Science.gov

Sample records for 1-4 mw proton

  1. Beam Loss Studies for the 2-MW LBNE Proton Beam Line

    SciTech Connect

    Drozhdin, A.I.; Childress, S.R.; Mokhov, N.V.; Tropin, I.S.; Zwaska, R.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Severe limits are put on allowable beam loss during extraction and transport of a 2.3 MW primary proton beam for the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) at Fermilab. Detailed simulations with the STRUCT and MARS codes have evaluated the impact of beam loss of 1.6 x 10{sup 14} protons per pulse at 120 GeV, ranging from a single pulse full loss to sustained small fractional loss. It is shown that loss of a single beam pulse at 2.3 MW will result in a catastrophic event: beam pipe destruction, damaged magnets and very high levels of residual radiation inside and outside the tunnel. Acceptable beam loss limits have been determined and robust solutions developed to enable efficient proton beam operation under these constraints.

  2. Vibrational signatures of hydrogen bonding in the protonated ammonia clusters NH4+(NH3)1-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Kühn, O.; Santambrogio, G.; Goebbert, D. J.; Asmis, K. R.

    2008-12-01

    The gas phase vibrational spectroscopy of the protonated ammonia dimer N2H7+, a prototypical system for strong hydrogen bonding, is studied in the spectral region from 330 to 1650 cm-1 by combining infrared multiple photon dissociation and multidimensional quantum mechanical simulations. The fundamental transition of the antisymmetric proton stretching vibration is observed at 374 cm-1 and assigned on the basis of a six-dimensional model Hamiltonian, which predicts this transition at 471 cm-1. Photodissociation spectra of the larger protonated ammonia clusters NH4+(NH3)n with n =2-4 are also reported for the range from 1050 to 1575 cm-1. The main absorption features can be assigned within the harmonic approximation, supporting earlier evidence that hydrogen bonding in these clusters is considerably weaker than for n =1.

  3. Cross-section for proton tritium scattering from 1.4 to 3.4 MeV at the laboratory angle of 165°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, X. J.; Ding, W.; Zhang, B.; Long, X. G.; Luo, S. Z.; Peng, S. M.; Hutton, R.; Shi, L. Q.

    2008-03-01

    The elastic scattering cross-section for proton scattering from tritium was measured at a laboratory angle of 165° and over an incident proton energy range from 1.4 to 3.4 MeV. A thin solid target containing 1.62 × 1017 T atoms/cm2 was prepared by absorption of tritium into a film of titanium on aluminium foil backing. The cross-section increases almost linearly with decreasing energy in the higher energy region of 2-3.4 MeV. The currently measured cross-section data are compared with data available in the literature values and they show a similarly linear trend in a similar higher energy range. The maximum difference in the cross-section at almost the same scattering angle between current data and the previous results is no worse than 2.3%.

  4. Protonation of water clusters in the cavities of acidic zeolites: (H2O)n.H-chabazite, n = 1-4.

    PubMed

    Vener, Mikhail V; Rozanska, Xavier; Sauer, Joachim

    2009-03-21

    Proton forms of zeolite chabazite (H-SSZ-13) loaded with 1 to 4 water molecules per acid site are examined by density functional theory with periodic boundary conditions. Equilibrium structures are determined by localizing minima on the potential energy surface and harmonic vibrational frequencies are calculated. Average structures, proton dynamics and anharmonic spectra at finite temperature (350 K) are determined by molecular dynamics (MD). The protonation state is found to depend on the number of water molecules per acid site (loading) following the trend of increasing proton affinity with increasing cluster size. Single water molecules are not protonated, the protonated water dimer is the most stable equilibrium structure with the PBE functional, but not with BLYP. MD shows that even with PBE, the protonated water dimer is not stable at finite temperature. The protonated water trimer may be formed as a short-lived species, but the protonated water tetramer is the smallest stable protonated cluster. For the same global loading (2 : 1), a heterogeneous distribution of adsorbed water molecules over the cells is more stable than a homogeneous one (1 : 1/3 : 1 vs. 2 : 1/2 : 1 for a double cell), i.e. non-protonated and protonated water clusters may exist simultaneously in polyhydrated H-SSZ13. Adsorption energies (0 K) per water molecule decrease from 71 to 51 kJ mol(-1) for n = 1 to n = 4. PMID:19290341

  5. Odins's 1. 4-Mw sets provide 100% platform power needs

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, R.

    1983-03-01

    The testing of three Kongsberg KG2-3C gas turbines supplying all of the drilling and normal electrical loads for Esso's Odin platform in the Norwegian North Sea is discussed. It is the first time that this type of installation has been applied to meeting the energy needs of a small platform in the North Sea, where generally the rule of thumb is to install separate diesel sets to handle the drilling loads. From the tests so far, Kongsberg is convinced that the gas turbine can support the small platform drilling loads as well as the total platform energy load.

  6. Report of the Snowmass M6 Working Group on high intensity proton sources

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou and J. Wei

    2002-08-20

    The U.S. high-energy physics program needs an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver (PD), by the end of this decade. This machine will serve as a stand-alone facility that will provide neutrino superbeams and other high intensity secondary beams such as kaons, muons, neutrons, and anti-protons (cf. E1 and E5 group reports) and also serve as the first stage of a neutrino factory (cf. M1 group report). It can also be a high brightness source for a VLHC. Based on present accelerator technology and project construction experience, it is both feasible and cost-effective to construct a 1-4 MW Proton Driver. Two recent PD design studies have been made, one at FNAL and the other at the BNL. Both designed PD's for 1 MW proton beams at a cost of about U.S. $200M (excluding contingency and overhead) and both designs were upgradeable to 4 MW. An international collaboration between FNAL, BNL and KEK on high intensity proton facilities is addressing a number of key design issues. The superconducting (sc) RF cavities, cryogenics, and RF controls developed for the SNS can be directly adopted to save R&D efforts, cost, and schedule. PD studies are also actively being pursued at Europe and Japan.

  7. Proton bunch compression strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Valeri; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    The paper discusses main limitations on the beam power and other machine parameters for a 4 MW proton driver for muon collider. The strongest limitation comes from a longitudinal microwave instability limiting the beam power to about 1 MW for an 8 GeV compressor ring.

  8. 1,4-Dioxane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,4 - Dioxane ; CASRN 123 - 91 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  9. 1,4-Dibromobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,4 - Dibromobenzene ; CASRN 106 - 37 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  10. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,4 - Dichlorobenzene ; CASRN 106 - 46 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  11. 1,4-Dithiane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,4 - Dithiane ; CASRN 505 - 29 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  12. Four-electron oxidative dehydrogenation induced by proton-coupled electron transfer in ruthenium(III) complex with 2-(1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)phenolate.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Ryoji; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Sunatsuki, Yukinari

    2013-09-01

    New ruthenium(II or III) complexes with general formula [Ru(O-N)(bpy)2](n+) (O-N = unsymmetrical bidentate phenolate ligand; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) were synthesized, and their crystal structures and electrochemical properties were characterized. Ru(II) complexes with 2-(2-imidazolinyl)phenolate (Himn(-)) or 2-(1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)phenolate (Hthp(-)) could be deprotonated by addition of excess KO(t)Bu, although the deprotonated species were easily reprotonated by exposure to air. Unlike these Ru(II) complexes, their Ru(III) analogs showed interesting ligand oxidation reactions upon addition of bases. With [Ru(III)(Himn)(bpy)2](2+), two-electron oxidation of Himn(-) and reduction of the Ru(III) center resulted in conversion of the 2-imidazolinyl group to a 2-imidazolyl group. On the other hand, the corresponding Hthp(-) complex exhibited four-electron oxidation of the ligand to form 2-(2-pyrimidyl)phenolate (pym(-)). These aromatization reactions of imidazolinyl and 1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidyl groups were also achieved by the electrochemically generated Ru(III) complexes. PMID:23967872

  13. Microbial Hydroxylation of 1,4-Cineole

    PubMed Central

    Rosazza, John P. N.; Steffens, James J.; Sariaslani, F. Sima; Goswami, Animesh; Beale, John M.; Reeg, Scot; Chapman, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Microorganisms were examined for their potential to hydroxylate the oxygenated monoterpene 1,4-cineole. Using gas chromatography and thin-layer chromatography, screening experiments revealed that hydroxylation at position 2 was the most commonly observed microbial transformation reaction. In most microorganisms, the predominant alcohol metabolite was the 2-endo-alcohol isomer. Preparative-scale incubations were conducted in order to isolate and characterize microbial transformation products by comparison of proton nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and chromatography profiles with those of cineole standards. Streptomyces griseus yielded 8-hydroxy-1,4-cineole as the major hydroxylation product together with 2-exo- and 2-endo-hydroxy-1,4-cineoles. PMID:16347465

  14. STUDY OF A 10-MW CONTINUOUS SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect

    RUGGIERO,A.G.LUDEWIG,H.SHAPIRO,S.

    2003-05-12

    This paper reports on the feasibility study of a proton Super-Conducting Linac as the driver for an Accelerator-based Continuous Neutron Source (ACNS) [1] to be located at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The Linac is to be operated in the Continuous Wave (CW) mode to produce an average 10 MW of beam power. The Linac beam energy is taken to be 1.25 GeV. The required average proton beam intensity in exit is then 8 mA.

  15. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... nucleus is surrounded by electrons. In proton therapy, beams of fast-moving protons are used to destroy ... atoms to release proton, neutron, and helium ion beams. In this highly specialized form of radiosurgery , proton ...

  16. 2 MW upgrade of the Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou

    2003-06-04

    In January 2002, the Fermilab Director initiated a design study for a high average power, modest energy proton facility. An intensity upgrade to Fermilab's 120-GeV Main Injector (MI) represents an attractive concept for such a facility, which would leverage existing beam lines and experimental areas and would greatly enhance physics opportunities at Fermilab and in the U.S. With a Proton Driver replacing the present Booster, the beam intensity of the MI is expected to be increased by a factor of five. Accompanied by a shorter cycle, the beam power would reach 2 MW. This would make the MI a more powerful machine than the SNS or the J-PARC. Moreover, the high beam energy (120 GeV) and tunable energy range (8-120 GeV) would make it a unique high power proton facility. The upgrade study has been completed and published. This paper gives a summary report.

  17. A conceptual design of the 2+ MW LBNE beam absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Velev, G.; Childress, S.; Hurh, P.; Hylen, J.; Makarov, A.; Mohkhov, N.; Moore, C.D.; Novitski, I.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will utilize a neutrino beamline facility located at Fermilab. The facility will aim a beam of neutrinos, produced by 60-120 GeV protons from the Fermilab Main Injector, toward a detector placed at the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) in South Dakota. Secondary particles that do not decay into muons and neutrinos as well as any residual proton beam must be stopped at the end of the decay region to reduce noise/damage in the downstream muon monitors and reduce activation in the surrounding rock. This goal is achieved by placing an absorber structure at the end of the decay region. The requirements and conceptual design of such an absorber, capable of operating at 2+ MW primary proton beam power, is described.

  18. 20-MW Magnicon for ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2006-11-29

    The 1.3 GHz RF power to drive ILC is now planned to be supplied by 600-1200, 10-MW peak power multi-beam klystrons. In this project, a conceptual design for 1.3 GHz magnicons with 20 MW peak power was developed as an alternative to the klystrons, with the possibility of cutting in half the numbers of high-power tubes and associated components. Design of a conventional magnicon is described, using TM110 modes in all cavities, as well as design of a modified magnicon with a TE111 mode output cavity. The latter has the advantage of much lower surface fields than the TM110 mode, with no loss of output power or electronic efficiency.

  19. REPORT OF THE SNOWMASS M6 WORKING GROUP ON HIGH INTENSITY PROTON SOURCES.

    SciTech Connect

    CHOU,W.; WEI,J.

    2001-08-14

    The M6 working group had more than 40 active participants (listed in Section 4). During the three weeks at Snowmass, there were about 50 presentations, covering a wide range of topics associated with high intensity proton sources. The talks are listed in Section 5. This group also had joint sessions with a number of other working groups, including E1 (Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders), E5 (Fixed-Target Experiments), M1 (Muon Based Systems), T4 (Particle Sources), T5 (Beam dynamics), T7 (High Performance Computing) and T9 (Diagnostics). The M6 group performed a survey of the beam parameters of existing and proposed high intensity proton sources, in particular, of the proton drivers. The results are listed in Table 1. These parameters are compared with the requirements of high-energy physics users of secondary beams in Working Groups E1 and E5. According to the consensus reached in the E1 and E5 groups, the U.S. HEP program requires an intense proton source, a 1-4 MW Proton Driver, by the end of this decade.

  20. 16 CFR 1.4 - Public disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public disclosure. 1.4 Section 1.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.4 Public disclosure. Written advice rendered pursuant...

  1. 50 CFR 1.4 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Director. 1.4 Section 1.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.4 Director. Director means the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the...

  2. 45 CFR 1206.1-4 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 1206.1-4 Section 1206.1-4 Public... GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance § 1206.1-4 Suspension. (a) General. The responsible Corporation official may...

  3. 45 CFR 1206.1-4 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1206.1-4 Section 1206.1-4 Public... GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance § 1206.1-4 Suspension. (a) General. The responsible Corporation official may...

  4. 45 CFR 1211.1-4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. 1211.1-4 Section 1211.1-4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-4 Policy. It is ACTION's policy to provide volunteers the widest latitude...

  5. 45 CFR 1211.1-4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Policy. 1211.1-4 Section 1211.1-4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-4 Policy. It is ACTION's policy to provide volunteers the widest latitude...

  6. 45 CFR 1211.1-4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policy. 1211.1-4 Section 1211.1-4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-4 Policy. It is ACTION's policy to provide volunteers the widest latitude...

  7. 50 CFR 1.4 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Director. 1.4 Section 1.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.4 Director. Director means the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the...

  8. 50 CFR 1.4 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Director. 1.4 Section 1.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.4 Director. Director means the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the...

  9. 50 CFR 1.4 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Director. 1.4 Section 1.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.4 Director. Director means the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the...

  10. 50 CFR 1.4 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Director. 1.4 Section 1.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.4 Director. Director means the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the...

  11. Proton therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... direction of the tumor. A machine called a synchrotron or cyclotron creates and speeds up the protons. ... redness in the radiation area, and temporary hair loss. AFTER THE PROCEDURE Following proton therapy, you should ...

  12. Enantioselective Protonation

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Justin T.; Hong, Allen Y.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Enantioselective protonation is a common process in biosynthetic sequences. The decarboxylase and esterase enzymes that effect this valuable transformation are able to control both the steric environment around the proton acceptor (typically an enolate) and the proton donor (typically a thiol). Recently, several chemical methods to achieve enantioselective protonation have been developed by exploiting various means of enantiocontrol in different mechanisms. These laboratory transformations have proven useful for the preparation of a number of valuable organic compounds. PMID:20428461

  13. Catalytic Asymmetric 1,4-Addition Reactions of Simple Alkylnitriles.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yasuhiro; Sato, Io; Suzuki, Hirotsugu; Kobayashi, Shū

    2015-10-01

    The development of catalytic asymmetric carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions of alkylnitriles that do not have an activating group at the α-position, under proton-transfer conditions, is a challenging research topic. Here, we report catalytic asymmetric direct-type 1,4-addition reactions of alkylnitriles with α,β-unsaturated amides by using a catalytic amount of potassium hexamethyldisilazide (KHMDS) with a chiral macro crown ether. The desired reactions proceeded in high yields with good diastereo- and enantioselectivities. To our knowledge, this is the first example of catalytic asymmetric direct-type 1,4-addition reaction of alkylnitriles without any activating group at the α-position.

  14. Neutronic performance of a benchmark 1-MW LPSS

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, G.J.; Pitcher, E.J.; Ferguson, P.D.

    1995-12-31

    We used split-target/flux-trap-moderator geometry in our 1-MW LPSS computational benchmark performance calculations because the simulation models were readily available. Also, this target/moderator arrangement is a proven LANSCE design and a good neutronic performer. The model has four moderator viewed surfaces, each with a 13x13 cm field-of-view. For our scoping neutronic-performance calculations, we attempted to get as much engineering realism into the target-system mockup as possible. In our present model, we account for target/reflector dilution by cooling; the D{sub 2}O coolant fractions are adequate for 1 MW of 800-MeV protons (1.25 mA). We have incorporated a proton beam entry window and target canisters into the model, as well as (partial) moderator and vacuum canisters. The model does not account for target and moderator cooling lines and baffles, entire moderator canisters, and structural material in the reflector.

  15. NMR relaxation study of crosslinked cis-1,4-polybutadiene

    SciTech Connect

    Munie, G.C.; Jonas, J.; Rowland, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    Proton relaxation measurements have been used to investigate the effects of crosslinking on the segmental motion in cis-1,4-polybutadiene samples. The temperature dependence of proton spin-lattice relaxation time T/sub 1/ and spin-spin relaxation time T/sub 2/ at 60 and 24.3 MHz is reported in cis-1,4-polybutadiene (PB) samples with different crosslink density including uncrosslinked PB and samples with 140, 40, and 14 repeat units between crosslinks. In addition, spin-lattice relaxation times in rotating coordinate frame, T/sub 1p/, have also been determined. The relaxation data are interpreted in terms of the effects of crosslinks on segmental chain motions. Because of their sensitivity to low-frequency motion, T/sub 2/ data are of major interest. At temperatures well above the T/sub 1/ minimum the small T/sub 2/ temperature dependence resembles solidlike behavior reflecting the nonzero averaging of dipolar interactions due to anisotropic motion of the chain segments between crosslinks. The magnitude of T/sub 2/ at 60/sup 0/C is found to be proportional to the average mass between crosslinks.

  16. Proton Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelfke, Uwe

    Proton therapy is one of the most rapidly developing new treatment technologies in radiation oncology. This treatment approach has — after roughly 40 years of technical developments — reached a mature state that allows a widespread clinical application. We therefore review the basic physical and radio-biological properties of proton beams. The main physical aspect is the elemental dose distribution arising from an infinitely narrow proton pencil beam. This includes the physics of proton stopping powers and the concept of CSDA range. Furthermore, the process of multiple Coulomb scattering is discussed for the lateral dose distribution. Next, the basic terms for the description of radio-biological properties of proton beams like LET and RBE are briefly introduced. Finally, the main concepts of modern proton dose delivery concepts are introduced before the standard method of inverse treatment planning for hadron therapy is presented.

  17. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  18. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  19. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  20. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  1. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  2. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  3. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  4. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  5. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  6. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  7. 43 CFR 1.4 - Disqualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disqualifications. 1.4 Section 1.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... violate the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 203, 205, or 207....

  8. 43 CFR 1.4 - Disqualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Disqualifications. 1.4 Section 1.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... violate the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 203, 205, or 207....

  9. 43 CFR 1.4 - Disqualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disqualifications. 1.4 Section 1.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... violate the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 203, 205, or 207....

  10. 43 CFR 1.4 - Disqualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disqualifications. 1.4 Section 1.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... violate the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 203, 205, or 207....

  11. 43 CFR 1.4 - Disqualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disqualifications. 1.4 Section 1.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... violate the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 203, 205, or 207....

  12. Reproduction of 3/4 White Composite and 1/4 Duroc, 1/4 Meishan, 1/4 Fengjing, or 1/4 Minzhu gilts and sows.

    PubMed

    Young, L D

    1998-06-01

    Females were either 1/4 Duroc, 1/4 Meishan, 1/4 Fengjing, or 1/4 Minzhu, and the remainder were 3/4 White Composite. A greater percentage of Fengjing crosses reached puberty than Duroc or Minzhu (P < .05), and Meishan crosses were intermediate and not different (P > .05) from other breed types. After adjusting for differences in percentage detected owing to termination of observation for estrus, breed types ranked Fengjing, Meishan, Minzhu, and Duroc from youngest to oldest at puberty with approximately 14 d between adjacent breed types. Meishan and Fengjing crosses had a greater (P < .05) ovulation rate than Minzhu or Duroc crosses. With the exception of number of fetuses at 100 d and average fetal weight at 60 d, differences among breed types were not detected (P > .05) for litter or uterine traits measured on gilts slaughtered at 60 or 100 d of gestation. Total number of pigs born was greater (P < .05) for 1/4 Fengjing than for 1/4 Duroc gilts. Gestation length, number born alive, number weaned, litter birth weight, or litter weaning weight for gilts did not differ (P > .05) among breed types. Duroc crosses were heavier (P < .01) than Chinese crosses at d 1 and 28 after farrowing, but breed types did not differ (P > .05) for backfat thickness at those times. Breed types did not differ (P > .05) for the ratio of litter gain from 0 to 28 d/total Mcal or any of the component traits in the ratio. Postweaning estrus activity, conception rate, and litter and uterine traits of sows bred for second parity were not affected (P > .05) by breed type. These analyses indicate that crossbred gilts containing 1/4 Meishan, 1/4 Fengjing, or 1/4 Minzhu will reach puberty earlier, have larger litters, and weigh less at first parity than gilts containing 1/4 Duroc, but they do not have any significant advantage in litter size at second parity.

  13. Proton Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The transport of protons across membranes is an essential process for both bioenergetics of modern cells and the origins of cellular life. All living systems make use of proton gradients across cell walls to convert environmental energy into a high-energy chemical compound, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), synthesized from adenosine diphosphate. ATP, in turn, is used as a source of energy to drive many cellular reactions. The ubiquity of this process in biology suggests that even the earliest cellular systems were relying on proton gradient for harvesting environmental energy needed to support their survival and growth. In contemporary cells, proton transfer is assisted by large, complex proteins embedded in membranes. The issue addressed in this Study was: how the same process can be accomplished with the aid of similar but much simpler molecules that could have existed in the protobiological milieu? The model system used in the study contained a bilayer membrane made of phospholipid, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) which is a good model of the biological membranes forming cellular boundaries. Both sides of the bilayer were surrounded by water which simulated the environment inside and outside the cell. Embedded in the membrane was a fragment of the Influenza-A M$_2$ protein and enough sodium counterions to maintain system neutrality. This protein has been shown to exhibit remarkably high rates of proton transport and, therefore, is an excellent model to study the formation of proton gradients across membranes. The Influenza M$_2$ protein is 97 amino acids in length, but a fragment 25 amino acids long. which contains a transmembrane domain of 19 amino acids flanked by three amino acids on each side. is sufficient to transport protons. Four identical protein fragments, each folded into a helix, aggregate to form small channels spanning the membrane. Protons are conducted through a narrow pore in the middle of the channel in response to applied voltage. This

  14. A Pion Production and Capture System for a 4 MW Target Station

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, X.; Kirk, H.; Berg, J.S.

    2010-06-01

    A study of a pion production and capture system for a 4 MW target station for a neutrino factory or muon collider is presented. Using the MARS code, we simulate the pion production produced by the interaction of a free liquid mercury jet with an intense proton beam. We study the variation of meson production with the direction of the proton beam relative to the target. We also examine the influence on the meson production by the focusing of the proton beam. The energy deposition in the capture system is determined and the shielding required in order to avoid radiation damage is discussed. The exploration for the multiple proton beam entry directions relative to mercury jet in the 8GeV proton beam case demonstrates that an asymmetric layout is required in order to achieve the same beam/jet crossing angle at the jet axis. We find a correlation between the distance of beam relative to the jet and the meson production. The peak meson production is 8% higher than for the lowest case. The examination of the influence on the meson production by the focusing of the proton beam shows the meson production loss is negligible (<1%) for a beta function to be 0.3m or higher for the proton beam. By investigating the energy deposition in the target/capture system, we see that the bulk of 4-MW proton beam power is deposited in the water cooled tungsten-carbide (WC) shielding, the mercury jet and the capture beam pipe. In addition, high power deposition in the first superconducting coil causes an issue for its operation and life time. Enhanced shielding is necessary to lower the radiation damage.

  15. 5 MW pulsed spallation neutron source, Preconceptual design study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report describes a self-consistent base line design for a 5 MW Pulsed Spallation Neutron Source (PSNS). It is intended to establish feasibility of design and as a basis for further expanded and detailed studies. It may also serve as a basis for establishing project cost (30% accuracy) in order to intercompare competing designs for a PSNS not only on the basis of technical feasibility and technical merit but also on the basis of projected total cost. The accelerator design considered here is based on the objective of a pulsed neutron source obtained by means of a pulsed proton beam with average beam power of 5 MW, in {approx} 1 {mu}sec pulses, operating at a repetition rate of 60 Hz. Two target stations are incorporated in the basic facility: one for operation at 10 Hz for long-wavelength instruments, and one operating at 50 Hz for instruments utilizing thermal neutrons. The design approach for the proton accelerator is to use a low energy linear accelerator (at 0.6 GeV), operating at 60 Hz, in tandem with two fast cycling booster synchrotrons (at 3.6 GeV), operating at 30 Hz. It is assumed here that considerations of cost and overall system reliability may favor the present design approach over the alternative approach pursued elsewhere, whereby use is made of a high energy linear accelerator in conjunction with a dc accumulation ring. With the knowledge that this alternative design is under active development, it was deliberately decided to favor here the low energy linac-fast cycling booster approach. Clearly, the present design, as developed here, must be carried to the full conceptual design stage in order to facilitate a meaningful technology and cost comparison with alternative designs.

  16. Proton interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Christopher L

    2008-01-01

    Energetic proton beams may provide an attractive alternative when compared to electromagnetic and neutron beams for active interrogation of nuclear threats because: they have large fission cross sections, long mean free paths and high penetration, and proton beams can be manipulated with magnetic optics. We have measured time-dependent cross sections for delayed neutrons and gamma-rays using the 800 MeV proton beam from the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center for a set of bare and shielded targets. The results show significant signals from both unshielded and shielded nuclear materials. Results will be presented.

  17. Simulation of a regenerative MW FEL amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, R.T.; Colson, W.B.; Wong, R.K.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1997-08-01

    Both oscillator and regenerative amplifier configurations are being studied to optimize the design of a MW class FEL. The regenerative amplifier uses a longer undulator and relies on higher extraction efficiency to achieve high average power, whereas the oscillator is a more compact overall design requiring the transport of the high energy electron beam around bends for energy recovery. Using parameters extrapolated from the 1 kW LANL regenerative amplifier, simulations study the feasibility of achieving 1 MW average power.

  18. 45 CFR 1211.1-4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-4 Policy. It is ACTION's policy to provide volunteers the widest latitude to.... This regulation is designed to assure that the rights of individual volunteers are recognized and...

  19. 45 CFR 1211.1-4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-4 Policy. It is ACTION's policy to provide volunteers the widest latitude to.... This regulation is designed to assure that the rights of individual volunteers are recognized and...

  20. Design of 250-MW CW RF system for APT

    SciTech Connect

    Rees, D.

    1997-09-01

    The design for the RF systems for the APT (Accelerator Production of Tritium) proton linac will be presented. The linac produces a continuous beam power of 130 MW at 1300 MeV with the installed capability to produce up to a 170 MW beam at 1700 MeV. The linac is comprised of a 350 MHz RFQ to 7 MeV followed in sequence by a 700 MHz coupled-cavity drift tube linac, coupled-cavity linac, and superconducting (SC) linac to 1700 MeV. At the 1700 MeV, 100 mA level the linac requires 213 MW of continuous-wave (CW) RF power. This power will be supplied by klystrons with a nominal output power of 1.0 MW. 237 kystrons are required with all but three of these klystrons operating at 700 MHz. The klystron count includes redundancy provisions that will be described which allow the RF systems to meet an operational availability in excess of 95 percent. The approach to achieve this redundancy will be presented for both the normal conducting (NC) and SC accelerators. Because of the large amount of CW RF power required for the APT linac, efficiency is very important to minimize operating cost. Operation and the RF system design, including in-progress advanced technology developments which improve efficiency, will be discussed. RF system performance will also be predicted. Because of the simultaneous pressures to increase RF system reliability, reduce tunnel envelope, and minimize RF system cost, the design of the RF vacuum windows has become an important issue. The power from a klystron will be divided into four equal parts to minimize the stress on the RF vacuum windows. Even with this reduction, the RF power level at the window is at the upper boundary of the power levels employed at other CW accelerator facilities. The design of a 350 MHz, coaxial vacuum window will be presented as well as test results and high power conditioning profiles. The transmission of 950 kW, CW, power through this window has been demonstrated with only minimal high power conditioning.

  1. COMPACT PROTON INJECTOR AND FIRST ACCELERATOR SYSTEM TEST FOR COMPACT PROTON DIELECTRIC WALL CANCER THERAPY ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y; Guethlein, G; Caporaso, G; Sampayan, S; Blackfield, D; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Watson, J; Weir, J; Pearson, D

    2009-04-23

    A compact proton accelerator for cancer treatment is being developed by using the high-gradient dielectric insulator wall (DWA) technology [1-4]. We are testing all the essential DWA components, including a compact proton source, on the First Article System Test (FAST). The configuration and progress on the injector and FAST will be presented.

  2. Demonstration of 5MW PAFC power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Usami, Yutaka; Takae, Toshio

    1996-12-31

    Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association, established in May 1991 by Japanese 10 electric power and 4 gas companies, started a new project in 1991 FY, with the object of PAFC realization and aiming the development of 5MW- class PAFC. power plant for urban energy center and 1 MW- class power plant for onsite use. This project is carried out as 6 years plan jointly with New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization. The targets of the project are to evaluate and resolve the development task, such as a high reliability, compactness and cost reduction throughout the engineering, manufacturing and field testing of PAFC power plants. PAC tests and power generating test operations of 5MW plant were completed in 1994. Conducting the 2 years continuous operations and studies since 1995, the plant operational performance, system control characteristics, waste heat recovery and environmental advantage will be demonstrated.

  3. 7. Photocopy of photographca. 1927 (2 1/4 X 2 1/4' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph--ca. 1927 (2 1/4 X 2 1/4' negative) DETAIL SHOWING ADAPTATION THAT ALLOWED USE OF UPPER END OF ORIGINAL FLUME AND LOWER END JUST RECONSTRUCTED - Power Flume No. 1, Tacoma, La Plata County, CO

  4. The Proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canal, Carlos Garcia; Sassot, Rodolfo

    2003-10-01

    In this talk we present a collection of selected topics concerning the structure of the proton and the fundamental interactions as seen inside it. These topics have been thoroughly covered by high energy experiments with ever increasing precision in recent years and beautifully illustrate our present knowledge of the standard model.

  5. Proton Radiobiology

    PubMed Central

    Tommasino, Francesco; Durante, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the physical advantages (Bragg peak), the use of charged particles in cancer therapy can be associated with distinct biological effects compared to X-rays. While heavy ions (densely ionizing radiation) are known to have an energy- and charge-dependent increased Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE), protons should not be very different from sparsely ionizing photons. A slightly increased biological effectiveness is taken into account in proton treatment planning by assuming a fixed RBE of 1.1 for the whole radiation field. However, data emerging from recent studies suggest that, for several end points of clinical relevance, the biological response is differentially modulated by protons compared to photons. In parallel, research in the field of medical physics highlighted how variations in RBE that are currently neglected might actually result in deposition of significant doses in healthy organs. This seems to be relevant in particular for normal tissues in the entrance region and for organs at risk close behind the tumor. All these aspects will be considered and discussed in this review, highlighting how a re-discussion of the role of a variable RBE in proton therapy might be well-timed. PMID:25686476

  6. PCFB Repowering Project 80 MW plant description

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This report documents the design of a 80 MW Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) boiler for the repowering of Unit 1 at the Des Moines Energy Center. Objective is to demonstrate that PCFB combined-cycle technology is cost effective and environmentally superior compared to traditional pulverized coal burning facilities.

  7. SAS 3 observations of GX 1 + 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, J. P.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Hoffman, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    GX 1 + 4 is one of the brightest celestial sources of high-energy X-rays. It is a pulsar with a period of approximately 2 min (perhaps a multiple of 2 min), decreasing at a variable rate which, since 1971, has averaged approximately 2% per year, but which can be larger than 5% per year. This is the largest rate of decrease observed for any pulsar. The rate of decrease appears to be correlated with the luminosity, in support of the idea that the period decrease is produced by accretion torques acting upon a neutron star. No evidence is seen for a Doppler shift due to motion of the pulsar in a binary orbit; this is consistent with the results of optical observations which suggest that any orbital period is fairly long (months to years). The spectrum of GX 1 + 4 is measured as a function of pulse phase, as well as the phase-averaged total spectrum, and the average spectrum of the pulses alone. The shape of the average pulsed spectrum suggests that the pulsations may be produced by 'hot spots' which are a few hundred meters in extent, with temperatures of approximately 10 to the 8th K (kT being approximately equal to 8 keV).

  8. Controlling the binding of dihydrogen using ruthenium complexes containing N-mono-functionalised 1,4,7-triazacyclononane ligand systems.

    PubMed

    Gott, Andrew L; McGowan, Patrick C; Podesta, Thomas J

    2008-07-28

    Pendant arm macrocycles derived from 1,4,7-triazacyclononane were reacted with RuHCl(CO)(PPh(3))(3) and RuHCl(PPh(3))(3) to yield air-stable cationic ruthenium hydrides that were characterised by a variety of techniques, including X-ray crystallography. Protonation of the metal hydride complexes with a proton source yielded eta(2)-dihydrogen complexes. The lifetime of the dihydrogen ligand was effected by a judicious choice of ancillary ligands.

  9. Controlling the binding of dihydrogen using ruthenium complexes containing N-mono-functionalised 1,4,7-triazacyclononane ligand systems.

    PubMed

    Gott, Andrew L; McGowan, Patrick C; Podesta, Thomas J

    2008-07-28

    Pendant arm macrocycles derived from 1,4,7-triazacyclononane were reacted with RuHCl(CO)(PPh(3))(3) and RuHCl(PPh(3))(3) to yield air-stable cationic ruthenium hydrides that were characterised by a variety of techniques, including X-ray crystallography. Protonation of the metal hydride complexes with a proton source yielded eta(2)-dihydrogen complexes. The lifetime of the dihydrogen ligand was effected by a judicious choice of ancillary ligands. PMID:18615220

  10. Computational Study of the Interactions Between Electrochemically-Generated 1,4-Dinitrobenzene Dianion and Substituted Imidazolium Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Yusuke; Fry, Albert J.

    2007-12-01

    Density functional quantum chemical methods are used to predict the structure of the adducts of electrochemically generated dinitrobenzene dianions with substituted imidazolium ions. One of the oxygen atoms of 1,4-dinitrobenzene dianion abstracts the C-2 proton from 1,3-dimethylimidazolium ion, whereas 1,2,3-trimethylimidazolium ion, in which proton transfer is inhibited, stacks in a plane parallel to and above that of the dianion.

  11. Feasibility study of a 1-MW pulsed spallation source

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.; Chae, Y.C.; Crosbie, E.

    1995-12-31

    A feasibility study of a 1-MW pulsed spallation source based on a rapidly cycling proton synchrotron (RCS) has been completed. The facility consists of a 400-MeV HP{sup -} linac, a 30-Hz RCS that accelerates the 400-MeV beam to 2 GeV, and two neutron-generating target stations. The design time-averaged current of the accelerator system is 0.5 mA, or 1.04{times}1014 protons per pulse. The linac system consists of an H{sup -}ion source, a 2-MeV RFQ, a 70-MeV DTL and a 330-MeV CCL. Transverse phase space painting to achieve a Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (K-V) distribution of the injected particles in the RCS is accomplished by charge exchange injection and programming of the closed orbit during injection. The synchrotron lattice uses FODO cells of {approx}90{degrees} phase advance. Dispersion-free straight sections are obtained by using a missing magnet scheme. Synchrotron magnets are powered by a dual-frequency resonant circuit that excites the magnets at a 20-Hz rate and de-excites them at a 60-Hz rate, resulting in an effective rate of 30 Hz, and reducing the required peak rf voltage by 1/3. A key feature, of the design of this accelerator system is that beam losses are from injection to extraction, reducing activation to levels consistent with hands-on maintenance. Details of the study are presented.

  12. Analysis of the Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared Spectra of cis,cis- and trans,trans-1,4-DIFLUOROBUTADIENE-1-d_{1} and trans,trans-1,4-DIFLUOROBUTADIENE-1,4-d_{2}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Norman C.; Chen, Yihui; Lu, Yuhua; Neese, Christopher F.; Nemchick, Deacon J.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2013-06-01

    Samples of cis,cis- and trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-1-d_{1} (DFBD) and trans,trans-DFBD-1,4-d_{2} have been synthesized and investigated with high-resolution (0.0015 cm^{-1}) infrared spectroscopy. For the first two species the rotational structure in more than one band has been analyzed. For the 1,4-d_{2} species the spectrum of only one C-type band was available in an isotopic mixture. Ground state rotational constants are reported for all three molecules. It is proposed that quartic centrifugal distortion constants computed with a B3LYP/cc-pVTZ model can be used to assess the quality of observed rotational constants. The favorable comparison of predicted and observed ground state rotational constants for all four ^{13}C species of cis,trans-DFBD, which is MW active, demonstrates that the ground state rotational constants for the ^{13}C species of the cis,cis and trans,trans isomers can be successfully predicted with high accuracy. Rotational constants for a full set of isotopologues will be used to determine accurate semiexperimental equilibrium structures of the cis,cis and trans,trans species of DFBD. N. C. Craig, C. M. Oertel, D. C. Oertel, M. J. Tubergen, R. J. Lavrich, A. M Chaka J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 4230-4235 (2002).

  13. Proton scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, Gregory H

    2009-01-01

    This note presents analytic estimates of the performance of proton beams in remote surveillance for nuclear materials. The analysis partitions the analysis into the eight steps used by a companion note: (1) Air scattering, (2) Neutron production in the ship and cargo, (3) Target detection probability, (4) Signal produced by target, (5) Attenuation of signal by ship and cargo, (6) Attenuation of signal by air, (7) Geometric dilution, and (8) Detector Efficiency. The above analyses indicate that the dominant air scattering and loss mechanisms for particle remote sensing are calculable with reliable and accepted tools. They make it clear that the conversion of proton beams into neutron sources rapidly goes to completion in all but thinnest targets, which means that proton interrogation is for all purposes executed by neutrons. Diffusion models and limiting approximations to them are simple and credible - apart from uncertainty over the cross sections to be used in them - and uncertainty over the structure of the vessels investigated. Multiplication is essentially unknown, in part because it depends on the details of the target and its shielding, which are unlikely to be known in advance. Attenuation of neutron fluxes on the way out are more complicated due to geometry, the spectrum of fission neutrons, and the details of their slowing down during egress. The attenuation by air is large but less uncertain. Detectors and technology are better known. The overall convolution of these effects lead to large but arguably tolerable levels of attenuation of input beams and output signals. That is particularly the case for small, mobile sensors, which can more than compensate for size with proximity to operate reliably while remaining below flux limits. Overall, the estimates used here appear to be of adequate accuracy for decisions. That assessment is strengthened by their agreement with companion calculations.

  14. A 200 MHz-to-1.4 GHz fast-locking pulse width control loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrishamifar, Adib; Navidi, Mir Mohammad; Karimi, Yasha

    2014-03-01

    In this article, we propose a wide frequency range low lock time pulse width control loop (PWCL) circuit. The control stage of the PWCL with proposed frequency selection block can increase its output charge/discharge current at high frequency clocks. Therefore, narrow pulses can be generated at the output of this stage, which leads to the enhancement of the frequency range. Lock time of the circuit is also reduced, owing to the use of optimised second-order passive lead-lag loop filters instead of conventional loop filters. A 0.18-µm CMOS technology and 1.8-V supply voltage are used to verify the operation of the circuit. The simulation results show that the acceptable frequency range is from 200 MHz to 1.4 GHz, while maximum lock time of the circuit at this frequency range is about 580 ns. The proposed PWCL consumes 1 mW of power at 1.4 GHz.

  15. High-Intensity Proton Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2011-12-27

    Analysis is presented for an eight-cavity proton cyclotron accelerator that could have advantages as compared with other accelerators because of its potentially high acceleration gradient. The high gradient is possible since protons orbit in a sequence of TE111 rotating mode cavities of equally diminishing frequencies with path lengths during acceleration that greatly exceed the cavity lengths. As the cavities operate at sequential harmonics of a basic repetition frequency, phase synchronism can be maintained over a relatively wide injection phase window without undue beam emittance growth. It is shown that use of radial vanes can allow cavity designs with significantly smaller radii, as compared with simple cylindrical cavities. Preliminary beam transport studies show that acceptable extraction and focusing of a proton beam after cyclic motion in this accelerator should be possible. Progress is also reported on design and tests of a four-cavity electron counterpart accelerator for experiments to study effects on beam quality arising from variations injection phase window width. This device is powered by four 500-MW pulsed amplifiers at 1500, 1800, 2100, and 2400 MHz that provide phase synchronous outputs, since they are driven from a with harmonics derived from a phase-locked 300 MHz source.

  16. A Superconducting Linac Proton Driver at Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, G. William

    2004-05-01

    A proton driver has emerged as the leading candidate for Fermilab's next near-term accelerator project. The preferred technical solution is an 8 GeV superconducting linac based on technology developed for TESLA and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Its primary mission is to serve as a single-stage H- injector to prepare 2 MW "Super-Beams" for Neutrino experiments using the Fermilab Main Injector. The linac can also accelerate electrons, protons, and relativistic muons, permitting future applications such as a driver for an FEL, a long-pulse spallation source, the driver for an intense 8 GeV neutrino or kaon program, and potential applications to a neutrino factory or muon collider. The technical design of the 8 GeV linac, as well as the design of an alternative synchrotron based proton driver, will be described along with plans for project proposal and construction.

  17. MW-Class Electric Propulsion System Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPointe, Michael R.; Oleson, Steven; Pencil, Eric; Mercer, Carolyn; Distefano, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Electric propulsion systems are well developed and have been in commercial use for several years. Ion and Hall thrusters have propelled robotic spacecraft to encounters with asteroids, the Moon, and minor planetary bodies within the solar system, while higher power systems are being considered to support even more demanding future space science and exploration missions. Such missions may include orbit raising and station-keeping for large platforms, robotic and human missions to near earth asteroids, cargo transport for sustained lunar or Mars exploration, and at very high-power, fast piloted missions to Mars and the outer planets. The Advanced In-Space Propulsion Project, High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, and High Power Electric Propulsion Demonstration Project were established within the NASA Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program to develop and advance the fundamental technologies required for these long-range, future exploration missions. Under the auspices of the High Efficiency Space Power Systems Project, and supported by the Advanced In-Space Propulsion and High Power Electric Propulsion Projects, the COMPASS design team at the NASA Glenn Research Center performed multiple parametric design analyses to determine solar and nuclear electric power technology requirements for representative 300-kW class and pulsed and steady-state MW-class electric propulsion systems. This paper describes the results of the MW-class electric power and propulsion design analysis. Starting with the representative MW-class vehicle configurations, and using design reference missions bounded by launch dates, several power system technology improvements were introduced into the parametric COMPASS simulations to determine the potential system level benefits such technologies might provide. Those technologies providing quantitative system level benefits were then assessed for technical feasibility, cost, and time to develop. Key assumptions and primary

  18. A 75 MW S-Band Klystron

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, Patrick; Read, Michael; Ives, Robert Lawrence; Marsden, David

    2013-12-16

    This program performed computational and preliminary mechanical design for a klystron producing 75 MW at 2.856 GHz using periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focusing. The performance specifications achieved were those for the Matter-Radiation Interactions in the Extremes (MaRIE) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The klystron is designed to provide 10 microsecond pulses at 60 Hz with 56 dB gain. The PPM-Focusing eliminates requirements for solenoids and their associated power supplies, cooling systems, interlocks, control and diagnostic instrumentation, and maintenance. The represents a significant in both acquisition and operating costs. It also increases reliability by eliminating many potential failure modes.

  19. Extrapolation of the Dutch 1 MW tunable free electron maser to a 5 MW ECRH source

    SciTech Connect

    Caplan, M.; Nelson, S.; Kamin, G.; Antonsen, T. Levush, B.; Urbanus, W.; Tulupov, A.

    1995-04-01

    A Free Electron Maser (FEM) is now under construction at the FOM Institute (Rijnhuizen) Netherlands with the goal of producing 1 MW long pulse to CW microwave output in the range 130 GHz to 250 GHz with wall plug efficiencies of 50% (Verhoeven, et al EC-9 Conference). An extrapolated version of this device is proposed which by scaling up the beam current, would produce microwave power levels of up to 5 MW CW in order to reduce the cost per watt and increase the power per module, thus providing the fusion community with a practical ECRH source.

  20. 110 GHz, 1 MW Gyrotron Design Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauffman, Steve; Felch, Kevin; Borchard, Philipp; Cahalan, Pat; Chu, Sam; Dubrule, Craig

    1999-11-01

    Communications and Power Industries has incorporated a number of design changes into its most recent series of 110 GHz 1 MW gyrotrons, for use in ECH and ECCD experiments on the DIII-D tokamak. Two development gyrotrons previously installed at DIII-D used a modulating-anode electron gun design and output windows consisting of double-disk face-cooled sapphire on one system and an edge-cooled CVD diamond disk on the other. Three new systems presently in fabrication and test employ (a) a single-anode electron gun to avoid excitation of spurious modes during turn-on and turn-off and to simplify power supply requirements, (b) a modified TE_22,6 cavity to reduce competition from neighboring modes, (c) a two inch aperture edge-cooled CVD diamond window to allow transmission of a 1 MW Gaussian output beam, (d) a superconducting magnet system with a cryo-cooler to reduce liquid helium consumption, and (e) a number of internal and external plumbing simplifications to make cooling system connections more straightforward. Initial test results, if available, will be presented.

  1. Proton radiography to improve proton therapy treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsu, J.; van der Graaf, E. R.; Van Goethem, M.-J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Klaver, T.; Visser, J.; Brandenburg, S.; Biegun, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    The quality of cancer treatment with protons critically depends on an accurate prediction of the proton stopping powers for the tissues traversed by the protons. Today, treatment planning in proton radiotherapy is based on stopping power calculations from densities of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) images. This causes systematic uncertainties in the calculated proton range in a patient of typically 3-4%, but can become even 10% in bone regions [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]. This may lead to no dose in parts of the tumor and too high dose in healthy tissues [1]. A direct measurement of proton stopping powers with high-energy protons will allow reducing these uncertainties and will improve the quality of the treatment. Several studies have shown that a sufficiently accurate radiograph can be obtained by tracking individual protons traversing a phantom (patient) [4,6,10]. Our studies benefit from the gas-filled time projection chambers based on GridPix technology [2], developed at Nikhef, capable of tracking a single proton. A BaF2 crystal measuring the residual energy of protons was used. Proton radiographs of phantom consisting of different tissue-like materials were measured with a 30×30 mm2 150 MeV proton beam. Measurements were simulated with the Geant4 toolkit.First experimental and simulated energy radiographs are in very good agreement [3]. In this paper we focus on simulation studies of the proton scattering angle as it affects the position resolution of the proton energy loss radiograph. By selecting protons with a small scattering angle, the image quality can be improved significantly.

  2. Proton-Proton and Proton-Antiproton Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scandale, Walter

    2015-02-01

    In the last five decades, proton-proton and proton-antiproton colliders have been the most powerful tools for high energy physics investigations. They have also deeply catalyzed innovation in accelerator physics and technology. Among the large number of proposed colliders, only four have really succeeded in becoming operational: the ISR, the SppbarS, the Tevatron and the LHC. Another hadron collider, RHIC, originally conceived for ion-ion collisions, has also been operated part-time with polarized protons. Although a vast literature documenting them is available, this paper is intended to provide a quick synthesis of their main features and key performance.

  3. Synchrotron based proton drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou

    2002-09-19

    Proton drivers are the proton sources that produce intense short proton bunches. They have a wide range of applications. This paper discusses the proton drivers based on high-intensity proton synchrotrons. It gives a review of the high-intensity proton sources over the world and a brief report on recent developments in this field in the U.S. high-energy physics (HEP) community. The Fermilab Proton Driver is used as a case study for a number of challenging technical design issues.

  4. Science to Practice: Highly Shifted Proton MR imaging—A Shift toward Better Cell Tracking?

    PubMed Central

    Bulte, Jeff W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary A “hot spot” magnetic resonance (MR) imaging cell tracking technique has been developed that allows direct detection of dysprosium- or thulium-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-α,α′,α″,α‴-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTMA)–labeled protons inside cells. These highly shifted protons may allow specific detection of multiple cell types because it does not rely on acquiring the proton signal from bulk water. PMID:25153271

  5. 31 CFR 1.4 - Public inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public inspection and copying. 1.4 Section 1.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Freedom of Information Act § 1.4 Public inspection and copying. (a) In general. Subject to the application of the exemptions and exclusions...

  6. In Situ X-ray Absorption and Diffraction Studies of Carbon Coated LiFe1/4Mn1/4Co1/4Ni1/4PO4 Cathode During First Charge

    SciTech Connect

    Nam,K.W.; Yang,X.

    2009-04-01

    Synchrotron based in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques are used to study electronic and crystal structure changes of the carbon coated LiFe1/4Mn1/4Co1/4Ni1/4PO4 (LiFe1/4Mn1/4Co1/4Ni1/4PO4/C) cathode material for Li-ion batteries during the first charge. In situ Fe, Mn, Co and Ni K-edge XAS results revealed that the three voltage plateaus at 3.6, 4.2 and 4.7 V vs. Li/Li+ are attributed to the redox reactions of Fe2+/Fe3+, Mn2+/Mn3+ and Co2+/Co3+, respectively, while the apparent capacities above 4.9 V is not originated from the Ni2+/Ni3+ redox, but very likely from the electrolyte decomposition. Interesting phase transition behaviors of LiFe1/4Mn1/4Co1/4Ni1/4PO4/C wereobserved with the formation of an intermediate phase and the solid solution regions. Combined in situ XAS and XRD techniques indicate fast electronic structural changes and slow bulk crystal structural changes.

  7. 26 CFR 303.1-4 - Computation of taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of taxes. 303.1-4 Section 303.1-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION TAXES UNDER THE TRADING WITH THE ENEMY ACT § 303.1-4 Computation of taxes. (a) Detail of...

  8. 7 CFR 1.4 - Public access to certain materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public access to certain materials. 1.4 Section 1.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.4 Public access to certain materials. (a) In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2), each agency within the...

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,4-Dioxane (2010 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The final Toxicological Review of 1,4-dioxane provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to 1,4-dioxane. Human health risk concerns for 1,4-dioxane are primarily related to exposure from drinking, ground, ...

  10. 5 CFR 1.4 - Extent of the excepted service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extent of the excepted service. 1.4 Section 1.4 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND DEFINITIONS (RULE I) § 1.4 Extent of the excepted service. (a) The excepted service shall include all...

  11. 14 CFR Sec. 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false System of accounts coding. Sec. 1-4 Section 1-4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-4 System of accounts coding. (a) A four digit control number...

  12. 14 CFR Sec. 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false System of accounts coding. Sec. 1-4 Section 1-4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-4 System of accounts coding. (a) A four digit control number...

  13. 14 CFR Sec. 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false System of accounts coding. Sec. 1-4 Section 1-4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-4 System of accounts coding. (a) A four digit control number...

  14. 14 CFR Sec. 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false System of accounts coding. Sec. 1-4 Section 1-4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-4 System of accounts coding. (a) A four digit control number...

  15. 26 CFR 1.4-1 - Number of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Number of exemptions. 1.4-1 Section 1.4-1... and Surtaxes § 1.4-1 Number of exemptions. (a) For the purpose of determining the optional tax imposed under section 3, the taxpayer shall use the number of exemptions allowable to him as deductions...

  16. 26 CFR 1.4-1 - Number of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Number of exemptions. 1.4-1 Section 1.4-1... and Surtaxes § 1.4-1 Number of exemptions. (a) For the purpose of determining the optional tax imposed under section 3, the taxpayer shall use the number of exemptions allowable to him as deductions...

  17. Proton Therapy - Accelerating Protons to Save Lives

    SciTech Connect

    Keppel, Cynthia

    2011-10-25

    In 1946, physicist Robert Wilson first suggested that protons could be used as a form of radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer because of the sharp drop-off that occurs on the distal edge of the radiation dose. Research soon confirmed that high-energy protons were particularly suitable for treating tumors near critical structures, such as the heart and spinal column. The precision with which protons can be delivered means that more radiation can be deposited into the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue receives substantially less or, in some cases, no radiation. Since these times, particle accelerators have continuously been used in cancer therapy and today new facilities specifically designed for proton therapy are being built in many countries. Proton therapy has been hailed as a revolutionary cancer treatment, with higher cure rates and fewer side effects than traditional X-ray photon radiation therapy. Proton therapy is the modality of choice for treating certain small tumors of the eye, head or neck. Because it exposes less of the tissue surrounding a tumor to the dosage, proton therapy lowers the risk of secondary cancers later in life - especially important for young children. To date, over 80,000 patients worldwide have been treated with protons. Currently, there are nine proton radiation therapy facilities operating in the United States, one at the Hampton University Proton Therapy Institute. An overview of the treatment technology and this new center will be presented.

  18. Development of a 5 MW reference gearbox for offshore wind turbines: 5 MW reference gearbox

    SciTech Connect

    Nejad, Amir Rasekhi; Guo, Yi; Gao, Zhen; Moan, Torgeir

    2015-07-27

    This paper presents detailed descriptions, modeling parameters and technical data of a 5MW high-speed gearbox developed for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory offshore 5MW baseline wind turbine. The main aim of this paper is to support the concept studies and research for large offshore wind turbines by providing a baseline gearbox model with detailed modeling parameters. This baseline gearbox follows the most conventional design types of those used in wind turbines. It is based on the four-point supports: two main bearings and two torque arms. The gearbox consists of three stages: two planetary and one parallel stage gears. The gear ratios among the stages are calculated in a way to obtain the minimum gearbox weight. The gearbox components are designed and selected based on the offshore wind turbine design codes and validated by comparison to the data available from large offshore wind turbine prototypes. All parameters required to establish the dynamic model of the gearbox are then provided. Moreover, a maintenance map indicating components with high to low probability of failure is shown. The 5 MW reference gearbox can be used as a baseline for research on wind turbine gearboxes and comparison studies. It can also be employed in global analysis tools to represent a more realistic model of a gearbox in a coupled analysis.

  19. 40 CFR 721.990 - 1,4-Benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. 721.990 Section 721.990 Protection of Environment..., dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized (PMN P-00-0789; CAS No. 263244-54-8) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.990 - 1,4-Benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. 721.990 Section 721.990 Protection of Environment..., dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized (PMN P-00-0789; CAS No. 263244-54-8) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.990 - 1,4-Benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. 721.990 Section 721.990 Protection of Environment..., dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized (PMN P-00-0789; CAS No. 263244-54-8) is subject to reporting...

  2. 40 CFR 721.990 - 1,4-Benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. 721.990 Section 721.990 Protection of Environment..., dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized (PMN P-00-0789; CAS No. 263244-54-8) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.990 - 1,4-Benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. 721.990 Section 721.990 Protection of Environment..., dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized (PMN P-00-0789; CAS No. 263244-54-8) is subject to reporting...

  4. 1,4-Dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-mannitol inhibits glycoprotein processing and mannosidase.

    PubMed

    Palamarczyk, G; Mitchell, M; Smith, P W; Fleet, G W; Elbein, A D

    1985-11-15

    1,4-Dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-mannitol (DIM) was synthesized chemically from benzyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside [Fleet et al (1984) J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun., 1240-1241], and was tested in vitro as an inhibitor of various alpha-mannosidases and in cell culture as an inhibitor of glycoprotein processing. DIM proved to be an effective inhibitor of jack bean alpha-mannosidase, with 50% inhibition requiring 25 to 50 ng/ml inhibitor. It also inhibited lysosomal alpha-mannosidase, but in this case 50% inhibition required about 1 to 2 micrograms/ml. In both cases, the inhibition was of the competitive type when p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside was used as the substrate. The inhibition was better at higher pH values, suggesting that DIM was more effective when the nitrogen in the ring was in the unprotonated form. In addition, rat liver processing mannosidase I was also inhibited by DIM as measured by the release of [3H]mannose from [3H]mannose-labeled Man9GlcNAc. Glycoprotein processing was examined in influenza virus-infected MDCK cells. Infected cells were incubated in various concentrations of DIM and labeled with [2-3H]mannose. Viral and cell pellets were digested with Pronase and glycopeptides were isolated by gel filtration on columns of Bio-Gel P-4. The glycopeptides were then treated with endoglucosaminidase H (Endo H) and rechromatographed on the Bio-Gel column in order to distinguish complex from high-mannose structures. As the DIM concentration in the medium was raised, more and more of the [3H]mannose was incorporated into high-mannose oligosaccharides, and less and less radioactivity was in the complex chains. Most of the Endo H-released oligosaccharides induced by DIM were of the Man9GlcNAc structure, as determined by gel filtration, HPLC, and digestion by alpha-mannosidase. Thus, DIM also appears to inhibit mannosidase I in cell culture. However, about 15% of the Endo H-released oligosaccharides appear to be hybrid types of oligosaccharides, suggesting that

  5. The DIII-D 3 MW, 110 GHz ECH system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callis, R. W.; Lohr, J.; Ponce, D.; O'Neill, R. C.; Prater, R.; Luce, T. C.

    1999-09-01

    Three 110 GHz gyrotrons with nominal output power of 1 MW each have been installed and are operational on the DIII-D tokamak. One gyrotron is built by Gycom and has a nominal rating of 1 MW and a 2 s pulse length, with the pulse length being determined by the maximum temperature allowed on the edge cooled Boron Nitride window. The second and third gyrotrons were built by Communications and Power Industries (CPI). The first CPI gyrotron uses a double disc FC-75 cooled sapphire window which has a pulse length rating of 0.8 s at 1 MW, 2 s at 0.5 MW and 10 s at 0.35 MW. The second CPI gyrotron, utilizes a single disc chemical-vapor-deposition diamond window, that employs water cooling around the edge of the disc. Calculation predict that the diamond window should be capable of full 1 MW cw operation. All gyrotrons are connected to the tokamak by a low-loss-windowless evacuated transmission line using circular corrugated waveguide for propagation in the HE11 mode. Each waveguide system incorporates a two mirror launcher which can steer the rf beam poloidally from the center to the outer edge of the plasma. Central current drive experiments with the two gyrotrons with 1.5 MW of injected power drove about 0.17 MA. Results from using the three gyrotron systems will be reported as well as the plans to upgrade the system to 6 MW.

  6. Characterizing the proton loading site in cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianxun; Gunner, M R

    2014-08-26

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) uses the energy released by reduction of O2 to H2O to drive eight charges from the high pH to low pH side of the membrane, increasing the electrochemical gradient. Four electrons and protons are used for chemistry, while four more protons are pumped. Proton pumping requires that residues on a pathway change proton affinity through the reaction cycle to load and then release protons. The protonation states of all residues in CcO are determined in MultiConformational Continuum Electrostatics simulations with the protonation and redox states of heme a, a3, Cu(B), Y288, and E286 used to define the catalytic cycle. One proton is found to be loaded and released from residues identified as the proton loading site (PLS) on the P-side of the protein in each of the four CcO redox states. Thus, the same proton pumping mechanism can be used each time CcO is reduced. Calculations with structures of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Paracoccus denitrificans, and bovine CcO derived by crystallography and molecular dynamics show the PLS functions similarly in different CcO species. The PLS is a cluster rather than a single residue, as different structures show 1-4 residues load and release protons. However, the proton affinity of the heme a3 propionic acids primarily determines the number of protons loaded into the PLS; if their proton affinity is too low, less than one proton is loaded.

  7. 49 CFR 172.523 - EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. 172.523 Section 172.523... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.523 EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on the EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be...

  8. 49 CFR 172.523 - EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. 172.523 Section 172.523... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.523 EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on the EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be...

  9. 49 CFR 172.523 - EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. 172.523 Section 172.523... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.523 EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on the EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be...

  10. 49 CFR 172.523 - EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. 172.523 Section 172.523... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.523 EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on the EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be...

  11. 49 CFR 172.523 - EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. 172.523 Section 172.523... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.523 EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on the EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be...

  12. Elastic proton-proton scattering at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, K.

    2011-09-03

    Here we describe elastic proton+proton (p+p) scattering measurements at RHIC in p+p collisions with a special optics run of {beta}* {approx} 21 m at STAR, at the center-of-mass energy {radical}s = 200 GeV during the last week of the RHIC 2009 run. We present preliminary results of single and double spin asymmetries.

  13. What's In a Proton?

    ScienceCinema

    Brookhaven Lab

    2016-07-12

    Physicist Peter Steinberg explains that fundamental particles like protons are themselves made up of still smaller particles called quarks. He discusses how new particles are produced when quarks are liberated from protons...a process that can be observed

  14. Proton pump inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by ... Proton pump inhibitors are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This ...

  15. What's In a Proton?

    SciTech Connect

    Brookhaven Lab

    2009-07-08

    Physicist Peter Steinberg explains that fundamental particles like protons are themselves made up of still smaller particles called quarks. He discusses how new particles are produced when quarks are liberated from protons...a process that can be observed

  16. Lanthanide ion (III) complexes of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraaminophosphonate for dual biosensing of pH with chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and biosensor imaging of redundant deviation in shifts (BIRDS).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuegao; Coman, Daniel; Ali, Meser M; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2015-01-01

    Relaxivity-based magnetic resonance of phosphonated ligands chelated with gadolinium (Gd(3+)) shows promise for pH imaging. However instead of monitoring the paramagnetic effect of lanthanide complexes on the relaxivity of water protons, biosensor (or molecular) imaging with magnetic resonance is also possible by detecting either the nonexchangeable or the exchangeable protons on the lanthanide complexes themselves. The nonexchangeable protons (e.g. -CHx, where 3 ≥ x ≥ 1) are detected using a three-dimensional chemical shift imaging method called biosensor imaging of redundant deviation in shifts (BIRDS), whereas the exchangeable protons (e.g. -OH or -NHy , where 2 ≥ y ≥ 1) are measured with chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast. Here we tested the feasibility of BIRDS and CEST for pH imaging of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraaminophosphonate (DOTA-4AmP(8-)) chelated with thulium (Tm(3+) ) and ytterbium (Yb(3+)). BIRDS and CEST experiments show that both complexes are responsive to pH and temperature changes. Higher pH and temperature sensitivities are obtained with BIRDS for either complex when using the chemical shift difference between two proton resonances vs using the chemical shift of a single proton resonance, thereby eliminating the need to use water resonance as reference. While CEST contrast for both agents is linearly dependent on pH within a relatively large range (i.e. 6.3-7.9), much stronger CEST contrast is obtained with YbDOTA-4AmP(5-) than with TmDOTA-4AmP(5-). In addition, we demonstrate the prospect of using BIRDS to calibrate CEST as new platform for quantitative pH imaging.

  17. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Massachusetts. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, seven states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Massachusetts to be $1.4 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.6 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,293 million gallons.

  18. Proton: The Particle

    SciTech Connect

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10{sup 80}. Protons were created at 10{sup −6} –1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10{sup 10} years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10{sup 34} years; that is, the age of the universe is 10{sup −24}th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W{sup +}, W{sup −}, Z{sup 0}, and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.

  19. Proton: the particle.

    PubMed

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10(80). Protons were created at 10(-6) -1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10(10) years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10(34) years; that is, the age of the universe is 10(-24)th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W(+), W(-), Z(0), and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.

  20. Proton: the particle.

    PubMed

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10(80). Protons were created at 10(-6) -1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10(10) years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10(34) years; that is, the age of the universe is 10(-24)th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W(+), W(-), Z(0), and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter. PMID:24074929

  1. Comparison of 19-gauge eXcelon and WANG MW-319 transbronchial aspiration needles.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Li-Han; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Ko, Jen-Sheng; Feng, An-Chen; Chu, Nei-Min

    2016-03-01

    Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) using 19-gauge needles can obtain larger histological specimens for hilar-mediastinal diagnosis. A new 19-gauge eXcelon needle was introduced in Taiwan in July 2012. We prospectively enrolled patients with hilar-mediastinal lesions and pathology results of suspected benign origin or lymphoproliferative processes, to perform TBNA using a 19-gauge eXcelon needle, between July 2012 and December 2012. The results were compared with historical control of TBNA using a WANG MW-319 needle between January 2011 and June 2012. The procedure was performed by the same pulmonologist, and rapid on-site cytologic evaluation was used. The 19-gauge eXcelon needle was used in nine patients with 15 lymph nodes aspirated, with a mean diameter of 23.3 ± 10.7 mm. The mean number of needle passes was 2.7 ± 1.4, with a diagnostic accuracy of 77.8%. The MW-319 needle was used in 12 patients with 18 lymph nodes aspirated, with a mean diameter of 21.3 ± 5.7 mm. The mean number of needle passes was 2.2 ± 0.4, with a diagnostic accuracy of 75.0%. Neither technical nor major clinical complications were noted in either group. We concluded that the 19-gauge eXcelon needle was as safe and effective as the MW-319 needle. A more adequate specimen could be obtained and fewer needle passes were required with the MW-319 needle, although the difference did not reach significance. PMID:27042234

  2. 7 CFR 1.4 - Public access to certain materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public access to certain materials. 1.4 Section 1.4... access to certain materials. (a) In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2), each agency within the Department shall make the following materials available for public inspection and copying (unless they are...

  3. 27 CFR 1.4 - Delegations of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Delegation of the Administrator's Authorities in 27 CFR Part 1, Basic Permit Requirements Under the Federal... Administrator. 1.4 Section 1.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Delegations of the Administrator. Most of the regulatory authorities of the Administrator contained in...

  4. 41 CFR 60-1.4 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Equal opportunity clause. 60-1.4 Section 60-1.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... 1-OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS Preliminary Matters; Equal Opportunity...

  5. 41 CFR 60-1.4 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equal opportunity clause. 60-1.4 Section 60-1.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... 1-OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS Preliminary Matters; Equal Opportunity...

  6. Photochemistry Of 2,5-Diacyl-1, 4-Dimethylbenzenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments described in report revealed potentially useful aspects of photochemistry of 2,5-dibenzoyl-1, 4-dimethylbenzene (DBX) and 2,5-diacetyl-1, 4-dimethylbenzene (DAX). Behavior of these compounds reminiscent of orthoalkylphenyl ketones, studied from similar perspective for more than two decades.

  7. 12 CFR 1.4 - Calculation of limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... change in the bank's capital category for purposes of 12 U.S.C. 1831o and 12 CFR 6.3. (b) Effective date... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calculation of limits. 1.4 Section 1.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INVESTMENT SECURITIES §...

  8. Radiolabeling of Cramoll 1,4: Evaluation of the Biodistribution

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira de Carvalho Patricio, Beatriz; Lima-Ribeiro, Maria Helena Madruga; dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza; dos Anjos Carneiro-Leão, Ana Maria; de Souza Albernaz, Marta; Barboza, Thiago; de Souza, Sergio Augusto Lopes; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    The cramoll 1,4 is a well-studied lectin. However, few studies about its biodistribution have been done before. In this study, we radiolabeled the cramol 1,4 with Tc-99m and analyzed the biodistribution. The results showed that the cramol has an abnormal uptake by the bowel with reflections on its clearance mechanism. PMID:21760823

  9. 12 CFR 1.4 - Calculation of limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... change in the bank's capital category for purposes of 12 U.S.C. 1831o and 12 CFR 6.3. (b) Effective date... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calculation of limits. 1.4 Section 1.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INVESTMENT SECURITIES §...

  10. Construction, completion, and testing of replacement monitoring wells MW 3-2, MW 6-2, MW 7-2, and MW 11-2, Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho, February through April 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parliman, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    In February and March 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey Western Regional Research Drilling Operation constructed replacement monitoring wells MW 3–2, MW 6–2, MW 7–2, and MW 11–2 as part of a regional ground-water monitor- ing network for the Mountain Home Air Force Base, Elmore County, Idaho. Total well depths ranged from 435.5 to 456.5 feet, and initial depth-to-water measurements ranged from about 350 to 375 feet below land surface. After completion, wells were pumped and onsite measurements were made of water temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved oxygen. At each well, natural gamma, spontaneous potential, resistivity, caliper, and temperature logs were obtained from instruments placed in open boreholes. A three- dimensional borehole flow analysis was completed for MW 3–2 and MW 11–2, and a video log was obtained for MW 11–2 to annotate lithology and note wet zones in the borehole above saturated rock.

  11. Description of an 8 MW reference wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmond, Cian; Murphy, Jimmy; Blonk, Lindert; Haans, Wouter

    2016-09-01

    An 8 MW wind turbine is described in terms of mass distribution, dimensions, power curve, thrust curve, maximum design load and tower configuration. This turbine has been described as part of the EU FP7 project LEANWIND in order to facilitate research into logistics and naval architecture efficiencies for future offshore wind installations. The design of this 8 MW reference wind turbine has been checked and validated by the design consultancy DNV-GL. This turbine description is intended to bridge the gap between the NREL 5 MW and DTU 10 reference turbines and thus contribute to the standardisation of research and development activities in the offshore wind energy industry.

  12. Enantiopure 1,4-diols and 1,4-aminoalcohols via stereoselective acyclic sulfoxide-sulfenate rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Fernández de la Pradilla, Roberto; Colomer, Ignacio; Ureña, Mercedes; Viso, Alma

    2011-05-01

    Treatment of acyclic α-hydroxy and α-tosylamino sulfinyl dienes with amines affords enantiopure 1,4-diol or 1,4-hydroxysulfonamide derivatives in good yields and diastereoselectivities. This one-pot procedure entails a conjugate addition that triggers a diastereoselective sulfoxide-sulfenate [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement.

  13. 21 CFR 177.1240 - 1,4-Cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate and 1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene isophthalate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 1,4-Cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate and 1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene isophthalate copolymer. 177.1240 Section 177.1240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES:...

  14. Superacid-doped polybenzimidazole-decorated carbon nanotubes: a novel high-performance proton exchange nanocomposite membrane.

    PubMed

    Hasani-Sadrabadi, Mohammad Mahdi; Dashtimoghadam, Erfan; Majedi, Fatemeh Sadat; Moaddel, Homayoun; Bertsch, Arnaud; Renaud, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Here we demonstrate design and electrochemical characterization of novel proton exchange membranes based on Nafion and superacid-doped polymer coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Polybenzimidazole-decorated CNT (PBI-CNT), a high-performance proton exchange nanostructure, was doped using phosphotungstic acid (PWA) as a super proton conductor. The engineered nanohybrid structure was shown to retain water molecules and provide high proton conduction at low humidity and elevated temperatures. The developed complex nanomaterial was then incorporated into the Nafion matrix to fabricate nanocomposite membranes. The acid-base interactions between imidazole groups of PBI and sulfonate groups of Nafion facilitate proton conductivity, especially at elevated temperatures. The improved characteristics of the membranes at the nanoscale result in enhanced fuel cell power generation capacity (386 mW cm(-2)) at elevated temperatures and low humidity (40% R.H.), which was found to be considerably higher than the commercial Nafion®117 membrane (73 mW cm(-2)). PMID:24108383

  15. Study of proton radioactivities

    SciTech Connect

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Henderson, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    About a dozen nuclei are currently known to accomplish their radioactive decay by emitting a proton. These nuclei are situated far from the valley of stability, and mark the very limits of existence for proton-rich nuclei: the proton drip line. A new 39-ms proton radioactivity was observed following the bombardment of a {sup 96}Ru target by a beam of 420-MeV {sup 78}Kr. Using the double-sided Si strip detector implantation system at the FMA, a proton group having an energy of 1.05 MeV was observed, correlated with the implantation of ions having mass 167. The subsequent daughter decay was identified as {sup 166}Os by its characteristic alpha decay, and therefore the proton emitter is assigned to the {sup 167}Ir nucleus. Further analysis showed that a second weak proton group from the same nucleus is present, indicating an isomeric state. Two other proton emitters were discovered recently at the FMA: {sup 171}Au and {sup 185}Bi, which is the heaviest known proton radioactivity. The measured decay energies and half-lives will enable the angular momentum of the emitted protons to be determined, thus providing spectroscopic information on nuclei that are beyond the proton drip line. In addition, the decay energy yields the mass of the nucleus, providing a sensitive test of mass models in this extremely proton-rich region of the chart of the nuclides. Additional searches for proton emitters will be conducted in the future, in order to extend our knowledge of the location of the proton drip line.

  16. Recent Performance of the SNS H-Source for 1-MW Neutron Production

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P; Han, Baoxi; Murray Jr, S N; Pennisi, Terry R; Santana, Manuel; Welton, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of the SNS ion source and LEBT as they continue to deliver ~50 mA H- beams at a 5.3% duty factor required for neutron production with a ~1MW proton beam since the fall of 2009. The source continues to deliver persistent H- beams for up to 6 weeks without adding Cs after an initial dose of ~4 mg, except when there are excessive plasma impurities. In one case the H- beam decayed due to an air leak, which is shown to be consistent with sputtering of the Cs layer, and which allows to bracket the plasma potential. In another case, the performance of two sources degraded progressively, which appears to be consistent with a progressive deterioration of the Cs covered Mo converter. These two and other recently discovered issues are discussed in detail.

  17. Inelastic scattering research at a 1 MW long pulse spallation neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Carlile, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    The brief was, with respect to the LPSS bench mark design supplied (60 Hz, 1 MW, Imsec proton pulse, with a split, non-fissile target and 4 moderators in a flux trap geometry design), to identify a set of instruments, and to assess their performance with respect to existing spectrometers on other sources. Any modifications to the existing instruments which would make them more effective on the bench-mark source, or conversely, any modifications to the source bench-mark required by the proposed instruments were to be identified, as were any uncertainties in the estimated performances, or any R & D needed to make the proposed instruments viable. Any new instrument concepts specifically matched to the long pulse itself were to be identified and assessed. This process was to result in an indicative list of instruments for the source. A figure of around 10 spectrometers was to be aimed for.

  18. High-power targets: experience and R&D for 2 MW

    SciTech Connect

    Hurh, P.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Loveridge, P.; Simos, N.; /Brookhaven

    2011-03-01

    High-power particle production targets are crucial elements of future neutrino and other rare particle beams. Fermilab plans to produce a beam of neutrinos (LBNE) with a 2.3 MW proton beam (Project X). Any solid target is unlikely to survive for an extended period in such an environment - many materials would not survive a single beam pulse. We are using our experience with previous neutrino and antiproton production targets, along with a new series of R&D tests, to design a target that has adequate survivability for this beamline. The issues considered are thermal shock (stress waves), heat removal, radiation damage, radiation accelerated corrosion effects, physics/geometry optimization and residual radiation.

  19. Noncoplanarity effects in proton-proton bremsstrahlung

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Liou, M.K.; Timmermans, R.; Gibson, B.F.

    1998-10-01

    Noncoplanarity in proton-proton bremsstrahlung is investigated. Significant effects are observed for certain photon polar angles, {psi}{sub {gamma}}. Such noncoplanarity effects, not of dynamical origin, are possibly responsible for past disagreements between theory and experiment. The Harvard noncoplanar coordinate system, which avoids kinematic singularities in the cross section, is used in our calculations and is recommended for use in the analysis of experimental data. Alternative methods of presenting cross sections are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Thermal Rollover around 460 mW Observation in Single-Lateral Mode 780 nm Laser Diodes with Window-Mirror Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Tetsuya; Tashiro, Yoshihisa; Ohkura, Yuji; Abe, Shinji; Nishiguchi, Harumi; Mitsui, Yasuo

    2003-04-01

    Narrow stripe 780 nm window-mirror structure laser diodes (LDs) with and without a leakage current blocking structure in the window-mirror region were studied in terms of catastrophic optical degradation (COD) at facets. It was experimentally proved that a non-leakage-current-injection structure using proton implantation was effective in improving the COD level even in LDs with a window-mirror made by multi quantum well disordering. The thermal rollover phenomenon at around 460 mW at room temperature was observed in this LD. This is the highest output power recorded among narrow stripe LDs with a wavelength of 780 nm. Stable lateral mode operation up to 350 mW was also realized. This LD is suitable for the next generation of high speed (48 ×-) CD-R/RW drives necessitating 250 mW class LDs.

  1. Dielectric properties of multiatomic alcohols: 1,4-butanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. I.

    2015-12-01

    The dielectric spectra of 1,4-butanediol in the temperature range of 298-423 K are analyzed using the theoretical approaches of Debye, Davidson-Cole, and Forsman, based on the Dissado-Hill theory. It is shown that the dielectric spectra of 1,4-butanediol are described by the Davidson-Cole equation, and the βDC parameter has a pronounced strong temperature dependence. In the Debye theory, the spectrum of the dielectric relaxation of 1,4-butanediol is presented as the sum of two region of dispersions. Conclusions are reached as to the possible mechanisms of dispersion responsible for the obtained regions. The relaxation times of 1,4-butanediol calculated using different equations describing the nonlinear behavior of the relaxation time are compared. The dipole moments of clusters are obtained for the first time and a preliminary analysis is performed using the Dissado-Hill cluster model.

  2. 1. 4 LOGAN CIRCLE, SIDE ELEVATION (Photograph of photograph in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 4 LOGAN CIRCLE, SIDE ELEVATION (Photograph of photograph in possession of Turner Associates and Nicholas Satterlee Associates, Washington, DC, 1973.) - 4 Logan Circle (House), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 26 CFR 15.1-4 - Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INCOME TAX REGULATIONS RELATING TO EXPLORATION EXPENDITURES IN THE CASE OF MINING § 15.1-4 Special rules... elections under sections 615(e), 617(a), or 617(b) as to the tax treatment of a partner's distributive...

  4. VIEW OF #1 #4 EXCITER AND GENERATORFIELD RHEOSTATS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF #1 - #4 EXCITER AND GENERATOR-FIELD RHEOSTATS WITH RESISTOR BANKS ON EAST END OF GENERATOR FLOOR. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  5. Oriented structures based on trans-1,4-polybutadiene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tervoort-Engelen, Yvonne Maria Theodora

    Oriented structures based on trans 1,4 polybutadiene (t-1,4-PB) are explored in view of the enhancement of intermolecular interactions in fibrous systems. The deformation behavior and properties of both melt and solution crystallized t-1,4-PB films are presented and crosslinking of the oriented structures is discussed. The solution blending of t-1,4-PB and UHMW-PE, and the resulting morphology of the solution crystallized blends as a function of t-1,4-PBN content, are described. Drawing of the solution crystallized blends and the resulting fiber properties, in relation to the fiber morphology, is discussed. The network formation by electron beam irradiation in drawn UHMW-PE/t-1,4-Pb blends is discussed. Results are interpreted in view of the study objective. Some aspects of the morphology of nascent UHMW-PE reactor powders are discussed, focusing on the question of whether chain extended or chain folded crystals prevail in these samples.

  6. Proton-conducting cerate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, L.R.; Coffey, G.W.; Bates, J.L.; Weber, W.J.

    1996-08-01

    Single-cell solid oxide fuel cells were constructed using strontium cerate as the electrolyte and their performance tested. Like certain zirconates, hafnates, and tantalates, the cerate perovskites are among a class of solid electrolytes that conduct protons at elevated temperatures. Depending on the temperature and chemical environment, these ceramics also support electronic and oxygen ion currents. A maximum power output of {approx}100 mW per cm{sup 2} electrolyte surface area was obtained at 900{degrees}C using 4% hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. A series of rare earth/ceria/zirconia were prepared and their electrical properties characterized. Rare earth dopants included ytterbia, yttria, terbia, and europia. Ionic conductivities were highest for rare earth/ceria and rare earth zirconia compositions; a minimum in ionic conductivity for all series were found for equimolar mixtures of ceria and zirconia. Cerium oxysulfide is of interest in fossil energy applications because of its high chemical stability and refractory nature. An alternative synthesis route to preparing cerium oxysulfide powders has been developed using combustion techniques.

  7. A New High-Current Proton Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, M. R.; Galloway, R. A.; DeSanto, L.; Jongen, Y.

    2009-03-01

    A high-current (>20 mA) dc proton accelerator is being developed for applications such as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and the detection of explosive materials by nuclear resonance absorption (NRA) of gamma radiation. The high-voltage dc accelerator (adjustable between 1.4 and 2.8 MeV) will be a single-ended industrial Dynamitron® system equipped with a compact high-current, microwave-driven proton source. A magnetic mass analyzer inserted between the ion source and the acceleration tube will select the protons and reject heavier ions. A sorption pump near the ion source will minimize the flow of neutral hydrogen gas into the acceleration tube. For BNCT, a lithium target for generating epithermal neutrons is being developed that will be capable of dissipating the high power (>40 kW) of the proton beam. For NRA, special targets will be used to generate gamma rays with suitable energies for exciting nuclides typically present in explosive materials. Proton accelerators with such high-current and high-power capabilities in this energy range have not been developed previously.

  8. Interplanetary proton fluence model - JPL 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, J.; Spitale, G.; Wang, J.; Gabriel, S.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an updated predictive engineering model for the interplanetary fluence of protons with energies respectively greater than 1, 4, 10, 30, and 60 MeV. This has been the first opportunity to derive a model from a data set that has been collected in space over a long enough period of time to produce a valid sample of solar proton events. The model provides a quantitative basis for estimating the exposures to solar protons of spacecraft during missions of varying length and of surfaces and atmospheres of solar system objects. The data sets contain several major proton events comparable to the 1972 event. For the cases of the over 10 and over 30 MeV particles, the fluences are somewhat lower than in our earlier model No over 1, over 4, and over 60 MeV proton fluence models have been published in the literature previously. We present our results in a convenient graphical form which may be used to calculate the 1 AU fluence expected at a given confidence level as a function of the length of the exposure. A method of extending this estimate to other heliocentric distances is described.

  9. Calorimetric and computational study of 1,4-dithiacyclohexane 1,1-dioxide (1,4-dithiane sulfone).

    PubMed

    Roux, María Victoria; Temprado, Manuel; Jiménez, Pilar; Notario, Rafael; Guzman-Mejía, Ramón; Juaristi, Eusebio

    2006-03-31

    This work reports the enthalpies of formation in the condensed and gas state of 1,4-dithiacyclohexane 1,1-dioxide (1,4-dithiane sulfone, 5), derived from the enthalpy of combustion in oxygen, measured by a rotating bomb calorimeter and the variation of vapor pressures with temperatures determined by the Knudsen effusion technique. The theoretically estimated enthalpy of formation was calculated from high-level ab initio molecular orbital calculations at the G2(MP2) level. The theoretical calculations appear to be in very good agreement with experiment. A comparison of the conversion of thiane sulfone 3 to 1,3-dithiane sulfone 4 and 1,4-dithiane sulfone 5 clearly shows the 1,3 isomer to be 6.7 kJ mol(-1) less stable, probably owing to diminished electrostatic repulsion between the sulfur heteroatoms in 1,4-sulfone 5. PMID:16555808

  10. Acyloxylation of 1,4-Dioxanes and 1,4-Dithianes Catalyzed by a Copper-Iron Mixed Oxide.

    PubMed

    García-Cabeza, Ana Leticia; Marín-Barrios, Rubén; Moreno-Dorado, F Javier; Ortega, María J; Vidal, Hilario; Gatica, José M; Massanet, Guillermo M; Guerra, Francisco M

    2015-07-01

    The use of a copper-iron mixed oxide as a heterogeneous catalyst for the efficient synthesis of α-acyloxy-1,4-dioxanes and 1,4-dithianes employing t-butyl peroxyesters is reported. The preparation and characterization of the catalyst are described. The effect of the heteroatoms and a plausible mechanism are discussed. The method is operationally simple and involves low-cost starting materials affording products in good to excellent yields.

  11. Startup, Commissioning and Operation of Fenyi 100MW CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Yu, Wugao; Bo, Shi

    The first 100MW CFB boiler, designed by the Thermal Power Research Institute and manufactured by Harbin Boiler Company Limited, has been successfully running in Jiangxi Fenyi Power Plant since 2003. Local high ash content anthracite and lean coal that are very difficult to burn out are used in the 100 MW CFB boiler. The results of the 100MW CFB boiler shows that the CFB boiler can run in 30% MCR and startup with two under bed burners, and the boiler efficiency higher than 88% can be got after the combustion modification test. The CFB boiler can be operated with full load and reaches design parameters. The emissions of NO, N2O and CO are less than 7Omg/m3, 30mg/m3, and 125mg/m3, respectively, and SO2 less than 400mg/m3 after limestone injection. The bottom ash temperature from bed ash coolers is less than 120°C after its modification. Coal blockage at the coal storage silo is the main problem influencing the CFB boiler continuous operation. The running experiences for 5 years proved that the CFB boiler performance is successful, and the results were applied in 210 MW and 330 MW CFB Boiler design of Fenyi Power Plant.

  12. Latest Results in SLAC 75 MW PPM Klystrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprehn, D.; Caryotakis, G.; Haase, A.; Jongewaard, E.; Laurent, L.; Pearson, C.; Phillips, R.

    2006-01-01

    75 MW X-band klystrons utilizing Periodic Permanent Magnet (PPM) focusing have been undergoing design, fabrication and testing at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) for almost nine years. The klystron development has been geared toward realizing the necessary components for the construction of the Next Linear Collider (NLC). The PPM devices built to date which fit this class of operation consist of a variety of 50 MW and 75 MW devices constructed by SLAC, KEK (Tsukuba, Japan ) and industry. All these tubes follow from the successful SLAC design of a 50 MW PPM klystron in 1996. In 2004 the latest two klystrons were constructed and tested with preliminary results reported at EPAC2004. The first of these two devices was tested to the full NLC specifications of 75 MW, 1.6 microseconds pulse length, and 120 Hz. This 14.4 kW average power operation came with a tube efficiency >50%. The most recent testing of these last two devices will be presented here. Design and manufacturing issues of the latest klystron, due to be tested by the Fall of 2005, are also discussed.

  13. Latest Results in SLAC 75-MW PPM Klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Sprehn, D.; Caryotakis, G.; Haase, A.; Jongewaard, E.; Laurent, L.; Pearson, C.; Phillips, R.; /SLAC

    2006-03-06

    75 MW X-band klystrons utilizing Periodic Permanent Magnet (PPM) focusing have been undergoing design, fabrication and testing at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) for almost nine years. The klystron development has been geared toward realizing the necessary components for the construction of the Next Linear Collider (NLC). The PPM devices built to date which fit this class of operation consist of a variety of 50 MW and 75 MW devices constructed by SLAC, KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) and industry. All these tubes follow from the successful SLAC design of a 50 MW PPM klystron in 1996. In 2004 the latest two klystrons were constructed and tested with preliminary results reported at EPAC2004. The first of these two devices was tested to the full NLC specifications of 75 MW, 1.6 microseconds pulse length, and 120 Hz. This 14.4 kW average power operation came with a tube efficiency >50%. The most recent testing of these last two devices will be presented here. Design and manufacturing issues of the latest klystron, due to be tested by the Fall of 2005, are also discussed.

  14. The Schwarzschild Proton

    SciTech Connect

    Haramein, Nassim

    2010-11-24

    We review our model of a proton that obeys the Schwarzschild condition. We find that only a very small percentage ({approx}10{sup -39}%) of the vacuum fluctuations available within a proton volume need be cohered and converted to mass-energy in order for the proton to meet the Schwarzschild condition. This proportion is equivalent to that between gravitation and the strong force where gravitation is thought to be {approx}10{sup -38} to 10{sup -40} weaker than the strong force. Gravitational attraction between two contiguous Schwarzschild protons can accommodate both nucleon and quark confinement. We calculate that two contiguous Schwarzschild protons would rotate at c and have a period of 10{sup -23} s and a frequency of 10{sup 22} Hz which is characteristic of the strong force interaction time and a close approximation of the gamma emission typically associated with nuclear decay. We include a scaling law and find that the Schwarzschild proton data point lies near the least squares trend line for organized matter. Using a semi-classical model, we find that a proton charge orbiting at a proton radius at c generates a good approximation to the measured anomalous magnetic moment.

  15. Electron-proton spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    An electron-proton spectrometer was designed to measure the geomagnetically trapped radiation in a geostationary orbit at 6.6 earth radii in the outer radiation belt. This instrument is to be flown on the Applications Technology Satellite-F (ATS-F). The electron-proton spectrometer consists of two permanent magnet surface barrier detector arrays and associated electronics capable of selecting and detecting electrons in three energy ranges: (1) 30-50 keV, (2) 150-200 keV, and (3) 500 keV and protons in three energy ranges. The electron-proton spectrometer has the capability of measuring the fluxes of electrons and protons in various directions with respect to the magnetic field lines running through the satellite. One magnet detector array system is implemented to scan between EME north and south through west, sampling the directional flux in 15 steps. The other magnet-detector array system is fixed looking toward EME east.

  16. Medical Applications: Proton Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppel, Cynthia

    2009-05-01

    Proton therapy is a highly advanced and precise form of radiation treatment for cancer. Due to the characteristic Bragg peak associated with ion energy deposition, proton therapy provides the radiation oncologist with an improved method of treatment localization within a patient, as compared with conventional radiation therapy using X-rays or electrons. Controlling disease and minimizing side effects are the twin aims of radiation treatment. Proton beams enhance the opportunity for both by facilitating maximal dose to tumor and minimal dose to surrounding tissue. In the United States, five proton radiotherapy centers currently treat cancer patients, with more in the construction phase. New facilities and enabling technologies abound. An overview of the treatment modality generally, as well as of the capabilities and research planned for the field and for the Hampton University Proton Therapy Institute in particular, will be presented.

  17. A Fenton-like degradation mechanism for 1,4-dioxane using zero-valent iron (Fe0) and UV light.

    PubMed

    Son, Hyun-Seok; Im, Jong-Kwon; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2009-03-01

    In this study, the degradation mechanism of 1,4-dioxane using zero-valent iron (Fe0) in the presence of UV light was investigated kinetically. The degradation of 1,4-dioxane in Fe0-only, photolysis, and combined Fe0 and UV reactions followed the kinetics of a pseudo-first-order model. The degradation rate constant (19 x 10(-4)min(-1)) in the combined reaction with UV-C (4.2 mW cm(-2)) and Fe0 (5 mg L(-1)) was significantly enhanced compared to Fe0-only (4.8 x 10(-4) min(-1)) and photolytic reactions (2.25 x 10(-4)min(-1)), respectively. The removal efficiency of 1,4-dioxane in combined reaction with Fe0 and UV within 4 h was enhanced by increasing UV intensity at UV-C region (34% at 4.2 mW cm(-2) and 89% at 16.9 mW cm(-2)) comparing with the removal in the combined reaction with Fe0 and UV-A (29% at 2.1 mW cm(-2), and 33% at 12.6 mW cm(-2)). It indicates that 1,4-dioxane was degraded mostly by OH radicals in the combined reaction. The degradation patterns in both Fe(0)-only and combined reactions were well fitted to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, implying that adsorption as well as the chemical reaction occurred. The transformation of Fe0 to Fe2+ and Fe3+ was observed in the Fe0-only and combined reactions, and the transformation rate of Fe0 was improved by UV irradiation. Furthermore, the reduction of Fe3+ was identified in the combined reaction, and the reduction rate was enhanced by an increase of UV energy. Our study demonstrated that the enhancement of 1,4-dioxane removal rate occurred via an increased supply of OH radicals from the Fenton-like reaction induced by the photolysis of Fe0 and H2O, and with producing less sludge.

  18. The 1.5 MW wind turbine of tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    De Wolff, T.J.; Sondergaard, H.

    1996-12-31

    The Danish company Nordtank is one of the pioneers within the wind turbine industry. Since 1981 Nordtank has installed worldwide more than 2300 wind turbine generators with a total name plate capacity that is exceeding 350 MW. This paper will describe two major wind turbine technology developments that Nordtank has accomplished during the last year: Site Optimization of Nordtank wind turbines: Nordtank has developed a flexible design concept for its WTGs in the 500/600 kW range, in order to offer the optimal WTG solution for any given site and wind regime. Nordtank`s 1.5 MW wind turbine: In September 1995, Nordtank was the first company to install a commercial 1.5 NM WTG. This paper will document the development process, the design as well as operations of the Nordtank 1.5 MW WTG.

  19. Combination of Nanogel Polyethylene glycol-Polyethylenimine and 6 (hydroxymethyl)-1,4-anthracenedione as an Anticancer Nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Ganta, Chanran; Shi, Aibin; Battina, Srinivas K; Pyle, Marla; Rana, Sandeep; Hua, Duy H.; Tamura, Masaaki; Troyer, Deryl

    2008-01-01

    Nanoparticles have many potential applications. Polyethylene glycol-polyethylenimine (PEG-PEI) nanogels have been used to deliver nucleic acids and oligonucleotides into cells. We first synthesized various nanogels with altering ratios of CH2O:CH2N (methylene protons) in PEG-PEI and tested their cytotoxicity using a rodent pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line (Pan 02). Results indicate that the nanogel PEG-PEI with lower methylene protons ratio (4:1) exhibited a strong cytotoxicity over the higher methylene protons ratio (~6.8:1). We then incorporated a newly synthesized anti-cancer drug, 6-(hydroxymethyl)-1,4-anthracenedione (AQ) analogue (AQ10) into nanogel PEG-PEI with higher methylene protons ratio (~6.8:1) and tested the effect of AQ10 encapsulated nanogel PEG-PEI (AQ10-nanogel PEG-PEI) and AQ10 dissolved in DMSO on Pan 02 cell growth. Our results showed that, Pan 02 cells treated with AQ10-nanogel PEG-PEI was three to four times more effective in cell growth attenuation than the cells treated with AQ10 alone. Nanogel PEG-PEI apparently acts as a drug delivery agent by penetrating the cell membrane and carrying the anti-cancer drug AQ10 into the cells, so that they become more susceptible to the drug even at a lower dose. These results suggest that AQ10-nanogel PEG-PEI is a potentially effective anti-cancer agent in pancreatic cancer therapy. PMID:18572646

  20. 17 CFR 1.4 - Use of electronic signatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of electronic signatures... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Definitions § 1.4 Use of electronic signatures. For purposes of... pool participant or a client of a commodity trading advisor, an electronic signature executed by...

  1. 17 CFR 1.4 - Use of electronic signatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of electronic signatures... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Definitions § 1.4 Use of electronic signatures. For purposes of... broker, a pool participant or a client of a commodity trading advisor, an electronic signature...

  2. Regioselective Halogenation of 1,4-Benzodiazepinones via CH Activation

    PubMed Central

    Abdelkafi, Hajer; Cintrat, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    This article reports an efficient CH activation process for regioselective halogenation of 1,4-benzodiazepinones. Direct halogenation with NXS (X = Br, I) affords halogenated benzodiazepinones on the central aromatic ring whereas catalyst (Pd(OAc)2) controlled CH activation furnishes regioselectively ortho halogenated benzodiazepinones on the phenyl side chain. PMID:26179245

  3. 13. Engine room, view of Ames aniflow (engine #1). 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Engine room, view of Ames aniflow (engine #1). 4 cylinder-1953, centrifuge oil separator in foreground, doorway to machine shop on right in background, taken from southeast - East Boston Pumping Station, Chelsea Street at Chelsea Creek, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. Sunspot 1520 Releases Strong (X1.4) Solar Flare

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie shows the sun July 10-12, ending with the X1.4 class flare on July 12, 2012. It was captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory in the 131 Angstrom wavelength - a wavelength that is...

  5. Inhibition of the alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase III of Monilinia fructigena by 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-L-threitol and 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-L-arabinitol.

    PubMed Central

    Axamawaty, M T; Fleet, G W; Hannah, K A; Namgoong, S K; Sinnott, M L

    1990-01-01

    1. 1,4-Dideoxy-1,4-imino-L-threitol was synthesized and the synthesis of 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-L-arabinitol was improved. 2. Both compounds are competitive inhibitors of Monilinia fructigena alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase III, the additional hydroxymethyl group in the arabinitol contributing about 17.8 kj/mol (4.25 kcal/mol) to the Gibbs free energy of binding. 3. The affinities (1/Ki) of both compounds vary with pH in a classical bell-shaped way, the pKa value being that of the acid-catalytic group on the enzyme [5.9; Selwood & Sinnott (1988) Biochem. J. 254, 899-901] and the pKb values being those of the free inhibitors, 7.6 and 7.8 respectively. 4. On the basis of these and literature data we suggest that efficient inhibition of a glycosidase at its pH optimum by an appropriate iminoalditol will be found when the pKa of the iminoalditol is below that of the acid-catalytic group of the target enzyme. PMID:2310375

  6. Proton-proton colliding beam facility ISABELLE

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H

    1980-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the status of the ISABELLE construction project, which has the objective of building a 400 + 400 GeV proton colliding beam facility. The major technical features of the superconducting accelerators with their projected performance are described. Progress made so far, difficulties encountered, and the program until completion in 1986 is briefly reviewed.

  7. Skeletally Diverse Synthesis of Innovative [2,1-c]-1,4-Oxazepine and [1,4]-Quinoxaline Systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Hsin; Wu, Wen-Chun; Dangate, Prasad S; Shen, Li-Ching; Chung, Wen-Sheng; Sun, Chung-Ming

    2015-10-12

    An efficient, innovative synthesis of [2,1-c]-1, 4-oxazepine and [1,4]-quinoxaline heterocycles along with the embodied pyrimido-pyrrolo motifs was established. Initially, the pyrrole ring was installed using microwave irradiation through an intramolecular base-catalyzed cyclization between acetyl bromomethyl pyrimidine dione and o-amino phenyl methanol or o-phenylenediamine methyl benzoates. Furthermore, oxazepine, and quinoxaline scaffolds were constructed by an acid-catalyzed condensation with a variety of aldehydes by an unconventional Pictet-Spengler reaction strategy. An important aspect of this work is to build novel heterocyclic ring systems with potential medicinal interest.

  8. Skeletally Diverse Synthesis of Innovative [2,1-c]-1,4-Oxazepine and [1,4]-Quinoxaline Systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Hsin; Wu, Wen-Chun; Dangate, Prasad S; Shen, Li-Ching; Chung, Wen-Sheng; Sun, Chung-Ming

    2015-10-12

    An efficient, innovative synthesis of [2,1-c]-1, 4-oxazepine and [1,4]-quinoxaline heterocycles along with the embodied pyrimido-pyrrolo motifs was established. Initially, the pyrrole ring was installed using microwave irradiation through an intramolecular base-catalyzed cyclization between acetyl bromomethyl pyrimidine dione and o-amino phenyl methanol or o-phenylenediamine methyl benzoates. Furthermore, oxazepine, and quinoxaline scaffolds were constructed by an acid-catalyzed condensation with a variety of aldehydes by an unconventional Pictet-Spengler reaction strategy. An important aspect of this work is to build novel heterocyclic ring systems with potential medicinal interest. PMID:26379108

  9. 1,4-Dimethyl­piperazine-1,4-diium bis­(hexa­fluoro­phosphate) dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Su-Wen

    2012-01-01

    In the title hydrated mol­ecular salt, C6H16N2 +·2PF6 −·2H2O, the complete 1,4-dimethyl­piperazine-1,4-diium dication is generated by crystallographic inversion symmetry and both C—N bonds are in equatorial orientations. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H⋯F and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds but there are no direct links between cations and anions. PMID:22590381

  10. Acid, protons and Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, G.; Meyer-Rosberg, K.; Scott, D. R.; Melchers, K.

    1996-01-01

    The anti-ulcer drugs that act as covalent inhibitors of the gastric acid pump are targeted to the gastric H+/K+ ATPase by virtue of accumulation in acid and conversion to the active sulfenamide. This results in extremely effective inhibition of acid secretion. Appropriate dosage is able to optimize acid control therapy for reflux and peptic ulcer disease as compared to H2 receptor antagonists. However, clinical data on recurrence show that Helicobacter pylori eradication should accompany treatment of the lesion. These drugs have been found to synergize with many antibiotics for eradication. The survival of aerobes depends on their ability to maintain a driving force for protons across their inner membrane, the sum of a pH and potential difference gradient, the protonmotive force (pmf). The transmembrane flux of protons across the F1F0 ATPase, driven by the pmf, is coupled to the synthesis of ATP. The internal pH of H. pylori was measured using the fluorescent dye probe, BCECF, and the membrane potential defined by the uptake of the carbocyanine dye, DiSC3 [5] at different pHs to mimic the gastric environment. The protonmotive force at pH 7.0 was composed of a delta pH of 1.4 (-84mV) and a delta potential difference of -131mV, to give a pmf of -215 mV. The effect of variations in external pH on survival of the bacteria in the absence of urea correlated with the effect of external pH on the ability of the bacteria to maintain a pmf. The effect of the addition of 5 mM urea on the pmf was measured at different medium pH values. Urea restored the pmf at pH 3.0 or 3.5, but abolished the pmf at pH 7.0 or higher, due the production of the alkalinizing cation, NH3. Hence H. pylori is an acid-tolerant neutrophile due to urease activity, but urease activity also limits its survival to an acidic environment. These data help explain the occupation of the stomach by the organism and its distribution between fundus and antrum. This distribution and its alteration by proton pump

  11. Flash Proton Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, Frank E.

    Protons were first investigated as radiographic probes as high energy proton accelerators became accessible to the scientific community in the 1960s. Like the initial use of X-rays in the 1800s, protons were shown to be a useful tool for studying the contents of opaque materials, but the electromagnetic charge of the protons opened up a new set of interaction processes which complicated their use. These complications in combination with the high expense of generating protons with energies high enough to penetrate typical objects resulted in proton radiography becoming a novelty, demonstrated at accelerator facilities, but not utilized to their full potential until the 1990s at Los Alamos. During this time Los Alamos National Laboratory was investigating a wide range of options, including X-rays and neutrons, as the next generation of probes to be used for thick object flash radiography. During this process it was realized that the charge nature of the protons, which was the source of the initial difficulty with this idea, could be used to recover this technique. By introducing a magnetic imaging lens downstream of the object to be radiographed, the blur resulting from scattering within the object could be focused out of the measurements, dramatically improving the resolution of proton radiography of thick systems. Imaging systems were quickly developed and combined with the temporal structure of a proton beam generated by a linear accelerator, providing a unique flash radiography capability for measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This technique has now been employed at LANSCE for two decades and has been adopted around the world as the premier flash radiography technique for the study of dynamic material properties.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10678 - 1,4-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1,4-dimethyl ester, hydrogenolysis products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-dimethyl ester, hydrogenolysis products. 721.10678 Section 721.10678 Protection of Environment..., 1,4-dimethyl ester, hydrogenolysis products. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... ester, hydrogenolysis products (PMN P-13-10; CAS No. 1373220-73-5) is subject to reporting under...

  13. Strangeness in the proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberg, Mary

    2014-03-01

    Both perturbative and non-perturbative mechanisms contribute to strangeness in the proton sea. We have developed a hybrid model in which non-perturbative contributions are calculated in a meson cloud model which expands the proton in terms of meson-baryon states, and perturbative contributions are calculated in a statistical model which expands the proton in terms of quark-gluon states. The perturbative contributions are represented in the parton distributions of the ``bare'' hadrons in the meson cloud. We compare our results to the recent experimental data of ATLAS and HERMES. This research has been supported in part by NSF Award 1205686.

  14. Are protons nonidentical fermions?

    SciTech Connect

    Mart, T.

    2014-09-25

    We briefly review the progress of our investigation on the electric (charge) radius of the proton. In order to explain the recently measured proton radius, which is significantly smaller than the standard CODATA value, we assume that the real protons radii are not identical, they are randomly distributed in a certain range. To obtain the measured radius we average the radii and fit both the mean radius and the range. By using an averaged dipole form factor we obtain the charge radius r{sub E} = 0.8333 fm, in accordance with the recent measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen.

  15. Parity Nonconservation in Proton-Proton and Proton-Water Scattering at 1.5 GeV/c

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Mischke, R. E.; Bowman, J. D.; Carlini, R.; MacArthur, D.; Nagle, D. E.; Frauenfelder, H.; Harper, R. W.; Yuan, V.; McDonald, A. B.; Talaga, R. L.

    1984-07-01

    Experiments searching for parity nonconservation in the scattering of 1.5 GeV/c (800 MeV) polarized protons from an unpolarized water target and a liquid hydrogen target are described. The intensity of the incident proton beam was measured upstream and downstream of the target by a pair of ionization detectors. The beam helicity was reversed at a 30-Hz rate. Auxiliary detectors monitored beam properties that could give rise to false effects. The result for the longitudinal asymmetry from the water is A{sub L} = (1.7 +- 3.3 +- 1.4) x 10{sup -7}, where the first error is statistical and the second is an estimate of systematic effects. The hydrogen data yield a preliminary result of A{sub L} = (1.0 +- 1.6) x 10{sup -7}. The systematic errors for p-p are expected to be < 1 x 10{sup -7}.

  16. Solubility of carbon monoxide in 1,4-dioxane

    SciTech Connect

    Veleckis, E.; Hacker, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    The solubility of CO in 1,4-dioxane was determined as a function of pressure (7-70 atm) and temperature (80-173/sup 0/C). An expression is given for solubility that relates the mole fraction and partial pressure of CO (in atmospheres) and the temperature in degrees Kelvin. The results, analyzed in terms of the Krichevsky-Ilinskaya equation, showed that the partial molar volume of CO was independent of pressure and that the isobaric Henry's law was obeyed in the ranges studied. Comparisons with other solvents showed that, on the basis of CO dissolution characteristics, 1,4-dioxane can be classified better with polar than with nonpolar solvents.

  17. Ambiphilic boron in 1,4,2,5-diazadiborinine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baolin; Li, Yongxin; Ganguly, Rakesh; Hirao, Hajime; Kinjo, Rei

    2016-01-01

    Boranes have long been known as the archetypal Lewis acids owing to an empty p-orbital on the boron centre. Meanwhile, Lewis basic tricoordinate boranes have been developed in recent years. Here we report the synthesis of an annulated 1,4,2,5-diazadiborinine derivative featuring boron atoms that exhibit both Lewis acidic and basic properties. Experimental and computational studies confirmed that two boron atoms in this molecule are spectroscopically equivalent. Nevertheless, this molecule cleaves C-O, B-H, Si-H and P-H bonds heterolytically, and readily undergoes [4+2] cycloaddition reaction with non-activated unsaturated bonds such as C=O, C=C, C≡C and C≡N bonds. The result, thus, indicates that the indistinguishable boron atoms in 1,4,2,5-diazadiborinine act as both nucleophilic and electrophilic centres, demonstrating ambiphilic nature. PMID:27279265

  18. Ambiphilic boron in 1,4,2,5-diazadiborinine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baolin; Li, Yongxin; Ganguly, Rakesh; Hirao, Hajime; Kinjo, Rei

    2016-01-01

    Boranes have long been known as the archetypal Lewis acids owing to an empty p-orbital on the boron centre. Meanwhile, Lewis basic tricoordinate boranes have been developed in recent years. Here we report the synthesis of an annulated 1,4,2,5-diazadiborinine derivative featuring boron atoms that exhibit both Lewis acidic and basic properties. Experimental and computational studies confirmed that two boron atoms in this molecule are spectroscopically equivalent. Nevertheless, this molecule cleaves C–O, B–H, Si–H and P–H bonds heterolytically, and readily undergoes [4+2] cycloaddition reaction with non-activated unsaturated bonds such as C=O, C=C, C≡C and C≡N bonds. The result, thus, indicates that the indistinguishable boron atoms in 1,4,2,5-diazadiborinine act as both nucleophilic and electrophilic centres, demonstrating ambiphilic nature. PMID:27279265

  19. Lightweight MgB2 superconducting 10 MW wind generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, I.; Pujana, A.; Sarmiento, G.; Sanz, S.; Merino, J. M.; Tropeano, M.; Sun, J.; Canosa, T.

    2016-02-01

    The offshore wind market demands a higher power rate and more reliable turbines in order to optimize capital and operational costs. The state-of-the-art shows that both geared and direct-drive conventional generators are difficult to scale up to 10 MW and beyond due to their huge size and weight. Superconducting direct-drive wind generators are considered a promising solution to achieve lighter weight machines. This work presents an innovative 10 MW 8.1 rpm direct-drive partial superconducting generator using MgB2 wire for the field coils. It has a warm iron rotor configuration with the superconducting coils working at 20 K while the rotor core and the armature are at ambient temperature. A cooling system based on cryocoolers installed in the rotor extracts the heat from the superconducting coils by conduction. The generator's main parameters are compared against a permanent magnet reference machine, showing a significant weight and size reduction. The 10 MW superconducting generator concept will be experimentally validated with a small-scale magnetic machine, which has innovative components such as superconducting coils, modular cryostats and cooling systems, and will have similar size and characteristics as the 10 MW generator.

  20. Development of a 50 MW 30 GHz Gyroklystron Amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Read; Wesely Lawson, Lawrence Ives, Jeff Neilson

    2009-05-20

    DOE requires sources for testing of high gradient accelerator structures. A power of 50 MW is required at K and Ka band. The pulse length must be ~ 1 microsecond and the pulse repetition frequency at least 100 Hz. At least some applications may require phase stability not offered by a free running oscillator. CCR proposed to build a 50 MW 30 GHz gyrklystron amplifier. This approach would give the required phase stability. The frequency was at the second harmonic of the cycltron frequency and used the TE02 mode. This makes it possible to design a device without an inner conductor, and with a conventional (non-inverted) MIG. This minimizes cost and the risk due to mechanical alignment issues. A detailed design of the gyroklystron was produced. The design was based on simulations of the cavity(ies), electron gun, output coupler and output window. Two designs were produced. One was at the fundamental of the cyclotron frequency. Simulations predicted an output power of 72 MW with an efficiency of 48%. The other was at the second harmonic, producing 37 MW with an efficiency of 37%.

  1. Sacremento Municipal Utility District 100-MW sub e photovoltaic plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, R. V.

    1982-01-01

    A status report on plans for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) 1-MW photovoltaic power plant is presented. DOE, the California Energy Commission, and SMUD will fund the project cooperatively. Emphasis is placed on the details of the government contract/cooperation agreement.

  2. GHB, GBL and 1,4-BD addiction.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Tibor M; van Amsterdam, Jan G C; van den Brink, Wim

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an addictive substance. Its precursors gammabutyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) show the same properties and may pose even more risks due to different pharmacokinetics. There are indications that problematic GHB use is increasing in the European Union. This review investigates the existing literature on the neurochemistry of GHB and its precursors, their acute toxicity, addiction potential and withdrawal, the proposed molecular mechanism underlying addiction and the treatment of withdrawal and addiction. Current evidence shows that GHB and its precursors are highly addictive, both in humans and animals, probably through a GABAB receptor related mechanism. Severity of withdrawal symptoms can be considered as a medical emergency. Recent studies suggest that benzodiazepines are not very effective, showing a high treatment resistance, whereas detoxification with pharmaceutical GHB proved to be successful. However, relapse in GHB use is frequent and more research is warranted on relapse prevention. This might aid medical practitioners in the field and improve general understanding of the severity of addiction to GHB, GBL and 1,4-BD.

  3. Apparatus for proton radiography

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus for effecting diagnostic proton radiography of patients in hospitals comprises a source of negative hydrogen ions, a synchrotron for accelerating the negative hydrogen ions to a predetermined energy, a plurality of stations for stripping extraction of a radiography beam of protons, means for sweeping the extracted beam to cover a target, and means for measuring the residual range, residual energy, or percentage transmission of protons that pass through the target. The combination of information identifying the position of the beam with information about particles traversing the subject and the back absorber is performed with the aid of a computer to provide a proton radiograph of the subject. In an alternate embodiment of the invention, a back absorber comprises a plurality of scintillators which are coupled to detectors.

  4. Proton channel models

    PubMed Central

    Pupo, Amaury; Baez-Nieto, David; Martínez, Agustín; Latorre, Ramón; González, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels are integral membrane proteins with the capacity to permeate elementary particles in a voltage and pH dependent manner. These proteins have been found in several species and are involved in various physiological processes. Although their primary topology is known, lack of details regarding their structures in the open conformation has limited analyses toward a deeper understanding of the molecular determinants of their function and regulation. Consequently, the function-structure relationships have been inferred based on homology models. In the present work, we review the existing proton channel models, their assumptions, predictions and the experimental facts that support them. Modeling proton channels is not a trivial task due to the lack of a close homolog template. Hence, there are important differences between published models. This work attempts to critically review existing proton channel models toward the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the structural features of these proteins. PMID:24755912

  5. Limits of proton conductivity.

    PubMed

    Kreuer, Klaus-Dieter; Wohlfarth, Andreas

    2012-10-15

    Parasitic current seems to be the cause for the "highest proton conductivity" of a material reported to date. Kreuer and Wohlfarth verify this hypothesis by measuring the conductivity of the same materials after preparing them in a different way. They further explain the limits of proton conductivity and comment on the problems of determining the conductivity of small objects (e.g., whiskers, see picture).

  6. Proton beam therapy facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-09

    It is proposed to build a regional outpatient medical clinic at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, to exploit the unique therapeutic characteristics of high energy proton beams. The Fermilab location for a proton therapy facility (PTF) is being chosen for reasons ranging from lower total construction and operating costs and the availability of sophisticated technical support to a location with good access to patients from the Chicago area and from the entire nation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 26 tabs.

  7. Proton transport by halorhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Varo, G.; Brown, L.S.; Needleman, R.

    1996-05-28

    In halorhodopsin from Natronobacterium pharaonis, a light-driven chloride pump, the chloride binding site also binds azide. When azide is bound at this location the retinal Schiff base transiently deprotonates after photoexcitation with light >530 nm, like in the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin. As in the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin, pyranine detects the release of protons to the bulk. The subsequent reprotonation of the Schiff base is also dependent on azide, but with different kinetics that suggest a shuttling of protons from the surface as described earlier for halorhodopsin from Halobacterium salinarium. The azide-dependent, bacteriorhodopsin-like photocycle results in active electrogenic proton transport in the cytoplasmic to extracellular direction, detected in cell envelope vesicle suspensions both with a potential-sensitive electrode and by measuring light-dependent pH change. We conclude that in halorhodopsin an azide bound to the extracellular side of the Schiff base, and another azide shuttling between the Schiff base and the cytoplasmic surface, fulfill the functions of Asp-85 and Asp-96, respectively, in bacteriorhodopsin. Thus, although halorhodopsin is normally a chloride ion pump, it evidently contains all structural requirements, except an internal proton acceptor and a donor, of a proton pump. This observation complements our earlier finding that when a chloride binding site was created in bacteriorhodopsin through replacement of Asp-85 with a threonine, that protein became a chloride ion pump. 52 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Proton and electron mean free paths: The Palmer consensus revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieber, John W.; Matthaeus, William H.; Smith, Charles W.; Wanner, Wolfgang; Kallenrode, May-Britt; Wibberenz, Gerd

    1994-01-01

    We present experimental and theoretical evidence suggesting that the mean free path of cosmic-ray electrons and protons may be fundamentally different at low to intermediate (less than 50 MV) rigidities. The experimental evidence is from Helios observations of solar energetic particles, which show that the mean free path of 1.4 MV electrons is often similar to that of 187 MV protons, even though proton mean free paths continue to decrease comparatively rapidly with decreasing rigidty down to the lowest channels (about 100 MV) observed. The theoretical evidence is from computations of particle scattering in dynamical magnetic turbulence, which predict that electrons will have a larger mean free path than protons of the same rigidity. In the light of these new results, 'consensus' ideas about cosmic-ray mean free paths may require drastic revision.

  9. Direct excitation luminescence spectroscopy of Eu(III) complexes of 1,4,7-tris(carbamoylmethyl)-1,4,7,10- tetraazacyclododecane derivatives and kinetic studies of their catalytic cleavage of an RNA analog.

    PubMed

    Nwe, Kido; Richard, John P; Morrow, Janet R

    2007-11-28

    The macrocycles 1,4,7-tris(carbamoylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetrazacyclododecane (1), 1,4,7-tris[(N-ethyl)carbamoylmethyl]-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (2), 1,4,7-tris[(N,N-diethyl)carbamoylmethyl]-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (3) and their Eu(III) complexes are prepared. Studies using direct Eu(III) excitation luminescence spectroscopy show that all three Eu(III) complexes exhibit only one predominant isomer with two bound waters under neutral to mildly basic conditions (Eu(X)(H(2)O)(2) for X = 1-3). There are no detectable ligand ionizations over the pH range 5.0-8.0 for Eu(3), 5.0-8.5 for Eu(2) or 5.0-9.5 for Eu(1). The three Eu(III) complexes show a linear dependence of second-order rate constants for the cleavage of 4-nitrophenyl-2-hydroxyethylphosphate (HpPNP) on pH in the range 6.5-8.0 for Eu(3), 7.0-8.5 for Eu(2) and 7.0-9.0 for Eu(1). This pH-rate profile is consistent with the Eu(III) complex-substrate complex being converted to the active form by loss of a proton and with Eu(III) water pK(a) values that are higher than 8.0 for Eu(3), 8.5 for Eu(2) and 9.0 for Eu(1). Inhibition studies show that Eu() binds strongly to the dianionic ligand methylphosphate (K(d) = 0.28 mM), and more weakly to diethylphosphate (K(d) = 7.5 mM), consistent with a catalytic role of the Eu(III) complexes in stabilizing the developing negative charge on the phosphorane transition state.

  10. [Proton generator of superhigh frequency].

    PubMed

    Liberman, E A; Eĭdus, V L

    1981-01-01

    Possible mechanism of superhigh frequency (10(10)-10(12) Hz) electromagnetic oscillation generation by an external proton in a system of hydrogen bonds of biomacromolecules is briefly discussed. The external proton in a proton channel deforms the potential profile of the proton of hydrogen bond in such a way, that there appears a possibility of the low frequency proton tunneling along the hydrogen bond. The interaction with the neighbouring bonds leads to further lowering of the generated frequency.

  11. Original antigenic sin with human bocaviruses 1-4.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuemeng; Kantola, Kalle; Hedman, Lea; Arku, Benedict; Hedman, Klaus; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria

    2015-10-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) 1 is a widespread parvovirus causing acute respiratory disease in young children. In contrast, HBoV2 occurs in the gastrointestinal tract and is potentially associated with gastroenteritis, whilst HBoV3 and -4 infections are less frequent and have not yet been linked with human disease. Due to HBoV1 DNA persistence in the nasopharynx, serology has been advocated as a better alternative for diagnosing acute infections. In constitutionally healthy children, we previously noted that pre-existing HBoV2 immunity in a subsequent HBoV1 infection typically resulted in low or non-existent HBoV1-specific antibody responses. A phenomenon describing such immunological events among related viruses has been known since the 1950s as 'original antigenic sin' (OAS). The aim of this study was to characterize this putative OAS phenomenon in a more controlled setting. Follow-up sera of 10 rabbit pairs, inoculated twice with HBoV1-4 virus-like particles (VLPs) or control antigens, in various combinations, were analysed with HBoV1-4 IgG enzyme immunoassays with and without depletion of heterotypic HBoV antibodies. There were no significant IgG boosts after the second inoculation in either the heterologously or the homologously HBoV-inoculated rabbits, but a clear increase in cross-reactivity was seen with time. We could, however, distinguish a distinct OAS pattern from plain cross-reactivity: half of the heterologously inoculated rabbits showed IgG patterns representative of the OAS hypothesis, in line with our prior results with naturally infected children. HBoVs are the first parvoviruses to show the possible existence of OAS. Our findings provide new information on HBoV1-4 immunity and emphasize the complexity of human bocavirus diagnosis. PMID:26224569

  12. Exotic Protonated Species Produced by UV-Induced Photofragmentation of a Protonated Dimer: Metastable Protonated Cinchonidine.

    PubMed

    Alata, Ivan; Scuderi, Debora; Lepere, Valeria; Steinmetz, Vincent; Gobert, Fabrice; Thiao-Layel, Loïc; Le Barbu-Debus, Katia; Zehnacker-Rentien, Anne

    2015-10-01

    A metastable protonated cinchona alkaloid was produced in the gas phase by UV-induced photodissociation (UVPD) of its protonated dimer in a Paul ion trap. The infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectrum of the molecular ion formed by UVPD was obtained and compared to DFT calculations to characterize its structure. The protonation site obtained thereby is not accessible by classical protonation ways. The protonated monomer directly formed in the ESI source or by collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the dimer undergoes protonation at the most basic alkaloid nitrogen. In contrast, protonation occurs at the quinoline aromatic ring nitrogen in the UVPD-formed monomer. PMID:26347997

  13. Exotic Protonated Species Produced by UV-Induced Photofragmentation of a Protonated Dimer: Metastable Protonated Cinchonidine.

    PubMed

    Alata, Ivan; Scuderi, Debora; Lepere, Valeria; Steinmetz, Vincent; Gobert, Fabrice; Thiao-Layel, Loïc; Le Barbu-Debus, Katia; Zehnacker-Rentien, Anne

    2015-10-01

    A metastable protonated cinchona alkaloid was produced in the gas phase by UV-induced photodissociation (UVPD) of its protonated dimer in a Paul ion trap. The infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectrum of the molecular ion formed by UVPD was obtained and compared to DFT calculations to characterize its structure. The protonation site obtained thereby is not accessible by classical protonation ways. The protonated monomer directly formed in the ESI source or by collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the dimer undergoes protonation at the most basic alkaloid nitrogen. In contrast, protonation occurs at the quinoline aromatic ring nitrogen in the UVPD-formed monomer.

  14. Reactivity initiated accident test series Test RIA 1-4

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, Z.R.; El-Genk, M.S.; Fukuda, S.K.; LaPointe, R.E.; Osetek, D.J.

    1980-05-01

    The Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) Test RIA 1-4, the first 9-rod fuel rod bundle RIA Test to be performed at BWR hot startup conditions, was completed on April 16, 1980. The test was performed in the Power Burst Facility (PBF). Objective for Test RIA 1-4 was to provide information regarding loss-of-coolable fuel rod geometry following a RIA event for a peak fuel enthalpy equivalent to the present licensing criteria of 280 cal/g. The most severe RIA is the postulated Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) control rod drop during reactor startup. Therefore the test was conducted at BWR hot startup coolant conditions (538 K, 6.45 MPa, 0.8 1/sec). The test sequence began with steady power operation to condition the fuel, establish a short-lived fission product inventory, and calibrate the calorimetric measurements and core power chambers, neutron flux and gamma flux detectors. The test train was removed from the in-pile tube (IPT) to replace one of the fuel rods with a nominally identical irradiated rod and twelve flux wire monitors. A 2.8 ms period power burst was then performed. Coolant flow measurements were made before and after the power burst to characterize the flow blockage that occurred as a result of fuel rod failure.

  15. 1. 4 gigahertz luminosity function and its evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Condon, J. J.

    1989-03-01

    The local luminosity function was determined at v = 1.4 GHz from radio observations of two low-redshift galaxy samples: (1) spiral and irregular galaxies with apparent blue magnitudes and declinations and (2) galaxies of all morphologies with blue angular diameters of 1.0 arcmin or greater in the declination range between -2.5 deg and +82 deg. Separate luminosity functions for the radio source populations powered by 'starbursts' and 'monsters' were obtained from the latter sample. The amount of evolution required for the local luminosity function to account for the faint sources is discussed. The cosmological evolution of extragalactic radio sources appears to be so strong at all observed luminosities that the local luminosity function and counts of all sources between S of roughly 10 micro-Jy and S of roughly 10 Jy at v = 1.4 GHz can be matched with a model in which most sources are confined to a hollow shell with z of roughly 0.8. 36 refs.

  16. 350 MW(t) MHTGR preassembly and modularization

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatesh, M.C. ); Jones, G. ); Dilling, D.A. ); Parker, W.J. )

    1991-05-01

    The Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) provides a safe and economical nuclear power option for the world's electrical generation needs by the turn of the century. The proposed MHTGR plant is composed of four 350 MW(t) prismatic core reactor modules, coupled to a 2(2 {times} 1) turbine generator producing a net plant electrical output of 538 MW(e). Each of the four reactor module is located in a below-ground level concrete silo, and consists of a reactor vessel and a steam generator vessel interconnected by a cross duct vessel. The modules, along with the service buildings, are contained within a Nuclear Island (NI). The turbine generators and power generation facilities are in the non-nuclear Energy Conversion Area (ECA). The MHTGR design reduces cost and improves schedule by maximizing shop fabrication, minimizing field fit up of the Reactor Internals components and modularizing the NI ECA facilities. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Performance of a 150-MW S-band Klystron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprehn, D.; Phillips, R. M.; Caryotakis, G.

    1995-07-01

    As part of an international collaboration, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) klystron group has designed, fabricated, and tested a 60-Hz, 3-μs, 150-MW S-band klystron built for Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY). A test diode with a 535-kV, 700-A electron beam was constructed to verify the gun operation. The first klystron was built and successfully met design specifications. The 375-MW electron beam represents a new record for SLAC accelerator klystrons in terms of voltage, current, energy, and ruggedness of design. The rf output power is a 150% increase over the S-band tubes currently used in the two-mile-long linear accelerator at SLAC. This paper discusses design issues and experimental results of the diode and klystron.

  18. 100 GHz, 1 MW, CW gyrotron study program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Felch, K.; Bier, R.; Caplan, M.; Jory, H.

    1983-09-01

    The results of a study program to investigate the feasibility of various approaches in designing a 100 GHz, 1 MW CW gyrotron are presented. A summary is given of the possible configurations for a high average power, high frequency gyrotron, including an historical survey of experimental results which are relevant to the various approaches. A set of basic scaling considerations which enable qualitative comparisons between particular gyrotron interaction circuits is presented. These calculations are important in understanding the role of various electron beam and circuit parameters in achieving a viable gyrotron design. Following these scaling exercises, a series of design calculations is presented for a possible approach in achieving 100 GHz, 1 MW CW. These calculations include analyses of the electron gun and interaction circuit parts of the gyrotron, and a general analysis of other aspects of a high average power, high frequency gyrotron. Scalability of important aspects of the design to other frequencies is also discussed, as well as key technology issues.

  19. Studying Proton-Proton Collisions Using Pythia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotov, Adi

    2004-10-01

    At Brookhaven National Lab, the RHIC experiments are currently investigating, on a subatomic level, what happens when heavy ions collide at high speeds. This is done in order to create such high temperatures and densities that quarks are no longer bound to one another. This state of matter is called the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). Evidence for the existence of the QGP may be the quenching of hadron jets, which occurs when the fast quarks or gluons lose so much energy in the hot, dense medium that they cannot survive. Then the jets of particles that these particles usually result in cannot be made. By studying the particle yield at high transverse momentum (Pt), one can probe what is happening to the jets created during collisions. Using Pythia, a standard model event generator based on the Lund String Model, we study jets of particles created when elementary protons collide. Then we know what should happen to jets at high transverse momentum transfer, when no QGP is present. Comparing the pt spectrum of jet partners generated by Pythia to RHIC results for proton-proton collisions shows that the two do in fact agree. This not only insures that the analysis of RHIC data is correct, but it also establishes a basis for comparison for Au-Au collisions. Comparing d+Au collision data to the Pythia Pt spectrum of jets with leading baryon and meson triggers, we found good agreement. Thus the jet production does not change drastically in nature in the presence of a cold nuclear medium.

  20. Rotary pump seals in 2000 MW power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Flitney, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    Visits were undertaken to two 2000-MW coal-fired power stations, Eggborough and Ratcliffe. The pumping applications were discussed with the engineering staff of the stations with particular emphasis on the sealing systems employed, their reliability and the improvements the stations would like to see in these areas. The report summarizes the application areas and indentifies those where an increase in seal reliability would provide an operational advantage to the C.E.G.B.

  1. SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE AT 1 MW

    SciTech Connect

    Galambos, John D

    2011-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) has been operating at the MW level for about one year. Experience in beam loss control and machine activation at this power level is presented. Also experience with machine protection systems is reviewed, which is critical at this power level. One of the most challenging operational aspects of high power operation has been attaining high availability, which is also discussed

  2. Raft River 5-MW(e) geothermal pilot plant project

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, T.L.; Whitbeck, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The Raft River 5-MW(e) Pilot Plant Project was started in 1976. Construction is scheduled for completion in July 1980, with three years of engineering and operational testing to follow. The plant utilized a 280/sup 0/F geothermal fluid energy source and a dual boiling isobutane cycle. Developmental efforts are in progress in the areas of down hole pumps and chemical treatment of geothermal fluid for cooling tower makeup.

  3. High Temperature Protonic Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred; Berger, Marie-Helen; Sayir, Ali

    2007-01-01

    High Temperature Protonic Conductors (HTPC) with the perovskite structure are envisioned for electrochemical membrane applications such as H2 separation, H2 sensors and fuel cells. Successive membrane commercialization is dependent upon addressing issues with H2 permeation rate and environmental stability with CO2 and H2O. HTPC membranes are conventionally fabricated by solid-state sintering. Grain boundaries and the presence of intergranular second phases reduce the proton mobility by orders of magnitude than the bulk crystalline grain. To enhanced protonic mobility, alternative processing routes were evaluated. A laser melt modulation (LMM) process was utilized to fabricate bulk samples, while pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was utilized to fabricate thin film membranes . Sr3Ca(1+x)Nb(2-x)O9 and SrCe(1-x)Y(x)O3 bulk samples were fabricated by LMM. Thin film BaCe(0.85)Y(0.15)O3 membranes were fabricated by PLD on porous substrates. Electron microscopy with chemical mapping was done to characterize the resultant microstructures. High temperature protonic conduction was measured by impedance spectroscopy in wet air or H2 environments. The results demonstrate the advantage of thin film membranes to thick membranes but also reveal the negative impact of defects or nanoscale domains on protonic conductivity.

  4. Proton charge extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryker, Jesse R.; Miller, Gerald A.

    2016-01-01

    We examine how corrections to S -state energy levels En S in hydrogenic atoms due to the finite proton size are affected by moments of the proton charge distribution. The corrections to En S are computed moment by moment. The results demonstrate that the next-to-leading order term in the expansion is of order rp/aB times the size of the leading order term. Our analysis thus dispels any concern that the larger relative size of this term for muonic hydrogen versus electronic hydrogen might account for the current discrepancy of proton radius measurements extracted from the two systems. Furthermore, the next-to-leading order term in powers of rp/aB that we derive from a dipole proton form factor is proportional to , rather than , as would be expected from the scalar nature of the form factor. The dependence of the finite-size correction on and higher odd-power moments is shown to be a general result for any spherically symmetric proton charge distribution. A method for computing the moment expansion of the finite-size correction to arbitrary order is introduced and the results are tabulated for principal quantum numbers up to n =7 .

  5. Proton transfer in organic scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Dipankar

    This dissertation focuses on the fundamental understanding of the proton transfer process and translating the knowledge into design/development of new organic materials for efficient non-aqueous proton transport. For example, what controls the shuttling of a proton between two basic sites? a) Distance between two groups? or b) the basicity? c) What is the impact of protonation on molecular conformation when the basic sites are attached to rigid scaffolds? For this purpose, we developed several tunable proton sponges and studied proton transfer in these scaffolds theoretically as well as experimentally. Next we moved our attention to understand long-range proton conduction or proton transport. We introduced liquid crystalline (LC) proton conductor based on triphenylene molecule and established that activation energy barrier for proton transport is lower in the LC phase compared to the crystalline phase. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of several critical factors: the choice of the proton transferring groups, mobility of the charge carriers, intrinsic vs. extrinsic charge carrier concentrations and the molecular architectures on long-range proton transport. The outcome of this research will lead to a deeper understanding of non-aqueous proton transfer process and aid the design of next generation proton exchange membrane (PEM) for fuel cell.

  6. LBNF 1.2 MW TARGET: CONCEPTUAL DESIGN & FABRICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, Cory F.; Ammigan, K.; Anderson, K.; Hartsell, B.; Hurh, P.; Hylen, J.; Zwaska, R.

    2015-06-29

    Fermilab’s Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) will utilize a modified design based on the NuMI low energy target that is reconfigured to accommodate beam operation at 1.2 MW. Achieving this power with a graphite target material and ancillary systems originally rated for 400 kW requires several design changes and R&D efforts related to material bonding and electrical isolation. Target cooling, structural design, and fabrication techniques must address higher stresses and heat loads that will be present during 1.2 MW operation, as the assembly will be subject to cyclic loads and thermal expansion. Mitigations must be balanced against compromises in neutrino yield. Beam monitoring and subsystem instrumentation will be updated and added to ensure confidence in target positioning and monitoring. Remote connection to the target hall support structure must provide for the eventual upgrade to a 2.4 MW target design, without producing excessive radioactive waste or unreasonable exposure to technicians during reconfiguration. Current designs and assembly layouts will be presented, in addition to current findings on processes and possibilities for prototype and final assembly fabrication.

  7. Low Beam Voltage, 10 MW, L-Band Cluster Klystron

    SciTech Connect

    Teryaev, V.; Yakovlev, V.P.; Kazakov, S.; Hirshfield, J.L.; /Yale U. /Omega-P, New Haven

    2009-05-01

    Conceptual design of a multi-beam klystron (MBK) for possible ILC and Project X applications is presented. The chief distinction between this MBK design and existing 10-MW MBK's is the low operating voltage of 60 kV. There are at least four compelling reasons that justify development at this time of a low-voltage MBK, namely (1) no pulse transformer; (2) no oil tank for high-voltage components and for the tube socket; (3) no high-voltage cables; and (4) modulator would be a compact 60-kV IGBT switching circuit. The proposed klystron consists of four clusters containing six beams each. The tube has common input and output cavities for all 24 beams, and individual gain cavities for each cluster. A closely related optional configuration, also for a 10 MW tube, would involve four totally independent cavity clusters with four independent input cavities and four 2.5 MW output ports, all within a common magnetic circuit. This option has appeal because the output waveguides would not require a controlled atmosphere, and because it would be easier to achieve phase and amplitude stability as required in individual SC accelerator cavities.

  8. Protons and how they are transported by proton pumps.

    PubMed

    Buch-Pedersen, M J; Pedersen, B P; Veierskov, B; Nissen, P; Palmgren, M G

    2009-01-01

    The very high mobility of protons in aqueous solutions demands special features of membrane proton transporters to sustain efficient yet regulated proton transport across biological membranes. By the use of the chemical energy of ATP, plasma-membrane-embedded ATPases extrude protons from cells of plants and fungi to generate electrochemical proton gradients. The recently published crystal structure of a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase contributes to our knowledge about the mechanism of these essential enzymes. Taking the biochemical and structural data together, we are now able to describe the basic molecular components that allow the plasma membrane proton H(+)-ATPase to carry out proton transport against large membrane potentials. When divergent proton pumps such as the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, bacteriorhodopsin, and F(O)F(1) ATP synthase are compared, unifying mechanistic premises for biological proton pumps emerge. Most notably, the minimal pumping apparatus of all pumps consists of a central proton acceptor/donor, a positively charged residue to control pK(a) changes of the proton acceptor/donor, and bound water molecules to facilitate rapid proton transport along proton wires.

  9. Synchrotron radiation from protons

    SciTech Connect

    Dutt, S.K.

    1992-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation from protons, though described by the same equations as the radiation from electrons, exhibits a number of interesting features on account of the parameters reached in praxis. In this presentation, we shall point out some of the features relating to (i) normal synchrotron radiation from dipoles in proton machines such as the High Energy Booster and the Superconducting Super Collider; (ii) synchrotron radiation from short dipoles, and its application to light monitors for proton machines, and (iii) synchrotron radiation from undulators in the limit when, the deflection parameter is much smaller than unity. The material for this presentation is taken largely from the work of Hofmann, Coisson, Bossart, and their collaborators, and from a paper by Kim. We shall emphasize the qualitative aspects of synchrotron radiation in the cases mentioned above, making, when possible, simple arguments for estimating the spectral and angular properties of the radiation. Detailed analyses can be found in the literature.

  10. 1.4GHz Survey of Fossil Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwick, Victoria; Wilcots, E.; Hess, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    Fossil groups, luminous, isolated elliptical galaxies with extended x-ray halos, represent the remnants of galactic cannibalism within galaxy groups. Current research has concentrated primarily on visible and x-ray observations. Here, we report the results of a preliminary survey of 34 fossil groups observed at 1.4Ghz using the VLA. We detect radio sources in many of the groups. Using radio emission as a tracer for nuclear activity, we estimate the frequency of past and current AGN activity in fossil groups and extract information about the age and evolutionary history of the fossil groups. Further observations at multiple radio frequencies may then provide information about the role of minor mergers and AGN as sources of heat in the IGM and as remedies to the cooling flow problem.

  11. The physics of proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Newhauser, Wayne D; Zhang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes as well as selected practical experimental and theoretical methods. We conclude by briefly speculating on possible future areas of research of relevance to the physics of proton therapy. PMID:25803097

  12. [Current knowledge on gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1 ,4-butanediol (1,4-BD)].

    PubMed

    Dematteis, Maurice; Pennel, Lucie; Mallaret, Michel

    2012-05-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an old anaesthetic drug which was misused in the 80-90's as an anabolic agent (bodybuilding), recreational drug (drunkenness, euphoric, disinhibiting and aphrodisiac effects) and as a date rape drug (disinhibiting, hypnotic and amnesic effects). Its use in the general population is low, and mainly concerns gay population in nightclubs and young people in parties. The intoxications, above all with alcohol combination, can be severe, with coma and breathing depression, or even fatal. Chronic use leads to psychic and physical dependence; withdrawal syndrome can be severe, with agitation and delirium. In 1999, GHB classification as a narcotic resulted in the increased use of GHB prodrugs gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), which were easily commercially available as solvent and cleaning products. Like GHB, they have a narrow window of use, and share similar toxicity. Their increased cases of recreational use and of severe drug intoxication, abuse and dependence, led the French Ministry of Health in 2011 to prohibit their sale and transfer to the public. PMID:22730800

  13. Inhibition of glycogenolysis in primary rat hepatocytes by 1, 4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol.

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, B; Rassov, A; Westergaard, N; Lundgren, K

    1999-01-01

    1,4-Dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB) was identified previously as a potent inhibitor of both the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of glycogen phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.1). In the present study, the effects of DAB were investigated in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. The transport of DAB into hepatocytes was dependent on time and DAB concentration. The rate of DAB transport was 192 pmol/min per mg of protein per mM DAB(medium-concentration). In hepatocytes, DAB inhibited basal and glucagon-stimulated glycogenolysis with IC(50) values of 1.0+/-0.3 and 1.1+/-0.2 microM, respectively. The primary inhibitory effect of DAB on glycogenolysis was shown to be due to inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase but, at higher concentrations of DAB, inhibition of the debranching enzyme (4-alpha-glucanotransferase, EC 2.4.1.25) may have an effect. No effects on glycogen synthesis were observed, demonstrating that glycogen recycling does not occur in cultured hepatocytes under the conditions tested. Furthermore, DAB had no effects on phosphorylase kinase, the enzyme responsible for phosphorylation and thereby activation of glycogen phosphorylase, or on protein phosphatase 1, the enzyme responsible for inactivation of glycogen phosphorylase through dephosphorylation. PMID:10477265

  14. Shielding of relativistic protons.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, A; Durante, M; Gialanella, G; Grossi, G; Manti, L; Pugliese, M; Scampoli, P; Mancusi, D; Sihver, L; Rusek, A

    2007-06-01

    Protons are the most abundant element in the galactic cosmic radiation, and the energy spectrum peaks around 1 GeV. Shielding of relativistic protons is therefore a key problem in the radiation protection strategy of crewmembers involved in long-term missions in deep space. Hydrogen ions were accelerated up to 1 GeV at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York. The proton beam was also shielded with thick (about 20 g/cm2) blocks of lucite (PMMA) or aluminium (Al). We found that the dose rate was increased 40-60% by the shielding and decreased as a function of the distance along the axis. Simulations using the General-Purpose Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System (PHITS) show that the dose increase is mostly caused by secondary protons emitted by the target. The modified radiation field after the shield has been characterized for its biological effectiveness by measuring chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed just behind the shield block, or to the direct beam, in the dose range 0.5-3 Gy. Notwithstanding the increased dose per incident proton, the fraction of aberrant cells at the same dose in the sample position was not significantly modified by the shield. The PHITS code simulations show that, albeit secondary protons are slower than incident nuclei, the LET spectrum is still contained in the low-LET range (<10 keV/microm), which explains the approximately unitary value measured for the relative biological effectiveness. PMID:17256178

  15. Proton irradiation and endometriosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.H.; Yochmowitz, M.G.; Salmon, Y.L.; Eason, R.L.; Boster, R.A.

    1983-08-01

    It was found that female rhesus monkeys given single total-body exposures of protons of varying energies developed endometriosis at a frequency significantly higher than that of nonirradiated animals of the same age. The minimum latency period was determined to be 7 years after the proton exposure. The doses and energies of the radiation received by the experimental animals were within the range that could be received by an aircrew member in near-earth orbit during a random solar flare event. It is concluded that endometriosis should be a consideration in assessing the risk of delayed radiation effects in female crew members. 15 references.

  16. Proton-Proton Scattering at 105 Mev and 75 Mev

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Birge, R. W.; Kruse, U. E.; Ramsey, N. F.

    1951-01-31

    The scattering of protons by protons provides an important method for studying the nature of nuclear forces. Recent proton-proton scattering experiments at energies as high as thirty Mev{sup 1} have failed to show any appreciable contribution to the cross section from higher angular momentum states, but it is necessary to bring in tensor forces to explain the magnitude of the observed cross section.

  17. All-solid-state proton battery using gel polymer electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Kuldeep; Pundir, S. S.; Rai, D. K.

    2014-04-24

    A proton conducting gel polymer electrolyte system; PMMA+NH{sub 4}SCN+EC/PC, has been prepared. The highest ionic conductivity obtained from the system is 2.5 × 10−4 S cm{sup −1}. The optimized composition of the gel electrolyte has been used to fabricate a proton battery with Zn/ZnSO{sub 4}⋅7H{sub 2}O anode and MnO{sub 2} cathode. The open circuit voltage of the battery is 1.4 V and the highest energy density is 5.7 W h kg−1 for low current drain.

  18. Synthesis and Photophysical and Electroluminescent Properties of Poly(1,4-phenylene–ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene–vinylene)s with Various Dissymmetric Substitution of Alkoxy Side Chains

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a set of conjugated polymers, poly(1,4-phenylene–ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene–vinylene)s (PPE–PPVs), with a dissymmetrical configuration (partial or total) of alkoxy side chains is reported. Five new polymers bearing octyloxy and/or octadecyloxy side chains at the phenylene–ethynylene and phenylene–vinylene segments, respectively, were obtained. Two symmetrical substituted polymers were used for comparison. Polymers with weight-average molecular weight, Mw, up to 430 000 g/mol and degree of polymerization between 17 and 322 were obtained by a Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons olefination polycondensation reaction of the respective luminophoric dialdehydes and bisphosphonates. As expected, identical conjugated backbones in all polymers results in very similar photophysical response in dilute solution, with high fluorescence quantum yields between 50% and 80%. In contrast, the thin film properties are dependent on the combinatorial effects of side chain configuration, molecular weight, and film thickness parameters, which are the basis of the resulting comparison and discussion. PMID:26877550

  19. Predictions of diffractive cross sections in proton-proton collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, Konstantin

    2013-04-15

    We review our pre-LHC predictions of the total, elastic, total-inelastic, and diffractive components of proton-proton cross sections at high energies, expressed in the form of unitarized expressions based on a special parton-model approach to diffraction employing inclusive proton parton distribution functions and QCD color factors and compare with recent LHC results.

  20. Proton Nucleus Elastic Scattering Data.

    1993-08-18

    Version 00 The Proton Nucleus Elastic Scattering Data file PNESD contains the numerical data and the related bibliography for the differential elastic cross sections, polarization and integral nonelastic cross sections for elastic proton-nucleus scattering.

  1. Proton therapy in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Chang, Joe Y.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation dose escalation and acceleration improves local control but also increases toxicity. Proton radiation is an emerging therapy for localized cancers that is being sought with increasing frequency by patients. Compared with photon therapy, proton therapy spares more critical structures due to its unique physics. The physical properties of a proton beam make it ideal for clinical applications. By modulating the Bragg peak of protons in energy and time, a conformal radiation dose with or without intensity modulation can be delivered to the target while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Thus, proton therapy is ideal when organ preservation is a priority. However, protons are more sensitive to organ motion and anatomy changes compared with photons. In this article, we review practical issues of proton therapy, describe its image-guided treatment planning and delivery, discuss clinical outcome for cancer patients, and suggest challenges and the future development of proton therapy. PMID:21527064

  2. The Search for Proton Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshak, Marvin L.

    1984-01-01

    Provides the rationale for and examples of experiments designed to test the stability of protons and bound neutrons. Also considers the unification question, cosmological implications, current and future detectors, and current status of knowledge on proton decay. (JN)

  3. CW high intensity non-scaling FFAG proton drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, C.; Berz, M.; Makino, K.; Snopok, P.; /IIT, Chicago

    2011-04-01

    Accelerators are playing increasingly important roles in basic science, technology, and medicine including nuclear power, industrial irradiation, material science, and neutrino production. Proton and light-ion accelerators in particular have many research, energy and medical applications, providing one of the most effective treatments for many types of cancer. Ultra high-intensity and high-energy (GeV) proton drivers are a critical technology for accelerator-driven sub-critical reactors (ADS) and many HEP programs (Muon Collider). These high-intensity GeV-range proton drivers are particularly challenging, encountering duty cycle and space-charge limits in the synchrotron and machine size concerns in the weaker-focusing cyclotrons; a 10-20 MW proton driver is not presently considered technically achievable with conventional re-circulating accelerators. One, as-yet, unexplored re-circulating accelerator, the Fixed-field Alternating Gradient, or FFAG, is an attractive alternative to the cyclotron. Its strong focusing optics are expected to mitigate space charge effects, and a recent innovation in design has coupled stable tunes with isochronous orbits, making the FFAG capable of fixed-frequency, CW acceleration, as in the classical cyclotron. This paper reports on these new advances in FFAG accelerator technology and references advanced modeling tools for fixed-field accelerators developed for and unique to the code COSY INFINITY.

  4. High Power Proton Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaitsev, Sergei

    2015-04-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of the capabilities and challenges of high intensity proton accelerators, such as J-PARC, Fermilab MI, SNS, ISIS, PSI, ESS (in the future) and others. The presentation will focus on lessons learned, new concepts, beam loss mechanisms and methods to mitigate them.

  5. Intensity modulated proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Kooy, H M; Grassberger, C

    2015-07-01

    Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) implies the electromagnetic spatial control of well-circumscribed "pencil beams" of protons of variable energy and intensity. Proton pencil beams take advantage of the charged-particle Bragg peak-the characteristic peak of dose at the end of range-combined with the modulation of pencil beam variables to create target-local modulations in dose that achieves the dose objectives. IMPT improves on X-ray intensity modulated beams (intensity modulated radiotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy) with dose modulation along the beam axis as well as lateral, in-field, dose modulation. The clinical practice of IMPT further improves the healthy tissue vs target dose differential in comparison with X-rays and thus allows increased target dose with dose reduction elsewhere. In addition, heavy-charged-particle beams allow for the modulation of biological effects, which is of active interest in combination with dose "painting" within a target. The clinical utilization of IMPT is actively pursued but technical, physical and clinical questions remain. Technical questions pertain to control processes for manipulating pencil beams from the creation of the proton beam to delivery within the patient within the accuracy requirement. Physical questions pertain to the interplay between the proton penetration and variations between planned and actual patient anatomical representation and the intrinsic uncertainty in tissue stopping powers (the measure of energy loss per unit distance). Clinical questions remain concerning the impact and management of the technical and physical questions within the context of the daily treatment delivery, the clinical benefit of IMPT and the biological response differential compared with X-rays against which clinical benefit will be judged. It is expected that IMPT will replace other modes of proton field delivery. Proton radiotherapy, since its first practice 50 years ago, always required the highest level of

  6. Intensity modulated proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grassberger, C

    2015-01-01

    Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) implies the electromagnetic spatial control of well-circumscribed “pencil beams” of protons of variable energy and intensity. Proton pencil beams take advantage of the charged-particle Bragg peak—the characteristic peak of dose at the end of range—combined with the modulation of pencil beam variables to create target-local modulations in dose that achieves the dose objectives. IMPT improves on X-ray intensity modulated beams (intensity modulated radiotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy) with dose modulation along the beam axis as well as lateral, in-field, dose modulation. The clinical practice of IMPT further improves the healthy tissue vs target dose differential in comparison with X-rays and thus allows increased target dose with dose reduction elsewhere. In addition, heavy-charged-particle beams allow for the modulation of biological effects, which is of active interest in combination with dose “painting” within a target. The clinical utilization of IMPT is actively pursued but technical, physical and clinical questions remain. Technical questions pertain to control processes for manipulating pencil beams from the creation of the proton beam to delivery within the patient within the accuracy requirement. Physical questions pertain to the interplay between the proton penetration and variations between planned and actual patient anatomical representation and the intrinsic uncertainty in tissue stopping powers (the measure of energy loss per unit distance). Clinical questions remain concerning the impact and management of the technical and physical questions within the context of the daily treatment delivery, the clinical benefit of IMPT and the biological response differential compared with X-rays against which clinical benefit will be judged. It is expected that IMPT will replace other modes of proton field delivery. Proton radiotherapy, since its first practice 50 years ago, always required the

  7. Proton irradiation effects on beryllium - A macroscopic assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simos, Nikolaos; Elbakhshwan, Mohamed; Zhong, Zhong; Camino, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Beryllium, due to its excellent neutron multiplication and moderation properties, in conjunction with its good thermal properties, is under consideration for use as plasma facing material in fusion reactors and as a very effective neutron reflector in fission reactors. While it is characterized by unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section it suffers, however, from irradiation generated transmutation gases such as helium and tritium which exhibit low solubility leading to supersaturation of the Be matrix and tend to precipitate into bubbles that coalesce and induce swelling and embrittlement thus degrading the metal and limiting its lifetime. Utilization of beryllium as a pion production low-Z target in high power proton accelerators has been sought both for its low Z and good thermal properties in an effort to mitigate thermos-mechanical shock that is expected to be induced under the multi-MW power demand. To assess irradiation-induced changes in the thermal and mechanical properties of Beryllium, a study focusing on proton irradiation damage effects has been undertaken using 200 MeV protons from the Brookhaven National Laboratory Linac and followed by a multi-faceted post-irradiation analysis that included the thermal and volumetric stability of irradiated beryllium, the stress-strain behavior and its ductility loss as a function of proton fluence and the effects of proton irradiation on the microstructure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The mimicking of high temperature irradiation of Beryllium via high temperature annealing schemes has been conducted as part of the post-irradiation study. This paper focuses on the thermal stability and mechanical property changes of the proton irradiated beryllium and presents results of the macroscopic property changes of Beryllium deduced from thermal and mechanical tests.

  8. INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE PROJECT 2 MW FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    FuelCell Energy

    2005-05-16

    With about 50% of power generation in the United States derived from coal and projections indicating that coal will continue to be the primary fuel for power generation in the next two decades, the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) has been conducted since 1985 to develop innovative, environmentally friendly processes for the world energy market place. The 2 MW Fuel Cell Demonstration was part of the Kentucky Pioneer Energy (KPE) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) project selected by DOE under Round Five of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The participant in the CCTDP V Project was Kentucky Pioneer Energy for the IGCC plant. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), under subcontract to KPE, was responsible for the design, construction and operation of the 2 MW fuel cell power plant. Duke Fluor Daniel provided engineering design and procurement support for the balance-of-plant skids. Colt Engineering Corporation provided engineering design, fabrication and procurement of the syngas processing skids. Jacobs Applied Technology provided the fabrication of the fuel cell module vessels. Wabash River Energy Ltd (WREL) provided the test site. The 2 MW fuel cell power plant utilizes FuelCell Energy's Direct Fuel Cell (DFC) technology, which is based on the internally reforming carbonate fuel cell. This plant is capable of operating on coal-derived syngas as well as natural gas. Prior testing (1992) of a subscale 20 kW carbonate fuel cell stack at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) site using the Dow/Destec gasification plant indicated that operation on coal derived gas provided normal performance and stable operation. Duke Fluor Daniel and FuelCell Energy developed a commercial plant design for the 2 MW fuel cell. The plant was designed to be modular, factory assembled and truck shippable to the site. Five balance-of-plant skids incorporating fuel processing, anode gas oxidation, heat recovery, water

  9. Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Wang, Huajian; Costa, M. Mafalda; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Connelly, James N.; Zhang, Baomin; Bian, Lizeng; Canfield, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuating climate is a hallmark of Earth. As one transcends deep into Earth time, however, both the evidence for and the causes of climate change become difficult to establish. We report geochemical and sedimentological evidence for repeated, short-term climate fluctuations from the exceptionally well-preserved ∼1.4-billion-year-old Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We observe two patterns of climate fluctuations: On long time scales, over what amounts to tens of millions of years, sediments of the Xiamaling Formation record changes in geochemistry consistent with long-term changes in the location of the Xiamaling relative to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. On shorter time scales, and within a precisely calibrated stratigraphic framework, cyclicity in sediment geochemical dynamics is consistent with orbital control. In particular, sediment geochemical fluctuations reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment. PMID:25775605

  10. Phytoremediation of 1,4-dioxane-containing recovered groundwater.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Ari M; Kennedy, Jean; LaRue, James C

    2013-01-01

    The results of a pilot-scale phytoremediation study are reported in this paper. Small plots of trees established on a closed municipal waste landfill site were irrigated with recovered groundwater containing 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The plots were managed to minimize the leaching of irrigation water, and leaching was quantified by the use of bromide tracer. Results indicated that the dioxane (2.5 microg/L) was effectively removed, probably via phytovolatilization, and that a full-scale phytoremediation system could be used. A system is now in place at the site in which the recovered groundwater can be treated using two different approaches. A physical treatment system (PTS) will be used during the winter months, and a 12 ha phytoremediation system (stands of coniferous trees) will be used during the growing season. The PTS removes VOCs using an air-stripper, and destroys dioxane using a photo-catalytic oxidation process. Treated water will be routed to the local sewer system. The phytoremediation system, located on the landfill, will be irrigated with effluent from the PTS air-stripper containing dioxane. Seasonal use of the phytoremediation system will reduce reliance on the photo-catalytic oxidation process that is extremely energy consumptive and expensive to operate.

  11. Synthesis and cyclisation of 1,4-disubstituted semicarbazides.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Syeda Farina; Yasin, Khawaja Ansar; Aziz, Shahid

    2010-03-01

    Semicarbazides, besides possessing medicinal properties, also find wide applications in agriculture and industry. We report in this article the synthesis of the four 1,4-disubstituted semicarbazides: 1-cinnamoyl-4-phenyl semicarbazide (1), 1-oleyl-4-phenyl semicarbazides (2), 1,1',1''-tricitryl-4,4',4''-triphenyl semicarbazide (3) and 1-benzoyl-4-phenyl semicarbazide (4), by the condensation of four different hydrazides: cinnamic acid hydrazide (5), oleic acid hydrazide (6), citric acid hydrazide (7) and benzoic acid hydrazide (8). The acid hydrazides were prepared by the condensation of four different acids with phenyl isocyanate. The semicarbazides were also subjected to acid catalysed intramolecular cyclisation. The cyclisation of (1) and (2) afforded substituted 1,3,4-oxadizoles: 2-cinnamoyl-5-aminophenyl 1,3,4-oxadizoles (9) and 2-oleyl-5-aminophenl 1,3,4-oxadizoles (10), respectively, in high yield, while no cyclisation occurred in the cases of (3) and (4). The products in each case have been identified on the basis of melting points and IR spectral studies. PMID:20221937

  12. Atmospheric photochemical degradation of 1,4-unsaturated dicarbonyls

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Jeffries, H.E.; Sexton, K.G.

    1999-12-01

    To better understand fates of aromatics hydrocarbon species in the atmosphere, the authors have investigated the transformation chemistry of butenedial (CHOCH{double{underscore}bond}CHCHO), 4-oxo-2-pentenal (CH{sub 3}COCH{double{underscore}bond}CHCHO), and 3-hexene-2, 5-dione (CH{sub 3}COCH{double{underscore}bond}CHCOCH{sub 3}). These 1,4-unsaturated dicarbonyls are known to be products of aromatic photochemical oxidation. Both hydroxyl radical (OH) and ozone (O{sub 3}) initiated smog chamber experiments under atmospheric conditions were conducted in the University of North Carolina outdoor smog chamber. Carbonyl intermediates and products were measured using the O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatization method followed by gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry analysis. Carbonyl products detected and identified by comparison with standards in the OH-initiated photooxidation of butenedial include formaldehyde, acrolein, glycolaldehyde, glyoxal, and malonaldehyde (CHOCH{sub 2}CHO). For 4-oxo-2-pentenal, the carbonyl products were formaldehyde, methyl vinyl ketone, glycolaldehyde, hydroxyacetone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and malonaldehyde. for 3-hexene-2,5-dione the products were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, hydroxyacetone, and methylglyoxal. Carbonyl products detected in the P{sub 3}-initiated experiments with cyclohexane as the OH scavenger were formaldehyde and glyoxal in butenedial; formaldehyde, glyoxal, methyl-glyoxal, and malonaldehyde in 4-oxo-2-pentenal; and formaldehyde and methylglyoxal in 3-hexene-2,5-dione.

  13. Efficient tunable multi-wavelength CW Nd:GGG laser at 1.06 and 1.4 μm regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hongwei; Li, Yufei; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Guiqiu; Zhao, Jia; Qiao, Wenchao; Li, Tao

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrat a diode-pumped, efficient tunable multi-wavelength CW Nd:GGG laser simultaneously oscillated at 1.06 and 1.4 μm optical region for the first time. Besides an output power of 1.31 W at 1.06 μm, a maximum output power of 226 mW at 1.4 μm region is obtained under a diode pump power of 6.52 W. The corresponding slope efficiency and diode-to-optical conversion efficiency are 4.73% and 3.47%, respectively. By using a quartz plate as frequency filter, the laser around 1.4 μm can be tuned in the range from 1407.6 to 1436.8 nm, indicating that Nd:GGG laser at 1.4 μm region is a promising candidate for femtosecond pulse generation. The M2 factor of the Nd:GGG laser beam at 1.4 μm is measured to be 1.21 and 1.23 in x- and y-direction, respectively. By adjusting the tilt angle, the stable multi-wavelength operation with comparable intensity can be obtained.

  14. Aeroelastic stability predictions for a MW-sized blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobitz, Don W.

    2004-07-01

    Classical aeroelastic flutter instability historically has not been a driving issue in wind turbine design. In fact, rarely has this issue even been addressed in the past. Commensurately, among the wind turbines that have been built, rarely has classical flutter ever been observed. However, with the advent of larger turbines fitted with relatively softer blades, classical flutter may become a more important design consideration. In addition, innovative blade designs involving the use of aeroelastic tailoring, wherein the blade twists as it bends under the action of aerodynamic loads to shed load resulting from wind turbulence, may increase the blade's proclivity for flutter. With these considerations in mind it is prudent to revisit aeroelastic stability issues for a MW-sized blade with and without aeroelastic tailoring. Focusing on aeroelastic stability associated with the shed wake from an individual blade turning in still air, the frequency domain technique developed by Theodorsen for predicting classical flutter in fixed wing aircraft has been adapted for use with a rotor blade. Results indicate that the predicted flutter speed of a MW-sized blade is slightly greater than twice the operational speed of the rotor. When a moderate amount of aeroelastic tailoring is added to the blade, a modest decrease (12%) in the flutter speed is predicted. By comparison, for a smaller rotor with relatively stiff blades the predicted flutter speed is approximately six times the operating speed. When frequently used approximations to Theodorsen's method are implemented, drastic underpredictions result, which, while conservative, may adversely impact blade design. These underpredictions are also evident when this MW-sized blade is analysed using time domain methods. Published in 2004 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Proton range verification through prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verburg, Joost M.; Seco, Joao

    2014-12-01

    We present an experimental study of a novel method to verify the range of proton therapy beams. Differential cross sections were measured for 15 prompt gamma-ray lines from proton-nuclear interactions with 12C and 16O at proton energies up to 150 MeV. These cross sections were used to model discrete prompt gamma-ray emissions along proton pencil-beams. By fitting detected prompt gamma-ray counts to these models, we simultaneously determined the beam range and the oxygen and carbon concentration of the irradiated matter. The performance of the method was assessed in two phantoms with different elemental concentrations, using a small scale prototype detector. Based on five pencil-beams with different ranges delivering 5 × 108 protons and without prior knowledge of the elemental composition at the measurement point, the absolute range was determined with a standard deviation of 1.0-1.4 mm. Relative range shifts at the same dose level were detected with a standard deviation of 0.3-0.5 mm. The determined oxygen and carbon concentrations also agreed well with the actual values. These results show that quantitative prompt gamma-ray measurements enable knowledge of nuclear reaction cross sections to be used for precise proton range verification in the presence of tissue with an unknown composition.

  16. Proton range verification through prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Verburg, Joost M; Seco, Joao

    2014-12-01

    We present an experimental study of a novel method to verify the range of proton therapy beams. Differential cross sections were measured for 15 prompt gamma-ray lines from proton-nuclear interactions with (12)C and (16)O at proton energies up to 150 MeV. These cross sections were used to model discrete prompt gamma-ray emissions along proton pencil-beams. By fitting detected prompt gamma-ray counts to these models, we simultaneously determined the beam range and the oxygen and carbon concentration of the irradiated matter. The performance of the method was assessed in two phantoms with different elemental concentrations, using a small scale prototype detector. Based on five pencil-beams with different ranges delivering 5 × 10(8) protons and without prior knowledge of the elemental composition at the measurement point, the absolute range was determined with a standard deviation of 1.0-1.4 mm. Relative range shifts at the same dose level were detected with a standard deviation of 0.3-0.5 mm. The determined oxygen and carbon concentrations also agreed well with the actual values. These results show that quantitative prompt gamma-ray measurements enable knowledge of nuclear reaction cross sections to be used for precise proton range verification in the presence of tissue with an unknown composition.

  17. Initial operating results 10 MW Salton Sea Geothermal Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, E.

    1983-09-01

    The initial operating results of the 10 MW Salton Sea Geothermal Pilot Plant are discussed. The plant has been on line 84% of the time since initial startup in July of 1982. During this time, the plant has been able to provide essentially full load steam making it possible to achieve a capacity factor of over 80%. The forced and scheduled outages of the plant for the first 9 months operation are listed. During this initial operation, over 50 million kWhs of energy have been delivered to the Imperial Irrigation District. The operating costs for operations and maintenance have been running at a rate of $1 M/year.

  18. The 5 MW for solar-chemistry development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, J. T.

    1981-11-01

    The US-DOE, 5MW solar Central Receiver Test Facility (CRTF) operates to develop and proof-test high efficiency solar receivers and collectors (heliostats) for applications such as electricity generation and process heating. The capabilities of CRTF for solar chemical process development studies are described and related to chemical reactant heating rates. A Sun Fuels program is planned to demonstrate a process for upgrading both nonrenewable and renewable feedstocks into conventional fuels. To additionally benefit from the high intensity light source, studies on the direct solar pyrolysis of metal halides and carbonyls to produce high purity, high value metals are recommended.

  19. 300 MW combined-cycle plant with integrated coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Kehlhofer, R.H.

    1984-09-01

    The main obstacle to further expansion of the combined cycle principle is its lack of fuel flexibility. To this day, gas turbines are still limited to gaseous or liquid fuels. This paper shows a viable way to add a cheap solid fuel, coal, to the list. The plant system in question is a 2 X 150 MW combined-cycle plant of BBC Brown Boveri with integrated coal gasification plant of British Gas/Lurgi. The main point of interest is that All the individual components of the power plant described in this paper have proven their worth commercially. It is therefore not a pilot plant but a viable commercial proposition.

  20. New 200 MW class 501G combustion turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Southall, L.; McQuiggan, G.

    1996-07-01

    The 501G 60-Hz combustion turbine has been developed jointly by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., and FiatAvio. It continues a long line of large heavy-duty single-shaft combustion turbines by combining the proven efficient and reliable concepts of the 501F with the latest advances in aero technology via the Westinghouse Alliance with Rolls-Royce. The output of the 501G is over 230 MW with a combined cycle net efficiency of 58 percent. This makes the 501G the largest 60-Hz combustion turbine in the world and also the most efficient.

  1. Design of a new main injector cavity for the Fermilab Proton Driver era

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, V.; Chen, A.; Qian, Z.; Wildman, D.W.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    In the design report of the Fermilab Proton Driver [1], the Main Injector (MI) needs to be upgraded to a 2 MW machine. For the Main Injector radiofrequency (rf) upgrade, R&D efforts are launched to design and build a new rf system. This paper presents the new cavity design study for the rf system. The cavity is simulated with the design code Mafia [2].

  2. Exploring universality of transversity in proton-proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radici, Marco; Ricci, Alessandro M.; Bacchetta, Alessandro; Mukherjee, Asmita

    2016-08-01

    We consider the azimuthal correlations of charged hadron pairs with large total transverse momentum and small relative momentum, produced in proton-proton collisions with one transversely polarized proton. One of these correlations directly probes the chiral-odd transversity parton distribution in connection with a chiral-odd interference fragmentation function. We present predictions for this observable based on previous extractions of transversity (from charged pion pair production in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering) and of the interference fragmentation function (from the production of back-to-back charged pion pairs in electron-positron annihilations). All analyses are performed in the framework of collinear factorization. We compare our predictions to the recent data on proton-proton collisions released by the STAR Collaboration at RHIC, and we find them reasonably compatible. This comparison confirms for the first time the predicted role of transversity in proton-proton collisions, and it allows us to test its universality.

  3. Proton radiography and tomography with application to proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Allinson, N M; Evans, P M

    2015-01-01

    Proton radiography and tomography have long promised benefit for proton therapy. Their first suggestion was in the early 1960s and the first published proton radiographs and CT images appeared in the late 1960s and 1970s, respectively. More than just providing anatomical images, proton transmission imaging provides the potential for the more accurate estimation of stopping-power ratio inside a patient and hence improved treatment planning and verification. With the recent explosion in growth of clinical proton therapy facilities, the time is perhaps ripe for the imaging modality to come to the fore. Yet many technical challenges remain to be solved before proton CT scanners become commonplace in the clinic. Research and development in this field is currently more active than at any time with several prototype designs emerging. This review introduces the principles of proton radiography and tomography, their historical developments, the raft of modern prototype systems and the primary design issues. PMID:26043157

  4. Quinoxaline 1,4-dioxides: hypoxia-selective therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Diab-Assef, Mona; Haddadin, Makhluf J; Yared, Pierre; Assaad, Chafika; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala U

    2002-04-01

    A problem that confronts clinicians in the treatment of cancer is the resistance of hypoxic tumors to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Thus, the development of new drugs that are toxic to hypoxic cells found in solid tumors is an important objective for effective anticancer chemotherapy. We recently showed that the heterocyclic aromatic N-oxides, quinoxaline 1,4-dioxides (QdNOs), are cytotoxic to tumor cells cultured under hypoxia. In this study, we evaluated the hypoxia-selective toxicity of four diversely substituted QdNOs and determined their effect on the expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) 1alpha in the human colon cancer cell line T-84. The various QdNOs were found to possess a 50- to 100-fold greater cytotoxicity to T-84 cells cultured under hypoxia compared with oxia. Interestingly, the hypoxia cytotoxicity ratio (HCR), the ratio of equitoxic concentrations of the drug under aerobic/anoxic conditions, was highly structure related and depended on the nature of the substituents on the QdNO heterocycle. The most cytotoxic 2-benzoyl-3-phenyl-6,7-dichloro derivative of QdNO (DCQ) was potent at a dose of 1 microM with an HCR of 100 and significantly reduced the levels of HIF-1alpha transcript and protein. The 2-benzoyl-3-phenyl derivative (BPQ) had a hypoxia potency of 20 microM and an HCR of 40. By contrast, the 2-aceto-3-methyl and the 2,3-tetramethylene (TMQ) derivatives of QdNO were much less cytotoxic under hypoxia (HCRs of 8.5 and 6.5, respectively) and reduced the expression of HIF-1alpha mRNA to a much lesser extent. Because the nonchlorinated analogue BPQ did not demonstrate behavior similar to that of DCQ, we hypothesize that the C-6, C-7-chlorine of DCQ might play a significant role in the selective hypoxic cytotoxicity of the drug.

  5. Lamellar crystals as proton conductors to enhance the performance of proton exchange membrane for direct methanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuning; Jiang, Zhongyi; Xiao, Lulu; Xu, Tao; Wu, Hong

    2011-08-01

    Zirconium glyphosate (ZrG) is a solid proton conductor with layered crystal structure. The inorganic veneer sheets of ZrG are covalently intercalated by glyphosate molecules with carboxylic acid end groups (-COOH). The existence of abundant -COOH groups both inside and on the surface of ZrG provides additional proton-conducting channels facilitating the proton conduction through and around the inorganic crystals. ZrG is incorporated into the sulfonated polyether ether ketone (SPEEK) matrices to prepare proton-conducting hybrid membranes. The conductivity of the hybrid membranes is higher than the pristine SPEEK membrane, and increases with increasing ZrG content. Furthermore, the enhancement of the proton conductivity is more obvious at elevated temperatures. At 25 °C, the proton conductivity of the hybrid membrane with 16 wt% ZrG is 1.4 times higher than that of the pristine membrane. When the temperature increases to 55 °C, the conductivity of the hybrid membrane with 8 wt% ZrG is more than twice that of the pristine SPEEK membrane. The prolonged and tortuous pathways originated from the incorporation of inorganic crystals lead to reduced methanol permeability. The selectivity of the hybrid membrane is increased by as much as 72% compared to the pristine SPEEK membrane.

  6. Initial Testing of a 140 GHz 1 MW Gyrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauffman, Stephen; Felch, Kevin; Blank, Monica; Borchard, Philipp; Cahalan, Pat; Chu, Sam; Jory, Howard

    2001-10-01

    CPI has completed the fabrication of a 140 GHz 1 MW CW gyrotron to be used on the W7-X stellarator at IPP Greifswald. Testing of the initial build of this gyrotron had just begun when this abstract was prepared, and was expected to finish in September, at which time a planned rebuild of the device was scheduled to begin. This poster will summarize the gyrotron design, present results of initial testing, and outline any design changes planned as a consequence of these results. This gyrotron's design employs a number of advanced features, including a diode electron gun for simplified operation, a single-stage depressed collector to enhance overall efficiency, a CVD diamond output window, an internal mode converter that converts the excited TE28,7 cavity mode to a Gaussian output beam, and a high-voltage layout that locates all external high voltage below the superconducting magnet system without requiring an oil tank for insulation. Similar features are being used for an 84 GHz 500 kW system being built for the KSTAR tokamak program and for a 110 GHz 1.5 MW system being designed in collaboration with MIT, UMd, UW, GA, and Calabazas Creek Research with funding provided by DOE.

  7. A Two Frequency 1.5 MW Gyrotron Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tax, David; Guss, William; Shapiro, Michael; Temkin, Richard; Rock, Ben; Vernon, Ronald; Neilson, Jeffrey

    2012-10-01

    Megawatt gyrotrons are an important microwave source for electron cyclotron heating and current drive (ECH/ECCD) in fusion plasmas due to their ability to produce megawatts of power at millimeter wave frequencies. The MIT gyrotron operates nominally at 96 kV and 40 A with 3 μs pulses and has previously demonstrated 1.5 MW of output power with > 50 % efficiency at 110 GHz with a depressed collector. A new cavity has been designed for 1.5 MW operation at two distinct frequencies: 110 GHz in the TE22,6 mode and 124.5 GHz in the TE24,7 mode. A new internal mode converter (IMC) consisting of a dimpled wall launcher and four smooth curved mirrors has also been designed and was optimized for both modes. Simulations of the IMC indicate that > 98 % Gaussian beam content could be achieved for each mode. Cold test results for the components will be presented as well as the current status of the hot test experiment.

  8. R and D of superconductors for 70MW class generators

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Hiroki; Uno, Naoki; Ichikawa, Tatsumi; Meguro, S.; Takahashi, K.; Saitou, T.; Sakai, S.; Akita, S.

    1996-07-01

    Super-GM has been developing 70MW class superconducting generators (model machines) for 200MW class pilot generator. Three types of NbTi conductors were developed for each of three model machines. Regarding to the high stability type conductors, residual resistance value of 6.5{micro}{Omega}/m was achieved by adopting Al stabilizer. Regarding to the high current density type, Ic of 13.8kA at 5T was realized by reducing void fraction in conductors and maintaining high residual resistivity ratio. For the low AC loss type, high Jc and low AC loss (8.1kW/m{sup 3}) have been succeeded by applying strand insulation and two stage cabling. To confirm superconducting characteristics concerning long-term reliability, Ic and AC loss of each conductors were measured under 10,000 times repeated compressive force of 30MPa that is supposed in daily start and stop operation of generator for 30 years. In parallel to the R and D of NbTi conductors, R and D of Nb{sub 3}Sn conductors were also conducted for enhancement of critical current density and critical magnetic field.

  9. Proton transfer at carbon.

    PubMed

    Richard, J P; Amyes, T L

    2001-12-01

    The viability of living systems requires that C--H bonds of biological molecules be stable in water, but that there also be a mechanism for shortening the timescale for their heterolytic cleavage through enzymatic catalysis of a variety of catabolic and metabolic reactions. An understanding of the mechanism of enzymatic catalysis of proton transfer at carbon requires the integration of results of studies to determine the structure of the enzyme-substrate complex with model studies on the mechanism for the non-enzymatic reaction in water, and the effect of the local protein environment on the stability of the transition state for this reaction. A common theme is the importance of electrostatic interactions in providing stabilization of bound carbanion intermediates of enzyme-catalyzed proton-transfer reactions.

  10. Low NO{sub x} burner retrofits to 240 MW, 300 MW and 400 MW oil/gas fired utility boilers; Final performance results and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Kuretski, J.J. Jr.; Price, J.V.; Schindler, E.S.; Guarco, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    Low NO{sub x} burners (LNBs) and new windbox baffles were retrofitted to eight residual oil/gas fired boilers totaling 2,680 MW of generating capacity in the Florida Power and Light Co. (FPL) system. These TODD Combustion designed LNBs were installed, from 1992 to 1995, to comply with a NO{sub x} Reasonably Available Control Technology (R.A.C.T.) determination associated with a moderate ozone non-attainment area in south Florida. LNBs were the primary means of NO{sub x} emission rate reduction, with an objective to achieve the maximum NO{sub x} reduction possible through burner hardware changes. Accordingly, the full focus of the project was on the capabilities of state-of-the-art LNB technology. These LNB retrofits were deemed successful based on the significant NO{sub x} reductions that were achieved. FPL`s contract requirements included consideration of unit performance and boiler component life impacts in addition to the traditional emission parameter guarantees. In striving to simultaneously meet all contract requirements, various burner design adjustments were implemented. As the project progressed, much was learned about LNBs and their effects on utility boilers as well as the effects of boiler equipment design and boiler conditions on NO{sub x} emission rates.

  11. Proton therapy in the clinic.

    PubMed

    DeLaney, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    The clinical advantage for proton radiotherapy over photon approaches is the marked reduction in integral dose to the patient, due to the absence of exit dose beyond the proton Bragg peak. The integral dose with protons is approximately 60% lower than that with any external beam photon technique. Pediatric patients, because of their developing normal tissues and anticipated length of remaining life, are likely to have the maximum clinical gain with the use of protons. Proton therapy may also allow treatment of some adult tumors to much more effective doses, because of normal tissue sparing distal to the tumor. Currently, the most commonly available proton treatment technology uses 3D conformal approaches based on (a) distal range modulation, (b) passive scattering of the proton beam in its x- and y-axes, and (c) lateral beam-shaping. It is anticipated that magnetic pencil beam scanning will become the dominant mode of proton delivery in the future, which will lower neutron scatter associated with passively scattered beam lines, reduce the need for expensive beam-shaping devices, and allow intensity-modulated proton radiotherapy. Proton treatment plans are more sensitive to variations in tumor size and normal tissue changes over the course of treatment than photon plans, and it is expected that adaptive radiation therapy will be increasingly important for proton therapy as well. While impressive treatment results have been reported with protons, their cost is higher than for photon IMRT. Hence, protons should ideally be employed for anatomic sites and tumors not well treated with photons. While protons appear cost-effective for pediatric tumors, their cost-effectiveness for treatment of some adult tumors, such as prostate cancer, is uncertain. Comparative studies have been proposed or are in progress to more rigorously assess their value for a variety of sites. The utility of proton therapy will be enhanced by technological developments that reduce its cost

  12. Smashing Protons to Smithereens

    SciTech Connect

    Marc-André Pleier

    2010-05-05

    Pleier discusses the extraordinary research taking place at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) — the world’s newest, biggest, and highest energy particle accelerator located at CERN. Pleier is one of hundreds of researchers from around the world working on ATLAS, a seven-story particle detector positioned at a point where the LHC’s oppositely circulating beams of protons slam into one another head-on.

  13. Proton conducting cerate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, G.W.; Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Weber, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    Cerate perovskites of the general formula AM{sub x}Ce{sub 1-x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where A = Sr or Ba and where M = Gd, Nd, Y, Yb or other rare earth dopant, are known to conduct a protonic current. Such materials may be useful as the electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell operating at intermediate temperatures, as an electrochemical hydrogen separation membrane, or as a hydrogen sensor. Conduction mechanisms in these materials were evaluated using dc cyclic voltammetry and mass spectrometry, allowing currents and activation energies for proton, electron, and oxygen ion contributions to the total current to be determined. For SrYb{sub 0.05}Ce{sub 0.95}O{sub 3-{delta}}, one of the best and most environmentally stable compositions, proton conduction followed two different mechanisms: a low temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 0.42{+-}0.04 eV, and a high temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 1.38{+-}0.13 eV. It is believed that the low temperature process is dominated by grain boundary conduction while bulk conduction is responsible for the high temperature process. The activation energy for oxygen ion conduction (0.97{+-}0.10 eV) agrees well with other oxygen conductors, while that for electronic conduction, 0.90{+-}0.09 eV, is affected by a temperature-dependent electron carrier concentration. Evaluated by direct measurement of mass flux through a dense ceramic with an applied dc field, oxygen ions were determined to be the majority charge carrier except at the lowest temperatures, followed by electrons and then protons.

  14. Smashing Protons to Smithereens

    ScienceCinema

    Marc-André Pleier

    2016-07-12

    Pleier discusses the extraordinary research taking place at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) — the world’s newest, biggest, and highest energy particle accelerator located at CERN. Pleier is one of hundreds of researchers from around the world working on ATLAS, a seven-story particle detector positioned at a point where the LHC’s oppositely circulating beams of protons slam into one another head-on.

  15. Ruthenium, osmium and rhodium complexes of 1,4-diaryl 1,4-diazabutadiene: radical versus non-radical states.

    PubMed

    Chandra Patra, Sarat; Saha Roy, Amit; Manivannan, Vadivelu; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Ghosh, Prasanta

    2014-09-28

    Ruthenium, osmium and rhodium complexes of 1,4-di(3-nitrophenyl)-1,4-diazabutadiene (LDAB) of types trans-[RuII(LDAB)(PPh3)2Cl2] (1), trans-[OsII(LDAB)(PPh3)2Br2] (2) and trans-[Rh(LDAB)(PPh3)2Cl2] (3) are isolated and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, mass and 1H NMR spectra including the single crystal X-ray structure determination of 1·2toluene. The α-diimine fragment of the LDAB ligand in 1·2toluene is deformed, showing a relatively longer -C=N- bond, 1.320 Å, and a shorter =CH–CH= bond, 1.395 Å. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations on trans-[Ru(LDAB)(PMe3)2Cl2] (1Me) and trans-[Os(LDAB)(PMe3)2Br2] (2Me) with singlet spin states authenticated that the closed shell singlet state (CSS) solutions of 1 and 2 are stable and no perturbation occurs because of the diradical open shell singlet (OSS) state. The EPR spectra of 3 and the Mulliken spin density distribution obtained from the DFT calculation on trans-[Rh(LDAB)(PMe3)2Cl2] (3Me) imply that the ground electronic state of 3 can be defined by the [RhIII(LDAB˙−)(PPh3)2Cl2] (3RhL˙) ↔ [RhII(LDAB)(PPh3)2Cl2] (3Rh˙L) resonating states. In solid, the contribution of 3RhL˙ is higher and the gav is 2.018 with Δg = 0.10, whereas in frozen glasses the contribution of 3Rh˙L is higher and the gav is 2.026 with Δg (frozen glasses) = 0.13. The g parameters of the electrogenerated [1]+ (g1 = 2.456, g2 = 2.128 and g3 = 1.624, Δg = 0.824), [2]+ (g1 = 2.599, g2 = 2.041 and g3 = 1.965, Δg = 0.634), [1]− (g1 = 2.138, g2 = 2.109, g3 = 1.978 and Δg = 0.160) and [2]− (g1 = 2.168, g2 = 2.097, g3 = 1.987 and Δg = 0.181) ions and the spin density distributions obtained from the DFT calculations on [1Me]+, [2Me]+, [1Me]− and [2Me]− reveal that the reversible anodic peaks of 1 and 2 at 0.11 and 0.34 V, referenced versus Fc+/Fc couple, are due to the M(III)/M(II) redox couple, while the reversible cathodic waves at −1.27 V and −0.82 V of 1 and 2 are caused by the LDAB/LDAB˙− redox couple

  16. Polarized protons at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Makdisi, Y.

    1992-10-01

    The approval for construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provides a potential opportunity to collide polarized proton beams at energies up to 500 GeV in the center of mass and high luminosities approaching 2 {times} 10{sup 32}/cm{sup 2}/sec. This capability is enhanced by the fact that the AGS has already accelerated polarized protons and relies on the newly completed Accumulator/Booster for providing the required polarized proton intensity and a system of spin rotators (Siberian snakes) to retain the polarization. The RHIC Spin Collaboration was formed and submitted a Letter of Intent to construct this polarized collider capability and utilize its physics opportunities. In this presentation, I will discuss the plans to upgrade the AGS, the proposed layout of the RHIC siberian snakes, and timetables. The physics focus is the measurement of the spin dependent parton distributions with such accessible probes including high p(t) jets, direct photons, and Drell Yan. The attainable sensitivities and the progress that has been reached in defining the detector requirements will be outlined.

  17. Polarized protons at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Makdisi, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The approval for construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) provides a potential opportunity to collide polarized proton beams at energies up to 500 GeV in the center of mass and high luminosities approaching 2 {times} 10{sup 32}/cm{sup 2}/sec. This capability is enhanced by the fact that the AGS has already accelerated polarized protons and relies on the newly completed Accumulator/Booster for providing the required polarized proton intensity and a system of spin rotators (Siberian snakes) to retain the polarization. The RHIC Spin Collaboration was formed and submitted a Letter of Intent to construct this polarized collider capability and utilize its physics opportunities. In this presentation, I will discuss the plans to upgrade the AGS, the proposed layout of the RHIC siberian snakes, and timetables. The physics focus is the measurement of the spin dependent parton distributions with such accessible probes including high p(t) jets, direct photons, and Drell Yan. The attainable sensitivities and the progress that has been reached in defining the detector requirements will be outlined.

  18. Pion, Kaon, Proton and Antiproton Production in Proton-Proton Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2008-01-01

    Inclusive pion, kaon, proton, and antiproton production from proton-proton collisions is studied at a variety of proton energies. Various available parameterizations of Lorentz-invariant differential cross sections as a function of transverse momentum and rapidity are compared with experimental data. The Badhwar and Alper parameterizations are moderately satisfactory for charged pion production. The Badhwar parameterization provides the best fit for charged kaon production. For proton production, the Alper parameterization is best, and for antiproton production the Carey parameterization works best. However, no parameterization is able to fully account for all the data.

  19. Evidence of 1,4-dioxane attenuation at groundwater sites contaminated with chlorinated solvents and 1,4-dioxane.

    PubMed

    Adamson, David T; Anderson, R Hunter; Mahendra, Shaily; Newell, Charles J

    2015-06-01

    There is a critical need to develop appropriate management strategies for 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) due to its widespread occurrence and perceived recalcitrance at groundwater sites where chlorinated solvents are present. A comprehensive evaluation of California state (GeoTracker) and Air Force monitoring records was used to provide significant evidence of dioxane attenuation at field sites. Temporal changes in the site-wide maximum concentrations were used to estimate source attenuation rates at the GeoTracker sites (median length of monitoring period = 6.8 years). While attenuation could not be established at all sites, statistically significant positive attenuation rates were confirmed at 22 sites. At sites where dioxane and chlorinated solvents were present, the median value of all statistically significant dioxane source attenuation rates (equivalent half-life = 31 months; n = 34) was lower than 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) but similar to 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). Dioxane attenuation rates were positively correlated with rates for 1,1-DCE and TCE but not TCA. At this set of sites, there was little evidence that chlorinated solvent remedial efforts (e.g., chemical oxidation, enhanced bioremediation) impacted dioxane attenuation. Attenuation rates based on well-specific records from the Air Force data set confirmed significant dioxane attenuation (131 out of 441 wells) at a similar frequency and extent (median equivalent half-life = 48 months) as observed at the California sites. Linear discriminant analysis established a positive correlation between dioxane attenuation and increasing concentrations of dissolved oxygen, while the same analysis found a negative correlation with metals and CVOC concentrations. The magnitude and prevalence of dioxane attenuation documented here suggest that natural attenuation may be used to manage some but not necessarily all dioxane-impacted sites.

  20. Recent Performance and Ignition Tests of the pulsed SNS H- Source for 1-MW Neutron Production

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P; Han, Baoxi; Murray, Jr, S N; Pennisi, Terry R; Piller, Chip; Santana, Manuel; Welton, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    After acquiring several reliable spare targets, SNS ramped the beam power from 850 kW to 1.4 MW, which required an increase in H- beam pulse length from 0.88 to 1.0 ms at 60 Hz. This increase initially produced slow 2-MHz power ramp-ups and, after several weeks of uninterrupted operation, it produced plasma outages every time the pulse length was raised above ~0.95 ms. Similar outages were previously observed towards the end of long service cycles, which were believed to indicate that the breakdown voltage of the high purity hydrogen started to exceed the induced electric fields. In 2011 the RF was reconfigured to start with 10 cycles of 1.96 MHz, which yielded the shortest H- beam rise times and apparently eliminated those plasma outages. The new, pulse-length dependent outages were eliminated by increasing the initial frequency to 1.985 MHz. However, careful frequency studies are unable to justify this frequency. In addition, the paper discusses the issues and solutions for the electron-dump voltage, which starts to sag and become unstable after several weeks of high current operation.

  1. Recent performance and ignition tests of the pulsed SNS H- source for 1-MW neutron production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockli, Martin P.; Han, B. X.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Welton, R. F.

    2015-04-01

    After acquiring several reliable spare targets, SNS ramped the beam power from 850 kW to 1.4 MW, which required an increase in H- beam pulse length from 0.88 to 1.0 ms at 60 Hz. This increase initially produced slow 2-MHz power ramp-ups and, after several weeks of uninterrupted operation, it produced plasma outages every time the pulse length was raised above ˜0.95 ms. Similar outages were previously observed towards the end of long service cycles, which were believed to indicate that the breakdown voltage of the high purity hydrogen started to exceed the induced electric fields. In 2011 the RF was reconfigured to start with 10 cycles of 1.96 MHz, which yielded the shortest H- beam rise times and apparently eliminated those plasma outages. The new, pulse-length dependent outages were eliminated by increasing the initial frequency to 1.985 MHz. However, careful frequency studies are unable to justify this frequency. In addition, the paper discusses the issues and solutions for the electron-dump voltage, which starts to sag and become unstable after several weeks of high current operation. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editor this article has been updated to include References 3-13, which were present in the author's original submission but were lost during manuscript processing in the Proceedings Editor's office. The updated article was published on 5 May 2015.

  2. Theoretical investigations of the reaction between 1,4-dithiane-2,5-diol and azomethine imines: mechanisms and diastereoselectivity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Linjie; Qiao, Yan; Lu, Mengxue; Chang, Junbiao

    2015-07-21

    In the present study, mechanistic insights into the domino reaction between 1,4-dithiane-2,5-diol and azomethine imines were derived from the computational study with B3LYP and M06-2X functionals. On the whole, the domino process comprises two consecutive reactions: cleavage of 1,4-dithiane-2,5-diol leading to mercaptoacetaldehyde and [3 + 3] cycloaddition of mercaptoacetaldehyde with azomethine imines. The cleavage of 1,4-dithiane-2,5-diol can take place via multiple possible pathways (1A-1E), and pathway 1E in which double-methanol molecules mediate the proton transfer process is the most energetically favorable, with an energy barrier of 19.9 kcal mol(-1). For the [3 + 3] cycloaddition, three possible pathways (2F-2H) were explored. The calculated energy profiles reveal that pathway 2H with activation energies ranging from 6.9 to 10.2 kcal mol(-1) is more energetically favorable than pathways 2F and 2G. Specifically, pathway 2H comprises three reaction steps: deprotonation of mercaptoacetaldehyde by DABCO allows for the formation of the thiol anion, which subsequently launches a nucleophilic attack on azomethine imines followed by intramolecular cyclization resulting in the final products. The calculated results are in agreement with the experimental observations that the reaction can proceed most efficiently in the presence of both DABCO and methanol. Furthermore, the hydrogen bonding interaction is identified to be the main factor determining the observed diastereoselectivity The current systematic theoretical study gives a full scenario of the reaction between 1,4-dithiane-2,5-diol and azomethine imines catalyzed by DABCO, and thus provides some valuable clues for further investigation and development of this kind of important reaction. PMID:26079432

  3. Proton-proton correlations observed in two-proton radioactivity of 94Ag.

    PubMed

    Mukha, Ivan; Roeckl, Ernst; Batist, Leonid; Blazhev, Andrey; Döring, Joachim; Grawe, Hubert; Grigorenko, Leonid; Huyse, Mark; Janas, Zenon; Kirchner, Reinhard; La Commara, Marco; Mazzocchi, Chiara; Tabor, Sam L; Van Duppen, Piet

    2006-01-19

    The stability and spontaneous decay of naturally occurring atomic nuclei have been much studied ever since Becquerel discovered natural radioactivity in 1896. In 1960, proton-rich nuclei with an odd or an even atomic number Z were predicted to decay through one- and two-proton radioactivity, respectively. The experimental observation of one-proton radioactivity was first reported in 1982, and two-proton radioactivity has now also been detected by experimentally studying the decay properties of 45Fe (refs 3, 4) and 54Zn (ref. 5). Here we report proton-proton correlations observed during the radioactive decay of a spinning long-lived state of the lightest known isotope of silver, 94Ag, which is known to undergo one-proton decay. We infer from these correlations that the long-lived state must also decay through simultaneous two-proton emission, making 94Ag the first nucleus to exhibit one- as well as two-proton radioactivity. We attribute the two-proton emission behaviour and the unexpectedly large probability for this decay mechanism to a very large deformation of the parent nucleus into a prolate (cigar-like) shape, which facilitates emission of protons either from the same or from opposite ends of the 'cigar'.

  4. LIP: The Livermore Interpolation Package, Version 1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F N

    2011-07-06

    or invert the interpolant at an arbitrary number of points. The first section of this report describes the overall design of the package, including both forward and inverse interpolation. Sections 2-6 describe each interpolation method in detail. The software that implements this design is summarized function-by-function in Section 7. For a complete example of package usage, refer to Section 8. The report concludes with a few brief notes on possible software enhancements. For guidance on adding other functional forms to LIP, refer to Appendix B. The reader who is primarily interested in using LIP to solve a problem should skim Section 1, then skip to Sections 7.1-4. Finally, jump ahead to Section 8 and study the example. The remaining sections can be referred to in case more details are desired. Changes since version 1.1 of this document include the new Section 3.2.1 that discusses derivative estimation and new Section 6 that discusses the birational interpolation method. Section numbers following the latter have been modified accordingly.

  5. Phosphorylation of the rat Ins(1,4,5)P₃ receptor at T930 within the coupling domain decreases its affinity to Ins(1,4,5)P₃.

    PubMed

    Haun, Shirley; Sun, Lu; Hubrack, Satanay; Yule, David; Machaca, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    The Ins(1,4,5)P 3 receptor acts as a central hub for Ca ( 2+) signaling by integrating multiple signaling modalities into Ca ( 2+) release from intracellular stores downstream of G-protein and tyrosine kinase-coupled receptor stimulation. As such, the Ins(1,4,5)P 3 receptor plays fundamental roles in cellular physiology. The regulation of the Ins(1,4,5)P 3 receptor is complex and involves protein-protein interactions, post-translational modifications, allosteric modulation, and regulation of its sub-cellular distribution. Phosphorylation has been implicated in the sensitization of Ins(1,4,5)P 3-dependent Ca ( 2+) release observed during oocyte maturation. Here we investigate the role of phosphorylation at T-930, a residue phosphorylated specifically during meiosis. We show that a phosphomimetic mutation at T-930 of the rat Ins(1,4,5)P 3 receptor results in decreased Ins(1,4,5)P 3-dependent Ca ( 2+) release and lowers the Ins(1,4,5)P 3 binding affinity of the receptor. These data, coupled to the sensitization of Ins(1,4,5)P 3-dependent Ca ( 2+) release during meiosis, argue that phosphorylation within the coupling domain of the Ins(1,4,5)P 3 receptor acts in a combinatorial fashion to regulate Ins(1,4,5)P 3 receptor function.

  6. Crystal structure of intercalated four-stranded d(C3T) at 1.4 angstroms resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, C. H.; Berger, I.; Lockshin, C.; Ratliff, R.; Moyzis, R.; Rich, A.

    1994-01-01

    The crystal structure of d(C3T), solved at 1.4 angstroms resolution, reveals that the molecule forms a four-stranded intercalated complex. It consists of two parallel-stranded duplexes, each of which is held together by cytosine-protonated cytosine base pairs. The two duplexes are intercalated with each other and have opposite strand orientation. The molecule has a flat, lath-like appearance, and the covalently bonded cytosines have a slow right-handed twist of 17.1 degrees. However, there is considerable asymmetry. On one of the flat sides, the phosphate groups are rotated away from the center of the molecule. They are held in this orientation by bridging water molecules that bind the NH of cytosine and a phosphate group of an opposite chain. There is also considerable microheterogeneity in the structure. The cytosine hemiprotonation occurs even at pH 7 where stable crystals form.

  7. Lanthanide ion (III) complexes of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraaminophosphonate (DOTA-4AmP8−) for dual biosensing of pH with CEST (chemical exchange saturation transfer) and BIRDS (biosensor imaging of redundant deviation in shifts)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuegao; Coman, Daniel; Ali, Meser M.; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2014-01-01

    Relaxivity based magnetic resonance of phosphonated ligands chelated with gadolinium (Gd3+) shows promise for pH imaging. However instead of monitoring the paramagnetic effect of lanthanide complexes on the relaxivity of water protons, biosensor (or molecular) imaging with magnetic resonance is also possible by detecting either the non-exchangeable or the exchangeable protons on the lanthanide complexes themselves. The non-exchangeable protons (e.g., –CHx, where 3≥x≥1) are detected using a three-dimensional chemical shift imaging method called Biosensor Imaging of Redundant Deviation in Shifts (BIRDS), whereas the exchangeable protons (e.g., –OH or –NHy, where 2≥y≥1) are measured with Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) contrast. Here we tested the feasibility of BIRDS and CEST for pH imaging of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraaminophosphonate (DOTA-4AmP8−) chelated with thulium (Tm3+) and ytterbium (Yb3+). BIRDS and CEST experiments show that both complexes are responsive to pH and temperature changes. Higher pH and temperature sensitivities are obtained with BIRDS for either complex when using the chemical shift difference between two proton resonances vs. using the chemical shift of a single proton resonance, thereby eliminating the need to use water resonance as reference. While CEST contrast for both agents is linearly dependent on pH within a relatively large range (i.e., 6.3-7.9), much stronger CEST contrast is obtained with YbDOTA-4AmP5− than with TmDOTA-4AmP5−. In addition, we demonstrate the prospect of using BIRDS to calibrate CEST as new platform for quantitative pH imaging. PMID:24801742

  8. Twenty-Five Years of Postseismic Viscous Relaxation Following the Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M. H.; Burgmann, R.; Johanson, I. A.

    2014-12-01

    The 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake provides the first opportunity of probing the crustal and upper mantle rheology in the San Francisco Bay Area since the 1906 Mw 7.9 San Francisco earthquake. Here we use geodetic observations including GPS and InSAR to characterize the 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake postseismic displacement from 1989.8 to 2013. Pre-earthquake deformation rates are constrained by nearly 20 years of USGS trilateration measurements and removed from the postseismic measurements prior to the analysis. We observe 1-4 mm/yr GPS horizontal displacement toward the Loma Prieta epicenter until 2000, and ~2 mm/yr surface subsidence of the northern Santa Cruz Mountains between 1992 and 2002, which is not associated with the seasonal and longer-term hydrological deformation in the adjoining Santa Clara Valley. Previous work indicates afterslip dominated in the early (1989-1994) postseismic period, so we focus on modeling the postseismic viscoelastic relaxation between 1994 and 2010 based on geodetic observations. The best fitting result predicts an 11-km-thick viscoelastic lower crust with viscosity of about 1019 Pa s below a 19-km-thick elastic upper crust, underlain by a bi-viscous upper mantle with transient viscosity of 1016.5-17.5 and steady-state viscosity of 1017.5-18.5 Pa s. The millimeter scale postseismic deformation does not resolve the viscosity in different layers very well, but the inferred lithospheric rheology is consistent with estimates in southern California. The viscoelastic relaxation may also contribute to the enduring increase of aseismic slip and repeating earthquake activity on the San Andreas Fault near San Juan Bautista, which continued for at least a decade after the Loma Prieta event.

  9. Plans for a proton driver at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Kephart, R.D.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    , and will certainly have important implications for our understanding of cosmology and the evolution of the early Universe. The current Fermilab Program is an important part of the world-wide accelerator based effort to explore and understand the physics of neutrino oscillations. By early 2005, with both MINOS and MiniBooNE taking data, Fermilab will be able to answer some of the most pressing first-round questions raised by the discovery that neutrinos have mass. Fermilab's high-intensity neutrino beams are derived from 8- and 120-GeV proton beams. MiniBooNE is currently taking data using 8 GeV Protons from the Booster. The 120 GeV NuMI beam will start to operate in early 2005 using a 0.25 MW proton beam power from the Main Injector. Future neutrino programs will build on these existing facilities. New short and long baseline experiments have been proposed. There are proposals to increase the available number of protons at 8 and 120 GeV with the goal of addressing the full range of questions presented by neutrino oscillations. Key to that vision is a new intense proton source that usually is referred to as the Proton Driver.

  10. The 125 MW Upper Mahiao geothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Forte, N.

    1996-12-31

    The 125 MW Upper Mahiao power plant, the first geothermal power project to be financed under a Build-Own-Operate-and-Transfer (BOOT) arrangement in the Philippines, expected to complete its start-up testing in August of this year. This plant uses Ormat`s environmentally benign technology and is both the largest geothermal steam/binary combined cycle plant as well as the largest geothermal power plant utilizing air cooled condensers. The Ormat designed and constructed plant was developed under a fast track program, with some two years from the April 1994 contract signing through design, engineering, construction and startup. The plant is owned and operated by a subsidiary of CalEnergy Co., Inc. and supplies power to PNOC-Energy Development Corporation for the National Power Corporation (Napocor) national power grid in the Philippines.

  11. Greenwich turbine supplies Senegal with 25 MW in six months

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Greenwich Turbine, Inc. (GTi) of East Granby, CT is a specialist firm in gas turbine repair/overhaul which has, in recent years, expanded into supplying gas turbine power plants in the 20- to 90-MW range. The sixteenth and latest power project was their most ambitious, a turbine plant for the West African nation of Senegal. The engine is a Pratt & Whitney FT4C-3F gas generator and power turbine. The plant was completed and commissioned on January 27, 1995, with the presidents of Senegal and Ivory Coast in attendance. The equipment is now going through a shake-down period, providing intermediate-duty power. And the GTi staff is justifiably proud of how quickly they were able to get this power online. 2 figs.

  12. A 30 MW, 10 GHz gyroklystron with linear collider application

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, W.; Latham, P.E.; Calame, J.; Skopec, M.; Welsh, D.; Hogan, B.; Naiman, M.; Striffler, C.D.; Reiser, M.; Granatstein, V.L. ); Read, M.E. )

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, the final preparations for bringing the University of Maryland's 10 GHz, 30 MW gyroklystron experiment on-line are discussed. We describe the initial operation of the modulator and the acceptance tests performed on the electron gun. We explain the enhanced circuit modelling and present a two-cavity design which predicts an efficiency of 33% and a gain of 27 dB. The realization of the design is also discussed. In addition, we briefly discuss the output waveguide and the diagnostics for beam and rf characterization. Finally, a four-cavity circuit design is presented with its predicted operating parameters that can achieve the necessary gain and efficiency required for accelerator application. 14 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. 120 MW, 800 MHz Magnicon for a Future Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-12-15

    Development of a pulsed magnicon at 800 MHz was carried out for the muon collider application, based on experience with similar amplifiers in the frequency range between 915 MHz and 34.3 GHz. Numerical simulations using proven computer codes were employed for the conceptual design, while established design technologies were incorporated into the engineering design. A cohesive design for the 800 MHz magnicon amplifier was carried out, including design of a 200 MW diode electron gun, design of the magnet system, optimization of beam dynamics including space charge effects in the transient and steady-state regimes, design of the drive, gain, and output cavities including an rf choke in the beam exit aperture, analysis of parasitic oscillations and design means to eliminate them, and design of the beam collector capable of 20 kW average power operation.

  14. Design of an Aeroelastically Tailored 10 MW Wind Turbine Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahle, Frederik; Tibaldi, Carlo; Pavese, Christian; McWilliam, Michael K.; Blasques, Jose P. A. A.; Hansen, Morten H.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents an integrated multidisciplinary wind turbine optimization framework utilizing state-of-the-art aeroelastic and strutural tools, capable of simultaneous design of the outer geometry and internal structure of the blade. The framework is utilized to design a 10 MW rotor constrained not to exceed the design loads of an existing reference wind turbine. The results show that through combined geometric tailoring of the internal structure and aerodynamic shape of the blade it is possible to achieve significant passive load alleviation that allows for a 9% longer blade with an increase in AEP of 8.7%, without increasing blade mass and without significant increases in ultimate and fatigue loads on the hub and tower.

  15. Differential Cross Sections for Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Dick, Frank; Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2009-01-01

    Proton-proton elastic scattering is investigated within the framework of the one pion exchange model in an attempt to model nucleon-nucleon interactions spanning the large range of energies important to cosmic ray shielding. A quantum field theoretic calculation is used to compute both differential and total cross sections. A scalar theory is then presented and compared to the one pion exchange model. The theoretical cross sections are compared to proton-proton scattering data to determine the validity of the models.

  16. Atypical soil behavior during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake ( Mw = 9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, Olga V.

    2016-07-01

    To understand physical mechanisms of generation of abnormally high peak ground acceleration (PGA; >1 g) during the Tohoku earthquake, models of nonlinear soil behavior in the strong motion were constructed for 27 KiK-net stations located in the near-fault zones to the south of FKSH17. The method of data processing used was developed by Pavlenko and Irikura, Pure Appl Geophys 160:2365-2379, 2003 and previously applied for studying soil behavior at vertical array sites during the 1995 Kobe (Mw = 6.8) and 2000 Tottori (Mw = 6.7) earthquakes. During the Tohoku earthquake, we did not observe a widespread nonlinearity of soft soils and reduction at the beginning of strong motion and recovery at the end of strong motion of shear moduli in soil layers, as usually observed during strong earthquakes. Manifestations of soil nonlinearity and reduction of shear moduli during strong motion were observed at sites located close to the source, in coastal areas. At remote sites, where abnormally high PGAs were recorded, shear moduli in soil layers increased and reached their maxima at the moments of the highest intensity of the strong motion, indicating soil hardening. Then, shear moduli reduced with decreasing the intensity of the strong motion. At soft-soil sites, the reduction of shear moduli was accompanied by a step-like decrease of the predominant frequencies of motion. Evidently, the observed soil hardening at the moments of the highest intensity of the strong motion contributed to the occurrence of abnormally high PGA, recorded during the Tohoku earthquake.

  17. R&D of A MW-class solid-target for a spallation neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Masayoshi; Furusaka, Michihiro; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kurishita, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Ryuzo; Li, Jing-Feng; Sugimoto, Katsuhisa; Yamamura, Tsutomu; Hiraoka, Yutaka; Abe, Katsunori; Hasegawa, Akira; Yoshiie, Masatoshi; Takenaka, Hiroyuki; Mishima, Katsuichiro; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki; Tanabe, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Naoaki; Igarashi, Tadashi

    2003-05-01

    R&D for a MW-class solid target composed of tungsten was undertaken to produce a pulsed intense neutron source for a future neutron scattering-facility. In order to solve the corrosion of tungsten, tungsten target blocks were clad with tantalum by means of HIP'ing, brazing and electrolytic coating in a molten salt bath. The applicability of the HIP'ing method was tested through fabricating target blocks for KENS (spallation neutron source at KEK). A further investigation to certify the optimum HIP conditions was made with the small punch test method. The results showed that the optimum temperature was 1500 °C at which the W/Ta interface gave the strongest fracture strength. In the case of the block with a hole for thermocouple, it was found that the fabrication preciseness of a straight hole and a tantalum sheath influenced the results. The development of a tungsten stainless-steel alloy was tried to produce a bare tungsten target, using techniques in powder metallurgy. Corrosion tests for various tungsten alloys were made while varying the water temperature and velocity. The mass loss of tungsten in very slow water at 180 °C was as low as 0.022 mg/y, but increased remarkably with water velocity. Simulation experiments for radiation damage to supplement the STIP-III experiments were made to investigate material hardening by hydrogen and helium, and microstructures irradiated by electrons. Both experiments showed consistent results on the order of the dislocation numbers and irradiation hardness among the different tungsten materials. Thermal-hydraulic designs were made for two types of solid target system of tungsten: slab and rod geometry as a function of the proton beam power. The neutronic performance of a solid target system was compared with that of mercury target based on Monte Carlo calculations by using the MCNP code.

  18. Proton irradiation and endometriosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, D.H.; Yochmowitz, M.G.; Salmon, Y.L.; Eason, R.L.; Boster, R.A.

    1983-08-01

    Female rhesus monkeys given single total-body exposures of protons of varying energies developed endometriosis at a frequency significantly higher than that of nonirradiated animals of the same age. The minimum latency period was 7 years after exposure. The doses and energies of the radiation received were within the range that could be received by an aircrew member in near-earth orbit during a random solar flare event, leading to the conclusion that endometriosis should be a consideration in assessing the risk of delayed radiation effects in female crewmembers.

  19. Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Patrick M.; Kouba, Coy K.; Foster, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    The Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation (PROPSET) program calculates the frequency of on-orbit upsets in computer chips (for given orbits such as Low Earth Orbit, Lunar Orbit, and the like) from proton bombardment based on the results of heavy ion testing alone. The software simulates the bombardment of modern microelectronic components (computer chips) with high-energy (.200 MeV) protons. The nuclear interaction of the proton with the silicon of the chip is modeled and nuclear fragments from this interaction are tracked using Monte Carlo techniques to produce statistically accurate predictions.

  20. Hydrogen bonding: a channel for protons to transfer through acid-base pairs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Huang, Chuanhui; Woo, Jung-Je; Wu, Dan; Yun, Sung-Hyun; Seo, Seok-Jun; Xu, Tongwen; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2009-09-10

    Different from H(3)O(+) transport as in the vehicle mechanism, protons find another channel to transfer through the poorly hydrophilic interlayers in a hydrated multiphase membrane. This membrane was prepared from poly(phthalazinone ether sulfone kentone) (SPPESK) and H(+)-form perfluorosulfonic resin (FSP), and poorly hydrophilic electrostatically interacted acid-base pairs constitute the interlayer between two hydrophilic phases (FSP and SPPESK). By hydrogen bonds forming and breaking between acid-base pairs and water molecules, protons transport directly through these poorly hydrophilic zones. The multiphase membrane, due to this unique transfer mechanism, exhibits better electrochemical performances during fuel cell tests than those of pure FSP and Nafion-112 membranes: 0.09-0.12 S cm(-1) of proton conductivity at 25 degrees C and 990 mW cm(-2) of the maximum power density at a current density of 2600 mA cm(-2) and a cell voltage of 0.38 V.

  1. INJECTOR PARTICLE SIMULATION AND BEAM TRANSPORT IN A COMPACT LINEAR PROTON ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Blackfield, D T; Chen, Y J; Harris, J; Nelson, S; Paul, A; Poole, B

    2007-06-18

    A compact Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), with field gradient up to 100 MW/m is being developed to accelerate proton bunches for use in cancer therapy treatment. The injector must create a proton pulse up to several hundred picoseconds, which is then shaped and accelerated with energies up to 250 MeV. The Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code LSP is used to model several aspects of this design. First, we use LSP to obtain the voltage waveform in the A-K gap that will produce a proton bunch with the requisite charge. We then model pulse compression and shaping in the section between the A-K gap and the DWA. We finally use LSP to model the beam transport through the DWA.

  2. Design and test of a 2.25-MW transformer rectifier assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cormier, R.; Daeges, J.

    1989-01-01

    A new 2.25-MW transformer rectifier assembly was fabricated for DSS-13 at Goldstone, California. The transformer rectifier will provide constant output power of 2.25 MW at any voltage from 31 kV to 125 kV. This will give a new capability of 1 MW of RF power at X-band, provided appropriate microwave tubes are in the power amplifier. A description of the design and test results is presented.

  3. Molecular cloning of pigeon UDP-galactose:beta-D-galactoside alpha1,4-galactosyltransferase and UDP-galactose:beta-D-galactoside beta1,4-galactosyltransferase, two novel enzymes catalyzing the formation of Gal alpha1-4Gal beta1-4Gal beta1-4GlcNAc sequence.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Noriko; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2010-02-19

    We previously found that pigeon IgG possesses unique N-glycan structures that contain the Gal alpha1-4Gal beta1-4Gal beta1-4GlcNAc sequence at their nonreducing termini. This sequence is most likely produced by putative alpha1,4- and beta1,4-galactosyltransferases (GalTs), which are responsible for the biosynthesis of the Gal alpha1-4Gal and Gal beta1-4Gal sequences on the N-glycans, respectively. Because no such glycan structures have been found in mammalian glycoproteins, the biosynthetic enzymes that produce these glycans are likely to have distinct substrate specificities from the known mammalian GalTs. To study these enzymes, we cloned the pigeon liver cDNAs encoding alpha4GalT and beta4GalT by expression cloning and characterized these enzymes using the recombinant proteins. The deduced amino acid sequence of pigeon alpha4GalT has 58.2% identity to human alpha4GalT and 68.0 and 66.6% identity to putative alpha4GalTs from chicken and zebra finch, respectively. Unlike human and putative chicken alpha4GalTs, which possess globotriosylceramide synthase activity, pigeon alpha4GalT preferred to catalyze formation of the Gal alpha1-4Gal sequence on glycoproteins. In contrast, the sequence of pigeon beta4GalT revealed a type II transmembrane protein consisting of 438 amino acid residues, with no significant homology to the glycosyltransferases so far identified from mammals and chicken. However, hypothetical proteins from zebra finch (78.8% identity), frogs (58.9-60.4%), zebrafish (37.1-43.0%), and spotted green pufferfish (43.3%) were similar to pigeon beta4GalT, suggesting that the pigeon beta4GalT gene was inherited from the common ancestors of these vertebrates. The sequence analysis revealed that pigeon beta4GalT and its homologs form a new family of glycosyltransferases.

  4. [Proton imaging applications for proton therapy: state of the art].

    PubMed

    Amblard, R; Floquet, V; Angellier, G; Hannoun-Lévi, J M; Hérault, J

    2015-04-01

    Proton therapy allows a highly precise tumour volume irradiation with a low dose delivered to the healthy tissues. The steep dose gradients observed and the high treatment conformity require a precise knowledge of the proton range in matter and the target volume position relative to the beam. Thus, proton imaging allows an improvement of the treatment accuracy, and thereby, in treatment quality. Initially suggested in 1963, radiographic imaging with proton is still not used in clinical routine. The principal difficulty is the lack of spatial resolution, induced by the multiple Coulomb scattering of protons with nuclei. Moreover, its realization for all clinical locations requires relatively high energies that are previously not considered for clinical routine. Abandoned for some time in favor of X-ray technologies, research into new imaging methods using protons is back in the news because of the increase of proton radiation therapy centers in the world. This article exhibits a non-exhaustive state of the art in proton imaging.

  5. Proton in SRF Niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, John Paul

    2011-03-31

    Hydrogen is a difficult impurity to physically deal with in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium, therefore, its properties in the metals should be well understood to allow the metal's superconducting properties to be optimized for minimum loss in the construction of resonant accelerator cavities. It is known that hydrogen is a paramagnetic impurity in niobium from NMR studies. This paramagnetism and its effect on superconducting properties are important to understand. To that end analytical induction measurements aimed at isolating the magnetic properties of hydrogen in SRF niobium are introduced along with optical reflection spectroscopy which is also sensitive to the presence of hydrogen. From the variety, magnitude and rapid kinetics found in the optical and magnetic properties of niobium contaminated with hydrogen forced a search for an atomic model. This yielded quantum mechanical description that correctly generates the activation energy for diffusion of the proton and its isotopes not only in niobium but the remaining metals for which data is available. This interpretation provides a frame work for understanding the individual and collective behavior of protons in metals.

  6. Berkeley Proton Linear Accelerator

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Alvarez, L. W.; Bradner, H.; Franck, J.; Gordon, H.; Gow, J. D.; Marshall, L. C.; Oppenheimer, F. F.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; Richman, C.; Woodyard, J. R.

    1953-10-13

    A linear accelerator, which increases the energy of protons from a 4 Mev Van de Graaff injector, to a final energy of 31.5 Mev, has been constructed. The accelerator consists of a cavity 40 feet long and 39 inches in diameter, excited at resonance in a longitudinal electric mode with a radio-frequency power of about 2.2 x 10{sup 6} watts peak at 202.5 mc. Acceleration is made possible by the introduction of 46 axial "drift tubes" into the cavity, which is designed such that the particles traverse the distance between the centers of successive tubes in one cycle of the r.f. power. The protons are longitudinally stable as in the synchrotron, and are stabilized transversely by the action of converging fields produced by focusing grids. The electrical cavity is constructed like an inverted airplane fuselage and is supported in a vacuum tank. Power is supplied by 9 high powered oscillators fed from a pulse generator of the artificial transmission line type.

  7. Carbofuran degradation by the application of MW-assisted H₂O₂ process.

    PubMed

    Remya, Neelancherry; Lin, Jih-Gaw

    2011-01-01

    Carbofuran removal performance of a microwave (MW)-assisted H₂O₂ system under different MW-power levels (300-900 W) was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted at 100 mg/L carbofuran concentration using a modified-MW reactor with 2450 MHz of fixed frequency. As a precursor, control experiments were carried out with H₂O₂ alone, MW alone and conventional heating (CH). A maximum carbofuran removal of 14 % was observed in both H₂O₂ alone and CH systems. On the other hand, only 2 % removal was observed in the MW alone system irrespective of the operation-mode, i.e. continuous or pulsed. The combination of MW and H₂O₂ produced 100 % carbofuran removal in all the MW-assisted experiments. The MW-assisted system operated under continuous-mode and at 750 W has showed rapid carbofuran degradation, i.e. 30 sec, with the highest first-order removal rate constant of 25.82/min. However, 97 % carbon oxygen demand (COD) removal was observed in the same system only after 30 min. On the other hand, 100 % carbofuran removal and 49 % COD removal were observed in the pulsed-mode MW-assisted H₂O₂ system after 10 and 30 min, respectively. Carbofuran mineralization in the system was evidenced by the formation of ammonium and nitrate, and carbofuran intermediates.

  8. Emission of neutron-proton and proton-proton pairs in neutrino scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Simo, I.; Amaro, J. E.; Barbaro, M. B.; De Pace, A.; Caballero, J. A.; Megias, G. D.; Donnelly, T. W.

    2016-11-01

    We use a recently developed model of relativistic meson-exchange currents to compute the neutron-proton and proton-proton yields in (νμ ,μ-) scattering from 12C in the 2p-2h channel. We compute the response functions and cross sections with the relativistic Fermi gas model for different kinematics from intermediate to high momentum transfers. We find a large contribution of neutron-proton configurations in the initial state, as compared to proton-proton pairs. In the case of charge-changing neutrino scattering the 2p-2h cross section of proton-proton emission (i.e., np in the initial state) is much larger than for neutron-proton emission (i.e., two neutrons in the initial state) by a (ω , q)-dependent factor. The different emission probabilities of distinct species of nucleon pairs are produced in our model only by meson-exchange currents, mainly by the Δ isobar current. We also analyze other effects including exchange contributions and the effect of the axial and vector currents.

  9. Thermostability enhancement of an endo-1,4-β-galactanase from Talaromyces stipitatus by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Dorte M; Nyffenegger, Christian; Swiniarska, Maria M; Thygesen, Anders; Strube, Mikael L; Meyer, Anne S; Mikkelsen, Jørn D

    2015-05-01

    Enzymatic conversion of pectinaceous biomasses such as potato and sugar beet pulp at high temperatures is advantageous as it gives rise to lower substrate viscosity, easier mixing, and increased substrate solubility and lowers the risk of contamination. Such high-temperature processing requires development of thermostable enzymes. Talaromyces stipitatus was found to secrete endo-1,4-β-galactanase when grown on sugar beet pectin as sole carbon source. The mature protein contained 353 AA and the MW was estimated to 36.5 kDa. It was subjected to codon optimization and produced in Pichia pastoris in 2 l scale yielding 5.3 g. The optimal reaction condition for the endo-1,4-β-galactanase was determined to be 46 °C at pH 4.5 at which the specific activity was estimated to be 6.93 μmol/min/mg enzyme with half-lives of 13 and 2 min at 55 and 60 °C, respectively. For enhancement of the half-life of TSGAL, nine single amino acid residues were selected for site-directed mutagenesis on the basis of semi-rational design. Of these nine mutants, G305A showed half-lives of 114 min at 55 °C and 15 min at 60 °C, respectively. This is 8.6-fold higher than that of the TSGAL at 55 °C, whereas the other mutants displayed moderate positive to negative changes in their half-lives.

  10. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor subtypes differentially recognize regioisomers of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, M; Takeuchi, H; Riley, A M; Mills, S J; Watanabe, Y; Potter, B V

    1997-01-01

    The Ins(1,4,5)P3 regioisomers, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3, which can mimic the 1,4,5-arrangement on the inositol ring of Ins(1,4,5)P3, were examined for Ca2+ release by using four types of saponin-permeabilized cell possessing various abundances of receptor subtypes, with special reference to the relation of potency to receptor subtype. Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 were weak agonists in rat basophilic leukaemic cells (RBL cells), which possess predominantly subtype II receptors, with respective potencies of 1/200 and less than 1/500 that of Ins(1,4,5)P3 [the EC50 values were 0.2, 45 and more than 100 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively]. Similar rank order potencies were also evaluated for the displacement of [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 bound to RBL cell membranes by these regioisomers. However, they caused Ca2+ release from GH3 rat pituitary cells possessing predominantly subtype I receptors more potently; Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 evoked release at respective concentrations of only one-third and one-twentieth that of Ins(1,4,5)P3 (the EC50 values were 0.4, 1.2 and 8 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively). In COS-1 African green-monkey kidney cells, with the relative abundances of 37% of the subtype II and of 62% of the subtype III receptor, potencies of 1/40 and approx. 1/200 for Ins(1, 4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively were exhibited relative to Ins(1,4,5)P3 (the EC50 values were 0.4, 15 and approx. 80 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively). In HL-60 human leukaemic cells, in spite of the dominant presence of subtype I receptors (71%), similar respective potencies to those seen with COS-1 cells were exhibited (the EC50 values were 0.3, 15 and approx. 100 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively). These results indicate that these regioisomers are the first ligands that distinguish between receptor subtypes; the present observations are of

  11. 40 CFR 180.1142 - 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the residues of the plant growth regulator, 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene (1,4-DMN), when applied postharvest to all sprouting...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1142 - 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the residues of the plant growth regulator, 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene (1,4-DMN), when applied postharvest to all sprouting...

  13. Fragmentation pathways of protonated peptides.

    PubMed

    Paizs, Béla; Suhai, Sándor

    2005-01-01

    The fragmentation pathways of protonated peptides are reviewed in the present paper paying special attention to classification of the known fragmentation channels into a simple hierarchy defined according to the chemistry involved. It is shown that the 'mobile proton' model of peptide fragmentation can be used to understand the MS/MS spectra of protonated peptides only in a qualitative manner rationalizing differences observed for low-energy collision induced dissociation of peptide ions having or lacking a mobile proton. To overcome this limitation, a deeper understanding of the dissociation chemistry of protonated peptides is needed. To this end use of the 'pathways in competition' (PIC) model that involves a detailed energetic and kinetic characterization of the major peptide fragmentation pathways (PFPs) is proposed. The known PFPs are described in detail including all the pre-dissociation, dissociation, and post-dissociation events. It is our hope that studies to further extend PIC will lead to semi-quantative understanding of the MS/MS spectra of protonated peptides which could be used to develop refined bioinformatics algorithms for MS/MS based proteomics. Experimental and computational data on the fragmentation of protonated peptides are reevaluated from the point of view of the PIC model considering the mechanism, energetics, and kinetics of the major PFPs. Evidence proving semi-quantitative predictability of some of the ion intensity relationships (IIRs) of the MS/MS spectra of protonated peptides is presented. PMID:15389847

  14. Proton Collimators for Fusion Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu

    2003-01-01

    Proton collimators have been proposed for incorporation into inertial-electrostatic-confinement (IEC) fusion reactors. Such reactors have been envisioned as thrusters and sources of electric power for spacecraft and as sources of energetic protons in commercial ion-beam applications.

  15. Kinetic Effects Of Increased Proton Transfer Distance On Proton-Coupled Oxidations Of Phenol-Amines

    PubMed Central

    Rhile, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    To test the effect of varying the proton donor-acceptor distance in proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions, the oxidation of a bicyclic amino-indanol (2) is compared with that of a closely related phenol with an ortho CPh2NH2 substituent (1). Spectroscopic, structural, thermochemical and computational studies show that the two amino-phenols are very similar, except that the O⋯N distance (dON) is >0.1 Å longer in 2 than in 1. The difference in dON is 0.13 ± 0.03 Å from X-ray crystallography and 0.165 Å from DFT calculations. Oxidations of these phenols by outer-sphere oxidants yield distonic radical cations •OAr–NH3+ by concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET). Simple tunneling and classical kinetic models both predict that the longer donor-acceptor distance in 2 should lead to slower reactions, by ca. two orders of magnitude, as well as larger H/D kinetic isotope effects (KIEs). However, kinetic studies show that the compound with the longer proton-transfer distance, 2, exhibits smaller KIEs and has rate constants that are quite close to those of 1. For example, the oxidation of 2 by the triarylamminium radical cation N(C6H4OMe)3•+ (3a+) occurs at (1.4 ± 0.1) × 104 M-1 s-1, only a factor of two slower than the closely related reaction of 1 with N(C6H4OMe)2(C6H4Br)•+ (3b+). This difference in rate constants is well accounted for by the slightly different free energies of reaction: ΔG°(2 + 3a+) = +0.078 V vs. ΔG°(1 + 3b+) = +0.04 V. The two phenol-amines do display some subtle kinetic differences: for instance, compound 2 has a shallower dependence of CPET rate constants on driving force (Brønsted α, Δln(k)/Δln(Keq)). These results show that the simple tunneling model is not a good predictor of the effect of proton donor-acceptor distance on concerted-electron transfer reactions involving strongly hydrogen-bonded systems. Computational analysis of the observed similarity of the two phenols emphasizes the importance of the highly

  16. Design of a 100 MW X-band klystron

    SciTech Connect

    Eppley, K.

    1989-02-01

    Future linear colliders will require klystrons with higher peak power at higher frequency than are currently in use. SLAC is currently designing a 100 MW klystron at 11.4 GHz as a prototype for such a tube. The gun has been designed for 440 KV and 510 amps. Transporting this beam through a 5 mm radius X-band drift tube presents the major design problem. The area convergence ratio of 190 to one is over ten times higher than is found in conventional klystrons. Even with high magnetic fields of 6 to 7 kilogauss careful matching is required to prevent excessive scalloping. Extensive EGUN and CONDOR simulations have been made to optimize the transmission and rf efficiency. The EGUN simulations indicate that better matching is possible by using resonant magnetic focusing. CONDOR calculations indicate efficiencies of 45 percent are possible with a double output cavity. We will discuss the results of the simulations and the status of the experimental program. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Exergy analysis and simulation of a 30MW cogeneration cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, Nikhil; Samsher; Kachhwaha, S. S.; Attri, Rajesh

    2013-06-01

    Cogeneration cycle is an efficient mean to recover the waste heat from the flue gases coming out of gas turbine. With the help of computer simulation, design parameters may be selected for the best performance of cogeneration cycle. In the present work a program is executed in software EES on the basis of mathematical modelling described in paper to study cogeneration cycle performance for different parameters. Results obtained are compared with the results available in literature and are found in good agreement with them. Real gas and water properties are inbuilt in the software. Results show that enthalpy of air entering the combustion chamber is higher than that of the flue gases at combustion chamber outlet. For different operative conditions, energy and exergy efficiencies follow similar trends; although, exergy efficiency values are always lower than the corresponding energy efficiency ones. From the results it is found that turbine outlet temperature (TIT) of 524°C is uniquely suited to efficient cogeneration cycle because it enables the transfer of heat from exhaust gas to the steam cycle to take place over a minimal temperature difference. This temperature range results in the maximum thermodynamic availability while operating with highest temperature and highest efficiency cogeneration cycle. Effect of cycle pressure ratio (CR), inlet air temperature (IAT) and water pressure at heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) inlet on the 30MW cogeneration cycle is also studied.

  18. Fuel strategy for 2 MW SF-TMSR

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zhiyong; Lin, Jun; Cao, Changqing; Zhang, Haiqing; Zhu, Tianbao; Li, Xiaoyun

    2013-07-01

    China has launched a series of projects for developing high performance nuclear energy systems. The 2 MW solid fuel thorium based molten salt reactor (TMSR-SF) is one of these projects, which uses TRISO fuel elements as the fuel carrier and the FLiBe molten salt (2LiF-BeF{sub 2}) as the coolant. TRISO fuel elements have been well developed in respect to manufacturing, testing experiments inside and outside reactors as well as their successful application in HTGRs. The application of LEU (low enriched uranium) spherical TRISO fuel elements in TMSR-SF can be safely conducted through careful control of temperature and power density. Although the soaking of molten salt into graphite has shown no damage to the graphite material as experienced by ORNL group in the sixties last century, the compatibility of FLiBe salt with graphite covering of the fuel elements should be tested before the application. It is expected that TMSR-SF can be an appropriate test reactor for high performance fuel element development. (authors)

  19. Development of a 50 MW Multiple Beam Klystron

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, R Lawrence; Ferguson, Patrick; Read, Michael; Collins, George

    2007-10-31

    The goal of this program was to develop a 50 MW, multiple beam klystron at 11.424 GHz. The device uses eight electron guns and beam lines to achieve the required power level at a beam voltage of 190 kV, consistent with solid state power supplies. The electron gun operates with confined flow focusing, which is unique among current multiple beam sources, and allows operation at power levels consistent with producing 10s of MWs of pulsed RF power. The circuit consists of a ring resonator input cavity, eight sets of buncher cavities, and a ring resonator output cavity. The RF output power is coupled into four rectangular waveguides equally spaced around the klystron. Eight individual collectors absorb the spent beam power in each beam. The klystron operates in a solenoid. The principle challenges in the design included development of the beam optics using confined flow focusing, shaping of the magnetic field in the gun region to avoid beam spiraling, coupling input power equally to all eight beam lines from a single input, and obtaining the required frequency and Q in the output cavity. The mechanical design was particularly complex due to the large parts count, number of braze and weld joints, and close proximity of the beam lines that limited access. Addressing vacuum leaks and cold testing the complex structures was particularly troublesome. At the conclusion of the program, the klystron is experiencing several vacuum leaks that are under repair. Efforts will continue to seal and test the klystron.

  20. NASA Ames Research Center 60 MW Power Supply Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choy, Yuen Ching; Ilinets, Boris V.; Miller, Ted; Nagel, Kirsten (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center 60 MW DC Power Supply was built in 1974 to provide controlled DC power for the Thermophysics Facility Arc Jet Laboratory. The Power Supply has gradually losing reliability due to outdated technology and component life limitation. NASA has decided to upgrade the existing rectifier modules with contemporary high-power electronics and control equipment. NASA plans to complete this project in 2001. This project includes a complete replacement of obsolete thyristor stacks in all six rectifier modules and rectifier bridge control system. High power water-cooled thyristors and freewheeling diodes will be used. The rating of each of the six modules will be 4000 A at 5500 V. The control firing angle signal will be sent from the Facility Control System to six modules via fiberoptic cable. The Power Supply control and monitoring system will include a Master PLC in the Facility building and a Slave PLC in each rectifier module. This system will also monitor each thyristor level in each stack and the auxiliary equipment.

  1. 49 CFR 173.64 - Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks. 173... § 173.64 Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks. (a) Notwithstanding the requirements of § 173.56(b), Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks (see § 173.65 for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks) may...

  2. 49 CFR 173.64 - Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks. 173... § 173.64 Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks. (a) Notwithstanding the requirements of § 173.56(b), Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks (see § 173.65 for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks) may...

  3. Proton therapy for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Romaine C; Huh, Soon; Li, Zuofeng; Rutenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is commonly offered to patients with pancreatic malignancies although its ultimate utility is compromised since the pancreas is surrounded by exquisitely radiosensitive normal tissues, such as the duodenum, stomach, jejunum, liver, and kidneys. Proton radiotherapy can be used to create dose distributions that conform to tumor targets with significant normal tissue sparing. Because of this, protons appear to represent a superior modality for radiotherapy delivery to patients with unresectable tumors and those receiving postoperative radiotherapy. A particularly exciting opportunity for protons also exists for patients with resectable and marginally resectable disease. In this paper, we review the current literature on proton therapy for pancreatic cancer and discuss scenarios wherein the improvement in the therapeutic index with protons may have the potential to change the management paradigm for this malignancy. PMID:26380057

  4. 47 CFR 27.806 - 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding. 27.806 Section 27.806 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.806 1.4 GHz...

  5. 47 CFR 27.806 - 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding. 27.806 Section 27.806 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.806 1.4 GHz...

  6. 47 CFR 27.806 - 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding. 27.806 Section 27.806 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.806 1.4 GHz...

  7. 17 CFR 240.11a1-4(T) - Bond transactions on national securities exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond transactions on national securities exchanges. 240.11a1-4(T) Section 240.11a1-4(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND....11a1-4(T) Bond transactions on national securities exchanges. A transaction in a bond, note,...

  8. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-2 - Site nomination for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site nomination for characterization. 960.3-1-4-2 Section 960.3-1-4-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-2 Site nomination...

  9. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  10. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  11. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-1 - Site identification as potentially acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site identification as potentially acceptable. 960.3-1-4-1 Section 960.3-1-4-1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-1 Site...

  12. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  13. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  14. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  15. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  16. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  17. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-1 - Site identification as potentially acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Site identification as potentially acceptable. 960.3-1-4-1 Section 960.3-1-4-1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-1 Site...

  18. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  19. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  20. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  1. 47 CFR 27.806 - 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding. 27.806 Section 27.806 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.806 1.4 GHz...

  2. 47 CFR 27.806 - 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding. 27.806 Section 27.806 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.806 1.4 GHz...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN...

  13. 49 CFR 174.115 - Loading Division 1.4 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loading Division 1.4 (explosive) materials. 174... RAIL Class I (Explosive) Materials § 174.115 Loading Division 1.4 (explosive) materials. (a) Division 1... car in good condition. Car certificates are not required. Packages of Division 1.4...

  14. 20 CFR 1.4 - Where are other rules concerning OWCP functions found?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Where are other rules concerning OWCP functions found? 1.4 Section 1.4 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PERFORMANCE OF FUNCTIONS § 1.4 Where are other rules concerning...

  15. 20 CFR 1.4 - Where are other rules concerning OWCP functions found?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Where are other rules concerning OWCP functions found? 1.4 Section 1.4 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PERFORMANCE OF FUNCTIONS § 1.4 Where are other rules concerning...

  16. 43 CFR 8365.1-4 - Public health, safety and comfort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public health, safety and comfort. 8365.1-4 Section 8365.1-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... § 8365.1-4 Public health, safety and comfort. (a) No person shall cause a public disturbance or create...

  17. The proton (nuclear) microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legge, G. J. F.

    1989-04-01

    The scanning proton microprobe (SPMP) is closely related to the scanning electron microprobe (SEMP) or scanning electron microscope (SEM) with X-ray detector. Though the much greater elemental sensitivity of the SPMP is inherent in the physics, the generally inferior spatial resolution of the SPMP is not inherent and big improvements are possible, As its alternative name would imply, the SPMP is often used with heavier particle beams and with nuclear rather than atomic reactions. Its versatility and quantitative accuracy have justified greater instrumentation and computer power than that associated with other microprobes. It is fast becoming an industrially and commercially important instrument and there are few fields of scientific research in which it has not played a part. Notable contributions have been made in biology, medicine, agriculture, semiconductors, geology, mineralogy, extractive metallurgy, new materials, archaeology, forensic science, catalysis, industrial problems and reactor technology.

  18. Ion-proton pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, P. B.

    2016-07-01

    Evidence derived with minimal assumptions from existing published observations is presented to show that an ion-proton plasma is the source of radio-frequency emission in millisecond and in normal isolated pulsars. There is no primary involvement of electron-positron pairs. This conclusion has also been reached by studies of the plasma composition based on well-established particle-physics processes in neutron stars with positive polar-cap corotational charge density. This work has been published in a series of papers which are also summarized here. It is now confirmed by simple analyses of the observed radio-frequency characteristics, and its implications for the further study of neutron stars are outlined.

  19. Gradients from GOCE reveal gravity changes before Pisagua Mw = 8.2 and Iquique Mw = 7.7 large megathrust earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, Orlando; Nacif, Silvina; Spagnotto, Silvana; Folguera, Andres; Gimenez, Mario; Chlieh, Mohamed; Braitenberg, Carla

    2015-12-01

    Considerable improvements in the measurement of the Earth gravity field from GOCE satellite mission have provided global gravity field models with homogeneous coverage, high precision and good spatial resolution. In particular, the vertical gravity gradient (Tzz), in comparison to the classic Bouguer anomaly, defines more accurately superficial mass heterogeneities. Moreover, the correction of these satellite-derived data from the effect of Earth topographic masses by means of new techniques taking into account the Earth curvature, improves results in regional analyses. In a recent work we found a correlation between Tzz and slip distribution for the 2010 Maule Mw = 8.8 earthquake. In the present work, we derive the vertical gravity gradient from the last GOCE only model, corrected by the topographic effect and also by the sediments on depocenters of the offshore region at the Peru-Chile margin, in order to study a spatial relationship between different lobes of the gravity derived signal and the seismic sources of large megathrust earthquakes. In particular, we analyze this relation for the slip models of the 1996 Mw = 7.7 Nazca, 2001 Mw = 8.4 Arequipa, 2007 Mw = 8.0 Pisco events and for the slip models of the 2014 Mw = 8.2 Pisagua and Mw = 7.7 Iquique earthquakes from Schurr et al. (2014), including the previously analyzed 2010 Mw = 8.8 Maule event. Then we find a good correlation between vertical gravity gradients and main rupture zones, correlation that becomes even stronger as the event magnitude increases. Besides this, a gravity fall in the gravity gradient was noticed over the area of the main slip patches at least for the two years before 2014 Mw = 8.2 Pisagua and Mw = 7.7 Iquique earthquakes. Additionally, we found temporal variations of the gravity field after 2010 Mw = 8.8 Maule event, related to the main patches of the slip distribution, and coseismic deformation. Therefore, we analyzed vertical gravity gradient field variations as an indirect measure

  20. Cloning and expression analysis of cysteine protease gene (MwCP) in Agropyron mongolicum Keng.

    PubMed

    Ao, T G B Y; Lang, M L; Li, Y Q; Zhao, Y; Wang, L C; Yang, X J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a cysteine protease gene (MwCP) from Agropyron mongolicum Keng was isolated using RACE. Sequence analysis indicated that MwCP was 1473 bp, and it contained a 1134-bp open reading frame, which encoded 377 amino acids with a 24-amino acid N-terminal signal peptide. The results indicated that the MwCP protein was a new member of the papain C1A family, and it was predicted to be an extracellular, secretory stable hydrophilic protein. The secondary structure of MwCP was mainly composed of α-helices and random coils, and the space structure primarily contained α-helices, β-sheets, and β-turns. Homology analyses showed the 98% homology between MwCP amino acids and a cysteine protease found in Triticum aestivum (GenBank accession No. AAW21813.1). Analysis of mRNA using semi-quantitative RT-PCR indicated that during a 48-h drought stress period, MwCP was expressed during the 4th hour, and the expression level peaked during the 6th hour before declining to the original level. The results revealed that MwCP was involved in drought-resistant physiological processes of A. mongolicum. Moreover, the MwCP expression levels were highest in leaves, intermediate in roots, and lowest in stems. PMID:26909915

  1. Proton Affinity of Isomeric Dipeptides Containing Lysine and Non-Proteinogenic Lysine Homologues.

    PubMed

    Batoon, Patrick; Ren, Jianhua

    2016-08-18

    Conformational effects on the proton affinity of oligopeptides have been studied using six alanine (A)-based acetylated dipeptides containing a basic probe that is placed closest to either the C- or the N-terminus. The basic probe includes Lysine (Lys) and two nonproteinogenic Lys-homologues, ornithine (Orn) and 2,3-diaminopropionic acid (Dap). The proton affinities of the peptides have been determined using the extended Cooks kinetic method in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Computational studies have been carried out to search for the lowest energy conformers and to calculate theoretical proton affinities as well as various molecular properties using the density functional theory. The dipeptides containing a C-terminal probe, ALys, AOrn, and ADap, were determined to have a higher proton affinity by 1-4 kcal/mol than the corresponding dipeptides containing an N-terminal probe, LysA, OrnA, and DapA. For either the C-probe peptides or the N-probe peptides, the proton affinity reduces systematically as the side-chain of the probe residue is shortened. The difference in the proton affinities between isomeric peptides is largely associated with the variation of the conformations. The peptides with higher values of the proton affinity adopt a relatively compact conformation such that the protonated peptides can be stabilized through more efficient internal solvation. PMID:27459294

  2. Methoxylation of Singly Bonded 1,4-1',4'-BnC60-C60Bn Dimer: Preferential Formation of 1,4-C60 Adduct with Sterically Less Demanding Addends and Stability Difference between 1,2- and 1,4-OMe(Bn)C60.

    PubMed

    He, Fa-Gui; Li, Zong-Jun; Gao, Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Methoxylation of the singly bonded 1,4-1',4'-BnC60-C60Bn dimer afforded 1,4-OMe(Bn)C60, a 1,4-C60 adduct with sterically less demanding addends, as the major adduct. The situation was different from that of direct functionalization of C60, where 1,2-OMe(Bn)C60 was obtained as the major product. The reaction was studied with in situ vis-NIR spectroscopy and computational calculations to obtain a better understanding of this unusual regioselectivity. The stability difference between 1,2- and 1,4-OMe(Bn)C60 was studied. PMID:27387300

  3. Occurrence of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor 1,4-Dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol and related iminopentitols in marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Saludes, Jonel P; Lievens, Sarah C; Molinski, Tadeusz F

    2007-03-01

    The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol (1) was isolated from two marine sponges collected in Western Australia and shown by LC-MS to be responsible for the alpha-glycosidase inhibitory activity in different sponge extracts collected over a wide geographic area. The configuration of 1 was determined by application of Marfey's method. The two most inhibitory extracts contained only 1, while the less inhibitory extracts contained 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-xylitol (2) or the putative diastereomeric imino pentitols 3 and 4. The least active or inactive extracts showed no detectable imino pentitols. While both 1 and 2 are known from plants, this is the first report on the isolation and detection of 1 and 2 in marine invertebrates.

  4. Nazarov cyclization of 1,4-pentadien-3-ols: preparation of cyclopenta[b]indoles and spiro[indene-1,4'-quinoline]s.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiming; Xu, Xingzhu; Gu, Zhanshou; Feng, Wei; Qian, Houjun; Li, Zhengyi; Sun, Xiaoqiang; Kwon, Ohyun

    2016-02-14

    The first Lewis acid-catalyzed intramolecular interrupted Nazarov cyclization of 1,4-pentadien-3-ols is described. Using FeBr3 as the catalyst, a series of new substituted cyclopenta[b]indoles was prepared-through a sequence of Nazarov cyclization, nucleophilic amination, and isomerization-with good yields and high diastereo- and regioselectivities. A similar catalytic process was also developed for the synthesis of structurally interesting spiro[indene-1,4'-quinoline]s. PMID:26771024

  5. RHIC Polarized proton operation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I.G.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoian, G.; Bai, M.; Bazilevsky, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Brown, K.A.; Bruno, D.; Connolly, R.; Dion, A.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drees, K.A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J.W.; Gu, X.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.L.; Laster, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.J.; Marusic, A.; Meot, F.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R,; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ranjibar, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; J.; Severino, F.; Schmidke, B.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K.; Steski, D.; Svirida, D.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. Wang, G.; Wilinski, M.; Yip, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) operation as the polarized proton collider presents unique challenges since both luminosity(L) and spin polarization(P) are important. With longitudinally polarized beams at the experiments, the figure of merit is LP{sup 4}. A lot of upgrades and modifications have been made since last polarized proton operation. A 9 MHz rf system is installed to improve longitudinal match at injection and to increase luminosity. The beam dump was upgraded to increase bunch intensity. A vertical survey of RHIC was performed before the run to get better magnet alignment. The orbit control is also improved this year. Additional efforts are put in to improve source polarization and AGS polarization transfer efficiency. To preserve polarization on the ramp, a new working point is chosen such that the vertical tune is near a third order resonance. The overview of the changes and the operation results are presented in this paper. Siberian snakes are essential tools to preserve polarization when accelerating polarized beams to higher energy. At the same time, the higher order resonances still can cause polarization loss. As seen in RHIC, the betatron tune has to be carefully set and maintained on the ramp and during the store to avoid polarization loss. In addition, the orbit control is also critical to preserve polarization. The higher polarization during this run comes from several improvements over last run. First we have a much better orbit on the ramp. The orbit feedback brings down the vertical rms orbit error to 0.1mm, much better than the 0.5mm last run. With correct BPM offset and vertical realignment, this rms orbit error is indeed small. Second, the jump quads in the AGS improved input polarization for RHIC. Third, the vertical tune was pushed further away from 7/10 snake resonance. The tune feedback maintained the tune at the desired value through the ramp. To calibrate the analyzing power of RHIC polarimeters at any energy above

  6. Where is the proton's spin

    SciTech Connect

    Close, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    There has been much recent excitement arising from the claim by the EMC collaboration that none of the proton's spin is carried by quarks. There are many textbooks, including those written by some members of this audience, which assert that the proton's spin is carried by quarks. I will review the history of deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons from polarized protons, culminating in this most recent dramatic claim. I will show that, for the last decade, data have appeared consistent with predictions of the quark model and highlight what the new and potentially exciting data are. I will conclude with suggestions for the future. 33 refs.

  7. Eta Meson Production in Proton-Proton and Nuclear Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Total cross sections for eta meson production in proton - proton collisions are calculated. The eta meson is mainly produced via decay of the excited nucleon resonance at 1535 MeV. A scalar quantum field theory is used to calculate cross sections, which also include resonance decay. Comparison between theory and experiment is problematic near threshold when resonance decay is not included. When the decay is included, the comparison between theory and experiment is much better.

  8. Sulphonated imidized graphene oxide (SIGO) based polymer electrolyte membrane for improved water retention, stability and proton conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Ravi P.; Shahi, Vinod K.

    2015-12-01

    Sulphonated imidized graphene oxide (SIGO) (graphene oxide (GO) tethered sulphonated polyimide) has been successfully synthesized by polycondensation reaction using dianhydride and sulphonated diamine. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) are prepared by using SIGO (different wt%) and sulphonated poly(imide) (SPI). Resultant SPI/SIGO composite PEMs exhibit improved stabilities (thermal, mechanical and oxidative) and good water-retention properties (high bound water content responsible for proton conduction at high temperature by internal self-humidification). Incorporation of covalent bonded SIGO into SPI matrix results hydrophobic-hydrophilic phase separation and facile architecture of proton conducting path. Well optimized sulphonated poly(imide)/sulphonated imidized graphene oxide (15 wt%) (SPI/SIGO-15) composite membrane shows 2.24 meq g-1 ion-exchange capacity (IEC); 11.38 × 10-2 S cm-1 proton conductivity; 5.12% bound water content; and 10.52 × 10-7 cm2 s-1 methanol permeability. Maximum power density for pristine SPI membrane (57.12 mW cm-2) improves to 78.53 mW cm-2 for SPI/SIGO-15 membrane, in single-cell direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) test at 70 °C using 2 M methanol fuel. Under similar experimental conditions, Nafion 117 membrane exhibits 62.40 mW cm-2 maximum power density. Reported strategy for the preparation of PEMs, offers a useful protocol for grafting of functionalized inorganic materials with in organic polymer chain by imidization.

  9. Investigation of continuous wave and pulsed laser performance based on Nd3+:Gd0.6Y1.4SiO5 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chao; Liu, Zhaojun; Cong, Zhenhua; Shen, Hongbin; Li, Yongfu; Wang, Qingpu; Fang, Jiaxiong; Xu, Xiaodong; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Xingyu

    2015-12-01

    We systematically investigated a laser diode (LD) pumped Nd:GYSO (Nd3+:Gd0.6Y1.4SiO5) laser. The output power of the continuous wave laser was as high as 3.5 W with a slope efficiency of 31.8%. In the Q-switched operation; the laser exhibited dual-wavelengths output (1073.6 nm and 1074.7 nm) synchronously with a Cr4+:YAG as the saturable absorber (SA). Additionally, a passively mode-locked laser was demonstrated using a semiconductor SA mirror with a maximum average output power of 510 mW at a central wavelength of 1074 nm, while the pulse width of the laser was as short as 5 ps. Our experiment proved that the Nd:GYSO mixed crystal was a promising material for a solid-state laser.

  10. High intensity proton synchrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craddock, M. K.

    1986-10-01

    Strong initiatives are being pursued in a number of countries for the construction of ``kaon factory'' synchrotrons capable of producing 100 times more intense proton beams than those available now from machines such as the Brookhaven AGS and CERN PS. Such machines would yield equivalent increases in the fluxes of secondary particles (kaons, pions, muons, antiprotons, hyperons and neutrinos of all varieties)—or cleaner beams for a smaller increase in flux—opening new avenues to various fundamental questions in both particle and nuclear physics. Major areas of investigation would be rare decay modes, CP violation, meson and hadron spectroscopy, antinucleon interactions, neutrino scattering and oscillations, and hypernuclear properties. Experience with the pion factories has already shown how high beam intensities make it possible to explore the ``precision frontier'' with results complementary to those achievable at the ``energy frontier''. This paper will describe proposals for upgrading and AGS and for building kaon factories in Canada, Europe, Japan and the United States, emphasizing the novel aspects of accelerator design required to achieve the desired performance (typically 100 μA at 30 GeV).

  11. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, Dave; Gagliardi, Christopher J.; Hull, Jonathan F; Murphy, Christine Fecenko; Kent, Caleb A.; Westlake, Brittany C.; Paul, Amit; Ess, Daniel H; McCafferty, Dewey Granville; Meyer, Thomas J

    2012-07-11

    Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer (PCET) describes reactions in which there is a change in both electron and proton content between reactants and products. It originates from the influence of changes in electron content on acid-base properties and provides a molecular-level basis for energy transduction between proton transfer and electron transfer. Coupled electron-proton transfer or EPT is defined as an elementary step in which electrons and protons transfer from different orbitals on the donor to different orbitals on the acceptor. There is (usually) a clear distinction between EPT and H-atom transfer (HAT) or hydride transfer, in which the transferring electrons and proton come from the same bond. Hybrid mechanisms exist in which the elementary steps are different for the reaction partners. EPT pathways such as PhO•/PhOH exchange have much in common with HAT pathways in that electronic coupling is significant, comparable to the reorganization energy with H{sub DA} ~ λ. Multiple-Site Electron-Proton Transfer (MS-EPT) is an elementary step in which an electron-proton donor transfers electrons and protons to different acceptors, or an electron-proton acceptor accepts electrons and protons from different donors. It exploits the long-range nature of electron transfer while providing for the short-range nature of proton transfer. A variety of EPT pathways exist, creating a taxonomy based on what is transferred, e.g., 1e-/2H+ MS-EPT. PCET achieves “redox potential leveling” between sequential couples and the buildup of multiple redox equivalents, which is of importance in multielectron catalysis. There are many examples of PCET and pH-dependent redox behavior in metal complexes, in organic and biological molecules, in excited states, and on surfaces. Changes in pH can be used to induce electron transfer through films and over long distances in molecules. Changes in pH, induced by local electron transfer, create pH gradients and a driving

  12. Interplanetary Proton Model: JPL 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, J.; Spitale, G.; Wang, J.

    1993-01-01

    This study was carried out to increase the acuracy and energy range of predictive models of interplanetary proton fluences. Such an estimate is often needed when spacecraft spend a signigicant amount of time in the interplanetary environmnet.

  13. POLARIZED PROTON COLLISIONS AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    BAI, M.; AHRENS, L.; ALEKSEEV, I.G.; ALESSI, J.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC. In 2002, polarized proton beams were first accelerated to 100 GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. Optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limited conditions are reported.

  14. Landscape response to the Mw7.9 Gorkha earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K. L.; Turowski, J. M.; Andermann, C.; Behling, R.; Emberson, R.; Hovius, N.; Marc, O.; Motagh, M.; Roessner, S.; Sens-Schoenfelder, C.; Gallen, S. F.; Lupker, M.

    2015-12-01

    Strong earthquakes cause transient perturbations of the near Earth's surface system. These include the widespread landsliding and subsequent mass movement and the loading of rivers with sediments. In addition, rock mass is shattered during the event, forming cracks that affect rock strength and hydrological conductivity. Often overlooked in the immediate aftermath of an earthquake, these perturbations can represent a major part of the overall disaster with an impact that can last for years before restoring to background conditions. Thus, the relaxation phase is part of the seismically induced change by an earthquake and need to be monitored in order to understand the full impact of earthquakes on the Earth system. Here, we present first results from the rapid respond earth surface processes monitoring program put in place by several European groups after the Mw7.9 Gorkha earthquake. To monitor the transient effects of the earthquake on the Earth surface system, we have installed a comprehensive network of 13 river sampling locations for daily water and sediment sampling, covering all major rivers draining the earthquake-affected areas immediately after the event. Nested within this regional network, we have installed an array of 16 seismometers and geophones and 6 weather stations in the upper Bhotekoshi catchment, covering an area of ~50 km2. The field measurements are accompanied by repeated mapping of landslide activities and volumes over subsequent seasons using high resolution optical (RapidEye) and radar imagery (TanDEM TerraSAR-X). The combination of all of these data will help when interpreting our field observation in the regional context of catastrophic failure of hillslopes and their link with sediment transport in the rivers. First river gauging observation show a pronounced increase in river discharge in the order of >20% for the respective pre-monsoon season. We interpreted this as a direct impact of the shaking on the valley-ridge scale sub

  15. Landscape response to the Mw7.9 Gorkha earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andermann, Christoff; Turowski, Jens; Behling, Robert; Cook, Kristen; Hovius, Niels; Marc, Odin; Roessner, Sigrid; Sens-Schoenfelder, Christoph; Emberson, Robert; Burtin, Arnaud; Dietze, Michael; Adhikari, Basanta; Parajuli, Binod

    2016-04-01

    Strong earthquakes cause transient perturbations of the near Earth's surface system. These include the widespread landsliding and subsequent mass movement and the loading of rivers with sediments. In addition, rock mass is shattered during the event, forming cracks that affect rock strength and hydrological conductivity. Often overlooked in the immediate aftermath of an earthquake, these perturbations can represent a major part of the overall disaster with an impact that can last for years before restoring to background conditions. Thus, the relaxation phase is part of the seismically induced change by an earthquake and need to be monitored in order to understand the full impact of earthquakes on the Earth system. Here, we present first results from the rapid respond earth surface processes monitoring program put in place by several European groups after the Mw7.9 Gorkha earthquake. To monitor the transient effects of the earthquake on the Earth surface system, we have installed a comprehensive network of 13 river sampling locations for daily water and sediment sampling, covering all major rivers draining the earthquake-affected areas immediately after the event. Nested within this regional network, we have installed an array of 16 seismometers and geophones and 6 weather stations in the upper Bhotekoshi catchment, covering an area of ~50 km2. The field measurements are accompanied by repeated mapping of landslide activities and volumes over subsequent seasons using high resolution optical (RapidEye) and radar imagery (TanDEM TerraSAR-X). The combination of all of these data will help when interpreting our field observation in the regional context of catastrophic failure of hillslopes and their link with sediment transport in the rivers. First river gauging observation show a pronounced increase in river discharge in the order of >20% for the respective pre-monsoon season. We interpreted this as a direct impact of the shaking on the valley-ridge scale sub

  16. The 2008 Mw 6.0 Wells, Nevada Earthquake Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K.; Depolo, D.; Torrisi, J.; Edwards, N.; Biasi, G.; Slater, D.

    2008-12-01

    The Mw 6.0 February 21, 2008 (06:16 AM PDT) Wells, Nevada normal faulting earthquake occurred in Town Creek Flat about 8 km northeast of the small community of Wells. A preliminary set of about 1000 aftershock relocations clearly defines a 55-60 degree southeast dipping fault plane. The structure projects to the surface along the southern end of the Snake Range, although no surface offsets have been identified. The earthquake occurred east of the Ruby Mountains and Snake Range west dipping range front faults, possibly on a northern extension of an east dipping normal fault system on the eastern side of the East Humbolt Range. The depth of the mainshock is estimated to be 10.5 km with the aftershock sequence extending to about 15 km. Typical of moderate sized Basin and Range earthquakes, the early aftershock period included several earthquakes of M > 4 and these were felt strongly by the residents of Wells. From the preliminary relocations, the source radius of the mainshock is estimated to be about 4 km, resulting in an estimated displacement of 55 to 83 cm and static stress drop of 72 to 86 bars, depending on the seismic moment estimate used. Aftershock relocations suggest a radial rupture mechanism. Fortunately, the EarthScope USArray network was operating in Nevada at the time of the event and provided unique controls on the mainshock and early aftershock locations. The earthquake occurred in an area of relatively low seismic hazard and the only permanent seismograph in the region was the U.S. National Network broadband station east of the Ruby Mountains south of Wells. The University of Utah and University of Nevada deployed locally recorded strong motion instruments in the Wells area. Also, an 8 station IP telemetered strong motion network, jointly deployed by the U.S. Geological Survey and University of Nevada Reno, provided real-time data for quick high-quality aftershock relocations and ground motion estimates. In addition, the University of Utah

  17. Parametric Model for Astrophysical Proton-Proton Interactions and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, Niklas

    2007-01-01

    Observations of gamma-rays have been made from celestial sources such as active galaxies, gamma-ray bursts and supernova remnants as well as the Galactic ridge. The study of gamma rays can provide information about production mechanisms and cosmic-ray acceleration. In the high-energy regime, one of the dominant mechanisms for gamma-ray production is the decay of neutral pions produced in interactions of ultra-relativistic cosmic-ray nuclei and interstellar matter. Presented here is a parametric model for calculations of inclusive cross sections and transverse momentum distributions for secondary particles--gamma rays, e±, ve, $\\bar{v}$e, vμ and $\\bar{μ}$e--produced in proton-proton interactions. This parametric model is derived on the proton-proton interaction model proposed by Kamae et al.; it includes the diffraction dissociation process, Feynman-scaling violation and the logarithmically rising inelastic proton-proton cross section. To improve fidelity to experimental data for lower energies, two baryon resonance excitation processes were added; one representing the Δ(1232) and the other multiple resonances with masses around 1600 MeV/c2. The model predicts the power-law spectral index for all secondary particle to be about 0.05 lower in absolute value than that of the incident proton and their inclusive cross sections to be larger than those predicted by previous models based on the Feynman-scaling hypothesis. The applications of the presented model in astrophysics are plentiful. It has been implemented into the Galprop code to calculate the contribution due to pion decays in the Galactic plane. The model has also been used to estimate the cosmic-ray flux in the Large Magellanic Cloud based on HI, CO and gamma-ray observations. The transverse momentum distributions enable calculations when the proton distribution is anisotropic. It is shown that the gamma-ray spectrum and flux due to a

  18. Development of gyrotrons for fusion with power exceeding 1 MW over a wide frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariya, T.; Imai, T.; Minami, R.; Numakura, T.; Eguchi, T.; Kato, T.; Endo, Y.; Ichimura, M.; Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Takahashi, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Ito, S.; Mutoh, T.; Sakamoto, K.; Idei, H.; Zushi, H.; Nagasaki, K.; Sano, F.; Ono, M.; Mitsunaka, Y.

    2015-09-01

    Megawatt-class gyrotrons covering a wide frequency range (14 GHz-300 GHz) are in increasing demand for nuclear fusion. Recent electron cyclotron heating and electron cyclotron current drive experiments highlight a requirement of megawatt-scale gyrotrons at a relatively lower frequency (14-35 GHz) range of some plasma devices, like GAMMA 10/PDX of the University of Tsukuba, QUEST of Kyushu University, NSTX-U of Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, and Heliotron J of Kyoto University. Collaborative studies for designing a new 28 GHz/35 GHz dual-frequency gyrotron and a 14 GHz gyrotron have commenced. Operation above 1 MW of 28 GHz/35 GHz dual oscillation was demonstrated experimentally. Further in the design of dual-frequency gyrotron, operations with 2 MW 3 s and 0.4 MW CW (continuous wave) at 28 GHz, and power exceeding 1 MW for 3 s at 34.8 GHz have been shown to be feasible. The 14 GHz gyrotron is expected to operate above 1 MW. We are also developing higher frequency gyrotrons (77-300 GHz). The joint program of National Institute for Fusion Science and the University of Tsukuba developed two new 154 GHz gyrotrons for the large helical device after the demonstration of three 77 GHz gyrotrons. The 154 GHz gyrotrons achieved a maximum output power of 1.25 MW and quasi-CW operation of 0.35 MW for 30 min.

  19. Proton driver power supply system

    SciTech Connect

    C. Jach and D. Wolff

    2002-06-03

    This paper describes magnet power supply system for a proposed Proton Driver at Fermilab. The magnet power supply system consists of resonant dipole/quadrupole power supply system, quadrupole tracking, dipole correction (horizontal and vertical) and sextupole power supply systems. This paper also describes preliminary design of the power distribution system supplying 13.8 kV power to all proton Driver electrical systems.

  20. Voltage-gated Proton Channels

    PubMed Central

    DeCoursey, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels, HV1, have vaulted from the realm of the esoteric into the forefront of a central question facing ion channel biophysicists, namely the mechanism by which voltage-dependent gating occurs. This transformation is the result of several factors. Identification of the gene in 2006 revealed that proton channels are homologues of the voltage-sensing domain of most other voltage-gated ion channels. Unique, or at least eccentric, properties of proton channels include dimeric architecture with dual conduction pathways, perfect proton selectivity, a single-channel conductance ~103 smaller than most ion channels, voltage-dependent gating that is strongly modulated by the pH gradient, ΔpH, and potent inhibition by Zn2+ (in many species) but an absence of other potent inhibitors. The recent identification of HV1 in three unicellular marine plankton species has dramatically expanded the phylogenetic family tree. Interest in proton channels in their own right has increased as important physiological roles have been identified in many cells. Proton channels trigger the bioluminescent flash of dinoflagellates, facilitate calcification by coccolithophores, regulate pH-dependent processes in eggs and sperm during fertilization, secrete acid to control the pH of airway fluids, facilitate histamine secretion by basophils, and play a signaling role in facilitating B-cell receptor mediated responses in B lymphocytes. The most elaborate and best-established functions occur in phagocytes, where proton channels optimize the activity of NADPH oxidase, an important producer of reactive oxygen species. Proton efflux mediated by HV1 balances the charge translocated across the membrane by electrons through NADPH oxidase, minimizes changes in cytoplasmic and phagosomal pH, limits osmotic swelling of the phagosome, and provides substrate H+ for the production of H2O2 and HOCl, reactive oxygen species crucial to killing pathogens. PMID:23798303

  1. Recent Solar-Proton Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. C.

    2005-01-01

    The event-integrated fluences of energetic solar protons up to 2004 at the Earth have been determined and compared to previous data. The current solar cycle has been very active, and very large fluxes of solar protons have been observed that have had serious effects in the solar system and will have produced many radionuclides in the surfaces of meteorites. Such huge events are not expected again until about 2008 or 2009.

  2. Understanding the proton's spin structure

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Myhrer; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2010-02-01

    We discuss the tremendous progress that has been towards an understanding of how the spin of the proton is distributed on its quark and gluon constituents. This is a problem that began in earnest twenty years ago with the discovery of the proton "spin crisis" by the European Muon Collaboration. The discoveries prompted by that original work have given us unprecedented insight into the amount of spin carried by polarized gluons and the orbital angular momentum of the quarks.

  3. Voltage-gated proton channels.

    PubMed

    Decoursey, Thomas E

    2012-04-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels, HV1, have vaulted from the realm of the esoteric into the forefront of a central question facing ion channel biophysicists, namely, the mechanism by which voltage-dependent gating occurs. This transformation is the result of several factors. Identification of the gene in 2006 revealed that proton channels are homologues of the voltage-sensing domain of most other voltage-gated ion channels. Unique, or at least eccentric, properties of proton channels include dimeric architecture with dual conduction pathways, perfect proton selectivity, a single-channel conductance approximately 10(3) times smaller than most ion channels, voltage-dependent gating that is strongly modulated by the pH gradient, ΔpH, and potent inhibition by Zn(2+) (in many species) but an absence of other potent inhibitors. The recent identification of HV1 in three unicellular marine plankton species has dramatically expanded the phylogenetic family tree. Interest in proton channels in their own right has increased as important physiological roles have been identified in many cells. Proton channels trigger the bioluminescent flash of dinoflagellates, facilitate calcification by coccolithophores, regulate pH-dependent processes in eggs and sperm during fertilization, secrete acid to control the pH of airway fluids, facilitate histamine secretion by basophils, and play a signaling role in facilitating B-cell receptor mediated responses in B-lymphocytes. The most elaborate and best-established functions occur in phagocytes, where proton channels optimize the activity of NADPH oxidase, an important producer of reactive oxygen species. Proton efflux mediated by HV1 balances the charge translocated across the membrane by electrons through NADPH oxidase, minimizes changes in cytoplasmic and phagosomal pH, limits osmotic swelling of the phagosome, and provides substrate H(+) for the production of H2O2 and HOCl, reactive oxygen species crucial to killing pathogens.

  4. High intensity protons in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Montag, C.; Ahrens, L.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Drees, K. A.; Fischer, W.; Huang, H.; Minty, M.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Thieberger, P.; Yip, K.

    2012-01-05

    During the 2012 summer shutdown a pair of electron lenses will be installed in RHIC, allowing the beam-beam parameter to be increased by roughly 50 percent. To realize the corresponding luminosity increase bunch intensities have to be increased by 50 percent, to 2.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch. We list the various RHIC subsystems that are most affected by this increase, and propose beam studies to ensure their readiness. The proton luminosity in RHIC is presently limited by the beam-beam effect. To overcome this limitation, electron lenses will be installed in IR10. With the help of these devices, the headon beam-beam kick experienced during proton-proton collisions will be partially compensated, allowing for a larger beam-beam tuneshift at these collision points, and therefore increasing the luminosity. This will be accomplished by increasing the proton bunch intensity from the presently achieved 1.65 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch in 109 bunches per beam to 2.5 {center_dot} 10{sup 11}, thus roughly doubling the luminosity. In a further upgrade we aim for bunch intensities up to 3 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch. With RHIC originally being designed for a bunch intensity of 1 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} protons per bunch in 56 bunches, this six-fold increase in the total beam intensity by far exceeds the design parameters of the machine, and therefore potentially of its subsystems. In this note, we present a list of major subsystems that are of potential concern regarding this intensity upgrade, show their demonstrated performance at present intensities, and propose measures and beam experiments to study their readiness for the projected future intensities.

  5. Cosmic Ray Albedo Proton Yield Correlated with Lunar Elemental Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. K.; Spence, H. E.; Case, A. W.; Blake, J. B.; Golightly, M. J.; Kasper, J. C.; Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.; Schwadron, N. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Zeitlin, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    High energy cosmic rays constantly bombard the lunar regolith, producing secondary "albedo" or "splash" particles like protons and neutrons, some of which escape back to space. Two lunar missions, Lunar Prospector and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), have shown that the energy distribution of albedo neutrons is modulated by the elemental composition of the lunar regolith[1-4], with reduced neutron fluxes near the lunar poles being the result of collisions with hydrogen nuclei in ice deposits[5] in permanently shadowed craters. Here we investigate an analogous phenomenon with high energy (~100 MeV) lunar albedo protons. LRO has been observing the surface and environment of the Moon since June of 2009. The CRaTER instrument (Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation) on LRO is designed to characterize the lunar radiation environment and its effects on simulated human tissue. CRaTER's multiple solid-state detectors can discriminate the different elements in the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) population above ~10 MeV/nucleon, and can also distinguish between primary GCR protons arriving from deep space and albedo particles propagating up from the lunar surface. We use albedo protons with energies greater than 60 MeV to construct a cosmic ray albedo proton map of the Moon. The yield of albedo protons is proportional to the rate of lunar proton detections divided by the rate of incoming GCR detections. The map accounts for time variation in the albedo particles driven by time variations in the primary GCR population, thus revealing any true spatial variation of the albedo proton yield. Our current map is a significant improvement over the proof-of-concept map of Wilson et al.[6]. In addition to including twelve more months of CRaTER data here, we use more numerous minimum ionizing GCR protons for normalization, and we make use of all six of CRaTER's detectors to reduce contamination from spurious non-proton events in the data stream. We find find that the flux

  6. Proton therapy for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Dinesh Mayani, Devanshi

    2011-09-01

    Proton beam therapy is the latest advancement in the treatment of various types of cancer. It is a precise form of radiotherapy. It uses a beam of protons to target the cancer cells and destroys them. It scores high on precision and effectiveness when compared to other conventional cancer treatments like surgery, chemotherapy and xray radiotherapy. Proton beam therapy destroys the cancerous cells without harming the healthy cells. Thus it considerably reduces the side-effects that accompany conventional cancer treatments. Supporters say the technology allows physicians to treat a broad spectrum of cancers with few adverse effects, while more precisely targeting tumor cells with higher doses of radiation. Detractors say proton beam therapy is hugely expensive and has not been shown to be superior to conventional radiation treatment. With proton beam therapy, physicians use a cyclotron to accelerate protons and fire them directly into tumor cells with submillimeter precision. Because healthy tissue is largely spared, oncologists can, in theory, deliver much higher doses of radiation, while improving local control and reducing the risk for recurrence and morbidities.

  7. Generation of proton aurora by magnetosonic waves

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fuliang; Zong, Qiugang; Wang, Yongfu; He, Zhaoguo; Su, Zhenpeng; Yang, Chang; Zhou, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    Earth's proton aurora occurs over a broad MLT region and is produced by the precipitation of low-energy (2–10 keV) plasmasheet protons. Proton precipitation can alter chemical compositions of the atmosphere, linking solar activity with global climate variability. Previous studies proposed that electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves can resonate with protons, producing proton scattering precipitation. A long-outstanding question still remains whether there is another mechanism responsible for the proton aurora. Here, by performing satellite data analysis and diffusion equation calculations, we show that fast magnetosonic waves can produce trapped proton scattering that yields proton aurora. This provides a new insight into the mechanism of proton aurora. Furthermore, a ray-tracing study demonstrates that magnetosonic wave propagates over a broad MLT region, consistent with the global distribution of proton aurora. PMID:24898626

  8. 49 CFR 173.65 - Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks... Class 1 § 173.65 Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks. (a) Notwithstanding the requirements of §§ 173.56(b), 173.56(f), 173.56(i), and 173.64, Division 1.4G consumer fireworks may be...

  9. 49 CFR 173.65 - Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks... Class 1 § 173.65 Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks. (a) Notwithstanding the requirements of §§ 173.56(b), 173.56(f), 173.56(i), and 173.64, Division 1.4G consumer fireworks may be...

  10. Electrochemical selenium- and iodonium-initiated cyclisation of hydroxy-functionalised 1,4-dienes

    PubMed Central

    Röse, Philipp; Emge, Steffen; Yoshida, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Summary The cobalt(I)-catalysed 1,4-hydrovinylation reaction of allyloxytrimethylsilane and allyl alcohol with substituted 1,3-dienes leads to hydroxy-functionalised 1,4-dienes in excellent regio- and diastereoselective fashion. Those 1,4-dienols can be converted into tetrahydrofuran and pyran derivatives under indirect electrochemical conditions generating selenium or iodonium cations. The reactions proceed in good yields and regioselectivities for the formation of single diastereomers. PMID:25815067

  11. Development of Proton Computed Tomography for Applications in Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bashkirov, Vladimir; Schulte, Reinhard; Coutrakon, George; Erdelyi, Bela; Wong, Kent; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Penfold, Scott; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; McAllister, Scott; Schubert, Keith

    2009-03-10

    Determination of the Bragg peak position in proton therapy requires accurate knowledge of the electron density and ratio of effective atomic number and mass (Z/A) of the body tissues traversed. While the Z/A ratio is fairly constant for human tissues, the density of tissues varies significantly. One possibility to obtain accurate electron density information of tissues is to use protons of sufficient energy to penetrate the patient and measure their energy loss. From these transmission measurements, it is possible to reconstruct a three-dimensional map of electron densities using algebraic techniques. The interest in proton computed tomography (pCT) has considerably increased in recent years due to the more common use of proton accelerators for cancer treatment world-wide and a modern design concept based on current high-energy physics technology has been suggested. This contribution gives a status update on the pCT project carried out by the pCT Collaboration, a group of institutions sharing interest and expertise in the development of pCT. We will present updated imaging data obtained with a small pCT prototype developed in collaboration with the Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics and installed on the proton research beam line at Loma Linda University Medical Center. We will discuss hardware decisions regarding the next-generation pCT scanner, which will permit scanning of head-sized objects. Progress has also been made in the formulation of the most likely path of protons through an object and parallelizable iterative reconstruction algorithms that can be implemented on general-purpose commodity graphics processing units. Finally, we will present simulation studies for utilizing pCT technology for on-line proton dose verification and tumor imaging with positron emission tomography (PET)

  12. Design of 95 GHz, 2 MW Gyrotron for Communication and Security Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nitin; Singh, Udaybir; Singh, T. P.; Sinha, A. K.

    2011-02-01

    The design and the numerical simulation of the 95 GHz, 2 MW gyrotron for various kinds of communication, sensing and security applications is presented. The gyrotron is designed for the TE24,8 operating mode. Various in-house developed and commercially available computer codes are used for the design purpose. A 4.25 MW electron gun is designed for the 2 MW of output power. The mode selection, cold cavity and the beam-wave interaction analysis are discussed for the design of weakly tapered open resonator type of interaction cavity. The parametric analysis of the interaction cavity and the electron gun is also presented.

  13. Development and Production of a 201 MHz, 5.0 MW Peak Power Klystron

    SciTech Connect

    Aymar, Galen; Eisen, Edward; Stockwell, Brad; Begum, rasheda; Lenci, Steve; Eisner, Rick; Cesca, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Communications & Power Industries LLC has designed and manufactured the VKP-8201A, a high peak power, high gain, VHF band klystron. The klystron operates at 201.25 MHz, with 5.0 MW peak output power, 34 kW average output power, and a gain of 36 dB. The klystron is designed to operate between 1.0 MW and 4.5 MW in the linear range of the transfer curve. The klystron utilizes a unique magnetic field which enables the use of a proven electron gun design with a larger electron beam requirement. Experimental and predicted performance data are compared.

  14. Biosynthesis and molecular actions of specialized 1,4-naphthoquinone natural products produced by horticultural plants.

    PubMed

    Widhalm, Joshua R; Rhodes, David

    2016-01-01

    The 1,4-naphthoquinones (1,4-NQs) are a diverse group of natural products found in every kingdom of life. Plants, including many horticultural species, collectively synthesize hundreds of specialized 1,4-NQs with ecological roles in plant-plant (allelopathy), plant-insect and plant-microbe interactions. Numerous horticultural plants producing 1,4-NQs have also served as sources of traditional medicines for hundreds of years. As a result, horticultural species have been at the forefront of many basic studies conducted to understand the metabolism and function of specialized plant 1,4-NQs. Several 1,4-NQ natural products derived from horticultural plants have also emerged as promising scaffolds for developing new drugs. In this review, the current understanding of the core metabolic pathways leading to plant 1,4-NQs is provided with additional emphasis on downstream natural products originating from horticultural species. An overview on the biochemical mechanisms of action, both from an ecological and pharmacological perspective, of 1,4-NQs derived from horticultural plants is also provided. In addition, future directions for improving basic knowledge about plant 1,4-NQ metabolism are discussed. PMID:27688890

  15. Spectral variability in the X-ray pulsar GX 1+4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Pravdo, S. H.; Rothschild, R. E.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Swank, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of the galactic center region, hard X-ray source GX 1+4 by the GSFC X-ray spectroscopy experiment on OSO-8 confirm that GX 1+4 is a slow X-ray pulsar. The amount of absorption by cold matter in the spectrum of GX 1+4 varies significantly within a 24 hour period, behavior typical of many X-ray binary systems. The light curve for the pulsations from GX 1+4 appears to be energy dependent.

  16. Biosynthesis and molecular actions of specialized 1,4-naphthoquinone natural products produced by horticultural plants.

    PubMed

    Widhalm, Joshua R; Rhodes, David

    2016-01-01

    The 1,4-naphthoquinones (1,4-NQs) are a diverse group of natural products found in every kingdom of life. Plants, including many horticultural species, collectively synthesize hundreds of specialized 1,4-NQs with ecological roles in plant-plant (allelopathy), plant-insect and plant-microbe interactions. Numerous horticultural plants producing 1,4-NQs have also served as sources of traditional medicines for hundreds of years. As a result, horticultural species have been at the forefront of many basic studies conducted to understand the metabolism and function of specialized plant 1,4-NQs. Several 1,4-NQ natural products derived from horticultural plants have also emerged as promising scaffolds for developing new drugs. In this review, the current understanding of the core metabolic pathways leading to plant 1,4-NQs is provided with additional emphasis on downstream natural products originating from horticultural species. An overview on the biochemical mechanisms of action, both from an ecological and pharmacological perspective, of 1,4-NQs derived from horticultural plants is also provided. In addition, future directions for improving basic knowledge about plant 1,4-NQ metabolism are discussed.

  17. Biosynthesis and molecular actions of specialized 1,4-naphthoquinone natural products produced by horticultural plants

    PubMed Central

    Widhalm, Joshua R; Rhodes, David

    2016-01-01

    The 1,4-naphthoquinones (1,4-NQs) are a diverse group of natural products found in every kingdom of life. Plants, including many horticultural species, collectively synthesize hundreds of specialized 1,4-NQs with ecological roles in plant–plant (allelopathy), plant–insect and plant–microbe interactions. Numerous horticultural plants producing 1,4-NQs have also served as sources of traditional medicines for hundreds of years. As a result, horticultural species have been at the forefront of many basic studies conducted to understand the metabolism and function of specialized plant 1,4-NQs. Several 1,4-NQ natural products derived from horticultural plants have also emerged as promising scaffolds for developing new drugs. In this review, the current understanding of the core metabolic pathways leading to plant 1,4-NQs is provided with additional emphasis on downstream natural products originating from horticultural species. An overview on the biochemical mechanisms of action, both from an ecological and pharmacological perspective, of 1,4-NQs derived from horticultural plants is also provided. In addition, future directions for improving basic knowledge about plant 1,4-NQ metabolism are discussed. PMID:27688890

  18. Biosynthesis and molecular actions of specialized 1,4-naphthoquinone natural products produced by horticultural plants

    PubMed Central

    Widhalm, Joshua R; Rhodes, David

    2016-01-01

    The 1,4-naphthoquinones (1,4-NQs) are a diverse group of natural products found in every kingdom of life. Plants, including many horticultural species, collectively synthesize hundreds of specialized 1,4-NQs with ecological roles in plant–plant (allelopathy), plant–insect and plant–microbe interactions. Numerous horticultural plants producing 1,4-NQs have also served as sources of traditional medicines for hundreds of years. As a result, horticultural species have been at the forefront of many basic studies conducted to understand the metabolism and function of specialized plant 1,4-NQs. Several 1,4-NQ natural products derived from horticultural plants have also emerged as promising scaffolds for developing new drugs. In this review, the current understanding of the core metabolic pathways leading to plant 1,4-NQs is provided with additional emphasis on downstream natural products originating from horticultural species. An overview on the biochemical mechanisms of action, both from an ecological and pharmacological perspective, of 1,4-NQs derived from horticultural plants is also provided. In addition, future directions for improving basic knowledge about plant 1,4-NQ metabolism are discussed.

  19. Biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane: effects of enzyme inducers and trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Hand, Steven; Wang, Baixin; Chu, Kung-Hui

    2015-07-01

    1,4-Dioxane is a groundwater contaminant and probable human carcinogen. In this study, two well-studied degradative bacteria Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 and Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 were examined for their 1,4-dioxane degradation ability in the presence and absence of its co-contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCE), under different oxygenase-expression conditions. These two strains were precultured with R2A broth (complex nutrient medium) before supplementation with propane or 1-butanol to induce the expression of different oxygenases. Both propane- and 1-butanol-induced JOB5 and RHA1 were able to degrade 1,4-dioxane, TCE, and mixtures of 1,4-dioxane/TCE. Complete degradation of 1,4-dioxane/TCE mixture was observed only in propane-induced strain JOB5. Inhibition was observed between 1,4-dioxane and TCE for all cells. Furthermore, product toxicity caused incomplete degradation of 1,4-dioxane by 1-butanol-induced JOB5. In general, the more TCE degraded, the greater extent of product toxicity cells experienced; however, susceptibility to product toxicity was found to be both strain- and inducer-dependent. The findings of this study provide fundamental basis for developing an effective in-situ remediation method for 1,4-dioxane-contaminated ground water and the first known study of 1,4-dioxane degradation by wild-type strain RHA1.

  20. Sparse-view proton computed tomography using modulated proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jiseoc; Kim, Changhwan; Cho, Seungryong; Min, Byungjun; Kwak, Jungwon; Park, Seyjoon; Lee, Se Byeong; Park, Sungyong

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Proton imaging that uses a modulated proton beam and an intensity detector allows a relatively fast image acquisition compared to the imaging approach based on a trajectory tracking detector. In addition, it requires a relatively simple implementation in a conventional proton therapy equipment. The model of geometric straight ray assumed in conventional computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction is however challenged by multiple-Coulomb scattering and energy straggling in the proton imaging. Radiation dose to the patient is another important issue that has to be taken care of for practical applications. In this work, the authors have investigated iterative image reconstructions after a deconvolution of the sparsely view-sampled data to address these issues in proton CT. Methods: Proton projection images were acquired using the modulated proton beams and the EBT2 film as an intensity detector. Four electron-density cylinders representing normal soft tissues and bone were used as imaged object and scanned at 40 views that are equally separated over 360°. Digitized film images were converted to water-equivalent thickness by use of an empirically derived conversion curve. For improving the image quality, a deconvolution-based image deblurring with an empirically acquired point spread function was employed. They have implemented iterative image reconstruction algorithms such as adaptive steepest descent-projection onto convex sets (ASD-POCS), superiorization method–projection onto convex sets (SM-POCS), superiorization method–expectation maximization (SM-EM), and expectation maximization-total variation minimization (EM-TV). Performance of the four image reconstruction algorithms was analyzed and compared quantitatively via contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and root-mean-square-error (RMSE). Results: Objects of higher electron density have been reconstructed more accurately than those of lower density objects. The bone, for example, has been reconstructed

  1. Fast proton conducting glasses: Creation by proton implantation and a requirement for fast proton conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Hideo; Kawamura, Ken-ichi; Kawazoe, Hiroshi; Matsunami, Noriaki; Abe, Yoshihiro

    1997-02-01

    Fast proton conducting glasses have been obtained in Mg(PO3)2 glasses by implantation of protons at 120 keV to a fluence of 1×1018 cm-2. The dc conductivity and the activation energy of the conduction in the implanted glasses are 5×10-4 s cm-1 at room temperature and 0.18 eV, respectively. No fast proton conduction was observed for H+-implanted SiO2 and Ca(PO3)2 glasses. Infrared absorption spectra revealed that implanted protons are present in the form of X-OH (X=Si or P) in SiO2 and Ca(PO3)2 glasses implanted with H+ ions to 1×1018 cm-2, but exist as POH groups and molecular water H2O in Mg(PO3)2 glasses. A quantitative discussion on the proton conductivity led to the conclusion that the coexistence of acidic groups such as POH and molecular water H2O is a structural requirement for the emergence of fast proton conduction in oxide glasses. The formation of H2O in Mg(PO3)2 was understood by considering its thermodynamic stability over SiO2 and Ca(PO3)2 glasses.

  2. Hydroxyl radical generation mechanism during the redox cycling process of 1,4-naphthoquinone.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yu; Chen, Chenyong; Li, Yi; Zhao, Jincai; Zhu, Tong

    2012-03-01

    Airborne quinones contribute to adverse health effects of ambient particles probably because of their ability to generate hydroxyl radicals (·OH) via redox cycling, but the mechanisms remain unclear. We examined the chemical mechanisms through which 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ) induced ·OH, and the redox interactions between 1,4-NQ and ascorbate acid (AscH(2)). First, ·OH formation by 1,4-NQ was observed in cellular and acellular systems, and was enhanced by AscH(2). AscH(2) also exacerbated the cytotoxicity of 1,4-NQ in Ana-1 macrophages, at least partially due to enhanced ·OH generation. The detailed mechanism was studied in an AscH(2)/H(2)O(2) physiological system. The existence of a cyclic 1,4-NQ process was shown by detecting the corresponding semiquinone radical (NSQ·-) and hydroquinone (NQH(2)). 1,4-NQ was reduced primarily to NSQ·- by O2·- (which was from AscH(2) reacting with H(2)O(2)), not by AscH(2) as normally thought. At lower doses, 1,4-NQ consumed O2·- to suppress ·OH; however, at higher doses, 1,4-NQ presented a positive association with ·OH. The reaction of NSQ·- with H(2)O(2) to release ·OH was another important channel for OH radical formation except for Haber-Weiss reaction. As a reaction precursor for O2·-, the enhanced ·OH response to 1,4-NQ by AscH(2) was indirect. Reducing substrates were necessary to sustain the redox cycling of 1,4-NQ, leading to more ·OH and a deleterious end point.

  3. Thermodynamic Investigation and Mixed Ligand Complex Formation of 1,4-Bis-(3-aminopropyl)-piperazine and Biorelevant Ligands

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherif, Ahmed A.; Shehata, Mohamed R.; Shoukry, Mohamed M.; Barakat, Mohammad H.

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic parameters for protonation of 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)-piperazine (BAPP) and its metal complexation with some divalent metal ions were determined in aqueous solution at constant ionic strength (0.1 M NaNO3) using a potentiometric technique. The order of –ΔG0 and –ΔH0 was found to obey Co2+ < Ni2+ < Cu2+ > Zn2+, in accordance with the Irving-Williams order. The formation equilibria of zinc (II) complexes and the ternary complexes Zn(BAPP)L, where L = amino acid, amides, or DNA constituents), have been investigated. Ternary complexes are formed by a simultaneous mechanism. The concentration distribution of the complexes in solution was evaluated as a function of pH. Stoichiometry and stability constants for the complexes formed are reported and discussed. The stability of ternary complexes was quantitatively compared with their corresponding binary complexes in terms of the parameter Δlog K. PMID:23226992

  4. A bicarbonate cofactor modulates 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-coenzyme a synthase in menaquinone biosynthesis of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming; Chen, Minjiao; Guo, Zu-Feng; Guo, Zhihong

    2010-09-24

    1,4-Dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl coenzyme A (DHNA-CoA) synthase is a typical crotonase-fold protein catalyzing an intramolecular Claisen condensation in the menaquinone biosynthetic pathway. We have characterized this enzyme from Escherichia coli and found that it is activated by bicarbonate in a concentration-dependent manner. The bicarbonate binding site has been identified in the crystal structure of a virtually identical ortholog (96.8% sequence identity) from Salmonella typhimurium through comparison with a bicarbonate-insensitive orthologue. Kinetic properties of the enzyme and its site-directed mutants of the bicarbonate binding site indicate that the exogenous bicarbonate anion is essential to the enzyme activity. With this essential catalytic role, the simple bicarbonate anion is an enzyme cofactor, which is usually a small organic molecule derived from vitamins, a metal ion, or a metal-containing polyatomic anionic complex. This finding leads to classification of the DHNA-CoA synthases into two evolutionarily conserved subfamilies: type I enzymes that are bicarbonate-dependent and contain a conserved glycine at the bicarbonate binding site; and type II enzymes that are bicarbonate-independent and contain a conserved aspartate at the position similar to the enzyme-bound bicarbonate. In addition, the unique location of the enzyme-bound bicarbonate allows it to be proposed as a catalytic base responsible for abstraction of the α-proton of the thioester substrate in the enzymatic reaction, suggesting a unified catalytic mechanism for all DHNA-CoA synthases.

  5. Synthesis, spectral characterization, crystal structure and molecular docking study of 2,7-diaryl-1,4-diazepan-5-ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethuvasan, S.; Sugumar, P.; Maheshwaran, V.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.; Ponnuswamy, S.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a series of variously substituted r-2,c-7-diaryl-1,4-diazepan-5-ones 9-16 have been synthesized using Schmidt rearrangement and are characterized by IR, mass and 1D & 2D NMR spectral data. The proton NMR coupling constant and estimated dihedral angles reveal that the compounds 9-16 prefer a chair conformation with equatorial orientation of alkyl and aryl groups. Single crystal X-ray structure has been solved for compounds 9 and 11 which also indicates the preference for distorted chair conformation with equatorial orientation of substituents. The compounds 9-16 have been docked with the structure of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the results demonstrate that compound 10 is having better docking score and glide energy than others and it is comparable to co-crystal ligand. Furthermore, all the compounds have been evaluated for their antibacterial and antioxidant activities. All the compounds show moderate antibacterial activity and only 11 exhibits better activity against S. aures and Escherichia coli. The compounds 11, 13 and 14 exhibit half of the antioxidant power when compared to the BHT and the remaining compounds show moderate activity.

  6. Above Room Temperature Organic Ferroelectrics: Diprotonated 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane Shifts between Two 2-Chlorobenzoates.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zi-Shuo; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Cai, Hong-Ling; Takahashi, Kazuyuki; Sato, Osamu

    2016-09-21

    A pure organic single crystal, [H2dabco]·[2CB]2 ([H2dabco](2+) = diprotonated 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, 2CB(-) = 2-chlorobenzoate), which undergoes a ferroelectric-to-paraelectric phase transition above room temperature (∼323 K upon heating), was prepared and characterized. This ferroelectric crystal possesses a distinctive supramolecular architecture composed of discrete H-bonded trimeric units (two 2CB(-) anions bridged by one [H2dabco](2+) cation through N-H···O hydrogen bond interactions). In the paraelectric phase, the [H2dabco](2+) cation is rotationally disordered and lies at the symmetric center of the trimer. Upon cooling, it is frozen in an ordered state and deviates toward a 2CB(-) anion at one end along the H-bond. The collective displacement of the cations leads to a polarization of the single crystal along the crystallographic c axis, which is confirmed by the temperature dependence of the second harmonic generation and spontaneous polarization. A significant increase in the phase transition temperature of the deuterated analogue suggests that the proton plays an important role in the ferroelectric phase transition. PMID:27580377

  7. Molecular structure of hydrated complex of 1,4-dimethylpiperazine di-betaine with L-tartaric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Szafran, M.

    2008-12-01

    1,4-Dimethylpiperazine di-betaine (DBPZ) forms a crystalline complex with L-tartaric acid (TA) and two and a half water molecules. The crystals are monoclinic, space group P2 1. The piperazine has a chair conformation with the methyl groups in the equatorial positions and the axial CH 2COO substituents. One of the CH 2COO group is protonated and forms with the neighboring DBPZ molecule the COO sbnd H⋯OOC hydrogen bond of the length 2.476(3) Å, which links them into a chain. The semi-tartrate anions, form a chain through the symmetrical, short COO⋯H⋯OOC hydrogen bond of 2.464(3) Å. The crystals have a layer structure, where hydrogen-bonded sheets of TA and water molecules are separated by the chains of DBPZ; no H-bonds between water and DBPZ are present. In the optimized molecules in the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) approach, the tartaric acid interacts with the tartrate di-anions through the COO sbnd H⋯OOC hydrogen bonds of 2.506 Å, while the DBPZ has the same conformation as in the crystals. The FTIR spectrum of the solid complex is consistent with the X-ray results.

  8. Above Room Temperature Organic Ferroelectrics: Diprotonated 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane Shifts between Two 2-Chlorobenzoates.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zi-Shuo; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Cai, Hong-Ling; Takahashi, Kazuyuki; Sato, Osamu

    2016-09-21

    A pure organic single crystal, [H2dabco]·[2CB]2 ([H2dabco](2+) = diprotonated 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, 2CB(-) = 2-chlorobenzoate), which undergoes a ferroelectric-to-paraelectric phase transition above room temperature (∼323 K upon heating), was prepared and characterized. This ferroelectric crystal possesses a distinctive supramolecular architecture composed of discrete H-bonded trimeric units (two 2CB(-) anions bridged by one [H2dabco](2+) cation through N-H···O hydrogen bond interactions). In the paraelectric phase, the [H2dabco](2+) cation is rotationally disordered and lies at the symmetric center of the trimer. Upon cooling, it is frozen in an ordered state and deviates toward a 2CB(-) anion at one end along the H-bond. The collective displacement of the cations leads to a polarization of the single crystal along the crystallographic c axis, which is confirmed by the temperature dependence of the second harmonic generation and spontaneous polarization. A significant increase in the phase transition temperature of the deuterated analogue suggests that the proton plays an important role in the ferroelectric phase transition.

  9. Overview of proton drivers for neutrino super beams and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, W.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    There has been a world-wide interest in Proton Drivers in the past decade. Numerous design proposals have been presented in Asia, Europe and North America, ranging from low energy rapid cycling synchrotrons, normal or superconducting linacs to high energy slow cycling synchrotrons and FFAGs. One thing in common is that all these machines provide MW beam power and are used primarily for neutrino experiments. This paper gives an overview of these activities. In the last section the author expresses his personal opinion on the future of this field.

  10. Estimation of ground motion for Bhuj (26 January 2001; Mw 7.6 and for future earthquakes in India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, S.K.; Bansal, B.K.; Bhattacharya, S.N.; Pacheco, J.F.; Dattatrayam, R.S.; Ordaz, M.; Suresh, G.; ,; Hough, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Only five moderate and large earthquakes (Mw ???5.7) in India-three in the Indian shield region and two in the Himalayan arc region-have given rise to multiple strong ground-motion recordings. Near-source data are available for only two of these events. The Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.6), which occurred in the shield region, gave rise to useful recordings at distances exceeding 550 km. Because of the scarcity of the data, we use the stochastic method to estimate ground motions. We assume that (1) S waves dominate at R < 100 km and Lg waves at R ??? 100 km, (2) Q = 508f0.48 is valid for the Indian shield as well as the Himalayan arc region, (3) the effective duration is given by fc-1 + 0.05R, where fc is the corner frequency, and R is the hypocentral distance in kilometer, and (4) the acceleration spectra are sharply cut off beyond 35 Hz. We use two finite-source stochastic models. One is an approximate model that reduces to the ??2-source model at distances greater that about twice the source dimension. This model has the advantage that the ground motion is controlled by the familiar stress parameter, ????. In the other finite-source model, which is more reliable for near-source ground-motion estimation, the high-frequency radiation is controlled by the strength factor, sfact, a quantity that is physically related to the maximum slip rate on the fault. We estimate ???? needed to fit the observed Amax and Vmax data of each earthquake (which are mostly in the far field). The corresponding sfact is obtained by requiring that the predicted curves from the two models match each other in the far field up to a distance of about 500 km. The results show: (1) The ???? that explains Amax data for shield events may be a function of depth, increasing from ???50 bars at 10 km to ???400 bars at 36 km. The corresponding sfact values range from 1.0-2.0. The ???? values for the two Himalayan arc events are 75 and 150 bars (sfact = 1.0 and 1.4). (2) The ???? required to explain Vmax data

  11. Ultrafast laser-driven proton sources and dynamic proton imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Nickles, Peter V.; Schnuerer, Matthias; Sokollik, Thomas; Ter-Avetisyan, Sargis; Sandner, Wolfgang; Amin, Munib; Toncian, Toma; Willi, Oswald; Andreev, Alexander

    2008-07-15

    Ion bursts, accelerated by an ultrafast (40 fs) laser-assisted target normal sheath acceleration mechanism, can be adjusted so as to deliver a nearly pure proton beam. Such laser-driven proton bursts have predominantly a low transverse emittance and a broad kinetic spectrum suitable for continuous probing of the temporal evolution of spatially extended electric fields that arise after laser irradiation of thin foils. Fields with a strength of up to 10{sup 10} V/m were measured with a new streaklike proton deflectometry setup. The data show the temporal and spatial evolution of electric fields that are due to target charge-up and ion-front expansion following intense laser-target interaction at intensities of 10{sup 17}-10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}. Measurement of the field evolution is important to gain further insight into lateral electron-transport processes and the influence of field dynamics on ion beam properties.

  12. Proton-proton Scattering Above 3 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    A. Sibirtsev, J. Haidenbauer, H.-W. Hammer S. Krewald ,Ulf-G. Meissner

    2010-01-01

    A large set of data on proton-proton differential cross sections, analyzing powers and the double-polarization parameter A{sub NN} is analyzed employing the Regge formalism. We find that the data available at proton beam momenta from 3 GeV/c to 50 GeV/c exhibit features that are very well in line with the general characteristics of Regge phenomenology and can be described with a model that includes the {rho}, {omega}, f{sub 2}, and a{sub 2} trajectories and single-Pomeron exchange. Additional data, specifically for spin-dependent observables at forward angles, would be very helpful for testing and refining our Regge model.

  13. Novel composite proton-exchange membrane based on proton-conductive glass powders and sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Zhigang; Xie, Qiang; Li, Haibin; Mao, Dali; Li, Ming; Zhou, Daowu; Li, Lu

    2015-01-01

    The SiO2-Nafion/sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) composite membranes are fabricated by using the simple mechanical ball-milling process to combine SiO2 glass powders with small portion of Nafion, in which SiO2 glass powders are prepared by modified sol-gel progress and Nafion is embedded in situ into a highly porous silica network. The morphology, thermal and mechanical properties, pore structure, proton conductivity and fuel cell performance of the SiO2-Nafion/SPEEK composite membranes are investigated. The poor miscibility of Nafion and sulfonated aromatic polymer is solved by fixing Nafion into SiO2 glass powders. The composite membranes perform well even if the proportion of inorganic component in membranes is as high as 40 wt.%. A maximum of proton conductivity, 0.018 S cm-1, is obtained from the membrane of 4(8Si-2N)/6SPEEK at 80 °C and 90% relative humidity, which is owing to its enhanced hygroscopicity and highly dispersed Nafion clusters. In addition, a single fuel cell equipped with the composite membrane shows a peak power density of 589.2 mW cm-2 at 70 °C.

  14. Nuclear proton dynamics and interactions with calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Hulikova, Alzbeta; Swietach, Pawel

    2016-07-01

    Biochemical signals acting on the nucleus can regulate gene expression. Despite the inherent affinity of nucleic acids and nuclear proteins (e.g. transcription factors) for protons, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate nuclear pH (pHnuc), and how these could be exploited to control gene expression. Here, we show that pHnuc dynamics can be imaged using the DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33342. Nuclear pores allow the passage of medium-sized molecules (calcein), but protons must first bind to mobile buffers in order to gain access to the nucleoplasm. Fixed buffering residing in the nucleus of permeabilized cells was estimated to be very weak on the basis of the large amplitude of pHnuc transients evoked by photolytic H(+)-uncaging or exposure to weak acids/bases. Consequently, the majority of nuclear pH buffering is sourced from the cytoplasm in the form of mobile buffers. Effective proton diffusion was faster in nucleoplasm than in cytoplasm, in agreement with the higher mobile-to-fixed buffering ratio in the nucleus. Cardiac myocyte pHnuc changed in response to maneuvers that alter nuclear Ca(2+) signals. Blocking Ca(2+) release from inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors stably alkalinized the nucleus. This Ca(2+)-pH interaction may arise from competitive binding to common chemical moieties. Competitive binding to mobile buffers may couple the efflux of Ca(2+)via nuclear pores with a counterflux of protons. This would generate a stable pH gradient between cytoplasm and nucleus that is sensitive to the state of nuclear Ca(2+) signaling. The unusual behavior of protons in the nucleus provides new mechanisms for regulating cardiac nuclear biology. PMID:26183898

  15. Nuclear proton dynamics and interactions with calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Hulikova, Alzbeta; Swietach, Pawel

    2016-07-01

    Biochemical signals acting on the nucleus can regulate gene expression. Despite the inherent affinity of nucleic acids and nuclear proteins (e.g. transcription factors) for protons, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate nuclear pH (pHnuc), and how these could be exploited to control gene expression. Here, we show that pHnuc dynamics can be imaged using the DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33342. Nuclear pores allow the passage of medium-sized molecules (calcein), but protons must first bind to mobile buffers in order to gain access to the nucleoplasm. Fixed buffering residing in the nucleus of permeabilized cells was estimated to be very weak on the basis of the large amplitude of pHnuc transients evoked by photolytic H(+)-uncaging or exposure to weak acids/bases. Consequently, the majority of nuclear pH buffering is sourced from the cytoplasm in the form of mobile buffers. Effective proton diffusion was faster in nucleoplasm than in cytoplasm, in agreement with the higher mobile-to-fixed buffering ratio in the nucleus. Cardiac myocyte pHnuc changed in response to maneuvers that alter nuclear Ca(2+) signals. Blocking Ca(2+) release from inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors stably alkalinized the nucleus. This Ca(2+)-pH interaction may arise from competitive binding to common chemical moieties. Competitive binding to mobile buffers may couple the efflux of Ca(2+)via nuclear pores with a counterflux of protons. This would generate a stable pH gradient between cytoplasm and nucleus that is sensitive to the state of nuclear Ca(2+) signaling. The unusual behavior of protons in the nucleus provides new mechanisms for regulating cardiac nuclear biology.

  16. 40 CFR 721.1920 - 1,4-Bis(3-hydroxy-4-benzoylphenoxy)butane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1,4-Bis(3-hydroxy-4-benzoylphenoxy)butane. 721.1920 Section 721.1920 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1920 1,4-Bis(3-hydroxy-4-benzoylphenoxy)butane. (a) Chemical...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1920 - 1,4-Bis(3-hydroxy-4-benzoylphenoxy)butane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1,4-Bis(3-hydroxy-4-benzoylphenoxy)butane. 721.1920 Section 721.1920 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1920 1,4-Bis(3-hydroxy-4-benzoylphenoxy)butane. (a) Chemical...

  18. NBS-promoted oxidation of fullerene monoradicals leading to regioselective 1,4-difunctional fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Si, Weili; Lu, Shirong; Asao, Naoki; Bao, Ming; Yamamoto, Yoshinori; Jin, Tienan

    2014-12-25

    We have demonstrated that NBS is able to promote the oxidation of fullerene monoradicals to form 1,4-difunctional fullerenes. The singly bonded fullerene dimers were used as fullerene monoradical precursors, which produced various 1,4-fullerenes with a wide range of functional groups in good to high yields with high regioselectivity in terms of cosolvents and nucleophiles.

  19. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4 Section... Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a return for a... results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations...

  20. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4 Section... Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a return for a... results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations...

  1. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4... TAXES Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a... taxable year results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations...

  2. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4... TAXES Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a... taxable year results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations...

  3. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4 Section... Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a return for a... results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... glycol and 1 to 34 mole percent of 1,4-cyclo-hexanedimethanol (70 percent trans isomer, 30 percent cls isomer) Inherent viscosity of a 0.50 percent solution of the copolymer in phenol-tetrachloroethane (60:40... ethylene glycol and 1 to 15 mole percent of 1,4-cyclohexane-di-methanol (70 percent trans isomer,...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... glycol and 1 to 34 mole percent of 1,4-cyclo-hexanedimethanol (70 percent trans isomer, 30 percent cls isomer) Inherent viscosity of a 0.50 percent solution of the copolymer in phenol-tetrachloroethane (60:40... ethylene glycol and 1 to 15 mole percent of 1,4-cyclohexane-di-methanol (70 percent trans isomer,...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... glycol and 1 to 34 mole percent of 1,4-cyclo-hexanedimethanol (70 percent trans isomer, 30 percent cls isomer) Inherent viscosity of a 0.50 percent solution of the copolymer in phenol-tetrachloroethane (60:40... ethylene glycol and 1 to 15 mole percent of 1,4-cyclohexane-di-methanol (70 percent trans isomer,...

  7. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... glycol and 1 to 34 mole percent of 1,4-cyclo-hexanedimethanol (70 percent trans isomer, 30 percent cls isomer) Inherent viscosity of a 0.50 percent solution of the copolymer in phenol-tetrachloroethane (60:40... ethylene glycol and 1 to 15 mole percent of 1,4-cyclohexane-di-methanol (70 percent trans isomer,...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10662 - Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction...-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (PMN P-11-204) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10662 - Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction...-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (PMN P-11-204) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR 1,4 - DIOXANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    1,4 -Dioxane is a cyclic ether that is primarily utilized for industrial applications. These applications include 1,4 -dioxane as a solvent, reaction medium, wetting, degreasing, and dispersing agent, and for stabilization of chlorinated solvents (e.g. 1,1,1 -trichloroethane). ...

  11. Laboratory Investigations Of Mechanisms For 1,4-Dioxane Destruction By Ozone In Water (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in analytical detection methods have made it possible to quantify 1,4-dioxane contamination in groundwater, even a well-characterized sites where it had not been previously detected. Although 1,4-dioxane is difficult to treat because of its chemical and physical propert...

  12. Laboratory Investigation Of Mechanisms For 1,4-Dioxane Destruction By Ozone In Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in analytical detection methods have made it possible to quantify 1,4-dioxane contamination in groundwater, even at well-characterized sites where it had not been previously detected. Although 1,4-dioxane is difficult to treat because of its chemical and physical proper...

  13. IN-SITU OXIDATION OF 1,4-DIOXANE (LABORATORY RESULTS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest in the solvent stabilizer, 1,4-dioxane, is increasing because analytical detection limits have decreased indicating its presence at chlorinated volatile organic compound contaminated sites. The most common method for removing 1,4-dioxane from contaminated water is advanc...

  14. Performance of the H- Ion Source Supporting 1-MW Beam Operations at SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Baoxi; Hardek, Thomas W; Kang, Yoon W; Murray Jr, S N; Pennisi, Terry R; Piller, Chip; Santana, Manuel; Welton, Robert F; Stockli, Martin P

    2011-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory reached 1-MW of beam power in September 2009, and now routinely operates near 1-MW for the production of neutrons. This paper reviews the performance, operational issues, implemented and planned mitigations of the SNS H- ion source to support such high power-level beams with high availability. Some results from R&D activities are also briefly described.

  15. Performance of the H{sup -} Ion Source Supporting 1-MW Beam Operations at SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B. X.; Hardek, T.; Kang, Y.; Murray, S. N. Jr.; Pennisi, T. R.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Welton, R. F.; Stockli, M. P.

    2011-09-26

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory reached 1-MW of beam power in September 2009, and now routinely operates near 1-MW for the production of neutrons. This paper reviews the performance, operational issues, implemented and planned mitigations of the SNS H{sup -} ion source to support such high power-level beams with high availability. Some results from R and D activities are also briefly described.

  16. Mn1.4Co1.4Cu0.2O4 spinel protective coating on ferritic stainless steels for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoyi; Xin, Xianshuang; Luo, Ting; Liu, Leimin; Zhou, Yuchun; Yuan, Chun; Lin, Chucheng; Zhan, Zhongliang; Wang, Shaorong

    2015-03-01

    In an attempt to reduce the oxidation and Cr evaporation rates of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), Mn1.4Co1.4Cu0.2O4 spinel coating is developed on the Crofer22 APU ferritic stainless steel substrate by a powder reduction technique. Doping of Cu into Mn-Co spinels improves electrical conductivity as well as thermal expansion match with the Crofer22 APU interconnect. Good adhesion between the coating and the alloy substrate is achieved by the reactive sintering process using the reduced powders. Long-term isothermal oxidation experiment and area specific resistance (ASR) measurement are investigated. The ASR is less than 4 mΩ cm2 even though the coated alloy undergoes oxidation at 800 °C for 530 h and four thermal cycles from 800 °C to room temperature. The Mn1.4Co1.4Cu0.2O4 spinel coatings demonstrate excellent anti-oxidation performance and long-term stability. It exhibits a promising prospect for the practical application of SOFC alloy interconnect.

  17. Solid-phase organic synthesis of 2-tridecanyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and 2-tridecanyl-1,4-naphthodiol that form redox-active micelles and vesicles.

    PubMed

    Bugarin, Alejandro; Martinez, Luis E; Cooke, Peter; Islam, Tadiqul; Noveron, Juan C

    2014-10-01

    The solid-phase synthesis of new amphiphilic compounds is reported. It is based on a newly designed 1,4-naphthoquinone derivative that contains polar and nonpolar groups and self-assembles into micelles or vesicles in water depending on the concentration. They also display redox-active properties.

  18. Measurement of the Wolfenstein parameters for proton-proton and proton-neutron scattering at 500 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, J.A.

    1984-07-01

    Using liquid hydrogen and liquid deuterium targets respectively, forward angle (ten degrees to sixty degrees in the center of Mass) free proton-proton and quasielastic proton-proton and proton-neutron triple scattering data at 500 MeV have been obtained using the high resolution spectrometer at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The data are in reasonable agreement with recent predictions from phase shift analyses, indicating that the proton-nucleon scattering amplitudes are fairly well determined at 500 MeV. 32 references.

  19. Line-of-sight displacement from ALOS-2 interferometry: Mw 7.8 Gorkha Earthquake and Mw 7.3 aftershock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Eric O.; Natsuaki, Ryo; Xu, Xiaohua; Shimada, Masanobu; Hashimoto, Manabu; Melgar, Diego; Sandwell, David T.

    2015-08-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is a key tool for the analysis of displacement and stress changes caused by large crustal earthquakes, particularly in remote areas. A challenge for traditional InSAR has been its limited spatial and temporal coverage especially for very large events, whose dimensions exceed the typical swath width of 70-100 km. This problem is addressed by the ALOS-2 satellite, whose PALSAR-2 instrument operates in ScanSAR mode, enabling a repeat time of 2 weeks and a swath width of 350 km. Here we present InSAR line-of-sight displacement data from ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 observations covering the Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake and its Mw 7.3 aftershock that were acquired within 1 week of each event. The data are made freely available and we encourage their use in models of the fault slip and associated stress changes. The Mw 7.3 aftershock not only extended the rupture area of the main shock toward the east but also left a 20 km gap where the fault has little or no coseismic slip. We estimate this unslipped fault patch has the potential to generate a Mw 6.9 event.

  20. The Structure of the Proton

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chambers, E. E.; Hofstadter, R.

    1956-04-01

    The structure and size of the proton have been studied by means of the methods of high-energy electron scattering. The elastic scattering of electrons from protons in polyethylene has been investigated at the following energies in the laboratory system: 200, 300, 400, 500, 550 Mev. The range of laboratory angles examined has been 30 degrees to 135 degrees. At the largest angles and the highest energy, the cross section for scattering shows a deviation below that expected from a point proton by a factor of about nine. The magnitude and variation with angle of the deviations determine a structure factor for the proton, and thereby determine the size and shape of the charge and magnetic-moment distributions within the proton. An interpretation, consistent at all energies and angles and agreeing with earlier results from this laboratory, fixes the rms radius at 0.77 {plus or minus} 0.10 x 10{sup -13} cm for each of the charge and moment distributions. The shape of the density function is not far from a Gaussian with rms radius 0.70 x 10{sup -13} cm or an exponential with rms radius 0.80 x 10 {sup -13} cm. An equivalent interpretation of the experiments would ascribe the apparent size to a breakdown of the Coulomb law and the conventional theory of electromagnetism.

  1. The Spin of the Proton

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Anthony

    2008-07-01

    doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ppnp.2007.12.039
    The twenty years since the announcement of the proton spin crisis by the European Muon Collaboration has seen tremendous progress in our knowledge of the distribution of spin within the proton. The problem is reviewed, beginning with the original data and the suggestion that polarized gluons may play a crucial role in resolving the problem through the U(1) axial anomaly. The discussion continues to the present day where not only have strong limits have been placed on the amount of polarized glue in the proton but the experimental determination of the spin content has become much more precise. It is now clear that the origin of the discrepancy between experiment and the naive expectation of the fraction of spin carried by the quarks and anti-quarks in the proton lies in the non-perturabtive structure of the proton. We explain how the features expected in a modern, relativistic and chirally symmetric description of nucleon str

  2. Specific receptor for inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate in permeabilized rabbit neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, P.G.; Spat, A.; Rubin, R.P.

    1986-03-05

    Neutrophil chemotaxis and degranulation are resultant, in part, from the mobilization of intracellular calcium by inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate ((1,4,5)IP/sub 3/), one of the products of chemoattractant-stimulated phospholipase C activity. High specific activity (ca. 40 Ci/mmol) (/sup 32/P)(1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ was prepared from (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP-labeled human erythrocyte ghosts and was used in binding assays with saponin-permeabilized rabbit peritoneal neutrophils. At 4/sup 0/C and in the presence of inhibitors of the IP/sub 3/ 5-phosphomonoesterase, (/sup 32/P)(1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ rapidly associated with a specific binding component which saturated within 60s. Nonspecific binding, taken as the residual binding in the presence of 10 ..mu..M (1,4,5)IP/sub 3/, was 15% of the total. No specific binding was detected using intact cells. The specific binding to permeable cells was reversible (t/sup 1/2/ approx. 60s) and could be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by (1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ (EC/sub 50/ = 30 nM) and by other calcium mobilizing inositol phosphates ((2,4,5)IP/sub 3/) but not by inactive analogs ((1,4)IP/sub 2/, (4,5)IP/sub 2/, (1)IP). The dose-responses of (1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ and (2,4,5)IP/sub 3/ in inhibiting (/sup 32/P)(1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ specific binding correlated well with their abilities to release Ca/sup 2 +/ from nonmitochondrial vesicular stores in the same preparation of cells, suggesting that the authors have identified the physiological receptor for (1,4,5)IP/sub 3/.

  3. High-power proton linac for transmuting the long-lived fission products in nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    High power proton linacs are being considered at Los Alamos as drivers for high-flux spallation neutron sources that can be used to transmute the troublesome long-lived fission products in defense nuclear waste. The transmutation scheme being studied provides a high flux (> 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2}{minus}s) of thermal neutrons, which efficiently converts fission products to stable or short-lived isotopes. A medium-energy proton linac with an average beam power of about 110 MW can burn the accumulated Tc99 and I129 inventory at the DOE's Hanford Site within 30 years. Preliminary concepts for this machine are described. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Fate of 1,4-dioxane in the aquatic environment: from sewage to drinking water.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Daria K; Diehl, Peter; Helm, Johanna; Thoms, Alina; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Potential health effects of 1,4-dioxane and the limited data on its occurrence in the water cycle command for more research. In the current study, mobility and persistence of 1,4-dioxane in the sewage-, surface-, and drinking water was investigated. The occurrence of 1,4-dioxane was determined in wastewater samples from four domestic sewage treatment plants (STP). The influent and effluent samples were collected during weekly campaigns. The average influent concentrations in all four plants ranged from 262 ± 32 ng L(-1) to 834 ± 480 ng L(-1), whereas the average effluent concentrations were between 267 ± 35 ng L(-1) and 62,260 ± 36,000 ng L(-1). No removal of 1,4-dioxane during water treatment was observed. Owing to its strong internal chemical bonding, 1,4-dioxane is considered non-biodegradable under conventional bio-treatment technologies. The source of increased 1,4-dioxane concentrations in the effluents was identified to originate from impurities in the methanol used in the postanoxic denitrification process in one of the STPs. In view of poor biodegradation in STPs, surface water samples were collected to establish an extent of 1,4-dioxane pollution. Spatial and temporal distribution of 1,4-dioxane in the Rivers Main, Rhine, and Oder was examined. Concentrations reaching 2200 ng L(-1) in the Oder River, and 860 ng L(-1) in both Main and Rhine River were detected. The average monthly load of 1,4-dioxane in the Rhine River was calculated to equal to 172 kg d(-1). In all rivers, concentration of 1,4-dioxane increased with distance from the spring and was found to negatively correlate with the discharge of the river. Additionally, bank filtration and drinking water samples from two drinking water facilities were analyzed for the presence of 1,4-dioxane. The raw water contained 650 ng L(-1)-670 ng L(-1) of 1,4-dioxane, whereas the concentration in the drinking water fell only to 600 ng L(-1) and 490 ng L(-1), respectively. Neither of the purification

  5. Fate of 1,4-dioxane in the aquatic environment: from sewage to drinking water.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Daria K; Diehl, Peter; Helm, Johanna; Thoms, Alina; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Potential health effects of 1,4-dioxane and the limited data on its occurrence in the water cycle command for more research. In the current study, mobility and persistence of 1,4-dioxane in the sewage-, surface-, and drinking water was investigated. The occurrence of 1,4-dioxane was determined in wastewater samples from four domestic sewage treatment plants (STP). The influent and effluent samples were collected during weekly campaigns. The average influent concentrations in all four plants ranged from 262 ± 32 ng L(-1) to 834 ± 480 ng L(-1), whereas the average effluent concentrations were between 267 ± 35 ng L(-1) and 62,260 ± 36,000 ng L(-1). No removal of 1,4-dioxane during water treatment was observed. Owing to its strong internal chemical bonding, 1,4-dioxane is considered non-biodegradable under conventional bio-treatment technologies. The source of increased 1,4-dioxane concentrations in the effluents was identified to originate from impurities in the methanol used in the postanoxic denitrification process in one of the STPs. In view of poor biodegradation in STPs, surface water samples were collected to establish an extent of 1,4-dioxane pollution. Spatial and temporal distribution of 1,4-dioxane in the Rivers Main, Rhine, and Oder was examined. Concentrations reaching 2200 ng L(-1) in the Oder River, and 860 ng L(-1) in both Main and Rhine River were detected. The average monthly load of 1,4-dioxane in the Rhine River was calculated to equal to 172 kg d(-1). In all rivers, concentration of 1,4-dioxane increased with distance from the spring and was found to negatively correlate with the discharge of the river. Additionally, bank filtration and drinking water samples from two drinking water facilities were analyzed for the presence of 1,4-dioxane. The raw water contained 650 ng L(-1)-670 ng L(-1) of 1,4-dioxane, whereas the concentration in the drinking water fell only to 600 ng L(-1) and 490 ng L(-1), respectively. Neither of the purification

  6. Polarized proton beams in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenski, A.

    2010-10-04

    The polarized beam for RHIC is produced in the optically-pumped polarized H{sup -} ion source and then accelerated in Linac to 200 MeV for strip-injection to Booster and further accelerated 24.3 GeV in AGS for injection in RHIC. In 2009 Run polarized protons was successfully accelerated to 250 GeV beam energy. The beam polarization of about 60% at 100 GeV beam energy and 36-42% at 250 GeV beam energy was measured with the H-jet and p-Carbon CNI polarimeters. The gluon contribution to the proton spin was studied in collisions of longitudinally polarized proton beams at 100 x 100 GeV. At 250 x 250 GeV an intermediate boson W production with the longitudinally polarized beams was studied for the first time.

  7. Spin models of the proton

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, G.P.

    1988-10-20

    We have constructed a model of the proton spin based on a broken SU(6) parameterization for the spin-weighted valence quark distributions in a longitudinally polarized proton. The polarized sea and gluon distributions are assumed to have simple relations to the corresponding unpolarized structure functions. The sum rules, which involve the non-singlet components of the structure function xg/sub 1/, imply that the valence quarks carry about 78% of the proton spin, while the spin carried by sea quarks is negative. Recent EMC data suggest a model in which the sea quarks carry a large negative polarization, whereas certain theoretical arguments favor a model with a smaller negatively polarized sea. These models are discussed with reference to the sum rules. Experiments are suggested which will discriminate between these models. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  8. High performance cobalt-free Cu1.4Mn1.6O4 spinel oxide as an intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Shuying; Sun, Wang; Li, Peiqian; Tang, Guangze; Rooney, David; Sun, Kening; Ma, Xinxin

    2016-05-01

    In this work Cu1.4Mn1.6O4 (CMO) spinel oxide is prepared and evaluated as a novel cobalt-free cathode for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). Single phase CMO powder with cubic structure is identified using XRD. XPS results confirm that mixed Cu+/Cu2+ and Mn3+/Mn4+ couples exist in the CMO sample, and a maximum conductivity of 78 S cm-1 is achieved at 800 °C. Meanwhile, CMO oxide shows good thermal and chemical compatibility with a 10 mol% Sc2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (ScSZ) electrolyte material. Impedance spectroscopy measurements reveals that CMO exhibits a low polarization resistance of 0.143 Ω cm2 at 800 °C. Furthermore, a Ni-ScSZ/ScSZ/CMO single cell demonstrates a maximum power density of 1076 mW cm-2 at 800 °C under H2 (3% H2O) as the fuel and ambient air as the oxidant. These results indicate that Cu1.4Mn1.6O4 is a superior and promising cathode material for IT-SOFCs.

  9. Alpha decay of 109I and its implications for the proton decay of 105Sb and the astrophysical rapid proton-capture process.

    PubMed

    Mazzocchi, C; Grzywacz, R; Liddick, S N; Rykaczewski, K P; Schatz, H; Batchelder, J C; Bingham, C R; Gross, C J; Hamilton, J H; Hwang, J K; Ilyushkin, S; Korgul, A; Królas, W; Li, K; Page, R D; Simpson, D; Winger, J A

    2007-05-25

    An alpha-decay branch of (1.4+/-0.4) x 10(-4) has been discovered in the decay of 109I, which predominantly decays via proton emission. The measured Q(alpha) value of 3918+/-21 keV allows the indirect determination of the Q value for proton emission from 105Sb of 356+/-22 keV, which is approximately of 130 keV more bound than previously reported. This result is relevant for the astrophysical rapid proton-capture process, which would terminate in the 105Sn(p,gamma)106Sb(p,gamma)107Te(alpha decay)103Sn cycle at the densities expected in explosive hydrogen burning scenarios, unless unusually strong pairing effects result in a 103Sn(p,gamma)104Sb(p,gamma)105Te(alpha decay)101Sn) cycle.

  10. Unified field analysis method for IR/MW micro-mirror array beam combiner.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yi; Sun, Gang; Yan, Hui; Zhang, Li; Li, Zhuo

    2014-07-01

    The aperture field integration method (AFIM) is proposed and utilized to efficiently compute the field distributions of infrared/microwave (IR/MW) micro-mirror array beam combiners, including the MW near-field distribution and the IR far-field distribution. The MW near-field distributions of single-dielectric-layer beam combiners with 1, 11, and 101 micromirrors are analyzed by AFIM. Compared to the commonly used multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM) in the computation of MW near-field distribution, the memory requirement and CPU time consumption are reduced drastically from 16.92 GB and 3.26 h to 0.66 MB and 0.55 s, respectively. The calculation accuracy is better than 96%, when the MW near-field distribution is computed. The IR far-field computational capability is validated by comparing the results obtained through AFIM and experiment. The MW near field and IR far field of a circular and a square shape of three-layer micro-mirror array beam combiners are also analyzed. Four indicators E pv , E rms , φ pv , and φ rms representing the amplitude and phase variations are proposed to evaluate the MW near-field uniformity. The simulation results show that the increase of beam combiner size can improve the uniformity of the MW near field, and that the square shape has less influence on the uniformity of the MW near field than the circular one. The zeroth-order diffraction primary maximum intensity of the IR far field is decreased by 1/cos 2  α 0 times compared to that of the equivalent mirror, where α 0 is the oblique angle of each micromirror. When the periodic length of the micro-mirror array is less than 0.1 mm, the position of the secondary maximum will exceed the size of the focal plane array. Simultaneously, the half-width of the zeroth-order diffraction primary maximum is less than the size of a single pixel. Thus, IR images with high quality will be obtained. The simulation results show that the AFIM as a unified method can be applied to design

  11. Proton aurora and substorm intensifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. C.; Xu, B.; Lyons, L. R.; Newell, P. T.; Creutzberg, F.

    1993-01-01

    Ground based measurements from the CANOPUS array of meridian scanning photometers and precipitating ion and electron data from the DMSP F9 satellite show that the electron arc which brightens to initiate substorm intensifications is formed within a region of intense proton precipitation that is well equatorward (approximately four to six degrees) of the nightside open-closed field line boundary. The precipitating protons are from a population that is energized via earthward convection from the magnetotail into the dipolar region of the magnetosphere and may play an important role in the formation of the electron arcs leading to substorm intensifications on dipole-like field lines.

  12. Active interrogation using energetic protons

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Christopher L; Chung, Kiwhan; Greene, Steven J; Hogan, Gary E; Makela, Mark; Mariam, Fesseha; Milner, Edward C; Murray, Matthew; Saunders, Alexander; Spaulding, Randy; Wang, Zhehui; Waters, Laurie; Wysocki, Frederick

    2010-01-01

    Energetic proton beams provide an attractive alternative when compared to electromagnetic and neutron beams for active interrogation of nuclear threats because they have large fission cross sections, long mean free paths and high penetration, and they can be manipulated with magnetic optics. We have measured time-dependent cross sections and neutron yields for delayed neutrons and gamma rays using 800 MeV and 4 GeV proton beams with a set of bare and shielded targets. The results show significant signals from both unshielded and shielded nuclear materials. Measurements of neutron energies yield suggest a signature unique to fissile material. Results are presented in this paper.

  13. Tsunami Characteristics Along the Peru-Chile Trench: Analysis of the 2015 Mw8.3 Illapel, the 2014 Mw8.2 Iquique and the 2010 Mw8.8 Maule Tsunamis in the Near-field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.; Lisboa, F.

    2016-04-01

    Tsunamis occur quite frequently following large magnitude earthquakes along the Chilean coast. Most of these earthquakes occur along the Peru-Chile Trench, one of the most seismically active subduction zones of the world. This study aims to understand better the characteristics of the tsunamis triggered along the Peru-Chile Trench. We investigate the tsunamis induced by the Mw8.3 Illapel, the Mw8.2 Iquique and the Mw8.8 Maule Chilean earthquakes that happened on September 16th, 2015, April 1st, 2014 and February 27th, 2010, respectively. The study involves the relation between the co-seismic deformation and the tsunami generation, the near-field tsunami propagation, and the spectral analysis of the recorded tsunami signals in the near-field. We compare the tsunami characteristics to highlight the possible similarities between the three events and, therefore, attempt to distinguish the specific characteristics of the tsunamis occurring along the Peru-Chile Trench. We find that these three earthquakes present faults with important extensions beneath the continent which result in the generation of tsunamis with short wavelengths, relative to the fault widths involved, and with reduced initial potential energy. In addition, the presence of the Chilean continental margin, that includes the shelf of shallow bathymetry and the continental slope, constrains the tsunami propagation and the coastal impact. All these factors contribute to a concentrated local impact but can, on the other hand, reduce the far-field tsunami effects from earthquakes along Peru-Chile Trench.

  14. Biodegradation Kinetics of 1,4-Dioxane in Chlorinated Solvent Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Gedalanga, Phillip B; Mahendra, Shaily

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the impacts of individual chlorinated solvents and their mixtures on aerobic 1,4-dioxane biodegradation by Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190. The established association of these co-occurring compounds suggests important considerations for their respective biodegradation processes. Our kinetics and mechanistic studies demonstrated that individual solvents inhibited biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane in the following order: 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) > cis-1,2-diochloroethene (cDCE) > trichloroethene (TCE) > 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA). The presence of 5 mg L(-1) 1,1-DCE completely inhibited 1,4-dioxane biodegradation. Subsequently, we determined that 1,1-DCE was the strongest inhibitor of 1,4-dioxane biodegradation by bacterial pure cultures exposed to chlorinated solvent mixtures as well as in environmental samples collected from a site contaminated with chlorinated solvents and 1,4-dioxane. Inhibition of 1,4-dioxane biodegradation rates by chlorinated solvents was attributed to delayed ATP production and down-regulation of both 1,4-dioxane monooxygenase (dxmB) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (aldH) genes. Moreover, increasing concentrations of 1,1-DCE and cis-1,2-DCE to 50 mg L(-1) respectively increased 5.0-fold and 3.5-fold the expression of the uspA gene encoding a universal stress protein. In situ natural attenuation or enhanced biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane is being considered for contaminated groundwater and industrial wastewater, so these results will have implications for selecting 1,4-dioxane bioremediation strategies at sites where chlorinated solvents are present as co-contaminants. PMID:27486928

  15. Identification of Biomarker Genes To Predict Biodegradation of 1,4-Dioxane

    PubMed Central

    Gedalanga, Phillip B.; Pornwongthong, Peerapong; Mora, Rebecca; Chiang, Sheau-Yun Dora; Baldwin, Brett; Ogles, Dora

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase gene targets in Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 were evaluated for their use as biomarkers to identify the potential for 1,4-dioxane biodegradation in pure cultures and environmental samples. Our studies using laboratory pure cultures and industrial activated sludge samples suggest that the presence of genes associated with dioxane monooxygenase, propane monooxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase are promising indicators of 1,4-dioxane biotransformation; however, gene abundance was insufficient to predict actual biodegradation. A time course gene expression analysis of dioxane and propane monooxygenases in Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 and mixed communities in wastewater samples revealed important associations with the rates of 1,4-dioxane removal. In addition, transcripts of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes were upregulated during biodegradation, although only the aldehyde dehydrogenase was significantly correlated with 1,4-dioxane concentrations. Expression of the propane monooxygenase demonstrated a time-dependent relationship with 1,4-dioxane biodegradation in P. dioxanivorans CB1190, with increased expression occurring after over 50% of the 1,4-dioxane had been removed. While the fraction of P. dioxanivorans CB1190-like bacteria among the total bacterial population significantly increased with decrease in 1,4-dioxane concentrations in wastewater treatment samples undergoing active biodegradation, the abundance and expression of monooxygenase-based biomarkers were better predictors of 1,4-dioxane degradation than taxonomic 16S rRNA genes. This study illustrates that specific bacterial monooxygenase and dehydrogenase gene targets together can serve as effective biomarkers for 1,4-dioxane biodegradation in the environment. PMID:24632253

  16. Identification of biomarker genes to predict biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane.

    PubMed

    Gedalanga, Phillip B; Pornwongthong, Peerapong; Mora, Rebecca; Chiang, Sheau-Yun Dora; Baldwin, Brett; Ogles, Dora; Mahendra, Shaily

    2014-05-01

    Bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase gene targets in Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 were evaluated for their use as biomarkers to identify the potential for 1,4-dioxane biodegradation in pure cultures and environmental samples. Our studies using laboratory pure cultures and industrial activated sludge samples suggest that the presence of genes associated with dioxane monooxygenase, propane monooxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase are promising indicators of 1,4-dioxane biotransformation; however, gene abundance was insufficient to predict actual biodegradation. A time course gene expression analysis of dioxane and propane monooxygenases in Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 and mixed communities in wastewater samples revealed important associations with the rates of 1,4-dioxane removal. In addition, transcripts of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes were upregulated during biodegradation, although only the aldehyde dehydrogenase was significantly correlated with 1,4-dioxane concentrations. Expression of the propane monooxygenase demonstrated a time-dependent relationship with 1,4-dioxane biodegradation in P. dioxanivorans CB1190, with increased expression occurring after over 50% of the 1,4-dioxane had been removed. While the fraction of P. dioxanivorans CB1190-like bacteria among the total bacterial population significantly increased with decrease in 1,4-dioxane concentrations in wastewater treatment samples undergoing active biodegradation, the abundance and expression of monooxygenase-based biomarkers were better predictors of 1,4-dioxane degradation than taxonomic 16S rRNA genes. This study illustrates that specific bacterial monooxygenase and dehydrogenase gene targets together can serve as effective biomarkers for 1,4-dioxane biodegradation in the environment.

  17. Molecular target sizes of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors in liver and cerebellum.

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, D L; Potter, B V; Taylor, C W

    1990-01-01

    Ins(1,4,5)P3 is the intracellular messenger that mediates the effects of many cell-surface receptors on intracellular Ca2+ stores. Although radioligand-binding studies have identified high-affinity Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding sites in many tissues, these have not yet been convincingly shown to be the receptors that mediate Ca2+ mobilization, nor is it clear whether there are differences in these binding sites between tissues. Here we report that Ins(1,4,5)P3 binds to a single class of high-affinity sites in both permeabilized hepatocytes (KD = 7.8 +/- 1.1 nM) and cerebellar membranes (KD = 6.5 +/- 2.4 nM), and provide evidence that these are unlikely to reflect binding to either of the enzymes known to metabolize Ins(1,4,5)P3. Furthermore, the rank order of potency of synthetic inositol phosphate analogues in displacing specifically bound Ins(1,4,5)P3 is the same as their rank order of potency in stimulating mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ stores, suggesting that the Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding site may be the physiological receptor. Radiation inactivation of the Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding sites of liver and cerebellum reveals that they have similar molecular target sizes: 257 +/- 36 kDa in liver and 258 +/- 20 kDa in cerebellum. We conclude that an Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding protein with a molecular target size of about 260 kDa is probably the receptor that mediates Ca2+ mobilization in hepatocytes, and our limited data provide no evidence to distinguish this from the cerebellar Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding protein. PMID:2154187

  18. Enhanced decomposition of 1,4-dioxane in water by ozonation under alkaline condition.

    PubMed

    Tian, Gui-Peng; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Li, Ang; Wang, Wen-Long; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2014-01-01

    1,4-Dioxane is a probable human carcinogenic and refractory substance that is widely detected in aquatic environments. Traditional wastewater treatment processes, including activated sludge, cannot remove 1,4-dioxane. Removing 1,4-dioxane with a reaction kinetic constant of 0.32 L/(mol·s) by using ozone, a strong oxidant, is difficult. However, under alkaline environment, ozone generates a hydroxyl radical (•OH) that exhibits strong oxidative potential. Thus, the ozonation of 1,4-dioxane in water under different pH conditions was investigated in this study. In neutral solution, with an inlet ozone feed rate of 0.19 mmol/(L·min), the removal efficiency of 1,4-dioxane was 7.6% at 0.5 h, whereas that in alkaline solution was higher (16.3-94.5%) within a pH range of 9-12. However, the removal efficiency of dissolved organic carbon was considerably lower than that of 1,4-dioxane. This result indicates that several persistent intermediates were generated during 1,4-dioxane ozonation. The pseudo first-order reaction further depicted the reaction of 1,4-dioxane. The obvious kinetic constants (kobs) at pH 9, 10, 11 and 12 were 0.94, 2.41, 24.88 and 2610 L/(mol·s), respectively. Scavenger experiments on radical species indicated that •OH played a key role in removing 1,4-dioxane during ozonation under alkaline condition.

  19. Vision 20/20: Proton therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Alfred R.

    2009-02-15

    The first patients were treated with proton beams in 1955 at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in California. In 1970, proton beams began to be used in research facilities to treat cancer patients using fractionated treatment regimens. It was not until 1990 that proton treatments were carried out in hospital-based facilities using technology and techniques that were comparable to those for modern photon therapy. Clinical data strongly support the conclusion that proton therapy is superior to conventional radiation therapy in a number of disease sites. Treatment planning studies have shown that proton dose distributions are superior to those for photons in a wide range of disease sites indicating that additional clinical gains can be achieved if these treatment plans can be reliably delivered to patients. Optimum proton dose distributions can be achieved with intensity modulated protons (IMPT), but very few patients have received this advanced form of treatment. It is anticipated widespread implementation of IMPT would provide additional improvements in clinical outcomes. Advances in the last decade have led to an increased interest in proton therapy. Currently, proton therapy is undergoing transitions that will move it into the mainstream of cancer treatment. For example, proton therapy is now reimbursed, there has been rapid development in proton therapy technology, and many new options are available for equipment, facility configuration, and financing. During the next decade, new developments will increase the efficiency and accuracy of proton therapy and enhance our ability to verify treatment planning calculations and perform quality assurance for proton therapy delivery. With the implementation of new multi-institution clinical studies and the routine availability of IMPT, it may be possible, within the next decade, to quantify the clinical gains obtained from optimized proton therapy. During this same period several new proton therapy facilities will be built

  20. Hydrogen consentration meter utilizing a diffusion tube composed of 2 1/4 C r

    DOEpatents

    Roy, Prodyot; Sandusky, David W.; Hartle, Robert T.

    1979-01-01

    A diffusion tube hydrogen meter for improving the sensitivity and response time for the measurement of hydrogen in liquid sodium. The improved hydrogen meter has a composite membrane composed of pure nickel sleeve fitted, for example, over a 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel or niobium diffusion tube. Since the hydrogen permeation rate through 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steels is a factor of four higher than pure nickel, and the permeation rate of hydrogen through niobium is two orders of magnitude greater than the 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, this results in a decrease in response time and an increase in the sensitivity.

  1. Synthesis and antiinflammatory activity of 6-Acylsubstituted benzo-1,4-dioxanes and dihydrobenzopyrans

    SciTech Connect

    Daukshas, V.K.; Brukshtus, A.B.; Gaidyalis, P.G.; Pyatrauskas, O.Yu.; Udrenaite, E.B.

    1986-07-01

    6-Acylsubstituted benzo-1,4-dioxanes and dihydrobenzopyrans were synthesized by the Friedel-Crafts reaction by the acylation of benzo-1,4-dioxane or corresponding dihydrobenzopyran with an acid chloride in the presence of anhydrous AlCl/sub 3/; the ketone was obtained by the hydrogenation of the chalcone using Raney nickel. The antiinflammatory activity was studied on experimental models of carragheen and bentonite edema of the foot of white rats. Results indicate that derivatives of benzo-1,4-dioxane and dihydrobenzopyran of the type studied show promise as antiinflammatory agents.

  2. Studies on molecular structure, vibrational spectra and molecular docking analysis of 3-Methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl 4-aminobenzoate.

    PubMed

    Suresh, D M; Amalanathan, M; Joe, I Hubert; Jothy, V Bena; Diao, Yun-Peng

    2014-09-15

    The molecular structure, vibrational analysis and molecular docking analysis of the 3-Methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl 4-aminobenzoate (MDDNAB) molecule have been carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic techniques and DFT method. The equilibrium geometry, harmonic vibrational wave numbers, various bonding features have been computed using density functional method. The calculated molecular geometry has been compared with experimental data. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out by using VEDA program. The hyper-conjugative interactions and charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The simulated FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra satisfactorily coincide with the experimental spectra. The PES and charge analysis have been made. The molecular docking was done to identify the binding energy and the Hydrogen bonding with the cancer protein molecule.

  3. Studies on molecular structure, vibrational spectra and molecular docking analysis of 3-Methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl 4-aminobenzoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, D. M.; Amalanathan, M.; Hubert Joe, I.; Bena Jothy, V.; Diao, Yun-Peng

    2014-09-01

    The molecular structure, vibrational analysis and molecular docking analysis of the 3-Methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl 4-aminobenzoate (MDDNAB) molecule have been carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic techniques and DFT method. The equilibrium geometry, harmonic vibrational wave numbers, various bonding features have been computed using density functional method. The calculated molecular geometry has been compared with experimental data. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out by using VEDA program. The hyper-conjugative interactions and charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The simulated FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra satisfactorily coincide with the experimental spectra. The PES and charge analysis have been made. The molecular docking was done to identify the binding energy and the Hydrogen bonding with the cancer protein molecule.

  4. Processable, high temperature polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and bis-dienes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1988-01-01

    1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene reacts with various anthracene end-capped polyimide oligomers to form Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, and have molecular weights of approximately 21,000 to 32,000. These resins exhibit lower weight loss in air than in nitrogen. This is suggested to be due to dehydration (loss of water ranges from 2 to 5 percent) at temperatures of 390 to 400 C to give thermooxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone. Because of their high softening points and good thermooxidative stability, the polymers have potential as processable, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications.

  5. Addition polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and Bis-dienes: Processable resins for high temperature application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1987-01-01

    1,4,5,8-Tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene reacts with various anthracene endcapped polyimide oligomers to form Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, and have molecular weights of approximately 21,000 to 32,000. Interestingly, these resins appear to be more stable in air then in nitrogen. This is shown to be due to a unique dehydration (loss of water ranges from 2 to 5 percent) at temperatures of 390 to 400 C to give thermo-oxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone. Because of their high softening points and good thermo-oxidative stability, the polymers have potential as processible, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications.

  6. catena-Poly[[[tetra-aqua-magnesium]-trans-μ-[(piperazine-1,4-diium-1,4-di-yl)bis-(methyl-ene)]di-phospho-nato] hemihydrate].

    PubMed

    Schilling, Lars-Hendrik; Stock, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    The structure of the title polymer, }[Mg(C6H14N2O6P2)(H2O)4]·0.5H2O} n , is based on centrosymmetric MgO6 octahedra, which are linked by [(piperazine-1,4-diium-1,4-di-yl)bis-(methyl-ene)]di-phospho-nate ligands, forming chains parallel to [1-1-1]. These chains are connected via hydrogen bonds primarily formed between the phospho-nate groups and water mol-ecules. The latter constitute four of the corners of the MgO6 polyhedra and bind to the O atoms of the phospho-nate groups of neighbouring chains. The lattice water molecule is disordered around an inversion centre, exhibiting an occupancy of 0.25. PMID:24109276

  7. 1,4-Di-aza-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane-1,4-diium bis-(3-chloro-benzoate).

    PubMed

    Yao, Zi-Shuo; Sato, Osamu

    2014-02-01

    In the title salt C6H14N2 (2+)·2C7H4ClO2 (-), two 3-chloro-benzoate (3CBA) anions are bridged by one diprotonated 1,4-di-aza-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane-1,4-diium (H2DABCO(2+)) dication through N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. In this way, a trimeric unit is generated, in which the mean planes of the two 3CBA anions are twisted with respect to each other by a dihedral angle of 59.87 (9)°. The trimeric units are linked into a three-dimensional network via weak C-H⋯O inter-actions.

  8. Measurement of pion, kaon and proton production in proton-proton collisions at TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Rinella, G. Aglieri; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Molina, R. Alfaro; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Prado, C. Alves Garcia; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.; Pedrosa, F. Baltasar Dos Santos; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Camejo, A. Batista; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Martinez, H. Bello; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Buxton, J. T.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Diaz, L. Calero; Caliva, A.; Villar, E. Calvo; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castellanos, J. Castillo; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Cavicchioli, C.; Sanchez, C. Ceballos; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Barroso, V. Chibante; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Balbastre, G. Conesa; Valle, Z. Conesa del; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Morales, Y. Corrales; Maldonado, I. Cortés; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Albino, R. Cruz; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Caro, A. De; Cataldo, G. de; Cuveland, J. de; Falco, A. De; Gruttola, D. De; Marco, N. De; Pasquale, S. De; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; Bari, D. Di; Mauro, A. Di; Nezza, P. Di; Corchero, M. A. Diaz; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Gimenez, D. Domenicis; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Téllez, A. Fernández; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Girard, M. Fusco; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Dziadus, E. Gladysz; Glässel, P.; Ramirez, A. Gomez; Zamora, P. González; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Corral, G. Herrera; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hilden, T. E.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Bustamante, R. T. Jimenez; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Uysal, A. Karasu; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Khan, K. H.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Meethaleveedu, G. Koyithatta; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Pointe, S. L. La; Rocca, P. La; Fernandes, C. Lagana; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, S.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; Monzón, I. León; Leoncino, M.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; Torres, E. López; Lowe, A.; Lu, X.-G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Cervantes, I. Maldonado; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Blanco, J. Martin; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Pedreira, M. Martinez; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Masui, H.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Mcdonald, D.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Pérez, J. Mercado; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Minervini, L. M.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Zetina, L. Montaño; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Godoy, D. A. Moreira De; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Silva, A. C. Oliveira Da; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Velasquez, A. Ortiz; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Pant, D.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Costa, H. Pereira Da; Filho, E. Pereira De Oliveira; Peresunko, D.; Lara, C. E. Pérez; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Cahuantzi, M. Rodríguez; Manso, A. Rodriguez; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Montero, A. J. Rubio; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Castro, X. Sanchez; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Seeder, K. S.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, N.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Stassinaki, M. Spyropoulou; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szabo, A.; Toledo, A. Szanto de; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tanaka, N.; Tangaro, M. A.; Takaki, J. D. Tapia; Peloni, A. Tarantola; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Muñoz, G. Tejeda; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Palomo, L. Valencia; Vallero, S.; Maarel, J. Van Der; Hoorne, J. W. Van; Leeuwen, M. van; Vanat, T.; Vyvre, P. Vande; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Limón, S. Vergara; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Baillie, O. Villalobos; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; Haller, B. von; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yurchenko, V.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.

    2015-05-01

    The measurement of primary , , and production at mid-rapidity ( 0.5) in proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV performed with a large ion collider experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC) is reported. Particle identification is performed using the specific ionisation energy-loss and time-of-flight information, the ring-imaging Cherenkov technique and the kink-topology identification of weak decays of charged kaons. Transverse momentum spectra are measured from 0.1 up to 3 GeV/ for pions, from 0.2 up to 6 GeV/ for kaons and from 0.3 up to 6 GeV/ for protons. The measured spectra and particle ratios are compared with quantum chromodynamics-inspired models, tuned to reproduce also the earlier measurements performed at the LHC. Furthermore, the integrated particle yields and ratios as well as the average transverse momenta are compared with results at lower collision energies.

  9. Development of a 2-MW, CW Coaxial Gyrotron at 70 GHz and Test Facility for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogge, J. P.; Alberti, S.; Arnold, A.; Bariou, D.; Benin, P.; Bonicelli, T.; Bruschi, A.; Chavan, R.; Cirant, S.; Dumbrajs, O.; Fasel, D.; Gandini, F.; Giguet, E.; Goodman, T.; Heidinger, R.; Henderson, M.; Illy, S.; Jin, J.; Lievin, C.; Magne, R.; Marmillod, P.; Mondino, P. L.; Perez, A.; Piosczyk, B.; Porte, L.; Rzesnicki, T.; Santinelli, M.; Thumm, M.; Tran, M. Q.; Yovchev, I.

    2005-01-01

    In ITER, EC heating and current drive (H&CD) is foreseen not only as a principal auxiliary system for plasma heating and as assist for plasma start-up, but is considered essential in meeting the key requirement of neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) stabilisation, by localized current drive. In the reference ECH design, ITER requires a total of 20 MW/CW power at 170 GHz using gyrotrons with a unit power of 1 MW. A higher power per unit (2 MW/gyrotron) would result in a strong reduction of the cost of the whole ECRH system, and would also relax the room constraints on the launcher antenna design. In view of the capability of coaxial cavity gyrotrons demonstrated with short pulse experiments at FZK, the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) has started in 2003 the development of an industrial 170 GHz 2 MW/CW coaxial cavity gyrotron, in a collaborative effort between European research associations CRPP/EPFL, FZK, TEKES and Thals Electron Devices (TED). The development plan includes three steps to reach successively 2 MW/1s, 2 MW/60s and finally 2 MW/CW operation. The procurement of the first prototype is in progress and it scheduled to be delivered during the first quarter of 2006. The experimental tests of the prototypes will be carried out at CRPP/EPFL, where an ITER relevant test facility is presently under construction and will be achieved during the second half of 2005. The test facility is designed to be flexible enough, allowing the possible commissioning of tubes with different characteristics, as well the tests of the launcher antenna at full performances.

  10. Compatibility study of trans-1,4,5,8-tetranitro-1,4,5,8-tetraazadecalin (TNAD) with some energetic components and inert materials.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qi-Long; Xiao-Jiang, Li; La-Ying, Zhang; Ji-Zhen, Li; Hong-Li, Li; Zi-Ru, Liu

    2008-12-30

    The compatibility of trans-1,4,5,8-tetranitro-1,4,5,8-tetraazadecalin (TNAD) with some energetic components and inert materials of solid propellants was studied by using the pressure DSC method where, cyclotetramethylenetetranitroamine (HMX), cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), 1,4-dinitropiperazine (DNP), 1.25/1-NC/NG mixture, lead 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-onate (NTO-Pb), aluminum powder (Al, particle size=13.6microm) and N-nitrodihydroxyethylaminedinitrate (DINA) were used as energetic components and polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyoxytetramethylene-co-oxyethylene (PET), addition product of hexamethylene diisocyanate and water (N-100), 2-nitrodianiline (2-NDPA), 1,3-dimethyl-1,3-diphenyl urea (C2), carbon black (C.B.), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), cupric 2,4-dihydroxy-benzoate (beta-Cu), cupric adipate (AD-Cu) and lead phthalate (phi-Pb) were used as inert materials. It was concluded that the binary systems of TNAD with NTO-Pb, RDX, PET and Al powder are compatible, and systems of TNAD with DINA and HMX are slightly sensitive, and with 2-NDPA, phi-Pb, beta-Cu, AD-Cu and Al2O3 are sensitive, and with PEG, N-100, C2 and C.B. are incompatible. The impact and friction sensitivity data of the TNAD and TNAD in combination with the other energetic materials under present study was also obtained, and there was no consequential affiliation between sensitivity and compatibility.

  11. Purification and characterization of an endo-1,4-beta-glucanase from Neisseria sicca SB that hydrolyzes beta-1,4 linkages in cellulose acetate.

    PubMed

    Moriyoshi, Kunihiko; Ohmoto, Takashi; Ohe, Tatsuhiko; Sakai, Kiyofumi

    2002-03-01

    An enzyme catalyzing hydrolysis of beta-1,4 bonds in cellulose acetate was purified 18.3-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity from a culture supernatant of Neisseria sicca SB, which can assimilate cellulose acetate as the sole carbon and energy source. The molecular mass of the enzyme was 41 kDa and the isoelectric point was 4.8. The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme were 6.0-7.0 and 60 degrees C. The enzyme catalyzed hydrolysis of water-soluble cellulose acetate (degree of substitution, 0.88) and carboxymethyl cellulose. The Km and Vmax for water-soluble cellulose acetate and carboxymethyl cellulose were 0.242% and 2.24 micromol/min/mg, and 2.28% and 12.8 micromol/min/mg, respectively. It is estimated that the enzyme is a kind of endo-1,4-beta-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) from the substrate specificity and hydrolysis products of cellooligosaccharides. The enzyme and cellulose acetate esterase from Neisseria sicca SB degraded water-insoluble cellulose acetate by synergistic action.

  12. Fast proton conducting glasses: Creation by proton implantation and a requirement for fast proton conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hosono, H.; Kawamura, K.; Kawazoe, H.; Matsunami, N.; Abe, Y.

    1997-02-01

    Fast proton conducting glasses have been obtained in Mg(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} glasses by implantation of protons at 120 keV to a fluence of 1{times}10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}2}. The dc conductivity and the activation energy of the conduction in the implanted glasses are 5{times}10{sup {minus}4} scm{sup {minus}1} at room temperature and 0.18 eV, respectively. No fast proton conduction was observed for H{sup +}-implanted SiO{sub 2} and Ca(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} glasses. Infrared absorption spectra revealed that implanted protons are present in the form of X{endash}OH (X=Si or P) in SiO{sub 2} and Ca(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} glasses implanted with H{sup +} ions to 1{times}10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}2}, but exist as POH groups and molecular water H{sub 2}O in Mg(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} glasses. A quantitative discussion on the proton conductivity led to the conclusion that the coexistence of acidic groups such as POH and molecular water H{sub 2}O is a structural requirement for the emergence of fast proton conduction in oxide glasses. The formation of H{sub 2}O in Mg(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} was understood by considering its thermodynamic stability over SiO{sub 2} and Ca(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} glasses. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. 40 CFR 180.1142 - 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the plant growth regulator 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene when applied post harvest to potatoes in accordance with good...

  14. Side Elevation; 1/4 Plans of Floor Framing, Floor Planking, Roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation; 1/4 Plans of Floor Framing, Floor Planking, Roof Framing and Roof; Longitudinal Section, Cross Section, End Elevation - Eames Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  15. Process for the production of 1:4 butanediol from maleic anhydride via ester hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Towers, R.G.; Harris, N.; McKee, D.

    1986-01-01

    A process has been developed for the production of 1:4 butanediol (1:4 BDO from maleic anhydride (MA). The three process steps are:- a) Esterifiction of MA to produce a dialkyl maleate ester based on a modification of commercially proven esterification technology; b) Hydrogenation of the ester, at moderate temperatures and pressures, to 1:4 BD using novel low pressure ester hydrogenation technology. Gamma-Butyrolactone (gamma-BL) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) are produced as co-products. The 1:4 BD/Gamma-BL product ratio can be adjusted to respond to market requirements by recycle of the less desirable product, and THF productivity controlled over wide limits by variation of process parameters; c) Product separation by distillation.

  16. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-1 - Site identification as potentially acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... will consider the aquatic and terrestrial ecology; water rights and uses; topography; potential offsite... POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-1 Site...

  17. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-1 - Site identification as potentially acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... will consider the aquatic and terrestrial ecology; water rights and uses; topography; potential offsite... POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-1 Site...

  18. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-1 - Site identification as potentially acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... will consider the aquatic and terrestrial ecology; water rights and uses; topography; potential offsite... POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-1 Site...

  19. A new and efficient procedure for the synthesis of hexahydropyrimidine-fused 1,4-naphthoquinones

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Marcelo Isidoro P; Campos, Vinícius R; Resende, Jackson A L C; Silva, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Summary A new and efficient method for the synthesis of hexahydropyrimidine-fused 1,4-naphthoquinones in one step with high yields from the reaction of lawsone with 1,3,5-triazinanes was developed. PMID:26425181

  20. Cytochrome P3-450 cDNA encodes aflatoxin B1-4-hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Faletto, M B; Koser, P L; Battula, N; Townsend, G K; Maccubbin, A E; Gelboin, H V; Gurtoo, H L

    1988-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a potent hepatocarcinogen and ubiquitous dietary contaminant in some countries, is detoxified to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) via cytochrome P-450-mediated AFB1-4-hydroxylase. Genetic studies in mice have demonstrated that the expression of AFB1-4-hydroxylase is regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon locus and suggested that different cytochrome P-450 isozymes catalyze AFB1-4-hydroxylase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities. We have now examined lysates from mammalian cells infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses containing expressible cytochrome P1-450 or P3-450 cDNAs for their ability to metabolize AFB1 to AFM1. Our results show that cytochrome P3-450 cDNA specifies AFB1-4-hydroxylase. This is the first direct assignment of a specific cytochrome P-450 to an AFB1 detoxification pathway. This finding may have relevance to the dietary modulation of AFB1 hepatocarcinogenesis.

  1. Multiple Views of X1.4 Solar Flare on July 12, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows the July 12, 2012 X1.4 class solar flare in a variety of wavelength; 131- Teal colored, 335 - blue colored, 171 - yellow colored and finally a combined wavelength view. All video w...

  2. 1H DNP at 1.4 T of water doped with a triarylmethyl-based radical.

    PubMed

    Wind, R A; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, J H

    1999-12-01

    Recently a triarylmethyl-based (TAM) radical has been developed for research in biological and other aqueous systems, and in low magnetic fields, 10 mT or less, large (1)H dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhancements have been reported. In this paper the DNP properties of this radical have been investigated in a considerably larger field of 1.4 T, corresponding to proton and electron Larmor frequencies of 60 MHz and 40 GHz, respectively. To avoid excessive microwave heating of the sample, an existing DNP NMR probe was modified with a screening coil, wound around the sample capillary and with its axis perpendicular to the electric component of the microwave field. It was found that with this probe the temperature increase in the sample after 4 s of microwave irradiation with an incident power of 10 W was only 16 degrees C. For the investigations, 10 mM of the TAM radical was dissolved in deionized, but not degassed, water and put into a 1-mm i.d. and 6-mm long capillary tube. At 26 degrees C the following results were obtained: (I) The relaxivity of the radical is 0.07 (mMs)(-1), in accordance with the value extrapolated from low-field results; (II) The leakage factor is 0.63, the saturation factor at maximum power is 0.85, and the coupling factor is -0.0187. It is shown that these results agree very well with an analysis where the electron-dipolar interactions are the dominant DNP mechanism, and where the relaxation transitions resulting from these interactions are governed by translational diffusion of the water molecules. Finally, the possibilities of combining DNP with magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) are discussed. It is shown that at 26 degrees C the overall DNP-enhanced proton polarization should become maximal in an external field of 0.3 T and become comparable to the thermal equilibrium polarization in a field of 30 T, considerably larger than the largest high-resolution magnet available to date. It is concluded that DNP MRM in this field, which

  3. Electron and Proton Auroral Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.; Gerard, J. C.; Hubert, B.; Fuselier, S.; Spann, J. F., Jr.; Gladstone, R.; Burch, J. L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Data from the Wide-band Imaging Camera (WIC) sensitive to far ultraviolet auroras and from the Spectrographic Imager (SI) channel SI12, sensitive to proton precipitation induced Lyman alpha were analyzed during a high altitude orbit segment of the IMAGE spacecraft. This segment began during the expansive phase of a substorm. The aurora changed into a double oval configuration, consisting of a set of discrete pole-ward forms and a separate diffuse auroral oval equatorwards, Although IMF Bz was strongly southward considerable activity could be seen poleward of the discrete auroras in the region that was considered to be the polar cap. The SI12 Doppler shifted Lyman alpha signature of precipitating protons show that the proton aurora is on the equatorward side of the diffuse aurora. In the following several hours the IMF Bz field changed signed. Although the general character of the proton and electron aurora did not change, the dayside aurora moved equatorward when the Bz was negative and more bright aurora was seen in the central polar cap during periods of positive Bz.

  4. Invariant Spin in the Proton

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Anthony

    2008-11-01

    We discuss recent theoretical progress in understanding the distribution of spin and orbital angular momentum in the proton. Particular attention is devoted to the effect of QCD evolution and to the distinction between "chiral" and "invariant" spin. This is particularly significant with respect to the possible presence of polarized strange quarks.

  5. Invariant Spin in the Proton

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Anthony W.

    2008-10-13

    We discuss recent theoretical progress in understanding the distribution of spin and orbital angular momentum in the proton. Particular attention is devoted to the effect of QCD evolution and to the distinction between 'chiral' and 'invariant' spin. This is particularly significant with respect to the possible presence of polarized strange quarks.

  6. Gluon polarization in the proton

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, Steven D.; Casey, Andrew; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2011-03-15

    We combine heavy-quark renormalization group arguments with our understanding of the nucleon's wave function to deduce a bound on the gluon polarization {Delta}g in the proton. The bound is consistent with the values extracted from spin experiments at COMPASS and RHIC.

  7. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

  8. Imaging B. anthracis heme catabolism in mice using the IFP1.4 gene reporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Banghe; Robinson, Holly; Wilganowski, Nathaniel; Nobles, Christopher L.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; Maresso, Anthony

    2012-03-01

    B. anthracis is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium which likes all pathogenic bacteria, survive by sequestering heme from its host. To image B. anthracis heme catabolism in vivo, we stably transfect new red excitable fluorescent protein, IFP1.4, that requires the heme catabolism product biliverdin (BV). IFP1.4 reporter has favorable excitation and emission characteristics, which has an absorption peak at 685 nm and an emission peak at 708 nm. Therefore, IFP1.4 reporter can be imaged deeply into the tissue with less contamination from tissue autofluorescence. However, the excitation light "leakage" through optical filters can limit detection and sensitivity of IFP1.4 reporter due to the small Stoke's shift of IFP1.4 fluorescence. To minimize the excitation light leakage, an intensified CCD (ICCD) based infrared fluorescence imaging device was optimized using two band pass filters separated by a focus lens to increase the optical density at the excitation wavelength. In this study, a mouse model (DBA/J2) was first injected with B. anthracis bacteria expressing IFP1.4, 150 μl s.c., on the ventral side of the left thigh. Then mouse was given 250 μl of a 1mM BV solution via I.V. injection. Imaging was conducted as a function of time after infection under light euthanasia, excised tissues were imaged and IFP1.4 fluorescence correlated with standard culture measurements of colony forming units (CFU). The work demonstrates the use of IFP1.4 as a reporter of bacterial utilization of host heme and may provide an important tool for understanding the pathogenesis of bacterial infection and developing new anti-bacterial therapeutics.

  9. Physiological and Pathophysiological Insights of Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Loussouarn, Gildas; Sternberg, Damien; Nicole, Sophie; Marionneau, Céline; Le Bouffant, Francoise; Toumaniantz, Gilles; Barc, Julien; Malak, Olfat A.; Fressart, Véronique; Péréon, Yann; Baró, Isabelle; Charpentier, Flavien

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 α-subunits have been associated with muscular and cardiac channelopathies, respectively. Despite intense research on the structure and function of these channels, a lot of information is still missing to delineate the various physiological and pathophysiological processes underlying their activity at the molecular level. Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 sequences are similar, suggesting structural and functional homologies between the two orthologous channels. This also suggests that any characteristics described for one channel subunit may shed light on the properties of the counterpart channel subunit. In this review article, after a brief clinical description of the muscular and cardiac channelopathies related to Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 mutations, respectively, we compare the knowledge accumulated in different aspects of the expression and function of Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 α-subunits: the regulation of the two encoding genes (SCN4A and SCN5A), the associated/regulatory proteins and at last, the functional effect of the same missense mutations detected in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5. First, it appears that more is known on Nav1.5 expression and accessory proteins. Because of the high homologies of Nav1.5 binding sites and equivalent Nav1.4 sites, Nav1.5-related results may guide future investigations on Nav1.4. Second, the analysis of the same missense mutations in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 revealed intriguing similarities regarding their effects on membrane excitability and alteration in channel biophysics. We believe that such comparison may bring new cues to the physiopathology of cardiac and muscular diseases. PMID:26834636

  10. Thermal rearrangements in 1,2-poly/1,4-hexadiene/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The work described was carried out to study the thermal rearrangements of two unsaturated diene polymers - 1,2-poly(cis-1,4-hexadiene) (CHD) and 1,2-poly(trans-1.4-hexadiene) (THD). It is shown that both CHD and THD have a predominatly 1,8 diene structure and seem to cyclize mainly by the (2 + 2) thermal cycloaddition of double bonds, and to a small extent also by sigmatropic rearrangement with hydrogen shift.

  11. Proton pump inhibitor-induced hypomagnesemic hypoparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors are the one of the most widely used drugs in the world. Hypomagnesemic hypoparathyroidism has been reported with different proton pump inhibitors with prolonged oral use. We report the first reported case of possible such effect with intravenous preparation of proton pump inhibitor. This case report raises awareness among physicians worldwide of this often unknown association, as life-threatening cardiac and neuromuscular complications can arise with unrecognized hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia with proton pump inhibitors.

  12. Low-Energy Proton Testing Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Heidel, David F.; Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Xapsos, M.A.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Berg, Melanie; Kim, Hak S.; Phan, Anthony; Friendlich, M.R.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Hakey, Mark C.; Dodd, Paul E.; Reed, Robert A.; Weller, Robert A.; Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Sierawski, B.D.

    2009-01-01

    Use of low-energy protons and high-energy light ions is becoming necessary to investigate current-generation SEU thresholds. Systematic errors can dominate measurements made with low-energy protons. Range and energy straggling contribute to systematic error. Low-energy proton testing is not a step-and-repeat process. Low-energy protons and high-energy light ions can be used to measure SEU cross section of single sensitive features; important for simulation.

  13. Quantitation of 1,4-Benzoxazin-3-ones in Maize by Gas-Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Woodward, M D; Corcuera, L J; Helgeson, J P; Kelman, A; Upper, C D

    1979-01-01

    A gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) procedure is reported for the quantitation of the trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of substituted 2-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-ones (2-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one[HBOA]; 2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one[HMBOA];2,4- dihydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one[DIBOA]; 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one[DIMBOA]; and 2,4-dihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one[DIM (2)BOA]) found in maize (Zea mays L.) extracts. Derivatized samples were chromatographed on columns with liquid phases of 2% DC-11 and 3% OV-17 and detected by flame ionization. Internal standards were methyl palmitate and methyl stearate on DC-11 and methyl behenate on OV-17. Detector response was linear to at least 5 nanomoles for TMS(2)-HBOA and TMS(2)-DIBOA and to 19 nanomoles for TMS(2)-DIMBOA. Standard errors of 2% or less were obtained when four replicate samples were analyzed. For each of the 15 maize lines examined, the amount of DIMBOA determined by GLC was directly proportional to the amount of ferric chloride-reactive material determined colorimetrically.

  14. Beyond topoisomerase inhibition: antitumor 1,4-naphthoquinones as potential inhibitors of human monoamine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Coelho-Cerqueira, Eduardo; Netz, Paulo A; do Canto, Vanessa P; Pinto, Angelo C; Follmer, Cristian

    2014-04-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) action has been involved in the regulation of neurotransmitters levels, cell signaling, cellular growth, and differentiation as well as in the balance of the intracellular polyamine levels. Although so far obscure, MAO inhibitors are believed to have some effect on tumors progression. 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ) has been pointed out as a potential pharmacophore for inhibition of both MAO and DNA topoisomerase activities, this latter associated with antitumor activity. Herein, we demonstrated that certain antitumor 1,4-NQs, including spermidine-1,4-NQ, lapachol, and nor-lapachol display inhibitory activity on human MAO-A and MAO-B. Kinetic studies indicated that these compounds are reversible and competitive MAO inhibitors, being the enzyme selectivity greatly affected by substitutions on 1,4-NQ ring. Molecular docking studies suggested that the most potent MAO inhibitors are capable to bind to the MAO active site in close proximity of flavin moiety. Furthermore, ability to inhibit both MAO-A and MAO-B can be potentialized by the formation of hydrogen bonds between these compounds and FAD and/or the residues in the active site. Although spermidine-1,4-NQs exhibit antitumor action primarily by inhibiting topoisomerase via DNA intercalation, our findings suggest that their effect on MAO activity should be taken into account when their application in cancer therapy is considered.

  15. Monobenzofused 1,4-azaborines: synthesis, characterization, and discovery of a unique coordination mode.

    PubMed

    Xu, Senmiao; Haeffner, Fredrik; Li, Bo; Zakharov, Lev N; Liu, Shih-Yuan

    2014-06-23

    We report the first general synthesis of boron-substituted monobenzofused 1,4-azaborines using ring-closing metathesis of an enamine-containing diene as a key synthetic strategy. As part of our investigations, we discovered that the B-C3 moiety in a 1,4-azaborine can serve uniquely as a η(2)-L-type ligand. This functionality is exemplified by two κ(2)-N-η(2)-BC Pt complexes of a boron-pyridyl-substituted monobenzofused-1,4-azaborine. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of the Pt complexes shows a strong structural contribution from the iminium resonance form of the monobenzofused-1,4-azaborine ligand. We also demonstrate that a palladium(0) complex supported by a 1,4-azaborine-based phosphine ligand can catalyze hydroboration of 1-buten-3-yne with unique selectivity. In view of the importance of arene-metal π-interactions in catalytic applications, this work should open new opportunities for ligand design involving the 1,4-azaborine motif as an arene substitute.

  16. Toxic effects of 1,4-dichlorobenzene on photosynthesis in Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinhua; Wang, Jie; Feng, Jia; Lv, Junping; Cai, Jin; Liu, Qi; Xie, Shulian

    2016-09-01

    1,4-Dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) is a common organic contaminant in water. To determine the effects of this contaminant on photosynthesis in the freshwater alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa, algal cells were treated with 1,4-DCB at different concentrations for various times, and their photosynthetic pigment contents and chlorophyll fluorescence traits were analyzed. The results showed that 1,4-DCB exerted toxic effects on photosynthesis in C. pyrenoidosa, especially at concentrations exceeding 10 mg/L. The inhibitory effects of 1,4-DCB were time- and concentration-dependent. After treatment with 1,4-DCB (≥10 mg/L), the contents of photosynthetic pigments decreased significantly, the photosystem II reaction center was irreversibly damaged, and the quantum yield of photosystem II decreased significantly. Also, there were sharp decreases in the efficiency of photosynthetic electron transport and energy conversion. Photosystem II became overloaded as the amount of excitation energy distributed to it increased. All of these events weakened the photochemical reaction, and ultimately led to serious inhibition of photosynthesis. PMID:27542668

  17. Anxiolytic-like effect of the monoterpene 1,4-cineole in mice.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Patrícia Bezerra; Feitosa, Mariana Lima; Silva, Maria Izabel Gomes; Noronha, Emmanuelle Coelho; Moura, Brinell Arcanjo; Venâncio, Edith Teles; Rios, Emiliano Ricardo Vasconcelos; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; Fonteles, Marta Maria de França; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço

    2010-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that some monoterpenes exert anxiolytic- and depressant-like actions, however, these effects from monoterpene 1,4-cineole are still unknown. This work aimed to study the effects of 1,4-cineole in classic animal models for depression- and anxiety-like behavior, specifically the elevated plus maze (EPM), hole board, open field, pentobarbital sleeping time, forced swimming, tail suspension and rota rod tests. 1,4-Cineole was administered orally to mice (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg), while diazepam (1 or 2 mg/kg) and imipramine (10 or 30 mg/kg) were used as standard drugs. 1,4-Cineole (400 mg/kg) modified all parameters observed in the EPM, while no significant variation was observed on general motor activity in the open-field test. In the hole-board assay, 1,4-cineole induced increase on the number of head dips. Forced swimming and tail suspension tests showed that cineole (200 and/or 400 mg/kg) was able to promote significant increase on the immobility time, while a decreased sleep latency was observed (200 and 400 mg/kg ) on the pentobarbital sleeping time. Cineole had no effect on the motor coordination of animals in the rota rod test. The results suggest that 1,4-cineole presents potential anxiolytic-like action consistent with possible general depression of the CNS.

  18. Microbially driven Fenton reaction for degradation of the widespread environmental contaminant 1,4-dioxane.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Ramanan; DiChristina, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    The carcinogenic cyclic ether compound 1,4-dioxane is employed as a stabilizer of chlorinated industrial solvents and is a widespread environmental contaminant in surface water and groundwater. In the present study, a microbially driven Fenton reaction was designed to autocatalytically generate hydroxyl (HO•) radicals that degrade 1,4-dioxane. In comparison to conventional (purely abiotic) Fenton reactions, the microbially driven Fenton reaction operated at circumneutral pH and did not the require addition of exogenous H2O2 or UV irradiation to regenerate Fe(II) as Fenton reagents. The 1,4-dioxane degradation process was driven by pure cultures of the Fe(III)-reducing facultative anaerobe Shewanella oneidensis manipulated under controlled laboratory conditions. S. oneidensis batch cultures were provided with lactate, Fe(III), and 1,4-dioxane and were exposed to alternating aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The microbially driven Fenton reaction completely degraded 1,4-dioxane (10 mM initial concentration) in 53 h with an optimal aerobic-anaerobic cycling period of 3 h. Acetate and oxalate were detected as transient intermediates during the microbially driven Fenton degradation of 1,4-dioxane, an indication that conventional and microbially driven Fenton degradation processes follow similar reaction pathways. The microbially driven Fenton reaction provides the foundation for development of alternative in situ remediation technologies to degrade environmental contaminants susceptible to attack by HO• radicals generated by the Fenton reaction.

  19. The size of the proton.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Randolf; Antognini, Aldo; Nez, François; Amaro, Fernando D; Biraben, François; Cardoso, João M R; Covita, Daniel S; Dax, Andreas; Dhawan, Satish; Fernandes, Luis M P; Giesen, Adolf; Graf, Thomas; Hänsch, Theodor W; Indelicato, Paul; Julien, Lucile; Kao, Cheng-Yang; Knowles, Paul; Le Bigot, Eric-Olivier; Liu, Yi-Wei; Lopes, José A M; Ludhova, Livia; Monteiro, Cristina M B; Mulhauser, Françoise; Nebel, Tobias; Rabinowitz, Paul; Dos Santos, Joaquim M F; Schaller, Lukas A; Schuhmann, Karsten; Schwob, Catherine; Taqqu, David; Veloso, João F C A; Kottmann, Franz

    2010-07-01

    The proton is the primary building block of the visible Universe, but many of its properties-such as its charge radius and its anomalous magnetic moment-are not well understood. The root-mean-square charge radius, r(p), has been determined with an accuracy of 2 per cent (at best) by electron-proton scattering experiments. The present most accurate value of r(p) (with an uncertainty of 1 per cent) is given by the CODATA compilation of physical constants. This value is based mainly on precision spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen and calculations of bound-state quantum electrodynamics (QED; refs 8, 9). The accuracy of r(p) as deduced from electron-proton scattering limits the testing of bound-state QED in atomic hydrogen as well as the determination of the Rydberg constant (currently the most accurately measured fundamental physical constant). An attractive means to improve the accuracy in the measurement of r(p) is provided by muonic hydrogen (a proton orbited by a negative muon); its much smaller Bohr radius compared to ordinary atomic hydrogen causes enhancement of effects related to the finite size of the proton. In particular, the Lamb shift (the energy difference between the 2S(1/2) and 2P(1/2) states) is affected by as much as 2 per cent. Here we use pulsed laser spectroscopy to measure a muonic Lamb shift of 49,881.88(76) GHz. On the basis of present calculations of fine and hyperfine splittings and QED terms, we find r(p) = 0.84184(67) fm, which differs by 5.0 standard deviations from the CODATA value of 0.8768(69) fm. Our result implies that either the Rydberg constant has to be shifted by -110 kHz/c (4.9 standard deviations), or the calculations of the QED effects in atomic hydrogen or muonic hydrogen atoms are insufficient. PMID:20613837

  20. Mitochondrial proton and electron leaks

    PubMed Central

    Jastroch, Martin; Divakaruni, Ajit S.; Mookerjee, Shona; Treberg, Jason R.; Brand, Martin D.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial proton and electron leak have a major impact on mitochondrial coupling efficiency and production of reactive oxygen species. In the first part of this chapter, we address the molecular nature of the basal and inducible proton leak pathways, and their physiological importance. The basal leak is unregulated, and a major proportion can be attributed to mitochondrial anion carriers, while the proton leak through the lipid bilayer appears to be minor. The basal proton leak is cell-type specific and correlates with metabolic rate. The inducible leak through the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) and uncoupling proteins (UCPs) can be activated by fatty acids, superoxide, or peroxidation products. The physiological role of inducible leak through UCP1 in mammalian brown adipose tissue is heat production, whereas the roles of non-mammalian UCP1 and its paralogous proteins, in particular UCP2 and UCP3, are not yet resolved. The second part of the chapter focuses on the electron leak that occurs in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Exit of electrons prior to the reduction of oxygen to water at cytochrome c oxidase causes the production of superoxide. As the mechanisms of electron leak are crucial to understanding their physiological relevance, we summarize the mechanisms and topology of electron leak from Complex I and III in studies using isolated mitochondria. We also highlight recent progress and challenges of assessing electron leak in the living cell. Finally, we emphasise the importance of proton and electron leak as therapeutic targets in body weight regulation and insulin secretion. PMID:20533900

  1. Proton structure functions at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stella, Bruno

    2001-10-01

    The electron-proton collider HERA, like an electron-mycroscope, explores the structure of the proton down to 10-16 cm and up to the situation of very high parton densities. The proton energy was upgraded from 820 to 920 GeV in the Fall of '98 and the luminosity has also substantially improved, with another factor of 3 upgrade expected to follow this year. Inclusive proton structure functions have been studied with incident e+ and e- of 27 GeV in the neutral (NC) and charged (CC) current interactions as functions of the squared four-momentum transfer, Q2, and of the fractional proton momentum carried by partons, x. The structure function F2, as well as the γ-Z0 interference term xF3, have been measured in a range of Q2 and 1/x that extends by orders of magnitude that reached by fixed target experiments. The DGLAP evolution equations [1] allow for a perturbative NLO QCD fit of the measured non-perturbative structure functions in the available kinematic range: αS and the gluon density at low x are fitted at the same time with good precision. The longitudinal structure function, FL, can be determined within the DGLAP formalism. With CC, the electroweak unification has been tested; at high x, a first flavor decomposition of the light quarks is achieved. The contribution to F2 of the charm quark has been measured and results to be relevant. Bounds on the radius of quarks and on compositeness are derived from the data at the highest Q2, 100

  2. Proton structure functions at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H1; ZEUS Collaborations,

    2001-10-01

    The electron-proton collider HERA, like an electron-mycroscope, explores the structure of the proton down to 10-16 cm and up to the situation of very high parton densities. The proton energy was upgraded from 820 to 920 GeV in the Fall of '98 and the luminosity has also substantially improved, with another factor of 3 upgrade expected to follow this year. Inclusive proton structure functions have been studied with incident e+ and e- of 27 GeV in the neutral (NC) and charged (CC) current interactions as functions of the squared four-momentum transfer, Q2, and of the fractional proton momentum carried by partons, x. The structure function F2, as well as the γ-Z0 interference term xF3, have been measured in a range of Q2 and 1/x that extends by orders of magnitude that reached by fixed target experiments. The DGLAP evolution equations [1] allow for a perturbative NLO QCD fit of the measured non-perturbative structure functions in the available kinematic range: αS and the gluon density at low x are fitted at the same time with good precision. The longitudinal structure function, FL, can be determined within the DGLAP formalism. With CC, the electroweak unification has been tested; at high x, a first flavor decomposition of the light quarks is achieved. The contribution to F2 of the charm quark has been measured and results to be relevant. Bounds on the radius of quarks and on compositeness are derived from the data at the highest Q2, 100

  3. Development of a 2 MW CW Waterload for Electron Cyclotron Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    R. Lawrence,Ives; Maxwell Mizuhara; George Collins; Jeffrey Neilson; Philipp Borchard

    2012-11-09

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. developed a load capable of continuously dissipating 2 MW of RF power from gyrotrons. The input uses HE11 corrugated waveguide and a rotating launcher to uniformly disperse the power over the lossy surfaces in the load. This builds on experience with a previous load designed to dissipate 1 MW of continuous RF power. The 2 MW load uses more advanced RF dispersion to double the capability in the same size device as the 1 MW load. The new load reduces reflected power from the load to significantly less than 1 %. This eliminates requirements for a preload to capture reflected power. The program updated control electronics that provides all required interlocks for operation and measurement of peak and average power. The program developed two version of the load. The initial version used primarily anodized aluminum to reduce weight and cost. The second version used copper and stainless steel to meet specifications for the ITER reactor currently under construction in France. Tests of the new load at the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency confirmed operation of the load to a power level of 1 MW, which is the highest power currently available for testing the load. Additional tests will be performed at General Atomics in spring 2013. The U.S. ITER organization will test the copper/stainless steel version of the load in December 2012 or early in 2013. Both loads are currently being marketed worldwide.

  4. Foreshock migration preceding the 2016 Mw 7.0 Kumamoto earthquake, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Aitaro; Fukuda, Jun'ichi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Obara, Kazushige

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the spatiotemporal evolution of an earthquake sequence following a series of large shallow intraplate earthquakes, including a Mw 6.2 foreshock and Mw 7.0 main shock, in the Kumamoto area of Kyushu, SW Japan. To more precisely characterize the evolution of the earthquake sequences, we applied a matched filter technique to continuous waveform data, using template events obtained via a double-difference relocation algorithm. Migrations of seismicity fronts along the directions of fault strike and dip are clearly seen, starting immediately after the Mw 6.2 foreshock. These migrations are interpreted to result from aseismic slip triggered by the foreshock, propagating toward the nucleation point of the subsequent Mw 7.0 main shock rupture. When combined with static stress changes induced by the Mw 6.2 foreshock, it is likely that stress transfer from both aseismic and seismic slip during the foreshock sequence loaded stress onto the main shock rupture faults, bringing them closer to failure.

  5. Status of KSTAR 170 GHz, 1 MW Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System

    SciTech Connect

    Joung, M.; Bae, Y. S.; Jeong, J. H.; Park, S.; Kim, H. J.; Yang, H. L.; Park, H.; Cho, M. H.; Namkung, W.; Hosea, J.; Ellis, R.; Sakamoto, K.; Kajiwara, K.; Doane, J.

    2011-12-23

    A 170 GHz Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH/CD) system on KSTAR is designed to launch total 2.4 MW of power for up to 300 sec into the plasma. At present the first 1 MW ECH/CD system is under installation and commissioning for 2011 KSTAR campaign. The 170 GHz, 1 MW, 300 sec gyrotron and the matching optics unit (MOU) will be provided from JAEA under collaboration between NFRI and JAEA. The transmission line consists of MOU and 70 m long 63.5 mm ID corrugated waveguides with the eight miter bends. The 1 MW, 10 sec launcher is developed based on the existing two-mirror front-end launcher in collaboration with Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and Pohang University of Science and Technology, and is installed on the low field side in the KSTAR equatorial plane. The mirror pivot is located at 30 cm below from the equatorial plane. 3.6 MVA power supply system is manufactured and now is under commissioning to meet the triode gun operation of JAEA gyrotron. The power supply consists of 66 kV/55 A cathode power supply, mode-anode system, and 50 kV/160 mA body power supply. In this paper, the current status of KSTAR 170 GHz, 1 MW ECH/CD system will be presented as well as the experimental plan utilizing 170 GHz new ECH/CD system.

  6. Nonplanarity and the protonation behavior of porphyrins

    SciTech Connect

    SOMMA,MARIA S.; MEDFORTH,CRAIG J.; TH,KEVIN M.; SHELNUTT,JOHN A.

    2000-03-21

    {sup 1}H NMR studies of the protonation of highly nonplanar porphyrins with strong acids reveal the presence of the previously elusive monocation, and show that its stability can be related to the amount of saddle distortion induced by protonation; the amount of saddle distortion for a porphyrin dication is also found to correlate well with the rate of intermolecular proton transfer.

  7. Estimation of - and Postseismic Deformation after the mw 8.6 Nias-Semeulue and mw 8.5 Bengkulu Earthquakes from Continuous GPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aris, W. A. W.; Musa, T. A.; Omar, K.

    2016-09-01

    The Mw 8.5 Bengkulu earthquake of 30 September 2007 and the Mw8.6 28 March 2005 are considered amongst large earthquake ever recorded in Southeast Asia. The impact into tectonic deformation was recorded by a network of Global Positioning System (GPS) Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) within southern of Sumatra and west-coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The GPS data from the GPS CORS network has been deployed to investigate the characteristic of postseismic deformation due to the earthquakes. Analytical logarithmic and exponential function was applied to investigate the deformation decay period of postseismic deformation. This investigation provides a preliminary insight into postseismic cycle along the Sumatra subduction zone in particular and on the dynamics Peninsular Malaysia in general.

  8. Comparative study of two tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Solomon Islands: 2015 Mw 7.0 normal-fault and 2013 Santa Cruz Mw 8.0 megathrust earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Harada, Tomoya; Satake, Kenji; Ishibe, Takeo; Gusman, Aditya Riadi

    2016-05-01

    The July 2015 Mw 7.0 Solomon Islands tsunamigenic earthquake occurred ~40 km north of the February 2013 Mw 8.0 Santa Cruz earthquake. The proximity of the two epicenters provided unique opportunities for a comparative study of their source mechanisms and tsunami generation. The 2013 earthquake was an interplate event having a thrust focal mechanism at a depth of 30 km while the 2015 event was a normal-fault earthquake occurring at a shallow depth of 10 km in the overriding Pacific Plate. A combined use of tsunami and teleseismic data from the 2015 event revealed the north dipping fault plane and a rupture velocity of 3.6 km/s. Stress transfer analysis revealed that the 2015 earthquake occurred in a region with increased Coulomb stress following the 2013 earthquake. Spectral deconvolution, assuming the 2015 tsunami as empirical Green's function, indicated the source periods of the 2013 Santa Cruz tsunami as 10 and 22 min.

  9. Vibrational Relaxation of the Aqueous Proton in Acetonitrile: Ultrafast Cluster Cooling and Vibrational Predissociation.

    PubMed

    Ottosson, N; Liu, L; Bakker, H J

    2016-07-28

    We study the ultrafast O-H stretch vibrational relaxation dynamics of protonated water clusters embedded in a matrix of deuterated acetonitrile, using polarization-resolved mid-IR femtosecond spectroscopy. The clusters are produced by mixing triflic (trifluoromethanesulfonic) acid and H2O in molar ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3, thus varying the degree of hydration of the proton. At all hydration levels the excited O-H stretch vibration of the hydrated proton shows an ultrafast vibrational relaxation with a time constant T1 < 100 fs, leading to an ultrafast local heating of the protonated water cluster. This excess thermal energy, initially highly localized to the region of the excited proton, first re-distributes over the aqueous cluster and then dissipates into the surrounding acetonitrile matrix. For clusters with a triflic acid to H2O ratio of 1:3 these processes occur with time constants of 320 ± 20 fs and 1.4 ± 0.1 ps, respectively. The cooling of the clusters reveals a long-living, underlying transient absorption change with high anisotropy. We argue that this feature stems from the vibrational predissociation of a small fraction of the proton hydration structures, directly following the ultrafast infrared excitation. PMID:27333302

  10. Maturational regulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate metabolism in rabbit airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, S M; Berry, G T; Yandrasitz, J R; Grunstein, M M

    1991-01-01

    Airway reactivity has been shown to vary with age; however, the mechanism(s) underlying this process remain unidentified. To elucidate the role of ontogenetic changes in phosphoinositide-linked signal transduction, we examined whether age-related differences in tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) contractility to carbachol (CCh) are associated with developmental changes in the production and metabolism of the second messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins (1,4,5)P3). In TSM segments isolated from 2-wk-old and adult rabbits, both the maximal isometric contractile force and sensitivity (i.e., -logED50) to CCh (10(-10)-10(-4) M) were significantly greater in the immature vs. adult tissues (P less than 0.001). Similarly, Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation elicited by either receptor-coupled stimulation with CCh (10(-10)-10(-4) M) or post-receptor-mediated guanine nucleotide binding protein activation of permeabilized TSM with GTP gamma S (100 microM) was also significantly enhanced in 2-wk-old vs. adult TSM. Measurement of the activities of the degradative enzymes for Ins(1,4,5)P3 demonstrated that: (a) mean +/- SE maximal Ins(1,4,5)P3 3'-kinase activity was significantly reduced in the immature vs. adult TSM (i.e., approximately 71.7 +/- 6.0 vs. 137.8 +/- 10.0 pmol/min per mg protein, respectively; P less than 0.005); (b) by contrast, maximal Ins(1,4,5)P3 5'-phosphatase activity was significantly increased in the immature vs. adult TSM (i.e., 27.9 +/- 1.2 vs. 15.6 +/- 1.5 nmol/min per mg protein, respectively; P less than 0.001); and (c) the Km values for Ins(1,4,5)P3 5'-phosphatase were 14- and 19-fold greater than those for Ins(1,4,5)P3 3'-kinase in the 2-wk-old and adult TSM, respectively. Collectively, the findings suggest that the age-related decrease in agonist-induced rabbit TSM contractility is associated with a diminution in Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation which is attributed, at least in part, to ontogenetic changes in the relative activities of the degradative enzymes for

  11. Geodetic model of the 2015 April 25 Mw 7.8 Gorkha Nepal Earthquake and Mw 7.3 aftershock estimated from InSAR and GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Guangcai; Li, Zhiwei; Shan, Xinjian; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Guohong; Zhu, Jianjun

    2015-11-01

    We map the complete surface deformation of 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha Nepal earthquake and its Mw 7.3 aftershock with two parallel ALOS2 descending ScanSAR paths' and two ascending Stripmap paths' images. The coseismic fault-slip model from a combined inversion of InSAR and GPS data reveals that this event is a reverse fault motion, with a slight right-lateral strike-slip component. The maximum thrust-slip and right-lateral strike-slip values are 5.7 and 1.2 m, respectively, located at a depth of 7-15 km, southeast to the epicentre. The total seismic moment 7.55 × 1020 Nm, corresponding to a moment magnitude Mw 7.89, is similar to the seismological estimates. Fault slips of both the main shock and the largest aftershock are absent from the upper thrust shallower than 7 km, indicating that there is a locking lower edge of Himalayan Main Frontal Thrust and future seismic disaster is not unexpected in this area. We also find that the energy released in this earthquake is much less than the accumulated moment deficit over the past seven centuries estimated in previous studies, so the region surrounding Kathmandu is still under the threaten of seismic hazards.

  12. The influence of the combination of carboxylate and phosphinate pendant arms in 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-based chelators on their 68Ga labelling properties.

    PubMed

    Máté, Gábor; Šimeček, Jakub; Pniok, Miroslav; Kertész, István; Notni, Johannes; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Galuska, László; Hermann, Petr

    2015-07-21

    In order to compare the coordination properties of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (tacn) derivatives bearing varying numbers of phosphinic/carboxylic acid pendant groups towards 68Ga, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-7-acetic-1,4-bis(methylenephosphinic) acid (NOPA) and 1,4,7- triazacyclononane-4,7-diacetic-1-[methylene(2-carboxyethyl)phosphinic] acid (NO2AP) were synthesized using Mannich reactions with trivalent or pentavalent forms of H-phosphinic acids as phosphorus components. Stepwise protonation constants logK1-3 12.06, 3.90 and 1.95, and stability constants with GaIII and CuII, logKGaL 24.01 and logKCuL 16.66, were potentiometrically determined for NOPA. Both ligands were labelled with 68Ga and compared with NOTA (tacn-N,N',N″-triacetic acid) and NOPO, a TRAP-type [tacn-N,N',N″- tris(methylenephosphinic acid)] chelator. At pH 3, NOPO and NOPA showed higher labelling efficiency (binding with lower ligand excess) at both room temperature and 95 °C, compared to NO2AP and NOTA. Labelling efficiency at pH = 0-3 correlated with a number of phosphinic acid pendants: NOPO > NOPA > NO2AP > NOTA; however, it was more apparent at 95 °C than at room temperature. By contrast, NOTA was found to be labelled more efficiently at pH > 4 compared to the ligands with phosphinic acids. Overall, replacement of a single phosphinate donor with a carboxylate does not challenge 68Ga labelling of TRAP-type chelators. However, the presence of carboxylates facilitates labelling at neutral or weakly acidic pH.

  13. Threshold pion production from proton-proton collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.S.H.

    1995-08-01

    We showed that the threshold production of {pi}{sup 0}pp, {pi}{sup +}np, and {pi}{sup +}d from proton-proton collisions can be consistently described by a model consisting of pion s-wave rescattering and N{bar N} pair-terms of heavy-meson exchanges. The large difference between {sigma}{sup tot}(pp {yields} {pi}{sup +}d) and {sigma}{sup tot}(pp {yields} {pi}{sup +}np) is understood from the orthogonality of the deuteron and the np scattering wave functions. In a calculation using the Paris potential, we find that the data can be reproduced best by using a soft {pi}NN form factor with {Delta} = 650 MeV for a monopole form. This is consistent with our earlier studies of pion production in the A-excitation region. A paper describing this result was submitted for publication.

  14. Calculation of Top Squark Production in Proton-Proton Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Linville, Andrea J.; /Washington U., St. Louis /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    Though the Standard Model of particle physics is an elegant theory which has been studied extensively for decades, it leaves many fundamental questions unanswered and is thus widely believed to be incomplete. Possible extensions to the Standard Model (SM) have been postulated and are in the process of being investigated experimentally. The most promising extension is the Minimal Supersymmetric Model (MSSM) which relates every SM particle to a superpartner that differs by 1/2 unit of spin. The lightest supersymmetric quark, or squark, is expected to be the stop, and the search for this particle is an important experimental task. In this analysis, we use parton-model methods to predict the stop production cross section in proton-proton collisions at LHC energies.

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of diastereoisomers of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-tris-(glutaric acid) (NOTGA) for multimeric radiopharmaceuticals of gallium.

    PubMed

    Guerra Gomez, Francisco L; Uehara, Tomoya; Rokugawa, Takemi; Higaki, Yusuke; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Akizawa, Hiromichi; Arano, Yasushi

    2012-11-21

    In the conventional synthesis of 1,4,7-tris-(glutaric acid)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (NOTGA), four isomeric species are usually generated by the alkylation of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane with α-bromoglutaric acid diester. To estimate their biological efficacies as well as their stability and radiochemistry, the RRR/SSS and RRS/SSR NOTGA-(t)Bu prochelators were isolated and the corresponding cyclic RGDfK (RGD) conjugates with triethylene glycol linkages were prepared. The RRR/SSS and RRS/SSR diastereomers were obtained in 69% and 17% yields, respectively. In the complexation reaction with (67)GaCl(3), both diastereomers provided >98% radiochemical yields at pH 5 within 10 min when the reaction was conducted at room temperature. However, the RRR/SSS diastereomer exhibited more pH-sensitive radiochemical yields between pH 3.5 to 4.5. Despite their diasteromeric nature, both (67)Ga-labeled RGD-NOTGA remained stable during the apo-transferrin challenge, exhibiting similar affinity for integrin α(v)β(3) and biodistribution with predominant renal excretion. Similar tumor uptake was also observed in mice bearing U87MG tumor xenograft, which resulted in impressively high contrast SPECT/CT images. These findings indicate that the RGD-NOTGA conjugates of both diastereomers presented here possess equivalent biological efficacies and their combined usage would be feasible. It is worth noting that specific properties of a given biomolecule, cell expression levels of the corresponding target molecule, and presence or absence of a pharmacokinetic modifier would affect the structural differences between diastereomers on the ligand-receptor interactions and pharmacokinetics. Thus, the preparation of corresponding conjugates and evaluation of their chemical and biological performances still remains important for applying NOTGA to other biomolecules of interest using the diastereomerically pure NOTGA-(t)Bu prochelator.

  16. Precursory transient slip during the 2001 Mw = 8.4 Peru earthquake sequence from continuous GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melbourne, Timothy I.; Webb, Frank H.

    2002-11-01

    Two-hour position estimates from a continuous GPS station located at Arequipa, Peru, document precursory deformation beginning 18 hours prior to an Mw = 7.6 aftershock of the June 23rd 2001 Mw = 8.4 earthquake. This preseismic signal appears on the north and east components as a slow displacement with an amplitude twice that of the subsequent coseismic. Analysis of three years of 18-hour rate measurement shows this signal to be unprecedented and beyond four standard deviations from the mean rate. The best fitting centroid is directionally consistent with slow slip along the plate interface and suggests the preseismic deformation arises from creep near the aftershock rupture. This implies the Nazca-South American plate interface slipped slowly prior to seismogenic faulting. These observations indicate the Mw = 7.6 earthquake grew out of slow slip along the plate interface and clearly demonstrate the breadth of slip rates accommodated by subduction zone plate interfaces.

  17. Extension of Gutenberg-Richter distribution to Mw -1.3, no lower limit in sight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boettcher, M.S.; McGarr, A.; Johnston, M.

    2009-01-01

    [1] With twelve years of seismic data from TauTona Gold Mine, South Africa, we show that mining-induced earthquakes follow the Gutenberg-Richter relation with no scale break down to the completeness level of the catalog, at moment magnitude Mw -1.3. Events recorded during relatively quiet hours in 2006 indicate that catalog detection limitations, not earthquake source physics, controlled the previously reported minimum magnitude in this mine. Within the Natural Earthquake Laboratory in South African Mines (NELSAM) experiment's dense seismic array, earthquakes that exhibit shear failure at magnitudes as small as Mw -3.9 are observed, but we find no evidence that Mw -3.9 represents the minimum magnitude. In contrast to previous work, our results imply small nucleation zones and that earthquake processes in the mine can readily be scaled to those in either laboratory experiments or natural faults.

  18. Economic Development Impact of 1,000 MW of Wind Energy in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Reategui, S.; Hendrickson, S.

    2011-08-01

    Texas has approximately 9,727 MW of wind energy capacity installed, making it a global leader in installed wind energy. As a result of the significant investment the wind industry has brought to Texas, it is important to better understand the economic development impacts of wind energy in Texas. This report analyzes the jobs and economic impacts of 1,000 MW of wind power generation in the state. The impacts highlighted in this report can be used in policy and planning decisions and can be scaled to get a sense of the economic development opportunities associated with other wind scenarios. This report can also inform stakeholders in other states about the potential economic impacts associated with the development of 1,000 MW of new wind power generation and the relationships of different elements in the state economy.

  19. SP industry calorimeter for rate of heat release measurements up to 10MW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlberg, Martin

    The Swedish National Testing and Research Institute (SP) has installed a 10 MW fire calorimeter for rate of heat release measurements, similar to the one at Factory Mutual Research Corporation (FMRC). It can be used to classify commodities with respect to their fire hazard, to evaluate the efficiency of sprinkler systems, for chemical analysis of the combustion gases from hazardous fires, to produce input data for the fire modelling, etc. A large hood collects the fire gases and leads them into a duct where gas velocity, gas temperature, smoke density, and contents of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide are measured. On the basis of these measurements, mass flow and rate of heat release are calculated. The rate of heat release is calculated according to the oxygen consumption principle. The upper limit for measurements is approximately 10 MW and the lower is 0.1 MW.

  20. Calculational criticality analyses of 10- and 20-MW UF{sub 6} freezer/sublimer vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, W.C.

    1993-02-01

    Calculational criticality analyses have been performed for 10- and 20-MW UF{sub 6} freezer/sublimer vessels. The freezer/sublimers have been analyzed over a range of conditions that encompass normal operation and abnormal conditions. The effects of HF moderation of the UF{sub 6} in each vessel have been considered for uranium enriched between 2 and 5 wt % {sup 235}U. The results indicate that the nuclearly safe enrichments originally established for the operation of a 10-MW freezer/sublimer, based on a hydrogen-to-uranium moderation ratio of 0.33, are acceptable. If strict moderation control can be demonstrated for hydrogen-to-uranium moderation ratios that are less than 0.33, then the enrichment limits for the 10-MW freezer/sublimer may be increased slightly. The calculations performed also allow safe enrichment limits to be established for a 20-NM freezer/sublimer under moderation control.