic infusion of low non-pressor doses of NPY (0.2 micrograms kg-1 up to 5.0 micrograms kg-1) produced a non-uniform pattern of vascular reactivity. In general, a significant constriction of the proximal and distal arcuate artery was seen at all doses. No constriction was seen at the interlobular artery or the larger part of the afferent arteriole. These segments initially dilated during the lower dose infusions. The very distal part of the afferent arteriole adjacent to the glomerulus and the proximal efferent arteriole responded in a similar way to the arcuate arteries. 3. NPY, locally applied into the tissue bath at concentrations of 1 nmol l-1 up to 25 nmol l-1, produced non-uniform vascular reactions similar to those of intravenously infused NPY. At the considerably higher local dosage of 1.14 mumol l-1, all vascular segments revealed vasoconstriction. 4. NPY application did not attenuate effects of acetylcholine. This observation suggests that the mechanism of NPY-induced vasoconstriction does not rely upon antagonism of endothelium-derived vasodilatation. 5. The pattern of vascular reactivity to NPY was substantially different from that known for the vasoconstrictors noradrenaline and angiotensin II in our preparation. PMID:1822552

  11. The effect of pertussis toxin and whole-cell pertussis vaccine on haemodynamics and autonomic responsiveness in the rat depends on route of administration and age.

    PubMed

    van Amsterdam, J G; te Biesebeek, J D; van de Kuil, T; van der Laan, J W; Wemer, J; de Wildt, D J; Vleeming, W

    1998-04-01

    Vaccination of children with Diphtheria, Tetanus, Poliomyelitis and pertussis vaccine (DTPoP-vaccine) containing the whole-cell pertussis component is known to be associated with manifestation of side-effects such as acute encephalopathy, convulsions and hypotensive-hyporesponsive episodes. In young and adult rats the effects of pertussis toxin and DTPoP-vaccine on haemodynamics and autonomic responsiveness are evaluated following treatment with high dose via different routes of administration (s.c., i.p. and i.v.). The effect of pertussis toxin is dose-dependent (between 1 and 20 micrograms kg-1) and largest responses are observed after i.v. administration. At 20 micrograms kg-1, i.v. pertussis toxin decreases baseline diastolic blood pressure and increases baseline heart rate by 31% and inhibits autonomic responsiveness (salbutamol-induced increase in diastolic blood pressure and arecoline-induced decrease in heart rate). In adult rats DTPoP-vaccine induces generally more prominent effects than in young rats. In adult rats DTPoP-vaccine reduces baseline diastolic blood pressure by 25% while no response is observed in young rats. In adult rats DTPoP inhibits the adrenergic response though less compared to treatment of pertussis toxin. After treatment with DTPoP-vaccine (single or twice) only minor differences are observed between young and adult rats. Present results show that adult rats are more sensitive to pertussis toxin and pertussis vaccine than young rats and that the responses depend on the route of administration.

  12. Comparison of i.v. and intra-tracheal administration of adrenaline.

    PubMed

    McCrirrick, A; Monk, C R

    1994-05-01

    Adrenaline is the single most important therapeutic agent used in advanced cardiac life support (ACLS). Ideally it should be given into a large central vein but the European Resuscitation Council, the American Heart Association and the Resuscitation Council (U.K.) advise that adrenaline may be given into the trachea if i.v. access is not available. We have studied the effects of intra-tracheal and i.v. adrenaline in 16 patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Log dose-response curves were constructed for systolic arterial pressure and heart rate responses. Intra-tracheal doses of adrenaline up to 10 micrograms kg-1, approximately one-third of that recommended for resuscitation, had no effect on arterial pressure or heart rate, whereas adrenaline 0.1 microgram kg-1 i.v. produced a mean increase in systolic pressure of 24 mm Hg. The intra-tracheal doses recommended for resuscitation (2-3 mg) are likely to be ineffective and consideration should be given to abandoning the tracheal route for adrenaline in ACLS. PMID:8198902

  13. Transplacental effects of 3,5-dimethyl-3'-isopropyl-L-thyronine on fetal hypothyroidism in primates

    SciTech Connect

    Bachrach, L.K.; Dibattista, D.; Burrow, G.N.; Holland, F.J.

    1983-06-01

    Pregnant Rhesus monkeys treated with 131I at midgestation become hypothyroid and produce fetuses without demonstrable thyroid tissue. In an effort to prevent both maternal and fetal hypothyroidism, we treated 131I-treated pregnant monkeys with 3,5-dimethyl-3'-isopropyl-L-thyronine (DIMIT), a thyroid hormone analog with structural changes which facilitate placental transfer. Five pregnant monkeys were treated with 131I (mCi/kg) at 83-87 days of gestation. One week later, three monkeys were started on treatment with DIMIT (10 micrograms kg-1 day-1, im) and two on im L-T4 (2 micrograms kg-1 day-1). Treatment was continued until delivery by Caesarian section at 152-157 days of gestation. None of the DIMIT-treated mothers became clinically hypothyroid, nor did they have elevated serum TSH concentrations despite low serum levels of T3 and T4. T4-treated mothers were also maintained clinically and biochemically euthyroid. At delivery, infants of DIMIT-treated mothers had normal respiratory function and skeletal maturation. Basal and TRH-stimulated TSH concentrations were suppressed in two of the three infants. By contrast, both T4-treated infants resembled untreated cretinous newborns and died soon after delivery from respiratory failure. Serum TSH concentrations were elevated and skeletal maturation was markedly delayed in these animals. We conclude that DIMIT administration to 131I-treated monkeys prevents clinical and biochemical hypothyroidism in the mother and prevents the major clinical manifestations of cretinism in the fetus.

  14. L-733,060, a novel tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist; effects in [Ca2+]i mobilisation, cardiovascular and dural extravasation assays.

    PubMed

    Seabrook, G R; Shepheard, S L; Williamson, D J; Tyrer, P; Rigby, M; Cascieri, M A; Harrison, T; Hargreaves, R J; Hill, R G

    1996-12-12

    This study investigated the properties of a novel piperidine ether-based tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist L-733,060, ((2S,3S)-3-((3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)methyloxy)-2-phenyl piperidine and its 2R,3R-enantiomer L-733,061 on [Ca2+]i mobilisation in Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with human tachykinin NK1 receptors, compared to their effects in rodent cardiovascular and neurogenic plasma extravasation assays. Using FURA-2-imaging techniques, L-733,060 inhibited substance P-induced [Ca2+]i mobilisation with an estimated affinity of 0.8 nM whereas L-733,061 (30-300 nM) did not. No significant effects of L-733,060 were observed on mean arterial blood pressure or heart rate in conscious or anaesthetised rats at doses of < 3000 micrograms kg-1 i.v. L-733,060 also stereoselectively inhibited neurogenic plasma extravasation in rat dura produced by electrical stimulation of trigeminal nerves with an ID50 of 212 +/- 19 micrograms kg-1 i.v. Thus, L-733,060 is a novel antagonist of human tachykinin NK1 receptors which stereoselectively inhibits neurogenic plasma extravasation at doses that do not cause adverse cardiovascular effects.

  15. [Endemic goiter in Argentina. Epidemiologic studies before (1968) and during (1986) prophylaxis with iodized salt in the city of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Salvaneschi, J P; Salvaneschi, B G; Moralejo, A B; García, J R

    1991-01-01

    An epidemiological survey on goiter was conducted in Buenos Aires, on 3882 schoolchildren, a randomized sample of 160,026 children of public schools, before establishing prophylactic measures in 1968. With an estimated error of 5% the result was 14.8% of goiter prevalence. This figure qualified Buenos Aires as an endemic area and was, therefore, included in the National Programme to Combat Endemic Goiter, through iodized salt (proportion 1:30,000 of salt). Schools were qualified according to their social level in high, middle and low; the prevalence of goiter was 6.8%, 12.2% and 26.4%, respectively. The prevalence was also higher in older ages. In 1986, using the same randomized sample, a second survey was conducted, after 18 years of prophylaxis. Goiter prevalence was 8.5%. Goiter in the low social class was about the same as in the middle class. In randomized samples of 49 urines, iodine concentration was determined yielding an average of 139.6 micrograms/g creatinine (median 120.9 micrograms/g creatinine). Urinary iodine level in 14 children with goiter was 146.1 micrograms/g creatinine and in 12 without goiter was 171.4 micrograms/g. There was no statistical difference between these three groups. Variations in radioiodine uptake, urinary iodine, plasma inorganic iodine levels, and water iodine are discussed.

  16. Pancreatic spasmolytic polypeptide protects the gastric mucosa but does not inhibit acid secretion or motility.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, C; Marchbank, T; Playford, R J; Otto, W; Thim, L; Parsons, M E

    1997-07-01

    The objectives of these studies were to examine whether the trefoil peptide porcine pancreatic spasmolytic polypeptide (PSP) had gastric mucosal protectant properties similar to its human equivalent human spasmolytic polypeptide (hSP) and to confirm the antisecretory and antimotility action of the peptide. PSP and recombinant hSP reduced gastric mucosal damage caused by a combination of subcutaneous indomethacin and restraint stress in the conscious rat. At a dose of 500 micrograms/kg bolus plus 500 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 sc, PSP significantly reduced the total area of damage by 58%. PSP at a dose of 150 micrograms/kg iv had no inhibitory effect on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in the perfused stomachs of anesthetized rats. This lack of antisecretory activity was confirmed in vitro using an isolated stomach preparation from the immature rat. PSP and hSP at concentrations up to 800 nM did not inhibit electrically or chemically evoked contractions of the guinea pig ileum and duodenum in vitro. Thus antisecretory and antimotility actions do not underlie the mucosal protectant properties of PSP. PSP did, however, stimulate cell migration, and this may, at least in part, account for its protectant properties.

  17. Extreme resistance to desiccation in overwintering larvae of the gall fly Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera, tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Ramløv, H; Lee, R E

    2000-02-01

    During winter, larvae of the goldenrod gall fly Eurosta solidaginis are exposed for extended periods to severe low ambient temperatures and low humidities within plant galls. The resistance of these larvae to desiccation at various temperatures and humidities, the transition (critical) temperature, and the effects of treatment with organic solvents on the larval rates of water loss and on changes in osmolality during desiccation were examined. The water loss rates of the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis under desiccating conditions were also measured. The water permeability of the cuticle of E. solidaginis larvae was very low (0.038 microgram h(-1 )cm(-2 )Pa(-1) at 20 C and 4% relative humidity) compared with that of larvae of other species. The value for E. solidaginis is equivalent to that of the very drought-resistant larvae of the tenebrionid beetle Tenebrio molitor (0.038 microgram h(-1)cm(-2)Pa(-1) at 30 C). In contrast, the permeability of larvae of the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis at 20 C and 4 % relative humidity was 0.331 microgram h(-1) cm(-2)Pa(-1). The thermal dependence of the cuticular permeability increased with temperature by approximately 0.0010 +microgram h(-1) cm(-2)Pa(-1) C(-1) in the interval between 4 and 40 C. At the transition temperature of 40 C, the thermal dependence of the permeability increased abruptly to 0.0400 microgram h(-1)cm(-2)Pa(-1) C(-1). Larvae treated with hexane and acetone remained remarkably resistant to water loss. However, treatment with chloroform:methanol increased the water loss rate approximately 25-fold. During desiccation at 4 C and 4% relative humidity for 21 days, E. solidaginis larvae showed a mass loss of 18.5+/-4.4 % (mean +/- s.e.m., N=6). Animals dried under the same conditions over the same period showed a haemolymph osmolality of 851+/-75 mosmol kg(-1) (N=4). Larvae freshly removed from the galls showed a haemolymph osmolality of 918+/-67 mosmol kg(-1)(N=3). A higher osmolality in the dried compared

  18. [Does flumazenil, a benzodiazepine antagonist used during the anesthesia recovery period, have an anxiogenic effect?].

    PubMed

    Beauvoir, C; Peschaud, J L; Pares-Herbute, N; du Cailar, J

    1989-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the degree of postoperative anxiety flumazenil might provide in patients when used to reverse the sedation induced by midazolam. Twenty-four patients, aged 18 to 60 yrs, and scheduled for elective orthopaedic surgery of the upper limb, were included in the study Regional anaesthesia (brachial plexus block) was carried out 20 min after the patient had been premedicated with 0.15 mg.kg-1 intramuscular midazolam. When the block was clinically complete, 0.12 mg.kg-1 midazolam was given intravenously. Sedation was maintained throughout surgery using 0.03 mg.kg-1 midazolam every quarter of an hour (mean total dose 0.206 mg.kg-1). At the end of the procedure, the patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups: A+, the patients were given 0.1 mg intravenous flumazenil repeated every min until the patient was fully awake (mean 4.5 +/- 2.6 micrograms.kg-1); and A-, the patients were allowed to recover spontaneously. A wakefulness, and a determination just before premedication (E1, P1, H1 respectively). The degree of recovery was assessed in both groups, and, when the value of the wakefulness test had returned to that of E1 (E2) (E2 = E1), P2 and H2 were carried out. There were no statistically significant differences between P1 and P2, and between H1 and H2, and this for either group of patients. So, the doses of flumazenil used, which awoke all the patients within 3 min, did not create any anxiety. In accordance with most of the recently published studies, flumazenil can be safely used to reverse benzodiazepine induced sedation.

  19. Aminoguanidine attenuates the delayed circulatory failure and improves survival in rodent models of endotoxic shock.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C C; Chen, S J; Szabó, C; Thiemermann, C; Vane, J R

    1995-01-01

    1. We have investigated the effects of aminoguanidine, a relatively selective inhibitor of the cytokine-inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), on the delayed circulatory failure, vascular hyporeactivity to vasoconstrictor agents, and iNOS activity in a rat model of circulatory shock induced by bacterial endotoxin (E. coli lipopolysaccharide; LPS). In addition, we have evaluated the effect of aminoguanidine on the 24 h survival rate in a murine model of endotoxaemia. 2. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetized and instrumented for the measurement of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Injection of LPS (10 mg kg-1, i.v.) resulted in a fall in MAP from 115 +/- 4 mmHg (time 0, control) to 79 +/- 9 mmHg at 180 min (P < 0.05, n = 10). The pressor effect of noradrenaline (NA, 1 microgram kg-1, i.v.) was also significantly reduced at 60, 120 and 180 min after LPS injection. In contrast, animals pretreated with aminoguanidine (15 mg kg-1, i.v., 20 min prior to LPS injection) maintained a significantly higher MAP (at 180 min, 102 +/- 3 mmHg, n = 10, P < 0.05) when compared to rats given only LPS (LPS-rats). Cumulative administration of aminoguanidine (15 mg kg-1 and 45 mg kg-1) given 180 min after LPS caused a dose-related increase in MAP and reversed the hypotension. Aminoguanidine also significantly alleviated the reduction of the pressor response to NA: indeed, at 180 min, the pressor response returned to normal in aminoguanidine pretreated LPS-rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7541282

  20. Stimulation of prostacyclin release from the epicardium of anaesthetized dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Dusting, G. J.; Nolan, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    1 The generation of prostanoids in the hearts of anaesthetized dogs was studied by irrigating in situ the epicardial surface with Krebs solution. Prostanoids were measured by direct bioassay on smooth muscles and by radioimmunoassay of 6-oxo-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-oxo-PGF1 alpha) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the epicardial irrigation fluid. 2 The epicardial irrigation fluid contained a prostacyclin-like substance, as indicated by the bioassay tissues, and immunoreactive 6-oxo-PGF1 alpha; PGE2-like materials were also detected. By both methods the output of the prostacyclin-like substance, which decreased with time of epicardial irrigation, was increased by manipulating the heart and by adding arachidonic acid (3 microgram/ml), and decreased by adding indomethacin (1 microgram/ml) to the irrigation fluid. 3 Bioassayed prostacyclin and immunoreactive 6-oxo-PGF1 alpha in the epicardial irrigation fluid increased by about 3-5 ng/ml during and after infusion of isoprenaline (0.1 microgram kg-1 min-1). The substance was not released by isoprenaline when indomethacin was added to the irrigation fluid, or when propranolol (0.5 mg/kg) was given intravenously. 4 Aortic constriction, bilateral carotid artery occlusion and intravenous angiotensin infusion all increased output of the prostacyclin-like substance into the epicardial irrigation fluid. The output was abolished by treating the heart with indomethacin (10 mg/kg intravenously or 1 microgram/ml epicardially). 5 The prostacyclin-like substance was also released by all of the above stimuli after the parietal pericardium had been removed and replaced by a plastic sheet. 6 It is concluded that prostacyclin is continually released from tissues close to the epicardial surface and from the pericardium, and that prostacyclin generation increases when cardiac workload increases. Prostacyclin of epicardial or pericardial origin might therefore contribute to metabolic regulation of coronary blood flow. PMID:7028199

  1. Long-lasting inhibitory activity of the hetrazepinic BN 50730 on exudation and cellular alterations evoked by PAF and LPS.

    PubMed Central

    Pires, A L; e Silva, P M; Pasquale, C; Castro-Faria-Neto, H C; Bozza, P T; Cordeiro, R S; Rae, G A; Braquet, P; Lagente, V; Martins, M A

    1994-01-01

    1. Inhibitory effects of the hetrazepinic derivative BN 50730 on the rat pleural inflammatory response, triggered by PAF or lipopolysaccharides (LPS), were examined. The type of pharmacological blockade exerted by this antagonist in in vitro assays of eosinophil chemotaxis and platelet aggregation were also investigated. 2. Intrathoracic injection of PAF (1 microgram per cavity) caused a 4 fold increase in the extravasated protein within 15 min and led to a marked eosinophil accumulation 24 h post-challenge. BN 50730 (0.5-10 micrograms per cavity) inhibited exudation by PAF dose-dependently without modifying the response induced by histamine, bradykinin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). 3. The kinetics of the inhibitory effect on exudation revealed that the actions of WEB 2086 and BN 52021 (10 micrograms per cavity) were over within 2 and 4 h respectively, whereas BN 50730 (10 micrograms per cavity) retained 80% of its inhibitory activity for 4 days. 4. Oral treatment with BN 50730 (10-20 mg kg-1, 1 h beforehand) suppressed the leucocyte accumulation and late eosinophilia observed 6 and 24 h after PAF respectively, but did not modify the eosinophilia induced by leukotriene B4 (LTB4) or bradykinin. BN 50730 also failed to reduce the eosinophil accumulation induced by LPS but drastically inhibited the neutrophil influx. 5. The pre-incubation of rat peritoneal eosinophils for 10 min with BN 50730 (30 nM-1 microM) dose-dependently inhibited the chemotaxis induced by PAF (0.1 microM) in vitro. The IC50 values for BN 52021, WEB 2086 and BN 50730 in this system were 5, 5 and 0.05 microM respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7858896

  2. Reversal of the anorectic effect of (+)-fenfluramine in the rat by the selective cholecystokinin receptor antagonist MK-329.

    PubMed

    Cooper, S J; Dourish, C T; Barber, D J

    1990-01-01

    1. Experiments were conducted to determine whether or not the effect of (+)-fenfluramine (3.0 mg kg-1, i.p.) on food intake can be antagonized by the selective cholecystokinin receptor antagonist MK-239 (formerly L364,718; (3S(-)-N-(2,3-dihydro-1-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-1-H-1,4-benzodiazepin++ +-3-yl)-1H- indole-2-carboxamide). Two feeding paradigms were employed. In the first, non-deprived rats were familiarized with eating a highly palatable, sweetened mash in a 30 min test. In the second, freely-feeding rats were trained to consume powdered chow in their home-cages, and their intake was monitored over the first 6 h of the night-period. 2. In doses of 30.0 and 100.0 micrograms kg-1, s.c., MK-329 almost completely blocked the anorectic effect of (+)-fenfluramine in the palatable food intake test. These doses of MK-329 have previously been reported to antagonize the anorectic effect produced by exogenous cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK8) in rats. Both doses of MK-329 were also effective in significantly attenuating the anorectic effect of (+)-fenfluramine in nocturnal free-feeding animals over a 6 h-period. 3. MK-329 (10.0-100.0 micrograms kg-1, s.c.) failed to antagonize the anorectic effect of either the specific dopamine D2-receptor agonist quinpirole (0.3 mg kg-1, s.c.) or the beta-carboline FG 7142 (10.0 mg kg-1, i.p.) in the palatable food intake test. 4. MK-329 (10.0-300.Opgkg-1, s.c.) had no effect, when administered alone, on the level of palatable food intake in non-deprived rats, even when substantial satiation was produced by a pre-feeding procedure. Furthermore, MK-329 had no effect, when administered alone, on nocturnal food intake in freelyfeeding rats. 5. In conclusion, not only was MK-329 a potent antagonist of the effect of CCK8 on food intake, it also blocked the effect of (+)-fenfluramine to a significant degree. The effect of MK-329 was selective in that the anorectic effects of either quinpirole or FG 7142 remained unaffected. Administered

  3. Role of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) on contamination of maize with 13 Fusarium mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Blandino, Massimo; Scarpino, Valentina; Vanara, Francesca; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Reyneri, Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    The European corn borer (ECB) plays an important role in promoting Fusarium verticillioides infections and in the consequent fumonisin contamination in maize grain in temperate areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the ECB feeding activity could also affect the occurrence of emerging mycotoxins in maize kernels. During the 2008-10 period, natural infestation of the insect was compared, in field research, with the protection of infestation, which was obtained by using an entomological net. The ears collected in the protected plots were free from ECB attack, while those subject to natural insect attacks showed a damage severity that varied from 10% to 25%. The maize samples were analysed by means of an LC-MS/MS-based multi-mycotoxin method, which led to the detection of various metabolites: fumonisins (FUMs), fusaproliferin (FUS), moniliformin (MON), bikaverin (BIK), beauvericin (BEA), fusaric acid (FA), equisetin (EQU), deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-G), zearalenone (ZEA), culmorin (CULM), aurofusarin (AUR) and butenolide (BUT). The occurrence of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section was affected significantly by the ECB feeding activity. The presence of ECB injuries increased the FUMs from 995 to 4694 µg kg(-1), FUS from 17 to 1089 µg kg(-1), MON from 22 to 673 µg kg(-1), BIK from 58 to 377 µg kg(-1), BEA from 6 to 177 µg kg(-1), and FA from 21 to 379 µg kg(-1). EQU, produced by F. equiseti section Gibbosum, was also increased by the ECB activity, by 1-30 µg kg(-1) on average. Instead, the content of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Discolor and Roseum sections was not significantly affected by ECB activity. As for FUMs, the application of a strategy that can reduce ECB damage could also be the most effective solution to minimise the other mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section.

  4. Role of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) on contamination of maize with 13 Fusarium mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Blandino, Massimo; Scarpino, Valentina; Vanara, Francesca; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Reyneri, Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    The European corn borer (ECB) plays an important role in promoting Fusarium verticillioides infections and in the consequent fumonisin contamination in maize grain in temperate areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the ECB feeding activity could also affect the occurrence of emerging mycotoxins in maize kernels. During the 2008-10 period, natural infestation of the insect was compared, in field research, with the protection of infestation, which was obtained by using an entomological net. The ears collected in the protected plots were free from ECB attack, while those subject to natural insect attacks showed a damage severity that varied from 10% to 25%. The maize samples were analysed by means of an LC-MS/MS-based multi-mycotoxin method, which led to the detection of various metabolites: fumonisins (FUMs), fusaproliferin (FUS), moniliformin (MON), bikaverin (BIK), beauvericin (BEA), fusaric acid (FA), equisetin (EQU), deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-G), zearalenone (ZEA), culmorin (CULM), aurofusarin (AUR) and butenolide (BUT). The occurrence of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section was affected significantly by the ECB feeding activity. The presence of ECB injuries increased the FUMs from 995 to 4694 µg kg(-1), FUS from 17 to 1089 µg kg(-1), MON from 22 to 673 µg kg(-1), BIK from 58 to 377 µg kg(-1), BEA from 6 to 177 µg kg(-1), and FA from 21 to 379 µg kg(-1). EQU, produced by F. equiseti section Gibbosum, was also increased by the ECB activity, by 1-30 µg kg(-1) on average. Instead, the content of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Discolor and Roseum sections was not significantly affected by ECB activity. As for FUMs, the application of a strategy that can reduce ECB damage could also be the most effective solution to minimise the other mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section. PMID:25266165

  5. [A beam of dawn light of study on gossypol as a safe, effective, and reversible male antifertility contraceptive--evaluation of the studies by using low dose gossypol combined with steroid hormone for male contraception].

    PubMed

    Xue, S

    2000-06-01

    The present paper is an evaluation of the studies of two articles published in this issue of the journal which adopted a new regimen of low dose gossypol(12 mg.kg-1.d-1) combined with steroid hormones (methyltestosterone 20 mg.kg-1.d-1 and ethinyl estradiol 100 micrograms.kg-1.d-1) for 6 weeks as initial dose, and a similar low dose gossypol alone for 12 weeks as maintenance dose. Results showed that the dosage regimen could damage the epididymal sperms and onset of antifertility within 6 weeks in male rats, and prevent the incidence of the side effect of irreversible azoospermia. There was no adverse effect in viscera tissues, and the infertility could be reversible in about 6 weeks following withdrawal of gossypol. Male volunteers taking low dose gossypol (15 mg/d) could induce antifertility within 12 weeks, then followed by a maintenance dose of gossypol(10 mg/d) for 44 weeks. All of them remained infertile, and without developing hypokalemia and irreversible azoospermia. The fertility and the inducing abnormal histone-to-protamine replacement reaction as well as alteration of nuclear basic proteins could be recovered 10 weeks after withdrawal of drug treatment. These results provide a new approach for using the new regimen in clinical trial and a new prospect of gossypol as a potential male contraceptive. PMID:12903461

  6. [Influences of fertilization and seasonal variation on microbial community in a Chinese mollisol].

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhen; He, Hong-Bo; Xie, Hong-Tu; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Xu-Dong

    2008-11-01

    Fertilization and seasonal variation play very important roles in affecting microbial structure and activity, as a result, leading to the significant evolution of soil fertility. The effect of manure (MCK) and combined application of chemical fertilizers (NPK) on soil microbial biomass and structure were studied by measuring soil microbial biomass carbon (nitrogen) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) in different microbial communities, with the nil-fertilization (CK) and fallow as controls. Results show the manure application significantly improves the soil nutrient contents and the amounts of Cmic and PLFA of different microbial communities. The amounts of fungal PLFA (8.40 nmol x g(-1)) and Cmic (322.5 mg x kg(-1)) and Nmic (57.9 mg x kg(-1)) are significantly higher than those of CK (5.4 nmo x g(-1), 152.6 mg x kg(-1), 32.1 mg x kg(-1), respectively) or NPK (3.5 nmol x g(-1), 144.3 mg x kg(-1), 30.7 mg x kg(-1), respectively). And the contents of Cmic, Nmic and PLFA of different microbial groups in NPK are lower than those in CK. Correlation analyses show the soil nutrient contents are significantly positively correlated with Cmic, different microbial PLFA contents and G(-)/total bacteria ratios, while negatively correlated with C+/G(-) bacteria ratio (p < 0.05). The principle component analysis of PLFA shows the microbial structures in different treatments and sampling dates are significantly different. Seasonal changes are also found to cause great fluctuations in soil basic properties, and microbial community structure in arable soils and fallow respectively cluster strictly together by sampling dates. The amount of Cmic is highest on April 11 (295.6 mg x kg(-1)), while Nmic (49.3 mg x kg(-1)) and PLFA contents are highest in summer (July-August); the lowest amounts of Cmic (184.2 mg x kg(-1)), Nmic (30.63 mg x kg(-1)) and PLFA exist on May 31. Fertilization and seasonal variations significantly affect soil fertility, microbial structure and activity. PMID

  7. Role of angiotensin converting enzyme in the vascular effects of an endopeptidase 24.15 inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Telford, S E; Smith, A I; Lew, R A; Perich, R B; Madden, A C; Evans, R G

    1995-01-01

    1. We investigated the role of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the cardiovascular effects of N-[1-(R,S)-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]-Ala-Ala-Tyr-p-aminobenzoate (cFP), a peptidase inhibitor selective for metalloendopeptidase (EP) E.C. 3.4.24.15. 2. In conscious rabbits, cFP (5 mg kg-1, i.v.) markedly slowed the degradation of [3H]-bradykinin, potentiated the depressor response to right atrial administration of bradykinin (10-1000 ng kg-1), and inhibited the pressor response to right atrial angiotensin I (10-100 ng kg-1). In each of these respects, the effects of cFP were indistinguishable from those of the ACE inhibitor, captopril (0.5 mg plus 10 mg kg-1h-1 i.v.). Furthermore, the effects of combined administration of cFP and captopril were indistinguishable from those of captopril alone. 3. In experimentally naive anaesthetized rats, cFP administration (9.3 mg kg-1, i.v.) was followed by a moderate but sustained fall in arterial pressure of 13 mmHg. However, in rats pretreated with bradykinin (50 micrograms kg-1) a more pronounced fall of 30 mmHg was observed. Captopril (5 mg kg-1) had similar hypotensive effects to those of cFP, and cFP had no effect when it was administered after captopril. 4. CFP displaced the binding of [125I]-351A (the p-hydroxybenzamidine derivative of lisinopril) from preparations of rat plasma ACE and solubilized lung membrane ACE (KD = 1.2 and 0.14 microM respectively), and inhibited rat plasma ACE activity (KI = 2.4 microM). Addition of phosphoramidon (10 microM), an inhibitor of a range of metalloendopeptidases, including neutral endopeptidase (E.C.3.4.24.11), markedly reduced the potency of cFP in these systems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7620708

  8. Bisoprolol improves perfusion of ischaemic myocardium in anaesthetized pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Sassen, L. M.; den Boer, M. O.; Rensen, R. J.; Saxena, P. R.; Verdouw, P. D.

    1988-01-01

    1. The ability of the cardioselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist bisoprolol ((+/-)-1-[4-(2-isopropoxyethoxymethyl)-phenoxy]-3-isopropyl-amino -2-propanol hemifumarate, EMD 33512) to suppress isoprenaline-induced increases in heart rate and maximal rate of rise in left ventricular pressure (LVdP/dtmax) was studied in 6 anaesthetized pigs given 4 cumulative doses (16, 64, 256 and 1024 micrograms kg-1). Bisoprolol was about 2 times more effective in suppressing isoprenaline-induced increases in LVdP/dtmax than those in heart rate. 2. In 8 animals which had a partial stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA), the effects of 3 consecutive doses (50, 200 and 750 micrograms kg-1) of bisoprolol were studied on systemic haemodynamics, regional myocardial perfusion and function. The effects of the drug were compared with those obtained in a group of 9 animals with LADCA stenosis which did not receive any treatment. 3. The lowest dose of bisoprolol (50 micrograms kg-1) increased perfusion of the ischaemic myocardium (which had been reduced from 123 +/- 20 ml min-1 100 g-1 to 42 +/- 11 ml min-1 100 g-1) by 21 +/- 10 ml min-1 100 g-1 (P less than 0.05). In particular the subendocardial layers, which were most severely affected by the stenosis (a decrease from 128 +/- 19 ml min-1 100 g-1 to 20 +/- 6 ml min-1 100 g-1) benefited from the administration of the drug (an increase of 30 +/- 10 ml min-1 100 g-1). Perfusion of the subepicardium was not significantly affected. With the higher dose only a minor additional improvement in perfusion of the ischaemic myocardium was observed. 4. The negative chronotropic response is the most likely factor leading to the improvement in perfusion. 5. Myocardial wall thickening, which decreased from 41 +/- 2% to 9 +/- 4% (P less than 0.05) due to the hypoperfusion, did not improve after administration of the drug. This lack of improvement may possibly be due to the duration of ischaemia before and the magnitude of the

  9. Bradykinin actively modulates pulmonary vascular pressure-cardiac index relationships.

    PubMed

    Nyhan, D P; Clougherty, P W; Goll, H M; Murray, P A

    1987-07-01

    Our objectives were to investigate the pulmonary vascular effects of exogenously administered bradykinin at normal and reduced levels of cardiac index in intact conscious dogs and to assess the extent to which the pulmonary vascular response to bradykinin is the result of either cyclooxygenase pathway activation or reflex activation of sympathetic beta-adrenergic and -cholinergic receptors. Multipoint pulmonary vascular pressure-cardiac index (P/Q) plots were constructed during normoxia in conscious dogs by step-wise constriction of the thoracic inferior vena cava to reduce Q. In intact dogs, bradykinin (2 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1 iv) caused systemic vasodilation, i.e., systemic arterial pressure was slightly decreased (P less than 0.05), Q was markedly increased (P less than 0.01), and mixed venous PO2 and oxygen saturation (SO2) were increased (P less than 0.01). Bradykinin decreased (P less than 0.01) the pulmonary vascular pressure gradient (pulmonary arterial pressure-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure) over the entire range of Q studied (140-60 ml X min-1 X kg-1) in intact dogs. During cyclooxygenase pathway inhibition with indomethacin, bradykinin again decreased (P less than 0.05) pulmonary arterial pressure-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure at every level of Q, although the magnitude of the vasodilator response was diminished at lower levels of Q (60 ml X min-1 X kg-1). Following combined administration of sympathetic beta-adrenergic and -cholinergic receptor antagonists, bradykinin still decreased (P less than 0.01) pulmonary arterial pressure-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure over the range of Q from 160 to 60 ml X min-1 X kg-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3114215

  10. Prevention by NMDA receptor antagonists of the centrally-evoked increases of cardiac inotropic responses in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Monassier, L.; Tibiriça, E.; Roegel, J. C.; Mettauer, B.; Feldman, J.; Bousquet, P.

    1994-01-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to investigate further the role of the excitatory amino acid (EAA) system of neurotransmission, particularly of the NMDA receptor, in the central regulation of cardiac function. 2. Electrical stimulation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in pentobarbitone anaesthetized rabbits induced a cardiovascular response mainly characterized by a positive inotropic effect, hypertension and a marked increase in the myocardial oxygen demand index. 3. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intravenous (i.v.) injection of different EAA antagonists acting on different sites of the NMDA receptor/channel complex dose-dependently blunted the excitatory cardiovascular effects of PVN stimulation. 4. 5,7 Dichlorokynurenic acid was used as a specific glycine site antagonist and 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid was used to block the agonist recognition site; ketamine was used as a channel blocker site antagonist and ifenprodil as a blocker of the polyamine binding site. 5. 5,7 Dichlorokynurenic acid (125 and 250 micrograms kg-1, i.c.v.) virtually abolished the cardiovascular responses, inducing only haemodynamic depression at the highest dose used. 2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (0.1 to 1.0 mg kg-1, i.c.v.) elicited a reduction of the peak values observed during PVN stimulation which was accompanied by a decrease of the basal cardiovascular parameters. Ketamine (2.5 and 10 mg kg-1) and ifenprodil (1 mg kg-1), injected intravenously, blocked the haemodynamic response induced by PVN stimulation without marked reduction of the basal haemodynamics. 6. It is concluded that glutamate neurotransmission is not only involved in vasomotor tone control but also in the central control of cardiac function and can therefore modulate the myocardial oxygen demand. PMID:7913376

  11. Nitric oxide-mediated hyporeactivity to noradrenaline precedes the induction of nitric oxide synthase in endotoxin shock.

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, C.; Mitchell, J. A.; Thiemermann, C.; Vane, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    1. The role of an enhanced formation of nitric oxide (NO) and the relative importance of the constitutive and inducible NO synthase (NOS) for the development of immediate (within 60 min) and delayed (at 180 min) vascular hyporeactivity to noradrenaline was investigated in a model of circulatory shock induced by endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) in the rat. 2. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetized and instrumented for the measurement of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate. In addition, the calcium-dependent and calcium-independent NOS activity was measured ex vivo by the conversion of [3H]-arginine to [3H]-citrulline in homogenates from several organs obtained from vehicle- and LPS-treated rats. 3. E. coli LPS (10 mg kg-1, i.v. bolus) caused a rapid (within 5 min) and sustained fall in MAP. At 30 and 60 min after LPS, pressor responses to noradrenaline (0.3, 1 or 3 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) were significantly reduced. The pressor responses were restored by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 1 mg kg-1, i.v. at 60 min), a potent inhibitor of NO synthesis. In contrast, L-NAME did not potentiate the noradrenaline-induced pressor responses in control animals. 4. Dexamethasone (3 mg kg-1, i.v., 60 min prior to LPS), a potent inhibitor of the induction of NOS, did not alter initial MAP or pressor responses to noradrenaline in control rats, but significantly attenuated the LPS-induced fall in MAP at 15 to 60 min after LPS. Dexamethasone did not influence the development of the LPS-induced immediate (within 60 min) hyporeactivity to noradrenaline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7682137

  12. Liquid chromatographic determination of safrole in sassafras-derived herbal products.

    PubMed

    Carlson, M; Thompson, R D

    1997-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for determining safrole in herbal products derived from sassafras (Sassafras albidum), as well as related compounds such as isosafrole and dihydrosafrole. The procedure involves solvent extraction and isolation of analyte by reversed-phase LC with UV detection at 235 nm. Safrole is resolved from related compounds and other sample constituents including thymol, a component of thyme. A linear concentration range of 0.003-0.200 mg/mL was obtained for safrole, isosafrole, and dihydrosafrole. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were e0.0015 and 0.0051 micrograms/mL for safrole, 0.0018 and 0.0061 micrograms/mL for isosafrole, and 0.0038 and 0.0125 micrograms/mL for dihydrosafrole, respectively. Intraday relative standard deviations (RSDs) for safrole (n = 5) from various samples ranged from 1.30 to 5.39% at analyte levels of 0.01-1.5%. Safrole contents of 26 samples including root bark powder, leaves, oils, tea concentrate, herbal extract tinctures, and herbal powder capsules ranged from < LOD for most leaf samples to 92.4% for an oil. Recoveries of safrole from fortified samples ranged from 83.6% for an oil to 117.2% for a tincture preparation. Safrole contents of 0.09-4.66 mg/cup were found for brewed teas prepared from sassafras root bark powders and tinctures.

  13. Mechanism of action of ATP on canine pulmonary vagal C fibre nerve terminals.

    PubMed Central

    Pelleg, A; Hurt, C M

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) on pulmonary vagal afferent fibres (n = 46) was studied in a canine model in vivo (n = 38). 2. ATP (3-6 mumol kg-1), administered as a rapid bolus into the right atrium, elicited a transient burst of action potentials in cervical vagal fibres, which was not affected by either blockade of ganglionic transmission (hexamethonium) or a drop in arterial blood pressure (nitroglycerine). 3. The fibres with ATP-sensitive terminals were otherwise quiescent with no activity related to either cardiac or respiratory cycles and their conduction velocity was 0.85 +/- 0.13 m s-1 (n = 7). 4. Inflation of the lungs to 2-3 times the tidal volume triggered brief bursts of action potentials in these fibres. 5. Capsaicin (10 micrograms kg-1), given as a rapid bolus into the right atrium, elicited a burst of action potentials in these ATP-sensitive fibres. 6. Smaller amounts of ATP and capsaicin (0.5-3 mumol kg-1 and 1-5 micrograms kg-1, respectively) had similar effects when the two compounds were given into the right pulmonary artery. 7. Adenosine, adenosine 5'-monophosphate, or adenosine 5'-diphosphate did not excite these fibres (n = 30). 8. The non-degradable analogue of ATP alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha,beta-mATP) was tenfold more potent than ATP while beta,gamma-methylene ATP (beta,gamma-mATP) was in active. 9. The selective P2x-purinoceptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid markedly attenuated the effect of ATP but not of capsaicin. The P2Y-purinoceptor antagonist Reactive Blue 2 was without effect. 10. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX) did not affect this action of ATP. 11. In the canine lungs ATP activates vagal C fibre nerve terminals. This action is mediated by P2X-purinoceptors and is independent of a PTX-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein). PMID:8745294

  14. Retrospective analysis of an archived soil collection. II. Cadmium.

    PubMed

    Jones, K C; Symon, C J; Johnston, A E

    1987-11-01

    Soil samples collected and stored since the mid-1800s to the present day have been analysed recently for Cd. The samples from long-term experiments under permanent grassland or arable crops at Rothamsted Experimental Station (U.K.) were selected to investigate time trends in elemental composition, due either solely to atmospheric deposition or to a combination of atmospheric deposition and various soil treatments. Increases in soil Cd of 27-55% since the 1850s due to atmospheric deposition were observed. This corresponds to an increase in the soil plough layer Cd concentration of between 0.7 and 1.9 micrograms kg-1 year-1 and is equivalent to an increase of 1.9-5.4 g Cd ha-1 year-1. The changes in soil Cd concentrations since 1846 at one control site corresponded well to predicted increases in the plough layer Cd burden based on assumptions about the temporal trends in atmospheric Cd emissions. In addition, sub-samples of a selection of rock phosphates of known origin and superphosphates, mainly from one supplier, collected and stored in the archive from 1925 onwards were also analysed for Cd. The concentrations ranged from 3.6 to 92 (mean 36) mg Cd kg-1 for rock phosphates and from 3.3 to 40 (9.7) mg kg-1 for superphosphates. On the basis of these data and known application rates the estimated input of Cd to P-treated plots at Rothamsted was 2 g ha-1 year-1, but there was little further increase in soil Cd due to this addition in three long-term arable experiments where soil pH was greater than 6.5. On P-treated plots the mean increase in soil Cd was 1.2 micrograms kg-1 year-1, which is equivalent to an increase in the plough layer burden of 3.1 g Cd ha-1 year-1. By contrast, P-treated soils under permanent grassland with a higher organic matter content and lower pH have increased their Cd content by 7.2 g ha-1 year-1. When permanent grassland soils ranging in pH from 5 to 7 were examined it was found that organic matter had a larger effect on Cd concentration

  15. A method for the separation of residues of nine compounds in cattle liver related to treatment with oxfendazole.

    PubMed

    Rose, M D

    1999-07-01

    A method for the determination of nine compounds closely related to oxfendazole has been developed for the monitoring of residues in food. The method is based on a multi-residue procedure for basic drug residues and used strong cation exchange solid phase extraction for sample clean-up. These nine compounds include fenbendazole, which is itself a licensed veterinary product. The pro-drug febantel converts quickly to fenbendazole or oxfendazole soon after administration. The method is therefore suitable for monitoring residues following the use of any of these compounds. Some of these analytes have been shown to be present as residues following the treatment of farm animals with oxfendazole. Average recoveries for the nine compounds from tissue fortified with 100 micrograms kg-1 were between 34% and 96% with relative standard deviations between 3% and 22%.

  16. Determination of total iodine in nutritional and biological samples by ICP-MS following their combustion within an oxygen stream.

    PubMed

    Gélinas, Y; Krushevska, A; Barnes, R M

    1998-03-01

    A mineralization and determination method for total iodine in nutritional and biological samples is described. Combustion of the sample in an oxygen stream is followed by collection of the combustion products in a 5% water-soluble tertiary amine solution. Iodine is determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The accuracy and precision of the quantitative iodine analysis using standard addition is better than +/- 10%. A semi-quantitative analysis of four standard reference materials is evaluated. Owing to the presence of low-level iodine contaminant in the blank solution, the determination limit of the method is +/- 10 micrograms kg-1. Good agreement with certified iodine values is obtained for six reference materials. The use of the tertiary amine matrix solution permits the simultaneous determination of iodine and other trace metals of biological and toxicological importance, including Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, and Pb.

  17. Plasma bevantolol concentration and heart rate in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Liu, X Q; Ye, X L; Zhu, H Q; Huang, S K

    1993-05-01

    Bevantolol (Bev, 5, 10 mg.kg-1) was injected i.v. to rabbits. A measure the lag time of heart rate (HR) response behind the changes in plasma Bev concentration (K(eo)), and the sensitivity of the site of action of Bev (EC50) were determined. The K(eo) were 0.03 +/- 0.02 and 0.029 +/- 0.009 min-1 and the EC50 were 0.2 +/- 0.1 and 0.27 +/- 0.14 microgram.ml-1 respectively for the 2 dosages. The peak changes in HR lagged behind the changes in plasma Bev concentration. There were no significant changes in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters between the dosages.

  18. Uptake of 2,4-D in higher plants from artificial rain.

    PubMed

    Løkke, H

    1984-02-01

    Sinapis alba L., Lapsana communis L., Achillea millefolium L., Brassica napus L., Lactuca sativa L., and Lycopersicum esculentum L. were exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxy [2-14C]acetic acid (2,4-D) at 10 micrograms liter-1 in artificial rain, pH 6.5 and 3.3. The 2,4-D was absorbed in all species tested. Concentrations of parent 2,4-D appeared at the highest level in Achillea (0.1 mg kg-1 dry wt), and at zero level in Lycopersicum. Twenty-one daily treatments at pH 6.5 for 30-min periods increased dry-matter concentrations (P less than or equal to 0.05) in the leaves of Achillea and decreased those in Brassica. No change in dry-matter concentration was observed in the leaves of Brassica by seven daily treatments for 30-min periods at pH 3.3.

  19. Uptake of 2,4-D in higher plants from artificial rain

    SciTech Connect

    Lokke, H.

    1984-02-01

    Sinapis alba L., Lapsana communis L., Achillea millefolium L., Brassica napus L., Lactuca sativa L., and Lycopersicum esculentum L. were exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxy (2-/sup 14/C)acetic acid (2,4-D) at 10 micrograms liter-1 in artificial rain, pH 6.5 and 3.3. The 2,4-D was absorbed in all species tested. Concentrations of parent 2,4-D appeared at the highest level in Achillea (0.1 mg kg-1 dry wt), and at zero level in Lycopersicum. Twenty-one daily treatments at pH 6.5 for 30-min periods increased dry-matter concentrations in the leaves of Achillea and decreased those in Brassica. No change in dry-matter concentration was observed in the leaves of Brassica by seven daily treatments for 30-min periods at pH 3.3.

  20. Effects of isoproterenol infusion on the hindlimb metabolism of growing wether lambs.

    PubMed

    Brown, J; Crompton, L A; Lomax, M A

    1991-01-01

    The effect of a mixed beta 1/beta 2-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, on hindlimb metabolism was studied in growing wether lambs using arteriovenous difference and blood flow rate techniques. Isoproterenol (48 micrograms kg-1 d-1), or saline, was infused into a jugular vein of five wether lambs (30 to 35 kg) for five days and samples taken on the fifth day of treatment. Infusion of isoproterenol significantly increased blood flow, oxygen uptake and tyrosine uptake across the hindlimb. Hindlimb non-esterified fatty acid uptake was increased but not significantly (P = 0.11) and arterial growth hormone concentration was not altered by isoproterenol infusion. Results suggest that beta-adrenergic agonists promote lean tissue deposition by increased muscle blood flow rate and amino acid uptake.

  1. Occurrence of 222Rn, 226Ra, 228Ra and U in groundwater in Fujian Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, W; Iida, T; Yang, X

    2001-01-01

    222Rn, 226Ra, 228Ra and U were determined in a total of 552 groundwater samples collected throughout Fujian Province of China. The geometric mean concentrations of 222Rn, 226Ra, 228Ra and total U in the groundwater were 147.8 kBq m-3, 12.7 Bq m-3, 30.2 Bq m-3 and 0.54 microgram kg-1, respectively. High groundwater 222Rn was explained by the predominantly granitic rock aquifers in Fujian. A lifetime risk of 1.7 x 10(-3) was estimated for the ingestion of groundwater 222Rn. High ratios of 228Ra to 226Ra contents (geometric mean of 2.4) and their disproportion suggest that 228Ra should also be measured in the assessment of population doses from drinking water in the regions of high rock or soil 232Th. No significant correlation between the 222Rn concentrations in groundwater and air was found.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of sulfamethazine in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Khan, F H; Nawaz, M; Anwar-Ul-Hassan, S

    1980-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters which describe distribution and elimination of sulfamethazine were determined in buffaloes. Following intravenous administration of a single dose (100 mg/kg), disposition of the drug was described in terms of biexponential expression: Cp = Ae alpha t + Be-beta t. Based on total (free and bound) sulfonamide levels in the plasma, pseudo-distribution equilibrium was rapidly attained and the half-life value of 5.54 +/- 0.41 h (mean +/- S.D., n = 8) was recorded. Body clearance was 56 +/- 7 ml x kg-1 x h-1. Based on this study we suggest an intravenous dosage regimen consisting of 38.4 mg sulfamethazine/kg body-weight repeated at 12 h inrervals. With this dosage level the predicted plasma concentrations will oscillate between 125 and 25 micrograms/ml during the steady-state. The influence of febrile states and bacterial diseases on predicted levels remains to be verified experimentally. PMID:7436332

  3. The cardiodepressant and vasodepressant effects of tumour necrosis factor in rat isolated atrial and aortic tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Foulkes, R.; Shaw, S.

    1992-01-01

    1. The ability of recombinant human tumour necrosis factor-alpha (rec huTNF) to elicit cardiodepressor and vasodepressor effects in rat isolated tissues was investigated. 2. rec huTNF (3 x 10(-11)-3 x 10(-8) M) administered directly to the organ bath, caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of the isoprenaline-induced inotropic response in electrically stimulated rat left atria. This occurred within 20 min of administration. In contrast, rec huTNF was without effect on the chronotropic response to isoprenaline in isolated spontaneously beating atria. 3. rec huTNF (1 microgram kg-1) was also given systemically to rats and the atria studied in vitro. Only 60 min of rec huTNF pretreatment was sufficient to cause a marked attenuation of the isoprenaline-induced inotropic response. This effect was not further augmented when rats were pretreated with rec huTNF for 24 h. 4. In isolated aortic rings taken from rats 60 min after rec huTNF (1 microgram kg-1, i.v.) administration, there was no effect seen on the constriction induced by phenylephrine in either endothelium-intact or denuded tissues. In addition, any responses to L-arginine or NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) administration were unaffected by rec huTNF pretreatment. 5. In aortic rings taken from rats 24 h after rec huTNF administration, the phenylephrine-induced constriction was significantly attenuated in tissues with an intact endothelium. Furthermore, the relaxation to subsequent L-arginine administration was greater in these tissues than in those saline-treated rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1382789

  4. Molsidomine prevents post-ischaemic ventricular fibrillation in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Cano, J. P.; Guillen, J. C.; Jouve, R.; Langlet, F.; Puddu, P. E.; Rolland, P. H.; Serradimigni, A.

    1986-01-01

    Forty anaesthetized dogs were subjected to left circumflex coronary artery ligation followed by reperfusion. Molsidomine was randomly administered to 20 dogs (50 micrograms kg-1 as an i.v. bolus - 15 min prior to coronary occlusion - followed by an infusion of 0.05 micrograms kg-1 min-1. Standard electrocardiographic leads 2 and 3 were continuously recorded to measure ST segment and delta R% changes and to document both the number of ventricular premature beats and the onset of ventricular fibrillation; aortic pressure and cardiac output were measured; thromboxane B2 plasma levels, platelet aggregation produced by ADP, and molsidomine plasma levels were determined before and at 10, 30 and 75 min after the start of the drug protocol. Molsidomine protected the treated animals from early (10 min) post-ischaemic ventricular fibrillation (0 of 20 vs 6 of 20, P = 0.0202), reduced the incidence of overall post-occlusion ventricular fibrillation (3 of 20 vs 10 of 20, P = 0.0407) and improved the total survival rate (P = 0.0067). In molsidomine treated dogs: mean aortic pressure and the rate-pressure product were lowered 10 min after the start of the drug; immediate post-occlusion (3 min) ST segment changes (0.82 +/- 0.52 vs 1.52 +/- 0.78 mV, P less than 0.025) and delta R% changes (37 +/- 50 vs 90 +/- 84%, P less than 0.025) were less marked; the number of ventricular premature beats was lowered and finally, a progressive decline of platelet aggregation produced by ADP was achieved after 75 min of drug infusion. These results were obtained in the presence of mean plasma levels of molsidomine ranging from 20 to 28 ng ml-1. The time-action curve of the antifibrillatory effect of molsidomine parallels those at the level of post-ischaemic electrocardiographic changes. Images Figure 2 PMID:3755634

  5. [Central venous infusion of dopamine. Changes in dose during central venous pressure measurement].

    PubMed

    Guiglio, C; Haro, D; Muchada, R

    1993-01-01

    The changes in the doses of dopamine administered at a steady rate which occur during central venous pressure (CVP) measurement were studied. A workbench model with a single lumen central venous catheter was devised with which a mathematical model was constructed to calculate the alterations due to changes in different variables: central venous pressure, dopamine dose, collateral infusions. The average time for CVP measurement was 2 min. The volume of 5% glucose solution filling the manometer was 2.3 ml. The dopamine bolus generated by CVP measurement was equivalent to a dose of 85 micrograms.kg-1 x min-1. The delay required for a return to the initial dose was 2 h 42 min. Changes in CVP led to inversely proportional changes in dopamine dose. These also depended on the level to which the measuring tube was filled before carrying out the measurement. High initial rates of dopamine infusion required shorter times for a return to initial dopamine doses. The bolus and time for recovery were also inversely proportional to the volume of infusion fluids given at a steady rate on the same venous line. This model was tested in a patient suffering from bacterial pneumonia and septic shock (60 years, 55 kg). CVP measurement resulted in a bolus dose of 17 micrograms.kg-1 x min-1, leading to a 43% decrease in aortic flow rate and 60% in the ejection volume. After about 25 min, heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure had returned to their initial values, although aortic flow rate remained 30% below initial values. This problem is also met with other drugs, such as heparin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8338258

  6. Oral E2 prostaglandins affect endocrine cell populations in the gastric antrum of the rat.

    PubMed

    Uribe, A; Grimelius, L; Theodorsson, L E; Riis-Angelo, L; Johansson, C

    1989-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate antral endocrine cell populations and tissue and circulating hormone levels following a 4-week oral regimen with prostaglandin E2 (25, 250 and 5000 micrograms/kg-1 b.i.d.) or a stable methyl analogue (5 and 50 micrograms kg-1 b.i.d.). Epithelial hyperplasia of the gastric antrum was observed with the highest dose of prostaglandin E2 and both doses of the analogue, as evaluated by stereological methods and conventional cell count. The treatments significantly affected the endocrine cell population. Somatostatin-immunoreactive cells were increased in proportion to the increased epithelial cellularity and plasma levels of somatostatin were increased in parallel. The tissue content of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity differed according to the extraction procedure used, and was significantly higher than controls in specimens extracted in neutral water. In the neutral extracts an immunoreactive somatostatin of unidentified molecular structure dominated quantitatively over somatostatin 14 and 28, which were the major components in acetic acid extracts. The serotonin-immunoreactive cell population was also significantly increased by natural prostaglandin E2 and the analogue but the gastrin cell population was not significantly affected by treatments. Accordingly, no significant changes were observed in tissue or plasma gastrin levels. It is concluded that the epithelial hyperplasia of the antral epithelia produced by E2 prostaglandins is associated with selective changes of endocrine cell populations. The changes were proportional to the increases of epithelial cellularity and required quantitative determination of the total antral volume to be detected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Inhibitory effects of SR 58611A on canine colonic motility: evidence for a role of beta 3-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed Central

    De Ponti, F; Cosentino, M; Costa, A; Girani, M; Gibelli, G; D'Angelo, L; Frigo, G; Crema, A

    1995-01-01

    1. In order to clarify whether atypical or beta 3-adrenoceptors can modulate canine colonic motility in vivo, we studied the effects of SR 58611A (a selective agonist for atypical beta-adrenoceptors) alone and after pretreatment with beta-adrenoceptor antagonists on colonic motility in the conscious dog. The gastrocolonic response (postprandial increase in motility) was monitored by means of electrodes and strain-gauge force transducers chronically implanted along the distal colon. In some experiments, heart rate was also measured. The possible role of beta 3-adrenoceptors in mediating the effects of SR 58611A was also tested in vitro in circular muscle strips taken from the canine distal colon. 2. Intravenous infusion of SR 58611A, ritodrine or isoprenaline at doses inducing the same degree of tachycardia inhibited the gastrocolonic response to a different extent, with SR 58611A and ritodrine being more effective than isoprenaline. 3. In a dose-response study, SR 58611A was more potent in inhibiting colonic motility than in inducing tachycardia: the ED35 values for inhibition of colonic motility and induction of tachycardia were 23 and 156 micrograms kg-1, i.v., respectively. 4. The inhibitory effect of SR 58611A 100 micrograms kg-1, i.v., on the gastrocolonic response was reversed by alprenolol (non-selective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist), but resistant to CGP 20712A (beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonist) or ICI 118551 (beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonist). 5. In vitro, SR 58611A concentration-dependently relaxed circular muscle strips, an effect that was competitively antagonized by alprenolol with a pA2 value of 7.1, but resistant to CGP 20712A (100 nM), ICI 118551 (100 nM) or tetrodotoxin (1 microM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7606348

  8. Effects of the endothelin receptor antagonist, SB 209670, on circulatory failure and organ injury in endotoxic shock in the anaesthetized rat.

    PubMed Central

    Ruetten, H.; Thiemermann, C.; Vane, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    1. This study investigates the effects of the non-selective ETA/ETB receptor antagonist, SB 209670, on systemic haemodynamics, renal function, liver function, acid-base balance and survival in a rat model of endotoxic shock. 2. Injection of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 mg kg-1, i.v.) resulted in increases in the serum levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, maximum 60 min after LPS), endothelin-1, (ET-1; maximum 120 min after LPS), and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma, maximum 180 min after LPS). 3. Injection of LPS also resulted in a fall in blood pressure from 113 +/- 3 mmHg (time = 0) to 84 +/- 4 mmHg at 360 min (n = 15) as well as a hyporeactivity to the vasoconstrictor responses elicited by noradrenaline (NA, 1 microgram kg-1, i.v.). Pretreatment of rats with a continuous infusion of SB 209670 (3 mg kg-1, i.v. bolus + 100 micrograms kg-1, i.v. infusion commencing 15 min prior to LPS) significantly augmented the hypotension as well as the vascular hyporeactivity to NA caused by endotoxaemia. 4. Pretreatment of LPS-rats with SB 209670 (3 mg kg-1, i.v. bolus given 15 min prior to LPS) or infusion of SB 209670 (bolus dose and infusion as above) resulted in a reduction in 6 h-survival from 71% (control) to 30% and 13%, respectively. 5. Endotoxaemia for 4 h resulted in rises in the serum levels of urea and creatinine (indicators of renal failure), but not in the serum levels of bilirubin, GPT and GOT (indicators of liver dysfunction and/or hepatocellular injury). Pretreatment of LPS-rats with SB 209670 (3 mg kg-1, i.v. bolus 15 min prior to LPS) significantly augmented the serum levels of creatinine, bilirubin, GPT and GOT caused by endotoxin. In addition, endotoxaemia caused, within 15 min, an acute metabolic acidosis (falls in pH, HCO3- and base excess) which was compensated by hyperventilation (fall in PaCO2). Pretreatment of LPS-rats with SB 209670 (3 mg kg-1, i.v. bolus) significantly augmented the metabolic acidosis caused by LPS. 6. Thus, the non

  9. Selenium accumulation and selenium tolerance of salt grass from soils with elevated concentrations of Se and salinity.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Huang, Z Z

    1991-12-01

    Biomass production, selenium accumulation, and the role of the bioextraction of selenium by salt grass (Distichlis spicata L.) in soils with elevated concentrations of Se and salinity at Kesterson, California, were studied. Salt grass contributed more than 80% vegetative coverage and 90% dry weight in the grassland communities where the soil Se concentrations were 100 times (1000 to 3000 micrograms kg-1) higher than the Se concentrations found in soils of the control sites. No evidence for evolution of Se tolerance was found in the salt grass populations. The successful colonization of salt grass in the soil with elevated Se and salinity is attributable to the presence of high concentrations of soil sulfate. Salt grass accumulated less Se than other salt-tolerant plant species existing in the same area, and no predation of animals and insects on salt grass has been noticed. Salt grass can transpire substantial amounts of volatile Se through its plant tissue. Under field conditions, a 1-m2 salt grass plot may produce 180 micrograms volatile selenium per day. However, no reduction of soil Se concentration in the salt grass habitat was detected over a period of 1 year. A long-term monitoring of Se status is needed in order to make predictions of the effectiveness of efforts to clean up Se-contaminated soils through the use of native plant species.

  10. Effects of aflatoxin on lymphoid cells of weanling rat.

    PubMed

    Raisuddin; Singh, K P; Zaidi, S I; Saxena, A K; Ray, P K

    1990-08-01

    Aflatoxin (AF), the hepatocarcinogenic food contaminant produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi, is known to interact with various vital processes, including the immune function. Effects of long-term treatment of three dose levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on lymphoid cells of weanling rats were studied. AFB1 treatment caused a reduction in body weight gain, significantly (P less than 0.01) at the 700 microgram level. There was also a significant decrease in the weight of spleen and thymus in AFB1-treated animals in comparison to control. Similarly, AFB1 depleted cell populations of thymus and bone marrow and WBC and RBC counts. There was a marked reduction in the population and phagocytic capacity of macrophages due to AFB1 administration at dose levels of 350 and 700 micrograms kg-1 body weight. Macromolecular synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein in macrophages was affected, as there was significant inhibition in the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-uridine and [3H]-leucine. The hampered functioning of macrophages may be due to the cytotoxic action of AFB1.

  11. Effect of intravenous bovine growth hormone or human pancreatic growth hormone-releasing factor on milk production and plasma hormones and metabolites in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hart, I C; Chadwick, P M; James, S; Simmonds, A D

    1985-05-01

    Although it is well known that exogenous bovine GH (bGH) increases milk yield in ruminants it has not been possible to determine whether an increase in endogenous GH secretion has the same effect. The recent isolation of human pancreatic GH-releasing factor (hpGRF-44) has enabled this comparison of the effects of bGH and hpGRF-44 on milk production in sheep. Three pairs of Dorset ewes underwent three 4-day treatments according to a Latin square design. Treatment 1 involved: 2-hourly i.v. injections (approximately 3.0 ml) of bGH (15 micrograms/kg; 1.8 units/mg); treatment 2: 2-hourly i.v. injections (approximately 3.0 ml) of hpGRF-44 (0.6 microgram/kg); treatment 3: 2-hourly i.v. injections (3.0 ml) of the vehicle. Treatment periods were separated by 10 days. Sheep were milked twice daily and the milk was analysed for fat, protein and lactose. Blood samples (5.0 ml) were taken before and at 15, 45, 75 and 100 min after every third injection throughout the 4 days. Plasma was analysed for insulin, glucose, urea and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). The changes in plasma GH stimulated by hpGRF-44 were consistent and repeatable throughout the 4 days of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3921646

  12. Brain sites of action of endogenous interleukin-1 in the febrile response to localized inflammation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cartmell, T; Luheshi, G N; Rothwell, N J

    1999-07-15

    1. Interleukin (IL)-1 is a potent endogenous pyrogen which causes fever when injected into a number of brain sites. However, the brain sites at which endogenous IL-1 acts to influence body temperature remain equivocal. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of local administration of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) into specific sites in the hypothalamus, and other brain regions known to contain receptors for IL-1, on the febrile response of rats to peripheral injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into a subcutaneous air pouch (intrapouch, i.p.o.) that does not lead to LPS appearance in the circulation. 2. Injection of LPS (100 microgram kg-1, i.p.o.) induced a rise in body temperature which commenced 1.5 h after injection and was maximal at 3 h (38.9 +/- 0.2 C, compared with 37.0 +/- 0.1 C at 0 h, n = 6, P < 0.001). Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) IL-1ra (500 microgram in 5 microliter) significantly attenuated LPS fever (IL-1ra, 37.7 +/- 0.2 C; saline, 38.9 +/- 0.2 C; n = 6, P < 0.001). Unilateral microinjection of IL-1ra (50 microgram in 0.5 microliter at 0 + 1 h) into the anterior hypothalamus (AH), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH), peri-subfornical organ, subfornical organ (SFO) or hippocampus (dentate gyrus and CA3 region) also significantly reduced the fever induced by LPS. 3. The same dose of IL-1ra had no effect on fever when administered into the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT), CA1 field of the hippocampus, striatum or cortex. 4. These data indicate that the action of endogenous IL-1 in the brain during fever is site specific, acting at the AH, PVH, SFO and hippocampus, but not the VMH, OVLT and striatum or cortex.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of benzophenone-3 after oral exposure in male rats.

    PubMed

    Kadry, A M; Okereke, C S; Abdel-Rahman, M S; Friedman, M A; Davis, R A

    1995-01-01

    Benzophenone-3 (BZ-3) is one of the UV-absorbing agents that has been used in industry and medicine for more than 30 years. Millions of consumers are exposed to benzophenones on a daily basis owing to the widespread use of these compounds in many of the products on the market, such as lipsticks, hair sprays, hair dyes, shampoo and detergent bars and sunscreen lotions. This study was performed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of BZ-3 after oral administration at 100 mg kg-1 body weight in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Absorption from the gastrointestinal tract was rapid because BZ-3 was detected in blood 5 min after administration. The peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was 25.6 +/- 4.6 micrograms ml-1 and the time of occurrence (tmax) was 3.0 +/- 0.4 h. The half-life of absorption of BZ-3 was 0.71 h. The elimination pattern was biphasic with alpha and beta half-lives of elimination of 0.88 and 15.90 h, respectively. The results of this study indicate the presence of strong binding between the plasma protein and BZ-3. Tissue distribution studies at 6 h indicate that the liver contained the highest concentration of free (58.9 +/- 23.8 micrograms) and total (free+bound or conjugated) BZ-3 (2087 +/- 60.1 micrograms), followed by kidney and testes, respectively. Urine and feces analysis indicate that urine was the major route of excretion, followed by feces. Further analysis of urine samples also indicates that conjugation of BZ-3 with glucuronic acid was the major systemic elimination route for the compound.

  14. Antinociceptive profile of the pseudopeptide B2 bradykinin receptor antagonist NPC 18688 in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, C. R.; Kyle, D. J.; Chakraverty, S.; Calixto, J. B.

    1996-01-01

    nociceptive response caused by intraplantar injection of capsaicin (1.6 micrograms/paw) (40 +/- 2%). However, NPC 18688 (up to 300 nmol kg-1, i.p.), given 30 min beforehand, had no significant analgesic effect when analyzed in the tail flick and in the hot plate pain models, nor did it change the performance of animals in the rota rod test. 6. The action of NPC 18688 was quite selective for the B2 receptor, and like Hoe 140, (1 to 100 nmol kg-1, i.p.) it caused graded inhibition of bradykinin (BK, 3 mol/paw)-induced increase in mouse paw volume, with mean ID50s of 61 and 6 nmol kg-1, respectively. In addition, at 100 nmol kg-1, the dose at which NPC 18688 significantly antagonized BK (3 nmol)-mediated rat paw oedema in naive animals, it had no significant effect on des-Arg9-BK (100 nmol/paw)-induced oedema in paws that had been desensitized to BK. NPC 18688 (210 nmol kg-1), like Hoe 140 (230 nmol kg-1) given s.c. 30 min beforehand, completely abolished BK (28 nmol)-induced hypotension, without affecting the fall of mean arterial blood pressure induced by i.v. injection of ACh (2 nmol kg-1). Finally, NPC 18688 (1 microM) did not affect ACh-mediated contraction in the guinea-pig ileum or toad rectus abdominii in vitro. 7. These results demonstrate that the newly-developed and selective pseudopeptide B2 receptor antagonist, NPC 18688, although less potent than the available second generation of B2 peptide BK receptor antagonists, exhibits topical and long-lasting systemic anti-hyperalgesic properties when analysed in several models of nociception in mice, making it a useful tool for investigating the participation of BK and related kinins in physiological and pathological processes. Finally, this new class of selective pseudopeptide B2 receptor antagonist may constitute a new strategy for developing the third generation of potent and long-lasting orally-active non-peptide BK antagonists, which may be useful for the management of clinical disorders involving BK and relate PMID

  15. Solid-phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography: a complementary technique to solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography for the analysis of pesticide residues in strawberries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Hennion, B; Urruty, L; Montury, M

    2000-11-01

    Solid-phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography has been studied for the analysis of methiocarb, napropamide, fenoxycarb and bupirimate in strawberries. The strawberries were blended and centrifuged. Then, an aliquot of the resulting extracting solution was subjected to solid-phase microextraction (SPME) on a 60 microns polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fibre for 45 min at room temperature. The extracted pesticides on the SPME fibre were desorbed into SPME/high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) interface for HPLC analysis with diode-array detection (DAD). The method is organic solvent-free for the whole extraction process and is simple and easy to manipulate. The detection limits were shown to be at low microgram kg-1 level and the linear response covered the range from 0.05 to 2 mg kg-1 of pesticides in strawberries with a regression coefficient larger than 0.99. A good repeatability with RSDs between 2.92 and 9.25% was obtained, depending on compounds.

  16. Effect of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on hemodynamic and cytokine response in a porcine model of Pseudomonas sepsis.

    PubMed

    Haberstroh, J; Breuer, H; Lücke, I; Massarrat, K; Früh, R; Mand, U; Hagedorn, P; Brunnberg, L; von Specht, B U

    1995-09-01

    To investigate the effect of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) on sepsis, chronically catheterized conscious pigs were challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8 x 10(7) colony-forming units kg-1 h-1) for 84 h (Group A, n = 8). Group B (n = 7) also received rhG-CSF at 5 micrograms kg-1 d-1, the first dose being given 30 min before starting bacterial infusion. Two of the animals in Group A died from pulmonary failure, whereas all those treated with rh-GCSF survived. Fever, severe pulmonary hypertension and systemic hypotension--the latter accompanied at first by a transient hypodynamic, and later a hyperdynamic response--were observed in all of the animals. In Group B, however, the rise in temperature, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (at a later stage of the observation), plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor, and endotoxin were significantly less than in Group A. In the rhG-CSF-treated pigs, an initial leukopenia completely recovered within 24 h (p < .05 vs. Group A). These data suggest that rhG-CSF might be beneficial in the treatment of sepsis.

  17. Solid-phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography: a complementary technique to solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography for the analysis of pesticide residues in strawberries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Hennion, B; Urruty, L; Montury, M

    2000-11-01

    Solid-phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography has been studied for the analysis of methiocarb, napropamide, fenoxycarb and bupirimate in strawberries. The strawberries were blended and centrifuged. Then, an aliquot of the resulting extracting solution was subjected to solid-phase microextraction (SPME) on a 60 microns polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fibre for 45 min at room temperature. The extracted pesticides on the SPME fibre were desorbed into SPME/high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) interface for HPLC analysis with diode-array detection (DAD). The method is organic solvent-free for the whole extraction process and is simple and easy to manipulate. The detection limits were shown to be at low microgram kg-1 level and the linear response covered the range from 0.05 to 2 mg kg-1 of pesticides in strawberries with a regression coefficient larger than 0.99. A good repeatability with RSDs between 2.92 and 9.25% was obtained, depending on compounds. PMID:11271705

  18. 5-Carboxamide tryptamine, a compound with high affinity for 5-hydroxytryptamine1 binding sites, dilates arterioles and constricts arteriovenous anastomoses.

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, P. R.; Verdouw, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of 5-carboxamide tryptamine, which activates non-5-hydroxytryptamine2-'atypical' receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the dog saphenous vein, was studied on the complete distribution of cardiac output and common carotid blood flow in anaesthetized pigs. The drug was infused for 10 min at the rate of 0.025, 0.1 and 0.4 micrograms kg-1 min-1 either intravenously (cardiac output distribution) or intra-arterially (carotid distribution). 5-Carboxamide tryptamine decreased arterial blood pressure due to a reduction of cardiac output. This reduction was confined to its arteriovenous anastomotic component; the component used for the tissue perfusion (nutrient part) in fact increased. Similar changes were observed in the carotid blood flow distribution. Vasodilation was observed in several tissues, but the skin, ears and stomach responded most prominently. The effects of 5-carboxamide tryptamine on the carotid distribution were not significantly modified by cyproheptadine (1 mg kg-1). It is concluded that, like 5-HT, 5-carboxamide tryptamine constricts arteriovenous anastomoses and dilates arterioles by activating non-5-HT2-'atypical' receptors. These 'atypical' 5-HT receptors appear to be of the 5-HT1 type since both 5-carboxamide tryptamine and BEA 1654, a new piperazine derivative, produced similar vascular effects in the carotid bed of the pig and also showed a high and selective affinity for the 5-HT1 binding sites. PMID:3978321

  19. Dietary intake of hexachlorobenzene in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Falcó, G; Bocio, A; Llobet, J M; Domingo, J L; Casas, C; Teixidó, A

    2004-04-25

    To assess the dietary intake of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by the population of Catalonia, Spain, a total-diet study was carried out. Concentrations of HCB were determined in food samples randomly acquired in seven cities of Catalonia between June and August 2000. A total of 11 food groups were included in the study. HCB levels were determined by HRGC/HRMS. Estimates of average daily food consumption were obtained from recent studies. HCB intake was estimated for five population groups: children (aged 4 to 9 years), adolescents (aged 10 to 19 years), male and female adults (aged 20 to 65 years), and seniors (aged >65 years). In general, HCB residues in foods were rather low excepting dairy products with a mean concentration of 0.869 ng/g wet weight. Total dietary intakes of HCB (microgram per kilogram body weight/day) were the following: children (0.0064), adolescents (0.0031), female adults (0.0025), male adults (0.0024) and seniors (0.0019). All these values are considerably lower than the WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI), which is 0.17 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for non-cancer effects and 0.16 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for neoplastic effects in humans.

  20. Blood pressure responses to LBNP in nontrained and trained hypertensive rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedford, T. G.; Tipton, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    To study the influences of 16 wk of endurance training on the reflex regulation of resting blood pressure, nontrained (NT) and trained (T) female hypertensive rats (SHR) were subjected to conditions of lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Measurements of muscle cytochrome oxidase activity and run time to exhaustion indicated that the animals were endurance trained. The rats (NT = 6, T = 7) were tranquilized with 300-600 micrograms.kg-1 diazepam (IV) before heart rates and blood pressures were measured over a range of 2.5-10.0 mm Hg of negative pressure. When subjected to conditions of LBNP, the reflex tachycardia of the T group was greater than the NT at the lower (-2.5 and -5.0 mm Hg) negative pressures. Although arterial pressure declines were similar in both groups, the T group experienced significantly less of a decline in central venous pressure than the NT animals. When chlorisondamine was used as a ganglionic blocker (2.5 mg.kg-1, IV), the fall in CVP at 10 mm Hg negative pressure was greater for the NT group while the fall in the initial systemic arterial pressure was more for the T group. From these results we concluded that training had altered the interaction between cardiopulmonary and arterial baroreflexes in these hypertensive rats and a nonneural component had been altered such as cardiac function.

  1. Histamine-1 receptor blockade does not prevent nitroglycerin induced migraine. Support for the NO-hypothesis of migraine.

    PubMed

    Lassen, L H; Thomsen, L L; Kruuse, C; Iversen, H K; Olesen, J

    1996-01-01

    It has previously been shown that in migraine sufferers infusion of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) and histamine causes an immediate headache during the infusion and a genuine migraine attack one to several hours after the infusion. This identical time profile indicates a common mechanism of action. To evaluate whether GTN causes headache via liberation of histamine, we studied the effect of GTN 0.5 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 for 20 min in seven migraine sufferers, once after pretreatment with the histamine-1 (H1)-receptor blocker mepyramine (0.5 mg.kg-1) and once without pretreatment. This mepyramine dose is known to completely abolish histamine-induced headache. After pretreatment with mepyramine five patients experienced migraine, and without pretreatment six patients did so. The median peak headache score was 7 on a 0-10 scale with and without mepyramine pretreatment. The arterial responses, evaluated with transcranial Doppler, were also unaffected by the mepyramine pretreatment. Our results demonstrate that neither headache nor arterial dilatation due to GTN infusion is caused by histamine release. In all likelihood the common mediator of migraine induction by GTN and histamine is nitric oxide.

  2. Angiotensin stimulates respiration in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Jennings, D B; Lockett, H J

    2000-05-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have an activated brain angiotensin system. We hypothesized 1) that ventilation (V) would be greater in conscious SHR than in control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and 2) that intravenous infusion of the ANG II-receptor blocker saralasin would depress respiration in SHR, but not in WKY. Respiration and oxygen consumption (VO(2)) were measured in conscious aged-matched groups (n = 16) of adult female SHR and WKY. For protocol 1, rats were habituated to a plethysmograph and measurements obtained over 60-75 min. After installation of chronic intravenous catheters, protocol 2 consisted of 30 min of saline infusion ( approximately 14 microliter. kg(-1). min(-1)) followed by 40 min of saralasin (1.3 microgram. kg(-1). min(-1)). V, tidal volume (VT), inspiratory flow [VT/inspiratory time (TI)], breath expiratory time, and VO(2) were higher, and breath TI was lower in "continuously quiet" SHR. In SHR, but not in WKY rats, ANG II-receptor block decreased V, VT, and VT/TI and increased breath TI. During ANG II-receptor block, an average decrease in VO(2) in SHR was not significant. About one-half of the higher V in SHR appears to be accounted for by an ANG II mechanism acting either via peripheral arterial receptors or circumventricular organs.

  3. Cardiovascular effects of a novel, potent and selective phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, DMPPO: in vitro and in vivo characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Delpy, E.; le Monnier de Gouville, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    anaesthetized rats, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (i.v. bolus) induced a decrease in blood pressure which rapidly returned to baseline. In DMPPO (1 mg kg-1, i.v.)-treated rats, the hypotensive effects of SNP (10 to 100 micrograms kg-1) were prolonged over time whereas the peak effect was unchanged. 7. In pithed rats, phenylephrine (i.v. bolus) induced dose-dependent increases in blood pressure. Pretreatment with DMPPO (5 mg kg-1, i.v.) partially inhibited the pressor response to phenylephrine (0.3 to 100 micrograms kg-1). 8. In conclusion, the potent and selective PDE 5 inhibitor, DMPPO, produces relaxation in isolated vessels in the presence of a cyclic GMP drive and reduces blood pressure of intact animals. Its high oral bioavailability and long duration of action should make it a useful tool to study the role of cyclic GMP in various biological systems. PMID:8832060

  4. Comparison of the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of an infusion of cis-atracurium (51W89) or atracurium in critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation in an intensive therapy unit.

    PubMed

    Boyd, A H; Eastwood, N B; Parker, C J; Hunter, J M

    1996-03-01

    We have studied 12 critically ill, sedated patients who required a neuromuscular blocking drug to assist mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit. Patients were randomized to receive an infusion of cis-atracurium 0.18 mg kg-1 h-1 (group 1, n = 6) or atracurium 0.6 mg kg-1 h-1 (group 2, n = 6) preceded, if necessary, by a bolus dose of 2 x ED95 of the same drug (cis-atracurium 0.1 mg kg-1 or atracurium 0.5 mg kg-1). Neuromuscular block was monitored using an accelerograph and the infusion rate adjusted regularly so that it was possible to detect the first response to train-of-four (TOF) stimulation of the ulnar nerve at the wrist. Blood samples were obtained for estimation of plasma cis-atracurium and laudanosine concentrations (group 1) or the three groups of atracurium isomers and laudanosine (group 2). There was no apparent haemodynamic or allergic response to either drug. The mean infusion time in group 1 was 37.6 h and in group 2, 27.5 h. On termination of the infusion, the time for the TOF ratio to reach 0.7 was similar in the two groups (group 1 = 60 min; group 2 = 62 min). The mean infusion rate of cis-atracurium was 0.19 mg kg-1 h-1 and of atracurium 0.47 mg kg-1 h-1 (expressed as mg of bis-cation): cis-atracurium was 2.5 times more potent than atracurium. Using the NONMEM program, a single compartment pharmacokinetic model was fitted to the plasma concentrations of cis-atracurium and the cis-cis, cis-trans and trans-trans isomers of atracurium. The mean population pharmacokinetic values for cis-atracurium were: volume of distribution (V) = 21,900 (SEM 416) ml; clearance (Cl) = 549 (79) ml min-1; half-life (T1/2) = 27.6 (3.6) min; and for the three groups of atracurium isomers were: cis-cis, V = 15,100 (720) ml, Cl = 449 (42) ml min-1, T1/2 = 23.4 (1.2) min; cis-trans, V = 18,000 (667) ml, Cl = 1070 (43) ml min-1, T1/2 = 11.7 (0.1); trans-trans, V = 13,100 (1280) ml, Cl = 1560 (55) ml min-1, T1/2 = 5.8 (0.4) min. Plasma laudanosine concentrations

  5. Studies on the roles of ATP, adenosine and nitric oxide in mediating muscle vasodilatation induced in the rat by acute systemic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Skinner, M R; Marshall, J M

    1996-09-01

    1. In Saffan-anaesthetized rats, we have further investigated the mechanisms underlying the vasodilatation induced by adenosine in skeletal muscle by acute systemic hypoxia (breathing 8% O2 for 5 min). 2. In eleven rats the nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibitor nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 mg kg-1, i.v.) reduced the increase in femoral vascular conductance (FVC) induced by hypoxia by approximately 50%. L-NAME had similar effects on the increase in FVC induced by intra-arterial (I.A.) infusion of adenosine (at 1.2 mg kg-1 min-1 for 5 min via the tail artery) and by ATP (I.A., 1 mg kg-1 min-1 for 5 min). Subsequent administration of the adenosine receptor antagonist 8-sulphophenyl theophylline (8-SPT, 20 mg kg-1, i.v.) virtually abolished the adenosine- and ATP-induced increase in FVC. 3. In a further nine rats, 8-SPT reduced the increase in FVC induced by hypoxia by approximately 50%. This remaining increase in FVC was substantially reduced by L-NAME. 4. In an additional nine rats, alpha,beta-methyleneADP (160 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) which inhibits the 5'-ectonucleotidase that degrades AMP to adenosine, reduced the peripheral vasodilatation (fall in arterial blood pressure, ABP) induced by ATP infusion, but had no effect on the increase in FVC or decrease in ABP evoked by systemic hypoxia. 5. These results provide the first evidence that the muscle vasodilatation induced by adenosine during systemic hypoxia is mainly dependent on NO synthesis. They also suggest that adenosine is released as such rather than being formed extracellularly from AMP. Given evidence that extraluminal adenosine acts in an NO-independent fashion we propose that hypoxia releases adenosine from the endothelium. Our results also indicate that hypoxia induces muscle vasodilatation that is adenosine independent but NO dependent: they allow the possibility that this is partly mediated by ATP released from the endothelium. PMID:8887765

  6. Total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol and alfentanil protects against postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Raftery, S; Sherry, E

    1992-01-01

    The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and requirements for anti-emetic medication were assessed in 80 female patients undergoing day-case anaesthesia during assisted conception therapy. Anaesthesia was induced with alfentanil 50 micrograms.kg-1 and propofol 1 mg.kg-1; atracurium 0.5 mg.kg-1 was given to facilitate tracheal intubation. The patients were allocated to receive either total intravenous maintenance of anaesthesia with an infusion of propofol and increments of alfentanil (Group P) or inhalational maintenance of anaesthesia with nitrous oxide and enflurane (Group E). Postoperative nausea, retching, vomiting, requirements for anti-emetic therapy, and unplanned admission for overnight stay in hospital were recorded. Overall incidence of nausea was 64% in group E and 39% in Group P (P less than 0.05). Incidence of vomiting was 67% in Group E and 34% in Group P (P less than 0.05). Metoclopramide was requested by 62% of patients in Group E, and 32% of those in Group P (P less than 0.05); 21% of the patients in Group E were admitted to hospital overnight, while only 5% of the patients in Group P required unscheduled admission to hospital (P less than 0.05). We conclude that total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol and alfentanil is superior to inhalational maintenance with nitrous oxide and enflurane in that it is associated with less nausea and vomiting, less requirement for anti-emetic medication, and a lower probability of unplanned admission to hospital after day-care gynaecological surgery.

  7. AVP-induced pulmonary vasodilation during specific V1 receptor block in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Nyhan, D P; Clougherty, P W; Murray, P A

    1987-09-01

    Our objectives were 1) to determine whether exogenously administered arginine vasopressin (AVP) can exert a vasoactive influence on the pulmonary circulation of conscious dogs during specific vasopressinergic-1 (V1) receptor block, and 2) to assess the extent to which the pulmonary vascular response to AVP during V1 receptor block is mediated by either sympathetic beta-adrenergic or cholinergic receptor activation or by cyclooxygenase pathway activation. Multipoint pulmonary vascular pressure-cardiac index (P/Q) plots were constructed during normoxia in conscious dogs by stepwise constriction of the thoracic inferior vena cava to reduce Q. In dogs pretreated with a specific V1 receptor antagonist [d(CH2)5 AVP, 10 micrograms/kg iv], AVP infusion (7.6 ng.kg-1 X min-1 iv) increased (P less than 0.01) Q from 139 +/- 6 to 175 +/- 8 ml.min-1 X kg-1, and decreased (P less than 0.01) the pulmonary vascular pressure gradient (pulmonary arterial pressure-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure: PAP-PCWP) over the entire range of Q studied (140 to 80 ml.min-1 X kg-1). This pulmonary vasodilator response to AVP during V1 block was also observed following sympathetic beta-adrenergic block alone, following combined sympathetic beta-adrenergic and cholinergic block, and following cyclooxygenase pathway inhibition. Thus exogenous administration of AVP during specific V1 receptor block results in active, nonflow-dependent pulmonary vasodilation. This pulmonary vasodilator response is not mediated by reflex activation of sympathetic beta-adrenergic or cholinergic receptors or by metabolites of the cyclooxygenase pathway over a broad range of Q. PMID:2888317

  8. Measurement of canine gastric vascular permeability to plasma proteins in the normal and protein-losing states

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.G.; Davenport, H.W.

    1982-04-01

    An isolated segment of the greater curvature of a dog's stomach was perfused at constant flow through a single cannulated artery with donor blood containing 131I-albumin, 125I-fibrinogen, and papaverine. Perfusion pressure was 30-50 mmHg, and venous pressure was set at 15 mmHg. Venous blood was collected in 1-min samples for 60 min. Filtration of fluid and loss of labeled proteins were calculated as the difference between measured arterial inflow and venous outflow. Permeability-surface area products (PS) were calculated for the proteins, and reflection coefficients (sigma) were calculated from solute flux and filtration. Intraarterial infusion of histamine (1.6-1.9 microgram . ml-1) increased filtration and PS and decreased sigma for albumin but not fibrinogen. When protein-losing was established by topical irrigation with 10 mM dithiothreitol in neutral solution, filtration and PS increased, and sigma for albumin but not fibrinogen decreased. Irrigation of the mucosa with 10 mM salicylic acid in 100 mN HCl caused bleeding that was quantitated by addition of 51Cr-erythrocytes to perfusing blood. Filtration and PS increased, and sigma for albumin but not fibrinogen decreased. Hematocrit of blood lost remained low during extensive mucosal damage. Effects of histamine infusion were attenuated or abolished by cimetidine (4 mg . kg-1 loading, 1.4 mg . kg-1 . h-1 continuous infusion) or by pyrilamine maleate (5 mg . kg-1 bolus injection at beginning of irrigation, repeated at 40-50 min). Pyrilamine attenuated or abolished effects of topical dithiothreitol or salicylic acid. We conclude that during protein loss caused by dithiothreitol or salicylic acid, histamine released within the mucosa causes increased vascular permeability for plasma proteins.

  9. Mediation by bradykinin of rat paw oedema induced by collagenase from Clostridium histolyticum.

    PubMed Central

    Legat, F. J.; Griesbacher, T.; Lembeck, F.

    1994-01-01

    1. Collagenases are thought to play a major role in the pathology of gas gangrene caused by Clostridium histolyticum, because they can destroy the connective tissue barriers. We investigated possible mediators involved in the oedema formation and plasma protein extravasation which follow the injection of a collagenase (EC 3.4.24.3) from Clostridium histolyticum into one hind paw of anaesthetized rats. 2. The magnitude of the oedema following a subplantar injection was dependent on the dose of collagenase (30, 100 and 300 micrograms) injected. It reached its maximum within 30 min and remained unchanged for at least 5 h. Plasma protein extravasation into the paw was most pronounced within 20 min of the injection. Heat-inactivated collagenase was ineffective. 3. The B2 bradykinin (BK) antagonist icatibant (D-Arg-[Hyp3-Thi5-D-Tic7- Oic8] bradykinin, formerly named Hoe-140) reduced oedema formation in a dose-dependent manner with a maximal reduction of around 65% at a dose of 100 nmol kg-1 (s.c.). A significant effect could already be observed at a dose of 10 nmol kg-1. The duration of the effect of icatibant (100 nmol kg-1) was found to be at least 3 h. These results demonstrate the high potency and long duration of action of icatibant. Pretreatment of rats with the bradykinin B1 antagonist, des-Arg9-[Leu8]-BK did not affect collagenase-induced paw oedema. Thus, the observed collagenase-induced effects are mainly mediated by BK through activation of B2 receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7915609

  10. The effect of nitroglycerin on response to tracheal intubation. Assessment by radionuclide angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, A.P.; Camporesi, E.M.; Sell, T.L.; Croughwell, N.; Silva, R.; Jones, R.H.; McIntyre, R.W.; Stanley, T.E.; Reves, J.G. )

    1989-06-01

    The effect of intravenous (IV) nitroglycerin (NTG) on perioperative myocardial ischemia as detected by single pass radionuclide angiocardiography was studied in 20 patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Ten patients, selected at random, received IV NTG 1 microgram.kg-1.min-1 (NTG group) and 10 others, IV saline (control group). Anesthetic induction consisted of midazolam 0.2 mg.kg-1, vecuronium 0.1 mg.kg-1, and 50% N{sub 2}O in O{sub 2}. ECG leads I, II, and V5 were monitored for ST segment changes. Single pass radionuclide angiocardiography (RNA) was performed at 5 times: prior to induction, prior to tracheal intubation, and at 1, 3.5, and 6 min following intubation. The presence of new regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA) was determined from each RNA study as compared with the preinduction measurement. Apart from one patient in the control group who developed a new v wave after intubation, there was no evidence of ischemia by pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. No ECG evidence of ischemia was detected in any patient. Despite this, new regional wall motion abnormalities were observed in 3 patients in the control group and 1 patient in the NTG group. Blood pressure and heart rate responses of patients with new RWMA were not significantly different from other patients. The low incidence of ischemia in this population precludes a definitive statement regarding the efficacy of IV NTG, but the lower incidence of RWMA in the NTG group suggests a protective effect.

  11. Total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol and alfentanil protects against postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Raftery, S; Sherry, E

    1992-01-01

    The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and requirements for anti-emetic medication were assessed in 80 female patients undergoing day-case anaesthesia during assisted conception therapy. Anaesthesia was induced with alfentanil 50 micrograms.kg-1 and propofol 1 mg.kg-1; atracurium 0.5 mg.kg-1 was given to facilitate tracheal intubation. The patients were allocated to receive either total intravenous maintenance of anaesthesia with an infusion of propofol and increments of alfentanil (Group P) or inhalational maintenance of anaesthesia with nitrous oxide and enflurane (Group E). Postoperative nausea, retching, vomiting, requirements for anti-emetic therapy, and unplanned admission for overnight stay in hospital were recorded. Overall incidence of nausea was 64% in group E and 39% in Group P (P less than 0.05). Incidence of vomiting was 67% in Group E and 34% in Group P (P less than 0.05). Metoclopramide was requested by 62% of patients in Group E, and 32% of those in Group P (P less than 0.05); 21% of the patients in Group E were admitted to hospital overnight, while only 5% of the patients in Group P required unscheduled admission to hospital (P less than 0.05). We conclude that total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol and alfentanil is superior to inhalational maintenance with nitrous oxide and enflurane in that it is associated with less nausea and vomiting, less requirement for anti-emetic medication, and a lower probability of unplanned admission to hospital after day-care gynaecological surgery. PMID:1531118

  12. Effect of organic acids on Salmonella colonization and shedding in weaned piglets in a seeder model.

    PubMed

    Michiels, Joris; Missotten, Joris; Rasschaert, Geertrui; Dierick, Noël; Heyndrickx, Marc; De Smet, Stefaan

    2012-11-01

    Piglets (n = 128) weaned at 21 days of age were used in a 35-day seeder model to evaluate the effects of dietary additives differing in active ingredients, chemical, and physical formulation, and dose on Salmonella colonization and shedding and intestinal microbial populations. Treatments were a negative control (basal diet), the positive control (challenged, basal diet), and six treatments similar to the positive control but supplemented with the following active ingredients (dose excluding essential oils or natural extracts): triglycerides with butyric acid (1.30 g kg(-1)); formic and citric acids and essential oils (2.44 g kg(-1)); coated formic, coated sorbic, and benzoic acids (2.70 g kg(-1)); salts of formic, sorbic, acetic, and propionic acids, their free acids, and natural extracts (2.92 g kg(-1)); triglycerides with caproic and caprylic acids and coated oregano oil (1.80 g kg(-1)); and caproic, caprylic, lauric, and lactic acids (1.91 g kg(-1)). On day 6, half the piglets (seeder pigs) in each group were orally challenged with a Salmonella Typhimurium nalidixic acid-resistant strain (4 × 10(9) and 1.2 × 10(9) log CFU per pig in replicate experiments 1 and 2, respectively). Two days later, they were transferred to pens with an equal number of contact pigs. Salmonella shedding was determined 2 days after challenge exposure and then on a weekly basis. On day 34 or 35, piglets were euthanized to sample tonsils, ileocecal lymph nodes, and ileal and cecal digesta contents. The two additives, both containing short-chain fatty acids and one of them also containing benzoic acid and the other one also containing essential oils, and supplemented at more than 2.70 g kg(-1), showed evidence of reducing Salmonella fecal shedding and numbers of coliforms and Salmonella in cecal digesta. However, colonization of tonsils and ileocecal lymph nodes by Salmonella was not affected. Supplementing butyric acid and medium-chain fatty acids at the applied dose failed to inhibit

  13. Effect of organic acids on Salmonella colonization and shedding in weaned piglets in a seeder model.

    PubMed

    Michiels, Joris; Missotten, Joris; Rasschaert, Geertrui; Dierick, Noël; Heyndrickx, Marc; De Smet, Stefaan

    2012-11-01

    Piglets (n = 128) weaned at 21 days of age were used in a 35-day seeder model to evaluate the effects of dietary additives differing in active ingredients, chemical, and physical formulation, and dose on Salmonella colonization and shedding and intestinal microbial populations. Treatments were a negative control (basal diet), the positive control (challenged, basal diet), and six treatments similar to the positive control but supplemented with the following active ingredients (dose excluding essential oils or natural extracts): triglycerides with butyric acid (1.30 g kg(-1)); formic and citric acids and essential oils (2.44 g kg(-1)); coated formic, coated sorbic, and benzoic acids (2.70 g kg(-1)); salts of formic, sorbic, acetic, and propionic acids, their free acids, and natural extracts (2.92 g kg(-1)); triglycerides with caproic and caprylic acids and coated oregano oil (1.80 g kg(-1)); and caproic, caprylic, lauric, and lactic acids (1.91 g kg(-1)). On day 6, half the piglets (seeder pigs) in each group were orally challenged with a Salmonella Typhimurium nalidixic acid-resistant strain (4 × 10(9) and 1.2 × 10(9) log CFU per pig in replicate experiments 1 and 2, respectively). Two days later, they were transferred to pens with an equal number of contact pigs. Salmonella shedding was determined 2 days after challenge exposure and then on a weekly basis. On day 34 or 35, piglets were euthanized to sample tonsils, ileocecal lymph nodes, and ileal and cecal digesta contents. The two additives, both containing short-chain fatty acids and one of them also containing benzoic acid and the other one also containing essential oils, and supplemented at more than 2.70 g kg(-1), showed evidence of reducing Salmonella fecal shedding and numbers of coliforms and Salmonella in cecal digesta. However, colonization of tonsils and ileocecal lymph nodes by Salmonella was not affected. Supplementing butyric acid and medium-chain fatty acids at the applied dose failed to inhibit

  14. Role for intracellular platelet-activating factor in the circulatory failure in a model of gram-positive shock.

    PubMed Central

    De Kimpe, S. J.; Thiemermann, C.; Vane, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    1. This study investigates the effects of two structurally different antagonists of platelet-activating factor (PAF), BN52021 and WEB2086, on the circulatory and renal failure elicited by lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus (an organism without endotoxin) in anaesthetized rats. 2. Administration of LTA (10 mg kg-1, i.v.) caused hypotension and vascular hyporeactivity to noradrenaline (1 microgram kg-1, i.v.) WEB2086 (5 mg kg-1, i.v., 20 min before and 150 min after LTA) inhibited the delayed fall in mean arterial blood pressure (at 300 min: 99 +/- 6 mmHg vs. 75 +/- 6 mmHg, P < 0.01) and prevented the decrease in pressor response to noradrenaline (at 300 min: 36 +/- 5 mmHg min vs. 17 +/- 5 mmHg min, P < 0.01). Surprisingly, BN52021 (20 mg kg-1, i.v., 20 min before and 150 min after LTA) neither prevented the hypotension (74 +/- 6 mmHg) nor the vascular hyporeactivity (21 +/- 5 mmHg min). However, BN52021 inhibited the hypotension to injections of PAF as well as the circulatory failure elicited by lipopolysaccharides (10 mg kg-1, i.v.). 3. LTA caused an increase in plasma concentration of creatinine from 39 +/- 5 microM (sham-operated) to 70 +/- 8 microM and urea from 4.7 +/- 0.1 to 13.1 +/- 1.6 mM. The renal failure elicited by LTA was significantly inhibited by WEB2086 (creatinine: 45 +/- 4 microM and urea: 5.7 +/- 0.7 mM), but not by BN52021. 4. The induction of nitric oxide synthase activity in lungs by LTA was attenuated by WEB2086 from 98 +/- 17 to 40 +/- 15 pmol L-citrulline 30 min-1 mg-1 protein (P < 0.01), but not by BN52021 (148 +/- 21 pmol L-citrulline 30 min-1 mg-1 protein). Similarly, WEB2086, but not BN52021, inhibited the increase in plasma nitrite concentration associated with the delayed circulatory failure caused by LTA. The release of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) after injection of LTA was not attenuated by WEB2086. 5. The induction of nitrite release by cultured macrophages activated with LTA (10 micrograms ml-1 for 24 h

  15. Differential effects of angiostatic steroids and dexamethasone on angiogenesis and cytokine levels in rat sponge implants.

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Y.; Hu, D. E.; Yasui, K.; Smither, R. L.; Gresham, G. A.; Fan, T. P.

    1996-01-01

    1. Subcutaneous implantation of sterile polyether sponges elicited a reproducible neovascular response in rats, as determined by blood flow measurement with a 133Xe clearance technique and confirmed histologically. This model was used to monitor the levels of two cytokines during angiogenesis and to compare the activities of angiostatic steroids and anti-inflammatory steroids. 2. Initial experiments followed the neovascular development over a 20-day period. Daily local injection of hydrocortisone caused a dose-dependent (0.5, 5 and 50 micrograms per sponge) inhibition of the basal sponge-induced angiogenesis. However, daily systemic treatment of hydrocortisone (2, 10 and 50 mg kg-1, s.c.) was less effective at inhibiting angiogenesis, and this inhibition was not sustained by day 20 after sponge implantation. 3. To investigate the involvement of cytokines during the course of angiogenesis, we measured the endogenous levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in sponge implants. Levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha peaked at day 7 and day 11 after implantation, respectively. These cytokine levels subsided through the completion of angiogenesis by day 20. 4. Subsequent experiments were carried out over a 14-day period. Among the three angiostatic steroids tested, U-24067 (6 alpha-fluoro-17,21 - dihydroxy-16 alpha-methylpregna -4,9(11)-diene-3,20-dione-21-acetate) showed a dose-dependent inhibition (0.5, 5 and 50 micrograms per sponge per day) of sponge-induced angiogenesis. Tetrahydro-S was also effective at 5 micrograms doses, but medroxyprogesterone failed to affect the angiogenic response. None of these steroids caused atrophies of the spleen and thymus. 5. Daily local injection of dexamethasone (0.5 microgram per sponge) inhibited the basal sponge-induced angiogenesis almost completely. Although higher doses of dexamethasone (5 and 50 micrograms per sponge) did not produce further inhibition of angiogenesis, they caused severe spleen and

  16. Bupropion treatment increases epididymal contractility and impairs sperm quality with no effects on the epididymal sperm transit time of male rats.

    PubMed

    Cavariani, Marilia Martins; de Almeida Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo; de Lima Rosa, Josiane; de Araújo Leite, Gabriel Adan; Silva, Patrícia Villela E; Pupo, André Sampaio; De Grava Kempinas, Wilma

    2015-09-01

    Bupropion is a dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) reuptake inhibitor used as smoking cessation and antidepressant drug with a lower incidence of male sexual dysfunction. We showed previously that sibutramine, a norepinephrine/serotonine reuptake inhibitor, reduced male rat fertility. As there are no studies evaluating the impact of bupropion treatment on spermatic parameters and male fertility, we evaluated the effects of bupropion treatment (15 and 30 mg kg(-1), 30 days) on sexual behavior, spermatic parameters and fertility of male Wistar rats and on the epididymal duct in vitro contractility. Bupropion 15 mg kg(-1) increased the serum luteinizing hormone level and the epididymal duct contractility, but the sperm quality was not affected. At 30 mg kg(-1) bupropion impaired sperm quality increasing the incidence of non-progressive sperm. The male sexual behavior and fertility were not modified at both bupropion doses. These results, in rats, suggest the importance of studies evaluating the effects of bupropion on the human male sperm quality.

  17. Neutralization of the oedematogenic activity of Bothrops jararaca venom on the mouse paw by an antibothropic fraction isolated from opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) serum.

    PubMed

    Perales, J; Amorim, C Z; Rocha, S L; Domont, G B; Moussatché, H

    1992-11-01

    The pharmacological modulation of mice paw oedema produced by Bothrops jararaca venom (BJV) has been studied. Intraplantar injection of BJV (1-30 micrograms/paw) produced a dose- and time-related oedema, which was maximal 30 min after injection, reduced gradually thereafter and disappeared over 48 h. BJV heated at 100 degrees C for 5 or 15 min blocked local hemorrhage and caused partial inhibition of its oedematogenic activity. The BJV oedema was not inhibited by the anti-histamine meclizine, the inhibitor of histamine and serotonin, cyproheptadine, PAF-acether antagonist WEB 2170 or by the anti-leukotrienes C4/D4, LY 171883. Dexamethasone, aspirin, indomethacin, and the dual cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitor BW 755C inhibited BJV-induced oedema indicating that arachidonic acid metabolism products via the cyclooxygenase pathway participate in its genesis and/or maintenance. The antibothropic fraction (ABF) (25-200 micrograms/paw) isolated from Didelphis marsupialis serum neutralized the oedema induced by the venom with and without heating, the hemorrhage induced by BJV and partially blocked the oedema induced by bradykinin and by cellulose sulphate. The oedema produced by histamine, serotonin, PAF-acether or leukotriene C4 was not inhibited. PMID:1295374

  18. Physical resuspension and vertical mixing of sediments on a high energy continental margin (Sydney, Australia).

    PubMed

    Matthai, C; Birch, G F; Jenkinson, A; Heijnis, H

    2001-01-01

    Four sediment cores from the continental margin adjacent to Sydney were analyzed for 210Pb, 137Cs, trace metals (Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn), iron, dry bulk density, mud and moisture content. The concentrations of trace metals in the total sediment are low at all sites, although slightly elevated concentrations of Ag, Cu, Pb and Zn are present in the fine fraction of sediment (< 62.5 microns) near a major ocean outfall. Concentrations of trace metals in the fine fraction of sediment are similar in the upper 10-15 cm, indicating strong vertical mixing of the sediments, whereas an upward coarsening grain size in the upper 1-3 cm of sediment supports physical resuspension during storms. Sediment accumulation rates on the middle shelf adjacent to Sydney were estimated from downcore profiles of 210Pb and 137Cs and range between 0.2 and 0.4 cm yr-1. Although the mass fluxes of Cu, Pb and Zn within a distance of 2 km from the outfall (up to 36.1, 30.8 and 86.2 micrograms cm-2 yr-1, respectively) are greater than 20 km north of the outfall (< 23.5 micrograms cm-2 yr-1), the low concentrations of trace metals in sediments near the outfall support an efficient dispersal of anthropogenic contaminants on this continental margin.

  19. Stimulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in the rat by the type 4 phosphodiesterase (PDE-4) inhibitor, denbufylline.

    PubMed Central

    Hadley, A. J.; Kumari, M.; Cover, P. O.; Osborne, J.; Poyser, R.; Flack, J. D.; Buckingham, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    1. Preliminary studies in our laboratories showed that the synthetic xanthine analogue denbufylline, a selective type 4 phosphodiesterase (PDE-4) inhibitor, is a potent activator of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis when given orally to adult male rats. This paper describes the results of experiments in which well established in vivo and in vitro models were used to (a) examine further the effects of denbufylline on HPA function and (b) identify the site and mode of action of the drug within the axis. 2. In vivo, administration of denbufylline (0.1-2.5 mg kg-1, i.p.) produced a significant increase in the serum corticosterone concentration; maximal responses were attained at a dose of 1.0 mg kg-1 (P < 0.01 vs. vehicle control, Scheffe's test). However, when denbufylline was administered by intracerebroventricular injection (0.05-1 micrograms kg-1) it failed to influence significantly the serum corticosterone concentration (P > 0.05 vs. vehicle control, Scheffe's test). The adrenocortical responses to peripheral injections of denbufylline (1 mg kg-1, i.p.) were reduced in rats in which the secretion of endogenous corticotrophin releasing factors (CRFs) from the hypothalamus was blocked pharmacologically (P < 0.01 vs. controls, Scheffe's test). However, denbufylline (0.1 mg kg-1, i.p.) potentiated the significant (P < 0.01) increases in serum corticosterone concentration provoked in "CRF blocked rats' by hypothalamic extract (5 hypothalamic extracts kg-1, i.v.) although it failed to influence (P > 0.05) the relatively moderate increases in corticosterone secretion evoked by CRH-41 (2 mg kg-1, i.v.). 3. In vitro, denbufylline (0.01-1 mM) evoked small but significant (P < 0.05) increases in the release of ACTH from rat anterior pituitary segments; furthermore, at these and lower concentrations (0.01 microM-1 mM), it potentiated the adrenocorticotrophic responses to sub-maximal concentrations of hypothalamic extract (P < 0.01) and forskolin (0.1 mM, P < 0

  20. Plasma and urine diketopiperazine concentrations in normal adults ingesting large quantities of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Cho, E S; Coon, J D; Stegink, L D

    1987-07-01

    In aqueous solution, aspartame can cyclicize to form its corresponding diketopiperazine (3-carboxymethyl-6-benzyl-2,5-diketopiperazine; DKP) and methanol. We measured plasma and urinary concentrations of DKP in samples obtained from six normal adult subjects ingesting 2.2 mg DKP/kg body weight. The DKP was administered as part of a dose of 200 mg aspartame/kg body weight. DKP concentrations in plasma were below the detection limit (less than 1 microgram/ml) of the high-pressure liquid chromatographic method at each time interval after ingestion at which they were measured. Mean (+/- SD) total urinary DKP excreted during the first 24-hr period after dosing was 6.68 +/- 1.30 mg (4.83 +/- 0.23% of the ingested DKP dose). Approximately 44% of the total DKP excreted was excreted in the first 4 hr after dosing.

  1. Amperometric determination of phenazopyridine hydrochloride in a flowing stream at the glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Belal, F

    1985-01-01

    A flow-injection method is described for the determination of phenazopyridine hydrochloride, based on electrochemical oxidation at the glassy carbon electrode. The suggested method is highly specific and can be used to determine phenazopyridine HCl in the presence of most drugs commonly found in pharmaceutical dosage forms or administered therapeutically. Applying a constant potential of +950 mV vs Ag/AgCl/3.5M KCl reference electrode, the calibration curve was linear in the 1-30 micrograms/mL range, with minimum detectability of 0.2 ng (signal-to-noise ratio 2). Good accuracy and precision were obtained when the method was applied to some dosage forms containing phenazopyridine HCl. Although automation was not used in this study, an automated system could be incorporated because the method uses the technique of continuous analysis in a flowing stream.

  2. Water quality of Belton Lake, central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendieta, H.B.; Pate, Dale L.

    1982-01-01

    The maximum concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides or their degradation products detected in bottom sediments collected from the lake during four lake surveys included 1.1 micrograms per kilogram of DDT, 3.0 micrograms per kilogram of DDD, 11 micrograms per kilogram of DDE, and 2 micrograms per kilogram of chlordane.

  3. [Estimates of trace elements requirements of children receiving total parenteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Ricour, C; Duhamel, J F; Gros, J; Mazière, B; Comar, D

    1977-01-01

    Ten children on total parenteral nutrition were studied. Plasma copper, zinc, manganese and selenium levels were determined by neutron activation and gamma spectrometry, every 10 days. With a copper intake of 20 microgram/kg/24 h, the average level 120 microgram% (94-144) was normal (N: 118 microgram +/- 11%). With a manganese intake of 40 microgram/kg/24 h, the level increased to 2.6 microgram% (1.3-4.5) (N: 1.1 microgram +/- 0.2%). With a zinc intake of 30 microgram/kg/24 h, the level decreased to 45.9 microgram % (20-63) (N: 83 microgram +/- 28%); with an intake of 50 microgram/kg/24 h the level remained under normal. With a selenium intake of 1 microgram/kg/24 h, the level decreased to 10.6 ng/ml (3.6-21.6) (N: 38.2 ng/ml +/- 11.9), but was normalized with an intake of 3 microgram/kg/24 h. From these results, with all reserves that estimation implies, the authors suggest that the disorders due to deficit or excess of trace elements could be avoided by daily intakes per kg of body weight: copper 20 microgram, zinc 100 microgram, manganese 10 microgram and selenium 3 microgram, with supplementation of iron, iodine and fluoride.

  4. Levofloxacin disk potency and tentative interpretive criteria for susceptibility tests.

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, M A; Barry, A L; Fuchs, P C

    1993-01-01

    Levofloxacin disk susceptibility test criteria were evaluated by testing 350 bacterial isolates. Either 5- or 10-micrograms disks could be used satisfactorily. A 5-micrograms levofloxacin disk with zone size breakpoints of < or = 12 mm for resistance (MIC, > or = 8.0 micrograms/ml) and > or = 16 mm for susceptibility (MIC, < or = 2.0 micrograms/ml) is recommended. PMID:8349777

  5. Effects of long-term irrigation with untreated municipal wastewater on soil properties and crop quality.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Mehmet Emin; Aydin, Senar; Beduk, Fatma; Tor, Ali; Tekinay, Arzu; Kolb, Marit; Bahadir, Müfit

    2015-12-01

    Irrigating crops with untreated wastewater leads to elevated concentrations of heavy metals both in soil and cultivated crops. The current study was designed to determine heavy metal (i.e., Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Hg) accumulation in Konya soils in selected nine sites irrigated with wastewater for over 40 years. Non-irrigated soil samples and soil samples irrigated with well water were taken as control samples. Transport of these pollutants to the wheat samples cultivated in the investigated site was also examined. The obtained results reveal that high alkaline properties and clay structure of Konya soil reduce the mobility of contaminants and cause accumulation in the top layer of soil. Intense effect of wastewater irrigation on soil EC was determined. The highest concentrations of Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni, and Hg in wastewater irrigated soil were 5.32, 37.1, 31.5, 11.4, 91.5, 134, and 0.34 mg kg(-1), respectively. Wastewater irrigated soils were strongly polluted by means of Cd (8.23-11.6 mg kg(-1)) and moderately to strongly polluted by means of Ni (47.7-134 mg kg(-1)), exceeding Maximum Admissible Concentrations for Trace Elements in Agricultural Soils and Sewage Sludge Regulation limit values of Turkey. Maximum concentrations found for Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd, Zn, and Ni in wastewater irrigated wheat grain were 8.44, 1.30, 9.10, n.d, 29.31, and 0.94 mg kg(-1), respectively. Besides, Hg was not detected in any samples of wheat grain. Based on the regulation of Turkish Food Codex, Pb contamination in wheat samples grown in the sampling site was evidenced.

  6. Development of a population pharmacokinetic database for tianeptine.

    PubMed

    Grasela, T H; Fiedler-Kelly, J B; Salvadori, C; Marey, C; Jochemsen, R

    1993-01-01

    Two thousand three hundred and thirty five plasma concentrations of tianeptine from 112 patients enrolled in nine studies of tianeptine pharmacokinetics performed prior to the marketing of the drug were pooled for analysis using mixed-effect modeling. Studies represented a combination of single dose and multiple dosing at steady-state. Tianeptine plasma concentration time data were fit to a two compartment model with first order absorption using the NONMEM computer program. The results of this analysis suggested that alcoholism is associated with significant increase in clearance (124% increase) and volume of the central compartment (161% increase). The volume of the peripheral compartment is significantly lower in women (31% decrease) and in depressed patients (59% decrease). The population mean (interindividual variability) clearance was equal to 0.17 l.h-1 x kg-1 (28.6%), the volume of central compartment was 0.13 l.kg-1 (60.4%), intercompartmental clearance was 0.07 l.h-1 x kg-1 (30.1%), volume of the tissue compartment was 1.17 l.kg-1 (28.3%), and the absorption rate constant was 0.63 h-1 (21.8%). The residual variability was approximately 30% at concentrations expected during clinical use of the drug. Because of the increased clearance, alcoholic patients would be expected to have significantly reduced concentrations during steady-state dosing. These population parameters provide a basis for developing initial dosing recommendations and for performing bayesian evaluations of drug concentrations obtained in post-marketing studies.

  7. [Bioavailability of As, Cu and Zn in two soils as affected by application of chicken manure and pig manure].

    PubMed

    Yao, Li-xian; Li, Guo-liang; Dang, Zhi; He, Zhao-huan; Zhou, Chang-min; Yang, Bao-mei

    2008-09-01

    Animal manures contain higher As, Cu and Zn since organoarsenicals, copper and zinc additives are widely used in modern intensive animal production. A pot experiment in water spinach was conducted to investigate As, Cu and Zn bioavailability in a paddy soil (PS) and a lateritic red soil (LRS) applied with 2% and 4% (mass fraction) chicken manure (CM) and pig manure (PM), respectively. Soils without any fertilizer were included as the checks (CK). The results show that nearly all treatments with manures significantly increase the biomass of the above-ground part of water spinach compared to the CK. The biomass in PS is significantly greater than that in LRS. The As concentrations and uptake rates of water spinach are significantly enhanced by manure application, showing the rule of higher rates > lower rates, PM > CM and in PS> in LRS. Except for the Cu concentrations in PS, manure application significantly increases the Cu, Zn concentrations and uptake rates as well. Soil total As in all treatments slightly reduce, available As and percents of available As over total As (PAs) considerably decrease after the harvest of water spinach, but total Cu, Zn and available Cu, Zn and percents of available Cu and Zn over total Cu and Zn (PCu and PZn) nearly in all manure-amended treatments increase. Soil total As increases by 0.3-3.0 mg x kg(-1), available As by 0.011-0.034 mg x kg(-1), the PAs by 0.033-0.178 percentage points in all treatments with manures, as compared to the CK. Soil total Cu, available Cu and the PCu increases by 3.1-30.4 mg x kg(-1), 5.2-19.4 mg x kg(-1) and 1.2-34.1 percentage points, respectively. Those of Zn increase by--10.6-79.6 mg x kg(-1), 4.0-65.9 mg x kg(-1) and 1.0-64.2 percentage points. We assume that the bioavailability of soil heavy metals be evaluated by the increment of available concentration and percent available concentration over total concentration, higher rate manure application improves the bioavailability of soil As, Cu and Zn than

  8. In vitro activity of clavulanic acid, amoxicillin, and ticarcillin against Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, W R

    1986-01-01

    In vitro, growth of Chlamydia trachomatis was not entirely eliminated by 960 micrograms of ticarcillin per ml, 64 micrograms of amoxicillin per ml, 32 micrograms of clavulanic acid per ml, a combination of ticarcillin (480 micrograms/ml) and clavulanic acid (32 micrograms/ml), and a combination of amoxicillin (32 micrograms/ml) and clavulanic acid (8 micrograms/ml). However, a greater than or equal to 99% decrease in the number of inclusions was obtained at concentrations readily attainable in serum. PMID:3707116

  9. Concentration-related effects of propofol on the auditory evoked response.

    PubMed

    Tooley, M A; Greenslade, G L; Prys-Roberts, C

    1996-12-01

    We have studied the effects of propofol, as the sole agent, at blood concentrations of 1-10 micrograms ml-1, on the first 100 ms of the auditory evoked response (AER) in 41 women before gynaecological surgery. AER were recorded with the patients awake and then after 30 min of one of seven stepped infusion regimens. Each patient was studied at only one blood concentration. The recordings were edited and processed off-line by coherent signal averaging, to obtain reliable estimates of each AER. We measured standard features, such as amplitudes and latencies of brainstem wave V and the mid-latency waves Na, Pa and Nb. In addition, we studied several composite indices, intended to give a more global characterization of the AER. We derived relationships between the doses and blood concentrations of propofol, features of the AER and response to eyelash stimulus and venepuncture. Nb latency was better than either concentration or dose rate of propofol in providing a confident explanation of the likelihood of eyelash response (which parallels the response to command). A cut-off value of 53 ms had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 96% and an overall correctness of 98% as a discriminator of eyelash response vs no response. Several alternative AER-derived indices provided more than 90% correctness in discrimination, as did a dose rate of propofol of 6.3-7.8 mg kg-1 h-1 or a blood concentration of 2.9 micrograms ml-1. We conclude that the concentration and dose of propofol were good discriminators of response to venepuncture, while the latency of the Na wave was the most successful of the AER features.

  10. Venoconstrictor agents mobilize blood from different sources and increase intrathoracic filling during epidural anesthesia in supine humans

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton-Hicks, M.; Hoeck, A.S.; Stuehmeier, K.D.A.; Arndt, J.O.

    1987-03-01

    The authors studied the effects of dihydroergotamine (DHE) and etilefrine hydrochloride (E) on the regional distribution of /sup 99m/Tc-marked erythrocytes during epidural anesthesia in eight supine men to determine if vasoactive agents with venoconstrictor action would enhance cardiac filling during epidural anesthesia. Radioactivity was recorded with a gamma camera, and its distribution determined in the thorax, abdomen, and limbs. Arterial and central venous pressure, heart rate, and calf volume by plethysmography were measured. During epidural anesthesia with a sensory block up to T4/5, DHE (7.5 micrograms/kg) reduced the radioactivity, i.e., blood volume, in both the innervated (-5.9 +/- 3.5%) and denervated muscle/skin (-16.9 +/- 7%) regions, and increased it in both the intrathoracic (+7.0 +/- 2.3%), and splanchnic vasculature (+4.2 +/- 3.2). In contrast, E (6 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1) decreased the blood volume most markedly in the splanchnic region (-5.4 +/- 0.7%) and increased it in the thorax (+2 +/- 0.6%). All these changes were statistically significant. The combined effects were estimated to be equivalent to a transfusion of nearly 1.01 of blood. Both drugs reversed the hypotensive action of epidural anesthesia. During epidural anesthesia, DHE preferentially constricted the capacitance vessels in skeletal muscle and skin irrespective of the state of innervation, whereas E preferentially constricted the splanchnic vasculature. In the doses used, the two agents replenished in an additive fashion the central circulation during epidural anesthesia.

  11. Concentration-related effects of propofol on the auditory evoked response.

    PubMed

    Tooley, M A; Greenslade, G L; Prys-Roberts, C

    1996-12-01

    We have studied the effects of propofol, as the sole agent, at blood concentrations of 1-10 micrograms ml-1, on the first 100 ms of the auditory evoked response (AER) in 41 women before gynaecological surgery. AER were recorded with the patients awake and then after 30 min of one of seven stepped infusion regimens. Each patient was studied at only one blood concentration. The recordings were edited and processed off-line by coherent signal averaging, to obtain reliable estimates of each AER. We measured standard features, such as amplitudes and latencies of brainstem wave V and the mid-latency waves Na, Pa and Nb. In addition, we studied several composite indices, intended to give a more global characterization of the AER. We derived relationships between the doses and blood concentrations of propofol, features of the AER and response to eyelash stimulus and venepuncture. Nb latency was better than either concentration or dose rate of propofol in providing a confident explanation of the likelihood of eyelash response (which parallels the response to command). A cut-off value of 53 ms had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 96% and an overall correctness of 98% as a discriminator of eyelash response vs no response. Several alternative AER-derived indices provided more than 90% correctness in discrimination, as did a dose rate of propofol of 6.3-7.8 mg kg-1 h-1 or a blood concentration of 2.9 micrograms ml-1. We conclude that the concentration and dose of propofol were good discriminators of response to venepuncture, while the latency of the Na wave was the most successful of the AER features. PMID:9014622

  12. N-acetyl-L-cysteine potentiates depressor response to captopril and enalaprilat in SHRs.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, F J; Salom, M G; Inglés, A C; Quesada, T; Vicente, E; Carbonell, L F

    1994-09-01

    Recently, in vivo and in vitro studies have implicated nitric oxide as a mediator of the vascular effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). In the present study we hypothesized that N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), by increasing the availability of reduced sulfhydryl groups, would enhance the antihypertensive response to the ACEIs captopril and enalaprilat by a mechanism dependent on nitric oxide. The experiments were performed on instrumented, indomethacin-pretreated, awake spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Thirty minutes after a bolus of captopril (10 mg/kg iv) was administered, blood pressure decreased from 167 +/- 5 to 147 +/- 6 mmHg (n = 8). The pretreatment with the donor of thiol groups NAC (300 mg/kg iv) potentiated the depressor response to captopril because blood pressure decreased from 172 +/- 3 to 139 +/- 4 mmHg (n = 6). At the dose of 60 micrograms/kg iv, the ACEI enalaprilat did not acutely modify the blood pressure of SHRs (from 172 +/- 5 to 167 +/- 4 mmHg; n = 6). However, when the SHRs were pretreated with NAC, the same dose of enalaprilat significantly reduced blood pressure from 176 +/- 5 to 151 +/- 5 mmHg (n = 6). This potentiation of the depressor response to ACEIs, due to NAC, was not observed when SHRs were pretreated with the nitric oxide inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 50 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 iv). The results of this study suggest that NAC, a donor of sulfhydryl groups, potentiates the antihypertensive response to captopril and enalaprilat in SHR by a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism.

  13. A sensitive method for the determination of uranium in biological samples utilizing kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA).

    PubMed

    Hedaya, M A; Birkenfeld, H P; Kathren, R L

    1997-05-01

    tissue samples obtained over a period of 90 days following a single intraperitoneal uranium dose of 0.1 mg kg-1 in rats. PMID:9215968

  14. Pharmacological evaluation of IQM-95,333, a highly selective CCKA receptor antagonist with anxiolytic-like activity in animal models.

    PubMed

    Ballaz, S; Barber, A; Fortuño, A; Del Río, J; Martin-Martínez, M; Gómez-Monterrey, I; Herranz, R; González-Muñiz, R; García-López, M T

    1997-06-01

    1. The pyridopyrimidine derivative IQM-95,333 ((4aS,5R)-2-benzyl-5-[N alpha-tert-butoxicarbonyl)L-tryptophyl] amino-1,3dioxoperhydropyrido[1,2-c]pyrimidine), a new non-peptide antagonist of cholecystokinin type A (CCKA) receptors, has been evaluated in vitro and in vivo in comparison with typical CCKA and CCKB receptor antagonists, such as devazepide, lorglumide, L-365,260 and PD-135,158. 2. IQM-95,333 displaced [3H]-CCK-8S binding to CCKA receptors from rat pancreas with a high potency in the nanomolar range. Conversely, the affinity of this new compound at brain CCKB receptors was negligible (IC50 > 10 microM). IQM-95,333 was a more selective CCKA receptor ligand than devazepide and other CCKA receptor antagonists. 3. Like devazepide, IQM-95,333 was a more potent antagonist of CCK-8S- than of CCK-4-induced contraction of the longitudinal muscle from guinea-pig ileum, suggesting selective antagonism at CCKA receptors. 4. IQM-95,333 and devazepide were also potent inhibitors of CCK-8S-stimulated amylase release from isolated pancreatic acini, a CCKA receptor-mediated effect. The drug concentrations required (IC50s around 20 nM) were higher than in binding studies to pancreas homogenates. 5. Low doses (50-100 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) of IQM-95,333 and devazepide, without any intrinsic effect on food intake or locomotion, blocked the hypophagia and the hypolocomotion induced by systemic administration of CCK-8S, two effects associated with stimulation of peripheral CCKA receptors. 6. IQM-95,333 showed an anxiolytic-like profile in the light/dark exploration test in mice over a wide dose range (10-5,000 micrograms kg-1). Typical CCKA and CCKB antagonists, devazepide and L-365,260 respectively, were only effective within a more limited dose range. 7. In a classical conflict paradigm for the study of anxiolytic drugs, the punished-drinking test, IQM-95,333, devazepide and L-365,260 were effective within a narrow dose range. The dose-response curve for the three drugs was

  15. Comparison of the effects of levosimendan, pimobendan, and milrinone on canine left ventricular-arterial coupling and mechanical efficiency.

    PubMed

    Pagel, P S; Hettrick, D A; Warltier, D C

    1996-01-01

    We examined and compared the effects of levosimendan, a new myofilament calcium sensitizer with phosphodiesterase inhibiting activity, pimobendan, and milrinone on left ventricular-arterial coupling and mechanical efficiency in 21 experiments performed in open-chest, barbiturate-anesthetized dogs instrumented for measurement of aortic and left ventricular (LV) pressure (micromanometer-tipped catheter), +dP/dt, and LV volume (conductance catheter). Myocardial contractility was assessed with the end-systolic pressure-volume relation (Ees) and preload recruitable stroke work (Msw) generated from a series of differentially loaded LV pressure-volume diagrams. LV-arterial coupling and mechanical efficiency were determined by the ratio of Ees to effective arterial elastance (Ea; the ratio of end-systolic arterial pressure to stroke volume) and the ratio of stroke work (SW) to pressure-volume area (PVA), respectively. Levosimendan (0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) significantly (p < 0.05) increased heart rate, +dP/dt, and ejection fraction (EF) and decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP), pressure-work index (PWI; an estimate of myocardial-oxygen consumption), and LV systolic and end-diastolic pressures (LVSP and LVEDP) and volumes (EDV and ESV). Levosimendan-induced augmentation of myocardial contractility (Ees, Msw and +dP/dt) and reductions in LV afterload (Ea) caused increases in the Ees/Ea ratio (0.61 +/- 0.10 during control to 3.3 +/- 0.7 during the high dose) consistent with enhancement of LV-arterial coupling. Levosimendan increased SW/PVA (0.48 +/- 0.05 during control to 0.84 +/- 0.04 during the high dose), indicating this drug improves the transfer of myocardial potential energy to external work. Levosimendan also increased the ratio of SW to PWI (109 +/- 18 during control to 255 +/- 50 mmHg.min.100g during the high dose), suggesting that myocardial metabolic efficiency was improved as well. Like levosimendan, pimobendan and milrinone (10, 20, and 40 and

  16. 5-HT-1A receptor-mediated modulation of medullary expiratory neurones in the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Lalley, P M; Bischoff, A M; Richter, D W

    1994-01-01

    The involvement of the 5-HT-1A receptor in serotoninergic responses of stage 2 expiratory (E-2) neurones was investigated in pentobarbitone-anaesthetized, mechanically ventilated cats. The specific agonist of the 5-HT-1A receptor, 8-hydroxy-diproplaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT), administered systemically or by ionophoresis directly on to the neurones, had a clear depressant effect. Administration of 8-OH-DPAT at doses of 10-50 micrograms kg-1 (I.V.) increased the membrane hyperpolarizations of E-2 neurones during the inspiratory and postinspiratory phases, and shortened their duration of activity in association with shortening of phrenic nerve activity. Discharges of E-2 neurones were also less intense. At doses of 50-90 micrograms kg-1, 8-OH-DPAT reduced or abolished inspiratory hyperpolarizations, and reduced expiratory depolarizations of membrane potential and discharge in parallel with inhibition of phrenic nerve discharges. The effects of the larger doses were reversed by I.V. injection of NAN-190, an antagonist at the 5-HT-1A receptor. Dose-dependent effects on the membrane potential and discharge of E-2 neurones, but not on phrenic nerve activity, were also seen by ionophoretic administration of 8-OH-DPAT on to E-2 neurones. At low currents, ejection of 8-OH-DPAT hyperpolarized the neurones without affecting the duration of inspiratory hyperpolarization and expiratory depolarization. This hyperpolarization depressed the intensity and the duration of expiratory discharges. Ejection with larger currents hyperpolarized the E-2 neurones further, and depressed expiratory depolarization leading to blockade of expiratory discharges. The effects on membrane potential were accompanied by decreased neuronal input resistance. This depressed the excitability of E-2 neurones as tested by discharge evoked by intracellular current injection. The amplitudes of action potentials decreased in parallel with the changes in input resistance. The effects were attributed to a

  17. Morphological correlates of the differential responses of muscles to vecuronium.

    PubMed

    Ibebunjo, C; Srikant, C B; Donati, F

    1999-08-01

    We have noted previously that duration of vecuronium block correlated with fibre size in six muscle groups in the goat. Electrophysiological considerations suggest that the important factor should be the number of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) relative to fibre size. However, this hypothesis could not be verified in the goat because the number of AChR was relatively constant in the different muscles despite differences in fibre size. Therefore, in this study, we have investigated the relationship between sensitivity to vecuronium, as reflected by the ED50 and duration of block, of six muscles in the cat and the number of AChR per unit fibre cross-sectional area (CSA). The ED50 and duration of action (time to 50% recovery of the first twitch after a dose of 15 micrograms kg-1) of vecuronium in the tibialis cranialis, soleus, rectus abdominis, masseter, diaphragm and thyroarytenoideus muscles were determined during train-of-four stimulation and EMG recording in seven cats anaesthetized with pentobarbital. CSA of the muscle fibres and number of junctional AChR in these muscles were measured by histological methods and 125I-alpha-bungarotoxin binding assay, respectively, and the number of AChR per unit fibre CSA calculated. The association between muscle response (ED50 and duration of block) and fibre CSA or number of AChR per unit fibre CSA was then tested by regression analyses. Duration of block varied between the six muscles (mean 8.9 (SEM 2.6) to 20.3 (3.1) min; P = 0.0001) but ED50 did not (7.5 (1.5) to 15.6 (2.5) micrograms kg-1; P = 0.185). Fibre CSA and number of AChR per unit fibre CSA also varied between these muscles (P = 0.0001). Duration to 50% TI recovery was prolonged in muscles with a low number of AChR relative to fibre CSA (r2 = 0.30; P = 0.0002) and the ED50 increased as the number of AChR per fibre CSA increased (r2 = 0.240; P = 0.0016). These results in the cat suggest that the number of junctional AChR relative to fibre CSA is a morphological

  18. Comparison of the effects of levosimendan, pimobendan, and milrinone on canine left ventricular-arterial coupling and mechanical efficiency.

    PubMed

    Pagel, P S; Hettrick, D A; Warltier, D C

    1996-01-01

    We examined and compared the effects of levosimendan, a new myofilament calcium sensitizer with phosphodiesterase inhibiting activity, pimobendan, and milrinone on left ventricular-arterial coupling and mechanical efficiency in 21 experiments performed in open-chest, barbiturate-anesthetized dogs instrumented for measurement of aortic and left ventricular (LV) pressure (micromanometer-tipped catheter), +dP/dt, and LV volume (conductance catheter). Myocardial contractility was assessed with the end-systolic pressure-volume relation (Ees) and preload recruitable stroke work (Msw) generated from a series of differentially loaded LV pressure-volume diagrams. LV-arterial coupling and mechanical efficiency were determined by the ratio of Ees to effective arterial elastance (Ea; the ratio of end-systolic arterial pressure to stroke volume) and the ratio of stroke work (SW) to pressure-volume area (PVA), respectively. Levosimendan (0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) significantly (p < 0.05) increased heart rate, +dP/dt, and ejection fraction (EF) and decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP), pressure-work index (PWI; an estimate of myocardial-oxygen consumption), and LV systolic and end-diastolic pressures (LVSP and LVEDP) and volumes (EDV and ESV). Levosimendan-induced augmentation of myocardial contractility (Ees, Msw and +dP/dt) and reductions in LV afterload (Ea) caused increases in the Ees/Ea ratio (0.61 +/- 0.10 during control to 3.3 +/- 0.7 during the high dose) consistent with enhancement of LV-arterial coupling. Levosimendan increased SW/PVA (0.48 +/- 0.05 during control to 0.84 +/- 0.04 during the high dose), indicating this drug improves the transfer of myocardial potential energy to external work. Levosimendan also increased the ratio of SW to PWI (109 +/- 18 during control to 255 +/- 50 mmHg.min.100g during the high dose), suggesting that myocardial metabolic efficiency was improved as well. Like levosimendan, pimobendan and milrinone (10, 20, and 40 and

  19. [In vitro antimycobacterial activity of a new quinolone, T-3761].

    PubMed

    Tomioka, H; Sato, K; Saito, H

    1995-02-01

    We evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial activity of T-3761 and ofloxacin against representative pathogenic mycobacteria by the agar dilution method, using 7H11 agar medium. T-3761 showed appreciable antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MIC90: 3.13 micrograms/ml), M. kansasii (MIC90: 6.25 micrograms/ml) and M. fortuitum (MIC90: 3.13 micrograms/ml), whereas the agent was not active against M. marinum (MIC90: 25 micrograms/ml), M. scrofulaceum (MIC90: 50 micrograms/ml), M. avium (MIC90: > 100 micrograms/ml), M. intracellulare (MIC90: > 100 micrograms/ml), M. chelonae subsp. abscessus (MIC90: > 100 micrograms/ml) and M. chelonae subsp. chelonae (MIC90: 50 micrograms/ml). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of T-3761 against M. fortuitum was a little more potent than that of ofloxacin, whereas the activity of T-3761 against the other mycobacteria was slightly inferior to that of ofloxacin. The antimycobacterial activity of T-3761 against M. tuberculosis H37Rv (MIC in vitro: T-3761 = 3.13 micrograms/ml, OFLX = 0.78 micrograms/ml) phagocytosed in murine peritoneal macrophages was less active than that of ofloxacin, when the macrophages were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 1 microgram/ml or 10 micrograms/ml of these agents for up to 5 days. The activity of 10 micrograms/ml of T-3761 was equivalent to that of 1 microgram/ml of ofloxacin. PMID:7699982

  20. Effects of isoflurane, fentanyl, or thiopental anesthesia on regional cerebral blood flow and brain surface PO2 in the presence of a focal lesion in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Murr, R; Schürer, L; Berger, S; Enzenbach, R; Peter, K; Baethmann, A

    1993-11-01

    These studies were conducted to determine the effect of anesthetic drugs on tissue perfusion and O2 supply in the brain with focal cerebral edema. Using an open cranium preparation, we studied the effects of isoflurane (I; 1 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration), of fentanyl (F; 0.5-1 microgram.kg-1 x min-1), or of thiopental (T; 32.5 mg.kg-1 x h-1) on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and regional brain tissue PO2 in albino rabbits (n = 6 per group) with a focal brain lesion (cold injury). The doses of anesthetics were sufficient to suppress nociception. rCBF (H2 clearance) and tissue PO2 (multiwire surface electrode) were studied adjacent to and distant from the lesion. Cerebral hyperemia developed immediately after trauma in all groups, although the flow increase did not attain statistical significance. rCBF was subsequently reduced by about 25% in the vicinity of the lesion. Distant from the trauma, a continuing hyperemia (+30%) was later observed in animals with isoflurane, whereas rCBF was decreased then by 10%-20% in animals with fentanyl, or was unchanged with thiopental. Brain tissue PO2 was increased with isoflurane in areas distant from the lesion, but decreased with fentanyl. However, with thiopental, the PO2 level had already been lowered before trauma with a subsequent tendency toward normalization. The heterogeneity of the tissue PO2 in fentanyl anesthesia, as well as the increased frequency of hypoxic PO2 values with thiopental, might have resulted from microcirculatory disturbances. Thus, although isoflurane seemed to facilitate hyperemia with an increased O2 supply to the brain, fentanyl tended to induce the opposite response. Although these properties suggest the potential to manipulate perfusion and O2 supply in cerebral ischemia or hyperemia after head injury, the effects of such measures on intracranial pressure, neurologic status, and outcome have yet to be proven.

  1. Effects of diltiazem on postextrasystolic potentiation in coronary heart disease patients.

    PubMed

    Di Donato, M; Maioli, M; Marchionni, N; Barletta, G A; Fantini, F

    1990-07-01

    The effects of the calcium antagonist, diltiazem (D), on left ventricular (LV) response to postextrasystolic potentiation (PESP) were investigated in 15 coronary artery disease patients. Several haemodynamic and LV function parameters, as well as regional wall kinetics, were analysed. During LV angiography, which was performed before and after D administration (0.25 mg kg-1 bolus and 1.4 microgram kg-1 min-1 infusion), programmed atrial stimulation was applied with the sequence: S1-S1 = 600 ms; S1-S2 = 400 ms; S2-S3 = 800 ms. The results indicate that D exerts a mild negative inotropic effect which is more evident in the postextrasystolic beat (postextrasystolic ESP/ESV and dP/dtmax were significantly lower after D) but the postextrasystolic increase of EF is maintained by the effects of the drug on loading conditions of the left ventricle. Our results indicate that both a reduction of afterload and an increase of preload take place after D. The greater preload reserve induced by the drug (EDVI was significantly higher in each patient after D) was associated with a slight increase in left ventricular filling rate, while end-diastolic compliance and pressure did not show significant variations. These results suggest that the increase in left ventricular preload is due to an increase in left atrial driving pressure, an improvement of left ventricular relaxation or both. D does not affect regional wall kinetics either in basal or in the postextrasystolic beat when overall areas are considered, however its effect seems to be related to the degree of basal regional contraction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Falciparum malaria in eastern Thailand: a randomized trial of the efficacy of a single dose of mefloquine.

    PubMed Central

    Fontanet, A. L.; Johnston, B. D.; Walker, A. M.; Bergqvist, Y.; Hellgren, U.; Rooney, W.

    1994-01-01

    Reported are the results of a randomized trial of a single dose of mefloquine (15 mg/kg or 25 mg/kg body weight) for the treatment of uncomplicated multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria. Of the 110 adult patients enrolled in the study 57 were randomly assigned to the 15 mg/kg group and 53 to the 25 mg/kg group. The baseline characteristics of the patients did not differ significantly in the two groups, except that those in the 15 mg/kg group had lower haemoglobin levels. Adverse effects following treatment were commoner in the 25 mg/kg group, but not significantly so. Seven patients (6%) did not complete the 42-day follow-up. The parasitological failure rates in the 15 and 25 mg/kg groups were, respectively, 50% (28/56) and 43% (25/53) on day 28, and 62% (33/53) and 56% (28/50) on day 42. Treatment failures were not correlated with the serum mefloquine concentrations on day 2, and 13 out of 19 patients with serum mefloquine concentrations > 2000 micrograms/l on day 2 showed an R response during the follow-up. The mean ratio between the concentrations of the (SR)-(-) and (RS)-(+) enantiomers of mefloquine on day 2 was 3.37, indicating that there are differences in their pharmacokinetics. Re-treatment of patients who showed an R response with seven days of quinine (30 mg.kg-1.day-1)+tetracycline (25 mg.kg-1.day-1) was successful in 93% of the cases. PMID:8131253

  3. Mean circulatory filling pressure during splanchnic nerve stimulation and whole-body hypoxia in the anaesthetized cat.

    PubMed

    Bower, E A; O'Donnell, C P

    1991-01-01

    1. Mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP) was measured in cats under chloralose anaesthesia by obstruction of blood flow in the pulmonary artery. Pressures in the aorta, hepatic portal vein and right atrium were recorded, and MCFP was estimated from the value at which all three pressures became equal when blood was pumped from aorta to vena cava during circulatory arrest. Simultaneous equality was not attained at MCFP values below 5 mmHg. 2. In cats ventilated by positive pressure after administration of gallamine, MCFP was 9.7 +/- 0.3 mmHg (n = 14). The values of MCFP measured in six cats before and after administration of gallamine did not differ significantly. Change of blood volume altered MCFP linearly over the range 5-21 mmHg. Noradrenaline (7.5 micrograms kg-1 min-1) increased MCFP from 9.3 +/- 0.9 to 16.5 +/- 0.6 mmHg (n = 4), and phentolamine (2 mg kg-1) reduced it to 5.6 +/- 0.3 mmHg (n = 5). 3. Changes in MCFP were evoked at different circulating blood volumes by stimulation of the splanchnic sympathetic nerves and by whole-body hypoxia. Ablation of all splanchnic nerves reduced MCFP from 9.4 +/- 0.5 to 7.1 +/- 0.3 mmHg (n = 5) and stimulation of their distal ends at 10 Hz increased it by 4.1 +/- 0.4 mmHg (n = 4); similar increments were obtained at different blood volumes and initial values of MCFP. 4. Hypoxia increased MCFP by 0.23 mmHg per 1 mmHg fall in arterial oxygen tension below Pa,O2 56 mmHg (r = -0.86; n = 24). Similar increments were obtained at different blood volumes and initial values of MCFP. Ablation of all splanchnic nerves reduced the increments by 60%, and administration of phentolamine abolished them.

  4. Partial blockade of neurotensin-induced hypotension in rats by nephrectomy captopril and saralasin. Possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kérouac, R; St-Pierre, S; Manning, M; Rioux, F

    1983-04-01

    We have assessed the influence of acute bilateral nephrectomy, of captopril and saralasin, on the hypotensive activity of neurotensin (NT) and of various hypotensive drugs in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. The results show that the hypotensive activity of NT and of compound 48/80 (C48/80), in contrast to that of histamine, of 5-hydroxytryptamine and of hexamethonium, is markedly reduced, especially for NT, in nephrectomized as compared to sham operated rats. The pretreatment of rats with captopril (10 mg kg-1, i.v.) or with saralasin (20 micrograms kg-1 min-1, i.v.) was found to inhibit significantly the hypotensive activity of NT and of C48/80. Adrenalectomy restored partially the hypotensive activity of NT in nephrectomized rats. The potent vasopressin antagonist [d(CH2)5 Tyr(Me)AVP] did not alter the refractoriness of nephrectomized rats to the hypotensive activity of NT. Neither nephrectomy nor saralasin were found to interfere with the ability of NT or of C48/80 to evoke an increase of plasma histamine level or of the hematocrit. The results were interpreted as an indication that NT produces part of its hypotensive effect in anesthetized rats by reducing the activity of the renin angiotensin system. The results also suggest that part of the refractoriness of nephrectomized rats to the hypotensive activity of NT could be due to the release of catecholamines from adrenal glands by NT. Endogenous vasopressin does not appear to contribute to the refractoriness of nephrectomized rats to the hypotensive action of NT.

  5. Elimination of tilmicosin in lactating ewes.

    PubMed

    Atef, M; Abo el-Sooud, K; Nahed, E; Tawfik, M

    1999-07-01

    Tilmicosin was injected subcutaneously to lactating ewes once at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 b.wt. to determine its plasma, milk, urine and ruminal juice concentrations. Tilmicosin could be detected in all those fluids 30 minutes after injection. Milk and urine concentrations were higher than those of plasma and ruminal juice. The drug was detectable in milk, urine and plasma for 9, 4 and 3 days after injection, respectively. No amount of tilmicosin could be detected in ruminal juice 12 hours following administration. The mean peak concentration of tilmicosin in plasma and milk (Cmax) were 1.29 and 9.5 micrograms ml-1 and were obtained at (Tmax) 5.235 and 15.093 hours, respectively. The drug was slowly eliminated from plasma and milk as indicated by its long half-life (t1/2el) of 15.4 and 26.2 hours, respectively. The mean binding of tilmicosin to plasma and milk proteins in vitro was 16.8% and 26.8%, respectively. The drug was not bound to ruminal juice at any extent. The rate of tilmicosin renal clearance revealed that it was correspondingly increased with higher blood concentrations. While creatinine clearance showed no significant change after tilmicosin administration. The ratio (fractional clearance) between tilmicosin renal clearance to creatinine clearance was less than one indicating that the glomerular filtration is the main pathway of elimination through kidneys. The rate of ruminal gas fermentation in ewes was inhibited after subcutaneous injection of tilmicosin at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 b.wt. The tested samples taken at different time intervals from the rumen of ewes showed a subsequent reduction in the rate of fermentation as compared to control samples. The reduction was correspondingly increased with the increase of tilmicosin concentration in ruminal juice and returned to normal thereafter.

  6. Identifying fire plumes in the Arctic with tropospheric FTIR measurements and transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viatte, C.; Strong, K.; Hannigan, J.; Nussbaumer, E.; Emmons, L. K.; Conway, S.; Paton-Walsh, C.; Hartley, J.; Benmergui, J.; Lin, J.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate Arctic tropospheric composition using ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectra, recorded at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL, Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, 80°05' N, 86°42' W) and at Thule (Greenland, 76°53' N, -68°74' W) from 2008 to 2012. The target species, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), ethane (C2H6), acetylene (C2H2), formic acid (HCOOH), and formaldehyde (H2CO) are emitted by biomass burning and can be transported from mid-latitudes to the Arctic. By detecting simultaneous enhancements of three biomass burning tracers (HCN, CO, and C2H6), ten and eight fire events are identified at Eureka and Thule, respectively, within the 5-year FTIR time series. Analyses of Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model back-trajectories coupled with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire hotspot data, Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model footprints, and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) UV aerosol index maps, are used to attribute burning source regions and travel time durations of the plumes. By taking into account the effect of aging of the smoke plumes, measured FTIR enhancement ratios were corrected to obtain emission ratios and equivalent emission factors. The means of emission factors for extratropical forest estimated with the two FTIR data sets are 0.40 ± 0.21 g kg-1 for HCN, 1.24 ± 0.71 g kg-1 for C2H6, 0.34 ± 0.21 g kg-1 for C2H2, and 2.92 ± 1.30 g kg-1 for HCOOH. The emission factor for CH3OH estimated at Eureka is 3.44 ± 1.68 g kg-1. To improve our knowledge concerning the dynamical and chemical processes associated with Arctic pollution from fires, the two sets of FTIR measurements were compared to the Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4). Seasonal cycles and day-to-day variabilities were compared to assess the ability of the model to reproduce emissions from fires and

  7. [Zinc, copper, iron, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium content of maternal milk during the first 3 weeks of lactation].

    PubMed

    Itriago, A; Carrión, N; Fernández, A; Puig, M; Dini, E

    1997-03-01

    Zinc, Copper, Iron. Calcium Phosphorous and Magnesium contents were determined in early milk samples in 72 mothers from Caracas city. The samples were collected during three different lactation stages: calostro (3 days), transitional (7 days) and mature milk (21 days). The more significant changes in the concentration of the studied elements were observed during the first two weeks, them they stabilize during the third week. The Zn, Cu, Fe, Ca, P and Mg average concentration found in calostro samples were 7.1 +/- 2.5 micrograms/ml; 0.52 +/- 0.15 microgram/ml; 0.49 +/- 0.14 microgram/ml; 214 +/- 62 micrograms/ml, 107 +/- 27 micrograms/ml and 33.3 +/- 7.5 micrograms/ml. respectively. For the transitional milk samples the average concentration found for the studied elements were: 4.0 +/- 1.0 micrograms/ml; 0.50 +/- 0.10 microgram/ml; 0.38 +/- 0.08 microgram/ml, 292 +/- 62 micrograms/ml; 213 +/- 36 micrograms/ml and 30.4 +/- 5.2 micrograms/ml. For the mature milk samples the results were: 2.8 +/- 2.7 micrograms/ml; 0.47 +/- 0.08 microgram/ml; 0.36 +/- 0.09 microgram/ml; 244 +/- 49 micrograms/ml; 175 +/-35 micrograms/ml and 25.2 +/- 3.3 micrograms/ml. The concentration range for all trace elements studied (Cu, Fe and Zn) can be considered normal. For the major elements (Ca, P and Mg) the results obtained in our work are similar to those reported for other countries. These facts allows to conclude that the nutritional state of this mother population is adequate to satisfy the lactate's requirements during their first live stage.

  8. [Zinc, copper, iron, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium content of maternal milk during the first 3 weeks of lactation].

    PubMed

    Itriago, A; Carrión, N; Fernández, A; Puig, M; Dini, E

    1997-03-01

    Zinc, Copper, Iron. Calcium Phosphorous and Magnesium contents were determined in early milk samples in 72 mothers from Caracas city. The samples were collected during three different lactation stages: calostro (3 days), transitional (7 days) and mature milk (21 days). The more significant changes in the concentration of the studied elements were observed during the first two weeks, them they stabilize during the third week. The Zn, Cu, Fe, Ca, P and Mg average concentration found in calostro samples were 7.1 +/- 2.5 micrograms/ml; 0.52 +/- 0.15 microgram/ml; 0.49 +/- 0.14 microgram/ml; 214 +/- 62 micrograms/ml, 107 +/- 27 micrograms/ml and 33.3 +/- 7.5 micrograms/ml. respectively. For the transitional milk samples the average concentration found for the studied elements were: 4.0 +/- 1.0 micrograms/ml; 0.50 +/- 0.10 microgram/ml; 0.38 +/- 0.08 microgram/ml, 292 +/- 62 micrograms/ml; 213 +/- 36 micrograms/ml and 30.4 +/- 5.2 micrograms/ml. For the mature milk samples the results were: 2.8 +/- 2.7 micrograms/ml; 0.47 +/- 0.08 microgram/ml; 0.36 +/- 0.09 microgram/ml; 244 +/- 49 micrograms/ml; 175 +/-35 micrograms/ml and 25.2 +/- 3.3 micrograms/ml. The concentration range for all trace elements studied (Cu, Fe and Zn) can be considered normal. For the major elements (Ca, P and Mg) the results obtained in our work are similar to those reported for other countries. These facts allows to conclude that the nutritional state of this mother population is adequate to satisfy the lactate's requirements during their first live stage. PMID:9429635

  9. Surface-Mediated Nucleic Acid Delivery by Lipoplexes Prepared in Microwell Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yun; Terp, Megan Cavanaugh; Kwak, Kwang Joo; Gallego-Perez, Daniel; Nana-Sinkam, Serge P.; Lee, L. James

    2014-01-01

    Many delivery methods have been developed to improve the therapeutic efficacy and facilitate the clinical translation of nucleic acid-based therapeutics. A facile surface-mediated nucleic acid delivery by lipoplexes is prepared in a microwell array, which combines the advantages of lipoplexes as an efficient carrier system, surface-mediated delivery, and the control of surface topography. Uniform disc-like lipoplexes containing nucleic acids are formed in the microwell array with a diameter of ~ 818 nm and thickness of ~ 195 nm. The microwell array-mediated delivery of lipoplexes containing FAM-oligodeoxynucleotides is ~ 18.6 and ~ 10.6 times more efficient than the conventional transfection method in an adherent cell line (A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells) and a suspension cell line (KG-1a acute myelogenous leukemia cells), respectively. MicroRNA-29b is then used as a model nucleic acid to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of lipoplexes delivered by the microwell array. Compared to conventional transfection methods, the effective therapeutic dosage of microRNA-29b is reduced from the microgram level to the nanogram level by lipoplexes prepared in the microwell array. The microwell array is also a very flexible platform. Both nucleic acid therapeutics and imaging reagents are incorporated in lipoplexes and successfully delivered to A549 cells, demonstrating its potential applications in theranostic medicine. PMID:23471869

  10. Respiratory mechanical properties during fentanyl and alfentanil anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Neto, P P; Auler Júnior, J O

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects on respiratory mechanics of fentanyl and alfentanil in 20 subjects to be submitted to coronary artery bypass grafting. Using the end inflation occlusion method (EIOM) we obtained the elastance (E) and resistance (R) of the total respiratory system (rs), thoracic wall (w) and lungs (L). The total respiratory system was divided into thoracic wall and lungs by using an oesophageal catheter. The data were recorded before, immediately after, and two, five and ten minutes after fentanyl and alfentanil iv bolus, at doses of 30 and 120 micrograms.kg-1, respectively. The Ers increased at two, five and ten minutes and the EL at ten minutes after drug administration. The Rrs,min and RL,min increased at two, five and ten minutes and the RL,max at five and ten minutes. Both drugs provoked no change in Ew or Rw. It is concluded that the increased in Rrs,min and RL,min could be explained by opioid bronchoconstriction. No differences were found between the effects of fentanyl and alfentanil on respiratory mechanics. PMID:1596970

  11. Theophylline therapy inhibits neutrophil and mononuclear cell chemotaxis from chronic asthmatic children.

    PubMed Central

    Condino-Neto, A; Vilela, M M; Cambiucci, E C; Ribeiro, J D; Guglielmi, A A; Magna, L A; De Nucci, G

    1991-01-01

    1. Theophylline is commonly used to relieve symptoms of chronic asthma. Since neutrophil and mononuclear cell activation are associated with late phase asthmatic reactions, effects of theophylline on these cells may be of importance. 2. In the present investigation we compared neutrophil and mononuclear cell chemotaxis from chronic asthmatic children during and after theophylline therapy. 3. Thirty patients were recruited for the study. Each patient received theophylline orally for 10 days. The theophylline dose was 20 mg kg-1 day-1 given in four divided doses. On the tenth day, blood was collected into heparinized (100 u ml-1) and siliconized tubes 2 h after the last theophylline dose for chemotactic assays, cAMP and theophylline plasma determinations. When clinical conditions allowed, theophylline was discontinued for 7 days and the chemotactic assays, cAMP and theophylline plasma concentrations repeated. Serum complement and IgE levels were also determined. 4. Theophylline therapy clearly inhibited both spontaneous and stimulated neutrophil and mononuclear cell chemotaxis. Twenty-seven patients had therapeutic plasma concentrations of theophylline (5-20 micrograms ml-1). Discontinuation of theophylline therapy caused a significant decrease in plasma cAMP levels (44 and 31 pmol ml-1 respectively during and after treatment, n = 30, P less than 0.001). 5. The inhibition of neutrophil and mononuclear cell migration by theophylline therapy in chronic asthmatic children may be beneficial for the control of the inflammatory response observed in these patients. PMID:1659436

  12. Comparisons of the effects of TCDD and hydrocortisone on growth factor expression provide insight into their interaction in the embryonic mouse palate

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B.D.; Harris, M.W.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    Cleft palate (CP) can be induced in embryonic mice by a wide range of compounds, including glucocorticoids and 2,3,7,8-tyetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Hydrocortisone (HC), a glucocorticoid, retards embryonic growth producing small palatal shelves, while TCDD exposure blocks the fusion of normally sized shelves. TCDD induction of CP involves altered differentiation of the medial epithelial cells. Recent studies indicate that growth factors such as EGF, TGF-alpha, TGF-beta1, and TGF-beta2 are involved in palatogenesis, regulating proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix production. A synergism has been observed between HC and TCDD in which doses too low to induce CP alone are able to produce >90% incidence when coadministered. In the present study a standard teratology protocol was performed in C57BL/6N mice to examine the synergism at doses lower than those previously published. Data from the study indicate synergistic interactions at doses as low as 3 micrograms TCDD/kg + 1 mg HC/kg. This extreme sensitivity suggests the involvement of a receptor-mediated mechanism possibly resulting in altered regulation of gene expression. (Copyright (c) 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.)

  13. Characterisation of the vasculature within a murine adenocarcinoma growing in different sites to evaluate the potential of vascular therapies.

    PubMed

    Cowen, S E; Bibby, M C; Double, J A

    1995-01-01

    Numerous vaso-active agents can affect vasculature in experimental solid tumours growing subcutaneously (s.c.), but these models are unlikely to reflect the vasculature of metastatic disease in man. The present study describes a murine orthotopic colon tumour which metastasises to the liver. Morphology and vascular pattern of caecal tumours is similar to s.c. tumours. Vascular occlusion caused by intravenous (i.v.) noradrenaline (NA) (160 micrograms kg-1) and hydralazine (HDZ) (10 mgkg-1) was 32% and 59% respectively for the caecal tumours compared with 35% and 78% for s.c. tumours. Significant morphological differences were seen between liver metastases and systemic deposits produced by i.v. inoculation of tumour cells. Liver metastases following orthotopic transplantation contained functional vasculature but no significant occlusion was seen with NA or HDZ. The vascular development and morphological appearance of secondary disease resulting from orthotopic implantation suggests that this would be a useful model for the study of agents that act either by vascular or anti-angiogenic mechanism.

  14. A novel prodrug of salicylic acid, salicylic acid-glycylglycine conjugate, utilizing the hydrolysis in rabbit intestinal microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, J; Asai, K; Nishida, K; Sasaki, H

    1992-09-01

    The hydrolysis of salicylic acid-glycylglycine conjugate (salicyl-glycylglycine) following oral, intravenous, intracaecal and rectal administration (434, 72, 36 and 36 mumol kg-1, respectively: equivalent to salicylic acid) was examined in rabbits to develop a novel prodrug of salicylic acid. Salicylic acid was detected in the blood 2 h after oral administration of salicyl-glycylglycine and it reached a maximum level (55.6 micrograms mL-1) at 15 h, whereas a small amount of salicyl-glycylglycine was found in the blood. In contrast, unchanged salicyl-glycylglycine was found mainly in the blood following its intravenous administration, suggesting the involvement of presystemic deconjugation in the hydrolysis of salicyl-glycylglycine. Immediate and very extensive salicyclic acid formation in the caecum was observed following intracaecal administration of salicyl-glycylglycine, suggesting that the intestinal microorganisms were responsible for the biotransformation of this compound. In-vitro incubation of salicyl-glycylglycine with caecal content showed that salicyl-glycylglycine was hydrolysed efficiently in the caecum. Consequently, the blood concentration of salicylic acid was prolonged extensively following rectal administration of salicyl-glycylglycine, indicating the usefulness of salicyl-glycylglycine as a prodrug of salicylic acid.

  15. Long-term hypotensive effect of beta-agonist in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Nuwayhid, B S; Young, D B; Tipayamontri, U; Montani, J P

    1988-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the arterial pressure response to long-term administration of beta-agonists in the chronically instrumented conscious animal model. Chronically instrumented dogs were given intravenous infusions of ritodrine (2 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) for a period of 2 wk. Several cardiovascular and renal parameters were monitored before, during, and after the ritodrine infusion, and renal function curves were constructed. After the 1st wk of infusion, a new steady state was reestablished, and this was characterized by hypotension, reduced plasma protein concentration, elevated cardiac output, expanded extracellular fluid space, and near normal levels of activity of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems. The renal function curve during ritodrine infusion shifted to the left with no change in slope. We propose the following: 1) the persistence of hypotension is most probably related to the resetting of the arterial pressure-kidney blood volume servocontrol mechanisms, and 2) the persistent elevation of cardiac output and reduction in peripheral resistance are most probably related to increased oxygen and nutrient demand during beta-agonist infusions.

  16. Prostaglandin E1 decreases the low-density-lipoprotein entry into rabbit arterial wall.

    PubMed Central

    Sinzinger, H.; Virgolini, I.; Lupattelli, G.; Molinari, E.; Gerakakis, A.; Angelberger, P.

    1991-01-01

    1. In 72 male rabbits fed a 1% cholesterol supplemented diet the effect of a 4 weeks daily infusion of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1, 20 micrograms kg-1 min-1 over 2 h) on [125I]-low density lipoprotein (LDL) accumulation (10 microCi; 0.5 mg protein ml-1) was examined versus sham-treatment after removal of the endothelium of the abdominal aorta by a Fogarthy catheter. 2. The uptake of [125I]-LDL was significantly (P less than 0.01) higher in endothelium-free aortic segments (showing the highest peak maximum at around 12 h after 125I-injection) as compared to aortic segments with endothelium intact (showing the lowest uptake of [125I]-LDL with the peak maximum at 48 h, last control time). Segments with the endothelium restored showed a similar LDL-retention curve to segments with endothelium however, being again significantly (P less than 0.01) higher. 3. PGE1-treatment caused reduction in LDL-accumulation, being significantly (P less than 0.001) pronounced in segments without endothelium and in segments with endothelium restored. 4. The findings indicate a beneficial effect of PGE1 in lipid metabolism by decreasing the LDL-influx into the arterial wall in-vivo. PMID:1933127

  17. Superoxide dismutase restores endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilatation during acute infusion of nicotine.

    PubMed

    Mayhan, W G; Sharpe, G M

    1998-10-01

    We previously showed [Am. J. Physiol. 272 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 41): H2337-H2342, 1997] that nicotine impairs endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilatation. However, mechanisms that accounted for the effect of nicotine on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation were not examined. Thus the goal of this study was to examine the role of oxygen radicals in nicotine-induced impairment of arteriolar reactivity. We measured diameter of cheek pouch resistance arterioles (approximately 50 micrometer diameter) in response to endothelium-dependent (ACh and ADP) and -independent (nitroglycerin) agonists before and after infusion of vehicle or nicotine in the absence or presence of superoxide dismutase. ACh, ADP, and nitroglycerin produced dose-related dilatation of cheek pouch arterioles before infusion of vehicle or nicotine. Infusion of vehicle, in the absence or presence of superoxide dismutase (150 U/ml), did not alter endothelium-dependent or -independent arteriolar dilatation. In contrast, infusion of nicotine (2 microgram . kg-1 . min-1) impaired endothelium-dependent, but not -independent, arteriolar dilatation. In addition, the effect of nicotine on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation was reversed by topical application of superoxide dismutase. We suggest that nicotine impairs endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilatation via an increase in the synthesis/release of oxygen-derived free radicals.

  18. Effect of growth hormone and resistance exercise on muscle growth in young men.

    PubMed

    Yarasheski, K E; Campbell, J A; Smith, K; Rennie, M J; Holloszy, J O; Bier, D M

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether growth hormone (GH) administration enhances the muscle anabolism associated with heavy-resistance exercise. Sixteen men (21-34 yr) were assigned randomly to a resistance training plus GH group (n = 7) or to a resistance training plus placebo group (n = 9). For 12 wk, both groups trained all major muscle groups in an identical fashion while receiving 40 micrograms recombinant human GH.kg-1.day-1 or placebo. Fat-free mass (FFM) and total body water increased (P less than 0.05) in both groups but more (P less than 0.01) in the GH recipients. Whole body protein synthesis rate increased more (P less than 0.03), and whole body protein balance was greater (P = 0.01) in the GH-treated group, but quadriceps muscle protein synthesis rate, torso and limb circumferences, and muscle strength did not increase more in the GH-treated group. In the young men studied, resistance exercise with or without GH resulted in similar increments in muscle size, strength, and muscle protein synthesis, indicating that 1) the larger increase in FFM with GH treatment was probably due to an increase in lean tissue other than skeletal muscle and 2) resistance training supplemented with GH did not further enhance muscle anabolism and function. PMID:1550219

  19. Atrial natriuretic factor increases vascular permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Lockette, W.; Brennaman, B. )

    1990-12-01

    An increase in central blood volume in microgravity may result in increased plasma levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). Since elevations in plasma ANF are found in clinical syndromes associated with edema, and since space motion sickness induced by microgravity is associated with an increase in central blood volume and facial edema, we determined whether ANF increases capillary permeability to plasma protein. Conscious, bilaterally nephrectomized male rats were infused with either saline, ANF + saline, or hexamethonium + saline over 2 h following bolus injections of 125I-albumin and 14C-dextran of similar molecular size. Blood pressure was monitored and serial determinations of hematocrits were made. Animals infused with 1.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 ANF had significantly higher hematocrits than animals infused with saline vehicle. Infusion of ANF increased the extravasation of 125I-albumin, but not 14C-dextran from the intravascular compartment. ANF also induced a depressor response in rats, but the change in blood pressure did not account for changes in capillary permeability to albumin; similar depressor responses induced by hexamethonium were not accompanied by increased extravasation of albumin from the intravascular compartment. ANF may decrease plasma volume by increasing permeability to albumin, and this effect of ANF may account for some of the signs and symptoms of space motion sickness.

  20. Discussion of parameters associated with the determination of arsenic by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry in slurried environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Vassileva, E; Baeten, H; Hoenig, M

    2001-01-01

    A slurry sampling-fast program procedure has been developed for the determination of arsenic in plants, soils and sediments by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Efficiencies of various single and mixed modifiers for thermal stabilization of arsenic and for a better removal of the matrix during pyrolysis step were compared. The influence of the slurry concentration, amounts of modifier and parameters of the pyrolysis step on the As integrated absorbance signals have been studied and a comparison between fast and conventional furnace programs was also made. The ultrasonic agitation of the slurry followed by a fast electrothermal program using an Ir/Mg modifier provides the most consistent performance in terms of precision and accuracy. The reliability of the whole procedure has been compared with results obtained after application of a wet digestion method with an HF step and validated by analyzing eleven certified reference materials. Arsenic detection and quantitation limits expressed on dry sample matter were about 30 and 100 micrograms kg-1, respectively.

  1. Regulation of plasma motilin by opioids in the dog.

    PubMed

    Poitras, P; Boivin, M; Lahaie, R G; Trudel, L

    1989-07-01

    In the first part of this study, we compared the effects of morphine and trimebutine, two opioid receptor agonists, on small intestinal motility and plasma motilin in dogs. Morphine (100 micrograms/kg iv for 10 min) induced first a typical vomiting myoelectric profile followed subsequently by a migrating electrical activity mimicking phase III of the migrating myoelectric complex; trimebutine (5 mg/kg iv for 10 min) initiated only a migrating phase III-like activity. Despite their different initial contractile effects, both agents induced a significant and similar rise in plasma motilin that preceded the beginning of the premature phase III. In the second portion of the study, naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, was infused to verify the influence of endogenous opiates on plasma motilin and on the migrating motor complex. Naloxone (2 mg/kg, then 0.5 mg.kg-1.h-1 iv) delayed significantly the cyclic recurrence of plasma motilin peak increases and of the phase IIIs. In some animals, where naloxone abolished the phase IIIs, the amplitude of the motilin peak increases was significantly diminished. These results suggest 1) that opioid administration increases plasma levels of motilin by a mechanism that is independent of the intestinal contractile activity, and 2) that endogenous opioids could be physiological inducers of plasma motilin increases in the conscious dog. PMID:2546442

  2. Effects of subfornical organ lesions on acutely induced thirst and salt appetite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thunhorst, R. L.; Beltz, T. G.; Johnson, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    We examined the role of the subfornical organ (SFO) in stimulating thirst and salt appetite using two procedures that initiate water and sodium ingestion within 1-2 h of extracellular fluid depletion. The first procedure used injections of a diuretic (furosemide, 10 mg/kg sc) and a vasodilator (minoxidil, 1-3 mg/kg ia) to produce hypotension concurrently with hypovolemia. The resulting water and sodium intakes were inhibited by intravenous administration of ANG II receptor antagonist (sarthran, 8 micrograms . kg(-1). min(-1)) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (captopril, 2.5 mg/h). The second procedure used injections of furosemide (10 mg/kg sc) and a low dose of captopril (5 mg/kg sc) to initiate water and sodium ingestion upon formation of ANG II in the brain. Electrolytic lesions of the SFO greatly reduced the water intakes, and nearly abolished the sodium intakes, produced by these relatively acute treatments. These results contrast with earlier findings showing little effect of SFO lesions on sodium ingestion after longer-term extracellular fluid depletion.

  3. Sunlight-induced degradation of soil-adsorbed veterinary antimicrobials Marbofloxacin and Enrofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Sturini, Michela; Speltini, Andrea; Maraschi, Federica; Profumo, Antonella; Pretali, Luca; Fasani, Elisa; Albini, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Marbofloxacin (MAR) and Enrofloxacin (ENR), two largely employed veterinary Fluoroquinolones (FQs), were found to be present at the micrograms per kilogram level in agricultural soils of South Lombardy (Italy) several months after manuring. Distribution coefficients (K(d)) from sorption experiments indicated a strong binding to the soil. Soil samples fortified with environmentally significant FQs amounts (0.5 mg kg(-1)) were exposed to solar light that promoted extensive degradation (80%) of both drugs in 60-150 h. Thus, photochemistry could be considered a significant depollution path in the soil, although it was two orders of magnitudes slower than in aqueous solution and a fraction of the drug (ca. 20%) remained unaffected. For MAR the photoprocess was the same as in solution, and involved cleavage of the tetrahydrooxadiazine ring. On the contrary, with ENR only some of the photoproducts determined in water (those arising from a stepwise oxidation of the piperazine side chain) were observed. Substitution of the 6-fluoro by a hydroxyl group and reduction did not occur in the soil, supporting the previous contention that such processes required polar solvation of FQs. Consistently with this rationalization, the irradiation of thin layers of solid drugs led to essentially the same products distribution as in the soil. From the environmental point of view it is important to notice that photodegradation mainly affects the side-chains, while the fluoroquinolone ring, to which the biological effect is associated, is conserved up to the later stages of the degradation.

  4. Endotoxin-induced prostaglandin (PGF2 alpha) biosynthesis, fever and miosis in dexamethasone-treated goats.

    PubMed

    Jónasson, H; Augustinsson, O; Kindahl, H

    1987-10-01

    Prostaglandin-releasing, adrenocortical, febrile and miotic responses to endotoxin (ET) (E. coli lipopolysaccharide; 0.25 microgram kg-1) were studied in goats with and without prolonged dexamethasone influence. The i.v. injection of ET induced a three-fold peak elevation in plasma 15-ketodihydro-PGF2 alpha at 1.5 h post-injection, that is, between the first and second phase of the temperature elevation. During the latter phase, the plasma concentration of this primary PGF 2 alpha metabolite gradually returned to basal level, which implies that the second phase of ET fever is not PG dependent. The PG response exhibited a similar pattern, but was less pronounced in the dexamethasone-ET experiments, where the duration of maximum temperature elevation and of the miosis became shortened by about 20 min, and the typical biphasic pattern of ET fever was no longer seen. The ET-induced rise in plasma aldosterone concentration was completely blocked by dexamethasone. The corresponding rise in plasma cortisol concentration was prevented for 2 h, but was later only partially inhibited in spite of the repeated dexamethasone treatment. PMID:3314353

  5. beta-Adrenergic effects on composition of parotid salivary secretion of sheep on feeding.

    PubMed

    Patterson, J; Brightling, P; Titchen, D A

    1982-01-01

    Observations were made in sheep, before and after fresh food was given during teasing with food and after rumination, on the flow of parotid saliva and its protein Mg2+, K+, Na+ and Cl- concentrations. The animals studied had either a cannulated or fistulated parotid salivary duct. Parotid salivary flow, protein, Mg2+, K+ and Cl- increased markedly following feeding. The increases in protein and Mg2+, but not in flow, were largely blocked by the i.v. administration of propranolol (1 mg . kg-1). Whereas the actual ingestion of food was associated with large increases in protein (up to 42.5 times, to as high as 1760 micrograms . ml-1 of saliva), teasing with food caused relatively minor increases in parotid saliva. There were slight, if any, changes in protein concentration during the increased parotid salivary flows of rumination, whether chewing was on the same side or contralateral to the cannulated parotid salivary duct. It is concluded that a beta-adrenergic mechanism previously demonstrated in acute experiments contributes to increases in the secretion of protein of the parotid saliva when sheep eat. There was a close correlation between the concentrations of protein and of Mg2+ but not of the other electrolytes studied.

  6. Response of left ventricular ejection fraction to recovery from general anesthesia: measurement by gated radionuclide angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Coriat, P.; Mundler, O.; Bousseau, D.; Fauchet, M.; Rous, A.C.; Echter, E.; Viars, P.

    1986-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that, after anesthesia for noncardiac surgical procedures, the increased cardiac work during recovery induces wall motion and ejection fraction (EF) abnormalities in patients with mild angina pectoris, gated radionuclide angiography was performed in patients undergoing simple cholecystectomy under narcotic-relaxant general anesthesia. The ejection fraction was determined during anesthesia at the end of surgery, and then determined 3 min and 3 hr after extubation. A new angiography was performed 24 hr later, and a myocardial scintigraphy (Thallium 201) was performed during infusion of the coronary vasodilator, dipyridamole. In the first part of the investigation, eight patients without coronary artery disease (CAD) (group 1) and 20 patients with mild angina (group 2) were studied. In the second part of the study, seven patients (group 3) with mild angina pectoris received an intravenous infusion of 0.4 microgram X kg-1 X min-1 of nitroglycerin started before surgery and gradually decreased 4 hr after extubation. In group 1, EF remained unchanged at recovery. In contrast in group 2, EF responded abnormally to recovery: EF decreased from 55% during anesthesia to 45% 3 min after extubation (P less than 0.001). Patients in group 3, who received intravenous nitroglycerin, showed no change of EF at recovery. This study demonstrates that recovery from general anesthesia causes abnormalities in left ventricular function in patients suffering from CAD. These abnormalities are prevented by prophylactic intravenous nitroglycerin.

  7. Modulation of neutrophil and monocyte function by recombinant human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kharazmi, A; Nielsen, H; Hovgaard, D; Borregaard, N; Nissen, N I

    1991-04-01

    Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been shown to inhibit the chemotaxis and enhance the oxidative burst response of human neutrophils in vitro. The present study describes the effect of recombinant GM-CSF on the neutrophil and monocyte function in patients with lymphoma undergoing GM-CSF treatment. Patients with either Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated with various dosages (2-16 micrograms kg-1 body weight per day for 5 days) of rhGM-CSF by intravenous or subcutaneous route. Prior to and on day 5 of rhGM-CSF treatment, neutrophil and monocyte chemotaxis and chemiluminescence responses to f-Met-Leu-Phe, zymosan activated serum (ZAS) and opsonized zymosan (OZ) were determined. It was observed that chemotactic response of neutrophils to f-Met-Leu-Phe and ZAS was reduced, whereas the chemiluminescence response of both cell types to f-Met-Leu-Phe and zymosan was enhanced by up to 43-fold. rhGM-CSF treatment did not affect degranulation of the neutrophils as measured by release of vitamin B12 binding protein. Degree of modulation of neutrophil and monocyte function by rhGM-CSF was independent of rhGM-CSF dosages administered. These data suggest that phagocytic defence system may be enhanced by GM-CSF treatment and that this cytokine may be a useful therapeutic adjunct in compromised patients.

  8. Surface-mediated nucleic acid delivery by lipoplexes prepared in microwell arrays.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yun; Terp, Megan Cavanaugh; Kwak, Kwang Joo; Gallego-Perez, Daniel; Nana-Sinkam, Serge P; Lee, L James

    2013-07-01

    Many delivery methods have been developed to improve the therapeutic efficacy and facilitate the clinical translation of nucleic acid-based therapeutics. A facile surface-mediated nucleic acid delivery by lipoplexes is prepared in a microwell array, which combines the advantages of lipoplexes as an efficient carrier system, surface-mediated delivery, and the control of surface topography. Uniform disc-like lipoplexes containing nucleic acids are formed in the microwell array with a diameter of ∼818 nm and thickness of ∼195 nm. The microwell array-mediated delivery of lipoplexes containing FAM-oligodeoxynucleotides is ∼18.6 and ∼10.6 times more efficient than the conventional transfection method in an adherent cell line (A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells) and a suspension cell line (KG-1a acute myelogenous leukemia cells), respectively. MicroRNA-29b is then used as a model nucleic acid to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of lipoplexes delivered by the microwell array. Compared to conventional transfection methods, the effective therapeutic dosage of microRNA-29b is reduced from the microgram level to the nanogram level by lipoplexes prepared in the microwell array. The microwell array is also a very flexible platform. Both nucleic acid therapeutics and imaging reagents are incorporated in lipoplexes and successfully delivered to A549 cells, demonstrating its potential applications in theranostic medicine.

  9. In vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium chelonae to ticarcillin in combination with clavulanic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Casal, M J; Rodriguez, F C; Luna, M D; Benavente, M C

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium chelonae (M. chelonei) to ticarcillin in combination with calvulanic acid (CA) was studied by the agar dilution method. All the M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, and M. africanum strains were inhibited at a ticarcillin concentration of 32 micrograms/ml or lower in combination with 5 micrograms of CA. M. chelonae and M. avium strains proved resistant to more than 128 micrograms of ticarcillin plus 5 micrograms of CA per ml. M. fortuitum strains needed 128 micrograms of ticarcillin plus 5 micrograms of CA to inhibit approximately 30% of the isolates. PMID:3105441

  10. Adrenal suppression with inhaled budesonide and fluticasone propionate given by large volume spacer to asthmatic children.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, D. J.; Clark, R. A.; Lipworth, B. J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the systemic bioactivity of inhaled budesonide (B) and fluticasone propionate (F), each given by large volume spacer, on a microgram equivalent basis in asthmatic children. METHODS: Ten stable asthmatic children of mean age 11 years and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 81.6% predicted, who were receiving treatment with < or = 400 micrograms/day of inhaled corticosteroid, were studied in a placebo controlled single blind (investigator blind) randomised crossover design comparing single doses of inhaled budesonide and fluticasone propionate 400 micrograms, 800 micrograms, and 1250 micrograms. Doses were given at 20.00 hours with mouth rinsing and an overnight 12 hour urine sample was collected for estimation of free cortisol and creatinine excretion. RESULTS: The results of overnight 12 hour urinary cortisol output (nmol/12 hours) showed suppression with all doses of fluticasone propionate (as geometric means): F400 micrograms (11.99), F800 micrograms (6.49), F1250 micrograms (7.00) compared with placebo (24.43), whereas budesonide caused no suppression at any dose. A comparison of the drugs showed that there were differences at 800 micrograms and 1250 micrograms levels for urinary cortisol: B800 micrograms versus F800 micrograms (2.65-fold, 95% CI 1.26 to 5.58), B1250 micrograms versus F1250 micrograms (2.94-fold, 95% CI 1.67 to 5.15). The results for the cortisol/creatinine ratio were similar to that of urinary cortisol, with fluticasone causing suppression at all doses and with differences between the drugs at 800 micrograms and 1250 micrograms. CONCLUSIONS: Single doses of inhaled fluticasone produce greater systemic bioactivity than budesonide when given by large volume spacer on a microgram equivalent basis in asthmatic children. The systemic bioactivity of fluticasone, like budesonide, is due mainly to lung bioavailability. PMID:8984708

  11. [In vitro antimycobacterial activity of a new quinolone, NM394].

    PubMed

    Tomioka, H; Sato, K; Saito, H

    1993-08-01

    We evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial activity of NM394 and ofloxacin (OFLX) against representative pathogenic mycobacteria by the agar dilution method, using 7H11 agar medium. NM394 showed appreciable antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MIC90 = 0.78 micrograms/ml), M. kansasii (MIC90 = 6.25 micrograms/ml), M. marinum (MIC90 = 3.13 micrograms/ml) and M. fortuitum (MIC90 = 3.13 micrograms/ml), whereas the agent was not active against M. scrofulaceum (MIC90 = > 100 micrograms/ml), M. avium (MIC90 = 50 micrograms/ml), M. intracellulare (MIC90 = > 100 micrograms/ml), M. chelonae subsp. abscessus (MIC90 = > 100 micrograms/ml) and M. chelonae subsp. chelonae (MIC90 = 25 micrograms/ml). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the agent against M. fortuitum was a little more active than that of OFLX, whereas the activity of NM394 against the other mycobacteria was slightly inferior to that of OFLX. The antimycobacterial activity of NM394 against M. tuberculosis H37Rv (MIC:NM394 = 0.78 micrograms/ml, OFLX = 0.78 micrograms/ml) phagocytosed in murine peritoneal macrophages was less active than that of OFLX, when the macrophages were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 1 microgram/ml or 10 micrograms/ml of these agents for up to 5 days. PMID:8397311

  12. Magnetic and Magnetocaloric Properties of High-Energy Ball-Milled Nanocrystalline CeMn2Ge2 Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Melike; Dincer, Ilker; Akturk, Selcuk; Elerman, Yalcin

    2016-10-01

    CeMn2Ge2 nanopowders have been obtained by high-energy ball milling for 5 and 10 hours from bulk compound to investigate the effect of milling time on magnetic and magnetocaloric properties. CeMn2Ge2 nanopowders have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetization measurements. The average grain size of the nanoparticles from XRD measurements is about 12.2 and 8 nm for 5-hour and 10-hour ball-milled samples, respectively. The investigations reveal that magnetic entropy change (∆ S m) can be altered by changing the particle size of the compound. Maximum ∆ S m is -2.45 and -1.30 J kg-1 K-1 for the 5- and 10-hour ball-milled nanopowders, respectively.

  13. Magnetic and Magnetocaloric Properties of High-Energy Ball-Milled Nanocrystalline CeMn2Ge2 Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Melike; Dincer, Ilker; Akturk, Selcuk; Elerman, Yalcin

    2016-07-01

    CeMn2Ge2 nanopowders have been obtained by high-energy ball milling for 5 and 10 hours from bulk compound to investigate the effect of milling time on magnetic and magnetocaloric properties. CeMn2Ge2 nanopowders have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetization measurements. The average grain size of the nanoparticles from XRD measurements is about 12.2 and 8 nm for 5-hour and 10-hour ball-milled samples, respectively. The investigations reveal that magnetic entropy change (∆S m) can be altered by changing the particle size of the compound. Maximum ∆S m is -2.45 and -1.30 J kg-1 K-1 for the 5- and 10-hour ball-milled nanopowders, respectively.

  14. [In vitro antibacterial activity of a new parenteral penem, sulopenem].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Tateda, E; Hiramatsu, K; Yokota, T

    1996-04-01

    Eighty percent minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC80) of sulopenem against clinically isolated 12 to 80 strains of each of different bacteria were as follows: methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA): 0.20 micrograms/ml, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA): 50 micrograms/ml, coagulase-negative staphylococci: 3.13 micrograms/ml, Streptococcus pyogenes: < or = 0.013 microgram/ml, Streptococcus pneumoniae: < or = 0.013 microgram/ml, beta-streptococci: 0.05 microgram/ml, Enterococcus faecalis: 12.5 micrograms/ml, Enterococcus faecium: > 100 micrograms/ml, Escherichia coli CS2(R+): 0.10 microgram/ml, Klebsiella pneumoniae: 0.05 microgram/ml, Proteus mirabilis: 0.10 microgram/ml, Proteus vulgaris: 0.20 microgram/ml, Morganella morganii: 0.39 micrograms/ml, Providencia rettgeri: 3.13 micrograms/ml, Citrobacter freundii: 0.20 microgram/ml, Enterobacter cloacae: 0.39 microgram/ml, Serratia marcescens: 1.56 micrograms/ml, Pseudomonas aeruginosa: 50 micrograms/ml, Pseudomonas cepacia: 3.13 micrograms/ml, Xanthomonas maltophilia: > 100 micrograms/ml, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus: 1.56 micrograms/ml, ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae: 0.39 microgram/ml and Bacteroides fragil is: 0.20 microgram/ml, respectively. Sulopenem possesses a stronger activity than flomoxef or cefuzonam against Gram-positive bacteria, the strongest activity among the antibiotics tested against Gram-negative bacteria except P. aeruginosa. Sulopenem has stronger affinities than imipenem to all fractions of PBPs of S. aureus, E. coli, P. vulgaris, S. marcescens, even of P. aeruginosa. Affinities of sulopenem to PBPs-1 and -3 of S. aureus, PBP-2 of E. coli were much stronger than those of imipenem (IPM). Sulopenem generally has small Ki values to all types of beta-lactamases and also has stronger permanent inactivation effect to Ia and IIb types of beta-lactamases than IPM. No synergistic bactericidal activity of sulopenem was apparent with serum complement. However, synergism of

  15. [AOX Pollution in Wastewater Treatment Process of Dyeing and Dyestuff Chemical Industries].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang-yang; Liu, Rui; Xu, Can-can; Shu, Xiao-ming; Xu, Jiang-jun; Lan, Ya-qiong; Chen, Lü-jun

    2015-09-01

    Selecting six large-scale dyeing factories and four large-scale dyestuff chemical factories in the well-developed Yangtze River Delta region, this study aimed to investigate the AOX pollution status in the raw wastewater as well as in the activated sludge treatment system. The components of AOX were characterized by GC-MS. Results showed that AOX concentration was low in wastewater from the six dyeing enterprises, ranging 0. 15-1. 62 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and 0. 06-1. 30 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. All the biologically treated effluent met the emission limits of 8 mg.L-1 in the Discharge Standard of Water Pollutants for Dyeing and Finishing of Textile Industry. Sludge in five factories with AOX was below 621 mg.kg-1, only one factory was with high AOX concentration of 3 280 mg.kg-1. By comparison, AOX concentration greatly varied between the wastewater from dyestuff chemical factories, was 1. 70 mg.L-1 to 78. 72 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and was 1. 88 mg.L-1 to 33. 11 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. AOX concentration in the activated sludge was as high as 960-2,297 mg.kg-1. Chlorobenzenes, chloronitrobenzenes, chloroanilines, chlorine nitroanilines and halophenols were typical TOX components detectable in the dyestuff chemical wastewater. Halophenols and chlorine nitroanilines could be efficiently removed. Single chloroanilines and single chloronitrobenzenes seemed to be easier removable than polychlorinated anilines and polychlorinated nitrobenzenes. Polychlorinated benzenes were also easily removal but the products chlorobenzene was hard to remove. PMID:26717692

  16. [Effects of short-term fencing on organic carbon fractions and physical stability of sandy sierozem in desert steppe of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin-Guo; Song, Nai-Ping; Li, Xue-Bin; Liu, Bing-Ru

    2012-12-01

    In order to explore the change patterns of organic carbon fractions and physical stability of sandy sierozem in desert steppe at the early stage of fencing, 0-40 cm soil samples were collected from a 5-year fenced desert steppe (inside the fence) and a free grazing steppe (outside the fence) in Yanchi County of Ningxia, Northwest China, with the soil organic carbon, labile organic carbon, and particulate organic carbon contents and soil particle composition analyzed. No significant differences were observed in the soil organic carbon content and soil particle composition inside and outside the fence. The average soil organic carbon inside and outside the fences was 3.25 g x kg(-1), the percentages of sand, silt, and clay were averagely 72%, 16%, and 12%, respectively, and the soil physical stability index was 1.30% -1.31%. The soil active organic carbon showed a significant change in 10-20 cm layer. The soil labile organic carbon content was 0.80 g x kg(-1) inside the fence, which was significantly higher than that outside the fence (0.62 g x kg(-1)). The percentage of soil particulate organic carbon was 50.9% inside the fence, which was also significantly higher than that outside the fence (31.7%). The soil texture inside the fence changed from sandy to loam, and the soil labile organic carbon content increased gradually; while the soil texture outside the fence was sandy, and its vertical change was relatively smooth. The organic carbon of sandy si- erozem in the desert steppe under the conditions of short-term fencing was still in a balance between consumption and accumulation, the soil texture was relatively stable, and the soil physical stability changed little. It was suggested that the soil active organic carbon content and its relative percentage in 10-20 cm layer could be used as the indicators of early soil quality change of desert steppe.

  17. Effects of local and systemic budesonide on allergen-induced airway reactions in the pig.

    PubMed Central

    Fornhem, C.; Dahlbäck, M.; Kumlin, M.; Lundberg, J. M.; Alving, K.

    1996-01-01

    1. In this study, an attempt was made to distinguish between local and systemic effects of low doses of the topical glucocorticoid, budesonide. The effect of aerosolized budesonide administered to the lower airways versus intravenously administered budesonide on the acute and late response to nebulized Ascaris suum extract in the lung, was evaluated in the minipig after active sensitization with purified A. suum antigen. Budesonide was administered once, 1 h prior to A. suum challenge and airway reactions and mediator release were observed for 8 h after allergen challenge. 2. In the budesonide aerosol group (n = 6), 10.2 +/- 1.2 micrograms kg-1 budesonide was given locally and in the budesonide infusion group (n = 5), 5 micrograms kg-1 was given intravenously. The area under the plasma concentration curve for budesonide during the experiment was 11.4 +/- 1.2 and 10.3 +/- 1.2 nM h in the budesonide aerosol and budesonide infusion group, respectively (no significant difference). The lung tissue content of budesonide in the two groups was 45.2 +/- 4.9 and 18.4 +/- 3.5 nmol kg-1 dry tissue, respectively, 8 h after allergen challenge (P < 0.05). For comparison, 6 pigs were given budesonide vehicle as an infusion prior to A. suum challenge. 3. Total lung resistance (RL) increased acutely (maximal response within 15 min) in the budesonide aerosol, budesonide infusion and budesonide vehicle groups (by 91 +/- 40, 150 +/- 86 and 80 +/- 27%, respectively). The acute reaction partially resolved at about 1 h and was followed by a late increase in RL in the budesonide infusion and budesonide vehicle groups (by 251 +/- 148 and 281 +/- 136% at 8 h, respectively). However, no late change in RL was seen in the budesonide aerosol group (7 +/- 24%). 4. Aerosolized budesonide had a protective effect in that it attenuated the late changes in arterial blood gas and pH as well as the late elevation of plasma catecholamines. Budesonide given as an infusion did not protect against the late

  18. [Soil sandy desertification and salinization and their interrelationships in Yanghuang irrigated area of Hongsipu, Ningxia of northwest China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin-guo; Song, Nai-ping

    2011-09-01

    By the methods of controlled and typical sampling, this paper analyzed the texture, salinization characteristics, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and their correlations in the 0-40 cm soil profiles of corn land, medlar land, and non-utilized land in Yanghuang irrigated area of Hongsipu, Northwest China. Under controlled sampling, the salt content in the soil profiles was 0.69-1.30 g x kg(-1) (except in non-utilized land where the 0-10 cm soil salt content was up to 1.74 g x kg(-1)), with no obvious salinization. The sodium adsorption ratio and exchangeable sodium percentage in the 20-40 cm soil layer of medlar land were 12.18 and 14.1%, respectively, and the total content of clay and silt in the 0-40 cm soil profile of medlar land was up to 37.3% whereas that in the 0-20 cm soil layer of corn land was only 13.5%. In the 20-40 cm soil layer of corn land, the indices of sandy desertification and salinization had significant correlations under controlled sampling but no correlations under typical sampling, while the CEC and the sandy desertification and salinization indices had significant correlations under typical sampling. In different land use types in the study area, soil sandy desertification and salinization had complicated interrelationships, and CEC could be used as the indicator for the changes in soil environmental quality.

  19. Evaluation and validation of two microbiological tests for screening antibiotic residues in honey according to the European guideline for the validation of screening methods.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, V; De Courville, A; Hedou, C; Rault, A; Diomandé, S E; Creff-Froger, C; Verdon, E

    2013-01-01

    Two microbiological kits based on Bacillus stearothermophilus (Eclipse 50® and Premi®Test) have been evaluated and validated according to the European guideline for the validation of screening methods (January 2010) and in relation to the concentrations recommended by the EU-RL in 2007. Both tests are robust, a fast method and easy to implement. Both tests are applicable to a very large variety of honeys from different floral and geographical origins (rosemary, lavender, scrub, heath, alder, forest, lemon, acacia, chestnut, raspberry, mountain and flowers) as well as honey of different colours (from blank honey to brown honey, including yellow and orange honey). A satisfactory false-positive rate of 5% was obtained for the Eclipse 50® test. The observed detection capabilities CCβ of the Eclipse 50® kit were: chlortetracycline (>75 µg kg(-1)), oxytetracycline (≤200 µg kg(-1)), tetracycline (>100 µg kg(-1)), cloxacillin (≤40 µg kg(-1)), tylosin (≤200 µg kg(-1)), desmycosin (>400 µg kg(-1)), sulfadiazine (≤300 µg kg(-1)), sulfadimethoxine (≤250 µg kg(-1)), sulfamerazine (>300 µg kg(-1)), sulfamethazine (>1000 µg kg(-1)), sulfamethizole (>75 µg kg(-1)), sulfamethoxazole (≤25 µg kg(-1)), sulfanilamide (>1000 µg kg(-1)), sulfaquinoxaline (>75 µg kg(-1)), sulfathiazole (≤250 µg kg(-1)) and lincomycin (>1500 µg kg(-1)). These levels were all higher than the recommended concentrations where they exist. Due to its lack of sensitivity, it cannot be recommended for reliable routine use. The observed CCβ of the Premi®Test kit were: chlortetracycline (10 µg kg(-1)), oxytetracycline (>10 µg kg(-1)), tetracycline (≤10 µg kg(-1)), cloxacillin (≤5 µg kg(-1)), tylosin (≤10 µg kg(-1)), desmycosin (≤15 µg kg(-1)), sulfadiazine (≤25 µg kg(-1)), sulfadimethoxine (≤25 µg kg(-1)), sulfamerazine (≤25 µg kg(-1)), sulfamethazine (≤25 µg kg(-1)), sulfamethizole (≤25 µg kg(-1)), sulfamethoxazole (≤10 µg kg(-1)), sulfanilamide

  20. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for the Study of Adult Education = Les actes du congres annuel de l'association canadienne pour l'etude de l'education des adultes (8th, Cornwall, Ontario, June 1-30, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Rene, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 23 papers in French and the following 45 papers in English: "Arthur Lismer" (Barer-Stein); "Bootstrapping and Shoestringing to Academic Respectability" (Baskett); "Teaching by Teleconference" (Boak, Kirby); "Doing What Is Possible" (Butterwick); "Connections between Individual and World Peace" (Fallis et al.); "Federal…

  1. In vitro antifungal activities and in vivo efficacies of 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthesis inhibitors L-671,329, L-646,991, tetrahydroechinocandin B, and L-687,781, a papulacandin.

    PubMed Central

    Bartizal, K; Abruzzo, G; Trainor, C; Krupa, D; Nollstadt, K; Schmatz, D; Schwartz, R; Hammond, M; Balkovec, J; Vanmiddlesworth, F

    1992-01-01

    The in vivo anti-Candida activities of 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthesis inhibitors L-671,329, L-646,991 (cilofungin), L-687,901 (tetrahydroechinocandin B), and L-687,781 (a papulacandin analog) were evaluated by utilizing a murine model of disseminated candidiasis that has enhanced susceptibility to Candida albicans but increased sensitivity for discriminating antifungal efficacy. DBA/2 mice were challenged intravenously with 1 x 10(4) to 5 x 10(4) CFU of C. albicans MY1055 per mouse. Compounds were administered intraperitoneally at concentrations ranging from 1.25 to 10 mg/kg of body weight twice daily for 4 days. At 6 h and 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 9 days after challenge, five mice per group were sacrificed and their kidneys were homogenized and plated for enumeration of Candida organisms (CFU per gram). Progressiveness of response trends and no-statistical-significance-of-trend doses were derived to rank compound efficacy. 1,3-beta-D-Glucan synthesis 50% inhibitory concentrations were determined by using a C. albicans (MY1208) membrane glucan assay. Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans MICs and minimal fungicidal concentrations were determined by broth microdilution. L-671,329, L-646,991, L-687,901, and L-687,781 showed similar 1,3-beta-D-glucan activities, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 0.64, 1.30, 0.85, and 0.16 micrograms/ml, respectively. Data from in vitro antifungal susceptibility studies showed that L-671,329, L-646,991, and L-687,901 had similar MICs ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 micrograms/ml, while L-687,781 showed slightly higher MICs of 1.0 to 2.0 micrograms/ml for C. albicans MY1055. Lipopeptide compounds were ineffective against C. neoformans strains.Results from in vivo experiments comparing significant trend and progressiveness in response analyses indicated that L-671,329 and L-646,991 were equipotent but slightly less active than L-687-901, while L-687,781 was ineffective at 10 mg/kg. Fungicidal activities of L-671,329, L-646,991, and L-687,901 were

  2. Kinetics of nickel and chromium in rats exposed to different stainless-steel welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Kalliomäki, P L; Olkinuora, M; Hyvärinen, H K; Kalliomäki, K

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of nickel and chromium from welding fumes were studied in the rat. To study the retention, the duration of exposure was one hour per working day for one, two, three, and four weeks. For the clearance study the follow-up period after four weeks' exposure was 106 days. Multi-element chemical analysis of the fumes and dried lungs was done using instrumental neutron activation analysis, and the concentrations in the body fluids were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The maximum lung retention of metal inert-gas (MIG) welding fumes was somewhat higher than that of manual metal arc (MMA) welding fumes. The estimated maximum concentrations in the lungs were 9.5 micrograms/g and 150 micrograms/g for nickel after four weeks' exposure to MMA and MIG welding fumes. The corresponding concentrations of chromium were 78 micrograms/g and 310 micrograms/g. The measured concentrations were lower, however. The amounts of nickel cleared from the lungs during the MMA and MIG exposures were 0.9 microgram and 8 micrograms. The corresponding amounts of chromium were 9.6 micrograms and 2 micrograms. Practically all of the lost metals were found in the urine, in which the excretion rates were 0.07 microgram/d (MMA) and 0.39 microgram/d (MIG) for nickel and 0.23 microgram/d (MMA) and 0.11 microgram/d (MIG) for chromium.

  3. Toxicology of mono-, di-, and triethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Knaak, J B; Leung, H W; Stott, W T; Busch, J; Bilsky, J

    1997-01-01

    The chemistry, biochemistry, toxicity, and industrial use of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA) are reviewed. The dual function groups, amino and hydroxyl, make them useful in cutting fluids and as intermediates in the production of surfactants, soaps, salts, corrosion control inhibitors, and in pharmaceutical and miscellaneous applications. In 1995, the annual U.S. production capacity for ethanolamines was 447,727 metric tons. The principal route of exposure is through skin, with some exposure occurring by inhalation of vapor and aerosols. MEA, DEA, and TEA in water penetrate rat skin at the rate of 2.9 x 10(-3), 4.36 x 10(-3) and 18 x 10(-3) cm/hr, respectively. MEA, DEA, and TEA are water-soluble ammonia derivatives, with pHs of 9-11 in water and pHa values of 9.3, 8.8, and 7.7, respectively. They are irritating to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract, with MEA being the worst irritant, followed by DEA and TEA. The acute oral LD50s are 2.74 g/kg for MEA, 1.82 g/kg for DEA, and 2.34 g/kg for TEA (of bw), with most deaths occurring within 4 d of administration. MEA is present in nature as a nitrogenous base in phospholipids. These lipids, composed of glycerol, two fatty acid esters, phosphoric acid, and MEA, are the building blocks of biomembranes in animals. MEA is methylated to form choline, another important nitrogenous base in phospholipids and an essential vitamin. The rat dietary choline requirement is 10 mg kg-1 d-1; 30-d oral administration of MEA (160-2670 mg kg-1 d-1) to rats produced "altered" liver and kidney weights in animals ingesting 640 mg kg-1 d-1 or greater. Death occurred at dosages of 1280 mg kg-1 d-1. No treatment-related effects were noted in dogs administered as much as 22 mg kg-1 d-1 for 2 yr. DEA is not metabolized or readily eliminated from the liver or kidneys. At high tissue concentrations, DEA substitutes for MEA in phospholipids and is methylated to form phospholipids composed of N-methyl and N

  4. Toxicology of mono-, di-, and triethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Knaak, J B; Leung, H W; Stott, W T; Busch, J; Bilsky, J

    1997-01-01

    The chemistry, biochemistry, toxicity, and industrial use of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA) are reviewed. The dual function groups, amino and hydroxyl, make them useful in cutting fluids and as intermediates in the production of surfactants, soaps, salts, corrosion control inhibitors, and in pharmaceutical and miscellaneous applications. In 1995, the annual U.S. production capacity for ethanolamines was 447,727 metric tons. The principal route of exposure is through skin, with some exposure occurring by inhalation of vapor and aerosols. MEA, DEA, and TEA in water penetrate rat skin at the rate of 2.9 x 10(-3), 4.36 x 10(-3) and 18 x 10(-3) cm/hr, respectively. MEA, DEA, and TEA are water-soluble ammonia derivatives, with pHs of 9-11 in water and pHa values of 9.3, 8.8, and 7.7, respectively. They are irritating to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract, with MEA being the worst irritant, followed by DEA and TEA. The acute oral LD50s are 2.74 g/kg for MEA, 1.82 g/kg for DEA, and 2.34 g/kg for TEA (of bw), with most deaths occurring within 4 d of administration. MEA is present in nature as a nitrogenous base in phospholipids. These lipids, composed of glycerol, two fatty acid esters, phosphoric acid, and MEA, are the building blocks of biomembranes in animals. MEA is methylated to form choline, another important nitrogenous base in phospholipids and an essential vitamin. The rat dietary choline requirement is 10 mg kg-1 d-1; 30-d oral administration of MEA (160-2670 mg kg-1 d-1) to rats produced "altered" liver and kidney weights in animals ingesting 640 mg kg-1 d-1 or greater. Death occurred at dosages of 1280 mg kg-1 d-1. No treatment-related effects were noted in dogs administered as much as 22 mg kg-1 d-1 for 2 yr. DEA is not metabolized or readily eliminated from the liver or kidneys. At high tissue concentrations, DEA substitutes for MEA in phospholipids and is methylated to form phospholipids composed of N-methyl and N

  5. Vasopressin, renin, and cortisol responses to hemorrhage during acute blockade of cardiac nerves in conscious dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, C. P.; Keil, L. C.; Thrasher, T. N.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of acute cardiac nerve blockade (CNB) on the increases in plasma renin activity (PRA), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and cortisol in response to a 30 ml/kg hemorrhage was determined in conscious dogs (n = 9). Procaine was infused into the pericardial space to produce acute reversible CNB, or saline was infused in the control hemorrhage. Blood was removed from the inferior vena cava at a rate of 1 ml.kg-1.min-1. In the control hemorrhage, plasma AVP increased from 1.8 +/- 0.3 to 219 +/- 66 pg/ml, PRA increased from 0.63 +/- 0.20 to 3.08 +/- 0.91 ng angiotensin I (ANG I).ml-1.3 h-1, and cortisol increased from 1.4 +/- 0.2 to 4.0 +/- 0.7 micrograms/dl. When the hemorrhage was repeated during acute CNB, plasma AVP increased from 2.8 +/- 1.6 to 185 +/- 59 pg/ml, PRA increased from 0.44 +/- 0.14 to 2.24 +/- 0.27 ng ANG I.ml-1.3 h-1, and cortisol increased from 1.9 +/- 0.3 to 5.4 +/- 0.6 micrograms/dl, and none of the increases differed significantly from the responses during the control hemorrhage. Left atrial pressure fell significantly after removal of 6 ml/kg of blood, but mean arterial pressure was maintained at control levels until blood loss reached 20 ml/kg during pericardial infusion of either saline or procaine. The declines in MAP at the 30 ml/kg level of hemorrhage in both treatments were similar. These results demonstrate that acutely blocking input from cardiac receptors does not reduce the increases in plasma AVP, cortisol, and PRA in response to a 30 ml/kg hemorrhage. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that input from cardiac receptors is required for a normal AVP response to hemorrhage and suggest that other receptors, presumably arterial baroreceptors, can stimulate AVP and cortisol secretion in the absence of signals from the heart.

  6. Azole resistance in oropharyngeal Candida albicans strains isolated from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    He, X; Tiballi, R N; Zarins, L T; Bradley, S F; Sangeorzan, J A; Kauffman, C A

    1994-01-01

    For 212 oropharyngeal isolates of Candida albicans, the fluconazole MICs for 50 and 90% of strains tested were 0.5 and 16 micrograms/ml, respectively, and those of itraconazole were 0.05 and 0.2 micrograms/ml, respectively. Of 16 isolates for which fluconazole MICs were > 64 micrograms/ml, itraconazole MICs for 14 were < or = 0.8 micrograms/ml and for 2 were > 6.4 micrograms/ml. Most fluconazole-resistant strains remained susceptible to itraconazole; whether itraconazole will prove effective for refractory thrush remains to be shown. PMID:7840596

  7. Radioactivity in the Kuwait marine environment--Baseline measurements and review.

    PubMed

    Uddin, S; Aba, A; Fowler, S W; Behbehani, M; Ismaeel, A; Al-Shammari, H; Alboloushi, A; Mietelski, J W; Al-Ghadban, A; Al-Ghunaim, A; Khabbaz, A; Alboloushi, O

    2015-11-30

    The Arabian Gulf region is moving towards a nuclear energy option with the first nuclear power plant now operational in Bushehr, Iran, and others soon to be constructed in Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia. Radiological safety is becoming a prime concern in the region. This study compiles available data and presents recent radionuclide data for the northern Gulf waters, considered as pre-nuclear which will be a valuable dataset for future monitoring work in this region. Radionuclide monitoring in the marine environment is a matter of prime concern for Kuwait, and an assessment of the potential impact of radionuclides requires the establishment and regular updating of baseline levels of artificial and natural radionuclides in various environmental compartments. Here we present baseline measurements for (210)Po, (210)Pb, (137)Cs, (90)Sr, and (3)H in Kuwait waters. The seawater concentration of (3)H, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (137)Cs, and (90)Sr vary between 130-146, 0.48-0.68, 0.75-0.89, 1.25-1.38 and 0.57-0.78 mBq L(-1), respectively. The (40)K concentration in seawater varies between 8.9-9.3 Bq L(-1). The concentration of (40)K, total (210)Pb, (137)Cs, (90)Sr, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (238)U, (235)U, (234)U, (239+240)Pu and (238)Pu were determined in sediments and range, respectively, between 353-445, 23.6-44.3, 1.0-3.1, 4.8-5.29, 17.3-20.5, 15-16.4, 28.7-31.4, 1.26-1.30, 29.7-30.0, 0.045-0.21 and 0.028-0.03 Bq kg(-1) dry weight. Since, radionuclides are concentrated in marine biota, a large number of marine biota samples covering several trophic levels, from microalgae to sharks, were analyzed. The whole fish concentration of (40)K, (226)Ra, (224)Ra, (228)Ra, (137)Cs, (210)Po and (90)Sr range between 230-447, 0.7-7.3, <0.5-6.6, <0.5-15.80, <0.17, 0.88-4.26 and 1.86-5.34 Bq kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. (210)Po was found to be highly concentrated in several marine organisms with the highest (210)Po concentration found in Marica marmorata (193.5-215.6 Bq kg(-1) dry weight). (210)Po in

  8. Radioactivity in the Kuwait marine environment--Baseline measurements and review.

    PubMed

    Uddin, S; Aba, A; Fowler, S W; Behbehani, M; Ismaeel, A; Al-Shammari, H; Alboloushi, A; Mietelski, J W; Al-Ghadban, A; Al-Ghunaim, A; Khabbaz, A; Alboloushi, O

    2015-11-30

    The Arabian Gulf region is moving towards a nuclear energy option with the first nuclear power plant now operational in Bushehr, Iran, and others soon to be constructed in Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia. Radiological safety is becoming a prime concern in the region. This study compiles available data and presents recent radionuclide data for the northern Gulf waters, considered as pre-nuclear which will be a valuable dataset for future monitoring work in this region. Radionuclide monitoring in the marine environment is a matter of prime concern for Kuwait, and an assessment of the potential impact of radionuclides requires the establishment and regular updating of baseline levels of artificial and natural radionuclides in various environmental compartments. Here we present baseline measurements for (210)Po, (210)Pb, (137)Cs, (90)Sr, and (3)H in Kuwait waters. The seawater concentration of (3)H, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (137)Cs, and (90)Sr vary between 130-146, 0.48-0.68, 0.75-0.89, 1.25-1.38 and 0.57-0.78 mBq L(-1), respectively. The (40)K concentration in seawater varies between 8.9-9.3 Bq L(-1). The concentration of (40)K, total (210)Pb, (137)Cs, (90)Sr, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (238)U, (235)U, (234)U, (239+240)Pu and (238)Pu were determined in sediments and range, respectively, between 353-445, 23.6-44.3, 1.0-3.1, 4.8-5.29, 17.3-20.5, 15-16.4, 28.7-31.4, 1.26-1.30, 29.7-30.0, 0.045-0.21 and 0.028-0.03 Bq kg(-1) dry weight. Since, radionuclides are concentrated in marine biota, a large number of marine biota samples covering several trophic levels, from microalgae to sharks, were analyzed. The whole fish concentration of (40)K, (226)Ra, (224)Ra, (228)Ra, (137)Cs, (210)Po and (90)Sr range between 230-447, 0.7-7.3, <0.5-6.6, <0.5-15.80, <0.17, 0.88-4.26 and 1.86-5.34 Bq kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. (210)Po was found to be highly concentrated in several marine organisms with the highest (210)Po concentration found in Marica marmorata (193.5-215.6 Bq kg(-1) dry weight). (210)Po in

  9. Activity of east African medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Fabry, W; Okemo, P; Ansorg, R

    1996-01-01

    The activity of extracts from the East African medicinal plants Entada abyssinica (stem bark), Terminalia spinosa (young branches), Harrisonia abyssinica (roots), Ximenia caffra (roots), Azadirachta indica (leaves and stem bark) and Spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were evaluated against 12 strains of Helicobacter pylori. The most active extracts were those derived from T. spinosa with an MIC50 of 125 micrograms/ml, an MIC90 of 250 micrograms/ml and an MIC range of 62.5-500 micrograms/ml. An MIC50 of 250 micrograms/ml and an MIC90 of > 4,000 micrograms/ml was reached by H. abyssinica with a range of 125-->4,000 micrograms/ml and by X. caffra with a range of 62.5-->4,000 micrograms/ml, respectively. It is concluded that these plants contain compounds with antimicrobial activity against H. pylori. PMID:8874968

  10. Dissolved-selenium data for wells in the western San Joaquin Valley, California, February to July 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neil, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Water samples were collected for selenium analysis from 63 wells in western San Joaquin Valley, California, during February to July 1985. Results of the data collection indicate that dissolved selenium concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 120 micrograms per liter; more than 50 percent of the wells sampled had concentrations of less than 1 microgram per liter. Four additional samples collected from public supply wells in the western valley had concentrations ranging from less than 1 to 2 micrograms per liter. All samples from five public supply wells east of the study area had concentrations less than 1 microgram per liter. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 's drinking-water standard of 10 micrograms per liter for selenium was slightly exceeded in 2 of 39 domestic wells (11 and 13 micrograms per liter) and substantially exceeded in 2 of 11 irrigation and agricultural wells (55 and 120 micrograms per liter). (USGS)

  11. Aldosterone receptor antagonism normalizes vascular function in liquorice-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Quaschning, T; Ruschitzka, F; Shaw, S; Lüscher, T F

    2001-02-01

    The enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD2) provides mineralocorticoid receptor specificity for aldosterone by metabolizing glucocorticoids to their receptor-inactive 11-dehydro derivatives. The present study investigated the effects of the aldosterone receptor antagonists spironolactone and eplerenone on endothelial function in liquorice-induced hypertension. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a recognized inhibitor of 11beta-HSD2, was supplemented to the drinking water (3 g/L) of Wistar-Kyoto rats over a period of 21 days. From days 8 to 21, spironolactone (5.8+/-0.6 mg. kg(-1). d(-1)), eplerenone (182+/-13 mg. kg(-1). d(-1)), or placebo was added to the chow (n=7 animals per group). Endothelium-dependent or -independent vascular function was assessed as the relaxation of preconstricted aortic rings to acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside, respectively. In addition, aortic endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein content, nitrate tissue levels, and endothelin-1 (ET-1) protein levels were determined. GA increased systolic blood pressure from 142+/-8 to 185+/-9 mm Hg (P<0.01). In the GA group, endothelium-dependent relaxation was impaired compared with that in controls (73+/-6% versus 99+/-5%), whereas endothelium-independent relaxation remained unchanged. In the aortas of 11beta-HSD2-deficient rats, eNOS protein content and nitrate tissue levels decreased (1114+/-128 versus 518+/-77 microgram/g protein, P<0.05). In contrast, aortic ET-1 protein levels were enhanced by GA (308+/-38 versus 497+/-47 pg/mg tissue, P<0.05). Both spironolactone and eplerenone normalized blood pressure in animals on GA (142+/-9 and 143+/-9 mm Hg, respectively, versus 189+/-8 mm Hg in the placebo group; P<0.01), restored endothelium-dependent relaxation (96+/-3% and 97+/-3%, respectively, P<0.01 versus placebo), blunted the decrease in vascular eNOS protein content and nitrate tissue levels, and normalized vascular ET-1 levels. This is the first study to demonstrate that

  12. Environmental hazards of aluminum to plants, invertebrates, fish, and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Lowe, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    , molluscs, and isopods seem to be tolerant. In Al-sensitive species, elevated levels (approximately 500 micrograms.L-1) affect ion regulation and respiratory efficiency. Toxicity tends to be greatest near a species` threshold of pH sensitivity. At lower pHs, Al may have a slight ameliorative effect by interfering with H+ transport across membranes. Aquatic invertebrates can accumulate very high levels of Al, but most of this appears to be through adsorption rather than assimilation. Aluminum concentrations may be as high as 5000 mg.kg-1 in insects and greater than 17,000 mg.kg-1 in other invertebrates.

  13. [Therapeutic potential of sparfloxacin for preventing mycobacterial infections].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, S; Tada, A; Takeuchi, M; Kamisaka, K; Okada, C; Mishima, Y; Soda, R; Takahashi, K; Kibata, M; Nagare, H

    1994-05-01

    We studied the therapeutic potential of utilizing sparfloxacin (SPFX), a newly developed quinolone, to prevent various mycobacterial infections. The in vitro activity of SPFX as a preventive agent for various mycobacteria was determined using the actual count method on Ogawa egg medium. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of SPFX were as follows: ofloxacin-sensitive M. tuberculosis, 0.16-0.32 microgram/ml; ofloxacin-resistant M. tuberculosis, 0.63-2.5 micrograms/ml; M. avium; 0.63-10 micrograms/ml (MICs were equal or less than 1.25 micrograms/ml in seven out of 11 strains); M. intracellulare, 2.5-10 micrograms/ml (MICs were equal or more than 10 micrograms/ml in 17 out of 23 strains); M. kansasii, < or = 0.08-0.16 microgram/ml; M. fortuitum, < or = 0.08 microgram/ml; M. chelonae subsp. abscessus, > 10 micrograms/ml; M. chelonae subsp. chelonae, 0.63 microgram/ml; M. scrofulaceum, < or = 0.08 microgram/ml; M. nonchromogenicum, 1.25 micrograms/ml; M. xenopi, < or = 0.08 microgram/ml; M. gordonae, < or = 0.08 microgram/ml. The average serum concentrations of SPFX during the period of multiple oral administration (200 mg once a day) were 0.35 +/- 0.16 microgram/ml before administration, 0.67 +/- 0.32 microgram/ml after one hour, 1.13 +/- 0.21 microgram/ml after two hours, 1.27 +/- 0.32 microgram/ml after four hours and 1.31 +/- 0.34 micrograms/ml after six hours. These results indicate that SPFX has a strong therapeutic potential to prevent infections due to M. tuberculosis, M. kansasii, M. fortuitum, M. chelonae subsp. chelonae, M. scrofulaceum, M. xenopi and M. gordonae. Moreover, it may be expected to be a promising agent against infections due to ofloxacin-resistant M. tuberculosis, M. avium and M. nonchromogenicum. PMID:8007520

  14. Dobutamine 99Tcm-MIBI SPET myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in the prediction of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in patients unable to perform an exercise stress test.

    PubMed

    Elhendy, A; Geleijnse, M L; Roelandt, J R; van Domburg, R T; Nierop, P R; Bax, J J; Kasprzak, J D; el-Said, G M; Ibrahim, M M; Fioretti, P M

    1997-02-01

    After successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), restenosis occurs in a relatively high proportion of patients. Exercise thallium scintigraphy is a useful method for the detection of restenosis. In patients unable to exercise, dobutamine perfusion scintigraphy may represent a feasible alternative. However, its diagnostic accuracy in this clinical setting has not been evaluated. We studied 40 patients (29 males, 11 females) aged 57 +/- 9 years, at a mean of 185 +/- 80 days after successful PTCA with a high-dose dobutamine (up to 40 micrograms kg-1 min-1) stress test, in conjunction with 99Tcm-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (99Tcm-MIBI) single photon emission tomography (SPET). Significant restenosis was defined as > or = 50% luminal diameter stenosis of a coronary segment with previous PTCA and was predicted on the basis of the occurrence of reversible perfusion defects in the corresponding territories. Reversible perfusion defects occurred in 20 of 29 arteries with and in 4 of 17 arteries without restenosis. The sensitivity of dobutamine MIBI for the detection of restenosis in arteries with previous PTCA was 69% (CI = 56-82), the specificity 76% (CI = 64-89), the positive predictive value 83% (CI = 73-94), the negative predictive value 59% (CI = 45-73) and accuracy 72% (CI = 59-85). The overall sensitivity of 99Tcm-MIBI SPET for the diagnosis of significant coronary stenosis (including arteries without previous PTCA) on a patient basis was 79% (CI = 67-92), the specificity 82% (CI = 70-94) and accuracy 80% (CI = 68-92). The sensitivity of 99Tcm-MIBI SPET was significantly higher than that of electrocardiography (79 vs 38%, P < 0.005). It is concluded that dobutamine 99Tcm-MIBI SPET is a useful method for the detection of restenosis after PTCA in patients unable to perform an exercise stress test.

  15. Adaptation of the QT interval to heart rate changes in isolated perfused guinea pig heart: influence of amiodarone and D-sotalol.

    PubMed

    Padrini, R; Speranza, G; Nollo, G; Bova, S; Piovan, D; Antolini, R; Ferrari, M

    1997-05-01

    The inadequacy of the QT interval to shorten following heart rate increase is a feature of the inherited long QT syndrome and may have a role in the genesis of the typical arrhythmias associated with this syndrome (torsade des pointes). The aim of our study was to evaluate whether drugs that prolong the QT interval, such as amiodarone and D-sotalol, may also impair the ability of the QT interval to adapt to sudden heart rate changes. Experiments were carried out on isolated perfused guinea pig hearts (Langendorff preparation). Driving frequency was changed, in steps, every two minutes (Hz: 2.5-3-2.5-3.75-2.5-5-2.5), while epicardial ECG was continuously recorded on magnetic tape. QT interval was automatically measured by means of a beat-by-beat analysis program. D-sotalol was added to the perfusion medium at a concentration of 4 micrograms ml-1, while amiodarone was administered, before in vitro evaluation, for seven days (50 mg kg-1 per day, intraperitoneally). In control experiments two phases of QT adaptation were identified: an abrupt QT shortening at the first beat after frequency change (QT1), followed by a gradual, exponential QT shortening that reached a new steady state in about 1 min (half life: 13 sec). The electrical restitution curve (the relation between QT1 and the corresponding diastolic interval) had a rate constant of 57 +/- 8 ms. Neither drug changed the slow component of QT adaptation. However, both drugs increased the ability of QT to shorten upon premature stimulation: D-sotalol by increasing the rate constant of the restitution curve and amiodarone by decreasing the y-intercept. Our results indicate that D-sotalol and amiodarone do not impair QT shortening during tachycardia but, on the contrary, they may favour QT adaptation, thus reducing the likelihood of the potentially lethal 'R on T phenomenon'. This may be an additional mechanism by which these drugs can exert their antifibrillatory action.

  16. Role of interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor on energy metabolism in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Tredget, E.E.; Yu, Y.M.; Zhong, S.; Burini, R.; Okusawa, S.; Gelfand, J.A.; Dinarello, C.A.; Young, V.R.; Burke, J.F.

    1988-12-01

    A study of the combined effects of intravenous infusion of the recombinant cytokines beta-interleukin 1 (IL-1) and alpha-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) on energy substrate metabolism in awake, conditioned, adult rabbits was performed. After a 2-h basal or control period, 48-h fasted rabbits were administered TNF and IL-1 as a bolus (5 micrograms/kg) followed by a continuous intravenous infusion (25 ng.kg-1.min-1) for 3 h. Significant increases in plasma lactate (P less than 0.01), glucose (P less than 0.01), and triglycerides (P less than 0.05) occurred during the combined infusion of IL-1 and TNF, whereas neither cytokine alone had no effect. There was a 33% increase in the rate of glucose appearance (P less than 0.05), but glucose clearance was not altered compared with the control period. Glucose oxidation increased during the combined cytokine infusion period and glucose recycling increased by 600% (P less than 0.002). Lactic acidosis and decreased oxygen consumption, as a result of the cytokine infusions, indicated development of anaerobic glycolytic metabolism. A reduction in the activity state of hepatic mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (65 vs. 82% in control animals, P less than 0.05) was consistent with the observed increase in anaerobic glycolysis. Thus the combined infusion of IL-1 and TNF in rabbits produces metabolic manifestations seen in severe injury and sepsis in human patients and, as such, may account for the profound alterations of energy metabolism seen in these conditions.

  17. Effects of exogenous porcine somatotropin administration between 30 and 60 kilograms on longissimus muscle fiber morphology and meat tenderness of pigs grown to 90 kilograms.

    PubMed

    Solomon, M B; Campbell, R G; Steele, N C; Caperna, T J

    1991-02-01

    Twenty-four barrows were used to investigate the effects of exogenous porcine somatotropin (pST) administration (0 and 100 micrograms.kg-1.d-1) between 30 and 60 kg on longissimus muscle morphology and meat tenderness of pigs grown to 90 kg. Administration of pST was by daily i.m. injection. Pigs were fed a fortified diet in restricted amounts between 30 and 60 kg and had ad libitum access to this diet from 60 to 90 kg. Excipient pigs had fewer alpha R fibers and more alpha W fibers than pST-treated pigs (P less than .05). Administration of pST increased (P less than .05) muscle fiber area for all three fiber types at both the 60 kg (34%) and 90 kg (29%) slaughter weights. Furthermore, pST administration increased shear-force (30% at 60 kg; 19% at 90 kg) of the longissimus muscle, indicating that pST administration reduced meat tenderness. All the pST-treated pigs exhibited the "giant fiber syndrome" and a high proportion (62%) of pST-treated pigs exhibited pale, soft, exudative muscle. Whether the giant fiber anomaly resulted from increased muscle protein accretion rate or fiber degeneration is unknown. Results indicated that the stimulatory effects of pST on muscle growth are sustained following cessation of hormone treatment. However, the incidence of pale, soft, exudative muscle in 62% of the pST-treated pigs indicates that pST potentially has undesirable side effects.

  18. Vasopressin and angiotensin II in reflex regulation of ACTH, glucocorticoids, and renin: effect of water deprivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, V. L.; Keil, L. C.

    1992-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) and vasopressin participate in baroreflex regulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), glucocorticoid, and renin secretion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this participation is enhanced in water-deprived dogs, with chronically elevated plasma ANG II and vasopressin levels, compared with water-replete dogs. The baroreflex was assessed by infusing increasing doses of nitroprusside (0.3, 0.6, 1.5, and 3.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) in both groups of animals. To quantitate the participation of ANG II and vasopressin, the dogs were untreated or pretreated with the competitive ANG II antagonist saralasin, a V1-vasopressin antagonist, or combined V1/V2-vasopressin antagonist, either alone or in combination. The findings were as follows. 1) Larger reflex increases in ANG II, vasopressin, and glucocorticoids, but not ACTH, were produced in water-deprived dogs compared with water-replete dogs. 2) ANG II blockade blunted the glucocorticoid and ACTH responses to hypotension in water-deprived dogs, but not water-replete dogs. In contrast, vasopressin blockade reduced the ACTH response only in water-replete dogs. 3) Vasopressin or combined vasopressin and ANG II blockade reduced the plasma level of glucocorticoids related either to the fall in arterial pressure or to the increase in plasma ACTH concentration in water-replete dogs, and this effect was enhanced in water-deprived dogs. 4) In both water-deprived and water-replete animals, saralasin and/or a V1-antagonist increased the renin response to hypotension, but a combined V1/V2-antagonist did not. These results reemphasize the importance of endogenous ANG II and vasopressin in the regulation of ACTH, glucocorticoid, and renin secretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  19. Effects of acute beta-adrenoceptor blockade with metoprolol on the renal response to dopamine in normal humans.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, N V; Lang-Jensen, T; Hansen, J M; Plum, I; Thomsen, J K; Strandgaard, S; Leyssac, P P

    1994-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of adrenergic beta 1-receptor stimulation to the cardiovascular and renal effects of low-dose dopamine in eight normal, water-loaded humans. Metoprolol (100 mg) or placebo was administered orally at 08.00 h in a randomized, double-blind fashion on two different days. Renal clearance studies were performed during a 1 h baseline period, two 1 h periods with dopamine infusion (3 micrograms kg-1 min-1), and a 1 h recovery period. Cardiac output was measured by an ultrasonic Doppler method, and lithium clearance (CLLi) was used to estimate proximal tubular outflow. Baseline values of heart rate, systolic pressure and mean arterial pressure decreased with metoprolol compared with placebo, but cardiac output, effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were not significantly changed. Metoprolol significantly decreased baseline CLLi and sodium clearance (CLNa) by 19% (P < 0.01) and 34% (P < 0.01), respectively. Metoprolol blunted the dopamine-induced increases in heart rate and systolic pressure, but cardiac output increased to the same extent on both study days by 26% (placebo, P < 0.05) and by 31% (metoprolol, P < 0.01), respectively. With and without metoprolol, dopamine did not significantly change GFR, and the percentage increases in ERPF were similar on the two study days (40% (P < 0.001) and 42% (P < 0.001), respectively). Dopamine increased CLLi and CLNa by 31% (P < 0.01) and 114% (P < 0.01), respectively, with placebo, and by 36% (P < 0.01) and 114% (P < 0.01), respectively, with metoprolol. Values during infusion remained significantly lower with metoprolol compared with placebo.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8018456

  20. Cancer risk and occupational exposure to aflatoxins in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J. H.; Dragsted, L.; Autrup, H.

    1988-01-01

    A study of cancer risk among male employees at 241 livestock feed processing companies in Denmark was conducted on the basis of a data linkage system for detailed investigation of occupational cancer providing employment histories back until 1964, established at the Danish Cancer Registry. Crops imported for feed production have often been contaminated with highly variable concentrations of aflatoxins; an estimated average concentration of at least 140 micrograms aflatoxin B1 kg-1 prepared mixed cattle feed prevailed in the past, yielding a daily intake for workers via the respiratory route of approximately 170 ng. Risk was established on the basis of cancer cases among male workers, whose employment in one of the companies was the job they had held for the longest time since 1964. Elevated risks for liver cancer and for cancers of the biliary tract were observed, which increased by two- to three-fold significance after a 10-year latency. Exposure to aflatoxins in the imported crops was judged to be the most probable explanation for these findings, although the influence of lifestyle factors, e.g. alcohol consumption on the results cannot be fully disregarded. Increased risks for salivary gland tumours and multiple myeloma were also detected. However, due to multiple comparisons carried out in this study these new associations must await further confirmation. A decreased risk for lung cancer was observed; despite possible negative confounding due to the smoking habits of the employees, the lung does not seem to be a target organ for the carcinogenic effect of inhaled aflatoxins in humans. PMID:3179193

  1. The role of desmopressin acetate in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. A controlled clinical trial with thromboelastographic risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Mongan, P D; Hosking, M P

    1992-07-01

    The role of desmopressin acetate in attenuating blood loss and reducing homologous blood component therapy after cardiopulmonary bypass is unclear. The purpose of this investigation was to identify a subgroup of patients that may benefit from desmopressin acetate therapy. One hundred fifteen patients completed a prospective randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to evaluate the effect of desmopressin acetate (0.3 microgram.kg-1) on mediastinal chest tube drainage after elective coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in patients with normal and abnormal platelet-fibrinogen function as diagnosed by the maximal amplitude (MA) on thromboelastographic (TEG) evaluation. The 115 patients evaluated were divided into two groups based on the MA of the post-cardiopulmonary bypass TEG tracing. Group 1 (TEG:MA greater than 50 mm) consisted of 86 patients, of whom 44 received desmopressin and 42 received placebo. Twenty-nine patients had abnormal platelet function (TEG:MA less than 50 mm) and were designated as group 2. In group 2, 13 received desmopressin and 16 placebo. During the first 24 h after cardiopulmonary bypass, the placebo-treated patients in group 2 had significantly greater mediastinal chest tube drainage when compared to placebo patients in group 1 (1,352.6 +/- 773.1 ml vs. 865.3 +/- 384.4 ml, P = 0.002). In addition to increases in blood loss, group 2 placebo patients also were administered an increased number of blood products (P less than 0.05). The desmopressin-treated patients in group 2 neither experienced increased mediastinal chest tube drainage nor received increased amounts of homologous blood products when compared to those in group 1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Endogenous porphyrin distribution induced by 5-aminolaevulinic acid in the tissue layers of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Loh, C S; Vernon, D; MacRobert, A J; Bedwell, J; Bown, S G; Brown, S B

    1993-09-01

    The accumulation of endogenous porphyrins in rats following systemic administration of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) has been examined to assess the photosensitization characteristics of this technique for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and chemical extraction assays with fluorescence and absorbance detection of the porphyrin content have been carried out. We compared the results obtained using quantitative microfluorimetry on normal gastric and colonic tissues in rats at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h and chemically induced duodenal tumours 2 and 4.5 h after intravenous administration of ALA at a dose of 200 mg kg-1. With chemical extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) was found to be the predominant porphyrin present, reaching peak levels of several microgrammes per gramme at 2-4 h in each type of tissue; a small amount of coproporphyrin was detected at 0.5 and 2 h in normal gastric mucosa and duodenal tumour respectively. Both the extraction assay and quantitative microfluorimetry showed that the porphyrin fluorescence builds up rapidly in the mucosal layers of the colon and stomach, reaching a maximum at 2 h, whereas lower fluorescence levels were found with a slower rate of accumulation in the corresponding muscularis layers. A significant PpIX content was found in the duodenal tumour, with a maximum of 7.1 micrograms g-1 4.5 h after ALA administration. We conclude that systemic administration of ALA can induce effective tissue sensitization with protoporphyrin IX and appears to be a promising technique for PDT.

  3. Characterization and localization of atypical beta-adrenoceptors in rat ileum.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S. J.; Russell, F. D.; Molenaar, P.; Summers, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    1. Homogenate binding studies and receptor autoradiography have been used to examine the binding characteristics and localization of propranolol-resistant (-)-[125I]-cyanopindolol (CYP) binding sites in rat ileum. 2. Saturation studies with (-)-[125I]-CYP and homogenates of rat ileum identified a site with pKD 8.89 +/- 0.08 and Bmax = 50.3 +/- 4.1 fmol mg-1 protein (n = 6). Both beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors (AR) were not detected in these preparations. 3. (-)-Isoprenaline infusion (400 micrograms kg-1 h-1) for 14 days caused no significant change in the density of (-)-[125I]-CYP binding which was 48.9 +/- 12.8 and 40.6 +/- 12.3 fmol mg-1 protein in control and isoprenaline-treated animals respectively (n = 6) (P = 0.97). 4. Competition for (-)-[125I]-CYP binding in the presence of 0.1 microM (-)-propranolol gave affinity values for CYP, tertatolol, alprenolol, ICI 118551 and CGP 20712A that correspond to known affinities at atypical beta-ARs. Stereoselectivity ratios for tertatolol and alprenolol were low. 5. Autoradiographic localization of propranolol resistant (-)-[125I]-CYP binding showed sites associated with the mucosa and to a lesser extent to the muscularis. A small population of beta 2-ARs were detected located predominantly in the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers. 6. This study identifies an (-)-[125I]-CYP binding site in rat ileum that is resistant to blockade by propranolol (0.1 microM), is located predominantly in the mucosa, shows resistance to downregulation by isoprenaline and has binding characteristics of the atypical beta-AR. Images Figure 6 PMID:8590969

  4. Adenosine infusion during isoflurane-nitrous oxide anaesthesia: indications of perioperative analgesic effect.

    PubMed

    Sollevi, A

    1992-08-01

    Adenosine, an endogenous compound with a known antinociceptive effect when administered into the CNS, was applied in nine patients (21-65 years) by the peripheral intravenous route (70-130 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) as a replacement for peroperative opioids during inhalation anaesthesia for surgical procedures not requiring muscle relaxation. Lorazepam was given as premedication, thiopentone was used for induction, and succinylcholine facilitated intubation of the trachea. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane [initial surgery endtidal concentration (ET) 0.88% (range 0.7-1%)] and nitrous oxide (60-70%) in oxygen. Adenosine infusion was initiated 5-10 min prior to surgery, and stopped close to or when isoflurane was terminated at the end of surgery. The duration of anaesthesia, adenosine infusion, and surgery were 120 min (range 80-165), 90 min (range 70-145), and 90 min (range 60-135), respectively. Spontaneous unassisted ventilation was maintained in all patients. Mean heart rate increased 10 beats.min-1 (range 0-35) upon induction of surgery, while systolic blood pressure was unaffected at 105 mmHg (range 85-120) (14 kPa (range 11.3-16.0)). Spo2 and ETCO2 were in the normal range. The isoflurane concentration was gradually reduced in most cases [mid-surgery ET 0.63% (range 0.5-0.8) and end-surgery ET 0.57% (range 0.3-0.8)]. Extubation and verbal communication were rapidly achieved after anaesthesia. The mean postoperative (24 h) opioid requirement was 4 mg (range 0-10 mg). These pilot cases suggest that systemic adenosine infusion may replace opioids during inhalation anaesthesia, and that adequate spontaneous ventilation can be achieved.

  5. Evaluation of potential chemoprotectants against microcystin-LR hepatotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hermansky, S J; Stohs, S J; Eldeen, Z M; Roche, V F; Mereish, K A

    1991-02-01

    Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is a potent cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxin produced by the blue-green algae, Microcystis aeruginosa. Toxic blooms of this cyanobacteria have been reported throughout the temperate world. In spite of the potential economic loss and health hazard posed by this toxin, few studies on the development of an antidote have been conducted. Thus, a number of biologically active compounds were tested in mice for effectiveness in preventing the toxicity of a lethal dose of MCLR (100 micrograms kg-1). Efficacy was evaluated based upon the percentage of surviving mice, time to death and serum lactate dehydrogenase activity 45 min after treatment with the toxin. The biologically active compounds were separated into groups based upon proposed mechanisms of action. Enzyme induction by phenobarbital but not by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) resulted in partial protection against toxicity. Calcium channel blockers, free-radical scavengers and water-soluble antioxidants produced little protection against toxicity. The membrane-active antioxidants vitamin E and silymarin, as well as glutathione and the monoethyl ester of glutathione, produced significant protection from lethality. Rifampin and cyclosporin-A, both immunosuppressive and membrane-active agents, which also block the bile acid uptake system of hepatocytes, produced complete protection from the toxicity of MCLR. Thus, lipophilic antioxidants provide partial protection against MCLR toxicity while cyclosporin-A and rifampin are highly effective and potentially useful antidotes. The toxicity of MCLR may depend upon stimulation of the immune system and may be mediated by membrane alterations. PMID:1902496

  6. Antibiotic resistance patterns of gram-negative bacteria isolated from environmental sources.

    PubMed Central

    Kelch, W J; Lee, J S

    1978-01-01

    A total of 2,445 gram-negative bacteria belonging to fecal coliform, Pseudomonas, Moraxella, Acinetobacter, and Flavobacterium-Cytophaga groups were isolated from the rivers and bay of Tillamook, Oregon, and their resistances to chloramphenicol (25 microgram/ml), streptomycin (10 microgram/ml), ampicillin (10 microgram/ml), tetracycline (25 microgram/ml), chlortetracycline (25 microgram/ml), oxytetracycline (25 microgram/ml), neomycin (50 microgram/ml), nitrofurazone (12.5 microgram/ml), nalidixic acid (25 microgram/ml), kanamycin (25 microgram/ml), and penicillin G (10 IU/ml) were determined. Among fecal coliforms the bay isolates showed greater resistance to antibiotics than those from tributaries or surface runoff. No such well-defined difference was found among other bacterial groups. The antibiotic resistance patterns of gram-negative bacteria from different sources correlated well, perhaps indicating their common origin. The antibiotic resistance patterns of gram-negative bacteria of different general also correlated well, perhaps indicating that bacteria which share a common environment also share a common mode for developing antibiotic resistance. PMID:727777

  7. In vitro extracellular and intracellular activities of clavulanic acid and those of piperacillin and ceftriaxone alone and in combination with tazobactam against clinical isolates of Legionella species.

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, P H; Edelstein, M A

    1994-01-01

    The activities of ceftriaxone, piperacillin, tazobactam, clavulanic acid, and combinations of ceftriaxone or piperacillin with tazobactam against 22 clinical Legionella isolates were measured by broth microdilution and macrodilution methods and in macrophages. The broth microdilution MICs that inhibited 90% of strains tested were 2 and 1 microgram/ml for ceftriaxone and tazobactam, respectively. Broth macrodilution MICs were 8 and 1 microgram/ml, respectively, for the two Legionella pneumophila strains tested with piperacillin and were 0.25 and 0.5 microgram/ml, respectively, for clavulanate. No significant intracellular anti-L. pneumophila activity was observed for ceftriaxone (32 micrograms/ml), piperacillin (32 micrograms/ml), tazobactam alone (16 micrograms/ml), clavulanate alone (2 micrograms/ml), or tazobactam in combination with ceftriaxone (ceftriaxone/tazobactam at 32/4 and 16/16 micrograms/ml) or piperacillin (32/4 micrograms/ml). Erythromycin (1 microgram/ml) was active against intracellular L. pneumophila in the same macrophage model of infection. It is very unlikely that tazobactam or clavulanate, alone or in combination with beta-lactam antimicrobial agents, will be effective for the treatment of Legionnaires' disease in humans. PMID:8192443

  8. Follow-up screening of lead-poisoned children near an auto battery recycling plant, Haina, Dominican Republic.

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, B; Sandhu, R S; Depratt, C; Reyes, F

    1999-01-01

    In August 1997 we performed a follow-up survey of 146 lead-poisoned children from a community near a previously active auto battery recycling smelter in Haina near Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Our follow-up survey confirmed a severe incidence of elevated blood lead (BPb) and erythrocyte protoporphyrin/zinc protoporphyrin (EP-ZnPP) levels. The mean BPb level was 32 micrograms/dL and the mean EP-ZnPP level was 128 micrograms/dL. The frequency distribution of BPb showed that only 9% of the children had BPb levels below the currently acceptable 10 micrograms/dL threshold level, 23% had between 10 and 19 micrograms/dL, 40% had between 20 and 39 micrograms/dL, 27% had between 40 and 99 micrograms/dL, and the remainder had > 100 micrograms/dL. These findings are significantly greater than the mean BPb and EP-ZnPP levels of 14 and 35 micrograms/dL, respectively, in a comparison group of 63 children in Barsequillo, 4 miles away. BPb frequency distributions for these groups were < 10 micrograms/dL (42%), 10-19 micrograms/dL (32%), and 20-39 micrograms/dL (16%); in the remaining 10%, BPb levels were between 40 and 99 micrograms/dL. Similarly, the corresponding frequency distribution of EP-ZnPP levels in Haina children were proportional to the severity of lead poisoning and significantly higher than those of the Barsequillo comparison group. This study reveals that at least 28% of Haina children require immediate treatment; of these, 5% with lead levels > 70 micrograms/dL are also at risk for severe neurologic sequelae, and urgent action is imperative. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10544160

  9. Chemical properties of emission from biomass fuels used in the rural sector of the western region of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Avirup; Mandal, T. K.; Sharma, S. K.; Saxena, Mohit; Gupta, N. C.; Gautam, R.; Gupta, Anita; Gill, Tanvi; Rani, Shalu; Saud, T.; Singh, D. P.; Gadi, Ranu

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the emission factors (EF) of particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO2, NO, NO2 and water soluble ions emitted by residential biomass fuels collected from the rural sector of Western India. Burning process has been simulated using a dilution chamber. Average EF of PM, OC and EC from fuel wood (FW), agricultural residues (AR) and dung cakes (DC) from Western India are estimated as: PM: 1.69 ± 0.98 g kg-1, 2.15 ± 1.00 g kg-1 and 5.37 ± 3.90 g kg-1; OC: 0.43 ± 0.29 g kg-1, 00.54 ± 0.22 g kg-1, 1.14 ± 0.67 g kg-1; EC: 0.25 ± 0.16 g kg-1, 0.23 ± 0.11 g kg-1 and 0.14 ± 0.08 g kg-1 respectively. Similarly, the average EF of SO2, NO and NO2 from FW, AR and DC are determined to be: SO2: 0.66 ± 0.37 g kg-1, 0.29 ± 0.45 g kg-1 and 0.74 ± 0.48 g kg-1; NO: 0.55 ± 0.25 g kg-1, 0.74 ± 0.37 g kg-1 and 0.50 ± 0.23 g kg-1; NO2: 1.05 ± 0.49 g kg-1, 1.41 ± 0.81 g kg-1 and 0.91 ± 0.45 g kg-1 respectively. Cl- has the highest average EF (FW: 97.03 ± 74.98 mg kg-1, AR: 175.71 ± 145.78 mg kg-1, DC: 158.15 ± 109.07 mg kg-1) among the anions, followed by PO43-(FW: 116.59 ± 63.43 mg kg-1, AR: 58.45 ± 1.42 mg kg-1, DC: 85.77 ± 78.85 mg kg-1) and NO3- (FW: 64.23 ± 68.38 mg kg-1, AR: 36.78 ± 22.80 mg kg-1, DC: 50.25 ± 49.33 mg kg-1). Similarly, among the cations, the highest emitters are Na+ (FW: 40.25 ± 26.64 mg kg-1; AR: 47.96 ± 18.35 mg kg-1, DC: 30.51 ± 23.39 mg kg-1), K+ (FW: 29.32 ± 23.95 mg kg-1, AR: 50.89 ± 34.62 mg kg-1, DC: 18.23 ± 14.54 mg kg-1) and NH4+ (FW: 27.93 ± 22.59 mg kg-1; AR: 46.37 ± 41.79 mg kg-1, DC: 41.74 ± 36.01 mg kg-1). The total emissions of trace gases, PM and its chemical composition from FW, AR and DC have been calculated using laboratory generated EFs over Western India.

  10. Elemental composition of commercial sea cucumbers (holothurians).

    PubMed

    Wen, J; Hu, C

    2010-01-01

    Toxic and essential elements in 11 different sea cucumber species were determined and compared with daily intake recommendations and maximum allowed levels. The contents of macro-elements contents in dried sea cucumber samples were found to be 25,000-152,000 mg kg(-1) for Na, 4000-8600 mg kg(-1) for Mg, 1100-5200 mg kg(-1) for K, 15,000-68,000 mg kg(-1) and 36,300-251,000 mg kg(-1) for Cl. Trace element concentrations in dried sea cucumber samples were found to be 11-100 mg kg(-1) for Zn, 41-660 mg kg(-1) for Fe, 3-74 mg kg(-1) for Cu, 1.1-16 mg kg(-1) for Mn, 1.4-3.7 mg kg(-1) for Se, 1.1-9.6 mg kg(-1) for Cr, and 0.3-5.1 mg kg(-1) for Ni. All sea cucumber species were rich sources of Na, Cl, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Se and Cr for human consumption. Regarding contaminants, As, Cd and Pb concentrations in dried sea cucumbers were in the ranges of 1.1-6.1, 0.03-0.06 and 0.11-0.69 mg kg(-1), respectively. Moreover, Hg values of 11 sea cucumbers were below the detection limit (0.01 mg kg(-1)).

  11. Study on transfers of uranium, thorium and decay products from grain, water and soil to chicken meat and egg contents.

    PubMed

    Jeambrun, M; Pourcelot, L; Mercat, C; Boulet, B; Loyen, J; Cagnat, X; Gauthier-Lafaye, F

    2012-08-01

    Activity concentrations of the uranium and thorium series radionuclides were determined in chicken meat and eggs as well as in soil, water and other dietary intakes of poultry at five sites of the French territory. These data allow the calculation of transfer coefficients which enrich the database given by the technical report series no. 472 of the IAEA. In egg contents, the highest activity concentrations (in mBq kg(-1) fresh weight) are for (226)Ra, ranging between 136 and 190 and are much lower for uranium (between 0.51 and 1.30 for (238)U). In chicken meat, (238)U activity concentration is higher than in egg contents and ranges between 1.7 and 9.7. Concerning (232)Th, its activity concentration is lower than uranium and ranges between 0.5 and 4.9. Daily ingested activity concentration by the animals was assessed taking into account the activity concentrations measured in the grains, in the soil and in the drinking water. The activity concentration in grains and the daily intakes allow the calculation of concentration ratios and transfer coefficients for chicken meat and egg contents. In chicken meat the transfer coefficients (d kg(-1)) range between 0.0018 and 0.0073 for (238)U and between 0.0008 and 0.0028 for (232)Th. In egg contents they range from 0.00018 to 0.0018 for (238)U and are much higher for radium isotopes (0.10-0.23 for (226)Ra and 0.07-0.11 for (228)Ra).

  12. Reutilization of granite powder as an amendment and fertilizer for acid soils.

    PubMed

    Barral Silva, M T; Silva Hermo, B; García-Rodeja, E; Vázquez Freire, N

    2005-11-01

    The properties of granite powders--a granite manufacturing waste product-were analyzed to assess their potential use as amendments and fertilizers on acid soils. Two types of powders were characterized: one produced during cutting of granite with a diamond-edged disc saw, comprising only rock powder, the other produced during cutting with a multi-blade bandsaw, containing calcium hydroxide and metal filings added during the cutting procedure. The acid neutralizing capacity of the granite powders was assessed in short- (2-3 h) and medium-term (1-30 d) experiments. The powders showed a buffering capacity at around pH 8, which corresponded to the rapid dissolution of basic cations, and another buffering effect at pH<4.5, attributable to the dissolution of Fe and Al. The acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) determined in the short-term experiments, to a final pH of 4.5, varied between 5 and 61 cmol H+kg(-1) powder. The ANC to pH 4.5 obtained in the medium-term experiments was much higher than that obtained in the short-term experiments, reaching a maximum ANC value of 200 cmol H+kg(-1) powder. There was no great difference in the neutralizing capacity determined at between 1 and 30 d. The most abundant elements in acid solutions obtained at the end of medium-term experiments were Mg and Ca for disc saw powders, whereas Ca and Fe (at pH<5) were the most soluble elements in the bandsaw powders. The rapid release of these cations suggests the possible effective use of the granite powders as a source of nutrients on being added to acid soils.

  13. Evaluation of natural radioactivity in soil, sediment and water samples of Niger Delta (Biseni) flood plain lakes, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Agbalagba, E O; Onoja, R A

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the findings of a baseline study undertaken to evaluate the natural radioactivity levels in soil, sediment and water samples in four flood plain lakes of the Niger Delta using a hyper pure germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity profile of radionuclides shows low activity across the study area. The mean activity level of the natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K is 20 ± 3, 20 ± 3 and 180 ± 50 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These values are well within values reported elsewhere in the country and in other countries with similar environments. The study also examined some radiation hazard indices. The mean values obtained are, 76 ± 14 Bq kg(-1), 30 ± 5.5 ηGy h(-1), 37 ± 6.8 μSv y(-1), 0.17 and 0.23 for Radium Equivalent Activity (Ra(eq)), Absorbed Dose Rates (D), Annual Effective Dose Rates (E(ff) Dose), External Hazard Index (H(ex)) and Internal Hazard Index (H(in)) respectively. All the health hazard indices are well below their recommended limits. The soil and sediments from the study area provide no excessive exposures for inhabitants and can be used as construction materials without posing any significant radiological threat to the population. The water is radiologically safe for domestic and industrial use. The paper recommends further studies to estimate internal and external doses from other suspected radiological sources to the population of the Biseni kingdom.

  14. Bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saakes, M.; Woortmeijer, R.; Schmal, D.

    Within the framework of the European project bipolar lead-acid power source (BILAPS), a new production route is being developed for the bipolar lead-acid battery. The performance targets are 500 W kg -1, 30 Wh kg -1 and 100 000 power-assist life cycles (PALCs). The operation voltage of the battery can be, according to the requirements, 12, 36 V or any other voltage. Tests with recently developed 4 and 12 V prototypes, each of 30 Ah capacity have demonstrated that the PALC can be operated using 10 C discharge and 9 C charge peaks. The tests show no overvoltage or undervoltage problems during three successive test periods of 16 h with 8 h rest in between. The temperature stabilizes during these tests at 40-45 °C using a thermal-management system. The bipolar lead acid battery is operated at an initial 50% state-of-charge. During the tests, the individual cell voltages display only very small differences. Tests are now in progress to improve further the battery-management system, which has been developed at the cell level, during the period no PALCs are run in order to improve the hybrid behaviour of the battery. The successful tests show the feasibility of operating the bipolar lead-acid battery in a hybrid mode. The costs of the system are estimated to be much lower than those for nickel-metal-hydride or Li-ion based high-power systems. An additional advantage of the lead-acid system is that recycling of lead-acid batteries is well established.

  15. Comparative study on macro- and micro-elements concentration in Nicotiana tabacum and Faba siliquis plants by ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balazs, Zoltan; Voica, Cezara; Dehelean, Adriana; Magdas, Dana Alina; Ristoiu, Dumitru

    2015-12-01

    Plants are important components of ecosystems as they transfer elements from abiotic into biotic environments. The concentration of macro and micro-elements in tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum) and bean (Faba siliquis) was analyzed using ICP-MS technique. The results obtained indicated that the mean concentration of Mg, P, K and Ca in tobacco leaves was 0.965, 0.812, 4.412 and 2.694 g.kg-1, respectively, while in bean samples were 0.899, 2.024, 6.725 and 1.387 g.kg-1, respectively. Mn concentration ranged from 156.835 mg.kg-1 to 234.593 mg.kg-1 in tobacco leaves and from 116.174 mg.kg-1 to 440.423 mg.kg-1 in bean samples. The results for Cu and Zn were between 7.262 mg.kg-1 and 105.738 mg.kg-1, 68.549 mg.kg-1 and 113.720 mg.kg-1 (tobacco leaves); and 6.830 mg.kg-1 and 46.034 mg.kg-1, 50.166 mg.kg-1 and 77.242 mg.kg-1 (bean samples), respectively. In analyzed samples, Pb, Cd and As concentrations ranged between <0.001-0.717 mg.kg-1, 0.046 mg.kg-1 -6.218 mg.kg-1, <0.001-0.381 mg.kg-1. The paper discusses the transfer of metal ions (Mn, As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively) from soil to these plants in terms of transfer factors (TF).

  16. Mitigating the environmental impacts of milk production via anaerobic digestion of manure: case study of a dairy farm in the Po Valley.

    PubMed

    Battini, F; Agostini, A; Boulamanti, A K; Giuntoli, J; Amaducci, S

    2014-05-15

    This work analyzes the environmental impacts of milk production in an intensive dairy farm situated in the Northern Italy region of the Po Valley. Three manure management scenarios are compared: in Scenario 1 the animal slurry is stored in an open tank and then used as fertilizer. In scenario 2 the manure is processed in an anaerobic digestion plant and the biogas produced is combusted in an internal combustion engine to produce heat (required by the digester) and electricity (exported). Scenario 3 is similar to scenario 2 but the digestate is stored in a gas-tight tank. In scenario 1 the GHG emissions are estimated to be equal to 1.21 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM) without allocation of the environmental burden to the by-product meat. With mass allocation, the GHG emissions associated to the milk are reduced to 1.18 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. Using an economic allocation approach the GHG emissions allocated to the milk are 1.13 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. In scenarios 2 and 3, without allocation, the GHG emissions are reduced respectively to 0.92 (-23.7%) and 0.77 (-36.5%) kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. If land use change due to soybean production is accounted for, an additional emission of 0.53 kg CO2 eq. should be added, raising the GHG emissions to 1.74, 1.45 and 1.30 kg CO2 eq kg(-1) FPCM in scenarios 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Primary energy from non-renewable resources decreases by 36.2% and 40.6% in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively, with the valorization of the manure in the biogas plant. The other environmental impact mitigated is marine eutrophication that decreases by 8.1% in both scenarios 2 and 3, mostly because of the lower field emissions. There is, however, a trade-off between non-renewable energy and GHG savings and other environmental impacts: acidification (+6.1% and +5.5% in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively), particulate matter emissions (+1.4% and +0.7%) and photochemical ozone formation potential (+41.6% and +42.3%) increase with the

  17. Mitigating the environmental impacts of milk production via anaerobic digestion of manure: case study of a dairy farm in the Po Valley.

    PubMed

    Battini, F; Agostini, A; Boulamanti, A K; Giuntoli, J; Amaducci, S

    2014-05-15

    This work analyzes the environmental impacts of milk production in an intensive dairy farm situated in the Northern Italy region of the Po Valley. Three manure management scenarios are compared: in Scenario 1 the animal slurry is stored in an open tank and then used as fertilizer. In scenario 2 the manure is processed in an anaerobic digestion plant and the biogas produced is combusted in an internal combustion engine to produce heat (required by the digester) and electricity (exported). Scenario 3 is similar to scenario 2 but the digestate is stored in a gas-tight tank. In scenario 1 the GHG emissions are estimated to be equal to 1.21 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM) without allocation of the environmental burden to the by-product meat. With mass allocation, the GHG emissions associated to the milk are reduced to 1.18 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. Using an economic allocation approach the GHG emissions allocated to the milk are 1.13 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. In scenarios 2 and 3, without allocation, the GHG emissions are reduced respectively to 0.92 (-23.7%) and 0.77 (-36.5%) kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. If land use change due to soybean production is accounted for, an additional emission of 0.53 kg CO2 eq. should be added, raising the GHG emissions to 1.74, 1.45 and 1.30 kg CO2 eq kg(-1) FPCM in scenarios 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Primary energy from non-renewable resources decreases by 36.2% and 40.6% in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively, with the valorization of the manure in the biogas plant. The other environmental impact mitigated is marine eutrophication that decreases by 8.1% in both scenarios 2 and 3, mostly because of the lower field emissions. There is, however, a trade-off between non-renewable energy and GHG savings and other environmental impacts: acidification (+6.1% and +5.5% in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively), particulate matter emissions (+1.4% and +0.7%) and photochemical ozone formation potential (+41.6% and +42.3%) increase with the

  18. Natural radioactivity determination in samples of Peperomia pellucida commonly used as a medicinal herb.

    PubMed

    Sussa, Fábio V; Damatto, Sandra R; Alencar, Marcos M; Mazzilli, Barbara P; Silva, Paulo S C

    2013-02-01

    The concentration of (238)U, (232)Th, (230)Th, (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (210)Pb were determined in samples of Peperomia pellucida and in the surrounding soil, by alpha spectrometry and gross alpha and beta counting. The radionuclide activity concentrations ranged from 4.3 to 38 Bq kg(-1), 1.7-124 Bq kg(-1), 2.1-38 Bq kg(-1), 8.5-37 Bq kg(-1), 3.2-46 Bq kg(-1), 39-93 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In the plant extractions and infusions as used for consumption, the mean recoveries were from 23% to 60% in maceration and 24-75% in infusion.

  19. Biochar amendment reduces rice Cd uptake in polluted and unpolluted paddy soils: a long term field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, R.; Cui, L.; Pan, G.; Li, L.

    2012-04-01

    The bioavailability of Cd in agricultural soils has been a great health concern due to the potential risk through exposure of agro-food produced in Cd-contaminated fields. Yet, rice subject to Cd contamination appears to have expanded at the last decade due to irrigation with waste water and chemical fertilization in south china. This is supposed to raise the Cd accumulation of rice grain. Therefore, techniques to reduce Cd mobility and plant uptake have been a urgent demand for food safety in China.A field experiment was performed in a high-polluted (HP), mid-pollute (MP) and unpolluted (UP) paddy soil with biochar(BC) amendment in 2011. BC was applied in HP, MP and UP in 2008, 2009, 2009 with the rates of 0, 10, 20, 40t ha-1 in HP, MP and 0, 40t ha-1 in UP. The experiment was monitored in 2011. It was observed that BC amendment did not affect rice grain yield but significantly increased soil pH by 0.58-0.77, 1.30 units in MP, UP and there was no difference in HP. The Cacl2 extracted Cd in soil was decreased by 18.1%-28.9% in HP, 49.3%-67.5% in MP and 83.1% in UP, respectively. Meanwhile, H2O extractable Cd in soil was decreased by 20.0%-31.7% in HP, 32.7%-44.2% in MP and 25.0% in UP, respectively. With the BC treatment, rice grain Cd concentration was decreased 4.7%-17.6% in HP, 35.9%-53.4% in MP. Especially in UP field, the rice grain Cd concentration was decreased from 0.22mg kg-1 to 0.07mg kg-1 which was below National standard (0.20mg kg-1) in China. The straw and root Cd contents were also significantly decreased with BC application. Therefore, BC amendment in polluted and unpolluted fields can sustainably reduce rice Cd uptake and it may offer a basic option to reduce Cd levels in rice. Keywords: Biochar, Cd, bioavailability, paddy soil, food safety

  20. Effects of divided doses of a bronchodilator aerosol and the intervening time interval on the forced expiration.

    PubMed

    Hidinger, K G; Bake, B

    1986-01-01

    Twelve patients with bronchial asthma participated in a blind, randomized, crossover study comparing the effects of 500 micrograms terbutaline in one inhalation, 125 micrograms in four inhalations taken in rapid succession, and 125 micrograms in four inhalations taken with an intervening time interval of 30 min. There were no significant differences between the three modes of inhalation of 500 micrograms terbutaline in any of the spirometric variables, i.e., 1-second forced expiratory volume, forced vital capacity, and maximal airflows when 50 and 75% of the forced vital capacity was exhaled from the total lung capacity. However, there were neither any significant differences between the levels of bronchodilation reached after administration of 500 micrograms and 2 or 3 X 125 micrograms terbutaline with an intervening time interval of 30 min. The time interval between the divided doses was possibly too long to achieve maximum accumulated effect of the four divided doses.

  1. Effect of age on sensitivity of daphnia magna to cadmium, copper and cyanazine

    SciTech Connect

    Nebeker, A.V.; Cairns, M.A.; Onjukka, S.T.; Titus, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Daphnia magna were exposed to cadmium, copper, and cyanazine to determine the relative sensitivities of several age groups: less than 4 h, less than 24 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 4 d, 5 d, and 6 d old. Mean cadmium 48-h EC50 values for each age group ranged from 23 to 164 micrograms/L. Mean copper EC50 values ranged from 6 to 18 micrograms/L. Cyanazine EC50 values ranged from 53 to 106 micrograms/L. The 1-d-old Daphnia mean EC50s were 48 and 49 micrograms/L for cadmium, 10 and 10 micrograms/L for copper and 84 and 86 microgram/L for cyanazine, respectively. These similar sensitivities indicate that older animals can be used in tests equally as well as younger animals, thus simplifying the recovery of daphnids in acute sediment toxicity tests.

  2. Dose ranging study of the effects of cholecystokinin in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bradwejn, J; Koszycki, D; Bourin, M

    1991-07-01

    The authors determined whether response to cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide (CCK-4) was dose-dependent. Healthy volunteers (n = 36) received double-blind injections of either 9 micrograms, 25 micrograms, or 50 micrograms of CCK-4 and placebo in a randomized sequence of injection. Significant dose-related differences were found for the number of symptoms, sum intensity of symptoms and the time until onset of symptoms, but not for the duration of symptoms. The incidence of panic attacks with CCK-4 was 11%, 17% and 47% for the 9 micrograms, 25 micrograms and 50 micrograms dose, respectively. None of the controls panicked with placebo injections. These results support the notion of a dose-dependent effect of CCK-4-induced panic symptoms. Implications of these findings in the neurobiology of panic attacks are discussed.

  3. [Determination of organotin compounds in polyvinyl chloride toys].

    PubMed

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Masako; Aoyama, Taiki; Mitani, Kazunori

    2003-08-01

    Organotin compounds in polyvinyl chloride toys were determined by GC/MS after ethyl derivatization with sodium tetraethylborate. The samples were 12 balls, 12 soft toys, 10 food toys and 13 face masks for children. Monooctyltin, dioctyltin and trioctyltin compounds were found in all face masks at the levels of 74.8-917 micrograms/g. 474-3,960 micrograms/g and 1.0-213 micrograms/g, respectively. They also were detected in 6 balls, 4 soft toys and 1 food toy. Monomethyltin and dimethyltin compounds were found in 8 face masks at the levels of 40.9-227 micrograms/g and 222-1,450 micrograms/g, respectively. Monobutyltin and dibutyltin (DBT) compounds were found in 1 ball, 3 food toys and 5 face masks. In particular, 1 ball and 4 face masks contained toxic DBT at the levels of 527-999 micrograms/g.

  4. Sulfonium salts as derivatizing agents. 2. Determination of theophylline in plasma by automated gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lee, B L; Jacob, P; Benowitz, N L

    1989-09-29

    An automated gas chromatographic method for determination of theophylline in plasma is described. A novel feature of this assay is the use of triethylsulfonium hydroxide as an on-column alkylating agent. A simple extraction procedure together with automated sample injection and data processing has facilitated processing of large numbers of samples generated in pharmacokinetic studies. The between-run coefficient of variation was 2.2% at 5 micrograms/ml (n = 5) and 3.9% at 15 micrograms/ml (n = 6). Within-run coefficient of variation was 2.4% at 5 micrograms/ml (n = 9) and 3.3% at 15 micrograms/ml (n = 6). Accuracy was 105% at a concentration of 5 micrograms/ml and 102% at 15 micrograms/ml.

  5. Pesticide and PCB residues in the upper Snake River ecosystem, Southeastern Idaho, following the collapse of the Teton dam 1976.

    PubMed

    Perry, J A

    1979-01-01

    The Teton Dam in Southeastern Idaho collapsed on June 5, 1976. The resulting flood damaged a large area and caused the release of toxicants into the Snake River. A pesticide recovery team in a helicopter worked the flooded area for three weeks and collected 1,104 containers, about 35% of which contained toxicants. It was estimated that less than 60% of the lost pesticide containers were recovered. This paper addresses the results of a one-time sampling effort designed to determine the magnitude of the chemical contamination. Over 300 samples of fish, plankton, waterfowl, sediments, water, stream drift, aquatic plants, and soil were taken. Pesticide residues were measured as microgram/kg (ppb) wet weight, whole animal basis. Rainbow trout had as much as 1432 micrograms/kg total DDT plus analogs, 66 micrograms/kg dieldrin, and 1010 micrograms/kg PCBs. Utah suckers had up to 1420 micrograms/kg total DDT plus analogs, 32 micrograms/kg dieldrin, and 1800 micrograms/kg PCB. Rocky Mountain whitefish had as much as 2650 micrograms/kg total DDT and analogs, 30 micrograms/kg dieldrin and 1400 micrograms/kg PCBs. These PCB and DDT levels were high, approaching the 2,000 micrograms/kg FDA proposed tolerance, but were below the 5,000 micrograms/kg present tolerance. Dieldrin levels were low and organophosphates were undetectable. An undeveloped area (the Fort Hall Bottoms) showed higher levels of contaminants than did an industrialized area (the lower Portneuf River). This apparent discrepancy remains unexplained. Very little pre-flood data on a whole fish basis were available for comparison (Johnson et al 1977). However, it does not appear that any human health hazard due to pesticide levels exists in this portion of the Snake River.

  6. Machining of low percentage beryllium copper alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habermeyer, J. G.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne beryllium sampling during machining of low percentage beryllium-copper alloys shows that normal dry machining creates 45.2 microgram/cu m of airborne beryllium in the casting operators breathing zone and 2.3 microgram/cu m in an adjacent machine working area. A small vacuum system placed over the tool effectively removes airborne beryllium in the breathing zone sample to 0.2 microgram/cu m.

  7. A Summary of Ambient Air at John F. Kennedy Space Center with a Comparison to Data from the Florida Statewide Monitoring Network (1983-1992)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drese, John H.

    1997-01-01

    The EPA criteria air pollutants were monitored at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) since 1983 to comply the prevention of significant deterioration requirements under the Clean Air Act amendments passed by Congress in 1977 and 1990. Monitoring results show that monthly maximum 24-hour total suspended particulates decreased from 144.6 micograms/cu m in 1988 to 73.0 micrograms/cu m in 1991 and increased to 149.3 micrograms/cu m in 1992. Inhalable particulates increased from 56.1 gg/M3 in 1983 to 131.4 micrograms/cu m in 1988, and then decreased to 38.5 micrograms/cu m in 1992. Sulfur dioxide monthly maximum 24-hour average concentrations decreased each year from 135.2 micrograms/cu m in 1983 to 33.8 micrograms/cu m in 1992. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations increased from 5.1 micrograms/cu m in 1983 to 5.9 micrograms/cu m in 1988, then decreased to 4.5 micrograms/cu m in 1992. Carbon monoxide annual average concentrations decreased from 6.2 micrograms/cu m in 1983 to 1.1 micrograms/cu m in 1988, and increased to 1.2 micrograms/cu m in 1992. Ozone maximum 1-hour concentrations increased from 98 parts per billion (ppb) in 1983 to 134 ppb in 1989, and then decreased to 80 ppb in 1992. Total annual rainfall ranged from 37.47 inches to 57.47 inches and shows a 6.6 percent increase over this same ten year period.

  8. Compilation of atrazine and selected herbicide data from previous surface-water-quality investigations within the Big Blue River basin, Nebraska, 1983-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankforter, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Atrazine has been detected in the surface water of the Big Blue River Basin during every month of the year. Recent data (1983-92) documenting the occurrence of atrazine and related herbicides in the surface water of the basin are compiled in this report. In samples analyzed during these studies, atrazine was the herbicide detected most frequently within the basin. Of the 385 samples analyzed, 369 contained atrazine in detectable concentrations with detection levels varying from 0 to 0.1 micrograms per liter. The concentrations of atrazine within the samples varied from 0.5 to 166 micrograms per liter, with a median concentration of 2.7 micrograms per liter. Other herbicides frequently detected in the Big Blue River Basin were alachlor, cyanazine, metolachlor, and simazine, and two metabolites of atrazine, desethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine. In the 226 samples which alachlor was detected, the concentrations of the herbicide ranged from 0.05 to 56 micrograms per liter, and the median concen- tration was 1.1 micrograms per liter. Cyanazine was detected in 210 of 365 samples collected with con- centrations that ranged from 0.05 to 8.6 micrograms per liter with a median concentration of 0.4 microgram per liter. The maximum concentrations of metolachlor and simazine were 26 and 35 micrograms per liter, respectively. The median concentrations of these herbicides were 1.0 and 0.1 micrograms per liter, respectively. The maximum concentration of desethylatrazine, was 3.7 micrograms per liter, with a median concentration of 1.0 microgram per liter. Deisopropylatrazine, was detected in 152 samples with maximum and median concentrations of 2.6 and 0.6 micrograms per liter, respectively.

  9. [Contents of aluminum and manganese in tea leaves and tea infusions].

    PubMed

    Matsushima, F; Meshitsuka, S; Nose, T

    1993-10-01

    We measured the contents of aluminum and manganese in tea leaves and tea infusions by means of various standardized infusion conditions, and by using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and investigated the influence of infusion conditions on the elution of aluminum and manganese into the tea infusions. Furthermore, we tried to estimate the daily intake of aluminum and manganese due to drinking tea infusions. The content of aluminum in tea leaves was 1420 micrograms/g in case of wulong tea, 576 micrograms/g in black tea, and 520 micrograms/g in green tea. The content of manganese was 1440 micrograms/g in the case of wulong tea, 670 micrograms/g in green tea, and 535 micrograms/g in black tea. The concentration of aluminum in tea infusions was 1.49-5.58 micrograms/ml in wulong tea, 0.90-4.92 micrograms/ml in green tea, and 0.64-4.35 micrograms/ml in black tea. The concentration of manganese was 1.75-6.67 micrograms/ml in green tea, 0.94-4.04 micrograms/ml in wulong tea, and 0.78-3.24 micrograms/ml in black tea. The ratio of the molar concentration of aluminum to that of manganese was 1-2:1 in tea leaves, and 1-5:1 in tea infusions. In the case of elevated-temperature infusion, increases of the concentrations of aluminum and manganese in tea infusions were recognized. By repeating infusion three times according to the standard method for ingredient analysis of food, 18-29% of the total content of aluminum in tea leaves was eluted, and 12-29% of the total content of manganese was eluted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8254994

  10. Hexavalent chromium in the ground and surface waters near Telluride, Colorado; preliminary data report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grove, David B.; Miller, R.L.; Konikow, L.F.; O'Boyle, P. S.

    1979-01-01

    Data showing results of 38 groundwater and 25 surface-water samples analyzed for hexavalent chromium are presented. Most samples were taken within the Telluride, Colo., city limits during October 1978. Twenty-four of the 38 groundwater samples (63%) contained more than 50 micrograms per liter of hexavalent chromium. Excluding the mill tailings pond 6 of the 23 surface-water samples (26%) contained more than 50 micrograms per liter of hexavalent chromium. Hexavalent chromium concentrations in groundwaters ranged from 0 to 2700 micrograms per liter and in surface waters from 0 to 160 micrograms per liter. (USGS)

  11. [Studies on the effect of an alkaloid extract of Symphytum officinale on human lymphocyte cultures].

    PubMed

    Behninger, C; Abel, G; Röder, E; Neuberger, V; Göggelmann, W

    1989-12-01

    An alkaloid extract of Symphytum officinale was investigated for its chromosome-damaging effect in human lymphocytes in vitro. In concentrations of 1.4 micrograms/ml and 14 micrograms/ml the alkaloids had no effect, in concentrations of 140 micrograms/ml and 1400 micrograms/ml the alkaloids induced sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) as well as chromosome aberrations. Additionally, the influence of rat liver enzymes (S9) was tested. The SCE-inducing capacity and the clastogenic effect of Symphytum alkaloids was increased by simultaneous application of S9-Mix. PMID:2616671

  12. Manganese content of large-volume parenteral solutions and of nutrient additives.

    PubMed

    Kurkus, J; Alcock, N W; Shils, M E

    1984-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry in a variety of commercially produced solutions and additives commonly used in total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The amount of Mn in preparations tested varied among manufacturers and among lots. It was generally present in very small amounts with amino acid preparations supplying the major portion in the TPN formulas. Among amino acid solutions, Aminosyn 10% had the highest Mn content (5.2-17.0 micrograms/liter) with Veinamine 8%, FreAmine II, 8.5%, Travasol 10%, and Nephramine having less than 6.7 micrograms/liter. Other large volume parenterals contained appreciably less Mn, eg, Dextrose 50% had 0.64-2.5 micrograms/liter. Some of the additives were high in Mn, eg, potassium phosphate--280 micrograms/liter, magnesium sulfate 50%--up to 225 micrograms/liter, and Berocca C--245.8 micrograms/liter but their actual contributions to daily TPN intake was no more than 3.3 micrograms. The calculated Mn content in TPN formulas with varying source materials ranged from 8.07-21.75 micrograms per total daily volume. These values agreed with those obtained from analysis of actual TPN solutions. The values for 10% Intralipid and 20% Liposyn were 0.5 and 3.0 micrograms/liter, respectively.

  13. Endocrine responses of healthy parrots to ACTH and thyroid stimulating hormone.

    PubMed

    Zenoble, R D; Kemppainen, R J; Young, D W; Clubb, S L

    1985-12-01

    Effects of exogenous ACTH on plasma corticosterone and cortisol concentrations and the effects of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) on plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were determined in the following 3 species of parrots: red-lored Amazon (group 1), blue-fronted Amazon (group 2), and African gray (group 3). Each bird was given ACTH (0.125 mg/bird) IM, except for 3 to 4 birds in each group, which were given saline solution (controls). Blood samples were collected before and 90 minutes after ACTH stimulation. In group 1 (n = 12), mean plasma corticosterone concentrations increased significantly (P less than 0.001) from 1.06 microgram/dl (before ACTH) to 4.89 micrograms/dl (after ACTH); mean corticosterone concentrations increased in the control birds from 1.06 microgram/dl to 1.84 microgram/dl; and mean cortisol concentrations increased only slightly from 0.228 microgram/dl to 0.266 microgram/dl. In group 2 (n = 12), mean corticosterone concentrations increased significantly (P less than 0.001) from 2.09 micrograms/dl to 10.58 micrograms/dl; control mean corticosterone concentrations decreased slightly from 2.09 micrograms/dl to 1.77 microgram/dl; and mean cortisol concentrations increased from less than or equal to 0.16 microgram/dl to 0.266 microgram/dl. In group 3 (n = 12), mean plasma corticosterone concentrations increased significantly (P less than or equal to 0.001) from 2.33 micrograms/dl to 4.67 micrograms/dl; mean control plasma corticosterone concentrations decreased from 2.33 micrograms/dl to 1.68 microgram/dl; and plasma corticol concentrations were not detectable. Each bird was given TSH, IM (1 U/bird). Blood samples were collected before and 6 hours after TSH administration. Saline solution was not administered as controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Pharmacology, Safety, and efficacy of cefamandole in childhood infections.

    PubMed Central

    Thirumoorthi, M C; Dajani, A S; Vincent, C V; Maurer, M J

    1981-01-01

    We used cefamandole in the initial treatment of 34 children (10 months to 15 years of age) with suspected bone, joint, or soft tissue infections. The minimal inhibitory concentration of organisms encountered ranged between 0.015 and 2 microgram/ml. At 1 h after intravenous infusion of 25 mg/kg, the mean serum level of cefamandole was 26.2 microgram/ml (range, 8.9 to 47.5 microgram/ml), and at 3 h the level was 1.8 microgram/ml (range, 0.6 to 4.4 microgram/ml), which is above the minimal inhibitory concentration for most of the organisms encountered. However, when the drug was given intravenously every 6 h, the mean level after a 37-mg/kg dose was 0.9 microgram/ml (range, less than 0.5 to 1.9 microgram/ml) at 4 h and, by extrapolation, would have fallen below 0.1 microgram/ml at 6 h. The mean serum half-life was 34 min. Cefamandole appeared to diffuse well into synovial fluid, with joint fluid levels between 5 and 40 microgram/ml. The drug was tolerated well. Cefamandole appears to be a reasonable alternative in the initial treatment of skeletal infections in children, but need to be administered every 4 h to maintain suprainhibitory serum levels between doses. PMID:7283413

  15. A Role for Presynaptic alpha(sub 2)-Adrenoceptors in Angiotensin 2-Induced Drinking in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fregly, Melvin J.; Rowland, Neil E.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Studies from this laboratory have shown that either central or peripheral administration of clonidine, the alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptor agonist, can attenuate a variety of dipsogenic stimuli in rats. Further, yohimbine and tolazoline, alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptor antagonists, augment the drinking response to both peripherally administered isoproterenol and angiotensin 2. Studies reported here establish a dose-inhibition relationship between the dose of clonidine administered (2 to 32 micrograms/kg) intracerebroventricularly (IVT) and inhibition of the drinking response to peripherally administered angiotensin 2 (200 micrograms/kg, SC). DI(sub 50) was approximately 4 micrograms/kg. Yohimbine (300 micrograms/kg, SC) reversed the antidipsogenic effect of centrally administered clonidine (32 micrograms/kg, IVT) on angiotensin 2-induced (200 micrograms/kg, SC) water intake. Phenylephrine, an alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptor agonist, administered IVT (40 and 80 micrograms/kg) also inhibited angiotensin 2-induced drinking in a dose-related fashion. The antidipsogenic effect of phenylephfine (80 micrograms/kg) was blocked by administration of yohimbine (100 micrograms/kg, SC). Thus, this effect of phenylephrine most likely occurs by way of alpha(sub 2)- adrenoceptors. These results support a role for the pre-synaptic alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptor in the mediation of drinking in rats. Activation of alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptors is accompanied by reduced water intake while inhibition of these receptors enhances water intake.

  16. Micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis for rapid analysis of patulin in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Tsao, R; Zhou, T

    2000-11-01

    A micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) mode was applied to a capillary electrophoresis (CE) method, which was developed for detection and quantitation of patulin in apple ciders. This method used a small sample amount (2 mL) and consumed minimal organic solvent compared to the most commonly used HPLC methods. The sample preparation procedure of the CE method was also simpler than other chromatographic techniques developed for patulin analysis. Patulin was detected with a photodiode array detector at 273 nm. The standard curve was linear (r(2) = 0.9984) from 75 microgram/L to 121 microgram/mL with patulin working solutions corresponding to 3.8 microgram/L to 6.1 microgram/mL patulin in the sample. The linearity was better in a narrower range of concentrations (r(2) = 0.9999) from 75 microgram/L to 24.1 microgram/mL. The limit of detection of the method was 3.8 microgram/L. Patulin recoveries at 4 levels in spiked samples (10-121 microgram/L) ranged from 95.2 to 105.4%. The recoveries were 96. 9% and 99.2% for 2 levels (22.3 and 223 microgram/L, respectively) of patulin in infected apple samples. This method represents a unique alternative method for rapid and sensitive analysis of patulin in apple ciders. PMID:11087465

  17. [Evaluation of contamination of serum derived intravenous preparations].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrowicz, J; Fiejka, M; Słowikowska, M

    1994-01-01

    The concentration of Al in 4 lots of 5% Albumina and in 14 lots of 5% immunoglobulins were estimated by adsorptive stripping voltammetric method. Mean Al concentrations amounted to 142.6 micrograms/l in 5% Albumina and to 202 micrograms/l in IVIG preparations produced in Poland. Al concentrations in foreign IVIG preparations ranged from 14 to 54 micrograms/l. These data show the need to consider setting an upper limit of microgram Al/l in i.v. drug products produced or registered in Poland. PMID:7597193

  18. Delivery of albuterol and ipratropium bromide from two nebulizer systems in chronic stable asthma. Efficacy and pulmonary deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.A.; Newman, S.P.; Bloom, R.; Talaee, N.; Clarke, S.W.

    1989-07-01

    Bronchodilator responses to both nebulized albuterol (salbutamol) and ipratropium bromide and aerosol delivery to the tracheobronchial tree have been assessed in eight patients with chronic stable asthma (mean baseline FEV1, 50 percent; reversibility greater than 20 percent). Two commercially available nebulizer systems were used, namely, a Turret nebulizer operated at a compressed gas flow rate of 12 L/min (droplet MMD, 3.3 mu) and an Inspiron nebulizer driven at 6 L/min (MMD, 7.7 mu). Albuterol was given as doses of 250 micrograms, 250 micrograms, 500 micrograms, and 1,000 micrograms (cumulative dose, 2 mg) and ipratropium bromide as doses of 50 micrograms, 50 micrograms, 100 micrograms, and 200 micrograms (cumulative dose, 400 micrograms) at intervals of 35 minutes. For albuterol, bronchodilatation was significantly (p less than 0.05) greater at all dosage levels with the Turret. For ipratropium, bronchodilatation was similar for both nebulizers. Measurements of aerosol deposition using /sup 99m/Tc-labelled pentetic acid (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid; DTPA) showed that 9.1 +/- 1.1 percent and 2.7 +/- 0.2 percent of the dose reached the lungs during nebulization to dryness for Turret and Inspiron, respectively (p less than 0.01); distribution within the lungs was similar for the two aerosols. Selection of nebulizer apparatus can influence delivery of aerosol and subsequent bronchodilator response to albuterol in patients with chronic stable asthma but is less important for aerosol delivery of ipratropium bromide in these patients.

  19. Water-quality assessment of part of the upper Mississippi River basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Pesticides in streams, streambed sediment, and ground water, 1974-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fallon, J.D.; Fong, A.L.; Andrews, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    Atrazine was the only pesticide that equaled or exceeded a maximum contaminant level (of 3.0 micrograms per liter) for drinking water. Two stream samples from a small urban watershed in Minneapolis had atrazine concentrations of 3.6 and 3.8 micrograms per liter, and one ground-water sample had a concentration of 3.0 micrograms per liter. Trace concentrations (less than 0.06 micrograms per liter) of the organochlorine insecticides chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, and heptachlor exceeded chronic freshwater-quality criteria in stream samples from the Mississippi, Minnesota, St. Croix, and Vemillion Rivers in 1981 and 1990.

  20. Hypotensive action of prolactin in rats with spontaneous hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ryszka, F; Ludyga, K; Strokowska, M; Krupej, J; Gaus, I; Zych, F

    1984-01-01

    Rats (SHR) weighing 240 +/- 10 g with spontaneous hypertension were given intraperitoneally porcine prolactin in doses from 0.2 to 2000 micrograms/kg of body weight. The systolic pressure was measured before hormone administration and 2 hours after it. It was found that prolactin in doses of 200 to 2000 micrograms/kg caused a decrease of the systolic pressure by 22%. The dose of 20 micrograms/kg decreased this pressure by 9% and the dose of 0.2 microgram/kg by 7.9%.

  1. Interpretive standards for disk susceptibility tests with Sch 21420 and amikacin.

    PubMed Central

    Barry, A L; Thornsberry, C; Jones, R N; Gerlach, E H

    1980-01-01

    Disk susceptibility tests with two structurally related aminoglycosides (amikacin and Sch 21420) were evaluated. Tests with 10- and 30-micrograms amikacin disks confirmed previous recommendations for interpretive zone standards; 30-micrograms disks are preferred. Tests with 10-, 20-, and 30-micrograms Sch 21420 disks led to similar conclusions. The 30-micrograms Sch 21420 disks are recommended, with zone standards of less than or equal to 14 mm for the resistant category (minimal inhibitory concentration, greater than or equal to 32 micrograms/ml) and greater than or equal to 17 mm for the susceptible category (minimal inhibitory concentration, less than or equal to 16 micrograms/ml). If a minimal inhibitory concentration breakpoint of less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml is preferred for defining the susceptible category, somewhat different zone standards may be used (less than or equal to 15 mm and greater than or equal to 19mm). Further evaluation documented the fact that tests with 30-micrograms amikacin disks predicted resistance or susceptibility to Sch 21420 almost as well as did a 30-micrograms Sch 21420 disk. Thus, the class concept of disk testing was judged to applicable, and routine testing with Sch 21420 may not be required. PMID:7447420

  2. Posterior hypothalamic receptors involved in the cardiovascular changes elicited by electrical stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla.

    PubMed

    Bachelard, H; Rivest, R; Marsden, C A

    1991-07-01

    The posterior hypothalamic receptors involved in the cardiovascular responses to electrical stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla were investigated in urethane-anaesthetized rats. Electrical stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla produced a significant increase in systolic blood pressure. This response was significantly attenuated by the prior administration of d,l-propranolol (20 micrograms), clonidine (8 micrograms), atropine (8 micrograms) or methysergide (10 micrograms) into the posterior hypothalamus, but not by cimetidine (11 micrograms), chlorpheniramine (12 micrograms), naloxone (10 micrograms) or a vasopressin V1 antagonist (100 ng). The effect of clonidine (8 micrograms) on the pressor response to stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla was antagonized by idazoxan (66 micrograms). These results confirm that the cardiovascular changes elicited by stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla area are, in part, centrally modulated by alpha 2 and beta-adrenoceptors in the posterior hypothalamus which exert respectively, inhibitory and stimulatory effect. Furthermore the results indicate the involvement of posterior hypothalamic cholinergic and serotonergic receptors in the pressor response produced by stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla.

  3. Nitrates, chlorates and trihalomethanes in swimming pool water.

    PubMed Central

    Beech, J A; Diaz, R; Ordaz, C; Palomeque, B

    1980-01-01

    Water from swimming pools in the Miami area was analyzed for nitrates, chlorates and trihalomethanes. The average concentrations of nitrate and chlorate found in freshwater pools were 8.6 mg/liter and 16 mg/liter respectively, with the highest concentrations being 54.9 mg/liter and 124 mg/liter, respectively. The average concentration of total trihalomethanes found in freshwater pools was 125 micrograms/liter (mainly chloroform) and in saline pools was 657 micrograms/liter (mainly bromoform); the highest concentration was 430 micrograms/liter (freshwater) and 1287 micrograms/liter (saltwater). The possible public health significance of these results is briefly discussed. PMID:7350831

  4. Crop demand of manganese.

    PubMed

    Marton, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate some of the popular rotation crops grown in Hungary for tolerance to low external Mn(2+) levels and to determine the critical tissue concentration of Mn(2+) deficiency during early stages of growth. The minimum Mn(2+) concentration required in soil nutrient contents was 42.5 mg kg(-1) for sunflower, 24.3 mg kg(-1) for tobacco and 10.2 mg kg(-1) for triticale. Sunflower, tobacco and triticale achieved optimum growth at 48.0-65.0 mg Mn(2+) kg(-1), 24.9-32.1 mg Mn( n+) kg(-1) and 28.7 to 29.6 mg Mn(2+) kg(-1), respectively. Critical shoot Mn(2+) concentration at early stages of growth was 53.6 mg kg(-1) in sunflower, 458.0 mg kg(-1) in tobacco and 193.8 mg kg(-1) in triticale. Our results demonstrate that the tolerance to low external Mn(2+) (triticale: <30.2 mg kg(-1); sunflower: <56.2 mg kg(-1); tobacco: <69.3 mg kg(-1)) and the critical tissue Mn(2+) levels for deficiency varied significantly between crop species tested.

  5. Production, purification and characterization of a 50-kDa extracellular metalloprotease from Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Salamone, P R; Wodzinski, R J

    1997-09-01

    The extracellular metalloprotease (SMP 6.1) produced by a soil isolate of Serratia marcescens NRRL B-23112 was purified and characterized. SMP 6.1 was purified from the culture supernatant by ammonium sulfate precipitation, acetone fractional precipitation, and preparative isoelectric focusing. SMP 6.1 has a molecular mass of approximately 50,900 Da by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The following substrates were hydrolyzed: casein, bovine serum albumin, and hide powder. SMP 6.1 has the characteristics of a metalloprotease, a pH optimum of 10.0, and a temperature optimum of 42 degrees C. The isoelectric point of the protease is 6.1. Restoration of proteolytic activity by in-gel renaturation after SDS-PAGE indicates a single polypeptide chain. SMP 6.1 is inhibited by EDTA (9 micrograms/ml) and not inhibited by antipain dihydrochloride (120 micrograms/ml), aprotinin (4 micrograms/ml), bestatin (80 micrograms/ml), chymostatin (50 micrograms/ml), E-64 (20 micrograms/ml), leupeptin (4 micrograms/ml), Pefabloc SC (2000 micrograms/ml), pepstatin (4 micrograms/ml), phosphoramidon (660 micrograms/ml), or phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (400 micrograms/ml). SMP 6.1 retains full activity in the presence of SDS (1% w/v), Tween-20 (1% w/v), Triton X-100 (1% w/v), ethanol (5% v/v), and 2-mercaptoethanol (0.5% v/v). The extracellular metalloprotease SMP 6.1 differs from the serratiopeptidase (Sigma) produced by S. marcescens ATCC 27117 in the following characteristics: isoelectric point, peptide mapping and nematolytic properties.

  6. Metal contamination in wildlife living near two zinc smelters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Pattee, O.H.; Sileo, L.; Hoffman, D.J.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Wildlife in an oak forest on Blue Mountain was studied 10 km upwind (Bake Oven Knob site) and 2 km downwind (Palmerton site) of two zinc smelters in eastern Pennsylvania, USA. Previous studies at sites near these smelters had shown changes in populations of soil microflora, lichens, green plants and litter-inhabiting arthropods. The 02 soil litter horizon at Palmerton was heavily contaminated with Pb (2700 mg kg-1), Zn (24000 mg kg-1), and Cd (710 mg kg-1), and to a lesser extent with Cu (440 mg kg-1). Various kinds of invertebrates (earthworms, slugs and millipedes) that feed on soil litter or soil organic matter were rare at, or absent from, the Palmerton site. Those collected at Bake Oven Knob tended to have much higher concentrations of metals than did other invertebrates. Frogs, toads and salamanders were very rare at, or absent from, the Palmerton site, but were present at Bake Oven Knob and at other sites on Blue Mountain farther from the smelters. Metal concentrations (dry wt) in different organisms from Palmerton were compared. Concentrations of Pb were highest in shrews (110 mg kg-1), followed by songbirds (56 mg kg-1), leaves (21 mg kg-1), mice (17 mg kg-1), carrion insects (14 mg kg-1), berries (4.0 mg kg-1), moths (4,3 mg kg-1) and fungi (3.7 mg kg-1). Concentrations of Cd, in contrast, were highest in carrion insects (25 mg kg-1 ),followed by fungi (9.8 mg kg-1), leaves (8.1 mg kg-1), shrews (7.3 mg kg-I), moths (4.9 mg kg-1), mice (2.6 mg kg -1), songbirds (2.5 mg kg -1) and berries (1.2 mg kg-1). Concentrations of Zn and Cu tended to be highest in the same organisms that had the highest concentrations of Cd. Only a small proportion of the metals in the soil became incorporated into plant foliage, and much of the metal contamination detected in the biota probably came from aerial deposition. The mice from both sites seemed to be healthy. Shrews had higher concentrations of metals than did mice, and one shrew showed evidence of Pb poisoning; its red

  7. Micro-solid-phase extraction (µ-SPE) of organophosphorous pesticides from wheat followed by LC-MS/MS determination.

    PubMed

    Della Pelle, Flavio; Di Crescenzo, Maria Chiara; Sergi, Manuel; Montesano, Camilla; Di Ottavio, Francesca; Scarpone, Rossana; Scortichini, Giampiero; Compagnone, Dario

    2016-01-01

    A rapid, selective and effective method of extraction, clean-up and concentration of organophosphorous pesticides from wheat followed by electrospray (ESI) LC-MS/MS analysis was developed. The μ-SPE (micro-solid-phase extraction) procedure resulted in good analytical performance and reduced at the same time matrix effects, analysis time and solvent consumption. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 0.3-10 and 1-30 μg kg(-1), respectively, with good reproducibility (RSD ≤ 13.8) and recoveries between 75% and 109%. Coefficients of determination (r(2)) were greater than 0.996 for the studied pesticides. Despite the reduced sorbent bed mass of μ-SPE tips (4.2 mg), the analytical data showed that no saturation phenomena occurs in the tested range of concentration both for single compounds and mixtures. Several real samples were analysed and the concentrations of the selected pesticides were found to be below the respective maximum residue limit (MRLs).

  8. Sorption and diffusion of organic acids through clayrock: Comparison with inorganic anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagnelie, R. V. H.; Descostes, M.; Pointeau, I.; Klein, J.; Grenut, B.; Radwan, J.; Lebeau, D.; Georgin, D.; Giffaut, E.

    2014-04-01

    Organic complexing species are known to affect radionuclide mobility in the environment. The migration behaviour of several organic ligands was evaluated in the context of a proposed French radioactive waste repository in the Callovo-Oxfordian clayrock formation (COx). This study focuses on four anthropogenic acids (ethylenediaminetetraacetate, isosaccharinate, phthalate, oxalate) that are used in the nuclear fuel cycle or that occur as hydrosoluble degradation products of waste materials. Batch sorption and diffusion experiments were performed with COx clayrock samples using 14C-labelled radiotracers. The observed effective diffusion coefficients were low (De ∼ 1-6 × 10-12 m2 s-1), an order of magnitude lower than that of tritiated water in the same material, and roughly the same as values for inorganic anions such as I-, Cl- and SO42-. The observed correlation of De with molecular mass, M-1/3, differs significantly from that observed for cations. The organic ligands displayed significant affinity for the COx clayrock, with distribution ratios measured in batch experiments, Rd = 1-30 L kg-1, which are much higher than usually observed for anionic species. While this result was confirmed by through-diffusion experiments, the Kd values obtained by fitting diffusion modelling were significantly lower than those measured in the batch experiments.

  9. Ultra-fast aqueous Li-ion redox energy storage from vanadium oxide-carbon nanotube yarn electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithyman, Jesse; Do, Quyet H.; Zeng, Changchun; Liang, Zhiyong

    2015-03-01

    Half-cell electrochemical characterizations were conducted on carbon nanotube-vanadium oxide (CNT-VOx) yarn electrodes in an 8 M LiCl aqueous electrolyte. A supercritical fluid deposition and in-situ oxidation process was utilized to deposit nanoscale coatings of vanadium oxide on carbon nanotube (CNT) surfaces throughout the porous structure of CNT yarns. The high surface area, interconnected pore structure and high electrical conductivity of the CNT yarn enabled extraordinary rate capabilities from the high capacity Li/VOx system. High-rate cyclic voltammetry scans, requiring current densities of hundreds of amperes per gram of electrode mass, produced rectangular voltammograms with distinguishable redox peaks from Li-ion intercalation/deintercalation. Capacitances of over 150 F g-1 were achieved at a scan rate of 5 V s-1 over a 1.2 V potential window resulting in an energy density of >32 Wh kg-1 (>30 Wh L-1) for the yarn electrode. The charge storage also showed good reversibility when cycled over this large potential window, maintaining 90% of the capacitance after 100 cycles at a scan rate of 2 V s-1. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows the frequency dependent behavior is distinctly lacking of the characteristic responses from the rate-limiting processes associated with faradaic charge storage in VOx.

  10. Using synthetic models to simulate aging of Cu contamination in soils.

    PubMed

    Proffit, S; Marin, B; Cances, B; Ponthieu, M; Sayen, S; Guillon, E

    2015-05-01

    The Bureau Commun de Référence (BCR) sequential extraction scheme and micro-synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (μ-SXRF) analysis were used to determine the Cu fractionation in a calcareous vineyard soil and a synthetic soil (mixture of seven constituents: calcite, birnessite, ferrihydrite, goethite, lignocellulosic residue, kaolinite, and quartz) at different Cu contamination rates (190, 1270, and 6350 mg kg(-1) of Cu) and aging times (1, 30, 92, and 181 days). The Cu distribution in the spiked vineyard and synthetic soils was different from the original vineyard one and was influenced by the loading level. The newly added Cu was preferentially present in the acid soluble fraction. Aging of the contaminated vineyard and synthetic soils during 6 months led to the redistribution of Cu from the weakly bound acid soluble fraction to the strongly bound reducible one. The evolution with time could satisfactorily be simulated by the Elovich diffusion model for the synthetic soils. It was less significant as less marked in the contaminated vineyard soil than in the synthetic one, even though the trends observed in both were similar. This study supported the hypothesis that "simple" synthetic models could be used to approach the Cu fractionation and its evolution with time in vineyard soils.

  11. Hydrophobic dipeptide crystals: a promising Ag-free class of ultramicroporous materials showing argon/oxygen adsorption selectivity.

    PubMed

    Afonso, R; Mendes, A; Gales, L

    2014-09-28

    The adsorption isotherms of nitrogen, oxygen and argon in four VA-class hydrophobic dipeptides are presented. Isotherms were determined at 5, 20 and 35 °C, for a pressure range of 0-6 bar. Under these conditions, adsorption is still in the Henry region. For all materials and temperatures, the sequence of preferential adsorption is Ar > O2 > N2, a highly abnormal result. At 5 °C, the dipeptide with the smallest pores, VI, has Ar/O2 adsorption equilibrium selectivities up to 1.30, the highest ever measured in Ag-free adsorbents. Gas uptakes, at 1 bar and 20 °C, are ∼0.05 mol kg(-1), very low relative values that are partially explained by the low porosity of the solids (<10%). The significance of these results for the development of new materials for the process of O2 generation by pressure swing adsorption (PSA) is discussed. The results indicate some of the structural and chemical properties that prospective Ag-free adsorbents should have in order to have Ar/O2 selectivity, hydrophobic pores, less than 0.5 nm-wide, and porosity of, at least, 20%.

  12. Multipesticide residue levels in UHT and raw milk samples by GC-μECD after QuEChER extraction method.

    PubMed

    Jawaid, Sana; Talpur, Farah N; Nizamani, Shafi M; Khaskheli, Abid A; Afridi, H I

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, milk samples including raw and ultra-high temperature (UHT) processed milk were analyzed for pesticide residue levels, including five pesticides, viz chloripyrifos, endosulfan (α and β), profenofos and bifenthrin by gas chromatography microelectron capture detector (GC-μECD) after extraction by QuEChERS method. Further confirmation of the pesticide residue was done by GC-MS. The pesticide residual level in raw and UHT milk samples (n = 70) was determined in the range of 0.1-30 μg L(-1). All UHT processed milk samples contain pesticide residues within permissible limit set by the World Health Organization (WHO); however, among raw milk samples, chloripyrifos (12 %), α (24 %), and β (14 %) endosulfan were found above the maximum residue limit (MRL). The estimated daily intake (EDI) of these four pesticide residues were also calculated as 1.32, 16.16, 5.30, 10.20, and 9.93 μg kg(-1) body weight for chloripyrifos, endosulfan α, profenofos, endosulfan β, and bifenthrin, respectively. It is concluded that the raw milk samples showed higher prevalence of pesticide residues as compared to UHT processed milk. Graphical abstract Determination of pesticide residues in dairy milk by GC-μECD after QuEChERS extraction method. PMID:26992902

  13. Screening of metal uptake by plant colonizers growing on abandoned copper mine in Kapunda, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Nirola, Ramkrishna; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Aryal, Rupak; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Systematic site survey for sample collection and analysis was conducted at a derelict copper (Cu) mine at Kapunda, South Australia. Cu concentrations in the soils at this former mine ranged from 65-10107 mg kg(-1). The pH and EC varied widely in the 3.9-8.4 and 152-7311 µS ranges, respectively. Nine plant species growing over the copper mine site were selected to screen for metal uptake to determine their suitability for phytoremediation. The Australian native tree species Eucalyptus camaldulensis indicated enrichment factor (EF) of 2.17, 1.89, and 1.30 for Cu, Zn, and Pb, respectively, suggesting that this species of tree can accumulate these metals to some degree. The stress-resistant exotic olive, Olea europaea exhibited EF of ≤ 0.01 for Cu, Cd, and Pb, and 0.29 for Zn, which is characteristic of an excluder plant. Acacia pycnantha, the Australian pioneer legume species with EF 0.03, 0.80, 0.32, and 0.01 for Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb, respectively, emerged as another strong metal excluder and consequently as an ideal metal stabilizer. PMID:26552328

  14. Comparative effectiveness of ACC-deaminase and/or nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria in promotion of maize (Zea mays L.) growth under lead pollution.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Waseem; Bano, Rizwana; Bashir, Farhat; David, Julie

    2014-09-01

    Lead (Pb) pollution is appearing as an alarming threat nowadays. Excessive Pb concentrations in agricultural soils result in minimizing the soil fertility and health which affects the plant growth and leads to decrease in crop production. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria which can protect the plants against many abiotic stresses, and enhance the growth. The study aimed to identify important rhizobacterial strains by using the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) enrichment technique and examine their inoculation effects in the growth promotion of maize, under Pb pollution. A pot experiment was conducted and six rhizobacterial isolates were used. Pb was added to 2 kg soil in each pot (with 4 seeds/pot) using Pb(NO3)2 at the rate of 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg kg(-1) Pb with three replications in completely randomized design. Rhizobacterial isolates performed significantly better under all Pb levels, i.e., 100 to 400 Pb mg kg(-1) soil, compared to control. Comparing the efficacy of the rhizobacterial isolates under different Pb levels, rhizobacterial isolates having both ACC-deaminase and nitrogen-fixing activities (AN8 and AN12) showed highest increase in terms of the physical, chemical and enzymatic growth parameters of maize, followed by the rhizobacterial isolates having ACC-deaminase activity only (ACC5 and ACC8), and then the nitrogen-fixing rhizobia (Azotobacter and RN5). However, the AN8 isolate showed maximum efficiency, and highest shoot and root length (14.2 and 6.1 cm), seedling fresh and dry weights (1.91 and 0.14 g), chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids (24.1, 30.2 and 77.7 μg/l), protein (0.82 mg/g), proline (3.42 μmol/g), glutathione S-transferase, peroxidase and catalase (12.3, 4.2 and 7.2 units/mg protein), while the lowest Pb uptake in the shoot and root (0.83 and 0.48 mg/kg) were observed under this rhizobial isolate at the highest Pb level (i.e., 400 Pb mg kg(-1) soil). The results revealed that PGPR

  15. Comparative effectiveness of ACC-deaminase and/or nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria in promotion of maize (Zea mays L.) growth under lead pollution.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Waseem; Bano, Rizwana; Bashir, Farhat; David, Julie

    2014-09-01

    Lead (Pb) pollution is appearing as an alarming threat nowadays. Excessive Pb concentrations in agricultural soils result in minimizing the soil fertility and health which affects the plant growth and leads to decrease in crop production. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria which can protect the plants against many abiotic stresses, and enhance the growth. The study aimed to identify important rhizobacterial strains by using the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) enrichment technique and examine their inoculation effects in the growth promotion of maize, under Pb pollution. A pot experiment was conducted and six rhizobacterial isolates were used. Pb was added to 2 kg soil in each pot (with 4 seeds/pot) using Pb(NO3)2 at the rate of 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg kg(-1) Pb with three replications in completely randomized design. Rhizobacterial isolates performed significantly better under all Pb levels, i.e., 100 to 400 Pb mg kg(-1) soil, compared to control. Comparing the efficacy of the rhizobacterial isolates under different Pb levels, rhizobacterial isolates having both ACC-deaminase and nitrogen-fixing activities (AN8 and AN12) showed highest increase in terms of the physical, chemical and enzymatic growth parameters of maize, followed by the rhizobacterial isolates having ACC-deaminase activity only (ACC5 and ACC8), and then the nitrogen-fixing rhizobia (Azotobacter and RN5). However, the AN8 isolate showed maximum efficiency, and highest shoot and root length (14.2 and 6.1 cm), seedling fresh and dry weights (1.91 and 0.14 g), chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids (24.1, 30.2 and 77.7 μg/l), protein (0.82 mg/g), proline (3.42 μmol/g), glutathione S-transferase, peroxidase and catalase (12.3, 4.2 and 7.2 units/mg protein), while the lowest Pb uptake in the shoot and root (0.83 and 0.48 mg/kg) were observed under this rhizobial isolate at the highest Pb level (i.e., 400 Pb mg kg(-1) soil). The results revealed that PGPR

  16. Interlaboratory drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by a radiometric procedure and two conventional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqi, S.H.; Hawkins, J.E.; Laszlo, A.

    1985-12-01

    A total of 224 recent isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from 163 patients selected to have multidrug resistance were tested against streptomycin (SM), isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol (EMB) by the rapid radiometric BACTEC method and two conventional proportion methods: the World Health Organization (WHO) method, using Lowenstein-Jensen medium; and the Veterans Administration reference laboratory for mycobacteria (VA) method, using Middlebrook 7H10 agar medium. The results were compared, focusing on the concentrations of the drugs in all three methods. Among the four drugs tested, most of the discrepancies in measured activity were observed with SM and EMB, generally because of differences in the drug concentrations used by the three methods. A 4-micrograms amount of SM in the BACTEC method was found to be slightly less active than 10 micrograms in the VA method and significantly more active than 4 micrograms of dihydrostreptomycin in the WHO method. With EMB, 2.5 micrograms in BACTEC was similar to 5 micrograms in the VA method and 2 micrograms in the WHO method, while 10 micrograms in the BACTEC method was found to be more active than 10 and 2 micrograms in the VA and WHO methods, respectively. To attain close agreement, drug concentrations used in the BACTEC method should be carefully selected when a comparison is to be made with any conventional method employed in a laboratory. Standardization of in vitro susceptibility testing is greatly needed to achieve uniformity among the test methods used to evaluate tuberculosis therapeutics.

  17. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone induces thyroxine release together with testosterone in the neotenic axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, G F; Kühn, E R

    1988-09-01

    In male neotenic axolotls Ambystoma mexicanum plasma concentrations of thyroxine (T4) and testosterone were increased following intravenous injection of 10 micrograms luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. A dose of 50 micrograms influenced only plasma T4 levels. This observation suggests for the first time that a hypothalamic hormone is capable of stimulating the thyroidal axis in the neotenic axolotl.

  18. In vitro susceptibilities of Leptospira spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi isolates to amoxicillin, tilmicosin, and enrofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Doo; Kordick, Dorsey; Divers, Thomas; Chang, Yung Fu

    2006-12-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted with 6 different spirochetal strains (4 strains of Leptospira spp. and 2 strains of Borrelia burgdorferi) against 3 antimicrobial agents, commonly used in equine and bovine practice. The ranges of MIC and MBC of amoxicillin against Leptospira spp. were 0.05 - 6.25 microgram/ml and 6.25 - 25.0 microgram/ml, respectively. And the ranges of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of amoxicillin against B. burgdorferi were 0.05 - 0.39 microgram/ml and 0.20 - 0.78 microgram/ml, respectively. The ranges of MIC and MBC of enrofloxacin against Leptospira spp. were 0.05 - 0.39 microgram/ml and 0.05 - 0.39 microgram/ml, respectively. Two strains of B. burgdorferi were resistant to enrofloxacin at the highest concentration tested for MBC (>or=100 microgram/ml). Therefore, the potential role of tilmicosin in the treatment of leptospirosis and borreliosis should be further evaluated in animal models to understand whether the in vivo studies will confirm in vitro results. All spirochetal isolates were inhibited (MIC) and were killed (MBC) by tilmicosin at concentrations below the limit of testing (microgram/ml). PMID:17106227

  19. Potentiometric stripping analysis of selected heavy metals in biological materials.

    PubMed

    Sattar, A; Ahmad, N; Khan, L A

    1993-01-01

    Different biological materials such as edible oils, refined and unrefined cane and beet sugar and tea (black and green) leaves were assayed for the heavy metals cadmium, copper, lead and zinc. The results revealed significant differences in heavy metal contents within each class of the biological materials (P < 0.05). Cadmium was not detectable in sugar samples. Among the oils, highest amounts of copper (0.263 microgram/g) and lead (0.154 microgram/g) were in corn oil and zinc in olive oil (3.01 micrograms/g) whereas cadmium exhibited a narrow range (0.023-0.033 microgram/g). The samples of beet-sugar generally contained higher levels of the heavy metals than cane-sugar. Black and green tea leaves contained 0.411-0.908 microgram Cd/g, 6.500-9.220 micrograms Cu/g, 2.200-5.238 micrograms Pb/g, and 14.500-25.180 micrograms Zn/g. PMID:8361526

  20. Lead-contaminated house dust and urban children's blood lead levels.

    PubMed Central

    Lanphear, B P; Weitzman, M; Winter, N L; Eberly, S; Yakir, B; Tanner, M; Emond, M; Matte, T D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the relationship between lead-contaminated house dust and urban children's blood lead levels. METHODS: A random-sample survey was used to identify and enroll 205 children, 12 to 31 months of age, who had resided in the same house since at least 6 months of age. Children's blood and household dust, water, soil, and paint were analyzed for lead, and interviews were conducted to ascertain risk factors for elevated blood lead (> or = 10 micrograms/dL). RESULTS: Children's mean blood lead level was 7.7 micrograms/dL. In addition to dust lead loading (micrograms of lead per square foot), independent predictors of children's blood lead were Black race, soil lead levels, ingestion of soil or dirt, lead content and condition of painted surfaces, and water lead levels. For dust lead standards of 5 micrograms/sq ft, 20 micrograms/sq ft, and 40 micrograms/sq ft on noncarpeted floors, the estimated percentages of children having blood lead levels at or above 10 micrograms/dL were 4%, 15%, and 20%, respectively, after adjusting for other significant covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Lead-contaminated house dust is a significant contributor to lead intake among urban children who have low-level elevations in blood lead. A substantial proportion of children may have blood lead levels of at least 10 micrograms/dL at dust lead levels considerably lower than current standards. PMID:8876511

  1. In vitro susceptibility of Malassezia furfur.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A; Rühl-Hörster, B

    1996-04-01

    Malassezia (M.) furfur is an anthropophilic fungus with complex growth requirements. Apart from its physiological appearance on human skin it is the causative agent of several skin disorders. A method for in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of M. furfur in a microtiter plate assay has been developed. Read-out was performed colorimetrically in modified Leeming-Notman medium after incubation with alamarBlue. Twenty-two strains of M. furfur were tested, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for climbazole, piroctone-olamine, selenium disulfide, zinc pyrithione. These substances are of common use in topical therapy of M. furfur-associated skin conditions. For climbazole, the range of MICs was between < 0.03 and 2 micrograms/ml with an empirical median mean of 0.03 micrograms/ml. For piroctoneolamine the range of MICs was between 16 and 64 micrograms/ml (mean = 64 micrograms/ml), for selenium disulfide between 2 and 64 micrograms/ml (mean = 8 micrograms/ml), and for zinc pyrithione between 0.12 and 8 micrograms/ml (mean = 1 micrograms/ml). These data indicate the high in vitro activity of climbazole against M. furfur, followed by zinc pyrithione. Selenium disulfide and piroctone-olamine were less active. PMID:8740097

  2. Role of carbonic anhydrase in bone - Plasma acetazolamide concentrations associated with inhibition of bone loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of acetazolamide and benzolamide on bone formation are examined. Solutions of acetazolamide and benzolamide with 1 M THAM/tris(hydromethyl)aminoethane/ or without 1 M THAM were injected subcutaneous with a minipump and into the food of Sprague-Dawley rats. The data reveal that for 8-day and 12-day infusions only acetazolamide combined with 1 M THAM caused any reduction in bone loss and there were no changes in body weights, food consumption and plasma calcium and phosphorus values. Following 8 days of infusion of acetazolamide with 1 M THAM at infusion rates of 0.5, 5.0, and 50 micrograms/hr, no reduction was detected at 0.5 microgram/hr, a 30 percent reduction occurred at 5.0 micrograms/hr and a 49 percent decrease at 50 micrograms/hr. In the benzolamide experiment it was observed that 0.5 percent of the solution in the food caused no reduction in bone loss; however, infusions with benzolamide plus 1 M THAM resulted in a bone loss reduction of 30 percent at 5.0 micrograms/hr, and a 49 percent decrease at 50 micrograms/hr. Acetazolamide levels in the plasma at 50 micrograms/hr doses are calculated as ranging from 99 ng/ml-223 ng/ml and as 46 ng/ml at 5 micrograms/hr doses.

  3. Air and blood lead levels in a battery factory.

    PubMed

    Ibiebele, D D

    1994-08-01

    Chronic exposure of acid-lead battery factory workers to lead was assessed by determining blood lead levels (PbB) in 80 blood samples obtained from 20 workers and relating the values to lead in air (PbA) values in 80 air samples collected at four operational areas. All the samples were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The geometric means of PbA at the sampling areas were: 92.01 micrograms/m3 in the casting and pasting area; 85.73 micrograms/m3 in the assembly line area; 36.31 micrograms/m3 in the battery charging and sales area; and 4.2 micrograms/m3 in the administration area. The corresponding PbB values were 32.19 micrograms/dl, 35.42 micrograms/dl, 17.33 micrograms/dl and 7.78 micrograms/dl, respectively. The correlations between the PbA and PbB were positive for all the areas and also for the dry and wet seasons. The possibility of predicting PbB by monitoring PbA needs to be evaluated.

  4. [In vitro evaluation of antileishmania activity of Artemisia herba alba Asso].

    PubMed

    Hatimi, S; Boudouma, M; Bichichi, M; Chaib, N; Idrissi, N G

    2001-03-01

    Aqueous extract and essential oil of Artemisia herba-alba Asso were tested for their antileshmanial activity again Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major. The strongest leishmanicidal activity was observed with the essential oil at 2 micrograms/ml as versus the other two strains tested. The aqueous extract showed an antileshmanial activity at 4 micrograms/ml.

  5. 40 CFR 63.344 - Performance test requirements and test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... testing may be used to demonstrate compliance with this subpart if: (i) The test methods and procedures... electroplating tanks and chromium anodizing tanks if the following conditions are met: (i) If a colorimetric... method (i.e., 1.0 microgram per liter of sample for AAGF and 0.5 microgram per liter of sample for...

  6. In vitro susceptibilities of Leptospira spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi isolates to amoxicillin, tilmicosin, and enrofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Doo; Kordick, Dorsey; Divers, Thomas; Chang, Yung Fu

    2006-12-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted with 6 different spirochetal strains (4 strains of Leptospira spp. and 2 strains of Borrelia burgdorferi) against 3 antimicrobial agents, commonly used in equine and bovine practice. The ranges of MIC and MBC of amoxicillin against Leptospira spp. were 0.05 - 6.25 microgram/ml and 6.25 - 25.0 microgram/ml, respectively. And the ranges of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of amoxicillin against B. burgdorferi were 0.05 - 0.39 microgram/ml and 0.20 - 0.78 microgram/ml, respectively. The ranges of MIC and MBC of enrofloxacin against Leptospira spp. were 0.05 - 0.39 microgram/ml and 0.05 - 0.39 microgram/ml, respectively. Two strains of B. burgdorferi were resistant to enrofloxacin at the highest concentration tested for MBC (>or=100 microgram/ml). Therefore, the potential role of tilmicosin in the treatment of leptospirosis and borreliosis should be further evaluated in animal models to understand whether the in vivo studies will confirm in vitro results. All spirochetal isolates were inhibited (MIC) and were killed (MBC) by tilmicosin at concentrations below the limit of testing (microgram/ml).

  7. (E)-3-tridecen-2-one, an antibiotic from the interdigital glands of black-tailed deer Odocoileus hemionus columbianus.

    PubMed

    Wood, W F; Shaffer, T B; Kubo, A

    1995-04-15

    (E)-3-tridecen-2-one, the major volatile component of interdigital gland extracts from the black-tailed deer, Odocoileus hemionus columbianus, inhibited the growth of gram-positive bacteria and fungi. The bacteria, Propionibacterium acnes, and the fungi, Trichophyton mentagrophytes had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12.5 micrograms/mL and 25 micrograms/mL, respectively.

  8. [In vitro evaluation of antileishmania activity of Artemisia herba alba Asso].

    PubMed

    Hatimi, S; Boudouma, M; Bichichi, M; Chaib, N; Idrissi, N G

    2001-03-01

    Aqueous extract and essential oil of Artemisia herba-alba Asso were tested for their antileshmanial activity again Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major. The strongest leishmanicidal activity was observed with the essential oil at 2 micrograms/ml as versus the other two strains tested. The aqueous extract showed an antileshmanial activity at 4 micrograms/ml. PMID:11346978

  9. Activity of cefazolin and two beta-lactamase inhibitors, clavulanic acid and sulbactam, against Bacteroides fragilis.

    PubMed Central

    Fekete, T; McGowen, J; Cundy, K R

    1987-01-01

    One hundred clinical isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group of bacteria were tested by agar dilution for susceptibility to cefazolin alone or in combination with clavulanic acid or sulbactam. For cefazolin, the MIC for 50% of the isolates (MIC50) was 32 micrograms/ml, the breakpoint for susceptibility. With the addition of 0.5 micrograms of clavulanic acid per ml, the MIC for 90% of the isolates (MIC90) was 8 micrograms/ml, well within the achievable range of concentrations in serum or tissue. Similarly, with the addition of 0.5 micrograms of sulbactam per ml, the MIC90 was 16 micrograms/ml. The addition of a higher concentration (4.0 micrograms/ml) of clavulanic acid or sulbactam resulted in MIC90S which were fourfold lower than those with 0.5 micrograms/ml. A fixed ratio of cefazolin-beta-lactamase inhibitor of 4:1 resulted in an MIC50 and MIC90 which were intermediate between the 0.5- and 4.0-micrograms/ml fixed concentration of beta-lactamase inhibitor. PMID:3032097

  10. Effect of diamorphine, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and ethanol on intravenous cocaine disposition.

    PubMed

    Vadlamani, N L; Pontani, R B; Misra, A L

    1984-08-01

    The disposition of cocaine (1 mg kg-1) was altered by diamorphine (0.1 mg kg-1) and that of morphine (1 mg kg-1) was altered after their concurrent administration as a bolus i.v. injection to rats by cocaine, without any changes in the metabolism of the drugs. delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (10 mg kg-1 i.p.) did not affect the cocaine disposition. Chronic ethanol treatment (2.5 g kg-1 orally twice daily for 16 days) produced a significantly higher brain-to-plasma cocaine concentration ratio than did saline as control, without any changes in cocaine metabolism. PMID:6148403

  11. Effects of mercury, selenium, and organochlorine contaminants on reproduction of Forster's terns and black skimmers nesting in a contaminated Texas Bay.

    PubMed

    King, K A; Custer, T W; Quinn, J S

    1991-01-01

    Mean mercury (0.40 micrograms/g), and geometric mean DDE (1.6 micrograms/g) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) (2.3 micrograms/g) concentrations in Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) eggs from Lavaca Bay were higher than those in tern eggs from a reference area in San Antonio Bay, but residues were not correlated with hatching success. Nest success was similar between bays. Selenium levels in Lavaca Bay tern eggs (0.71 micrograms/g) were also comparable to those in eggs from the reference area (0.68 micrograms/g). Clutch size (3.1 to 3.4) of Lavaca Bay black skimmers (Rynchops niger) was no different than that (3.4) at a reference colony near Laguna Vista. Nest success was similar among three Lavaca Bay colonies, but success was lower at one Lavaca Bay colony (40%) than at Laguna Vista (65%). Mean mercury (0.46 micrograms/g) and selenium (0.75 micrograms/g) concentrations in skimmer eggs from Lavaca Bay were higher than those (0.19, 0.33 micrograms/g) from Laguna Vista; however, concentrations of neither contaminant were related to hatching success. DDE concentrations in Lavaca Bay skimmer eggs (3.4 micrograms/g) were similar to those from Laguna Vista (3.2 micrograms/g) and DDE was negatively correlated with hatching success. PCBs were higher in eggs from Lavaca Bay (1.3 micrograms/g) than Laguna Vista (0.8 micrograms/g). Organochlorine and metal contaminants in most eggs were below embryotoxic levels. Eggshell thinning in Forster's terns (7%) and black skimmers (5%) was below that associated with lowered reproduction. DDE and PCBs were detected in 9 Caspian tern (S. caspia) eggs; maximum concentrations were 4.7 and 5.4 micrograms/g. Caspian tern and least tern (S. albifrons) eggs contained low (less than or equal to 0.9 micrograms/g) concentrations of mercury and selenium.

  12. [Blood lead in the inhabitants of 4 Peruvian localities].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, A V; Paucar, J C; Medina, J M

    1997-05-01

    During 1994 and 1995, a cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the concentrations of lead in the blood of inhabitants of four Peruvian cities (Lima, Huancayo, La Oroya, and Yaupi) with different population densities and degrees of industrial development. In a random sample of 180 men and 180 women without occupational exposure to lead, blood lead levels were measured by the atomic absorption method with a Perkin Elmer 603 spectrophotometer without a graphite oven. The results revealed blood lead concentrations of 269 +/- 63 micrograms per liter (micrograms/L) in Lima, 224 +/- 47 micrograms/L in Huancayo; 348 +/- 40 micrograms/L in La Oroya, and 140 +/- 27 micrograms/L in Yaupi. It was concluded that blood lead levels in the inhabitants of these cities were related to the degree of industrialization and the population density of each locality. PMID:9377649

  13. The determination of nitroaromatics and nitramines in ground and drinking water by wide-bore capillary gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Hable, M.; Stern, C.; Asowata, C.; Williams, K. )

    1991-04-01

    A method has been developed to determine the concentration of nitroaromatics and nitramines in drinking water at levels below those previously achieved by gas chromatography. The nitroaromatics and nitramines are extracted from water using toluene and isoamyl acetate, respectively. The extracts are analyzed via a gas chromatograph equipped with a DB-1301 widebore fused-silica capillary column and an electron capture detector. Method detection limits of 0.003 micrograms/L for 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT), 0.04 micrograms/L for 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), 0.06 micrograms/L for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 0.3 micrograms/L for cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), and 6.0 micrograms/L for cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX) have been obtained using this method.

  14. Lead in human blood and milk from nursing women living near a smelter in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Namihira, D; Saldivar, L; Pustilnik, N; Carreón, G J; Salinas, M E

    1993-03-01

    Lead levels in breast milk and blood were determined in women living within a 200-m radius of 3 smelters in Mexico City. All samples were analyzed on a Perkin Elmer 460 atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with HGA 2200. The mean blood lead level was 45.88 micrograms/dl (SD 19.88 microgram/dl), and the geometric mean of milk lead level was 2.47 micrograms/100 ml. The correlation coefficient of these two variables was 0.88. Using the mean value of lead found in breast milk, an infant of 5.5 kg would ingest 8.1 micrograms/kg/d in his diet. The daily permissible intake (DPI) established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1972 for an adult is 5.0 micrograms/kg/d.

  15. In vitro activities of Ro 40-6890 against 164 predominantly intestinal members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Hohl, P; Zollinger-Iten, J; von Graevenitz, A

    1992-01-01

    The in vitro activities of Ro 40-6890, the active metabolite of a novel orally absorbable cephalosporin ester, Ro 41-3399, against 164 nonfastidious aerobic gram-negative rods of predominantly intestinal origin from patients with diarrhea were evaluated by the agar dilution method recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Ro 40-6890 was inhibitory (MIC for 90% of isolates [MIC90], 0.12 micrograms/ml) against the majority of intestinal members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae (Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., and Plesiomonas shigelloides). The potency of Ro 40-6890 was very similar to that of cefotaxime (MIC90, 0.12 micrograms/ml) and distinctly higher than those of cefadroxil (MIC90, > or = 128 micrograms/ml) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (MIC90, 32 micrograms/ml-2 micrograms/ml). PMID:1482154

  16. Evaluation of a site-specific criterion using outdoor experimental streams

    SciTech Connect

    Hedtke, S.F.; Arthur, J.W.

    1985-02-01

    An overview of a study to evaluate a site-specific water quality criteria for pentachlorophenol (PCP) in outdoor experimental streams is presented. The site-specific criterion was calculated from acute toxicity results for eight resident species and the relationship between acute and chronic toxicity of PCP. The PCP concentration expected to protect aquatic life (30-day average criterion concentration) was less than or equal to 48 micrograms/l. Outdoor experimental streams were subsequently dosed continuously for 84 days at 48, 144, and 432 micrograms PCP/l. Measurements of the biological structure and ecosystem processes within the exposure streams were compared to a control system. Effects on snails were found only at 432 micrograms/l, but effects on fish, periphyton, and system metabolism were found at 432, 144, and 48 micrograms/l. The small differences between the criterion-dosed stream (48 micrograms/l) and the control stream may have been caused by PCP or interstream variation.

  17. In vitro susceptibilities of rapidly growing mycobacteria to newer antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Khardori, N; Nguyen, H; Rosenbaum, B; Rolston, K; Bodey, G P

    1994-01-01

    The in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of 42 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria (Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. chelonae, and Mycobacterium species [other than M. fortuitum and M. chelonae]) to nine quinolones, including newer agents, two new aminoglycosides, and an aminocyclitol (trospectomycin) were determined by a broth microdilution method. The new quinolones, PD 117596, PD 127391, and PD 117558, showed excellent in vitro activities against M. fortuitum (MICs for 90% of isolates [MIC90s], 0.06, 0.06, and 0.12 microgram/ml, respectively). The MIC90 of ciprofloxacin for M. fortuitum was 0.5 microgram/ml. Only 14 to 28% of isolates of M. chelonae were susceptible to various quinolones. Most isolates of all three species were susceptible to the new aminoglycosides SCH 21420 and SCH 22591. The MIC90s of trospectomycin were 8 micrograms/ml for M. chelonae, 32 micrograms/ml for Mycobacterium species, and > 64 micrograms/ml for M. fortuitum. PMID:8141567

  18. Cadmium chloride susceptibility, a characteristic of Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed Central

    Kazmi, S U; Roberson, B S; Stern, N J

    1985-01-01

    We report a simple diagnostic characteristic useful in the presumptive identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Filter paper disks impregnated with cadmium chloride were placed on streaked agar medium. Zones of growth inhibition for Campylobacter spp. occurred at 1.25 micrograms per disk. Other enteropathogens (Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli, and Yersinia enterocolitica) were resistant to at least 40 micrograms per disk, with the exception of a strain of Shigella flexneri, which showed first susceptibility at 10 micrograms per disk. Most of the 52 Campylobacter strains, which were isolated from human clinical and animal sources, showed zones of inhibition greater than 10 mm with 2.5 micrograms of cadmium chloride per disk. At 20 micrograms per disk, Campylobacter isolates from clinical sources were significantly (P less than 0.01) more susceptible to cadmium chloride inhibition than were those from meat samples. Images PMID:3998099

  19. The determination of nitroaromatics and nitramines in ground and drinking water by wide-bore capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hable, M; Stern, C; Asowata, C; Williams, K

    1991-04-01

    A method has been developed to determine the concentration of nitroaromatics and nitramines in drinking water at levels below those previously achieved by gas chromatography. The nitroaromatics and nitramines are extracted from water using toluene and isoamyl acetate, respectively. The extracts are analyzed via a gas chromatograph equipped with a DB-1301 widebore fused-silica capillary column and an electron capture detector. Method detection limits of 0.003 micrograms/L for 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT), 0.04 micrograms/L for 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), 0.06 micrograms/L for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 0.3 micrograms/L for cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), and 6.0 micrograms/L for cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX) have been obtained using this method.

  20. Arsenic contamination of soils and agricultural plants through irrigation water in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Dahal, B M; Fuerhacker, M; Mentler, A; Karki, K B; Shrestha, R R; Blum, W E H

    2008-09-01

    This study monitored the influence of arsenic-contaminated irrigation water on alkaline soils and arsenic uptake in agricultural plants at field level. The arsenic concentrations in irrigation water ranges from <0.005 to 1.014 mg L(-1) where the arsenic concentrations in the soils were measured from 6.1 to 16.7 mg As kg(-1). The arsenic content in different parts of plants are found in the order of roots>shoots>leaves>edible parts. The mean arsenic content of edible plant material (dry weight) were found in the order of onion leaves (0.55 mg As kg(-1))>onion bulb (0.45 mg As kg(-1))>cauliflower (0.33 mg As kg(-1))>rice (0.18 mg As kg(-1))>brinjal (0.09 mg As kg(-1))>potato (<0.01 mg As kg(-1)). PMID:18068879

  1. Extraction of retinol and cholesterol by intraocular silicone oils.

    PubMed

    Refojo, M F; Leong, F L; Chung, H; Ueno, N; Nemiroff, B; Tolentino, F I

    1988-05-01

    According to their solubility parameters, retinol and its derivatives, as well as cholesterol and other lipophilic substances, are predicted to dissolve in intraocular silicone and fluorosilicone oils. Calf retinas were extracted in vitro with these oils and the oils then analyzed spectrophotometrically. The following levels were found after extraction for 4 and 48 hours, respectively: for retinol, silicone oil, 0.5 and 3.7 micrograms/ml, and fluorosilicone oil, 0.5 and 3.3 micrograms/ml; for cholesterol, silicone oil, 0.5 and 6.4 micrograms/ml, and fluorosilicone oil, 0.8 and 3.7 micrograms/ml. In in vivo experiments, intraocular oils were removed from rabbit eyes at 4 days to 10 weeks after injection. The retinol levels were 1.7 to 11.4 micrograms/ml in silicone oil and 2.4 to 7.3 micrograms/ml in fluorosilicone oil; the cholesterol levels were 2.7 to 12.6 micrograms/ml in silicone oil and 7.5 to 15.6 micrograms/ml in fluorosilicone oil. Fluorosilicone and silicone oils (1000 cs) removed from human eyes at 7.3 and 102.0 weeks postoperatively had a retinol content of 5.4 and 2.9 micrograms/ml, respectively. Silicone oil of 1000 cs removed from a patient 51 weeks postoperatively and silicone oil of 12,500 cs removed 96 weeks postoperatively gave reaction characteristics for cholesterol, 230 and 99 micrograms/ml, respectively.

  2. Reconnaissance of the shallow-unconfined aquifer in Salt Lake Valley, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.; Waddell, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    The shallow-unconfined aquifer in Salt Lake (Jordan) Valley, Utah, seldom is used for domestic or industrial purposes because it yields water slowly and is readily contaminated. The water in the aquifer, however, can flood basements and is a potential source of contamination to other water supplies. In about one-half of the valley, water in the shallow-unconfined aquifer is less than 10 feet below land surface. The general direction of flow in the shallow aquifer is toward the Jordan River. Water levels in the north part of the valley and along the Jordan River are highest in March or April and in the south part of the valley are highest in late summer. The smallest concentrations of dissolved solids in water from wells along the east side of the valley, and the greatest concentrations are in the northwest part of the valley near the Great Salt Lake. Large dissolved-solids concentrations are found near some landfills and tailings areas. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations ranged from less than 0.1 to 86 milligrams per liter and nitrate-nitrogen concentrations from less than 0.02 to 0.85 milligram per liter. Some of the largest nitrate-nitrogen concentrations were found in water wells near animal pens. The greatest concentrations of trace elements generally came from wells near landfills and tailings area. The greatest measured concentration of cadmium was 200 microgram per liter, of mercury 0.1 microgram per liter, of lead 46 micrograms per liter, of iron 37,000 micrograms per liter and of arsenic 360 micrograms per liter. Synthetic organic chemicals were found in water from several wells. The greatest measured concentration of benzene was 400 micrograms per liter, of phenol 660 micrograms per liter, of 1,1 dichloroethane 20 micrograms per liter, of tichloroethylene 8 micrograms per liter , and of chloroethylene, 11 micrograms per liter. The greatest concentrations were in water from wells near landfills. (USGS)

  3. Fentanyl infusion anesthesia for aortocoronary bypass surgery: plasma levels and hemodynamic response.

    PubMed

    Sprigge, J S; Wynands, J E; Whalley, D G; Bevan, D R; Townsend, G E; Nathan, H; Patel, Y C; Srikant, C B

    1982-12-01

    Plasma fentanyl concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay in patients during aortocoronary bypass surgery and correlated with hemodynamic responses to surgical stimulation. Thirty patients scheduled for aortocoronary bypass surgery were divided into three groups of 10. Patients in group 1 received fentanyl, 30 micrograms/kg, as a loading dose followed by an infusion of 0.3 microgram/kg/min; those in group 2 received 40 micrograms/kg as a loading dose followed by an infusion of 0.4 microgram/kg/min; and those in group 3 received 50 micrograms/kg as the loading dose followed by an infusion of 0.5 microgram/kg/min. The total dose of fentanyl administered to each group up to the time of rewarming on cardiopulmonary bypass was 60 micrograms/kg, 90 micrograms/kg, respectively. Each of the dose regimens produced stable plasma concentrations starting approximately 20 minutes after induction and continuing until the infusion was discontinued. Patients in group 1 had a mean plasma concentration of 10 to 12 ng/ml in the stable period compared with 12 to 14 ng/ml in group 2 and 15 to 18 ng/ml in group 3. Fewer patients in group 3 responded to intubation and surgical stimulation than in the other groups, although the differences between groups were not statistically significant. Response to stimulation was treated by the administration of droperidol or volatile anesthetic agents. At a plasma concentration of 15 ng/ml, 50% of patients had an increase in systolic blood pressure which required treatment. This minimal intra-arterial concentration, analogous to MAC, can be achieved by the administration of fentanyl as a loading dose of 50 micrograms/kg followed by an infusion of 0.5 microgram/kg/min.

  4. Blood lead levels of 4-11-year-old Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban children.

    PubMed Central

    Carter-Pokras, O; Pirkle, J; Chavez, G; Gunter, E

    1990-01-01

    Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to estimate arithmetic mean blood lead and percent with elevated blood lead [25 micrograms per deciliter (micrograms per dl) or greater] for 4-11-year-old Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban children. The sample size was 1,390 for Mexican American children, 397 for Puerto Rican children, and 114 for Cuban children. Puerto Rican children had the highest mean blood lead levels (11.5 micrograms per dl), followed by Mexican American children (10.4 micrograms per dl) and Cuban children (8.6 micrograms per dl, P less than .05). Puerto Rican children had the highest percent with elevated blood lead (2.7 percent); 1.6 percent of Mexican American children had elevated blood lead; less than 1 percent (0.9 percent) of the Cuban children had elevated blood lead (P less than .05). Mexican American girls had a lower mean blood lead level than did boys: 9.7 micrograms per dl versus 11.0 micrograms per dl (P less than .05). For both Puerto Rican and Mexican American children, younger age indicated a higher risk of having elevated blood lead levels. Mexican American children who lived in poverty had higher mean blood lead levels than did Mexican American children who did not live in poverty--11.6 micrograms per dl versus 9.6 micrograms per dl (P less than .05). Despite advances in primary prevention of lead toxicity in children during the past 10 years, many Hispanic children are at risk of lead toxicity. Approximately 19,000 Mexican American 4-11-year-old children living in the Southwest and approximately 8,000 Puerto Rican children living in the New York City area had elevated blood lead levels (greater than or equal to 25 micrograms per dl) during 1982-84. PMID:2116641

  5. [Myeloperoxidase, lactoferrin and elastase in bronchoalveolar lavage and plasma in pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Braun, J; Dalhoff, K; Lipp, R; Eckmann, C; Marre, R; Wood, W G; Wiessmann, K J

    1992-04-01

    Neutrophilic granulocytes in the lower respiratory tract are of decisive importance for the elimination of pathogenic germs in bacterial pneumonia. On the other hand, the liberation of phagocyte products (e.g. elastase) can result in tissue damage in the parenchyma of the lungs. For this reason, we determined in patients suffering from acute pneumonia (n = 21), in patients with acute pneumonia associated with immunosuppression (n = 12), in patients who had overcome their pneumonia (n = 9) and in controls (n = 17) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) and in plasma, the concentration of the locally produced granulocyte products myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactoferrin (LF) and elastase-alpha 1 proteinase complex (ELA) as well as of the alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1 Pi) and alpha 2 proteinase inhibitor (alpha 2 Pi) via chemoluminescence immunoassay, and compared the same with the differential cell count in the BALF. The protein concentrations were referred to the albumin concentration (Alb) for standardisation. This concentration did not differ significantly between the various patients and control groups. The BALF concentration of ELA in the group with pneumonia (median: 86.3 micrograms/l or 8.5 micrograms/mg Alb) was about eight times higher than in the group of patients suffering from pneumonia with immunosuppression (median: 16 micrograms/l or 1.0 micrograms/l Alb, p less than 0.001) or in whom the pneumonia was no longer present (17.6 micrograms/l or 0.5 micrograms/mg), and approximately 40 times higher than in the control group (3 micrograms/l or 0.2 micrograms/mg, respectively). Similar results were obtained for LF (61 micrograms/mg Alb vs. 11.3; 16.8 and 5.9 micrograms/mg; p less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1315965

  6. Metered dose inhaler salbutamol treatment of asthma in the ED: comparison of two doses with plasma levels.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, G; Rodrigo, C

    1996-03-01

    Two cumulative doses of salbutamol delivered by metered dose inhaler (MDI) with a pear-shaped spacer were compared (400 micrograms vs 600 micrograms at 10-minute intervals). Twenty-two patients (mean age 35.1 +/- 11.1 years) with acute exacerbation of asthma were randomly selected, in a double-blind fashion, to receive salbutamol delivered with MDI into a spacer device in 4 puffs at 10- minute intervals (100 micrograms or 150 micrograms per actuation) during 3 hours (1200 micrograms or 1800 micrograms each 30 minutes). Mean peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) improved significantly over baseline values for both groups (P < .001). Nevertheless, there were no significant differences between both groups for PEFR and FEV1 at any time point studied. A significant net reduction of heart rate was observed in the 400 microgram group (P < .01). On the other hand, a significant increase in heart rate was observed in the 600 microgram group (P < .001). The QTc interval did not show a significant prolongation, and the two groups presented moderate decreases of serum potassium levels. There was a significant dose-related increase (P = .027) in Sao2. Additionally, the 600 microgram group generated a serum glucose level increase from 0.85 +/- 0.12 mg/100 mL to 1.04 +/- 0.25 mg/100 mL (P = .02), with a higher incidence in 4 symptoms (tremor, headache, palpitations, and anxiety). These data support the notion that the treatment of acute asthma patients in the emergency department setting with salbutamol, 2.4 mg/h, delivered by MDI and spacer (4 puffs at 10-minute intervals) produces satisfactory bronchodilation, low serum concentration, and minimal extrapulmonary effects. However, an increase of 50% of the dose (600 micrograms at 10-minute intervals) produced a nonsignificant, slightly better therapeutic response but with greater side effects, probably related to higher salbutamol levels. PMID:8924135

  7. Comparison of physiological changes in carp, Cyprinus carpio, induced by several pollutants at sublethal concentrations. I. The dependency on exposure time

    SciTech Connect

    Gluth, G.; Hanke, W.

    1985-04-01

    Carp were exposed to 10 different pollutants at sublethal concentrations for 6, 24, or 72 hr. Blood, liver, and white muscle samples were taken after the exposure time together with samples of control handled fish. Serum concentrations of glucose, cortisol protein, and cholesterol were determined. Similarly, the liver and muscle glycogen contents were measured. The effects of the following pollutants were examined: aldrin (100 micrograms/liter), atrazine (100 micrograms/liter), DDT (50 micrograms/liter), dieldrin (20 micrograms/liter), endrin (2 micrograms/liter), hexachlorbenzene (100 micrograms/liter), lindane (100 micrograms/liter), methanol (1 ml/liter), 4-N-phenol (100 micrograms/liter), toluene (100 microliters/liter). The rises in serum glucose and cortisol were the most frequent changes occurring after exposure to the pollutants. A decline in plasma protein and cholesterol content was also often observed. Liver glycogen concentration increased first in most cases and was reduced after longer exposure. Muscle glycogen was affected differently, sometimes reduced by exposure to the pollutants. The experimental design allows for the gradual increase in toxicity of the pollutants used regarding the applied concentrations. Furthermore, the aim of the paper is to evaluate the tests for proof of toxicity of those chemicals. The determination of serum glucose and cortisol levels can be proposed as mostly useful. The clearest changes in all parameters were found after treatment with 100 micrograms/liter atrazine and 50 micrograms/liter DDT. When serum glucose and cortisol concentrations were quickly elevated, signs for exhaustion could be seen after 72 hr of exposure.

  8. Effects of nicardipine on ventriculo-arterial coupling in humans.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Oshita, S; Kitahata, H; Kimura, H; Kawahito, S; Park, Y C; Sakabe, T

    1998-08-01

    The ratio of effective arterial elastance (Ea) to left ventricular elastance (Ees) is an indicator of the coupling between ventricular properties and arterial load properties. Another criterion for the coupling between an energy source and its load is the principle of economical fuel consumption, or mechanical efficiency, which is defined as the ratio of stroke work (SW) to myocardial oxygen consumption per beat (MVO2). It has been revealed that SW of ventricular contraction is maximized when Ea/Ees = 1, while mechanical efficiency is maximized when Ea/Ees = 0.5. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ventriculo-arterial coupling during hypertension, and the effects of nicardipine on this relationship in surgical patients using Ea/Ees and SW/MVO2 as indicators. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane, nitrous oxide, and fentanyl. Radial artery pressure was displayed on a polygraph, and left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes were determined by use of transoesophageal echocardiography. Ees was calculated as MAP/(ESVI-4), where MAP is mean arterial pressure and ESVI is end-systolic volume index. Ea was calculated as the ratio of MAP to stroke volume index (SVI). Stroke work index (SWI) was calculated as the product of MAP and SVI. MVO2 was assessed by estimating the ventricular pressure-volume area index (PVAI), which is expressed as the sum of SWI and the end-systolic potential energy index. Before (baseline), and 3, 10, 20, and 30 min after i.v. nicardipine (30 micrograms kg-1), Ea/Ees and SWI/PVAI were determined in 14 surgical patients with intraoperative hypertension. Before nicardipine (during hypertension), Ea was almost equal to Ees, whereas Ea/Ees was significantly reduced to about 0.5-0.6 at 3, 10, and 20 min after nicardipine. SWI/PVAI was maximized and significantly greater than the baseline value at 3 min after nicardipine. These results suggest that, during hypertension, ventricular and arterial properties were so

  9. Systemic and coronary hemodynamic actions and left ventricular functional effects of levosimendan in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Harkin, C P; Pagel, P S; Tessmer, J P; Warltier, D C

    1995-08-01

    We examined the effects of levosimendan, a new myofilament Ca2+ sensitizer with phosphodiesterase (PDE)-inhibiting properties, on systemic and coronary hemodynamics and left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function in conscious dogs with intact and blocked autonomic nervous system (ANS) reflexes. Twenty experiments were conducted in 10 dogs chronically instrumented for measurement of aortic and LV pressure, the peak rate of increase and decrease in LV pressure (+dP/dtmax and -dP/dtmin), subendocardial segment length, diastolic coronary blood flow (CBF) velocity, and cardiac output (CO). The slope (Mw) of the regional preload recruitable stroke work relation was used to assess myocardial contractility. Diastolic function was evaluated by -dP/dtmin, a time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau), maximum segment lengthening velocity during rapid ventricular filling (dL/dtmax), and a regional chamber stiffness constant (Kp). Dogs were randomly assigned to receive levosimendan (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) with or without ANS blockade. On separate experimental days, systemic and coronary hemodynamics and LV pressure-segment length diagrams and waveforms were recorded after 10-min equilibration at each dose in the conscious ANS-intact or ANS-blocked state. Levosimendan increased heart rate (HR), CO, mean and diastolic CBF velocity, and pressure-work index (PWI, an estimate of myocardial oxygen consumption) and decreased LV end-diastolic pressure (EDP), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), end-systolic and end-diastolic segment length, and mean and diastolic coronary vascular resistance (CVR) in dogs with intact ANS function. Levosimendan-induced increases in HR and PWI and decreases in SVR were attenuated by ANS blockade. Levosimendan caused equivalent dose-dependent increases in Mw in ANS-intact and ANS-blocked dogs, consistent with a positive inotropic effect independent of ANS activity. Levosimendan decreased tau (e.g., 35 +/- 1 ms during

  10. Anti-metastatic therapy by urinary trypsin inhibitor in combination with an anti-cancer agent.

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, H.; Shinohara, H.; Gotoh, J.; Fujie, M.; Fujishiro, S.; Terao, T.

    1995-01-01

    We have demonstrated that urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI) purified from human urine is able to inhibit lung metastasis of mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) cells in experimental and spontaneous metastasis models. In this study, we have investigated whether UTI in combination with an anti-cancer drug, etoposide, can prevent tumour metastasis and show an enhanced therapeutic effect. Subcutaneous (s.c.) implantation of 3LL cells (1 x 10(6) cells) in the abdominal wall of C57BL/6 female mice resulted in macroscopic lung metastasis within 21 days. Microscopic lung metastasis was established by day 14 after tumour cell inoculation, and surgical treatment alone after this time resulted in no inhibition of lung metastasis. The number of lung tumour colonies in the group of mice which received surgery at day 21 was greater than in mice which had tumours left in situ (P = 0.0017). Surgical treatment on day 7, followed by UTI administration (s.c.) for 7 days, led to a decrease in lung metastasis compared with untreated animals. A significant inhibition of the formation of pulmonary metastasis was obtained with daily s.c. injections of UTI for 7 days immediately after tumour cell inoculation. UTI administration did not affect the primary tumour size at the time of operation. In addition, etoposide treatment alone led to a smaller primary tumours and yielded reduction of the formation of lung metastasis in the group of mice which received surgery at day 14 (P = 0.0026). Even in mice which received surgical treatment on day 14, followed by the combination of UTI (500 micrograms per mouse, days 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20) with etoposide (40 mg kg-1, days 14, 18 and 22), there was significant reduction of the formation of lung metastasis (P = 0.0001). Thus, the combination of an anti-metastatic agent with an anti-cancer drug, etoposide, might provide a therapeutically promising basis for anti-metastatic therapy. PMID:7577458

  11. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during anaesthesia: assessment of respiration related beat-to-beat heart rate variability analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Loula, P; Jäntti, V; Yli-Hankala, A

    1997-11-01

    Beat-to-beat heart rate variability analysis is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of neuropathy. Respiration-related heart rate variability (respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA) reflects the function of parasympathetic nervous system during spontaneous ventilation while awake. RSA is also claimed to monitor the depth of anaesthesia. Power spectrum analysis or various averaging techniques of the heart rate variability are usually applied. The current literature, however, does not usually interpret the ground rules and limitations of the method used, and this may sometimes lead to erroneous conclusions on the data. The aim of our study was to compare and analyse critically the performance of different methods of evaluating RSA during anaesthesia and positive pressure ventilation. Power spectrum analysis, the root mean square of the successive RR-interval difference (RMSSD), and two respiration related methods, RSA index and average phase RSA, were included in the comparison. To test these methods, 11 patients were anaesthetised with isoflurane and their lungs were ventilated mechanically with a frequency of 6 cycles min-1. Each patient received a bolus dose of atropine (20 micrograms kg-1) during the trial. Electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram and tracheal pressure signal from respirator were recorded and analyses were performed off-line. We demonstrated that general indices, such as RMSSD, may be strongly affected by heart rate level and other non-respiration related variations in heart rate. We also showed that the effect of unwanted fluctuations on RSA can be reduced with respiration dependent beat-to-beat methods. Furthermore we confirmed that in addition to the amplitude, also the pattern of respiratory sinus arrhythmia is of interest: the pattern is reversed in phase compared to spontaneous breathing while awake, as we have shown earlier. To analyse RSA during anaesthesia, we recommend the use of an average phase RSA method based on beat-to-beat variability

  12. Estradiol effect on anterior crural muscles-tibial bone relationship and susceptibility to injury.

    PubMed

    Warren, G L; Lowe, D A; Inman, C L; Orr, O M; Hogan, H A; Bloomfield, S A; Armstrong, R B

    1996-05-01

    The study's objective was to determine whether estradiol (E2) deficiency alters the functional relationship of muscle to bone and causes a differential increase in injury susceptibility. Ovariectomized 6-wk-old mice were administered E2 (40 micrograms. day-1. kg-1; n = 8) or the oil vehicle (n = 8) for 21 days. The anterior crural muscles of the left hindlimb were then stimulated to produce 150 maximal in vivo eccentric contractions. In vitro functional measurements were then made on the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle and tibia from both the exercised and unexercised legs. The maximal isometric torque produced by the anterior crural muscles before the eccentric contraction protocol and the unexercised EDL maximal isometric tetanic force (P(0)) were higher in E2-treated mice by 18 and 14%, respectively (P < or = 0.03). Both ultimate load and stiffness for the unexercised tibia were higher by 16% in E2-treated mice (P < or = 0.03). The muscle-to-bone relationship of these measurements was unaffected by E2 status (P > or = 0.59). No evidence for increased injury susceptibility was found in either tissue from E2-deficient mice. In fact, the decrement in P(0) was only 36.9 +/- 3.8% in exercised EDL muscles from E2-deficient mice compared with 50.6 +/- 4.2% in exercised muscles from E2-treated mice (P = 0.03). Tibia stiffness was 3.9% higher in bones from exercised legs than in bones from unexercised legs (72.64 +/- 2.77 vs. 69.95 +/- 2.66 N/mm; P = 0.05) with ultimate load showing a similar trend (P = 0.07); no effect of E2 status was observed on these differences (P > or = 0.53). In conclusion, the functional relationship of bone to muscle and the susceptibility to injury in bone are not altered by the presence of E2 in ovariectomized mice; however, E2 does increase injury susceptibility in the EDL muscle. PMID:8727552

  13. The classification of afferents from muscle spindles of the jaw-closing muscles of the cat.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A; Durbaba, R; Rodgers, J F

    1992-10-01

    1. The effects of the muscle-depolarizing drug succinylcholine (SCh) on the stretch responses of jaw-closer muscle spindle afferents were studied in the anaesthetized cat. Using ramp and hold stretches repeated every 6 s the basic measurements made were: initial frequency (IF), peak frequency (PF) and static index (SI), the frequency 0.5 s after the end of the ramp of stretch. Derived from these were: dynamic difference (DD) = PF-IF, dynamic index (DI) = PF-SI and static difference (SD) = SI-IF. Increases in these measures caused by a single I.V. dose of SCh (200 micrograms kg-1) are symbolized by the prefix delta. 2. In a population of 234 units, delta DD and delta IF were each distributed bimodally, but were uncorrelated, thus defining four subgroups. 3. delta DD was argued to be an index of the effect of bag1 intrafusal fibre contraction and delta IF to be an index of the effect of bag2 fibre contraction. On this basis it is proposed that units can be divided into four groups according to the predominant influences of the bag1, bag2 and chain fibres as b1c (6.8%), b1b2c (22.2%), b2c (54.3%) or c (16.7%). 4. Testing with sine wave stretches at 1 Hz showed that changes in mean frequency and amplitude of response caused by SCh correlated with delta IF and delta DD respectively, but separated groups of units much less effectively than did ramp and hold testing. 5. Evidence is presented to indicate that the control value of DD in passive spindles does not relate to the potential strength of bag1 fibre effects in fully activated spindles. The bag1 fibre appears to contribute little to responses of spindle afferents in the passive state. DD is superior to DI as a measure of bag1 effects. 6. Conduction velocity was unimodally distributed in masseter spindle afferents and was not correlated with delta DD or delta IF and was therefore of no value in classifying them. 7. Neither the threshold of afferents to quick transient stretch nor the coefficient of variation of

  14. The effect of succinylcholine on cat gastrocnemius muscle spindle afferents of different types.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A; Rodgers, J F; Fowle, A J; Durbaba, R

    1992-10-01

    1. A population of 269 gastrocnemius muscle spindle afferents have been studied in anaesthetized cats for the effects of succinylcholine (SCh) on their response to ramp and hold stretches repeated every 6 s. The effectiveness and reliability of the SCh test was improved by prior stimulation of the muscle at 10 Hz for 30 s to increase the blood flow. 2. Responses have been assessed from averaged cycle histograms before and after a single I.V. dose of SCh of 200 micrograms kg-1. As for previous studies of jaw muscle spindles the basic measurements were initial frequency (IF), peak frequency (PF) and static index (SI), the frequency 0.5 s after the end of the ramp of stretch. Dynamic difference (DD = PF-IF), dynamic index (DI = PF-SI) and static difference (SD = SI-IF) were derived from these and increases caused by SCh indicated by the prefix delta. 3. delta DD and delta IF were each distributed bimodally and since they were uncorrelated formed the basis for a four-way classification. Since delta DD can be attributed to activation of bag1 (b1) intrafusal fibres and delta IF to bag2 (b2) fibres, while all afferents receive input from chain (c) fibres it is proposed as with the jaw spindles that the classes correspond to predominant influence from b1c, b1b2c, b2c and c intrafusal fibres. 4. The proportion of units in the different groups were similar to those in the jaw muscles except for there being very few b1c type in gastrocnemius. 5. Conduction velocity was bimodally distributed with the best dividing line at 63.2 m s-1. The b1b2c units were all, save one, in the fast group, while the b2c units were equally divided between fast and slow. 6. Mean control values for DD did not differ between the b1b2c and the b2c groups, which is taken to indicate that the b1 fibre does not contribute significantly to the dynamic stretch response of spindles with no intrafusal contraction. 7. The results emphasize the importance of recognizing that some apparently primary afferents

  15. Evidence for paralytic shellfish poisons in the freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, W W; Evans, W R; Yin, Q Q; Bell, P; Moczydlowski, E

    1997-08-01

    Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov., a perennial mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium prevalent in lakes and reservoirs of the southeastern United States, was found to produce a potent, acutely lethal neurotoxin when tested in the mouse bioassay. Signs of poisoning were similar to those of paralytic shellfish poisoning. As part of the Tennessee Valley Authority master plan for Guntersville Reservoir, the mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium L. wollei, a species that had recently invaded from other areas of the southern United States, was studied to determine if it could produce any of the known cyanotoxins. Of the 91 field samples collected at 10 locations at Guntersville Reservoir, Ala., on the Tennessee River, over a 3-year period, 72.5% were toxic. The minimum 100% lethal doses of the toxic samples ranged from 150 to 1,500 mg kg of lyophilized L. wollei cells-1, with the majority of samples being toxic at 500 mg kg-1. Samples bioassayed for paralytic shellfish toxins by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists method exhibited saxitoxin equivalents ranging from 0 to 58 micrograms g (dry weight)-1. Characteristics of the neurotoxic compound(s), such as the lack of adsorption by C18 solid-phase extraction columns, the short retention times on C18 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns, the interaction of the neurotoxins with saxiphilin (a soluble saxitoxin-binding protein), and external blockage of voltage-sensitive sodium channels, led to our discovery that this neurotoxin(s) is related to the saxitoxins, the compounds responsible for paralytic shellfish poisonings. The major saxitoxin compounds thus far identified by comparison of HPLC fluorescence retention times are decarbamoyl gonyautoxins 2 and 3. There was no evidence of paralytic shellfish poison C toxins being produced by L. wollei. Fifty field samples were placed in unialgal culture and grown under defined culture conditions. Toxicity and signs of poisoning for these

  16. Systemic and coronary hemodynamic actions and left ventricular functional effects of levosimendan in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Harkin, C P; Pagel, P S; Tessmer, J P; Warltier, D C

    1995-08-01

    We examined the effects of levosimendan, a new myofilament Ca2+ sensitizer with phosphodiesterase (PDE)-inhibiting properties, on systemic and coronary hemodynamics and left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function in conscious dogs with intact and blocked autonomic nervous system (ANS) reflexes. Twenty experiments were conducted in 10 dogs chronically instrumented for measurement of aortic and LV pressure, the peak rate of increase and decrease in LV pressure (+dP/dtmax and -dP/dtmin), subendocardial segment length, diastolic coronary blood flow (CBF) velocity, and cardiac output (CO). The slope (Mw) of the regional preload recruitable stroke work relation was used to assess myocardial contractility. Diastolic function was evaluated by -dP/dtmin, a time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau), maximum segment lengthening velocity during rapid ventricular filling (dL/dtmax), and a regional chamber stiffness constant (Kp). Dogs were randomly assigned to receive levosimendan (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) with or without ANS blockade. On separate experimental days, systemic and coronary hemodynamics and LV pressure-segment length diagrams and waveforms were recorded after 10-min equilibration at each dose in the conscious ANS-intact or ANS-blocked state. Levosimendan increased heart rate (HR), CO, mean and diastolic CBF velocity, and pressure-work index (PWI, an estimate of myocardial oxygen consumption) and decreased LV end-diastolic pressure (EDP), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), end-systolic and end-diastolic segment length, and mean and diastolic coronary vascular resistance (CVR) in dogs with intact ANS function. Levosimendan-induced increases in HR and PWI and decreases in SVR were attenuated by ANS blockade. Levosimendan caused equivalent dose-dependent increases in Mw in ANS-intact and ANS-blocked dogs, consistent with a positive inotropic effect independent of ANS activity. Levosimendan decreased tau (e.g., 35 +/- 1 ms during

  17. Synergistic anti-nociceptive effect of L-NG-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and flurbiprofen in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, C. V.; Babbedge, R. C.; Gaffen, Z.; Wallace, P.; Hart, S. L.; Moore, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    1. L-NG-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) administered i.p. produces anti-nociception in the mouse assessed by the formalin-induced paw licking and acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction models. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), flurbiprofen, was similarly anti-nociceptive in both models. 2. Combination of a sub-threshold dose of L-NAME (10 mg kg-1) with increasing doses of flurbiprofen (25- 75 mg kg-1) or a sub-threshold dose of flurbiprofen (50 mg kg-1) with increasing doses of L-NAME (10- 100 mg kg-1) resulted in potentiated anti-nociception in the formalin model. Combined therapy with sub-threshold doses of L-NAME (10 mg kg-1) and indomethacin (10 mg kg-1) also resulted in significant anti-nociception. In addition, combining sub-threshold doses of L-NAME (12.5 mg kg-1) and flurbiprofen (2 mg kg-1) significantly reduced acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction. 3. L-NAME (10 mg kg-1) administered i.p. caused a significant (approximately 35%) increase in MAP in the urethane-anaesthetized mouse. Flurbiprofen (50 mg kg-1) was inactive. Combination treatment with L-NAME (10 mg kg-1) and flurbiprofen (50 mg kg-1) failed to elevate MAP above that observed with L-NAME alone. Neither L-NAME (10 mg kg-1) nor flurbiprofen (50 mg kg-1) either alone or in combination significantly altered mouse locomotor activity. 4. These results suggest that L-NAME and flurbiprofen/indomethacin act synergistically in their anti-nociceptive action in the mouse. Combination therapy with L-NAME and flurbiprofen and a similar NSAID may provide an alternative to the clinical control of pain in man. PMID:1393274

  18. Sequential determination of Cd and Cr in biomass samples and their ashes using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Alvaro T; Dessuy, Morgana B; Vale, Maria Goreti R; Welz, Bernhard; de Andrade, Jailson B

    2013-10-15

    High-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, because of the use of only one radiation source for all elements, offers the possibility of sequential determination of two or more elements from the same sample aliquot if their volatilities are significantly different. Cd and Cr were determined sequentially in samples of biomass and biomass ashes employing direct solid sample analysis. The use of a chemical modifier was found to be not necessary, and calibration could be carried out using aqueous standard solutions. A pyrolysis temperature of 400°C and an atomization temperature of 1500°C were used for the determination of Cd; no losses of Cr were observed at this temperature. After the atomization of Cd the wavelength was changed and Cr atomized at 2600°C. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 1.1 μg kg(-1) and 3.7 μg kg(-1), respectively, for Cd and 21 μg kg(-1) and 70 μg kg(-1), respectively, for Cr using the most sensitive line at 357.869 nm, or 90 μg kg(-1) and 300 μg kg(-1), respectively, using the less sensitive line at 428.972 nm. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation was around 10%, which is typical for direct solid sample analysis. The values found for Cd in biomass samples were between <1.1 µg kg(-1) and 789 µg kg(-1), whereas those for Cr were between 7.9 mg kg(-1) and 89 mg kg(-1); the values found in the ashes were significantly lower for Cd, between <1.1 µg kg(-1) and 6.3 µg kg(-1), whereas the trend was not so clear for Cr, where the values were between 3.4 mg kg(-1) and 28 mg kg(-1).

  19. Spatial variation of chemical constituents from the burning of commonly used biomass fuels in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saud, T.; Saxena, M.; Singh, D. P.; Saraswati; Dahiya, Manisha; Sharma, S. K.; Datta, A.; Gadi, Ranu; Mandal, T. K.

    2013-06-01

    In the present paper, we have determined emission factor of chemical composition of the emission from the burning of biomass (e.g. Dung cake, Acacia, Neem, Mulberry, Indian Rosewood, Pigeon pea etc.) commonly used as a residential fuel in the rural sector of Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) (Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal), India. For comparison, we have selected only those biomass fuels, which are used in at least three of the above mentioned states. Dung cake from all the states reports highest emission of particulate matter (PM) (15.68 g kg-1), Organic Carbon (OC) (4.32 g kg-1) and Elemental Carbon (EC) (0.51 g kg-1). Among all biomass fuels studied, agricultural residue reports substantial amount of emission of Na+ (104 mg kg-1), K+ (331 mg kg-1) and Cl- (447 mg kg-1) particularly in Pigeon pea and Mustard stem. Eucalyptus (fuel wood) emits large amounts of Ca2+ (21.47 mg kg-1) and NO3- (614 mg kg-1). The emission of PM from dung cake is higher in Delhi (19.31 g kg-1) and followed by Uttar Pradesh (17.58 g kg-1) > Haryana (15.46 g kg-1) > Bihar (14.99 g kg-1) > Punjab (12.06 g kg-1) > West Bengal (5.90 g kg-1). Carbonaceous aerosols (OC and EC) and dominant Ionic species (Cl-, K+, SO42-, NO3- and PO43-) are altogether contributing 40-70% of total emissions. Characteristics and ratios of chemical species of emissions may help to develop a methodology of discriminating the sources of ambient particulate matter. Using a laboratory determined emission factor of chemical species, we have determined the emission budget over IGP, India.

  20. Effects of flow rate, duration of stimulation and mineralocorticoids on the electrolyte concentrations of mandibular saliva from the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Beal, A M

    1986-11-01

    Mandibular saliva was collected at eight flow rates ranging between 0.052 +/- 0.0059 (S.E. of mean) and 4.294 +/- 0.0717 ml min-1 from anaesthetized red kangaroos receiving ipsilateral intracarotid infusions of acetylcholine. The concentrations of sodium (4.04 +/- 0.759 to 75.9 +/- 4.64 mmol l-1) and chloride (51.2 +/- 2.46 to 85.0 +/- 6.90 mmol l-1) and the osmolality (99.7 +/- 4.88 to 178.9 +/- 13.50 mosmol kg-1) were positively correlated with salivary flow rate over most or all of the flow range, whereas the concentrations of potassium (50.3 +/- 2.03 to 19.7 +/- 3.16 mmol l-1), calcium (5.43 +/- 1.696 to 1.26 +/- 0.055 mmol l-1), magnesium (259.8 +/- 49.3 to 19.0 +/- 1.88 mumol l-1), hydrogen ions (457.7 +/- 107.3 to 69.3 +/- 5.64 nmol l-1) and phosphate (2.22 +/- 0.171 to 0.27 +/- 0.040 mmol l-1) were negatively correlated with flow rate. Salivary bicarbonate concentration (15.6 +/- 1.76 to 21.9 +/- 1.83 mmol l-1) showed little flow dependency except possibly at high levels of stimulation. Spontaneous secretion was not observed during anaesthesia. During continuous stimulation of flow at two rates (0.5 and 2.0 ml min-1) for periods of 90 min, rest transients were observed for sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride and phosphate in the initial sample and the sodium concentration rose by 17-56% during the first 60 min of steady-state flow and stimulation. Indications that the gland was capable of responding rapidly to changes in endogenous mineralocorticoid levels were confirmed by intracarotid infusion of aldosterone at 80 micrograms h-1. With the mean salivary flow rate lying between 1.3 and 1.4 ml min-1, the salivary Na+/K+ ratio began to fall at 45-60 min of aldosterone infusion and after 4 h of infusion had fallen to 0.62 +/- 0.116. Administration of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) for 21 days at 0.25 or 0.3 mg kg-1 12 h-1 caused a further lowering of the Na+/K+ ratio to 0.09 +/- 0.013 at similar flow rates. Biopsy showed this increase to be associated

  1. Metabolic and renal changes in two athletes during a world 24 hour relay record performance.

    PubMed Central

    Irving, R A; Noakes, T D; van Zyl Smit, R

    1989-01-01

    Metabolic parameters and renal function were studied in two subjects before, during and after they established a world two-man 24 hour relay record. During the race, the athletes expended an estimated 37.747 and 42.880 kJ running at 54 and 61 per cent of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max). Rectal temperatures reached maxima of 38.6 and 39.2 degrees C respectively during the race. Serum free fatty acid levels peaked at 2108 and 1875 mumol ml-1 after 24 hours; blood glucose levels varied from 4.3-6.5 and 4.9-8.5 mmol.l-1 respectively. Plasma insulin levels fell from 42.9 and 22.7 microU.ml-1 to 11.5 microU.ml-1. Plasma urea, creatinine, beta 2-microglobulin and C-reactive protein concentrations were elevated at the end of the race (to 9.0 and 8.0 mmol.l-1, 119 and 102 mumol.l-1, 3.508 and 3203 micrograms.l-1 and 2.7 and 3.9 mg per cent respectively). Plasma osmolality was altered from 293 and 304 to 302 and 280 mosmol.Kg-1 during the race but increased to 312 and 318 mosmol.Kg-1 the following day probably due to intercompartmental fluid shifts. Plasma creatinine concentration was increased by 38 and 26 per cent due to reduced urinary excretion. Urine flow rate increased 40 and 123 per cent respectively during the race, but creatinine clearance decreased by 38 and 40 per cent. Urine osmolality decreased by 38 and 65 per cent and osmolal clearance decreased by 15 and 16 per cent respectively. Urine sodium excretion was greatly reduced (85 and 90 per cent) on the post-race days (by 88 and 92 per cent on day 2). Both urine total protein and beta2-microglobulin excretion increased during the race (by 89 and 35 per cent and by 334 and 136 per cent respectively), but owing to the increased beta2-microglobulin production renal clearance was unaltered. The changes in renal function were temporary and some aspects of renal tubular function were enhanced during the post-race days. We conclude that, although C-reactive protein concentrations increased sooner and were higher

  2. Hydrogeological investigation at Site 5, Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base, Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted borehole geophysical logging, collected and analyzed waterlevel data, and sampled sections of a rock core to determine the concentration of volatile organic compounds in the aquifer matrix of the Stockton Formation. Borehole geophysical logs were run in three monitor wells. At well 05MW04I, the vertical gradient was upward at depths above 42 feet below land surface (ft bls), downward between 42 and 82 ft bls, and upward below 82 ft bls. At well 05MW05I, a downward vertical gradient was present. At well 05MW12I, the vertical gradient was downward above 112 ft bls and upward below 112 ft bls. Three water-bearing fractures in a 17-foot long rock core from 23.5 to 40.5 ft bls were identified and sampled. Three samples were analyzed from each water-bearing fracture?at the fracture face, 2 centimeters (cm) below the fracture, and 4 cm below the fracture. Fifteen compounds were detected; however, concentrations of seven compounds were less than 1 microgram per kilogram (mg/kg) when detected. Concentrations of benzene (from 0.39 to 3.3 mg/kg), 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) (from 0.15 to 13 mg/kg), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) (from 0.17 to 22 mg/kg), and trichloroethylene (TCE) (from 0.092 to 9.6 mg/kg) were detected in all samples. The highest concentrations detected were for toluene, which was detected at a concentration of 32 and 86 mg/kg in the samples from unweathered sandstone at 2 and 4 cm below the fracture, respectively. Concentrations generally decreased with distance below the fracture in the mudstone samples. Concentrations of benzene and toluene increased with distance below the fractures in the unweathered sandstone samples. Concentrations of 1,1-DCE, TCA, and TCE were higher in the mudstone samples than in the samples from sandstone. Toluene concentrations were higher in unweathered sandstone than in weathered sandstone or mudstone. The effect of the pumping of HorshamWater and Sewer Authority public supply well 26 (HWSA-26

  3. Assessment of soil-gas and groundwater contamination at the Gibson Road landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir G.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Soil-gas and groundwater assessments were conducted at the Gibson Road landfill in 201 to provide screening-level environmental contamination data to supplement the data collected during previous environmental studies at the landfill. Passive samplers were used in both assessments to detect volatile and semivolatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil gas and groundwater. A total of 56 passive samplers were deployed in the soil in late July and early August for the soil-gas assessment. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were detected at masses greater than the method detection level of 0.02 microgram in all samplers and masses greater than 2.0 micrograms in 13 samplers. Three samplers located between the landfill and a nearby wetland had TPH masses greater than 20 micrograms. Diesel was detected in 28 of the 56 soil-gas samplers. Undecane, tridecane, and pentadecane were detected, but undecane was the most common diesel compound with 23 detections. Only five detections exceeded a combined diesel mass of 0.10 microgram, including the highest mass of 0.27 microgram near the wetland. Toluene was detected in only five passive samplers, including masses of 0.65 microgram near the wetland and 0.85 microgram on the southwestern side of the landfill. The only other gasoline-related compound detected was octane in two samplers. Naphthalene was detected in two samplers in the gully near the landfill and two samplers along the southwestern side of the landfill, but had masses less than or equal to 0.02 microgram. Six samplers located southeast of the landfill had detections of chlorinated compounds, including one perchloroethene detections (0.04 microgram) and five chloroform detections (0.05 to0.08 microgram). Passive samplers were deployed and recovered on August 8, 2011, in nine monitoring wells along the southwestern, southeastern and northeastern sides of the landfill and down gradient from the eastern corner of the landfill. Six of the nine

  4. Percutaneous absorption of Octopirox.

    PubMed

    Black, J G; Kamat, V B

    1988-01-01

    [14C]Octopirox administered to rats by intubation or injection was excreted mostly in the faeces (65-85% of the dose) with smaller amounts (6-19%) in the urine. Blood levels after intubation of Octopirox (4.8 mg/kg body weight) reached a maximum equivalent to 0.137 micrograms/ml at 2 hr and declined to 0.007 micrograms/ml at 48 hr after administration. Tissue levels were low, the greatest was the liver with the equivalent of 3 micrograms Octopirox at 6 hr after intubation. With female rats skin penetration of Octopirox at 1% (v/v) in shampoo without rinsing was 65.1 micrograms/cm2 under non-occlusive conditions for 48 hr. When the skin was rinsed after a 10-min contact, penetration was reduced to 3.4 micrograms/cm2 under occlusive, and 2.0 micrograms/cm2 under non-occlusive conditions. Skin penetration of Octopirox was dependent on duration of contact up to 10 min before rinsing. Penetration at 1% Octopirox increased significantly from 2.4 micrograms/cm2 after 2.5 min exposure to 4.5 micrograms/cm2 after 10 min contact, but there was no further increase in penetration with a 20-min application. Skin penetration and deposition of Octopirox were both proportional to Octopirox concentration between 0.1 and 1% (w/v); skin penetration increased from 0.31 to 3.6 micrograms/cm2 while deposition increased from 0.8 to 7.6 micrograms/cm2. There was no significant difference between the penetration through clipped skin and hairy skin from an application of 1% Octopirox for 5 min followed by rinsing. Under non-occlusive conditions, penetration was 1.5 micrograms/cm2 for both types of skin. Blood levels after topical application (15.4 mg/kg body weight) without rinsing and with occlusion reached the equivalent of 0.32 micrograms/ml at 6 hr. However, when the skin was rinsed and protected with a non-occlusive patch blood levels were reduced to a maximum equivalent to 0.02 micrograms/ml at 1 hr after application. The safety factor estimated for the consumer using a shampoo

  5. Plasma and milk kinetics of eprinomectin following topical or oral administration to lactating Chinese Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Wen, Huiqiang; Pan, Baoliang; Wang, Yuwan; Wang, Fangfei; Yang, Zhenzhong; Wang, Ming

    2010-11-24

    Chinese Holstein, bred by mating the Holstein-Friesian to Chinese Yellow Cattle, is a major dairy cattle breed in China. Eprinomectin is widely used in the treatment of nematode and ectoparasite infections in lactating cattle. The pharmacokinetics of eprinomectin in the plasma and milk were determined in Chinese Holstein cows following topical (at 0.5 mg kg(-1)) or oral (at 0.2 mg kg(-1)) administration. For topical administration, the concentrations of eprinomectin in plasma reached peak values (C(max)) of 16.16 ± 6.02 ng ml(-1) at 3.20 ± 1.30 days (T(max)). In milk, the C(max) values of 2.28 ± 0.85 ng ml(-1) were obtained at 3.48 ± 0.65 days. The MRT values were 5.00 ± 0.96 days for plasma and 4.65 ± 0.60 days for milk. The AUC values were 91.00 ± 25.32 ng d ml(-1) for plasma and 10.53 ± 1.55 ng d ml(-1) for milk. The ratio of AUC milk/plasma was 0.124 ± 0.041. Significant differences were found in C(max) and AUC of eprinomectin in plasma between Chinese Holstein and Prim Holstein following topical administration. It was probably due to the lower storage of body fat in Chinese Holstein than in Prim Holstein. For oral administration, the concentrations of eprinomectin reach peak values of 30.02 ± 5.73 ng ml(-1) at 1.60 ± 0.55 days in plasma and 3.14 ± 0.88 ng ml(-1) at 1.40 ± 0.27 days in milk. The MRT values for plasma and milk were 3.00 ± 0.46 and 3.18 ± 0.55 days, respectively. The AUC values were 98.46 ± 24.75 ng d ml(-1) for plasma and 10.42 ± 4.22 ng d ml(-1) for milk. The ratio of AUC milk/plasma was 0.104 ± 0.022. Compared with the topical administration, a significantly shorter MRT of eprinomectin in plasma was obtained following oral administration, which would shorten residue time of this compound in faeces and reduce its ecotoxicological effect. The low exposure of eprinomectin in milk would favor the use of eprinomectin in lactating Chinese Holstein for topical or oral administration. PMID:20851527

  6. Gas emission from diffuse degassing structures (DDS) of the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL): Implications for the prevention of CO2-related hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa; Ohba, T.; Chako Tchamabé, B.; Padrón, E.; Hernández, P.; Eneke Takem, E. G.; Barrancos, J.; Sighomnoun, D.; Ooki, S.; Nkamdjou, Sigha; Kusakabe, M.; Yoshida, Y.; Dionis, S.

    2014-08-01

    In the mid-1980s, lakes Nyos and Monoun violently released massive gas, mainly magmatic CO2 killing about 1800 people. Subsequent geochemical surveys and social studies indicate that lakes Nyos and Monoun event is cyclic in nature and may occur anywhere in the about 37 other volcanic lakes located in the corridor of the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL). This potential threat motivated us to check if, alike Nyos and Monoun, the internal dynamic of the other lakes is also controlled by inputs of deep-seated-derived CO2 and attempt to measure and provide comprehensive insights on the passive gas emission along the CVL. This knowledge shall contribute to the prevention of volcanic lake-related hazards in Cameroon and the refinement of the Global Carbon Cycle. We used in situ fixation and dry gas phase sampling methods to determine CO2 origin and the concentration, and the accumulation chamber technique to measure diffuse CO2 emission from nine lakes and on soil at Nyos Valley and Mount Manenguba Caldera. The results suggest that, although in minor concentrations (compared to Nyos and Monoun), ranging from 0.56 mmol kg- 1 to 8.75 mmol kg- 1, the bottom waters of some lakes also contain measurable magmatic CO2 with δ13C varies from - 4.42‰ to - 9.16‰ vs. PDB. That finding implies that, under certain circumstances, e.g. increase to volcanic and/or tectonic activities along the CVL, the concerned lakes could develop a Nyos-type behavioural scheme. The diffuse gas emission results indicate that the nine surveyed lakes release approximately 3.69 ± 0.37 kt km- 2 yr- 1 of CO2 to the atmosphere; extrapolation to the approximately 39 volcanic lakes located on the CVL yields an approximate CO2 output of 27.37 ± 0.5 kt km- 2 yr- 1, representing 0.023% of the global CO2 output from volcanic lakes. In addition to the precedent value, the gas removal operation in lakes Nyos and Monoun released approximately 2.52 ± 0.46 × 108 mol km- 2 yr- 1 CO2 to the atmosphere from January

  7. Effect of inorganic fertilizer and farmyard manure on soil physical properties, root distribution, and water-use efficiency of soybean in Vertisols of central India.

    PubMed

    Hati, K M; Mandal, K G; Misra, A K; Ghosh, P K; Bandyopadhyay, K K

    2006-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a Vertisol for three consecutive years (1998-2000) to study the effects of combined use of inorganic fertilizer (NPK) and organic manure (farmyard manure) on soil physical properties, water-use efficiency, root growth and yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in a soybean-mustard cropping system. Application of 10 Mg farmyard manure and recommended NPK (NPK+FYM) to soybean for three consecutive years improved the organic carbon content of the surface (0-15 cm) soil from an initial value of 4.4 g kg(-1) to 6.2 g kg(-1) and also increased seed yield and water-use efficiency by 103% and 76%, respectively, over the control. The surface (0-15 cm) soil of the plots receiving both farmyard manure and recommended NPK had larger mean weight diameter (0.50 mm) and a higher percentage of water stable aggregates (55%) than both the inorganically fertilized (NPK) (0.44 mm and 49%) and unfertilized control plots (0.41 mm and 45.4%). The saturated hydraulic conductivity (13.32 x 10(-6) m s(-1)) of the NPK+FYM treatment of the 0-7.5 cm depth was also significantly greater than that of the NPK (10.53 x 10(-6) m s(-1)) and control (8.61 x 10(-6) m s(-1)) treatments. The lowest bulk density (1.18 Mg m(-3)) in the 0-7.5 cm layer was recorded in NPK+FYM whereas it was highest in the control plots (1.30 Mg m(-3)). However, at sub-surface (22.5-30 cm) layer, fertilizer and manure application had little effect on bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Root length density (RLD) up to the 30 cm depth was highest in the NPK+FYM plots and it was 31.9% and 70.5% more than NPK and control plots. The RLD showed a significant and negative correlation (r=-0.88( * *)) with the penetration resistance. PMID:16289791

  8. Effect of inorganic fertilizer and farmyard manure on soil physical properties, root distribution, and water-use efficiency of soybean in Vertisols of central India.

    PubMed

    Hati, K M; Mandal, K G; Misra, A K; Ghosh, P K; Bandyopadhyay, K K

    2006-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a Vertisol for three consecutive years (1998-2000) to study the effects of combined use of inorganic fertilizer (NPK) and organic manure (farmyard manure) on soil physical properties, water-use efficiency, root growth and yield of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in a soybean-mustard cropping system. Application of 10 Mg farmyard manure and recommended NPK (NPK+FYM) to soybean for three consecutive years improved the organic carbon content of the surface (0-15 cm) soil from an initial value of 4.4 g kg(-1) to 6.2 g kg(-1) and also increased seed yield and water-use efficiency by 103% and 76%, respectively, over the control. The surface (0-15 cm) soil of the plots receiving both farmyard manure and recommended NPK had larger mean weight diameter (0.50 mm) and a higher percentage of water stable aggregates (55%) than both the inorganically fertilized (NPK) (0.44 mm and 49%) and unfertilized control plots (0.41 mm and 45.4%). The saturated hydraulic conductivity (13.32 x 10(-6) m s(-1)) of the NPK+FYM treatment of the 0-7.5 cm depth was also significantly greater than that of the NPK (10.53 x 10(-6) m s(-1)) and control (8.61 x 10(-6) m s(-1)) treatments. The lowest bulk density (1.18 Mg m(-3)) in the 0-7.5 cm layer was recorded in NPK+FYM whereas it was highest in the control plots (1.30 Mg m(-3)). However, at sub-surface (22.5-30 cm) layer, fertilizer and manure application had little effect on bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Root length density (RLD) up to the 30 cm depth was highest in the NPK+FYM plots and it was 31.9% and 70.5% more than NPK and control plots. The RLD showed a significant and negative correlation (r=-0.88( * *)) with the penetration resistance.

  9. Development of a certified reference material (NMIJ CRM 7512-a) for the determination of trace elements in milk powder.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanbei; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Miyashita, Shin-ichi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Inagaki, Kazumi; Chiba, Koichi; Hioki, Akiharu

    2013-01-01

    A certified reference material (CRM), NMIJ CRM 7512-a, was developed for the determination of trace elements in milk powder. At least three independent analytical methods were applied to characterize the certified value of each element; all of these analytical methods were based on microwave acid digestions and carried out using different analytical instruments. The certified value was given on a dry-mass basis, where the dry-mass correction factor was obtained by drying the sample at 65°C for 15 to 25 h. The certified values in the units of mass fractions for 13 elements were as follows: Ca, 8.65 (0.38) g kg(-1); Fe, 0.104 (0.007) g kg(-1); K, 8.41 (0.33) g kg(-1); Mg, 0.819 (0.024) g kg(-1); Na, 1.87 (0.09) g kg(-1); P, 5.62 (0.23) g kg(-1); Ba, 0.449 (0.013) mg kg(-1); Cu, 4.66 (0.23) mg kg(-1); Mn, 0.931 (0.032) mg kg(-1); Mo, 0.223 (0.012) mg kg(-1); Rb, 8.93 (0.31) mg kg(-1); Sr, 5.88 (0.20) mg kg(-1); and Zn, 41.3 (1.4) mg kg(-1), where the numbers in the parentheses are the expanded uncertainties with a coverage factor of 2. The expanded uncertainties were estimated considering the contribution of the analytical methods, the method-to-method variance, the sample homogeneity, the dry-mass correction factor, and the concentrations of the standard solutions for calibration. The concentrations of As (2.1 μg kg(-1)), Cd (0.2 μg kg(-1)), Cr (1.3 μg kg(-1)), Pb (0.3 μg kg(-1)), and Y (64 μg kg(-1)) were given as information values for the present CRM.

  10. Using EDDS and NTA for enhanced phytoextraction of Cd by water spinach.

    PubMed

    Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Jien, Shih-Hao; Wang, Shih-Hui; Deng, Hong-Wei

    2013-03-15

    A greenhouse experiment was used to test the applicability of [S,S]-Ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at rates of 2.5 mmol kg(-1) and 5.0 mmol kg(-1), respectively, to increase the uptake of Cd by water spinach (Ipomoea aquatic Forsk) in soils with 2.5-30 mg Cd kg(-1). The addition of EDDS and NTA significantly increased water soluble Cd in soils. However, the Cd concentration in the root and shoot was higher in the NTA treatment than in the EDDS treatment. No instance of Cd hyperaccumulation was observed; however, the 5.0 mmol kg(-1) NTA treatment for soil with 30 mg Cd kg(-1) caused the Cd concentration to increase to 86 mg kg(-1), which is close to the critical concentration (100 mg kg(-1)) of a hyperaccumulator. The total Cd uptake in the treatments of EDDS and NTA for soils with 2.5, 5.0, and 10 mg Cd kg(-1) was acceptable, and was higher than the control. The level of 5.0 mmol kg(-1) EDDS was excessively high for enhanced phytoextraction in soils with 20 and 30 mg Cd kg(-1). Water spinach for Cd phytoextraction is a viable alternative to using herbaceous hyperaccumulators.

  11. Protective effect of kombucha mushroom (KM) tea on phenol-induced cytotoxicity in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Yapar, Kursad; Cavusoglu, Kultigin; Oruc, Ertan; Yalcin, Emine

    2010-09-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of kombucha mushroom (KM) tea on cytotoxicity induced by phenol (PHE) in mice. We used weight gain and micronucleus (MN) frequency as indicators of cytotoxicity and supported these parameters with pathological findings. The animals were randomly divided into seven groups: (Group I) only tap water (Group II) 1000 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, (Group III) 35 mg kg(-1) body wt. PHE (Group IV) 35 mg kg(-1) body wt. PHE + 250 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea (Group V) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 500 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea (Group VI) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 750 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, (Group VII) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 1000 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, for 20 consecutive days by oral gavage. The results indicated that all KM-tea supplemented mice showed a lower MN frequency than erythrocytes in only PHE-treated group. There was an observable regression on account of lesions in tissues of mice supplemented with different doses of KM-tea in histopathological observations. In conclusion, the KM-tea supplementation decreases cytotoxicity induced by PHE and its protective role is dose-dependent.

  12. Responses of earthworm to aluminum toxicity in latosol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia'en; Yu, Jiayu; Ouyang, Ying; Xu, Huaqin

    2013-02-01

    Excess aluminum (Al) in soils due to acid rain leaching is toxic to water resources and harmful to soil organisms and plants. This study investigated adverse impacts of Al levels upon earthworms (Eisenia fetida) from the latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiments were performed to examine the survival and avoidance of earthworms from high Al concentrations and investigate the response of earthworms upon Al toxicity at seven different Al concentrations that ranged from 0 to 300 mg kg(-1) over a 28-day period. Our study showed that the rate of the earthworm survival was 100 % within the first 7 days and decreased as time elapsed, especially for the Al concentrations at 200 and 300 mg kg(-1). A very good linear correlation existed between the earthworm avoidance and the soil Al concentration. There was no Al toxicity to earthworms with the Al concentration ≤ 50 mg kg(-1), and the toxicity started with the Al concentration ≥ 100 mg kg(-1). Low Al concentration (i.e., <50 mg kg(-1)) enhanced the growth of the earthworms, while high Al concentration (>100 mg kg(-1)) retarded the growth of the earthworms. The weight of earthworms and the uptake of Al by earthworms increased with the Al concentrations from 0 to 50 mg kg(-1) and decreased with the Al concentrations from 50 to 300 mg kg(-1). The protein content in the earthworms decreased with the Al concentrations from 0 to 100 mg kg(-1) and increased from 100 to 300 mg kg(-1). In contrast, the catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the earthworms increased with the Al concentrations from 0 to 100 mg kg(-1) and decreased from 100 to 300 mg kg(-1). The highest CAT and SOD activities and lowest protein content were found at the Al concentration of 100 mg kg(-1). Results suggest that a high level of Al content in latosol was harmful to earthworms.

  13. Responses of earthworm to aluminum toxicity in latosol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia'en; Yu, Jiayu; Ouyang, Ying; Xu, Huaqin

    2013-02-01

    Excess aluminum (Al) in soils due to acid rain leaching is toxic to water resources and harmful to soil organisms and plants. This study investigated adverse impacts of Al levels upon earthworms (Eisenia fetida) from the latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiments were performed to examine the survival and avoidance of earthworms from high Al concentrations and investigate the response of earthworms upon Al toxicity at seven different Al concentrations that ranged from 0 to 300 mg kg(-1) over a 28-day period. Our study showed that the rate of the earthworm survival was 100 % within the first 7 days and decreased as time elapsed, especially for the Al concentrations at 200 and 300 mg kg(-1). A very good linear correlation existed between the earthworm avoidance and the soil Al concentration. There was no Al toxicity to earthworms with the Al concentration ≤ 50 mg kg(-1), and the toxicity started with the Al concentration ≥ 100 mg kg(-1). Low Al concentration (i.e., <50 mg kg(-1)) enhanced the growth of the earthworms, while high Al concentration (>100 mg kg(-1)) retarded the growth of the earthworms. The weight of earthworms and the uptake of Al by earthworms increased with the Al concentrations from 0 to 50 mg kg(-1) and decreased with the Al concentrations from 50 to 300 mg kg(-1). The protein content in the earthworms decreased with the Al concentrations from 0 to 100 mg kg(-1) and increased from 100 to 300 mg kg(-1). In contrast, the catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the earthworms increased with the Al concentrations from 0 to 100 mg kg(-1) and decreased from 100 to 300 mg kg(-1). The highest CAT and SOD activities and lowest protein content were found at the Al concentration of 100 mg kg(-1). Results suggest that a high level of Al content in latosol was harmful to earthworms. PMID:22645004

  14. Improved troponin T ELISA specific for cardiac troponin T isoform: assay development and analytical and clinical validation.

    PubMed

    Müller-Bardorff, M; Hallermayer, K; Schröder, A; Ebert, C; Borgya, A; Gerhardt, W; Remppis, A; Zehelein, J; Katus, H A

    1997-03-01

    The first generation of troponin T ELISA (TnT 1) can yield false-positive results in patients with severe skeletal muscle injury. Therefore, a cardiac-specific second-generation troponin T ELISA (TnT 2) was developed, in which the cross-reactive antibody 1B10 has been replaced by a high-affinity cardiac-specific antibody M11.7. No cross-reactivity of TnT 2 was observed with purified skeletal muscle troponin T (1000 micrograms/L) or in test samples from 43 marathon runners and 24 patients with rhabdomyolysis and highly increased creatine kinase. TnT 2 was increased > 0.2 microgram/L in 5 of 40 patients with renal failure and in 4 of 20 muscular dystrophy patients. The detection limit is 0.012 microgram/L. Day-to-day imprecision (CV) within the range 0.19-14.89 micrograms/L was < 5.8%. In 4955 patients without myocardial damage, 99.6% had TnT < 0.10 microgram/L. Assay comparison (TnT 1 vs TnT 2) over the whole concentration range (i.e., in 323 samples from AMI-suspected patients) showed a slope, intercept, and standard error of estimate (Sey) of 1.18, 0.01 micrograms/L, and 0.81 microgram/L, respectively.

  15. Carcinogenic N-nitrosodimethylamine as a contamination in drugs containing 4-dimethylamino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one (amidopyrine, aminophenazone).

    PubMed

    Eisenbrand, G; Spiegelhalder, B; Kann, J; Klein, R; Preussmann, R

    1979-01-01

    A total of 68 commercially available drugs containing amidopyrine were investigated for contamination with the strong carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). All samples contained varying amounts of NDMA. About half of the drugs contained 1--10 micrograms/kg, 40% contained 11--50 micrograms/kg, 7% contained 51--10 micrograms/kg and one sample had 370 micrograms/kg. NDMA-contents in batches of pure amidopyrine that had been utilized for preparation of drugs were higher than those in the respective drugs: about one-third was in the range of 20--50 micrograms/kg, one-third had 51--100 micrograms/kg, and one-third was above 100 micrograms/kg. There was, however, no correlation between NDMA-contents of batches of the pure substance and NDMA-contents of the drugs prepared from these batched. NDMA concentrations in the samples were inhomogenously distributed. It could be demonstrated that amidopyrine in substance reacts extremely rapidly with nitrogen oxides from the air to form NDMA. Ascorbic acid, which prevents nitrosamine formation in aqueous-acidic solution, under these conditions had no protective effect.

  16. Factors affecting iodine concentration of milk of individual cows.

    PubMed

    Franke, A A; Bruhn, J C; Osland, R B

    1983-05-01

    Variations were measured of iodine concentrations of milk during complete lactations of 36 Holstein cows from the University of California herd in Davis and 24 Holstein and 12 Guernsey cows from the California State University herd in Fresno. At Davis no iodine was added to the concentrate, whereas at Fresno iodine as ethylene diamine dihydriodide was added to the concentrate at 4 ppm. At Davis, the mean milk iodine concentration was 166 micrograms/kg; at Fresno, the mean milk iodine concentration was 745 micrograms/kg. Holstein milk had higher iodine concentrations than Guernsey milk, 839 versus 554 micrograms/kg. Iodine concentrations of milk increased during lactation for all cows. At Davis, samples taken in the 1st mo of lactation had 105 micrograms/kg compared with 218 micrograms/kg in the 9th mo. At Fresno, samples taken in the 2nd wk of lactation had 183 micrograms/kg, compared with 1017 micrograms/kg in the 40th wk. Addition of as little as 4 ppm ethylene diamine dihydriodide to the concentrate throughout lactation will lead to greatly increased iodine concentrations in the milk, particularly in late lactation.

  17. Trace element determination in different milk slurries.

    PubMed

    García, E M; Lorenzo, M L; Cabrera, C; López, M C; Sánchez, J

    1999-11-01

    We have studied the contents of trace elements of nutritional or toxicological interest in 90 samples of whole, low-fat, skim, condensed, evaporated and powdered milks. Slurries of the samples were prepared with Triton X-100 and analysed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The temperature-time programme of the graphite oven was optimized for each element, and the accuracy, precision, selectivity and sensitivity of the method were verified. Concentrations of the trace elements we investigated were: Pb 0-0.211 microgram/g, Cd 0-28.985 ng/g, Al 0.528-4.025 micrograms/g, Cu 0.041-0.370 microgram/g, Cr 0-0.177 microgram/g, Mn 0.024-0.145 microgram/g, Se 0-23.333 ng/g, Zn 0.297-0.827 microgram/g and Ni 0.058-1.750 micrograms/g. (A value of zero indicates that the element was undetectable by our methods.) Concentrations of the pairs of elements Cu-Cd, Mn-Cd, Mn-Cu, Zn-Mn, Ni-Cu, Ni-Mn and Ni-Zn were significantly correlated (P < 0.001). Linear discriminant analysis confirmed the separation between the six types of milk analyzed.

  18. Surveillance of stored grain from the 1997 harvest in the United Kingdom for ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Scudamore, K A; Patel, S; Breeze, V

    1999-07-01

    This survey examined 306 samples of farm-stored wheat, barley and oats as received at, or tested by, central grain depots in the UK. Samples were taken from lorries or from stored grain using the existing in-house procedures used for quality checking and examined for ochratoxin A using a fully validated analytical HPLC method with a detection limit of 0.1 microgram/kg. Ochratoxin A was detected in 21% of the samples examined, with barley more frequently contaminated than wheat. Mean concentrations of ochratoxin A found for all samples were 0.69 microgram/kg in barley, 0.29 microgram/kg in wheat and 0.15 microgram/kg in oats. The highest concentration found was 17.8 micrograms/kg in a barley feed although concentrations of 81 and 30 micrograms/kg were found in 'reject-grade' wheat samples whose results were excluded from the main survey. In summary, 2.7 and 0.3% of samples exceeded concentrations of 5 and 10 micrograms/kg respectively. There appeared to be significant relationships between ochratoxin A concentrations and moisture content, storage time and geographical area. Although conditions at harvest in 1997 were quite variable countrywide and often wet, results were similar to those found in earlier surveys carried out in the UK.

  19. Effect of vitamin E on lifespan and reproduction in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Harrington, L A; Harley, C B

    1988-04-01

    Vitamin E extends the lifespan of many animals, including the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results confirm previous studies that 200 micrograms/ml vitamin E significantly prolonged C. elegans survival (17-23%, P less than 0.05) when added from hatching to day 3, while continuous exposure, either at hatching or from 4 days prior to hatching, had little additional effect. Treatment with 100 or 400 micrograms/ml vitamin E, or with other antioxidants (80 micrograms/ml vitamin C, either alone or in combination with vitamin E, or 120 micrograms/ml N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-diphenylenediamine (DPPD] did not significantly affect lifespan. All treatments with 200 micrograms/ml vitamin E moderately reduced fecundity (total progeny) and increased the mean day of reproduction. At 400 micrograms/ml, vitamin E had severe effects, while DPPD, vitamin C, and 100 micrograms/ml vitamin E had slight effects on both these parameters of reproduction. These data suggest that vitamin E increases lifespan in C. elegans in part by slowing development in the same manner that metabolic-depressant or mildly cytotoxic drugs increase lifespan, decrease fecundity, and delay the timing of reproduction.

  20. Alterations in locomotor activity induced by radioprotective doses of 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2

    SciTech Connect

    Landauer, M.R.; Walden, T.L.; Davis, H.D.; Dominitz, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    16,16-Dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (DiPGE2) is an effective radioprotectant when administered before irradiation. A notable side effect of this compound is sedation. In separate experiments, the dose-response determinations of the time course of locomotor activity and 30-day survival after 10 Gy gamma irradiation (LD100) were made. Adult male CD2F1 mice were injected subcutaneously with vehicle or DiPGE2 in doses ranging from 0.01 to 40 micrograms per mouse. A dose of 0.01 micrograms did not result in alterations in locomotor behaviour or enhance survival. Doses greater than 1 microgram produced ataxia and enhanced radiation survival in a dose-dependent fashion. Full recovery of locomotor activity did not occur until 6 and 30 hr after injection for the 10 microgram and 40 microgram groups, respectively. Radioprotection was observed when DiPGE2 was administered preirradiation but not postirradiation. Doses of 1 and 10 micrograms were maximally effective as a radioprotectant if injected 5 min prior to irradiation (80%-90% survival). A dose of 40 micrograms resulted in 100% survival when injected 5-30 min before irradiation. Therefore, increasing doses of DiPGE2 resulted in an enhanced effectiveness as a radioprotectant. However, the doses that were the most radioprotective were also the most debilitating to the animal.

  1. Evidence for potentiation by CCK antagonists of the effect of cholecystokinin octapeptide in the elevated plus-maze.

    PubMed

    Vasar, E; Lang, A; Harro, J; Bourin, M; Bradwejn, J

    1994-06-01

    Systemic treatment with cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8, 2.5-10 micrograms/kg, s.c.), a non-selective CCK agonist, decreased the exploratory activity of mice in an elevated plus-maze. At higher doses (5-10 micrograms/kg) CCK-8 reduced the frequency of rearing, but only 10 micrograms/kg of CCK-8 significantly inhibited the number of line crossings in the open-field test. A preferential CCKB antagonist L-365,260 (1 and 100 micrograms/kg, i.p.) and a non-selective CCK antagonist proglumide (0.1-1 microgram/kg, i.p.) potentiated the anti-exploratory effect of CCK-8 (2.5 micrograms/kg). Devazepide, a preferential CCKA antagonist, only at a high dose (100 micrograms/kg) tended to increase the action of CCK-8 in the plus-maze. However, the concomitant treatment of CCK-8 with L-365,260 and proglumide, differently from devazepide, also suppressed the locomotor activity in the open-field test. Therefore, it is likely that the potentiation by CCK antagonists of the anti-exploratory effect of CCK-8 is related to the suppression of motor activity. This peculiar interaction between CCK-8 and CCK antagonists could be explained in the light of the opposite role of CCKA and CCKB receptors in the regulation of motor activity in mice.

  2. Lead contamination during domestic preparation and cooking of potatoes and leaching of bone-derived lead on roasting, marinading and boiling beef.

    PubMed

    Baxter, M J; Burrell, J A; Crews, H M; Smith, A; Massey, R C

    1992-01-01

    Lead concentrations were measured in boiled, mashed potatoes and in baked potatoes that had been prepared and cooked in domestic kitchens. Levels of lead in the boiled, mashed potatoes ranged from below the 1 microgram/kg limit of detection up to 18 micrograms/kg with a mean of 6 micrograms/kg (wet weight). In the large majority of cases the lead in the tap water was the predominant source of the metal. Higher amounts of lead (range 11 micrograms/kg to 56 micrograms/kg, mean 27 micrograms/kg) were present in baked potatoes and this was attributed to soil adhering to the potato skin. The extent of leaching of lead from bone during cooking has also been investigated. For beef stocks there was little evidence to suggest that significant migration of bone lead occurred. For beef casseroles, marinaded in red wine, some leaching did occur from beef joints containing elevated amounts of bone lead; however the levels were all below 350 micrograms/kg and, on average, less than double that found in casseroles prepared from normal joints where the bone lead levels were an order of magnitude less.

  3. Water-quality data for the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system, Trenton to Pennsville, New Jersey, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fusillo, Thomas V.; Voronin, Lois M.

    1981-01-01

    Samples for chemical analysis were collected from June to December 1980 from 262 wells tapping the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system. The samples were analyzed for common ions, dissolved metals, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, volatile organic compounds, pH, temperature, and specific conductance. This report contains the results of the analyses, well construction data for the wells sampled, and simple statistical summaries for each parameter. Most parameters showed wide variations in concentration. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon ranged from 0 to 108 mg/L (milligrams per liter), with a median of 1.7 mg/L. Chloride concentration ranged from 0.8 to 810 mg/L, with a median of 15 mg/L. Iron concentration ranged from 3 micrograms per liter to 79,000 micrograms per liter, with a median of 1,400 micrograms per liter. Detectable concentrations of volatile organic compounds were found in 46 wells, approximately 19 percent of the 246 wells sampled for such compounds. Trichloroethylene and benzene, the most common compounds, were detected in 24 and 18 wells, respectively. The maximum concentrations of several compounds detected include: benzene, 1,960 micrograms per liter; 1,1-dichloroethylene, 670 micrograms per liter; trichloroethylene, 472 micrograms per liter; and tetrachloroethylene, 335 micrograms per liter. (USGS)

  4. Ground-water-quality data for Picatinny arsenal, New Jersey, 1958-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargent, B.P.; Green, J.W.; Harte, P.T.; Vowinkel, E.F.

    1986-01-01

    The water resources of Picatinny Arsenal in northern New Jersey are described using the results of 1,129 analyses of groundwater , including 522 determinations of inorganic constituents and 607 determinations of organic constituents. Water samples were collected from 56 wells on the site from 1958 through 1985. Of these wells, 50 are screened in stratified drift aquifers and 6 are in bedrock. Samples were collected and analyzed by a total of four agencies: one State, one Federal, and two private. Of the 1,129 samples, 51 were collected and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The data on inorganic constituents exhibit much variability. Specific conductance ranges from 40 to 2,150 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees C, pH ranges from 2.9 units to 10 units, and dissolved solids ranges from 51 to 1,210 milligrams per liter. Trace elements that display wide variations in concentration ranges are iron (<2 to 540,000 micrograms/L), manganese (<1 to 55,000 micrograms/L), and zinc (<3 to 1,900 micrograms/L). The organic compounds with the widest variations in concentration are: 1 ,2-transdichloroethylene (<1 to 542 micrograms/L), tetrachloroethylene (<1 to 386 micrograms/L), 1,1 ,1-trichloroethane (<1 to 1,780 micrograms/L), and trichloroethylene (<1 to 25,000 micrograms/L). (USGS)

  5. Synthesis of type I collagen in healing wounds in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Haukipuro, K; Melkko, J; Risteli, L; Kairaluoma, M; Risteli, J

    1991-01-01

    To quantify wound healing in surgical patients, samples of wound fluid were collected through a silicone rubber tube for 7 postoperative days and their concentrations of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP) and the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) were measured with specific radioimmunoassays. The mean concentration of PICP in would fluid on day 1 was 207 +/- 92 (SD) micrograms/L, and on day 2 908 +/- 469 micrograms/L (p less than 0.001, signed rank test). On day 7, the mean concentration reached was 380 times higher than that of day 1 (79,330 +/- 54,151 micrograms/L). Only one peak of PICP antigenicity, corresponding to the intact propeptide as set free during synthesis of type I procollagen, was detected on Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration analysis of wound fluid samples. The mean concentration of PIIINP was 70 +/- 61 micrograms/L on day 1, 86 +/- 88 micrograms/L on day 2, and 180 +/- 129 micrograms/L on day 3 (p less than 0.001 when compared with day 1). Finally on day 7, a 250-fold concentration (17,812 +/- 9839 micrograms/L), compared with day 1, was reached. Methods described in the present paper allow separate and repetitive quantification of the synthesis of both type I and type III procollagen during human wound healing. PMID:1985542

  6. Rapid determination of serum myoglobin with a routine chemistry analyzer.

    PubMed

    Bakker, A J; Boymans, D A; Dijkstra, D; Gorgels, J P; Lerk, R

    1993-04-01

    A turbidimetric immunoassay system (Turbitime system, Behringwerke AG) allows rapid determination of myoglobin in serum. We adapted the reagents for this myoglobin assay (Turbiquant myoglobin) for use with a Hitachi 717 analyzer. No high-dose hook effect was observed up to 15,000 micrograms/L. Interassay CVs were 4.6% (mean = 72.0 micrograms/L; n = 9) and 2.5% (mean = 365.6 micrograms/L; n = 11). The calibration curve was stable for at least 1 month. Hemolysis did not interfere, and turbidity from lipemia interfered only when absorbance exceeded 2.0 A. Results of this method (y) correlated well with those by the Turbitime method (y = 1.256x - 44.1 micrograms/L; n = 91; r = 0.991) and by a commercially available radioimmunoassay (Byk-Sangtec; y = 0.739x - 42.2 micrograms/L; n = 94; r = 0.991). The upper limit (95th percentile) of the reference interval for myoglobin was estimated at 57.9 micrograms/L. The positive predictive value for results of myoglobin at admission was 89% with this upper reference limit and 99% with 100 micrograms/L, whereas the negative predictive value was about 60% for both limits.

  7. Aluminum in precipitation, streams, and shallow groundwater in the New Jersey Pine Barrens

    SciTech Connect

    Budd, W.W.; Johnson, A.H.; Huss, J.B.; Turner, R.S.

    1981-08-01

    Aluminum appears in waters of the New Jersey Pine Barrens at concentrations of 0-200 micrograms per liter (volume weighted average, 105 micrograms per liter) in precipitation; 100-800 micrograms per liter (volume weighted average, 345 micrograms per liter) in streams; and 0-3000 micrograms per liter (volume weighted average, 468 micrograms per liter, and excluding one very acid well, 329 micrograms per liter) in groundwater. These levels are 10 times greater than in most terrestrial waters, except for the acidified waters of New England and New York. The pH of precipitation in this study averaged 4.0; of groundwater, 4.6; and of streams, 4.1. The total (acid reactive) aluminum deposited in the McDonald's Branch basin was 140 mg per sq meter per year over the study period, May 1978 to May 1980. Stream and groundwater outputs were 149 and 110 mg per sq meters per year, respectively. Increased precipitation, streamflow, and decomposing organic matter caused higher Al inputs and outputs in summer. In streams Al may be transported as an organometallic complex with dissolved organic matter, humic and fulvic acids. Groundwater Al concentrations depend on Gibbsite solubility in mineral soils and are pH dependent. 12 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  8. [Filamentous fungi and mycotoxins as potential occupational risk factors among farmers harvesting various crops].

    PubMed

    Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Perkowski, Juliusz; Kostecki, Marian; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Kiecana, Irena

    2003-01-01

    The studies to determine the level of filamentous fungi and mycotoxins were carried out in samples of grain and grain dust during threshing of cereals by a combine harvester. High concentration of fungi was noted in grain and grain dust samples, it ranged from 5.0 to 520.0 cfu/g.10(3) and from 275.0 to 2825.0 cfu/g.10(3), respectively Allergizing and toxigenic fungi of Alternaria, Geotrichum, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Fusarium species were observed in the study samples of grain and grain dust. In the samples of wheat grain, mycotoxins were also noted: moniliformin (MON), deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA); their concentrations ranged from 0.025 to 0.088 microgram/g; 0.015-0.068 microgram/g; and from 0.0004 to 0.0008 microgram/g, respectively. The level of mycotoxins in the grain dust samples was within the range of 0.025-0.149 microgram/g-MON; 0.015-0.215 microgram/g-DON; 0.015-0.360 microgram/g-NIV; and 0.0004-0.0012 microgram/g-OTA. A significant correlation was observed bet