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Sample records for 1-30 micrograms kg-1

  1. Single doses of ivermectin 400 micrograms/kg-1: the most effective dosage in bancroftian filariasis.

    PubMed

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, L N; Cartel, J L

    1995-03-01

    Forty-three Wuchereria bancrofti carriers were given four successive semi-annual single doses of ivermectin 100 micrograms.kg-1 (IVER 100). The geometric mean microfilaremia (mf) recurrence percentage as compared to the pre-initial treatment mf level was 35%, 21%, 17% and 17% at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, respectively. However, the recurrence of mf 6 months after the fourth treatment remained high in several individuals: 15 have been considered as 'bad responders' and 28 as 'good responders' individuals. At month 24 (M 24), they were randomly allocated into 2 groups. A first group was treated with a fifty and a sixth dose of IVER 100, at M24 and M30, respectively; the second one was treated, at the same time, with single doses of IVER 400 micrograms.kg-1 (IVER 400). At M 36, the mf recurrence percentage (mf M36/mf M0) was significantly higher in patients treated with IVER 100 than IVER 400 (11% vs 1%, p < 10(-4). From the group IVER 100, 6 out of the 8 'bad responders' remained 'bad responders' whereas there were none of the 7 in the group IVER 400. Moreover, there were only 2 more patients in the group IVER 100 showing sustained complete zero mf, whereas they were 13 in the group IVER 400. Single doses of IVER 400 were effective on 'bad responders'; IVER 400 must be recommended for semi-annual mass treatment in bancroftian filariasis. PMID:8525398

  2. Long-term efficacy of single-dose treatment with 400 micrograms.kg-1 of ivermectin in bancroftian filariasis: results at one year.

    PubMed

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, L N; Chanteau, S; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1993-12-01

    In April 1992, a safety trial was performed with a single dose of ivermectin 400 micrograms.kg-1 (IVER 400). In 37 bancroftian filariasis carriers, 6 and 12 months after IVER 400 treatment, the microfilaremia recurrences were 3.2% and 13.5%, respectively. As compared to results from other studies with diethylcarbamazine and IVER at different dosages and periodicities, the dosage of IVER 400 seems the most effective; but a yearly intake might not be sufficient. PMID:8134778

  3. Estradiol: micrograms or milligrams

    PubMed Central

    Wickramasuriya, Nalin; Shaw, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    Summary Estrogen is used to induce puberty in peripubertal girls with hypogonadism. Although both synthetic and natural forms are available, along with different routes of administration, in the UK oral ethinyl estradiol and the low-dose oral contraceptive pill are commonly used as hormone replacement therapy for practical reasons. We present five peripubertal girls (aged 12.5–14.9 years) with hypogonadism (two with primary hypogonadism due to Turner syndrome and three with central (secondary) hypogonadism as part of multiple pituitary hormone deficiency) who for a variety of reasons have received milligram doses of estradiol (E2) in error for between 6 weeks and 6 months, instead of the expected microgram doses of ethinyl estradiol. Although there are no direct comparisons in peripubertal girls between synthetic and natural estrogens, all girls had vaginal bleeding whilst receiving the milligram doses and have ended up with reduced final heights, below the 9th centile in 1 and below the 2nd centile in 4. Whilst reduction in final height may be part of the underlying condition (especially in Turner syndrome) the two girls with height predictions performed prior to receiving the estrogen overdose have not achieved their predicted height. Estrogen is one of the few drugs which is available in both milligram and microgram formulations. Clinicians need to be alert to the possibility of patients receiving the wrong formulation and dosage in error. Learning points Girls with primary and secondary gonadal failure require assistance with pubertal induction. Although several different formulations and route of administration are available, for practical reasons, the majority of girls in the UK receive oral ethinyl estradiol. Estrogen preparations are available in both milligram and microgram formulations, with potential for receiving the wrong dose. Girls receiving milligram rather than microgram preparations all had vaginal bleeding and a short final height. PMID

  4. Plasma concentrations after high-dose (45 mg.kg-1) rectal acetaminophen in children.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, C J; McCormack, J P; Reichert, C C; Marsland, C P

    1995-11-01

    Although the recommended dose of rectal acetaminophen (25-30 mg.kg-1) is twice that for oral administration (10-15 mg.kg-1), the literature justifies the use of a higher dose when acetaminophen is administered via the rectal route. We measured venous plasma acetaminophen concentrations resulting from 45 mg.kg-1 of rectal acetaminophen in ten ASA 1, 15 kg paediatric patients undergoing minor surgery with a standardized anaesthetic. After induction of anaesthesia, a single 650 mg suppository (Abenol, SmithKline Beecham Pharma Inc.) was administered rectally. Plasma was sampled at t = 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 min in the first five patients and at t = 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300, 420 min in the subsequent five. Acetaminophen plasma concentrations were determined using a TDxFLx fluorescence polarization immunoassay (Abbott Laboratories, Toronto, Ontario). The maximum plasma concentration was 88 +/- 39 mumol.L-1 (13 +/- 6 micrograms.ml-1) and the time of peak plasma concentration was 198 +/- 70 min (mean +/- SD). At 420 min, the mean plasma concentration was 46 +/- 18 mumol.L-1 (7.0 +/- 0.9 micrograms.ml-1). No plasma concentrations associated with toxicity (> 800 mumol.L-1) were identified. A 45 mg.kg-1 rectal dose of acetaminophen resulted in peak plasma concentrations comparable with those resulting from 10-15 mg.kg-1 of oral acetaminophen at three hours after suppository insertion. It is concluded that the delayed and erratic absorption of acetaminophen after rectal administration leads to unpredictable plasma concentrations. Rectal acetaminophen will not be consistently effective for providing rapid onset of analgesia in children. PMID:8590508

  5. Bacterial treatment of alkaline cement kiln dust using Bacillus halodurans strain KG1.

    PubMed

    Kunal; Rajor, Anita; Siddique, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate an acid-producing, alkaliphilic bacterium to reduce the alkalinity of cement industry waste (cement kiln dust). Gram-positive isolate KG1 grew well at pH values of 6-12, temperatures of 28-50°C, and NaCl concentrations of 0-16% and thus was further screened for its potential to reduce the pH of an alkaline medium. Phenotypic characteristics of the KG1 isolate were consistent with those of the genus Bacillus, and the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497 (94.7%). On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness from other phylogenetic neighbors belonging to alkaliphilic Bacillus species, the isolated strain was designated B. halodurans strain KG1, with GenBank accession number JQ307184 (= NCIM 5439). Isolate KG1 reduced the alkalinity (by 83.64%) and the chloride content (by 86.96%) of cement kiln dust and showed a potential to be used in the cement industry for a variety of applications. PMID:26887220

  6. Bacterial treatment of alkaline cement kiln dust using Bacillus halodurans strain KG1

    PubMed Central

    Kunal; Rajor, Anita; Siddique, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate an acid-producing, alkaliphilic bacterium to reduce the alkalinity of cement industry waste (cement kiln dust). Gram-positive isolate KG1 grew well at pH values of 6–12, temperatures of 28–50 °C, and NaCl concentrations of 0–16% and thus was further screened for its potential to reduce the pH of an alkaline medium. Phenotypic characteristics of the KG1 isolate were consistent with those of the genus Bacillus, and the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497 (94.7%). On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness from other phylogenetic neighbors belonging to alkaliphilic Bacillus species, the isolated strain was designated B. halodurans strain KG1, with GenBank accession number JQ307184 (= NCIM 5439). Isolate KG1 reduced the alkalinity (by 83.64%) and the chloride content (by 86.96%) of cement kiln dust and showed a potential to be used in the cement industry for a variety of applications. PMID:26887220

  7. Augmented sensitivity to methotrexate by curcumin induced overexpression of folate receptor in KG-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, Sugapriya; Biswal, Bijesh K; Sumantran, Venil N; Verma, Rama S

    2013-08-01

    Folate receptors are targets of various strategies aimed at efficient delivery of anti-cancer drugs. Folate receptors also play a role in the uptake of antifolate drugs which are used for therapeutic intervention in leukemia. Therefore, it is important to identify compounds which regulate expression of folate receptors in leukemic cells. The present study examined if curcumin could modulate the uptake and cytotoxicity of the antifolate drug methotrexate, in KG-1 leukemic cells. This is the first report to show that curcumin (10-50 μM) causes a significant, dose-dependent, 2-3 fold increase in uptake of radiolabelled folic acid and methotrexate into KG-1 cells both at 24 h and 48 h of treatment. Interestingly, pre-treatment of KG-1 leukemic cells with curcumin (10 μM and 25 μM) also caused a statistically significant enhancement in the cytotoxicity of methotrexate. We performed Real Time Quantitative RT-PCR to confirm the upregulation of FRβ mRNA in curcumin treated cells. Immunocytochemistry and Western blotting showed that curcumin caused increased expression of folate receptor βin KG-1 cells. Our data show that the mechanism of curcumin action involves up-regulation of folate receptor β mRNA and protein in KG-1 cells. Therefore, combination of non-toxic concentrations of curcumin and methotrexate, may be a viable strategy for therapeutic intervention for leukemias using a folate receptor-targeted drug delivery system. PMID:23624207

  8. Determination of microgram quantities of inorganic sulfate in atmospheric particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfson, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    This method makes it possible for a minimally equipped analytical laboratory to measure the microgram quantities of water soluble inorganic sulfate in respirable-sized ambient air particulates. It is particularly appropriate for indoor and personal dosimeter samples which often contain cigarette smoke.

  9. Calcium kinetics with microgram stable isotope doses and saliva sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Wastney, M. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C. Y.; Wiesmann, H.; Nillen, J. L.; Lane, H. W.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of calcium kinetics require administration of tracer doses of calcium and subsequent repeated sampling of biological fluids. This study was designed to develop techniques that would allow estimation of calcium kinetics by using small (micrograms) doses of isotopes instead of the more common large (mg) doses to minimize tracer perturbation of the system and reduce cost, and to explore the use of saliva sampling as an alternative to blood sampling. Subjects received an oral dose (133 micrograms) of 43Ca and an i.v. dose (7.7 micrograms) of 46Ca. Isotopic enrichment in blood, urine, saliva and feces was well above thermal ionization mass spectrometry measurement precision up to 170 h after dosing. Fractional calcium absorptions determined from isotopic ratios in blood, urine and saliva were similar. Compartmental modeling revealed that kinetic parameters determined from serum or saliva data were similar, decreasing the necessity for blood samples. It is concluded from these results that calcium kinetics can be assessed with micrograms doses of stable isotopes, thereby reducing tracer costs and with saliva samples, thereby reducing the amount of blood needed.

  10. Antiproliferative effect of H2O2 against human acute myelogenous leukemia KG1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Oraki Kohshour, Mojtaba; Najafi, Leila; Heidari, Maryam; Ghaffari Sharaf, Mehdi

    2013-06-01

    It has clearly been established that oxidative stress leads to perturbation of various cellular processes resulting in either inhibition of cell proliferation or cell death. In addition, there is a growing body of evidence indicating that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are required as signal molecules that regulate different physiological processes including survival or death. Free radicals, particularly ROS, have been proposed as general mediators for apoptosis and recent studies have established that the mode of cell death depends on the severity of the oxidative damage. In this study, we determined the effect of oxidative stress on cell proliferation and characterization of cell death in human KG1 cells treated with H2O2. Our results indicated that oxidative stress leads to a significant decrease in cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Moreover, our study suggests that antiproliferative and apoptotic cell death effects of H2O2 took place via activation of caspase-3, affecting the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax (an antiapoptotic and a proapoptotic factor, respectively), and through deactivation of catalase enzyme, leading to accumulation of intracellular ROS and depletion of intracellular ATP level. PMID:23787282

  11. Radiocarbon dating organic residues at the microgram level

    SciTech Connect

    Kirner, D.L.; Burky, R.; Taylor, R.E.; Southon, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Relation between submilligram sample size and {sup 14}C activity for sample blanks (wood from Pliocene sediments) and a contemporary standard (oxalic acid) for catalytically reduced graphitic carbon was examined down to 20 micrograms. Mean age of the 1 mg wood sample blanks is now about 51.3 ka (0.168 pMC) while the mean for 20 microgram sample blanks is about 42.9 ka. So far, the lowest value for a 1-mg wood sample blank is about 60.5 ka (0.056 pMC). We have determined a mean {sup 14}C age of about 9.4 ka from a suite of 7 organic extracts from hair, bone, and matting from a mummified human skeleton from Spirit Cave, Nevada. These data indicate that the Spirit Cave human is the third, oldest directly-dated, human skeleton currently known from North America.

  12. Simple microcalorimeter for measuring microgram samples at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doettinger-Zech, S. G.; Uhl, M.; Sisson, D. L.; Kapitulnik, A.

    2001-05-01

    An innovative microcalorimeter has been developed for measuring specific heat of very small microgram samples in the temperature range from 1.5 to 50 K and in magnetic fields up to 11 T. The device is built from a commercial sapphire temperature chip (Cernox), which is modified by means of standard microfabrication techniques and which is used as a sample holder, temperature sensor, and sample heater. Compared to existing microcalorimeters the simple design of our instrument allows a fabrication of the device in a few process steps by using facilities present in a standard laboratory clean room. As an illustrative example for the performance of our device, the specific heat of an underdoped (La1-xSrx)2CuO4 and CaRuO3 single crystal has been measured by means of the relaxation time method as well as the ac method.

  13. 40 CFR 86.112-91 - Weighing chamber (or room) and microgram balance specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... microgram balance specifications. 86.112-91 Section 86.112-91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... chamber (or room) and microgram balance specifications. (a) Ambient conditions—(1) Temperature. The... filters shall be the same size and material as the sample filters. (b) Microgram balance...

  14. 40 CFR 86.112-91 - Weighing chamber (or room) and microgram balance specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... microgram balance specifications. 86.112-91 Section 86.112-91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... chamber (or room) and microgram balance specifications. (a) Ambient conditions—(1) Temperature. The... filters shall be the same size and material as the sample filters. (b) Microgram balance...

  15. 40 CFR 86.112-91 - Weighing chamber (or room) and microgram balance specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... microgram balance specifications. 86.112-91 Section 86.112-91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... chamber (or room) and microgram balance specifications. (a) Ambient conditions—(1) Temperature. The... filters shall be the same size and material as the sample filters. (b) Microgram balance...

  16. 40 CFR 86.112-91 - Weighing chamber (or room) and microgram balance specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... microgram balance specifications. 86.112-91 Section 86.112-91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... chamber (or room) and microgram balance specifications. (a) Ambient conditions—(1) Temperature. The... filters shall be the same size and material as the sample filters. (b) Microgram balance...

  17. 40 CFR 86.112-91 - Weighing chamber (or room) and microgram balance specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... microgram balance specifications. 86.112-91 Section 86.112-91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... chamber (or room) and microgram balance specifications. (a) Ambient conditions—(1) Temperature. The... filters shall be the same size and material as the sample filters. (b) Microgram balance...

  18. Advantages of ivermectin at a single dose of 400 micrograms/kg compared with 100 micrograms/kg for community treatment of lymphatic filariasis in Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, N L; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-01-01

    In April and October in 1991-1993, 5 supervised single doses of ivermectin were given to inhabitants aged > or = 3 years in a Polynesian district: the first 3 treatments were with 100 micrograms/kg and the 2 latter with 400 micrograms/kg. At each treatment, about 97% of the eligible population (899) were treated and blood samples were collected just before treatment from 96% of the 613 inhabitants aged > or = 15 years. Following the 5 successive treatments, adverse reactions were observed in, respectively, 23.8, 13, 6.2, 13.6 and 7.9% of the microfilariae (mf) carriers, and in less than 1% of amicrofilaraemic subjects. Neither the frequency nor the intensity of adverse reactions was significantly different between single doses of 100 micrograms/kg and 400 micrograms/kg. Although the geometric mean microfilaraemia (GMM) was reduced, the mf carrier prevalence remained unchanged before and after 3 mass treatments with 100 micrograms/kg (21.4 and 20.7% respectively), and the mf recurrence rate 6 months after each dose of 100 micrograms/kg was roughly stable (respectively, 34.3%, 21.6% and 31.2% of the initial GMM). In contrast, after one dose round of 400 micrograms/kg, the mf carrier prevalence decreased significantly to 14.9% (P < 10(-6)), and the mf recurrence rate dropped to 9.9% (P < 10(-3)) of the initial GMM. These results confirm the safety and the effectiveness of 400 micrograms/kg of ivermectin for lymphatic filariasis control. PMID:7570845

  19. 40 CFR 86.1312-88 - Weighing chamber and microgram balance specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weighing chamber and microgram balance... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1312-88 Weighing chamber and microgram balance specifications. (a) Ambient... reference filters shall be the same size and material as the sample filters. (b) Weighing...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1312-88 - Weighing chamber and microgram balance specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weighing chamber and microgram balance... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1312-88 Weighing chamber and microgram balance specifications. (a) Ambient... reference filters shall be the same size and material as the sample filters. (b) Weighing...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1312-88 - Weighing chamber and microgram balance specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weighing chamber and microgram balance... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1312-88 Weighing chamber and microgram balance specifications. (a) Ambient... reference filters shall be the same size and material as the sample filters. (b) Weighing...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1312-88 - Weighing chamber and microgram balance specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weighing chamber and microgram balance... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1312-88 Weighing chamber and microgram balance specifications. (a) Ambient... reference filters shall be the same size and material as the sample filters. (b) Weighing...

  3. Control of bancroftian filariasis in an endemic area of Polynesia by ivermectin 400 micrograms/kg.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, N L; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Cartel, J L

    1996-01-01

    Community treatment with ivermectin was implemented in Opoa, French Polynesia from April 1991 to October 1993. All consenting inhabitants aged 3 years or more were treated with twice-yearly single doses of ivermectin, pregnant women excepted. A dosage of 100 microgram/kg was used for the 3 first treatments and then abandoned because it did not reduce the prevalence of microfilariae (mf) carriers. With a dosage of 400 micrograms/kg dosage, this prevalence decreased dramatically from 21% to 7%, and the mf level in carriers dropped to only 0.5% of its initial value after 3 treatments. The 400 micrograms/kg dosage was well tolerated and compliance was excellent. The twice-yearly single dose strategy with ivermectin at 400 micrograms/kg is safe and highly effective for filariasis control in an endemic area. PMID:9015520

  4. Mass by Energy Loss Quantitation as a Practical Sub-Microgram Balance

    SciTech Connect

    Palmblad, M; Bench, G; Vogel, J S

    2004-09-28

    A simple device integrating a thin film support and a standard microcentrifuge tube can be used for making solutions of accurately known concentration of any organic compound in a single step, avoiding serial dilution and the use of microgram balances. Nanogram to microgram quantities of organic material deposited on the thin film are quantified by ion energy loss and transferred to the microcentrifuge tube with high recovery.

  5. Curcumin Enhanced Busulfan-Induced Apoptosis through Downregulating the Expression of Survivin in Leukemia Stem-Like KG1a Cells.

    PubMed

    Weng, Guangyang; Zeng, Yingjian; Huang, Jingya; Fan, Jiaxin; Guo, Kunyuan

    2015-01-01

    Leukemia relapse and nonrecurrence mortality (NRM) due to leukemia stem cells (LSCs) represent major problems following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To eliminate LSCs, the sensitivity of LSCs to chemotherapeutic agents used in conditioning regimens should be enhanced. Curcumin (CUR) has received considerable attention as a result of its anticancer activity in leukemia and solid tumors. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects and underlying mechanisms in leukemia stem-like KG1a cells exposed to busulfan (BUS) and CUR, either alone or in combination. KG1a cells exhibiting BUS-resistance demonstrated by MTT and annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) assays, compared with HL-60 cells. CUR induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in KG1a cells. Apoptosis of KG1a cells was significantly enhanced by treatment with CUR+BUS, compared with either agent alone. CUR synergistically enhanced the cytotoxic effect of BUS. Seven apoptosis-related proteins were modulated in CUR- and CUR+BUS-treated cells analyzed by proteins array analysis. Importantly, the antiapoptosis protein survivin was significantly downregulated, especially in combination group. Suppression of survivin with specific inhibitor YM155 significantly increased the susceptibility of KG1a cells to BUS. These results demonstrated that CUR could increase the sensitivity of leukemia stem-like KG1a cells to BUS by downregulating the expression of survivin. PMID:26557682

  6. Curcumin Enhanced Busulfan-Induced Apoptosis through Downregulating the Expression of Survivin in Leukemia Stem-Like KG1a Cells

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Guangyang; Zeng, Yingjian; Huang, Jingya; Fan, Jiaxin; Guo, Kunyuan

    2015-01-01

    Leukemia relapse and nonrecurrence mortality (NRM) due to leukemia stem cells (LSCs) represent major problems following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To eliminate LSCs, the sensitivity of LSCs to chemotherapeutic agents used in conditioning regimens should be enhanced. Curcumin (CUR) has received considerable attention as a result of its anticancer activity in leukemia and solid tumors. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects and underlying mechanisms in leukemia stem-like KG1a cells exposed to busulfan (BUS) and CUR, either alone or in combination. KG1a cells exhibiting BUS-resistance demonstrated by MTT and annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) assays, compared with HL-60 cells. CUR induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in KG1a cells. Apoptosis of KG1a cells was significantly enhanced by treatment with CUR+BUS, compared with either agent alone. CUR synergistically enhanced the cytotoxic effect of BUS. Seven apoptosis-related proteins were modulated in CUR- and CUR+BUS-treated cells analyzed by proteins array analysis. Importantly, the antiapoptosis protein survivin was significantly downregulated, especially in combination group. Suppression of survivin with specific inhibitor YM155 significantly increased the susceptibility of KG1a cells to BUS. These results demonstrated that CUR could increase the sensitivity of leukemia stem-like KG1a cells to BUS by downregulating the expression of survivin. PMID:26557682

  7. Salinomycin overcomes ABC transporter-mediated multidrug and apoptosis resistance in human leukemia stem cell-like KG-1a cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Dominik; Daniel, Volker; Sadeghi, Mahmoud; Opelz, Gerhard; Naujokat, Cord

    2010-04-16

    Leukemia stem cells are known to exhibit multidrug resistance by expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters which constitute transmembrane proteins capable of exporting a wide variety of chemotherapeutic drugs from the cytosol. We show here that human promyeloblastic leukemia KG-1a cells exposed to the histone deacetylase inhibitor phenylbutyrate resemble many characteristics of leukemia stem cells, including expression of functional ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein, BCRP and MRP8. Consequently, KG-1a cells display resistance to the induction of apoptosis by various chemotherapeutic drugs. Resistance to apoptosis induction by chemotherapeutic drugs can be reversed by cyclosporine A, which effectively inhibits the activity of P-glycoprotein and BCRP, thus demonstrating ABC transporter-mediated drug resistance in KG-1a cells. However, KG-1a are highly sensitive to apoptosis induction by salinomycin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic that has recently been shown to kill human breast cancer stem cell-like cells and to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells displaying multiple mechanisms of drug and apoptosis resistance. Whereas KG-1a cells can be adapted to proliferate in the presence of apoptosis-inducing concentrations of bortezomib and doxorubicin, salinomycin does not permit long-term adaptation of the cells to apoptosis-inducing concentrations. Thus, salinomycin should be regarded as a novel and effective agent for the elimination of leukemia stem cells and other tumor cells exhibiting ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance.

  8. 76 FR 19997 - Determination That FENTORA (Fentanyl Citrate) Buccal Tablet, 300 Micrograms, Was Not Withdrawn...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ..., 300 Micrograms, Was Not Withdrawn From Sale for Reasons of Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY: Food and... for reasons of safety or effectiveness. This determination will allow FDA to approve abbreviated new.... The 1984 amendments include what is now section 505(j)(7) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...

  9. Ivermectin 400 micrograms/kg: long-term suppression of microfilariae in Bancroftian filariasis.

    PubMed

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, L N; Chanteau, S; Plichart, R; Beylier, I; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-01-01

    Forty-three Wuchereria bancrofti carriers were given 4 successive semi-annual single doses of ivermectin 100 micrograms/kg (IVER 100). The geometric mean microfilaremia (mf) recurrence percentages, compared to the pre-initial treatment mf level, were 35%, 21%, 17% and 17% at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months respectively. However, the recurrence of mf 6 months after the fourth treatment remained high in 15 individuals, considered as 'bad responders'. At month 24, the subjects were randomly allocated into 2 groups: the first group was treated with a fifth dose of IVER 100 and the second with a first, single dose of 400 micrograms/kg of ivermectin (IVER 400). At month 30, the mf recurrence percentage was significantly higher in patients treated with IVER 100 than in those receiving IVER 400 (61% vs. 8%, P < 0.05). In the IVER 100 group, 6 of the 8 'bad responders' remained 'bad responders', whereas only 2 of 7 did so in the IVER 400 group. Only 3 additional patients in the IVER 100 group became consistently amicrofilaraemic, whereas 9 did so in the IVER 400 group. Two 'good responders' in the IVER 100 group became 'bad responders'. A single dose of 400 micrograms/kg of ivermectin has been demonstrated to be efficient for the treatment of carriers refractory to repeated doses of 100 micrograms/kg and to result in better long-term mf suppression. These results suggest a possible effect of 400 micrograms/kg of ivermectin on macrofilaria. PMID:8153984

  10. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of microgram quantities of copper in tea after solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Aziz-Alrahman, A M

    1985-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectrophotometric method is described for determining trace amounts of copper in tea. The method is based on the solvent extraction of the metal as tetraiodocuprate (I), from 2 M HCl solutions of tea samples which contain 12% (w/v) KI, into methylisobutyl ketone. The organic extracts, containing the ion-association complex of copper are atomized into an air-acetylene flame. The limit of detection is 1.14 micrograms g-1 Cu. PMID:4077371

  11. 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 inhibits the proliferation and induces the apoptosis of KG-1a cells through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Liu, Ze-Hong; Xia, Jing; Li, Xiao-Peng; Li, Ke-Qiong; Xiong, Wei; Li, Jing; Chen, Di-Long

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has shown that total saponins of Panax ginseng (TSPG) and other ginsenoside monomers inhibit the proliferation of leukemia cells. However, the effect has not been compared among them. Cell viability was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, and ultra-structural characteristics were observed under transmission electron microscopy. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry (FCM). Real-time fluorescence quantitative‑PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to measure the expression of β-catenin, TCF4, cyclin D1 and NF-κBp65. β-catenin/TCF4 target gene transcription were observed by ChIP-PCR assay. We found that 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 [(S)Rh2] inhibited the proliferation of KG-1a cells more efficiently than the other monomers. Moreover, (S)Rh2 arrested KG-1a cells in the G0/G1 phase and induced apoptosis. In addition, the levels of β-catenin, TCF4, cyclin D1 mRNA and protein were decreased. The ChIP-PCR showed that (S)Rh2 downregulated the transcription of β-catenin/TCF4 target genes, such as cyclin D1 and c-myc. These results indicated that (S)Rh2 induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, demonstrating its potential as a chemotherapeutic agent for leukemia therapy. PMID:27121661

  12. Proteomic Challenges: Sample Preparation Techniques for Microgram-Quantity Protein Analysis from Biological Samples

    PubMed Central

    Feist, Peter; Hummon, Amanda B.

    2015-01-01

    Proteins regulate many cellular functions and analyzing the presence and abundance of proteins in biological samples are central focuses in proteomics. The discovery and validation of biomarkers, pathways, and drug targets for various diseases can be accomplished using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. However, with mass-limited samples like tumor biopsies, it can be challenging to obtain sufficient amounts of proteins to generate high-quality mass spectrometric data. Techniques developed for macroscale quantities recover sufficient amounts of protein from milligram quantities of starting material, but sample losses become crippling with these techniques when only microgram amounts of material are available. To combat this challenge, proteomicists have developed micro-scale techniques that are compatible with decreased sample size (100 μg or lower) and still enable excellent proteome coverage. Extraction, contaminant removal, protein quantitation, and sample handling techniques for the microgram protein range are reviewed here, with an emphasis on liquid chromatography and bottom-up mass spectrometry-compatible techniques. Also, a range of biological specimens, including mammalian tissues and model cell culture systems, are discussed. PMID:25664860

  13. Amino acid analysis in micrograms of meteorite sample by nanoliquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Michael P; Martin, Mildred G; Burton, Aaron S; Glavin, Daniel P; Dworkin, Jason P

    2014-03-01

    Amino acids and their enantiomers in a 360 microgram sample of Murchison meteorite were unambiguously identified and quantified using chemical derivatization and nanoliquid chromatography coupled to nanoelectrospray ionization high resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry techniques. The distribution and abundance of amino acids were similar to past studies of Murchison meteorite but the samples used here were three orders of magnitude lower. The analytical method was also highly sensitive, and some amino acid reference standards were successfully detected at a level of ∼200 attomoles (on column). These results may open up the possibility for investigating other less studied, sample-limited extraterrestrial samples (e.g., micrometeorites, interplanetary dust particles, and cometary particles) for biologically-relevant organic molecules. PMID:24529954

  14. Transfer Partial Molar Isentropic Compressibilities of ( l-Alanine/ l-Glutamine/Glycylglycine) from Water to 0.512 {mol} \\cdot {kg}^{-1} Aqueous {KNO}3/0.512 {mol} \\cdot {kg}^{-1} Aqueous {K}2{SO}4 Solutions Between 298.15 K and 323.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riyazuddeen; Gazal, Umaima

    2013-03-01

    Speeds of sound of ( l-alanine/ l-glutamine/glycylglycine + 0.512 {mol}\\cdot {kg}^{-1} aqueous {KNO}3/0.512 {mol}\\cdot {kg}^{-1} aqueous {K}2{SO}4) systems have been measured for several molal concentrations of amino acid/peptide at different temperatures: T = (298.15 to 323.15) K. Using the speed-of-sound and density data, the parameters, partial molar isentropic compressibilities φ _{kappa }0 and transfer partial molar isentropic compressibilities Δ _{tr} φ _{kappa }0, have been computed. The trends of variation of φ _{kappa }0 and Δ _{tr} φ _{kappa }0 with changes in molal concentration of the solute and temperature have been discussed in terms of zwitterion-ion, zwitterion-water dipole, ion-water dipole, and ion-ion interactions operative in the systems.

  15. High throughput methods for analyzing transition metals in proteins on a microgram scale.

    PubMed

    Atanassova, Anelia; Högbom, Martin; Zamble, Deborah B

    2008-01-01

    Transition metals are among the most common ligands that contribute to the biochemical and physiological properties of proteins. In the course of structural proteomic projects, the detection of transition metal cofactors prior to the determination of a high-resolution structure is extremely beneficial. This information can be used to select tractable targets from the proteomic pipeline because the presence of a metal often improves protein stability and can be used to help solve the phasing problem in x-ray crystallography. Recombinant proteins are often purified with substoichiometric amounts of metal loaded, so additional metal may be needed to obtain the homogeneous protein solution crucial for structural analysis. Furthermore, identifying a metal cofactor provides a clue about the nature of the biological role of an unclassified protein and can be applied with structural data in the assignation of a putative function. Many of the existing methods for transition metal analysis of purified proteins have limitations, which include a requirement for a large quantity of protein or a reliance on equipment with a prohibitive cost.The authors have developed two simple high throughput methods for identifying metalloproteins on a microgram scale. Each of the techniques has distinct advantages and can be applied to address divergent experimental goals. The first method, based on simple luminescence and colorimetric reactions, is fast, cheap, and semiquantitative. The second method, which employs HPLC separation, is accurate and affords unambiguous metal identification. PMID:18542873

  16. Comparison of Digestion Protocols for Microgram Quantities of Enriched Protein Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Hervey, IV, William Judson; Strader, Michael B; Strader, Michael Brad; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B

    2007-01-01

    Standard biochemical techniques that are used for protein enrichments, such as affinity isolation and density gradient centrifugation, frequently yield high nanogram to low microgram quantities at a significant expenditure of resources and time. The characterization of selected protein enrichments by the "shotgun" mass spectrometry approach is often compromised by the lack of effective and efficient in-solution proteolysis protocols specifically tailored for these small quantities of proteins. This study compares the results of five different digestion protocols that were applied to 2.5 g portions of protein isolates from two disparate sources: Rhodopseudomonas palustris 70S ribosomal proteins, and Bos taurus microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Proteolytic peptides produced according to each protocol in each type of protein isolate were analyzed by one-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The effectiveness of each digestion protocol was assessed on the basis of three parameters: number of peptide identifications, number of protein identifications, and sequence coverage. The two protocols using a solvent containing 80% acetonitrile (CH3CN) for trypsin digestions performed as well as, and in some instances better than, protocols employing other solvents and chaotropes in both types of protein isolates. A primary advantage of the 80% CH3CN protocol is that it requires fewer sample manipulation steps.

  17. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K73: Amount content of H+ in hydrochloric acid (0.1 mol kg-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Kenneth W.; Ortiz-Aparicio, Jose Luis; Matehuala-Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Pawlina, Monika; Kozlowski, Wladyslaw; Borges, Paulo P.; da Silva Junior, Wiler B.; Borinsky, Mónica B.; Hernandez-Mabel Puelles, Ana; Hatamleh, Nadia; Acosta, Osvaldo; Nunes, João; Guiomar Lito, M. J.; Camões, M. Filomena; Filipe, Eduarda; Hwang, Euijin; Lim, Youngran; Bing, Wu; Qian, Wang; Chao, Wei; Hioki, Akiharu; Asakai, Toshiaki; Máriássy, Michal; Hanková, Zuzana; Nagibin, Sergey; Manska, Olexandra; Gavrilkin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This key comparison (KC), CCQM-K73, was performed to demonstrate the capability of the participating National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) to measure the amount content of H+, νH+, in an HCl solution with a nominal νH+ of 0.1 mol kg-1. The comparison was a joint activity of the Electrochemical Working Group (EAWG) and Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of the CCQM and was coordinated by NIST (USA) and CENAM (Mexico). The agreement of the results was not commensurate with the claimed uncertainties of the subset of participants that claimed small uncertainties for this determination. A workshop on technical issues relating to the CCQM-K73 measurements was conducted at the joint IAWG-EAWG meeting at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), Paris (Sèvres) in April 2010. Several possible sources of bias were investigated, but none could explain the observed dispersion among the participants' results. In the absence of a specific cause for the dispersion, the IAWG and EAWG decided to assign a Key Comparison Reference Value, KCRV, and standard uncertainty of the KCRV, uKCRV, based on the DerSimonian-Laird statistical estimator. The uKCRV is dominated by the between-laboratory scatter of results in CCQM-K73. The uncertainty estimates from the participants with the lowest reported uncertainties remain unsupported by this KC. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  18. Scalp psoriasis: topical calcipotriol 50 micrograms/g/ml solution vs. betamethasone valerate 1% lotion.

    PubMed

    Duweb, G A; Abuzariba, O; Rahim, M; al-Taweel, M; Abdulla, S A

    2000-01-01

    Forty-two patients aged between 6 and 61 years (mean: 33.5 years) with psoriasis of the scalp were enrolled in this study. Twenty-seven patients (69%) were males and 15 (31%) were females. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of topical calcipotriol 50 micrograms/g/ml solution vs. betamethasone valerate 1% lotion in the treatment of psoriasis of the scalp. The study was randomized with the twice-daily application of either calcipotriol solution or betamethasone valerate lotion for 6 weeks. Treatment evaluation was clinically based on signs of psoriasis (thickness, redness, scaliness) which were scored from 0 = absent to 4 = severest possible involvement and was performed at the start of treatment and at weeks 2 and 6 of treatment. The results showed a marked improvement and clearance at the end of treatment in 15 (72.8%) of the 24 patients in the calcipotriol group and in 13 of the 18 patients (72%) in the betamethasone group. The mean total sign score at baseline was 5.1 in the calcipotriol group and 5.4 in the betamethasone valerate group. At the end of treatment, this score was decreased to 2.1 and 1.49, respectively. No significant adverse effects were reported in either group except in two patients (8.3%) in the calcipotriol group who developed signs of irritation including itching and erythema. In conclusion, both drugs were effective and well tolerated in the treatment of scalp psoriasis but in some patients calcipotriol had to be given for more prolonged courses. PMID:11314240

  19. Calorimetry on a Chip: Toward Heat Capacities of Microgram Quantities of Iron-bearing Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navrotsky, A.; Hellman, F.; Dorogova, M.; Cooke, D.; Queen, D.

    2005-12-01

    Heat capacities, standard entropies, and magnetic phase transitions in iron-bearing mantle minerals are poorly known because conventional adiabatic calorimetry requires samples too large to be synthesized at very high pressure. Specific heat measurements on microgram sized samples are based on a Si-micromachined calorimetry device. These devices have been in use for a decade in the physics and materials science community for measurements on metals and on selected oxides such as CoO. These calorimeters on a chip have been used for both thin films and small bulk samples. Different designs have been optimized for different uses, but the heart of the device is a thin (1800 ?) 0.5 x 0.5 cm2 amorphous Si3N4 membrane supported by a 1 x 1 cm2 Si frame. On one side of this membrane, we deposit and pattern thin film heater, thermometers, and electrical leads of appropriate resistance and temperature coefficient. On the other side, in a 0.25 x 0.25 cm2 area at the center, we deposit the sample and a thermally conducting material such as gold or copper. This thin membrane provides the necessary thermal isolation of sample from environment, while still providing a sample/thermometer platform. On the frame are matching thermometers to those on the membrane to permit a high sensitivity differential temperature measurement. We have made thousands of these devices and have measured hundreds. The devices are metallurgically stable and physically robust under cycling between 4.2 K and 1000 K, and can withstand photolithographic processing. Because of the nature of the fabrication process, reproducibility of specific heat addenda and of thermal link between sample and environment is very good, varying from device to device by less than 5%. Samples are measured using the relaxation method, requiring a separate determination of the thermal link between sample and environment (the steady state increase of the sample temperature with the sample heater turned on) and the time constant of

  20. Microfilariae recurrence in Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers treated with repeated single doses of 100 micrograms/kg of ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Cartel, J L; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, L N; Chanteau, S; Roux, J F; Spiegel, A

    1993-01-01

    Forty-six Polynesian carriers of Wuchereria bancrofti were treated with 3 successive single doses of ivermectin, 100 micrograms/kg, given every 6 months. Immediate microfilaricidal activity of ivermectin was excellent in all carriers, since residual mean microfilaraemia levels, 2 d after each of the 3 treatments, were less than 1% of pretreatment levels. Before initial treatment, geometric mean microfilaraemia was 500 microfilaria (mf)/ml for the whole group (range 21-6398 mf/ml); 6 months after each successive treatment it was 197, 108 and 87 mg/ml, respectively, 39.4, 21.6 and 17.4% of the pre-initial treatment level. By considering the mean percentage recurrent level at 6 months after the 3rd treatment (36.8%) as a threshold, it was possible to classify the carriers into 2 groups: 17 in whom the percentage recurrent level was > 36.8% and who were considered as 'fast repopulating' individuals, and the remaining 29 who were considered as 'slow repopulating' individuals. In the latter group, 6 months after each of the 3 treatments, the recurrent microfilaremia levels were 22.7%, 8.0% and 4.9% of the pre-initial treatment level, respectively, while they were 95.1%, > 100% and > 100% in the former. The constant recurrence of mf suggests that ivermectin, at a dosage of 100 micrograms/kg, had no effect on adult worms in 'fast repopulating' individuals, whereas the progressive lessening in recurrence of mf suggests some activity (sterilizing or killing) of ivermectin on W. bancrofti macrofilariae in 'slow repopulating' individuals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8249089

  1. A thin-layer multistrip agarose gel electrophoresis apparatus for Ferguson plot analysis at the sub-microgram load level.

    PubMed

    Orbàn, L; Sullivan, J V; Chrambach, A

    1989-07-01

    A method for the simultaneous horizontal agarose gel electrophoresis on thin-layer strips of different gel concentrations was developed for the purpose of generating Ferguson plots at the sub-microgram load level. Seven independent gel strips on a common GelBond support were formed by filling channels created by a comb-shaped spacer (polycarbonate) in a vertical multistrip cassette. Electrophoresis on a horizontal Peltier-cooled surface employed commercial apparatus (E-C Apparatus Corp.) with a modified cover which is airtight and holds anodic and cathodic voltage measurement probes for each strip. The application of the apparatus to Ferguson plot analysis in a single experiment was exemplified on the RNA-containing turnip crinkle virus (TCV) at a load of 50 ng/gel strip, using an optimized silver staining method (a modification of a procedure of FMC Corp. BioProducts) for detection. Within the range of 3.5 to 12.5 V/cm, the plot was found to be independent of field strength. Mobility is also independent of the concentration of detergent (CHAPS) up to 10 mM. PMID:2809063

  2. Bioenergetic Analysis of Isolated Cerebrocortical Nerve Terminals on a Microgram Scale: Spare Respiratory Capacity and Stochastic Mitochondrial Failure

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung W.; Gerencser, Akos A.; Nicholls, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Presynaptic nerve terminals (synaptosomes) require ATP for neurotransmitter exocytosis and recovery and for ionic homeostasis, and are consequently abundantly furnished with mitochondria. Presynaptic mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders, although there is no precise definition of the term ‘dysfunction’. In this study we test the hypothesis that partial restriction of electron transport through Complexes I and II in synaptosomes to mimic possible defects associated with Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases respectively, sensitizes individual terminals to mitochondrial depolarization under conditions of enhanced proton current utilization, even though these stresses are within the respiratory capacity of the synaptosomes when averaged over the entire population. We combine two novel techniques, firstly using a modification of a novel plate-based respiration and glycolysis assay that requires only microgram quantities of synaptosomal protein, and secondly developing an improved method for fluorescent imaging and statistical analysis of single synaptosomes. Conditions are defined for optimal substrate supply to the in situ mitochondria within mouse cerebrocortical synaptosomes, and the energetic demands of ion cycling and action potential firing at the plasma membrane are additionally determined. PMID:19519782

  3. Low-dose triptolide in combination with idarubicin induces apoptosis in AML leukemic stem-like KG1a cell line by modulation of the intrinsic and extrinsic factors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y; Chen, F; Wang, S; Guo, X; Shi, P; Wang, W; Xu, B

    2013-01-01

    Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are considered to be the main reason for relapse and are also regarded as a major hurdle for the success of acute myeloid leukemia chemotherapy. Thus, new drugs targeting LSCs are urgently needed. Triptolide (TPL) is cytotoxic to LSCs. Low dose of TPL enhances the cytotoxicity of idarubicin (IDA) in LSCs. In this study, the ability of TPL to induce apoptosis in leukemic stem cell (LSC)-like cells derived from acute myeloid leukemia cell line KG1a was investigated. LSC-like cells sorted from KG1a were subjected to cell cycle analysis and different treatments, and then followed by in vitro methyl thiazole tetrazolium bromide cytotoxicity assay. The effects of different drug combinations on cell viability, intracellular reactive-oxygen species (ROS) activity, colony-forming ability and apoptotic status were also examined. Combination index-isobologram analysis indicates a synergistic effect between TPL and IDA, which inhibits the colony-forming ability of LSC-like cells and induces their apoptosis. We further investigated the expression of Nrf2, HIF-1α and their downstream target genes. LSC-like cells treated with both TPL and IDA have increased levels of ROS, decreased expression of Nrf2 and HIF-1α pathways. Our findings indicate that the synergistic cytotoxicity of TPL and IDA in LSCs-like cells may attribute to both induction of ROS and inhibition of the Nrf2 and HIF-1α pathways. PMID:24309935

  4. Comparison of the effect of a single oral L-thyroxine dose (150 micrograms) in tablet and in solution on serum thyroxine and TSH concentrations.

    PubMed

    Carpi, A; De Gaudio, C; Cirigliano, G; Toni, M G

    1993-04-01

    150 micrograms of L-thyroxine were administered to each of 14 euthyroid goitrous patients orally between 7:30 and 8:30 a.m. after fasting overnight. The L-T4 dose given was one and half tablets of the drug "Eutirox" (L-T4 tablet of 100 micrograms distributed by Bracco, Milan, Italy) or one and half ml of the solution "Tiroxen" (solution containing 100 micrograms/ml of L-T4 distributed by Laboratori Baldacci, Pisa, Italy). Two studies (one with tablet and one with solution) were performed on each patient. The tablet or the liquid form of L-T4 were administered in random order. In each study a blood sample for serum hormone determination was drawn immediately before L-T4 administration, then 30 minutes later and every hour up to the fifth hour after. The second study was performed in similar fashion later. The mean serum TT4 concentration value at any time was very similar in the two studies, thus showing the same time course after the administration of solution and the tablet formulation. The mean basal TT4 value (9.07 +/- 0.56 and 8.90 +/- 0.73 micrograms/dl respectively) increased significantly at the first and second hours. The highest value was reached at the second and at the third hour after the solution (11.15 +/- 0.58 micrograms/dl) and the tablet (11.81 +/- 0.78 micrograms/dl) respectively. Subsequently, the mean TT4 values remained significantly higher than basally over the entire 5 hours. The FT4 mean serum concentration at all times were very similar in the two studies and showed the same time course.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7508742

  5. Carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of atrazine and desethylatrazine at sub-microgram per liter concentrations in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Schreglmann, Kathrin; Hoeche, Martina; Steinbeiss, Sibylle; Reinnicke, Sandra; Elsner, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Environmental degradation of organic micropollutants is difficult to monitor due to their diffuse and ubiquitous input. Current approaches-concentration measurements over time, or daughter-to-parent compound ratios-may fall short, because they do not consider dilution, compound-specific sorption characteristics or alternative degradation pathways. Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) offers an alternative approach based on evidence from isotope values. Until now, however, the relatively high limits for precise isotope analysis by gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) have impeded CSIA of sub-microgram-per-liter scale micropollutant concentrations in field samples. This study presents the first measurements of C and N isotope ratios of the herbicide atrazine and its metabolite desethylatrazine at concentrations of 100 to 1,000 ng/L in natural groundwater samples. Solid-phase extraction and preparative HPLC were tested and validated for preconcentration and cleanup of groundwater samples of up to 10 L without bias by isotope effects. Matrix interferences after solid-phase extraction could be greatly reduced by a preparative HPLC cleanup step prior to GC-IRMS analysis. Sensitivity was increased by a factor of 6 to 8 by changing the injection method from large-volume to cold-on-column injection on the GC-IRMS system. Carbon and nitrogen isotope values of field samples showed no obvious correlation with concentrations or desethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratios. Contrary to expectations, however, δ (13) C values of desethylatrazine were consistently less negative than those of atrazine from the same sites. Potentially, this line of evidence may contain information about further desethylatrazine degradation. In such a case, the common practice of using desethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratios would underestimate natural atrazine degradation. PMID:23274558

  6. Analysis of proteomic profiles and functional properties of human peripheral blood myeloid dendritic cells, monocyte-derived dendritic cells and the dendritic cell-like KG-1 cells reveals distinct characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen presenting cells that play a pivotal role in bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. Given the scarcity of peripheral blood myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) investigators have used different model systems for studying DC biology. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) and KG-1 cells are routinely used as mDC models, but a thorough comparison of these cells has not yet been carried out, particularly in relation to their proteomes. We therefore sought to run a comparative study of the proteomes and functional properties of these cells. Results Despite general similarities between mDCs and the model systems, moDCs and KG-1 cells, our findings identified some significant differences in the proteomes of these cells, and the findings were confirmed by ELISA detection of a selection of proteins. This was particularly noticeable with proteins involved in cell growth and maintenance (for example, fibrinogen γ chain (FGG) and ubiquinol cytochrome c) and cell-cell interaction and integrity (for example, fascin and actin). We then examined the surface phenotype, cytokine profile, endocytic and T-cell-activation ability of these cells in support of the proteomic data, and obtained confirmatory evidence for differences in the maturation status and functional attributes between mDCs and the two DC models. Conclusion We have identified important proteomic and functional differences between mDCs and two DC model systems. These differences could have major functional implications, particularly in relation to DC-T cell interactions, the so-called immunological synapse, and, therefore, need to be considered when interpreting data obtained from model DC systems. PMID:17331236

  7. Efficient and Specific Trypsin Digestion of Microgram to Nanogram Quantities of Proteins in Organic-Aqueous Solvent Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Strader, Michael B; Tabb, Dave L; Hervey, IV, William Judson; Pan, Chongle; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B

    2006-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based identification of the components of multiprotein complexes often involves solution-phase proteolytic digestion of the complex. The affinity purification of individual protein complexes often yields nanogram to low-microgram amounts of protein, which poses several challenges for enzymatic digestion and protein identification. We tested different solvent systems to optimize trypsin digestions of samples containing limited amounts of protein for subsequent analysis by LC-MS-MS. Data collected from digestion of 10-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2- g portions of a protein standard mixture indicated that an organicaqueous solvent system containing 80% acetonitrile consistently provided the most complete digestion, producing more peptide identifications than the other solvent systems tested. For example, a 1-h digestion in 80% acetonitrile yielded over 52% more peptides than the overnight digestion of 1 g of a protein mixture in purely aqueous buffer. This trend was also observed for peptides from digested ribosomal proteins isolated from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. In addition to improved digestion efficiency, the shorter digestion times possible with the organic solvent also improved trypsin specificity, resulting in smaller numbers of semitryptic peptides than an overnight digestion protocol using an aqueous solvent. The technique was also demonstrated for an affinityisolated protein complex, GroEL. To our knowledge, this report is the first using mass spectrometry data to show a linkage between digestion solvent and trypsin specificity. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a widely used method for studying proteins, protein complexes, and whole proteomes because of innovations in soft ionization techniques, bioinformatics, and chromatographic separation techniques.1-7 An example of a high-throughput mass spectrometry strategy commonly used for this purpose is a variation of the "shotgun" approach, involving in-solution digestion of a protein complex followed by

  8. Release of MCNP5_RSICC_1.30.

    SciTech Connect

    Goorley, T.; Bull, J. S.; Brown, F. B.; Booth, Thomas Edward; Hughes, H. G.; Mosteller, R. D.; Forster, R. A.; Post, S. E.; Prael, R. E.; Selcow, Elizabeth Carol,; Sood, A.; Sweezy, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    In July of 2004, an updated version of MCNP5{trademark} (MCNP5-RSICC-1.30) was released to the Radiation Shielding Information Computational Center. This updated version has three new features, thirteen bug fixes and several minor coding improvements. The new features are: support for 8 byte integers, specialized tally treatment of large lattices, and mesh tally enhancements. Of the thirteen bug fixes, only four resulted in incorrect answers in specific circumstances. In addition to the standard RSICC distribution of the MCNP5 source, executables and patches, the patch file (only) is available on the MCNP website: http://www-xdiv.lanl.gov/x5/MCNP/theresources.html. The three new MCNP5 features are discussed. Several new improvements have also been made to the manual and development environment. All of the features, bug fixes, coding improvement issues and related documentation are now maintained in Sourceforge. Fortran and C source code and regression test problems are now under version control with CVS.

  9. 17 CFR 1.30 - Loans by futures commission merchants; treatment of proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loans by futures commission merchants; treatment of proceeds. 1.30 Section 1.30 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... Property § 1.30 Loans by futures commission merchants; treatment of proceeds. Nothing in these...

  10. 17 CFR 1.30 - Loans by futures commission merchants; treatment of proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... merchants; treatment of proceeds. 1.30 Section 1.30 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... Property § 1.30 Loans by futures commission merchants; treatment of proceeds. Nothing in these regulations shall prevent a futures commission merchant from lending its own funds to commodity or option...

  11. 17 CFR 1.30 - Loans by futures commission merchants; treatment of proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Loans by futures commission merchants; treatment of proceeds. 1.30 Section 1.30 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... Property § 1.30 Loans by futures commission merchants; treatment of proceeds. Nothing in the regulations...

  12. 17 CFR 1.30 - Loans by futures commission merchants; treatment of proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Loans by futures commission merchants; treatment of proceeds. 1.30 Section 1.30 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES... Property § 1.30 Loans by futures commission merchants; treatment of proceeds. Nothing in these...

  13. Polysaccharides and Proteins Added to Flowing Drinking Water at Microgram-per-Liter Levels Promote the Formation of Biofilms Predominated by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sack, Eveline L. W.; van der Kooij, Dick

    2014-01-01

    Biopolymers are important substrates for heterotrophic bacteria in (ultra)oligotrophic freshwater environments, but information about their utilization at microgram-per-liter levels by attached freshwater bacteria is lacking. This study aimed at characterizing biopolymer utilization in drinking-water-related biofilms by exposing such biofilms to added carbohydrates or proteins at 10 μg C liter−1 in flowing tap water for up to 3 months. Individually added amylopectin was not utilized by the biofilms, whereas laminarin, gelatin, and caseinate were. Amylopectin was utilized during steady-state biofilm growth with simultaneously added maltose but not with simultaneously added acetate. Biofilm formation rates (BFR) at 10 μg C liter−1 per substrate were ranked as follows, from lowest to highest: blank or amylopectin (≤6 pg ATP cm−2 day−1), gelatin or caseinate, laminarin, maltose, acetate alone or acetate plus amylopectin, and maltose plus amylopectin (980 pg ATP cm−2 day−1). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that the predominant maltose-utilizing bacteria also dominated subsequent amylopectin utilization, indicating catabolic repression and (extracellular) enzyme induction. The accelerated BFR with amylopectin in the presence of maltose probably resulted from efficient amylopectin binding to and hydrolysis by inductive enzymes attached to the bacterial cells. Cytophagia, Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteriia grew during polysaccharide addition, and Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, Cytophagia, Flavobacteriia, and Sphingobacteriia grew during protein addition. The succession of bacterial populations in the biofilms coincided with the decrease in the specific growth rate during biofilm formation. Biopolymers can clearly promote biofilm formation at microgram-per-liter levels in drinking water distribution systems and, depending on their concentrations, might

  14. 26 CFR 1.30-1 - Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. 1.30-1 Section 1.30-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. (a) Definition...

  15. 26 CFR 1.30-1 - Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. 1.30-1 Section 1.30-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. (a) Definition...

  16. 26 CFR 1.30-1 - Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. 1.30-1 Section 1.30-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. (a) Definition...

  17. 26 CFR 1.30-1 - Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. 1.30-1 Section 1.30-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. (a) Definition...

  18. 26 CFR 1.30-1 - Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Definition of qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. 1.30-1 Section 1.30-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... qualified electric vehicle and recapture of credit for qualified electric vehicle. (a) Definition...

  19. Double-blind controlled trial of a single dose of the combination ivermectin 400 micrograms/kg plus diethylcarbamazine 6 mg/kg for the treatment of bancroftian filariasis: results at six months.

    PubMed

    Glaziou, P; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Nguyen, L N; Chanteau, S; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-01-01

    In 1993, a three-arm double-blind controlled trial was implemented in French Polynesia to compare the tolerance and efficacy of a single dose of the combination ivermectin (IVR) 400 micrograms/kg plus diethylcarbamazine (DEC) 6 mg/kg vs. IVR 400 micrograms/kg alone vs. DEC 6 mg/kg alone, for treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti carriers. Of the 57 treated male patients in whom microfilaria (mf) densities ranged from 22 to 4709 mg/mL, 3 groups of 19 were randomly selected and allocated to one of the 3 treatments. Side effects were experienced by 34 patients (60%), but none suffered a severe reaction. Grade of reaction did not differ between treatment group, but was significantly correlated with the pretreatment mf density. Six months after treatment, 26%, 32% and 53% of patients were amicrofilaraemic in the DEC, IVR and IVR+DEC groups, respectively. Mf levels were 6.3%, and 3.1% and 1.0% of the pretreatment level, respectively, significantly lower in the IVR+DEC group than in both the IVR and DEC comparison groups. The combination IVR+DEC showed promise in term of sustained mf decrease, and could be an effective alternative for lymphatic filariasis control programmes. PMID:7886781

  20. The electric field induced in the human body when exposed to electromagnetic fields at 1-30 MHz on shipboard.

    PubMed

    King, R W

    1999-06-01

    The electric field induced in the body of a man standing on the metal deck of a ship near a vertical antenna is determined analytically. Typical antennas for radio communication in the 1-30 MHz band are described and their near fields are calculated. The current induced in the man is determined by solving the relevant integral equation. Explicit formulas are obtained for the total axial current and the associated current densities and electric fields. PMID:10356881

  1. Spin Tunnel Investigation of a 1/30 Scale Model of the North American A-5A Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Henry A.

    1964-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley spin tunnel to determine the erect and inverted spin and recovery characteristics of a 1/30-scale dynamic model of the North American A-5A airplane. Tests were made for the basic flight design loading with the center of gravity at 30-percent mean aerodynamic chord and also for a forward position and a rearward position with the center of gravity at 26-percent and 40-percent mean aerodynamic chord, respectively. Tests were also made to determine the effect of full external wing tanks on both wings, and of an asymmetrical condition when only one full tank is carried.

  2. Spin-Tunnel Investigation of a 1/30-Scale Model of the North American A-5 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Henry A.

    1964-01-01

    An investigation has been made to determine the erect and. inverted spin and recovery characteristics of a 1/30-scale dynamic model of the North American A-5A airplane. Tests were made for the basic flight design loading with the center of gravity at 30-percent mean aerodynamic chord and also for a forward position and a rearward position with the center of gravity at 26-percent and 40-percent mean aerodynamic chord, respectively. Tests were also made to determine the effect of full external wing tanks on both wings, and of an asymmetrical condition when only one full tank is carried.

  3. Immunoreactive prohormone atrial natriuretic peptides 1-30 and 31-67 - Existence of a single circulating amino-terminal peptide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yu-Ming; Whitson, Peggy A.; Cintron, Nitza M.

    1990-01-01

    Sep-Pak C18 extraction of human plasma and radioimmunoassay using antibodies which recognize atrial natriuretic peptide (99-128) and the prohormone sequences 1-30 and 31-67 resulted in mean values from 20 normal subjects of 26.2 (+/- 9.2), 362 (+/- 173) and 368 (+/- 160) pg/ml, respectively. A high correlation coefficient between values obtained using antibodies recognizing prohormone sequences 1-30 and 31-67 was observed (R = 0.84). Extracted plasma immunoreactivity of 1-30 and 31-67 both eluted at 46 percent acetonitrile. In contrast, chromatographic elution of synthetic peptides 1-30 and 31-67 was observed at 48 and 39 percent acetonitrile, respectively. Data suggest that the radioimmunoassay of plasma using antibodies recognizing prohormone sequences 1-30 and 31-67 may represent the measurement of a unique larger amino-terminal peptide fragment containing antigenic sites recognized by both antisera.

  4. Gamma rays of 1-30 MeV from the Vela Pulsar PSR 0833-45

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, T.; Long, J.; Oneill, T.; Zych, A.; White, R. S.; Dayton, B.

    1983-01-01

    Results are reported for observations of gamma rays of 1-30 MeV from the Vela Pulsar PSR 0833 - 45 carried out with the UCR double scatter gamma ray telescope on a balloon launched from Alice Springs, Australia on November 10, 1981. An integrated flux of (5.3 + or - 1.3) x 10 to the -4th photons/sq cm/s is found for the Vela region above 2 MeV. This value, together with those for the energy intervals of 2-4, 4-7, and 7-15 MeV are in reasonable agreement with the power law found by COS-B at energies above 50 MeV. A sky contour map of the fluxes is shown.

  5. Nb1.30Cr0.70S5: a layered ternary mixed-metal sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Hoseop; Kim, Gangbeom

    2009-01-01

    The new layered ternary sulfide, Nb1.30Cr0.70S5, niobium chromium penta­sulfide, is isostructural with the solid solution Nb1+xV1−xS5 and belongs to the FeNb3Se10 structure type. Each layer is composed of two unique chains of face-sharing [NbS8] bicapped trigonal prisms (m symmetry) and edge-sharing [MS6] (M= Nb, Cr) octa­hedra (m symmetry). One of the two metal sites is occupied by statistically disordered Nb and Cr atoms, with 0.3 and 0.7 occupancy, respectively. The chains are connected along the c axis, forming two-dimensional layers, which then stack on top of each other to complete the three dimensional structure. As a result, an undulating van der Waals gap is found between the layers. PMID:21581463

  6. Effect of heparin and a low-molecular weight heparinoid on PAF-induced airway responses in neonatally immunized rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, M.; Herd, C. M.; Page, C. P.

    1993-01-01

    1. We have investigated the effect of an unfractionated heparin preparation, a low-molecular weight heparinoid (Org 10172) and the polyanionic molecule polyglutamic acid against PAF-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary cell infiltration in neonatally immunized rabbits in vivo. 2. Exposure of neonatally immunized rabbits to aerosolized platelet activating factor (PAF) (80 micrograms ml-1 for 60 min) elicited an increase in airway responsiveness to inhaled histamine 24 h and 72 h following challenge which was associated with an infiltration of inflammatory cells into the airways, as assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). 3. A significant increase in the total numbers of cells recovered from BAL fluid was associated with significantly increased cell numbers of neutrophils, eosinophils and mononuclear cells 24 h following PAF exposure. The numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils in the airways remained elevated 72 h after challenge. 4. The intravenous administration of an unfractionated preparation of heparin (100 units kg-1) or Org 10172 (100 micrograms kg-1) 30 min prior to PAF exposure significantly inhibited the airway hyperresponsiveness induced by PAF, 24 h and 72 h following challenge. PAF-induced hyperresponsiveness was not significantly affected by prior intravenous administration of polyglutamic acid (100 micrograms kg-1). 5. The intravenous administration of unfractionated heparin (100 units kg-1), Org 10172 (100 micrograms kg-1) or polyglutamic acid (100 micrograms kg-1) 30 min prior to PAF exposure significantly inhibited the expected increase in total cell infiltration. 6. This study shows that unfractionated heparin and a low-molecular weight heparinoid, Org 10172, are capable of inhibiting both the airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary cell infiltration induced by PAF in the rabbit. PMID:7693273

  7. The impact of the SZ effect on cm-wavelength (1-30 GHz) observations of galaxy cluster radio relics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Kaustuv; Vazza, Franco; Erler, Jens; Sommer, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Radio relics in galaxy clusters are believed to be associated with powerful shock fronts that originate during cluster mergers, and are a testbed for the acceleration of relativistic particles in the intracluster medium. Recently, radio relic observations have pushed into the cm-wavelength domain (1-30 GHz) where a break from the standard synchrotron power law spectrum has been found, most noticeably in the famous "Sausage" relic. Such spectral steepening is seen as an evidence for non-standard relic models, such as ones requiring seed electron population with a break in their energy spectrum. In this paper, however, we point to an important effect that has been ignored or considered insignificant while interpreting these new high-frequency radio data, namely the contamination due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect that changes the observed synchrotron flux. Even though the radio relics reside in the cluster outskirts, the shock-driven pressure boost increases the SZ signal locally by roughly an order of magnitude. The resulting flux contamination for some well-known relics are non-negligible already at 10 GHz, and at 30 GHz the observed synchrotron fluxes can be diminished by a factor of several from their true values. At higher redshift the contamination gets stronger due to the redshift independence of the SZ effect. Interferometric observations are not immune to this contamination, since the change in the SZ signal occurs roughly at the same length scale as the synchrotron emission, although there the flux loss is less severe than single-dish observations. Besides presenting this warning to observers, we suggest that the negative contribution from the SZ effect can be regarded as one of the best evidence for the physical association between radio relics and shock waves. We present a simple analytical approximation for the synchrotron-to-SZ flux ratio, based on a theoretical radio relic model that connects the nonthermal emission to the thermal gas properties

  8. Genome Sequences of Three Pseudoalteromonas Strains (P1-8, P1-11, and P1-30), Isolated from the Marine Hydroid Hydractinia echinata

    PubMed Central

    Rischer, Maja; Wolf, Thomas; Guo, Huijuan; Shelest, Ekaterina; Clardy, Jon

    2015-01-01

    The genomes of three Pseudoalteromonas strains (P1-8, P1-11, and P1-30) were sequenced and assembled. These genomes will inform future study of the genes responsible for the production of biologically active compounds responsible for these strains’ antimicrobial, biofouling, and algicidal activities. PMID:26659670

  9. Measurement of the polarization parameter in proton-neutron elastic scattering at 1. 30, 1. 39, 1. 59, and 1. 82 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Sakuda, M.; Isagawa, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Kabe, S.; Masaike, A.; Morimoto, K.; Ogawa, K.; Suetake, M.; Takasaki, F.; Watase, Y.; Kim, N.; Kobayashidouble-dagger, S.; Murakami, A.; de Lesguen, A.; Nakajima, K.; Nakada, S.; Wada, T.; Yamachi, I.

    1982-04-01

    The polarization parameters of the pn elastic scattering were measured at beam momenta between 1.30 and 1.82 GeV/c. The results are discussed in comparison with the partial-wave analysis of Hashimoto and Hoshizaki.

  10. Experimental and analytical investigation of axisymmetric supersonic cruise nozzle geometry at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.30

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, G. T., Jr.; Lee, E. E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative pressure and force data for five axisymmetric boattail nozzle configurations were examined. These configurations simulate the variable-geometry feature of a single nozzle design operating over a range of engine operating conditions. Five nozzles were tested in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.30. The experimental data were also compared with theoretical predictions.

  11. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with Huntington's Disease: increased NPY levels and differential degradation of the NPY1-30 fragment.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Leona; Björkqvist, Maria; Lundh, Sofia Hult; Wolf, Raik; Börgel, Arne; Schlenzig, Dagmar; Ludwig, Hans-Henning; Rahfeld, Jens-Ulrich; Leavitt, Blair; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Petersén, Åsa; von Hörsten, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited and fatal polyglutamine neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion of the CAG triplet repeat coding region within the HD gene. Progressive dysfunction and loss of striatal GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs) may account for some of the characteristic symptoms in HD patients. Interestingly, in HD, MSNs expressing neuropeptide Y (NPY) are spared and their numbers is even up-regulated in HD patients. Consistent with this, we report here on increased immuno-linked NPY (IL-NPY) levels in human cerebrospinal fluid (hCSF) from HD patients (Control n = 10; early HD n = 9; mid HD n = 11). As this antibody-based detection of NPY may provide false positive differences as a result of the antibody-based detections of only fragments of NPY, the initial finding was validated by investigating the proteolytic stability of NPY in hCSF using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and selective inhibitors. A comparison between resulting NPY-fragments and detailed epitope analysis verified significant differences in IL-NPY1-36/3-36 and NPY1-30 levels between HD patients and control subjects with no significant differences between early vs mid HD cases. Ex vivo degradomics analysis demonstrated that NPY is initially degraded to NPY1-30 by cathepsin D in both HD patients and control subjects. Yet, NPY1-30 is then further differentially hydrolyzed by thimet oligopeptidase (TOP) in HD patients and by neprilysin (NEP) in control subjects. Furthermore, altered hCSF TOP-inhibitor Dynorphin A1-13 (Dyn-A1-13 ) and TOP-substrate Dyn-A1-8 levels indicate an impaired Dyn-A-TOP network in HD patients. Thus, we conclude that elevated IL-NPY-levels in conjunction with TOP-/NEP-activity/protein as well as Dyn-A1-13 -peptide levels may serve as a potential biomarker in human CSF of HD. Huntington's disease (HD) patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) exhibits higher neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels. Further

  12. Behavioural effects of the dopamine D3 receptor agonist 7-OH-DPAT in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, F; Giuliani, D

    1995-01-01

    The putative selective dopamine (DA) D3 receptor agonist, 7-OH-DPAT (25-4000 micrograms kg-1), enhanced stretching-yawning and penile erection in male rats, besides respectively increasing and decreasing sedation at low (25-200 micrograms kg-1) and high (1600 and 4000 micrograms kg-1) doses and inducing stereotypy from 800 micrograms kg-1 upwards. The DA D2 antagonist, (-) eticlopride (10 and 20 micrograms kg-1), antagonized stretching-yawning and penile erection induced by a low dose of 7-OH-DPAT (50 micrograms kg-1) but not those produced by high doses (1600 and 4000 micrograms kg-1), when stereotyped behaviour, on the other hand, was potently inhibited. Comparative experiments performed with the DA agonist SND 919 gave similar results. PMID:8668649

  13. Field determination of microgram quantities of niobium in rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, F.N.; Marranzino, A.P.

    1955-01-01

    A rapid, simple, and moderately accurate method was needed for the determination of traces of niobium in rocks. The method developed is based on the reaction of niobium(V) with thiocyanate ion in a 4M hydrochloric acid and 0.5M tartaric acid medium, after which the complex is extracted with ethyl ether. The proposed procedure is applicable to rocks containing from 50 to 2000 p.p.m. of niobium, and, with modifications, can be used on rocks containing larger amounts. Five determinations on two rocks containing 100 p.p.m. or less of niobium agree within 5 p.p.m. of the mean, and the confidence limits at the 95% level are, respectively, ??6 and ??4 p.p.m. The addition of acetone to the ether extract of the niobium thiocyanate inhibits the polymerization of the thiocyanate ion and stabilizes the solution for at least 20 hours. The proposed procedure permits the determination of 20 ?? of niobium in the presence of 1000 ?? of iron, titanium, or uranium; 500 ?? of vanadium; or 100 ?? of tungsten or molybdenum or both.

  14. Inhibition of the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor in vitro and in vivo by dipeptides containing NG-nitro-L-arginine.

    PubMed Central

    Thiemermann, C.; Mustafa, M.; Mester, P. A.; Mitchell, J. A.; Hecker, M.; Vane, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    1. We have shown that dipeptides containing NG-nitro-L-arginine (NO2Arg) inhibit the biosynthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) in vitro and in vivo. 2. In anaesthetized rats, intravenous administration at 1-30 mg kg-1 of the methyl ester of NO2Arg, NO2-Arg-L-phenylalanine (NO2Arg-Phe), L-alanyl-NO2Arg (Ala-NO2Arg) or NO2Arg-L-arginine (NO2Arg-Arg) produced dose-related increases in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) which were unaffected by D-arginine (D-Arg; 20 mg kg-1 min-1 for 15 min), but prevented by co-infusions of L-arginine (L-Arg; 20 mg kg-1 min-1 for 15 min) or by their parent dipeptides. 3. NO2Arg methyl ester, NO2Arg-Phe methyl ester or Ala-NO2Arg methyl ester (10 mg kg-1, i.v.) also inhibited the reduction in MABP caused by the endothelium-dependent vasodilator, acetylcholine (30 micrograms kg-1 min-1 for 3 min), but not those induced by glycerly trinitrate (20 micrograms kg-1 min-1 for 3 min) or iloprost (6 micrograms kg-1 min-1 for 3 min) which act directly on the vascular smooth muscle. 4. Moreover, NO2Arg methyl ester, NO2Arg-Phe methyl ester or NO2Arg-Arg methyl ester (100 microM) inhibited the acetylcholine-induced relaxation of rabbit aortic strips, and NO2Arg-Phe methyl ester (30 microM) blocked the stimulated (bradykinin, 30 pmol) release of EDRF from bovine aortic endothelial cells grown on microcarrier beads.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1786515

  15. Pro Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (1-30) and 6-keto PGF1α Activity Affects Na(+) Homeostasis in Non-modulating Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Ramiro A; Gilbert, Bernardo H; Masnatta, Lucas; Giannone, Carlos; Pesiney, Carlina; Ramirez, Agustin J

    2015-01-01

    Non-modulating hypertension (NMHT) is a high renin subtype of salt sensitive hypertension, which fails to achieve renal vasodilatation and a correct Na(+) handling during sodium load. We investigate, in MHT and NMHT, the role of ANP, the renin-angiotensin system and PgI2, in the renal sodium handling mechanisms. After 10 days of low (20mmol.L) or after 72hs of high (250mmol.L) sodium intake, 13 NMHT (34±5y; 9 male) and 13 MHT (32±4y; 10male) were studied. Pro-ANP (1-30) PgI2, PRA and total exchangeable Na(+)24 (ENa(+)) were measured. Under low sodium intake, PRA (4.2±0.5ng.ml.h; p<0.05) and Pro-ANP (78.6±2pg/ml, p<0.05) were higher than in NMHT under (3.1±0.4ng.ml.h and 69.8±3 pg/ml). After 72h of high Na(+) intake, Pro-ANP (1-30) increased significantly only in MHT (82.1±3pg/ml, p<0.05). PgI2, under low sodium intake (1.83±0.2pg/24h), increased in MHT after 72h under high sodium (2.58±0.5pg/ 24h, p<0.02). Under low sodium diet, PgI2 (2.16±0.11pg/24h) was as higher in NMHT, as in MHT. After 72h under high Na+ intake, it failed to show any change (2.61±0.36 pg/24h; p=ns). A significant correlation between variations in ENa(+) and mean blood pressure (r=0.50, p<0.01), variations in Pro-ANP (1-30) values and ENa(+) in MHT (r=0.95; p<0.001) while a negative correlation between ENa(+) variations and ENa(+) (r=0.81, p<0.05) was observed in NMHT. ENa(+) variations were only significantly related to variations in FF in MHT. Thus, in NMHT, there is an unbalanced relationship between vasonstrictor and vasodilator mediators. From these, as an extrarenal homeostatic mediator, ANP seems to play an important role to compensate the altered renal sodium handling. PMID:26028240

  16. Accurate Monte Carlo simulations on FCC and HCP Lennard-Jones solids at very low temperatures and high reduced densities up to 1.30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adidharma, Hertanto; Tan, Sugata P.

    2016-07-01

    Canonical Monte Carlo simulations on face-centered cubic (FCC) and hexagonal closed packed (HCP) Lennard-Jones (LJ) solids are conducted at very low temperatures (0.10 ≤ T∗ ≤ 1.20) and high densities (0.96 ≤ ρ∗ ≤ 1.30). A simple and robust method is introduced to determine whether or not the cutoff distance used in the simulation is large enough to provide accurate thermodynamic properties, which enables us to distinguish the properties of FCC from that of HCP LJ solids with confidence, despite their close similarities. Free-energy expressions derived from the simulation results are also proposed, not only to describe the properties of those individual structures but also the FCC-liquid, FCC-vapor, and FCC-HCP solid phase equilibria.

  17. Functional and topological studies with Trp-containing analogs of the peptide StII(1-30) derived from the N-terminus of the pore forming toxin sticholysin II: contribution to understand its orientation in membrane.

    PubMed

    Ros, Uris; Souto, Ana Lucia C F; de Oliveira, Felipe J; Crusca, Edson; Pazos, Fabiola; Cilli, Eduardo M; Lanio, Maria E; Schreier, Shirley; Alvarez, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    Sticholysin II (St II) is the most potent cytolysin produced by the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, exerting hemolytic activity via pore formation in membranes. The toxin's N-terminus contains an amphipathic α-helix that is very likely involved in pore formation. We have previously demonstrated that the synthetic peptide StII(1-30) encompassing the 1-30 segment of St II forms pores of similar radius to that of the protein (around 1 nm), being a good model of toxin functionality. Here we have studied the functional and conformational properties of fluorescent analogs of StII(1-30) in lipid membranes. The analogs were obtained by replacing Leu residues at positions 2, 12, 17, and 24 with the intrinsically fluorescent amino acid Trp (StII(1-30L2W), StII(1-30L12W), StII(1-30L17W), or StII(1-30L24W), respectively). The exchange by Trp did not significantly modify the activity and conformation of the parent peptide. The blue-shift and intensity enhancement of fluorescence in the presence of membrane indicated that Trp at position 2 is more deeply buried in the hydrophobic region of the bilayer. These experiments, as well as assays with water-soluble or spin-labeled lipid-soluble fluorescence quenchers suggest an orientation of StII(1-30) with its N-terminus oriented towards the hydrophobic core of the bilayer while the rest of the peptide is more exposed to the aqueous environment, as hypothesized for sticholysins. PMID:23868208

  18. Free-spinning-tunnel Investigation of a 1/30 Scale Model of a Twin-jet-swept-wing Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, James S., Jr.; Healy, Frederick M.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel to determine the erect and inverted spin and recovery characteristics of a 1/30-scale dynamic model of a twin-jet swept-wing fighter airplane. The model results indicate that the optimum erect spin recovery technique determined (simultaneous rudder reversal to full against the spin and aileron deflection to full with the spin) will provide satisfactory recovery from steep-type spins obtained on the airplane. It is considered that the air-plane will not readily enter flat-type spins, also indicated as possible by the model tests, but developed-spin conditions should be avoided in as much as the optimum recovery procedure may not provide satisfactory recovery if the airplane encounters a flat-type developed spin. Satisfactory recovery from inverted spins will be obtained on the airplane by neutralization of all controls. A 30-foot- diameter (laid-out-flat) stable tail parachute having a drag coefficient of 0.67 and a towline length of 27.5 feet will be satisfactory for emergency spin recovery.

  19. Educational Institutions; A Study of the Economic Effects of The $1.30 Minimum Wage and 40 Hour Maximum Workweek Standards Under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Economics Effects Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wage and Labor Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The 1966 amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act extended enterprise coverage to all public and private educational institutions. In October 1968, one out of seven of the 2 million nonsupervisory nonteaching employees working in schools was paid below the $1.30 minimum wage which became effective on February 1, 1969. Three-fifths of those below…

  20. [Effect of intravenous lidocaine infusion on arterial baroreflex].

    PubMed

    Yoneda, I

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of the first study was to identify the relationship between reflex sympathetic nerve activity and plasma concentration of lidocaine. Lidocaine was infused in 4 different doses: 2 mg.kg-1 bolus + 100 micrograms.kg-1 x min-1, 3 mg.kg-1 bolus + 200 micrograms.kg-1 x min-1, 6 mg.kg-1 bolus + 400 micrograms.kg-1 x min-1 and 12 mg.kg-1 bolus + 800 micrograms.kg-1 x min-1. Baroreflex depressor and pressor tests using sodium nitroprusside (5-10 micrograms.kg-1) and phenylephrine (2-4 micrograms.kg-1) were performed before and at 10 min after the start of lidocaine infusion. Plasma lidocaine concentrations determined by HPLC revealed that its steady-state levels were maintained during the baroreflex tests. Baroreflex sensitivity was preserved at clinical concentrations of lidocaine (< 5 micrograms.ml-1). However, baroreflex was significantly attenuated when plasma lidocaine concentrations were above seizure levels (> 10 micrograms.ml-1). This result indicates that hemodynamic derangement observed in the lidocaine-induced CNS toxicity is, at least in part, due to the attenuated arterial baroreflex. In the second study, the author evaluated the effect of respiratory acidosis and alkalosis on the baroreflex with or without lidocaine infusion (2 mg.kg-1 + 100 micrograms.kg-1 x min-1). Respiratory acidosis (PaCO2: 65.6 +/- 3.4) enhanced the baroreflex significantly, but lidocaine infusion abolished this acidosis-induced enhancement. The author concludes that hypercarbia should be avoided in patients receiving intravenous lidocaine infusion. PMID:8515540

  1. Propofol and alfentanil in children: infusion technique and dose requirement for total i.v. anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Browne, B L; Prys-Roberts, C; Wolf, A R

    1992-12-01

    We estimated the dose of propofol (initial dose followed by a stepped infusion) when given with two different infusion rates of alfentanil for total i.v. anaesthesia in 59 children aged 3-12 yr. Patients in series 1 (four groups) received an alfentanil loading dose of 85 micrograms kg-1 and an infusion of 65 micrograms kg-1 h-1. Patients in series 2 (groups 5 and 6) received an alfentanil loading dose of 65 micrograms kg-1 and infusion of 50 micrograms kg-1 h-1. Parents gave their informed consent. Premedication comprised temazepam 0.3 mg kg-1. Glycopyrronium 5 micrograms kg-1 was administered and anaesthesia induced and maintained with alfentanil (loading dose and infusion) followed by propofol (loading dose and three-stage manual infusion scheme). Suxamethonium 1 mg kg-1 was used to facilitate tracheal intubation and the lungs were ventilated artificially to normocapnia with 30% oxygen in air. Probit analysis was used to determine the dose requirement of propofol. In series 1, the ED50 was 6.0 mg kg-1 h-1 (95% confidence limits 5.5-6.2 mg kg-1 h-1) and ED95 8.6 (6.8-7.8) mg kg-1 h-1. Corresponding values for series 2 were ED50 7.5 (8.0-9.8) mg kg-1 h-1 and ED95 10.5 (9.6-13.1) mg kg-1 h-1. PMID:1467099

  2. TURKISH BASIC COURSE, UNITS 1-30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AGRALI, SELMAN; SWIFT, LLOYD B.

    THE MATERIAL IN THIS INTRODUCTORY COURSE IS BASED IN VARYING DEGREES UPON A NUMBER OF PREVIOUS FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE TURKISH LANGUAGE TRAINING MATERIALS. THE FIRST OF A PROJECTED THREE-VOLUME SERIES, IT PRESENTS THE MAJOR SENTENCE PATTERNS IN MODERN STANDARD TURKISH AND A VOCABULARY OF ABOUT 475 HIGH FREQUENCY ITEMS. A TYPICAL UNIT CONSISTS OF…

  3. 49 CFR 1.30 - Assistant Secretaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pursuant to their Secretarial delegations of authority or other legal authorities; and (2) Assure that the..., intermodal, and other matters of Secretarial interest. (b) There are exceptions to the normal staff...

  4. 49 CFR 1.30 - Assistant Secretaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pursuant to their Secretarial delegations of authority or other legal authorities; and (2) Assure that the..., intermodal, and other matters of Secretarial interest. (b) There are exceptions to the normal staff...

  5. Exploratory investigation of lift induced on a swept wing by a two-dimensional partial-span deflected jet at Mach numbers from 0.20 to 1.30

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    An exploratory investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.20 to 1.30 to determine the induced lift characteristics of a body and swept-wing configuration having a partial-span two-dimensional propulsive nozzle with exhaust exit in the notch of the swept-wing trailing edge. The Reynolds number per meter varied from 4,900,000 to 14,030,000. The effects on wing-body characteristics of deflecting the propulsive jet in the flap mode at nominal exhaust-nozzle deflection angles of 0 deg and 30 deg were studied for two nozzle designs with different geometry and wing spans.

  6. Milestone Report - Demonstrate Braided Material with 3.5 g U/kg Sorption Capacity under Seawater Testing Condition (Milestone M2FT-15OR0310041 - 1/30/2015)

    SciTech Connect

    Janke, Christopher James; Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Yatsandra; Mayes, Richard T; Gill, Gary; Kuo, Li-Jung; Wood, Jordana

    2015-01-01

    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-15OR0310041 (1/30/2015) entitled, Demonstrate braided material with 3.5 g U/kg sorption capacity under seawater testing condition . This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent braided materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed four braided fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 3.5 g U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. The braided adsorbents were synthesized by braiding or leno weaving high surface area polyethylene fibers and conducting radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile monomers onto the braided materials followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. The four braided adsorbents demonstrated capacity values ranging from 3.7 to 4.2 g U/kg adsorbent after 56 days of exposure in natural coastal seawater at 20 oC. All data are normalized to a salinity of 35 psu.

  7. A high throughput method for the detection of metalloproteins on a microgram scale.

    PubMed

    Högbom, Martin; Ericsson, Ulrika B; Lam, Robert; Bakali H, M Amin; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Nordlund, Pär; Zamble, Deborah B

    2005-06-01

    Proteins that bind transition metals make up a substantial portion of the proteome, and the identification of a metal cofactor in a protein can greatly facilitate its functional assignment and help place it in the context of known cellular pathways. Existing methods for the detection of metalloproteins generally consume large amounts of protein, require expensive equipment, or are very labor intensive, rendering them unsuitable for use in high throughput proteomic initiatives. Here we present a method for the identification of metalloproteins that contain iron, copper, manganese, cobalt, nickel, and/or zinc that is sensitive, quick, robust, inexpensive, and can be performed with standard laboratory equipment. The assay is based on a combination of chemiluminescence and colorimetric detection methods, it typically consumes only 10 microg of protein, and most common chemical components of protein solutions do not interfere with metal detection. Analysis of 52 protein samples was compared with the results from inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry to verify the accuracy and sensitivity of the method. The assay is conducted in a 384-well format and requires about 3 h for completion, including a 2-h wait; so whole proteomes can be assayed for metal content in a matter of days. PMID:15772113

  8. Blood lead in the 21st Century: The sub-microgram challenge

    PubMed Central

    Amaya, Maria A; Jolly, Kevin W; Pingitore, Nicholas E

    2010-01-01

    In the US the dominant sources of lead through much of the 20th Century (eg, vehicular emissions, plumbing, household paint) have been significantly diminished. The reductions in adult and pediatric average blood lead levels in the US have been extraordinary. Progress continues: the US Environmental Protection Agency recently developed a new air standard for lead. In the 21st Century, the average blood lead level in a society may be seen as a marker of the status of their public’s health. However, the threat of lead exposure remains a significant public health problem among subpopulation groups in the US and in many less developed countries. This paper examines some of the specific issues involved in the reduction of blood lead in a post-industrial era. These involve the control of the remaining exogenous primary sources, both general (eg, industrial emissions) and specific (eg, at-risk occupations), exogenous secondary sources (eg, contaminated urban soils, legacy lead-based paints), an endogenous source (ie, cumulative body lead burden) and emergent sources. PMID:22282686

  9. Production of microgram amounts of einsteinium 253 by irradiating californium in a reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kulyukhin, S.A.; Averman, L.N.; Mikheev, N.B.; Novichenko, V.L.; Rumer, I.A.

    1986-07-01

    /sup 253/Es has been made by irradiating 250 microg of /sup 252/Cf in a neutron flux of 5.10/sup 14/ n/cm/sup 2/.sec for 500 h. The product, about 1 microg of einsteinium, was separated chromatographically on Aminex resin of particle size 20-25 microm. The eluent was ammonium alpha-hydroxyisobutyrate (0.14 mole/liter) at pH 4.95. The purification coefficient for Es from Cf was about 1.10/sup 5/. More extensive purification can be provided by repeating the process on another column with the same parameters.

  10. Second generation laser-heated microfurnace for the preparation of microgram-sized graphite samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Smith, A. M.; Long, S.

    2015-10-01

    We present construction details and test results for two second-generation laser-heated microfurnaces (LHF-II) used to prepare graphite samples for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at ANSTO. Based on systematic studies aimed at optimising the performance of our prototype laser-heated microfurnace (LHF-I) (Smith et al., 2007 [1]; Smith et al., 2010 [2,3]; Yang et al., 2014 [4]), we have designed the LHF-II to have the following features: (i) it has a small reactor volume of 0.25 mL allowing us to completely graphitise carbon dioxide samples containing as little as 2 μg of C, (ii) it can operate over a large pressure range (0-3 bar) and so has the capacity to graphitise CO2 samples containing up to 100 μg of C; (iii) it is compact, with three valves integrated into the microfurnace body, (iv) it is compatible with our new miniaturised conventional graphitisation furnaces (MCF), also designed for small samples, and shares a common vacuum system. Early tests have shown that the extraneous carbon added during graphitisation in each LHF-II is of the order of 0.05 μg, assuming 100 pMC activity, similar to that of the prototype unit. We use a 'budget' fibre packaged array for the diode laser with custom built focusing optics. The use of a new infrared (IR) thermometer with a short focal length has allowed us to decrease the height of the light-proof safety enclosure. These innovations have produced a cheaper and more compact device. As with the LHF-I, feedback control of the catalyst temperature and logging of the reaction parameters is managed by a LabVIEW interface.

  11. Structure and Absolute Configuration of Jurassic Polyketide-Derived Spiroborate Pigments Obtained from Microgram Quantities.

    PubMed

    Wolkenstein, Klaus; Sun, Han; Falk, Heinz; Griesinger, Christian

    2015-10-28

    Complete structural elucidation of natural products is often challenging due to structural complexity and limited availability. This is true for present-day secondary metabolites, but even more for exceptionally preserved secondary metabolites of ancient organisms that potentially provide insights into the evolutionary history of natural products. Here, we report the full structure and absolute configuration of the borolithochromes, enigmatic boron-containing pigments from a Jurassic putative red alga, from samples of less than 50 μg using microcryoprobe NMR, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations and reveal their polyketide origin. The pigments are identified as spiroborates with two pentacyclic sec-butyl-trihydroxy-methyl-benzo[gh]tetraphen-one ligands and less-substituted derivatives. The configuration of the sec-butyl group is found to be (S). Because the exceptional benzo[gh]tetraphene scaffold is otherwise only observed in the recently discovered polyketide clostrubin from a present-day Clostridium bacterium, the Jurassic borolithochromes now can be unambiguously linked to the modern polyketide, providing evidence that the fossil pigments are almost originally preserved secondary metabolites and suggesting that the pigments in fact may have been produced by an ancient bacterium. The borolithochromes differ fundamentally from previously described boronated polyketides and represent the first boronated aromatic polyketides found so far. Our results demonstrate the potential of microcryoprobe NMR in the analysis of previously little-explored secondary metabolites from ancient organisms and reveal the evolutionary significance of clostrubin-type polyketides. PMID:26443920

  12. Experimental study of the dynamics of the H+D2 --> HD+D reaction at collision energies of 0.55 and 1.30 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerrity, Daniel P.; Valentini, James J.

    1984-08-01

    We report here experimental measurement of the nascent HD product quantum state distributions for the H+D2 → HD+D reaction. Pulsed laser photolysis of HI in an HI/D2 gas mixture produces hydrogen atoms giving H+D2 collision energies of 0.55 and 1.30 eV. Nanosecond-time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy is used to record rotationally and vibrationally resolved spectra of the HD reaction product under nearly single-collision conditions. The spectra are analyzed to determine the nascent, single-collision HD product quantum state distributions. These distributions are compared to the results of related experiments by E. E. Marinero, C. T. Rettner, and R. N. Zare and to the results of recent quasiclassical trajectory calculations of N. C. Blais and D. G. Truhlar. Our results are in qualitative agreement with those of Marinero et al., but there are some quantitative differences. The trajectory calculations yield HD quantum state distributions which are very close to those we have measured. We find that our HD product quantum state distributions are fairly well summarized by a linear surprisal analysis with a rotational surprisal of 3.0 and a vibrational surprisal of 2.6. The quantum state distributions indicate that 71%±1% of the energy available to the products appears in translation, while 19%±2% is in HD rotation, and 10%±2% is in vibration. These results are discussed in terms of the dynamics of the reaction.

  13. Developmental responses to opioids reveals a lack of effect on stress-induced corticosterone levels in neonatal rats.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, C. C.; Kitchen, I.

    1987-01-01

    The neonate has an unusual capacity for survival and the possibility exists that mechanisms for controlling stress responses may differ in the developing animal. In adults both endogenous and exogenous opioids can modulate the corticosterone responses to stress. We have studied this effect in neonatal rats and found that opioid modulation is absent in early postnatal development. Neonatal rats of either sex were injected with morphine (5-50 mg kg-1), fentanyl (10-100 micrograms kg-1), buprenorphine (0.1-30 mg kg-1) or naloxone (0.1-10 mg kg-1) and plasma corticosterone measured fluorimetrically 15 or 20 min later. In addition naloxone reversibility studies (1 mg kg-1, co-administered) were carried out for the opioid agonists. In adult rats, elevations in plasma corticosterone caused by injection stress were potentiated by morphine, fentanyl and buprenorphine. In neonates, though injection stress-induced rises in plasma corticosterone were absent at 10 days, elevations were observed at 21 days and later. However, significant potentiation of this corticosterone response by fentanyl was absent at 21 days and at later ages (30 and 40 days) for morphine and buprenorphine. The potentiating effect of all three agonists did not become fully effective until day 45. In addition, in animals acclimatized to injection stress by 7 day injection pretreatment, fentanyl did not significantly alter corticosterone levels in 30 day old neonates. High doses of naloxone (10 mg kg-1) significantly increased the corticosterone response to injection stress in adult rats but this effect was absent in 30 day old animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3594070

  14. Comparison of the transplacental transfer of enalapril, captopril and losartan in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, K M; Gibson, K J; Lumbers, E R

    1995-01-01

    1. The transplacental transfers of three drugs (enalapril, captopril and losartan) which block the renin angiotensin system and have different lipophilicities were studied in chronically catheterized foetal sheep (125-139 days gestation). 2. The ability of the foeto-placental unit to convert enalapril to enalaprilat was studied in two chronically catheterized foetuses. Enalapril (3 mg kg-1, 7.9 mumol kg-1) given i.v. to the foetuses abolished the foetal pressor response to 5 micrograms angiotensin I (AI) in one foetus and attenuated the pressor response in the other. 3. Enalapril (100 mg, 5.7 mumol kg-1) given i.v. to the ewe (n = 5) abolished the maternal pressor response to 2.5 micrograms AI (n = 1) and attenuated the maternal pressor response to 5 micrograms AI (n = 5, P < 0.001). The foetal pressor response to 5 micrograms AI (n = 2) and 10 micrograms AI (n = 3) did not change. The maternal and foetal pressor responses to angiotensin II (AII; n = 5) did not change. 4. Foetal pressor responses to 5 micrograms AI (n = 1) and 10 micrograms AI (n = 2) were attenuated within 11 min of their mothers (n = 3) being given i.v. captopril (15 mg, 1.5 mumol kg-1). Foetal pressor responses to 5 micrograms AII (n = 1) and to 10 micrograms AII (n = 2) did not change. 5. Losartan (100 mg, kg-1, 21.7 mumol kg-1) given i.v. to the foetus (n = 9) attenuated the foetal pressor response to 5 micrograms AII (P < 0.001) but the maternal pressor response to 5 micrograms AII did not change.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7606354

  15. Antithrombotic actions of the thrombin inhibitor, argatroban, in a canine model of coronary cyclic flow: comparison with heparin.

    PubMed Central

    Duval, N.; Lunven, C.; O'Brien, D. P.; Grosset, A.; O'Connor, S. E.; Berry, C. N.

    1996-01-01

    1. The antithrombotic action of argatroban, a synthetic thrombin inhibitor, was studied in a canine model of coronary cyclic flow having some of the characteristics of acute unstable angina. Heparin was studied as a reference anticoagulant. 2. Localized endothelial damage was induced in the circumflex coronary artery of anaesthetized open-chest foxhounds and a critical stenosis was applied by use of a Lexan constrictor placed around the artery at the site of endothelial damage. An electro-magnetic flow probe was placed distal to the lesion, and cyclic flow variations (CFVs) were observed, as thrombi formed at the site of the arterial lesion and were dislodged. Test compounds were administered by i.v. infusion commencing 1 h after the appearance of CFVs, and maintained for 1 h. On termination of the treatments, coronary flow was observed for a further 60 min. A series of blood samples were taken at predetermined times throughout each experiment in order to determine the coagulation parameters, thrombin time (TT) activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and for the determination of fibrinopeptide A (FpA) levels before, during and post-treatment. 3. Argatroban and heparin showed antithrombotic effects in this model. Argatroban dose-dependently increased the minimum coronary flow at the nadir of the CFVs from 5.4 +/- 1.7 to 9.1 +/- 2.1 ml min-1 (30 micrograms kg-1 min-1, P = 0.041) and from 2.9 +/- 0.9 to 16.3 +/- 4.5 ml min-1 (100 micrograms kg-1 min-1, P = 0.023, n = 8 dogs at each dose level). Heparin (5 and 15 iu kg-1 min-1) also increased minimum flow, but the increase was not statistically significant at the 5% level, although the P value in animals treated with 15 iu kg-1 min-1 (P = 0.0521, n = 6 dogs) fell just outside this limit. Although neither compound significantly decreased the overall CFV frequency, argatroban (100 micrograms kg-1 min-1) significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the number of large amplitude CFVs (minimum coronary flow < 10 ml min-1) by 63

  16. Restoration of blood pressure by choline treatment in rats made hypotensive by haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Ulus, I. H.; Arslan, B. Y.; Savci, V.; Kiran, B. K.

    1995-01-01

    1. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of choline (25-150 micrograms) increased blood pressure in rats made acutely hypotensive by haemorrhage. Intraperitoneal administration of choline (60 mg kg-1) also increased blood pressure, but to a lesser extent. Following i.c.v. injection of 25 micrograms or 50 micrograms of choline, heart rate did not change, while 100 micrograms or 150 micrograms i.c.v. choline produced a slight and short lasting bradycardia. Choline (150 micrograms) failed to alter the circulating residual volume of blood in haemorrhaged rats. 2. The pressor response to i.c.v. choline (50 micrograms) in haemorrhaged rats was abolished by pretreatment with mecamylamine (50 micrograms, i.c.v.) but not atropine (10 micrograms, i.c.v.). The pressor response to choline was blocked by pretreatment with hemicholinium-3 (20 micrograms, i.c.v.). 3. The pressor response to i.c.v. choline (150 micrograms) was associated with a several fold increase in plasma levels of vasopressin and adrenaline but not of noradrenaline and plasma renin. 4. The pressor response to i.c.v. choline (150 micrograms) was not altered by bilateral adrenalectomy, but was attenuated by systemic administration of either phentolamine (10 mg kg-1) or the vasopressin antagonist [beta-mercapto-beta,beta-cyclopenta-methylenepropionyl1, O-Me-Tyr2,Arg8]-vasopressin (10 micrograms kg-1). 5. It is concluded that the precursor of acetylcholine, choline, can increase and restore blood pressure in acutely haemorrhaged rats by increasing central cholinergic neurotransmission. Nicotinic receptor activation and an increase in plasma vasopressin and adrenaline level appear to be involved in this effect of choline. PMID:8528579

  17. Biological effects of the orally active platelet activating factor receptor antagonist SDZ 64-412.

    PubMed

    Handley, D A; Van Valen, R G; Melden, M K; Houlihan, W J; Saunders, R N

    1988-11-01

    SDZ 64-412 is a trimethoxyphenylethylphenyl imidazo[2,1-a] isoquinoline molecule that displays marked in vitro inhibition of platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced human platelet aggregation (IC50 = 60 nM) but is without inhibition (at 100 microM) of epinephrine-, ADP- or collagen-induced aggregation. SDZ 64-412 antagonized receptor binding of radiolabeled PAF to human platelet membranes with an IC50 = 60 nM. In the rat, SDZ 64-412 inhibited 100 ng kg-1 PAF-induced hypotension when given i.v. (ED50 = 0.23 mg kg-1) or p.o. (ED50 = 13 mg kg-1). In the guinea pig, SDZ 64-412 inhibited 50 ng kg-1 PAF-induced bronchoconstriction (ED50 = 4.2 mg kg-1 p.o.) and hemoconcentration (ED50 = 5.0 mg kg-1 p.o.). SDZ 64-412 exhibited oral activity in the dog against 1.5 micrograms kg-1 PAF-induced hypotension (ED50 = 5.1 mg kg-1 p.o.) and hemoconcentration (ED50 = 4.9 mg kg-1) and 3.5 micrograms kg-1 PAF-induced hemoconcentration in the cebus primate (ED50 = 12.8 mg kg-1 p.o.). SDZ 64-412 protected in a dose-dependent manner against PAF-induced lethality (LD75 = 75 micrograms kg-1 i.v.) in mice, where 20 mg kg-1 p.o. improved survival from 25 +/- 4% to 77 +/- 8%. SDZ 64-412 afforded complete protection against endotoxin-induced lethality (LD90 = 7.5 mg kg-1 endotoxin i.v.) where the ED50 was 45 mg kg-1 twice predose.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3183958

  18. Morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide and morphine-3-glucuronide pharmacokinetics in newborn infants receiving diamorphine infusions.

    PubMed

    Barrett, D A; Barker, D P; Rutter, N; Pawula, M; Shaw, P N

    1996-06-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) were studied in 19 ventilated newborn infants (24-41 weeks gestation) who were given a loading dose of 50 micrograms kg-1 or 200 micrograms kg-1 of diamorphine followed by an intravenous infusion of 15 micrograms kg-1 h-1 of diamorphine. Plasma concentrations of morphine, M3G and M6G were measured during the accrual to steady-state and at steady state of the diamorphine infusion. 2. Following both the 50 micrograms kg-1 or 200 micrograms kg-1 loading doses the mean steady-state plasma concentration (+/- s.d.) of morphine, M3G and M6G were 86 +/- 52 ng ml-1, 703 +/- 400 ng ml-1 and 48 +/- 28 ng ml-1 respectively and morphine clearance was found to be 4.6 +/- 3.2 ml min-1 kg-1. 3. M3G formation clearance was estimated to be 2.5 +/- 1.8 ml min-1 kg-1, and the formation clearance of M6G was estimated to be 0.46 +/- 0.32 ml min-1 kg-1. 4. M3G metabolite clearance was 0.46 +/- 0.60 ml min-1 kg-1, the elimination half-life was 11.1 +/- 11.3 h and the volume of distribution was 0.55 +/- 1.13 l kg-1. M6G metabolite clearance was 0.71 +/- 0.36 ml min-1 kg-1, the elimination half-life was 18.2 +/- 13.6 h and the volume of distribution was 1.03 +/- 0.88 l kg-1. 5. No significant effect of the loading dose (50 micrograms kg-1 or 200 micrograms kg-1) on the plasma morphine or metabolite concentrations or their derived pharmacokinetic parameters was found. 6. We were unable to identify correlations between gestational age of the infants and any of the determined pharmacokinetic parameters. 7. M3G: morphine and M6G: morphine steady-state plasma concentration ratios were 11.0 +/- 10.8 and 0.8 +/- 0.8, respectively. 8. The metabolism of morphine in neonates, in terms of the respective contributions of each glucuronide pathway, was similar to that in adults. PMID:8799518

  19. LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-30 November 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Standard Catalog lists U.S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 which las been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  20. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides, April 1-30, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily Cable News Network Newsroom broadcasts for the month of April, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Topics covered include: the Montana standoff between federal authorities and the Freemen; debunking…

  1. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides, November 1-30, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of November, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Topics covered by the guides include: the Bosnia peace talks, hot-air balloons, salt…

  2. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. June 1-30, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides for the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of June provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Topics covered by the guides include: (1) Congressman Dan Rostenkowski, D-Day, cars and Singapore, Rodney King civil…

  3. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides, November 1-30, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of November 1997, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Topics include: U.S. leaders call for the use of force as Iraq refuses to permit access…

  4. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. September 1-30, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides for the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of August provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Topics covered by the guides include: (1) truce in Northern Ireland, school censorship, scientific method, burial…

  5. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. April 1-30, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of April, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Headlines include: Arab League boycott, Zaire peace talks, Russia and Belarus sign agreement,…

  6. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. April 1-30, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    CNN Newsroom is a daily 15-minute commercial-free news program specifically produced for classroom use and provided free to participating schools. These daily Classroom Guides are designed to accompany the broadcast, and contain activities for discussing top stories, headlines, and other current events topics; each guide also includes World Wide…

  7. Innovation Abstracts, Volume X, Numbers 1-30. 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This series of one- to two-page abstracts highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) staff development; (2) integrating computers into the curriculum; (3) a strategy for selecting and hiring good teachers; (4) faculty involvement in support services…

  8. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides, August 1-30, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily Cable News Network Newsroom broadcasts for August, 1996, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and lists of related news terms. Top stories covered include: investigation into the Centennial Olympic Park bombing; and Whitewater trial…

  9. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. November 1-30, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of November, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Topics include: presidential candidates travel the United States searching for votes, FBI…

  10. Innovation Abstracts: Volume XI, Numbers 1-30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This series of one- to two-page abstracts highlights a variety of innovative approaches to teaching and learning in the community college. Topics covered in the abstracts include: (1) cooperative planning for institutional excellence; (2) rewarding scholarship among community college faculty; (3) in-class debates as a learning strategy; (4)…

  11. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. January 1-30, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of January, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Topics include: the first mission to the moon in 25 years, Kenya reelects Daniel Arap Moi to…

  12. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. June 1-30, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides for the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of June provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussions, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Topics covered by the guides include: (1) amusement park physics, media resources and literacy, and the war in Bosnia…

  13. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. September 1-30, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of September, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Topics covered by the guides include: the women's conference in China, "No Man Is an Island"…

  14. 40Ar/39Ar dating of microgram feldspar grains from the paired feldspathic achondrites GRA 06128 and 06129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Fara N.; Herzog, Gregory F.; Park, Jisun; Delaney, Jeremy S.; Turrin, Brent D.; Swisher, Carl C.

    2014-03-01

    40Ar/39Ar ages of single feldspar grains from the paired meteorites Graves Nunatak 06128 (GRA8; 8 grains) and 06129 (GRA9; 26 grains) are presented. Plateau ages (⩾70% of the 39Ar released) ranged from 4000 to 4600 Ma with an average 1-σ uncertainty of ±90 Ma. The most precise ages obtained were 4267 ± 17 Ma for a grain from GRA8 and 4437 ± 19 Ma and 4321 ± 18 Ma for two grains from GRA9. Isotope correlation diagrams yield less precise ages ranging from 3800 to 5200 Ma with an average 1-σ uncertainty of 250 Ma; they indicate a negligible trapped component. Plateau ages, integrated total fusion ages, and isochron ages are internally concordant at the 95% confidence level. The distribution of the plateau ages for GRA9 is bimodal with peaks at 4400 and 4300 Ma. In contrast, the plateau age distribution for GRA8 peaks at about 4260 Ma with broad wings extending toward younger and older ages. To explain the distributions of grain ages we prefer a scenario that includes a major post-formation event about 4400 Ma ago and a later melt intrusion event that heated GRA8 more than some parts of GRA9.

  15. Determination of mercaptans at microgram-per-cubic-meter levels in air by gas chromatography with photoionization detection

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, V.B.; Narang, R.S.

    1982-05-01

    A method for the gas chromatographic (GC) determination of ethyl, tert-butyl, propyl, sec-butyl, and n-butyl mercaptans in air using a photoionization detector (PID) was established by using air sampling bags. Up to 5 mL of sample was injected into a Hewlett-Packard Model 588OA GC fitted with a 9 ft glass column packed with 100/120 mesh Chromosorb W AW DMCS and coated with 15% SF-96 and 6% OV-225. The oven was held at 65 /sup 0/C and the nitrogen flow rate was 30 mL/min. The photoionization detector was attached to the GC and held at 200 /sup 0/C. The GC detection limit was determined to be 0.06 ng for n-butyl mercaptan and 0.02 ng for the remaining mercaptans with precisions (n = 8, 1sigma, 4 ng) of +/- 7.3, +/- 8.5, +/- 8.1, and +/- 10% for ethyl, tert-butyl, propyl, sec-butyl, and n-butyl mercaptan, respectively. With a 5-mL injection volume, sensitivity is about 2 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ which is as sensitive as detection by smell since the oder threshold is about 2-4 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/.

  16. Determination of small dialkyl organophosphonates at microgram/l concentrations in contaminated groundwaters using multiple extraction membrane disks

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkins, B.A.; Griest, W.H.; Hearle, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    Di-isopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) and dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) are byproducts and surrogates for Sarin (GB) and VX; they are readily quantitated at {mu}g/L concentrations in groundwaters. Liter aqueous samples are fortified with triethylphosphate, then passed through a sandwich of 3 preconditioned extraction disks: glass fiber filter to remove particulates, C{sub 18}-based extraction disk to collect DIMP, and carbon-based extraction disk to collect DMMP. The two extraction disks are dried and extracted with MeOH. After the extract is fortified with with diethyl ethylphosphonate internal standard, it is analyzed using a gas chromatograph with a nitrogen- phosphorus detector. When the pump and treat criterion is used, detection limits for DMMP and DIMP are 2 {mu}g/L. Method recovery is 40-50%, based on synthetic groundwaters containing 0.2-50 {mu}g/L of each analyte. DIMP and DMMP are cleanly resolved.

  17. Measurement of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in mouse brain by h.p.l.c. with electrochemical detection, as an index of noradrenaline utilisation and presynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptor function.

    PubMed Central

    Heal, D. J.; Prow, M. R.; Buckett, W. R.

    1989-01-01

    1. A novel method for measurement of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in mouse brain by use of high performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.) with electrochemical detection is described. This technique incorporates an ethyl acetate purification procedure and uses 3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenylglycol (iso-MHPG) as the internal standard. 2. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase by injection of tranylcypromine (5 and 10 mg kg-1) or pargyline (50 and 100 mg kg-1) markedly decreased brain MHPG concentrations. After injection of the tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (200 mg kg-1), there were time-dependent linear decreases in the concentrations of noradrenaline and MHPG in mouse brain. In addition, a very good correlation (r = 0.95, n = 30; P less than 0.001) was found between the concentrations of noradrenaline and MHPG present in the brains of the same mice after alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine treatment. 3. Mouse brain MHPG concentrations were dose-dependently reduced after administration of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine (1-3000 micrograms kg-1), and elevated by the antagonists, idazoxan (1 and 5 mg kg-1), and yohimbine (1 and 5 mg kg-1). Intracerebroventricular injection of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist, phenylephrine (5-50 micrograms) dose-dependently increased MHPG levels. The alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin, had no effect at the moderate dose of 1 mg kg-1, but increased MHPG concentrations at 5 mg kg-1. The beta-adrenoceptor agonist, clenbuterol (10-1000 micrograms kg-1) and the antagonist, pindolol (1 and 5 mg kg-1), were both without effect. 4. The decrease in brain MHPG concentrations induced by clonidine (100 micrograms kg-1) was prevented by prior injection of 1 mg kg-1 of idazoxan or yohimbine, but not by prazosin or pindolol. 5. MHPG levels were decreased after administration of the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor desipramine (5 and 10 mg kg-1) and the non-selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors, sibutramine HCl (BTS

  18. Oesophageal contractility during total i.v. anaesthesia with and without glycopyrronium.

    PubMed

    Raftery, S; Enever, G; Prys-Roberts, C

    1991-05-01

    Somatic movement and spontaneous and provoked oesophageal contractions were noted at time of incision in 51 patients receiving total i.v. anaesthesia with alfentanil and propofol. Probit analysis of the dose of propofol required to prevent spontaneous movement revealed an ED50 (95% confidence limits) of 2.5 (1.8-2.9) mg kg(-1) h(-1) and ED95 of 4.7 (4.0-7.5) mg kg(-1) h(-1). Corresponding venous blood concentrations gave an EC50 of 1.2 (0.4-1.6) micrograms ml(-1) and an EC95 of 4.0 (2.8-18.5) micrograms ml(-1). ED50 of propofol for preventing spontaneous oesophageal contraction was 3.0 (1.9-3.6) mg kg(-1) h(-1). ED95 was 6.9 (5.0-27.3) mg kg(-1) h(-1); EC50 for oesophageal contractions was 1.7 (0.7-2.3) micrograms ml(-1) and EC95 was 5.9 (3.7-70.6) micrograms ml(-1). Another group of 10 patients were given glycopyrronium 5 micrograms kg(-1) at induction; oesophageal contractility was significantly reduced in this group. PMID:2031816

  19. The effects of human corticotrophin releasing factor on motor and cognitive deficits after impact acceleration injury.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, A; Marmarou, C; Marmarou, A

    2000-10-01

    Corticotrophin releasing factor has been shown in several models of tissue injury to be an effective treatment for edema. In a previous study we demonstrated this ability in two models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to assess whether human corticotrophin releasing factor (hCRF) could additionally improve motor and cognitive deficits. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into five groups and injured with the Impact Acceleration Model of TBI. Groups I and II received sham injury followed by treatment with either drug vehicle or 100 micrograms kg-1 hCRF respectively. Group III was injured with no treatment; Group IV animals were injured and treated with 50 micrograms kg-1 hCRF and Group V were injured and treated with 100 micrograms kg-1 hCRF. Animals were assessed both before and after injury with a battery of standardised neuropsychological tests including the Morris Water Maze, the Beam Walk Test, the Beam Balance Test and the Inclined Plane Test. Both 50 micrograms kg-1 and 100 micrograms kg-1 hCRF caused significant improvements in motor and cognitive functioning, confirming that in addition to edema-reducing properties, human corticotrophin releasing factor is also capable of improving motor and cognitive functioning. Given the beneficial experimental effects of this compound, hCRF may be a useful clinical treatment, which requires formal evaluation. PMID:11091970

  20. Effects of apamin on alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated changes in plasma potassium in guinea-pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Coats, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    An intravenous K+-sensitive electrode has been used to monitor plasma [K+] changes induced by adrenaline (1.4-6.8 micrograms kg-1) and amidephrine (14-340 micrograms kg-1) in anaesthetized guinea-pigs. A biphasic response consisting of an initial increase in [K+] followed, within 1 min, by a fall below baseline was observed with both agonists. Apamin (0.4-40 micrograms kg-1) reduced the hyperkalaemic phase of the response to amidephrine in a dose-related, non-competitive manner. The response to adrenaline was also reduced but to a lesser extent. Apamin caused little or no reduction of the hypokalaemic phase of the response to either agonist. PMID:6139136

  1. Influence of the dopamine receptor agonists fenoldopam and quinpirole in the rat superior mesenteric vascular bed.

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, A. G.; Lefebvre, R. A.; Vanderniepen, P.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of local administration of the dopamine 2 (DA2)-receptor agonist quinpirole and of the DA1-receptor agonist fenoldopam was studied in the in situ, constant flow autoperfused, superior mesenteric vascular bed of the rat. Local infusion of quinpirole (30 micrograms kg-1 min-1 for 5 min) had no effect on baseline perfusion pressure; it reduced the pressor responses to electrical stimulation (4 Hz, 1 ms, supramaximal voltage) of the periarterial sympathetic nerves to 45.6 +/- 2.1% of its original value but did not modify similar pressor responses produced by locally administered noradrenaline. The inhibitory effect of quinpirole was antagonized by the selective DA2-receptor antagonist domperidone (10 micrograms kg-1) but not by the selective DA1-receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (50 micrograms kg-1). Local infusion of fenoldopam (30 micrograms kg-1 min-1 for 5 min) reduced baseline perfusion pressure to 89.9 +/- 1.9%, increased the pressor response to electrical stimulation (4 Hz, 1 ms, supramaximal voltage) of the periarterial nerves to 134.7 +/- 14.0%, but reduced the pressor response to locally administered noradrenaline to 37.2 +/- 8.2%. Similar pressor responses induced by the selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine were also reduced by fenoldopam (to 38.4 +/- 6.4%), but responses to locally administered angiotensin II were not modified. Pretreatment with SCH 23390 (50 micrograms kg-1) antagonized the effect of fenoldopam on baseline perfusion pressure, but had no influence on the effect of fenoldopam on responses to electrical stimulation or to noradrenaline. Pretreatment with the selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine (100 micrograms kg-1) had no effect on the reduction in baseline perfusion pressure induced by fenoldopam nor on its inhibitory effect on the response to noradrenaline, but it antagonized the stimulatory effect of fenoldopam on the response to electrical stimulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2886174

  2. Inhibitory effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine on penile erectile function in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Finberg, J. P.; Vardi, Y.

    1990-01-01

    1. An increase in corporal pressure was elicited in pithed rats by stimulation of the sacral part of the spinal cord. This response was inhibited by intravenous injection of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) (ED50 = 28.5 +/- 2.2 micrograms kg-1). 2. The inhibitory effect of 5-HT was blocked by methysergide and methiothepin (each 1 mg kg-1), but not by ketanserin (0.02 mg kg-1), MDL 72222 (1 mg kg-1) or prazosin (0.1 mg kg-1). 3. An inhibitory effect on the corporal pressure response to spinal stimulation was also produced by 5-carboxyamidotryptamine (ED50 = 5.6 +/- 2.8 micrograms kg-1), but not by m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), RU 24969, 8-hydroxy-2-[di-n-propyl-amino]-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) or fenfluramine (doses up to 1-2 mg kg-1). 4. Neither methiothepin (1 mg kg-1) nor clomipramine (1 mg kg-1) had any effect on the frequency-response curve for increase in corporal pressure by spinal stimulation. 5. The results indicate that 5-HT exerts an inhibitory action on penile erection by a peripheral mechanism. This effect may be mediated by vasoconstriction in cavernosal vessels, or inhibition of release of a vasodilator neurotransmitter. From the spectrum of agonist and antagonist responses, the receptor involved may be of the 5-HT1D subtype. PMID:2076486

  3. Ventricular arrhythmogenic dose of adrenaline during sevoflurane, isoflurane, and halothane anaesthesia either with or without ketamine or thiopentone in cats.

    PubMed

    Hikasa, Y; Okabe, C; Takase, K; Ogasawara, S

    1996-03-01

    The doses of adrenaline required to induce ventricular arrhythmia during sevoflurane, isoflurane and halothane anaesthesia, either with or without infusions of ketamine (76 micrograms kg-1 min-1) or thiopentone (0.5 mg kg-1 min-1), were determined in cats. Groups of six to eight cats were maintained at end-tidal concentrations equivalent to 1.25 times the minimal alveolar concentration of each anaesthetic. The mean dose of adrenaline required to induce arrhythmia during sevoflurane anaesthesia (19.0 micrograms kg-1) was approximately 11 times higher than that required during halothane anaesthesia (1.66 micrograms kg-1) and the same as that required during isoflurane anaesthesia (19.0 micrograms kg-1). Ketamine tended to decrease the requirement of adrenaline during halothane anaesthesia, but not significantly, and did not change the requirement during isoflurane or sevoflurane anaesthesia. Thiopentone did not change the requirement for adrenaline during halothane, isoflurane or sevoflurane anaesthesia. It was concluded that either with or without ketamine or thiopentone, the effect of sevoflurane on the sensitisation of the feline myocardium to the arrhythmogenic effects of adrenaline was significantly less than that of halothane and not different from that of isoflurane. PMID:8685534

  4. Modulation of non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic neural bronchoconstriction in guinea-pig airways via GABAB-receptors.

    PubMed

    Belvisi, M G; Ichinose, M; Barnes, P J

    1989-08-01

    1. Evidence suggests that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its receptors are present in the peripheral nervous system. We have now investigated the effect of GABA and related substances on non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) neurally-evoked bronchoconstriction in the anaesthetised guinea-pig. 2. Bilateral vagal stimulation (5 V, 5 ms, 3 or 5 Hz) for 30 s, after propranolol (1 mg kg-1 i.v.) and atropine (1 mg kg-1 i.v.) evoked a NANC bronchoconstrictor response manifest as a mean tracheal pressure rise of 21.9 +/- 1.04 cmH2O (n = 70). The bronchoconstrictor response was reproducible for any given animal. 3. GABA (10 micrograms-10 mg kg-1 i.v.) did not alter basal tracheal pressure but reduced the NANC bronchoconstrictor response to vagal stimulation in a dose-dependent manner (ED50 = 186 micrograms kg-1 with a maximal inhibition of 74 +/- 3.4% at 10 mg kg-1). Neither the opioid antagonist naloxone (1 mg kg-1 i.v.) nor the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (2.5 mg kg-1 i.v.) had any significant effect on the inhibitory response produced by GABA (500 micrograms kg-1). 4. GABA-induced inhibition was not antagonised by the GABAA-antagonist bicuculline (2 mg kg-1 i.v.). 5. The GABAB-agonist baclofen (10 micrograms-3 mg kg-1 i.v.) caused a dose-dependent inhibition of the NANC response (ED50 = 100 micrograms kg-1 with a maximal inhibition of 35.5 +/- 2.8% at 3 mg kg-1). The GABAA-agonist, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-C] pyridin-3-ol (THIP), also inhibited the NANC bronchoconstrictor response. However, the dose of THIP required for this effect was high (3 mg kg- ') and the effect ( <10% inhibition) was small. 6. Substance P (SP; 5upgkg-1 or 25pgkg-1), produced a bronchoconstrictor response equivalent to that produced by NANC vagal stimulation. This response was significantly increased by injection of GABA. Baclofen had no significant effect on responses evoked by exogenous SP. 7. We conclude that GABA inhibits the release of transmitter from NANC nerves

  5. Effects of a potassium channel opener (SDZ PCO 400) on guinea-pig and human pulmonary airways.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, I. D.; Kristersson, A.; Mathelin, G.; Schaeublin, E.; Mazzoni, L.; Boubekeur, K.; Murphy, N.; Morley, J.

    1992-01-01

    1. SDZ PCO 400 evoked dose-related relaxation of isolated airway smooth muscle. For human bronchus precontracted by endogenous tone or addition of carbachol (10(-5) M), IC50 values were 1.74 microM and 1.82 microM respectively. With guinea-pig trachea contracted by endogenous tone, a comparable IC50 (1.79 microM) was observed, but no IC50 (less than 100 microM) could be determined following contraction by carbachol (10(-6) M). 2. Airway obstruction induced by intravenous bombesin in the anaesthetized ventilated guinea-pig was diminished by intravenous injection of SDZ PCO 400 (ID50 54 micrograms kg-1) or by introduction into the duodenum (ID50 1.0 mg kg-1). Inhalation of nebulized SDZ PCO 400 (0.1 mg kg-1) diminished airway obstruction due to intravenous injection of histamine (3.2-5.6 micrograms kg-1) for up to 20 min. 3. Increased bronchoconstrictor responses to bombesin (180-240 ng kg-1) following intravenous infusion of platelet activating factor (PAF) or (+/-)-isoprenaline, or to histamine (1.0-3.2 micrograms kg-1) following intravenous injections of immune complexes, were suppressed following concomitant intravenous infusion of SDZ PCO 400 (ID50 0.3 mg kg-1 h-1, 1.0 mg kg-1 h-1 and 0.1 mg kg-1 h-1 respectively). 4. Intravenous injection of SDZ PCO 400 (0.1 mg kg-1) effected transient (less than 10 min) inhibition of histamine-induced bronchospasm, yet diminished, for prolonged periods [up to 40 min] the enhanced bronchoconstrictor responses to histamine that followed intravenous injections of immune complexes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1382782

  6. The Y{sub 5−x}Mg{sub 24+x}(1.08(4)≤x≤1.30(1)) series and a ternary derivative Ce{sub 6.9}Y{sub 12.5(7)}Mg{sub 92.2}: A comparison of their crystal and electronic structures

    SciTech Connect

    You, Tae-Soo; Jung, Yaho; Han, Mi-Kyung; Miller, Gordon J.

    2013-08-15

    The Y{sub 5−x}Mg{sub 24+x} series and a ternary derivative, Ce{sub 0.36}Y{sub 0.64(2)}Mg{sub 4.76}, have been synthesized using high-temperature methods and characterized by both powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The Y{sub 5−x}Mg{sub 24+x} series upon quenching from 580 °C crystallizes over the range 1.08(4)≤x≤1.30(1) in the cubic α-Mn structure type (I4{sup ¯}3m, Z=2, Pearson symbol cI58) with mixed occupancy of Y and Mg at the 8c site. As Mg content increases, the corresponding lattice parameter a increases from 11.2337(6) Å for Y{sub 3.92(4)}Mg{sub 25.08} to 11.256(2) Å for Y{sub 3.70(1)}Mg{sub 25.30}. Attempts to replace Y atoms with larger, isovalent Ce atoms yielded Ce{sub 6.9}Y{sub 12.5(7)}Mg{sub 92.2}(=Ce{sub 0.36}Y{sub 0.64(2)}Mg{sub 4.76}), which adopts a defect Sm{sub 11}Cd{sub 45} structure type (F4{sup ¯}3m, Z=8, Pearson symbol cF446.4), with a lattice parameter a=22.443(2) Å that is nearly twice larger than those of the Y{sub 5−x}Mg{sub 24+x} series. The complex crystal structure of this ternary derivative can be described as an ordered, body-centered cubic packing of four chemically and structurally distinctive “nested-polyhedra,” two 27-atom and two 29-atom, α-Mn units. Electronic structure calculations show nearly free electron like behavior, but with a distinctive pseudogap in the density of states curve for the ternary system. - Graphical abstract: Reported is the Mg-rich intermetallic compounds Y{sub 5−x}Mg{sub 24+x} series adopting the cubic α-Mn type structure and its complex ternary derivative Ce{sub 6.9}Y{sub 12.5}Mg{sub 92.2} crystallized in a defect Sm{sub 11}Cd{sub 45} type structure with a nearly twice larger lattice parameter than those of the Y{sub 5−x}Mg{sub 24+x} series. Electronic structure calculations show nearly free electron like behavior, but with a distinctive pseudogap in the density of states curve for the ternary system. Highlights: • The Y{sub 5−x}Mg{sub 24+x} series and Ce{sub 6

  7. Dose-dependent pharmacokinetics of zoxazolamine in the rat.

    PubMed

    Van der Graaff, M; Vermeulen, N P; Crul, I E; Breimer, D D

    1986-01-01

    Zoxazolamine (ZX) is a model substrate frequently used in studies on (methylcholanthrene-inducible) hepatic cytochrome P-450 activity. The iv pharmacokinetics of ZX were studied in rats at four dose levels: 5 mg X kg-1 (n = 6), 25 mg X kg-1 (n = 6), 50 mg X kg-1 (n = 5), and 60 mg X kg-1 (n = 4). Concentrations of ZX in blood, as well as the urinary excretion of unchanged ZX and chlorzoxazone, were determined. The apparent systemic clearance (CLs,app) decreased with increasing dose from 52.6 +/- 3.9 at 5 mg X kg-1 to 9.3 +/- 0.4 ml X min-1 X kg-1 at 60 mg X kg-1. The apparent elimination half-life, t1/2,app, increased from 16.1 +/- 0.3 min to 141 +/- 28.5 min. There was only slight concentration dependency of plasma protein binding: 86.0 +/- 0.9% at 4.2 +/- 0.2 micrograms X ml-1 (n = 6) vs. 80.4 +/- 0.4% at 27.1 +/- 1.1 micrograms X ml-1 (n = 6). Since from clearance and protein binding data nonrestrictive clearance of ZX could be inferred, this small change in binding was regarded as irrelevant for the interpretation of pharmacokinetic data of ZX. The blood-plasma concentration ratio was larger than unity: 2.11 +/- 0.09 at 5.4 +/- 0.9 micrograms X ml-1, and 1.85 +/- 0.08 at 47.9 +/- 4.9 micrograms X ml-1 (n = 5).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2872034

  8. Factors affecting magnitude and time course of neuromuscular block produced by suxamethonium.

    PubMed

    Vanlinthout, L E; van Egmond, J; de Boo, T; Lerou, J G; Wevers, R A; Booij, L H

    1992-07-01

    This study was designed to identify factors that significantly alter the magnitude and duration of suxamethonium-induced neuromuscular block in patients with an apparently normal genotype for pseudocholinesterase. One hundred and fifty-six adults (ages 18-65 yr) were allocated to 13 subgroups. Patients in each subgroup received suxamethonium 50-2000 micrograms kg-1. The mechanographic response of the adductor pollicis brevis muscle to ulnar nerve stimulation was recorded. The ED50 was found to be 167 micrograms kg-1, ED90 was 316 micrograms kg-1 and ED95 was 392 micrograms kg-1. The duration of action (delta t) was in agreement with earlier published results. The magnitude of block was dose-related and decreased with increasing onset time (ton) and pseudocholinesterase activity (PChA). Neither age nor gender affected the degree of suxamethonium-induced block. Delta t was dose-related, decreased with increasing PChA, and was shorter for women. Age and ton had no effect on delta t. PMID:1637599

  9. Evidence for increased beta-adrenoreceptor responsiveness induced by 14 days of simulated microgravity in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Polet, J. L.; Engelke, K. A.; Hoffler, G. W.; Lane, L. D.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Eckberg, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    We studied hemodynamic responses to alpha- and beta-receptor agonists in eight healthy men before and after 14 days of 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) to test the hypothesis that increased adrenoreceptor responsiveness is induced by prolonged exposure to simulated microgravity. Steady-state infusions of isoproterenol (Iso) at rates of 0.005, 0.01, and 0.02 microgram.kg-1.min-1 were used to assess beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoreceptor responsiveness. Infusions of phenylephrine (PE) at rates of 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 microgram.kg-1.min-1 were used to assess responsiveness of alpha 1-vascular adrenoreceptors. Slopes calculated from linear regressions between Iso and PE doses and changes in beat-to-beat heart rate, blood pressure, and leg vascular resistance (occlusion plethysmography) for each subject were used as an index of alpha- and beta-adrenoreceptor responsiveness. HDT increased the slopes of heart rate (1,056 +/- 107 to 1,553 +/- 83 beats micrograms-1.kg-1.min-1; P = 0.014) and vasodilation (-469 +/- 111 to -1,446 +/- 309 peripheral resistance units.microgram-1.kg-1.min-1; P = 0.0224) to Iso infusion. There was no alteration in blood pressure or vascular resistance responses to PE infusion after HDT. Our results provide evidence that simulated microgravity causes selective increases in beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoreceptor responsiveness without affecting alpha 1-vascular adrenoreceptor responses.

  10. Prostaglandin E2 causes hypoventilation and apnea in newborn lambs.

    PubMed

    Guerra, F A; Savich, R D; Wallen, L D; Lee, C H; Clyman, R I; Mauray, F E; Kitterman, J A

    1988-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that prostaglandin (PG) E2 is a respiratory depressant in the newborn lamb, 12 chronically catheterized, unanesthetized lambs (age 2-6 days) were infused with progressively increasing doses of PGE2 (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1; 30 min for each dose) into the ascending aorta. PGE2 caused significant progressive decreases in ventilation (due to decreased tidal volume and breathing rate), heart rate, blood pressure, and percent of the time spent in low-voltage electrocortical activity (LVA). PGE2 also caused respiratory acidosis, hypoxemia, and increased frequency and duration of apneic events (greater than 3 s). During the infusion there was a dose-related increase in plasma concentration of PGE2. At 30 min postinfusion, all measured variables showed recovery, although arterial pH, CO2 tension, and plasma PGE2 remained significantly different from control values, and the percent time in LVA was even higher than during control. Infusion of the vehicle alone (n = 5) caused no significant changes in any of the measured variables. The results, taken in combination with previous fetal studies, indicate that PGE2 has marked inhibitory effects on breathing movements both before and after birth. PMID:3164715

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis pncA Polymorphisms That Do Not Confer Pyrazinamide Resistance at a Breakpoint Concentration of 100 Micrograms per Milliliter in MGIT

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Michael G.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Sampson, Samantha L.; Sirgel, Frik A.; van Helden, Paul D.; Mercante, Alexandra; Willby, Melisa; Hughes, Kelsey; Birkness, Kris; Morlock, Glenn; van Rie, Annelies; Posey, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis pncA gene allows for pyrazinamide susceptibility testing. We summarize data on pncA polymorphisms that do not confer resistance at a susceptibility breakpoint of 100 μg/ml pyrazinamide in MGIT within a cohort of isolates from South Africa and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:26292310

  12. MICROEXTRACTION OF NINE HALOACETIC ACIDS IN DRINKING WATER AT MICROGRAM PER LITER LEVELS WITH ELECTROSPRAY-MASS SPECTROMETRY OF STABLE ASSOCIATION COMPLEXES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Haloacetic acids are disinfection by-products of the chlorination of drinking water. This paper presents the analysis of all nine chloro- and bromo-haloacetic acids (HAA9) at sub- ug L-1 by microextraction with detection by electrospray mass spectrometry. The haloacetic acids are...

  13. Determination of sub-microgram amounts of selenium in geological materials by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry with electrothermal atomisation after solvent extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzolone, R.F.; Chao, T.T.

    1981-01-01

    An atomic-absorption spectrophotometric method with electrothermal atomisation has been developed for the determination of selenium in geological materials. The sample is decomposed with a mixture of nitric, perchloric and hydrofluoric acids and heated with hydrochloric acid to reduce selenium to selenium (IV). Selenium is then extracted into toluene from a hydrochloric acid - hydrobromic acid medium containing iron. A few microlitres of the toluene extract are injected into a carbon rod atomiser, using a nickel solution as a matrix modifier. The limits of determination are 0.2-200 p.p.m. of selenium in a geological sample. For concentrations between 0.05 and 0.2 p.p.m., back-extraction of the selenium into dilute hydrochloric acid is employed before atomisation. Selenium values for reference samples obtained by replicate analysis are in general agreement with those reported by other workers, with relative standard deviations ranging from 4.1 to 8.8%. Recoveries of selenium spiked at two levels were 98-108%. Major and trace elements commonly encountered in geological materials do not interfere. Arsenic has a suppressing effect on the selenium signals, but only when its concentration is greater than 1000 p.p.m. Nitric acid interferes seriously with the extraction of selenium and must be removed by evaporation in the sample-digestion step.

  14. Position-Specific Gene Expression Analysis Using a Microgram Dissection Method Combined with On-Bead cDNA Library Construction.

    PubMed

    Kajiyama, Tomoharu; Fujii, Akihiko; Arikawa, Kouji; Habu, Toru; Mochizuki, Nobuyoshi; Nagatani, Akira; Kambara, Hideki

    2015-07-01

    Gene expression analysis is a key technology that is used to understand living systems. Multicellular organisms, including plants, are composed of various tissues and cell types, each of which exhibits a unique gene expression pattern. However, because of their rigid cell walls, plant cells are difficult to isolate from the whole plant. Although laser dissection has been used to circumvent this problem, the plant sample needs to be fixed beforehand, which presents several problems. In the present study, we developed an alternative method to conduct highly reliable gene expression profiling. First, we assembled a dissection apparatus that used a narrow, sharpened needle to dissect out a microsample of fresh plant tissue (0.1-0.2 mm on each side) automatically from a target site within a short time frame. Then, we optimized a protocol to synthesize a high-quality cDNA library on magnetic beads using a single microsample. The cDNA library was amplified and subjected to high-throughput sequencing. In this way, a stable and reliable system was developed to conduct gene expression profiling in small regions of a plant. The system was used to analyze the gene expression patterns at successive 50 µm intervals in the shoot apex of a 4-day-old Arabidopsis seedling. Clustering analysis of the data demonstrated that two small, adjacent domains, the shoot apical meristem and the leaf primordia, were clearly distinguishable. This system should be broadly applicable in the investigation of the spatial organization of gene expression in various contexts. PMID:26092972

  15. Initial clinical experience with remifentanil, a new opioid metabolized by esterases.

    PubMed

    Dershwitz, M; Randel, G I; Rosow, C E; Fragen, R J; Connors, P M; Librojo, E S; Shaw, D L; Peng, A W; Jamerson, B D

    1995-09-01

    Remifentanil is a new, esterase-metabolized opioid for anesthesia. Nonspecific esterases terminate the drug effect, with a context-sensitive half-time which plateaus at 3-4 min. This dose-ranging pilot study was designed to estimate the dose requirement of remifentanil for abolition of the responses to skin incision and intraoperative stimuli, and to determine the speed of recovery. Fifty-one unpremedicated patients took part at two centers. Anesthesia was induced with propofol, 67% nitrous oxide, and vecuronium. Remifentanil was then given (1 microgram/kg, plus an infusion of 0.0125-1.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1). Responses were defined as: > 15% increase in systolic blood pressure or > 20% increase in heart rate, tearing, sweating, movement, or coughing. Responses to incision or surgery were treated with 0.5 micrograms/kg remifentanil boluses and a 50% increase in infusion rate, which could be done twice. Subsequent responses were treated with propofol or isoflurane. Remifentanil and nitrous oxide administration were terminated after the incision was closed. ED50 for response to skin incision varied between the two study sites (0.020 and 0.087 microgram.kg-1.min-1). ED50 for response to all surgical stimuli was 0.52 microgram.kg-1.min-1. At 0.3 microgram.kg-1.min-1 or more, only 3 of 21 patients required isoflurane. Recovery was not longer in patients receiving larger doses to spontaneous ventilation (2.5-4.6 min), tracheal extubation (4.2-7.0 min), and response to verbal command (3.0-4.6 min). Postoperative pain was reported in most patients (92%) at a median time of 21 min. We conclude that remifentanil was effective and well tolerated as a component of nitrous oxide-opioid-relaxant anesthesia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7653833

  16. The antiarrhythmic effects of the nucleoside transporter inhibitor, R75231, in anaesthetized pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Wainwright, C. L.; Parratt, J. R.; Van Belle, H.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effect of R75231, an inhibitor of purine nucleoside transport, were examined on ischaemic arrhythmias in anaesthetized pigs. 2. In closed chest pigs (n = 4), R75231 exerted a moderate dose-dependent decrease in mean arterial blood pressure (from 97 +/- 4 mmHg to 95 +/- 4, 90 +/- 1 and 83 +/- 2 mmHg at 25, 50 and 100 micrograms kg-1 respectively) and produced a dose-related shift to the left of the blood pressure dose-response curve to intravenous bolus doses of adenosine. The degree of inhibition of adenosine uptake by R75231, assessed ex vivo in erythrocyte suspensions, was 43 +/- 5%, 64 +/- 13 and 114 +/- 15% at doses of 25, 50 and 100 micrograms kg-1 respectively. 3. In open chest pigs, intravenous injection of R75231 (50 micrograms kg-1; n = 6 and 100 micrograms kg-1; n = 10) induced a dose-related decrease in both systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure which was more marked than in closed-chest pigs (mean pressure 86 +/- 4 to 70 +/- 2 mmHg and 88 +/- 6 to 60 +/- 6 mmHg with 50 and 100 micrograms kg-1 respectively), without affecting heart rate or myocardial contractility. Coronary artery occlusion in these pigs caused a secondary decrease in blood pressure. This was not observed in controls (n = 10). The lower dose of R75231 did not exert any antifibrillatory effects, whereas the higher dose significantly reduced the incidence of ventricular fibrillation, from 80% in control pigs to 30%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8358559

  17. I.v. lidocaine worsens histamine-induced bronchoconstriction in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hirota, K; Hashimoto, Y; Sato, T; Yoshioka, H; Kudo, T; Ishihara, H; Matsuki, A

    1999-01-01

    We have assessed the effect of lidocaine (lignocaine) on histamine-induced bronchoconstriction by direct visualization with a superfine fibreoptic bronchoscope. Seven mongrel dogs were anaesthetized with pentobarbital (pentobarbitone) 30 mg kg-1 followed by 2 mg kg-1 h-1 and pancuronium 200 micrograms kg-1 h-1. The trachea was intubated with a tracheal tube containing a second lumen for insertion of a 2.2-mm fibreoptic bronchoscope. This allowed estimation of the bronchial cross-sectional area (BCA) of the third bronchial bifurcation of the right lung. We used NIH image, a public domain image processing and analysis program. Bronchoconstriction was produced with a bolus dose of histamine 10 micrograms kg-1 i.v. followed by continuous infusion of 500 micrograms kg-1 h-1. After 30 min the following i.v. doses of lidocaine were given: lidocaine 0 (saline), 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mg kg-1 at 10-min intervals. BCA was assessed 90 s after each dose. Arterial blood sampling was performed for measurement of plasma catecholamines. Lidocaine 1.0 and 10 mg kg-1 significantly reduced histamine-decreased BCA from 69.7 (SEM 4.1)% to 59.8 (7.3)% and 34.3 (6.8)%, respectively. Plasma concentrations of catecholamines decreased significantly after lidocaine 10 mg kg-1 i.v. In addition, there was a significant correlation between percentage decreases in plasma concentrations of epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and reduction in %BCA (epinephrine-BCA, P < 0.01, r = 0.674; norepinephrine-BCA, P < 0.01, r = 0.510). This study suggests that i.v. lidocaine may exacerbate histamine-induced bronchoconstriction by a sympatholytic effect. This may have therapeutic implications for patients with acute asthma or anaphylactic shock who may become dependent on circulating catecholamines. PMID:10325842

  18. Study of the in vivo and in vitro cardiovascular effects of (+)-glaucine and N-carbethoxysecoglaucine in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Orallo, F; Fernández Alzueta, A; Campos-Toimil, M; Calleja, J M

    1995-01-01

    1. The cardiovascular and vasorelaxant effects of (+)-glaucine and of a semisynthetic derivative (N-carbethoxysecoglaucine) were studied in rats. 2. N-carbethoxysecoglaucine did not modify either systolic arterial pressure or heart rate values in conscious (25 mg kg-1, p.o.) and anaesthetized normotensive rats (5 mg kg-1, i.v.). Furthermore, this compound showed no activity in the experiments carried out on rat isolated aorta [contractility and 45Ca2+ influx assays (5 microM)] and did not modify the rate and force of contraction in rat isolated atria (5 microM). 3. In conscious normotensive rats, oral administration of (+)-glaucine (25 mg kg-1) did not modify either systolic arterial pressure or heart rate. 4. In anaesthetized normotensive rats, (+)-glaucine (5 mg kg-1, i.v.) produced a remarkable fall in mean arterial pressure (MAP) accompanied by a significant decrease in heart rate. In the same preparation, (+)-glaucine (5 mg kg-1, i.v.) did not modify the cardiovascular effects induced by noradrenaline (NA) (5 micrograms kg-1) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) (300 micrograms kg-1) but markedly inhibited those induced by nicotine (200 micrograms kg-1). 5. In isolated intact aorta of rat, (+)-glaucine (0.15-5 microM) competitively inhibited the contractions induced by NA (with a pA2 value of 7.14) and non-competitively those induced by 5-HT (in normal Krebs solution) and Ca2+ (in depolarizing Ca(2+)-free high-K+ 50 mM solution), with depression of the maximal response and with pD2 values of 5.56 and 5.26, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7606346

  19. Comparative effects of cyclo-oxygenase and nitric oxide synthase inhibition on the development and reversal of spinal opioid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Powell, K J; Hosokawa, A; Bell, A; Sutak, M; Milne, B; Quirion, R; Jhamandas, K

    1999-06-01

    1. This study examined the effects of the COX inhibitors, ketorolac and ibuprofen, and the NOS inhibitor L-NAME for their potential to both inhibit the development and reverse tolerance to the antinociceptive action of morphine. 2. Repeated administration of intrathecal morphine (15 micrograms), once daily, resulted in a progressive decline of antinociceptive effect and an increase in the ED50 value in the tailflick and paw pressure tests. Co-administration of ketorolac (30 and 45 micrograms) or S(+) ibuprofen (10 micrograms) with morphine (15 micrograms) prevented the decline of antinociceptive effect and increase in ED50 value. Similar treatment with L-NAME (100 micrograms) exerted weaker effects. Administration of S(+) but not R(-) ibuprofen (10 mg kg-1) had similar effects on systemic administration of morphine (15 mg kg-1). 3. Intrathecal or systemic administration of the COX or NOS inhibitors did not alter the baseline responses in either tests. Acute keterolac or S(+) ibuprofen also did not potentiate the acute actions of spinal or systemic morphine, but chronic intrathecal administration of these agents increased the potency of acute morphine. 4. In animals already tolerant to intrathecal morphine, subsequent administration of ketorolac (30 micrograms) with morphine (15 micrograms) partially restored the antinociceptive effect and ED50 value of acute morphine, reflecting the reversal of tolerance. Intrathecal L-NAME (100 micrograms) exerted a weaker effect. 5. These data suggest that spinal COX activity, and to a lesser extent NOS activity, contributes to the development and expression of opioid tolerance. Inhibition of COX may represent a useful approach for the prevention as well as reversal of opioid tolerance. PMID:10401553

  20. Stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors in the dorsal hippocampus and inhibition of limbic seizures induced by kainic acid in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Gariboldi, M.; Tutka, P.; Samanin, R.; Vezzani, A.

    1996-01-01

    1. We studied whether the stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors by 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), a specific 5-HT1A receptor agonist, reduced electroencephalographic (EEG) seizures induced by intrahippocampal injection of 0.04 microgram in 0.5 microliter of the glutamate analogue kainic acid in freely-moving rats. 2. Pretreatment with 8-OH-DPAT 15 min earlier at the same site as kainic acid injection, caused a dose-dependent decrease of kainic acid-induced seizure activity. One and 10 micrograms significantly reduced the total time spent in seizures by 72% on average and the total number of seizures by 58% (P < 0.01) and 43% (P < 0.05) respectively. The latency to onset of the first seizure was increased 2.8 times (P < 0.01) only after 1 microgram 8-OH-DPAT; 0.1 microgram was ineffective on all seizure parameters. 3. Systemic administration of 25, 100 and 1000 micrograms kg-1 8-OH-DPAT significantly reduced the total number of seizures and the total time in seizures induced by intrahippocampal kainic acid by 52% and 74% on average. The latency to onset of the first seizure was delayed 1.8 times by 100 and 1000 micrograms kg-1 (P < 0.05). 4. The anticonvulsant action of 8-OH-DPAT given intrahippocampally or systemically was significantly blocked by 5 micrograms, but not 1 microgram WAY 100635, a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, administered in the hippocampus before the agonist. 5. These results indicate that postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in the hippocampus mediate the anticonvulsant action of 8-OH-DPAT and that their stimulation has an inhibitory role in the generation of limbic seizures. PMID:8922726

  1. Title list of documents made publicly available, June 1-30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This document is a monthly publication describing information received and published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and published by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, {open_quotes}docketed{close_quotes} does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records.

  2. Title list of documents made publicly available, November 1--30, 1994. Volume 16, No. 11

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This document is a monthly publication containing descriptions of information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials, and nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. The following indexes are included: Personal Author, Corporate Source, Report Number, and Cross Reference of Enclosures to Principal Documents.

  3. Title list of documents made publicly available: April 1--30, 1996. Volume 18, Number 4

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This publication describes the information received and published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) non-docketed material received and published by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index.

  4. Title List of documents made publicly available, September 1--30, 1993. Volume 15, No. 9

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is a monthly publication containing descriptions of information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials, and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. The following indexes are included: Personal Author, Corporate Source, Report Number, and Cross Reference of Enclosures to Principals Documents.

  5. Concentration of oil shale by froth flotation. Monthly technical letter report, April 1-30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, G.

    1983-07-28

    Highlights of progress during April 1983 are sumarized. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether the fine shale particles produced during crushing can be upgraded by froth flotation. The Anvil points shale was crushed in a jaw crusher followed by pulverizing in a disintegrator. The pulverized shale with a top particle size of 0.05 cm was separated into three size fractions. The results of flotation with these fractions are shown. The results indicated that upgrading is possible with the relatively coarse particles (> 100 ..mu..mm). However the kerogen content of the concentrate and the recovery of kerogen were considerably less with the dry pulverized shale than with the wet ground shale for the same particle size range. The fine particles (< 100 ..mu..m,) obtained from pulverizing were highly hydrophobic and could not be wetted easily; they tend to float on the water rather than sink unless severely agitated mechanically. During froth flotation most of the shale particles ended up in the concentrate (froth) resulting in no upgrading. These observations indicate the fines produced during crushing operations can be upgraded by froth flotation except when they are extremely fine.

  6. LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-30 April 1976. [LANDSAT imagery for April, 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Information regarding the availability of LANDSAT imagery processed and input to the data files by the NASA Data Processing Facility is published on a monthly basis. The U.S. Standard Catalog includes imagery covering the continental United States, Alaska and Hawaii. The Non-U.S. Standard Catalog identifies all the remaining coverage. Sections 1 and 2 describe the contents and format for the catalogs and the associated microfilm. Section 3 provides a cross-reference defining the beginning and ending dates for LANDSAT cycles. Sections 4 and 5 cover LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 coverage, respectively.

  7. A liquid xenon imaging telescope for 1-30 MeV gamma-ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena; Mukherjee, Reshmi; Suzuki, Masayo

    1989-01-01

    A study of the primary scintillation light in liquid xenon excited by 241 Am alpha particles and 207 Bi internal conversion electrons are discussed. The time dependence and the intensity of the light at different field strengths have been measured with a specifically designed chamber, equipped with a CaF sub 2 light transmitting window coupled to a UV sensitive PMT. The time correlation between the fast light signal and the charge signal shows that the scintillation signals produced in liquid xenon by ionizing particles provides an ideal trigger in a Time Projection type LXe detector aiming at full imaging of complex gamma-ray events. Researchers also started Monte Carlo calculations to establish the performance of a LXe imaging telescope for high energy gamma-rays.

  8. Title list of documents made publicly available, April 1--30 1997, Vol. 19, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, E.B.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the information received and published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes: (1) material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) material received and published by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. In this report, 7 items of the first type are included, and 25 regulatory type items are listed. The report is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index.

  9. Title list of documents made publicly available, November 1-30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available is a monthly publication. It contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index and a Report Number Index. The docketed information contained in the Title List includes the information formerly issued through the Department of Energy publication Power Reactor Docker Information, last published in January 1979. NRC documents that are publicly available may be examined without charge at the NRC Public Document Room (PDR). Duplicate copies may be obtained for a fee. Standing orders for certain categories of documents are also available. Clients may search for and order desired titles through the PDR computerized Bibliographic Retrieval System, which is accessible both at the PDR and remotely. The PDR is staffed by professional technical librarians, who provide reference assistance to users.

  10. Title list of documents made publicly available, September 1-30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available is a monthly publication. It describes the information received and published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and published by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index.

  11. Title list of documents made publicly available: September 1--30, 1996. Volume 18, Number 9

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The report describes the information received and published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) non-docketed material received and published by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index.

  12. Observations of 1-30 MeV gamma rays from the galactic center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanrosso, E.; Long, J. L.; Zych, A. D.; White, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary results are reported for gamma ray observations of the galactic center region made during a 15-hour balloon flight from Alice Springs, Australia on April 18, 1979. The observations were carried out with the UGR double-scatter gamma-ray telescope at energies of 1 to 30 MeV. The observations are compatible with a galactic source of approximately equal brightness along the region of system II galactic longitudes between 300 and 60 deg. The energy distribution joins smoothly to previous spark chamber results at energies above 30 MeV and to scintillator results below 1 MeV. It appears to be a combination of nuclear gamma ray lines superimposed on a power-law bremsstrahlung spectrum. The metastable C-12 line at 4.4 MeV appears to be present with a significance of about 16 standard deviations. The flux in the line is 0.0006 + or - 0.0003 photons/sq cm per sec per rad. The oxygen line at 6.1 MeV does not seem to appear significantly above background.

  13. 17 CFR 1.30 - Loans by futures commission merchants; treatment of proceeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... funds on an unsecured basis to finance customers' trading, nor may a futures commission merchant loan... TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Customers' Money, Securities,...

  14. Title list of documents made publicly available: November 1--30, 1997. Volume 19, Number 11

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This document is a monthly publication containing descriptions of information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. The following indexes are included: Personal Author, Corporate source, Report Number, and Cross Reference of Enclosures to Principal Documents.

  15. Title list of documents made publicly available, April 1-30, 1995. Volume 17, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This document is NUREG-0540, Volume 17, Number 4. The Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available is a monthly publication, It contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US NRC. This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials, and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by the NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which the NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a personal author index, a corporate source index, and a report number index.

  16. Title list of documents made publicly available: June 1--30, 1995. Volume 17, Number 6

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This monthly publication contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index.

  17. Progress reports for period November 1--30, 1994 -- Joint UK/US Radar Program

    SciTech Connect

    Twogood, R.E.; Brase, J.M.; Mantrom, D.D.; Chambers, D.H.; Robey, H.F.

    1994-12-19

    This report gives the principle investigator, objectives, recent accomplishments, milestones for reporting period, expected milestones for ensuing period, other issues and planned expenditures for the following programs: airborne RAR/SAR; radar data processor; ground-based SAR signal processing workstation; static airborne radar; multi-aperture space-time array radar; radar field experiments; data analysis and detection theory; management; E-2C radar data analysis;modeling and analysis; current meter array; UCSB wave tank; stratified flow facility; and IR sensor system. Budget status is also given.

  18. Title list of documents made publicly available, September 1--30, 1994. Volume 16, No. 9

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This document is a monthly publication containing descriptions of information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials, and nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. The following indexes are included: Personal Author, Corporate Source, Report Number, and Cross Reference of Enclosures to Principal Documents.

  19. LANDSAT US standard catalog, 1-30 September 1977. [LANDSAT imagery for September, 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The U. S. Standard Catalog lists U. S. imagery acquired by LANDSAT 1 and 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover, and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  20. Differential effects of K+ channel blockers on antinociception induced by alpha 2-adrenoceptor, GABAB and kappa-opioid receptor agonists.

    PubMed Central

    Ocaña, M.; Baeyens, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of several K+ channel blockers (sulphonylureas, 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium) on the antinociception induced by clonidine, baclofen and U50,488H were evaluated by use of a tail flick test in mice. 2. Clonidine (0.125-2 mg kg-1, s.c.) induced a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect. The ATP-dependent K+ (KATP) channel blocker gliquidone (4-8 micrograms/mouse, i.c.v.) produced a dose-dependent displacement to the right of the clonidine dose-response line, but neither 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) (25-250 ng/mouse, i.c.v.) nor tetraethylammonium (TEA) (10-20 micrograms/mouse, i.c.v.) significantly modified clonidine-induced antinociception. 3. The order of potency of sulphonylureas in antagonizing clonidine-induced antinociception was gliquidone > glipizide > glibenclamide > tolbutamide, which is the same order of potency as these drugs block KATP channels in neurones of the CNS. 4. Baclofen (2-16 mg kg-1, s.c.) also induced a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect. Both 4-AP (2.5-25 ng/mouse, i.c.v.) and TEA (10-20 micrograms/mouse, i.c.v.) dose-dependently antagonized baclofen antinociception, producing a displacement to the right of the baclofen dose-response line. However, gliquidone (8-16 micrograms/mouse, i.c.v.) did not significantly modify the baclofen effect. 5. None of the K+ channel blockers tested (gliquidone, 8-16 micrograms/mouse; 4-AP, 25-250 ng/mouse and TEA, 10-20 micrograms/mouse, i.c.v.), significantly modified the antinociception induced by U50,488H (8 mg kg-1, s.c.). 6. These results suggest that the opening of K+ channels is involved in the antinociceptive effect of alpha 2 and GABAB, but not kappa-opioid, receptor agonists.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7905339

  1. Toxicity of microcystin-LR, isolated from Microcystis aeruginosa, against various insect species.

    PubMed

    Delaney, J M; Wilkins, R M

    1995-06-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), isolated from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Kuetzing emend. Elenkin strain CCAP 1450/4 was tested for biological activity against four species of insect and the invertebrate Artemia salina. The efficacy of pesticidal activity was compared with various insecticides. The 24 hr LD50 value for third instar diamond-backed moth, Plutella xylostella, on ingestion from a treated leaf surface was 1.0 micrograms cm2, compared with a 72 hr LD50 value for rotenone of 2.0 micrograms cm-2. The 24 hr LD50 values of MC-LR and malathion on intrathoracic injection into adult house flies (Musca domestica) were 0.5 and 3.7 mg kg-1, respectively. MC-LR had no effect on M. domestica when applied topically at dosages up to 32 mg kg-1. MC-LR and malathion gave 24 hr LD50 values of 4.7 and 13.1 mg kg-1, respectively when injected into third instar cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis). In fourth instar cabbage white butterfly larvae (Pieris brassicae) MC-LR injected gave 24 and 48 hr LD50 values of 3.9 and 1.9 mg kg-1, respectively, whilst the 24 and 48 hr LD50 values for carbofuran were 0.4 and 0.3 mg kg-1, respectively. An immersion bioassay with 1-day-old brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina) gave 24 hr LD50 values of 3.8 micrograms ml-1 for MC-LR and 1.8 micrograms ml-1 for carbofuran. MC-LR has appreciable insect toxicity, comparable to the three insecticides tested. The toxin look 24-48 hr to exert its full lethal effect in insects, much longer than the 1-3 hr it takes in mammals. The potential use of MC-LR as an insecticide is discussed. PMID:7676468

  2. Propofol infusion and the suppression of consciousness: the EEG and dose requirements.

    PubMed

    Forrest, F C; Tooley, M A; Saunders, P R; Prys-Roberts, C

    1994-01-01

    We have used Median Power Frequency (MPF) to study changes in the electroencephalogram during propofol infusions in 52 women about to undergo gynaecological surgery. Patients were allocated to receive propofol by one of nine different manually-controlled infusion schemes designed to achieve and maintain a stable blood propofol concentration between 1.0 and 6.0 micrograms ml-1, covering a range of states between conscious sedation and full anaesthesia. We recorded the changes in MPF and the response to clinical signs of loss of consciousness at these different doses and concentrations of propofol. Using probit analysis, we derived MPF values corresponding to 50% and 95% suppression of response to verbal (9.3 Hz and 6.8 Hz), eyelash (8.9 Hz and 6.7 Hz) and venepuncture (5.7 Hz and 3.0 Hz) stimuli. Likewise, we obtained dose and concentration requirements for propofol to suppress these stimuli. The mean (95% confidence intervals) ED50 (5.8 (3.5-6.8) mg kg-1 h-1) and ED95 (8.3 (7.1-16.9) mg kg-1 h-1) propofol doses for suppression of consciousness were similar to the values for suppression of the eyelash reflex (6.2 (5.3-6.8) mg kg-1 h-1 and 8.6 (7.8-10.8) mg kg-1 h-1, respectively). The EC50 for loss of consciousness was a propofol concentration of 2.3 (1.8-2.7) micrograms ml-1 and for 50% suppression of MPF was 3.1 (2.7-3.5) micrograms ml-1. The dose required for 50% suppression of MPF was 7.1 (6.2-8.0) mg kg-1 h-1. After 30 min, at blood propofol concentrations > 4.0 micrograms ml-1, consistent with stable anaesthesia, the mean MPF was 5.6 (4.5-6.3) Hz. PMID:8110547

  3. Reduction by lifarizine of the neuronal damage induced by cerebral ischaemia in rodents.

    PubMed Central

    Alps, B. J.; Calder, C.; Wilson, A. D.; McBean, D. E.; Armstrong, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the broad neurocytoprotective potential of the novel sodium-calcium ion channel modulator, lifarizine (RS-87476), in two rodent 72 h survival models of forebrain ischaemia. 2. Under fluothane anaesthesia, rats were subjected to 10 min four vessel occlusion and gerbils to either (i) 5 or (ii) 10 min bilateral carotid artery occlusion. 3. Rats were dosed parenterally solely post-ischaemia (reperfusion) in a series of five studies covering a range of intra-arterial/intraperitoneal (i.a./i.p.) combination doses from 2/10, 5/20, 20/100, 50/200 and 100/500 micrograms kg-1, where the initial loading dose was injected i.a. at 5 min. An i.p. dose was given at 15 min and repeated twice daily. In a sixth study, treatment at 50/200 micrograms kg-1 was deferred for 1 h. 4. Gerbils were treated (i) 15 min pre-ischaemia with either (a) 250, (b) 500 micrograms kg-1 i.p., or (c) 5 mg kg-1 by gavage (p.o.) for 3 days then at 1 h pre-ischaemia. Animals treated as (ii) received 500 micrograms kg-1 i.p. 15 min pre-ischaemia. The above doses were repeated twice daily for 3 days post-ischaemia for the respective groups. 5. In rats, the protective effect of lifarizine was regionally and cumulatively assessed in six brain regions (anterior and posterior neocortex, hippocampal CA1 subfield, thalamus, striatum, cerebellar Purkinje cells-brain stem) at each dose level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8564203

  4. Teratology of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in a complex environmental mixture from the Love Canal

    SciTech Connect

    Silkworth, J.B.; Cutler, D.S.; Antrim, L.; Houston, D.; Tumasonis, C.; Kaminsky, L.S. )

    1989-07-01

    The organic phase of a leachate (OPL) from the Love Canal chemical dump site contains more than 100 organic compounds including 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The teratogenic potential of OPL was determined in two inbred and one hybrid mouse strain which differ in their sensitivity to aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-mediated toxicity. OPL was orally administered in corn oil on Days 6-15 of gestation to C57BL/6J mice (Ahb/Ahb) at doses of 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g kg-1 day-1 and to DBA/2J (Ahd/Ahd) females, which were mated with either DBA/2J or C57BL/6J males, at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2.0 g kg-1 day-1. In C57BL/6J mice, which express a high-affinity Ah receptor that avidly binds TCDD, the ED50's of OPL for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 0.44 and 0.11 g OPL kg-1 day-1, respectively. Maternal mortality was 5% at the highest dose. In DBA/2J fetuses, which express a low-affinity receptor, neither treatment-related cleft palate nor hydronephrosis was induced by dose levels that caused 36% maternal mortality. In hybrid D2B6F1 fetuses, the incidence of cleft palate reached only 8% at 2 g OPL kg-1 day-1 but the ED50 for hydronephrosis was 0.76 g OPL kg-1 day-1. TCDD was similarly administered to pregnant C57BL/6J mice at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 micrograms kg-1 day-1 and to DBA/2J mice at 0, 0.5, 2, 4, and 8 micrograms kg-1 day-1. In C57BL/6J fetuses, the ED50's for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 4.6 and 0.73 microgram TCDD kg-1 day-1, respectively. In DBA/2J fetuses the ED50's for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 15.0 and 6.4 micrograms TCDD kg-1 day-1, respectively. Both the OPL and TCDD caused maternal hepatomegaly and thymic atrophy in all strains, but increased only C57BL/6J fetal weights. OPL decreased the number of fetuses per C57BL/6J dam at the two highest doses but there were no other reproductive effects in any of the groups.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and food interaction of MK-462 in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Cheng, H; Polvino, W J; Sciberras, D; Yogendran, L; Cerchio, K A; Christie, K; Olah, T V; McLoughlin, D; James, I; Rogers, J D

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of single intravenous (IV) doses of 5-90 micrograms kg-1 of MK-462, and the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of MK-462 administered orally to healthy males. Results of this study indicate that IV doses of MK-462 from 5 to 90 micrograms kg-1 are well tolerated. The disposition kinetics of MK-462 were linear for IV doses up to and including 60 micrograms kg-1. The values of the plasma clearance (CL), steady-state volume of distribution (Vss), plasma terminal half-life (t1/2), and mean residence time in the body (MRT) of MK-462 averaged 1376 mL min-1, 140 L, 1.8 h, and 1.7 h, respectively, and remained essentially constant over the dosage range of 10-60 micrograms kg-1 of IV MK-462. However, as the dose increased from 60 to 90 micrograms kg-1, the mean value of the apparent CL decreased from 1376 to 807 mL min-1. Thus, elimination of MK-462 was dose dependent in this dosage range. Based on the disposition decomposition analysis (DDA), it was shown that the Vss value of MK-462 remained essentially constant over the dosage range of 10-90 micrograms kg-1 of IV MK-462. The following values of two dose-independent parameters were also calculated by using DDA: distribution clearance (CLd) = 2028 mL min-1, and mean transit time in the peripheral tissues (MTTT) = 0.74 h. The mean values of AUC, Cmax, tmax, and apparent t1/2 of MK-462 in 12 subjects each receiving a 40 mg tablet of MK-462 without breakfast were 330 ng.h mL-1, 77 ng mL-1, 1.6 h, and 1.8 h, respectively. Although administration of a standard breakfast prior to dosing increased the AUC value (by approximately 20%) of MK-462 and delayed its absorption, there were no significant effects of the meal on the values of Cmax and apparent t1/2 of MK-462. PMID:8991488

  6. Phase I study of intravenously applied bispecific antibody in renal cell cancer patients receiving subcutaneous interleukin 2.

    PubMed Central

    Kroesen, B. J.; Buter, J.; Sleijfer, D. T.; Janssen, R. A.; van der Graaf, W. T.; The, T. H.; de Leij, L.; Mulder, N. H.

    1994-01-01

    In a phase I trial the toxicity and immunomodulatory effects of combined treatment with intravenous (i.v.) bispecific monoclonal antibody BIS-1 and subcutaneous (s.c.) interleukin 2 (IL-2) was studied in renal cell cancer patients. BIS-1 combines a specificity against CD3 on T lymphocytes with a specificity against a 40 kDa pancarcinoma-associated antigen, EGP-2. Patients received BIS-1 F(ab')2 fragments intravenously at doses of 1, 3 and 5 micrograms kg-1 body weight during a concomitantly given standard s.c. IL-2 treatment. For each dose, four patients were treated with a 2 h BIS-1 infusion in the second and fourth week of IL-2 therapy. Acute BIS-1 F(ab')2-related toxicity with symptoms of chills, peripheral vasoconstriction and temporary dyspnoea was observed in 2/4 and 5/5 patients at the 3 and 5 micrograms kg-1 dose level respectively. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of BIS-1 F(ab')2 was 5 micrograms kg-1. Elevated plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) were detected at the MTD. Flow cytometric analysis showed a dose-dependent binding of BIS-1 F(ab')2 to circulating T lymphocytes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), isolated after treatment with 3 and 5 micrograms kg-1 BIS-1, showed increased specific cytolytic capacity against EGP-2+ tumour cells as tested in an ex vivo performed assay. Maximal killing capacity of the PBMCs, as assessed by adding excess BIS-1 to the assay, was shown to be decreased after BIS-1 infusion at 5 micrograms kg-1 BIS-1 F(ab')2. A BIS-1 F(ab')2 dose-dependent disappearance of circulating mononuclear cells from the peripheral blood was observed. Within the circulating CD3+ CD8+ lymphocyte population. LFA-1 alpha-bright and HLA-DR+ T-cell numbers decreased preferentially. It is concluded that i.v. BIS-1 F(ab')2, when combined with s.c. IL-2, has a MTD of 5 micrograms kg-1. The treatment endows the T lymphocytes with a specific anti-EGP-2-directed cytotoxic potential. PMID

  7. The neuroprotective action of dizocilpine (MK-801) in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model of focal ischaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Gill, R.; Brazell, C.; Woodruff, G. N.; Kemp, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    1. An acute model of focal ischaemia, which involves permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery of the rat with 4 h survival, was used to find the minimum effective plasma concentration of dizocilpine (MK-801) and to determine its dose-effect relationship. 2. MK-801 was administered at the time of occlusion and was given as an i.v. bolus followed by an infusion for 4 h to maintain a steady state plasma concentration of the drug throughout the study. MK-801 was given at 3 dose levels; 0.04 mg kg-1 i.v. bolus + 0.6 micrograms kg-1 min-1 infusion; 0.12 mg kg-1 i.v. bolus + 1.8 micrograms kg-1 min-1 infusion; 0.4 mg kg-1 i.v. bolus + 6 micrograms kg-1 min-1 infusion, which gave mean plasma levels over the 4 h of 8.0 ng ml-1, 18.9 ng ml-1 and 113.2 ng ml-1 respectively. 3. MK-801 at 8.0 ng ml-1 gave 10% reduction in the volume of ischaemic brain damage in the cerebral cortex which just reached significance. The middle dose of MK-801 (18.9 ng ml-1) gave a highly significant reduction in the volume of ischaemic brain damage in the cerebral cortex and hemisphere, volumes of ischaemic tissue being reduced by 60% and 50% compared to saline-treated animals, respectively. The highest plasma concentration of MK-801 (113.2 ng ml-1) resulted in a 35% reduction in the volume of hemispheric damage and a 40% reduction in the volume of cortical damage, which were significant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1912992

  8. Total i.v. anaesthesia with propofol and alfentanil: dose requirements for propofol and the effect of premedication with clonidine.

    PubMed

    Richards, M J; Skues, M A; Jarvis, A P; Prys-Roberts, C

    1990-08-01

    We determined in 51 healthy patients undergoing body surface surgery the dose requirements for propofol, as part of a total i.v. anaesthesia technique with an alfentanil infusion. After premedication with temazepam, patients received alfentanil 50 micrograms kg-1 followed by an infusion of 50 micrograms kg-1 h-1. Patients were anaesthetized with a loading dose of propofol followed by a three-stage infusion designed to reach one of five preselected blood concentrations of propofol. The motor response to the initial surgical incision was noted and probit analysis was used to derive the ED50 (2.94 mg kg-1 h-1; 95% confidence limits: 2.35-3.37 mg kg-1 h-1) and ED95 (4.98 mg kg-1 h-1; 95% limits: 4.13-8.8 mg kg-1 h-1) for the final propotol infusion rate under these conditions. Whole blood concentration!of propofol at the time of the incision was related linearly to the inf!sion rate and the EC50 and EC95 (probit analysis) were derived as !.44 (95% confidence limits 0.62-1.87) and 4.05 (95% confidence lim!ts 2.78-30.5) micrograms ml-1, respectively. Post-operative recovery was!rapid, uncomplicated and uneventful. In a subgroup of eight patients,!the addition of clonidine 0.6 mg to the premedication significantly decreased the requirement for propofol (P less than 0.05) during surgery, but resulted in prolonged recovery times. PMID:2223330

  9. Contraceptive steroid concentrations in women with early active schistosomiasis: lack of effect of antischistosomal drugs.

    PubMed

    el-Raghy, I; Back, D J; Osman, F; Orme, M L; Fathalla, M

    1986-04-01

    Plasma concentrations of the oral contraceptive steroids (OCS) ethinyloestradiol (EE2) and levonorgestrel (LNG) have been determined in women with early active schistosomiasis and compared to those obtained in healthy volunteers. Steroid concentrations following a single dose of Ovral (500 micrograms LNG, 50 micrograms EE2) or during a multiple dose regimen were unaffected by the disease. There was no significant effect of the antischistosomal drugs praziquantel (40 mg X kg-1) or metrifonate (10 mg X kg-1 X 3 at 2-week intervals) on plasma steroid concentrations. In regular users of OCS, significantly higher concentrations of LNG were observed than in women who received only a single dose. We conclude that there is no pharmacokinetic reason for withholding OCS from patients with early active schistosomiasis who are also receiving either praziquantel or metrifonate. PMID:3089682

  10. Improved method for the on-line metal chelate affinity chromatography-high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of tetracycline antibiotics in animal products.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A D; Stubbings, G W; Kelly, M; Tarbin, J A; Farrington, W H; Shearer, G

    1998-07-01

    An improved on-line metal chelate affinity chromatography-high-performance liquid chromatography (MCAC-HPLC) method for the determination of tetracycline antibiotics in animal tissues and egg has been developed. Extraction was carried out with ethyl acetate. The extract was then evaporated to dryness and reconstituted in methanol prior to on-line MCAC clean-up and HPLC-UV determination. Recoveries of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, demeclocycline and chlortetracycline in the range 42% to 101% were obtained from egg, poultry, fish and venison tissues spiked at 25 micrograms kg-1. Limits of detection less than 10 microgram kg-1 were estimated for all four analytes. This method has higher throughput, higher recovery and lower limits of detection than a previously reported on-line MCAC-HPLC method which involved aqueous extraction and solid-phase extraction clean-up. PMID:9691328

  11. Determination of tylosin residues in pig tissues using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    De Liguoro, M; Anfossi, P; Angeletti, R; Montesissa, C

    1998-06-01

    In accordance with the maximum residue limit of 100 micrograms kg-1 established by EU legislation, a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the measurement of tylosin residues in pig tissues (fat, kidney, liver and muscle). Tylosin, a macrolide antibiotic, is extracted with water-methanol and cleaned-up by solid-phase extraction (SPE) on cation-exchange cartridges using methanol elution. Tylosin was determined by reversed-phase HPLC with UV detection at 280 nm and the mean recovery from pig tissues fortified in the range 50-200 micrograms kg-1 was 70-85%, with intra- and inter-day RSDs in the ranges 3.4-9.1 and 3.9-10.1% respectively. PMID:9764508

  12. The cardiovascular and renal functional responses to the 5-HT1A receptor agonist flesinoxan in two rat models of hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Chamienia, A. L.; Johns, E. J.

    1996-01-01

    1. This study investigated the importance of renal sympathetic nerves in regulating sodium and water excretion from the kidneys of stroke prone spontaneously hypertensive and 2K1C Goldblatt hypertensive rats anaesthetized with chloralose/urethane (17.5/300 mg initially and supplemented at regular intervals), and prepared for measurement of renal function. 2. In stroke prone spontaneously hypertensive rats, flesinoxan, 30-1000 micrograms kg-1, i.v., caused graded reductions in blood pressure and heart rate of 74 +/- 5 mmHg and 63 +/- 9 beats min-1, respectively at the highest dose (P < 0.001). Renal blood flow did not change at any dose of drug while glomerular filtration rate fell by some 20% (P < 0.001) at the highest dose of drug, absolute and fractional sodium excretions, approximately doubled at 100 micrograms kg-1, and thereafter fell to below the baseline level at 1000 micrograms kg-1. 3. This pattern of excretory response was abolished following acute renal denervation when flesinoxan caused dose-related reductions in urine flow and sodium excretion, similar to that obtained by a mechanical reduction of renal perfusion pressure. 4. Flesinoxan administration (30-1000 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) into 2K1C Goldblatt hypertensive rats caused a maximum decrease in blood pressure and heart rate (both P < 0.001) of 34 +/- 3 mmHg and 20 +/- 6 beats min-1 and while renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate were autoregulated, from 160 to 125 mmHg, there were dose-related decreases in urine volume and sodium excretion from the clipped and non-clipped kidneys of approximately 50-60% at the highest dose. 5. These findings suggest that in the stroke prone spontaneously hypertensive rat the renal nerves importantly control sodium and water reabsorption at the level of the tubules, whereas in 2K1C Goldblatt hypertensive rats, they play a minor role. PMID:8864520

  13. Renal opiate receptor mediation of renin secretion to renal nerve stimulation in the dog.

    PubMed

    Koyama, S; Hosomi, H

    1986-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate renal opiate receptor mediation of the renin secretion response to electrical stimulation of the renal nerves in the pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized dog by use of the opiate agonist leucine-enkephalin (Leu-enk) and the opiate antagonist naloxone. In all animals studied, left kidneys were pump perfused at a constant renal blood flow. Renal perfusion pressure (RPP) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were unaltered at a stimulation frequency of 1.0 Hz; however, renin secretion rate (RSR) increased significantly in the nontreated group. High-frequency renal nerve stimulation (10 Hz) increased RPP and decreased GFR. RSR at the high-frequency stimulation was significantly augmented in the nontreated group. Renal arterial infusion of either Leu-enk (25 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1) or naloxone (7 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1) did not alter base-line levels of renal hemodynamics and RSR and did not produce significant changes in these variables even when renal nerves were stimulated at the low frequency; however, Leu-enk inhibited RPP and RSR responses to the high-frequency stimulation, and naloxone augmented these responses. Phentolamine (13 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1) prevented renal hemodynamic responses to the renal nerve stimulation, whereas RSR responses to the stimulation were unaffected. Propranolol (8 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1) resulted in decreases in RSR at the renal nerve stimulation despite the presence of changes in renal hemodynamics similar to the other groups. The results indicate that intrarenal opiate receptors may participate in inhibiting renal secretion of renin mediated by the renal nerves when renal vasoconstriction and reduction of GFR occurred at the high-frequency stimulation. PMID:3013030

  14. Neuroprotective actions of GR89696, a highly potent and selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist.

    PubMed Central

    Birch, P. J.; Rogers, H.; Hayes, A. G.; Hayward, N. J.; Tyers, M. B.; Scopes, D. I.; Naylor, A.; Judd, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    1. The effect of a novel, highly potent and selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist, GR89696, has been evaluated in two animal models of cerebral ischaemia: transient bilateral carotid artery occlusion in the Mongolian gerbil and permanent, unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion in the mouse. 2. In the Mongolian gerbil model, administration of GR89696 (3 to 30 micrograms kg-1, s.c.), immediately before and at 4 h after insult, produced a dose-dependent reduction in the hippocampal CA1 neuronal cell loss resulting from a 7-min bilateral carotid occlusion. Similar effects were obtained with two other kappa-agonists, GR86014 (1 mgkg-1, s.c.) and GR91272 (1 mgkg-1, s.c.). The neuroprotective effect of GR89696 was completely blocked by prior administration of the opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone, at 10 mgkg-1, s.c. Repeated post-treatment with GR89696 (100 micrograms kg-1, s.c.) or GR44821 (10 mgkg-1, s.c.) was also effective in protecting completely the hippocampal CA1 neurones from ischaemia-induced neurodegeneration. 3. In the permanent, unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion model in the mouse, repeated administration of GR89696 at 300 micrograms kg-1, s.c. produced a 50% reduction in cerebrocortical infarct volume. In these experiments GR89696 was dosed 5 min, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h after occlusion on the first day and then three times daily for the next three days. GR89696 (300 micrograms kg-1) also produced a significant 35% reduction in infarct volume in this model when the initiation of dosing was delayed for 6 h after the insult. 4. The results indicate that the potent kappa-opioid receptor agonist, GR89696, is neuroprotective in both global and focal cerebral ischaemia models and suggest that, with this class of compound, there may be a considerable time window for pharmacological intervention. PMID:1657267

  15. Mycoflora and mycotoxins in Brazilian black pepper, white pepper and Brazil nuts.

    PubMed

    Freire, F C; Kozakiewicz, Z; Paterson, R R

    2000-01-01

    A wide range of field and storage fungi were isolated from black pepper, white pepper and Brazil nut kernels from Amazonia. A total of 42 species were isolated from both peppers. Aspergillus flavus and A. niger were isolated more frequently from black than from white pepper. Other potential mycotoxigenic species isolated included: A. ochraceus, A. tamarii, A. versicolor, Emericella nidulans and Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium brevicompactum, P. citrinum, P. islandicum and P. glabrum. Species isolated from pepper for the first time were Acrogenospora sphaerocephala, Cylindrocarpon lichenicola, Lacellinopsis sacchari, Microascus cinereus, Petriella setifera and Sporormiella minima. Seventeen species were isolated from Brazil nut kernels. A. flavus was the dominant species followed by A. niger. P. citrinum and P. glabrum were the only penicillia isolated. Species isolated for the first time included Acremonium curvulum, Cunninghamella elegans, Exophiala sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Pseudoallescheria boydii, Rhizopus oryzae, Scopulariopsis sp., Thielavia terricola and Trichoderma citrinoviride. Considerably more metabolites were detected from black than white pepper in qualitative analyses. Chaetocin, penitrem A, and xanthocillin were identified only from black pepper, and tenuazonic acid was identified from both black and white pepper. Aflatoxin G2, chaetoglobosin C, and spinulosin were identified from poor quality brazil nuts. Aflatoxin B1 and B2 were also only detected in poor quality brazil nuts at concentrations of 27.1 micrograms kg-1 and 2.1 micrograms kg-1 respectively (total 29.2 micrograms kg-1). PMID:11229375

  16. Haemodynamic dose-response effects of intravenous nisoldipine in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed Central

    Silke, B; Frais, M A; Muller, P; Verma, S P; Reynolds, G; Taylor, S H

    1985-01-01

    The circulatory consequences of slow-calcium channel blockade with a new dihydropyridine nisoldipine were evaluated at rest and during exercise-induced angina in 16 patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease. In 10 patients resting cardiac stroke output (thermodilution) and pulmonary artery occluded pressure were determined following four intravenous nisoldipine injections (cumulative dosage of 1, 2, 4 and 8 micrograms kg-1). The exercise effects of nisoldipine were evaluated by comparing the effects of the 8 micrograms kg-1 cumulative dosage with a control exercise period at the same workload. At rest nisoldipine reduced systemic vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure, and increased heart rate, cardiac and stroke volume indices. During 4 min supine-bicycle exercise nisoldipine reduced systemic mean arterial pressure and vascular resistance; this resulted in augmented cardiac and stroke volume indices at an unchanged pulmonary artery occluded pressure. In six additional patients rest and exercise ejection fractions were measured using a nonimaging nuclear probe. Nisoldipine (4 micrograms kg-1) resulted in a small trend to increase left ventricular rest and exercise ejection fraction. These data demonstrated improved rest and exercise cardiac performance following nisoldipine in patients with severe coronary artery disease. PMID:4091998

  17. Protection by nicorandil against the dysfunction of the central vagal baroreflex system following transient global cerebral ischaemia in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Kurihara, J.; Ochiai, N.; Kato, H.

    1993-01-01

    1. A possible cerebroprotective effect of nicorandil was investigated in a canine model of 5 min global cerebral ischaemia, and compared with protective effects of nitroglycerin and nicardipine. 2. Cerebral ischaemia was produced by occlusion of the left subclavian and the brachiocephalic arteries with preceding ligation of the intercostal arteries. The decrease in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), measured by phenylephrine-induced reflex bradycardia, was used to assess the cerebroprotective effect. 3. Nicorandil (10 or 30 micrograms kg-1 min-1, i.v.), nitroglycerin (3 micrograms kg-1 min-1, i.v.) or nicardipine (0.3 micrograms kg-1 min-1, i.v.) were infused for 60 min just before ischaemia. Nitroglycerin and nicardipine decreased mean arterial blood pressure to an extent similar to that induced by the lower dose of nicorandil. Blood flow in the dorsal medulla oblongata was increased by nicorandil and nicardipine, but not by nitroglycerin. 4. Nicorandil at both doses and nitroglycerin prevented the post-ischaemic decrease in BRS. In these cases, bilateral vagotomy during the reperfusion period decreased BRS, indicating that the vagal component of BRS was protected from ischaemia. On the other hand, nicardipine failed to exert a cerebroprotective effect. 5. The present study suggests that nicorandil may possess a direct cerebroprotective effect and that its property as a nitrate might, at least in part, be important for the observed cerebral protection. PMID:8401937

  18. The role of nitric oxide in the regional vasodilator effects of endothelin-1 in the rat.

    PubMed

    Fozard, J R; Part, M L

    1992-03-01

    1. The role of nitic oxide (NO) derived from L-arginine in the regional vasodilator effects of endothelin-1 has been investigated in anaesthetized, spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats in which autonomic reflexes were abolished by ganglion blockade. The experimental design incorporated animals infused with phenylephrine to mimic the peripheral vasconstrictor effects of the NO biosynthesis inhibitors and a single dose per animal paradigm to obviate problems of tachyphylaxis to the vasodilator effects of endothelin-1. 2. Infusion of the inhibitor of NO synthase, N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) at a dose (5 mg kg-1 min-1) which maximally raised blood pressure did not influence either the fall in blood pressure or the vasodilator responses induced in the hindquarters and carotid vascular beds by endothelin-1 (1 nmol kg-1, i.v.) The duration (but not the initial magnitude) of the vasodepressor response to endothelin-1 was however significantly attenuated (by 49%) during infusion of the more potent inhibitor of NO synthase, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 2 mg kg-1 min-1. 3. Increasing the dose of L-NAME to 10 and 25 mg kg-1min-1 significantly attenuated, but did not abolish, the falls in blood pressure and hindquarters vasodilator responses to acetylcholine, 1 microgram kg-1, and endothelin-1, 1 nmol kg-1 min-1. The effects were selective in that vasodepressor responses to the endothelium-independent vasodilator, sodium nitroprusside, 1-10 micrograms kg-1 min-1, were unaltered. The effects were selective in that vasodepressor responses to the endothelium-independent vasodilator, sodium nitroprusside, 1-l0mg kg min , were unaltered.4. The data indicate that NO generated de novo from L-arginine mediates a significant component of the vasodilator effect of endothelin-1 in the anaesthetized, ganglion-blocked SH rat. However, a major component of the vasodepressor effects of both endothelin-1 and acetylcholine may occur independently of this mechanism. PMID

  19. The role of nitric oxide in the regional vasodilator effects of endothelin-1 in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Fozard, J. R.; Part, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    1. The role of nitic oxide (NO) derived from L-arginine in the regional vasodilator effects of endothelin-1 has been investigated in anaesthetized, spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats in which autonomic reflexes were abolished by ganglion blockade. The experimental design incorporated animals infused with phenylephrine to mimic the peripheral vasconstrictor effects of the NO biosynthesis inhibitors and a single dose per animal paradigm to obviate problems of tachyphylaxis to the vasodilator effects of endothelin-1. 2. Infusion of the inhibitor of NO synthase, N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) at a dose (5 mg kg-1 min-1) which maximally raised blood pressure did not influence either the fall in blood pressure or the vasodilator responses induced in the hindquarters and carotid vascular beds by endothelin-1 (1 nmol kg-1, i.v.) The duration (but not the initial magnitude) of the vasodepressor response to endothelin-1 was however significantly attenuated (by 49%) during infusion of the more potent inhibitor of NO synthase, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 2 mg kg-1 min-1. 3. Increasing the dose of L-NAME to 10 and 25 mg kg-1min-1 significantly attenuated, but did not abolish, the falls in blood pressure and hindquarters vasodilator responses to acetylcholine, 1 microgram kg-1, and endothelin-1, 1 nmol kg-1 min-1. The effects were selective in that vasodepressor responses to the endothelium-independent vasodilator, sodium nitroprusside, 1-10 micrograms kg-1 min-1, were unaltered.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1628160

  20. Thermogenesis and fructose metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, J M; Acheson, K J; Tappy, L; Piolino, V; Müller, M J; Felber, J P; Jéquier, E

    1992-05-01

    Resting metabolic rate was measured in 10 healthy volunteers (25 yr, 73 kg, 182 cm) for 1 h before and 4 h during intravenous (iv) fructose administration (20% at 50 mumol.kg-1.min-1) with (+P) or without (-P) propranolol (100 micrograms/kg, 1 microgram.kg-1.min-1) during the last 2 h. Some subjects were studied a further 2 h with fructose infusion and +P or -P in hyperinsulinemic (2.9 pmol.kg-1.min-1) euglycemic conditions. Glucose turnover ([3-3H]glucose, 20 muCi bolus and 0.2 muCi/min) was calculated over 30 min at 0, 2, 4, and 6 h. The thermic effect of iv fructose was approximately 7.5% and decreased to 4.9 +/- 0.4% (P less than 0.01) +P. During the euglycemic clamp the thermic effect was 6.2 +/- 0.9% (-P) and 5.3 +/- 0.9% (+P). Hepatic glucose production (HGP) was 11.7 mumol.kg-1.min-1 (0 h) and did not change after 2 h iv fructose (11.8 +/- 0.5 and 9.8 +/- 0.6 mumol.kg-1.min-1 -P and +P, respectively) but increased to 13.8 +/- 0.9 (-P) and 12.9 +/- 0.8 mumol.kg-1.min-1 (+P) (P less than 0.01) after 4 h. HGP was suppressed to varying degrees during the euglycemic clamp. It is concluded that 1) the greater thermic effect of fructose compared with glucose is probably due to continued gluconeogenesis (which is suppressed by glucose or glucose-insulin) and the energy cost of fructose metabolism to glucose in the liver. 2) There is a sympathetically mediated component to the thermic effect of fructose (approximately 30%) that is not mediated by elevated plasma insulin concentrations similar to those observed with iv glucose. PMID:1350420

  1. Comparison of diclofenac and tenoxicam for postoperative analgesia with and without fentanyl in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy or tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Mendham, J E; Mather, S J

    1996-01-01

    127 children scheduled for elective tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy were studied. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with a volatile agent. At induction the child received either rectal diclofenac 1 mg.kg-1 with or without fentanyl 0.75 microgram.kg-1 i.v., or intravenous tenoxicam 0.4 mg.kg-1 with or without fentanyl 0.75 microgram.kg-1 i.v. Blood loss was measured peroperatively. Nausea and vomiting scores, sedation scores and pain scores were recorded in the recovery room, at one, two, four and eight h postoperatively and at discharge. There were no significant differences in blood loss between the groups or between nausea and vomiting scores. Pain scores in the tenoxicam without fentanyl group were significantly higher in recovery (P < 0.05) than the diclofenac group without fentanyl and both fentanyl groups. This group required supplemental analgesia earlier although this was not significant. The pain scores in the diclofenac with fentanyl group were significantly lower at one h and four h than the group receiving diclofenac alone (P = 0.008 and 0.02 respectively). PMID:8936545

  2. Repeated stimulation of D1 dopamine receptors enhances (-)-11-hydroxy-delta 8-tetrahydrocannabinol-dimethyl-heptyl-induced catalepsy in male rats.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Fonseca, F; Martín Calderón, J L; Mechoulam, R; Navarro, M

    1994-03-21

    Dopaminergic and cannabinoid receptors are localized in the outflow nuclei of the basal ganglia. We have investigated the possible interrelation of these receptors in the regulation of motor activity in male rats. To this end we have first studied the behavioural effects of the highly potent cannabinoid receptor agonist (-)11-hydroxy-delta 8-tetrahydrocannabinol-dimethylheptyl (HU-210, 20 micrograms mg) after chronic stimulation of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. The catalepsy induced by the synthetic cannabinoid, measured as the descent latency in the bar test, was enhanced in male rats chronically treated with the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF38393 (8 mg kg-1, twice a day during 21 days). However, animals exposed to the dopamine D2 agonist quinpirole (1 mg kg-1 daily during 21 days) displayed the same degree of catalepsy as those exposed to HU-210 alone. Although a possible involvement of D2 receptors cannot be excluded, this finding suggests a predominant role for dopamine D1 receptors in the regulation of the cataleptic response to cannabinoids. The possible cross-talk between dopamine D1 and cannabinoid receptors is further supported by the decreased responsiveness to the acute behavioural effects of SKF38393 (8 mg kg-1) observed in animals chronically exposed to HU-210 (20 micrograms kg-1 daily during 14 days). PMID:7912554

  3. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 attenuates gastric lesions induced by alloxan in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Petek, M; Sikiric, P; Anic, T; Buljat, G; Separovic, J; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Seiwerth, S; Grabarevic, Z; Rucman, R; Mikus, D; Zoricic, I; Prkacin, I; Sebecic, B; Ziger, T; Coric, V; Turkovic, B; Aralica, G; Rotkvic, I; Mise, S; Hahn, V

    1999-12-01

    A diabetogenic alloxan regimen produced lesions in all stomachs of treated animals, either rats (200 mg x kg(-1) s.c.) or mice (400 mg x kg(-1) i.p.). In control animals, the lesions, when developed (i.e. 24 h following application), appear to be quite sustained, and consistently present also after 1 or 2 weeks. The application of the pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (10 microg or 10 ng x kg(-1) i.p. coadministered together with alloxan) would significantly attenuate these lesions' appearance. This beneficial effect seems to be present in either rats or mice and in either of the tested intervals. Importantly, the beneficial effect seems to be shared by both microgram and nanogram regimens. PMID:10672996

  4. Facilitation of amphetamine-induced hypothermia in mice by GABA agonists and CCK-8.

    PubMed Central

    Boschi, G.; Launay, N.; Rips, R.

    1991-01-01

    1. Amphetamine-induced hypothermia in mice is facilitated by dopaminergic stimulation and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic inhibition. The present study was designed to investigate: (a) the involvement of other neuronal systems, such as the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the opioid and the cholecystokinin (CCK-8) systems; (b) the possible contribution of hydroxylated metabolites of amphetamine to the hypothermia; (c) the capacity of dopamine itself to induce hypothermia and its mechanisms, in order to clarify the resistance of amphetamine-induced hypothermia to certain neuroleptics. 2. Pretreatment with the GABA antagonists, bicuculline and picrotoxin, did not inhibit amphetamine-induced hypothermia. The GABAB agonist, baclofen (2.5 mg kg-1, i.p.) potentiated this hypothermia, whereas the GABAA agonist, muscimol, did not. gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) (40 mg kg-1, i.p.) and the neuropeptide CCK-8 (0.04 mg kg-1, i.p.) also induced potentiation. The opioid antagonist, naloxone, was without effect. 3. Dopamine itself (3, 9, 16 and 27 micrograms, i.c.v.) induced less hypothermia than the same doses of amphetamine. Sulpiride did not block dopamine-induced hypothermia, but pimozide (4 mg kg-1, i.p.), cis(z)flupentixol (0.25 mg kg-1, i.p.) and haloperidol (5 micrograms, i.c.v.) did. The direct dopamine receptor agonist, apomorphine, did not alter the hypothermia. Neither the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor blocker, cyproheptadine, nor the inhibitor of 5-HT synthesis, p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), modified dopamine-induced hypothermia. Fluoxetine, an inhibitor of 5-HT reuptake, had no effect, whereas quipazine (6 mg kg-1, i.p.), a 5-HT agonist, totally prevented the hypothermia. Hypothermia was unaffected by pretreatment with CCK-8.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1855128

  5. Surface gravity waves and their acoustic signatures, 1-30 Hz, on the mid-Pacific sea floor.

    PubMed

    Farrell, W E; Munk, Walter

    2013-10-01

    In 1999, Duennebier et al. deployed a hydrophone and geophone below the conjugate depth in the abyssal Pacific, midway between Hawaii and California. Real time data were transmitted for 3 yr over an abandoned ATT cable. These data have been analyzed in the frequency band 1 to 30 Hz. Between 1 and 6 Hz, the bottom data are interpreted as acoustic radiation from surface gravity waves, an extension to higher frequencies of a non-linear mechanism proposed by Longuet-Higgins in 1950 to explain microseisms. The inferred surface wave spectrum for wave lengths between 6 m and 17 cm is saturated (wind-independent) and roughly consistent with the traditional Phillips κ(-4) wave number spectrum. Shorter ocean waves have a strong wind dependence and a less steep wave number dependence. Similar features are found in the bottom record between 6 and 30 Hz. But this leads to an enigma: The derived surface spectrum inferred from the Longuet-Higgins mechanism with conventional assumptions for the dispersion relation is associated with mean square slopes that greatly exceed those derived from glitter. Regardless of the generation mechanism, the measured bottom intensities between 10 and 30 Hz are well below minimum noise standards reported in the literature. PMID:24116511

  6. Localized specific absorption rate calculations in a realistic phantom leg at 1-30 MHz using a finite element method.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, P R

    1999-04-01

    Protection standards for radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation are principally intended to avoid detrimental thermal effects. To this end the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), and national bodies such as the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), recommend limitations on the localized specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in various parts of the body. The role of numerical dosimetry is to estimate the SAR from measurable parameters such as external field strengths and total body currents. In recent years there have been significant advances in the sophistication of the anatomical models available, and in our knowledge of the electrical properties of the body tissues. Several groups, including NRPB, have developed mathematical phantoms from medical imaging data, such as MRI scans. It has been known for some time that under certain circumstances SAR restrictions may be violated in the ankle due to the concentration of current in a small area. In this paper the author presents calculations of the SAR distribution in a human leg in the high-frequency (HF) band. This band contains the human whole-body resonance frequency and therefore gives the strongest coupling of the body to the field. The present study uses a finite element model with variable mesh size, derived from a 2 mm resolution voxel phantom of the whole body. It also uses recently acquired data on the electrical properties of the tissues. The results are discussed in the light of the exposure standards promulgated by national and international bodies such as NRPB and ICNIRP, and it is shown that the basic SAR restrictions in the leg are ensured by a current reference level of 100 mA. PMID:10232813

  7. Resist process control for 32-nm logic node and beyond with NA > 1.30 immersion exposure tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagahara, Seiji; Takahata, Kazuhiro; Nakagawa, Seiji; Murakami, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Shinpei; Ueki, Makoto; Satake, Masaki; Ema, Tatsuhiko; Fujise, Hiroharu; Yonemitsu, Hiroki; Seino, Yuriko; Nakagawa, Shinichiro; Asano, Masafumi; Kitamura, Yosuke; Uchiyama, Takayuki; Mimotogi, Shoji; Tominaga, Makoto

    2009-03-01

    Resist process challenges for 32-nm node and beyond are discussed in this paper. For line and space (L/S) logic patterns, we examine ways to balance the requirements of resolution-enhancement techniques (RETs). In 32-nm node logic patterning, two-dimensional (2D) layout pattern deformation becomes more severe with stronger RET (e.g., narrow angle CQUAD illumination). Also pattern collapse more frequently happens in 2D-pattern layouts when stronger RET is used. In contrast, milder RET (annular illumination) does not induce the severe pattern collapse in 2D-pattern layout. For 2D-pattern layouts, stronger RET seems to worsen image contrast and results in high background-light in the resist pattern, which induces more pattern collapse. For the minimum-pitch L/S pattern in 32-nm node logic, annular illumination is acceptable for patterning with NA1.35 scanner when high contrast resist is used. For contact/via patterns, it is necessary to expand the overlapping CD process window. Better process margin is realized through the combination of hole-shrink technique and precise acid-diffusion control in an ArF chemically amplified resist.

  8. Sensory origin of lobeline-induced sensations: a correlative study in man and cat.

    PubMed Central

    Raj, H; Singh, V K; Anand, A; Paintal, A S

    1995-01-01

    1. Intravenous injections of lobeline HCl into twenty-six normal young male human volunteers produced sensations of choking, pressure or fumes in the throat and upper chest at a mean threshold dose of 12 micrograms kg-1. 2. Reflex changes in breathing pattern usually appeared just before the sensations. Increasing the dose of lobeline increased the intensity of the sensations gradually until a dry cough appeared at a mean threshold dose of 24.3 micrograms kg-1. At these doses there was a mean difference of 0.3s in the latencies for sensation and respiratory reflex; in four subjects there was no difference at all. 3. In cats anaesthetized with 35 mg kg-1 sodium pentobarbitone, injecting 25-67 micrograms kg-1 lobeline into the right atrium sensitized thirteen out of seventeen rapidly adapting receptors (RARs). In three out of four cats lobeline had no excitatory effect on the RARs in the absence of normal activity (i.e. when it was injected while artificial respiration was suspended), but on restarting the respiration the activity increased greatly. After injecting lobeline, the activity increased during inflation or deflation or in both phases of the respiratory cycle. It also increased greatly during deflation produced by suction of air from the lungs after lobeline. Such presumed increased activity in the RARs of man produced by forced expiration to residual volume at the time lobeline-induced sensations were expected did not enhance the sensations in any subject. 4. In all the subjects tested, forced expiration alone, which should stimulate RARs, never produced a dry cough or sensations similar to those produced by lobeline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7730986

  9. Antithrombotic effect of a novel recombinant hirudin analogue, CX-397, in a rat arterial thrombosis model.

    PubMed Central

    Takiguchi, Y.; Asai, F.; Wada, K.; Hayashi, H.; Nakashima, M.

    1995-01-01

    1. The antithrombotic effect of a new specific thrombin inhibitor, CX-397, was examined in a photochemically-induced arterial thrombosis model in the rat femoral artery and compared with that of heparin. 2. Pretreatment with CX-397 (10, 20 and 40 micrograms kg-1 min-1, i.v.) from 15 min before the experiment prolonged the time required for thrombotic occlusion of the artery in a dose-dependent manner. The antithrombotic efficacy of CX-397 was associated with modest increases in activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and template bleeding time. 3. On the other hand, heparin at a dose of 450 micrograms kg-1 markedly prolonged APTT and the bleeding time, but did not inhibit thrombo-occlusion. 4. CX-397 selectively inhibited platelet aggregation and concurrent secretion of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) production from platelets in response to thrombin, but not to collagen and ADP, in a dose-dependent manner (5-100 ng ml-1). 5. CX-397 at 10 micrograms kg-1 combined with vapiprost, a TXA2 receptor antagonist, at 0.1 mg kg-1 significantly prevented occlusion, whereas, at these doses, neither drug alone had much effect. 6. These results demonstrate that CX-397 may prove to be more efficient for preventing platelet-rich thrombosis than heparin. Thrombin may play an important role in the rat thrombosis model. 7. The additive antithrombotic effect of the combination of thrombin inhibitor and TXA2 receptor antagonist at low doses suggests that thrombin and TXA2 may work in concert to produce thrombosis. Images Figure 3 PMID:8680743

  10. Haemodynamic changes and acetylcholine-induced hypotensive responses after NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester in rats and cats.

    PubMed Central

    Marcel van Gelderen, E.; Heiligers, J. P.; Saxena, P. R.

    1991-01-01

    1. The haemodynamic effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME; 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg kg-1) and its potential ability to attenuate the hypotensive responses to acetylcholine (0.03, 0.1, 1.0 and 3.0 micrograms kg-1) have been investigated in anaesthetized rats and cats. 2. In the rat, L-NAME elicited a dose-dependent pressor effect increasing mean arterial blood pressure from the baseline value of 116 +/- 4 mmHg to a maximum of 156 +/- 6 mmHg with 30 mg kg-1. This increase in blood pressure could be only partly reversed by L-arginine (300 mg kg-1). However, the increase in blood pressure by lower doses (up to 10 mg kg-1) of L-NAME was effectively reversed by L-arginine (1000 mg kg-1). 3. In the cat, L-NAME did not significantly modify systemic haemodynamic variables (heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume or total peripheral resistance), when compared to the changes in saline-treated animals. Administration of L-arginine did not cause any significant effect in cats treated with L-NAME, but some decrease in heart rate and increases in cardiac output and stroke volume were observed in the saline-treated group. 4. With the lowest dose (1 mg kg-1), L-NAME did not affect tissue blood flows in the cat, but higher doses (3 and 30 mg kg-1) significantly reduced blood flows to the mesentery, stomach, spleen, intestines, lungs and the total liver.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1912978

  11. Nifedipine kinetics in the rat and relationship between its serum concentrations and uterine and cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed Central

    Downing, S. J.; Hollingsworth, M.

    1988-01-01

    1. The kinetics of nifedipine and the relationship between its serum concentration and uterine and cardiovascular effects were investigated in 3 groups of animals. These were ovariectomized (ovx) anaesthetized non-pregnant rats following bolus i.v. injection (400 micrograms kg-1) and during 300 min infusion (10 micrograms kg-1 min-1) and ovx, progesterone-treated late pregnant rats during infusion. Also, the kinetics were determined in ovary-intact late pregnant rats following bolus i.v. injection (400 micrograms kg-1). 2. Measurement of serum nifedipine concentrations after bolus i.v. injection in ovx non-pregnant rats showed a biexponential decay with time from which the following parameters were calculated: V beta = 300 +/- 30 ml kg-1; rate constants k12 = 0.51 +/- 0.18 min-1; k21 = 0.07 +/- 0.02 min-1; ke1 = 0.10 +/- 0.05 min-1; elimination clearance = 2.4 +/- 0.2 (ml min-1) kg-1; t1/2 alpha = 2.5 +/- 1.0 min; t1/2 beta = 102 +/- 15 min. In intact pregnant rats, a biexponential decay of serum nifedipine concentrations with time was also observed after bolus i.v. administration with similar parameters to non-pregnant animals. These kinetic parameters, used to calculate serum nifedipine concentrations obtained during infusion, predicted values similar to experimental values for 180 min, but thereafter slightly underestimated experimental values. 3. Immediate reductions in uterine contractions, mean blood pressure and heart rate were observed following bolus i.v. injection of nifedipine to ovx non-pregnant rats, with returns towards control values as serum nifedipine concentrations declined. IC15 values (15% change from baseline), calculated from log10 serum concentration-response curves, of 0.3 +/- 0.05 micrograms ml-1 for inhibition of uterine contractions, 0.8 +/- 0.3 micrograms ml-1 for depression of blood pressure and 3.8 +/- 1.0 micrograms ml-1 for reduction in heart rate were obtained. 4. In ovx non-pregnant rats, nifedipine infusion produced a maximum

  12. Disposition of diminazene aceturate (Berenil) in trypanosome-infected pregnant and lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Mdachi, R E; Murilla, G A; Omukuba, J N; Cagnolati, V

    1995-06-01

    Three cows were repeatedly infected with different strains of Trypanosoma congolense and treated intramuscularly each time with a different dose of diminazene aceturate (Berenil). Biphasic decline was observed of the maximal plasma drug levels, which were attained at 15 min after the first treatment and at 30 min after the second and third treatments. The rate constants for the distribution and terminal phases depended on the period of exposure to parasitaemia of the animal at the time of treatment. Maximal diminazene aceturate residue levels were found in milk 8 h post treatment and declined biexponentially to 4.56 ng ml-1 and 8.76 ng ml-1 at 21 days post treatment after 3.5 mg kg-1 and 7.0 mg kg-1 doses, respectively. In the three cows, higher drug residues were found in the kidney (7.04, 3.92 and 7.99 micrograms g-1) than in liver (3.26, 2.87 and 1.24 micrograms g-1) and heart (1.79, 1.25 and 1.03 micrograms g-1). The results of this study indicate that the level of parasitaemia (degree of anaemia) in the animal at the time of treatment affects the distribution, disposition and elimination of diminazene aceturate in the animal. Furthermore, the residue level in milk after treatment depends on the treatment dose and could easily be bioavailable to the consumer. PMID:7571326

  13. Effects of Hoe 140, a bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist, on renal function in conscious normotensive rats.

    PubMed Central

    Madeddu, P.; Anania, V.; Parpaglia, P. P.; Demontis, M. P.; Varoni, M. V.; Pisanu, G.; Troffa, C.; Tonolo, G.; Glorioso, N.

    1992-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to determine if endogenous kinins are involved in the regulation of arterial blood pressure and renal function in conscious rats given deoxycorticosterone enantate (DOC, 25 mg kg-1, s.c., weekly) or vehicle for two weeks. 2. The bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist, D-Arg[Hyp3,Thi5,D-Tic7,Oic8]- bradykinin (Hoe 140), at a dose of 300 micrograms kg-1, s.c., blocked the hypotensive effect of 300 ng kg-1 bradykinin i.a., but it did not alter the blood pressure lowering action of 300 ng kg-1 acetylcholine or prostaglandin E2. Inhibition of the response to bradykinin persisted up to 6 h after the administration of Hoe 140. 3. Administration of 300 micrograms kg-1 Hoe 140 s.c. four times a day did not alter mean blood pressure, renal blood flow, or renal function in rats given DOC-vehicle. However, it decreased urinary volume by 70% (from 48.2 +/- 3.8 to 14.3 +/- 3.7 ml 24 h-1, P less than 0.01) and urinary secretion of sodium by 54% (from 1.02 +/- 0.05 to 0.47 +/- 0.16 mmol 24 h-1, P less than 0.01) and potassium by 30% (from 2.93 +/- 0.15 to 2.04 +/- 0.15 mmol 24 h-1, P less than 0.05) in DOC-treated rats. Mean blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate and total renal blood flow remained unchanged. 4. Our results suggest that endogenous kinins play a role in the regulation of renal excretion of water and sodium in the presence of elevated levels of DOC. PMID:1327379

  14. Haemostatic mechanism in the endometrium: role of cyclo-oxygenase products and coagulation factors.

    PubMed Central

    Gelety, T J; Chaudhuri, G

    1995-01-01

    1. The primary mechanism of haemostasis in the endometrium of rat was studied and results were compared to that in the mesenteric artery. 2. The bleeding time of the rat endometrium as assessed by haemoglobin output was significantly decreased after pretreatment of the animals with either indomethacin (5 mg kg-1, i.v.) or meclofenamate (3 mg kg-1, i.v.) whereas the bleeding time was significantly increased in the rat mesenteric artery. 3. The bleeding time of the rat endometrium was unchanged from control values following treatment with prostacyclin (0.5 microgram kg-1 min-1, i.v.) or 1-benzylimidazole (50 mg kg-1, i.v.) whereas the bleeding times were increased in the rat mesentric artery. 4. Administration of heparin (100 units kg-1) increased the bleeding time in the rat mesenteric artery but had no effect on the bleeding time of the endometrium. 5. Superfusion of the endometrium with 16, 16-dimethyl PGE2 (1 microgram ml-1) a vasodilator, increased the bleeding time of the endometrium but superfusion of PGE2 over the mesenteric artery did not affect the bleeding time from this site. 6. Histological studies of the mesenteric artery and the endometrium following haemostatis revealed that the haemostatic plug in the mesenteric artery was mainly composed of platelets and fibrin whereas in the endometrium it was mainly composed of fibrin. 7. These findings suggest that haemostasis in the endometrium may be mediated by the vascular tone and fibrin whereas formation of the platelet plug may be primary mechanism for haemostasis in the mesenteric artery. Images Figure 5 PMID:7780653

  15. Assessment of orocaecal transit time in cats by the breath hydrogen method: the effects of sedation and a comparison of definitions.

    PubMed

    Sparkes, A H; Papasouliotis, K; Viner, J; Cripps, P J; Gruffydd-Jones, T J

    1996-05-01

    Oro-caecal transit times (OCTTs) were assessed in 10 healthy adult cats by the lactulose breath hydrogen method with either no sedation (group A), or after the intramuscular administration of three sedative regimens: a combination of acetylpromazine at 0.1 mg kg-1 with buprenorphine at 10 micrograms kg-1 (group B), ketamine at 5 mg kg-1 with midazolam at 0.1 mg kg-1 (group C), or medetomidine at 50 micrograms kg-1 (group D). For each test, the OCTT was defined by four methods: a visual assessment, the first maintained 4 ppm increase in hydrogen production, and the first maintained 0.5 ml hr-1 increase in hydrogen production assessed by two cumulative sum methods. Depending on the definition, the median OCTTs of the cats were between 113 and 131.5 minutes in group A, 86.5 and 97.5 minutes in group B, 218 and 235.5 minutes in group C and 86.5 and 97.5 minutes in group D. By two of the definitions, the median OCTTs in group C were significantly longer than in group A (P < or = 0.037) and approached significance by the other two definitions. The use of sedatives significantly increased the inter-individual variability of the OCTTs, particularly in groups C and D. There were significant differences between the median OCTTs defined by the four different methods, but all the methods were very highly and significantly correlated (rs < or = 0.9503, P < 0.0001). PMID:8735515

  16. The effects of amrinone and calcium chloride on pulmonary vasculature and biventricular function in ethchlorvynol-induced lung injury in sheep.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, M; Gehr, L C; Glauser, F L

    1993-02-01

    The effects of amrinone and CaCl2 on pulmonary vasculature and biventricular function in sheep with acute lung injury (ALI) were studied. Seven sheep were ventilated with a tidal volume of 10-12 ml.kg-1 with end-tidal CO2 of 40 +/- 5 mmHg (5.3 +/- 0.7 kPa) after acute lung injury was induced with up to 30 mg kg-1 of ethchlorvynol (ECV). Biventricular function and hemodynamic profiles were estimated with a rapid computerized thermodilution method and modified pulmonary artery catheters after acute lung injury, following a loading dose (1 mg kg-1) and maintenance dose (5 micrograms kg-1 min-1) of amrinone and after a bolus dose of CaCl2 (20 mg kg-1). ECV successfully induced acute lung damage in sheep, causing significant increases in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI). Amrinone reversed the unfavorable changes induced by ECV, significantly reducing PAP, PVRI and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV). CaCl2, however, reversed the effect of amrinone and increased PAP, PVRI, and LVEDV but decreased left ventricular ejection fraction. PMID:8447214

  17. Teratology of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in a complex environmental mixture from the love canal.

    PubMed

    Silkworth, J B; Cutler, D S; Antrim, L; Houston, D; Tumasonis, C; Kaminsky, L S

    1989-07-01

    The organic phase of a leachate (OPL) from the Love Canal chemical dump site contains more than 100 organic compounds including 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The teratogenic potential of OPL was determined in two inbred and one hybrid mouse strain which differ in their sensitivity to aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-mediated toxicity. OPL was orally administered in corn oil on Days 6-15 of gestation to C57BL/6J mice (Ahb/Ahb) at doses of 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g kg-1 day-1 and to DBA/2J (Ahd/Ahd) females, which were mated with either DBA/2J or C57BL/6J males, at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2.0 g kg-1 day-1. In C57BL/6J mice, which express a high-affinity Ah receptor that avidly binds TCDD, the ED50's of OPL for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 0.44 and 0.11 g OPL kg-1 day-1, respectively. Maternal mortality was 5% at the highest dose. In DBA/2J fetuses, which express a low-affinity receptor, neither treatment-related cleft palate nor hydronephrosis was induced by dose levels that caused 36% maternal mortality. In hybrid D2B6F1 fetuses, the incidence of cleft palate reached only 8% at 2 g OPL kg-1 day-1 but the ED50 for hydronephrosis was 0.76 g OPL kg-1 day-1. TCDD was similarly administered to pregnant C57BL/6J mice at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 micrograms kg-1 day-1 and to DBA/2J mice at 0, 0.5, 2, 4, and 8 micrograms kg-1 day-1. In C57BL/6J fetuses, the ED50's for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 4.6 and 0.73 microgram TCDD kg-1 day-1, respectively. In DBA/2J fetuses the ED50's for cleft palate and hydronephrosis were 15.0 and 6.4 micrograms TCDD kg-1 day-1, respectively. Both the OPL and TCDD caused maternal hepatomegaly and thymic atrophy in all strains, but increased only C57BL/6J fetal weights. OPL decreased the number of fetuses per C57BL/6J dam at the two highest doses but there were no other reproductive effects in any of the groups. It was concluded that the OPL is teratogenic and that hydronephrosis is a sensitive measure of TCDD toxicity in a

  18. Adrenal responses to calcitonin gene-related peptide in conscious hypophysectomized calves.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, S R; Edwards, A V; Jones, C T

    1989-01-01

    1. Right adrenal and various cardiovascular responses to an intra-aortic infusion of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP; 4 micrograms min-1) have been investigated in the presence and absence of exogenous adrenocorticotrophin ACTH1-24 (2 or 5 ng min-1 kg-1, I.V.). The adrenal clamp technique was employed in conscious calves in which the pituitary stalk had been cauterized 3-7 days previously. 2. At the higher dose (5 ng min-1 kg-1) the I.V. infusion of ACTH raised mean plasma ACTH concentration by about 1000 pg ml-1 and mean right adrenal cortisol output by about 750 ng min-1 kg-1. Under these conditions the intra-aortic infusion of CGRP had no apparent effect on adrenal cortisol output by about 750 ng min-1 kg-1. Under these conditions the intra-aortic infusion of CGRP had no apparent effect on adrenal function, other than to produce moderate adrenal vasodilatation. In contrast, in the absence of exogenous ACTH, the same dose of CGRP produced a substantial rise in cortisol output, which rose steadily to a peak mean value of 409 +/- 31 pg min-1 kg-1 at 10 min. It also significantly inhibited the release of free, but not of total, met5-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity from the gland (P less than 0.001) together with a significantly greater fall in adrenal vascular resistance (P less than 0.001). 3. At the lower dose of ACTH (2 ng min-1 kg-1, I.V.) CGRP raised mean plasma cortisol output from 314 +/- 31 to 486 +/- 44 ng min-1 kg-1 (P less than 0.01) and this effect was not attributable to an increase in the adrenal presentation rate of ACTH. 4. It is concluded that this peptide exerts a steroidogenic action on the adrenal cortex which is manifest in the absence of exogenous ACTH in the functionally hypophysectomized calf. PMID:2555477

  19. Delayed circulatory failure due to the induction of nitric oxide synthase by lipoteichoic acid from Staphylococcus aureus in anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed Central

    De Kimpe, S J; Hunter, M L; Bryant, C E; Thiemermann, C; Vane, J R

    1995-01-01

    1. This study investigates the effect of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus, a micro-organism without endotoxin, on haemodynamics and induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the anaesthetized rat. 2. Intravenous injection of LTA (10 mg kg-1) resulted in a decrease in blood pressure from 123 +/- 1 mmHg to 83 +/- 7 mmHg after 270 min (P < 0.001) and a reduction of the pressor response to noradrenaline (1 microgram kg-1) from 33 +/- 1 mmHg.min to 23 +/- 3 mmHg.min after 270 min (P < 0.05). 3. The delayed circulatory failure (hypotension and vascular hyporeactivity) caused by LTA was prevented by pretreatment of rats with dexamethasone (10 mg kg-1, 60 min prior to LTA) or the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 10 mg kg-1 h-1, i.v. infusion starting 30 min prior to LTA). 4. In contrast, treatment of rats with polymyxin B (0.05 mg kg-1), an agent which binds endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS), did not affect the delayed circulatory failure caused by LTA. Polymyxin B, however, attenuated the hypotension and vascular hyporeactivity to noradrenaline afforded by endotoxaemia (2 mg kg-1 LPS, i.v.) for 270 min. 5. The delayed circulatory failure caused by LTA was associated with a time-dependent increase in (i) the expression of iNOS protein in the lung (Western blot analysis), and (ii) iNOS activity. This increase in iNOS protein and activity was prevented by pretreatment of LTA-rats with dexamethasone (10 mg kg-1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 6 PMID:7542534

  20. Assessment of ocular toxicity in dogs during 6 months' exposure to a potent organophosphate.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, J E; Bolte, H F; Rubin, L F; Sonawane, M

    1994-01-01

    Exposure to anticholinesterase pesticides has been associated with the development of ocular toxicity in humans and animals, ranging from blurred vision to degeneration of the optic nerve. Based on the concern for human safety, the US Environmental Protection Agency has recently required additional studies for this class of compounds, focusing on biochemical, functional and histopathological evaluation of the ocular system. This study was designed to determine the effects on the eye of ethyl parathion, a highly toxic organophosphate, when administered orally to 30 beagle dogs (five of each sex per group) at doses of 2.4, 7.9 or 794 micrograms kg-1day-1 for 6 months. Control animals received corn oil. Routine ophthalmoscopic and slit lamp examinations, refraction and intraocular pressure determinations and electroretinograms were performed as functional assessments at various intervals over the study. Plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase were determined at weeks 1, 6, 14, 20 and 26, while brain, retinal and ocular muscle cholinesterase were measured at week 26 only. Histopathological examination of the retina, optic nerve, ocular muscle and ciliary body was conducted at termination. Plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase was markedly depressed at 7.9 and 794 micrograms kg-1day-1 as early as week 1. Retinal cholinesterase was decreased (37-55%) from control values in the 794 micrograms kg-1day-1 group only. Ocular muscle cholinesterase was comparable in treated and control groups at termination. No functional impairment of the eye was noted over the 6-month study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8027510

  1. Drug modulation of antigen-induced paw oedema in guinea-pigs: effects of lipopolysaccharide, tumour necrosis factor and leucocyte depletion.

    PubMed

    da Motta, J I; Cunha, F Q; Vargaftig, B B; Ferreira, S H

    1994-05-01

    1. In guinea-pigs previously sensitized with ovalbumin, the intra-plantar administration of the antigen induced dose-dependent and sustained oedema. An intense infiltrate of neutrophils and eosinophils was observed at the peak of the oedema (4 h). 2. Oedema induced by ovalbumin at the doses of 50 or 200 micrograms/paw was not inhibited by antihistamines (meclizine and cetirizine), a PAF antagonist (BN 50730), a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin), a lipoxygenase inhibitor (MK-886), a dual type lipo- and cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor (NDGA), a bradykinin antagonist (Hoe 140) or the combination of cetirizine, MK-886, indomethacin and BN 50730. These drugs did inhibit paw oedema induced by their specific agonists or by carrageenin. These results suggest that histamine, PAF, prostaglandins, leukotrienes or bradykinin are not important in the development of immune paw oedema in guinea-pigs. 3. Dexamethasone (10 mg kg-1) inhibited oedema induced by ovalbumin (50 or 200 micrograms/paw, P < 0.05). This effect apparently does not result from inhibition of arachidonate metabolism, since indomethacin, MK-886 and NDGA were without effect. 4. Oedema induced by ovalbumin (50 or 200 micrograms/paw) was also inhibited by azelastine. This effect was not due to the anti-histaminic property of azelastine since two other potent-antihistamines, meclizine and cetirizine, were ineffective. 5. Intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) dose-dependently inhibited the oedema induced by ovalbumin (200 micrograms/paw). This effect could not be attributed to hypotension or leucopenia since the maximal dose applied (81 micrograms kg-1) did not induce significant changes in the blood pressure or in the white blood cell levels of the animals. It is suggested that the effect of LPS is mediated by the endogenous release of cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor (TNF alpha). Murine TNF alpha dose dependently(9-81 microg kg-1) inhibited the paw oedema induced by ovalbumin.7. The anti

  2. Potentiation of phenobarbital-induced anticonvulsant activity by pipecolic acid.

    PubMed

    Takahama, K; Miyata, T; Okano, Y; Kataoka, M; Hitoshi, T; Kasé, Y

    1982-07-01

    Pipecolic acid (PA) is an intermediate of lysine metabolism in the mammalian brain. Recent findings suggest a functional connection of PA as neuromodulator in GABAergic transmission. Since many drugs are postulated to produce their effects by interaction with the central GABA system, the influence of PA on the anticonvulsant activity of phenobarbital was examined. Pretreatment of mice with 50 mg . kg-1 of PA potentiated the suppressing effects of the barbiturate on electrically and chemically induced convulsions. However, there was no potentiation of the behavioral effects and hypothermia induced by phenobarbital. PA itself had no or only little effect on the convulsions, motor function and rectal temperature when given in i.p. doses up to 500 mg . kg-1. Intraventricular administration of 500 microgram of PA also did not suppress either type of convulsion, although it produced ptosis, hypotonia, sedation and hypothermia. The results are discussed in relation to GABA system. PMID:6288409

  3. The anti-emetic effects of CP-99,994 in the ferret and the dog: role of the NK1 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, J. W.; Gonsalves, S. F.; Fossa, A. A.; McLean, S.; Seeger, T.; Obach, S.; Andrews, P. L.

    1995-01-01

    1. The selective NK1 receptor antagonist, CP-99,994, produced dose-related (0.1-1.0 mg kg-1, s.c.) inhibition of vomiting and retching in ferrets challenged with central (loperamide and apomorphine), peripheral (CuSO4) and mixed central and peripheral (ipecac, cisplatin) emetic stimuli. 2. Parallel studies with the enantiomer, CP-100,263 (1 mg kg-1, s.c.), which is > 1,000 fold less potent as a NK1 antagonist, indicated that it was without significant effect against CuSO4, loperamide, cisplatin and apomorphine-induced emesis. Against ipecac, it inhibited both retching and vomiting, expressing approximately 1/10th the potency of CP-99,994. 3. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, tropisetron (1 mg kg-1, s.c.) inhibited retching and vomiting to cisplatin and ipecac, but not CuSO4 or loperamide. 4. CP-99,994 (1 mg kg-1, i.v.) blocked retching induced by electrical stimulation of the ventral abdominal vagus without affecting the cardiovascular response, the apnoeic response to central vagal stimulation or the guarding and hypertensive response to stimulation of the greater splanchnic nerves. CP-99,994 (1 mg kg-1, i.v.) did not alter baseline cardiovascular and respiratory parameters and it failed to block the characteristic heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate/depth changes in response to i.v. 2-methyl-5-HT challenge (von Bezold-Jarisch reflex). 5. Using in vitro autoradiography, [3H]-substance P was shown to bind to several regions of the ferret brainstem with the density of binding in the nucleus tractus solitarius being much greater than in the area postrema. This binding was displaced by CP-99,994 in a concentration-related manner. 6. In dogs, CP-99,994 (40 micrograms kg-1 bolus and 300 micrograms kg-1 h-1, i.v.) produced statistically significant reductions in vomiting to CuSO4 and apomorphine as well as retching to CuSO4. 7. Together, these studies support the hypothesis that the NK1 receptor antagonist properties of CP-99,994 are responsible for its broad

  4. [Pharmacokinetics of contragestazol (DL-111-IT), a new non-steroid antifertility agent in monkeys].

    PubMed

    Luo, W Y; Ying, Y; Li, Z X; Fan, C M; Zhou, J H; Fang, X C

    1995-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of contragestazol, an early pregnancy temperating agent [3-(2-ethylphenyl)-5-(3-methoxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole, DL-111-IT] was studied in Rhesus monkey. The blood concentration of DL-111-IT was determined by coupled column system HPLC method. Using an aqueous vehicle (20% cremophor EL in saline) DL-111-IT was injected intravenously to monkeys at doses of 25, 12.5 and 6.3 mg.kg-1. Blood drug concentration were measured. Using a programmable calculator the calculated pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: alpha 1.83 h-1, 4.71 h-1 and 3.61 h-1, beta 0.15 h-1, 0.08 h-1 and 0.09 h-1; T1/2 beta 6.63 h, 10.2 h and 10.1 h; AUC 9.54 micrograms.h-1.ml-1, 3.94 micrograms.h-1.ml-1 and 3.75 micrograms.h-1.ml-1. An oil solution of DL-111-IT was injected intramuscularly in monkeys at doses of 50, 25 and 12.5 mg.kg-1. Its blood concentrations were determined at 0.08, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h after administration. From the time vs concentration curve, the pharmacokinetic parameters obtained were as follows: Ka 0.98 h-1, 1.03 h-1 and 1.45 h-1; Ke 0.42 h-1, 0.37 h-1 and 0.60 h-1; T1/2Ke 1.66 h, 1.90 h and 1.16 h; T (peak) 1.52 h, 1.57 h and 1.09 h; AUC 4.86 micrograms.h-1.ml-1, 5.61 micrograms.h-1.ml-1 and 1.74 micrograms.h-1.ml-1. PMID:7572179

  5. Inhibitory effect of PYY on vagally stimulated acid secretion is mediated predominantly by Y1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, K C; Grandt, D; Aurang, K; Eysselein, V E; Schimiczek, M; Reeve, J R

    1996-01-01

    Two molecular forms of peptide YY (PYY), PYY-(1--36) and PYY-(3--36), are abundant in rabbit intestine and blood. We have previously shown that PYY-(1--36) (PYYI) activates equipotently Y1 and Y2 receptors and PYY-(3--36) (PYY II) is a highly selective agonist for Y2 receptors. In the present study, we examined the effect of exogenous infusion of PYY on vagally stimulated gastric acid secretion in awake rabbits with chronic gastric fistula. To determine the specific PYY receptor(s) that mediates this effect, we used a highly selective Y1 agonist, Pro34-PYY, a synthetic PYY, and a Y2-selective agonist, PYY II. Vagal stimulation of acid secretion was elicited by an intravenous bolus injection of insulin (0.125 U/kg) 30 min after beginning a 180-min intravenous infusion of either PYY I, PYY II, or [Pro34]-PYY after a 50 micrograms/kg i.v. bolus of atropine followed immediately by a 500 micrograms/kg sc injection. During infusion of 200 pmol.kg 1.h-1 PYY I, acid output was significantly inhibited to 45 +/- 13% of maximum acid output 60 min after injection of insulin. Similarly, acid output during infusion of 200 pmol.kg-1.h-1 [Pro34]-PYY was significantly inhibited to 52 +/- 12% of maximum. In contrast, acid output during infusion of 200 pmol.kg-1.h-1 of PYY II was not significantly inhibited (101 +/- 18% of maximum). Infusion of double the dose (400 pmol.kg-1.h-1) of PYY II resulted in acid inhibition (51 = 15% of maximum), whereas infusion of the same dose did not significantly enhance acid inhibition by infusion of either PYY I or [Pro34]-PYY (28 +/- 11 and 42 +/- 15% of maximum). These results indicate that PYY, acting predominantly at Y1 receptors, is a potent inhibitor of vagally stimulated acid secretion in adult rabbits. PMID:8772509

  6. Intracisternal naloxone and cardiac nerve blockade prevent vasodilatation during simulated haemorrhage in awake rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, R G; Ludbrook, J; Potocnik, S J

    1989-01-01

    1. Acute haemorrhage was simulated in five unanaesthetized rabbits, by inflating a cuff on the inferior vena cava so that cardiac output fell by 8.3% of its resting level per minute. Simulated haemorrhage was performed after sham treatment, after graded doses of intravenous and intracisternal naloxone, and after cardiac nerve blockade with intrapericardial procaine. 2. After sham treatment, the haemodynamic response to simulated haemorrhage was biphasic. During the first phase, systemic vascular conductance fell steadily, heart rate rose steadily, and arterial pressure fell only slightly. A second decompensatory phase began abruptly when cardiac output had fallen to approximately 55% of its resting level. Vascular conductance rose steeply, heart rate fell slowly, and arterial pressure fell precipitately. 3. Treatment with naloxone (intravenous, 0.04-0.4 mg kg-1; intracisternal, 0.2-2 micrograms kg-1) did not affect either phase of the haemodynamic response to simulated haemorrhage. 4. After treatment with larger doses of naloxone (intravenous, 4-8 mg kg-1; intracisternal, 4-69 micrograms kg-1), the first phase was unaffected, but the second phase no longer occurred. Throughout simulated haemorrhage, systemic vascular conductance fell steadily, heart rate rose, and arterial pressure was well maintained. The dose of intracisternal naloxone which prevented the second phase was 90-900 times less than the corresponding intravenous dose. The second phase was also prevented by cardiac nerve blockade. 5. We conclude that an endogenous opiate mechanism is responsible for the haemodynamic decompensation that occurs when cardiac output falls to a critical level. The mechanism is located within the central nervous system. It is triggered by a signal from the heart. PMID:2585286

  7. GR94839, a kappa-opioid agonist with limited access to the central nervous system, has antinociceptive activity.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, H.; Birch, P. J.; Harrison, S. M.; Palmer, E.; Manchee, G. R.; Judd, D. B.; Naylor, A.; Scopes, D. I.; Hayes, A. G.

    1992-01-01

    1. The pharmacological profile of GR94839, a kappa-opioid agonist with limited access to the central nervous system, has been investigated. Its antinociceptive activity has been compared with that of GR103545, a centrally-penetrating kappa-agonist and ICI204448, the previously described peripherally-selective kappa-agonist. 2. GR94839 was a potent agonist in the rabbit vas deferens in vitro assay for kappa-opioid receptors (IC50: 1.4 +/- 0.3 nM; n = 6), but had limited activity at mu- or delta-opioid receptors. 3. In the mouse abdominal constriction test, GR94839 was 238 fold more potent when given i.c.v. (ED50: 0.008 (0.004-0.029) mg kg-1; n = 18) than when s.c. (ED50: 1.9 (0.7-3.1) mg kg-1; n = 30). In comparison, GR103545 was equipotent when given i.c.v. or s.c. 4. After intravenous administration, the maximum plasma to brain concentration-ratio attained by GR94839 was 18 compared with 2 for GR85571, a structurally-related kappa-agonist that is centrally-penetrating. 5. GR94839 inhibited the 2nd phase of the rat formalin response at doses 7 fold lower than those required to inhibit the 1st phase (ED50 vs 1st phase: 10.2 (6.7-17.1) mg kg-1, s.c.; ED50 vs 2nd phase: 1.4 (1.0-1.8) mg kg-1, s.c.; n = 18). GR103545 was equipotent against the two phases. 6. Intraplantar administration of the opioid antagonists, norbinaltorphimine (100 micrograms) or naltrexone (1 microgram), reversed the antinociceptive effect of systemic GR94839 (3 mg kg-1, s.c.) against the 2nd phase of the formalin response and intraplantar injection of GR94839 (30-100 micrograms) selectively inhibited the 2nd phase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1327387

  8. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 inhibits postischemic increases in splanchnic vascular resistance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, G R; Thibodaux, H

    1992-01-01

    Anesthesized male rabbits having a resting mean arterial pressure of 81 +/- 4 mm Hg and superior mesenteric artery blood flow of 91 +/- 7 mL min-1 were subjected to 60 min of splanchnic ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion. Upon reperfusion, mean arterial pressure fell. Splanchnic blood flow also decreased but not in parallel with blood pressure; consequently, vascular resistance was increased over the reperfusion period. This increase in splanchnic vascular resistance was not affected by intravenous t-PA (0.5 mg kg-1 + 5 mg kg-1 hr-1) for 30 min prior to and throughout the reperfusion period or by intravenous L-NAME (1 mg kg-1 x 2). However, intravenous infusions of TGF-beta (18 or 54 micrograms kg-1) at the time of reperfusion dose dependently attenuated the increases in vascular resistance (p < 0.05). This effect of TGF-beta was enhanced by coadministration of t-PA and inhibited by the coadministration of L-NAME. We propose that the effects of TGF-beta are ultimately mediated via nitric oxide release, and conclude that this may be useful therapy for the prevention of reperfusion-associated injury following surgery or as an adjunct to thrombolytic therapy. PMID:1303730

  9. Muscarinic antagonists attenuate the increase in accumbens and striatum dopamine metabolism produced by clozapine but not by haloperidol.

    PubMed Central

    Rivest, R.; Marsden, C. A.

    1991-01-01

    1. The effect of the muscarinic antagonists, scopolamine and atropine, were examined on the increase in extracellular 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum induced by haloperidol and clozapine by use of in vivo differential pulse voltammetry with carbon fibre electrodes in anaesthetized rats. 2. Animals received saline (1 ml kg-1, s.c.), scopolamine (1 mg kg-1, o.p.) or atropine (20 micrograms, i.c.v.) followed 15 min later by saline (10 microliters, i.c.v.), haloperidol (1 mg kg-1, s.c.) or clozapine (30 mg kg-1, i.p.) and extracellular DOPAC was simultaneously recorded in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum every 5 min for 60 min after drug administration. 3. Scopolamine or atropine alone had no effect on the DOPAC peak height but attenuated the increase in extracellular DOPAC induced by clozapine in both brain regions. Neither scopolamine nor atropine altered the haloperidol-induced increase in accumbens or striatal extracellular DOPAC. 4. The present results demonstrate that muscarinic antagonists attenuate the increase in accumbens and striatal dopamine metabolism in vivo produced by the atypical neuroleptic clozapine but not the haloperidol-induced increase in dopamine metabolism. The results indicate that central muscarinic receptors are involved in the actions on dopaminergic function of clozapine but not haloperidol. PMID:1786513

  10. Study of the in vivo and in vitro cardiovascular effects of (+)-glaucine and N-carbethoxysecoglaucine in rats.

    PubMed

    Orallo, F; Fernández Alzueta, A; Campos-Toimil, M; Calleja, J M

    1995-04-01

    1. The cardiovascular and vasorelaxant effects of (+)-glaucine and of a semisynthetic derivative (N-carbethoxysecoglaucine) were studied in rats. 2. N-carbethoxysecoglaucine did not modify either systolic arterial pressure or heart rate values in conscious (25 mg kg-1, p.o.) and anaesthetized normotensive rats (5 mg kg-1, i.v.). Furthermore, this compound showed no activity in the experiments carried out on rat isolated aorta [contractility and 45Ca2+ influx assays (5 microM)] and did not modify the rate and force of contraction in rat isolated atria (5 microM). 3. In conscious normotensive rats, oral administration of (+)-glaucine (25 mg kg-1) did not modify either systolic arterial pressure or heart rate. 4. In anaesthetized normotensive rats, (+)-glaucine (5 mg kg-1, i.v.) produced a remarkable fall in mean arterial pressure (MAP) accompanied by a significant decrease in heart rate. In the same preparation, (+)-glaucine (5 mg kg-1, i.v.) did not modify the cardiovascular effects induced by noradrenaline (NA) (5 micrograms kg-1) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) (300 micrograms kg-1) but markedly inhibited those induced by nicotine (200 micrograms kg-1). 5. In isolated intact aorta of rat, (+)-glaucine (0.15-5 microM) competitively inhibited the contractions induced by NA (with a pA2 value of 7.14) and non-competitively those induced by 5-HT (in normal Krebs solution) and Ca2+ (in depolarizing Ca(2+)-free high-K+ 50 mM solution), with depression of the maximal response and with pD2 values of 5.56 and 5.26, respectively. 6. In experiments in Ca2+-free medium, (+)-glaucine (3 microM) inhibited the contractions induced by NA and had no effect on either 5-HT- or caffeine-induced contractions.7. Furthermore, in the experiments with radioactive Ca2+, (+)-glaucine (3 microM) did not modify the basal uptake of 45Ca2+ but strongly inhibited the influx of 45Ca2+ induced by NA, 5-HT and K+.8. (+)-Glaucine (5microM) had no effect on rate and force of contraction in rat isolated

  11. Dissociated effects of corticotropin-releasing factor on acid secretion and blood flow.

    PubMed

    Thiefin, G; Leung, F W; Tache, Y; Guth, P H

    1989-02-01

    Peripherally administered corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) inhibits gastric acid secretion in the rat via unknown mechanisms. Because intravenous CRF can produce marked systemic hypotension, the hypothesis that its antisecretory effect is due to a reduction in gastric mucosal blood flow (MBF) was tested. Corpus MBF was measured by hydrogen gas clearance in fasted, urethan-anesthetized rats. CRF (15 nmol.kg-1.h-1 iv) had no significant effect on MBF but significantly decreased systemic blood pressure (BP) by 21.8 +/- 3.4%. This dose of CRF significantly decreased acid secretion stimulated by 40 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 pentagastrin iv but did not decrease MBF despite a 30.3 +/- 2.3% decrease in BP. To avoid the confounding effect of systemic hypotension on MBF, close gastric intra-arterial infusions were performed. CRF (1.7 nmol/h ia) had no effect on BP and did not increase MBF. CRF (3.4 nmol/h ia) slightly decreased BP without modifying MBF. In contrast, histamine (200 micrograms/h ia) significantly increased MBF by 58 +/- 11%. We conclude that 1) the peripheral antisecretory effect of CRF is not related to a decrease in MBF, 2) the maintenance of MBF during CRF-induced hypotension is not due to a direct vasodilator effect of CRF on the gastric microvasculature. PMID:2784035

  12. Comparison of i.v. and intra-tracheal administration of adrenaline.

    PubMed

    McCrirrick, A; Monk, C R

    1994-05-01

    Adrenaline is the single most important therapeutic agent used in advanced cardiac life support (ACLS). Ideally it should be given into a large central vein but the European Resuscitation Council, the American Heart Association and the Resuscitation Council (U.K.) advise that adrenaline may be given into the trachea if i.v. access is not available. We have studied the effects of intra-tracheal and i.v. adrenaline in 16 patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. Log dose-response curves were constructed for systolic arterial pressure and heart rate responses. Intra-tracheal doses of adrenaline up to 10 micrograms kg-1, approximately one-third of that recommended for resuscitation, had no effect on arterial pressure or heart rate, whereas adrenaline 0.1 microgram kg-1 i.v. produced a mean increase in systolic pressure of 24 mm Hg. The intra-tracheal doses recommended for resuscitation (2-3 mg) are likely to be ineffective and consideration should be given to abandoning the tracheal route for adrenaline in ACLS. PMID:8198902

  13. Renovascular effects of neuropeptide-Y in the split hydronephrotic rat kidney: non-uniform pattern of vascular reactivity.

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, M S; Fretschner, M; Nobiling, R; Persson, P B; Steinhausen, M

    1991-01-01

    1. The renovascular effects of neuropeptide-Y (NPY) were examined in the split hydronephrotic rat kidney. 2. Systemic infusion of low non-pressor doses of NPY (0.2 micrograms kg-1 up to 5.0 micrograms kg-1) produced a non-uniform pattern of vascular reactivity. In general, a significant constriction of the proximal and distal arcuate artery was seen at all doses. No constriction was seen at the interlobular artery or the larger part of the afferent arteriole. These segments initially dilated during the lower dose infusions. The very distal part of the afferent arteriole adjacent to the glomerulus and the proximal efferent arteriole responded in a similar way to the arcuate arteries. 3. NPY, locally applied into the tissue bath at concentrations of 1 nmol l-1 up to 25 nmol l-1, produced non-uniform vascular reactions similar to those of intravenously infused NPY. At the considerably higher local dosage of 1.14 mumol l-1, all vascular segments revealed vasoconstriction. 4. NPY application did not attenuate effects of acetylcholine. This observation suggests that the mechanism of NPY-induced vasoconstriction does not rely upon antagonism of endothelium-derived vasodilatation. 5. The pattern of vascular reactivity to NPY was substantially different from that known for the vasoconstrictors noradrenaline and angiotensin II in our preparation. PMID:1822552

  14. Comparative observations of fever and associated clinical hematological and blood biochemical changes after intravenous administration of staphylococcal enterotoxins B and F (toxic shock syndrome toxin-1) in goats.

    PubMed Central

    Van Miert, A S; Van Duin, C T; Schotman, A J

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to examine the characteristics of purified toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (staphylococcal enterotoxin F) given intravenously to dwarf goats (dose, 0.02 to 20 micrograms kg-1). Rectal temperature, heart rate, rumen motility, plasma zinc and iron concentrations, and certain other blood biochemical and hematological values were studied and compared with the changes seen after intravenous administration of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (dose, 0.02 to 0.5 micrograms kg-1). Similar changes such as fever, tachycardia, inhibition of rumen contractions, drop in plasma zinc and iron concentrations, lymphopenia, and a decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase activity were observed. In contrast to the effects of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, staphylococcal enterotoxin B induced colic, watery diarrhea with pseudomembranes, hemoconcentration, and a more pronounced increase in blood urea nitrogen. The results obtained demonstrate that (i) in the goat staphylococcal enterotoxin B is much more potent than toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and (ii) the goat is a useful model to study the gastro-intestinal effects caused by staphylococcal enterotoxin B. The present finding that no clear relationship could be found between the temperature response and the alterations in zinc and iron levels in plasma support the theory that the febrile reactions and the changes in plasma trace metals are mediated by different polypeptides released by activated macrophages. PMID:6500695

  15. Effect of isoflurane and sevoflurane on the magnitude and time course of neuromuscular block produced by vecuronium, pancuronium and atracurium.

    PubMed

    Vanlinthout, L E; Booij, L H; van Egmond, J; Robertson, E N

    1996-03-01

    We have compared the ability of equipotent concentrations of isoflurane and sevoflurane to enhance the effect of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs. Ninety ASA I and II patients of both sexes, aged 18-50 yr, were stratified into three blocker groups (Vec, Pan and Atr), to undergo neuromuscular block with vecuronium (n = 30), pancuronium (n = 30) or atracurium (n = 30), respectively. Within each group, patients were allocated randomly to one of three anaesthetic subgroups to undergo maintenance of anaesthesia with: (1) alfentanil-nitrous oxide-oxygen (n = 10); (2) alfentanil-nitrous oxide-oxygen-isoflurane (n = 10); or (3) alfentanil-nitrous oxide-oxygen-sevoflurane (n = 10) anaesthesia. During maintenance of anaesthesia, end-tidal concentrations of isoflurane, sevoflurane and nitrous oxide were 0.95, 1.70 and 70%, respectively. Both the evoked integrated electromyogram and mechanomyogram of the adductor pollicis brevis muscle were measured simultaneously. In the Vec and Pan groups, a total dose of 40 micrograms kg-1 of vecuronium or pancuronium, respectively, was given, and in the Atr group a total dose of atracurium 100 micrograms kg-1. Each blocker was given in four equal doses and administered cumulatively. We showed that 0.95% isoflurane and 1.70% sevoflurane (corresponding to 0.8 MAC of each inhalation anaesthetic, omitting the MAC contribution of nitrous oxide) augmented and prolonged the neuromuscular block produced by vecuronium, pancuronium and atracurium to a similar degree. PMID:8785139

  16. Transplacental effects of 3,5-dimethyl-3'-isopropyl-L-thyronine on fetal hypothyroidism in primates

    SciTech Connect

    Bachrach, L.K.; Dibattista, D.; Burrow, G.N.; Holland, F.J.

    1983-06-01

    Pregnant Rhesus monkeys treated with 131I at midgestation become hypothyroid and produce fetuses without demonstrable thyroid tissue. In an effort to prevent both maternal and fetal hypothyroidism, we treated 131I-treated pregnant monkeys with 3,5-dimethyl-3'-isopropyl-L-thyronine (DIMIT), a thyroid hormone analog with structural changes which facilitate placental transfer. Five pregnant monkeys were treated with 131I (mCi/kg) at 83-87 days of gestation. One week later, three monkeys were started on treatment with DIMIT (10 micrograms kg-1 day-1, im) and two on im L-T4 (2 micrograms kg-1 day-1). Treatment was continued until delivery by Caesarian section at 152-157 days of gestation. None of the DIMIT-treated mothers became clinically hypothyroid, nor did they have elevated serum TSH concentrations despite low serum levels of T3 and T4. T4-treated mothers were also maintained clinically and biochemically euthyroid. At delivery, infants of DIMIT-treated mothers had normal respiratory function and skeletal maturation. Basal and TRH-stimulated TSH concentrations were suppressed in two of the three infants. By contrast, both T4-treated infants resembled untreated cretinous newborns and died soon after delivery from respiratory failure. Serum TSH concentrations were elevated and skeletal maturation was markedly delayed in these animals. We conclude that DIMIT administration to 131I-treated monkeys prevents clinical and biochemical hypothyroidism in the mother and prevents the major clinical manifestations of cretinism in the fetus.

  17. [Endemic goiter in Argentina. Epidemiologic studies before (1968) and during (1986) prophylaxis with iodized salt in the city of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Salvaneschi, J P; Salvaneschi, B G; Moralejo, A B; García, J R

    1991-01-01

    An epidemiological survey on goiter was conducted in Buenos Aires, on 3882 schoolchildren, a randomized sample of 160,026 children of public schools, before establishing prophylactic measures in 1968. With an estimated error of 5% the result was 14.8% of goiter prevalence. This figure qualified Buenos Aires as an endemic area and was, therefore, included in the National Programme to Combat Endemic Goiter, through iodized salt (proportion 1:30,000 of salt). Schools were qualified according to their social level in high, middle and low; the prevalence of goiter was 6.8%, 12.2% and 26.4%, respectively. The prevalence was also higher in older ages. In 1986, using the same randomized sample, a second survey was conducted, after 18 years of prophylaxis. Goiter prevalence was 8.5%. Goiter in the low social class was about the same as in the middle class. In randomized samples of 49 urines, iodine concentration was determined yielding an average of 139.6 micrograms/g creatinine (median 120.9 micrograms/g creatinine). Urinary iodine level in 14 children with goiter was 146.1 micrograms/g creatinine and in 12 without goiter was 171.4 micrograms/g. There was no statistical difference between these three groups. Variations in radioiodine uptake, urinary iodine, plasma inorganic iodine levels, and water iodine are discussed. PMID:1820512

  18. Characteristics of the air-water counter current two-phase flow in a 1/30 scale of pressurized water reactor (PWR): Interfacial behavior and CCFL data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badarudin, Apip; Indarto, Deendarlianto, Setyawan, Andriyanto

    2016-06-01

    An experiment for investigating the flooding and deflooding phenomena in a complex system has been conducted. The liquid film behavior for the flooding and deflooding were studied under various superficial liquid velocities. The onset of flooding was observed at high superficial gas velocity when the superficial liquid velocity was low. On the other hand, for the high superficial liquid velocity, the flooding was initiated at the lower superficial gas velocity. In flooding experiment, it is obvious that the higher superficial gas velocity is needed than that of deflooding experiment. At the higher superficial liquid velocity, it is also found that the hysteresis is more significant than that of lower superficial liquid velocity.

  19. High-density ion-implanted contiguous-disk-bubble technology. Annual Scientific Report No. 1, 30 September 1986-29 September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Kryder, M.H.; Greve, D.W.; Guzman, A.; Jo, S.C.; Ramesh, M.

    1987-10-31

    During the past year the authors advanced the state-of-the-art in several areas of magnetic-bubble technology. The main thrust of their research was to advance ion-implanted contiguous disk devices because these devices offer order-of-magnitude higher bit density than presently manufactured bubble devices. Noteworthy accomplishments include demonstration of bubble propagation in devices having 4 sq micrometer bit cells and exhibiting operating margins equal to those of today's manufactured devices. These devices were demonstrated to operate from 0 to 120 C, the limits of the testing capabilities. A major factor in this success was development of new epitaxial garnet materials that exhibited isotropic magnetostrictive properties -- a feature previously not obtained. In addition to the work on bubble propagation, significant progress was made on demonstrating a fully operational contiguous-disk chip, complete with bubble generators, transfer gates and stretcher/detectors. All components have been demonstrated to operate with good overlapping margins, and a complete chip was designed and fabricated.

  20. EXPERIENCES OF THE DRAPER E AND D PROJECT FOR THE OMAT PROGRAM, OPERATION RETRIEVAL--YOUTH. SEVENTH PROGRESS REPORT, SEPTEMBER 1-30, 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Research Foundation, Elmore, AL. Draper Correctional Center.

    MATERIALS RELATING TO VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THE CENTER'S VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR YOUNG INMATES ARE PRESENTED TO SHOW A DEVELOPMENTAL PICTURE OF THE PROGRAM. OF 650 INMATES, 372 APPLIED FOR TRAINING, 50-60 WERE REFERRED TO ACADEMIC SCHOOL, 120 WERE SERVED, 109 GRADUATED, 50 WERE EMPLOYED, 59 WERE AWAITING PAROLE, AND 120 WERE AWAITING…

  1. Extensive air showers generated by gamma-quanta from Geminga and Tycho's SNR at energy range 1 30 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinitsyna, V. G.; Arsov, T. P.; Alaverdian, A. Y.; Borisov, S. S.; Musin, F. I.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Sinitsyna, V. Y.; Platonov, G. F.

    2006-01-01

    The gamma-quantum emitting objects in our Galaxy are supernova remnants and binary. The observed results of gamma-quantum sources Tycho Brahe and Geminga by the SHALON gamma-telescope are presented. The integral spectra of events from the source - k and background events, observing simultaneously with source's events - k, and the source image are presented. The energy spectra of Tycho's SNR and Geminga supernova remnant F(E>0.8TeV)˜E are harder than the Crab Nebula spectrum. Tycho's SNR has long been considered as a candidate cosmic ray source in Northern Hemisphere. A non-linear kinetic model of cosmic ray acceleration in supernova remnants was used for Tycho's SNR. The expected π°-decay gamma-quanta flux F˜Eγ-1 extends up to ˜30TeV, whereas the Inverse Compton gamma-ray flux has a cut-off above a few TeV. So, the detection of gamma-rays at energies of ˜10-30TeV by SHALON is evidence for hadron origin.

  2. Prophylactic efficacy of clorsulon against Fasciola hepatica in calves and sheep.

    PubMed

    Fetterer, R H; Rew, R S; Gasbarre, L C; Ostlind, D A

    1985-06-01

    A daily oral 5 mg kg-1 dose of clorsulon for 28 days in calves given Fasciola hepatica cysts at 3, 5, and 7 days after initiation of treatment was highly effective in reducing worm burdens (98%) and preventing liver pathology. In similarly infected and treated sheep, clorsulon showed little effect as a prophylactic for delaying the onset of liver pathology. The size of flukes recovered from treated sheep was reduced. Although clorsulon prevented development of fascioliasis in treated calves, the host antibody response was qualitatively similar to that of untreated infected calves, but the magnitude of the response was reduced. Blood clorsulon levels in calves rose to 2.90 micrograms ml-1 within the first week of treatment then fluctuated between 2.65 and 2.90 micrograms ml-1 for the next two weeks. Clorsulon levels in sheep were 0.50-0.60 micrograms ml-1 lower than those in calf blood. The difference in bioavailability of clorsulon between sheep and calves may have contributed to differences in efficacy of the drug. PMID:4049724

  3. Effects of dietary zinc deficiency on gonadotrophin secretion and testicular growth in young male sheep.

    PubMed

    Martin, G B; White, C L

    1992-11-01

    The hypothesis that the secretion of gonadotrophins would be reduced by zinc deficiency was tested in five groups of four young Merino rams (initial liveweight 22 kg). Four groups were fed ad libitum with diets containing 4, 10, 17 or 27 micrograms Zn g-1. The effects of loss of appetite on the deficient diet was controlled by feeding a fifth group (pair-fed control) at a rate of 27 micrograms Zn g-1, but the amount of feed offered was restricted to that eaten voluntarily by the deficient (4 micrograms Zn g-1) group. Blood was sampled every 20 min for 32 h on two occasions before the treatments were imposed and 96 days later, at the end of the experiment. The rams were injected with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH; 10 ng kg-1 i.v.) after each serial sampling, and with naloxone (1 mg kg-1 i.v.) 24 h after the end of the final GnRH test. In the group that were fed the diet with the lowest zinc content, the concentration of zinc in blood plasma was reduced to 18% of that in the pair-fed controls (P < 0.05) and was within the deficient range. The appetite of the deficient rams was half that of the controls fed 27 micrograms Zn g-1 ad libitum and there was no increase in liveweight or testicular diameter during pubertal development. Similar, but smaller, effects were observed in the pair-fed controls. There were no significant differences between pair-fed and deficient groups in the frequency of the luteinizing hormone (LH) pulses or in the concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), but the secretion of gonadotrophins was markedly lower in both groups than in the control rams fed ad libitum. The response to GnRH was not affected by treatment, but the increase in LH pulse frequency evoked by naloxone was lower in the deficient animals than in other groups. The animals fed zinc at intermediate rates (10-17 micrograms g-1) showed similar responses to the controls fed ad libitum. It is concluded that the specific effects of zinc deficiency on testicular

  4. Effects of two histamine-N-methyltransferase inhibitors, SKF 91488 and BW 301 U, in rodent antinociception.

    PubMed

    Malmberg-Aiello, P; Lamberti, C; Ipponi, A; Hänninen, J; Ghelardini, C; Bartolini, A

    1997-03-01

    We have previously reported that the histaminergic system is involved in the control of pain perception, and that substances able to enhance histamine brain levels, such as the histamine-N-methyltransferase inhibitor, metoprine, induce antinociception. In the present study, in order to corroborate the idea of inducing antinociception by inhibiting histamine catabolism, the effects of a noncompetitive histamine-N-methyltransferase inhibitor. SKF 91488, were studied in rodents by means of tests inducing three different kinds of noxious stimuli: thermal (mouse hot plate), chemical (mouse abdominal constrictions) and mechanical (rat paw pressure). The ability to react to noxious stimuli was assessed by the rota-rod test. In addition, a competitive inhibitor of the histamine catabolism enzyme, BW 301 U, was studied in the hot plate test. SKF 91488 (30, 50 and 100 micrograms per animal i.c.v.) raised dose-dependently the pain threshold in all three tests. To verify whether SKF 91488-induced antinociception is due to inhibition of histamine-N-methyltransferase, (R)-alpha-methylhistamine, described to block histamine release and synthesis by stimulating the histamine H3-autoreceptor and activating the negative feed-back mechanism, was used. When administered at doses which do not alter the pain threshold per se, 0.5 microgram per rat i.c.v. or 10 mg kg-1 i.p. in mice, (R)-alpha-methylhistamine was able to antagonize significantly the antinociceptive effect induced by 30 micrograms per animal i.c.v. of SKF 91488. BW 301 U (30 and 100 mg kg-1 i.p.) showed a dose-dependent, long-lasting antinociception, which was also antagonized by pretreatment with (R)-alpha-methylhistamine. The present data show that the antinociceptive effect previously described for metoprine is not restricted to this molecule, but is also shared by other histamine-N-methyl-transferase inhibitors. This generalization provides further evidence to the importance of the histaminergic system in pain control

  5. Safety trial of single-dose treatments with a combination of ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine in bancroftian filariasis.

    PubMed

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Nguyen, L N; Glaziou, P; Chanteau, S; Gay, V M; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1993-06-01

    A supervised safety trial of the treatment with a combination of ivermectin 400 micrograms.kg-1 (IVER 400) plus increasing doses of diethylcarbamazine (DEC), given simultaneously in single dose, was performed on five groups of Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers, 49 males aged 25 to 73 years, in whom microfilaremia ranged from 1 to 6,137 mf/ml. The trial was hospital-based, open, dose-escalating (1 group per week). Safety of an unchanging dose of IVER 400 and ascending doses of DEC were studied in the 5 following groups: group 1- IVER 400 plus DEC 1 mg.kg-1, 12 patients; group 2- IVER 400 plus DEC 3 mg.kg-1, 17 patients; group 3- IVER 400 plus DEC 6 mg.kg-1, 10 patients. Two control groups were included in the study, group 4- DEC 6 mg.kg-1 alone, 5 patients; group 5-: IVER 400 alone, 5 patients. Carriers were examined and questioned regarding their experience of adverse reactions, which were graded 0 to 3 according to severity, at 6, 12 and 24 hours and at 4 days after treatment. Biological examination was performed 4 days before and 4 days after treatment and included determination of microfilaremia, complete blood count, liver function tests and assessment of creatinine and urea levels. Adverse reactions were observed in 51% of 49 carriers (15 of grade 1, 8 of grade 2, 2 of grade 3). None was considered serious and they all disappeared in 2 days. The main symptoms were fever > or = 37.5 degrees C, myalgia, arthralgia, headache, asthenia, anorexia, vertigo and chills. Adverse reactions of patients were not significantly different between the five groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8367670

  6. The anticonvulsant and behavioural profile of L-687,414, a partial agonist acting at the glycine modulatory site on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex.

    PubMed Central

    Tricklebank, M D; Bristow, L J; Hutson, P H; Leeson, P D; Rowley, M; Saywell, K; Singh, L; Tattersall, F D; Thorn, L; Williams, B J

    1994-01-01

    1. The anticonvulsant and behavioural effects of the glycine/NMDA receptor partial agonist, L-687,414 (R(+)-cis-beta-methyl-3-amino-1-hydroxypyrrolid-2-one) have been investigated in rodents. 2. L-687,414 dose-dependently antagonized seizures induced by N-methyl-D,L- aspartic acid (NMDLA, ED50 = 19.7 mg kg-1), pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, ED50 = 13.0 mg kg-1) and electroshock (ED50 = 26.1 mg kg-1) when given intravenously 15 min before test, in male Swiss Webster mice but was most potent against audiogenic seizures induced by a 120 dB bell in DBA/2 mice (ED50 = 5.1 mg kg-1, i.p., 30 min before test). 3. L-687,414 also induced impairments of performance in a rotarod test in both Swiss Webster and DBA/2 mice and the ratio [rotarod MED:anticonvulsant ED50] varied between 0.9 and 5, depending on the convulsant used. 4. Similar behaviours to those seen after administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (head weaving, body rolling, hyperlocomotion) were seen in the mouse after giving L-687,414, although the peak effect occurred at a dose (100 mg kg-1) which was 5-20 times the anticonvulsant ED50S, depending on the convulsant used. Unlike MK-801, however, doses of L-687,414 that were behaviourally stimulant did not increase dopamine turnover in the nucleus accumbens. 5. Consistent with the interaction of L-687,414 with the glycine/NMDA receptor, the anticonvulsant, ataxic and motor stimulant effects of the compound were significantly attenuated by the glycine/NMDA receptor agonist, D-serine (10-100 micrograms per mouse, i.c.v.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7858861

  7. Aminoguanidine attenuates the delayed circulatory failure and improves survival in rodent models of endotoxic shock.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C C; Chen, S J; Szabó, C; Thiemermann, C; Vane, J R

    1995-01-01

    1. We have investigated the effects of aminoguanidine, a relatively selective inhibitor of the cytokine-inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), on the delayed circulatory failure, vascular hyporeactivity to vasoconstrictor agents, and iNOS activity in a rat model of circulatory shock induced by bacterial endotoxin (E. coli lipopolysaccharide; LPS). In addition, we have evaluated the effect of aminoguanidine on the 24 h survival rate in a murine model of endotoxaemia. 2. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetized and instrumented for the measurement of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Injection of LPS (10 mg kg-1, i.v.) resulted in a fall in MAP from 115 +/- 4 mmHg (time 0, control) to 79 +/- 9 mmHg at 180 min (P < 0.05, n = 10). The pressor effect of noradrenaline (NA, 1 microgram kg-1, i.v.) was also significantly reduced at 60, 120 and 180 min after LPS injection. In contrast, animals pretreated with aminoguanidine (15 mg kg-1, i.v., 20 min prior to LPS injection) maintained a significantly higher MAP (at 180 min, 102 +/- 3 mmHg, n = 10, P < 0.05) when compared to rats given only LPS (LPS-rats). Cumulative administration of aminoguanidine (15 mg kg-1 and 45 mg kg-1) given 180 min after LPS caused a dose-related increase in MAP and reversed the hypotension. Aminoguanidine also significantly alleviated the reduction of the pressor response to NA: indeed, at 180 min, the pressor response returned to normal in aminoguanidine pretreated LPS-rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7541282

  8. Fasting and postabsorptive hepatic glucose and insulin metabolism in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Raboudi, N; Arem, R; Jones, R H; Chap, Z; Pena, J; Chou, J; Field, J B

    1989-01-01

    The effect of thyroid hormone excess on hepatic glucose balances and fractional hepatic extraction of insulin and glucagon was examined in six conscious dogs with catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, and femoral artery and Doppler flow probes on the portal vein and hepatic artery. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed before and after the animals were made hyperthyroid by intramuscular thyroxine administration (100 micrograms.kg-1.day-1) for 10 days. In the basal state and after oral glucose, insulin and glucagon levels in the three vessels and the basal fractional hepatic extraction of insulin and glucagon were not significantly modified by thyroid hormone. These results suggest that in short-term thyrotoxicosis insulin secretion is not impaired, and the rise in fasting plasma glucose and increased hepatic glucose production could reflect hepatic insulin resistance, increased availability of precursors for gluconeogenesis, or increased glycogenolysis. Hyperthyroidism significantly increased basal flows in the portal vein (14.7 +/- 0.6 vs. 12.9 +/- 0.5 ml.kg-1.min-1), the hepatic artery (4.8 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.9 +/- 0.2 ml.kg-1.min-1) and vein (19.6 +/- 0.7 vs. 16.9 +/- 0.4 ml.kg-1.min-1), the fasting plasma glucose concentration (104 +/- 3 vs. 92 +/- 2 mg/dl), and basal hepatic glucose output (2.1 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.2 mg.kg-1.min-1). It did not alter the nonhepatic splanchnic uptake of glucose, the percent of orally administered glucose that appeared in the portal vein (47 +/- 2 vs. 45 +/- 11%), the percent of hepatic uptake of glucose (59 +/- 11 vs. 74 +/- 22%), or the shape of the glucose tolerance test. PMID:2643338

  9. Centrally administered naloxone blocks reflex natriuresis after acute unilateral nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Lin, S Y; Humphreys, M H

    1985-09-01

    Acute unilateral nephrectomy (AUN) leads to a natriuresis and kaliuresis by the remaining kidney through reflex mechanisms involving opiate receptors. To determine whether the opiate receptors mediating these responses are located in the central nervous system, we carried out AUN in anesthetized rats undergoing continuous ventriculocisternal perfusion (VCP) with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). AUN caused large increases in both Na (UNaV) and K (UKV) excretion without changes in glomerular filtration rate or arterial blood pressure. When the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone was added to the perfusate to achieve a perfusion rate of 32 micrograms X kg-1 X h-1, AUN failed to increase either UNaV or UKV by the remaining kidney. This dose of naloxone, however, was without effect when infused intravenously. Addition of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) to the artificial CSF to achieve a VCP rate of 50 micrograms X kg-1 X h-1 also blocked the expected increase in UNaV and UKV by the remaining kidney after AUN. Infusion of TRH intravenously at the same rate did not interfere with the postnephrectomy natriuresis or kaliuresis. Higher intravenous infusion rates of TRH (1 and 2 mg X kg-1h-1) prevented the postnephrectomy natriuresis without affecting the kaliuresis. These results indicate that the effect of naloxone to block the reflex natriuresis and kaliuresis after AUN resides largely in the central nervous system. The blockade by naloxone of the postnephrectomy natriuresis is duplicated by centrally administered TRH, providing another example of the interaction of this hormone with the endogenous opioid system. Large intravenous infusions of TRH also block the postnephrectomy natriuresis but not the kaliuresis. PMID:3929623

  10. The angiotensin II receptor type 2 agonist CGP 42112A stimulates NO production in the porcine jejunal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Ewert, Sara; Laesser, Mats; Johansson, Bernalt; Holm, Mathias; Aneman, Anders; Fandriks, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to elucidate if nitric oxide is released by the porcine jejunal mucosa upon selective stimulation of AT2 receptors and the possible involvement of iNOS, and to investigate the presence of jejunal AT1 and AT2 receptors. Young landrace pigs were anaesthetized with ketamine and α-chloralose. Jejunal luminal NO output was assessed by intraluminal tonometry and analysed by chemiluminescense. Western blot analysis quantified mucosal iNOS and detected AT1 and AT2 receptor protein expression. AT1 and AT2 receptor RNA expression was detected by rtPCR. Results Baseline luminal NO output correlated significantly to baseline mucosal iNOS-protein content. In animals treated with the AT2-receptor agonist CGP42112A (n = 11) luminal NO output increased significantly (at 0.1 micrograms kg-1 min-1 and 1.0 micrograms kg-1 min-1), but not in animals simultaneously treated with the AT2-receptor antagonist PD123319 (bolus 0.3 mgkg-1, infusion 0.03 mg kg-1 h-1) (n = 7). No differences in iNOS protein expression were found between groups or before/after the administration of drugs. Western blot and rtPCR recognised expression of the AT1 and AT2 receptors in jejunal tissue. Conclusion The results suggest that activation of AT2 receptors increases jejunal luminal NO output. This response was not due to an increase in the expression of the iNOS protein in the mucosa. PMID:12689346

  11. Influence of heparin on fibrinogen and D-dimer plasma levels in acute myocardial infarction treated with streptokinase.

    PubMed

    Salvioni, A; Marenzi, G C; Agostoni, P; Grazi, S; Guazzi, M D

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether, to what extent, and through which mechanisms intravenous heparin, administered before and after streptokinase, affects the plasma levels of D-dimer and fibrinogen in myocardial infarction. Data concerning mortality and incidence of coronary recanalization in patients receiving heparin and thrombolytic therapy after acute myocardial infarction are controversial; furthermore, the mechanisms through which heparin acts in combination with thrombolytic therapy are unclear. Thirty-eight patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with streptokinase were considered. Nineteen of them received, immediately before the beginning of thrombolytic treatment, a bolus of heparin (100 U.kg-1 intravenously) and, 2 h later, intravenous heparin in doses raising the partial thromboplastin time to 2-2.5 times the normal value (Group 1); the remaining 19 did not receive anticoagulant treatment (Group 2). Multiple determinations of plasma D-dimer and fibrinogen levels were obtained in all patients before, and in the seven days following thrombolytic treatment. Six hours after streptokinase, fibrinogen decreased from 304 +/- 34 to 61 +/- 34 mg.dl-1 in Group 1 and from 312 +/- 29 to 38 +/- 21 mg.dl-1 in Group 2 (P < 0.02 versus Group 1). The same difference between groups persisted at the 12th and at the 18th hour. D-dimer values, from 0.5 +/- 0.1 microgram.dl-1 in Group 1 and 0.4 +/- 0.1 microgram.dl-1 in Group 2, increased at the 1st hour to 37.2 +/- 36.5 micrograms.dl-1 and 52.2 +/- 39.8 micrograms.dl-1, respectively. A peak value was reached in both groups at the 6th hour, which was followed by a slow decrease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8056006

  12. Role of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) on contamination of maize with 13 Fusarium mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Blandino, Massimo; Scarpino, Valentina; Vanara, Francesca; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf; Reyneri, Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    The European corn borer (ECB) plays an important role in promoting Fusarium verticillioides infections and in the consequent fumonisin contamination in maize grain in temperate areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the ECB feeding activity could also affect the occurrence of emerging mycotoxins in maize kernels. During the 2008-10 period, natural infestation of the insect was compared, in field research, with the protection of infestation, which was obtained by using an entomological net. The ears collected in the protected plots were free from ECB attack, while those subject to natural insect attacks showed a damage severity that varied from 10% to 25%. The maize samples were analysed by means of an LC-MS/MS-based multi-mycotoxin method, which led to the detection of various metabolites: fumonisins (FUMs), fusaproliferin (FUS), moniliformin (MON), bikaverin (BIK), beauvericin (BEA), fusaric acid (FA), equisetin (EQU), deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-G), zearalenone (ZEA), culmorin (CULM), aurofusarin (AUR) and butenolide (BUT). The occurrence of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section was affected significantly by the ECB feeding activity. The presence of ECB injuries increased the FUMs from 995 to 4694 µg kg(-1), FUS from 17 to 1089 µg kg(-1), MON from 22 to 673 µg kg(-1), BIK from 58 to 377 µg kg(-1), BEA from 6 to 177 µg kg(-1), and FA from 21 to 379 µg kg(-1). EQU, produced by F. equiseti section Gibbosum, was also increased by the ECB activity, by 1-30 µg kg(-1) on average. Instead, the content of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Discolor and Roseum sections was not significantly affected by ECB activity. As for FUMs, the application of a strategy that can reduce ECB damage could also be the most effective solution to minimise the other mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. of Liseola section. PMID:25266165

  13. Inhibition by the adenosine analogue, (R-)-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine, of kainic acid neurotoxicity in rat hippocampus after systemic administration.

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, D. G.; Stone, T. W.

    1993-01-01

    1. Binding of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligand, [3H]-PK 11195, to rat hippocampal membranes has been used to quantify the reactive gliosis resulting from neuronal death induced by intraperitoneally administered kainic acid. 2. Intraperitoneal administration of kainic acid (10 mg kg-1) caused a 350-500% increase in [3H]-PK 11195 binding measured in rat hippocampal P2 membranes 7 days later. Co-treatment with the adenosine derivative R-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA) (100, 25 or 10 micrograms kg-1, i.p.) abolished this elevation. The protective action of R-PIA could itself be abolished by co-treatment with 8-phenyltheophylline (1 mg kg-1). 3. Body temperatures were recorded in the antagonist experiments and no significant changes were recorded, suggesting that the protective action of R-PIA was not mediated by hypothermia. 4. Since systemic kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity has been claimed as a good model of neuronal death in temporal lobe epilepsy, the results suggest that the systemic administration of purines in low doses may provide protection against certain neurodegenerative insults. PMID:8358536

  14. Influence of ivermectin and clorsulon treatment on productivity of a cow-calf herd on the southern Oregon coast.

    PubMed

    Rickard, L G; Zimmerman, G L; Hoberg, E P; Bishop, J K; Pettitt, R J

    1992-02-01

    The reproductive performance of beef cows and the weight gain of their calves was evaluated after oral administration of clorsulon or clorsulon in combination with the subcutaneous administration of ivermectin. One hundred and fifty pregnant cows harboring infections of Fasciola hepatica were assigned to one of three treatment groups: Group 1 comprising 50 unmedicated controls; Group 2, 50 cows treated with clorsulon orally at 7 mg kg-1; Group 3, 50 cows treated with clorsulon orally at 7 mg kg-1 and ivermectin subcutaneously at 200 micrograms kg-1. Weights and body condition scores of the cows were measured and fecal and blood samples were taken at trial initiation and days 158 and 270. Pregnancy status was also determined at day 270. Weights and body condition scores were measured for the calves at days 158 and 270. Adjusted 205 day weaning weight of the calves was calculated and analyzed for differences between treatment groups. Four sets of tracer calves were used periodically throughout the trial to monitor the helminth challenge to the herd. Both gastro-intestinal nematodes and liver flukes were transmitted to the tracer calves during the entire trial. Even in the face of continual helminth challenge, beef cows treated with combined clorsulon/ivermectin conceived approximately 2 weeks earlier than their untreated counterparts and their calves had better body condition scores and weights than untreated calves. PMID:1561761

  15. [Comparative study of circulatory response to tracheal intubation with atracurium and succinylcholine].

    PubMed

    Nocite, J R; Serzedo, P S; Zuccolotto, E B; Leães, L F; de Carvalho Júnior, R J

    1990-01-01

    Changes in some circulatory parameters after orotracheal intubation (OTI) were investigated in 40 patients anesthetized with thiopental 5.0 mg.kg-1 and fentanyl 100 micrograms, receiving either atracurium 0.5 mg.kg-1 (n = 20) or succinylcholine 1.0 mg.kg-1 (n = 20) to facilitate intubation. In the succinylcholine group (SC), mean values of SAP, DAP, MAP, and HR rose significantly in relation to control at 30 sec and 2 min after OTI. In the atracurium group (A), mean values of SAP, DAP, and MAP rose significantly at 30 sec after OTI, however, contrary to the SC group, mean values of HR did not rise significantly after OTI. Mean values of the double product HR x SAP rose significantly at 30 sec, 2 min, and 5 min after OTI in the SC group, but only at 30 sec and 2 min after OTI in the A group. The magnitude of elevation of those circulatory parameters studied was always greater in the SC group than in the A group. The authors conclude that atracurium does not modify the nature of circulatory changes after OTI but is associated to such changes in a lesser degree when compared to succinylcholine in a standard induction technique with thiopental/fentanyl. PMID:2103060

  16. [A beam of dawn light of study on gossypol as a safe, effective, and reversible male antifertility contraceptive--evaluation of the studies by using low dose gossypol combined with steroid hormone for male contraception].

    PubMed

    Xue, S

    2000-06-01

    The present paper is an evaluation of the studies of two articles published in this issue of the journal which adopted a new regimen of low dose gossypol(12 mg.kg-1.d-1) combined with steroid hormones (methyltestosterone 20 mg.kg-1.d-1 and ethinyl estradiol 100 micrograms.kg-1.d-1) for 6 weeks as initial dose, and a similar low dose gossypol alone for 12 weeks as maintenance dose. Results showed that the dosage regimen could damage the epididymal sperms and onset of antifertility within 6 weeks in male rats, and prevent the incidence of the side effect of irreversible azoospermia. There was no adverse effect in viscera tissues, and the infertility could be reversible in about 6 weeks following withdrawal of gossypol. Male volunteers taking low dose gossypol (15 mg/d) could induce antifertility within 12 weeks, then followed by a maintenance dose of gossypol(10 mg/d) for 44 weeks. All of them remained infertile, and without developing hypokalemia and irreversible azoospermia. The fertility and the inducing abnormal histone-to-protamine replacement reaction as well as alteration of nuclear basic proteins could be recovered 10 weeks after withdrawal of drug treatment. These results provide a new approach for using the new regimen in clinical trial and a new prospect of gossypol as a potential male contraceptive. PMID:12903461

  17. Evidence that 5-HT1D receptors mediate inhibition of sympathetic ganglionic transmission in anaesthetized cats.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J. F.; Martin, G. R.; Ramage, A. G.

    1995-01-01

    In anaesthetized cats, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) (0.3-300 micrograms kg-1,i.v.) inhibited the postganglionic compound action potential evoked by preganglionic electrical stimulation (0.5 Hz) with a similar potency in the stellate and splanchnic ganglia. In the 5-HT experiments transmission thorough the inferior mesenteric ganglia was also recorded. The maximal inhibitory effect of 5-HT was greater on the stellate and splanchnic ganglia (60 +/- 4 and 52 +/- 5%) than on the inferior mesenteric (15 +/- 2%). The effects of 5-HT were unaffected by pretreatment with antagonists (1 mg kg-1;i.v.) for 5-HT2 (BW501C67), 5-HT1A (WAY-100635) and 5-HT3 receptors (ondansetron). However, responses to both 5-HT and 5-CT were attenuated significantly by GR127935 (1 mg kg-1) except the responses to 5-HT at the inferior mesenteric ganglia. These results are consistent with the involvement of 5-HT1D receptors mediating inhibition of sympathetic ganglionic transmission in vivo. PMID:8528548

  18. Role of angiotensin converting enzyme in the vascular effects of an endopeptidase 24.15 inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Telford, S E; Smith, A I; Lew, R A; Perich, R B; Madden, A C; Evans, R G

    1995-01-01

    1. We investigated the role of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the cardiovascular effects of N-[1-(R,S)-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]-Ala-Ala-Tyr-p-aminobenzoate (cFP), a peptidase inhibitor selective for metalloendopeptidase (EP) E.C. 3.4.24.15. 2. In conscious rabbits, cFP (5 mg kg-1, i.v.) markedly slowed the degradation of [3H]-bradykinin, potentiated the depressor response to right atrial administration of bradykinin (10-1000 ng kg-1), and inhibited the pressor response to right atrial angiotensin I (10-100 ng kg-1). In each of these respects, the effects of cFP were indistinguishable from those of the ACE inhibitor, captopril (0.5 mg plus 10 mg kg-1h-1 i.v.). Furthermore, the effects of combined administration of cFP and captopril were indistinguishable from those of captopril alone. 3. In experimentally naive anaesthetized rats, cFP administration (9.3 mg kg-1, i.v.) was followed by a moderate but sustained fall in arterial pressure of 13 mmHg. However, in rats pretreated with bradykinin (50 micrograms kg-1) a more pronounced fall of 30 mmHg was observed. Captopril (5 mg kg-1) had similar hypotensive effects to those of cFP, and cFP had no effect when it was administered after captopril. 4. CFP displaced the binding of [125I]-351A (the p-hydroxybenzamidine derivative of lisinopril) from preparations of rat plasma ACE and solubilized lung membrane ACE (KD = 1.2 and 0.14 microM respectively), and inhibited rat plasma ACE activity (KI = 2.4 microM). Addition of phosphoramidon (10 microM), an inhibitor of a range of metalloendopeptidases, including neutral endopeptidase (E.C.3.4.24.11), markedly reduced the potency of cFP in these systems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7620708

  19. Bisoprolol improves perfusion of ischaemic myocardium in anaesthetized pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Sassen, L. M.; den Boer, M. O.; Rensen, R. J.; Saxena, P. R.; Verdouw, P. D.

    1988-01-01

    1. The ability of the cardioselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist bisoprolol ((+/-)-1-[4-(2-isopropoxyethoxymethyl)-phenoxy]-3-isopropyl-amino -2-propanol hemifumarate, EMD 33512) to suppress isoprenaline-induced increases in heart rate and maximal rate of rise in left ventricular pressure (LVdP/dtmax) was studied in 6 anaesthetized pigs given 4 cumulative doses (16, 64, 256 and 1024 micrograms kg-1). Bisoprolol was about 2 times more effective in suppressing isoprenaline-induced increases in LVdP/dtmax than those in heart rate. 2. In 8 animals which had a partial stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA), the effects of 3 consecutive doses (50, 200 and 750 micrograms kg-1) of bisoprolol were studied on systemic haemodynamics, regional myocardial perfusion and function. The effects of the drug were compared with those obtained in a group of 9 animals with LADCA stenosis which did not receive any treatment. 3. The lowest dose of bisoprolol (50 micrograms kg-1) increased perfusion of the ischaemic myocardium (which had been reduced from 123 +/- 20 ml min-1 100 g-1 to 42 +/- 11 ml min-1 100 g-1) by 21 +/- 10 ml min-1 100 g-1 (P less than 0.05). In particular the subendocardial layers, which were most severely affected by the stenosis (a decrease from 128 +/- 19 ml min-1 100 g-1 to 20 +/- 6 ml min-1 100 g-1) benefited from the administration of the drug (an increase of 30 +/- 10 ml min-1 100 g-1). Perfusion of the subepicardium was not significantly affected. With the higher dose only a minor additional improvement in perfusion of the ischaemic myocardium was observed. 4. The negative chronotropic response is the most likely factor leading to the improvement in perfusion. 5. Myocardial wall thickening, which decreased from 41 +/- 2% to 9 +/- 4% (P less than 0.05) due to the hypoperfusion, did not improve after administration of the drug. This lack of improvement may possibly be due to the duration of ischaemia before and the magnitude of the

  20. Comparison of moxidectin oral gel and ivermectin oral paste against a spectrum of internal parasites of ponies with special attention to encysted cyathostome larvae.

    PubMed

    Monahan, C M; Chapman, M R; Taylor, H W; French, D D; Klei, T R

    1996-06-01

    Two dosages of moxidectin oral gel were evaluated and compared to a therapeutic dose of ivermectin oral paste in the control of a spectrum of gastrointestinal parasites of ponies naturally infected in southern Louisiana or Mississippi. Thirty-two mixed-breed ponies ranging in age from one to 21 years were used in this controlled test. Eight weeks prior to the experiment, ponies grazing on contaminated pasture were moved to a paddock and fed a pelleted ration, thus reducing or eliminating the potential for additional infection and ensuring the existence of a population of encysted larvae. Ponies were then allocated to replicates of four animals based on values of fecal strongyle egg counts and percent strongyle larvae composition determined from Baermann sedimentations of fecal cultures. Members of replicates were allocated to one of four treatment groups: moxidectin oral gel administered at 300 micrograms kg-1 body weight, moxidectin oral gel at 400 micrograms kg-1, the oral gel vehicle as negative control, and ivermectin oral paste at 200 micrograms kg-1. Prior to treatment, ponies were confined in pairs to covered concrete runs by treatment group. Two weeks following treatment, necropsy examinations of all animals were performed. Parasites were recovered from the lumen of the stomach, the intestinal tract, the cranial mesenteric artery and its major branches, the peritoneal body wall and from pepsin digests of mucosal scrapings taken from the cecum and large colon. Encysted cyathostome larval burdens were also compared using mural transillumination of segments of the large colon for visualization of the encysted forms. Control ponies were not uniformly infected with the spectrum of parasites; however, moxidectin, at either dosage, compared favorably with ivermectin in the control of the adults of Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus, Triodontophorus spp., Oesophagodontus robustus, Trichostrongylus axei, Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Habronema muscae, as

  1. Sympathomimetic effects of Scoparia dulcis L. and catecholamines isolated from plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Freire, S M; Torres, L M; Souccar, C; Lapa, A J

    1996-06-01

    The herb Scoparia dulcis L. is used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat bronchitis, gastric disorders, haemorrhoids, insect bites and skin wounds, and in oriental medicine to treat hypertension. A previous study has shown that extracts of S. dulcis have analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties; in this work the sympathomimetic activity of an ethanolic extract of Scoparia dulcis L. has been investigated in rodent preparations in-vivo and in-vitro. Administration of the extract (0.5-2 mg kg-1, i.v.) to anaesthetized rats produced dose-related hypertension blocked by the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (1 mg kg-1). Partition of the extract in chloroform-water yielded an aqueous phase 20 times more potent than the extract; this produced hypertension in either reserpine-treated or pithed rats. In untreated and reserpine-treated rats the same fraction (1-3 x 10(3) micrograms mL-1) produced concentration-dependent contractions of the vas deferens musculature parallel to those obtained with noradrenaline (10(-8)-10(-4)M). Prazosin (10(-7)M) reduced the maximum contractile effect of the aqueous fraction, and shifted the concentration-response curves for noradrenaline to the right. The aqueous fraction (25 and 50 micrograms mL-1) increased the inotropism of electrically driven left atria of rats, the effect being blocked by propranolol (0.4 microgram mL-1). In preparations of guinea-pig tracheal rings the aqueous fraction (1-3 x 10(3) micrograms mL-1) relaxed the muscle contraction induced by histamine (10(-4) M) in proportion to the concentration. The effect was antagonized competitively by propranolol (1.5 microM). High-performance liquid-chromatographic analysis of the aqueous fraction revealed the presence of both noradrenaline and adrenaline in the plant extract. The results indicated that both catecholamines may account for the hypertensive and inotropic effects obtained after parenteral administration of S. dulcis extracts. This sympathomimetic activity is

  2. Bradykinin actively modulates pulmonary vascular pressure-cardiac index relationships.

    PubMed

    Nyhan, D P; Clougherty, P W; Goll, H M; Murray, P A

    1987-07-01

    Our objectives were to investigate the pulmonary vascular effects of exogenously administered bradykinin at normal and reduced levels of cardiac index in intact conscious dogs and to assess the extent to which the pulmonary vascular response to bradykinin is the result of either cyclooxygenase pathway activation or reflex activation of sympathetic beta-adrenergic and -cholinergic receptors. Multipoint pulmonary vascular pressure-cardiac index (P/Q) plots were constructed during normoxia in conscious dogs by step-wise constriction of the thoracic inferior vena cava to reduce Q. In intact dogs, bradykinin (2 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1 iv) caused systemic vasodilation, i.e., systemic arterial pressure was slightly decreased (P less than 0.05), Q was markedly increased (P less than 0.01), and mixed venous PO2 and oxygen saturation (SO2) were increased (P less than 0.01). Bradykinin decreased (P less than 0.01) the pulmonary vascular pressure gradient (pulmonary arterial pressure-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure) over the entire range of Q studied (140-60 ml X min-1 X kg-1) in intact dogs. During cyclooxygenase pathway inhibition with indomethacin, bradykinin again decreased (P less than 0.05) pulmonary arterial pressure-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure at every level of Q, although the magnitude of the vasodilator response was diminished at lower levels of Q (60 ml X min-1 X kg-1). Following combined administration of sympathetic beta-adrenergic and -cholinergic receptor antagonists, bradykinin still decreased (P less than 0.01) pulmonary arterial pressure-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure over the range of Q from 160 to 60 ml X min-1 X kg-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3114215

  3. Prevention by NMDA receptor antagonists of the centrally-evoked increases of cardiac inotropic responses in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Monassier, L.; Tibiriça, E.; Roegel, J. C.; Mettauer, B.; Feldman, J.; Bousquet, P.

    1994-01-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to investigate further the role of the excitatory amino acid (EAA) system of neurotransmission, particularly of the NMDA receptor, in the central regulation of cardiac function. 2. Electrical stimulation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in pentobarbitone anaesthetized rabbits induced a cardiovascular response mainly characterized by a positive inotropic effect, hypertension and a marked increase in the myocardial oxygen demand index. 3. The intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intravenous (i.v.) injection of different EAA antagonists acting on different sites of the NMDA receptor/channel complex dose-dependently blunted the excitatory cardiovascular effects of PVN stimulation. 4. 5,7 Dichlorokynurenic acid was used as a specific glycine site antagonist and 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid was used to block the agonist recognition site; ketamine was used as a channel blocker site antagonist and ifenprodil as a blocker of the polyamine binding site. 5. 5,7 Dichlorokynurenic acid (125 and 250 micrograms kg-1, i.c.v.) virtually abolished the cardiovascular responses, inducing only haemodynamic depression at the highest dose used. 2-Amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (0.1 to 1.0 mg kg-1, i.c.v.) elicited a reduction of the peak values observed during PVN stimulation which was accompanied by a decrease of the basal cardiovascular parameters. Ketamine (2.5 and 10 mg kg-1) and ifenprodil (1 mg kg-1), injected intravenously, blocked the haemodynamic response induced by PVN stimulation without marked reduction of the basal haemodynamics. 6. It is concluded that glutamate neurotransmission is not only involved in vasomotor tone control but also in the central control of cardiac function and can therefore modulate the myocardial oxygen demand. PMID:7913376

  4. Modulation by glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives of TPA-induced mouse ear oedema.

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, H.; Mori, T.; Shibata, S.; Koshihara, Y.

    1989-01-01

    1. The anti-inflammatory effects of glycyrrhetinic acid and its derivatives on TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced mouse ear oedema were studied. The mechanisms of TPA-induced ear oedema were first investigated with respect to the chemical mediators. 2. The formation of ear oedema reached a maximum 5 h after TPA application (2 micrograms per ear) and the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production of mouse ear increased with the oedema formation. 3. TPA-induced ear oedema was prevented by actinomycin D and cycloheximide (0.1 mg per ear, respectively) when applied during 60 min after TPA treatment. 4. Of glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives examined, dihemiphthalate derivatives (IIe, IIe', IIIa, IIIa', IVa, IVa') most strongly inhibited ear oedema on both topical (ID50, 1.6 mg per ear for IIe, 2.0 mg per ear for IIIa and 1.6 mg per ear for IVa) and oral (ID50, 88 mg kg-1 for IIe', 130 mg kg-1 for IIIa' and 92 mg kg-1 for IVa') administration. 5. Glycyrrhetinic acid (Ia) and its derivatives applied 30 min before TPA treatment were much more effective in inhibiting oedema than when applied 30 min after TPA. A dihemiphthalate of triterpenoid compound IVa completely inhibited oedema, even when applied 3 h before TPA treatment. 6. Glycyrrhetinic acid (Ia) and deoxoglycyrrhetol (IIa), the parent compounds, produced little inhibition by oral administration at less than 200 mg kg-1. 7. These results suggest that the dihemiphthalate derivatives of triterpenes derived from glycyrrhetinic acid by chemical modification are useful for the treatment of skin inflammation by both topical and oral application. PMID:2924072

  5. [Traumatic rupture of the aortic isthmus in a patient with severe head injury].

    PubMed

    Lassié, P; Tentillier, E; Thicoïpé, M; Pinaquy, C; Laborde, N

    1993-01-01

    A 32-year-old man sustained a severe head injury in a road traffic accident. On admission, he was in deep coma (6 on the Glasgow coma scale). The aortic knuckle was difficult to identify on a plain chest film. Twenty hours after admission, the aortic knuckle had completely disappeared and the mediastinal shadow had become enlarged. The diagnosis of a ruptured aortic isthmus was confirmed by angiography. Surgical repair of this lesion may be carried out either with simple aortic cross-clamping, or by using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Either technique may worsen other injuries, especially head injury, by initiating severe arterial hypertension or coagulation disturbances. In this patient, the technique chosen was aortic cross-clamping with permanent monitoring of the intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures. Anaesthesia was obtained with 5 mg.kg-1 of thiopentone, 30 mg.kg-1 x h-1 of sodium gamma hydroxybutyrate and 8 micrograms.kg-1 x h-1 of fentanyl. Surgery lasted for 90 min, with 33 min of aortic clamping. The increase in arterial blood pressure was controlled with 0.25 mg.kg-1 x h-1 of thiopentone and nicardipine which was stopped 8 min before unclamping. The postoperative course was uneventful. Sedation was stopped after 8 days, and the patient regained consciousness two days later. These remained a paraplegia with no sensory deficit, which had totally receded 15 months later. Carrying out this emergency surgery without CPB means that the intracranial pressure must imperatively be monitored during surgery. Any intracranial hypertension should delay the surgery. PMID:8338263

  6. Nitric oxide-mediated hyporeactivity to noradrenaline precedes the induction of nitric oxide synthase in endotoxin shock.

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, C.; Mitchell, J. A.; Thiemermann, C.; Vane, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    1. The role of an enhanced formation of nitric oxide (NO) and the relative importance of the constitutive and inducible NO synthase (NOS) for the development of immediate (within 60 min) and delayed (at 180 min) vascular hyporeactivity to noradrenaline was investigated in a model of circulatory shock induced by endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) in the rat. 2. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetized and instrumented for the measurement of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate. In addition, the calcium-dependent and calcium-independent NOS activity was measured ex vivo by the conversion of [3H]-arginine to [3H]-citrulline in homogenates from several organs obtained from vehicle- and LPS-treated rats. 3. E. coli LPS (10 mg kg-1, i.v. bolus) caused a rapid (within 5 min) and sustained fall in MAP. At 30 and 60 min after LPS, pressor responses to noradrenaline (0.3, 1 or 3 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) were significantly reduced. The pressor responses were restored by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 1 mg kg-1, i.v. at 60 min), a potent inhibitor of NO synthesis. In contrast, L-NAME did not potentiate the noradrenaline-induced pressor responses in control animals. 4. Dexamethasone (3 mg kg-1, i.v., 60 min prior to LPS), a potent inhibitor of the induction of NOS, did not alter initial MAP or pressor responses to noradrenaline in control rats, but significantly attenuated the LPS-induced fall in MAP at 15 to 60 min after LPS. Dexamethasone did not influence the development of the LPS-induced immediate (within 60 min) hyporeactivity to noradrenaline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7682137

  7. Liquid chromatographic determination of safrole in sassafras-derived herbal products.

    PubMed

    Carlson, M; Thompson, R D

    1997-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for determining safrole in herbal products derived from sassafras (Sassafras albidum), as well as related compounds such as isosafrole and dihydrosafrole. The procedure involves solvent extraction and isolation of analyte by reversed-phase LC with UV detection at 235 nm. Safrole is resolved from related compounds and other sample constituents including thymol, a component of thyme. A linear concentration range of 0.003-0.200 mg/mL was obtained for safrole, isosafrole, and dihydrosafrole. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were e0.0015 and 0.0051 micrograms/mL for safrole, 0.0018 and 0.0061 micrograms/mL for isosafrole, and 0.0038 and 0.0125 micrograms/mL for dihydrosafrole, respectively. Intraday relative standard deviations (RSDs) for safrole (n = 5) from various samples ranged from 1.30 to 5.39% at analyte levels of 0.01-1.5%. Safrole contents of 26 samples including root bark powder, leaves, oils, tea concentrate, herbal extract tinctures, and herbal powder capsules ranged from < LOD for most leaf samples to 92.4% for an oil. Recoveries of safrole from fortified samples ranged from 83.6% for an oil to 117.2% for a tincture preparation. Safrole contents of 0.09-4.66 mg/cup were found for brewed teas prepared from sassafras root bark powders and tinctures. PMID:9325580

  8. Mechanism of action of ATP on canine pulmonary vagal C fibre nerve terminals.

    PubMed Central

    Pelleg, A; Hurt, C M

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) on pulmonary vagal afferent fibres (n = 46) was studied in a canine model in vivo (n = 38). 2. ATP (3-6 mumol kg-1), administered as a rapid bolus into the right atrium, elicited a transient burst of action potentials in cervical vagal fibres, which was not affected by either blockade of ganglionic transmission (hexamethonium) or a drop in arterial blood pressure (nitroglycerine). 3. The fibres with ATP-sensitive terminals were otherwise quiescent with no activity related to either cardiac or respiratory cycles and their conduction velocity was 0.85 +/- 0.13 m s-1 (n = 7). 4. Inflation of the lungs to 2-3 times the tidal volume triggered brief bursts of action potentials in these fibres. 5. Capsaicin (10 micrograms kg-1), given as a rapid bolus into the right atrium, elicited a burst of action potentials in these ATP-sensitive fibres. 6. Smaller amounts of ATP and capsaicin (0.5-3 mumol kg-1 and 1-5 micrograms kg-1, respectively) had similar effects when the two compounds were given into the right pulmonary artery. 7. Adenosine, adenosine 5'-monophosphate, or adenosine 5'-diphosphate did not excite these fibres (n = 30). 8. The non-degradable analogue of ATP alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha,beta-mATP) was tenfold more potent than ATP while beta,gamma-methylene ATP (beta,gamma-mATP) was in active. 9. The selective P2x-purinoceptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid markedly attenuated the effect of ATP but not of capsaicin. The P2Y-purinoceptor antagonist Reactive Blue 2 was without effect. 10. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX) did not affect this action of ATP. 11. In the canine lungs ATP activates vagal C fibre nerve terminals. This action is mediated by P2X-purinoceptors and is independent of a PTX-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein). PMID:8745294

  9. Uptake of 2,4-D in higher plants from artificial rain

    SciTech Connect

    Lokke, H.

    1984-02-01

    Sinapis alba L., Lapsana communis L., Achillea millefolium L., Brassica napus L., Lactuca sativa L., and Lycopersicum esculentum L. were exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxy (2-/sup 14/C)acetic acid (2,4-D) at 10 micrograms liter-1 in artificial rain, pH 6.5 and 3.3. The 2,4-D was absorbed in all species tested. Concentrations of parent 2,4-D appeared at the highest level in Achillea (0.1 mg kg-1 dry wt), and at zero level in Lycopersicum. Twenty-one daily treatments at pH 6.5 for 30-min periods increased dry-matter concentrations in the leaves of Achillea and decreased those in Brassica. No change in dry-matter concentration was observed in the leaves of Brassica by seven daily treatments for 30-min periods at pH 3.3.

  10. On-line flash thermodesorption-GC-MS determination of PCB in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Davies, A N; Fobbe, R; Kuckuk, R; Nolte, J

    2001-11-01

    A flash thermodesorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique has been developed for the determination of polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), especially the highly toxic planar species, in sewage sludge. A modified Curie-point pyrolyzer was used; in this the flash-desorption temperature was controlled by selecting specific metal alloys for the pyrolysis wire. Samples (3 mg) were loaded into a quartz tube with the special heating wire wound around the outer wall. By this means rapid thermal desorption (TDS) was achieved whereas uncontrolled catalytic breakdown of the analytes was avoided. The thermodesorption unit was connected via a custom-built interface to the GC-MS detection system. The average limit of detection was 15 microgram kg(-1) sludge more than one order of magnitude better than the legal requirement. PMID:11768477

  11. Apomorphine-induced blinking and yawning in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Blin, O; Masson, G; Azulay, J P; Fondarai, J; Serratrice, G

    1990-01-01

    Yawning and spontaneous blink rate (SBR) are two physiological reflexes which have been incompletely examined but one neurobiological step of these two behaviours seems, at least in part, dopamine-dependent. The reference dopaminergic agonist, apomorphine hydrochloride (0.5, 1, and 2 micrograms kg-1 s.c.), was compared with a placebo in a double-blind latin-square design, and was shown to induce yawning and increase SBR in a population of eight healthy volunteers. These two behavioral effects were not dose-related. The individual SBR differences were correlated with the individual number of yawns for all the four treatments at the 10-30 min interval. Thus, parallel yawning and SBR behaviour suggests a similar pharmacological mechanism. Apomorphine-induced yawning and blinking may be therefore of use in the evaluation of central dopaminergic pathways in man. PMID:2271377

  12. [Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) prevents the pressure responses to tracheal intubation in hypertensive patients].

    PubMed

    Kito, T; Otagiri, T; Ina, H; Harashima, N; Sakaki, J

    1991-11-01

    Forty-five hypertensive patients for elective abdominal surgery were investigated regarding the effects of PGE1 on the cardiovascular responses to tracheal intubation. Administration of PGE1 at the dose of 0.10 or 0.20 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 for 10 minutes before tracheal intubation significantly reduced the blood pressure responses immediately after the intubation and 2 minutes later. The increases in heart rate were not altered with and without the administration of PGE1. So the increases in rate pressure products were markedly reduced with PGE1 compared with the control values. Plasma concentration of catecholamines was measured before and after tracheal intubation. Norepinephrine was elevated markedly immediately after the intubation and this change was not affected by the infusion of PGE1. These results demonstrate that PGE1 ameliorates the pressure responses by the release of norepinephrine and thus reduces the increases in rate pressure products immediately after tracheal intubation. PMID:1766115

  13. Molsidomine prevents post-ischaemic ventricular fibrillation in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Cano, J. P.; Guillen, J. C.; Jouve, R.; Langlet, F.; Puddu, P. E.; Rolland, P. H.; Serradimigni, A.

    1986-01-01

    Forty anaesthetized dogs were subjected to left circumflex coronary artery ligation followed by reperfusion. Molsidomine was randomly administered to 20 dogs (50 micrograms kg-1 as an i.v. bolus - 15 min prior to coronary occlusion - followed by an infusion of 0.05 micrograms kg-1 min-1. Standard electrocardiographic leads 2 and 3 were continuously recorded to measure ST segment and delta R% changes and to document both the number of ventricular premature beats and the onset of ventricular fibrillation; aortic pressure and cardiac output were measured; thromboxane B2 plasma levels, platelet aggregation produced by ADP, and molsidomine plasma levels were determined before and at 10, 30 and 75 min after the start of the drug protocol. Molsidomine protected the treated animals from early (10 min) post-ischaemic ventricular fibrillation (0 of 20 vs 6 of 20, P = 0.0202), reduced the incidence of overall post-occlusion ventricular fibrillation (3 of 20 vs 10 of 20, P = 0.0407) and improved the total survival rate (P = 0.0067). In molsidomine treated dogs: mean aortic pressure and the rate-pressure product were lowered 10 min after the start of the drug; immediate post-occlusion (3 min) ST segment changes (0.82 +/- 0.52 vs 1.52 +/- 0.78 mV, P less than 0.025) and delta R% changes (37 +/- 50 vs 90 +/- 84%, P less than 0.025) were less marked; the number of ventricular premature beats was lowered and finally, a progressive decline of platelet aggregation produced by ADP was achieved after 75 min of drug infusion. These results were obtained in the presence of mean plasma levels of molsidomine ranging from 20 to 28 ng ml-1. The time-action curve of the antifibrillatory effect of molsidomine parallels those at the level of post-ischaemic electrocardiographic changes. Images Figure 2 PMID:3755634

  14. Effects of Bordetella pertussis toxin pretreatment on the antiarrhythmic action of ischaemic preconditioning in anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Piacentini, L; Wainwright, C L; Parratt, J R

    1995-01-01

    1. Bordetella pertussis toxin, which catalyses the ADP-ribosylation of certain guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins), thus functionally uncoupling them from associated receptors, was examined to determine whether it modified the antiarrhythmic effect of ischaemic preconditioning in anaesthetized rats. 2. Pertussis toxin (25 micrograms kg-1, i.p., 48 h prior to heart isolation) attenuated the negative chronotropic effect of acetylcholine (ACh) in rat isolated Langendorff perfused hearts. ACh (10 microM) reduced heart rate by 4% in hearts taken from pertussis toxin-treated animals, compared to a reduction of 57% in hearts taken from animals treated only with vehicle. 3. In anaesthetized rats, ischaemic preconditioning (a single 3 min occlusion of the left main coronary artery followed by 10 min reperfusion) had a pronounced antiarrhythmic effect during a subsequent 30 min period of regional myocardial ischaemia. Compared to hearts receiving only a 30 min period of left coronary occlusion, there was a reduced mortality (67% and 0% for control and preconditioned groups, respectively; P < 0.01) and decreased incidences of ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF). Pretreatment with pertussis toxin (25 micrograms kg-1, i.p., 48 h previously) did not modify the arrhythmias associated with a 30 min period of regional myocardial ischaemia, neither did it modify the reduction in mortality (from 56% to 0%; P < 0.05) associated with preconditioning. Furthermore, the decrease in total ventricular premature beat count induced by preconditioning seen in controls (from 427 +/- 130 to 95 +/- 45) was also seen in pertussis toxin-treated rats (from 252 +/- 190 to 57 +/- 25).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7773535

  15. Profile of capsaicin-induced mouse ear oedema as neurogenic inflammatory model: comparison with arachidonic acid-induced ear oedema.

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, H.; Nagata, N.; Koshihara, Y.

    1993-01-01

    1. We have investigated the mechanism of capsaicin-induced mouse ear oedema compared with that of arachidonic acid (AA)-induced ear oedema, and evaluated the possible involvement of neuropeptides in the development of capsaicin-induced oedema. 2. Topical application of capsaicin (0.1-1.0 mg per ear) to the ear of mice produced immediate vasodilatation and erythema followed by the development of oedema which was maximal at 30 min after the treatment. This oedema was of shorter duration with less swelling than AA-induced oedema (2.0 mg per ear). 3. Capsaicin-induced ear oedema was unaffected when inhibitors of arachidonate metabolites including platelet activating factor (PAF) were administered before capsaicin (250 micrograms per ear) application, while these agents significantly prevented AA-induced oedema. Dexamethasone, histamine H1 and/or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) antagonists, and substance P (SP) antagonists were effective in inhibiting both models. Furthermore, a Ca(2+)-channel blocker and the capsaicin inhibitor, ruthenium red, were effective inhibitors of capsaicin oedema but had no effect on AA-induced oedema. 4. Phosphoramidon (50 micrograms kg-1, i.v.), an endopeptidase inhibitor, markedly (P < 0.001) enhanced only capsaicin-induced ear oedema, but bestatin (0.5 mg kg-1, i.v.), an aminopeptidase, failed to enhance oedema formation. 5. Neuropeptides (1-100 pmol per site) such as rat calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), SP, neurokinin A (NKA), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), which are released from capsaicin-sensitive neurones, caused ear oedema by intradermal injection. Furthermore, a synergistic effect of CGRP (10 fmol per site) and SP (10pmol per site) on oedema formation was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7508328

  16. The effects of dihydropyridine compounds in behavioural tests of dopaminergic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Bourson, A.; Gower, A. J.; Mir, A. K.; Moser, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects of the dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker nifedipine and the activator Bay K 8644 were investigated in different behavioural tests involving dopaminergic systems. These were the discriminative stimulus induced by amphetamine, rotational behaviour in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions and apomorphine-induced yawning in rats. 2. The yawning induced by apomorphine (40 micrograms kg-1 s.c.) was significantly potentiated by nifedipine (5-10 mgkg-1 i.p.). Bay K 8644 (0.05-0.5 mgkg-1 i.p.) dose-dependently inhibited yawning induced by apomorphine (80 micrograms kg-1 s.c.) and, at 0.4 mgkg-1, inhibited the nifedipine potentiation of apomorphine-induced yawning. In contrast to their effects on apomorphine-induced yawning, nifedipine and Bay K 8644 had no effect on apomorphine-induced penile erection. 3. Bay K 8644 (0.06-0.5 mgkg-1 i.p.) and nifedipine (5-20 mgkg-1 i.p.) had no dose-related effect on the discrimination performance of rats trained to discriminate amphetamine from saline. However, nifedipine dose-dependently reduced the response rate of amphetamine-treated rats. Bay K 8644 had no effect on this measure except at high doses that also caused disruption. 4. Neither nifedipine (5-10 mgkg-1 i.p.) nor Bay K 8644 (0.06-0.5 mgkg-1 i.p.) affected the turning behaviour induced by amphetamine (1 mgkg-1 i.p.) in rats with unilateral 6-OHDA lesion of the medial forebrain bundle, and did not induce turning themselves. 5. As the dihydropyridine compounds affected apomorphine-induced yawning but not penile erection, and did not affect amphetamine-induced rotation or drug discrimination, it seems unlikely that they are affecting dopamine release in vivo. PMID:2482105

  17. A low dose euglycemic infusion of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I rapidly suppresses fasting-enhanced pulsatile growth hormone secretion in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, M L; Clayton, P E; Johnson, M L; Celniker, A; Perlman, A J; Alberti, K G; Thorner, M O

    1993-01-01

    To determine if insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) inhibits pulsatile growth hormone (GH) secretion in man, recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) was infused for 6 h at 10 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 during a euglycemic clamp in 10 normal men who were fasted for 32 h to enhance GH secretion. Saline alone was infused during an otherwise identical second admission as a control. As a result of rhIGF-I infusion, total and free IGF-I concentrations increased three- and fourfold, respectively. Mean GH concentrations fell from 6.3 +/- 1.6 to 0.59 +/- 0.07 micrograms/liter after 120 min. GH secretion rates, calculated by a deconvolution algorithm, decreased with a t 1/2 of 16.6 min and remained suppressed thereafter. Suppression of GH secretion rates occurred within 60 min when total and free IGF-I concentrations were 1.6-fold and 2-fold above baseline levels, respectively, and while glucose infusion rates were < 1 mumol.kg-1.min-1. During saline infusion, GH secretion rates remained elevated. Infusion of rhIGF-I decreased the mass of GH secreted per pulse by 84% (P < 0.01) and the number of detectable GH secretory pulses by 32% (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin and glucagon decreased to nearly undetectable levels after 60 min of rhIGF-I. Serum free fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate were unaffected during the first 3 h of rhIGF-I but decreased thereafter to 52, 32, and 50% of levels observed during saline. We conclude that fasting-enhanced GH secretion is rapidly suppressed by a low-dose euglycemic infusion of rhIGF-I. This effect of rhIGF-I is likely mediated through IGF-I receptors independently of its insulin-like metabolic actions. PMID:8514857

  18. Effects of the endothelin receptor antagonist, SB 209670, on circulatory failure and organ injury in endotoxic shock in the anaesthetized rat.

    PubMed Central

    Ruetten, H.; Thiemermann, C.; Vane, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    1. This study investigates the effects of the non-selective ETA/ETB receptor antagonist, SB 209670, on systemic haemodynamics, renal function, liver function, acid-base balance and survival in a rat model of endotoxic shock. 2. Injection of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 mg kg-1, i.v.) resulted in increases in the serum levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, maximum 60 min after LPS), endothelin-1, (ET-1; maximum 120 min after LPS), and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma, maximum 180 min after LPS). 3. Injection of LPS also resulted in a fall in blood pressure from 113 +/- 3 mmHg (time = 0) to 84 +/- 4 mmHg at 360 min (n = 15) as well as a hyporeactivity to the vasoconstrictor responses elicited by noradrenaline (NA, 1 microgram kg-1, i.v.). Pretreatment of rats with a continuous infusion of SB 209670 (3 mg kg-1, i.v. bolus + 100 micrograms kg-1, i.v. infusion commencing 15 min prior to LPS) significantly augmented the hypotension as well as the vascular hyporeactivity to NA caused by endotoxaemia. 4. Pretreatment of LPS-rats with SB 209670 (3 mg kg-1, i.v. bolus given 15 min prior to LPS) or infusion of SB 209670 (bolus dose and infusion as above) resulted in a reduction in 6 h-survival from 71% (control) to 30% and 13%, respectively. 5. Endotoxaemia for 4 h resulted in rises in the serum levels of urea and creatinine (indicators of renal failure), but not in the serum levels of bilirubin, GPT and GOT (indicators of liver dysfunction and/or hepatocellular injury). Pretreatment of LPS-rats with SB 209670 (3 mg kg-1, i.v. bolus 15 min prior to LPS) significantly augmented the serum levels of creatinine, bilirubin, GPT and GOT caused by endotoxin. In addition, endotoxaemia caused, within 15 min, an acute metabolic acidosis (falls in pH, HCO3- and base excess) which was compensated by hyperventilation (fall in PaCO2). Pretreatment of LPS-rats with SB 209670 (3 mg kg-1, i.v. bolus) significantly augmented the metabolic acidosis caused by LPS. 6. Thus, the non

  19. Neuroprotective efficacy of lifarizine (RS-87476) in a simplified rat survival model of 2 vessel occlusion.

    PubMed Central

    McBean, D. E.; Winters, V.; Wilson, A. D.; Oswald, C. B.; Alps, B. J.; Armstrong, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    1. A new, modified rat two vessel occlusion model (with hypotension) was established and the neuroprotective efficacy of the novel agent lifarizine (RS-87476) was examined. 2. The two vessel occlusion model used in the study was a modification of the model described in the literature, whereby we have obviated the need to use a muscle relaxant and intubate the trachea to provide ventilatory support by providing a tight fitting face mask attached to the ventilator. Furthermore, the need to combine exsanguination and additional pharmacological means of inducing the mandatory hypotension (50 mmHg), required to decrease brain blood perfusion pressure, has been removed by simply manipulating the concentration of the already present halothane anaesthetic. 3. The appropriate level of hypotension having been reached, microvascular clips were applied to bilaterally occlude the common carotid arteries for 12 min. This resulted in a loss of the cortical EEG activity. Local cerebral blood flow was measured 6 min into the occlusion period, using the fully quantitative [14C]-iodoantipyrine autoradiographic technique, in a separate group of rats (n = 5). This illustrated the lack of any blood flow, in the areas under study, during the period when there was an isoelectric cortical EEG pattern. 4. The high grade global ischaemic lesion which occurred gave quantifiable neuronal damage in several vulnerable regions of the brain, namely, the hippocampal CA1 sub-field, cortex, thalamus, striatum, and cerebellar brain stem (Purkinje cells). 5. Following the global ischaemic insult the rats were allowed to recover for 72 h before assessment of the damage, during which time one group of rats (n = 11) received 100 micrograms kg-1 lifarizine i.a. 5 min post-occlusion, 500 micrograms kg-1 lifarizine i.p. 15 min post-occlusion, and 500 micrograms kg-1 lifarizine i.p. twice daily for 72 h. A second group of rats (n = 12) was treated with appropriate volumes of vehicle (0.4 ml kg-1 i.a. and 2 ml

  20. Effect of intravenous bovine growth hormone or human pancreatic growth hormone-releasing factor on milk production and plasma hormones and metabolites in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hart, I C; Chadwick, P M; James, S; Simmonds, A D

    1985-05-01

    Although it is well known that exogenous bovine GH (bGH) increases milk yield in ruminants it has not been possible to determine whether an increase in endogenous GH secretion has the same effect. The recent isolation of human pancreatic GH-releasing factor (hpGRF-44) has enabled this comparison of the effects of bGH and hpGRF-44 on milk production in sheep. Three pairs of Dorset ewes underwent three 4-day treatments according to a Latin square design. Treatment 1 involved: 2-hourly i.v. injections (approximately 3.0 ml) of bGH (15 micrograms/kg; 1.8 units/mg); treatment 2: 2-hourly i.v. injections (approximately 3.0 ml) of hpGRF-44 (0.6 microgram/kg); treatment 3: 2-hourly i.v. injections (3.0 ml) of the vehicle. Treatment periods were separated by 10 days. Sheep were milked twice daily and the milk was analysed for fat, protein and lactose. Blood samples (5.0 ml) were taken before and at 15, 45, 75 and 100 min after every third injection throughout the 4 days. Plasma was analysed for insulin, glucose, urea and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). The changes in plasma GH stimulated by hpGRF-44 were consistent and repeatable throughout the 4 days of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3921646

  1. Selenium accumulation and selenium tolerance of salt grass from soils with elevated concentrations of Se and salinity

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, L.; Huang, Z.Z. )

    1991-12-01

    Biomass production, selenium accumulation, and the role of the bioextraction of selenium by salt grass (Distichlis spicata L.) in soils with elevated concentrations of Se and salinity at Kesterson, California, were studied. Salt grass contributed more than 80% vegetative coverage and 90% dry weight in the grassland communities where the soil Se concentrations were 100 times (1000 to 3000 micrograms kg-1) higher than the Se concentrations found in soils of the control sites. No evidence for evolution of Se tolerance was found in the salt grass populations. The successful colonization of salt grass in the soil with elevated Se and salinity is attributable to the presence of high concentrations of soil sulfate. Salt grass accumulated less Se than other salt-tolerant plant species existing in the same area, and no predation of animals and insects on salt grass has been noticed. Salt grass can transpire substantial amounts of volatile Se through its plant tissue. Under field conditions, a 1-m2 salt grass plot may produce 180 micrograms volatile selenium per day. However, no reduction of soil Se concentration in the salt grass habitat was detected over a period of 1 year. A long-term monitoring of Se status is needed in order to make predictions of the effectiveness of efforts to clean up Se-contaminated soils through the use of native plant species.

  2. Selenium accumulation and selenium tolerance of salt grass from soils with elevated concentrations of Se and salinity.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Huang, Z Z

    1991-12-01

    Biomass production, selenium accumulation, and the role of the bioextraction of selenium by salt grass (Distichlis spicata L.) in soils with elevated concentrations of Se and salinity at Kesterson, California, were studied. Salt grass contributed more than 80% vegetative coverage and 90% dry weight in the grassland communities where the soil Se concentrations were 100 times (1000 to 3000 micrograms kg-1) higher than the Se concentrations found in soils of the control sites. No evidence for evolution of Se tolerance was found in the salt grass populations. The successful colonization of salt grass in the soil with elevated Se and salinity is attributable to the presence of high concentrations of soil sulfate. Salt grass accumulated less Se than other salt-tolerant plant species existing in the same area, and no predation of animals and insects on salt grass has been noticed. Salt grass can transpire substantial amounts of volatile Se through its plant tissue. Under field conditions, a 1-m2 salt grass plot may produce 180 micrograms volatile selenium per day. However, no reduction of soil Se concentration in the salt grass habitat was detected over a period of 1 year. A long-term monitoring of Se status is needed in order to make predictions of the effectiveness of efforts to clean up Se-contaminated soils through the use of native plant species. PMID:1778115

  3. Clinically achievable plasma deferoxamine concentrations are therapeutic in a rat model of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Merali, S; Chin, K; Del Angel, L; Grady, R W; Armstrong, M; Clarkson, A B

    1995-01-01

    The iron-chelating drug deferoxamine (DFO) has been shown to be active in animal models of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), with effective daily intraperitoneal bolus dosages being 400 and 1,000 mg of DFO mesylate kg of body weight-1 in mouse and rat models, respectively. Continuous infusion produced a moderately improved response in a rat model. The data reported here demonstrate that the response achieved by continuous infusion of 195 and 335 mg of DFO mesylate kg-1 day-1 in the rat model is associated with mean concentrations in plasma of 1.3 and 2.5 micrograms of DFO ml-1 and mean concentrations in lung tissue of 4.9 and 6.0 micrograms of DFO g of lung tissue-1, respectively. Since current clinical use of DFO mesylate for the treatment of iron overload produces higher concentrations in the plasma of patients, DFO may prove to be a useful anti-PCP treatment. The 2.4- to 3.8-fold higher DFO concentration observed in lung tissue compared with that observed in plasma may be important in the response of PCP to DFO. PMID:8540710

  4. Verapamil potentiation of melphalan cytotoxicity and cellular uptake in murine fibrosarcoma and bone marrow.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, B. A.; Clutterbuck, R. D.; Millar, J. L.; McElwain, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Growth delay by melphalan of two fibrosarcomas in CBA mice was prolonged by intraperitoneal (i.p.) verapamil, 10 mg kg-1. Verapamil also increased the area under the blood concentration time curve and the gastrointestinal toxicity of melphalan. Verapamil promoted melphalan cytotoxicity to murine bone marrow both in vivo, by CFU-S assay, and in vitro, by CFU-GM assay. In 1 microgram ml-1 [14C]-melphalan, verapamil (10 micrograms ml-1) increased by 1.5 times the [14C]-melphalan accumulation by murine bone marrow, reversibly and independently of external calcium. Efflux of [14C]-melphalan from murine bone marrow was retarded by verapamil. Verapamil increased [14C]-melphalan uptake by disaggregated fibrosarcoma cells but had no effect on melphalan accumulation and cytotoxicity in human bone marrow. Although verapamil affected melphalan pharmacokinetics, enhancement of cellular melphalan uptake by verapamil in murine fibrosarcoma and bone marrow appeared to account for much of the increase in melphalan cytotoxicity. The lack of potentiation of melphalan by verapamil in human marrow suggests differences in melphalan transport or in verapamil membrane interactions in mouse and man. PMID:4074636

  5. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of bemegride in serum and brain tissue: pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of an intraperitoneal subconvulsive dose in rats.

    PubMed

    Soto-Otero, R; Mendez-Alvarez, E; Sierra-Paredes, G; Galan-Valiente, J; Aguilar-Veiga, E; Sierra-Marcuño, G

    1991-01-01

    A simple and rapid HPLC method has been developed for the quantification of bemegride in serum and brain tissue, using p-methylphenobarbital as an internal standard. Serum and brain tissue homogenate samples were extracted with ethyl acetate and the evaporated and redissolved extracts injected into a reversed-phase column. The compounds were eluted with an acetonitrile-phosphate buffer mixture and monitored at 200 nm. A linear response was obtained in the range 1-40 micrograms ml-1 for serum and 1-40 micrograms g-1 for brain tissue. Within-day and between-day precisions were less than 5% and the analytical recovery greater than 76.4%. This method has been used to investigate the kinetic profiles of the drug in serum and discrete areas of rat brain after intraperitoneal administration of a subconvulsive dose of bemegride (10 mg kg-1). Peak concentrations occurred in the brain and serum at the same time (30 min), followed by a biphasic decay. The results also indicated the accumulation of the drug in the brain, with no significant differences (p greater than 0.05) in the impregnation of the different brain areas investigated. PMID:1873309

  6. In vivo pharmacokinetics of pyribenzoxim in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, K H; Moon, J K; Sung, H J; Kang, S H; Koo, S J; Lee, H S; Kim, J H

    2001-12-01

    Pyribenzoxim, benzophenone O-[2,6-bis(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzoyl]oxime, is a new post-emergence herbicide providing broad-spectrum weed control in rice fields. [14C]Pyribenzoxim was used to study the pharmacokinetics of the compound after oral administration of a dose of 1000 mg kg-1 to male Sprague-Dawley rats. The material balance ranged from 97.3 to 99.7% of the administered dose and urinary and fecal recovery accounted for 97.1%, with the majority of radioactivity recovered in feces (88.6%) by 168 h after treatment. Elimination as volatile products or as carbon dioxide was negligible. The following values were obtained for the compound in the blood: AUC0-168 h, 28,400 micrograms equiv hg-1; Tmax, 12 h; Cmax, 372 micrograms equiv g-1; half-life, 53 h. Radioactivity in tissue decreased from 96.1% of applied radiocarbon at 6 h to 0.4% at 168 h and the highest concentration of radioactivity among the tissues was observed in liver while the lowest residues were found in brain. The elimination half-lives of radioactivity from tissues was in the range of 7 to 77 h and Tmax values of 12, 24 and 12 h were observed for blood, liver and kidney, respectively. Except for that in the digestive tract, the tissue-to-blood ratio (TBR) was highest in the liver. PMID:11802604

  7. Antinociceptive profile of the pseudopeptide B2 bradykinin receptor antagonist NPC 18688 in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, C. R.; Kyle, D. J.; Chakraverty, S.; Calixto, J. B.

    1996-01-01

    nociceptive response caused by intraplantar injection of capsaicin (1.6 micrograms/paw) (40 +/- 2%). However, NPC 18688 (up to 300 nmol kg-1, i.p.), given 30 min beforehand, had no significant analgesic effect when analyzed in the tail flick and in the hot plate pain models, nor did it change the performance of animals in the rota rod test. 6. The action of NPC 18688 was quite selective for the B2 receptor, and like Hoe 140, (1 to 100 nmol kg-1, i.p.) it caused graded inhibition of bradykinin (BK, 3 mol/paw)-induced increase in mouse paw volume, with mean ID50s of 61 and 6 nmol kg-1, respectively. In addition, at 100 nmol kg-1, the dose at which NPC 18688 significantly antagonized BK (3 nmol)-mediated rat paw oedema in naive animals, it had no significant effect on des-Arg9-BK (100 nmol/paw)-induced oedema in paws that had been desensitized to BK. NPC 18688 (210 nmol kg-1), like Hoe 140 (230 nmol kg-1) given s.c. 30 min beforehand, completely abolished BK (28 nmol)-induced hypotension, without affecting the fall of mean arterial blood pressure induced by i.v. injection of ACh (2 nmol kg-1). Finally, NPC 18688 (1 microM) did not affect ACh-mediated contraction in the guinea-pig ileum or toad rectus abdominii in vitro. 7. These results demonstrate that the newly-developed and selective pseudopeptide B2 receptor antagonist, NPC 18688, although less potent than the available second generation of B2 peptide BK receptor antagonists, exhibits topical and long-lasting systemic anti-hyperalgesic properties when analysed in several models of nociception in mice, making it a useful tool for investigating the participation of BK and related kinins in physiological and pathological processes. Finally, this new class of selective pseudopeptide B2 receptor antagonist may constitute a new strategy for developing the third generation of potent and long-lasting orally-active non-peptide BK antagonists, which may be useful for the management of clinical disorders involving BK and relate PMID

  8. In vitro susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria to ciprofloxacin (Bay o 9867).

    PubMed Central

    Prabhala, R H; Rao, B; Marshall, R; Bansal, M B; Thadepalli, H

    1984-01-01

    About 80% of 70 clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis were inhibited by 4 micrograms of ciprofloxacin (Bay o 9867) per ml. The 90% MIC of ciprofloxacin was 8 micrograms/ml for other Bacteroides species, 2 micrograms/ml for Peptococcus species, 8 micrograms/ml for Peptostreptococcus species, and 16 micrograms/ml for Clostridium and Eubacterium species. PMID:6517561

  9. Effect of Fluvoxamine on Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema in Rats Evaluation of the Action Sites

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Sadeghi, Hossein; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Movahedian, Ahmad; Talebi, Ardeshir

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the anti-inflammatory effect of fluvoxamine, as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) anti-depressant, on carrageenan-induced paw edema in more details. At first, fluvoxamine was administered intra-peritoneally (2.5, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg Kg-1) 30 min before the subplantar injection of carrageenan. Fluvoxamine was also injected intra-peritoneally at a dose of 50 mg Kg-1 30 or 90 min after carrageenan injection. Then, fluvoxamine was given intra-cerebroventricularly (25, 50 and 100 μg/rat) and intra-thecally (25, 50 and 100 μg/rat) 30 min before the carrageenan challenge. Finally, the effect of mifepristone (5 mg Kg-1), an antagonist of the glucocorticoid receptor, on the anti-edema effect of fluvoxamine (50 mg Kg-1) was investigated. Results showed that intra-peritoneal (IP) administration of fluvoxamine before or after carrageenan injection considerably inhibited paw edema response at 4 h post-carrageenan (p < 0.001), but intra-cerebroventricular (i.c.v.) and intra-thecal (i.t.) injection of fluvoxamine did not alter the degree of paw swelling. The inhibitory effect of fluvoxamine was reduced by the pretreatment of mifepristone (p < 0.01). Our results suggest that IP administration of fluvoxamine produces a noticeable anti-inflammatory effect in the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and at least, a part of this effect is mediated through glucocorticoid receptor. Moreover, it seems unlikely that central sites have an important role in this inhibitory effect of fluvoxamine. PMID:24250395

  10. The influence of chronic or acute nicotine pretreatment on ethanol-induced gastric ulceration in the rat.

    PubMed

    Wong, S H; Ogle, C W; Cho, C H

    1986-07-01

    The effects in rats of chronic or acute nicotine pretreatment were studied on three gastric parameters: ethanol-induced ulceration, gastric wall mucus content and gastric acid secretion, under basal or histamine-stimulated conditions. Oral administration of ethanol (40%, 10 ml kg-1) depleted gastric wall mucus and produced ulceration in the gastric glandular mucosa. Ten-day nicotine pretreatment (15 or 25 micrograms ml-1 drinking water) worsened the adverse effects of ethanol on mucosal ulceration and mucus content, potentiated the gastric secretory action of histamine, but did not affect basal acid secretion. Single oral doses of nicotine (2 or 4 mg kg-1, given 1 h beforehand) prevented ulceration and mucus depletion in ethanol-treated animals; however, they did not influence either basal or histamine-stimulated gastric acid output. It is concluded that chronic nicotine administration aggravates ethanol ulceration, possibly by decreasing gastric wall mucus content and sensitizing the stomach to the acid secretory action of histamine. On the other hand, an acute oral dose of nicotine preserves the mucus content and prevents ethanol-induced ulcer formation. PMID:2427681

  11. Efficacy of intravenous delta-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy on rabbit papillomas.

    PubMed Central

    Lofgren, L. A.; Ronn, A. M.; Nouri, M.; Lee, C. J.; Yoo, D.; Steinberg, B. M.

    1995-01-01

    Endogenously induced protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), a metabolite of delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA), has been evaluated as a photosensitising agent for destruction of papillomas in cottontail rabbit papillomavirus-infected Dutch belted and New Zealand rabbits. Three factors were evaluated: (1) relative retention ratio of drug in normal tissue, papilloma and plasma over time; (2) tissue tolerance to treatment factors; and (3) efficacy of treatment protocol. Three drug doses of ALA were examined: 50, 100 and 200 mg kg-1. Actual PPIX concentrations in tissue and plasma were determined spectrophotofluorometrically. The optimal treatment time occurred 3-6 h post ALA injection. The highest PPIX concentration ratio between papilloma and normal skin was 6:1. Different light doses were investigated, using an injection to exposure interval of 3 h and an irradiance of 100 mW cm-2 at a wavelength of 630 nm. Efficacy without risk of significant damage to normal skin was obtained using 100-200 mg kg-1 ALA and 40-60 J cm-2. A long-term (3 months) cure rate of 82% was obtained with a single treatment, provided that papilloma depth did not exceed 8 mm, volume was not more than 1000 mm3 and the plasma concentration of PPIX immediately before exposure was above 500 micrograms ml-1. The short time between injection and treatment and high efficacy, together with PPIX disappearance from plasma and tissue within 24 h, make injected ALA a highly attractive drug for photodynamic therapy. PMID:7547231

  12. Solid-phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography: a complementary technique to solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography for the analysis of pesticide residues in strawberries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Hennion, B; Urruty, L; Montury, M

    2000-11-01

    Solid-phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography has been studied for the analysis of methiocarb, napropamide, fenoxycarb and bupirimate in strawberries. The strawberries were blended and centrifuged. Then, an aliquot of the resulting extracting solution was subjected to solid-phase microextraction (SPME) on a 60 microns polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fibre for 45 min at room temperature. The extracted pesticides on the SPME fibre were desorbed into SPME/high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) interface for HPLC analysis with diode-array detection (DAD). The method is organic solvent-free for the whole extraction process and is simple and easy to manipulate. The detection limits were shown to be at low microgram kg-1 level and the linear response covered the range from 0.05 to 2 mg kg-1 of pesticides in strawberries with a regression coefficient larger than 0.99. A good repeatability with RSDs between 2.92 and 9.25% was obtained, depending on compounds. PMID:11271705

  13. Blood pressure responses to LBNP in nontrained and trained hypertensive rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedford, T. G.; Tipton, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    To study the influences of 16 wk of endurance training on the reflex regulation of resting blood pressure, nontrained (NT) and trained (T) female hypertensive rats (SHR) were subjected to conditions of lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Measurements of muscle cytochrome oxidase activity and run time to exhaustion indicated that the animals were endurance trained. The rats (NT = 6, T = 7) were tranquilized with 300-600 micrograms.kg-1 diazepam (IV) before heart rates and blood pressures were measured over a range of 2.5-10.0 mm Hg of negative pressure. When subjected to conditions of LBNP, the reflex tachycardia of the T group was greater than the NT at the lower (-2.5 and -5.0 mm Hg) negative pressures. Although arterial pressure declines were similar in both groups, the T group experienced significantly less of a decline in central venous pressure than the NT animals. When chlorisondamine was used as a ganglionic blocker (2.5 mg.kg-1, IV), the fall in CVP at 10 mm Hg negative pressure was greater for the NT group while the fall in the initial systemic arterial pressure was more for the T group. From these results we concluded that training had altered the interaction between cardiopulmonary and arterial baroreflexes in these hypertensive rats and a nonneural component had been altered such as cardiac function.

  14. Determination of residues of tetracycline antibiotics in animal tissues by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mulders, E J; van de Lagemaat, D

    1989-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC), chlortetracycline (CTC) and doxycycline (DC) in animal tissues. Tissues were macerated with a buffer solution and centrifuged. The supernatant solution was purified over a Sep-Pak C18 cartridge which had previously been deactivated by silylation. Tetracyclines were eluted with methanol, the solvent evaporated and the residue dissolved in the HPLC mobile phase. Compounds were separated on a Novapak Phenyl Radial-Pak cartridge with a Resolve CN guard column using gradient elution and UV detection. The method was tested on chicken, porcine and bovine muscle. Recoveries were determined for OTC, TC, CTC and DC added to porcine, bovine and chicken muscle at levels of 0.05 and 0.2 mg kg-1. They varied from about 90% for OTC to about 68% for DC with coefficients of variation of 1.8-7.5%. The limit of determination is 5-10 micrograms kg-1. The method was validated on tissues of laying-hens after intramuscular injection of OTC. PMID:2490571

  15. Inhibition of sham feeding-stimulated acid secretion in dogs by immunoneutralization of gastrin.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, T O; Lloyd, K C; Lawson, D C; Pappas, T N; Walsh, J H

    1997-08-01

    A monoclonal antibody to gastrin was used to study the role of circulating gastrin in mediating acid secretion stimulated by sham feeding in dogs. On separate days, four conscious, fasted, adult mongrel dogs with esophageal and gastric fistulae were pretreated intravenously with either 7 mg of gastrin monoclonal antibody (MAb 28.2), 7 mg of keyhole limpet hemocyanin monoclonal antibody as control, or 12.5 micrograms/kg atropine sulfate. Thirty minutes later, acid secretion was stimulated first by sham feeding for 5 min, then, 60 min later, by an intravenous infusion of a maximum stimulatory dose of histamine (40 micrograms/kg) for 60 min, and after returning to basal, by intravenous infusion of a submaximal stimulatory dose of gastrin (200 pmol.kg-1.h-1) for 60 min. Acid output from secretions collected every 15 min by gravity drainage was determined by titration to pH 7.0 with 0.2 N NaOH. Sham feeding-stimulated acid output (17.7 +/- 5.5 mmol/h) was significantly inhibited by administration of either MAb 28.2 (0 mmol/h) or atropine (1.7 +/- 1.1 mmol/h). Histamine-stimulated acid output (19.6 +/- 3.4 mmol/h) was not reduced by either pretreatment. Gastrin-stimulated acid output (3.9 +/- 0.6 mmol/h) was significantly reduced only by pretreatment with MAb 28.2 (0.1 +/- 0.1 mmol/h) and not by atropine (2.2 +/- 1.4 mmol/h). A background intravenous infusion of pentagastrin (0.5 microgram.kg-1.h-1) restored sham feeding-stimulated acid output blocked by administration of MAb 28.2, although the intrinsic acid response to sham feeding could not be seen with the background pentagastrin infusion. Furthermore, the plasma gastrin response to sham feeding was not blocked by atropine pretreatment. Because immunoneutralization of both gastrin and cholinergic blockade significantly inhibited acid output during sham feeding, circulating gastrin and cholinergic pathways are involved in mediating the cephalic phase of gastric acid secretion in dogs. PMID:9277419

  16. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ketamine in dogs anesthetized with enflurane.

    PubMed

    Schwieger, I M; Szlam, F; Hug, C C

    1991-04-01

    The plasma concentration vs. anesthetic effect relationships for ketamine are not well known. It is desirable to establish stable and predictable drug concentrations in plasma (and brain) in order to define such relationships. As a prelude to pharmacodynamic studies, we investigated ketamine pharmacokinetics in eight dogs anesthetized with enflurane and correlated ketamine concentration in plasma (KET) with its ability to reduce the enflurane concentration required for anesthesia (enflurane EC50: MAC--the end-tidal concentration at which half the dogs moved in response to clamping of the tail and half did not move). Four dogs (Group 1) received ketamine 10 mg/kg iv over 30 sec. Blood for determination of KET was collected repeatedly over the 5-h period following injection. Based on the pharmacokinetic parameters determined for Group 1, four dogs in Group 2 received ketamine as a continuous infusion of 300 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 for 5 hr accompanied by an initial loading dose (26 mg/kg administered over 20 min) designed to produce a stable KET of 20 micrograms/ml of plasma. Enflurane MAC and KET were determined regularly during the infusion and for 5 hr after discontinuation of the infusion. There were no significant differences in the following pharmacokinetic parameters determined for Group 1 vs. Group 2: t1/2 beta = 122 +/- 9 vs. 141 +/- 40 min (mean +/- SD) and CL = 18.1 +/- 5.9 vs. 13.9 +/- 2.5 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively. When administered as a continuous infusion (Group 2), KET remained relatively stable at 22.1 +/- 4.6 micrograms/ml for 5 hr. The degree of MAC reduction remained relatively stable at 73% during the continuous infusion. Finally, the enflurane MAC reduction vs. KET was established over a wide range of plasma concentrations in 4 additional dogs (Group 3). This study determined that the pharmacokinetics of ketamine were consistent under two different experimental conditions and demonstrated the relationship between plasma concentration and

  17. The anticonvulsant and behavioural profile of L-687,414, a partial agonist acting at the glycine modulatory site on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex.

    PubMed

    Tricklebank, M D; Bristow, L J; Hutson, P H; Leeson, P D; Rowley, M; Saywell, K; Singh, L; Tattersall, F D; Thorn, L; Williams, B J

    1994-11-01

    1. The anticonvulsant and behavioural effects of the glycine/NMDA receptor partial agonist, L-687,414 (R(+)-cis-beta-methyl-3-amino-1-hydroxypyrrolid-2-one) have been investigated in rodents. 2. L-687,414 dose-dependently antagonized seizures induced by N-methyl-D,L- aspartic acid (NMDLA, ED50 = 19.7 mg kg-1), pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, ED50 = 13.0 mg kg-1) and electroshock (ED50 = 26.1 mg kg-1) when given intravenously 15 min before test, in male Swiss Webster mice but was most potent against audiogenic seizures induced by a 120 dB bell in DBA/2 mice (ED50 = 5.1 mg kg-1, i.p., 30 min before test). 3. L-687,414 also induced impairments of performance in a rotarod test in both Swiss Webster and DBA/2 mice and the ratio [rotarod MED:anticonvulsant ED50] varied between 0.9 and 5, depending on the convulsant used. 4. Similar behaviours to those seen after administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (head weaving, body rolling, hyperlocomotion) were seen in the mouse after giving L-687,414, although the peak effect occurred at a dose (100 mg kg-1) which was 5-20 times the anticonvulsant ED50S, depending on the convulsant used. Unlike MK-801, however, doses of L-687,414 that were behaviourally stimulant did not increase dopamine turnover in the nucleus accumbens. 5. Consistent with the interaction of L-687,414 with the glycine/NMDA receptor, the anticonvulsant, ataxic and motor stimulant effects of the compound were significantly attenuated by the glycine/NMDA receptor agonist, D-serine (10-100 micrograms per mouse, i.c.v.). 6. The results show that L-687,414 is a potent, orally active anticonvulsant with a more benign pharmacological profile than antagonists acting at the ion channel of the NMDA receptor complex. The compound is a useful tool with which to probe the functional role of the glycine co-agonist site in vivo. PMID:7858861

  18. AVP-induced pulmonary vasodilation during specific V1 receptor block in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Nyhan, D P; Clougherty, P W; Murray, P A

    1987-09-01

    Our objectives were 1) to determine whether exogenously administered arginine vasopressin (AVP) can exert a vasoactive influence on the pulmonary circulation of conscious dogs during specific vasopressinergic-1 (V1) receptor block, and 2) to assess the extent to which the pulmonary vascular response to AVP during V1 receptor block is mediated by either sympathetic beta-adrenergic or cholinergic receptor activation or by cyclooxygenase pathway activation. Multipoint pulmonary vascular pressure-cardiac index (P/Q) plots were constructed during normoxia in conscious dogs by stepwise constriction of the thoracic inferior vena cava to reduce Q. In dogs pretreated with a specific V1 receptor antagonist [d(CH2)5 AVP, 10 micrograms/kg iv], AVP infusion (7.6 ng.kg-1 X min-1 iv) increased (P less than 0.01) Q from 139 +/- 6 to 175 +/- 8 ml.min-1 X kg-1, and decreased (P less than 0.01) the pulmonary vascular pressure gradient (pulmonary arterial pressure-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure: PAP-PCWP) over the entire range of Q studied (140 to 80 ml.min-1 X kg-1). This pulmonary vasodilator response to AVP during V1 block was also observed following sympathetic beta-adrenergic block alone, following combined sympathetic beta-adrenergic and cholinergic block, and following cyclooxygenase pathway inhibition. Thus exogenous administration of AVP during specific V1 receptor block results in active, nonflow-dependent pulmonary vasodilation. This pulmonary vasodilator response is not mediated by reflex activation of sympathetic beta-adrenergic or cholinergic receptors or by metabolites of the cyclooxygenase pathway over a broad range of Q. PMID:2888317

  19. Prostaglandin E2 decreases fetal breathing movements, but not pulmonary blood flow, in fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Savich, R D; Guerra, F A; Lee, C C; Kitterman, J A

    1995-04-01

    Fetal breathing movements are vital for normal fetal lung growth. Inhibition of these fetal breathing movements is associated with pulmonary hypoplasia. Pulmonary hypoplasia also occurs subsequent to alterations in other factors, such as a significant decrease in pulmonary blood flow. The prostaglandin system is known to have profound effects on both fetal breathing movements and on the pulmonary vascular system. We studied six late-gestation chronically instrumented fetal sheep by using an electromagnetic flow transducer around the left pulmonary artery to determine whether a decrease in fetal breathing movements, subsequent to a continuous infusion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), is associated with a decrease in pulmonary blood flow. A continuous PGE2 infusion of 0.88 +/- 0.11 microgram.kg-1.min-1 over 120 min led to a significant decrease in fetal breathing movements (control 40.5 +/- 3.6%, infusion 3.3 +/- 1.6%; P < 0.001). In contrast, the PGE2 infusion had no effect on mean left pulmonary artery blood flow (control 27.7 +/- 9.3 ml.min-1.kg-1, infusion 23.8 +/- 7.0 ml.min-1.kg-1. The PGE2 infusion demonstrated central effects in the percentage of time the fetus was in high-voltage electrocortical activity (control 41.9 +/- 2.5%, infusion 56.5 +/- 5.4%; P < 0.05) and in the amount of time spent in low-voltage electrocortical activity without fetal breathing movements (control 17.5 +/- 2.7%, infusion 40.2 +/- 4.8%; P < 0.05). A significant decrease in the fetal heart rate during the infusion was seen with no effect on either the systemic or pulmonary blood pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7615458

  20. The effect of nitroglycerin on response to tracheal intubation. Assessment by radionuclide angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, A.P.; Camporesi, E.M.; Sell, T.L.; Croughwell, N.; Silva, R.; Jones, R.H.; McIntyre, R.W.; Stanley, T.E.; Reves, J.G. )

    1989-06-01

    The effect of intravenous (IV) nitroglycerin (NTG) on perioperative myocardial ischemia as detected by single pass radionuclide angiocardiography was studied in 20 patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Ten patients, selected at random, received IV NTG 1 microgram.kg-1.min-1 (NTG group) and 10 others, IV saline (control group). Anesthetic induction consisted of midazolam 0.2 mg.kg-1, vecuronium 0.1 mg.kg-1, and 50% N{sub 2}O in O{sub 2}. ECG leads I, II, and V5 were monitored for ST segment changes. Single pass radionuclide angiocardiography (RNA) was performed at 5 times: prior to induction, prior to tracheal intubation, and at 1, 3.5, and 6 min following intubation. The presence of new regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA) was determined from each RNA study as compared with the preinduction measurement. Apart from one patient in the control group who developed a new v wave after intubation, there was no evidence of ischemia by pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. No ECG evidence of ischemia was detected in any patient. Despite this, new regional wall motion abnormalities were observed in 3 patients in the control group and 1 patient in the NTG group. Blood pressure and heart rate responses of patients with new RWMA were not significantly different from other patients. The low incidence of ischemia in this population precludes a definitive statement regarding the efficacy of IV NTG, but the lower incidence of RWMA in the NTG group suggests a protective effect.

  1. Total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol and alfentanil protects against postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Raftery, S; Sherry, E

    1992-01-01

    The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and requirements for anti-emetic medication were assessed in 80 female patients undergoing day-case anaesthesia during assisted conception therapy. Anaesthesia was induced with alfentanil 50 micrograms.kg-1 and propofol 1 mg.kg-1; atracurium 0.5 mg.kg-1 was given to facilitate tracheal intubation. The patients were allocated to receive either total intravenous maintenance of anaesthesia with an infusion of propofol and increments of alfentanil (Group P) or inhalational maintenance of anaesthesia with nitrous oxide and enflurane (Group E). Postoperative nausea, retching, vomiting, requirements for anti-emetic therapy, and unplanned admission for overnight stay in hospital were recorded. Overall incidence of nausea was 64% in group E and 39% in Group P (P less than 0.05). Incidence of vomiting was 67% in Group E and 34% in Group P (P less than 0.05). Metoclopramide was requested by 62% of patients in Group E, and 32% of those in Group P (P less than 0.05); 21% of the patients in Group E were admitted to hospital overnight, while only 5% of the patients in Group P required unscheduled admission to hospital (P less than 0.05). We conclude that total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol and alfentanil is superior to inhalational maintenance with nitrous oxide and enflurane in that it is associated with less nausea and vomiting, less requirement for anti-emetic medication, and a lower probability of unplanned admission to hospital after day-care gynaecological surgery. PMID:1531118

  2. Determination of the role of noradrenergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic neurones in postsynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptor desensitization by desipramine and ECS.

    PubMed Central

    Heal, D. J.; Prow, M. R.; Buckett, W. R.

    1991-01-01

    1. Experiments were conducted to determine the respective roles which noradrenergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic neurones play in the down-regulation of postsynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors by desipramine and electroconvulsive shock (ECS). The functional status of these receptors was monitored by use of clonidine-induced mydriasis in conscious mice. 2. Mydriasis to clonidine (0.1 mg kg-1, i.p.) was markedly attenuated by administration of either desipramine (10 mg kg-1, i.p.) for 14 days or ECS (200 V, 2s) given five times over ten days confirming our previous observations. 3. The neurotoxin, DSP-4 (100 mg kg-1, i.p. X 2), reduced brain noradrenaline levels by 64% and abolished the mydriasis induced by the noradrenaline releasing agent and reuptake inhibitor, methamphetamine, without significantly altering the response to clonidine, confirming our earlier results. This lesion prevented the attenuation of clonidine mydriasis by repeated administration of desipramine, but not ECS. 4. Lesioning of central 5-hydroxytryptaminergic neurones with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (75 micrograms, i.c.v.) had no influence on the reduction in clonidine mydriasis produced by repeated administration of either desipramine or ECS. 5. Since noradrenergic neurones are essential for the desensitization of postsynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors by desipramine, it indicates that this effect is probably the result of increased synaptic noradrenaline levels. This mechanism is not responsible for the change induced by ECS because this adaptation is independent of an intact noradrenergic input. 5-HT-containing neurones do not play a permissive role in the down-regulation of postsynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors by either antidepressant treatment. PMID:1655144

  3. Adrenal cortical responses to vasoactive intestinal peptide in conscious hypophysectomized calves.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, S R; Edwards, A V; Jones, C T

    1987-01-01

    1. Right adrenal and various cardiovascular responses to an intra-aortic infusion of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP; 4 micrograms min-1 kg-1) have been investigated in the presence and absence of exogenous adrenocorticotrophin, (ACTH1-24; 5 ng min-1 kg-1, i.v.). The adrenal clamp technique was employed in conscious calves in which the pituitary stalk had been cauterized 3-4 days previously. 2. The i.v. infusion of ACTH1-24 increased mean plasma ACTH concentration by between 1000 and 1100 pg ml-1 and mean right cortisol output by about 700 ng min-1 kg-1. Under these conditions the intra-aortic infusion of VIP produced a further rise in mean adrenal cortisol output, together with a consequential rise in mean arterial plasma cortisol concentration, without affecting the concentration of ACTH in the arterial plasma significantly. In the absence of ACTH the same infusion of VIP had no detectable effect on adrenal cortisol output. 3. In each of the above respects this intra-aortic infusion of VIP closely mimicked the effect of stimulation of the peripheral end of the right splanchnic nerve in these animals, as it also did by causing a substantial fall in adrenal vascular resistance in the absence, but not in the presence, of ACTH. 4. It is concluded that release of this peptide from splanchnic nerve terminals in the adrenal gland most probably accounts, at least in part, for the powerful adrenocortical steroidogenic response to splanchnic nerve stimulation, that occurs in the presence of submaximal doses of ACTH. PMID:2832592

  4. Changes in adrenoceptors and monoamine metabolism in neonatal and adult rat brain after postnatal exposure to the antihypertensive labetalol.

    PubMed Central

    Erdtsieck-Ernste, E. B.; Feenstra, M. G.; Botterblom, M. H.; De Barrios, J.; Boer, G. J.

    1992-01-01

    1. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the acute (single injection), direct (chronic treatment) and the long-lasting effects after exposure to the alpha 1/beta-adrenoceptor antagonist labetalol during rat brain development on adrenoceptors and monoamine metabolism. 2. In 10-day-old rat pups, subcutaneously administered labetalol (10 mg kg-1) passed the blood-brain barrier, reaching a level of 2.1 micrograms g-1 tissue in the brain 90 min after injection. 3. Chronic labetalol treatment (10 mg kg-1, s.c., twice daily) during the first 10 days of life significantly increased alpha 1-adrenoceptor binding in the hypothalamus (+39%), but not in the occipital cortex. 4. This chronic postnatal labetalol treatment did not result in long-lasting changes in alpha 1- and beta-receptors measured on day 60. 5. A single labetalol injection (10 mg kg-1, s.c.) on postnatal day 10 significantly increased noradrenaline (NA) metabolism in all brain regions tested (+25 to 105%), but had no effects on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or dopamine metabolism. 6. Chronic labetalol treatment between postnatal (PN) days 1 and 10 also increased NA metabolism on PN 10 (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG)/NA, +20 to 100%), suggesting that tolerance to the acute effect of labetalol did not occur. A slight increase in 5-HT metabolism (20%) was induced by the chronic labetalol treatment in the hippocampus and meso-limbic system. 7. In general, long-lasting effects on NA metabolism could not be detected on day 60 more than one month after the treatment. However, 5-HT metabolism was significantly increased in all four brain regions measured (+20 to 70%). 8. We conclude that chronic labetalol exposure during early postnatal rat brain development does not cause long-lasting changes in beta-receptor number or NA metabolism, but appears to be critical for the rate of 5-HT metabolism in later life. PMID:1596689

  5. Measurement of canine gastric vascular permeability to plasma proteins in the normal and protein-losing states

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, J.G.; Davenport, H.W.

    1982-04-01

    An isolated segment of the greater curvature of a dog's stomach was perfused at constant flow through a single cannulated artery with donor blood containing 131I-albumin, 125I-fibrinogen, and papaverine. Perfusion pressure was 30-50 mmHg, and venous pressure was set at 15 mmHg. Venous blood was collected in 1-min samples for 60 min. Filtration of fluid and loss of labeled proteins were calculated as the difference between measured arterial inflow and venous outflow. Permeability-surface area products (PS) were calculated for the proteins, and reflection coefficients (sigma) were calculated from solute flux and filtration. Intraarterial infusion of histamine (1.6-1.9 microgram . ml-1) increased filtration and PS and decreased sigma for albumin but not fibrinogen. When protein-losing was established by topical irrigation with 10 mM dithiothreitol in neutral solution, filtration and PS increased, and sigma for albumin but not fibrinogen decreased. Irrigation of the mucosa with 10 mM salicylic acid in 100 mN HCl caused bleeding that was quantitated by addition of 51Cr-erythrocytes to perfusing blood. Filtration and PS increased, and sigma for albumin but not fibrinogen decreased. Hematocrit of blood lost remained low during extensive mucosal damage. Effects of histamine infusion were attenuated or abolished by cimetidine (4 mg . kg-1 loading, 1.4 mg . kg-1 . h-1 continuous infusion) or by pyrilamine maleate (5 mg . kg-1 bolus injection at beginning of irrigation, repeated at 40-50 min). Pyrilamine attenuated or abolished effects of topical dithiothreitol or salicylic acid. We conclude that during protein loss caused by dithiothreitol or salicylic acid, histamine released within the mucosa causes increased vascular permeability for plasma proteins.

  6. 45-Day safety screen results for single shell tank 241-AP-106, liquid grab samples, riser 1, 30{degrees} and 150{degrees} in conjunction with evaporator campaign 95-1

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.L.

    1994-12-14

    This is the 45-Day report for the fiscal year 1995 safety screening characterization of three liquid grab samples from single shell tank 241-AP-106. The required analyses are differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and appearance (APPR). No analytes exceeded the notification limits, therefore, secondary analyses (RSST, cyanide, and hot persulfate-total organic carbon) were not required. Summary data tables 2, 3 and 4 present the appearance, DSC and TGA data, respectively. Total alpha analyses are not included in this report, because it is not required for liquid grab samples.

  7. Effect of organic acids on Salmonella colonization and shedding in weaned piglets in a seeder model.

    PubMed

    Michiels, Joris; Missotten, Joris; Rasschaert, Geertrui; Dierick, Noël; Heyndrickx, Marc; De Smet, Stefaan

    2012-11-01

    Piglets (n = 128) weaned at 21 days of age were used in a 35-day seeder model to evaluate the effects of dietary additives differing in active ingredients, chemical, and physical formulation, and dose on Salmonella colonization and shedding and intestinal microbial populations. Treatments were a negative control (basal diet), the positive control (challenged, basal diet), and six treatments similar to the positive control but supplemented with the following active ingredients (dose excluding essential oils or natural extracts): triglycerides with butyric acid (1.30 g kg(-1)); formic and citric acids and essential oils (2.44 g kg(-1)); coated formic, coated sorbic, and benzoic acids (2.70 g kg(-1)); salts of formic, sorbic, acetic, and propionic acids, their free acids, and natural extracts (2.92 g kg(-1)); triglycerides with caproic and caprylic acids and coated oregano oil (1.80 g kg(-1)); and caproic, caprylic, lauric, and lactic acids (1.91 g kg(-1)). On day 6, half the piglets (seeder pigs) in each group were orally challenged with a Salmonella Typhimurium nalidixic acid-resistant strain (4 × 10(9) and 1.2 × 10(9) log CFU per pig in replicate experiments 1 and 2, respectively). Two days later, they were transferred to pens with an equal number of contact pigs. Salmonella shedding was determined 2 days after challenge exposure and then on a weekly basis. On day 34 or 35, piglets were euthanized to sample tonsils, ileocecal lymph nodes, and ileal and cecal digesta contents. The two additives, both containing short-chain fatty acids and one of them also containing benzoic acid and the other one also containing essential oils, and supplemented at more than 2.70 g kg(-1), showed evidence of reducing Salmonella fecal shedding and numbers of coliforms and Salmonella in cecal digesta. However, colonization of tonsils and ileocecal lymph nodes by Salmonella was not affected. Supplementing butyric acid and medium-chain fatty acids at the applied dose failed to inhibit

  8. Cardiovascular responses to static exercise in conscious cats: effects of intracerebroventricular injection of clonidine.

    PubMed

    Ally, A; Hand, G A; Mitchell, J H

    1996-03-01

    1. Static exercise elicits increases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate (HR) in humans and conscious animals. In this study, the effects of intracerebroventricular (I.C.V.) administration of clonidine, an alpha 2-adrenergic agonist, on these cardiovascular responses were investigated using conscious cats. Four cats were operantly trained to extend a forelimb and press a bar (200-650 g) for 15-60 s. A stainless-steel cannula was inserted into the right lateral ventricle for I.C.V. injection of drugs, and a common carotid artery was catheterized to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP) and HR. The number of exercise trials and changes in MAP, HR and force were pooled for 30 min periods. After the cats exercised for 30 min, either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or clonidine (2 or 5 micrograms) were administered intracerebroventricularly. 2. Before clonidine injection, fifty-two exercise trials increased MAP and HR by 15 +/- 3 mmHg and 41 +/- 5 beats min-1, respectively. Administration of clonidine (2 micrograms) did not alter the resting MAP and HR, but attenuated the increases in MAP and HR in response to exercise (0-30 min post-clonidine: n = 81; delta MAP, 6 +/- 3 mmHg; delta HR, 20 +/- 6 beats min-1; 30-60 min post-clonidine: n = 71; delta MAP, 4 +/- 4 mmHg; delta HR, 17 +/- 8 beats min-1). Administration of artificial CSF I.C.V. had no effect on the cardiovascular responses to static exercise. 3. An increased dose of clonidine (5 micrograms) decreased resting MAP and HR by 31 +/- 7 mmHg and 37 +/- 7 beats min-1, respectively, and markedly blunted the cardiovascular responses to exercise (pre-clonidine: n = 52; delta MAP, 17 +/- 3 mmHg; delta HR, 38 +/- 5 beats min-1; post-clonidine 0-30 min: n = 66; delta MAP, 4 +/- 2 mmHg; delta HR, 15 +/- 5 beats min-1; post-clonidine 30-60 min: n = 60; delta MAP, 4 +/- 2 mmHg; delta HR, 14 +/- 6 beats min-1). Pretreatment with the alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist, yohimbine (8 micrograms, I.C.V.), blocked the

  9. Cinitapride protects against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats: role of 5-hydroxytryptamine, prostaglandins and sulfhydryl compounds.

    PubMed

    Alarcón-de-la-Lastra Romero, C; López, A; Martín, M J; la Casa, C; Motilva, V

    1997-04-01

    This study was designed to determine the gastroprotective properties of cinitapride (CNT), a novel prokinetic benzamide derivative agonist of 5-HT4 and 5-HT1 receptors and 5-HT2 antagonist, on mucosal injury produced by 50% (v/v) ethanol. Results were compared with those for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT: 10 mg kg-1). The possible involvements of gastric mucus secretion, endogenous prostaglandins (PGs) and sulfhydryl compounds (SH) in the protection mediated by CNT were also examined. Intraperitoneal administration of CNT (0.50 and 1 mg kg-1), 30 min before ethanol, significantly prevented gastric ulceration and increased the hexosamine content of gastric mucus. CNT (1 mg kg-1) also produced a significant increase in gastric mucosal levels of PGE2, but did not induce any significant changes in SH values. On the contrary, pretreatment with 5-HT worsened ethanol-induced erosions, however, did not affect gastric mucus secretion, glycoprotein content or PGE2 levels, although the non-protein SH fraction was significantly decreased. The present results demonstrate that the gastroprotective effects of CNT could be partly explained by a complex PG dependent mechanism. We suggest that 5-HT dependent mechanisms through 5-HT2 receptor blockade and 5-HT1 receptor activation could be also involved. PMID:9211565

  10. Vasodilator effect of nicorandil on retinal blood vessels in rats.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Naoto; Saito, Maki; Mori, Asami; Sakamoto, Kenji; Kametaka, Sokichi; Nakahara, Tsutomu; Ishii, Kunio

    2007-07-01

    We examined the effect of nicorandil on retinal blood vessels in rats in vivo. Male Wistar rats (8 to 10 weeks old) were anaesthetised with thiobutabarbital (120 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). Fundus images were captured with a digital camera that was equipped with a special objective lens. Diameters of retinal blood vessels were measured with a personal computer. Nicorandil (1-300 microg kg(-1) min(-1), intravenous [i.v.]) increased diameters of retinal blood vessels and decreased systemic blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. Both responses to nicorandil were attenuated by glibenclamide (20 mg/kg, i.v.), an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent K(+) (K(ATP)) channel blocker. On the other hand, indomethacin (5 mg/kg, i.v.), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, attenuated the vasodilation of retinal blood vessels, but not depressor response, to nicorandil and sodium nitroprusside. Pinacidil (1-300 microg kg(-1) min(-1), i.v.), a K(ATP) channel opener, also dilated retinal blood vessels and decreased systemic blood pressure. The responses to pinacidil were prevented by glibenclamide, but not by indomethacin. The vasodilation of retinal arteriole, but not depressor response, to sodium nitroprusside (1-30 microg kg(-1) min(-1), i.v.), a nitric oxide donor, was attenuated by indomethacin. These results suggest that nicorandil dilates retinal blood vessels through opening of K(ATP) channels and production of prostaglandins that are probably generated by nitric oxide. PMID:17525845

  11. Bupropion treatment increases epididymal contractility and impairs sperm quality with no effects on the epididymal sperm transit time of male rats.

    PubMed

    Cavariani, Marilia Martins; de Almeida Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo; de Lima Rosa, Josiane; de Araújo Leite, Gabriel Adan; Silva, Patrícia Villela E; Pupo, André Sampaio; De Grava Kempinas, Wilma

    2015-09-01

    Bupropion is a dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) reuptake inhibitor used as smoking cessation and antidepressant drug with a lower incidence of male sexual dysfunction. We showed previously that sibutramine, a norepinephrine/serotonine reuptake inhibitor, reduced male rat fertility. As there are no studies evaluating the impact of bupropion treatment on spermatic parameters and male fertility, we evaluated the effects of bupropion treatment (15 and 30 mg kg(-1), 30 days) on sexual behavior, spermatic parameters and fertility of male Wistar rats and on the epididymal duct in vitro contractility. Bupropion 15 mg kg(-1) increased the serum luteinizing hormone level and the epididymal duct contractility, but the sperm quality was not affected. At 30 mg kg(-1) bupropion impaired sperm quality increasing the incidence of non-progressive sperm. The male sexual behavior and fertility were not modified at both bupropion doses. These results, in rats, suggest the importance of studies evaluating the effects of bupropion on the human male sperm quality. PMID:25645087

  12. Role for intracellular platelet-activating factor in the circulatory failure in a model of gram-positive shock.

    PubMed Central

    De Kimpe, S. J.; Thiemermann, C.; Vane, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    1. This study investigates the effects of two structurally different antagonists of platelet-activating factor (PAF), BN52021 and WEB2086, on the circulatory and renal failure elicited by lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus (an organism without endotoxin) in anaesthetized rats. 2. Administration of LTA (10 mg kg-1, i.v.) caused hypotension and vascular hyporeactivity to noradrenaline (1 microgram kg-1, i.v.) WEB2086 (5 mg kg-1, i.v., 20 min before and 150 min after LTA) inhibited the delayed fall in mean arterial blood pressure (at 300 min: 99 +/- 6 mmHg vs. 75 +/- 6 mmHg, P < 0.01) and prevented the decrease in pressor response to noradrenaline (at 300 min: 36 +/- 5 mmHg min vs. 17 +/- 5 mmHg min, P < 0.01). Surprisingly, BN52021 (20 mg kg-1, i.v., 20 min before and 150 min after LTA) neither prevented the hypotension (74 +/- 6 mmHg) nor the vascular hyporeactivity (21 +/- 5 mmHg min). However, BN52021 inhibited the hypotension to injections of PAF as well as the circulatory failure elicited by lipopolysaccharides (10 mg kg-1, i.v.). 3. LTA caused an increase in plasma concentration of creatinine from 39 +/- 5 microM (sham-operated) to 70 +/- 8 microM and urea from 4.7 +/- 0.1 to 13.1 +/- 1.6 mM. The renal failure elicited by LTA was significantly inhibited by WEB2086 (creatinine: 45 +/- 4 microM and urea: 5.7 +/- 0.7 mM), but not by BN52021. 4. The induction of nitric oxide synthase activity in lungs by LTA was attenuated by WEB2086 from 98 +/- 17 to 40 +/- 15 pmol L-citrulline 30 min-1 mg-1 protein (P < 0.01), but not by BN52021 (148 +/- 21 pmol L-citrulline 30 min-1 mg-1 protein). Similarly, WEB2086, but not BN52021, inhibited the increase in plasma nitrite concentration associated with the delayed circulatory failure caused by LTA. The release of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) after injection of LTA was not attenuated by WEB2086. 5. The induction of nitrite release by cultured macrophages activated with LTA (10 micrograms ml-1 for 24 h

  13. Role for intracellular platelet-activating factor in the circulatory failure in a model of gram-positive shock.

    PubMed

    De Kimpe, S J; Thiemermann, C; Vane, J R

    1995-12-01

    1. This study investigates the effects of two structurally different antagonists of platelet-activating factor (PAF), BN52021 and WEB2086, on the circulatory and renal failure elicited by lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Staphylococcus aureus (an organism without endotoxin) in anaesthetized rats. 2. Administration of LTA (10 mg kg-1, i.v.) caused hypotension and vascular hyporeactivity to noradrenaline (1 microgram kg-1, i.v.) WEB2086 (5 mg kg-1, i.v., 20 min before and 150 min after LTA) inhibited the delayed fall in mean arterial blood pressure (at 300 min: 99 +/- 6 mmHg vs. 75 +/- 6 mmHg, P < 0.01) and prevented the decrease in pressor response to noradrenaline (at 300 min: 36 +/- 5 mmHg min vs. 17 +/- 5 mmHg min, P < 0.01). Surprisingly, BN52021 (20 mg kg-1, i.v., 20 min before and 150 min after LTA) neither prevented the hypotension (74 +/- 6 mmHg) nor the vascular hyporeactivity (21 +/- 5 mmHg min). However, BN52021 inhibited the hypotension to injections of PAF as well as the circulatory failure elicited by lipopolysaccharides (10 mg kg-1, i.v.). 3. LTA caused an increase in plasma concentration of creatinine from 39 +/- 5 microM (sham-operated) to 70 +/- 8 microM and urea from 4.7 +/- 0.1 to 13.1 +/- 1.6 mM. The renal failure elicited by LTA was significantly inhibited by WEB2086 (creatinine: 45 +/- 4 microM and urea: 5.7 +/- 0.7 mM), but not by BN52021. 4. The induction of nitric oxide synthase activity in lungs by LTA was attenuated by WEB2086 from 98 +/- 17 to 40 +/- 15 pmol L-citrulline 30 min-1 mg-1 protein (P < 0.01), but not by BN52021 (148 +/- 21 pmol L-citrulline 30 min-1 mg-1 protein). Similarly, WEB2086, but not BN52021, inhibited the increase in plasma nitrite concentration associated with the delayed circulatory failure caused by LTA. The release of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) after injection of LTA was not attenuated by WEB2086. 5. The induction of nitrite release by cultured macrophages activated with LTA (10 micrograms ml-1 for 24 h

  14. Nature of 5-HT1-like receptors mediating depressor responses in vagosympathectomized rats; close resemblance to the cloned 5-ht7 receptor.

    PubMed

    De Vries, P; Villalón, C M; Heiligers, J P; Saxena, P R

    1997-07-01

    It has been suggested that the late hypotensive response to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) in vagosympathectomized rats is mediated by '5-HT1-like' receptors since this effect is mimicked by 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT), is not modified by cyproheptadine, ketanserin or MDL 72222, but it is blocked by methysergide. The present study was set out to reanalyze this suggestion in terms of the classification schemes proposed in 1994 and 1996 by the NC-IUPHAR subcommittee on the classification and nomenclature of 5-HT receptors. I.v. bolus injections of 5-CT (0.01-0.3 microg x kg(-1)), 5-HT (1-30 microg x kg(-1)) and 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeO-T; 1-30 microg x kg(-1)) produced dose-dependent hypotensive responses with a rank order of agonist potency: 5-CT > 5-HT > 5-methoxytryptamine with sumatriptan (30-1000 microg x kg(-1)) inactive. The depressor responses to 5-HT and 5-CT were not attenuated by i.v. GR127935 (300-3000 microg x kg(-1)) or equivalent volumes of saline. In contrast, lisuride, methiothepin, mesulergine, metergoline and clozapine dose-dependently antagonized the responses to 5-HT and 5-CT; the rank order of apparent pA2 values against 5-HT and 5-CT, respectively, was: lisuride (7.7; 7.8) > methiothepin (6.8; 7.0) > or = mesulergine (6.4; 6.6) > clozapine (5.7; 5.8); metergoline displayed variable potencies (5.6; 6.4). Except for lisuride, which also affected isoprenaline-induced hypotension, the antagonism by the other drugs was selective. Based upon the above rank order of agonist potency, the blockade by a series of drugs showing high affinity for the cloned 5-ht7 receptor and the lack of blockade by GR127935, our results indicate that the 5-HT receptor mediating hypotension in vagosympathectomized rats is operationally similar to other putative 5-ht7 receptors mediating vascular and non-vascular responses (e.g. relaxation of the rabbit femoral vein, canine coronary and external carotid arteries and guinea-pig ileum as well as feline tachycardia

  15. Stimulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in the rat by the type 4 phosphodiesterase (PDE-4) inhibitor, denbufylline.

    PubMed Central

    Hadley, A. J.; Kumari, M.; Cover, P. O.; Osborne, J.; Poyser, R.; Flack, J. D.; Buckingham, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    1. Preliminary studies in our laboratories showed that the synthetic xanthine analogue denbufylline, a selective type 4 phosphodiesterase (PDE-4) inhibitor, is a potent activator of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis when given orally to adult male rats. This paper describes the results of experiments in which well established in vivo and in vitro models were used to (a) examine further the effects of denbufylline on HPA function and (b) identify the site and mode of action of the drug within the axis. 2. In vivo, administration of denbufylline (0.1-2.5 mg kg-1, i.p.) produced a significant increase in the serum corticosterone concentration; maximal responses were attained at a dose of 1.0 mg kg-1 (P < 0.01 vs. vehicle control, Scheffe's test). However, when denbufylline was administered by intracerebroventricular injection (0.05-1 micrograms kg-1) it failed to influence significantly the serum corticosterone concentration (P > 0.05 vs. vehicle control, Scheffe's test). The adrenocortical responses to peripheral injections of denbufylline (1 mg kg-1, i.p.) were reduced in rats in which the secretion of endogenous corticotrophin releasing factors (CRFs) from the hypothalamus was blocked pharmacologically (P < 0.01 vs. controls, Scheffe's test). However, denbufylline (0.1 mg kg-1, i.p.) potentiated the significant (P < 0.01) increases in serum corticosterone concentration provoked in "CRF blocked rats' by hypothalamic extract (5 hypothalamic extracts kg-1, i.v.) although it failed to influence (P > 0.05) the relatively moderate increases in corticosterone secretion evoked by CRH-41 (2 mg kg-1, i.v.). 3. In vitro, denbufylline (0.01-1 mM) evoked small but significant (P < 0.05) increases in the release of ACTH from rat anterior pituitary segments; furthermore, at these and lower concentrations (0.01 microM-1 mM), it potentiated the adrenocorticotrophic responses to sub-maximal concentrations of hypothalamic extract (P < 0.01) and forskolin (0.1 mM, P < 0

  16. Plasma bioavailability of 2 long-acting oxytetracycline formulations in the pig.

    PubMed

    Archimbault, P; Navetat, H; Vidal, R; Douin, M J; Mignot, A

    1994-01-01

    Two commercially available long-acting oxytetracycline (OTC-LA) formulations were administered by intramuscular injection in 2 groups of 10 clinically healthy pigs at the recommended dose level of 20 mg/kg. Plasma concentrations were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of a period of 0 to 84 h. The limit of quantification of the assay was 0.125 microgram/ml. The comparison of the CMAX did not reveal any significant differences (4.45 +/- 1.30 and 4.40 +/- 0.9 micrograms/ml). The results were similar for the TMAX (3.60 +/- 1.58 and 4.00 +/- 2.67 h). The areas under the curve were also similar. The AUC0-84 h results were respectively 92.8 +/- 14.1 and 96.3 +/- 11.3 mg.h/l and the AUC0-infinity results were 99.5 +/- 14.7 and 106.7 +/- 15.4 mg.h/l. No significant difference was found. This may be considered as a preliminary study to demonstrate the bioequivalence of the 2 preparations. On the basis of the statistical analysis of the results obtained, a cross-over study using 2 groups of 20 animals is theoretically necessary for such a demonstration. PMID:8087147

  17. 5-Lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitory active compounds from Atractylodes lancea.

    PubMed

    Resch, M; Steigel, A; Chen, Z L; Bauer, R

    1998-03-01

    Lipophilic extracts of Atractylodes lancea rhizomes exhibited potent inhibitory activities in 5-lipoxygenase [IC50 (5-LOX) = 2.9 micrograms/mL (n-hexane extract)] and cyclooxygenase-1 [IC50 (COX-1) = 30.5 micrograms/mL (n-hexane extract)] enzymatic assays. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the n-hexane extract led to the isolation of a new compound atractylochromene (1), a potent inhibitor in both test systems [IC50 (5-LOX) = 0.6 microM, IC50 (COX-1) = 3.3 microM]. Also obtained was 2-[(2E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl]-6-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1 ,4-dione (2), which showed a selective inhibitory activity against 5-LOX [IC50 (5-LOX) 0.2 microM, IC50 (COX-1) 64.3 microM]. The sesquiterpene atractylon (3) and the coumarin osthol (4) turned out to be moderate but selective 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors. Atractylenolides I (5), II (6), and III (7) showed no significant inhibitory effects for either enzyme. Structures were established by spectral data interpretation. PMID:9544564

  18. Neutralization of the oedematogenic activity of Bothrops jararaca venom on the mouse paw by an antibothropic fraction isolated from opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) serum.

    PubMed

    Perales, J; Amorim, C Z; Rocha, S L; Domont, G B; Moussatché, H

    1992-11-01

    The pharmacological modulation of mice paw oedema produced by Bothrops jararaca venom (BJV) has been studied. Intraplantar injection of BJV (1-30 micrograms/paw) produced a dose- and time-related oedema, which was maximal 30 min after injection, reduced gradually thereafter and disappeared over 48 h. BJV heated at 100 degrees C for 5 or 15 min blocked local hemorrhage and caused partial inhibition of its oedematogenic activity. The BJV oedema was not inhibited by the anti-histamine meclizine, the inhibitor of histamine and serotonin, cyproheptadine, PAF-acether antagonist WEB 2170 or by the anti-leukotrienes C4/D4, LY 171883. Dexamethasone, aspirin, indomethacin, and the dual cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitor BW 755C inhibited BJV-induced oedema indicating that arachidonic acid metabolism products via the cyclooxygenase pathway participate in its genesis and/or maintenance. The antibothropic fraction (ABF) (25-200 micrograms/paw) isolated from Didelphis marsupialis serum neutralized the oedema induced by the venom with and without heating, the hemorrhage induced by BJV and partially blocked the oedema induced by bradykinin and by cellulose sulphate. The oedema produced by histamine, serotonin, PAF-acether or leukotriene C4 was not inhibited. PMID:1295374

  19. Effects of long-term irrigation with untreated municipal wastewater on soil properties and crop quality.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Mehmet Emin; Aydin, Senar; Beduk, Fatma; Tor, Ali; Tekinay, Arzu; Kolb, Marit; Bahadir, Müfit

    2015-12-01

    Irrigating crops with untreated wastewater leads to elevated concentrations of heavy metals both in soil and cultivated crops. The current study was designed to determine heavy metal (i.e., Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Hg) accumulation in Konya soils in selected nine sites irrigated with wastewater for over 40 years. Non-irrigated soil samples and soil samples irrigated with well water were taken as control samples. Transport of these pollutants to the wheat samples cultivated in the investigated site was also examined. The obtained results reveal that high alkaline properties and clay structure of Konya soil reduce the mobility of contaminants and cause accumulation in the top layer of soil. Intense effect of wastewater irrigation on soil EC was determined. The highest concentrations of Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni, and Hg in wastewater irrigated soil were 5.32, 37.1, 31.5, 11.4, 91.5, 134, and 0.34 mg kg(-1), respectively. Wastewater irrigated soils were strongly polluted by means of Cd (8.23-11.6 mg kg(-1)) and moderately to strongly polluted by means of Ni (47.7-134 mg kg(-1)), exceeding Maximum Admissible Concentrations for Trace Elements in Agricultural Soils and Sewage Sludge Regulation limit values of Turkey. Maximum concentrations found for Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd, Zn, and Ni in wastewater irrigated wheat grain were 8.44, 1.30, 9.10, n.d, 29.31, and 0.94 mg kg(-1), respectively. Besides, Hg was not detected in any samples of wheat grain. Based on the regulation of Turkish Food Codex, Pb contamination in wheat samples grown in the sampling site was evidenced. PMID:26250819

  20. Effects of dose and formulation of carvacrol and thymol on bacteria and some functional traits of the gut in piglets after weaning.

    PubMed

    Michiels, Joris; Missotten, Joris; Van Hoorick, An; Ovyn, Anneke; Fremaut, Dirk; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël

    2010-04-01

    Two trials were conducted to study the effects of dose and formulation of carvacrol and thymol on bacterial counts, metabolites and functional traits of the gut in weaned piglets. In the first experiment (Exp. I), 25 piglets (28 d, 6.59 +/- 0.48 kg BW) were allocated to five dietary treatments: a control diet, or the same diet supplemented with either carvacrol or thymol at doses of 500 and 2000 mg kg(-1). In the second experiment (Exp. II), 35 piglets (28 d, 7.99 +/- 0.73 kg BW) were assigned to seven dietary treatments: the same control diet as in Exp. I, or this diet supplemented with thymol in one of three formulations (on celite, on alphacel or microencapsulated) at doses of 500 and 2000 mg kg(-1). At 11/12 days post-weaning piglets were euthanised, and digesta from stomach, proximal and distal small intestine were sampled for bacteriological and biochemical analysis. Small intestinal tissue was sampled for histomorphological determinations. In none of the experiments or sections of the gut was the number of bacteria lowered by the carvacrol or thymol supplementation. In Exp. I, the villus/crypt ratio at the distal small intestine for the experimental diets (1.30-1.32) was higher than for the control diet (1.24) (p < 0.05). Thymol fed animals in Exp. II had a lower number of intra-epithelial lymphocytes at the proximal (p < 0.05) and at the distal (p < 0.1) small intestine as compared to control animals. Mean concentration of the active ingredient in the stomach and proximal small intestine for the 2000 mg kg(-1) carvacrol diet was 521 and 5 mg kg(-1) fresh digesta, respectively, and for the 2000 mg kg(-1) thymol diets it ranged between 475 and 647 and between 13 and 24 mg kg(-1) fresh digesta, respectively. Cumulative absorption in the proximal small intestine was higher than 90% for all treatments and was not affected by formulation type. These data suggest that carvacrol and thymol can improve gut health, but evidence for clear antimicrobial effects towards

  1. Plasma and urine diketopiperazine concentrations in normal adults ingesting large quantities of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Cho, E S; Coon, J D; Stegink, L D

    1987-07-01

    In aqueous solution, aspartame can cyclicize to form its corresponding diketopiperazine (3-carboxymethyl-6-benzyl-2,5-diketopiperazine; DKP) and methanol. We measured plasma and urinary concentrations of DKP in samples obtained from six normal adult subjects ingesting 2.2 mg DKP/kg body weight. The DKP was administered as part of a dose of 200 mg aspartame/kg body weight. DKP concentrations in plasma were below the detection limit (less than 1 microgram/ml) of the high-pressure liquid chromatographic method at each time interval after ingestion at which they were measured. Mean (+/- SD) total urinary DKP excreted during the first 24-hr period after dosing was 6.68 +/- 1.30 mg (4.83 +/- 0.23% of the ingested DKP dose). Approximately 44% of the total DKP excreted was excreted in the first 4 hr after dosing. PMID:3623338

  2. Dependence of endotoxin-induced vascular hyporeactivity on extracellular L-arginine.

    PubMed Central

    Schott, C. A.; Gray, G. A.; Stoclet, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    1. The dependence on extracellular L-arginine of vascular hyporeactivity induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was studied in vivo in rats infused with LPS and in vitro in endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aortic rings exposed to LPS. 2. Infusion of LPS during 50 min at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 h-1 produced a significant impairment of the pressor effect of noradrenaline, while in tissues collected 60 min after the start of LPS infusion, no significant alteration in either plasma arginine concentration or aortic arginine content was found compared to saline-infused controls (where plasma arginine was 78.5 +/- 7 microM and aortic arginine 394 +/- 124 nmol g-1 tissue). 3. Incubation of isolated, endothelium-denuded aortic rings with LPS (10 micrograms ml-1) in the absence of L-arginine for 4 h at 37 degrees C produced a 6 fold (P < 0.01) rightward shift in the noradrenaline concentration-effect curve compared to polymyxin B (1 micrograms ml-1, a LPS neutralizing agent) and reduced by 15% the maximum observed tension. 4. The presence of L-arginine (100 microM) during the incubation with LPS and throughout the following contraction experiments caused a 15 fold (P < 0.01) increase in the EC50 of noradrenaline and greater depression (45%) of the maximum observed tension compared to polymyxin B-treated controls. Responses in control, non LPS-treated rings were unaffected by the presence of L-arginine. 5. The addition of L-arginine to rings incubated with LPS in the absence of L-arginine and maximally precontracted with noradrenaline (10 microM) induced a dose-dependent relaxation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8428212

  3. Concentration-related effects of propofol on the auditory evoked response.

    PubMed

    Tooley, M A; Greenslade, G L; Prys-Roberts, C

    1996-12-01

    We have studied the effects of propofol, as the sole agent, at blood concentrations of 1-10 micrograms ml-1, on the first 100 ms of the auditory evoked response (AER) in 41 women before gynaecological surgery. AER were recorded with the patients awake and then after 30 min of one of seven stepped infusion regimens. Each patient was studied at only one blood concentration. The recordings were edited and processed off-line by coherent signal averaging, to obtain reliable estimates of each AER. We measured standard features, such as amplitudes and latencies of brainstem wave V and the mid-latency waves Na, Pa and Nb. In addition, we studied several composite indices, intended to give a more global characterization of the AER. We derived relationships between the doses and blood concentrations of propofol, features of the AER and response to eyelash stimulus and venepuncture. Nb latency was better than either concentration or dose rate of propofol in providing a confident explanation of the likelihood of eyelash response (which parallels the response to command). A cut-off value of 53 ms had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 96% and an overall correctness of 98% as a discriminator of eyelash response vs no response. Several alternative AER-derived indices provided more than 90% correctness in discrimination, as did a dose rate of propofol of 6.3-7.8 mg kg-1 h-1 or a blood concentration of 2.9 micrograms ml-1. We conclude that the concentration and dose of propofol were good discriminators of response to venepuncture, while the latency of the Na wave was the most successful of the AER features. PMID:9014622

  4. Inhalation and intravenous studies of UF6/UO2F2 in dogs.

    PubMed

    Morrow, P; Gelein, R; Beiter, H; Scott, J; Picano, J; Yuile, C

    1982-12-01

    Nineteen UF6/UO2F2 inhalation studies were undertaken in purebred, female beagle dogs (N = 16) to examine inter alia, (a) the possible relations of exposure, whole body, lung and renal uranium levels to excretion rates; (b) the threshold U6+ dose and renal concentration for renal injury; (c) the distribution and retention functions for U6+ in major tissues; (d) biochemical indicators of renal injury; and (e) aspects of U-induced tolerance. Each of these issues was investigated in the context of the chemical toxicity of U6+ following brief exposures to 235UO2F2 in the presence or absence of HF (the decomposition products of 235UF6). Both gamma-(235U) and alpha-(234U) counting methods were applied. In nine studies on 5 dogs, UO2F2 was administered intravenously. The major findings from both types of studies include: (1) UO2F2 retention time in the lungs is shorter than for UO3 or uranyl nitrate, viz. greater than 80% translocated with T 1/2 of less than 20 min; (2) the urinary elimination of U6+ follows closely to the ICRP excretion equation; (c) an absorbed dose of approximately 10 micrograms U6+ kg-1 body weight appears to be effective in producing renal injury; (d) a renal concentration of 0.3 micrograms g-1 kidney is close to a threshold concentration for renal injury; and (e) urinary and blood biochemical changes and histopathologic data were acquired and evaluated in both novice and tolerant animals. This report, considers all of these objectives and findings: Those involving biochemical indices and uranium-induced tolerance will be more fully reported elsewhere. In general, the dog studies attest to the usefulness of the intravenous human studies for certain U6+ dose-response data and interface well with new retention data on intravenous uranyl citrate in dogs by Stevens et al. PMID:7152950

  5. Venoconstrictor agents mobilize blood from different sources and increase intrathoracic filling during epidural anesthesia in supine humans

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton-Hicks, M.; Hoeck, A.S.; Stuehmeier, K.D.A.; Arndt, J.O.

    1987-03-01

    The authors studied the effects of dihydroergotamine (DHE) and etilefrine hydrochloride (E) on the regional distribution of /sup 99m/Tc-marked erythrocytes during epidural anesthesia in eight supine men to determine if vasoactive agents with venoconstrictor action would enhance cardiac filling during epidural anesthesia. Radioactivity was recorded with a gamma camera, and its distribution determined in the thorax, abdomen, and limbs. Arterial and central venous pressure, heart rate, and calf volume by plethysmography were measured. During epidural anesthesia with a sensory block up to T4/5, DHE (7.5 micrograms/kg) reduced the radioactivity, i.e., blood volume, in both the innervated (-5.9 +/- 3.5%) and denervated muscle/skin (-16.9 +/- 7%) regions, and increased it in both the intrathoracic (+7.0 +/- 2.3%), and splanchnic vasculature (+4.2 +/- 3.2). In contrast, E (6 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1) decreased the blood volume most markedly in the splanchnic region (-5.4 +/- 0.7%) and increased it in the thorax (+2 +/- 0.6%). All these changes were statistically significant. The combined effects were estimated to be equivalent to a transfusion of nearly 1.01 of blood. Both drugs reversed the hypotensive action of epidural anesthesia. During epidural anesthesia, DHE preferentially constricted the capacitance vessels in skeletal muscle and skin irrespective of the state of innervation, whereas E preferentially constricted the splanchnic vasculature. In the doses used, the two agents replenished in an additive fashion the central circulation during epidural anesthesia.

  6. A sensitive method for the determination of uranium in biological samples utilizing kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA).

    PubMed

    Hedaya, M A; Birkenfeld, H P; Kathren, R L

    1997-05-01

    tissue samples obtained over a period of 90 days following a single intraperitoneal uranium dose of 0.1 mg kg-1 in rats. PMID:9215968

  7. Glucoregulatory function of thyroid hormones: role of pancreatic hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, M.J.B.; Burger, A.G.; Ferrannini, E.; Jequier, E.; Acheson, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Glucose metabolism was investigated in humans before and 14 days after 300 micrograms L-thyroxine (T4)/day using a sequential clamp protocol during short-term somatostatin infusion (500 micrograms/h, 0-6 h) at euglycemia (0-2.5 h), at 165 mg/dl (2.5-6 h), and during insulin infusion (1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1, 4.5-6 h). T4 treatment increased plasma T4 (+96%) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3, +50%), energy expenditure (+8%), glucose turnover (+32%), and glucose oxidation (Glucox +87%) but decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone (-96%) and nonoxidative glucose metabolism (Glucnonox, -30%) at unchanged lipid oxidation (Lipox). During somatostatin and euglycemia glucose production (Ra, -67%) and disposal (Rd, -28%) both decreased in euthyroid subjects but remained at -22% and -5%, respectively, after T4 treatment. Glucox (control, -20%; +T4, -25%) fell and Lipox increased (control, +42%; +T4, +45%) in both groups, whereas Glucnonox decreased before (-36%) but increased after T4 (+57%). During somatostatin infusion and hyperglycemia Rd (control, +144%; +T4, +84%) and Glucnonox (control, +326%; +T4, +233%) increased, whereas Glucox and Lipox remained unchanged. Insulin further increased Rd (+76%), Glucox (+155%), and Glucnonox (+50%) but decreased Ra (-43%) and Lipox (-43%). All these effects were enhanced by T4 (Rd, +38%; Glucox, +45%; Glucnonox, +35%; Ra, +40%; Lipox, +11%). Our data provide evidence that, in humans, T3 stimulates Ra and Rd, which is in part independent of pancreatic hormones.

  8. In vivo collagen turnover during development of thyroxine-induced left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Karim, M A; Ferguson, A G; Wakim, B T; Samarel, A M

    1991-02-01

    Cardiac fibroblasts synthesize large amounts of procollagens, yet only a small fraction of mature collagens accumulate in the extracellular matrix. To determine the roles of intracellular degradation of newly synthesized procollagens and extracellular degradation of mature collagens during normal growth and during thyroxine-induced left ventricular hypertrophy, in vivo left ventricular procollagen synthetic rates were assessed in control rats and rats treated with L-thyroxine for 1, 2, 4, and 8 wk (1 mg.kg-1.day-1). A modification of the flooding infusion method was developed using measurements of cardiac prolyl-tRNA, and tissue-free and protein-bound hydroxyproline specific radioactivities 60 min after intravenous administration of a massive dose of [3H]proline. Degradative rates of newly synthesized procollagens and mature collagens were then derived as the difference between rates of procollagen synthesis and collagen accumulation. Left ventricular procollagen synthetic rates were markedly increased after 1 wk of hormone administration (256 +/- 16 and 166 +/- 13 micrograms/day per left ventricle for thyroxine-treated and control animals, respectively; P less than 0.01). An even greater increase in procollagen synthetic rates was observed after 8 wk (438 +/- 46 and 202 +/- 18 micrograms/day for thyroxine-treated and control animals, respectively; P less than 0.01). Despite increased procollagen synthesis, disproportionate accumulation of fibrillar collagens (assessed as the relative concentration of protein-bound hydroxyproline in left ventricular tissue) did not occur. Derived left ventricular degradative rates for newly synthesized procollagens as well as for mature collagens were increased in thyroxine-treated animals. Increased procollagen synthesis, enhanced flux of newly synthesized procollagens through intracellular degradative pathways, and extensive extracellular matrix remodeling without disproportionate collagen accumulation are characteristics of this

  9. Comparison of the effects of levosimendan, pimobendan, and milrinone on canine left ventricular-arterial coupling and mechanical efficiency.

    PubMed

    Pagel, P S; Hettrick, D A; Warltier, D C

    1996-01-01

    We examined and compared the effects of levosimendan, a new myofilament calcium sensitizer with phosphodiesterase inhibiting activity, pimobendan, and milrinone on left ventricular-arterial coupling and mechanical efficiency in 21 experiments performed in open-chest, barbiturate-anesthetized dogs instrumented for measurement of aortic and left ventricular (LV) pressure (micromanometer-tipped catheter), +dP/dt, and LV volume (conductance catheter). Myocardial contractility was assessed with the end-systolic pressure-volume relation (Ees) and preload recruitable stroke work (Msw) generated from a series of differentially loaded LV pressure-volume diagrams. LV-arterial coupling and mechanical efficiency were determined by the ratio of Ees to effective arterial elastance (Ea; the ratio of end-systolic arterial pressure to stroke volume) and the ratio of stroke work (SW) to pressure-volume area (PVA), respectively. Levosimendan (0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) significantly (p < 0.05) increased heart rate, +dP/dt, and ejection fraction (EF) and decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP), pressure-work index (PWI; an estimate of myocardial-oxygen consumption), and LV systolic and end-diastolic pressures (LVSP and LVEDP) and volumes (EDV and ESV). Levosimendan-induced augmentation of myocardial contractility (Ees, Msw and +dP/dt) and reductions in LV afterload (Ea) caused increases in the Ees/Ea ratio (0.61 +/- 0.10 during control to 3.3 +/- 0.7 during the high dose) consistent with enhancement of LV-arterial coupling. Levosimendan increased SW/PVA (0.48 +/- 0.05 during control to 0.84 +/- 0.04 during the high dose), indicating this drug improves the transfer of myocardial potential energy to external work. Levosimendan also increased the ratio of SW to PWI (109 +/- 18 during control to 255 +/- 50 mmHg.min.100g during the high dose), suggesting that myocardial metabolic efficiency was improved as well. Like levosimendan, pimobendan and milrinone (10, 20, and 40 and

  10. 5-HT-1A receptor-mediated modulation of medullary expiratory neurones in the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Lalley, P M; Bischoff, A M; Richter, D W

    1994-01-01

    The involvement of the 5-HT-1A receptor in serotoninergic responses of stage 2 expiratory (E-2) neurones was investigated in pentobarbitone-anaesthetized, mechanically ventilated cats. The specific agonist of the 5-HT-1A receptor, 8-hydroxy-diproplaminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT), administered systemically or by ionophoresis directly on to the neurones, had a clear depressant effect. Administration of 8-OH-DPAT at doses of 10-50 micrograms kg-1 (I.V.) increased the membrane hyperpolarizations of E-2 neurones during the inspiratory and postinspiratory phases, and shortened their duration of activity in association with shortening of phrenic nerve activity. Discharges of E-2 neurones were also less intense. At doses of 50-90 micrograms kg-1, 8-OH-DPAT reduced or abolished inspiratory hyperpolarizations, and reduced expiratory depolarizations of membrane potential and discharge in parallel with inhibition of phrenic nerve discharges. The effects of the larger doses were reversed by I.V. injection of NAN-190, an antagonist at the 5-HT-1A receptor. Dose-dependent effects on the membrane potential and discharge of E-2 neurones, but not on phrenic nerve activity, were also seen by ionophoretic administration of 8-OH-DPAT on to E-2 neurones. At low currents, ejection of 8-OH-DPAT hyperpolarized the neurones without affecting the duration of inspiratory hyperpolarization and expiratory depolarization. This hyperpolarization depressed the intensity and the duration of expiratory discharges. Ejection with larger currents hyperpolarized the E-2 neurones further, and depressed expiratory depolarization leading to blockade of expiratory discharges. The effects on membrane potential were accompanied by decreased neuronal input resistance. This depressed the excitability of E-2 neurones as tested by discharge evoked by intracellular current injection. The amplitudes of action potentials decreased in parallel with the changes in input resistance. The effects were attributed to a

  11. Modified plasma and abomasal disposition of albendazole in nematode-infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, L I; Sánchez, S F; Lanusse, C E

    1997-05-01

    The influence of gastrointestinal nematode infection on the kinetics of albendazole (ABZ) and its metabolites, albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) and sulphone (ABZSO2) in plasma and abomasal fluid was investigated in sheep. A micronised suspension of ABZ was administered intraruminally at 7.5 mg kg-1 to the following groups of sheep: (a) non-parasitised (control); (b) artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus; (c) naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus and other species of gastrointestinal nematodes. Plasma and abomasal fluid samples were obtained serially over 72 h post-treatment and they were analysed by HPLC for ABZ and its metabolites. The ABZ parent drug was not detected in plasma at any time post-treatment, however the metabolites ABZSO and ABZSO2 were recovered in the bloodstream. The active metabolite ABZSO was recovered in plasma between 0.5 and 48 (uninfected), 60 (H. contortus infected) or 72 h (naturally infected sheep) post-administration. The area under the plasma concentration vs time curve (AUC) values for ABZSO were higher in both artificially infected (64.0 micrograms h ml-1) and naturally infected (79.3 micrograms h ml-1) sheep as compared with non-infected animals (41.8 micrograms h ml-1). Peak plasma concentrations for ABZSO and ABZSO2 were higher in both artificially and naturally infected sheep than in non-parasitised animals. No changes in the half-lives and mean residence times for these metabolites were observed in infected sheep. ABZ and its metabolites were found in the abomasum between 0.5 and 48 (infected animals) or 72 h (uninfected) post-treatment. The availability (total AUCs) of ABZ and its metabolites in abomasal fluid were lower in H. contortus infected sheep than in the uninfected control animals. The increased abomasal pH induced by the presence of the H. contortus infection may reduce the plasma/abomasum pH gradient, which results in a decreased ionic-trapping of ABZ and its metabolites in the abomasum. Such a

  12. Mechanism of the cardiovascular activity of laudanosine: comparison with papaverine and other benzylisoquinolines.

    PubMed Central

    Chuliá, S; Ivorra, M D; Lugnier, C; Vila, E; Noguera, M A; D'Ocon, P

    1994-01-01

    1. The activity of (+/-)-laudanosine, a benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid, was investigated in pithed rats and rat isolated aorta. Its effects on [3H]-(+)-cis-diltiazem and [3H]-nitrendipine binding to rat cerebral cortical membranes, and on the different molecular forms of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) isolated from bovine aorta were investigated. 2. The dose-response curve to methoxamine (3-300 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) in normotensive pithed rats was shifted to the right by (+/-)-laudanosine, 3 and 6 mg kg-1. 3. (+/-)-Laudanosine inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the contractile responses evoked by noradrenaline (NA 1 microM), depolarizing solution (KCl 80 mM) or depolarizing solution plus phentolamine (10 microM) in rat isolated aorta. The alkaloid appeared to be more potent against NA-induced contractions. 4. In Ca(2+)-free solution, (+/-)-laudanosine (100 microM) inhibited the contraction evoked by NA and did not modify the phasic contractile response evoked by caffeine. The alkaloid did not modify the refilling of the intracellular Ca(2+)-sotres sensitive to NA or caffeine. 5. (+/-)-Laudanosine inhibited [3H]-prazosin binding to cortical membranes and also inhibited [3H]-(+)-cis-diltiazem but with a lower potency. [3H]-nitrendipine binding was not affected by laudanosine. 6. (+/-)-Laudanosine does not have a significant effect on the different forms of PDEs isolated from bovine aorta. In contrast, compounds structurally related to this alkaloid such as papaverine and its derivatives, had a non-selective or more specific inhibitory effect on these PDE forms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889295

  13. Substance P-induced inflammatory responses in guinea-pig skin: the effect of specific NK1 receptor antagonists and the role of endogenous mediators.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, D T; Weg, V B; Williams, T J; Nourshargh, S

    1995-01-01

    1. The sensory neuropeptide substance P (SP), when released from sensory nerves, has been implicated in the development of neurogenic inflammation. In the present study, using an in vivo model system, we have characterized and investigated the mechanisms underlying SP-induced leukocyte accumulation and oedema formation in the guinea-pig. 2. Intradermally injected SP (i.d., 10(-13) - 10(-9) mol per site), induced a dose- and time-dependent accumulation of 111In-neutrophils, 111In-eosinophils and oedema formation as measured by the local accumulation of i.v. injected 125I-albumin. The leukocyte accumulation evoked by SP was significant at 10(-10) and 10(-9) mol per site, whereas oedema formation was significant at the lowest dose tested (10(-13) mol per site). 3. The NK1 receptor antagonists, CP-96,345 (1 mg kg-1, i.v.) and RP-67,580 (10 micrograms per site, i.d.), significantly attenuated the oedema formation induced by the lower doses of SP. Oedema formation and leukocyte accumulation induced by 10(-9) mol per site SP were unaffected by either antagonist. 4. SP-elicited responses were not significantly affected by the platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist, UK-74,505 (2.5 mg kg-1, i.v.) or the H1 histamine receptor antagonist, chlorpheniramine (10(-8) mol per site, i.d.). However, the 111In-eosinophil accumulation, but not the 111In-neutrophil accumulation or oedema formation, induced by SP was significantly inhibited by the specific 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitor, ZM-230,487 (10(-8) mol per site, i.d.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7541689

  14. Effect of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) on acetylcholine release from different brain areas investigated by microdialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Giovannini, M. G.; Casamenti, F.; Nistri, A.; Paoli, F.; Pepeu, G.

    1991-01-01

    1. The effect of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) administration upon acetylcholine (ACh) release in freely moving rats was investigated by means of transversal microdialysis coupled to h.p.l.c. TRH administered either s.c. or via local perfusion increased the ACh release from cortex and hippocampus but not from the striatum. The increase in ACh release was maintained after 7 days of s.c. administration of TRH. 2. After s.c. injection of the neuropeptide, the increase in ACh release was dose-dependent and reached a maximum at 40 min after administration. The maximal percentage increases were 18, 52, 66 and 89% at doses of 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg kg-1 and 35, 48 and 54% at doses of 2.5, 5 and 10 mg kg-1 in the cortex and hippocampus, respectively. The effect of TRH was dependent on neuronal activity since it was completely inhibited by perfusion with tetrodotoxin (TTX), 5 X 10(-7) M. 3. Perfusion with TRH, 2.5 micrograms microliters-1, caused 198% and 150% increase in ACh release 60 and 80 min after the beginning of the perfusion in the cortex and hippocampus, respectively. After this initial peak, a 100% increase in ACh release persisted throughout the perfusion. 4. Systemic TRH administration was followed by marked hyperactivity and stereotyped behaviour that showed a time course shorter than that of the increase in ACh release. 5. These findings demonstrate that TRH exerts a strong stimulant action on cortical and hippocampal cholinergic pathways. PMID:1901747

  15. Radioanalytical studies of fallout 63Ni.

    PubMed

    Holm, E; Roos, P; Skwarzec, B

    1992-01-01

    Fallout of Nickel-63 (T1/2 = 100 a) produced in small amounts at nuclear weapon tests following the neutron activation of weapon construction material was investigated by studying carpets of lichen collected during 1961 to 1988 at the Lake Rogen district in central Sweden (62.3 degrees N, 12.4 degrees E). The maximal level of 63Ni in the lichen carpet, which occurred in 1964, was about 0.6 Bq kg-1, dry weight, and decreased to 0.1 Bq kg-1 in 1988. The deposition pattern for 63Ni was similar to other fallout radionuclides such as 137Cs, 90Sr and 239 + 240Pu. The concentrations of stable Ni were relatively constant at 0.5 to 1.0 microgram g-1 throughout the years resulting in, for example, a specific activity (63Ni/stable Ni) of 0.5 Bq mg-1 in 1964 and 0.1 Bq mg-1 in 1988. The total area content of 63Ni was estimated to be 1.0 Bq m-2 and the activity ratio 63Ni/60Co was estimated to be 0.03 in 1966. The Chernobyl accident in April 1986 did not significantly increase the levels of 63Ni. For the measurement of these extremely low-levels of 63Ni, 200 g of dry material (about 1 kg fresh) were ashed and leached with aqua regia after hydroxides had been precipitated with ammonia, leaving Ni in the aqueous phase. Nickel was extracted as a dimethylglyoxime complex by chloroform and back-extracted with HCl. Finally, Ni was electroplated onto copper discs from an ammonium sulfate medium at high pH. The radiochemical yield was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry of stable Ni before and after electrodeposition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1310303

  16. Effects of inhaled nitric oxide 10 ppm in spontaneously breathing horses anaesthetized with halothane.

    PubMed

    Young, L E; Marlin, D J; McMurphy, R M; Walsh, K; Dixon, P M

    1999-08-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide, a selective pulmonary vasodilator, is known to improve arterial oxygenation after cardiopulmonary bypass and during acute respiratory distress syndrome in humans. During general anaesthesia with spontaneous ventilation, healthy adult horses develop large alveolar-arterial oxygen tension differences. In this study, we have determined the effects of inhaled nitric oxide (10 parts per million (ppm)) on venous admixture and pulmonary haemodynamics in horses anaesthetized with halothane. Seven adult horses were studied twice in random sequence. After premedication with romifidine 100 micrograms kg-1, anaesthesia was induced with ketamine 2.2 mg kg-1 and maintained with 1.1 MAC (0.95%) of halothane in oxygen. Horses breathed spontaneously. After 65 min, each horse had nitric oxide 10 ppm added to the inspired gas for 20 min (procedure HA + NO) or anaesthesia was continued with halothane in oxygen (procedure HA). Cardiac output, minute ventilation, arterial and mixed venous oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions, and mean pulmonary and carotid arterial pressures were measured for 100 min. Shunt fraction and pulmonary and systemic vascular resistances were calculated. Shunt fraction (SF) and mean pulmonary artery pressure (PPA mean) were not different between the two groups after 65 min of general anaesthesia (HA: SF 0.20 (SD 0.06), PPA mean 45 (8) mm Hg; HA + NO: SF 0.21 (0.04), PPA mean 44 (7) mm Hg) or after 85 min (HA: SF 0.22 (0.07), PPA mean 45 (8) mm Hg; HA + NO: SF 0.20 (0.03), PPA mean 43 (7) mm Hg). There were no significant effects of time or nitric oxide inhalation on any other variable. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.80, P < 0.05) between calculated shunt fraction 65 min after induction of anaesthesia and body weight. PMID:10618949

  17. Alteration of the physiological responses to indomethacin by endotoxin tolerance in the rat: a possible role for central vasopressin.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, M F; Pittman, Q J

    1994-01-01

    1. Previous studies suggest that arginine vasopressin (AVP) is released into the ventral septal area (VSA) of the rat brain during the antipyresis induced by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. In addition, there is evidence for increased AVP transmission in the VSA of animals having a reduced pyretic response following three intravenous injections of bacterial endotoxin (LPS) (endotoxin tolerant). Since ventral septal AVP receptors can also become 'sensitized' following exposure to AVP, we questioned whether the antipyretic action of indomethacin would increase, via an action involving central AVP, if this drug were administered into LPS-tolerant rats. 2. Intraperitoneal indomethacin (7.5 mg kg-1) was effectively antipyretic when administered 2 h after an intravenous challenge with LPS (50 micrograms kg-1) into conscious unrestrained rats. This dose of indomethacin had no effect on the core temperature of non-febrile rats given intravenous 0.9% pyrogen-free saline. 3. Three intravenous injections of LPS over a period of 3 days resulted in rats that were tolerant to the pyrogenic effects of LPS. When indomethacin was administered 2 h following the third LPS injection, a dose-dependent hypothermia was observed. This effect was age dependent, as profound hypothermia was seen in 8 week but not 20 week old rats. 4. A mortality rate of 41% (P = 0.02) was observed within 24 h of indomethacin treatment in 8 week old tolerant rats compared with 0% in 8 week old non-tolerant and 20 week old tolerant rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7837100

  18. High-dose progesterone infusion in healthy males: evidence against antiglucocorticoid activity of progesterone.

    PubMed

    Allolio, B; Oremus, M; Reincke, M; Schaeffer, H J; Winkelmann, W; Heck, G; Schulte, H M

    1995-12-01

    High concentrations of unbound cortisol in late pregnancy have been explained by the antiglucocorticoid activity of high progesterone levels. To further test this hypothesis we studied the effect of high-dose progesterone on baseline and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)-induced hormone secretion in humans. In a double-blind crossover study eight healthy male volunteers received either progesterone (0.714 mg.kg-1.h-1 for 60 min followed by a dose of 0.45 mg.kg-1.h-1 over a total infusion time of 315 min) or vehicle as a continuous intravenous infusion. At 210 min a CRH test (0.1 microgram/kg body weight as bolus iv) was performed. Within 30 min after the start of progesterone administration the serum progesterone level increased to 454 +/- 31 nmol/l and remained in the range of third trimester pregnancy concentrations throughout the infusion period. During vehicle infusion the progesterone level remained in the normal range for healthy males and demonstrated a small but significant increase after CRH (1.52 +/- 0.23 vs 0.74 +/- 0.14 mmol/l; p < 0.01). However, baseline and CRH-stimulated serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone remained unaffected by high-dose progesterone. Moreover, unbound salivary cortisol also was not affected by progesterone, suggesting that there is no significant competition for transcortin binding sites. In conclusion, no antiglucorticoid activity was found after short-term administration of progesterone in males. These findings cast doubts on the concept that the alterations of the pituitary-adrenal axis in late pregnancy are induced by the antiglucocorticoid activity of high progesterone concentrations. PMID:8548055

  19. Identifying fire plumes in the Arctic with tropospheric FTIR measurements and transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viatte, C.; Strong, K.; Hannigan, J.; Nussbaumer, E.; Emmons, L. K.; Conway, S.; Paton-Walsh, C.; Hartley, J.; Benmergui, J.; Lin, J.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate Arctic tropospheric composition using ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectra, recorded at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL, Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, 80°05' N, 86°42' W) and at Thule (Greenland, 76°53' N, -68°74' W) from 2008 to 2012. The target species, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), ethane (C2H6), acetylene (C2H2), formic acid (HCOOH), and formaldehyde (H2CO) are emitted by biomass burning and can be transported from mid-latitudes to the Arctic. By detecting simultaneous enhancements of three biomass burning tracers (HCN, CO, and C2H6), ten and eight fire events are identified at Eureka and Thule, respectively, within the 5-year FTIR time series. Analyses of Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model back-trajectories coupled with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire hotspot data, Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model footprints, and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) UV aerosol index maps, are used to attribute burning source regions and travel time durations of the plumes. By taking into account the effect of aging of the smoke plumes, measured FTIR enhancement ratios were corrected to obtain emission ratios and equivalent emission factors. The means of emission factors for extratropical forest estimated with the two FTIR data sets are 0.40 ± 0.21 g kg-1 for HCN, 1.24 ± 0.71 g kg-1 for C2H6, 0.34 ± 0.21 g kg-1 for C2H2, and 2.92 ± 1.30 g kg-1 for HCOOH. The emission factor for CH3OH estimated at Eureka is 3.44 ± 1.68 g kg-1. To improve our knowledge concerning the dynamical and chemical processes associated with Arctic pollution from fires, the two sets of FTIR measurements were compared to the Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4). Seasonal cycles and day-to-day variabilities were compared to assess the ability of the model to reproduce emissions from fires and

  20. The lead, cadmium and mercury concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney from Finnish pigs and cattle during 1987-1988.

    PubMed

    Niemi, A; Venäläinen, E R; Hirvi, T; Hirn, J; Karppanen, E

    1991-05-01

    The lead, cadmium and mercury concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney from Finnish pigs and cattle were determined. The average wet weight lead concentrations in pig muscle, liver and kidney were 15 micrograms/kg, 38 micrograms/kg and 40 micrograms/kg, respectively. The corresponding concentrations for cattle were 13 micrograms/kg, 57 micrograms/kg and 110 micrograms/kg. The average wet weight cadmium concentrations were 1.5 micrograms/kg, 28 micrograms/kg and 170 micrograms/kg (pigs) and 1.3 micrograms/kg, 61 micrograms/kg and 350 micrograms/kg (cattle). The corresponding mercury concentrations were 11 micrograms/kg, 12 micrograms/kg and 14 micrograms/kg (pigs) and 11 micrograms/kg, 12 micrograms/kg and 15 micrograms/kg (cattle). The average concentrations were at or above the detection limit of the metal in question. According to the results obtained by the National Veterinary Institute, the cadmium concentration in pigs and cattle has decreased during the period 1973-1988. The provisional tolerable daily intake of lead/person (60 kg), recommended by GEMS/Food, is 0.43 mg. According to the results for lead levels in these products in Finland, a daily intake of 29 kg pig muscle, 33 kg cattle muscle, 11 kg pig liver, 8 kg cattle liver, 11 kg pig kidney or 4 kg cattle kidney would be required to reach this norm. The corresponding provisional tolerable daily intake of cadmium/person (60 kg) is 0.06 mg and is equivalent to 40 kg pig muscle, 46 kg cattle muscle, 2 kg pig liver, 1 kg cattle liver, 0.4 kg pig kidney and 0.2 kg cattle kidney. The validity of the methods was tested four times a year using spiked check samples. PMID:2058312

  1. [Zinc, copper, iron, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium content of maternal milk during the first 3 weeks of lactation].

    PubMed

    Itriago, A; Carrión, N; Fernández, A; Puig, M; Dini, E

    1997-03-01

    Zinc, Copper, Iron. Calcium Phosphorous and Magnesium contents were determined in early milk samples in 72 mothers from Caracas city. The samples were collected during three different lactation stages: calostro (3 days), transitional (7 days) and mature milk (21 days). The more significant changes in the concentration of the studied elements were observed during the first two weeks, them they stabilize during the third week. The Zn, Cu, Fe, Ca, P and Mg average concentration found in calostro samples were 7.1 +/- 2.5 micrograms/ml; 0.52 +/- 0.15 microgram/ml; 0.49 +/- 0.14 microgram/ml; 214 +/- 62 micrograms/ml, 107 +/- 27 micrograms/ml and 33.3 +/- 7.5 micrograms/ml. respectively. For the transitional milk samples the average concentration found for the studied elements were: 4.0 +/- 1.0 micrograms/ml; 0.50 +/- 0.10 microgram/ml; 0.38 +/- 0.08 microgram/ml, 292 +/- 62 micrograms/ml; 213 +/- 36 micrograms/ml and 30.4 +/- 5.2 micrograms/ml. For the mature milk samples the results were: 2.8 +/- 2.7 micrograms/ml; 0.47 +/- 0.08 microgram/ml; 0.36 +/- 0.09 microgram/ml; 244 +/- 49 micrograms/ml; 175 +/-35 micrograms/ml and 25.2 +/- 3.3 micrograms/ml. The concentration range for all trace elements studied (Cu, Fe and Zn) can be considered normal. For the major elements (Ca, P and Mg) the results obtained in our work are similar to those reported for other countries. These facts allows to conclude that the nutritional state of this mother population is adequate to satisfy the lactate's requirements during their first live stage. PMID:9429635

  2. Anti-ischaemic efficacy of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor and a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist in models of transient and permanent focal cerebral ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Dawson, D A; Graham, D I; McCulloch, J; Macrae, I M

    1994-09-01

    1. We have recently developed a new model of transient focal ischaemia in the rat utilising topical application of endothelin-1 to the left middle cerebral artery (MCA). In order to validate this approach the present study assessed the neuroprotective efficacy of the NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) in the endothelin-1 model. The anti-ischaemic efficacy of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) was subsequently evaluated, and contrasted with its efficacy against permanent focal ischaemia, to determine the utility of the endothelin-1 model for identification of novel pharmacoprotective agents. 2. MK-801 (0.12 mg kg-1 bolus, 108 micrograms kg-1 h-1 infusion i.v., either 1 or 2.5 h pre-transient MCA occlusion (MCAO)) induced hypotension that persisted for approximately 1.5 h so that mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) at the time of MCAO was significantly lower in the 1 h group compared with control (MABP: 86 +/- 11, 68 +/- 6 and 84 +/- 4 mmHg (mean +/- s.d.) for saline, 1 h MK-801 and 2.5 h MK-801 groups respectively). The 2.5 h pretreatment schedule resulted in significant reduction (71%) in the volume of hemispheric damage (assessed 4 h post onset of ischaemia) while the 1 h pretreatment schedule did not (volumes of hemispheric damage: 59 +/- 38, 51 +/- 51 and 17 +/- 28 mm3 for saline, 1 h and 2.5 h MK-801 groups). 3. Thus the considerable neuroprotective effect of MK-801 in the endothelin-1 model of transient focal cerebral ischaemia was highly sensitive to drug-induced hypotension. This result is in contrast to previous studies of permanent MCAO where MK-801-induced hypotension did not compromise its neuroprotective action.4. L-NAME (3 mg kg-1, i.v. 30 min pre-MCAO) moderately, but significantly, reduced (16%) the volume of ischaemic damage 4 h post-permanent MCA occlusion, whereas the 29% reduction in volume of damage achieved in the model of transient focal ischaemia did not attain significance due to the

  3. Respiratory mechanical properties during fentanyl and alfentanil anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Neto, P P; Auler Júnior, J O

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects on respiratory mechanics of fentanyl and alfentanil in 20 subjects to be submitted to coronary artery bypass grafting. Using the end inflation occlusion method (EIOM) we obtained the elastance (E) and resistance (R) of the total respiratory system (rs), thoracic wall (w) and lungs (L). The total respiratory system was divided into thoracic wall and lungs by using an oesophageal catheter. The data were recorded before, immediately after, and two, five and ten minutes after fentanyl and alfentanil iv bolus, at doses of 30 and 120 micrograms.kg-1, respectively. The Ers increased at two, five and ten minutes and the EL at ten minutes after drug administration. The Rrs,min and RL,min increased at two, five and ten minutes and the RL,max at five and ten minutes. Both drugs provoked no change in Ew or Rw. It is concluded that the increased in Rrs,min and RL,min could be explained by opioid bronchoconstriction. No differences were found between the effects of fentanyl and alfentanil on respiratory mechanics. PMID:1596970

  4. Attenuated response to atrial natriuretic peptide in rats with myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kohzuki, M; Hodsman, G P; Johnston, C I

    1989-02-01

    The natriuretic, diuretic, and hypotensive effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) were examined in rats 4 wk after myocardial infarction induced by left coronary artery ligation. Synthetic rat ANP (fragment 1-28) was infused intravenously in doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 for 30 min. There was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure in controls and rats with infarction, although only in control rats was there a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure. Changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were attenuated in rats with infarction compared with controls (P less than 0.01). The diuretic and natriuretic effects of ANP were observed in both groups of rats, but the effects were significantly less in rats with infarction (P less than 0.01). The ANP infusion did not induce significant changes in heart rate or hematocrit in controls or rats with infarction. The results indicate that rats with chronic left heart failure are less sensitive to the natriuretic, diuretic, and hypotensive effects of ANP when compared with controls. The attenuated renal response to ANP may contribute to the impaired sodium and water excretion in chronic heart failure, although other mechanisms are involved. PMID:2521777

  5. Fentanyl supplementation of sevoflurane induction of anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Plastow, S E; Hall, J E; Pugh, S C

    2000-05-01

    Sevoflurane induction of anasthesia has been examined extensively, but little is known about the usefulness of other drugs as adjuncts to hasten and smooth the process. Sixty patients, undergoing surgery of a type suitable for a spontaneous respiration, laryngeal mask airway anasthetic technique, were randomly allocated to receive 1.0 microgram.kg-1 intravenous fentanyl or the equivalent volume of normal saline, 30 s prior to triple-breath induction with sevoflurane. The study was double-blind. There were no differences between the groups for the times to loss of eyelash reflex, jaw relaxation, insertion of the laryngeal mask airway or regular settled breathing. However, there was a difference in the incidence of adverse airway events (breath-holding, coughing and laryngospasm) between the two groups (16.5% in the fentanyl group and 40% in the placebo group); this did not reach statistical significance. Both groups were haemodynamically stable throughout induction, although the fentanyl group had a statistically significant decrease in systolic blood pressure at 4 min compared with the placebo group, which was not considered clinically relevant. We conclude that fentanyl has no significant influence over the speed and quality of sevoflurane induction. PMID:10792142

  6. Regulation of plasma motilin by opioids in the dog.

    PubMed

    Poitras, P; Boivin, M; Lahaie, R G; Trudel, L

    1989-07-01

    In the first part of this study, we compared the effects of morphine and trimebutine, two opioid receptor agonists, on small intestinal motility and plasma motilin in dogs. Morphine (100 micrograms/kg iv for 10 min) induced first a typical vomiting myoelectric profile followed subsequently by a migrating electrical activity mimicking phase III of the migrating myoelectric complex; trimebutine (5 mg/kg iv for 10 min) initiated only a migrating phase III-like activity. Despite their different initial contractile effects, both agents induced a significant and similar rise in plasma motilin that preceded the beginning of the premature phase III. In the second portion of the study, naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, was infused to verify the influence of endogenous opiates on plasma motilin and on the migrating motor complex. Naloxone (2 mg/kg, then 0.5 mg.kg-1.h-1 iv) delayed significantly the cyclic recurrence of plasma motilin peak increases and of the phase IIIs. In some animals, where naloxone abolished the phase IIIs, the amplitude of the motilin peak increases was significantly diminished. These results suggest 1) that opioid administration increases plasma levels of motilin by a mechanism that is independent of the intestinal contractile activity, and 2) that endogenous opioids could be physiological inducers of plasma motilin increases in the conscious dog. PMID:2546442

  7. Effect of growth hormone and resistance exercise on muscle growth in young men.

    PubMed

    Yarasheski, K E; Campbell, J A; Smith, K; Rennie, M J; Holloszy, J O; Bier, D M

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether growth hormone (GH) administration enhances the muscle anabolism associated with heavy-resistance exercise. Sixteen men (21-34 yr) were assigned randomly to a resistance training plus GH group (n = 7) or to a resistance training plus placebo group (n = 9). For 12 wk, both groups trained all major muscle groups in an identical fashion while receiving 40 micrograms recombinant human GH.kg-1.day-1 or placebo. Fat-free mass (FFM) and total body water increased (P less than 0.05) in both groups but more (P less than 0.01) in the GH recipients. Whole body protein synthesis rate increased more (P less than 0.03), and whole body protein balance was greater (P = 0.01) in the GH-treated group, but quadriceps muscle protein synthesis rate, torso and limb circumferences, and muscle strength did not increase more in the GH-treated group. In the young men studied, resistance exercise with or without GH resulted in similar increments in muscle size, strength, and muscle protein synthesis, indicating that 1) the larger increase in FFM with GH treatment was probably due to an increase in lean tissue other than skeletal muscle and 2) resistance training supplemented with GH did not further enhance muscle anabolism and function. PMID:1550219

  8. Interaction between succinylcholine and cimetidine in rats.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Y; Ramzan, I

    1992-04-01

    The hypothesis that histamine H2 receptor blockade adversely affects neuromuscular function was tested, in vivo, in rats anaesthetised with urethane during mechanical pulmonary ventilation. Succinylcholine was administered as a bolus and constant-rate infusion to maintain 49.2% (+/- 1.5 SEM) twitch suppression in 19 rats. Cimetidine iv, 3.2, 7.5, 10, 17.8, 23.7, 31.6, or 56.2 mg.kg-1 was then administered in groups of two to three rats. Cimetidine produced an immediate potentiation of twitch suppression followed by a transient reversal and then a continued potentiation. Peak potentiation occurred within 19.0 (+/- 2.7) sec and was maintained in 11 rats at steady-state. Reversal was evident 4.1 (+/- 0.4) min after cimetidine administration. There was a good relationship between peak potentiation and serum cimetidine concentration with 50% potentiation occurring at 46.5 (+/- 4.6) micrograms.ml-1. Potentiation at steady-state was not correlated to serum cimetidine concentration but there was a weak relationship between reversal and serum cimetidine concentration. These results support reports from patients of an interaction between cimetidine and succinylcholine. PMID:1314141

  9. Efficacy of doramectin in the prevention of gastrointestinal nematode infections in grazing cattle.

    PubMed

    Vercruysse, J; Dorny, P; Hong, C; Harris, T J; Hammet, N C; Smith, D G; Weatherley, A J

    1993-07-01

    Two studies were performed to investigate the efficacy of doramectin in the prevention of infection with Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora in grazing calves. In each study, 24 parasite-naive calves were randomly allotted to two equal groups and treated with either doramectin at 200 micrograms kg-1 or saline prior to mid-season turnout (Day 0) onto contaminated pasture. Faecal egg counts were carried out twice weekly from 15 to 64 days after turnout and the cumulative faecal egg count was calculated for each group of calves. In the doramectin-treated animals, eggs first appeared in the faeces 19 days and 22 days later than in controls for Studies 1 and 2, respectively. Mean cumulative faecal egg counts over the 64 days were reduced in the doramectin-treated groups by 71% and 87% for Studies 1 and 2, respectively (P < 0.01). The potential utility of injectable doramectin in the seasonal control of gastrointestinal nematode infestations in relation to these findings is discussed. PMID:8236739

  10. Response of left ventricular ejection fraction to recovery from general anesthesia: measurement by gated radionuclide angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Coriat, P.; Mundler, O.; Bousseau, D.; Fauchet, M.; Rous, A.C.; Echter, E.; Viars, P.

    1986-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that, after anesthesia for noncardiac surgical procedures, the increased cardiac work during recovery induces wall motion and ejection fraction (EF) abnormalities in patients with mild angina pectoris, gated radionuclide angiography was performed in patients undergoing simple cholecystectomy under narcotic-relaxant general anesthesia. The ejection fraction was determined during anesthesia at the end of surgery, and then determined 3 min and 3 hr after extubation. A new angiography was performed 24 hr later, and a myocardial scintigraphy (Thallium 201) was performed during infusion of the coronary vasodilator, dipyridamole. In the first part of the investigation, eight patients without coronary artery disease (CAD) (group 1) and 20 patients with mild angina (group 2) were studied. In the second part of the study, seven patients (group 3) with mild angina pectoris received an intravenous infusion of 0.4 microgram X kg-1 X min-1 of nitroglycerin started before surgery and gradually decreased 4 hr after extubation. In group 1, EF remained unchanged at recovery. In contrast in group 2, EF responded abnormally to recovery: EF decreased from 55% during anesthesia to 45% 3 min after extubation (P less than 0.001). Patients in group 3, who received intravenous nitroglycerin, showed no change of EF at recovery. This study demonstrates that recovery from general anesthesia causes abnormalities in left ventricular function in patients suffering from CAD. These abnormalities are prevented by prophylactic intravenous nitroglycerin.

  11. Psychometric analysis in children with mental retardation due to perinatal hypoxia treated with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and showing improvement in mental development.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, L C; Islas, A; Rosique, P; Hernandez, B; Portillo, E; Herrera, J M; Cortes, R; Cruz, S; Alfaro, F; Martin, R

    1993-12-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has shown a neurotrophic effect in the neurons of several CNS areas. In vivo, it contributes to restore neurochemical and morphological deficits in different rodent models of brain damage, including rats with brain damage induced by hypoxia/ischemia when FGF was intramuscularly (i.m.) administered. Toxicological and immunological studies performed in rats, mice and volunteers showed no evidence of side-effects. Bovine FGF was i.m. administered in children with mental retardation caused by perinatal hypoxia, aged 1-15 years, at dosages of 0.4 or 0.28 microgram kg-1, once or twice a month, over 7-12 months. Group A [n = 12; 6 treated (T), 6 controls (Ct)], group B (n = 16; 8 T, 8 Ct) and group C (n = 67; 45 T, 22 Ct) were evaluated with the P. A. R. scale, the WISC-RM and the Gesell scale, respectively. Development increased significantly in treated children from groups A (P < 0.02) and C (P < 0.001), and IQ rose by more than 10 points (P < 0.001) in group B patients. PMID:8123997

  12. Cardiac protein synthesis and degradation during thyroxine-induced left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Parmacek, M S; Magid, N M; Lesch, M; Decker, R S; Samarel, A M

    1986-11-01

    Assessment of cardiac protein metabolism in thyroxine-induced left ventricular hypertrophy requires measurements of both protein synthesis and degradation. In vivo protein degradative rates can best be measured as the difference between rates of protein synthesis and growth. Accordingly, rates of left ventricular protein accumulation were determined in growing rabbits, and in animals administered intravenous L-thyroxine (200 micrograms X kg-1 X day-1) for up to 15 days. Left ventricular protein fractional synthetic rates in euthyroid and thyroxine-treated rabbits were measured by continuous infusion of [3H]leucine (200 mu Ci/h X 6 h), and results converted to milligrams protein synthesized and degraded per day. Thyroxine administration produced left ventricular hypertrophy by increasing the rate of total protein synthesis (35.7 +/- 2.0, 71.0 +/- 7.0, and 62.6 +/- 4.0 mg of left ventricular protein synthesized per day for 0-, 3-, and 9-day, thyroxine-treated rabbits, respectively). However, the increased rate of total protein synthesis was greater than the measured rate of total protein accumulation (8.1 vs. 15.9 mg protein/day for euthyroid and thyroxine-treated animals), indicating that left ventricular protein degradative rates were increased as well. These studies indicate that accelerated proteolysis may be important in the molecular and architectural remodeling of the rapidly hypertrophying heart during thyrotoxicosis. PMID:2946236

  13. CGP 55398, a liposomal Ge(IV) phthalocyanine bearing two axially ligated cholesterol moieties: a new potential agent for photodynamic therapy of tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Segalla, A.; Milanesi, C.; Jori, G.; Capraro, H. G.; Isele, U.; Schieweck, K.

    1994-01-01

    Ge(IV) phthalocyanine (GePc) with two axially ligated cholesterol moieties was prepared by chemical synthesis and incorporated in a monomeric state into small unilamellar liposomes (CGP 55398). Upon photoexcitation with light wavelengths around its intense absorption peak at 680 nm, GePc shows an efficient photosensitising activity towards biological substrates through a mechanism which largely involves the intermediacy of singlet oxygen. GePc injected systemically into mice bearing an intramuscularly implanted MS-2 fibrosarcoma is quantitatively transferred to serum lipoproteins and localises in the tumour tissue with good efficiency: at 24 h post injection the GePc content in the tumour is 0.74 and 1.87 micrograms per g of tissue with a tumour/peritumoral ratio of 4.35 and 5.67 for injected doses of 0.76 and 1.52 mg kg-1 respectively. At this time the red-light irradiation of the GePc-loaded fibrosarcoma causes a fast and massive tumour necrosis involving both malignant cells and blood vessels. Images Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:8180009

  14. Effects of peripheral and central bombesin on feeding behavior of rats.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, J; Kulkosky, P J; Smith, G P

    1981-01-01

    Intraperitoneal injections of tetradecapeptide bombesin (BBS) produced large, dose-related suppressions of liquid and solid food intake in rats, with threshold doses of 1--2 micrograms-kg-1. The feeding-associated behaviors of rats receiving BBS by this route at a test meal were normally sequenced, and several other observations suggested that the effect of BBS was specific and not due to malaise. The structurally related amphibian peptide litorin and the structurally related mammalian gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) produced similar suppressions of food intake. The satiety effect of BBS administered intraperitoneally did not require the accumulation of food in the gut, the presence of intact adrenals, the abdominal vagus, or the release of cholecystokinin. When BBS and cholecystokinin were administered simultaneous, the suppressive effects on food intake were additive. Lateral cerebroventricular injections of BBS also produced large, dose-related suppressions of food intake, with a threshold dose of 100 ng per rat. The effect by this route, however, was not behaviorally specific: BBS produced equivalent inhibitions of food and water intake at every point on the dose-response curve, and produced a marked increase in grooming which dominated the behavioral display. Thus, (1) peripheral BBS is a putative satiety signal in the rat; (2) the class (endocrine, paracrine, or neural) and mechanism of this satiety action is not established; and (3) the differences in specificity and behavior following intraperitoneal and cerebroventricular routes indicate that peripheral BBS does not act solely via the cerebrospinal fluid to elicity satiety. PMID:6283491

  15. Atrial natriuretic factor increases vascular permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Lockette, W.; Brennaman, B. )

    1990-12-01

    An increase in central blood volume in microgravity may result in increased plasma levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). Since elevations in plasma ANF are found in clinical syndromes associated with edema, and since space motion sickness induced by microgravity is associated with an increase in central blood volume and facial edema, we determined whether ANF increases capillary permeability to plasma protein. Conscious, bilaterally nephrectomized male rats were infused with either saline, ANF + saline, or hexamethonium + saline over 2 h following bolus injections of 125I-albumin and 14C-dextran of similar molecular size. Blood pressure was monitored and serial determinations of hematocrits were made. Animals infused with 1.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 ANF had significantly higher hematocrits than animals infused with saline vehicle. Infusion of ANF increased the extravasation of 125I-albumin, but not 14C-dextran from the intravascular compartment. ANF also induced a depressor response in rats, but the change in blood pressure did not account for changes in capillary permeability to albumin; similar depressor responses induced by hexamethonium were not accompanied by increased extravasation of albumin from the intravascular compartment. ANF may decrease plasma volume by increasing permeability to albumin, and this effect of ANF may account for some of the signs and symptoms of space motion sickness.

  16. Hemodynamic consequences of desmopressin administration after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Frankville, D D; Harper, G B; Lake, C L; Johns, R A

    1991-06-01

    Desmopressin acetate is used to reduce blood loss after cardiac surgery. However, there have been reports that hypotension can occur with infusion of desmopressin and that postoperative blood loss is not reduced. In this randomized, double-blinded study, we investigated the effects of desmopressin on hemodynamics, coagulation, and postoperative blood loss in patients undergoing primary elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). After reversal of heparin effect, 20 patients received desmopressin 0.3 micrograms.kg-1, infused over 15 min, and 20 patients received a placebo. Desmopressin produced a small but significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure when compared with the placebo (50.8 mmHg vs. 57.6 mmHg for the desmopressin- and placebo-treated groups, respectively; P = 0.0372). A 20% or greater decrease in mean arterial pressure was observed in 7 of 20 patients receiving desmopressin, whereas only one patient in the placebo-treated group experienced a decrease of this magnitude (P = 0.0177). Reductions in arterial pressure were secondary to decreases in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) (mean SVR before and after the drug infusion, 1,006 and 766 dyn.s.cm-5, respectively, for the desmopressin-treated group; and 994 and 1,104 dyn.s.cm-5, respectively, for the placebo-treated group; P = 0.0078).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2042789

  17. Effects of subfornical organ lesions on acutely induced thirst and salt appetite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thunhorst, R. L.; Beltz, T. G.; Johnson, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    We examined the role of the subfornical organ (SFO) in stimulating thirst and salt appetite using two procedures that initiate water and sodium ingestion within 1-2 h of extracellular fluid depletion. The first procedure used injections of a diuretic (furosemide, 10 mg/kg sc) and a vasodilator (minoxidil, 1-3 mg/kg ia) to produce hypotension concurrently with hypovolemia. The resulting water and sodium intakes were inhibited by intravenous administration of ANG II receptor antagonist (sarthran, 8 micrograms . kg(-1). min(-1)) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (captopril, 2.5 mg/h). The second procedure used injections of furosemide (10 mg/kg sc) and a low dose of captopril (5 mg/kg sc) to initiate water and sodium ingestion upon formation of ANG II in the brain. Electrolytic lesions of the SFO greatly reduced the water intakes, and nearly abolished the sodium intakes, produced by these relatively acute treatments. These results contrast with earlier findings showing little effect of SFO lesions on sodium ingestion after longer-term extracellular fluid depletion.

  18. Mineralization of 2,4-D, mecoprop, isoproturon and terbuthylazine in a chalk aquifer.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, G B; Sørensen, S R; Aamand, J

    2001-06-01

    The potential to mineralize 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), mecoprop, isoproturon and terbuthylazine was studied in soil and aquifer chalk sampled at an agricultural field near Aalborg, Denmark. Laboratory microcosms were incubated for 258 days under aerobic conditions at 10 degrees C with soil and chalk from 0.15-4.45 m below the surface. The [ring-U-14C]-labeled herbicides were added to obtain a concentration of 6 micrograms kg-1 and mineralization was measured as evolved [14C]carbon dioxide. The herbicides were readily mineralized in soil from the plough layer, except for terbuthylazine, which was mineralized only to a limited extent. In the chalk, lag periods of at least 40 days were observed, and a maximum of 51%, 33% and 6% of the added 2,4-D, mecoprop and isoproturon, respectively, were recovered as [14C]carbon dioxide. Large variations in both rate and extent of mineralization were observed within replicates in chalk. No mineralization of terbuthylazine in chalk was observed. As a measure of the general metabolic activity towards aromatic compounds, [ring-U-14C]-benzoic acid was included. It was readily mineralized at all depths. PMID:11407030

  19. Stress ventricular function test in conscious, nonthoracotomised dogs to assess cardiac drug efficacy.

    PubMed

    French, W J; Averill, W; Ung, S; Laks, M M

    1985-01-01

    The measurement of left ventricular (LV) function is frequently performed in unconscious or thoracotomised animals in the resting state; these conditions may seriously affect the basal haemodynamic state. To assess myocardial function in conscious animals, a technique was developed to place a catheter across the atrial septum into the left ventricle without a thoracotomy. A stress ventricular function test (SVFT) was performed by raising the systemic blood pressure with methoxamine in the conscious dog. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the SVFT in the detection of a decrease in ventricular function, a SVFT was performed before and after the acute infusion of verapamil to determine resting and reserve LV function. A slope relating systolic aortic pressure to the LV end-diastolic pressure was obtained in 10 dogs using a low dose (0.005) and in four dogs a high dose (0.01 microgram X kg-1 X min-1) verapamil (V). The mean slope before V was 3.6 +/- 1.2 and after 2.0 +/- 0.92 (p less than 0.001). The day-to-day variability of the SVFT was less than 22% (coefficient of variability). The SVFT is a sensitive, reproducible method to assess resting and increased or decreased myocardial contractility and is useful in selecting appropriate doses of cardiac drugs to determine their effect on the myocardium during acute and chronic infusion studies in the conscious, nonthoracotomised dog. PMID:3986853

  20. Comparisons of the effects of TCDD and hydrocortisone on growth factor expression provide insight into their interaction in the embryonic mouse palate

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B.D.; Harris, M.W.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    Cleft palate (CP) can be induced in embryonic mice by a wide range of compounds, including glucocorticoids and 2,3,7,8-tyetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Hydrocortisone (HC), a glucocorticoid, retards embryonic growth producing small palatal shelves, while TCDD exposure blocks the fusion of normally sized shelves. TCDD induction of CP involves altered differentiation of the medial epithelial cells. Recent studies indicate that growth factors such as EGF, TGF-alpha, TGF-beta1, and TGF-beta2 are involved in palatogenesis, regulating proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix production. A synergism has been observed between HC and TCDD in which doses too low to induce CP alone are able to produce >90% incidence when coadministered. In the present study a standard teratology protocol was performed in C57BL/6N mice to examine the synergism at doses lower than those previously published. Data from the study indicate synergistic interactions at doses as low as 3 micrograms TCDD/kg + 1 mg HC/kg. This extreme sensitivity suggests the involvement of a receptor-mediated mechanism possibly resulting in altered regulation of gene expression. (Copyright (c) 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.)

  1. Tylosin depletion in edible tissues of turkeys.

    PubMed

    Montesissa, C; De Liguoro, M; Santi, A; Capolongo, F; Biancotto, G

    1999-10-01

    The depletion of tylosin residues in edible turkey tissues was followed after 3 days of administration of tylosin tartrate at 500 mg l-1 in drinking water, to 30 turkeys. Immediately after the end of the treatment (day 0) and at day 1, 3, 5 and 10 of withdrawal, six turkeys (three males and three females) per time were sacrificed and samples of edible tissues were collected. Tissue homogenates were extracted, purified and analysed by HPLC according to a method previously published for the analysis of tylosin residues in pig tissues. In all tissues, tylosin residues were already below the detection limits of 50 micrograms kg-1 at time zero. However, in several samples of tissues (skin + fat, liver, kidney, muscle), from the six turkeys sacrificed at that time, one peak corresponding to an unknown tylosin equivalent was detected at measurable concentrations. The identification of this unknown compound was performed by LC-MS/MS analysis of the extracts from incurred samples. The mass fragmentation of the compound was consistent with the structure of tylosin D (the alcoholic derivative of tylosin A), the major metabolite of tylosin previously recovered and identified in tissues and/or excreta from treated chickens, cattle and pigs. PMID:10755131

  2. Activities of newer fluoroquinolones against Shigella sonnei.

    PubMed Central

    John, J F; Atkins, L T; Maple, P A; Bratoeva, M

    1992-01-01

    The activities of six fluoroquinolones were determined for 117 separate strains of Shigella sonnei. The order of increasing activity (MICs for 90% of strains tested) was enoxacin (0.25 micrograms/ml), temafloxacin (0.032 micrograms/ml), sparfloxacin (0.016 micrograms/ml), CI-960 (0.008 micrograms/ml), ciprofloxacin (0.008 micrograms/ml), and PD-131628-2 (0.008 micrograms/ml). These data, along with results of killing and mutational rate studies, showed that all six fluoroquinolones were highly inhibitory against S. sonnei and five fluoroquinolones were rapidly and persistently bactericidal. PMID:1444317

  3. In vitro susceptibilities of Borrelia burgdorferi to five oral cephalosporins and ceftriaxone.

    PubMed

    Agger, W A; Callister, S M; Jobe, D A

    1992-08-01

    We determined the in vitro susceptibilities of eight Borrelia burgdorferi isolates to five oral cephalosporins. MICs for B. burgdorferi 297 were 23 micrograms/ml (cephalexin), 45 micrograms/ml (cefadroxil), 91 micrograms/ml (cefaclor), 0.13 microgram/ml (cefuroxime), 0.8 microgram/ml (cefixime), and 0.02 microgram/ml (ceftriaxone). When B. burgdorferi isolates were exposed to concentrations twice the MIC of cefuroxime, cefixime, or ceftriaxone, at least 72 h of incubation was required to kill 99% of the organisms. PMID:1416868

  4. Magnetic and Magnetocaloric Properties of High-Energy Ball-Milled Nanocrystalline CeMn2Ge2 Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Melike; Dincer, Ilker; Akturk, Selcuk; Elerman, Yalcin

    2016-07-01

    CeMn2Ge2 nanopowders have been obtained by high-energy ball milling for 5 and 10 hours from bulk compound to investigate the effect of milling time on magnetic and magnetocaloric properties. CeMn2Ge2 nanopowders have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetization measurements. The average grain size of the nanoparticles from XRD measurements is about 12.2 and 8 nm for 5-hour and 10-hour ball-milled samples, respectively. The investigations reveal that magnetic entropy change (∆S m) can be altered by changing the particle size of the compound. Maximum ∆S m is -2.45 and -1.30 J kg-1 K-1 for the 5- and 10-hour ball-milled nanopowders, respectively.

  5. [AOX Pollution in Wastewater Treatment Process of Dyeing and Dyestuff Chemical Industries].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang-yang; Liu, Rui; Xu, Can-can; Shu, Xiao-ming; Xu, Jiang-jun; Lan, Ya-qiong; Chen, Lü-jun

    2015-09-01

    Selecting six large-scale dyeing factories and four large-scale dyestuff chemical factories in the well-developed Yangtze River Delta region, this study aimed to investigate the AOX pollution status in the raw wastewater as well as in the activated sludge treatment system. The components of AOX were characterized by GC-MS. Results showed that AOX concentration was low in wastewater from the six dyeing enterprises, ranging 0. 15-1. 62 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and 0. 06-1. 30 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. All the biologically treated effluent met the emission limits of 8 mg.L-1 in the Discharge Standard of Water Pollutants for Dyeing and Finishing of Textile Industry. Sludge in five factories with AOX was below 621 mg.kg-1, only one factory was with high AOX concentration of 3 280 mg.kg-1. By comparison, AOX concentration greatly varied between the wastewater from dyestuff chemical factories, was 1. 70 mg.L-1 to 78. 72 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and was 1. 88 mg.L-1 to 33. 11 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. AOX concentration in the activated sludge was as high as 960-2,297 mg.kg-1. Chlorobenzenes, chloronitrobenzenes, chloroanilines, chlorine nitroanilines and halophenols were typical TOX components detectable in the dyestuff chemical wastewater. Halophenols and chlorine nitroanilines could be efficiently removed. Single chloroanilines and single chloronitrobenzenes seemed to be easier removable than polychlorinated anilines and polychlorinated nitrobenzenes. Polychlorinated benzenes were also easily removal but the products chlorobenzene was hard to remove. PMID:26717692

  6. Dissipation of DDT in a heavily contaminated soil in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dalla Villa, Ricardo; de Carvalho Dores, Eliana Freire Gaspar; Carbo, Leandro; Cunha, Marcelo Luiz Ferreira

    2006-07-01

    After the prohibition of organochlorine-pesticide use in Brazil for controlling insect vector diseases, Mato Grosso State gathered the exceeding DDT and stored it irregularly in an open air area that belongs to the National Health Foundation, causing soil contamination. This study aimed to evaluate the contamination level and dissipation of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE in this area. For that, surface soil samples were collected on 19 September 2000, 15 December 2000, 4 April 2001 and soil samples 30-40 cm; 60-70 cm and 90-100 cm deep were taken from five points in the studied area on 17 July 2001. The contaminants were determined by a small scale method which consists on extraction and clean-up steps combined into one step by transferring soil samples mixed with neutral alumina to a chromatographic column prepacked with neutral alumina and elution with hexane:dichloromethane (7:3 v:v). The eluate was concentrated and the analytes were quantified by gas chromatography with an electron-capture detector. p,p'-DDT at surface soil ranged from 3,800 to 7,300 mg kg(-1). 30-40 cm deep soil sample concentrations varied from 0.036 to 440 mg kg(-1) while 90-100 cm deep samples varied from 0.069 to 180 mg kg(-1). Volatilization is probably the main dissipation process. The p,p'-DDT is moving slowly downward in the soil profile, however, the levels of this contaminant are high enough to present risk to underground waters. PMID:16442143

  7. [Effects of short-term fencing on organic carbon fractions and physical stability of sandy sierozem in desert steppe of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin-Guo; Song, Nai-Ping; Li, Xue-Bin; Liu, Bing-Ru

    2012-12-01

    In order to explore the change patterns of organic carbon fractions and physical stability of sandy sierozem in desert steppe at the early stage of fencing, 0-40 cm soil samples were collected from a 5-year fenced desert steppe (inside the fence) and a free grazing steppe (outside the fence) in Yanchi County of Ningxia, Northwest China, with the soil organic carbon, labile organic carbon, and particulate organic carbon contents and soil particle composition analyzed. No significant differences were observed in the soil organic carbon content and soil particle composition inside and outside the fence. The average soil organic carbon inside and outside the fences was 3.25 g x kg(-1), the percentages of sand, silt, and clay were averagely 72%, 16%, and 12%, respectively, and the soil physical stability index was 1.30% -1.31%. The soil active organic carbon showed a significant change in 10-20 cm layer. The soil labile organic carbon content was 0.80 g x kg(-1) inside the fence, which was significantly higher than that outside the fence (0.62 g x kg(-1)). The percentage of soil particulate organic carbon was 50.9% inside the fence, which was also significantly higher than that outside the fence (31.7%). The soil texture inside the fence changed from sandy to loam, and the soil labile organic carbon content increased gradually; while the soil texture outside the fence was sandy, and its vertical change was relatively smooth. The organic carbon of sandy si- erozem in the desert steppe under the conditions of short-term fencing was still in a balance between consumption and accumulation, the soil texture was relatively stable, and the soil physical stability changed little. It was suggested that the soil active organic carbon content and its relative percentage in 10-20 cm layer could be used as the indicators of early soil quality change of desert steppe. PMID:23479873

  8. Risk assessment of mixture formulation of spirotetramat and imidacloprid in chilli fruits.

    PubMed

    Chahil, G S; Mandal, Kousik; Sahoo, S K; Singh, Balwinder

    2015-01-01

    Persistence and risk assessment of spirotetramat and imidacloprid in chilli fruits were studied following three applications of a mixture formulation of spirotetramat (12%) and imidacloprid (12%) at 1000 and 2000 mL ha(-1). Residues of spirotetramat and imidacloprid in chilli were estimated by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). Residues of spirotetramat and imidacloprid dissipated to more than 65% after 3 days at both the dosages. Residues of spirotetramat on chilli fruits were found to be below its limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.03 mg kg(-1) after 5 and 7 days for recommended and double the recommended dosages, respectively. Similarly, imidacloprid residues were found to be below its LOQ of 0.01 mg kg(-1) at 7 and 10 days, respectively. Half-life periods for spirotetramat were found to be 1.91 and 1.30 days, whereas, for imidacloprid, these values were observed to be 1.41 and 1.65 days at recommended and double the recommended dosages, respectively. Red chilli samples collected after 20 days of the last application did not show the presence of spirotetramat and imidacloprid at their respective determination limit. As the theoretical maximum residue contributions on chilli fruits are found to be less than the maximum permissible intake values on initial deposits, a waiting period of 1 day may follow to reduce risk before consumption at the recommended dose. PMID:25467410

  9. [Soil sandy desertification and salinization and their interrelationships in Yanghuang irrigated area of Hongsipu, Ningxia of northwest China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin-guo; Song, Nai-ping

    2011-09-01

    By the methods of controlled and typical sampling, this paper analyzed the texture, salinization characteristics, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and their correlations in the 0-40 cm soil profiles of corn land, medlar land, and non-utilized land in Yanghuang irrigated area of Hongsipu, Northwest China. Under controlled sampling, the salt content in the soil profiles was 0.69-1.30 g x kg(-1) (except in non-utilized land where the 0-10 cm soil salt content was up to 1.74 g x kg(-1)), with no obvious salinization. The sodium adsorption ratio and exchangeable sodium percentage in the 20-40 cm soil layer of medlar land were 12.18 and 14.1%, respectively, and the total content of clay and silt in the 0-40 cm soil profile of medlar land was up to 37.3% whereas that in the 0-20 cm soil layer of corn land was only 13.5%. In the 20-40 cm soil layer of corn land, the indices of sandy desertification and salinization had significant correlations under controlled sampling but no correlations under typical sampling, while the CEC and the sandy desertification and salinization indices had significant correlations under typical sampling. In different land use types in the study area, soil sandy desertification and salinization had complicated interrelationships, and CEC could be used as the indicator for the changes in soil environmental quality. PMID:22126034

  10. Evaluation and validation of two microbiological tests for screening antibiotic residues in honey according to the European guideline for the validation of screening methods.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, V; De Courville, A; Hedou, C; Rault, A; Diomandé, S E; Creff-Froger, C; Verdon, E

    2013-01-01

    Two microbiological kits based on Bacillus stearothermophilus (Eclipse 50® and Premi®Test) have been evaluated and validated according to the European guideline for the validation of screening methods (January 2010) and in relation to the concentrations recommended by the EU-RL in 2007. Both tests are robust, a fast method and easy to implement. Both tests are applicable to a very large variety of honeys from different floral and geographical origins (rosemary, lavender, scrub, heath, alder, forest, lemon, acacia, chestnut, raspberry, mountain and flowers) as well as honey of different colours (from blank honey to brown honey, including yellow and orange honey). A satisfactory false-positive rate of 5% was obtained for the Eclipse 50® test. The observed detection capabilities CCβ of the Eclipse 50® kit were: chlortetracycline (>75 µg kg(-1)), oxytetracycline (≤200 µg kg(-1)), tetracycline (>100 µg kg(-1)), cloxacillin (≤40 µg kg(-1)), tylosin (≤200 µg kg(-1)), desmycosin (>400 µg kg(-1)), sulfadiazine (≤300 µg kg(-1)), sulfadimethoxine (≤250 µg kg(-1)), sulfamerazine (>300 µg kg(-1)), sulfamethazine (>1000 µg kg(-1)), sulfamethizole (>75 µg kg(-1)), sulfamethoxazole (≤25 µg kg(-1)), sulfanilamide (>1000 µg kg(-1)), sulfaquinoxaline (>75 µg kg(-1)), sulfathiazole (≤250 µg kg(-1)) and lincomycin (>1500 µg kg(-1)). These levels were all higher than the recommended concentrations where they exist. Due to its lack of sensitivity, it cannot be recommended for reliable routine use. The observed CCβ of the Premi®Test kit were: chlortetracycline (10 µg kg(-1)), oxytetracycline (>10 µg kg(-1)), tetracycline (≤10 µg kg(-1)), cloxacillin (≤5 µg kg(-1)), tylosin (≤10 µg kg(-1)), desmycosin (≤15 µg kg(-1)), sulfadiazine (≤25 µg kg(-1)), sulfadimethoxine (≤25 µg kg(-1)), sulfamerazine (≤25 µg kg(-1)), sulfamethazine (≤25 µg kg(-1)), sulfamethizole (≤25 µg kg(-1)), sulfamethoxazole (≤10 µg kg(-1)), sulfanilamide

  11. An aquatic toxicological evaluation of fenthion in the context of finch control in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Roux, D; Jooste, S; Truter, E; Kempster, P

    1995-07-01

    Queletox, containing fenthion as active ingredient, is the avicide formulation used in South Africa to control red-billed finches (Quelea quelea). Control measures involve night spraying of roosting areas with a light aircraft. Since roosting areas often include reedbeds along riversides and on islands, proper control is difficult without exposing the aquatic environment to some risk of contamination. This study tested the acute effects of fenthion, in association with the queletox formulation, on the cladocerans Daphnia pulex and Ceriodaphnia dubia and the fish species Poecilia reticulata, Tilapia rendalli, Cyprinus carpio, and Oreochromis mossambicus. The chronic effects of fenthion on D. pulex were evaluated in a 14-day reproduction test. Mean 48-hr LC50 values estimated for D. pulex and C. dubia were 1.30 and 1.72 micrograms liter-1 respectively. For the fish estimated 96-hr LC50 values were as follows: 2.12 (P. reticulata), 2.53 (C. carpio), 2.92 (T. rendalli) and 1.71 micrograms liter-1 (O. mossambicus). In the chronic test reproduction of the exposed population was stimulated at the lowest two fenthion concentrations (0.1 and 0.6 ng liter-1), while a reproductive impairment was recorded at concentrations varying from 1 to 10 ng liter-1. Concentrations of fenthion measured in dams after spraying are given to indicate the levels of contamination that may occur. QSAR was used to estimate the toxicity of some fenthion metabolites. The results of this study reveal that fenthion, at the concentrations occurring in the environment after aerial spraying, can have marked effects on the survival and reproduction of D. pulex for long periods after spraying. PMID:8521783

  12. In vitro antifungal activities and in vivo efficacies of 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthesis inhibitors L-671,329, L-646,991, tetrahydroechinocandin B, and L-687,781, a papulacandin.

    PubMed Central

    Bartizal, K; Abruzzo, G; Trainor, C; Krupa, D; Nollstadt, K; Schmatz, D; Schwartz, R; Hammond, M; Balkovec, J; Vanmiddlesworth, F

    1992-01-01

    The in vivo anti-Candida activities of 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthesis inhibitors L-671,329, L-646,991 (cilofungin), L-687,901 (tetrahydroechinocandin B), and L-687,781 (a papulacandin analog) were evaluated by utilizing a murine model of disseminated candidiasis that has enhanced susceptibility to Candida albicans but increased sensitivity for discriminating antifungal efficacy. DBA/2 mice were challenged intravenously with 1 x 10(4) to 5 x 10(4) CFU of C. albicans MY1055 per mouse. Compounds were administered intraperitoneally at concentrations ranging from 1.25 to 10 mg/kg of body weight twice daily for 4 days. At 6 h and 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 9 days after challenge, five mice per group were sacrificed and their kidneys were homogenized and plated for enumeration of Candida organisms (CFU per gram). Progressiveness of response trends and no-statistical-significance-of-trend doses were derived to rank compound efficacy. 1,3-beta-D-Glucan synthesis 50% inhibitory concentrations were determined by using a C. albicans (MY1208) membrane glucan assay. Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans MICs and minimal fungicidal concentrations were determined by broth microdilution. L-671,329, L-646,991, L-687,901, and L-687,781 showed similar 1,3-beta-D-glucan activities, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 0.64, 1.30, 0.85, and 0.16 micrograms/ml, respectively. Data from in vitro antifungal susceptibility studies showed that L-671,329, L-646,991, and L-687,901 had similar MICs ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 micrograms/ml, while L-687,781 showed slightly higher MICs of 1.0 to 2.0 micrograms/ml for C. albicans MY1055. Lipopeptide compounds were ineffective against C. neoformans strains.Results from in vivo experiments comparing significant trend and progressiveness in response analyses indicated that L-671,329 and L-646,991 were equipotent but slightly less active than L-687-901, while L-687,781 was ineffective at 10 mg/kg. Fungicidal activities of L-671,329, L-646,991, and L-687,901 were

  13. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for the Study of Adult Education = Les actes du congres annuel de l'association canadienne pour l'etude de l'education des adultes (8th, Cornwall, Ontario, June 1-30, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Rene, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 23 papers in French and the following 45 papers in English: "Arthur Lismer" (Barer-Stein); "Bootstrapping and Shoestringing to Academic Respectability" (Baskett); "Teaching by Teleconference" (Boak, Kirby); "Doing What Is Possible" (Butterwick); "Connections between Individual and World Peace" (Fallis et al.); "Federal…

  14. Toxicology of mono-, di-, and triethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Knaak, J B; Leung, H W; Stott, W T; Busch, J; Bilsky, J

    1997-01-01

    The chemistry, biochemistry, toxicity, and industrial use of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA) are reviewed. The dual function groups, amino and hydroxyl, make them useful in cutting fluids and as intermediates in the production of surfactants, soaps, salts, corrosion control inhibitors, and in pharmaceutical and miscellaneous applications. In 1995, the annual U.S. production capacity for ethanolamines was 447,727 metric tons. The principal route of exposure is through skin, with some exposure occurring by inhalation of vapor and aerosols. MEA, DEA, and TEA in water penetrate rat skin at the rate of 2.9 x 10(-3), 4.36 x 10(-3) and 18 x 10(-3) cm/hr, respectively. MEA, DEA, and TEA are water-soluble ammonia derivatives, with pHs of 9-11 in water and pHa values of 9.3, 8.8, and 7.7, respectively. They are irritating to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract, with MEA being the worst irritant, followed by DEA and TEA. The acute oral LD50s are 2.74 g/kg for MEA, 1.82 g/kg for DEA, and 2.34 g/kg for TEA (of bw), with most deaths occurring within 4 d of administration. MEA is present in nature as a nitrogenous base in phospholipids. These lipids, composed of glycerol, two fatty acid esters, phosphoric acid, and MEA, are the building blocks of biomembranes in animals. MEA is methylated to form choline, another important nitrogenous base in phospholipids and an essential vitamin. The rat dietary choline requirement is 10 mg kg-1 d-1; 30-d oral administration of MEA (160-2670 mg kg-1 d-1) to rats produced "altered" liver and kidney weights in animals ingesting 640 mg kg-1 d-1 or greater. Death occurred at dosages of 1280 mg kg-1 d-1. No treatment-related effects were noted in dogs administered as much as 22 mg kg-1 d-1 for 2 yr. DEA is not metabolized or readily eliminated from the liver or kidneys. At high tissue concentrations, DEA substitutes for MEA in phospholipids and is methylated to form phospholipids composed of N-methyl and N

  15. Vasopressin, renin, and cortisol responses to hemorrhage during acute blockade of cardiac nerves in conscious dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, C. P.; Keil, L. C.; Thrasher, T. N.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of acute cardiac nerve blockade (CNB) on the increases in plasma renin activity (PRA), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and cortisol in response to a 30 ml/kg hemorrhage was determined in conscious dogs (n = 9). Procaine was infused into the pericardial space to produce acute reversible CNB, or saline was infused in the control hemorrhage. Blood was removed from the inferior vena cava at a rate of 1 ml.kg-1.min-1. In the control hemorrhage, plasma AVP increased from 1.8 +/- 0.3 to 219 +/- 66 pg/ml, PRA increased from 0.63 +/- 0.20 to 3.08 +/- 0.91 ng angiotensin I (ANG I).ml-1.3 h-1, and cortisol increased from 1.4 +/- 0.2 to 4.0 +/- 0.7 micrograms/dl. When the hemorrhage was repeated during acute CNB, plasma AVP increased from 2.8 +/- 1.6 to 185 +/- 59 pg/ml, PRA increased from 0.44 +/- 0.14 to 2.24 +/- 0.27 ng ANG I.ml-1.3 h-1, and cortisol increased from 1.9 +/- 0.3 to 5.4 +/- 0.6 micrograms/dl, and none of the increases differed significantly from the responses during the control hemorrhage. Left atrial pressure fell significantly after removal of 6 ml/kg of blood, but mean arterial pressure was maintained at control levels until blood loss reached 20 ml/kg during pericardial infusion of either saline or procaine. The declines in MAP at the 30 ml/kg level of hemorrhage in both treatments were similar. These results demonstrate that acutely blocking input from cardiac receptors does not reduce the increases in plasma AVP, cortisol, and PRA in response to a 30 ml/kg hemorrhage. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that input from cardiac receptors is required for a normal AVP response to hemorrhage and suggest that other receptors, presumably arterial baroreceptors, can stimulate AVP and cortisol secretion in the absence of signals from the heart.

  16. Pharmacokinetics, metabolism and renal clearance of flumequine in veal calves.

    PubMed

    Mevius, D J; Breukink, H J; Guelen, P J; Jansen, T; De Grève, B

    1990-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of flumequine was studied in 1-, 5- and 18-week-old veal calves. A two-compartment model was used to fit the plasma concentration-time curve of flumequine after the intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg of a 10% solution. The elimination half-life (t1/2 beta) of the drug ranged from 6 to 7 h. The Vd beta and ClB of 1-week-old calves (1.07 l/kg, 1.78 ml/min/kg) were significantly lower than those of 5-week-old (1.89 l/kg, 3.23 ml/min/kg) and 18-week-old calves (1.57 l/kg, 3.10 ml/min/kg). After the oral administration of 10 mg/kg of a 2% flumequine formulation mixed with milk replacer, the Cmax was highest in 1-week-old (9.27 micrograms/ml) and lowest in 18-week-old calves (4.47 micrograms/ml). The absorption was rapid (Tmax of approximately 3 h) and complete. When flumequine itself and a formulation containing 2% flumequine and 20 X 10(6) iu of colistin sulphate were mixed with milk replacer and administered at the same dose rate, absorption was incomplete and Cmax was lower. The main urinary metabolite of flumequine was the glucuronide conjugate (approximately 40% recovery within 48 h of intravenous injection) and the second most important metabolite was 7-hydroxy-flumequine (approximately 3% recovery within 12 h of intravenous injection). Only 3.2-6.5% was excreted in the urine unchanged. After oral administration a 'first-pass' effect was observed, with a significant increase in the excretion of conjugated drug. For 1-week-old calves it is recommended that the 2% formulation should be administered at a dose rate of 8 mg/kg every 24 h or 4 mg/kg every 12 h; for calves over 6 weeks old, the dose should be increased to 15 mg/kg every 24 h or 7.5 mg/kg every 12 h. The formulation containing colistin sulphate should be administered to 1-week-old calves at a flumequine dose of 12 mg/kg every 24 h or 6 mg/kg every 12 h. PMID:2384907

  17. The effect of the excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist dizocilipine maleate (MK-801) on hemispheric cerebral blood flow and metabolism in dogs: modification by prior complete cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Perkins, W J; Lanier, W L; Karlsson, B R; Milde, J H; Michenfelder, J D

    1989-09-25

    The effect of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dizociplipine maleate (MK-801) on cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2), intracranial pressure and systemic variables was examined in 6 normal dogs (Group I). In 6 additional dogs (Group II), the effects of a prior 11 min episode of complete cerebral ischemia on the response to dizocilipine was studied. CBF was measured with a sagittal sinus outflow technique and CMRO2 was calculated as the product of CBF and the arterial to sagittal sinus O2 content difference. Dizocilipine was administered as a 150 micrograms/kg i.v. bolus followed by a 75 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 infusion for 90 min. Plasma dizocilipine levels were greater than 25 ng/ml for the duration of the infusion. The CSF levels were approximately half the plasma levels. Five minutes after initiation of dizocilipine treatment, Group I dogs experienced a 63% increase in heart rate (P less than 0.01) and an 8% decrease in the mean arterial blood pressure (P less than 0.05). Over the same time interval. CBF increased by 85% (P less than 0.01) and intracranial pressure nearly doubled (P less than 0.05). In addition, dizocilipine treatment in all Group I animals resulted in EEG quasiperiodic bursts of delta-waves and polyspikes on a background of beta-activity. With the exception of the intracranial pressure, the above changes in systemic and cerebral variables persisted for the duration of the drug infusion. Intracranial pressure was no longer significantly elevated after 80 min of drug infusion. Hemispheric CMRO2 was unchanged by dizocilipine in Group I dogs. There was a decrease in the cortical glucose level at the end of the study, but no significant change in phosphocreatine, ATP, lactate, or energy charge when compared with 6 laboratory normals. An identical dose of dizocilipine administered after an 11 min episode of complete cerebral ischemia resulted in no significant changes in either cerebral or systemic

  18. Azole resistance in oropharyngeal Candida albicans strains isolated from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    He, X; Tiballi, R N; Zarins, L T; Bradley, S F; Sangeorzan, J A; Kauffman, C A

    1994-01-01

    For 212 oropharyngeal isolates of Candida albicans, the fluconazole MICs for 50 and 90% of strains tested were 0.5 and 16 micrograms/ml, respectively, and those of itraconazole were 0.05 and 0.2 micrograms/ml, respectively. Of 16 isolates for which fluconazole MICs were > 64 micrograms/ml, itraconazole MICs for 14 were < or = 0.8 micrograms/ml and for 2 were > 6.4 micrograms/ml. Most fluconazole-resistant strains remained susceptible to itraconazole; whether itraconazole will prove effective for refractory thrush remains to be shown. PMID:7840596

  19. Radioactivity in the Kuwait marine environment--Baseline measurements and review.

    PubMed

    Uddin, S; Aba, A; Fowler, S W; Behbehani, M; Ismaeel, A; Al-Shammari, H; Alboloushi, A; Mietelski, J W; Al-Ghadban, A; Al-Ghunaim, A; Khabbaz, A; Alboloushi, O

    2015-11-30

    The Arabian Gulf region is moving towards a nuclear energy option with the first nuclear power plant now operational in Bushehr, Iran, and others soon to be constructed in Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia. Radiological safety is becoming a prime concern in the region. This study compiles available data and presents recent radionuclide data for the northern Gulf waters, considered as pre-nuclear which will be a valuable dataset for future monitoring work in this region. Radionuclide monitoring in the marine environment is a matter of prime concern for Kuwait, and an assessment of the potential impact of radionuclides requires the establishment and regular updating of baseline levels of artificial and natural radionuclides in various environmental compartments. Here we present baseline measurements for (210)Po, (210)Pb, (137)Cs, (90)Sr, and (3)H in Kuwait waters. The seawater concentration of (3)H, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (137)Cs, and (90)Sr vary between 130-146, 0.48-0.68, 0.75-0.89, 1.25-1.38 and 0.57-0.78 mBq L(-1), respectively. The (40)K concentration in seawater varies between 8.9-9.3 Bq L(-1). The concentration of (40)K, total (210)Pb, (137)Cs, (90)Sr, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (238)U, (235)U, (234)U, (239+240)Pu and (238)Pu were determined in sediments and range, respectively, between 353-445, 23.6-44.3, 1.0-3.1, 4.8-5.29, 17.3-20.5, 15-16.4, 28.7-31.4, 1.26-1.30, 29.7-30.0, 0.045-0.21 and 0.028-0.03 Bq kg(-1) dry weight. Since, radionuclides are concentrated in marine biota, a large number of marine biota samples covering several trophic levels, from microalgae to sharks, were analyzed. The whole fish concentration of (40)K, (226)Ra, (224)Ra, (228)Ra, (137)Cs, (210)Po and (90)Sr range between 230-447, 0.7-7.3, <0.5-6.6, <0.5-15.80, <0.17, 0.88-4.26 and 1.86-5.34 Bq kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. (210)Po was found to be highly concentrated in several marine organisms with the highest (210)Po concentration found in Marica marmorata (193.5-215.6 Bq kg(-1) dry weight). (210)Po in

  20. BREEDING SOYBEANS FOR FORAGE PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At Chazy, NY yields of forage soybeans varied from 14.3 Mg ha-1 to 5.6 Mg ha-1 over three years with CP ranging from 169 g kg-1 to 116 g kg-1 and NDF ranging from 513 g kg-1 to 445 g kg-1. At Ames, IA, IVDMD declined from 700 g kg-1 46 days after planting then increased at seasons end as seed incre...

  1. Inhibitory capacity of alpha 1 antitrypsin in lung secretions: variability and the effect of drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, H M; Afford, S C; Stockley, R A

    1984-01-01

    The inhibitory function of alpha 1 antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) has been studied in the lung secretions of 31 patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis. The inhibitory capacity for a single sample showed a wide range (median 0.13 micrograms porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) inhibited per microgram alpha 1 antitrypsin; range 0-0.55 micrograms), and all but five of 86 samples studied were capable of inhibiting some porcine pancreatic elastase. No sample showed free elastase activity, however. The inhibitory capacity, studied in six patients over five consecutive days, varied daily within the same individual (coefficient of variation 9.0-108.9%). Corticosteroid treatment (40 mg prednisone daily) increased the inhibitory capacity of sputum alpha 1 antitrypsin in 10 patients (2p less than 0.05) from a median value of 0.13 micrograms PPE inhibited per microgram alpha 1AT (range 0.06-0.36) before treatment to 0.22 micrograms PPE inhibited per microgram alpha 1AT (range 0.09-0.65) after treatment. The inhibitory capacity of sputum was higher than in the corresponding bronchoalveolar lavage sample from the same patient (2p less than 0.05; n = 10). The median value for sputum was 0.22 micrograms PPE inhibited per microgram alpha 1AT (range 0-0.55) and the value for lavage fluid was 0.07 micrograms PPE inhibited per microgram alpha 1AT (range 0-0.27). PMID:6611602

  2. Isolation, purification, and antibiotic activity of o-methoxycinnamaldehyde from cinnamon.

    PubMed Central

    Morozumi, S

    1978-01-01

    o-Methoxycinnamaldehyde has been isolated and purified from powdered cinnamon. The compound inhibits the growth and toxin production of mycotoxin-producing fungi. The substance completely inhibited the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus at 100 microgram/ml and A. ochraceus and A. versicolor at 200 microgram/ml. It inhibited the production of aflatoxin B1 by over 90% at 6.25 microgram/ml, ochratoxin A at 25 microgram/ml, and sterigmatocystin at 50 microgram/ml. The substance also displayed a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of five dermatophytoses species, e.g., Microsporum canis (minimum inhibitory concentration, 3.12 to 6.25 microgram/ml). However, no antibacterial effect was observed at concentrations as high as 50 microgram/ml. PMID:708030

  3. Dissolved-selenium data for wells in the western San Joaquin Valley, California, February to July 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neil, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Water samples were collected for selenium analysis from 63 wells in western San Joaquin Valley, California, during February to July 1985. Results of the data collection indicate that dissolved selenium concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 120 micrograms per liter; more than 50 percent of the wells sampled had concentrations of less than 1 microgram per liter. Four additional samples collected from public supply wells in the western valley had concentrations ranging from less than 1 to 2 micrograms per liter. All samples from five public supply wells east of the study area had concentrations less than 1 microgram per liter. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 's drinking-water standard of 10 micrograms per liter for selenium was slightly exceeded in 2 of 39 domestic wells (11 and 13 micrograms per liter) and substantially exceeded in 2 of 11 irrigation and agricultural wells (55 and 120 micrograms per liter). (USGS)

  4. Comparative in vitro activities of new quinolones against coryneform bacteria.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, L; Suárez, A I; Ortega, M C; Perea, E J

    1994-06-01

    The in vitro activities of eight quinolones against 115 coryneform bacteria (20 Corynebacterium jeikeium, 15 Corynebacterium minutissimum, 15 Corynebacterium striatum, 25 Corynebacterium urealyticum, 10 Corynebacterium xerosis, 10 Corynebacterium group ANF-1, 10 Corynebacterium group 12, and 10 Listeria monocytogenes) were determined. The MICs of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and sparfloxacin for 90% of C. jeikeium, C. urealyticum, and C. xerosis isolates tested were > 16 micrograms/ml. Those of BAY Y 3118 and clinafloxacin against these species were 0.5 and 1 to 2 micrograms/ml, respectively. The MICs for 90% of all 115 strains tested were 0.5 microgram/ml for BAY Y 3118, 1 microgram/ml for clinafloxacin, 2 micrograms/ml for E-5068, 4 micrograms/ml for E-5065, and > 16 micrograms/ml for ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and E-4868. PMID:8092851

  5. Environmental hazards of aluminum to plants, invertebrates, fish, and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Lowe, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    , molluscs, and isopods seem to be tolerant. In Al-sensitive species, elevated levels (approximately 500 micrograms.L-1) affect ion regulation and respiratory efficiency. Toxicity tends to be greatest near a species` threshold of pH sensitivity. At lower pHs, Al may have a slight ameliorative effect by interfering with H+ transport across membranes. Aquatic invertebrates can accumulate very high levels of Al, but most of this appears to be through adsorption rather than assimilation. Aluminum concentrations may be as high as 5000 mg.kg-1 in insects and greater than 17,000 mg.kg-1 in other invertebrates.

  6. In vitro antimicrobial activity and MIC quality control guidelines of RPR 106972 (RPR 112808/RPR106950): a novel orally administered streptogramin combination. The Quality Control Study Group.

    PubMed

    Putnam, S D; Jones, R N; Johnson, D M

    1997-07-01

    RPR 106972 is a novel oral streptogramin combination with reported therapeutic potency against Gram-positive and certain respiratory tract pathogens. MICs for RPR 106972, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and seven comparison drugs were determined by the reference methods against 337 strains selected to define spectrum and potency. RPR 106972 demonstrated antimicrobial activity against oxacillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC ranges of 0.12 to 2 micrograms/ml and 0.5 to 2 micrograms/ml, respectively), and coagulase-negative staphylococci were also inhibited by RPR 106972 (MIC90, < or = 0.5 microgram/ml) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (MIC90, < or = 0.25 microgram/ml). Against all streptococcal strains tested (including penicillin-resistant pneumococcus), RPR 106972 was highly active with MIC results at < or = 1 microgram/ml. RPR 106972 inhibited Corynebacterium jeikeium (MIC90, 0.5 microgram/ml). Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC90, 0.25 microgram/ml), and some Haemophilus influenzae (MIC50, 2 micrograms/ml). RPR 106972 and quinupristin/dalfopristin demonstrated little activity against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC90s, 4 to 32 micrograms/ml) as compared to Enterococcus faecium (MIC90s, 0.5 to 1 microgram/ml) and other Enterococcus ssp. (MIC90s, 1 microgram/ml). Studies to establish MIC quality-control guidelines indicated the following ranges: for E. faecalis ATCC 29212, 0.5 to 4 micrograms/ml; for S. aureus ATCC 29213, 0.25 to 1 microgram/ml; and for Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619, 0.06 to 0.5 microgram/ml. The results of this study indicate that the in vitro activity of RPR 106972 against Gram-positive bacteria and selected Gram-negative respiratory organisms is promising and warrants additional studies of pharmacokinetics, and in vivo infection model dynamics. PMID:9294704

  7. T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol metabolism by Baccharis spp.

    PubMed Central

    Mirocha, C J; Abbas, H K; Treeful, L; Bean, G

    1988-01-01

    Hybrids resulting from crosses between Baccharis sarothroides and B. pilularis (FS1), B. sarothroides (FS2) and B. megapotamica (FS3) were tested for their tolerance to trichothecenes as well as their ability to metabolize the toxins. B. sarothroides (desert broom) was placed in an aqueous solution containing 500 ppm of T-2 toxin and showed visible signs of toxicity on the twigs at 21 h after exposure but not at 6 h, indicating some resistance. Samples of the twigs harvested 6 and 21 h after treatment contained, respectively, T-2 (0.03 and 2.2 micrograms/g), HT-2 (0.09 and 7.6 micrograms/g), and T-2-tetraol (2.1 and 2.6 micrograms/g). The hybrid FS1 showed no signs of toxicity 6 h after treatment, and its twigs contained T-2 (0.8 micrograms/g), HT-2 (10.2 micrograms/g), and T-2-tetraol (10.8 micrograms/g). The leaves at 6 h contained 0.5 micrograms of T-2, 1.7 micrograms of HT-2, 0.01 microgram of 3'-hydroxy-HT-2, and 41 micrograms of T-2-tetraol per g. At 21 h, toxic signs were apparent and the twigs contained T-2 (39 micrograms/g), HT-2 (62 micrograms/g), 3'-hydroxy-HT-2 (0.8 microgram/g), and T-2-tetraol (22 micrograms/g).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3190227

  8. [Transient tracheal obstruction during surgical correction of scoliosis in a patient with Marfan's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kai, Y; Yamaoka, A; Irita, K; Zaitsu, A; Takahashi, S

    1995-06-01

    A 13-yr-old male with Marfan's syndrome underwent surgical correction of severe scoliosis. He had not manifested dyspnea previously in any position. Under anesthesia with thiamylal and vecuronium, his trachea was intubated with a reinforced endotracheal tube without any difficulty. Anesthesia was maintained with nitrous oxide and fentanyl, 8 micrograms.kg-1. The patient was placed in a prone position. Thirty min after the start of operation, when orthopedists compressed the thoracic vertebrae vertically, positive pressure ventilation became impossible abruptly, even with a high airway pressure. Three min later, ventilation became possible after cessation of compression and by mouth-to-tube insufflation. SpO2 monitored with a pulse oximeter recovered immediately from 61% to 99%. A capnogram showed a lengthy retardation of an inspiratory phase. Emergency fibreoptic bronchoscopy revealed that the trachea had been compressed vertically; the compression was reduced by moving the chest supporters laterally. After the apneic episode, the operation continued uneventfully, and he was discharged a month later. A severe deformity of the thorax due to severe scoliosis and weak tracheal tissue due to connective tissue defect caused partial tracheal compression before the surgery, and made his trachea susceptible to complete obstruction by vertical external compression on the thorax. Patients with Marfan's syndrome and scoliosis should have careful preoperative airway evaluation. The selection and positioning of endotracheal tubes should be done with care. During surgery, the patient's body position and the condition of the trachea should be checked frequently. Capnography and fiberoptic bronchoscopy seem to be mandatory for early detection of tracheal stenosis and prevention of tracheal obstruction. PMID:7637168

  9. The effect of desglycinamide-(Arg8)-vasopressin (DGAVP) on the acquisition of free-choice alcohol drinking in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kornet, M; Goosen, C; Ribbens, L G; Van Ree, J M

    1991-02-01

    The vasopressin analog desglycinamide-(Arg8)-vasopressin (DGAVP) has been reported to reduce the acquisition of heroin and cocaine self-injection behavior in rats. This led to the hypothesis that DGAVP can reduce the self-administration of psycho-active drugs (including ethanol) by attenuating central reinforcement processes. Under forced ingestion conditions, DGAVP has been reported, however, to enhance alcohol drinking in rats. We studied the effect of DGAVP on the acquisition of voluntary, free-choice alcohol drinking in naive rhesus monkeys, that had concurrent access to either 1% and 2% (n = 12) or to 4% and 8% (n = 8) ethanol/water solutions in addition to drinking water. Half of the monkeys were injected twice per day with 50 micrograms.kg-1 of DGAVP for 14 successive days, the other half received placebo. Subsequently, all subjects had access to the same solutions for another 14 days without treatment. DGAVP did not significantly affect concentration preference behavior. With regard to net ethanol ingestion in animals drinking 1% and 2% solutions, DGAVP decreased net ethanol intakes, having a time-dependent and long lasting effect; placebo-treated animals gradually increased net ethanol intakes over time. The placebo-treated animals in the 4% and 8% group, showed a different acquisition pattern; DGAVP reduced net ethanol intake in two animals in a similar way as above. Two animals behaved differently. It is concluded that in a free-choice condition DGAVP did not enhance the acquisition of alcohol drinking in monkeys, but rather inhibited ethanol self-administration in the majority of the subjects. PMID:2024735

  10. Evaluation of an immunobiosensor for the on-site testing of veterinary drug residues at an abattoir. Screening for sulfamethazine in pigs.

    PubMed

    Baxter, G A; O'Connor, M C; Haughey, S A; Crooks, S R; Elliott, C T

    1999-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of performing "on-site" screening for sulfamethazine (SMT), at an abattoir, using a rapid immunobiosensor method. This involved transfer of the biosensor technology and an assay developed in the laboratory, to the cold, humid conditions of a modern pig-processing factory. A pre-determined threshold limit of 0.4 microgram ml-1 SMT in bile was used to identify the likelihood that corresponding tissue samples contained SMT concentrations in excess of the European maximum permissible residue limit of 0.1 mg kg-1. Bile samples containing SMT concentrations above the threshold limit were deemed positive and the corresponding kidney and muscle samples were sent to the laboratory for HPLC analysis. The robustness of the biosensor instrumentation in the harsh operating conditions was monitored throughout the project. The performance of the assay, on-site, was assessed by the regular inclusion of QA samples and by the submission of control 'SMT-positive' pigs to the abattoir. Sampling procedures, identification and traceability were also under scrutiny. During the project, 337 (9.35%) of the total kill were tested for SMT residues, representing 75% of all producers submitting pigs for slaughter. Twelve animals, including the ten controls, gave positive bile results. HPLC analysis confirmed SMT residues in all 12 kidneys (11 in excess of the permissible level). Ten muscle samples also contained violative SMT levels. Throughout the project, the biosensor performed reliably, with no adverse reaction of any mechanical or electrical components. The SMT assay also performed reliably. This is the first report of a biosensor being used for 'on-site' drug screening. PMID:10736854

  11. Role of interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor on energy metabolism in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Tredget, E.E.; Yu, Y.M.; Zhong, S.; Burini, R.; Okusawa, S.; Gelfand, J.A.; Dinarello, C.A.; Young, V.R.; Burke, J.F.

    1988-12-01

    A study of the combined effects of intravenous infusion of the recombinant cytokines beta-interleukin 1 (IL-1) and alpha-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) on energy substrate metabolism in awake, conditioned, adult rabbits was performed. After a 2-h basal or control period, 48-h fasted rabbits were administered TNF and IL-1 as a bolus (5 micrograms/kg) followed by a continuous intravenous infusion (25 ng.kg-1.min-1) for 3 h. Significant increases in plasma lactate (P less than 0.01), glucose (P less than 0.01), and triglycerides (P less than 0.05) occurred during the combined infusion of IL-1 and TNF, whereas neither cytokine alone had no effect. There was a 33% increase in the rate of glucose appearance (P less than 0.05), but glucose clearance was not altered compared with the control period. Glucose oxidation increased during the combined cytokine infusion period and glucose recycling increased by 600% (P less than 0.002). Lactic acidosis and decreased oxygen consumption, as a result of the cytokine infusions, indicated development of anaerobic glycolytic metabolism. A reduction in the activity state of hepatic mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (65 vs. 82% in control animals, P less than 0.05) was consistent with the observed increase in anaerobic glycolysis. Thus the combined infusion of IL-1 and TNF in rabbits produces metabolic manifestations seen in severe injury and sepsis in human patients and, as such, may account for the profound alterations of energy metabolism seen in these conditions.

  12. Ozone increases susceptibility to antigen inhalation in allergic dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Yanai, M.; Ohrui, T.; Aikawa, T.; Okayama, H.; Sekizawa, K.; Maeyama, K.; Sasaki, H.; Takishima, T. )

    1990-06-01

    To determine whether O3 exposure increased airway responsiveness to antigen inhalation, we studied airway responsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh) and Ascaris suum antigen (AA) before and after O3 in dogs both sensitive and insensitive to AA. Airway responsiveness was assessed by determining the provocative concentration of ACh and AA aerosols that increased respiratory resistance (Rrs) to twice the base-line value. O3 (3 parts per million) increased airway responsiveness to ACh in dogs both sensitive and insensitive to AA, and it significantly decreased the ACh provocation concentration from 0.541 +/- 0.095 to 0.102 +/- 0.047 (SE) mg/ml (P less than 0.01; n = 10). AA aerosols, even at the highest concentration in combination with O3, did not increase Rrs in dogs insensitive to AA. However, O3 increased airway responsiveness to AA in AA-sensitive dogs and significantly decreased log AA provocation concentration from 2.34 +/- 0.22 to 0.50 +/- 0.17 (SE) log protein nitrogen units/ml (P less than 0.01; n = 7). O3-induced hyperresponsiveness to ACh returned to the base-line level within 2 wk, but hyperresponsiveness to AA continued for greater than 2 wk. The plasma histamine concentration after AA challenge was significantly higher after than before O3 (P less than 0.01). Intravenous infusion of OKY-046 (100 micrograms.kg-1.min-1), an inhibitor of thromboxane synthesis, inhibited the O3-induced increase in responsiveness to ACh, but it had no effects on the O3-induced increase in responsiveness to AA and the increase in the plasma histamine concentration. These results suggest that O3 increases susceptibility to the antigen in sensitized dogs via a different mechanism from that of O3-induced muscarinic hyperresponsiveness.

  13. Effects of acute beta-adrenoceptor blockade with metoprolol on the renal response to dopamine in normal humans.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, N V; Lang-Jensen, T; Hansen, J M; Plum, I; Thomsen, J K; Strandgaard, S; Leyssac, P P

    1994-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of adrenergic beta 1-receptor stimulation to the cardiovascular and renal effects of low-dose dopamine in eight normal, water-loaded humans. Metoprolol (100 mg) or placebo was administered orally at 08.00 h in a randomized, double-blind fashion on two different days. Renal clearance studies were performed during a 1 h baseline period, two 1 h periods with dopamine infusion (3 micrograms kg-1 min-1), and a 1 h recovery period. Cardiac output was measured by an ultrasonic Doppler method, and lithium clearance (CLLi) was used to estimate proximal tubular outflow. Baseline values of heart rate, systolic pressure and mean arterial pressure decreased with metoprolol compared with placebo, but cardiac output, effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were not significantly changed. Metoprolol significantly decreased baseline CLLi and sodium clearance (CLNa) by 19% (P < 0.01) and 34% (P < 0.01), respectively. Metoprolol blunted the dopamine-induced increases in heart rate and systolic pressure, but cardiac output increased to the same extent on both study days by 26% (placebo, P < 0.05) and by 31% (metoprolol, P < 0.01), respectively. With and without metoprolol, dopamine did not significantly change GFR, and the percentage increases in ERPF were similar on the two study days (40% (P < 0.001) and 42% (P < 0.001), respectively). Dopamine increased CLLi and CLNa by 31% (P < 0.01) and 114% (P < 0.01), respectively, with placebo, and by 36% (P < 0.01) and 114% (P < 0.01), respectively, with metoprolol. Values during infusion remained significantly lower with metoprolol compared with placebo.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8018456

  14. Low-affinity hemoglobin increases tissue PO2 and decreases arteriolar diameter and flow in the rat cremaster muscle.

    PubMed

    Kunert, M P; Liard, J F; Abraham, D J; Lombard, J H

    1996-07-01

    The hypothesis that tissue oxygen delivery in excess of metabolic demand results in vasoconstriction and reduced blood flow was tested in the cremaster muscle of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats by studying the effects of an intravenous infusion of RSR-13, an allosteric effector of hemoglobin. RSR-13 reduces the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, causing a right shift in the oxygen dissociation curve. Thus, oxygen delivery to the tissues was increased without elevations in blood flow or blood pressure. Tissue PO2, arteriolar diameter, and RBC velocity were measured and volume flow was calculated from diameter and RBC velocity in third-order arterioles. In rats receiving RSR-13 at a rate of 200 mg kg-1 in 15 min (n = 18) P50 (the PO2 at which hemoglobin is 50% saturated) increased from 36 +/- 1 to 52 +/- 3 mm Hg, and tissue PO2 increased to a maximum of 146 +/- 12% above its control value. P50 and tissue PO2 did not change in the control group (n = 8) receiving vehicle at a rate equivalent to that in the experimental group. In a separate group of rats receiving RSR-13 (n = 7), P50 increased from 38 +/- 1 to 51 +/- 3 mm Hg, calculated arteriolar flow decreased from 9 +/- 3 to a minimum of 1.4 +/- 1 nl sec-1, and arteriolar diameter decreased from 27 +/- 3 to a minimum of 13 +/- 3 micrograms P50, volume flow, and arteriolar diameter did not change in the control group (n = 10). These results suggest that an increased tissue oxygen delivery, caused by a right shift in the oxygen dissociation curve, may cause an increase in vascular resistance independent of an elevated blood flow. PMID:8812756

  15. Increased skin lymph protein clearance after a 6-h arterial bradykinin infusion.

    PubMed

    Mullins, R J; Hudgens, R W

    1987-12-01

    When bradykinin (0.15-0.28 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) was infused into both femoral arteries of 11 anesthetized dogs, skin lymph flows increased by 25-371% within 2 h, and mean lymph protein concentrations increased by one-third. To determine whether, in addition to the initial increase in permeability, a 6.5- to 10-h bradykinin infusion caused a sustained effect, the bradykinin infusion into one hindpaw was stopped after 2 h (2HR), whereas the contralateral hindpaw was infused continuously (CONT). Two hours after the bradykinin infusion was stopped, Ringer lactate equal to 10% of the dog's body weight was given intravenously to further increase lymph flow. After Ringer lactate infusion, increase in lymph protein clearance from the CONT hindpaws was greater than that from the 2HR hindpaws (change in clearance from before Ringer lactate infusion to final: 2HR, 6.9 +/- 1.4 to 8.8 +/- 1.1; CONT, 23.4 +/- 2.5 to 40.2 +/- 4.8 microliters/min). In the final lymph samples of the CONT, but not 2HR, hindpaws, the lymph-to-plasma ratio for immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M divided by the albumin lymph-to-plasma ratio exceeded the value of these ratios in the base-line samples. An intravenous bolus of Evans blue dye was given less than 2 h before the end of the experiment. The concentrations of dye in the final lymph samples were greater in CONT hindpaws (12.6 +/- 3.7% plasma equivalents) than in the 2HR hindpaws (1.1 +/- 0.5%). A continuous 6.5- to 10-h intra-arterial bradykinin infusion produced a sustained increase of transvascular protein clearance in skin that is consistent with a sustained increase in microvascular membrane permeability. PMID:3425746

  16. Seasonal patterns of basal and GnRH-induced LH, FSH and testosterone secretion in Eld's deer stags (Cervus eldi thamin).

    PubMed

    Monfort, S L; Brown, J L; Wood, T C; Wemmer, C; Vargas, A; Williamson, L R; Wildt, D E

    1993-07-01

    Plasma LH, FSH and testosterone were measured in blood samples collected via remote catheterization from six adult Eld's deer stags every 10 min for 8 h before and 2 h after GnRH (1 microgram kg-1, i.v.) administration. Blood samples were collected within 2 weeks of the summer solstice (21 June), autumn equinox (22 September), winter solstice (21 December) and spring equinox (20 March). Marked seasonal variations in basal LH, FSH and testosterone concentrations were observed. From autumn, well-defined LH pulses were temporally associated with small, but detectable pulses in testosterone. During the winter transition into the breeding season, episodic LH pulses were also temporally associated with corresponding testosterone surges that lasted 2-3 h. High amplitude, low frequency testosterone surges were also observed during the spring, but often in the absence of detectable LH pulses. Basal LH and testosterone concentrations decreased during the summer and, although LH pulses were detected, associated testosterone pulses were absent. Only 37% of LH pulses occurred coincidentally with FSH pulses, and FSH pulses were generally less prominent. The increases in LH and FSH above basal concentrations after GnRH treatment were significant (P < 0.05) for all seasons. Increases in testosterone after GnRH treatment were greatest during the winter and spring, but testosterone also increased to a lesser extent during the autumn (P < 0.05). In contrast, testosterone concentrations were not different before and after GnRH treatment during summer.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8410814

  17. Persistent efficacy of doramectin against experimental nematode infections in calves.

    PubMed

    Weatherley, A J; Hong, C; Harris, T J; Smith, D G; Hammet, N C

    1993-07-01

    Three studies were conducted involving cattle exposed to experimental nematode infections. These studies were designed to investigate the prophylactic activity of a single subcutaneous treatment of doramectin at 200 micrograms kg-1 body weight against infections of Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora and Dictyocaulus viviparus. For each study, parasite-naive calves were randomly allocated to either a treated or a matched control group. One group received doramectin and the other received doramectin and the other received either no treatment or an injection of saline at 1 ml per 50 kg body weight by the subcutaneous route. Thereafter, all calves received a daily oral challenge of infective larvae of the particular parasite species on test in each study. Challenge of each pair of treatment/control groups continued for periods of 14, 21 or 28 days. An interval of 14-21 days was then allowed to permit the parasites which had established to mature, after which all animals were slaughtered and their worm burdens determined using standard techniques. Geometric mean worm burdens were calculated from the log worm counts and used to estimate percentage efficacy. Accumulated burdens of C. oncophora in doramectin-treated cattle resulting from a daily challenge infection for 14 or 21 days were reduced by 99.2% and 90.7% respectively, in comparison with those of non-treated control animals. For D. viviparus, burdens were reduced by 100% and 99.9% after a 21 or 28 day challenge, respectively. The corresponding figures for O. ostertagi were 99.9% after a 21 day challenge and 93.7% after a 28 day challenge. PMID:8236737

  18. Low dose omeprazole effects on gastric acid secretion in normal man.

    PubMed

    Hemery, P; Galmiche, J P; Roze, C; Isal, J P; Bruley des Varannes, S; Lavignolle, A; Le Bodic, L

    1987-02-01

    The pharmacological effects of low dose of omeprazole (Om) are not well known. This prompted us to investigate the effects of a 7-day treatment with a low dose of Om, 10 mg/d (Om10), on gastric acid secretion and serum gastrin levels and to compare the results with those obtained with an effective antisecretory dose of 20 mg/d (Om20). Twelve healthy volunteers received randomly and double-blind for three periods of 7 days, separated by at least 7 days, one capsule of placebo (P), Om10, Om20, given daily in the morning, in fasting condition. The last day of each period, 24 h pH was recorded using a glass electrode connected to a Digitrapper (Synectics). At the end of each pH-metry, acid secretion was measured in basal conditions (BAO), after sham-feeding (SAO) and after i.m. injection of 6 micrograms X kg-1 of pentagastrin (PAO). Whatever the threshold pH chosen, there was a statistically significant difference between P and Om10, P and Om20, and Om10 and Om20. Inhibition of acid concentrations was dose-dependent and prolonged, including nocturnal time. However, when considered on an individual basis, five subjects did not respond to Om10. More than 24 h after the last dose of Om has been administered, BAO, SAO and PAO were significantly reduced by either Om10 (respectively -52, -35 and -28 p. cent) and Om20 (respectively -60, -58 and -50 p. cent). Fasting serum gastrin concentration was significantly increased after Om20 treatment but not after Om10. We conclude that treatment with Om10 has a consistent and long lasting inhibitory action on gastric acidity without statistically significant effect on serum gastrin levels. These results suggest that 10 mg Om daily should be sufficient in some duodenal ulcer patients to effectively inhibit gastric acidity specially when long-term treatment seems to be indicated. PMID:3569737

  19. Fumonisin contamination of food: progress in development of biomarkers to better assess human health risks.

    PubMed

    Turner, P C; Nikiema, P; Wild, C P

    1999-07-15

    Fumonisins, fungal toxins produced by Fusarium moniliforme, contaminate maize based foods and feeds throughout the world. They cause liver and kidney toxicity in animals in addition to leukoencephalomalacia in horses and pulmonary edema in pigs. Fumonisin B(1) is carcinogenic in rats and mice. Ecological studies have linked consumption of fumonisin contaminated maize with oesophageal cancer in human populations in South Africa and China. This review discusses the potential health risks for people exposed to the fumonisins, and describes how mechanistic studies of toxicity in animal models have allowed the development of putative biomarkers of fumonisin exposure at the individual level. The requirements for an applicable biomarker include sample availability as well as a high specificity and sensitivity for the exposure of interest. Most environmental toxic insults involve complex exposures both to other toxins and to infections; these confounding factors need to be considered in assessing both the validity of the biomarker and the exposure-disease associations. Fumonisins can be detected in the urine of animals in feeding studies but the sensitivity of the current methodology means only highly exposed people could be monitored. Mechanistic studies indicate that ceramide synthase, an enzyme involved in sphingolipid synthesis, is one cellular target for fumonisin toxicity and carcinogenicity, and this disruption to sphingolipid metabolism increases the ratio of two sphingoid precursors, sphinganine and sphingosine. The altered ratio has been observed in tissues, serum and urine for a number of animal models suggesting it as a good candidate marker of fumonisin exposure. Despite development of analytical methods to measure this biomarker there have been no studies to date correlating it to fumonisin intake in people. Given the toxic effects of fumonisins in animals and the widespread human exposure, which has been calculated to reach 440 micrograms kg(-1) body weight

  20. GLUT 4 and insulin receptor binding and kinase activity in trained human muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Dela, F; Handberg, A; Mikines, K J; Vinten, J; Galbo, H

    1993-01-01

    1. Physical training enhances sensitivity and responsiveness of insulin-mediated glucose uptake in human muscle. This study examines if this effect of physical training is due to increased insulin receptor function or increased total concentration of insulin-recruitable glucose transporter protein (GLUT 4). 2. Seven healthy young subjects carried out single leg bicycle training for 10 weeks at 70% of one leg maximal oxygen uptake (VO2,max). Subsequently biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle of both legs. 3. Single leg VO2,max increased for the trained leg (46 +/- 3 to 52 +/- 2 ml min-1 kg-1 (means +/- S.E.M., P < 0.05), and cytochrome c oxidase activity was higher in this compared to the untrained leg (2.0 +/- 0.1 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.1 nmol s-1 (mg muscle)-1, P < 0.05). Insulin binding as well as basal- and insulin-stimulated receptor kinase activity did not differ between trained and untrained muscle. The concentration of GLUT 4 protein was higher in the former (14.9 +/- 1.9 vs. 11.6 +/- 1.0 arbitrary units (micrograms protein)-1 in crude membranes, P < 0.05). The training-induced increase in GLUT 4 (26 +/- 11%) matched a previously reported increase in maximum insulin-stimulated leg glucose uptake (25 +/- 7%) in the same subjects, and individual values of the two variables correlated (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.84, P < 0.05). 4. In conclusion, in human muscle training induces a local contraction-dependent increase in GLUT 4 protein, which enhances the effect of insulin on glucose uptake. On the other hand, insulin receptor function in muscle is unlikely to be affected by training. PMID:8271219

  1. Intravenous PGF2 alpha infusion does not enhance hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction during canine one-lung hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Miller, F L; Malmkvist, G; Cooley, R; Marshall, C; Marshall, B E

    1988-02-01

    The effect of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) on the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstrictor (HPV) response was studied in 12 closed-chest dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital and paralyzed with pancuronium. The right lung was ventilated continuously with 100% O2, while the left lung was either ventilated with 100% O2 ("hyperoxia") or ventilated with an hypoxic gas mixture ("hypoxia:" end-tidal PO2 approximately equal to 50.0 +/- 0.1 mmHg). Cardiac output (CO) was altered from a "normal" value of 2.89 +/- 0.26 1.min-1 to a "high" value of 3.55 +/- 0.26 1.min-1 by opening arteriovenous fistulae which allowed measurements of two points along a pressure-flow line. These four phases of left lung hypoxia or hyperoxia with normal and high cardiac output were performed in the absence of, and in the presence of, PGF2 alpha administered as a constant peripheral intravenous infusion of 1.0 microgram.kg-1.min-1. During left lung hypoxia, mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) increased significantly when compared to hyperoxia. With PGF2 alpha administration, mean PAP increased significantly during both hyperoxia and hypoxia. The presence or absence of PGF2 alpha had no effect on cardiac output or PaO2 during hypoxia. Relative blood flow to each lung was measured with a differential CO2 excretion (VCO2) method corrected for the Haldane effect. With both lungs hyperoxic, the percent left lung blood flow (%QL-VCO2) was 45 +/- 1%. When the left lung was exposed to hypoxia, the %QL-VCO2 decreased significantly to 29 +/- 3%. However, with the administration of PGF2 alpha, the %QL-VCO2 during left lung hypoxia did not change significantly 26 +/- 3%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3422547

  2. Elderly, conscious patients have an accentuated hypotensive response to nitroglycerin.

    PubMed

    Cahalan, M K; Hashimoto, Y; Aizawa, K; Verotta, D; Ionescu, P; Balea, M; Eger, E I; Benet, L Z; Ehrenfeld, W K; Goldstone, J

    1992-10-01

    There is no adequate explanation for the highly variable response of systemic blood pressure to nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate [GTN]). Aging produces cardiovascular changes that should alter the effects of GTN, but elderly patients usually have been excluded from studies of GTN. Accordingly, the authors compared the effects of GTN on systemic blood pressure in elderly and younger patients. Fifty-three patients, aged 49-87 (with 30 patients older than 70), were studied. Before elective vascular surgery, 14 patients received an infusion of placebo; 26, a constant infusion of GTN; and 13, a stepwise increasing infusion of GTN. After a standardized anesthetic induction and the start of surgery, the identical infusion protocols were repeated in each group. Data on GTN infusion rate, arterial blood pressure, and GTN concentrations versus time, age, and other potentially influencing variables were pooled for analysis. Before anesthesia and surgery, GTN more commonly caused excessive hypotension in patients older than 70 yr than in younger patients, but none of the patients had complications. A repeated-measures model analysis indicated that age significantly influenced the effects of GTN on blood pressure. That is, patients who are in their 70s who receive 0.5 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 of GTN are predicted to experience a twofold greater decrease in systolic arterial pressure (approximately 33 mmHg) than patients in their 50s. However, no apparent effect of age on intraoperative GTN responsiveness was discernible nor was a predictable relationship found between the preoperative and intraoperative responsiveness or between arterial concentrations of GTN and blood pressure or age. Therefore, the authors conclude that, in the absence of the effects of anesthesia and surgery, elderly patients have a more pronounced blood pressure response to GTN than younger patients. Furthermore, the authors conclude that preoperative blood pressure responsiveness to GTN is not a reliable

  3. Dose titration of moxidectin oral gel against gastrointestinal parasites of ponies.

    PubMed

    Monahan, C M; Chapman, M R; French, D D; Taylor, H W; Klei, T R

    1995-10-01

    Moxidectin was tested as an oral gel formulation during a controlled test performed to evaluate dosages against equine gastrointestinal parasites. Four groups of ten ponies were used. Ponies ranged from 1 to 20 years of age and were naturally infected in southern Louisiana or Mississippi. Fecal exams and fecal cultures were performed on all ponies to determine the strongyle egg counts and the percent distributions of large and small strongyles. Following these determinations, ponies were allocated to replicates of four ponies to provide an even distribution of strongyle infection, age, weight and gender. Members of each replicate were then randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups. The doses tested were 300, 400 and 500 micrograms kg-1 body weight. The oral gel vehicle alone served as control. Treatments were administered behind the tongue and the ponies were observed continuously for 4 h for any adverse reactions; thereafter, ponies were observed at least twice daily. Necropsy examinations were performed 14 days post-treatment for the recovery and identification of any parasites present. Moxidectin, at all doses tested, was 100% efficacious against adults of Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus, Triodontophorus spp. and 22 species of small strongyles. Moxidectin was also 100% efficacious against larvae of Strongylus edentatus and Oxyuris equi, greater than 94% efficacious against Strongylus vulgaris larvae and Oxyuris equi adults at 14 days post-treatment. Moxidectin proved highly efficacious against luminal small strongyle larvae (> 99.9% against L4 and > 92% against L3) and moxidectin demonstrated some efficacy against encysted small strongyle larvae as well.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8533282

  4. Evidence against a role for dopamine D1 receptors in the myocardium of the pig.

    PubMed Central

    Van Woerkens, L. J.; Duncker, D. J.; Den Boer, M. O.; McFalls, E. O.; Sassen, L. M.; Saxena, P. R.; Verdouw, P. D.

    1991-01-01

    1. We investigated the presence of dopamine D1 receptors in the myocardium of anesthetized pigs using intravenous infusions of dopamine, alone and after alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor blockade and intracoronary infusions of the selective D1 receptor agonist, fenoldopam. 2. Intravenous infusion of dopamine (2.5, 5 and 10 micrograms kg-1 min-1 for 10 min, n = 6) caused dose-dependent changes in heart rate (from 94 +/- 6 to 132 +/- 10 beats min-1, P less than 0.05), the maximal rate of rise of left ventricular pressure (LVdP/dtmax; from 2280 +/- 170 to 4800 +/- 410 mmHgs-1, P less than 0.05), mean arterial blood pressure (from 87 +/- 5 to 62 +/- 3 mmHg) and systemic vascular resistance (from 40 +/- 4 to 28 +/- 2 mmHgl-1 min, P less than 0.05). The increases in heart rate and LVdP/dtmax were abolished when dopamine was infused after alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor blockade. The vasodilator response was, however, only minimally affected. 3. Intravenous infusions of dopamine decreased coronary vascular resistance from 0.90 +/- 0.06 to 0.53 +/- 0.07 mmHg ml-1 min 100 g (P less than 0.05). This action of dopamine was not observed when dopamine was infused after blockade of the alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors. 4. Pretreatment with alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor blockade had no effect or only slightly attenuated the dopamine-induced decrease in vascular resistance of the brain, kidneys, adrenals and small intestine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1686206

  5. Verification of a canine model of transient exercise induced myocardial dysfunction: antianginal effects of flestolol, an ultra short acting beta adrenoceptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Fischer, G; Grohs, J G; Raberger, G

    1990-02-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE - The aim of the study was to verify the reproducibility of a canine model of treadmill exercise induced regional myocardial dysfunction designed to mimic exertional angina pectoris in man. DESIGN - Dogs trained to run on a treadmill were chronically instrumented with a microtip manometer in the left ventricle, a hydraulic occluder around the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery, two pairs of crystals for sonomicrometry, and arterial and venous catheters. Experiments were started 10 d after surgery, when the animals were submitted to seven treadmill exercise cycles, each of 3 min, with a 7 min recovery period. Ischaemia was adjusted so as not to impair regional function at rest but to produce progressive dysfunction with increasing work load. Flestolol (1 microgram.kg-1.min-1) was infused intravenously during the third and fourth exercise cycle. SUBJECTS - Six mongrel dogs, 13.5-29.5 kg, were used. MEASUREMENTS and RESULTS - Flestolol caused a marked reduction in the exercise induced increase in left ventricular positive dP/dtmax, and minor reductions in heart rate and systolic blood pressure, resulting in a decrease in myocardial oxygen demand and an improvement in regional function in the circumflex area of the left coronary artery. The functional improvement was transient and disappeared entirely after termination of flestolol infusion. CONCLUSIONS - The results show that flestolol is beneficial in conditions of limited coronary reserve and exercise induced myocardial dysfunction. The fact that the extent of regional myocardial dysfunction was comparable before and after flestolol infusion confirms the stability and usefulness of this experimental model in the evaluation of antianginal drugs. PMID:1970278

  6. Analysis of volatile and semivolatile hydrocarbons recovered from steam-classified municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Joseph G; Carrington, Thomas E; Eley, Michael H

    2004-01-01

    Hazardous household wastes comprise a significant proportion of municipal solid waste (MSW), and therefore serve as the source of many toxic or carcinogenic organic chemicals that are released in the environment through landfill gases or leachates. In the present study, we demonstrate the utility of the steam classification process in removing hazardous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from MSW. Steam classification is a patented technology that involves the treatment of MSW with steam under pressure to yield a cellulosic biomass product that can be used as a fuel or in building materials. The SVOCs and VOCs from the waste off-gases are collected in the steam condensate and in an effluent charcoal filter. The results of this study show that at least two SVOCs and at least 17 VOCs can be removed from the waste. The most commonly identified compounds were diethylphthalate, styrene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and toluene in the condensates, and styrene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and toluene in the charcoal filters. On a weight basis, aromatic hydrocarbons were primarily recovered in the condensates, while the chloroaliphatic hydrocarbons were recovered almost exclusively from the charcoal filters. 1,3-Dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and chloroform together comprised nearly 50% of the 4470 micrograms kg(-1) average mass of SVOCs and VOCs recovered from about 454 kg of MSW in these experiments. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) analyses showed that steam classification recovered at least 75 to 91% of tested analytes. Overall, these results suggest that steam classification represents an effective technology for a significant reduction or the removal of hazardous organics from the waste stream, and, consequently, in reducing the extent of environmental contamination associated with landfill leachates and gases. PMID:15254138

  7. Vasopressin and angiotensin II in reflex regulation of ACTH, glucocorticoids, and renin: effect of water deprivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, V. L.; Keil, L. C.

    1992-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) and vasopressin participate in baroreflex regulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), glucocorticoid, and renin secretion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this participation is enhanced in water-deprived dogs, with chronically elevated plasma ANG II and vasopressin levels, compared with water-replete dogs. The baroreflex was assessed by infusing increasing doses of nitroprusside (0.3, 0.6, 1.5, and 3.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) in both groups of animals. To quantitate the participation of ANG II and vasopressin, the dogs were untreated or pretreated with the competitive ANG II antagonist saralasin, a V1-vasopressin antagonist, or combined V1/V2-vasopressin antagonist, either alone or in combination. The findings were as follows. 1) Larger reflex increases in ANG II, vasopressin, and glucocorticoids, but not ACTH, were produced in water-deprived dogs compared with water-replete dogs. 2) ANG II blockade blunted the glucocorticoid and ACTH responses to hypotension in water-deprived dogs, but not water-replete dogs. In contrast, vasopressin blockade reduced the ACTH response only in water-replete dogs. 3) Vasopressin or combined vasopressin and ANG II blockade reduced the plasma level of glucocorticoids related either to the fall in arterial pressure or to the increase in plasma ACTH concentration in water-replete dogs, and this effect was enhanced in water-deprived dogs. 4) In both water-deprived and water-replete animals, saralasin and/or a V1-antagonist increased the renin response to hypotension, but a combined V1/V2-antagonist did not. These results reemphasize the importance of endogenous ANG II and vasopressin in the regulation of ACTH, glucocorticoid, and renin secretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  8. Characterization of radiation resistant hypoxic cell subpopulations in KHT sarcomas. (II). Cell sorting.

    PubMed Central

    Siemann, D. W.; Keng, P. C.

    1988-01-01

    Hypoxic cells in KHT sarcomas were characterized using fluorescence activated cell sorting based on the diffusion properties of the fluorochrome Hoechst 33342. Tumour-bearing female C3H/HeJ mice were injected i.v. with 10 micrograms g-1 Hoechst 33342 and the cells derived from the tumours sorted on the basis of their staining intensities. For each sorted fraction the DNA histogram was evaluated using FCM analysis. The results indicated that the bright and dim cells were not equally distributed about the cell cycle. For example, a greater proportion of S phase cells were in the bright subpopulations whereas the dim subpopulations contained an increased proportion of cells in G1. When the tumours were irradiated with a single dose of radiation prior to cell sorting, the dim cells survived preferentially. Dose response curves for the 20% most dim and 20% most bright cells, sorted on the basis of fluorescence intensity, then were determined. The survival curves of the dim and bright cells were found to have slopes similar to those of KHT cells irradiated in situ in dead animals or in vitro under fully oxic conditions, respectively. In addition, when KHT sarcoma-bearing mice were given a 2.5 mmol kg-1 dose of misonidazole (MISO) prior to irradiation and cell sorting, the dim subpopulation was sensitized whereas the bright subpopulation was not. These findings suggest that (i) compared to well-oxygenated areas, hypoxic regions of KHT tumours contain a smaller percentage of cells actively proliferating and (ii) Hoechst 33342 sorting may allow the detailed in situ evaluation of agents acting directly against hypoxic cells in solid tumours. PMID:3179180

  9. Ontogeny of DA1 receptor-mediated natriuresis in the rat: in vivo and in vitro correlations.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, S; Albrecht, F; Asico, L D; Eisner, G M; Robillard, J E; Jose, P A

    1992-09-01

    The natriuretic and diuretic effects of dopamine are attenuated in the young. Because dopamine has actions on receptors (e.g., adrenergic, serotonin) other than dopamine, we studied a novel dopamine agonist, pramipexole, which has a selectivity to both DA1 and DA2-receptor subtypes. Intravenous administration of pramipexole resulted in a dose-related (1, 10, and 100 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) increase in urine flow and absolute and fractional sodium excretion and a decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in three groups of rats studied. Pramipexole induced a greater decrease in MAP in 6- to 7- (n = 5) and 9- to 16- (n = 6) than in 3- to 4-wk-old (n = 8) rats; the natriuresis and diuresis were greatest in 12- to 16- and least in 3- to 4-wk-old rats. The renal effects of pramipexole were mainly due to actions at the DA1 receptor, since these effects were completely blocked by the coinfusion of a DA1 antagonist, SKF 83742. To explore further a cause of the attenuated natriuretic effect of pramipexole in the young, we studied the effect of a selective DA1-receptor agonist, fenoldopam, on amiloride-sensitive 22Na+ uptake in renal brush-border membrane vesicles. The 3-s amiloride-sensitive uptake was inhibited (45%) by fenoldopam (5 x 10(-5)M) in 9- to 16- (n = 6) but not in 3- to 4-wk-old (n = 5) rats. These studies suggest that the attenuated natriuretic effect of dopamine in the young is in part due to decreased DA1 action on the brush-border membrane Na(+)-H+ exchanger. PMID:1357983

  10. Spontaneous oscillation of tension and sarcomere length in skeletal myofibrils. Microscopic measurement and analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Anazawa, T; Yasuda, K; Ishiwata, S

    1992-01-01

    We have devised a simple method for measuring tension development of single myofibrils by micromanipulation with a pair of glass micro-needles. The tension was estimated from the deflection of a flexible needle under an inverted phase-contrast microscope equipped with an image processor, so that the tension development is always accompanied by the shortening of the myofibril (auxotonic condition) in the present setup. The advantage of this method is that the measurement of tension (1/30 s for time resolution and about 0.05 micrograms for accuracy of tension measurement; 0.05 microns as a spatial resolution for displacement of the micro-needle) and the observation of sarcomere structure are possible at the same time, and the technique to hold myofibrils, even single myofibrils, is very simple. This method has been applied to study the tension development of glycerinated skeletal myofibrils under the condition where spontaneous oscillation of sarcomeres is induced, i.e., the coexistence of MgATP, MgADP and inorganic phosphate without free Ca2+. Under this condition, we found that the tension of myofibrils spontaneously oscillates accompanied by the oscillation of sarcomere length with a main period of a few seconds; the period was lengthened and shortened with stretch and release of myofibrils. A possible mechanism of the oscillation is discussed. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:1600075

  11. Penetration enhancing effect of menthol on the percutaneous flux of nicardipine hydrochloride through excised rat epidermis from hydroxypropyl cellulose gels.

    PubMed

    Krishnaiah, Y S R; Satyanarayana, V; Karthikeyan, R S

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the penetration enhancing effect of menthol on the percutaneous flux of nicardipine hydrochloride through the excised rat epidermis from 2% w/w hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) gel system. The HPC gel formulations containing nicardipine hydrochloride and selected concentrations of menthol (0-12% w/w) were prepared, and evaluated for in vitro permeation of the drug through excised rat abdominal epidermis. The percutaneous flux of nicardipine hydrochloride across rat epidermis was enhanced markedly by the addition of menthol to the HPC gels. A maximum flux of nicardipine hydrochloride (227.70 +/- 1.30 micrograms cm-2 hr-1) was observed with an enhancement ratio of 7.12 when menthol was incorporated at a concentration of 8% w/w in a reservoir HPC system. The differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy data indicated that menthol increased the percutaneous flux of nicardipine hydrochloride through the rat skin by partial extraction of lipids in the stratum corneum. The results suggest that menthol may be useful for increasing the skin permeability of nicardipine hydrochloride from transdermal therapeutic system containing HPC gel as a reservoir. PMID:12229262

  12. Chemical properties of emission from biomass fuels used in the rural sector of the western region of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Avirup; Mandal, T. K.; Sharma, S. K.; Saxena, Mohit; Gupta, N. C.; Gautam, R.; Gupta, Anita; Gill, Tanvi; Rani, Shalu; Saud, T.; Singh, D. P.; Gadi, Ranu

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the emission factors (EF) of particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO2, NO, NO2 and water soluble ions emitted by residential biomass fuels collected from the rural sector of Western India. Burning process has been simulated using a dilution chamber. Average EF of PM, OC and EC from fuel wood (FW), agricultural residues (AR) and dung cakes (DC) from Western India are estimated as: PM: 1.69 ± 0.98 g kg-1, 2.15 ± 1.00 g kg-1 and 5.37 ± 3.90 g kg-1; OC: 0.43 ± 0.29 g kg-1, 00.54 ± 0.22 g kg-1, 1.14 ± 0.67 g kg-1; EC: 0.25 ± 0.16 g kg-1, 0.23 ± 0.11 g kg-1 and 0.14 ± 0.08 g kg-1 respectively. Similarly, the average EF of SO2, NO and NO2 from FW, AR and DC are determined to be: SO2: 0.66 ± 0.37 g kg-1, 0.29 ± 0.45 g kg-1 and 0.74 ± 0.48 g kg-1; NO: 0.55 ± 0.25 g kg-1, 0.74 ± 0.37 g kg-1 and 0.50 ± 0.23 g kg-1; NO2: 1.05 ± 0.49 g kg-1, 1.41 ± 0.81 g kg-1 and 0.91 ± 0.45 g kg-1 respectively. Cl- has the highest average EF (FW: 97.03 ± 74.98 mg kg-1, AR: 175.71 ± 145.78 mg kg-1, DC: 158.15 ± 109.07 mg kg-1) among the anions, followed by PO43-(FW: 116.59 ± 63.43 mg kg-1, AR: 58.45 ± 1.42 mg kg-1, DC: 85.77 ± 78.85 mg kg-1) and NO3- (FW: 64.23 ± 68.38 mg kg-1, AR: 36.78 ± 22.80 mg kg-1, DC: 50.25 ± 49.33 mg kg-1). Similarly, among the cations, the highest emitters are Na+ (FW: 40.25 ± 26.64 mg kg-1; AR: 47.96 ± 18.35 mg kg-1, DC: 30.51 ± 23.39 mg kg-1), K+ (FW: 29.32 ± 23.95 mg kg-1, AR: 50.89 ± 34.62 mg kg-1, DC: 18.23 ± 14.54 mg kg-1) and NH4+ (FW: 27.93 ± 22.59 mg kg-1; AR: 46.37 ± 41.79 mg kg-1, DC: 41.74 ± 36.01 mg kg-1). The total emissions of trace gases, PM and its chemical composition from FW, AR and DC have been calculated using laboratory generated EFs over Western India.

  13. In vitro mineral binding capacity of five fiber sources and their insoluble components for copper and zinc.

    PubMed

    Claye, S S; Idouraine, A; Weber, C W

    1996-06-01

    Five fiber-rich food sources, wheat bran (WB), rice bran (RB), oat fiber (OF), apple fiber (AF), and tomato fiber (TF) and their isolated insoluble fiber fractions were evaluated in vitro for their binding capacity for zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). Endogenous Zn concentrations of the fibers varied from 11.0 micrograms/g for OF to 136.0 micrograms/g for WB, whereas Cu concentrations ranged from 1.0 microgram/g for OF to 14.0 micrograms/g for WB. In all the fibers, total Cu bound was significantly higher than Zn. Total Cu bound ranged from 3687 micrograms/g for OF to 8019 micrograms/g and 8073 micrograms/g for WB and AF, whereas, bound Zn levels varied from 1213 micrograms/g for OF to 7121 micrograms/g and 7166 micrograms/g for WB and RB, respectively. Significantly more Zn and Cu were bound by the fiber fractions than the whole fibers, probably due to the exposure of more binding sites on the polymers during the fractionation process. Generally, the fiber components of all five fibers showed Cu and Zn binding capacities decreasing in the order; hemicellulose A > lignocellulose > lignin > cellulose. A strong correlation was seen between the combined effects of protein, hemicellulose, and lignin contents of the fibers versus total Zn binding capacity and a lesser correlation with Cu. PMID:8983052

  14. The in vitro activity of beta-lactamase inhibitors in combination with cephalosporins against M. tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, C H; Yang, M H; Lin, J S; Lee, Y C; Perng, R P

    1995-04-01

    Although there are reports that the addition of a beta-lactamase inhibitor to ampicillin or amoxicillin greatly improves their in vitro activity against M. tuberculosis, there are no written reports about the antituberculosis effects of beta-lactamase inhibitors in combination with cephalosporins against M. tuberculosis. In this report, we have determined the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 5 cephalosporins with or without combination with beta-lactamase inhibitor against M. tuberculosis strains isolated from patients before antituberculosis treatment and checked the production of beta-lactamase by bacteria before this procedure. Four strains of M. tuberculosis were contaminated during the experiment, and all the other 16 strains hydrolyzed the nitrocefin disc, thus indicating a beta-lactamase producer. The MICs of cephalosporins alone against M. tuberculosis were 200-400 micrograms/ml for ceforanide, 100-400 micrograms/ml for cephapirin, 400-1600 micrograms/ml for cefamandole, 200-1600 micrograms/ml for cefotaxime, and 800-1600 micrograms/ml for ceftriaxone. After adding the equimolar concentrations of sulbactam, the MICs were reduced to 100-200 micrograms/ml for ceforanide, 12.5-100 micrograms/ml for cephapirin, 100-400 micrograms/ml for cefamandole, 25-200 micrograms/ml for cefotaxime, and 100-800 micrograms/ml for ceftriaxone. We concluded that sulbactam enhanced the antituberculosis effect of cephalosporins. PMID:7624446

  15. Follow-up screening of lead-poisoned children near an auto battery recycling plant, Haina, Dominican Republic.

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, B; Sandhu, R S; Depratt, C; Reyes, F

    1999-01-01

    In August 1997 we performed a follow-up survey of 146 lead-poisoned children from a community near a previously active auto battery recycling smelter in Haina near Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Our follow-up survey confirmed a severe incidence of elevated blood lead (BPb) and erythrocyte protoporphyrin/zinc protoporphyrin (EP-ZnPP) levels. The mean BPb level was 32 micrograms/dL and the mean EP-ZnPP level was 128 micrograms/dL. The frequency distribution of BPb showed that only 9% of the children had BPb levels below the currently acceptable 10 micrograms/dL threshold level, 23% had between 10 and 19 micrograms/dL, 40% had between 20 and 39 micrograms/dL, 27% had between 40 and 99 micrograms/dL, and the remainder had > 100 micrograms/dL. These findings are significantly greater than the mean BPb and EP-ZnPP levels of 14 and 35 micrograms/dL, respectively, in a comparison group of 63 children in Barsequillo, 4 miles away. BPb frequency distributions for these groups were < 10 micrograms/dL (42%), 10-19 micrograms/dL (32%), and 20-39 micrograms/dL (16%); in the remaining 10%, BPb levels were between 40 and 99 micrograms/dL. Similarly, the corresponding frequency distribution of EP-ZnPP levels in Haina children were proportional to the severity of lead poisoning and significantly higher than those of the Barsequillo comparison group. This study reveals that at least 28% of Haina children require immediate treatment; of these, 5% with lead levels > 70 micrograms/dL are also at risk for severe neurologic sequelae, and urgent action is imperative. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10544160

  16. Bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saakes, M.; Woortmeijer, R.; Schmal, D.

    Within the framework of the European project bipolar lead-acid power source (BILAPS), a new production route is being developed for the bipolar lead-acid battery. The performance targets are 500 W kg -1, 30 Wh kg -1 and 100 000 power-assist life cycles (PALCs). The operation voltage of the battery can be, according to the requirements, 12, 36 V or any other voltage. Tests with recently developed 4 and 12 V prototypes, each of 30 Ah capacity have demonstrated that the PALC can be operated using 10 C discharge and 9 C charge peaks. The tests show no overvoltage or undervoltage problems during three successive test periods of 16 h with 8 h rest in between. The temperature stabilizes during these tests at 40-45 °C using a thermal-management system. The bipolar lead acid battery is operated at an initial 50% state-of-charge. During the tests, the individual cell voltages display only very small differences. Tests are now in progress to improve further the battery-management system, which has been developed at the cell level, during the period no PALCs are run in order to improve the hybrid behaviour of the battery. The successful tests show the feasibility of operating the bipolar lead-acid battery in a hybrid mode. The costs of the system are estimated to be much lower than those for nickel-metal-hydride or Li-ion based high-power systems. An additional advantage of the lead-acid system is that recycling of lead-acid batteries is well established.

  17. Comparative study on macro- and micro-elements concentration in Nicotiana tabacum and Faba siliquis plants by ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balazs, Zoltan; Voica, Cezara; Dehelean, Adriana; Magdas, Dana Alina; Ristoiu, Dumitru

    2015-12-01

    Plants are important components of ecosystems as they transfer elements from abiotic into biotic environments. The concentration of macro and micro-elements in tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum) and bean (Faba siliquis) was analyzed using ICP-MS technique. The results obtained indicated that the mean concentration of Mg, P, K and Ca in tobacco leaves was 0.965, 0.812, 4.412 and 2.694 g.kg-1, respectively, while in bean samples were 0.899, 2.024, 6.725 and 1.387 g.kg-1, respectively. Mn concentration ranged from 156.835 mg.kg-1 to 234.593 mg.kg-1 in tobacco leaves and from 116.174 mg.kg-1 to 440.423 mg.kg-1 in bean samples. The results for Cu and Zn were between 7.262 mg.kg-1 and 105.738 mg.kg-1, 68.549 mg.kg-1 and 113.720 mg.kg-1 (tobacco leaves); and 6.830 mg.kg-1 and 46.034 mg.kg-1, 50.166 mg.kg-1 and 77.242 mg.kg-1 (bean samples), respectively. In analyzed samples, Pb, Cd and As concentrations ranged between <0.001-0.717 mg.kg-1, 0.046 mg.kg-1 -6.218 mg.kg-1, <0.001-0.381 mg.kg-1. The paper discusses the transfer of metal ions (Mn, As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively) from soil to these plants in terms of transfer factors (TF).

  18. Mitigating the environmental impacts of milk production via anaerobic digestion of manure: case study of a dairy farm in the Po Valley.

    PubMed

    Battini, F; Agostini, A; Boulamanti, A K; Giuntoli, J; Amaducci, S

    2014-05-15

    This work analyzes the environmental impacts of milk production in an intensive dairy farm situated in the Northern Italy region of the Po Valley. Three manure management scenarios are compared: in Scenario 1 the animal slurry is stored in an open tank and then used as fertilizer. In scenario 2 the manure is processed in an anaerobic digestion plant and the biogas produced is combusted in an internal combustion engine to produce heat (required by the digester) and electricity (exported). Scenario 3 is similar to scenario 2 but the digestate is stored in a gas-tight tank. In scenario 1 the GHG emissions are estimated to be equal to 1.21 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM) without allocation of the environmental burden to the by-product meat. With mass allocation, the GHG emissions associated to the milk are reduced to 1.18 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. Using an economic allocation approach the GHG emissions allocated to the milk are 1.13 kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. In scenarios 2 and 3, without allocation, the GHG emissions are reduced respectively to 0.92 (-23.7%) and 0.77 (-36.5%) kg CO2 eq.kg(-1) FPCM. If land use change due to soybean production is accounted for, an additional emission of 0.53 kg CO2 eq. should be added, raising the GHG emissions to 1.74, 1.45 and 1.30 kg CO2 eq kg(-1) FPCM in scenarios 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Primary energy from non-renewable resources decreases by 36.2% and 40.6% in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively, with the valorization of the manure in the biogas plant. The other environmental impact mitigated is marine eutrophication that decreases by 8.1% in both scenarios 2 and 3, mostly because of the lower field emissions. There is, however, a trade-off between non-renewable energy and GHG savings and other environmental impacts: acidification (+6.1% and +5.5% in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively), particulate matter emissions (+1.4% and +0.7%) and photochemical ozone formation potential (+41.6% and +42.3%) increase with the

  19. Biochar amendment reduces rice Cd uptake in polluted and unpolluted paddy soils: a long term field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, R.; Cui, L.; Pan, G.; Li, L.

    2012-04-01

    The bioavailability of Cd in agricultural soils has been a great health concern due to the potential risk through exposure of agro-food produced in Cd-contaminated fields. Yet, rice subject to Cd contamination appears to have expanded at the last decade due to irrigation with waste water and chemical fertilization in south china. This is supposed to raise the Cd accumulation of rice grain. Therefore, techniques to reduce Cd mobility and plant uptake have been a urgent demand for food safety in China.A field experiment was performed in a high-polluted (HP), mid-pollute (MP) and unpolluted (UP) paddy soil with biochar(BC) amendment in 2011. BC was applied in HP, MP and UP in 2008, 2009, 2009 with the rates of 0, 10, 20, 40t ha-1 in HP, MP and 0, 40t ha-1 in UP. The experiment was monitored in 2011. It was observed that BC amendment did not affect rice grain yield but significantly increased soil pH by 0.58-0.77, 1.30 units in MP, UP and there was no difference in HP. The Cacl2 extracted Cd in soil was decreased by 18.1%-28.9% in HP, 49.3%-67.5% in MP and 83.1% in UP, respectively. Meanwhile, H2O extractable Cd in soil was decreased by 20.0%-31.7% in HP, 32.7%-44.2% in MP and 25.0% in UP, respectively. With the BC treatment, rice grain Cd concentration was decreased 4.7%-17.6% in HP, 35.9%-53.4% in MP. Especially in UP field, the rice grain Cd concentration was decreased from 0.22mg kg-1 to 0.07mg kg-1 which was below National standard (0.20mg kg-1) in China. The straw and root Cd contents were also significantly decreased with BC application. Therefore, BC amendment in polluted and unpolluted fields can sustainably reduce rice Cd uptake and it may offer a basic option to reduce Cd levels in rice. Keywords: Biochar, Cd, bioavailability, paddy soil, food safety

  20. Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 induces fever by a prostaglandin-dependent mechanism in rats.

    PubMed

    Soares, Denis Melo; Machado, Renes R; Yamashiro, Lívia H; Melo, Miriam C C; Souza, Glória E P

    2008-10-01

    Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1), a member of the ELR+CXC subfamily [ELR motif (glutamic acid-leucine-arginine) adjacent to the cysteine-X-cysteine (CXC) motif located at the N-terminus of the protein], is an acute-phase protein and its synthesis is induced by endogenous and exogenous pyrogens. However, there are no studies on the pyrogenic property of CINC-1. Therefore, the present study evaluates whether centrally administered CINC-1 promotes an integrated febrile response along with an increase in the prostaglandin (PG)E2 content of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of rats. The effects of antipyretic drugs on fever and on the PGE2 content of the CSF as well as the effectiveness of a neutralizing anti-CINC-1 antibody on the fever induced by CINC-1 have also been investigated. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of CINC-1 induced a dose-dependent bell-shaped rise on body temperature and increased PGE2 concentration in the CSF of conscious rats. Injected into the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus (AH/POA) (i.h.), CINC-1 also induced a dose-dependent bell-shaped increase in body temperature along with a decrease on tail skin temperature. Indomethacin (INDO, 2 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and ibuprofen (IBU, 10 mg kg(-1), i.p.) markedly reduced the fever evoked by i.c.v. injection of CINC-1 (25 ng/site). Orally given celecoxib (5 mg kg(-1), 30 min. before) abolished the fever induced by CINC-1 i.c.v. or i.h. (50 pg) injection. The antipyretic drugs also blocked the PGE(2) increase after CINC-1 i.c.v. injection. Co-injected anti-CINC antibody (10 ng/site) strongly reduced the febrile response induced by CINC-1 (50 pg/site) injected intrahypothalamically. This is the first time that centrally injected CINC-1 has been reported to act directly on the pyrogen-sensitive neurons of AH/POA, promoting a thermoregulatory response that seems to depend on other endogenous pyrogens synthesis and, as seen here, on PGE2. PMID:18694739

  1. Effects of slope orientation on fine surface fuel moisture content: implications for ignition probabilities and connectivity of fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, Petter; Metzen, Daniel; Noske, Phil; Duff, Thomas; Sheridan, Gary

    2015-04-01

    This study quantifies topographic effects on microclimate and moisture dynamics in litter and near surface soil with the aim to improve spatial representation of fine surface fuel moisture content (FFMC) in mountainous terrain where forest fires typically operate. FFMC was monitored at 30-minute intervals using a novel field method for measuring moisture content of litter, providing unique data on the spatial-temporal variation in FFMC throughout a fire season. Moisture sensors were inserted into litter packs at sites on different slope aspects (North, South, West and East) and paired with manual measurement of gravimetric water content to relate sensor output to water content. Hydrochron sensors (or iButtons) were placed within the litter packs, measuring temperature at the interface between the litter layer and the soil. During the monitoring period the mean daily moisture content in the litter layer ranged from 0.07-1.30 kg kg-1 on the north-facing slope and from 0.11-1.83 kg kg-1 on the south-facing slope. The number of days during the fire season when the litter was below the fiber saturation point (~0.35 kg kg -1) was 49 and 128 on the south and north aspects, respectively, highlighting the very large aspect-driven variation in FFMC and the need for spatially explicit data on microclimate. Differences in moisture content were caused by aspect-related variation in incoming radiation which resulted in large temperature differences within the litter layer. On the warmest day of the monitoring period (38.9° C on 17 January), for example, the difference in litter temperature between North and South aspect was 14° C. Differences in surface temperature were driven mainly by the systematic variation in vegetation cover, and hence shading, which emerge as a result of aspect (i.e. eco-hydrologic effect) and partly by the effects of slope orientation (i.e. geometric effect) on incoming radiation. Furthermore, the differences in FFMC due to evaporative demand were

  2. Effect of age on sensitivity of daphnia magna to cadmium, copper and cyanazine

    SciTech Connect

    Nebeker, A.V.; Cairns, M.A.; Onjukka, S.T.; Titus, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Daphnia magna were exposed to cadmium, copper, and cyanazine to determine the relative sensitivities of several age groups: less than 4 h, less than 24 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 4 d, 5 d, and 6 d old. Mean cadmium 48-h EC50 values for each age group ranged from 23 to 164 micrograms/L. Mean copper EC50 values ranged from 6 to 18 micrograms/L. Cyanazine EC50 values ranged from 53 to 106 micrograms/L. The 1-d-old Daphnia mean EC50s were 48 and 49 micrograms/L for cadmium, 10 and 10 micrograms/L for copper and 84 and 86 microgram/L for cyanazine, respectively. These similar sensitivities indicate that older animals can be used in tests equally as well as younger animals, thus simplifying the recovery of daphnids in acute sediment toxicity tests.

  3. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to trospectomycin, pirlimycin (U-57930E), mirincamycin (U-24729A) and N-demethyl clindamycin (U-26767A).

    PubMed

    Westblom, T U; Midkiff, B R; Czinn, S J

    1993-07-01

    The in vitro activity of trospectomycin, pirlimycin, mirincamycin and N-demethyl clindamycin was measured against 46 clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori using an agar dilution technique. The MIC50 and MIC90 were 4 and 64 micrograms/ml for pirlimycin and N-demethyl clindamycin, and 32 and 128 micrograms/ml for mirincamycin, respectively. All 46 strains were sensitive to trospectomycin with an MIC50 of 8 micrograms/ml and an MIC90 of 16 micrograms/ml. Of seven strains with the highest trospectomycin MICs (8 or 16 micrograms/ml) 100% were found to be resistant to metronidazole. Among ten strains with low trospectomycin MICs (2 micrograms/ml or less) 100% were sensitive to metronidazole. Possible explantations for the apparent correlation between the MICs of the two drugs are discussed. Since all metronidazole resistant strains were sensitive to trospectomycin, this drug may be useful in treating infection with metronidazole resistant Helicobacter pylori. PMID:8404921

  4. [Antioxidant action of garlic oil and allitridi].

    PubMed

    Fu, N

    1993-08-01

    The lipid peroxidation and chemiluminescence (CL) of mouse liver mitochondria induced by a Vc/FeSO4 reaction system was greatly inhibited by garlic oil (GO) and allitridi (Alt) at 0.1 mg/ml. HpD-induced photohemolysis was moderately inhibited by garlic oil (25 micrograms/ml) and allitridi (20 micrograms/ml). Allitridi (200 micrograms/ml) effectively prevented inactivation of red cell membrane acetylcholine sterase (AchEs) caused by .OH, and at 250 micrograms/ml it markedly inhibited blood CL stimulated by croton oil. Garlic oil (5 micrograms/ml) and allitridi (100 micrograms/ml) significantly increased O2-. production. Allitridi at 0.25 mg/ml and 1 mg/ml enhanced lipid peroxidation of mitochondria and blood CL caused by H2O2. PMID:8168210

  5. Machining of low percentage beryllium copper alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habermeyer, J. G.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne beryllium sampling during machining of low percentage beryllium-copper alloys shows that normal dry machining creates 45.2 microgram/cu m of airborne beryllium in the casting operators breathing zone and 2.3 microgram/cu m in an adjacent machine working area. A small vacuum system placed over the tool effectively removes airborne beryllium in the breathing zone sample to 0.2 microgram/cu m.

  6. Compilation of atrazine and selected herbicide data from previous surface-water-quality investigations within the Big Blue River basin, Nebraska, 1983-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankforter, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Atrazine has been detected in the surface water of the Big Blue River Basin during every month of the year. Recent data (1983-92) documenting the occurrence of atrazine and related herbicides in the surface water of the basin are compiled in this report. In samples analyzed during these studies, atrazine was the herbicide detected most frequently within the basin. Of the 385 samples analyzed, 369 contained atrazine in detectable concentrations with detection levels varying from 0 to 0.1 micrograms per liter. The concentrations of atrazine within the samples varied from 0.5 to 166 micrograms per liter, with a median concentration of 2.7 micrograms per liter. Other herbicides frequently detected in the Big Blue River Basin were alachlor, cyanazine, metolachlor, and simazine, and two metabolites of atrazine, desethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine. In the 226 samples which alachlor was detected, the concentrations of the herbicide ranged from 0.05 to 56 micrograms per liter, and the median concen- tration was 1.1 micrograms per liter. Cyanazine was detected in 210 of 365 samples collected with con- centrations that ranged from 0.05 to 8.6 micrograms per liter with a median concentration of 0.4 microgram per liter. The maximum concentrations of metolachlor and simazine were 26 and 35 micrograms per liter, respectively. The median concentrations of these herbicides were 1.0 and 0.1 micrograms per liter, respectively. The maximum concentration of desethylatrazine, was 3.7 micrograms per liter, with a median concentration of 1.0 microgram per liter. Deisopropylatrazine, was detected in 152 samples with maximum and median concentrations of 2.6 and 0.6 micrograms per liter, respectively.

  7. A Summary of Ambient Air at John F. Kennedy Space Center with a Comparison to Data from the Florida Statewide Monitoring Network (1983-1992)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drese, John H.

    1997-01-01

    The EPA criteria air pollutants were monitored at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) since 1983 to comply the prevention of significant deterioration requirements under the Clean Air Act amendments passed by Congress in 1977 and 1990. Monitoring results show that monthly maximum 24-hour total suspended particulates decreased from 144.6 micograms/cu m in 1988 to 73.0 micrograms/cu m in 1991 and increased to 149.3 micrograms/cu m in 1992. Inhalable particulates increased from 56.1 gg/M3 in 1983 to 131.4 micrograms/cu m in 1988, and then decreased to 38.5 micrograms/cu m in 1992. Sulfur dioxide monthly maximum 24-hour average concentrations decreased each year from 135.2 micrograms/cu m in 1983 to 33.8 micrograms/cu m in 1992. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations increased from 5.1 micrograms/cu m in 1983 to 5.9 micrograms/cu m in 1988, then decreased to 4.5 micrograms/cu m in 1992. Carbon monoxide annual average concentrations decreased from 6.2 micrograms/cu m in 1983 to 1.1 micrograms/cu m in 1988, and increased to 1.2 micrograms/cu m in 1992. Ozone maximum 1-hour concentrations increased from 98 parts per billion (ppb) in 1983 to 134 ppb in 1989, and then decreased to 80 ppb in 1992. Total annual rainfall ranged from 37.47 inches to 57.47 inches and shows a 6.6 percent increase over this same ten year period.

  8. [Contents of aluminum and manganese in tea leaves and tea infusions].

    PubMed

    Matsushima, F; Meshitsuka, S; Nose, T

    1993-10-01

    We measured the contents of aluminum and manganese in tea leaves and tea infusions by means of various standardized infusion conditions, and by using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and investigated the influence of infusion conditions on the elution of aluminum and manganese into the tea infusions. Furthermore, we tried to estimate the daily intake of aluminum and manganese due to drinking tea infusions. The content of aluminum in tea leaves was 1420 micrograms/g in case of wulong tea, 576 micrograms/g in black tea, and 520 micrograms/g in green tea. The content of manganese was 1440 micrograms/g in the case of wulong tea, 670 micrograms/g in green tea, and 535 micrograms/g in black tea. The concentration of aluminum in tea infusions was 1.49-5.58 micrograms/ml in wulong tea, 0.90-4.92 micrograms/ml in green tea, and 0.64-4.35 micrograms/ml in black tea. The concentration of manganese was 1.75-6.67 micrograms/ml in green tea, 0.94-4.04 micrograms/ml in wulong tea, and 0.78-3.24 micrograms/ml in black tea. The ratio of the molar concentration of aluminum to that of manganese was 1-2:1 in tea leaves, and 1-5:1 in tea infusions. In the case of elevated-temperature infusion, increases of the concentrations of aluminum and manganese in tea infusions were recognized. By repeating infusion three times according to the standard method for ingredient analysis of food, 18-29% of the total content of aluminum in tea leaves was eluted, and 12-29% of the total content of manganese was eluted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8254994

  9. Hexavalent chromium in the ground and surface waters near Telluride, Colorado; preliminary data report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grove, David B.; Miller, R.L.; Konikow, L.F.; O'Boyle, P. S.

    1979-01-01

    Data showing results of 38 groundwater and 25 surface-water samples analyzed for hexavalent chromium are presented. Most samples were taken within the Telluride, Colo., city limits during October 1978. Twenty-four of the 38 groundwater samples (63%) contained more than 50 micrograms per liter of hexavalent chromium. Excluding the mill tailings pond 6 of the 23 surface-water samples (26%) contained more than 50 micrograms per liter of hexavalent chromium. Hexavalent chromium concentrations in groundwaters ranged from 0 to 2700 micrograms per liter and in surface waters from 0 to 160 micrograms per liter. (USGS)

  10. Micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis for rapid analysis of patulin in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Tsao, R; Zhou, T

    2000-11-01

    A micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) mode was applied to a capillary electrophoresis (CE) method, which was developed for detection and quantitation of patulin in apple ciders. This method used a small sample amount (2 mL) and consumed minimal organic solvent compared to the most commonly used HPLC methods. The sample preparation procedure of the CE method was also simpler than other chromatographic techniques developed for patulin analysis. Patulin was detected with a photodiode array detector at 273 nm. The standard curve was linear (r(2) = 0.9984) from 75 microgram/L to 121 microgram/mL with patulin working solutions corresponding to 3.8 microgram/L to 6.1 microgram/mL patulin in the sample. The linearity was better in a narrower range of concentrations (r(2) = 0.9999) from 75 microgram/L to 24.1 microgram/mL. The limit of detection of the method was 3.8 microgram/L. Patulin recoveries at 4 levels in spiked samples (10-121 microgram/L) ranged from 95.2 to 105.4%. The recoveries were 96. 9% and 99.2% for 2 levels (22.3 and 223 microgram/L, respectively) of patulin in infected apple samples. This method represents a unique alternative method for rapid and sensitive analysis of patulin in apple ciders. PMID:11087465

  11. Circulating immune complexes in sickle cell-beta zero thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Donadi, E A; Carvalho, I F; Falcão, R P

    1989-01-01

    A serum fraction from patients with sickle cell-beta zero thalassemia prepared by treatment with polyethyleneglycol showed increased amounts of C1q-precipitable immune complexes, i.e., 216 micrograms/dl (range, 141-266 micrograms/dl) vs 181 micrograms/dl (range, 152-228 micrograms/dl) for controls (P less than 0.05), as well as increased amounts of protein. Levels of IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, C4 and factor B in the same fraction were within the normal range. PMID:2638196

  12. Effects of buserelin injection and deslorelin (GnRH-agonist) implants on plasma progesterone, LH, accessory CL formation, follicle and corpus luteum dynamics in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Rajamahendran, R; Ambrose, J D; Schmitt, E J; Thatcher, M J; Thatcher, W W

    1998-11-01

    The influence of Buserelin injection and Deslorelin (a GnRH analogue) implants administered on Day 5 of the estrous cycle on plasma concentrations of LH and progesterone (P4), accessory CL formation, and follicle and CL dynamics was examined in nonlactating Holstein cows. On Day 5 (Day 1 = ovulation) following a synchronized estrus, 24 cows were assigned randomly (n = 4 per group) to receive 2 mL saline, i.m. (control), 8 micrograms, i.m. Buserelin or a subcutaneous Deslorelin (DES) implant in concentrations of 75 micrograms, 150 micrograms, 700 micrograms or 2100 micrograms. Blood samples were collected (for LH assay) at 30-min intervals for 2 h before and 12 h after GnRH-treatment from cows assigned to Buserelin, DES-700 micrograms and DES-2100 micrograms treatments and thereafter at 4-h intervals for 48 h. Beginning 24 h after treatment, ovaries were examined by ultrasound at 2-h intervals until ovulation was confirmed. Thereafter, ultrasonography and blood sampling (for P4 assay) was performed daily until a spontaneous ovulation before Day 45. A greater release of LH occurred in response to Deslorelin implants than to Buserelin injection (P < 0.01). Basal levels of LH between 12 and 48 h were higher in DES-700 micrograms group than in DES-2100 micrograms and Buserelin (P < 0.05). The first wave dominant follicle ovulated in all cows following GnRH treatment. Days to CL regression did not differ between treatments, but return to estrus was delayed (44.2 vs 27.2 d; P < 0.01) in cows of DES-2100 micrograms group. All GnRH treatments elevated plasma P4 concentrations, and the highest P4 responses were observed in the DES-700 micrograms and DES-2100 micrograms groups. The second follicular wave emerged earlier in GnRH-treated than in control cows (9.9 vs 12.8 d; P < 0.01). However, emergence of the third dominant follicle was delayed in cows of DES-2100 micrograms treatment (37.0 d) compared with DES-700 micrograms (22.2 d), Buserelin (17.8 d) or control (19.0 d

  13. A Role for Presynaptic alpha(sub 2)-Adrenoceptors in Angiotensin 2-Induced Drinking in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fregly, Melvin J.; Rowland, Neil E.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Studies from this laboratory have shown that either central or peripheral administration of clonidine, the alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptor agonist, can attenuate a variety of dipsogenic stimuli in rats. Further, yohimbine and tolazoline, alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptor antagonists, augment the drinking response to both peripherally administered isoproterenol and angiotensin 2. Studies reported here establish a dose-inhibition relationship between the dose of clonidine administered (2 to 32 micrograms/kg) intracerebroventricularly (IVT) and inhibition of the drinking response to peripherally administered angiotensin 2 (200 micrograms/kg, SC). DI(sub 50) was approximately 4 micrograms/kg. Yohimbine (300 micrograms/kg, SC) reversed the antidipsogenic effect of centrally administered clonidine (32 micrograms/kg, IVT) on angiotensin 2-induced (200 micrograms/kg, SC) water intake. Phenylephrine, an alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptor agonist, administered IVT (40 and 80 micrograms/kg) also inhibited angiotensin 2-induced drinking in a dose-related fashion. The antidipsogenic effect of phenylephfine (80 micrograms/kg) was blocked by administration of yohimbine (100 micrograms/kg, SC). Thus, this effect of phenylephrine most likely occurs by way of alpha(sub 2)- adrenoceptors. These results support a role for the pre-synaptic alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptor in the mediation of drinking in rats. Activation of alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptors is accompanied by reduced water intake while inhibition of these receptors enhances water intake.

  14. Cytotoxic effects of tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate and 2,4-diaminoanisole.

    PubMed

    Søderlund, E J; Dybing, E

    1979-04-01

    The flame retardant tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate (Tris-BP) and the hair-dye component 2,4-diaminoanisole (2,4-DAA) were studied by possible cytotoxic effects in rat hepatoma cells grown in culture and in suspensions of isolated rat hepatocytes. Cell growth of Reuber cells was inhibited by 50% at 50 microgram/ml Tris-BP and 20 microgram/ml 2,4-DAA, respectively. At 200 microgram/ml Tris-BP protein synthesis in Reuber cells was reduced by 40%, whereas 50% inhibition of protein synthesis in isolated hepatocytes was seen at 100 microgram/ml. IC50 of 2,4-DAA with respect to protein synthesis was found at 400 microgram/ml in Reuber cells and at 3600 microgram/ml in MH1C1 cells, whereas in the isolated hepatocytes IC50 was 650 microgram/ml. DNA synthesis was inhibited by 50% at 225 microgram/ml Tris-BP in Reuber cells. At 500 microgram/ml 2,4-DAA DNA synthesis in Reuber and MH1C1 cells was inhibited by more than 80%. PMID:433622

  15. Activities of potential therapeutic and prophylactic antibiotics against blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci from neutropenic patients receiving ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed Central

    McWhinney, P H; Patel, S; Whiley, R A; Hardie, J M; Gillespie, S H; Kibbler, C C

    1993-01-01

    All 47 sequential blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci obtained from febrile neutropenic patients receiving quinolone prophylaxis were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and imipenem. Resistance to benzylpenicillin (MIC for 50% of isolates [MIC50], 0.125 microgram/ml) and ceftazidime (MIC50, 4 micrograms/ml) was common. Most isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid at a 2:1 ratio by weight), azlocillin, clarithromycin, and erythromycin, with azithromycin showing comparable activity. The MIC90 of sparfloxacin was 1 microgram/ml; those for ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were > 16 and 16 micrograms/ml, respectively. PMID:8285642

  16. Metal contamination in wildlife living near two zinc smelters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Pattee, O.H.; Sileo, L.; Hoffman, D.J.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Wildlife in an oak forest on Blue Mountain was studied 10 km upwind (Bake Oven Knob site) and 2 km downwind (Palmerton site) of two zinc smelters in eastern Pennsylvania, USA. Previous studies at sites near these smelters had shown changes in populations of soil microflora, lichens, green plants and litter-inhabiting arthropods. The 02 soil litter horizon at Palmerton was heavily contaminated with Pb (2700 mg kg-1), Zn (24000 mg kg-1), and Cd (710 mg kg-1), and to a lesser extent with Cu (440 mg kg-1). Various kinds of invertebrates (earthworms, slugs and millipedes) that feed on soil litter or soil organic matter were rare at, or absent from, the Palmerton site. Those collected at Bake Oven Knob tended to have much higher concentrations of metals than did other invertebrates. Frogs, toads and salamanders were very rare at, or absent from, the Palmerton site, but were present at Bake Oven Knob and at other sites on Blue Mountain farther from the smelters. Metal concentrations (dry wt) in different organisms from Palmerton were compared. Concentrations of Pb were highest in shrews (110 mg kg-1), followed by songbirds (56 mg kg-1), leaves (21 mg kg-1), mice (17 mg kg-1), carrion insects (14 mg kg-1), berries (4.0 mg kg-1), moths (4,3 mg kg-1) and fungi (3.7 mg kg-1). Concentrations of Cd, in contrast, were highest in carrion insects (25 mg kg-1 ),followed by fungi (9.8 mg kg-1), leaves (8.1 mg kg-1), shrews (7.3 mg kg-I), moths (4.9 mg kg-1), mice (2.6 mg kg -1), songbirds (2.5 mg kg -1) and berries (1.2 mg kg-1). Concentrations of Zn and Cu tended to be highest in the same organisms that had the highest concentrations of Cd. Only a small proportion of the metals in the soil became incorporated into plant foliage, and much of the metal contamination detected in the biota probably came from aerial deposition. The mice from both sites seemed to be healthy. Shrews had higher concentrations of metals than did mice, and one shrew showed evidence of Pb poisoning; its red

  17. Multipesticide residue levels in UHT and raw milk samples by GC-μECD after QuEChER extraction method.

    PubMed

    Jawaid, Sana; Talpur, Farah N; Nizamani, Shafi M; Khaskheli, Abid A; Afridi, H I

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, milk samples including raw and ultra-high temperature (UHT) processed milk were analyzed for pesticide residue levels, including five pesticides, viz chloripyrifos, endosulfan (α and β), profenofos and bifenthrin by gas chromatography microelectron capture detector (GC-μECD) after extraction by QuEChERS method. Further confirmation of the pesticide residue was done by GC-MS. The pesticide residual level in raw and UHT milk samples (n = 70) was determined in the range of 0.1-30 μg L(-1). All UHT processed milk samples contain pesticide residues within permissible limit set by the World Health Organization (WHO); however, among raw milk samples, chloripyrifos (12 %), α (24 %), and β (14 %) endosulfan were found above the maximum residue limit (MRL). The estimated daily intake (EDI) of these four pesticide residues were also calculated as 1.32, 16.16, 5.30, 10.20, and 9.93 μg kg(-1) body weight for chloripyrifos, endosulfan α, profenofos, endosulfan β, and bifenthrin, respectively. It is concluded that the raw milk samples showed higher prevalence of pesticide residues as compared to UHT processed milk. Graphical abstract Determination of pesticide residues in dairy milk by GC-μECD after QuEChERS extraction method. PMID:26992902

  18. Using synthetic models to simulate aging of Cu contamination in soils.

    PubMed

    Proffit, S; Marin, B; Cances, B; Ponthieu, M; Sayen, S; Guillon, E

    2015-05-01

    The Bureau Commun de Référence (BCR) sequential extraction scheme and micro-synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (μ-SXRF) analysis were used to determine the Cu fractionation in a calcareous vineyard soil and a synthetic soil (mixture of seven constituents: calcite, birnessite, ferrihydrite, goethite, lignocellulosic residue, kaolinite, and quartz) at different Cu contamination rates (190, 1270, and 6350 mg kg(-1) of Cu) and aging times (1, 30, 92, and 181 days). The Cu distribution in the spiked vineyard and synthetic soils was different from the original vineyard one and was influenced by the loading level. The newly added Cu was preferentially present in the acid soluble fraction. Aging of the contaminated vineyard and synthetic soils during 6 months led to the redistribution of Cu from the weakly bound acid soluble fraction to the strongly bound reducible one. The evolution with time could satisfactorily be simulated by the Elovich diffusion model for the synthetic soils. It was less significant as less marked in the contaminated vineyard soil than in the synthetic one, even though the trends observed in both were similar. This study supported the hypothesis that "simple" synthetic models could be used to approach the Cu fractionation and its evolution with time in vineyard soils. PMID:25801368

  19. Screening of metal uptake by plant colonizers growing on abandoned copper mine in Kapunda, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Nirola, Ramkrishna; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Aryal, Rupak; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Systematic site survey for sample collection and analysis was conducted at a derelict copper (Cu) mine at Kapunda, South Australia. Cu concentrations in the soils at this former mine ranged from 65-10107 mg kg(-1). The pH and EC varied widely in the 3.9-8.4 and 152-7311 µS ranges, respectively. Nine plant species growing over the copper mine site were selected to screen for metal uptake to determine their suitability for phytoremediation. The Australian native tree species Eucalyptus camaldulensis indicated enrichment factor (EF) of 2.17, 1.89, and 1.30 for Cu, Zn, and Pb, respectively, suggesting that this species of tree can accumulate these metals to some degree. The stress-resistant exotic olive, Olea europaea exhibited EF of ≤ 0.01 for Cu, Cd, and Pb, and 0.29 for Zn, which is characteristic of an excluder plant. Acacia pycnantha, the Australian pioneer legume species with EF 0.03, 0.80, 0.32, and 0.01 for Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb, respectively, emerged as another strong metal excluder and consequently as an ideal metal stabilizer. PMID:26552328

  20. Ultra-fast aqueous Li-ion redox energy storage from vanadium oxide-carbon nanotube yarn electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithyman, Jesse; Do, Quyet H.; Zeng, Changchun; Liang, Zhiyong

    2015-03-01

    Half-cell electrochemical characterizations were conducted on carbon nanotube-vanadium oxide (CNT-VOx) yarn electrodes in an 8 M LiCl aqueous electrolyte. A supercritical fluid deposition and in-situ oxidation process was utilized to deposit nanoscale coatings of vanadium oxide on carbon nanotube (CNT) surfaces throughout the porous structure of CNT yarns. The high surface area, interconnected pore structure and high electrical conductivity of the CNT yarn enabled extraordinary rate capabilities from the high capacity Li/VOx system. High-rate cyclic voltammetry scans, requiring current densities of hundreds of amperes per gram of electrode mass, produced rectangular voltammograms with distinguishable redox peaks from Li-ion intercalation/deintercalation. Capacitances of over 150 F g-1 were achieved at a scan rate of 5 V s-1 over a 1.2 V potential window resulting in an energy density of >32 Wh kg-1 (>30 Wh L-1) for the yarn electrode. The charge storage also showed good reversibility when cycled over this large potential window, maintaining 90% of the capacitance after 100 cycles at a scan rate of 2 V s-1. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows the frequency dependent behavior is distinctly lacking of the characteristic responses from the rate-limiting processes associated with faradaic charge storage in VOx.

  1. Mobile telephone use effects on peripheral audiovestibular function: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Ceranic, Borka; Cox, Robin; Watt, Hilary; Chadwick, Philip; Luxon, Linda M

    2008-02-01

    Low level radio-frequency (RF) signals may produce disorientation, headache and nausea. This double blind study tested nine case-subjects, who complained of various symptoms after prolonged mobile telephone use and 21 control subjects. Each subject underwent a series of trials, in which a dummy mobile telephone exposure system was held to each ear for 30 min in (a) pulsed, (b) continuous RF emission or, (c) no emission test modes. In the active pulsed and continuous modes the same mean power as the output of a typical handset was delivered at a carrier frequency of 882 MHz and at a maximum specific absorption rate (SAR) value of 1.3 W kg(-1) (+/- 30%). In Experiment I (auditory), transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE), which assess the outer hair cells in the inner ear, were conducted. In Experiment II (vestibular) the vestibulo-ocular reflex was recorded by video-oculography (VOG), at baseline and immediately post exposure. There were no significant TEOAE changes from baseline to post-exposure recording for any of the exposures and no significant differences in the TEOAEs' change from baseline to post exposure between cases and controls. The VOG did not identify any effect of the exposure on the vestibular end organ in either cases or controls. In conclusion, 30 min exposure to mobile phone RF did not show any immediate effects on vestibulocochlear function as measured by TEOAE and the VOR. PMID:17929266

  2. Bupivacaine for intercostal nerve blockade in patients on long-term beta-receptor blocking therapy.

    PubMed

    Pontén, J; Biber, B; Henriksson, B A; Jonsteg, C

    1982-01-01

    Possible cardiovascular side effects of a local anaesthetic in patients on long-term beta-receptor blocking therapy were studied in 26 patients given postoperative intercostal nerve blockades (ICB) with 18-28 ml of plain bupivacaine 0.5% (1.30-1.82 mg kg-1). The patients had a history of hypertension and/or ischaemic heart disease and were scheduled for gall bladder surgery. Thirteen patients were randomized to a gradual preoperative withdrawal of the beta-receptor blockers and the other 13 continued the beta-receptor blockade until surgery. Cardiovascular changes were measured noninvasively and 11 patients were also monitored with pulmonary artery catheters. Blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were stable in all patients although those in whom the beta-receptor blockade was withdrawn had the highest HR and most frequent arrhythmias both before and after ICB. The ICB was associated with a decrease in the overall postoperative arrhythmia incidence, but seemed most efficient (P less than 0.02) concerning the ventricular arrhythmias in the beta-receptor-blocked patients (even including idionodal rhythm). The bupivacaine blood levels did not modify other cardiovascular changes except in one beta-receptor-blocked patient with cardiac failure in whom signs of a slight transient cardiodepression were observed. It is concluded that bupivacaine does not negatively affect cardiovascular stability in long-term beta-receptor-blocked patients. In the presence of cardiac failure, however, an additive cardiodepression may be elicited. PMID:6152885

  3. Sorption and diffusion of organic acids through clayrock: Comparison with inorganic anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagnelie, R. V. H.; Descostes, M.; Pointeau, I.; Klein, J.; Grenut, B.; Radwan, J.; Lebeau, D.; Georgin, D.; Giffaut, E.

    2014-04-01

    Organic complexing species are known to affect radionuclide mobility in the environment. The migration behaviour of several organic ligands was evaluated in the context of a proposed French radioactive waste repository in the Callovo-Oxfordian clayrock formation (COx). This study focuses on four anthropogenic acids (ethylenediaminetetraacetate, isosaccharinate, phthalate, oxalate) that are used in the nuclear fuel cycle or that occur as hydrosoluble degradation products of waste materials. Batch sorption and diffusion experiments were performed with COx clayrock samples using 14C-labelled radiotracers. The observed effective diffusion coefficients were low (De ∼ 1-6 × 10-12 m2 s-1), an order of magnitude lower than that of tritiated water in the same material, and roughly the same as values for inorganic anions such as I-, Cl- and SO42-. The observed correlation of De with molecular mass, M-1/3, differs significantly from that observed for cations. The organic ligands displayed significant affinity for the COx clayrock, with distribution ratios measured in batch experiments, Rd = 1-30 L kg-1, which are much higher than usually observed for anionic species. While this result was confirmed by through-diffusion experiments, the Kd values obtained by fitting diffusion modelling were significantly lower than those measured in the batch experiments.

  4. Monitoring the effects of chelating agents and electrical fields on active forms of Pb and Zn in contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Tahmasbian, Iman; Safari Sinegani, Ali Akbar

    2013-11-01

    The application of electrical fields and chelating agents is an innovative hybrid technology used for the decontamination of soil polluted by heavy metals. The effects of four center-oriented electrical fields and chelating agents on active fractions of lead and zinc were investigated in this pot experiment. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a synthetic chelator and cow manure extract (CME) and poultry manure extract (PME) as natural chelators were applied to the pots (2 g kg(-1)) 30 days after the first irrigation. Two weeks later, four center-oriented electrical fields were applied in each pot (in three levels of 0, 10, and 30 V) for 1 h each day for 14 days. The soil near the cathode and anodes was collected and analyzed as cathodic and anodic soil, respectively. Results indicated that the soluble-exchangeable fraction of lead and zinc were decreased in the cathodic soil, while the carbonate-bound fractions were increased. In the anodic soil, however, the opposite result was observed. EDTA enhanced the soluble-exchangeable form of the metals in both anodic and cathodic soils. Furthermore, the amounts of carbonate-bound heavy metals were increased by the application of CME in both soils. The organic-bound fraction of the metals was increased by the application of natural chelators, while electrical fields had no significant impacts on this fraction. PMID:23685981

  5. Effect of diamorphine, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and ethanol on intravenous cocaine disposition.

    PubMed

    Vadlamani, N L; Pontani, R B; Misra, A L

    1984-08-01

    The disposition of cocaine (1 mg kg-1) was altered by diamorphine (0.1 mg kg-1) and that of morphine (1 mg kg-1) was altered after their concurrent administration as a bolus i.v. injection to rats by cocaine, without any changes in the metabolism of the drugs. delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (10 mg kg-1 i.p.) did not affect the cocaine disposition. Chronic ethanol treatment (2.5 g kg-1 orally twice daily for 16 days) produced a significantly higher brain-to-plasma cocaine concentration ratio than did saline as control, without any changes in cocaine metabolism. PMID:6148403

  6. Ground-water levels and quality at Crex Meadows Wildlife Area, Burnett County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water samples from 20 observation wells indicate that calcium and bicarbonate are the predominant ions in ground water in the Crex Meadows area. Iron concentrations ranged from 45 to 45,000 micrograms per liter, and 17 of 20 samples exceeded the 300-micrograms-per-liter recommended drinking-water standard of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  7. Role of carbonic anhydrase in bone - Plasma acetazolamide concentrations associated with inhibition of bone loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of acetazolamide and benzolamide on bone formation are examined. Solutions of acetazolamide and benzolamide with 1 M THAM/tris(hydromethyl)aminoethane/ or without 1 M THAM were injected subcutaneous with a minipump and into the food of Sprague-Dawley rats. The data reveal that for 8-day and 12-day infusions only acetazolamide combined with 1 M THAM caused any reduction in bone loss and there were no changes in body weights, food consumption and plasma calcium and phosphorus values. Following 8 days of infusion of acetazolamide with 1 M THAM at infusion rates of 0.5, 5.0, and 50 micrograms/hr, no reduction was detected at 0.5 microgram/hr, a 30 percent reduction occurred at 5.0 micrograms/hr and a 49 percent decrease at 50 micrograms/hr. In the benzolamide experiment it was observed that 0.5 percent of the solution in the food caused no reduction in bone loss; however, infusions with benzolamide plus 1 M THAM resulted in a bone loss reduction of 30 percent at 5.0 micrograms/hr, and a 49 percent decrease at 50 micrograms/hr. Acetazolamide levels in the plasma at 50 micrograms/hr doses are calculated as ranging from 99 ng/ml-223 ng/ml and as 46 ng/ml at 5 micrograms/hr doses.

  8. Hydrologic data for a study of pre-Illinoian glacial till in Linn County, Iowa, water year 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowman, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    Herbicide concentrations in rainfall ranged from 0.05 to 1.3 micrograms per liter. Herbicides detected in the largest concentrations included alachlor, atrazine, and metolachlor. Metribuzin was the only herbicide detected in ground-water samples at a concentration of 0.10 micrograms per liter in water from one observation well.

  9. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF ZINC EXPOSURES ON BROOK TROUT ('SALVELINUS FONTINALIS')

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of three generations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) to zinc concentrations ranging from 2.6 to 534 micrograms/liter produced no significant harmful effects. During a separate exposure of embryos and larvae, 1,368 micrograms Zn/liter significantly reduced (P = 0.0...

  10. LAKE RESTORATION BY DILUTION: MOSES LAKE, WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dilution water, low in macronutrients, was added to Moses Lake on three occasions in 1977 and once in 1978 during the spring-summer period. The addition resulted in reducing the annual average inflow concentration of phosphorus from about 130-140 micrograms/l to 100 micrograms/l....

  11. APPLICATION OF ADENINE NUCLEOTIDE MEASUREMENTS FOR THE EVALUATION OF STRESS IN 'MYTILUS EDULIS' AND 'CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    After 10 weeks treatment with 10 micrograms Ni/kg seawater, the concentration of ATP in Mytilus edulis adductor muscles was significently less than that in muscles from control and 5 micrograms Ni/kg treated mussels. Mussels sampled in August after exposure for 12 weeks to pollut...

  12. In vitro susceptibility of Malassezia furfur.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A; Rühl-Hörster, B

    1996-04-01

    Malassezia (M.) furfur is an anthropophilic fungus with complex growth requirements. Apart from its physiological appearance on human skin it is the causative agent of several skin disorders. A method for in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of M. furfur in a microtiter plate assay has been developed. Read-out was performed colorimetrically in modified Leeming-Notman medium after incubation with alamarBlue. Twenty-two strains of M. furfur were tested, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for climbazole, piroctone-olamine, selenium disulfide, zinc pyrithione. These substances are of common use in topical therapy of M. furfur-associated skin conditions. For climbazole, the range of MICs was between < 0.03 and 2 micrograms/ml with an empirical median mean of 0.03 micrograms/ml. For piroctoneolamine the range of MICs was between 16 and 64 micrograms/ml (mean = 64 micrograms/ml), for selenium disulfide between 2 and 64 micrograms/ml (mean = 8 micrograms/ml), and for zinc pyrithione between 0.12 and 8 micrograms/ml (mean = 1 micrograms/ml). These data indicate the high in vitro activity of climbazole against M. furfur, followed by zinc pyrithione. Selenium disulfide and piroctone-olamine were less active. PMID:8740097

  13. EFFECTS OF DIVALENT METAL CHLORIDES ON RESPIRATION AND EXTRACTABLE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES OF DOUGLAS-FIR NEEDLE LITTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rates of CO2 evolution from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco) needle litter, following application of divalent metal (Hg, Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, and Cu) chlorides at rates of 10, 100, and 1,000 microgram/g and Ca chloride at 7, 68, and 683 microgram/g were monitored at 2- t...

  14. EFFECTS OF MANGANESE, CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, AND ZINC ON NICKEL-INDUCED SUPPRESSION OF MURINE NATURAL KILLER CELL ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects that divalent metals have on nickel-induced suppression of natural killer (NK) cell activity were studied in mice. Male CBA/J mice were given a single intramuscular injection of nickel chloride (4.5-36 micrograms NiCl2/g), manganese chloride (20-80 micrograms MnCl2/g)...

  15. Action of citrinin on bacterial chromosomal and plasmid DNA in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, W; Lorkowski, G; Creppy, E E; Dirheimer, G; Röschenthaler, R

    1986-01-01

    Citrinin, a mycotoxin of Penicillium citrinum and other species of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus, caused the following effects at different concentrations in Escherichia coli. In vivo at 100 micrograms/ml single-strand breaks were caused in the chromosomal DNA. In the presence of 100 micrograms/ml, UV (254 nm)-induced DNA damage was repaired in the bacterial cells without need for a complete growth medium. At 300 micrograms/ml lambda ts prophage was induced in a lysogenic E. coli strain. In an E. coli strain carrying a F' lac plasmid, 4.7% of the cells displayed the Lac- phenotype after treatment with 200 micrograms of citrinin per ml, suggesting elimination of the F' factor. In vitro, DNA repair synthesis was observed at 5 micrograms of citrinin per ml in permeabilized cells, and replicative DNA synthesis was inhibited at 200 micrograms/ml. In these systems synthesis of stable RNAs was slightly diminished at 300 micrograms/ml, and protein synthesis was not affected at concentrations up to 450 micrograms/ml. Lambda and ColE1 plasmid DNA were cleaved in vitro when small amounts of copper ions were present. This DNA-attacking activity was prevented by NADPH, catalase, and superoxide dismutase and by higher concentrations of hydroxyl radical scavengers, suggesting the involvement of free radicals in the mechanism of action of citrinin on DNA. Images PMID:2947539

  16. 21 CFR 522.995 - Fluprostenol sodium injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....995 Fluprostenol sodium injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains fluprostenol sodium equivalent to 50 micrograms of fluprostenol. (b) Sponsor. See 000859 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. 0.55 microgram fluprostenol per kilogram...

  17. Influence of pertussis toxin on thermic responses to morphine and neurotensin in rats.

    PubMed

    Basilico, L; Abbondi, M; Fumagalli, A; Parolaro, D; Gori, E; Giagnoni, G

    1992-11-10

    The influence of pertussis toxin (PTX) on thermic responses elicited by morphine and neurotensin was evaluated in unrestrained rats kept at 22 degrees C. High doses of morphine (9-36 micrograms/rat i.c.v.) lowered body temperature and low doses (1.25, 2.5 micrograms/rat i.c.v.) produced hyperthermia. The hyperthermic effect was more resistant than the hypothermic effect to naloxone antagonism. Neurotensin (50, 100 micrograms/rat i.c.v.) induced marked hypothermia followed by hyperthermia. I.c.v. injection of PTX (1 microgram), six days before morphine (18 micrograms/rat i.c.v.), replaced the opiate hypothermia by consistent hyperthermia and reduced by 60% the hyperthermia elicited by morphine (2.5 micrograms/rat i.c.v.). The toxin also affected the thermic responses induced by neurotensin (50 micrograms/rat i.c.v.) administered six days after PTX (1 microgram/rat i.c.v.). The initial hypothermia was enhanced by 173% and the late hyperthermia was fully antagonized. It thus appears that PTX-sensitive G-proteins play different roles in the molecular events underlying the thermoregulatory responses to morphine and neurotensin. PMID:1451736

  18. Differential response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) on immune parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of LPS and CRH to elicit immune responses was compared. Brahman heifers were transported from Overton, TX, to Lubbock, TX, were fitted with jugular catheters and separated into 2 treatments groups, LPS (0.25 microgram/kg BW; n=6; 194±11 kg) or CRH (0.5 microgram/kg BW; n=6; 202±9 kg). Bl...

  19. COMPARISON OF BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE, OZONE AND THEIR COMBINATION IN MOUSE LUNG. 1. INTERMITTENT EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Swiss Webster mice were exposed to either 4.8 ppm (9024 micrograms/cu.m.) nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 0.45 ppm (882 micrograms/cu.m.) ozone (O3), or their combination intermittently (8 hr daily) for 7 days, and the effects were studied in the lung by a series of physical and biochemi...

  20. ALUM CONTROL OF INTERNAL PHOSPHORUS LOADING IN A SHALLOW LAKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alum treatment of a shallow lake, with mean depth 2 m and area 137 ha, curtailed internal loading of P for at least one year. Mean summer total P and chl a decreased from 76 and 27 micrograms/l, respectively, in 1978 before treatment, to 29 and 14 micrograms/l, while mean summer ...

  1. In vitro susceptibilities of Leptospira spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi isolates to amoxicillin, tilmicosin, and enrofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Doo; Kordick, Dorsey; Divers, Thomas; Chang, Yung Fu

    2006-12-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted with 6 different spirochetal strains (4 strains of Leptospira spp. and 2 strains of Borrelia burgdorferi) against 3 antimicrobial agents, commonly used in equine and bovine practice. The ranges of MIC and MBC of amoxicillin against Leptospira spp. were 0.05 - 6.25 microgram/ml and 6.25 - 25.0 microgram/ml, respectively. And the ranges of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of amoxicillin against B. burgdorferi were 0.05 - 0.39 microgram/ml and 0.20 - 0.78 microgram/ml, respectively. The ranges of MIC and MBC of enrofloxacin against Leptospira spp. were 0.05 - 0.39 microgram/ml and 0.05 - 0.39 microgram/ml, respectively. Two strains of B. burgdorferi were resistant to enrofloxacin at the highest concentration tested for MBC (>or=100 microgram/ml). Therefore, the potential role of tilmicosin in the treatment of leptospirosis and borreliosis should be further evaluated in animal models to understand whether the in vivo studies will confirm in vitro results. All spirochetal isolates were inhibited (MIC) and were killed (MBC) by tilmicosin at concentrations below the limit of testing (microgram/ml). PMID:17106227

  2. 40 CFR 761.357 - Reporting the results of the procedure used to simulate leachate generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... simulate leachate generation as micrograms PCBs per liter of extract from a 100 gram sample of dry bulk product waste. Divide 100 grams by the grams in the sample and multiply this quotient by the number of micrograms PCBs per liter of extract to obtain the equivalent measurement from a 100 gram sample....

  3. 40 CFR 761.357 - Reporting the results of the procedure used to simulate leachate generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... simulate leachate generation as micrograms PCBs per liter of extract from a 100 gram sample of dry bulk product waste. Divide 100 grams by the grams in the sample and multiply this quotient by the number of micrograms PCBs per liter of extract to obtain the equivalent measurement from a 100 gram sample....

  4. 40 CFR 761.357 - Reporting the results of the procedure used to simulate leachate generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... simulate leachate generation as micrograms PCBs per liter of extract from a 100 gram sample of dry bulk product waste. Divide 100 grams by the grams in the sample and multiply this quotient by the number of micrograms PCBs per liter of extract to obtain the equivalent measurement from a 100 gram sample....

  5. HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS OF MOLYBDENUM IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molybdenum plays an important biological role as a micronutrient for plants and animals. At high levels it can be toxic to animals. While concentrations in surface waters are generally less than 5 micrograms Mo/L, concentrations as high as 500 micrograms Mo/L have been reported i...

  6. [In vitro evaluation of antileishmania activity of Artemisia herba alba Asso].

    PubMed

    Hatimi, S; Boudouma, M; Bichichi, M; Chaib, N; Idrissi, N G

    2001-03-01

    Aqueous extract and essential oil of Artemisia herba-alba Asso were tested for their antileshmanial activity again Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major. The strongest leishmanicidal activity was observed with the essential oil at 2 micrograms/ml as versus the other two strains tested. The aqueous extract showed an antileshmanial activity at 4 micrograms/ml. PMID:11346978

  7. Effects of mercury, selenium, and organochlorine contaminants on reproduction of Forster's terns and black skimmers nesting in a contaminated Texas Bay.

    PubMed

    King, K A; Custer, T W; Quinn, J S

    1991-01-01

    Mean mercury (0.40 micrograms/g), and geometric mean DDE (1.6 micrograms/g) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) (2.3 micrograms/g) concentrations in Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) eggs from Lavaca Bay were higher than those in tern eggs from a reference area in San Antonio Bay, but residues were not correlated with hatching success. Nest success was similar between bays. Selenium levels in Lavaca Bay tern eggs (0.71 micrograms/g) were also comparable to those in eggs from the reference area (0.68 micrograms/g). Clutch size (3.1 to 3.4) of Lavaca Bay black skimmers (Rynchops niger) was no different than that (3.4) at a reference colony near Laguna Vista. Nest success was similar among three Lavaca Bay colonies, but success was lower at one Lavaca Bay colony (40%) than at Laguna Vista (65%). Mean mercury (0.46 micrograms/g) and selenium (0.75 micrograms/g) concentrations in skimmer eggs from Lavaca Bay were higher than those (0.19, 0.33 micrograms/g) from Laguna Vista; however, concentrations of neither contaminant were related to hatching success. DDE concentrations in Lavaca Bay skimmer eggs (3.4 micrograms/g) were similar to those from Laguna Vista (3.2 micrograms/g) and DDE was negatively correlated with hatching success. PCBs were higher in eggs from Lavaca Bay (1.3 micrograms/g) than Laguna Vista (0.8 micrograms/g). Organochlorine and metal contaminants in most eggs were below embryotoxic levels. Eggshell thinning in Forster's terns (7%) and black skimmers (5%) was below that associated with lowered reproduction. DDE and PCBs were detected in 9 Caspian tern (S. caspia) eggs; maximum concentrations were 4.7 and 5.4 micrograms/g. Caspian tern and least tern (S. albifrons) eggs contained low (less than or equal to 0.9 micrograms/g) concentrations of mercury and selenium. PMID:1899991

  8. Effects of mercury, selenium, and organochlorine contaminants on reproduction of Forster's terns and black skimmers nesting in a contaminated Texas bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, K.A.; Custer, T.W.; Quinn, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Mean mercury (0.40 micrograms/g), and geometric mean DDE (1.6 micrograms/g) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) (2.3 micrograms/g) concentrations in Forster`s tern (Sterna forsteri) eggs from Lavaca Bay were higher than those in tern eggs from a reference area in San Antonio Bay, but residues were not correlated with hatching success. Nest success was similar between bays. Selenium levels in Lavaca Bay tern eggs (0.71 micrograms/g) were also comparable to those in eggs from the reference area (0.68 micrograms/g). Clutch size (3.1 to 3.4) of Lavaca Bay black skimmers (Rynchops niger) was no different than that (3.4) at a reference colony near Laguna Vista. Nest success was similar among three Lavaca Bay colonies, but success was lower at one Lavaca Bay colony (40%) than at Laguna Vista (65%). Mean mercury (0.46 micrograms/g) and selenium (0.75 micrograms/g) concentrations in skimmer eggs from Lavaca Bay were higher than those (0.19, 0.33 micrograms/g) from Laguna Vista; however, concentrations of neither contaminant were related to hatching success. DDE concentrations in Lavaca Bay skimmer eggs (3.4 micrograms/g) were similar to those from Laguna Vista (3.2 micrograms/g) and DDE was negatively correlated with hatching success. PCBs were higher in eggs from Lavaca Bay (1.3 micrograms/g) than Laguna Vista (0.8 micrograms/g). Organochlorine and metal contaminants in most eggs were below embryotoxic levels. Eggshell thinning in Forster`s terns (7%) and black skimmers (5%) was below that associated with lowered reproduction. DDE and PCBs were detected in 9 Caspian tern (S. caspia) eggs; maximum concentrations were 4.7 and 5.4 micrograms/g. Caspian tern and least tern (S. albifrons) eggs contained low (less than or equal to 0.9 micrograms/g) concentrations of mercury and selenium.

  9. Effect of polaprezinc on impaired healing of chronic gastric ulcers in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats--role of insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-1.

    PubMed

    Kato, S; Tanaka, A; Ogawa, Y; Kanatsu, K; Seto, K; Yoneda, T; Takeuchi, K

    2001-01-01

    Polaprezinc, N-(3-aminopropionyl)-L-histidinatozinc, has been shown to stimulate the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in mesenchymal cells, the polypeptide playing a role in the gastric epithelial wound repair. The present study was performed to examine the effect of polaprezinc on the impaired healing of chronic gastric ulcers in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats, in relation to IGF-1. Arthritis was induced in male Dark Agouti (DA) rats by a single injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), and the gastric ulcers were induced by thermal cauterization (70 degrees C for 30 sec) 7 days after FCA injection. Omeprazole (30 mg/kg) was administered p.o. once daily, while recombinant human IGF-1 (rhIGF-1) (30 micrograms/kg, s.c.) or polaprezinc (3-10 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered twice daily, starting from 3 days after ulceration for 14 days. The healing of gastric ulcers was significantly delayed in arthritic rats as compared to normal rats on day 10 and 17 following ulceration. The expression of IGF-1 mRNA was markedly increased in the ulcerated mucosa, but this response was apparently attenuated in arthritic rats. Repeated administration of polaprezinc accelerated the healing of gastric ulcers in both normal and arthritic rats, in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect was more pronounced in arthritic rats. Likewise, treatment with omeprazole also significantly promoted the healing of gastric ulcers in both normal and arthritic rats. On the other hand, rhIGF-1 significantly promoted the gastric ulcer healing in arthritic rats without any effect on that in normal rats. These results suggest that the impaired healing of chronic gastric ulcers in arthritic rats is, at least partly, accounted for by less expression of IGF-1, and the polaprezinc improves the delayed healing of gastric ulcers in arthritic rats, probably through an increase in IGF-1 production. PMID:11208487

  10. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of mitoxantrone in plasma utilizing non-bonded silica gel for solid-phase isolation to reduce adsorptive losses on glass during sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Lin, K T; Rivard, G E; Leclerc, J M

    1989-03-10

    Mitoxantrone, a highly active antineoplastic agent, was found to bind strongly to non-bonded silica gel and glassware. When a Hamilton syringe was used to load and inject a mitoxantrone solution (0.4 microgram/ml in water) on to a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) system, about 95% of the loaded compound was found to bind to the glass surface of the syringe barrel and could not be removed by rinsing with water. It could, however, be removed slowly with an acidic solution and thus a small peak of mitoxantrone was present on the chromatogram whenever a blank acidic solution was injected with the syringe. The bound mitoxantrone could be removed effectively from the syringe surface with a solution of tetramethylammonium chloride, citric acid, methanol and water (elution solvent). This binding introduces a large error in assay results and might be one of the major factors responsible for contradictory pharmacokinetic data that have been reported. A new plasma preparation scheme and an HPLC method for mitoxantrone were developed to address this binding problem. Mitoxantrone was extracted directly from plasma samples with a plastic mini-column packed with non-bonded silica gel and eluted with the above elution solvent. The eluent was analysed by HPLC on an ODS column with an absorbance detector at 658 nm. The mobile phase was 0.1 M triethylamine phosphate (pH 3.0) in water-tetrahydrofuran-methanol (69:1:30) containing 0.02 M tetramethylammonium chloride. Methylene blue was added as an internal standard. Preliminary results showed that mitoxantrone levels in human plasma followed a triphasic decay curve after an intravenous bolus injection. The terminal elimination half-lives measured in three patients (mean t1/2 gamma = 25 min) were all shorter than the published values which ranged from 56 min to 9 days. PMID:2540217

  11. Capillary gas chromatography of amino acids, including asparagine and glutamine: sensitive gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric and selected ion monitoring gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric detection of the N,O(S)-tert.-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives.

    PubMed

    Chaves Das Neves, H J; Vasconcelos, A M

    1987-04-17

    Amino acids and the amino acid amides glutamine and asparagine can be simultaneously derivatized to the corresponding N,O(S)-tert.-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives in a one-step reaction with N-methyl-N-(tert.-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide in acetonitrile. The solution is used directly for gas chromatography (GC). Losses due to evaporation steps are avoided. Except for the more basic amino acids, derivatization occurs at room temperature. Lysine, arginine and histidine require additional heating at 150 degrees C for 2.5 h in order to complete derivatization. The derivatization has high reproducibility. The response factors relative to norvaline or cycloleucine lie between 0.40 and 1.30. Arginine is the most difficult amino acid to derivatize. The size of the tert.-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) group prevents multiple silylation of the nitrogen atoms. Only a single peak is observed for each compound. Twenty-seven amino acid (and glutamine and asparagine) derivatives were simultaneously chromatographed and well separated in a single run on a 25 m X 0.20 mm I.D. glass capillary column coated with OV-1. The TBDMS derivatives possess very characteristic EI mass spectra at 70 eV, with intense diagnostic ions. This makes them very appropriate for GC-mass spectrometric (MS) work and selected ion monitoring GC-MS at the picomole level. The detection limit for arginine as the TBDMS derivative is less than 0.3 ng. The usefulness of the method is illustrated by the detection of amino acids in a peptide hydrolysate obtained from 1 microgram of bovin insulin B-chain. PMID:3597576

  12. Air pollution and respiratory morbidity among adults in southern California.

    PubMed

    Ostro, B D; Lipsett, M J; Mann, J K; Krupnick, A; Harrington, W

    1993-04-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation of the acute effects of air pollution in 321 nonsmoking adults residing in Southern California. Previous epidemiologic investigations of effects of acute exposure to ozone have focused on groups who may not be representative of the general public, such as asthmatics or student nurses. For this study, participants recorded the daily incidence of several respiratory symptoms over a 6-month period between 1978 and 1979. The authors examined the impact of ambient concentrations of ozone, particulate sulfates, and other air pollutants on the incidence of respiratory morbidity, measured as either upper or lower respiratory tract symptoms. Using a logistic regression model, the authors found a significant association between the incidence of lower respiratory tract symptoms and 1-hour daily maximum ozone levels (odds ratio (OR) = 1.22, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.11-1.34, for a 10 parts per hundred million (pphm) change), 7-hour average ozone levels (OR = 1.32, 95% Cl 1.14-1.52), and ambient sulfates (OR = 1.30, 95% Cl 1.09-1.54, for a 10-micrograms/m3 change), but no association was found with coefficient of haze, a more general measure of particulates. The existence of a gas stove in the home was also associated with lower respiratory tract symptoms (OR = 1.23, 95% Cl 1.03-1.47). The effects of ozone were greater in the subpopulation without a residential air conditioner. In addition, ozone appears to have had a greater effect among individuals with a preexisting respiratory infection. PMID:8484360

  13. [Blood lead in the inhabitants of 4 Peruvian localities].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, A V; Paucar, J C; Medina, J M

    1997-05-01

    During 1994 and 1995, a cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the concentrations of lead in the blood of inhabitants of four Peruvian cities (Lima, Huancayo, La Oroya, and Yaupi) with different population densities and degrees of industrial development. In a random sample of 180 men and 180 women without occupational exposure to lead, blood lead levels were measured by the atomic absorption method with a Perkin Elmer 603 spectrophotometer without a graphite oven. The results revealed blood lead concentrations of 269 +/- 63 micrograms per liter (micrograms/L) in Lima, 224 +/- 47 micrograms/L in Huancayo; 348 +/- 40 micrograms/L in La Oroya, and 140 +/- 27 micrograms/L in Yaupi. It was concluded that blood lead levels in the inhabitants of these cities were related to the degree of industrialization and the population density of each locality. PMID:9377649

  14. Survey for N-nitroso compounds at B. F. Goodrich, Woodburn, Indiana, December 12, 1979. Industrywide survey. [N-nitrosomorpholine and N-nitrosodimethylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Ringenburg, V.; Fajen, J.M.

    1980-02-28

    Worker exposures to N-nitroso compounds were evaluated at B.F. Goodrich Company, Woodburn, Indiana on December 12, 1979. Personal and area air samples were collected and analyzed by gas-chromatography and thermal-energy-analysis methods. All of the samples contained N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) and five samples also contained N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). The amount of NMOR ranged from 0.85 to 3.7 micrograms per cubic meter (micrograms/cu m) for area air samples and 0.63 to 1.8 micrograms/cu m for personal samples. NDMA concentrations ranged from undetectable to 1.8 microgram/cu m for area samples and undetectable to 0.09 micrograms/cu m for personal samples. The authors note that no exposure standards exist for NDMA or NMOR but both are listed as potential human carcinogens. They suggest that the B.F. Goodrich Company characterize nitrosamine exposures at this facility.

  15. Lead in human blood and milk from nursing women living near a smelter in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Namihira, D; Saldivar, L; Pustilnik, N; Carreón, G J; Salinas, M E

    1993-03-01

    Lead levels in breast milk and blood were determined in women living within a 200-m radius of 3 smelters in Mexico City. All samples were analyzed on a Perkin Elmer 460 atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with HGA 2200. The mean blood lead level was 45.88 micrograms/dl (SD 19.88 microgram/dl), and the geometric mean of milk lead level was 2.47 micrograms/100 ml. The correlation coefficient of these two variables was 0.88. Using the mean value of lead found in breast milk, an infant of 5.5 kg would ingest 8.1 micrograms/kg/d in his diet. The daily permissible intake (DPI) established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1972 for an adult is 5.0 micrograms/kg/d. PMID:8450554

  16. Spatial variation of chemical constituents from the burning of commonly used biomass fuels in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saud, T.; Saxena, M.; Singh, D. P.; Saraswati; Dahiya, Manisha; Sharma, S. K.; Datta, A.; Gadi, Ranu; Mandal, T. K.

    2013-06-01

    In the present paper, we have determined emission factor of chemical composition of the emission from the burning of biomass (e.g. Dung cake, Acacia, Neem, Mulberry, Indian Rosewood, Pigeon pea etc.) commonly used as a residential fuel in the rural sector of Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) (Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal), India. For comparison, we have selected only those biomass fuels, which are used in at least three of the above mentioned states. Dung cake from all the states reports highest emission of particulate matter (PM) (15.68 g kg-1), Organic Carbon (OC) (4.32 g kg-1) and Elemental Carbon (EC) (0.51 g kg-1). Among all biomass fuels studied, agricultural residue reports substantial amount of emission of Na+ (104 mg kg-1), K+ (331 mg kg-1) and Cl- (447 mg kg-1) particularly in Pigeon pea and Mustard stem. Eucalyptus (fuel wood) emits large amounts of Ca2+ (21.47 mg kg-1) and NO3- (614 mg kg-1). The emission of PM from dung cake is higher in Delhi (19.31 g kg-1) and followed by Uttar Pradesh (17.58 g kg-1) > Haryana (15.46 g kg-1) > Bihar (14.99 g kg-1) > Punjab (12.06 g kg-1) > West Bengal (5.90 g kg-1). Carbonaceous aerosols (OC and EC) and dominant Ionic species (Cl-, K+, SO42-, NO3- and PO43-) are altogether contributing 40-70% of total emissions. Characteristics and ratios of chemical species of emissions may help to develop a methodology of discriminating the sources of ambient particulate matter. Using a laboratory determined emission factor of chemical species, we have determined the emission budget over IGP, India.

  17. Systemic and coronary hemodynamic actions and left ventricular functional effects of levosimendan in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Harkin, C P; Pagel, P S; Tessmer, J P; Warltier, D C

    1995-08-01

    We examined the effects of levosimendan, a new myofilament Ca2+ sensitizer with phosphodiesterase (PDE)-inhibiting properties, on systemic and coronary hemodynamics and left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function in conscious dogs with intact and blocked autonomic nervous system (ANS) reflexes. Twenty experiments were conducted in 10 dogs chronically instrumented for measurement of aortic and LV pressure, the peak rate of increase and decrease in LV pressure (+dP/dtmax and -dP/dtmin), subendocardial segment length, diastolic coronary blood flow (CBF) velocity, and cardiac output (CO). The slope (Mw) of the regional preload recruitable stroke work relation was used to assess myocardial contractility. Diastolic function was evaluated by -dP/dtmin, a time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau), maximum segment lengthening velocity during rapid ventricular filling (dL/dtmax), and a regional chamber stiffness constant (Kp). Dogs were randomly assigned to receive levosimendan (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) with or without ANS blockade. On separate experimental days, systemic and coronary hemodynamics and LV pressure-segment length diagrams and waveforms were recorded after 10-min equilibration at each dose in the conscious ANS-intact or ANS-blocked state. Levosimendan increased heart rate (HR), CO, mean and diastolic CBF velocity, and pressure-work index (PWI, an estimate of myocardial oxygen consumption) and decreased LV end-diastolic pressure (EDP), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), end-systolic and end-diastolic segment length, and mean and diastolic coronary vascular resistance (CVR) in dogs with intact ANS function. Levosimendan-induced increases in HR and PWI and decreases in SVR were attenuated by ANS blockade. Levosimendan caused equivalent dose-dependent increases in Mw in ANS-intact and ANS-blocked dogs, consistent with a positive inotropic effect independent of ANS activity. Levosimendan decreased tau (e.g., 35 +/- 1 ms during

  18. Effects of nicardipine on ventriculo-arterial coupling in humans.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Oshita, S; Kitahata, H; Kimura, H; Kawahito, S; Park, Y C; Sakabe, T

    1998-08-01

    The ratio of effective arterial elastance (Ea) to left ventricular elastance (Ees) is an indicator of the coupling between ventricular properties and arterial load properties. Another criterion for the coupling between an energy source and its load is the principle of economical fuel consumption, or mechanical efficiency, which is defined as the ratio of stroke work (SW) to myocardial oxygen consumption per beat (MVO2). It has been revealed that SW of ventricular contraction is maximized when Ea/Ees = 1, while mechanical efficiency is maximized when Ea/Ees = 0.5. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ventriculo-arterial coupling during hypertension, and the effects of nicardipine on this relationship in surgical patients using Ea/Ees and SW/MVO2 as indicators. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane, nitrous oxide, and fentanyl. Radial artery pressure was displayed on a polygraph, and left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes were determined by use of transoesophageal echocardiography. Ees was calculated as MAP/(ESVI-4), where MAP is mean arterial pressure and ESVI is end-systolic volume index. Ea was calculated as the ratio of MAP to stroke volume index (SVI). Stroke work index (SWI) was calculated as the product of MAP and SVI. MVO2 was assessed by estimating the ventricular pressure-volume area index (PVAI), which is expressed as the sum of SWI and the end-systolic potential energy index. Before (baseline), and 3, 10, 20, and 30 min after i.v. nicardipine (30 micrograms kg-1), Ea/Ees and SWI/PVAI were determined in 14 surgical patients with intraoperative hypertension. Before nicardipine (during hypertension), Ea was almost equal to Ees, whereas Ea/Ees was significantly reduced to about 0.5-0.6 at 3, 10, and 20 min after nicardipine. SWI/PVAI was maximized and significantly greater than the baseline value at 3 min after nicardipine. These results suggest that, during hypertension, ventricular and arterial properties were so

  19. Phase I study of simultaneous dose escalation and schedule acceleration of cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-etoposide using granulocyte colony-stimulating factor with or without antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients with small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Ardizzoni, A.; Pennucci, M. C.; Danova, M.; Viscoli, C.; Mariani, G. L.; Giorgi, G.; Venturini, M.; Mereu, C.; Scolaro, T.; Rosso, R.

    1996-01-01

    A phase I study was designed to assess whether dose intensity of an 'accelerated' cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-etoposide (CDE) regimen plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) could be increased further, in an outpatient setting, by escalating the dose of each single drug of the regimen. Patients with previously untreated small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) received escalating doses of cyclophosphamide (C) 1100-1300 mg m-2 intravenously (i.v.) on day 1, doxorubicin (D) 50-60 mg m-2 i.v. on day 1, etoposide (E) 110-130 mg m-2 i.v. on days 1, 2, 3 and every 14 days for at least three courses. Along with chemotherapy, G-CSF (filgastrim) 5 micrograms kg-1 from day 5 to day 11 was administered subcutaneously (s.c.) to all patients. Twenty-five patients were enrolled into the study. All patients at the first dose level (C 1100, D 50, E 110 x 3) completed three or more cycles at the dose and schedule planned by the protocol and no 'dose-limiting toxicity' (DLT) was seen. At the second dose level (C 1200, D 55, E 120 x 3) three out of five patients had a DLT consisting of 'granulocytopenic fever' (GCPF). Another six patients were treated at this dose level with the addition of ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice a day and only two patients had a DLT [one episode of documented oral candidiasis and one of 'fever of unknown origin' (FUO) with generalised mucositis]. Accrual of patients proceeded to the third dose level (C 1300, D 60, E 130 x 3) with the prophylactic use of ciprofloxacin. Four out of six patients experienced a DLT consisting of GCPF or documented non-bacterial infection. Accrual of patients at the third dose level was then resumed adding to ciprofloxacin anti-fungal prophylaxis (fluconazole 100 mg daily) and anti-viral prophylaxis (acyclovir 800 mg twice a day) from day 5 to 11. Out of five patients treated three experienced a DLT consisting of severe leucopenia and fever or infection. With a simultaneous dose escalation and schedule acceleration it is indeed

  20. The renal response to electrical stimulation of renal efferent sympathetic nerves in the anaesthetized greyhound.

    PubMed

    Poucher, S M; Karim, F

    1991-03-01

    1. The effect of direct electrical stimulation of the renal efferent nerves upon renal haemodynamics and function was studied in greyhounds anaesthetized with chloralose and artificially ventilated. The left kidney was neurally and vascularly isolated, and perfused with blood from one of the femoral arteries at a constant pressure of 99 +/- 1 mmHg. Renal blood flow was measured with a cannulating electromagnetic flow probe placed in the perfusion circuit, glomerular filtration rate by creatinine clearance, urinary sodium excretion by flame photometry and solute excretion by osmometry. Beta-Adrenergic receptor activation was blocked by the infusion of dl-propranolol (17 micrograms kg-1 min-1). The peripheral ends of the ligated renal nerves were stimulated at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 Hz. 2. At 0.5 Hz frequency only osmolar excretion was significantly reduced (10.3 +/- 3.2%, P less than 0.05, n = 6). Reductions in sodium excretion (53.6 +/- 8.5%, P less than 0.01, n = 6) and water excretion (26.9 +/- 8.0%, P less than 0.05, n = 6) and further reductions of osmolar excretion (20.7 +/- 3.7%, P less than 0.01, n = 6) were observed at 1.0 Hz; however, these were observed in the absence of significant changes in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. Significant reductions were observed in glomerular filtration rate at 1.5 Hz (16.3 +/- 4.1%, P less than 0.02, n = 5) and in renal blood flow at 2.0 Hz (13.1 +/- 4.0%, P less than 0.05, n = 5). Further reductions in urine flow and sodium excretion were also observed at these higher frequencies. 3. These results clearly show that significant changes in renal tubular function can occur in the absence of changes in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate when the renal nerves are stimulated electrically from a zero baseline activity up to a frequency of 1.5 Hz. Higher frequencies caused significant changes in both renal haemodynamics and function. PMID:2023113

  1. Plasma catecholamines and hyperglycaemia influence thermoregulation in man during prolonged exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Mora-Rodríguez, R; González-Alonso, J; Below, P R; Coyle, E F

    1996-03-01

    1. We manipulated plasma catecholamines (combined adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations) to three levels during prolonged exercise to determine their effect on cutaneous and forearm vascular conductance (CVC and FVC), oesophageal temperature (T(oes)) and cardiovascular responses. 2. On three occasions, seven endurance-trained men cycled at 65% VO2, max in the heat (33.1 +/- 0.7 degrees C) for 120-150 min. During the control trial (150 min duration), 0.45% saline was intravenously infused (SI) starting at 30 min, at a rate that replaced a third of the fluid losses. The infusion start time and rate were identical in all three trials. During SI, plasma catecholamine levels increased progressively and were 18.2 +/- 2.7 pmol ml-1 at 150 min. In another trial (120 min duration), adrenaline was infused (AI) at 0.1 microgram kg-1 min-1 and plasma catecholamine levels were elevated 6 pmol ml-1 above SI during the 60-120 min period. In a third trial (150 min duration), an 18% glucose solution was infused (GI) at a rate that maintained plasma glucose levels above 11 mM and plasma catecholamine levels were 5.0-5.5 pmol ml-1 lower (P < 0.05) than SI from 120-150 min. 3. Heat production and sweat rate were not different during the three trials and neither was the decline in stroke volume, cardiac output and mean arterial pressure. 4. Soon after beginning AI, CVC decreased 15%, T(oes) increased by 0.4 +/- 0.1 degree C and heart rate increased by 6 +/- 1 beats min-1; these significant (P < 0.05) differences from SI were maintained throughout the bout. As a result of GI, FVC was 15% higher than SI and T(oes) and heart rate were attenuated by 0.3 +/- 0.1 degree C and 7 +/- 1 beats min-1 at 150 min compared with SI (P < 0.05). 5. In conclusion, large increases in plasma catecholamine levels cause hyperthermia during exercise by vasoconstricting the skin. The mechanisms by which hyperglycaemia (i.e. 11 mM) attenuates hyperthermia are less clear and may be due to others factors

  2. Oxygen delivery does not limit cardiac performance during high work states.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Murakami, Y; Zhang, Y; Cho, Y K; Ye, Y; Gong, G; Bache, R J; Uğurbil, K; From, A H

    1999-07-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the loss of myocardial high-energy phosphates (HEP), which occurs during high cardiac work states [J. Zhang, D. J. Duncker, Y. Xu, Y. Zhang, G. Path, H. Merkle, K. Hendrich, A. H. L. From, R. Bache, and K. Uğurbil. Am. J. Physiol. 268: (Heart Circ. Physiol. 37): H1891-H1905, 1995], is not the result of insufficient intracellular O(2) availability. To evaluate the state of myocardial oxygenation, the proximal histidine signal of deoxymyoglobin (Mb-delta) was determined with (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), whereas HEP were examined with (31)P MRS. Normal dogs (n = 11) were studied under basal conditions and during combined infusion of dobutamine and dopamine (20 micrograms . kg(-1). min(-1) iv each), which increased rate-pressure products to >50,000 mmHg. beats. min(-1). Creatine phosphate (CP) was expressed as CP/ATP, and myocardial myoglobin desaturation was normalized to the Mb-delta resonance present during total coronary artery occlusion. This Mb-delta resonance appeared at 71 parts per million downfield from the water resonance. CP/ATP decreased from 2. 22 +/- 0.12 during the basal state to 1.83 +/- 0.09 during the high work state (P < 0.01), whereas DeltaP(i)/CP increased from 0 to 0.21 +/- 0.04 (P < 0.01). Despite these HEP changes, Mb-delta remained undetectable. In contrast, when a coronary stenosis was applied to produce a similar decrease in CP/ATP, Mb-delta reached 0.38 +/- 0.10 of the value present during total coronary occlusion. These data demonstrate that Mb-delta is readily detected in vivo during limitation of coronary blood flow sufficient to cause a decrease of myocardial CP/ATP. However, similar HEP changes that occur at high work states in the absence of coronary occlusion are not associated with a detectable Mb-delta resonance. The findings support the hypothesis that the myocardial HEP changes observed at high work states are not due to inadequate O(2) availability to the mitochondria

  3. Hypothalamic versus pituitary dysfunction in Down's syndrome as cause of growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Castells, S; Beaulieu, I; Torrado, C; Wisniewski, K E; Zarny, S; Gelato, M C

    1996-12-01

    We have found that some children with Down's syndrome (DS) have growth retardation secondary to growth hormone (GH) deficiency. To test the hypothesis that hypothalamic dysfunction is the primary cause for GH deficiency and growth retardation, hypothalamic-pituitary responses of serum GH concentrations to levodopa and clonidine as well as pituitary responses in serum GH concentrations to growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) were analysed in 14 prepubertal children with DS. Levodopa and clonidine were given, and blood was drawn for determining serum GH levels. Seven prepubertal control children had both levodopa and clonidine tests done. The delta serum GH during levodopa was 5.7 +/- 6.3 ng ml-1 in DS and 13.1 +/- 9.8 ng ml-1 in controls. The delta serum GH during clonidine administration was 3.0 +/- 3.2 ng ml-1 in DS and 17.3 +/- 5.6 ng ml-1 in controls. Children with DS had a significantly lower response to levodopa and clonidine, compared with controls by the Mann-Whitney U-test (P < 0.03 and P < 0.009, respectively). Growth-hormone-releasing hormone was given at 1 microgram kg-1 i.v. bolus and bloods for GH were drawn at-15, 0, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min in 14 subjects with DS and 24 normal controls, both groups prepubertal. The mean delta serum GH concentration in DS was 53.6 +/- 38.3 ng ml-1, and it was 35.6 +/- 25.1 ng ml-1 in controls with P < 0.23 non-significant by the Mann-Whitney U-test. These results indicate that levodopa and clonidine (drugs stimulating hypothalamic GHRH release and secondary pituitary GH release in normal individuals) do not stimulate GH release in DS. Furthermore, normal GH response to GHRH in DS indicates normal pituitary function (normal somatotroph response to GHRH) and supports hypothalamic dysfunction in DS. PMID:9004111

  4. Nicotinamide and pentoxifylline increase human leucocyte filterability: a possible mechanism for reduction of acute hypoxia.

    PubMed Central

    Honess, D. J.; Kitamoto, Y.; Rampling, M. R.; Bleehen, N. M.

    1996-01-01

    Transient plugging of microcapillaries by leucocytes is a possible reason for the occurrence of acute hypoxia in tumours. We compared the abilities of nicotinamide at 1000 micrograms ml-1 and 150 micrograms ml-1 and pentoxifylline at 300 micrograms ml-1 to increase the filterability of normal and artificially activated human leucocytes through 8 microns pores, as a model for the capillary bed. Using a St George's filtrometer, filterability of treated leucocyte suspensions was compared with control for three to six sequential 60 microliters samples, normalising control values to unity. Pentoxifylline at 300 micrograms ml-1 halved the ratio of treated to control value to 0.47 +/- 0.13 (2 s.e.), P = 0.001 (i.e. an increase in filterability), and nicotinamide at 1000 micrograms ml-1 reduced it to 0.69 +/- 0.22, P = 0.04, but the clinically achievable 150 micrograms ml-1 was ineffective (0.82 +/- 0.25, P = 0.24). Filterability of artificially activated leucocytes was reduced (3.9 +/- 1.20) but was restored to control values of unity by 1000 micrograms ml-1 nicotinamide and 300 micrograms ml-1 pentoxifylline and partially restored by 150 micrograms ml-1 nicotinamide (1.2 mM), which was isoeffective with 100 micrograms ml-1 pentoxifylline (0.37 mM). Pentoxifylline is therefore more effective on a molar basis and was shown to affect both polymorphonuclear leucocytes and lymphocytes, while nicotinamide only affects lymphocytes. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that both agents modify acute hypoxia by increasing leucocyte filterability. PMID:8763888

  5. Metered dose inhaler salbutamol treatment of asthma in the ED: comparison of two doses with plasma levels.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, G; Rodrigo, C

    1996-03-01

    Two cumulative doses of salbutamol delivered by metered dose inhaler (MDI) with a pear-shaped spacer were compared (400 micrograms vs 600 micrograms at 10-minute intervals). Twenty-two patients (mean age 35.1 +/- 11.1 years) with acute exacerbation of asthma were randomly selected, in a double-blind fashion, to receive salbutamol delivered with MDI into a spacer device in 4 puffs at 10- minute intervals (100 micrograms or 150 micrograms per actuation) during 3 hours (1200 micrograms or 1800 micrograms each 30 minutes). Mean peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) improved significantly over baseline values for both groups (P < .001). Nevertheless, there were no significant differences between both groups for PEFR and FEV1 at any time point studied. A significant net reduction of heart rate was observed in the 400 microgram group (P < .01). On the other hand, a significant increase in heart rate was observed in the 600 microgram group (P < .001). The QTc interval did not show a significant prolongation, and the two groups presented moderate decreases of serum potassium levels. There was a significant dose-related increase (P = .027) in Sao2. Additionally, the 600 microgram group generated a serum glucose level increase from 0.85 +/- 0.12 mg/100 mL to 1.04 +/- 0.25 mg/100 mL (P = .02), with a higher incidence in 4 symptoms (tremor, headache, palpitations, and anxiety). These data support the notion that the treatment of acute asthma patients in the emergency department setting with salbutamol, 2.4 mg/h, delivered by MDI and spacer (4 puffs at 10-minute intervals) produces satisfactory bronchodilation, low serum concentration, and minimal extrapulmonary effects. However, an increase of 50% of the dose (600 micrograms at 10-minute intervals) produced a nonsignificant, slightly better therapeutic response but with greater side effects, probably related to higher salbutamol levels. PMID:8924135

  6. Comparison of physiological changes in carp, Cyprinus carpio, induced by several pollutants at sublethal concentrations. I. The dependency on exposure time

    SciTech Connect

    Gluth, G.; Hanke, W.

    1985-04-01

    Carp were exposed to 10 different pollutants at sublethal concentrations for 6, 24, or 72 hr. Blood, liver, and white muscle samples were taken after the exposure time together with samples of control handled fish. Serum concentrations of glucose, cortisol protein, and cholesterol were determined. Similarly, the liver and muscle glycogen contents were measured. The effects of the following pollutants were examined: aldrin (100 micrograms/liter), atrazine (100 micrograms/liter), DDT (50 micrograms/liter), dieldrin (20 micrograms/liter), endrin (2 micrograms/liter), hexachlorbenzene (100 micrograms/liter), lindane (100 micrograms/liter), methanol (1 ml/liter), 4-N-phenol (100 micrograms/liter), toluene (100 microliters/liter). The rises in serum glucose and cortisol were the most frequent changes occurring after exposure to the pollutants. A decline in plasma protein and cholesterol content was also often observed. Liver glycogen concentration increased first in most cases and was reduced after longer exposure. Muscle glycogen was affected differently, sometimes reduced by exposure to the pollutants. The experimental design allows for the gradual increase in toxicity of the pollutants used regarding the applied concentrations. Furthermore, the aim of the paper is to evaluate the tests for proof of toxicity of those chemicals. The determination of serum glucose and cortisol levels can be proposed as mostly useful. The clearest changes in all parameters were found after treatment with 100 micrograms/liter atrazine and 50 micrograms/liter DDT. When serum glucose and cortisol concentrations were quickly elevated, signs for exhaustion could be seen after 72 hr of exposure.

  7. Detection of quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed Central

    Kam, K M; Wong, P W; Cheung, M M; Ho, N K

    1996-01-01

    The present National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) guideline for testing Neisseria gonorrhoeae quinolone susceptibility defines only a susceptible category for ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, lomefloxacin, and ofloxacin, while susceptible, intermediate, and resistant categories are defined for fleroxacin. To further define the criteria for detection of quinolone resistance in gonococci, by standard disk diffusion and agar dilution methodologies recommended by the NCCLS, we tested 29 strains of quinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae (QRNG) recently isolated from ofloxacin-treated patients who were considered clinical failures. Regression analyses were performed on these results together with those of another 20 strains showing reduced susceptibility and 13 fully susceptible strains (ofloxacin MICs of < or = 0.25 microgram/ml). With 5-micrograms ofloxacin disks, resistance in 27 (93.1%) of the QRNG strains (MICs of > 1 microgram/ml) was detected by the criterion of a zone diameter of < 22 mm, while in the remaining 2 (6.9%), the disks failed to detect resistance. A cluster of 15 highly resistant strains showed ofloxacin MICs of > 4 micrograms/ml and zone diameters of < 13 mm. When tested with 5-micrograms ciprofloxacin disks, the corresponding values for resistance and high-level resistance of these QRNG strains were < 25 mm (MICs of > 0.5 micrograms/ml) and < 15 mm (MICs of > 2 micrograms /ml), respectively. Six strains for which ofloxacin MICs were > or = 8 micrograms/ml showed no zones at all with both 5-micrograms ofloxacin and 5-micrograms ciprofloxacin disks. These QRNG strains are now firmly established in the Southeast Asia region, and it is important for clinical laboratories to recognize these clinically resistant strains and to monitor their spread. PMID:8735098

  8. Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of the general Swedish population: a study of biopsies from living kidney donors.

    PubMed Central

    Barregård, L; Svalander, C; Schütz, A; Westberg, G; Sällsten, G; Blohmé, I; Mölne, J; Attman, P O; Haglind, P

    1999-01-01

    Cadmium, mercury, and lead concentrations were determined in deep-frozen kidney cortex biopsies taken from 36 living, healthy Swedish kidney donors (18 males and 18 females), who were 30-71 (mean 53) years of age. Information about occupation, smoking, the presence of dental amalgam, and fish consumption could be obtained for 27 of the donors. The samples (median dry weight 0.74 mg) were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the results were transformed to wet-weight concentrations. The median kidney Cd was 17 micrograms/g (95% confidence interval, 14-23 micrograms/g), which was similar in males and females. In 10 active smokers, the median kidney Cd was 24 micrograms/g, and in 12 who never smoked, it was 17 micrograms/g. The median kidney Hg was 0.29 micrograms/g, with higher levels in females (median 0.54 micrograms/g) than in males (median 0.16 micrograms/g). Subjects with amalgam fillings had higher kidney Hg (median 0.47 micrograms/g, n = 20) than those without dental amalgam (median 0.15 micrograms;g/g, n = 6), but kidney Hg was below the detection limit in some samples. Nearly half of the samples had kidney Pb below the detection limit. The median kidney Pb was estimated as 0. 14 micrograms/g. This is the first study of heavy metals in kidney cortex of living, healthy subjects, and the results are relatively similar to those of a few previous autopsy studies, indicating that results from autopsy cases are not seriously biased in relation to kidney metal concentrations in the general population. Cd concentrations in those who never smoked were relatively high, indicating considerable Cd intake from the diet in Sweden. The effect of dental amalgam on kidney Hg was as expected, although the reason for the difference in Hg levels between males and females is unclear. Images Figure 1 PMID:10544153

  9. Antagonistic activities of atipamezole, 4-aminopyridine and yohimbine against medetomidine/ketamine-induced anaesthesia in cats.

    PubMed

    Verstegen, J; Fargetton, X; Zanker, S; Donnay, I; Ectors, F

    1991-01-19

    The objectives of this trial were to determine the ability of atipamezole, 4-aminopyridine and yohimbine to reverse the anaesthetic effects of a combination of medetomidine and ketamine in cats. Forty healthy cats were anaesthetised with 80 micrograms/kg medetomidine combined with 5 mg/kg ketamine. Thirty minutes later atipamezole (200 or 500 micrograms/kg), 4-aminopyridine (500 or 1000 micrograms/kg) or yohimbine (250 or 500 micrograms/kg) were injected intramuscularly. The doses of antagonists were randomised, so that each dose was administered to five cats, and 10 cats were injected only with physiological saline. Atipamezole clearly reversed the anaesthesia and bradycardia induced by medetomidine and ketamine. The mean (+/- sd) arousal times were 28 (+/- 4.7), 5.8 (+/- 1.8) and 7 (+/- 2.1) minutes in the placebo group, and the groups receiving 200 and 500 micrograms/kg atipamezole, respectively. The heart rates of the cats receiving 200 micrograms/kg atipamezole rapidly returned to values close to the initial ones, but 15 minutes after the injection of 500 micrograms/kg atipamezole a significant tachycardia was observed. All the cats showed moderate signs of ataxia during the recovery period. A dose of 500 micrograms/kg yohimbine also clearly reversed the anaesthetic effects of medetomidine/ketamine but 250 micrograms/kg was not effective. The dose of 500 micrograms/kg allowed a smooth recovery with no particular side effects except for some signs of incomplete antagonism of the ketamine effects, ie, ataxia and muscular incoordination. With 4-aminopyridine there were no statistically significant effects on the recovery, or the heart and respiratory rates of the cats anaesthetised with medetomidine/ketamine. PMID:2003354

  10. Bosentan-improved cardiopulmonary vascular performance and increased plasma levels of endothelin-1 in porcine endotoxin shock.

    PubMed Central

    Weitzberg, E.; Hemsén, A.; Rudehill, A.; Modin, A.; Wanecek, M.; Lundberg, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    1. To evaluate the possible contribution of endothelin-1 (ET-1) to the pathophysiology of porcine septic shock, the non-peptide, mixed ET-receptor antagonist, bosentan (RO 47-0203) was administered (5 mg kg-1, i.v.) 30 min before infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (E. coli., serotype 0111:B4) (15 micrograms kg-1 h-1) and at 3.5 h of endotoxaemia in six anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs. Six other pigs served as controls and received only LPS infusion. Pulmonary and systemic haemodynamics as well as splenic, renal and intestinal blood flows were measured continuously. Release and synthesis of ET-1 and Big ET-1 were also measured. 2. Only three of the six pigs in the control group survived 3 h of LPS infusion while in the bosentantreated group all six pigs were alive at that time. A biphasic increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was seen in control pigs. Pretreatment with bosentan did not influence the first peak but markedly attenuated the second, more prolonged increase in MPAP and PVR. The second dose of bosentan completely restored these parameters to pre-LPS levels. The LPS-induced changes in mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and systemic vascular resistance were similar in both groups, while cardiac output (CO) was significantly higher in the bosentan-treated group. The second bosentan dose increased CO and splenic and intestinal blood flow without further lowering of blood pressure. 3. Bosentan caused an increase of the basal arterial plasma levels of ET-1-like immunoreactivity (LI), from 16.8 +/- 1.3 pM to 49.6 +/- 10.0 pM (n = 6, P < 0.01). However, the rate of the increase of ET-1 levels during the LPS infusion was not affected by bosentan. Repeated administration of bosentan during LPS infusion caused an additional increase of ET-1-LI levels. Neither the basal levels of Big ET-LI nor the LPS induced 8 fold increase in Big ET-LI were changed by bosentan. The level of preproET-1 m

  11. Hydrogeological investigation at Site 5, Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base, Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted borehole geophysical logging, collected and analyzed waterlevel data, and sampled sections of a rock core to determine the concentration of volatile organic compounds in the aquifer matrix of the Stockton Formation. Borehole geophysical logs were run in three monitor wells. At well 05MW04I, the vertical gradient was upward at depths above 42 feet below land surface (ft bls), downward between 42 and 82 ft bls, and upward below 82 ft bls. At well 05MW05I, a downward vertical gradient was present. At well 05MW12I, the vertical gradient was downward above 112 ft bls and upward below 112 ft bls. Three water-bearing fractures in a 17-foot long rock core from 23.5 to 40.5 ft bls were identified and sampled. Three samples were analyzed from each water-bearing fracture?at the fracture face, 2 centimeters (cm) below the fracture, and 4 cm below the fracture. Fifteen compounds were detected; however, concentrations of seven compounds were less than 1 microgram per kilogram (mg/kg) when detected. Concentrations of benzene (from 0.39 to 3.3 mg/kg), 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) (from 0.15 to 13 mg/kg), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) (from 0.17 to 22 mg/kg), and trichloroethylene (TCE) (from 0.092 to 9.6 mg/kg) were detected in all samples. The highest concentrations detected were for toluene, which was detected at a concentration of 32 and 86 mg/kg in the samples from unweathered sandstone at 2 and 4 cm below the fracture, respectively. Concentrations generally decreased with distance below the fracture in the mudstone samples. Concentrations of benzene and toluene increased with distance below the fractures in the unweathered sandstone samples. Concentrations of 1,1-DCE, TCA, and TCE were higher in the mudstone samples than in the samples from sandstone. Toluene concentrations were higher in unweathered sandstone than in weathered sandstone or mudstone. The effect of the pumping of HorshamWater and Sewer Authority public supply well 26 (HWSA-26

  12. Environmental hazards of aluminum to plants, invertebrates, fish, and wildlife.

    PubMed

    Sparling, D W; Lowe, T P

    1996-01-01

    , molluscs, and isopods seem to be tolerant. In Al-sensitive species, elevated levels (approximately 500 micrograms.L-1) affect ion regulation and respiratory efficiency. Toxicity tends to be greatest near a species' threshold of pH sensitivity. At lower pHs, Al may have a slight ameliorative effect by interfering with H+ transport across membranes. Aquatic invertebrates can accumulate very high levels of Al, but most of this appears to be through adsorption rather than assimilation. Aluminum concentrations may be as high as 5000 mg.kg-1 in insects and greater than 17,000 mg.kg-1 in other invertebrates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7494908

  13. Assessment of soil-gas and groundwater contamination at the Gibson Road landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir G.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Soil-gas and groundwater assessments were conducted at the Gibson Road landfill in 201 to provide screening-level environmental contamination data to supplement the data collected during previous environmental studies at the landfill. Passive samplers were used in both assessments to detect volatile and semivolatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil gas and groundwater. A total of 56 passive samplers were deployed in the soil in late July and early August for the soil-gas assessment. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were detected at masses greater than the method detection level of 0.02 microgram in all samplers and masses greater than 2.0 micrograms in 13 samplers. Three samplers located between the landfill and a nearby wetland had TPH masses greater than 20 micrograms. Diesel was detected in 28 of the 56 soil-gas samplers. Undecane, tridecane, and pentadecane were detected, but undecane was the most common diesel compound with 23 detections. Only five detections exceeded a combined diesel mass of 0.10 microgram, including the highest mass of 0.27 microgram near the wetland. Toluene was detected in only five passive samplers, including masses of 0.65 microgram near the wetland and 0.85 microgram on the southwestern side of the landfill. The only other gasoline-related compound detected was octane in two samplers. Naphthalene was detected in two samplers in the gully near the landfill and two samplers along the southwestern side of the landfill, but had masses less than or equal to 0.02 microgram. Six samplers located southeast of the landfill had detections of chlorinated compounds, including one perchloroethene detections (0.04 microgram) and five chloroform detections (0.05 to0.08 microgram). Passive samplers were deployed and recovered on August 8, 2011, in nine monitoring wells along the southwestern, southeastern and northeastern sides of the landfill and down gradient from the eastern corner of the landfill. Six of the nine

  14. Percutaneous absorption of Octopirox.

    PubMed

    Black, J G; Kamat, V B

    1988-01-01

    [14C]Octopirox administered to rats by intubation or injection was excreted mostly in the faeces (65-85% of the dose) with smaller amounts (6-19%) in the urine. Blood levels after intubation of Octopirox (4.8 mg/kg body weight) reached a maximum equivalent to 0.137 micrograms/ml at 2 hr and declined to 0.007 micrograms/ml at 48 hr after administration. Tissue levels were low, the greatest was the liver with the equivalent of 3 micrograms Octopirox at 6 hr after intubation. With female rats skin penetration of Octopirox at 1% (v/v) in shampoo without rinsing was 65.1 micrograms/cm2 under non-occlusive conditions for 48 hr. When the skin was rinsed after a 10-min contact, penetration was reduced to 3.4 micrograms/cm2 under occlusive, and 2.0 micrograms/cm2 under non-occlusive conditions. Skin penetration of Octopirox was dependent on duration of contact up to 10 min before rinsing. Penetration at 1% Octopirox increased significantly from 2.4 micrograms/cm2 after 2.5 min exposure to 4.5 micrograms/cm2 after 10 min contact, but there was no further increase in penetration with a 20-min application. Skin penetration and deposition of Octopirox were both proportional to Octopirox concentration between 0.1 and 1% (w/v); skin penetration increased from 0.31 to 3.6 micrograms/cm2 while deposition increased from 0.8 to 7.6 micrograms/cm2. There was no significant difference between the penetration through clipped skin and hairy skin from an application of 1% Octopirox for 5 min followed by rinsing. Under non-occlusive conditions, penetration was 1.5 micrograms/cm2 for both types of skin. Blood levels after topical application (15.4 mg/kg body weight) without rinsing and with occlusion reached the equivalent of 0.32 micrograms/ml at 6 hr. However, when the skin was rinsed and protected with a non-occlusive patch blood levels were reduced to a maximum equivalent to 0.02 micrograms/ml at 1 hr after application. The safety factor estimated for the consumer using a shampoo

  15. 40 CFR 180.183 - O,O-Diethyl S-[2-(ethyl-thio)ethyl] phosphorodithioate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 0.05 1/30/10 Spinach 0.75 10/14/09 Tomato 0.75 10/14/09 Wheat, grain 0.2 1/30/10 Wheat, hay 5.0 1/30..., grain 0.2 1/30/10 Barley, straw 5.0 1/30/10 Bean, lima 0.75 None Bean, snap, succulent 0.75 None....05 1/30/10 Grain, aspirated fractions 0.3 1/30/10 Hog, fat 0.05 1/30/10 Hog, meat 0.05 1/30/10...

  16. Gas emission from diffuse degassing structures (DDS) of the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL): Implications for the prevention of CO2-related hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa; Ohba, T.; Chako Tchamabé, B.; Padrón, E.; Hernández, P.; Eneke Takem, E. G.; Barrancos, J.; Sighomnoun, D.; Ooki, S.; Nkamdjou, Sigha; Kusakabe, M.; Yoshida, Y.; Dionis, S.

    2014-08-01

    In the mid-1980s, lakes Nyos and Monoun violently released massive gas, mainly magmatic CO2 killing about 1800 people. Subsequent geochemical surveys and social studies indicate that lakes Nyos and Monoun event is cyclic in nature and may occur anywhere in the about 37 other volcanic lakes located in the corridor of the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL). This potential threat motivated us to check if, alike Nyos and Monoun, the internal dynamic of the other lakes is also controlled by inputs of deep-seated-derived CO2 and attempt to measure and provide comprehensive insights on the passive gas emission along the CVL. This knowledge shall contribute to the prevention of volcanic lake-related hazards in Cameroon and the refinement of the Global Carbon Cycle. We used in situ fixation and dry gas phase sampling methods to determine CO2 origin and the concentration, and the accumulation chamber technique to measure diffuse CO2 emission from nine lakes and on soil at Nyos Valley and Mount Manenguba Caldera. The results suggest that, although in minor concentrations (compared to Nyos and Monoun), ranging from 0.56 mmol kg- 1 to 8.75 mmol kg- 1, the bottom waters of some lakes also contain measurable magmatic CO2 with δ13C varies from - 4.42‰ to - 9.16‰ vs. PDB. That finding implies that, under certain circumstances, e.g. increase to volcanic and/or tectonic activities along the CVL, the concerned lakes could develop a Nyos-type behavioural scheme. The diffuse gas emission results indicate that the nine surveyed lakes release approximately 3.69 ± 0.37 kt km- 2 yr- 1 of CO2 to the atmosphere; extrapolation to the approximately 39 volcanic lakes located on the CVL yields an approximate CO2 output of 27.37 ± 0.5 kt km- 2 yr- 1, representing 0.023% of the global CO2 output from volcanic lakes. In addition to the precedent value, the gas removal operation in lakes Nyos and Monoun released approximately 2.52 ± 0.46 × 108 mol km- 2 yr- 1 CO2 to the atmosphere from January

  17. Plasma and milk kinetics of eprinomectin following topical or oral administration to lactating Chinese Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Wen, Huiqiang; Pan, Baoliang; Wang, Yuwan; Wang, Fangfei; Yang, Zhenzhong; Wang, Ming

    2010-11-24

    Chinese Holstein, bred by mating the Holstein-Friesian to Chinese Yellow Cattle, is a major dairy cattle breed in China. Eprinomectin is widely used in the treatment of nematode and ectoparasite infections in lactating cattle. The pharmacokinetics of eprinomectin in the plasma and milk were determined in Chinese Holstein cows following topical (at 0.5 mg kg(-1)) or oral (at 0.2 mg kg(-1)) administration. For topical administration, the concentrations of eprinomectin in plasma reached peak values (C(max)) of 16.16 ± 6.02 ng ml(-1) at 3.20 ± 1.30 days (T(max)). In milk, the C(max) values of 2.28 ± 0.85 ng ml(-1) were obtained at 3.48 ± 0.65 days. The MRT values were 5.00 ± 0.96 days for plasma and 4.65 ± 0.60 days for milk. The AUC values were 91.00 ± 25.32 ng d ml(-1) for plasma and 10.53 ± 1.55 ng d ml(-1) for milk. The ratio of AUC milk/plasma was 0.124 ± 0.041. Significant differences were found in C(max) and AUC of eprinomectin in plasma between Chinese Holstein and Prim Holstein following topical administration. It was probably due to the lower storage of body fat in Chinese Holstein than in Prim Holstein. For oral administration, the concentrations of eprinomectin reach peak values of 30.02 ± 5.73 ng ml(-1) at 1.60 ± 0.55 days in plasma and 3.14 ± 0.88 ng ml(-1) at 1.40 ± 0.27 days in milk. The MRT values for plasma and milk were 3.00 ± 0.46 and 3.18 ± 0.55 days, respectively. The AUC values were 98.46 ± 24.75 ng d ml(-1) for plasma and 10.42 ± 4.22 ng d ml(-1) for milk. The ratio of AUC milk/plasma was 0.104 ± 0.022. Compared with the topical administration, a significantly shorter MRT of eprinomectin in plasma was obtained following oral administration, which would shorten residue time of this compound in faeces and reduce its ecotoxicological effect. The low exposure of eprinomectin in milk would favor the use of eprinomectin in lactating Chinese Holstein for topical or oral administration. PMID:20851527

  18. Gender difference in anaerobic capacity: role of aerobic contribution.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, D W; Smith, J C

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of gender on anaerobic and aerobic contributions to high-intensity exercise. A group of 38 subjects (22 women, 16 men) performed modified Wingate tests against resistances of 0.086 kg kg-1 body mass (0.844 N kg-1) for women and 0.095 kg kg-1 body mass (0.932 N kg-1) for men. The aerobic contribution to total work performed was determined from breath-by-breath analyses of expired gases during each test. Total work in 30 s was 30% lower (Student's t test; P < 0.01) in women than men (211 +/- 5 J kg-1 versus 299 +/- 14 J kg-1). Aerobic contribution was only 7% lower (P = 0.12) in women than men (53 +/- 1 J kg-1 versus 57 +/- 2 J kg-1). The anaerobic component of the work performed, determined by subtraction of the aerobic component from total work in 30 s, was 35% lower (P < 0.01) in women than men (158 +/- 5 J kg-1 versus 242 +/- 15 J kg-1). It is concluded that, because women provide a relatively higher (P < 0.01) portion of the energy for a 30-s test aerobically than men (25% versus 20%), total work during a Wingate test actually underestimates the gender difference in anaerobic capacity between women and men. PMID:8457813

  19. Neuroprotective activity of chlormethiazole following transient forebrain ischaemia in the gerbil.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, A. J.; Jones, J. A.; Baldwin, H. A.; Green, A. R.

    1991-01-01

    1. The effect of chlormethiazole, and other drugs which potentiate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) function on delayed neuronal death in the hippocampus has been examined in the gerbil. 2. Chlormethiazole (100 mg kg-1, i.p.) and two other drugs previously reported to be neuroprotective (dizocilpine, 3 mg kg-1, i.p. and ifenprodil, 4 mg kg-1, i.p.) were all found to prevent neurodegeneration of CA1/CA2 neurones in the hippocampus when given 30 min before a 5 min episode of bilateral carotid artery occlusion. 3. Chlormethiazole (100 mg kg-1) was neuroprotective when given up to 3 h, after the ischaemic episode. 4. Given 1 h after the cartoid artery occlusion, chlormethiazole produced significant protection against hippocampal neurodegeneration at a dose of 50 mg kg-1, but not at 25 mg kg-1. 5. Phenobarbitone (100 mg kg-1, i.p.) and Saffan (alphaxalone, 45 mg kg-1 plus alphadalone, 15 mg kg-1, i.p.) were not protective when given 1 h after the ischaemic episode while pentobarbitone (30 mg kg-1, i.p.) had a modest protective effect. 6. Evidence is presented to show that neither the operating procedure nor the chlormethiazole administration lowered rectal or cerebral temperature. 7. The data suggest that chlormethiazole may be a useful treatment in the prevention of neurodegeneration following stroke or cardiac arrest. Images Figure 1 PMID:1797307

  20. Pesticide residues in tomatoes from greenhouses in Souss Massa Valley, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Salghi, R; Luis, G; Rubio, C; Hormatallah, A; Bazzi, L; Gutiérrez, A J; Hardisson, A

    2012-03-01

    Eight pesticide residues in tomato samples collected in the area of Souss Massa Valley (Southern Morocco) were analyzed. The detected residue levels ranged from 0.001 to 0.400 mg kg(-1) for dicofol, from 0.003 to 0.170 mg kg(-1) for procymidone, from 0.001 to 0.250 mg kg(-1) for chlorothalonil, from 0.050 to 0.500 mg kg(-1) for bifenthrin, from 0.001 to 0.010 mg kg(-1) for λ-cyhalothrin, from 0.001 to 0.300 mg kg(-1) for cypermethrin, from 0.010 to 1 mg kg(-1) for deltamethrin and from 0.003 to 1.123 mg kg(-1) for endosulfan. European MRL for endosulfan in tomatoes set in 0.500 mg kg(-1), was exceeded in 8 samples, and MRL for deltamethrin set in 0.300 mg kg(-1) for tomatoes was exceeded in 2 samples. PMID:22210446

  1. Natural occurrence of nivalenol and mycotoxigenic potential of Fusarium graminearum strains in wheat affected by head blight in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, V.E. Fernandez; Terminiello, L.A.; Basilico, J.C.; Ritieni, A.

    2008-01-01

    The principal agents of Fusarium head blight in the main cropping area of Argentina were investigated in heavily infected samples. The ability of the isolates to produce trichothecenes was determined by GC and HPLC. Fusarium graminearum was the predominant species and of 33 isolates, 10 produced deoxinivalenol (DON) (0.1- 29 mg kg-1), 13 produced both deoxinivalenol (1.0- 708 mg kg-1) and nivalenol (0.1- 6.2mg kg-1), 12 produced 3-acetyldeoxinivalenol (0.1- 14 mg kg-1), 13 produced 15-acetyldeoxinivalenol (0.1- 1.9 mg kg-1), 10 produced Fusarenone X (0.1- 2.4 mg kg-1) and 7 produced zearalenone (0.1- 0.6 mg kg-1). These results suggest that F. graminearum strains isolated from the wheat growing regions in Argentina belong to DON chemotype. Although some strains produced both deoxinivalenol and nivalenol, nivalenol was produced in lower levels. The natural occurrence of nivalenol in wheat affected by head-blight collected in the main production area during two years (2001-2002) was also determined. From 19 samples 13 were contaminated with deoxinivalenol in a range of 0.3 to 70 mg kg-1and 2 samples with both deoxinivalenol (7.5 and 6.7 mg kg-1) and nivalenol (0.05 and 0.1 mg kg-1), respectively. This is the first report of natural occurrence of nivalenol in wheat cultivate in Argentina. PMID:24031196

  2. Protective effect of selected calcium channel blockers and prednisolone, a phospholipase-A2 inhibitor, against gentamicin and carbon tetrachloride-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Akindele, A J; Adeneye, A A; Olatoye, F; Benebo, A S

    2014-08-01

    The ameliorative effect of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and a phospholipase-A2 inhibitor in drug-/chemical-induced nephrotoxicity was investigated. Rats were divided into 7 groups of 5 rats in each group. In the gentamicin model, group I rats were pretreated with normal saline (10 ml kg(-1)), while groups II-VII rats were pretreated with normal saline (10 ml kg(-1)), ascorbic acid (10 mg kg(-1)), nifedipine (0.86 mg kg(-1)), verapamil (4.3 mg kg(-1)), diltiazem (3.43 mg kg(-1)), and prednisolone (0.57 mg kg(-1)), respectively, perorally 1 h before intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of gentamicin (40 mg kg(-1)) for 14 days. In the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) model, rats were pretreated with CCBs and prednisolone for 7 days before inducing nephrotoxicity with 20% CCl4 (1.5 ml kg(-1)). Rats were thereafter killed and blood and tissue samples were collected for assessments. I.p. injections of gentamicin and CCl4 caused significant hypernatremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and hyperchloremic alkalosis and reduced renal tissue levels of antioxidants. Also, significant reductions in the hemoglobin, packed cell volume, red blood cells, and platelet indices were observed. Pretreatments with nifedipine (0.86 mg kg(-1)), verapamil (4.3 mg kg(-1)), diltiazem (3.43 mg kg(-1)), and prednisolone (0.57 mg kg(-1)) significantly ameliorated the deleterious effects of gentamicin and CCl4 possibly via antioxidant and anti-lipoperoxidation mechanisms. The results obtained in this study suggest potential clinical usefulness of tested CCBs and prednisolone in drug-/chemical-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:24220874

  3. Responses of earthworm to aluminum toxicity in latosol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia'en; Yu, Jiayu; Ouyang, Ying; Xu, Huaqin

    2013-02-01

    Excess aluminum (Al) in soils due to acid rain leaching is toxic to water resources and harmful to soil organisms and plants. This study investigated adverse impacts of Al levels upon earthworms (Eisenia fetida) from the latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiments were performed to examine the survival and avoidance of earthworms from high Al concentrations and investigate the response of earthworms upon Al toxicity at seven different Al concentrations that ranged from 0 to 300 mg kg(-1) over a 28-day period. Our study showed that the rate of the earthworm survival was 100 % within the first 7 days and decreased as time elapsed, especially for the Al concentrations at 200 and 300 mg kg(-1). A very good linear correlation existed between the earthworm avoidance and the soil Al concentration. There was no Al toxicity to earthworms with the Al concentration ≤ 50 mg kg(-1), and the toxicity started with the Al concentration ≥ 100 mg kg(-1). Low Al concentration (i.e., <50 mg kg(-1)) enhanced the growth of the earthworms, while high Al concentration (>100 mg kg(-1)) retarded the growth of the earthworms. The weight of earthworms and the uptake of Al by earthworms increased with the Al concentrations from 0 to 50 mg kg(-1) and decreased with the Al concentrations from 50 to 300 mg kg(-1). The protein content in the earthworms decreased with the Al concentrations from 0 to 100 mg kg(-1) and increased from 100 to 300 mg kg(-1). In contrast, the catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the earthworms increased with the Al concentrations from 0 to 100 mg kg(-1) and decreased from 100 to 300 mg kg(-1). The highest CAT and SOD activities and lowest protein content were found at the Al concentration of 100 mg kg(-1). Results suggest that a high level of Al content in latosol was harmful to earthworms. PMID:22645004

  4. Aluminum in precipitation, streams, and shallow groundwater in the New Jersey Pine Barrens

    SciTech Connect

    Budd, W.W.; Johnson, A.H.; Huss, J.B.; Turner, R.S.

    1981-08-01

    Aluminum appears in waters of the New Jersey Pine Barrens at concentrations of 0-200 micrograms per liter (volume weighted average, 105 micrograms per liter) in precipitation; 100-800 micrograms per liter (volume weighted average, 345 micrograms per liter) in streams; and 0-3000