Science.gov

Sample records for 1-4 present detailed

  1. Biodegradation of cis-1,4-Polyisoprene Rubbers by Distinct Actinomycetes: Microbial Strategies and Detailed Surface Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Linos, Alexandros; Berekaa, Mahmoud M.; Reichelt, Rudolf; Keller, Ulrike; Schmitt, Jürgen; Flemming, Hans-Curt; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M.; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Several actinomycetes isolated from nature were able to use both natural rubber (NR) and synthetic cis-1,4-polyisoprene rubber (IR) as a sole source of carbon. According to their degradation behavior, they were divided into two groups. Representatives of the first group grew only in direct contact to the rubber substrate and led to considerable disintegration of the material during cultivation. The second group consisted of weaker rubber decomposers that did not grow adhesively, as indicated by the formation of clear zones (translucent halos) around bacterial colonies after cultivation on NR dispersed in mineral agar. Taxonomic analysis of four selected strains based on 16S rRNA similarity examinations revealed two Gordonia sp. strains, VH2 and Kb2, and one Mycobacterium fortuitum strain, NF4, belonging to the first group as well as one Micromonospora aurantiaca strain, W2b, belonging to the second group. Schiff's reagent staining tests performed for each of the strains indicated colonization of the rubber surface, formation of a bacterial biofilm, and occurrence of compounds containing aldehyde groups during cultivation with NR latex gloves. Detailed analysis by means of scanning electron microscopy yielded further evidence for the two different microbial strategies and clarified the colonization efficiency. Thereby, strains VH2, Kb2, and NF4 directly adhered to and merged into the rubber material, while strain W2b produced mycelial corridors, especially on the surface of IR. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy comprising the attenuated total reflectance technique was applied on NR latex gloves overgrown by cells of the Gordonia strains, which were the strongest rubber decomposers. Spectra demonstrated the decrease in number of cis-1,4 double bonds, the formation of carbonyl groups, and the change of the overall chemical environment, indicating that an oxidative attack at the double bond is the first metabolic step of the biodegradation process. PMID:10742254

  2. Laboratory Investigations Of Mechanisms For 1,4-Dioxane Destruction By Ozone In Water (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in analytical detection methods have made it possible to quantify 1,4-dioxane contamination in groundwater, even a well-characterized sites where it had not been previously detected. Although 1,4-dioxane is difficult to treat because of its chemical and physical propert...

  3. The Effects of Varying Pictorial Detail and Presentation Strategy on Concept Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Don A.

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of varying pictorial detail and presentation strategy on learners of varying grade levels in a visually transmitted concept formation task. Specifically, line drawings containing only relevant details and halftones containing relevant and irrelevant detail were presented successively and…

  4. Remembering the Specific Visual Details of Presented Objects: Neuroimaging Evidence for Effects of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    Memories can be retrieved with varied amounts of visual detail, and the emotional content of information can influence the likelihood that visual detail is remembered. In the present fMRI experiment (conducted with 19 adults scanned using a 3T magnet), we examined the neural processes that correspond with recognition of the visual details of…

  5. Increased Interestingness of Extraneous Details in a Multimedia Science Presentation Leads to Decreased Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Griffith, Emily; Jurkowitz, Ilana T. N.; Rothman, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    In Experiment 1, students received an illustrated booklet, PowerPoint presentation, or narrated animation that explained 6 steps in how a cold virus infects the human body. The material included 6 high-interest details mainly about the role of viruses in sex or death (high group) or 6 low-interest details consisting of facts and health tips about…

  6. EPA to Present Details of Cleanup of Clinch River Corporation Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (01/12/16 - ATLANTA) - On Thursday, January 14, 2016, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will conduct a public meeting and site tour to present the details of the Evaluation and Cost Analysis (EE/CA) Report for a non-time critical cleanu

  7. The emerging modern face of mood disorders: a didactic editorial with a detailed presentation of data and definitions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The present work represents a detailed description of our current understanding and knowledge of the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis and clinical manifestations of mood disorders, their comorbidity and overlap, and the effect of variables such as gender and age. This review article is largely based on the 'Mood disorders' chapter of the Wikibooks Textbook of Psychiatry http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Textbook_of_Psychiatry/Mood_Disorders. PMID:20385020

  8. International Perspectives on Adapted Physical Activity. Selected Papers Presented at the International Symposium on Adapted Physical Activity (5th, Toronto, Canada, October 1-4, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berridge, Mavis E., Ed.; Ward, Graham R., Ed.

    The 36 papers in this book were presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Adapted Physical Activity. Presentations document some of the research findings and new ideas in physical education and recreation programs designed to improve the quality of life for special populations. The collection represents the breadth of the field, from the…

  9. Literacy-Empowerment-Opportunity: Contributed Papers Presented at the ASLA-AEMA Annual Conference (Phoenix, Arizona, December 1-4, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Carol, Ed.

    This proceedings contains the following papers presented at the 1993 conference of the Arizona State Library Association and Arizona Educational Media Association College and University Libraries Division: (1) "Building a Collection Development Team in an Academic Library" (Bee Gallegos and John Spencer); (2) "Danger, Death and…

  10. Anatomy online: presentation of a detailed WWW atlas of human gross anatomy--reference for medical education.

    PubMed

    Jastrow, Holger; Vollrath, Lutz

    2002-11-01

    We present an online anatomy atlas based on the Visible Human Project (VHP) of the US National Library of Medicine. The objective is to provide original unlabeled as well as labeled sections of the human body of high quality and resolution on the Internet, for use in basic and continuing medical education. For a representative overview of the body, 370 axial sections were selected from the male and female data base of the VHP with special regard to regions of clinical interest. Each section is accompanied by its corresponding computer tomography (CT) image and, if available, magnetic resonance images (MRI) for quick and easy comparison of morphologic and radiologic structures. The sections can be studied unlabeled or labeled according to the current Terminologia Anatomica. A linked vocabulary with more than 850 terms explains the labeling. Animations of the sections as well as of CT and MR images allow for further visualization of the topographic relationships of anatomical structures. The responses to the project indicate that students and physicians regard the Internet Atlas of Human Gross Anatomy as a most useful aid for learning and reviewing anatomical details. The atlas is accessible on: http://www.uni-mainz.de/FB/Medizin/Anatomie/workshop/vishuman/Eready.html.

  11. Detailed Sea Level Record from Barbados Spanning 13,000 to 11,000 Years Before Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    Th/U dated reef-crest corals (Acropora palmata) obtained from new Barbados offshore drill cores provide a local sea level reconstruction in unprecedented detail. The time interval, 13,000 to 11,000 years before present (BP), spans the well-studied Younger Dryas pollen zone, a period that has given rise to more than three decades of sensational climate interpretations and popular press. Widely described as a time when Earth's climate reverted to "glacial-like conditions" the various hypotheses that attempt to explain the "cause" of the Younger Dryas climate event have their staunch supporters as well as their critics but there remains little consensus. The Barbados sea level record for this time interval shows that sea level continued to rise during the Younger Dryas, albeit at a slower rate than prior to 13,000 or following 11,000 years BP. The decrease in the rate of sea level rise can simply be explained by the slow expansion of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet beginning 12,800 years BP followed by its faster demise contributing to a period of rapid sea level increase known as Melt Water Pulse 1B. We calculate the ice volume history of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet and it compares favorably to the moraine history and ice models. The Younger Dryas climate event is most often defined by the rapid shifts in atmospheric proxies measured in ice cores from Greenland. The ice core proxies shift into and out of the Younger Dryas climate event in only a few years to a few decades. Abrupt shifts in the climate state associated with the onset and termination of the Younger Dryas as revealed in Greenland Ice cores are not expressed in the smooth Barbados deglacial sea level record. We make the case that these Greenland atmospheric records mark regional atmospheric frontal shifts and changes in air mass sources over an ice sheet that largely did not participate in the deglaciation or sea level change. As proposed decades ago, the warming of the North Atlantic between 14,000 and 13

  12. Benzo[e]pyrimido[5,4-b][1,4]diazepin-6(11H)-one derivatives as Aurora A kinase inhibitors: LQTA-QSAR analysis and detailed systematic validation of the developed model.

    PubMed

    Kanhed, Ashish M; Dash, Radha Charan; Parmar, Nishant; Das, Tarun Kumar; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2015-11-01

    Aurora kinases are sub-divided into Aurora A, Aurora B, and Aurora C kinases that are considered as prospective targets for a new class of anticancer drugs. In this work, a 4-D-QSAR model using an LQTA-QSAR approach with previously reported 31 derivatives of benzo[e]pyrimido[5,4 -b][1,4]diazepin -6(11H)-one as potent Aurora kinase A inhibitors has been created. Instead of single conformation, the conformational ensemble profile generated for each ligand by using trajectories and topology information retrieved from molecular dynamics simulations from GROMACS package were aligned and used for the calculation of intermolecular interaction energies at each grid point. The descriptors generated on the basis of these Coulomb and Lennard-Jones potentials as independent variables were used to perform a PLS analysis using biological activity as dependent variable. A good predictive model was generated with nine field descriptors and five latent variables. The model showed [Formula: see text]; [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. This model was further validated systematically by using different validation parameters. This 4D-QSAR model gave valuable information to recognize features essential to adapt and develop novel potential Aurora kinase inhibitors.

  13. Towards detailed knowledge of atomic nuclei—the past, present and future of nuclear structure investigations at GSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerl, J.; Gorska, M.; Wollersheim, H. J.

    2016-10-01

    Selected experimental nuclear structure physics results are presented which have been obtained at GSI since the mid 70ties employing the UNILAC and the SIS/FRS accelerator facility. It is shown how stable heavy-ion beams as well as radioactive isotope beams of this facility together with state-of-the-art instrumentation produced many discoveries and led to a multitude of important results covering many aspects of nuclear structure. Finally, we discuss the future directions of nuclear structure research at GSI with the FAIR/NUSTAR project.

  14. 1,4-Dibromobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,4 - Dibromobenzene ; CASRN 106 - 37 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  15. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,4 - Dichlorobenzene ; CASRN 106 - 46 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  16. 1,4-Dioxane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 09 / 005 - F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 1,4 - Dioxane ( CAS No . 123 - 91 - 1 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) August 2010 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been rev

  17. 1,4-Dithiane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,4 - Dithiane ; CASRN 505 - 29 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  18. Dynamism & Detail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2004-01-01

    New material discovered in the study of cell research is presented for the benefit of biology teachers. Huge amounts of data are being generated in fields like cellular dynamics, and it is felt that people's understanding of the cell is becoming much more complex and detailed.

  19. 45 CFR 1211.1-4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. 1211.1-4 Section 1211.1-4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-4 Policy. It is ACTION's policy to provide volunteers the widest latitude to present their grievances...

  20. Vibrational frequencies and structural determinations of 1,4-thioxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellzy, Michael W.; Jensen, James O.; Hameka, Hendrik F.; Kay, Jack G.; Zeroka, Daniel

    2001-10-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the structure and infrared spectra of 1,4-thioxane. The vibrational frequencies of the 1,4-thioxane molecule were analyzed using standard quantum chemical techniques. Frequencies were calculated at the MP2 and DFT levels of theory using the standard 6-31G* basis set. The structural transformation of the chemical agent bis (2-chloroethyl) sulfide (HD, mustard gas) and the related symmetry to a previously study compound (4) makes the symmetry of the 1,4-thioxane molecule an interesting candidate for study. The molecule exists normally in a C s configuration similar to the chair form of cyclohexane. High-energy forms of 1,4-thioxane with C 1 and C 2 symmetry also exist.

  1. 7. Photocopy of photographca. 1927 (2 1/4 X 2 1/4' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph--ca. 1927 (2 1/4 X 2 1/4' negative) DETAIL SHOWING ADAPTATION THAT ALLOWED USE OF UPPER END OF ORIGINAL FLUME AND LOWER END JUST RECONSTRUCTED - Power Flume No. 1, Tacoma, La Plata County, CO

  2. 26 CFR 303.1-4 - Computation of taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of taxes. 303.1-4 Section 303.1-4... ADMINISTRATION TAXES UNDER THE TRADING WITH THE ENEMY ACT § 303.1-4 Computation of taxes. (a) Detail of employees... computation of tax liability under this part, except as otherwise provided in this part, the vesting...

  3. 47 CFR 1.4 - Computation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computation of time. 1.4 Section 1.4 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure General § 1.4 Computation of time. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this rule section is to detail the method for computing the amount of...

  4. Academic detailing.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations.

  5. Isomerization of 1,4-dioxane under the effect of {gamma}-radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dan, A.V.; Kruglov, D.E.; Pastushenko, E.V.; Shostenko, A.G.

    1992-09-01

    Data were presented previously on the composition of products of {gamma}-radiolysis of 1,4-dioxane. The main products are called H{sub 2} and a polymer, the radiation yield of which does not exceed 1.5-3.5 molecules per 100 eV. Gaseous hydrocarbons and CO were identified in small amounts. The authors studied in detail the reaction mixture obtained as a result of radiation-chemical transformations of 1,4-dioxane (reaction time 10-15 h and temperature 130-150{degrees}C) by chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  6. 10. DETAIL, CAB SIDE. DETAIL, END OF BOOM. DETAIL, LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL, CAB SIDE. DETAIL, END OF BOOM. DETAIL, LOWER PART OF TOWER, SHOWING METAL WHEELS AND CABLE SPOOLS. DETAIL, LOOKING UP AT THE UNDERSIDE OF THE REVOLVING PLATFORM ATOP THE TOWER. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Crane, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  7. 14 CFR Sec. 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-4 System of accounts coding. (a) A four digit control number is... digit code assigned to each profit and loss account denote a detailed area of financial activity or... sequentially within blocks, designating more general classifications of financial activity and...

  8. 50 CFR 1.4 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Director. 1.4 Section 1.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.4 Director. Director means the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the...

  9. 21 CFR 1.4 - Authority citations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authority citations. 1.4 Section 1.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS General Provisions § 1.4 Authority citations. (a) For each part of its regulations, the Food...

  10. 21 CFR 1.4 - Authority citations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authority citations. 1.4 Section 1.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS General Provisions § 1.4 Authority citations. (a) For each part of its regulations, the Food...

  11. 45 CFR 1206.1-4 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1206.1-4 Section 1206.1-4 Public... GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance § 1206.1-4 Suspension. (a) General. The responsible Corporation official may...

  12. 45 CFR 1211.1-4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Policy. 1211.1-4 Section 1211.1-4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-4 Policy. It is ACTION's policy to provide volunteers the widest latitude...

  13. 45 CFR 1216.1-4 - Exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exceptions. 1216.1-4 Section 1216.1-4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NONDISPLACEMENT OF EMPLOYED WORKERS AND NONIMPAIRMENT OF CONTRACTS FOR SERVICE § 1216.1-4 Exceptions. (a) The requirements of § 1216.1-3 are...

  14. V2.1.4 L2AS Detailed Release Description September 27, 2001

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-14

    ... Report NumAcceptSubr as number of subregions of good quality, instead of number of subregions actually used in final retrieval. ... het. surface retrieval algorithm over areas of 100% dark water. Modify algorithm for selecting a default aerosol model to use in ...

  15. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  16. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  17. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  18. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  19. 21 CFR 1.4 - Authority citations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... statute is the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the Public Health Service Act, or the Fair Packaging... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Authority citations. 1.4 Section 1.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL...

  20. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  1. 45 CFR 1206.1-4 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 1206.1-4 Section 1206.1-4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance §...

  2. Coordination chemistry of 1,4-bis-carboxymethylcyclam, H(2)(1,4-bcc).

    PubMed

    Tonei, Deborah M; Ware, David C; Brothers, Penelope J; Plieger, Paul G; Clark, George R

    2006-01-07

    Zinc metal reduction of the cobalt(III) complex [Co(1,4-bcc)](+) (1,4-bcc = 1,4-bis-carboxymethylcyclam) produces the corresponding cobalt(II) complex which crystallises as the coordination polymer {[Co(1,4-bcc)]ZnCl(2)}(n). A method has been developed for removal of the cobalt(III) ion from [Co(1,4-bcc)](+) and isolation of the free ligand as its hydrochloride salt, H(2)(1,4-bcc).4HCl. This has been used for the preparation of new metal complexes, and the syntheses and characterisation of the copper(ii), nickel(ii), zinc(ii) and chromium(iii) complexes containing the 1,4-bcc ligand are described. X-Ray crystal structures of {[Co(1,4-bcc)]ZnCl(2)}(n).2.5H(2)O, {[Cu(1,4-bcc)]CuCl(2)}(n).0.25MeOH.H(2)O and [Cu(1,4-bcc)H]ClO(4) show the complexes to have the trans(O) geometry of the 1,4-bcc ligand, while the structure of [Cr(1,4-bcc)H(0.5)](ClO(4))(1.5).EtOH exhibits the cis(O) configuration.

  3. Biodegradation of 1,4-Dioxane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Pseudonocardia sp. strain K1 was used to hydrolyze diglycolic acid, the free radical generator phenazine methosulfate was included in the assay, as reported... phenazine methosulfate is not a physiologically relevant compound and can not be involved in 1,4-dioxane mineralization in vivo. III. D. Discussion of

  4. SAS 3 observations of GX 1 + 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, J. P.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Hoffman, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    GX 1 + 4 is one of the brightest celestial sources of high-energy X-rays. It is a pulsar with a period of approximately 2 min (perhaps a multiple of 2 min), decreasing at a variable rate which, since 1971, has averaged approximately 2% per year, but which can be larger than 5% per year. This is the largest rate of decrease observed for any pulsar. The rate of decrease appears to be correlated with the luminosity, in support of the idea that the period decrease is produced by accretion torques acting upon a neutron star. No evidence is seen for a Doppler shift due to motion of the pulsar in a binary orbit; this is consistent with the results of optical observations which suggest that any orbital period is fairly long (months to years). The spectrum of GX 1 + 4 is measured as a function of pulse phase, as well as the phase-averaged total spectrum, and the average spectrum of the pulses alone. The shape of the average pulsed spectrum suggests that the pulsations may be produced by 'hot spots' which are a few hundred meters in extent, with temperatures of approximately 10 to the 8th K (kT being approximately equal to 8 keV).

  5. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing-End Detail - Cumberland Covered Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River, Matthews, Grant County, IN

  6. LIP: The Livermore Interpolation Package, Version 1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F N

    2011-07-06

    or invert the interpolant at an arbitrary number of points. The first section of this report describes the overall design of the package, including both forward and inverse interpolation. Sections 2-6 describe each interpolation method in detail. The software that implements this design is summarized function-by-function in Section 7. For a complete example of package usage, refer to Section 8. The report concludes with a few brief notes on possible software enhancements. For guidance on adding other functional forms to LIP, refer to Appendix B. The reader who is primarily interested in using LIP to solve a problem should skim Section 1, then skip to Sections 7.1-4. Finally, jump ahead to Section 8 and study the example. The remaining sections can be referred to in case more details are desired. Changes since version 1.1 of this document include the new Section 3.2.1 that discusses derivative estimation and new Section 6 that discusses the birational interpolation method. Section numbers following the latter have been modified accordingly.

  7. 76 FR 7703 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid, Dimethyl Ester, Polymer With 1,4-Butanediol, Adipic Acid, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid, Dimethyl Ester, Polymer With 1,4- Butanediol, Adipic..., polymer with 1,4-butanediol, adipic acid, and hexamethylene diisocyanate (CAS Reg. No. 55231-08-8... residues of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4-butanediol, adipic acid,...

  8. Chord Splicing & Joining Detail; Chord & CrossBracing Joint Details; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord Splicing & Joining Detail; Chord & Cross-Bracing Joint Details; Cross Bracing Center Joint Detail; Chord & Diagonal Joint Detail - Vermont Covered Bridge, Highland Park, spanning Kokomo Creek at West end of Deffenbaugh Street (moved to), Kokomo, Howard County, IN

  9. Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Dunlapsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River, Dunlapsville, Union County, IN

  10. 6. DETAIL, WEST SIDE, SOUTH BAY, SHOWING ENTRANCE TO INSTRUMENTATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL, WEST SIDE, SOUTH BAY, SHOWING ENTRANCE TO INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-4, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. 2. DETAIL, CONDUITS ALONG BASE OF NORTH FRONT. Looking east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL, CONDUITS ALONG BASE OF NORTH FRONT. Looking east. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-4, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. Detail, drivethrough under hoppers, view to southeast. Hungry Horse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, drive-through under hoppers, view to southeast. - Hungry Horse Village, Timber Sand Bunker, Approximately 1 mile south of Highway 2 East & 1/4 mile east of Colorado Boulevard, Hungry Horse, Flathead County, MT

  13. Receptor model for the molecular basis of tissue selectivity of 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langs, David A.; Strong, Phyllis D.; Triggle, David J.

    1990-09-01

    Our analysis of the solid state conformations of nifedipine [dimethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(2-nitrophenyl)-3,5-pyridinecarboxylate] and its 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) analogues produced a cartoon description of the important interactions between these drugs and their voltage-dependent calcium channel receptor. In the present study a molecular-level detailed model of the 1,4-DHP receptor binding site has been built from the published amino acid sequence of the 215-1 subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle transverse tubule membranes. The voltage-sensing component of the channel described in this work differs from others reported for the homologous sodium channel in that it incorporates a water structure and a staggered, rather than eclipsed, hydrogen bonded S4 helix conformation. The major recognition surfaces of the receptor lie in helical grooves on the S4 or voltagesensing α-helix that is positioned in the center of the bundle of transmembrane helices that define each of the four calcium channel domains. Multiple binding clefts defined by Arg-X-X-Arg-P-X-X-S `reading frames' exist on the S4 strand. The tissue selectivity of nifedipine and its analogues may arise, in part, from conservative changes in the amino acid residues at the P and S positions of the reading frame that define the ester-binding regions of receptors from different tissues. The crystal structures of two tissue-selective nifedipine analogues, nimodipine [isopropyl (2-methoxyethyl) 1,4-dihydro-2,6- dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-3,5-pyridinecarboxylate] and nitrendipine [ethyl methyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-3,5-pyridinecarboxylate] are reported. Nimodipine was observed to have an unusual ester side chain conformation that enhances the fit to the proposed ester-sensing region of the receptor.

  14. Equipment for the Disabled. Volumes 1 - 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilshere, E. Rosamond, Comp.

    Four volumes of equipment for the disabled which can simplify their lives and those who live with them are presented. The authors have not included surgical, medical, therapeutic, corrective or gymnastic equipment in the publication. Voume one includes house adaptations and planning, beds and bed accessories, chairs, and wheelchairs and…

  15. LF460 detail design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is the final technical report documenting the detail design of the LF460, and advanced turbotip lift fan intended for application with the YJ97-GE-100 turbojet jet generator to a V/STOL transport research aircraft. Primary objective of the design was to achieve a low noise level while maintaining the high thrust/weight ratio capability of a high pressure ratio lift fan. Report covers design requirements and summarizes activities and final results in the areas of aerodynamic and mechanical design, component and system performance, acoustic features and final noise predictions.

  16. Details of meiosis

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 18, discusses the details of meiosis, beginning with the structure and number of chiasmata, i.e., the cytological term for two homologous chromosomes forming a bivalent which begin to repel each other until they are held together only at the point of crossing-over. The synaptonemal complex which consists of two lateral elements which contain protein and RNA is also discussed. The chapter concludes with a description of meiosis in polyploids, human meiosis, and the behavior of X and Y chromosomes. 28 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Degradation studies of 1, 6-diisocyanatohexane-extended poly (1, 4-butylene succinate) - bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue repair applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Kulwinder; Singh, K. J.; Anand, Vikas

    2016-05-01

    Bio composite scaffolds prepared from polymer and bio glass provide necessary sites for bone tissue regeneration. In the presented work, bioactive glass scaffolds have been prepared from 1, 6-diisocyanatohexane-extended poly (1, 4-butylene succinate) with different amount of bioactive glass powder by solvent casting method. Prepared scaffolds have been characterized by XRD, FTIR and FESEM techniques. Effect of content of bioactive glass on biodegradability has been investigated in detail.

  18. Developmental expression and biochemical properties of a beta-1,4-endoglucanase family in the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bingli; Allen, R; Davis, E L; Baum, T J; Hussey, R S

    2004-03-01

    SUMMARY The soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, produces beta-1,4-endoglucanases (cellulases) that are secreted during infection of soybean. The gene structures of three, hg-eng-4, hg-eng-5 and hg-eng-6, of the six beta-1,4-endoglucanase genes, all family 5 glycosyl hydrolases previously identified from H. glycines, are presented here. Furthermore, we present the detailed expression analyses of beta-1,4-endoglucanase genes as well as the biochemical properties of four H. glycines endoglucanase enzymes. Two of the endoglucanases, HG-ENG-5 and HG-ENG-6, differed significantly in their amino acid sequence of the catalytic domains and their gene structure from that of the other four beta-1,4-endoglucanases. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed distinct developmental expression differences among the hg-eng family members during the early stages of parasitism and relatively low expression levels in late parasitic stages, with the exception of the adult male stage for some eng genes. Recombinant HG-ENGs degraded carboxymethylcellulose and optimum enzyme activity ranged from pH 5.5 for HG-ENG-5 to pH 8 for HG-ENG-6. EDTA, Ca(2+), Co(2+), Mg(2+) and Fe(2+) did not affect enzyme activity of any ENG protein, whereas Zn(2+), Cu(2+) and Mn(2+) inhibited enzyme activity from 23% to 73% in some cases. In tests with 12 different polysaccharide substrates, enzyme activity was restricted to beta-1,4 linkages with all ENG proteins tested. Only HG-ENG-5 and HG-ENG-6 had relatively high activity on xylan and slightly degraded microcrystalline cellulose. Together, these data reveal distinct differences in expression and biochemistry of cyst nematode parasitism genes and proteins, respectively, and cast light on the intricate interactions between a parasitic animal and its plant host.

  19. Detail of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This color photo of Neptune's large satellite Triton was obtained on Aug. 24 1989 at a range of 530,000 kilometers (330,000 miles). The resolution is about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles), sufficient to begin to show topographic detail. The image was made from pictures taken through the green, violet and ultraviolet filters. In this technique, regions that are highly reflective in the ultraviolet appear blue in color. In reality, there is no part of Triton that would appear blue to the eye. The bright southern hemisphere of Triton, which fills most of this frame, is generally pink in tone as is the even brighter equatorial band. The darker regions north of the equator also tend to be pink or reddish in color. JPL manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

  20. Detail of Triton's Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This color photo of Neptune's large satellite Triton was obtained on Aug. 24 1989 at a range of 530,000 kilometers(330,000 miles). The resolution is about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles), sufficient to begin to show topographic detail. The image was made from pictures taken through the green, violet and ultraviolet filters. In this technique, regions that are highly reflective in the ultraviolet appear blue in color. In reality, there is no part of Triton that would appear blue to the eye. The bright southern hemisphere of Triton, which fills most of this frame, is generally pink in tone as is the even brighter equatorial band. The darker regions north of the equator also tend to be pink or reddish in color.

    JPL manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  1. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Joint, Vertical Cross Bracing End Detail - Ceylon Covered Bridge, Limberlost Park, spanning Wabash River at County Road 900 South, Geneva, Adams County, IN

  2. Southeast Elevation; Dome Rafter Detail; Piazza Rafter Detail; Main Block ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast Elevation; Dome Rafter Detail; Piazza Rafter Detail; Main Block Bracket Detail - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Administration Building, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  3. double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Help's Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  4. 16. (4'X5' image enlarged from 2 1/4' negative) Sam Fowler, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. (4'X5' image enlarged from 2 1/4' negative) Sam Fowler, Photographer, February 1998 VIEW OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 051-00025D-01986N (JAMES P. HOULIHAN BRIDGE). DETAIL OF TURN-SPAN MECHANISM. - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 051-00025D-01986N, US 17 & State Route 25 Spanning Savannah River, Port Wentworth, Chatham County, GA

  5. A versatile approach to N-alkylated 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitols and 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-L-xylitols.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan-Nan; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Li-He; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2011-04-01

    A versatile and concise synthesis of N-alkylated 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol and 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-L-xylitol derivatives is described. These were prepared using pseudohemiketal lactams as key intermediates, which in turn were obtained from sucrose. The key intermediates were prepared by a diastereospecific tandem reaction which facilitated the introduction of various substituents on the nitrogen atom of the iminosugars.

  6. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  7. 7 CFR 1.4 - Public access to certain materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public access to certain materials. 1.4 Section 1.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.4 Public access to certain materials. (a) In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2), each agency within the...

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,4-Dioxane (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The final Toxicological Review of 1,4-dioxane provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to 1,4-dioxane. Human health risk concerns for 1,4-dioxane are primarily related to exposure from drinking, ground, ...

  9. 5 CFR 1.4 - Extent of the excepted service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extent of the excepted service. 1.4 Section 1.4 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND DEFINITIONS (RULE I) § 1.4 Extent of the excepted service. (a) The excepted service shall include all...

  10. Projectile Motion Details.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnick, Jeffrey W.

    1994-01-01

    Presents an exercise that attempts to correct for the common discrepancies between theoretical and experimental predictions concerning projectile motion using a spring-loaded projectile ball launcher. Includes common correction factors for student use. (MVL)

  11. Reactivity initiated accident test series Test RIA 1-4

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, Z.R.; El-Genk, M.S.; Fukuda, S.K.; LaPointe, R.E.; Osetek, D.J.

    1980-05-01

    The Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) Test RIA 1-4, the first 9-rod fuel rod bundle RIA Test to be performed at BWR hot startup conditions, was completed on April 16, 1980. The test was performed in the Power Burst Facility (PBF). Objective for Test RIA 1-4 was to provide information regarding loss-of-coolable fuel rod geometry following a RIA event for a peak fuel enthalpy equivalent to the present licensing criteria of 280 cal/g. The most severe RIA is the postulated Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) control rod drop during reactor startup. Therefore the test was conducted at BWR hot startup coolant conditions (538 K, 6.45 MPa, 0.8 1/sec). The test sequence began with steady power operation to condition the fuel, establish a short-lived fission product inventory, and calibrate the calorimetric measurements and core power chambers, neutron flux and gamma flux detectors. The test train was removed from the in-pile tube (IPT) to replace one of the fuel rods with a nominally identical irradiated rod and twelve flux wire monitors. A 2.8 ms period power burst was then performed. Coolant flow measurements were made before and after the power burst to characterize the flow blockage that occurred as a result of fuel rod failure.

  12. 40 CFR 721.990 - 1,4-Benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. 721.990 Section 721.990 Protection of Environment..., dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized (PMN P-00-0789; CAS No. 263244-54-8) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.990 - 1,4-Benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. 721.990 Section 721.990 Protection of Environment..., dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized (PMN P-00-0789; CAS No. 263244-54-8) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.990 - 1,4-Benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. 721.990 Section 721.990 Protection of Environment..., dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized (PMN P-00-0789; CAS No. 263244-54-8) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.990 - 1,4-Benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. 721.990 Section 721.990 Protection of Environment..., dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized (PMN P-00-0789; CAS No. 263244-54-8) is subject to reporting...

  16. 40 CFR 721.990 - 1,4-Benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. 721.990 Section 721.990 Protection of Environment..., dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized (PMN P-00-0789; CAS No. 263244-54-8) is subject to reporting...

  17. Detailed mechanism of benzene oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, David A.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed quantitative mechanism for the oxidation of benzene in both argon and nitrogen diluted systems is presented. Computed ignition delay time for argon diluted mixtures are in satisfactory agreement with experimental results for a wide range of initial conditions. An experimental temperature versus time profile for a nitrogen diluted oxidation was accurately matched and several concentration profiles were matched qualitatively. Application of sensitivity analysis has given approximate rate constant expressions for the two dominant heat release reactions, the oxidation of C6H5 and C5H5 radicals by molecular oxygen.

  18. Explaining the Cyclic Voltammetry of a Poly(1,4-phenylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) Copolymer upon Oxidation by using Spectroscopic Techniques.

    PubMed

    Enengl, Christina; Enengl, Sandra; Bouguerra, Nassima; Havlicek, Marek; Neugebauer, Helmut; Egbe, Daniel A M

    2017-01-04

    Poly(1,4-phenylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (PPE-PPV) copolymers have attracted quite a lot of attention in the last few years for electronic device applications owing to their enhanced fluorescence. In this work, we focus on one particular PPE-PPV copolymer with dissymmetrically substituted 1,4-phenylene-ethynylene and symmetrically substituted 1,4-phenylene-vinylene building units. Six successively performed cyclic voltammograms are presented, measured during the oxidation reactions. As the oxidation onset of the electrochemical reaction shifts to lower potentials in each cycle, this behavior is elucidated by using spectroscopic techniques ranging from UV/Vis/near-IR to mid-IR including spin-resonance techniques. Hence, these findings help to explain some of the copolymer's most advantageous properties in terms of possible oxidation products.

  19. Route visualization using detail lenses.

    PubMed

    Karnick, Pushpak; Cline, David; Jeschke, Stefan; Razdan, Anshuman; Wonka, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We present a method designed to address some limitations of typical route map displays of driving directions. The main goal of our system is to generate a printable version of a route map that shows the overview and detail views of the route within a single, consistent visual frame. Our proposed visualization provides a more intuitive spatial context than a simple list of turns. We present a novel multifocus technique to achieve this goal, where the foci are defined by points of interest (POI) along the route. A detail lens that encapsulates the POI at a finer geospatial scale is created for each focus. The lenses are laid out on the map to avoid occlusion with the route and each other, and to optimally utilize the free space around the route. We define a set of layout metrics to evaluate the quality of a lens layout for a given route map visualization. We compare standard lens layout methods to our proposed method and demonstrate the effectiveness of our method in generating aesthetically pleasing layouts. Finally, we perform a user study to evaluate the effectiveness of our layout choices.

  20. 49 CFR 172.523 - EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. 172.523 Section 172.523... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.523 EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on the EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be...

  1. 49 CFR 172.523 - EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. 172.523 Section 172.523... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.523 EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on the EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be...

  2. 49 CFR 172.523 - EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. 172.523 Section 172.523... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.523 EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on the EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be...

  3. 49 CFR 172.523 - EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. 172.523 Section 172.523... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.523 EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on the EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be...

  4. 49 CFR 172.523 - EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. 172.523 Section 172.523... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.523 EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on the EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be...

  5. Simple synthesis, structure and ab initio study of 1,4-benzodiazepine-2,5-diones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadidi, Khosrow; Aryan, Reza; Mehrdad, Morteza; Lügger, Thomas; Ekkehardt Hahn, F.; Ng, Seik Weng

    2004-04-01

    A simple procedure for the synthesis of pyrido[2,1-c][1,4] benzodiazepine-6,12-dione ( 1) and 1,4-benzodiazepine-2,5-diones ( 2a- 2d), using microwave irradiation and/or conventional heating is reported. The configuration of 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. A detailed ab initio B3LYP/6-31G* calculation of structural parameters and substituent effects on ring inversion barriers (Δ G#) and also free energy differences (Δ G0) for benzodiazepines are reported.

  6. Detail view of ornamental lighting detail of southwest corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of ornamental lighting detail of southwest corner of Sixth Street Bridge. Looking northeast - Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning 101 Freeway at Sixth Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Detail, Scandia Hotel, view to southwest showing details of balloon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, Scandia Hotel, view to southwest showing details of balloon framing, including full two-story studs notched to carry girts supporting second story floor joists (210mm lens) - Scandia Hotel, 225 First Street, Eureka, Humboldt County, CA

  8. 58. DETAIL OF PINION AND BULL GEARS: Detail view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. DETAIL OF PINION AND BULL GEARS: Detail view towards northeast of the pinion and bull gears of the winding machinery. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. Photophysics and photochemical studies of 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pávez, Paulina; Encinas, Maria Victoria

    2007-01-01

    The absorption and fluorescence properties of nifedipine (NPDHP), felodipine (CPDHP) and a series of structurally related 1,4-dihydropyridines were studied in aqueous solution and organic solvents of different properties. The absorption and fluorescence spectra were found to depend on the chemical nature of the substituents at the position 4 of the 1,4-dihydropyridine ring (DHP) and on solvent properties. In aqueous solution, the fluorescence spectra of 4-phenyl substituted compounds are blue-shifted with respect to the alkyl substituted compounds. The more fluorescent compound is CPDHP. Nifedipine is not fluorescent. All compounds, with the exception of CPDHP, present monoexponential fluorescence decay with very short lifetime (0.2-0.4 ns). CPDHP showed a biexponential emission decay with a long-lived component of 1.7 ns; this behavior is explained in terms of different conformers because of the hindered rotation of the phenyl group by the ortho-substitution. Analysis of the solvent effect on the maximum of the absorption spectrum by using the linear solvent-energy relation solvato-chromic equation indicates the redshifts are influenced by the polarizability, hydrogen bonding ability and the hydrogen bond acceptance of the solvent. Whereas, the fluorescence characteristics (spectra, quantum yields and lifetimes) are sensitive to the polarizabilty and hydrogen bond ability of the solvents. Photo-decomposition of nifedipine is dependent on the solvent properties. Faster decomposition rates were obtained in nonprotic solvents. The 4-carboxylic derivative goes to decarboxylation. Under similar conditions, the other DHP compounds did not show appreciable photodecomposition.

  10. THE SLOAN BRIGHT ARCS SURVEY: SIX STRONGLY LENSED GALAXIES AT z = 0.4-1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Allam, Sahar S.; Annis, James; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Diehl, H. Thomas; Kubik, Donna; Lin, Huan; Tucker, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    We present new results of our program to systematically search for strongly lensed galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging data. In this study six strong lens systems are presented which we have confirmed with follow-up spectroscopy and imaging using the 3.5 m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. Preliminary mass models indicate that the lenses are group-scale systems with velocity dispersions ranging from 464 to 882 km s{sup -1} at z = 0.17 - 0.45 which are strongly lensing source galaxies at z = 0.4 - 1.4. Galaxy groups are a relatively new mass scale just beginning to be probed with strong lensing. Our sample of lenses roughly doubles the confirmed number of group-scale lenses in the SDSS and complements ongoing strong lens searches in other imaging surveys. As our arcs were discovered in the SDSS imaging data they are all bright (r {approx}< 22), making them ideally suited for detailed follow-up studies.

  11. The Sloan Bright Arcs Survey : Six Strongly Lensed Galaxies at z=0.4-1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Allam, Sahar S.; Annis, James; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Diehl, H.Thomas; Kubik, Donna; Lin, Huan; Tucker, Douglas; /Fermilab

    2008-12-01

    We present new results of our program to systematically search for strongly lensed galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging data. In this study six strong lens systems are presented which we have confirmed with followup spectroscopy and imaging using the 3.5m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory. Preliminary mass models indicate that the lenses are group-scale systems with velocity dispersions ranging from 466?878 km s{sup -1} at z = 0.17-0.45 which are strongly lensing source galaxies at z = 0.4-1.4. Galaxy groups are a relatively new mass scale just beginning to be probed with strong lensing. Our sample of lenses roughly doubles the confirmed number of group-scale lenses in the SDSS and complements ongoing strong lens searches in other imaging surveys such as the CFHTLS (Cabanac et al. 2007). As our arcs were discovered in the SDSS imaging data they are all bright (r {approx_equal} 22), making them ideally suited for detailed follow-up studies.

  12. Influences on physicians' adoption of electronic detailing (e-detailing).

    PubMed

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Doucette, William R

    2009-01-01

    E-detailing means using digital technology: internet, video conferencing and interactive voice response. There are two types of e-detailing: interactive (virtual) and video. Currently, little is known about what factors influence physicians' adoption of e-detailing. The objectives of this study were to test a model of physicians' adoption of e-detailing and to describe physicians using e-detailing. A mail survey was sent to a random sample of 2000 physicians practicing in Iowa. Binomial logistic regression was used to test the model of influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. On the basis of Rogers' model of adoption, the independent variables included relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, peer influence, attitudes, years in practice, presence of restrictive access to traditional detailing, type of specialty, academic affiliation, type of practice setting and control variables. A total of 671 responses were received giving a response rate of 34.7%. A total of 141 physicians (21.0%) reported using of e-detailing. The overall adoption model for using either type of e-detailing was found to be significant. Relative advantage, peer influence, attitudes, type of specialty, presence of restrictive access and years of practice had significant influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. The model of adoption of innovation is useful to explain physicians' adoption of e-detailing.

  13. 43 CFR 3425.1-4 - Emergency leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency leasing. 3425.1-4 Section 3425.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COMPETITIVE LEASING Leasing on Application § 3425.1-4 Emergency leasing. (a) An emergency lease sale may be held in response to an application under this...

  14. 43 CFR 3425.1-4 - Emergency leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency leasing. 3425.1-4 Section 3425.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COMPETITIVE LEASING Leasing on Application § 3425.1-4 Emergency leasing. (a) An emergency lease sale may be held in response to an application under this...

  15. 43 CFR 3425.1-4 - Emergency leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency leasing. 3425.1-4 Section 3425.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COMPETITIVE LEASING Leasing on Application § 3425.1-4 Emergency leasing. (a) An emergency lease sale may be held in response to an application under this...

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,4-Dioxane (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of 1,4-Dioxane (CAS No. 123-91-1): In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The final Toxicological Review of 1,4-dioxane provides scientific support and rationa...

  17. Photochemistry Of 2,5-Diacyl-1, 4-Dimethylbenzenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments described in report revealed potentially useful aspects of photochemistry of 2,5-dibenzoyl-1, 4-dimethylbenzene (DBX) and 2,5-diacetyl-1, 4-dimethylbenzene (DAX). Behavior of these compounds reminiscent of orthoalkylphenyl ketones, studied from similar perspective for more than two decades.

  18. First Synthesis of 1,4-Dimethoxy-2-Naphthoxyacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Chinea, Kimberly; Banerjee, Ajoy K

    2015-07-01

    2-Acetyl-1-hydroxynaphthalene was converted into 1,4-dimethoxy-2-naphthoxyacetic acid in seven steps (methylation, Bayer-Villiger oxidation, hydrolysis, bromination, methylation, alkylation and hydrolysis). 2-Hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone on acetylation, aromatization, methylation and hydrolysis, respectively, also yielded the title compound.

  19. 17 CFR 1.4 - Use of electronic signatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of electronic signatures. 1.4 Section 1.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL... pool participant or a client of a commodity trading advisor, an electronic signature executed by...

  20. 17 CFR 1.4 - Use of electronic signatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of electronic signatures. 1.4 Section 1.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL... pool participant or a client of a commodity trading advisor, an electronic signature executed by...

  1. Radiolabeling of Cramoll 1,4: Evaluation of the Biodistribution

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira de Carvalho Patricio, Beatriz; Lima-Ribeiro, Maria Helena Madruga; dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza; dos Anjos Carneiro-Leão, Ana Maria; de Souza Albernaz, Marta; Barboza, Thiago; de Souza, Sergio Augusto Lopes; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    The cramoll 1,4 is a well-studied lectin. However, few studies about its biodistribution have been done before. In this study, we radiolabeled the cramol 1,4 with Tc-99m and analyzed the biodistribution. The results showed that the cramol has an abnormal uptake by the bowel with reflections on its clearance mechanism. PMID:21760823

  2. 43 CFR 3425.1-4 - Emergency leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency leasing. 3425.1-4 Section 3425.1..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COMPETITIVE LEASING Leasing on Application § 3425.1-4 Emergency leasing. (a) An emergency lease sale may be held in response to an application under this...

  3. Studies on molecular structure, vibrational spectra and molecular docking analysis of 3-Methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl 4-aminobenzoate.

    PubMed

    Suresh, D M; Amalanathan, M; Joe, I Hubert; Jothy, V Bena; Diao, Yun-Peng

    2014-09-15

    The molecular structure, vibrational analysis and molecular docking analysis of the 3-Methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl 4-aminobenzoate (MDDNAB) molecule have been carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic techniques and DFT method. The equilibrium geometry, harmonic vibrational wave numbers, various bonding features have been computed using density functional method. The calculated molecular geometry has been compared with experimental data. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out by using VEDA program. The hyper-conjugative interactions and charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The simulated FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra satisfactorily coincide with the experimental spectra. The PES and charge analysis have been made. The molecular docking was done to identify the binding energy and the Hydrogen bonding with the cancer protein molecule.

  4. Studies on molecular structure, vibrational spectra and molecular docking analysis of 3-Methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl 4-aminobenzoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, D. M.; Amalanathan, M.; Hubert Joe, I.; Bena Jothy, V.; Diao, Yun-Peng

    2014-09-01

    The molecular structure, vibrational analysis and molecular docking analysis of the 3-Methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl 4-aminobenzoate (MDDNAB) molecule have been carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic techniques and DFT method. The equilibrium geometry, harmonic vibrational wave numbers, various bonding features have been computed using density functional method. The calculated molecular geometry has been compared with experimental data. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out by using VEDA program. The hyper-conjugative interactions and charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The simulated FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra satisfactorily coincide with the experimental spectra. The PES and charge analysis have been made. The molecular docking was done to identify the binding energy and the Hydrogen bonding with the cancer protein molecule.

  5. Higgs Boson Searches at Hadron Colliders (1/4)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    In these Academic Training lectures, the phenomenology of Higgs bosons and search strategies at hadron colliders are discussed. After a brief introduction on Higgs bosons in the Standard Model and a discussion of present direct and indirect constraints on its mass the status of the theoretical cross section calculations for Higgs boson production at hadron colliders is reviewed. In the following lectures important experimental issues relevant for Higgs boson searches (trigger, measurements of leptons, jets and missing transverse energy) are presented. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the discovery potential for the Standard Model Higgs boson for both the Tevatron and the LHC experiments. In addition, various scenarios beyond the Standard Model, primarily the MSSM, are considered. Finally, the potential and strategies to measured Higgs boson parameters and the investigation of alternative symmetry breaking scenarios are addressed.

  6. 20. (4"X5" image enlarged from 2 1/4" negative) Sam Fowler, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. (4"X5" image enlarged from 2 1/4" negative) Sam Fowler, Photographer, February 1998 VIEW OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 051-00025D-01986N (JAMES P. HOULIHAN BRIDGE). DETAIL OF FENDER SYSTEM FOR TURN-SPAN PIVOT PIER. OPERATOR'S HOUSE LOCATED ON UPPER SECTION OF TRUSS - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 051-00025D-01986N, US 17 & State Route 25 Spanning Savannah River, Port Wentworth, Chatham County, GA

  7. Wide-field holography of Compact Array antennae at 1.4 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelberg, E.; Voronkov, M.; Kesteven, M.; Cornwell, T.; Graves, G.

    2006-08-01

    It is not trivial to produce high-SNR images from radio interferometer data. In very deep integrations at low frequencies, strong radio sources well outside the primary beams cause sidelobes in the synthesized image, and limit its dynamic range. These sidelobes cannot be removed with cleaning and self-calibration techniques, and it becomes necessary to predict the effects of strong sources and to remove them from the data before an image is formed. We present results from recent holographic measurements of a subset of the antennae of the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 1.4 GHz. We have mapped in detail the far-field reception pattern of ATCA antennae to sources as far as 20 degrees away from the optical axis, using beacons of a geostationary satellite. We report the results from these observations and the improvements they yield for wide-field, deep radio interferometer observations. Future sensitive, low-frequency radio interferometers such as the xNTD and the SKA will need similar calibration techniques to reach their full potential.

  8. Subchronic Toxicity Study on 1,4-Dithiane.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    respectively. The left-ear clipped control male in cage 14 had malocclusion (a bite defect) and was excluded from all statistical analyses. An ANOVA on the...have the nose crystals. The time required for deposition of the nose crystals is important for a risk assessment analysis for 1,4-dithiane. 3) Studying...regression of the 1,4-dithiane-induced tissue damage is essential for a risk -assessment analysis for 1,4-dithiane. 4.) Studying the strain and species

  9. Technical Fact Sheet – 1,4-Dioxane

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO), provides a brief summary of the contaminant 1,4-dioxane, including physical and chemical properties

  10. 15. CYLINDER DETAILS; DETAILS OF STEEL FOR CYLINDERS NO. 50 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CYLINDER DETAILS; DETAILS OF STEEL FOR CYLINDERS NO. 50 (PIER 5) AND NO. 66 (PIER 6), DWG. 83, CH BY AF, ECL, APPROVED BY O.F. LACKEY, MAY 18, 1908 - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  11. 12 CFR 1.4 - Calculation of limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Calculation of limits. (a) Calculation date. For purposes of determining compliance with 12 U.S.C. 24 (Seventh... change in the bank's capital category for purposes of 12 U.S.C. 1831o and 12 CFR 6.3. (b) Effective date... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calculation of limits. 1.4 Section 1.4...

  12. 12 CFR 1.4 - Calculation of limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Calculation of limits. (a) Calculation date. For purposes of determining compliance with 12 U.S.C. 24 (Seventh... change in the bank's capital category for purposes of 12 U.S.C. 1831o and 12 CFR 6.3. (b) Effective date... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calculation of limits. 1.4 Section 1.4...

  13. Architecture Earth-Sheltered Buildings. Design Manual 1.4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    Bioclimat kpproach to Architectural Regionalismj Princeton, New Jersey, Princetk .niversity Press, 1963. " 7) 3. Givoni, B., Man, Climate and...AD-A 140 831 NAVFAC DM-1.4MARCH 1984 T OF ARCHITECTURE EARTH-SHELTERED BUILDINGS DESIGN MANUAL 1.4 Reproduced From Best Available Copy ~9J)O,3...design are included for the following disciplines: Planniing, Landscape Design, Life-Cycle Analysis, Architectural , Structural, Mechanical (criteria

  14. Structure-activity relationships of receptor binding of 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Daiki; Oyunzul, Luvsandorj; Onoue, Satomi; Ito, Yoshihiko; Uchida, Shinya; Simsek, Rahime; Gunduz, Miyase Gozde; Safak, Chiat; Yamada, Shizuo

    2008-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate binding activity of synthesized 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) derivatives (Compounds 1--124) to 1,4-DHP calcium channel antagonist receptors in rat brain. Sixteen 1,4-DHP derivatives inhibited specific (+)-[3H]PN 200-110 binding in rat brain in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 value of 0.43 to 3.49 microM. Scatchard analysis revealed that compounds 54, 69, 85, like nifedipine, caused a significant increase in apparent dissociation constant (Kd) for (+)-[3H]PN 200-110, while compounds 68, 69 and 80 caused a significant decrease in maximal number of bindings sites (Bmax). These data suggest that compounds 68, 69 and 80 exert longer-acting antagonistic effects of 1,4-DHP receptors than compounds 54, 69 and 85. The structure-activity relationship study has revealed that 1) ester groups in 3- and 5-positions are the most effective, 2) the aryl group in the 4-position of 1,4-DHP ring is the basic requirement for optimal activity, 3) position and type of electron-withdrawing groups on phenyl group at position 4 would affect the receptor-binding activity. Furthermore, compound 58 exerted alpha1 receptor binding activity, being 1.6 times greater than 1,4-DHP receptors. Compounds 81, 84, 91, 94, 106, 108 and 109 showed significant binding of ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP) channel, and the binding activities of compounds 81, 84, 108 and 109 were 1.6--3.8 times greater than the binding activity for 1,4-DHP receptors. Compounds 91 and 106 had similar binding activity for K ATP channel and 1,4-DHP receptors. In conclusion, the present study has shown that novel 1,4-DHP derivatives exert relatively high binding affinity to 1,4-DHP receptors and has revealed new aspect of structure-activity relationships of 1,4-DHP derivatives, especially hexahydroquinoline derivatives.

  15. H2O2-dependent substrate oxidation by an engineered diiron site in a bacterial hemerythrin† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Information on materials, instrumentation, experimental details and additional data on preparation of proteins, crystal structure analysis, resonance Raman and FTIR spectroscopy, reaction of reduced I119H with O2, consumption of H2O2, and oxidation reactions of guaiacol and 1,4-cyclohexadiene. The atomic coordinates and structure factors (PDB code 3WHN) have been deposited into the Protein Data Bank, http://www.rcsb.org/. See DOI: 10.1039/c3cc48108e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Yasunori; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Takano, Yu; Hirota, Shun; Kurtz, Donald M.; Shiro, Yoshitsugu

    2014-01-01

    The O2-binding carboxylate-bridged diiron site in DcrH-Hr was engineered in an effort to perform the H2O2-dependent oxidation of external substrates. A His residue was introduced near the diiron site in place of a conserved residue, Ile119. The I119H variant promotes the oxidation of guaiacol and 1,4-cyclohexadiene upon addition of H2O2. PMID:24400317

  16. Computed tomography:the details.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2007-07-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a well established technique, particularly in medical imaging, but also applied in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging. Basic CT imaging via back-projection is treated in many texts, but often with insufficient detail to appreciate subtleties such as the role of non-uniform sampling densities. Herein are given some details often neglected in many texts.

  17. Acyloxylation of 1,4-Dioxanes and 1,4-Dithianes Catalyzed by a Copper-Iron Mixed Oxide.

    PubMed

    García-Cabeza, Ana Leticia; Marín-Barrios, Rubén; Moreno-Dorado, F Javier; Ortega, María J; Vidal, Hilario; Gatica, José M; Massanet, Guillermo M; Guerra, Francisco M

    2015-07-02

    The use of a copper-iron mixed oxide as a heterogeneous catalyst for the efficient synthesis of α-acyloxy-1,4-dioxanes and 1,4-dithianes employing t-butyl peroxyesters is reported. The preparation and characterization of the catalyst are described. The effect of the heteroatoms and a plausible mechanism are discussed. The method is operationally simple and involves low-cost starting materials affording products in good to excellent yields.

  18. An Update on the Synthesis of Pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Varvounis, George

    2016-01-28

    Pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepines are tricyclic compounds that are considered "privileged structures" since they possess a wide range of biological activities. The first encounter with these molecules was the isolation of anthramycin from cultures of Streptomyces, followed by determination of the X-ray crystal structure of the molecule and a study of its interaction with DNA. This opened up an intensive synthetic and biological study of the pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines that has culminated in the development of the dimer SJG-136, at present in Phase II clinical trials. The synthetic efforts have brought to light some new synthetic methodology, while the contemporary work is focused on building trimeric pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines linked together by various heterocyclic and aliphatic chains. It is the broad spectrum of biological activities of pyrrolo[1,2-a][1,4]benzodiazepines that has maintained the interest of researchers to date whereas several derivatives of the even less studied pyrrolo[1,2-d][1,4]benzodiazepines were found to be potent non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The present review is an update on the synthesis of pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines since the last major review of 2011, while the overview of the synthesis of the other two tricyclic isomers is comprehensive.

  19. Evidence of 1,4-dioxane attenuation at groundwater sites contaminated with chlorinated solvents and 1,4-dioxane.

    PubMed

    Adamson, David T; Anderson, R Hunter; Mahendra, Shaily; Newell, Charles J

    2015-06-02

    There is a critical need to develop appropriate management strategies for 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) due to its widespread occurrence and perceived recalcitrance at groundwater sites where chlorinated solvents are present. A comprehensive evaluation of California state (GeoTracker) and Air Force monitoring records was used to provide significant evidence of dioxane attenuation at field sites. Temporal changes in the site-wide maximum concentrations were used to estimate source attenuation rates at the GeoTracker sites (median length of monitoring period = 6.8 years). While attenuation could not be established at all sites, statistically significant positive attenuation rates were confirmed at 22 sites. At sites where dioxane and chlorinated solvents were present, the median value of all statistically significant dioxane source attenuation rates (equivalent half-life = 31 months; n = 34) was lower than 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) but similar to 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). Dioxane attenuation rates were positively correlated with rates for 1,1-DCE and TCE but not TCA. At this set of sites, there was little evidence that chlorinated solvent remedial efforts (e.g., chemical oxidation, enhanced bioremediation) impacted dioxane attenuation. Attenuation rates based on well-specific records from the Air Force data set confirmed significant dioxane attenuation (131 out of 441 wells) at a similar frequency and extent (median equivalent half-life = 48 months) as observed at the California sites. Linear discriminant analysis established a positive correlation between dioxane attenuation and increasing concentrations of dissolved oxygen, while the same analysis found a negative correlation with metals and CVOC concentrations. The magnitude and prevalence of dioxane attenuation documented here suggest that natural attenuation may be used to manage some but not necessarily all dioxane-impacted sites.

  20. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ROADWAY. DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ROADWAY. DETAIL VIEW OF THE PIERS AND LIGHTING FIXTURES ON THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE. THIS VIEW SHOWS A PORTION OF THE BRIDGE ALONG THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE ROADWAY. EACH FIXTURE ALSO ORIGINALLY HAD FOUR ADDITIONAL GLOBES, WHICH EXTENDED FROM THE COLUMN BELOW THE MAIN GLOBE. THE 'REFUGE' SEATING AREAS ARE ORIGINAL, WHILE THE RAILING IS A LATER ADDITION. - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Antimicrobial activity of quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide with 2- and 3-substituted derivatives.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Mónica; Pinheiro, Cátia; Fernandes, Rúben; Noronha, João Paulo; Prudêncio, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    Quinoxaline is a chemical compound that presents a structure that is similar to quinolone antibiotics. The present work reports the study of the antimicrobial activity of quinoxaline N,N-dioxide and some derivatives against bacterial and yeast strains. The compounds studied were quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide (QNX), 2-methylquinoxaline-1,4-dioxide (2MQNX), 2-methyl-3-benzoylquinoxaline-1,4-dioxide (2M3BenzoylQNX), 2-methyl-3-benzylquinoxaline-1,4-dioxide (2M3BQNX), 2-amino-3-cyanoquinoxaline-1,4-dioxide (2A3CQNX), 3-methyl-2-quinoxalinecarboxamide-1,4-dioxide (3M2QNXC), 2-hydroxyphenazine-N,N-dioxide (2HF) and 3-methyl-N-(2-methylphenyl)quinoxalinecarboxamide-1,4-dioxide (3MN(2MF)QNXC). The prokaryotic strains used were Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 6538P, S. aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, E. coli S3R9, E. coli S3R22, E. coli TEM-1 CTX-M9, E. coli TEM-1, E. coli AmpC Mox-2, E. coli CTX-M2 e E. coli CTX-M9. The Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae PYCC 4072 were used as eukaryotic strains. For the compounds that presented activity using the disk diffusion method, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The alterations of cellular viability were evaluated in a time-course assay. Death curves for bacteria and growth curves for S. cerevisiae PYCC 4072 were also accessed. The results obtained suggest potential new drugs for antimicrobial activity chemotherapy since the MIC's determined present low values and cellular viability tests show the complete elimination of the bacterial strain. Also, the cellular viability tests for the eukaryotic model, S. cerevisiae, indicate low toxicity for the compounds tested.

  2. Modulatory effects of plant polyphenols on human multidrug resistance proteins 1, 4, and 5 (ABCC1, 4, and 5)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chung-Pu; Calcagno, Anna Maria; Hladky, Stephen B.; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Barrand, Margery A.

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY Plant flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds commonly found in vegetables, fruits and many food sources that form a significant portion of our diet. These compounds have been shown to interact with several ATP-Binding Cassette transporters that are linked with anticancer and antiviral drug resistance and as such, may be beneficial in modulating drug resistance. The present study investigates the interactions of six common polyphenols; quercetin, silymarin, resveratrol, naringenin, daidzein and hesperetin with the multidrug resistance associated proteins, MRP1, MRP4 and MRP5. At non-toxic concentrations, several of the polyphenols were able to modulate MRP1-, MRP4- and MRP5- mediated drug resistance though to varying extents. The polyphenols also reversed resistance to NSC251820, a compound that appears to be a good substrate for MRP4 as had been predicted by data mining studies. Furthermore, most of the polyphenols showed direct inhibition of MRP1-mediated [3H]-dinitrophenyl S-glutathione and MRP4-mediated [3H]-cGMP transport in inside-out vesicles prepared from human erythrocytes. Additionally, both quercetin and silymarin were found to inhibit MRP1-, MRP4-, and MRP5-mediated transport from intact cells with high affinity. They also had significant effects on ATPase activity of MRP1 and MRP4 without having any effect on [α-32P]8-azidoATP binding to these proteins. This suggests that these flavonoids most likely interact at the transporter’s substrate-binding sites. Collectively, these results suggest that dietary flavonoids such as quercetin and silymarin can modulate transport activities of MRP1, 4 and 5. Such interactions could influence bioavailability of anticancer and antiviral drugs in vivo and thus, should be considered for increasing efficacy in drug therapies. PMID:16156793

  3. User`s guide for SDDS toolkit Version 1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, M.

    1995-07-06

    The Self Describing Data Sets (SDDS) file protocol is the basis for a powerful and expanding toolkit of over 40 generic programs. These programs are used for simulation postprocessing, graphics, data preparation, program interfacing, and experimental data analysis. This document describes Version 1.4 of the SDDS commandline toolkit. Those wishing to write programs using SDDS should consult the Application Programmer`s Guide for SDDS Version 1.4. The first section of the present document is shared with this reference. This document does not describe SDDS-compliant EPICS applications, of which there are presently 25.

  4. Studies on Metabolism of 1,4-Dioxane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    acid. This proposal was based upon chemical oxidation experiments on dioxane using nitric acid originally conducted by Fairley and coworkers ( Fairley ...S., Holler, J., Richter, P. and Stevens, y.-w. 1996. Health evaluation of 1,4-dioxane. Toxicol. Ind. Health 12, 1-43. Fairley , A., Linton, E. C

  5. Sunspot 1520 Releases Strong (X1.4) Solar Flare

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie shows the sun July 10-12, ending with the X1.4 class flare on July 12, 2012. It was captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory in the 131 Angstrom wavelength - a wavelength that is...

  6. 17 CFR 1.4 - Use of electronic signatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of electronic signatures... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Definitions § 1.4 Use of electronic signatures. For purposes of... broker, a pool participant or a client of a commodity trading advisor, an electronic signature...

  7. ER-1422: Biodegradation of 1,4-Dioxane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Pseudonocardia sp. strain K1 was used to hydrolyze diglycolic acid, the free radical generator phenazine methosulfate was included in the assay, as reported... phenazine methosulfate is not a physiologically relevant compound and can not be involved in 1,4-dioxane mineralization in vivo. III. D. Discussion of

  8. [Obtaining antibodies to 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers].

    PubMed

    Burkin, A A; Murkin, M A

    2008-01-01

    Immunization of rabbits with amlodipine conjugated with horseradish peroxidase resulted in raising polyclonal antibodies that allowed group determination of 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers in aqueous solutions by ELISA with a sensitivity of 0.1 to 1.0 ng/ml for amlodipine, felodipine, nifedipine, and isradipine.

  9. 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives: Dihydronicotinamide Analogues—Model Compounds Targeting Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Velena, Astrida; Zarkovic, Neven; Gall Troselj, Koraljka; Bisenieks, Egils; Krauze, Aivars; Poikans, Janis; Duburs, Gunars

    2016-01-01

    Many 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs) possess redox properties. In this review DHPs are surveyed as protectors against oxidative stress (OS) and related disorders, considering the DHPs as specific group of potential antioxidants with bioprotective capacities. They have several peculiarities related to antioxidant activity (AOA). Several commercially available calcium antagonist, 1,4-DHP drugs, their metabolites, and calcium agonists were shown to express AOA. Synthesis, hydrogen donor properties, AOA, and methods and approaches used to reveal biological activities of various groups of 1,4-DHPs are presented. Examples of DHPs antioxidant activities and protective effects of DHPs against OS induced damage in low density lipoproteins (LDL), mitochondria, microsomes, isolated cells, and cell cultures are highlighted. Comparison of the AOA of different DHPs and other antioxidants is also given. According to the data presented, the DHPs might be considered as bellwether among synthetic compounds targeting OS and potential pharmacological model compounds targeting oxidative stress important for medicinal chemistry. PMID:26881016

  10. 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives: Dihydronicotinamide Analogues-Model Compounds Targeting Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Velena, Astrida; Zarkovic, Neven; Gall Troselj, Koraljka; Bisenieks, Egils; Krauze, Aivars; Poikans, Janis; Duburs, Gunars

    2016-01-01

    Many 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs) possess redox properties. In this review DHPs are surveyed as protectors against oxidative stress (OS) and related disorders, considering the DHPs as specific group of potential antioxidants with bioprotective capacities. They have several peculiarities related to antioxidant activity (AOA). Several commercially available calcium antagonist, 1,4-DHP drugs, their metabolites, and calcium agonists were shown to express AOA. Synthesis, hydrogen donor properties, AOA, and methods and approaches used to reveal biological activities of various groups of 1,4-DHPs are presented. Examples of DHPs antioxidant activities and protective effects of DHPs against OS induced damage in low density lipoproteins (LDL), mitochondria, microsomes, isolated cells, and cell cultures are highlighted. Comparison of the AOA of different DHPs and other antioxidants is also given. According to the data presented, the DHPs might be considered as bellwether among synthetic compounds targeting OS and potential pharmacological model compounds targeting oxidative stress important for medicinal chemistry.

  11. Remote sensing of soil moisture content over bare fields at 1.4 GHz frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Choudhury, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    A simple method of estimating moisture content (W) of a bare soil from the observed brightness temperature (T sub B) at 1.4 GHz is discussed. The method is based on a radiative transfer model calculation, which has been successfully used in the past to account for many observational results, with some modifications to take into account the effect of surface roughness. Besides the measured T sub B's, the three additional inputs required by the method are the effective soil thermodynamic temperature, the precise relation between W and the smooth field brightness temperature T sub B and a parameter specifying the surface roughness characteristics. The soil effective temperature can be readily measured and the procedures of estimating surface roughness parameter and obtaining the relation between W and smooth field brightness temperature are discussed in detail. Dual polarized radiometric measurements at an off-nadir incident angle are sufficient to estimate both surface roughness parameter and W, provided that the relation between W and smooth field brightness temperature at the same angle is known. The method of W estimate is demonstrated with two sets of experimental data, one from a controlled field experiment by a mobile tower and the other, from aircraft overflight. The results from both data sets are encouraging when the estimated W's are compared with the acquired ground truth of W's in the top 2 cm layer. An offset between the estimated and the measured W's exists in the results of the analyses, but that can be accounted for by the presently poor knowledge of the relationship between W and smooth field brightness temperature for various types of soils. An approach to quantify this relationship for different soils and thus improve the method of W estimate is suggested.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10678 - 1,4-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1,4-dimethyl ester, hydrogenolysis products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-dimethyl ester, hydrogenolysis products. 721.10678 Section 721.10678 Protection of Environment..., 1,4-dimethyl ester, hydrogenolysis products. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... ester, hydrogenolysis products (PMN P-13-10; CAS No. 1373220-73-5) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 31 CFR 1.4 - Public inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... identifying details. To prevent a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, or pursuant to an... shall be charged in accordance with § 1.7. See the appendices to this subpart for the location...

  14. NOSS Altimeter Detailed Algorithm specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, D. W.; Mcmillan, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    The details of the algorithms and data sets required for satellite radar altimeter data processing are documented in a form suitable for (1) development of the benchmark software and (2) coding the operational software. The algorithms reported in detail are those established for altimeter processing. The algorithms which required some additional development before documenting for production were only scoped. The algorithms are divided into two levels of processing. The first level converts the data to engineering units and applies corrections for instrument variations. The second level provides geophysical measurements derived from altimeter parameters for oceanographic users.

  15. Review of Ship Structural Details

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    8 4.3 Knee and Beam Brackets 4-11 4.3.1 Brackets for Girders and Deep Webs 4-11 4.3.2 Brackets Connecting Rolled Sections 4-15 4.4 Tripping...are shell stringers penetrating deep web frames and longitudinal girders penetrating deep transverses. This is not a common detail. If double...34. 3-76 ^"SECTION ’’.’(-K PLAJ iNG * S v *^ 4Fb^:TH»r.KNF.^ SAME AS FLAMGE ► BULKHFADQR DEEP WEB SS- 9 Detail Type: STANCHION END

  16. Occupation Competency Profile: Steel Detailer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the steel detailer program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the apprenticeship and industry training committee structure; local…

  17. High-affinity antibodies to the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.P.; Sharp, A.; Strom, M.; Kahl, S.D.

    1986-05-01

    Antibodies with high affinity and specificity for the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers have been produced in rabbits by immunization with dihydropyridine-protein conjugates. Anti-dihydropyridine antibodies were found to specifically bind (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine, (/sup 3/H)-nimodipine, (/sup 3/H)nisoldipine, and (/sup 3/H)PN 200-110 (all 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers) with high affinity, while (/sup 3/H)verapamil, (/sup 3/H)diltiazem, and (/sup 3/H)trifluoperazine were not recognized. The average dissociation constant of the (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine-antibody complex was 0.06 (+/- 0.02) X 10(-9) M for an antiserum studied in detail and ranged from 0.01 to 0.24 X 10(-9) M for all antisera. Inhibition of (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding was specific for the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel modifiers and the concentrations required for half-maximal inhibition ranged between 0.25 and 0.90 nM. Structurally unrelated Ca2+-channel blockers, calmodulin antagonists, inactive metabolites of nitrendipine, and UV-inactivated nisoldipine did not modify (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding to the anti-dihydropyridine antibodies. Dihydropyridines without a bulky substituent in the 4-position of the heterocycle were able to displace (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding, but the concentrations required for half-maximal inhibition were greater than 800 nM. In summary, anti-dihydropyridine antibodies have been shown to have high affinity and specificity for the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers and to exhibit dihydropyridine binding properties similar to the membrane receptor for the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers.

  18. Ambiphilic boron in 1,4,2,5-diazadiborinine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baolin; Li, Yongxin; Ganguly, Rakesh; Hirao, Hajime; Kinjo, Rei

    2016-01-01

    Boranes have long been known as the archetypal Lewis acids owing to an empty p-orbital on the boron centre. Meanwhile, Lewis basic tricoordinate boranes have been developed in recent years. Here we report the synthesis of an annulated 1,4,2,5-diazadiborinine derivative featuring boron atoms that exhibit both Lewis acidic and basic properties. Experimental and computational studies confirmed that two boron atoms in this molecule are spectroscopically equivalent. Nevertheless, this molecule cleaves C–O, B–H, Si–H and P–H bonds heterolytically, and readily undergoes [4+2] cycloaddition reaction with non-activated unsaturated bonds such as C=O, C=C, C≡C and C≡N bonds. The result, thus, indicates that the indistinguishable boron atoms in 1,4,2,5-diazadiborinine act as both nucleophilic and electrophilic centres, demonstrating ambiphilic nature. PMID:27279265

  19. Catalytic Asymmetric 1,4-Addition Reactions of Simple Alkylnitriles.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yasuhiro; Sato, Io; Suzuki, Hirotsugu; Kobayashi, Shū

    2015-10-01

    The development of catalytic asymmetric carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions of alkylnitriles that do not have an activating group at the α-position, under proton-transfer conditions, is a challenging research topic. Here, we report catalytic asymmetric direct-type 1,4-addition reactions of alkylnitriles with α,β-unsaturated amides by using a catalytic amount of potassium hexamethyldisilazide (KHMDS) with a chiral macro crown ether. The desired reactions proceeded in high yields with good diastereo- and enantioselectivities. To our knowledge, this is the first example of catalytic asymmetric direct-type 1,4-addition reaction of alkylnitriles without any activating group at the α-position.

  20. Synthesis and pharmacological activity of 1,4-benzodiazepine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Osman, A N; el-Gendy, A A; Omar, R H; Wagdy, L; Omar, A H

    2002-01-01

    2-Aminobenzamides (3a-g) were prepared starting with isatoic anhydride. These compounds reacted with chloroacetic acid to give (4a-g), which were cyclized by dicyclohexylcorbodiimide to afford (5a-g). The preliminary pharmacological screening revealed that some of the new 2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-3,5(1H,4H)-dione derivatives (5) exhibited CNS-depressant and anticonvulsant activities.

  1. 15N NMR of 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Goba, Inguna; Liepinsh, Edvards

    2013-07-01

    In this article, we describe the characteristic (15)N and (1)HN NMR chemical shifts and (1)J((15)N-(1)H) coupling constants of various symmetrically and unsymmetrically substituted 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives. The NMR chemical shifts and coupling constants are discussed in terms of their relationship to structural features such as character and position of the substituent in heterocycle, N-alkyl substitution, nitrogen lone pair delocalization within the conjugated system, and steric effects.

  2. GHB, GBL and 1,4-BD addiction.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Tibor M; van Amsterdam, Jan G C; van den Brink, Wim

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an addictive substance. Its precursors gammabutyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) show the same properties and may pose even more risks due to different pharmacokinetics. There are indications that problematic GHB use is increasing in the European Union. This review investigates the existing literature on the neurochemistry of GHB and its precursors, their acute toxicity, addiction potential and withdrawal, the proposed molecular mechanism underlying addiction and the treatment of withdrawal and addiction. Current evidence shows that GHB and its precursors are highly addictive, both in humans and animals, probably through a GABAB receptor related mechanism. Severity of withdrawal symptoms can be considered as a medical emergency. Recent studies suggest that benzodiazepines are not very effective, showing a high treatment resistance, whereas detoxification with pharmaceutical GHB proved to be successful. However, relapse in GHB use is frequent and more research is warranted on relapse prevention. This might aid medical practitioners in the field and improve general understanding of the severity of addiction to GHB, GBL and 1,4-BD.

  3. Direct Aminolysis of Ethoxycarbonylmethyl 1,4-Dihydropyridine-3-carboxylates.

    PubMed

    Vigante, Brigita; Rucins, Martins; Plotniece, Aiva; Pajuste, Karlis; Luntena, Iveta; Cekavicus, Brigita; Bisenieks, Egils; Smits, Rufus; Duburs, Gunars; Sobolev, Arkadij

    2015-11-12

    The ethoxycarbonylmethyl esters of 1,4-dihydropyridines were directly converted into carbamoylmethyl esters in the presence of 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (TBD) in good to excellent yields under mild conditions. The use of TBD is crucial for the successful aminolysis of ethoxycarbonylmethyl ester of 1,4-dihydropyridines with secondary amines as without it the reaction does not proceed at all. The aminolysis reaction proceeded regioselectively, as the alkyl ester conjugated with the 1,4-dihydropyridine cycle was not involved in the reaction. Screening of other N-containing bases, such as triethylamine (TEA), pyridine, 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP), 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU), 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene (DBN), imidazole, tetramethyl guanidine (TMG) and 7-methyl-1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (MTBD) as catalysts revealed no activity in the studied reaction.

  4. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapen, Johan H.

    2017-03-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  5. Computers in Chemical Education Newsletter. Volume IV Numbers 1-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Donald, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Selections from volume 4 (numbers 1-4) of the Task Force on Computers in Chemical Education (TFCCE) Newsletter are presented. Number 1 includes an introduction to and objectives of the newsletter and TFCCE, a report on computer-related activities in the chemistry department at Eastern Michigan University, a list of TFCCE members, a discussion of a…

  6. The solvent-free synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridines under ultrasound irradiation without catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Xiang; Li, Zhi-Yan; Zhang, Jin-Chao; Li, Ji-Tai

    2008-07-01

    The condensation of aldehydes, ethyl acetoacetate and ammonium acetate result 1,4-dihydropyridines in 82-99% yields under ultrasound irradiation without solvent and catalyst at room temperature. Compared with conventional methods, the main advantages of the present procedure are milder conditions, shorter reaction time and higher yields.

  7. Crystal structure of dimethyl 2,5-bis-[(di-phen-oxy-phosphor-yl)-oxy]cyclo-hexa-1,4-diene-1,4-di-carboxyl-ate.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Ma, Zongshan; Yan, Hong

    2015-06-01

    In the title compound, C34H30O12P2, which was synthesized via the esterification of dimethyl 2,5-dioxo-1,4-cyclo-hexa-nedi-carboxyl-ate with diphenyl chloro-phosphate, the mol-ecule has crystallographic inversion symmetry. The dihedral angles between the plane of the cyclo-hexa-1,4-diene ring and those of the two benzene rings of the substituent phosphate groups are 41.0 (1) and 89.5 (1)°, while that with the ester group is 3.1 (3)°. In the crystal, only weak inter-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds are present.

  8. Proteome Changes of Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induced by 1,4-Benzoquinone

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Benzene is metabolized to hydroquinone in liver and subsequently transported to bone marrow for further oxidization to 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ), which may be related to the leukemia and other blood disorders. In the present study, we investigated the proteome profiles of human primary bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) treated by 1,4-BQ. We identified 32 proteins that were differentially expressed. Two of them, HSP27 and Vimentin, were verified at both mRNA and protein levels and their cellular localization was examined by immunofluorescence. We also found increased mRNA level of RAP1GDS1, a critical factor of metabolism that has been identified as a fusion partner in various hematopoietic malignancies. Therefore, these differentially expressed proteins can play important roles in benzene-mediated hematoxicity. PMID:28119923

  9. A microwave-assisted bismuth nitrate-catalyzed unique route toward 1,4-dihydropyridines.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasish; Maldonado, Stephanie; Banik, Bimal K

    2012-03-05

    The classical Hantzsch reaction is one of the simplest and most economical methods for the synthesis of biologically important and pharmacologically useful 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives. Bismuth nitrate pentahydrate under microwave irradiation is proven to act as a very efficient catalyst for a one-pot, three-component synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridines in excellent yields from diverse amines/ammonium acetate, aldehydes and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds within 1-3 min under solvent-free conditions. The present environmentally benign procedure for the synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridines is suitable for library synthesis and it will find application in the synthesis of potent biologically active molecules. The excellent yield and extreme rapidity of the method is due to a concurrent effect of the catalyst and microwave irradiation.

  10. Photoluminescent carbon dots from 1,4-addition polymers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhiqiang; Nolan, Andrew; Walton, Jeffrey G A; Lilienkampf, Annamaria; Zhang, Rong; Bradley, Mark

    2014-08-25

    Photoluminescent carbon dots were synthesised directly by thermopyrolysis of 1,4-addition polymers, allowing precise control of their properties. The effect of polymer composition on the properties of the carbon dots was investigated by TEM, IR, XPS, elemental analysis and fluorescence analysis, with carbon dots synthesised from nitrogen-containing polymers showing the highest fluorescence. The carbon dots with high nitrogen content were observed to have strong fluorescence in the visible region, and culture with cells showed that the carbon dots were non-cytotoxic and readily taken up by three different cell lines.

  11. The expression patterns of beta1,4 galactosyltransferase I and V mRNAs, and Galbeta1-4GlcNAc group in rat gastrocnemius muscles post sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Yan, Meijuan; Cheng, Chun; Ding, Fei; Jiang, Jing; Gao, Lingling; Xia, Chunlin; Shen, Aiguo

    2008-10-01

    Glycosylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications. It is clear that the single step of beta1,4-galactosylation is performed by a family of beta1,4-galactosyltransferases (beta1,4-GalTs), and that each member of this family may play a distinct role in different tissues and cells. beta1,4-GalT I and V are involved in the biosynthesis of N-linked oligosaccharides and play roles in sciatic nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve injury. In the present study, the expression of beta1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta1,4-GalT) I, V mRNAs and Galbeta1-4GlcNAc group were examined in rat gastrocnemius muscles after sciatic nerve crush and transection. Real time PCR revealed that beta1,4-GalT I and V mRNAs expressed at a high level in normal gastrocnemius muscles and decreased gradually from 6 h, reached the lowest level at 2 weeks, then restored gradually to relatively normal level at 4 weeks after sciatic nerve crush. In contrast, in sciatic nerve transection model, beta1,4-GalT I and V mRNAs decreased gradually from 6 h, and remained on a low level at 4 weeks in gastrocnemius muscles after sciatic nerve transection. In situ hybridization indicated that beta1,4-GalT I and V mRNAs localized in numerous myocytes and muscle satellite cells under normal conditions and at 4 weeks after sciatic nerve crush, and in a few muscle satellite cells at 4 weeks after sciatic nerve transection. Furthermore, lectin blotting showed that the expression level of the Galbeta1-4GlcNAc group decreased from 6 h, reached the lowest level at 2 weeks, and restored to relatively normal level at 4 weeks after sciatic nerve crush. RCA-I lectin histochemistry demonstrated that Galbeta1-4GlcNAc group localized in numerous membranes of myocytes and muscle satellite cells in normal and at 4 weeks after sciatic nerve crush, and in a few muscle satellite cells at 2 and 4 weeks after sciatic nerve transection. These results indicated that the expressions of beta1,4-GalT I, V mRNAs and

  12. Solar Data Hub (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Orwig, K.

    2011-04-01

    As power grid integration of renewables becomes ever more important and detailed, the need for a centralized place for solar-related resource data is needed. This presentation describes such a place and website.

  13. 1. 4 gigahertz luminosity function and its evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Condon, J. J.

    1989-03-01

    The local luminosity function was determined at v = 1.4 GHz from radio observations of two low-redshift galaxy samples: (1) spiral and irregular galaxies with apparent blue magnitudes and declinations and (2) galaxies of all morphologies with blue angular diameters of 1.0 arcmin or greater in the declination range between -2.5 deg and +82 deg. Separate luminosity functions for the radio source populations powered by 'starbursts' and 'monsters' were obtained from the latter sample. The amount of evolution required for the local luminosity function to account for the faint sources is discussed. The cosmological evolution of extragalactic radio sources appears to be so strong at all observed luminosities that the local luminosity function and counts of all sources between S of roughly 10 micro-Jy and S of roughly 10 Jy at v = 1.4 GHz can be matched with a model in which most sources are confined to a hollow shell with z of roughly 0.8. 36 refs.

  14. 9. DETAIL OF DIVERSION STRUCTURE WEST OF DERBY LAKE (SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF DIVERSION STRUCTURE WEST OF DERBY LAKE (SECTION 2) SHOWING DIVERSION GATE TO LAKE LADORA. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  15. 17. DETAIL OF ONE OF THE HEAD GATES PICTURED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF ONE OF THE HEAD GATES PICTURED IN CO-43-A-16 (SECTION 35). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  16. Recombinant β-1,3-1,4-glucanase from Theobroma cacao impairs Moniliophthora perniciosa mycelial growth.

    PubMed

    Britto, Dahyana Santos; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Andrade, Bruno Silva; Dos Santos, Tassiara Pereira; Pungartnik, Cristina; Cascardo, Júlio Cezar M; Micheli, Fabienne; Gesteira, Abelmon S

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we identified a gene from Theobroma cacao L. genome and cDNA libraries, named TcGlu2, that encodes a β-1,3-1,4-glucanase. The TcGlu2 ORF was 720 bp in length and encoded a polypeptide of 239 amino acids with a molecular mass of 25.58 kDa. TcGlu2 contains a conserved domain characteristic of β-1,3-1,4-glucanases and presented high protein identity with β-1,3-1,4-glucanases from other plant species. Molecular modeling of TcGlu2 showed an active site of 13 amino acids typical of glucanase with β-1,3 and 1,4 action mode. The recombinant cDNA TcGlu2 obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and whose sequence was confirmed by mass spectrometry, has a molecular mass of about 22 kDa (with His-Tag) and showed antifungal activity against the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of the witches' broom disease in cacao. The integrity of the hyphae membranes of M. perniciosa, incubated with protein TcGlu2, was analyzed with propidium iodide. After 1 h of incubation, a strong fluorescence emitted by the hyphae indicating the hydrolysis of the membrane by TcGlu2, was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first study of a cacao β-1,3-1,4-glucanase expression in heterologous system and the first analysis showing the antifungal activity of a β-1,3-1,4-glucanase, in particular against M. perniciosa.

  17. Detailed Jet Dynamics in a Collapsing Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Kobel, Philippe; Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    We present detailed visualizations of the micro-jet forming inside an aspherically collapsing cavitation bubble near a free surface. The high-quality visualizations of large and strongly deformed bubbles disclose so far unseen features of the dynamics inside the bubble, such as a mushroom-like flattened jet-tip, crown formation and micro-droplets. We also find that jetting near a free surface reduces the collapse time relative to the Rayleigh time.

  18. 1,4-diphenylbutadiyne as a potential tritium getter

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H.H.; Bissell, E.E.; Tsugawa, R.T.; Souers, P.C.

    1980-10-01

    Research on the acetylene compound 1,4-diphenylbutadiyne is an effort to develop an air-operative tritium gas scavenger. T/sub 2/ adds to the acetylene bond of the organic in the presence of a metal catalyst. The catalyst also stimulates the oxidation reaction as well. The butadiyne compound has shown good reaction efficiency at 300 ppM T/sub 2/ in static dry air. At this concentration 75% of the scavenged tritium was in the organic. This work has expanded to the investigation of liquid acetylenes, metal acetylene complexes, organometallics and acetylene based alcohols. The best of these compounds has gettered 100% of 10 to 500 ppM T/sub 2/ for both static and dynamic air flow conditions.

  19. THE VERY LARGE ARRAY 1.4 GHz SURVEY OF THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: SECOND DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Neal A.; Bonzini, Margherita; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Padovani, Paolo; Rosati, Piero; Fomalont, Edward B.; Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Tozzi, Paolo; Vattakunnel, Shaji

    2013-04-01

    Deep radio observations at 1.4 GHz for the Extended Chandra Deep Field South were performed in 2007 June through September and presented in a first data release. The survey was made using six separate pointings of the Very Large Array with over 40 hr of observation per pointing. In the current paper, we improve on the data reduction to produce a second data release (DR2) mosaic image. This DR2 image covers an area of about a third of a square degree, reaches a best rms sensitivity of 6 {mu}Jy, and has a typical sensitivity of 7.4 {mu}Jy per 2.''8 by 1.''6 beam. We also present a more comprehensive catalog, including sources down to peak flux densities of five or more times the local rms noise along with information on source sizes and relevant pointing data. We discuss in some detail the consideration of whether sources are resolved under the complication of a radio image created as a mosaic of separate pointings each suffering some degree of bandwidth smearing, and the accurate evaluation of the flux densities of such sources. Finally, the radio morphologies and optical/near-IR counterpart identifications are used to identify 17 likely multiple-component sources and arrive at a catalog of 883 radio sources, which is roughly double the number of sources contained in the first data release.

  20. Morphological details in bloodstain particles.

    PubMed

    De Wael, K; Lepot, L

    2015-01-01

    During the commission of crimes blood can be transferred to the clothing of the offender or on other crime related objects. Bloodstain particles are sub-millimetre sized flakes that are lost from dried bloodstains. The nature of these red particles is easily confirmed using spectroscopic methods. In casework, bloodstain particles showing highly detailed morphological features were observed. These provided a rationale for a series of experiments described in this work. It was found that the "largest" particles are shed from blood deposited on polyester and polyamide woven fabrics. No particles are lost from the stains made on absorbent fabrics and from those made on knitted fabrics. The morphological features observed in bloodstain particles can provide important information on the substrates from which they were lost.

  1. A Generalized Detailed Balance Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruelle, David

    2016-08-01

    Given a system M in a thermal bath we obtain a generalized detailed balance relation for the ratio r=π _τ (K→ J)/π _τ (J→ K) of the transition probabilities M:J→ K and M:K→ J in time τ . We assume an active bath, containing solute molecules in metastable states. These molecules may react with M and the transition J→ K occurs through different channels α involving different reactions with the bath. We find that r=sum p^α r^α , where p^α is the probability that channel α occurs, and r^α depends on the amount of heat (more precisely enthalpy) released to the bath in channel α.

  2. Description of 1/4 BPS configurations in minimal type IIB supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Donos, Aristomenis

    2007-01-15

    In this paper we present an effort to extend the LLM construction of 1/2 BPS states in minimal IIB supergravity to configurations that preserve 1/4 of the total number of supersymmetries. Following the same techniques we reduce the problem to that of a single scalar which satisfies a nonlinear equation. In particular, the scalar is identified to be the Kahler potential with which a four dimensional base space is equipped.

  3. Description of 1/4 BPS configurations in minimal typeIIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donos, Aristomenis

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an effort to extend the LLM construction of 1/2 BPS states in minimal IIB supergravity to configurations that preserve 1/4 of the total number of supersymmetries. Following the same techniques we reduce the problem to that of a single scalar which satisfies a nonlinear equation. In particular, the scalar is identified to be the Kahler potential with which a four dimensional base space is equipped.

  4. Electron-beam buncher to operate over the frequency range 1-4 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, D.A.; Arthur, A.A.; Flood, W.S.; Voelker, F.

    1983-03-01

    We present a description of an electron buncher to be installed in the terminal of a Van de Graaff, which is to produce a modulated beam over the frequency range 1-4 GHz. The modulator geometry has been optimized so that the modulation amplitude should be nearly constant over the frequency ranges 1-2 GHz and 2-4 GHz. Preliminary results indicate the device works as predicted.

  5. Structure and function of beta -1,4-galactosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Qasba, Pradman K; Ramakrishnan, Boopathy; Boeggeman, Elizabeth

    2008-04-01

    Beta-1,4-galactosylransferase (beta4Gal-T1) participates in the synthesis of Galbeta1-4-GlcNAc-disaccharide unit of glycoconjugates. It is a trans-Golgi glycosyltransferase (Glyco-T) with a type II membrane protein topology, a short N-terminal cytoplasmic domain, a membrane-spanning region, as well as a stem and a C-terminal catalytic domain facing the trans-Golgi-lumen. Its hydrophobic membrane-spanning region, like that of other Glyco-T, has a shorter length compared to plasma membrane proteins, an important feature for its retention in the trans-Golgi. The catalytic domain has two flexible loops, a long and a small one. The primary metal binding site is located at the N-terminal hinge region of the long flexible loop. Upon binding of metal ion and sugar-nucleotide, the flexible loops undergo a marked conformational change, from an open to a closed conformation. Conformational change simultaneously creates at the C-terminal region of the flexible loop an oligosaccharide acceptor binding site that did not exist before. The loop acts as a lid covering the bound donor substrate. After completion of the transfer of the glycosyl unit to the acceptor, the saccharide product is ejected; the loop reverts to its native conformation to release the remaining nucleotide moiety. The conformational change in beta4Gal-T1 also creates the binding site for a mammary gland-specific protein, alpha-lactalbumin (LA), which changes the acceptor specificity of the enzyme toward glucose to synthesize lactose during lactation. The specificity of the sugar donor is generally determined by a few residues in the sugar-nucleotide binding pocket of Glyco-T, conserved among the family members from different species. Mutation of these residues has allowed us to design new and novel glycosyltransferases, with broader or requisite donor and acceptor specificities, and to synthesize specific complex carbohydrates as well as specific inhibitors for these enzymes.

  6. Atmospheric photochemical degradation of 1,4-unsaturated dicarbonyls

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Jeffries, H.E.; Sexton, K.G.

    1999-12-01

    To better understand fates of aromatics hydrocarbon species in the atmosphere, the authors have investigated the transformation chemistry of butenedial (CHOCH{double{underscore}bond}CHCHO), 4-oxo-2-pentenal (CH{sub 3}COCH{double{underscore}bond}CHCHO), and 3-hexene-2, 5-dione (CH{sub 3}COCH{double{underscore}bond}CHCOCH{sub 3}). These 1,4-unsaturated dicarbonyls are known to be products of aromatic photochemical oxidation. Both hydroxyl radical (OH) and ozone (O{sub 3}) initiated smog chamber experiments under atmospheric conditions were conducted in the University of North Carolina outdoor smog chamber. Carbonyl intermediates and products were measured using the O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatization method followed by gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry analysis. Carbonyl products detected and identified by comparison with standards in the OH-initiated photooxidation of butenedial include formaldehyde, acrolein, glycolaldehyde, glyoxal, and malonaldehyde (CHOCH{sub 2}CHO). For 4-oxo-2-pentenal, the carbonyl products were formaldehyde, methyl vinyl ketone, glycolaldehyde, hydroxyacetone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and malonaldehyde. for 3-hexene-2,5-dione the products were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, hydroxyacetone, and methylglyoxal. Carbonyl products detected in the P{sub 3}-initiated experiments with cyclohexane as the OH scavenger were formaldehyde and glyoxal in butenedial; formaldehyde, glyoxal, methyl-glyoxal, and malonaldehyde in 4-oxo-2-pentenal; and formaldehyde and methylglyoxal in 3-hexene-2,5-dione.

  7. Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Hammarlund, Emma U; Wang, Huajian; Costa, M Mafalda; Bjerrum, Christian J; Connelly, James N; Zhang, Baomin; Bian, Lizeng; Canfield, Donald E

    2015-03-24

    Fluctuating climate is a hallmark of Earth. As one transcends deep into Earth time, however, both the evidence for and the causes of climate change become difficult to establish. We report geochemical and sedimentological evidence for repeated, short-term climate fluctuations from the exceptionally well-preserved ∼1.4-billion-year-old Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We observe two patterns of climate fluctuations: On long time scales, over what amounts to tens of millions of years, sediments of the Xiamaling Formation record changes in geochemistry consistent with long-term changes in the location of the Xiamaling relative to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. On shorter time scales, and within a precisely calibrated stratigraphic framework, cyclicity in sediment geochemical dynamics is consistent with orbital control. In particular, sediment geochemical fluctuations reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment.

  8. A mechanism for 1,4-Benzoquinone-induced genotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Son, Mi Young; Deng, Chu-Xia; Hoeijmarkers, Jan H.; Rebel, Vivienne I.; Hasty, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Benzene is a common environmental toxin and its metabolite, 1-4-Benzoquinone (BQ) causes hematopoietic cancers like myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). BQ has not been comprehensively assessed for its impact on genome maintenance, limiting our understanding of the true health risks associated with benzene exposure and our ability to identify people with increased sensitivity to this genotoxin. Here we analyze the impact BQ exposure has on wild type and DNA repair-defective mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and wild type human cells. We find that double strand break (DSB) repair and replication fork maintenance pathways including homologous recombination (HR) and Fanconi anemia (FA) suppress BQ toxicity. BQ-induced damage efficiently stalls replication forks, yet poorly induces ATR/DNA-PKCS responses. Furthermore, the pattern of BQ-induced γH2AX and 53BP1foci is consistent with the formation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1)-stabilized regressed replication forks. At a biochemical level, BQ inhibited topoisomerase 1 (topo1)-mediated DNA ligation and nicking in vitro; thus providing mechanism for the cellular phenotype. These data are consistent with a model that proposes BQ interferes with type I topoisomerase's ability to maintain replication fork restart and progression leading to chromosomal instability that has the potential to cause hematopoietic cancers like MDS and AML. PMID:27340773

  9. Nucleophilic 1,4-additions for natural product discovery.

    PubMed

    Cox, Courtney L; Tietz, Jonathan I; Sokolowski, Karol; Melby, Joel O; Doroghazi, James R; Mitchell, Douglas A

    2014-09-19

    Natural products remain an important source of drug candidates, but the difficulties inherent to traditional isolation, coupled with unacceptably high rates of compound rediscovery, limit the pace of natural product detection. Here we describe a reactivity-based screening method to rapidly identify exported bacterial metabolites that contain dehydrated amino acids (i.e., carbonyl- or imine-activated alkenes), a common motif in several classes of natural products. Our strategy entails the use of a commercially available thiol, dithiothreitol, for the covalent labeling of activated alkenes by nucleophilic 1,4-addition. Modification is easily discerned by comparing mass spectra of reacted and unreacted cell surface extracts. When combined with bioinformatic analysis of putative natural product gene clusters, targeted screening and isolation can be performed on a prioritized list of strains. Moreover, known compounds are easily dereplicated, effectively eliminating superfluous isolation and characterization. As a proof of principle, this labeling method was used to identify known natural products belonging to the thiopeptide, lanthipeptide, and linaridin classes. Further, upon screening a panel of only 23 actinomycetes, we discovered and characterized a novel thiopeptide antibiotic, cyclothiazomycin C.

  10. Metabolism of [(1)(4)C]prometryn in rats.

    PubMed

    Maynard, M S; Brumback, D; Itterly, W; Capps, T; Rose, R

    1999-09-01

    [(1)(4)C]Prometryn, 2, 4-bis(isopropylamino)-6-(methylthio)-s-triazine, was orally administered to male and female rats at approximately 0.5 and 500 mg/kg; daily urine and feces were collected. After 3 or 7 days rats were sacrificed, and blood and selected tissues were isolated. The urine and feces extracts were characterized for metabolite similarity as well as for metabolite identification. Over 30 metabolites were observed, and of these, 28 were identified mostly by mass spectrometry and/or cochromatography with available reference standards. The metabolism of prometryn was shown to occur by N-demethylation, S-oxidation, S-S dimerization, OH substitution for NH(2) and SCH(3), and conjugation with glutathione or glucuronic acid. Rat liver microsomal incubations of prometryn were conducted and compared to the in vivo metabolism. Both in vivo and in vitro phase I metabolisms of prometryn were similar, with S-oxidation and N-dealkylation predominating. The involvement of cytochrome P-450 and flavin-containing monooxidase in the in vitro metabolism of prometryn was investigated.

  11. Phytoremediation of 1,4-dioxane-containing recovered groundwater.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Ari M; Kennedy, Jean; LaRue, James C

    2013-01-01

    The results of a pilot-scale phytoremediation study are reported in this paper. Small plots of trees established on a closed municipal waste landfill site were irrigated with recovered groundwater containing 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The plots were managed to minimize the leaching of irrigation water, and leaching was quantified by the use of bromide tracer. Results indicated that the dioxane (2.5 microg/L) was effectively removed, probably via phytovolatilization, and that a full-scale phytoremediation system could be used. A system is now in place at the site in which the recovered groundwater can be treated using two different approaches. A physical treatment system (PTS) will be used during the winter months, and a 12 ha phytoremediation system (stands of coniferous trees) will be used during the growing season. The PTS removes VOCs using an air-stripper, and destroys dioxane using a photo-catalytic oxidation process. Treated water will be routed to the local sewer system. The phytoremediation system, located on the landfill, will be irrigated with effluent from the PTS air-stripper containing dioxane. Seasonal use of the phytoremediation system will reduce reliance on the photo-catalytic oxidation process that is extremely energy consumptive and expensive to operate.

  12. Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Wang, Huajian; Costa, M. Mafalda; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Connelly, James N.; Zhang, Baomin; Bian, Lizeng; Canfield, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuating climate is a hallmark of Earth. As one transcends deep into Earth time, however, both the evidence for and the causes of climate change become difficult to establish. We report geochemical and sedimentological evidence for repeated, short-term climate fluctuations from the exceptionally well-preserved ∼1.4-billion-year-old Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We observe two patterns of climate fluctuations: On long time scales, over what amounts to tens of millions of years, sediments of the Xiamaling Formation record changes in geochemistry consistent with long-term changes in the location of the Xiamaling relative to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. On shorter time scales, and within a precisely calibrated stratigraphic framework, cyclicity in sediment geochemical dynamics is consistent with orbital control. In particular, sediment geochemical fluctuations reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment. PMID:25775605

  13. Solar wind halo electrons from 1-4 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomas, D. J.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Gosling, J. T.; Phillips, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Observations from the Ulysses solar wind electron spectrometer are used to make a first examination of the evolution of the solar wind suprathermal or halo electron population as a function of heliocentric distance beyond 1 AU. As the core population cools with increasing heliocentric distance, no gap is formed between the core and halo populations. Rather, the halo electrons extend to increasingly lower energies. As predicted previously on theoretical grounds, the ratio of the core electron temperature to the low energy cutoff of the halo population appears to be roughly constant with a value of about 7.5. The total integrated heat flux drops rapidly with increasing heliocentric distance; a best fit power law of R exp -2.36 is found. In addition, it is found that the ratio of the halo to core densities is roughly constant over heliocentric distance with the halo representing 4 percent of the total electron distribution. These results suggest that the halo population may not consist of truly noninteractive test particles over the heliocentric range of 1-4 AU.

  14. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture, Tutorial Part 2 - Detailed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handler, Louis

    2014-01-01

    The STRS architecture detail presentation presents each requirement in the STRS Architecture Standard with some examples and supporting information. The purpose is to give a platform provider, application provider, or application integrator a better, more detailed understanding of the STRS Architecture Standard and its use.

  15. Wind tunnel test on a 1/4.622 Froude scale, hingeless rotor, tilt rotor model, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, J. P.; Alexander, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    Wing tunnel test data on a 1/4.622 Froude scale, hingeless rotor, tilt rotor mode are reported for all potential flight conditions through hover and a wide envelope of transitions. A mathematical model was used to describe the rotor system in real time simulation by means of regression analyses. Details of the model, test program and data system are provided together with four data files for hover and transition.

  16. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database (Version 1.4). Technical reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, C.; Cillan, T.

    1993-09-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The SWPM system provides a modeling and analysis environment that supports decisions in the process of evaluating various solid waste management alternatives. This document, one of a series describing the SWPM system, contains detailed information regarding the software and data structures utilized in developing the SWPM Version 1.4 Database. This document is intended for use by experienced database specialists and supports database maintenance, utility development, and database enhancement. Those interested in using the SWPM database should refer to the SWPM Database User`s Guide. This document is available from the PNL Task M Project Manager (D. L. Stiles, 509-372-4358), the PNL Task L Project Manager (L. L. Armacost, 509-372-4304), the WHC Restoration Projects Section Manager (509-372-1443), or the WHC Waste Characterization Manager (509-372-1193).

  17. Chemiluminescence Study of the Autoxidation of cis-1,4-Polyisoprene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, G. David; Nathan, Richard A.; Golub, Morton A.

    1978-01-01

    The free-radical mechanism for the autoxidation of cis-1,4-polyisoprene (natural rubber or its synthetic counterpart) has been investigated extensively. An important feature of this mechanism, and indeed also of the autoxidation of hydrocarbons generally, is that it is a chain process propagated by alkyl and peroxy radicals and terminated through bimolecular reactions involving these same radicals. In the usual oxidation situation, that is, at all oxygen pressures greater than a few torr, the alkyl radicals are rapidly converted to peroxy radicals, and the termination step proceeds almost exclusively through the latter radicals. The bimolecular decay of the peroxy radicals is accompanied by a weak emission of light or chemiluminescence. Kinetic evidence is consistent with an electronically excited ketone produced in the termination reaction as the source of the emission. The first observation of chemiluminescence from the oxidative degradation of polymers was reported by Ashby, who dealt mainly with polypropylene but made passing mention of several other polymers. Subsequently, a number of papers have appeared dealing with oxidative chemiluminescence from a variety of polymers. In this paper we report the first detailed study of the chemiluminescence emitted in the autoxidation of cis-1,4-polyisoprene. The chemiluminescence technique is extremely sensitive and can follow rates of oxidation that are too slow to be measured conveniently by other means. This work thus offered the potential of throwing new light on the autoxidation of cis-1,4-polyisoprene, especially in the very early stages or under ambient conditions where conventional spectroscopic procedures are rather insensitive.

  18. Activated Persulfate Treatment of 1,4-Dioxane in the Presence of Chlorinated Solvent Co-contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boving, T. T.; Eberle, D. E. H.; Ball, R.

    2014-12-01

    1,4-dioxane is an emerging groundwater contaminant and a likely human carcinogen. Due to its history as a stabilizer in chlorinated solvents, 1,4-dioxane is often found as a co-contaminant at solvent releases sites such as landfills, solvent recycling facilities, vapor decreasing operations, and fire-training areas. Historically, 1,4-dioxane was not routinely analyzed for at solvent release sites. The lack of analyses and the limitations of the analyses that were performed (i.e. high reporting limits) means that the scale of 1,4-dioxane subsurface contamination is still emerging. With the number of known 1,4-dioxane sites increasing, the need for cost effective 1,4-dioxane remediation technologies is rising as well. Remediation strategies that are capable of treating both 1,4-dioxane as well as chlorinated co-contaminants are of particular importance, especially when treating mixed-waste source zones. In the present study, we examined the fate of 1,4-dioxane during the targeted remediation of aqueous phase volatile organic compounds (VOC) using an activated persulfate based ISCO method (OxyZone®). Bench scale laboratory experiments are used to evaluate the treatability of 1,4-dioxane both as a single compound and in the presence of trichloroethene (TCE) and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA). Possible dependencies on oxidant concentration and reaction kinetics were studied. Preliminary results are promising and show that OxyZone® is persistent and long lived, with oxidation of 1,4-dioxane continuing more than 12 days after initial dosage, even at dilute oxidant concentrations. The oxidative destruction of 1,4-dioxane, TCE and 1,1,1-TCA in single compound batch systems followed pseudo first order reaction kinetics. The rate of oxidation for each contaminant increased linearly with increasing persulfate concentration over the range of oxidant concentrations tested. The rate of oxidative destruction, from most easily degraded to least was: TCE > 1,4-Dioxane > 1

  19. The Finer Details: Climate Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    If you want to know whether you will need sunscreen or an umbrella for tomorrow's picnic, you can simply read the local weather report. However, if you are calculating the impact of gas combustion on global temperatures, or anticipating next year's rainfall levels to set water conservation policy, you must conduct a more comprehensive investigation. Such complex matters require long-range modeling techniques that predict broad trends in climate development rather than day-to-day details. Climate models are built from equations that calculate the progression of weather-related conditions over time. Based on the laws of physics, climate model equations have been developed to predict a number of environmental factors, for example: 1. Amount of solar radiation that hits the Earth. 2. Varying proportions of gases that make up the air. 3. Temperature at the Earth's surface. 4. Circulation of ocean and wind currents. 5. Development of cloud cover. Numerical modeling of the climate can improve our understanding of both the past and, the future. A model can confirm the accuracy of environmental measurements taken. in, the past and can even fill in gaps in those records. In addition, by quantifying the relationship between different aspects of climate, scientists can estimate how a future change in one aspect may alter the rest of the world. For example, could an increase in the temperature of the Pacific Ocean somehow set off a drought on the other side of the world? A computer simulation could lead to an answer for this and other questions. Quantifying the chaotic, nonlinear activities that shape our climate is no easy matter. You cannot run these simulations on your desktop computer and expect results by the time you have finished checking your morning e-mail. Efficient and accurate climate modeling requires powerful computers that can process billions of mathematical calculations in a single second. The NCCS exists to provide this degree of vast computing capability.

  20. ADAMS/WT advanced development - version 1.4 and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, A.S.; Depauw, T.R.

    1996-12-31

    ADAMS/WT is an wind-turbine-specific shell for the general-purpose mechanical system simulation package ADAMS5. It was developed under the guidance of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to give engineers and analysts in the wind turbine community access to the analytical power of ADAMS, without having to become expert in its particular technology. The 1.4 version of ADAMS/WT is the most recent upgrade to the package, incorporating the most up-to-date version of the AeroDyn aerodynamic forcing subroutines from the University of Utah. It is also the first version to be made available on the Windows/NT platform. In version 1.4, ADAMS/WT has been significantly improved throughout and runs much faster. Automatic generation of standardized output has been added. The documentation has been extensively augmented with more detailed descriptions, more figures and more examples. ADAMS/WT remains the most powerful analytical tool available for horizontal-axis wind turbine development. 10 figs.

  1. 1,4-benzothiazines as key intermediates in the biosynthesis of red hair pigment pheomelanins.

    PubMed

    Di Donato, Paola; Napolitano, Alessandra

    2003-10-01

    Following the discovery of cysteinyldopas as the early intermediates in the biogenesis of pheomelanins, the typical red hair pigments, the reactivity of the biosynthetic precursors under biomimetic conditions was extensively investigated. As a result, the early stages of pheomelanogenesis were envisaged as involving oxidative cyclization of cysteinyldopas, mainly the 5-S-isomer, to 1,4-benzothiazine (BTZ) intermediates which undergo oxidative polymerization leading eventually to the pigments. In the last decade, several aspects of the chemistry and biosynthesis of pheomelanins were re-examined. In particular, (i) transient BTZ intermediates were identified by pulse radiolytic techniques and NMR analysis; (ii) the effect of reaction conditions and additives on the rearrangement vs. redox exchange reaction paths of such intermediates were investigated in detail; (iii) the mechanism of the oxidative polymerization of BTZs was characterized by the first isolation of oligomer species, and (iv) the pigment eventually resulting from oxidation of 5-S-cysteinyldopa (CD) was directly analyzed by spectroscopic and chemical methodologies in comparison with pheomelanins isolated from human hair. These advances led eventually to an integrated picture of the biogenetic route highlighting the intervention of various chemical and enzymatic factors which affect the kinetics of the different steps and the nature of the key benzothiazine precursors. A likely biogenetic route was also postulated for the delta2,2'-bi(2H-1,4-benzothiazine) pigments, termed trichochromes, whose origin had remained an open issue since their first isolation from red human hair and avian feathers. Finally, a more detailed description of the structure of pheomelanin pigments in terms of the monomer units, their mode of linking, and postsynthetic modifications was gained.

  2. A new debate for Turkish physicians: e-detailing.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Keti; Baybars, Miray; Dedeoglu, Ayla Ozhan

    2012-01-01

    The study presents an empirical analysis of the attitudes of Turkish physicians towards e-detailing practices compared to face-to-face detailing. The findings reveal that although physicians have positive attitudes toward e-detailing, on some points they are still undecided and/or have doubts. The structural model revealed that affect, convenience, and informative content influence their attitude in a positive manner, whereas the personal interaction was found to be a negative factor. Physicians' age and frequency of calls received from representatives are moderators. The present study can be seen as an addition to pharmaceutical marketing, an underresearched study field in Turkey, and e-detailing particularly.

  3. Experimental and computational thermochemistry of 1,4-benzodioxan and its 6-R derivatives.

    PubMed

    Matos, M Agostinha R; Sousa, Clara C S; Morais, Victor M F

    2008-08-28

    The derivatives of 1,4-benzodioxan are found widely spread in nature and have great biomedical importance. The present work reports an experimental and computational study on the thermochemistry of 1,4-benzodioxan and several of its 6-R derivatives in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K. Our current results were obtained from measurements of combustion energies, at T = 298.15 K, using a static bomb calorimeter. The standard molar enthalpies of vaporization/sublimation were measured by Calvet microcalorimetry and corrected to T = 298.15 K. Additionally, estimates were performed of the enthalpies of formation of all the studied compounds in the gas phase, using DFT and other more accurate correlated calculations, together with appropriate isodesmic or homodesmic reactions. There is a reasonable agreement between computational and experimental results.

  4. Theme Comprehension: Beyond the Details

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Even though theme is cited in two of the 10 Common Core Standards for Reading Literature, little is written on how to teach it. Determining theme while reading a story is a critical element of reading literature, yet some children simply struggle. The instructional strategies presented here are designed to hone students' theme awareness and…

  5. Implementation details of the coupled QMR algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Roland W.; Nachtigal, Noel M.

    1992-01-01

    The original quasi-minimal residual method (QMR) relies on the three-term look-ahead Lanczos process, to generate basis vectors for the underlying Krylov subspaces. However, empirical observations indicate that, in finite precision arithmetic, three-term vector recurrences are less robust than mathematically equivalent coupled two-term recurrences. Therefore, we recently proposed a new implementation of the QMR method based on a coupled two-term look-ahead Lanczos procedure. In this paper, we describe implementation details of this coupled QMR algorithm, and we present results of numerical experiments.

  6. A detailed phylogeny for the Methanomicrobiales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouviere, P.; Mandelco, L.; Winker, S.; Woese, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    The small subunit rRNA sequence of twenty archaea, members of the Methanomicrobiales, permits a detailed phylogenetic tree to be inferred for the group. The tree confirms earlier studies, based on far fewer sequences, in showing the group to be divided into two major clusters, temporarily designated the "methanosarcina" group and the "methanogenium" group. The tree also defines phylogenetic relationships within these two groups, which in some cases do not agree with the phylogenetic relationships implied by current taxonomic names--a problem most acute for the genus Methanogenium and its relatives. The present phylogenetic characterization provides the basis for a consistent taxonomic restructuring of this major methanogenic taxon.

  7. Delivery presentations

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000621.htm Delivery presentations To use the sharing features on this page, ... baby by cesarean birth (C-section) . Less Common Presentations With the brow-first position, the baby's head ...

  8. Synaptotagmin I delays the fast inactivation of Kv1.4 channel through interaction with its N-terminus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.4 is an important A-type potassium channel and modulates the excitability of neurons in central nervous system. Analysis of the interaction between Kv1.4 and its interacting proteins is helpful to elucidate the function and mechanism of the channel. Results In the present research, synaptotagmin I was for the first time demonstrated to be an interacting protein of Kv1.4 and its interaction with Kv1.4 channel did not require the mediation of other synaptic proteins. Using patch-clamp technique, synaptotagmin I was found to delay the inactivation of Kv1.4 in HEK293T cells in a Ca2+-dependent manner, and this interaction was proven to have specificity. Mutagenesis experiments indicated that synaptotagmin I interacted with the N-terminus of Kv1.4 and thus delayed its N-type fast inactivation. Conclusion These data suggest that synaptotagmin I is an interacting protein of Kv1.4 channel and, as a negative modulator, may play an important role in regulating neuronal excitability and synaptic efficacy. PMID:24423395

  9. Linking conformational flexibility and kinetics: catalytic 1,4-type Friedel-Crafts reactions of phenols utilizing 1,3-diamine-tethered guanidine/bisthiourea organocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Sohtome, Yoshihiro; Shin, Bongki; Horitsugi, Natsuko; Noguchi, Keiichi; Nagasawa, Kazuo

    2011-09-05

    Herein, we present details of our conformationally flexible, 1,3-diamine-tethered guanidine/bisthiourea organocatalysts for chemo-, regio-, and enantioselective 1,4-type Friedel-Crafts reactions of phenols. These organocatalysts show a unique stereo-discrimination governed by the differential activation entropy (ΔΔS(≠)), rather than by the differential activation enthalpy (ΔΔH(≠)). Extensive kinetic analyses using Eyring plots for a series of guanidine/bisthiourea organocatalysts revealed the key structural motif in the catalysts associated with a large magnitude of differential activation entropy (ΔΔS(≠)). A plausible guanidine-thiourea cooperative mechanism for the enantioselective Friedel-Crafts reaction is proposed.

  10. Diagnostic Performance Tests For Elementary Children (Grades 1-4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Donald H.; Garcia, Mary Jane

    1982-01-01

    The basic skills of running, jumping, throwing, and ball handling are of primary importance in physical education programs. A battery of four tests and a chart of average performances are presented for testing elementary students. (CJ)

  11. A Case for Detailed Surface Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Frederick; Doswell, Charles A., III

    1995-04-01

    Detailed analysis of the temperature and moisture fields based on routine hourly surface observations in North America can provide a rational basis for surface feature analysis, thus clarifying the present confusion. Recognition of surface features is an important part of weather forecasting and is especially needed in a careful diagnosis for the prospects of deep convection.Surface temperature gradients are advocated as the primary basis for identifying fronts; examples are given of gross discrepancies in current operational practice between the surface temperature fields and the associated frontal analyses. Surface potential temperature, selected as a means of compensating for elevation differences, is analyzed in the western United States for a period in which a strong, damaging cold front develops and dissipates over a period of less than 24 h. Frontogenesis-related calculations, based on detailed surface temperature analyses, help to explain a case of focusing of heavy precipitation in northern Kentucky that produced a flash flood.Conditions for the initiation of intense convection are illustrated by detailed analyses of the surface moisture and temperature fields. These are used to estimate the buoyancy of surface air lifted to midtroposphere and show the relationship of this buoyancy to ensuing convection. The analyses aid in recognition of the surface dryline (a feature commonly misanalyzed as a cold front) and those convectively produced pools of cold air at the surface that often play a major role in the subsequent redevelopment of convection.The proposed analyses might be difficult to achieve manually in operational practice during busy weather situations, but this could be facilitated by using objective methods with present and prospective workstations. Once surface features are identified, their temporal and spatial evolution must be followed carefully since they can change rapidly.

  12. Atypical 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives, an approach to neuroprotection and memory enhancement.

    PubMed

    Klusa, Vija

    2016-11-01

    This mini review is devoted to the design and pharmacological studies of novel atypical 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) derivatives which differ to a great extent from the traditional DHPs either by lack of neuronal calcium channel blocking activity and/or inability to protect mitochondrial processes. About 100 new DHP derivatives were screened and the mostly active were selected for detailed studies. The compounds of the series of the amino acid ("free" plus "crypto")-containing DHPs and lipophilic di-cyclic DHPs demonstrated long-lasting neuroprotective and/or memory-enhancing action, particularly at low doses (0.005-0.05mg/kg) in different neurodeficiency rat or mice models, and exerted neurotransmitter-modulating effects. The studies have shown an ability of these atypical DHPs to normalize the expression of neuronal proteins, which participate in the regulation of neurotransmission (particularly of the GABAergic system) and synaptic plasticity that has been impaired in animal models, including Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice. The obtained results indicate that the tested DHP compounds can be considered as candidate molecules either for their further chemical modifications or for the more detailed studies to identify cell targets essential for neuroprotection and memory enhancing.

  13. Biodegradation kinetics of 1,4-benzoquinone in batch and continuous systems.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pardeep; Nemati, Mehdi; Hill, Gordon A

    2011-11-01

    Combining chemical and biological treatments is a potentially economic approach to remove high concentration of recalcitrant compounds from wastewaters. In the present study, the biodegradation of 1,4-benzoquinone, an intermediate compound formed during phenol oxidation by chlorine dioxide, was investigated using Pseudomonas putida (ATCC 17484) in batch and continuous bioreactors. Batch experiments were conducted to determine the effects of 1,4-benzoquinone concentration and temperature on the microbial activity and biodegradation kinetics. Using the generated data, the maximum specific growth rate and biodegradation rate were determined as 0.94 h(-1) and 6.71 mg of 1,4-benzoquinone l(-1) h(-1). Biodegradation in a continuous bioreactor indicated a linear relationship between substrate loading and biodegradation rates prior to wash out of the cells, with a maximum biodegradation rate of 246 mg l(-1) h(-1) observed at a loading rate of 275 mg l(-1) h(-1) (residence time: 1.82 h). Biokinetic parameters were also determined using the steady state substrate and biomass concentrations at various dilution rates and compared to those obtained in batch cultures.

  14. 75 FR 34045 - Sodium 1,4-Dialkyl Sulfosuccinates; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Sodium 1,4-Dialkyl Sulfosuccinates; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance... an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of sodium 1,4-dialkyl sulfosuccinates including sodium 1,4-dihexyl sulfosuccinate (CAS Reg. No. 3006-15-3); sodium 1,4-diisobutyl...

  15. HIGH-RESOLUTION VERY LARGE ARRAY IMAGING OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY STRIPE 82 AT 1.4 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, J. A.; Becker, R. H.; Zeimann, G. R.; White, R. L.; Richards, G. T.

    2011-07-15

    We present a high-resolution radio survey of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Southern Equatorial Stripe, a.k.a. Stripe 82. This 1.4 GHz survey was conducted with the Very Large Array primarily in the A-configuration, with supplemental B-configuration data to increase sensitivity to extended structure. The survey has an angular resolution of 1.''8 and achieves a median rms noise of 52 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} over 92 deg{sup 2}. This is the deepest 1.4 GHz survey to achieve this large of an area, filling a gap in the phase space between small, deep and large, shallow surveys. It also serves as a pilot project for a larger high-resolution survey with the Expanded Very Large Array. We discuss the technical design of the survey and details of the observations, and we outline our method for data reduction. We present a catalog of 17,969 isolated radio components, for an overall source density of {approx}195 sources deg{sup -2}. The astrometric accuracy of the data is excellent, with an internal check utilizing multiply observed sources yielding an rms scatter of 0.''19 in both right ascension and declination. A comparison to the SDSS DR7 Quasar Catalog further confirms that the astrometry is well tied to the optical reference frame, with mean offsets of 0.''02 {+-} 0.''01 in right ascension, and 0.''01 {+-} 0.''02 in declination. A check of our photometry reveals a small, negative CLEAN-like bias on the level of 35 {mu}Jy. We report on the catalog completeness, finding that 97% of FIRST-detected quasars are recovered in the new Stripe 82 radio catalog, while faint, extended sources are more likely to be resolved out by the resolution bias. We conclude with a discussion of the optical counterparts to the catalog sources, including 76 newly detected radio quasars. The full catalog as well as a search page and cutout server are available online at http://third.ucllnl.org/cgi-bin/stripe82cutout.

  16. Phosphatidic acid stimulates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production in adult cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kurz, T; Wolf, R A; Corr, P B

    1993-03-01

    The cellular content of phosphatidic acid can increase in response to several agonists either by phosphorylation of diacylglycerol after phospholipase C-catalyzed hydrolysis of phospholipids or directly through activation of phospholipase D. Although previous findings indicated that the generation of phosphatidic acid was exclusively a means of regulation of the cellular concentration of diacylglycerol, more recent studies have indicated that phosphatidic acid may also directly regulate several cellular functions. Accordingly, the present study was performed to assess whether phosphatidic acid could stimulate cardiac phospholipase C in intact adult rabbit ventricular myocytes. The mass of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins (1,4,5)P3] was determined by a specific and sensitive binding protein assay and by direct mass measurement using anion exchange chromatography for separation of selected inositol phosphates and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for quantification of inositol monophosphate (IP1), inositol bisphosphate (IP2), inositol trisphosphate (IP3), and inositol tetrakisphosphate (IP4). Phosphatidic acid (10(-9)-10(-6) M) elicited a rapid concentration-dependent increase in Ins (1,4,5)P3 accumulation, with the peak fourfold to fivefold increase at 30 seconds of stimulation; the concentration required for 50% of maximal stimulation was 4.4 x 10(-8) M. The time course of individual inositol phosphates indicated a successive increase in the mass of IP3, IP4, IP2, and IP1 in response to stimulation with phosphatidic acid. The production of Ins (1,4,5)P3 in response to phosphatidic acid was not altered in the absence of extracellular calcium or in the presence of extracellular EGTA (10(-3) M). Thus, these findings indicate that phosphatidic acid is a potent activator of inositol phosphate production in adult ventricular myocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Cornice Detail of Rake, Cornice Detail of Eave, Wood DoubleHung ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cornice Detail of Rake, Cornice Detail of Eave, Wood Double-Hung Window Details, Wood Door Details - Boxley Grist Mill, Boxley vicinity on State Route 43, Buffalo National River, Ponca, Newton County, AR

  18. Luminescent sensor for carbonate ion based on lanthanide(III) complexes of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (DO3A).

    PubMed

    Vaněk, Jakub; Lubal, Přemysl; Hermann, Petr; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Lanthanide(III) complexes of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (H(3)DO3A) are suggested as sensors for sensitive luminescence-based determination of a carbonate anion. Thermodynamic study of association of [Eu(H(2)O)(2)(DO3A)] with bidentate anionic ligands using luminescence spectroscopy reveals an affinity order CO(3)(2-) > oxalate(2-) > picolinate(-) > phthalate(2-) ≈ citrate(3-); presumably as a consequence of an increasing chelate ring size. The ternary [Eu(DO3A)(picolinate)](-) and [Tb(DO3A)(picolinate)](-) complexes show improved photophysical properties due to the antenna effect of the picolinate anion. High quenching effect of carbonate anion and, to a lesser extent also oxalate, enables construction of a linear calibration plot utilizing optimized experimental conditions (e.g. c(LnL) = 0.1 mM, c(picolinate) = 2-5 mM, pH = 7.4, λ(exc) = 286 nm, etc.) for carbonate determination in solution. Both sensors show a comparable sensitivity and the detection limit of about 0.4 mM. In order to improve the photophysical properties of Ln(III) sensor by shift of excitation wavelength about 40 nm to VIS range, the isoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (IQCA) as antenna ligand was employed instead of picolinic acid. The analysis of commercial samples of European mineral waters was carried out and they were compared to the results obtained by capillary isotachophoresis to confirm there is no inherent (systematic) error to the present analysis. The Ln(III) sensor with IQCA is recommended since it has a better robustness than that with picolinate. The present analytical method is simple and rapid, and it is useful for sensitive determination of bicarbonate/carbonate concentration in water samples under aerobic conditions.

  19. Recovering and preventing loss of detailed memory: differential rates of forgetting for detail types in episodic memory

    PubMed Central

    Bonasia, Kyra; St-Laurent, Marie; Pishdadian, Sara; Winocur, Gordon; Grady, Cheryl; Moscovitch, Morris

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memories undergo qualitative changes with time, but little is known about how different aspects of memory are affected. Different types of information in a memory, such as perceptual detail, and central themes, may be lost at different rates. In patients with medial temporal lobe damage, memory for perceptual details is severely impaired, while memory for central details is relatively spared. Given the sensitivity of memory to loss of details, the present study sought to investigate factors that mediate the forgetting of different types of information from naturalistic episodic memories in young healthy adults. The study investigated (1) time-dependent loss of “central” and “peripheral” details from episodic memories, (2) the effectiveness of cuing with reminders to reinstate memory details, and (3) the role of retrieval in preventing forgetting. Over the course of 7 d, memory for naturalistic events (film clips) underwent a time-dependent loss of peripheral details, while memory for central details (the core or gist of events) showed significantly less loss. Giving brief reminders of the clips just before retrieval reinstated memory for peripheral details, suggesting that loss of details is not always permanent, and may reflect both a storage and retrieval deficit. Furthermore, retrieving a memory shortly after it was encoded prevented loss of both central and peripheral details, thereby promoting retention over time. We consider the implications of these results for behavioral and neurobiological models of retention and forgetting. PMID:26773100

  20. TESL Reporter, Vol. 3, Nos. 1-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pack, Alice C., Ed.

    Four issues of "TESL Reporter" are presented. Contents include the following articles: "Feedback: An Anti-Madeirization Compound" by Henry M. Schaafsma; "Using the Personal Pronoun 'I' as a Compound Subject" by G. Pang and D. Chu; "The Consonant'L' in Initial and Final Positions" by Maybelle Chong; "Sentence Expansion for the Elementary Level" by…

  1. TESL Reporter, Vol. 1, Nos. 1-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pack, Alice C., Ed.

    Four issues of "TESL Reporter" are presented. Contents include the following articles: ''An Approach to the [I] [i] Contrast" by William D. Conway; "Native Language Environment Is Source of Confusion" by Alice Pack; "The Origin of Language: A Puzzle With Missing Pieces"; "Terminal Behavior and Language…

  2. A detailed gravimetric geoid from North America to Eurasia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, S. F.; Strange, W. E.; Marsh, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of the United States, North Atlantic, and Eurasia, which was computed from a combination of satellite derived and surface gravity data, is presented. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 to + or - 3 m in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 m in those areas where data is sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rapp, Fischer, and Rice for the United States, Bomford in Europe, and Heiskanen and Fischer in India are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, and Europe.

  3. Analysis of the rotational structure in the high-resolution infrared spectra of cis,cis- and trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-1-d1 and trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-1,4-d2

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Norman C.; Chen, Yihui; Lu, Yuhua; Neese, Christopher F.; Nemchick, Deacon J.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2013-06-01

    Samples of cis,cis- and trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-1- d1 and of trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-1,4-d2 have been synthesized, and high-resolution (≤0.0018 cm-1) infrared spectra of these substances have been recorded in the gas phase. Analysis of the rotational structure, mostly in C-type bands, has yielded ground state rotational constants. For the two 1-d1 species more than one band has been analyzed. For the 1,4-d2 species only one band was available for analysis. However, good agreement between the experimental centrifugal distortion constants and those predicted with a B3LYP/cc-pVTZ model give strong support to the analysis of the very dense spectrum. The ground state rotational constants are a contribution to finding semiexperimental equilibrium structures of the two nonpolar isomers of 1,4- difluorobutadiene.

  4. Information Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kritina; Sandor, A.; Thompson, S. G.; McCann, R. S.; Kaiser, M. K.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Stone, L. S.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew on flight vehicles, surface landers and habitats, and during extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Designers of displays and controls for exploration missions must be prepared to select the text formats, label styles, alarms, electronic procedure designs, and cursor control devices that provide for optimal crew performance on exploration tasks. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within the Information Presentation DRP are: 1) Controls, 2) Displays, 3) Procedures, and 4) EVA Operations.

  5. Information Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kritina L.; Thompson, Shelby G.; Sandor, Aniko; McCann, Robert S.; Kaiser, Mary K.; Adelstein, Barnard D.; Begault, Durand R.; Beutter, Brent R.; Stone, Leland S.; Godfroy, Martine

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. In addition to addressing display design issues associated with information formatting, style, layout, and interaction, the Information Presentation DRP is also working toward understanding the effects of extreme environments encountered in space travel on information processing. Work is also in progress to refine human factors-based design tools, such as human performance modeling, that will supplement traditional design techniques and help ensure that optimal information design is accomplished in the most cost-efficient manner. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within the Information Presentation DRP for FY10 are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. The poster will highlight completed and planned work for each subtask.

  6. Conservation Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

  7. Information Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, K.L.; Boyer, J.L.; Sandor, A.; Thompson, S.G.; McCann, R.S.; Begault, D.R.; Adelstein, B.D.; Beutter, B.R.; Stone, L.S.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers at Johnson Space Center and Ames Research Center.

  8. Electronic properties of hydrogen-bonded complexes of benzene(HCN)(1-4): comparison with benzene(H2O)(1-4).

    PubMed

    Mateus, M P S; Galamba, N; Cabral, B J Costa

    2011-11-24

    The electronic properties, specifically, the dipole and quadrupole moments and the ionization energies of benzene (Bz) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and the respective binding energies, of complexes of Bz(HCN)(1-4), have been studied through MP2 and OVGF calculations. The results are compared with the properties of benzene-water complexes, Bz(H(2)O)(1-4), with the purpose of analyzing the electronic properties of microsolvated benzene, with respect to the strength of the CH/π and OH/π hydrogen-bond (H-bond) interactions. The linear HCN chains have the singular ability to interact with the aromatic ring, preserving the symmetry of the latter. A blue shift of the first vertical ionization energies (IEs) of benzene is observed for the linear Bz(HCN)(1-4) clusters, which increases with the length of the chain. NBO analysis indicates that the increase of the IE with the number of HCN molecules is related to a strengthening of the CH/π H-bond, driven by cooperative effects, increasing the acidity of the hydrogen cyanide H atom involved in the π H-bond. The longer HCN chains (n ≥ 3), however, can bend to form CH/N H-bonds with the Bz H atoms. These cyclic structures are found to be slightly more stable than their linear counterparts. For the nonlinear Bz(HCN)(3-4) and Bz(H(2)O)(2-4) complexes, an increase of the binding energy with the number of solvent molecules and a decrease of the IE of benzene, relative to the values for the Bz(HCN) and Bz(H(2)O) complexes, respectively, are observed. Although a strengthening of the CH/π and OH/π H-bonds, with increasing n, also takes place for the Bz(H(2)O)(2-4) and Bz(HCN)(3-4) nonlinear complexes, Bz proton donor, CH/O, and CH/N interactions are at the origin of this decrease. Thus CH/π and OH/π H-bonds lead to higher IEs of Bz, whereas the weaker CH/N and CH/O H-bond interactions have the opposite effect. The present results emphasize the importance of both aromatic XH/π (X = C, O) and CH/X (X = N, O) interactions for

  9. SERS investigations of 2,3-dibromo-1,4-naphthoquinone on silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Anuratha, M; Jawahar, A; Umadevi, M; Sathe, V G; Vanelle, P; Terme, T; Meenakumari, V; Milton Franklin Benial, A

    2013-03-15

    In the present study silver nanoparticles were synthesized using a solution combustion method with glycine as fuel. The prepared silver nanoparticles show an fcc crystalline structure with a particle size of 39 nm. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of 2,3-dibromo-1,4-naphthoquinone (DBNQ) adsorbed on silver nanoparticles were investigated. The C-C stretching modes were enhanced and they were broaden in SERS spectrum with respect to normal Raman spectrum. The spectral analysis reveals that the DBNQ adsorbed flat-on orientation on the silver surface. DFT calculations are also performed to study the vibrational features of DBNQ.

  10. MELCOR modeling of the PBF (Power Burst Facility) Severe Fuel Damage Test 1-4

    SciTech Connect

    Madni, I.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a MELCOR Version 1.8 simulation of the Power Burst Facility (PBF) Severe Fuel Damage (SFD) Test 1--4. The input data for the analysis were obtained from the Test Results Report and from SCDAP/RELAP5 input. Results are presented for the transient liquid level in the test bundle, clad temperatures, shroud temperatures, clad oxidation and hydrogen generation, bundle geometry changes, fission product release, and heat transfer to the bypass flow. Comparisons are made with experimental data and with SCDAP/RELAP5 calculations. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Hydrazine Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meagher, Nancy E.; Bates, Kami R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this research project is to develop and validate a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for gas-phase hydrazine decomposition. Hydrazine is used extensively in aerospace propulsion, and although liquid hydrazine is not considered detonable, many fuel handling systems create multiphase mixtures of fuels and fuel vapors during their operation. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of the decomposition chemistry of hydrazine under a variety of conditions can be of value in assessing potential operational hazards in hydrazine fuel systems. To gain such knowledge, a reasonable starting point is the development and validation of a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for gas-phase hydrazine decomposition. A reasonably complete mechanism was published in 1996, however, many of the elementary steps included had outdated rate expressions and a thorough investigation of the behavior of the mechanism under a variety of conditions was not presented. The current work has included substantial revision of the previously published mechanism, along with a more extensive examination of the decomposition behavior of hydrazine. An attempt to validate the mechanism against the limited experimental data available has been made and was moderately successful. Further computational and experimental research into the chemistry of this fuel needs to be completed.

  12. Characterizing the intrinsic bioremediation potential of 1,4-dioxane and trichloroethene using innovative environmental diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Sheau-Yun Dora; Mora, Rebecca; Diguiseppi, William H; Davis, Greg; Sublette, Kerry; Gedalanga, Phillip; Mahendra, Shaily

    2012-09-01

    An intrinsic biodegradation study involving the design and implementation of innovative environmental diagnostic tools was conducted to evaluate whether monitored natural attenuation (MNA) could be considered as part of the remedial strategy to treat an aerobic aquifer contaminated with 1,4-dioxane and trichloroethene (TCE). In this study, advanced molecular biological and stable isotopic tools were applied to confirm in situ intrinsic biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane and TCE. Analyses of Bio-Trap® samplers and groundwater samples collected from monitoring wells verified the abundance of bacteria and enzymes capable of aerobically degrading TCE and 1,4-dioxane. Furthermore, phospholipid fatty acid analysis with stable isotope probes (PLFA-SIP) of the microbial community validated the ability for microbial degradation of TCE and 1,4-dioxane. Compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of groundwater samples for TCE resulted in δ(13)C values that indicated likely biodegradation of TCE in three of the four monitoring wells sampled. Results of the MNA evaluation showed that enzymes capable of aerobically degrading TCE and 1,4-dioxane were present, abundant, and active in the aquifer. Taken together, these results provide direct evidence of the occurrence of TCE and 1,4-dioxane biodegradation at the study site, supporting the selection of MNA as part of the final remedy at some point in the future.

  13. Presentation Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Lorna; And Others

    This guide is intended for use in an eight-session course designed to develop the presentation skills required of persons employed in the manufacturing and service industries. The course is structured so that, upon its completion, students will be able to accomplish the following: identify the traits of good and bad speakers; research and organize…

  14. cAMP generation inhibits inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate binding in rabbit tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Schramm, C M; Chuang, S T; Grunstein, M M

    1995-11-01

    Agonist-induced airway contraction involves the generation and subsequent binding of the phosphoinositide-derived second messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3], to its Ca(2+)-mobilizing intracellular receptor. To the extent that regulatory cross-talk is known to exist between different signal transduction pathways, the present study examined whether activation of the adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway induces altered binding of Ins(1,4,5)P3 to its receptor in membrane homogenates of rabbit tracheal smooth muscle (TSM). In control TSM, monophasic binding curves provided mean +/- SE values for Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor density (Bmax) and binding affinity (Kd) amounting to 940 +/- 43 fmol/mg protein and 10.7 +/- 1.2 nM, respectively. Relative to control, binding of [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 was significantly reduced in paired TSM separately treated with isoproterenol, forskolin, or dibutyryl-cAMP. Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding was inhibited to a level averaging 60% of control binding by maximal concentrations of each agonist, an effect attributed to a reduction in Ins(1,4,5)P3 binding sites rather than altered ligand affinity. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that activation of the cAMP-dependent signaling pathway is associated with inhibition of Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor binding and implicate a novel mechanism of action of beta-adrenergic agents in preventing and/or reversing airway contraction.

  15. Molecular cloning of pigeon UDP-galactose:beta-D-galactoside alpha1,4-galactosyltransferase and UDP-galactose:beta-D-galactoside beta1,4-galactosyltransferase, two novel enzymes catalyzing the formation of Gal alpha1-4Gal beta1-4Gal beta1-4GlcNAc sequence.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Noriko; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2010-02-19

    We previously found that pigeon IgG possesses unique N-glycan structures that contain the Gal alpha1-4Gal beta1-4Gal beta1-4GlcNAc sequence at their nonreducing termini. This sequence is most likely produced by putative alpha1,4- and beta1,4-galactosyltransferases (GalTs), which are responsible for the biosynthesis of the Gal alpha1-4Gal and Gal beta1-4Gal sequences on the N-glycans, respectively. Because no such glycan structures have been found in mammalian glycoproteins, the biosynthetic enzymes that produce these glycans are likely to have distinct substrate specificities from the known mammalian GalTs. To study these enzymes, we cloned the pigeon liver cDNAs encoding alpha4GalT and beta4GalT by expression cloning and characterized these enzymes using the recombinant proteins. The deduced amino acid sequence of pigeon alpha4GalT has 58.2% identity to human alpha4GalT and 68.0 and 66.6% identity to putative alpha4GalTs from chicken and zebra finch, respectively. Unlike human and putative chicken alpha4GalTs, which possess globotriosylceramide synthase activity, pigeon alpha4GalT preferred to catalyze formation of the Gal alpha1-4Gal sequence on glycoproteins. In contrast, the sequence of pigeon beta4GalT revealed a type II transmembrane protein consisting of 438 amino acid residues, with no significant homology to the glycosyltransferases so far identified from mammals and chicken. However, hypothetical proteins from zebra finch (78.8% identity), frogs (58.9-60.4%), zebrafish (37.1-43.0%), and spotted green pufferfish (43.3%) were similar to pigeon beta4GalT, suggesting that the pigeon beta4GalT gene was inherited from the common ancestors of these vertebrates. The sequence analysis revealed that pigeon beta4GalT and its homologs form a new family of glycosyltransferases.

  16. A new calmodulin-binding motif for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase regulation.

    PubMed

    Franco-Echevarría, Elsa; Baños-Sanz, Jose I; Monterroso, Begoña; Round, Adam; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; González, Beatriz

    2014-11-01

    IP3-3K [Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase] is a key enzyme that catalyses the synthesis of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, using Ins(1,4,5)P3 and ATP as substrates. Both inositides, substrate and product, present crucial roles in the cell. Ins(1,4,5)P3 is a key point in Ca2+ metabolism that promotes Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and together with Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 regulates Ca2+ homoeostasis. In addition, Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 is involved in immune cell development. It has been proved that Ca2+/CaM (calmodulin) regulates the activity of IP3-3K, via direct interaction between both enzymes. Although we have extensive structural knowledge of the kinase domains of the three IP3-3K isoforms, no structural information is available about the interaction between IP3-3K and Ca2+/CaM. In the present paper we describe the crystal structure of the complex between human Ca2+/CaM and the CaM-binding region of human IP3-3K isoform A (residues 158-183) and propose a model for a complex including the kinase domain. The structure obtained allowed us to identify all of the key residues involved in the interaction, which have been evaluated by site-directed mutagenesis, pull-down and fluorescence anisotropy experiments. The results allowed the identification of a new CaM-binding motif, expanding our knowledge about how CaM interacts with its partners.

  17. Detailed mechanism for oxidation of benzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, David A.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed mechanism for the oxidation of benzene is presented and used to compute experimentally obtained concentration profiles and ignition delay times over a wide range of equivalence ratio and temperature. The computed results agree qualitatively with all the experimental trends. Quantitative agreement is obtained with several of the composition profiles and for the temperature dependence of the ignition delay times. There are indications, however, that some important reactions are as yet undiscovered in this mechanism. Recent literature expressions have been used for the rate coefficients of most important reactions, except for some involving phenol. The discrepancy between the phenol pyrolysis rate coefficient used in this work and a recent literature expression remains to be explained.

  18. Picornavirus uncoating intermediate captured in atomic detail

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jingshan; Wang, Xiangxi; Hu, Zhongyu; Gao, Qiang; Sun, Yao; Li, Xuemei; Porta, Claudine; Walter, Thomas S.; Gilbert, Robert J.; Zhao, Yuguang; Axford, Danny; Williams, Mark; McAuley, Katherine; Rowlands, David J.; Yin, Weidong; Wang, Junzhi; Stuart, David I.; Rao, Zihe; Fry, Elizabeth E.

    2013-01-01

    It remains largely mysterious how the genomes of non-enveloped eukaryotic viruses are transferred across a membrane into the host cell. Picornaviruses are simple models for such viruses, and initiate this uncoating process through particle expansion, which reveals channels through which internal capsid proteins and the viral genome presumably exit the particle, although this has not been clearly seen until now. Here we present the atomic structure of an uncoating intermediate for the major human picornavirus pathogen CAV16, which reveals VP1 partly extruded from the capsid, poised to embed in the host membrane. Together with previous low-resolution results, we are able to propose a detailed hypothesis for the ordered egress of the internal proteins, using two distinct sets of channels through the capsid, and suggest a structural link to the condensed RNA within the particle, which may be involved in triggering RNA release. PMID:23728514

  19. The Clutterpalette: An Interactive Tool for Detailing Indoor Scenes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lap-Fai; Yeung, Sai-Kit; Terzopoulos, Demetri

    2016-02-01

    We introduce the Clutterpalette, an interactive tool for detailing indoor scenes with small-scale items. When the user points to a location in the scene, the Clutterpalette suggests detail items for that location. In order to present appropriate suggestions, the Clutterpalette is trained on a dataset of images of real-world scenes, annotated with support relations. Our experiments demonstrate that the adaptive suggestions presented by the Clutterpalette increase modeling speed and enhance the realism of indoor scenes.

  20. Overview Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, John

    2001-01-01

    This report provides an overview presentation of the 2000 NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) Review and Planning Meeting. Topics include: 1) a background of the program; 2) 1999 Industry Feedback; 3) FY00 Status, including resource distribution and major accomplishments; 4) FY01 Major Milestones; and 5) Future direction for the program. Specifically, simulation environment/production software and NPSS CORBA Security Development are discussed.

  1. 49 CFR 174.115 - Loading Division 1.4 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RAIL Class I (Explosive) Materials § 174.115 Loading Division 1.4 (explosive) materials. (a) Division 1... Pamphlet No. 6. (b) Division 1.4 (explosive) materials may not be transported in a truck body, trailer,...

  2. Detailed surface photometry of the cD galaxies NGC 4839 and NGC 4874

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Gamal B.; Shaban, Eman A.; Amin, Magdy Y.; Rassem, M. A.

    2014-08-01

    We present a detailed photometric study of the cD galaxies NGC 4839 and NGC 4874 based on the technique of surface photometry by fitting ellipses to the isophotes of the galaxies in the u, g, r, i, and z bands using Data Release 7 (DR7) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The motivation of this paper is to study the properties (e.g. break radius and surface brightness, color gradient, etc.) of the extended envelope of the two cD galaxies. The surface brightness profile in each band is obtained and fitted to the de Vaucouleurs r 1/4 model. A deviation of the observed profile brighter than the fitted r 1/4 model is noticed especially in the outer part of each galaxy. The profiles of ellipticity, position angle, B4 and shifts with respect to the center of each isophote are also obtained. The color index profiles, u-g, g-r, r-i, and i-z are also obtained and no significant color gradients are noticed except in the outer parts of the two galaxies. The integrated magnitude in each band and color indices are obtained and found to be in good agreement with the published ones.

  3. RECONSTRUCTION OF DOSE TO THE RESIDENTS OF OZERSK FROM THE OPERATION OF THE MAYAK PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION: 1948-2002: Progress Report on Project 1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Mokrov, Y.; Rovny, Sergey I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2009-10-23

    This Progress Report for Project 1.4 of the U.S.–Russia Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research continues in the abbreviated format of providing details only on the work accomplished during this six-month reporting period.

  4. A detailed X-ray variability study of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4051

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadakis, I. E.; Lawrence, A.

    1995-01-01

    We present a detailed and rigorous examination of the X-ray variability characteristics of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4051, using the 1985 EXOSAT observation and our improved power spectrum modelling techniques. The Medium Energy (ME) power spectrum is adequately fitted by a power-law model, but the Low Energy (LE) spectrum is not. We find an excellent fit by adding a broad quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) feature on a time-scale of ~1h, which contains 1/4 of the overall variance. A similar, but much weaker, feature may exist in the ME power spectrum as well. The LE power spectrum is also clearly steeper than the ME spectrum. There is no significant lag between the ME and LE data (at most 60 s), but the cross-correlation function is noticeably asymmetric. We confirm earlier claims of a correlation between softness and flux, and show that this is essentially caused by the presence of high peaks present in the LE but not in the ME light curve. We discuss various generic models for X-ray variability. In particular, several features (especially the softness effect and the cross-correlation asymmetry) are suggestive of thermal Comptonization models. We examined one of these models in detail, with parameters suggested by recent fits to the OSSE energy spectra of Seyfert galaxies. However, this model predicts that the ME spectrum should be much steeper, in contradiction with the observed facts.

  5. Studies on anabolic steroids. The mass spectra of 17 alpha-methyl-17 beta-hydroxy-1,4-androstadien-3-one (Dianabol) and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Dürbeck, H W; Büker, I

    1980-10-01

    The metabolism of 17 alpha-methyl-17 beta-hydroxy-1,4-androstadien-3-one (dianabol) in human adults has been studied in detail by computer aided capillary gas chromatography mass spectrometry. After oral administration to man six metabolites were determined in the free fraction of the urine samples, the structures of which have been identified as 17-epidianabol, three isomers of 6-hydroxydianabol, 17 alpha-methyl-17 beta-hydroxy-1,4,6-androstatrien-3-one (delta 6-dianabol) and 18-nor-17,17-dimethyl-1,4,13(14)-androstatrien-3-one, respectively. In agreement with previous observations no measurable amounts of the administered drug itself could be detected in any of the urine samples investigated. The mass spectra of all metabolites and the main fragmentation processes are discussed in detail.

  6. 49 CFR 173.64 - Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks. 173... § 173.64 Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks. (a) Notwithstanding the requirements of § 173.56(b), Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks (see § 173.65 for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks) may...

  7. 49 CFR 173.64 - Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks. 173... § 173.64 Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks. (a) Notwithstanding the requirements of § 173.56(b), Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks (see § 173.65 for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks) may...

  8. Experimental and theoretical charge-density analysis of 1,4-bis(5-hexyl-2-thienyl)butane-1,4-dione: applications of a virtual-atom model.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Maqsood; Nassour, Ayoub; Noureen, Sajida; Lecomte, Claude; Jelsch, Christian

    2016-02-01

    The experimental and theoretical charge densities of 1,4-bis(5-hexyl-2-thienyl)butane-1,4-dione, a precursor in the synthesis of thiophene-based semiconductors and organic solar cells, are presented. A dummy bond charges spherical atom model is applied besides the multipolar atom model. The results show that the dummy bond charges model is accurate enough to calculate electrostatic-derived properties which are comparable with those obtained by the multipolar atom model. The refinement statistics and the residual electron density values are found to be intermediate between the independent atom and the multipolar formalisms.

  9. How emotion affects older adults' memories for event details.

    PubMed

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2009-02-01

    As adults age, they tend to have problems remembering the details of events and the contexts in which events occurred. This review presents evidence that emotion can enhance older adults' abilities to remember episodic detail. Older adults are more likely to remember affective details of an event (e.g., whether something was good or bad, or how an event made them feel) than they are to remember non-affective details, and they remember more details of emotional events than of non-emotional ones. Moreover, in some instances, emotion appears to narrow the age gap in memory performance. It may be that memory for affective context, or for emotional events, relies on cognitive and neural processes that are relatively preserved in older adults.

  10. Relaxation processes and glass transition in confined 1,4-polybutadiene films: A Molecular Dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Wolfgang; Solar, Mathieu

    We will present results from Molecular Dynamics simulations of a chemically realistic model of 1,4-polybutadiene (PB) chains confined by graphite walls. Relaxation processes in this system are heterogeneous and anisotropic. We will present evidence for a slow additional relaxation process related to chain desorption from the walls. We also study the structural relaxation resolved with respect to the distance from the graphite walls and show the influence of structural changes on the relaxation behavior. The temperature dependence of the dielectric relaxation in layers of different thickness near the walls shows no indication of a shift of Tg as a function of thickness when analyzed with a Vogel-Fulcher fit. We explain this by the importance of intramolecular dihedral barriers for the glass transition in PB which dominate over the density changes next to a wall except for a 1 nm thick layer directly at the wall.

  11. 43 CFR 8365.1-4 - Public health, safety and comfort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public health, safety and comfort. 8365.1-4 Section 8365.1-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... § 8365.1-4 Public health, safety and comfort. (a) No person shall cause a public disturbance or create...

  12. 43 CFR 8365.1-4 - Public health, safety and comfort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public health, safety and comfort. 8365.1-4 Section 8365.1-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... § 8365.1-4 Public health, safety and comfort. (a) No person shall cause a public disturbance or create...

  13. 43 CFR 8365.1-4 - Public health, safety and comfort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public health, safety and comfort. 8365.1-4 Section 8365.1-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... § 8365.1-4 Public health, safety and comfort. (a) No person shall cause a public disturbance or create...

  14. 43 CFR 8365.1-4 - Public health, safety and comfort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public health, safety and comfort. 8365.1-4 Section 8365.1-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... § 8365.1-4 Public health, safety and comfort. (a) No person shall cause a public disturbance or create...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN...

  5. 47 CFR 27.806 - 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding. 27.806 Section 27.806 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.806 1.4 GHz...

  6. 47 CFR 27.806 - 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding. 27.806 Section 27.806 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.806 1.4 GHz...

  7. 47 CFR 27.806 - 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding. 27.806 Section 27.806 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.806 1.4 GHz...

  8. 47 CFR 27.806 - 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding. 27.806 Section 27.806 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.806 1.4 GHz...

  9. 47 CFR 27.806 - 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding. 27.806 Section 27.806 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.806 1.4 GHz...

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,4-Dioxane (with Inhalation Update) (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The final IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,4-dioxane (with inhalation update) provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to 1,4-dioxane. Human health risk concerns for 1,4-dioxane are primarily relat...

  11. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  12. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  13. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  14. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-1 - Site identification as potentially acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Site identification as potentially acceptable. 960.3-1-4-1 Section 960.3-1-4-1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-1 Site...

  15. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  16. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  17. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  18. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-1 - Site identification as potentially acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Site identification as potentially acceptable. 960.3-1-4-1 Section 960.3-1-4-1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-1 Site...

  19. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  20. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  1. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  2. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-1 - Site identification as potentially acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Site identification as potentially acceptable. 960.3-1-4-1 Section 960.3-1-4-1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-1 Site...

  3. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-1 - Site identification as potentially acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Site identification as potentially acceptable. 960.3-1-4-1 Section 960.3-1-4-1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-1 Site...

  4. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  5. 17 CFR 240.11a1-4(T) - Bond transactions on national securities exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond transactions on national securities exchanges. 240.11a1-4(T) Section 240.11a1-4(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND....11a1-4(T) Bond transactions on national securities exchanges. A transaction in a bond, note,...

  6. Oxidative aromatization of 1,4-dihydropyridines and pyrazolines using HbA-H(2)O(2): An efficient biomimetic catalyst system providing metabolites of drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Atul; Maurya, Ram Awatar; Sharma, Siddharth

    2009-08-01

    Human hemoglobin (HbA) efficiently catalyses the oxidative aromatization of 1,4-dihydropyridines (1,4-DHPs) and pyrazolines with hydrogen peroxide in phosphate buffer. The results of the study reveal that the rates of oxidative aromatization of 1,4-DHPs are substituent dependent. Thus, the present study is very useful in understanding the metabolism of 1,4-DHP drugs in liver by cytochrome P450 and designing novel drugs as well as modifying the existing drugs for better pharmacokinetic profile.

  7. The transient outward current in mice lacking the potassium channel gene Kv1.4

    PubMed Central

    London, Barry; Wang, Dao W; Hill, Joseph A; Bennett, Paul B

    1998-01-01

    The transient outward current (Ito) plays a prominent role in the repolarization phase of the cardiac action potential. Several K+ channel genes, including Kv1.4, are expressed in the heart, produce rapidly inactivating currents when heterologously expressed, and may be the molecular basis of Ito.We engineered mice homozygous for a targeted disruption of the K+ channel gene Kv1.4 and compared Ito in wild-type (Kv1.4+/+), heterozygous (Kv1.4+/-) and homozygous ‘knockout’ (Kv1.4−/−) mice. Kv1.4 RNA was truncated in Kv1.4−/− mice and protein expression was absent.Adult myocytes isolated from Kv1.4+/+, Kv1.4+/− and Kv1.4−/− mice had large rapidly inactivating outward currents. The peak current densities at 60 mV (normalized by cellular capacitance, in pA pF−1; means ± s.e.m.) were 53.8 ± 5.3, 45.3 ± 2.2 and 44.4 ± 2.8 in cells from Kv1.4+/+, Kv1.4+/− and Kv1.4−/− mice, respectively (P < 0.02 for Kv1.4+/+ vs. Kv1.4−/−). The steady-state values (800 ms after the voltage clamp step) were 30.9 ± 2.9, 26.9 ± 3.8 and 23.5 ± 2.2, respectively (P < 0.02 for Kv1.4+/+ vs. Kv1.4−/−). The inactivating portion of the current was unchanged in the targeted mice.The voltage dependence and time course of inactivation were not changed by targeted disruption of Kv1.4. The mean best-fitting V½ (membrane potential at 50 % inactivation) values for myocytes from Kv1.4 +/+, Kv1.4+/− and Kv1.4−/− mice were -53.5 ± 3.7, -51.1 ± 2.6 and -54.2 ± 2.4 mV, respectively. The slope factors (k) were -10.1 ± 1.4, -8.8 ± 1.4 and -9.5 ± 1.2 mV, respectively. The fast time constants for development of inactivation at -30 mV were 27.8 ± 2.2, 26.2 ± 5.1 and 19.6 ± 2.1 ms in Kv1.4+/+, Kv1.4+/− and Kv1.4−/− myocytes, respectively. At +30 mV, they were 35.5 ± 2.6, 30.0 ± 2.1 and 28.7 ± 1.6 ms, respectively. The time constants for the rapid phase of recovery from inactivation at -80 mV were 32.5 ± 8.2, 23.3 ± 1.8 and 39.0 ± 3.7 ms, respectively

  8. Biaryl synthesis by ring-opening Friedel-Crafts arylation of 1,4-epoxy-1,4-dihydronaphthalenes catalyzed by iron trichloride.

    PubMed

    Sawama, Yoshinari; Asai, Shota; Kawajiri, Takahiro; Monguchi, Yasunari; Sajiki, Hironao

    2015-01-26

    Biaryl and heterobiaryl compounds are important frameworks across a range of fields including pharmaceutical and functional material chemistries. We have accomplished the efficient synthesis of various naphthalene-linked arenes and heteroarenes as biaryls and heterobiaryls by the FeCl3 -catalyzed Friedel-Crafts reactions accompanied by the ring-opening of the 1,4-epoxy moiety of 1,4-epoxy-1,4-dihydronaphthalenes. Especially, it is noteworthy that 1-silylated substrates were regioselectively transformed to the 3-aryl-1-silylnaphthalenes and the double Friedel-Crafts reactions using thiophene derivatives could directly produce the corresponding bis-naphthlated thiophene derivatives.

  9. Characterization of a new endogenous endo-ß-1,4-glucanase of Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present work characterized a second endogenous cellulase (endo-ß-1,4-glucanase) gene, CfEG4, uncovered in the transcriptome of Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus). The full-length gene was cloned and sequenced. It is similar to the CfEG3a described earlier (Zhang et al. 2009) ...

  10. Beltrami-McKeon-Schubert Realizations of fraktur ofraktur sfraktur p(1|4) Algebra and Possible Supersymmetric Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Huang, Chao-Guang

    2015-07-01

    The possible supersymmetric kinematics are presented by the contraction method in different limits from Beltrami-McKeon-Schubert realizations of fraktur ofraktur sfraktur p(1|4). The connections among the superalgebras are established. The comparison with the superalgebras contracted from Beltrami-Ivanov-Sorini realization is made. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11275207

  11. Assessing Team Detailing End-user Satisfaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    October 2004 Assessing Team Detailing End-user Satisfaction Kimberly P. Whittam, Ph.D. Zannette A. Uriell, M.S. Rorie N. Harris, Ph.D. Approved for...public release; distribution is unlimited. NPRST-AB-05-1 October 2004 Assessing Team Detailing End-user Satisfaction Kimberly P. Whittam, Ph.D...DAVID L. ALDERTON, Ph.D. Director vii Contents Assessing Team Detailing End-user Satisfaction

  12. MODELING CST ION EXCHANGE FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM SCIX BATCHES 1 - 4

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.

    2011-04-25

    The objective of this work is, through modeling, to predict the performance of Crystalline Silicotitinate (CST) for the removal of cesium from Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Batches 1-4 (as proposed in Revision 16 of the Liquid Waste System Plan). The scope of this task is specified in Technical Task Request (TTR) 'SCIX Feed Modeling', HLE-TTR-2011-003, which specified using the Zheng, Anthony, Miller (ZAM) code to predict CST isotherms for six given SCIX feed compositions and the VErsatile Reaction and SEparation simulator for Liquid Chromatography (VERSE-LC) code to predict ion-exchange column behavior. The six SCIX feed compositions provided in the TTR represent SCIX Batches 1-4 and Batches 1 and 2 without caustic addition. The study also investigated the sensitivity in column performance to: (1) Flow rates of 5, 10, and 20 gpm with 10 gpm as the nominal flow; and (2) Temperatures of 25, 35, and 45 C with 35 C as the nominal temperature. The isotherms and column predictions presented in this report reflect the expected performance of engineered CST IE-911. This form of CST was used in experiments conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that formed the basis for estimating model parameters (Hamm et al., 2002). As has been done previously, the engineered resin capacity is estimated to be 68% of the capacity of particulate CST without binder.

  13. Detailed Concepts in Performing Oversight on an Army Radiographic Inspection Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    Automated for 81mm Nekin ARP2 0001 See drawing NekinA1 for details Part Fixtures Manufacturer Model no. Serial no. Aluminum slotted...81mm inserts ARDEC AR34P 90099 3 See fixture drawing Pica21D for details Collimation Manufacturer Model no. Serial no...81mm Accept Master ARDEC M889A1.4 0002B Frequency All masters prior to start and end of shift See drawing Mil-Dwg-113420 for

  14. Pachygyria Presented as Mania

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Seshadri Sekhar; Talapatra, Devlina; Acharya, Rudra; Sarkhel, Sujit

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric manifestation of pachygyria, a neuronal migration disorder is rare in literature; rarer if it is bipolar disorder specifically. Here, we report a case of mania and seizure who subsequently diagnosed as pachygyria. Proper literature about pathophysiology is discussed and recently discovered putative genetic role in bipolar disorder explained. This case also emphasis the importance of detailed history taking and imaging investigation even in a pure psychiatric presentation. PMID:26702182

  15. Enantiopure synthesis of dihydrobenzo[1,4]-oxazine-3-carboxylic acids and a route to benzoxazinyl oxazolidinones.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Rajesh; Dey, Tushar K; Basu, Sourav; Hajra, Saumen

    2015-03-21

    A two step protocol is developed for the efficient synthesis of enantiopure N-Boc-dihydrobenzo[b]-1,4-oxazine-3-carboxylic acids 4 from serine derived cyclic sulfamidate via intramolecular arylamination. The RuPhos Palladacycle along with additional RuPhos ligand is found to be an efficient catalyst for the arylamination of β-(2-bromoaryloxy)amino acids 3 to provide easy and direct access to a variety of dihydrobenzo[b]-1,4-oxazine-3-carboxylic acids 4 with complete retention of enantiopurity in moderate to high yields. Dihydrobenzo[b]-1,4-oxazine-3-carboxylic acids are not only important unnatural amino acids, but are key precursors for the synthesis of important compounds such as benzoxazinyl oxazolidinones. A general approach for the synthesis of benzoxazinyl oxazolidinone is presented.

  16. Distribution, structure and biosynthetic gene families of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Ermawar, Riksfardini A; Collins, Helen M; Byrt, Caitlin S; Betts, Natalie S; Henderson, Marilyn; Shirley, Neil J; Schwerdt, Julian; Lahnstein, Jelle; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Burton, Rachel A

    2015-04-01

    In cereals, the presence of soluble polysaccharides including (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan has downstream implications for human health, animal feed and biofuel applications. Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench is a versatile crop, but there are limited reports regarding the content of such soluble polysaccharides. Here, the amount of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan present in sorghum tissues was measured using a Megazyme assay. Very low amounts were present in the grain, ranging from 0.16%-0.27% (w/w), while there was a greater quantity in vegetative tissues at 0.12-1.71% (w/w). The fine structure of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, as denoted by the ratio of cellotriosyl and cellotetraosyl residues, was assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ranged from 2.6-3:1 in the grain, while ratios in vegetative tissues were lower at 2.1-2.6:1. The distribution of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan was examined using a specific antibody and observed with fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Micrographs showed a variable distribution of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan influenced by temporal and spatial factors. The sorghum orthologs of genes implicated in the synthesis of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in other cereals, such as the Cellulose synthase-like (Csl) F and H gene families were defined. Transcript profiling of these genes across sorghum tissues was carried out using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, indicating that, as in other cereals, CslF6 transcripts dominated.

  17. 24. 'HANGAR SHEDS ELEVATIONS DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. 'HANGAR SHEDS - ELEVATIONS - DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS - PLANT AREA; MODIFICATION CENTER NO. 1, DAGGETT, CALIFORNIA.' Partial elevations, and details of sliding doors and ventilator flaps, as built. Contract no. W509 Eng. 2743; File no. 555/81, revision B, dated April 6, 1943. No sheet number. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA

  18. 18 CFR 401.122 - Supplementary details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Supplementary details. 401.122 Section 401.122 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Provisions § 401.122 Supplementary details....

  19. 18 CFR 401.122 - Supplementary details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Supplementary details. 401.122 Section 401.122 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Provisions § 401.122 Supplementary details....

  20. 18 CFR 401.122 - Supplementary details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Supplementary details. 401.122 Section 401.122 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Provisions § 401.122 Supplementary details....

  1. 18 CFR 401.122 - Supplementary details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supplementary details. 401.122 Section 401.122 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Provisions § 401.122 Supplementary details....

  2. Detailed Aerosol Characterization using Polarimetric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasekamp, Otto; di Noia, Antonio; Stap, Arjen; Rietjens, Jeroen; Smit, Martijn; van Harten, Gerard; Snik, Frans

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols are believed to cause the second most important anthropogenic forcing of climate change after greenhouse gases. In contrast to the climate effect of greenhouse gases, which is understood relatively well, the negative forcing (cooling effect) caused by aerosols represents the largest reported uncertainty in the most recent assessment of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). To reduce the large uncertainty on the aerosol effects on cloud formation and climate, accurate satellite measurements of aerosol optical properties (optical thickness, single scattering albedo, phase function) and microphysical properties (size distribution, refractive index, shape) are essential. There is growing consensus in the aerosol remote sensing community that multi-angle measurements of intensity and polarization are essential to unambiguously determine all relevant aerosol properties. This presentations adresses the different aspects of polarimetric remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols, including retrieval algorithm development, validation, and data needs for climate and air quality applications. During past years, at SRON-Netherlands Instite for Space Research retrieval algorithms have been developed that make full use of the capabilities of polarimetric measurements. We will show results of detailed aerosol properties from ground-based- (groundSPEX), airborne- (NASA Research Scanning Polarimeter), and satellite (POLDER) measurements. Also we will discuss observational needs for future instrumentation in order to improve our understanding of the role of aerosols in climate change and air quality.

  3. Optoelectronic pH Meter: Further Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Anderson, Mejody M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2009-01-01

    A collection of documents provides further detailed information about an optoelectronic instrument that measures the pH of an aqueous cell-culture medium to within 0.1 unit in the range from 6.5 to 7.5. The instrument at an earlier stage of development was reported in Optoelectronic Instrument Monitors pH in a Culture Medium (MSC-23107), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 9 (September 2004), page 4a. To recapitulate: The instrument includes a quartz cuvette through which the medium flows as it is circulated through a bioreactor. The medium contains some phenol red, which is an organic pH-indicator dye. The cuvette sits between a light source and a photodetector. [The light source in the earlier version comprised red (625 nm) and green (558 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs); the light source in the present version comprises a single green- (560 nm)-or-red (623 nm) LED.] The red and green are repeatedly flashed in alternation. The responses of the photodiode to the green and red are processed electronically to obtain the ratio between the amounts of green and red light transmitted through the medium. The optical absorbance of the phenol red in the green light varies as a known function of pH. Hence, the pH of the medium can be calculated from the aforesaid ratio.

  4. Dynamical (e,2e) studies of tetrahydropyran and 1,4-dioxane

    SciTech Connect

    Builth-Williams, J. D.; Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B. E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au; Silva, G. B. da; Chaluvadi, Hari; Madison, D. H.; Brunger, M. J. E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au

    2014-06-07

    We present experimental and theoretical results for the electron-impact ionization of the highest occupied molecular orbitals of tetrahydropyran and 1,4-dioxane. Using an (e,2e) technique in asymmetric coplanar kinematics, angular distributions of the slow ejected electron, with an energy of 20 eV, are measured when incident electrons at 250 eV ionize the target and scatter through an angle of either −10° or −15°. The data are compared with calculations performed at the molecular 3-body distorted wave level. Fair agreement between the theoretical model and the experimental measurements was observed. The similar structures for these targets provide key insights for assessing the limitations of the theoretical calculations. This study in turn facilitates an improved understanding of the dynamics in the ionization process.

  5. 51. LOFT. HEATING. PLANS, ELEVATIONS 7 DETAILS, Y&D No. 107729 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. LOFT. HEATING. PLANS, ELEVATIONS 7 DETAILS, Y&D No. 107729 Scales 3/16', 1/4', 1/2', and 1'; July 2, 1929 - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  6. Detailed models of a sample of debris disks: from Herschel, KIN and Spitzer to the JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.; Beichman, C.; Augereau, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Dusty debris disks surrounding main sequence stars are extrasolar equivalents to the Solar System populations of asteroids, icy bodies and dust grains. Many were observed in thermal emission by Herschel with unprecedented wavelength coverage and spatial resolution, complementing available scattered light images, mid-infrared spectra and interferometric measurements. We present detailed models of the HD 181327 and HD 32297 disks obtained with the GRaTer radiative transfer code and made possible thanks to Herschel. We then focus on the intriguing case of the nearby F2V star η Corvi that shows strong infrared excess despite an estimated age of 1.4 Gyr. We establish a detailed model of its disk from the sub-AU scale to its outermost regions based on observations from the Keck Interferometer Nuller, Herschel and Spitzer. These bright and extended disks will be of prime interest for future observations with the JWST. We finally discuss new debris disks science that will be addressed with the NIRCam and MIRI instruments.

  7. Power Burst Facility (PBF) severe fuel damage test 1-4 test results report

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, D.A.; Martinson, Z.R.; Hobbins, R.R.; Allison, C.M.; Carlson, E.R.; Hagrman, D.L.; Cheng, T.C.; Hartwell, J.K.; Vinjamuri, K.; Seifken, L.J.

    1989-04-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the Severe Fuel Damage (SFD) Test 1-4 performed in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is presented. Test SFD 1-4 was the fourth and final test in an internationally sponsored light water reactor severe accident research program, initiated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The overall technical objective of the test was to contribute to the understanding of fuel and control rod behavior, aerosol and hydrogen generation, and fission product release and transport during a high-temperature, severe fuel damage transient. A test bundle, comprised of 26 previously irradiated (36,000 MWd/MtU) pressurized water-reactor-type fuel rods, 2 fresh instrumented fuel rods, and 4 silver-indium-cadmium control rods, was surrounded by an insulating shroud and contained in a pressurized in-pile tube. The experiment consisted of a 1.3-h transient at a coolant pressure of 6.95 MPa in which the inlet coolant flow to the bundle was reduced to 0.6 g/s while the bundle fission power was gradually increased until dryout, heatup, cladding rupture, and oxidation occurred. With sustained fission power and heat from oxidation, temperatures continued to rise rapidly, resulting in zircaloy and control rod absorber alloy melting, fuel liquefaction, material relocation, and the release of hydrogen, aerosols, and fission products. The transient was terminated over a 2100-s time span by slowly reducing the reactor power and cooling the damaged bundle with argon gas. A description and evaluation of the major phenomena, based upon the response of on-line instrumentation, analysis of fission product and aerosol data, postirradiation examination of the fuel bundle, and calculations using the SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code, are presented. 40 refs., 160 figs., 31 tabs.

  8. Down-regulation of types I, II and III inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors is mediated by the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Oberdorf, J; Webster, J M; Zhu, C C; Luo, S G; Wojcikiewicz, R J

    1999-01-01

    Activation of certain phosphoinositidase-C-linked cell-surface receptors is known to cause an acceleration of the proteolysis of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] receptors and, thus, lead to Ins(1,4,5)P3-receptor down-regulation. In the current study we have sought to determine whether the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway is involved in this adaptive response. The data presented show (i) that activation of phosphoinositidase-C-linked receptors causes Ins(1,4,5)P3-receptor ubiquitination in a range of cell types (AR4-2J cells, INS-1 cells and rat cerebellar granule cells), (ii) that the Ins(1,4,5)P3-receptor down-regulation induced by activation of these receptors is blocked by proteasome inhibitors, (iii) that all known Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors (types I, II and III) are substrates for ubiquitination, (iv) that ubiquitination occurs while Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors are membrane-bound, (v) that Ins(1,4, 5)P3-receptor ubiquitination and down-regulation are stimulated only by those agonists that elevate Ins(1,4,5)P3 concentration persistently, and (vi) that a portion of cellular Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors (those that are not type-I-receptor-associated) can be resistant to ubiquitination and degradation. In total these data indicate that the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway mediates Ins(1,4, 5)P3-receptor down-regulation and suggest that ubiquitination is stimulated by the binding of Ins(1,4,5)P3 to its receptor. PMID:10191279

  9. 25. 'HANGAR SHEDS TRUSSES DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. 'HANGAR SHEDS - TRUSSES - DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS - PLANT AREA; MODIFICATION CENTER NO. 1, DAGGETT, CALIFORNIA.' Sections and details of trusses, ironwork, and joints, as modified to show ridge joint detail. As built. This blueline also shows the fire suppression system, added in orange pencil for 'Project 13: Bldgs. T-30, T-50, T-70, T-90' at a later, unspecified date. Contract no. W509 Eng. 2743; File no. 555/84, revision B, dated August 24, 1942. No sheet number. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. Genotoxicity of 1,4-benzoquinone and 1,4-naphthoquinone in relation to effects on glutathione and NAD(P)H levels in V79 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewig, G.; Dogra, S.; Glatt, H. )

    1989-07-01

    1,4-Benzoquinone is cytotoxic in V79 Chinese hamster cells and induces gene mutations and micronuclei. The cell-damaging effects of quinones are usually attributed to thiol depletion, oxidation of NAD(P)H, and redox-cycling involving the formation of semiquinone radicals and reactive oxygen species. To elucidate the role of these mechanisms in the genotoxicity of 1,4-benzoquinone, the authors measured various genotoxic effects, cytotoxicity, and the levels of glutathione, NADPH, NADH, and their oxidized forms all in the same experiment. 1,4-Naphthoquinone, which does not induce gene mutations in V79 cells, was investigated for comparative reasons. The quinones had a similar effect on the levels of cofactors. Total glutathione was depleted, but levels of oxidized glutathione were slightly increased. The levels of NADPH and NADH were reduced at high concentrations of the quinones with a simultaneous increase in the levels of NADP{sup +} and NAD{sup +}. Both compounds induced micronuclei, but neither increased the frequency of sister chromatid exchange. Only 1,4-benzoquinone induced gene mutations. They conclude that (a) induction of micronuclei and glutathione depletion by the two quinones are not linked casually, (b) 1,4-benzoquinone induces gene mutations by a mechanism different from oxidative stress and glutathione depletion, and (c) glutathione does not fully protect the cells against the genotoxicity of quinones.

  11. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, Eurasia, and Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, S.; Strange, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia computed from a combination of satellite-derived and surface 1 x 1 gravity data, is presented. Using a consistent set of parameters, this geoid is referenced to an absolute datum. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 meters in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 meters in those areas where data was sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rice for the United States, Bomford and Fischer in Eurasia, and Mather in Australia are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.

  12. 49 CFR 173.65 - Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks... Class 1 § 173.65 Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks. (a) Notwithstanding the requirements of §§ 173.56(b), 173.56(f), 173.56(i), and 173.64, Division 1.4G consumer fireworks may be...

  13. 49 CFR 173.65 - Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks... Class 1 § 173.65 Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks. (a) Notwithstanding the requirements of §§ 173.56(b), 173.56(f), 173.56(i), and 173.64, Division 1.4G consumer fireworks may be...

  14. Effect of bis-1,4-dihydropyridine in the kidney of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Pliego, Raquel; Gómez-Zamudio, Jaime; Velasco-Bejarano, Benjamín; Ibarra-Barajas, Maximiliano; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The in vivo effectiveness of 4-dihydropyridine (bis-1,4-DHP), a new calcium-channel blocker, as a nephroprotector in isolated perfused kidney was evaluated by determining its effects on parameters associated with renal injury in diabetic rats. Diabetes in male Wistar rats, control, diabetic, control + bis-1,4-DHP, and diabetic + bis-1,4-DHP, was induced by a single administration of STZ (55 mg·kg(-1), i.p.). In the drug-treated groups, treatment with bis-1,4-DHP (10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) started one week before diabetes induction; bis-1,4-DHP was dissolved in DMSO (0.3%) and suspended in drinking water with carboxymethyl cellulose (3%). Parameters evaluated were body weight, blood glucose, albuminuria, proteinuria, creatinine, urea excretion, kidney's weight / body weight ratio, and kidney perfusion pressure in all rat groups at different times of diabetes (2, 4, 6, and 10 weeks). Kidney weight of diabetic rats significantly increased vs. control, control + bis-1,4-DHP, and diabetic + bis-1,4-DHP rats at different times of diabetes. The ratios % kidney weight / 100 g body weight were different between control, control + bis-1,4-DHP, and diabetic + bis-1,4-DHP rats vs. diabetic rats (P < 0.05). Kidney perfusion pressure was decreased by diabetes, while it was partially recovered by bis-1,4-DHP treatment in response to phenylephrine. Bis-1,4-DHP had a tendency to decrease hyperglycemia vs. diabetic rats, even though glycemia was too high as compared with controls, and it ameliorated albuminuria, creatinine, and urea excretion, suggesting a favorable effect on renal haemodynamics. Bis-1,4-DHP, by inhibiting Ca(2+) entrance, induced vasodilation in renal vascular bed and thus may have a nephroprotective effect against diabetes-induced renal dysfunction, but does not have significant impact on hyperglycemia.

  15. Global detailed geoid computation and model analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, J. G.; Vincent, S.

    1974-01-01

    Comparisons and analyses were carried out through the use of detailed gravimetric geoids which we have computed by combining models with a set of 26,000 1 deg x 1 deg mean free air gravity anomalies. The accuracy of the detailed gravimetric geoid computed using the most recent Goddard earth model (GEM-6) in conjunction with the set of 1 deg x 1 deg mean free air gravity anomalies is assessed at + or - 2 meters on the continents of North America, Europe, and Australia, 2 to 5 meters in the Northeast Pacific and North Atlantic areas, and 5 to 10 meters in other areas where surface gravity data are sparse. The R.M.S. differences between this detailed geoid and the detailed geoids computed using the other satellite gravity fields in conjuction with same set of surface data range from 3 to 7 meters.

  16. Biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane: effects of enzyme inducers and trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Hand, Steven; Wang, Baixin; Chu, Kung-Hui

    2015-07-01

    1,4-Dioxane is a groundwater contaminant and probable human carcinogen. In this study, two well-studied degradative bacteria Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 and Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 were examined for their 1,4-dioxane degradation ability in the presence and absence of its co-contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCE), under different oxygenase-expression conditions. These two strains were precultured with R2A broth (complex nutrient medium) before supplementation with propane or 1-butanol to induce the expression of different oxygenases. Both propane- and 1-butanol-induced JOB5 and RHA1 were able to degrade 1,4-dioxane, TCE, and mixtures of 1,4-dioxane/TCE. Complete degradation of 1,4-dioxane/TCE mixture was observed only in propane-induced strain JOB5. Inhibition was observed between 1,4-dioxane and TCE for all cells. Furthermore, product toxicity caused incomplete degradation of 1,4-dioxane by 1-butanol-induced JOB5. In general, the more TCE degraded, the greater extent of product toxicity cells experienced; however, susceptibility to product toxicity was found to be both strain- and inducer-dependent. The findings of this study provide fundamental basis for developing an effective in-situ remediation method for 1,4-dioxane-contaminated ground water and the first known study of 1,4-dioxane degradation by wild-type strain RHA1.

  17. Spectral variability in the X-ray pulsar GX 1+4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Pravdo, S. H.; Rothschild, R. E.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Swank, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of the galactic center region, hard X-ray source GX 1+4 by the GSFC X-ray spectroscopy experiment on OSO-8 confirm that GX 1+4 is a slow X-ray pulsar. The amount of absorption by cold matter in the spectrum of GX 1+4 varies significantly within a 24 hour period, behavior typical of many X-ray binary systems. The light curve for the pulsations from GX 1+4 appears to be energy dependent.

  18. Biosynthesis and molecular actions of specialized 1,4-naphthoquinone natural products produced by horticultural plants

    PubMed Central

    Widhalm, Joshua R; Rhodes, David

    2016-01-01

    The 1,4-naphthoquinones (1,4-NQs) are a diverse group of natural products found in every kingdom of life. Plants, including many horticultural species, collectively synthesize hundreds of specialized 1,4-NQs with ecological roles in plant–plant (allelopathy), plant–insect and plant–microbe interactions. Numerous horticultural plants producing 1,4-NQs have also served as sources of traditional medicines for hundreds of years. As a result, horticultural species have been at the forefront of many basic studies conducted to understand the metabolism and function of specialized plant 1,4-NQs. Several 1,4-NQ natural products derived from horticultural plants have also emerged as promising scaffolds for developing new drugs. In this review, the current understanding of the core metabolic pathways leading to plant 1,4-NQs is provided with additional emphasis on downstream natural products originating from horticultural species. An overview on the biochemical mechanisms of action, both from an ecological and pharmacological perspective, of 1,4-NQs derived from horticultural plants is also provided. In addition, future directions for improving basic knowledge about plant 1,4-NQ metabolism are discussed. PMID:27688890

  19. Isopentenyl Pyrophosphate cis-1,4-Polyisoprenyl Transferase from Guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray).

    PubMed

    Madhavan, S; Benedict, C R

    1984-08-01

    Electron micrographs of the mesophyll cells of guayule Parthenium argentatum Gray leaves show deposits of cis-polyisoprene (rubber) in the cytoplasm in the vicinity of mitochondria and chloroplasts and demonstrate that the rubber-synthesizing enzymes are present in guayule leaves. The terminal step in the synthesis of cis-polyisoprene from isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) catalyzed by isopentenyl pyrophosphate cis-1,4-polyisoprenyl transferase has been demonstrated in crude leaf extracts by the enzymic incorporation of [(14)C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate into the polymer and the recovery of [(14)C]levulinic acid following ozonolysis. The rubber transferase activity in the crude extracts of guayule leaves was 5.8 nanomoles isopentenyl pyrophosphate incorporated per milligram protein per hour. This is the first description of the rubber transferase from a nonlaticiferous plant.The specific activity (in units of nanomoles IPP converted per milligram protein per hour) of the partially purified enzyme following chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose columns was 41.7 units and contained 0.29 units of IPP isomerase activity and 0.08 units of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase activity. The rubber transferase requires reduced glutathione and Mg(2+) for maximal activity. There was no incorporation of IPP into cis-1,4-polyisoprene in the absence of rubber particles as primer, and Langmuir isotherm plots showed that the specific activity of the enzyme was proportional to the concentration of the enzyme on the surface of the rubber particles. For a given rubber particle distribution, enzyme activity was proportional to time, IPP concentration, and rubber concentration. The addition of 0.4 millimolar dimethylallyl pyrophosphate to the rubber transferase reaction resulted in a 2-fold increase in the incorporation of IPP into rubber. A comparison was made of the relative activities of rubber transferase in different species of Parthenium, Ficus, and Euphorbia.

  20. Isopentenyl Pyrophosphate cis-1,4-Polyisoprenyl Transferase from Guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) 1

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, S.; Benedict, Chauncey R.

    1984-01-01

    Electron micrographs of the mesophyll cells of guayule Parthenium argentatum Gray leaves show deposits of cis-polyisoprene (rubber) in the cytoplasm in the vicinity of mitochondria and chloroplasts and demonstrate that the rubber-synthesizing enzymes are present in guayule leaves. The terminal step in the synthesis of cis-polyisoprene from isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) catalyzed by isopentenyl pyrophosphate cis-1,4-polyisoprenyl transferase has been demonstrated in crude leaf extracts by the enzymic incorporation of [14C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate into the polymer and the recovery of [14C]levulinic acid following ozonolysis. The rubber transferase activity in the crude extracts of guayule leaves was 5.8 nanomoles isopentenyl pyrophosphate incorporated per milligram protein per hour. This is the first description of the rubber transferase from a nonlaticiferous plant. The specific activity (in units of nanomoles IPP converted per milligram protein per hour) of the partially purified enzyme following chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose columns was 41.7 units and contained 0.29 units of IPP isomerase activity and 0.08 units of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase activity. The rubber transferase requires reduced glutathione and Mg2+ for maximal activity. There was no incorporation of IPP into cis-1,4-polyisoprene in the absence of rubber particles as primer, and Langmuir isotherm plots showed that the specific activity of the enzyme was proportional to the concentration of the enzyme on the surface of the rubber particles. For a given rubber particle distribution, enzyme activity was proportional to time, IPP concentration, and rubber concentration. The addition of 0.4 millimolar dimethylallyl pyrophosphate to the rubber transferase reaction resulted in a 2-fold increase in the incorporation of IPP into rubber. A comparison was made of the relative activities of rubber transferase in different species of Parthenium, Ficus, and Euphorbia. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3

  1. Comparative Analyses of Two Thermophilic Enzymes Exhibiting both β-1,4 Mannosidic and β-1,4 Glucosidic Cleavage Activities from Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yejun; Dodd, Dylan; Hespen, Charles W.; Ohene-Adjei, Samuel; Schroeder, Charles M.; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac K. O.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrolysis of polysaccharides containing mannan requires endo-1,4-β-mannanase and 1,4-β-mannosidase activities. In the current report, the biochemical properties of two endo-β-1,4-mannanases (Man5A and Man5B) from Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus were studied. Man5A is composed of an N-terminal signal peptide (SP), a catalytic domain, two carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), and three surface layer homology (SLH) repeats, whereas Man5B lacks the SP, CBMs, and SLH repeats. To gain insights into how the two glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) enzymes may aid the bacterium in energy acquisition and also the potential application of the two enzymes in the biofuel industry, two derivatives of Man5A (Man5A-TM1 [TM1 stands for truncational mutant 1], which lacks the SP and SLH repeats, and Man5A-TM2, which lacks the SP, CBMs, and SLH repeats) and the wild-type Man5B were biochemically analyzed. The Man5A derivatives displayed endo-1,4-β-mannanase and endo-1,4-β-glucanase activities and hydrolyzed oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization (DP) of 4 or higher. Man5B exhibited endo-1,4-β-mannanase activity and little endo-1,4-β-glucanase activity; however, this enzyme also exhibited 1,4-β-mannosidase and cellodextrinase activities. Man5A-TM1, compared to either Man5A-TM2 or Man5B, had higher catalytic activity with soluble and insoluble polysaccharides, indicating that the CBMs enhance catalysis of Man5A. Furthermore, Man5A-TM1 acted synergistically with Man5B in the hydrolysis of β-mannan and carboxymethyl cellulose. The versatility of the two enzymes, therefore, makes them a resource for depolymerization of mannan-containing polysaccharides in the biofuel industry. Furthermore, on the basis of the biochemical and genomic data, a molecular mechanism for utilization of mannan-containing nutrients by C. polysaccharolyticus is proposed. PMID:20562312

  2. Detailed modelling of the 21-cm forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semelin, B.

    2016-01-01

    The 21-cm forest is a promising probe of the Epoch of Reionization. The local state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is encoded in the spectrum of a background source (radio-loud quasars or gamma-ray burst afterglow) by absorption at the local 21-cm wavelength, resulting in a continuous and fluctuating absorption level. Small-scale structures (filaments and minihaloes) in the IGM are responsible for the strongest absorption features. The absorption can also be modulated on large scales by inhomogeneous heating and Wouthuysen-Field coupling. We present the results from a simulation that attempts to preserve the cosmological environment while resolving some of the small-scale structures (a few kpc resolution in a 50 h-1 Mpc box). The simulation couples the dynamics and the ionizing radiative transfer and includes X-ray and Lyman lines radiative transfer for a detailed physical modelling. As a result we find that soft X-ray self-shielding, Ly α self-shielding and shock heating all have an impact on the predicted values of the 21-cm optical depth of moderately overdense structures like filaments. A correct treatment of the peculiar velocities is also critical. Modelling these processes seems necessary for accurate predictions and can be done only at high enough resolution. As a result, based on our fiducial model, we estimate that LOFAR should be able to detect a few (strong) absorptions features in a frequency range of a few tens of MHz for a 20 mJy source located at z = 10, while the SKA would extract a large fraction of the absorption information for the same source.

  3. Ancillary-service details: Dynamic scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamic scheduling (DS) is the electronic transfer from one control area to another of the time-varying electricity consumption associated with a load or the time-varying electricity production associated with a generator. Although electric utilities have been using this technique for at least two decades, its use is growing in popularity and importance. This growth is a consequence of the major changes under way in US bulk-power markets, in particular efforts to unbundle generation from transmission and to increase competition among generation providers. DS can promote competition and increase choices. It allows consumers to purchase certain services from entities outside their physical-host area and it allows generators to sell certain services to entities other than their physical host. These services include regulation (following minute-to-minute variations in load) and operating reserves, among others. Such an increase in the number of possible suppliers and customers should encourage innovation and reduce the costs and prices of providing electricity services. The purpose of the project reported here was to collect and analyze data on utility experiences with DS. Chapter 2 provides additional details and examples of the definitions of DS. Chapter 3 explains why DS might be an attractive service that customers and generators, as well as transmission providers, might wan to use. Chapter 4 presents some of the many current DS examples the authors uncovered in their interviews. Chapter 5 discusses the costs and cost-effectiveness of DS. Chapter 6 explains what they believe can and cannot be electronically moved from one control area to another, primarily in terms of the six ancillary services that FERC defined in Order 888. Chapter 7 discusses the need for additional research on DS.

  4. Interior building details of Building C, Room C203: detail decorative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building C, Room C-203: detail decorative radiator and four-over-four windows; southwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  5. Plan, Detail of Lower Chord, Section at U8L8, Detail of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plan, Detail of Lower Chord, Section at U8L8, Detail of Upper Chord - Springfield-Des Arc Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Cadron Creek at Old Springfield-Des Arc Road (County Road 222), Springfield, Conway County, AR

  6. The effects of 1,4-cyclohexanediol on frozen ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Quan, G B; Wu, S S; Lan, Z G; Yang, H Y; Shao, Q Y; Hong, Q H

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of frozen spermatozoa of Yunnan semi-fine wool sheep, 1, 4-cyclohexanediol (1, 4-CHD) as a synthetic ice blocker was used for cryopreservation of ram spermatozoa in this study. Briefly, following collection by electric stimulation, equilibration at 5℃ following dilution with the freezing extender, and pre-freezing in liquid nitrogen vapor, the ram spermatozoa were preserved in liquid nitrogen for one month. In addition, the effects of osmolarity of the diluting extenders used for evaluation of frozen spermatozoa quality were also assessed. The results indicated addition of 1, 4-CHD could not increase the motility of ram spermatozoa after cryopreservation and thawing. With the elevation of the concentrations of 1, 4-CHD, the motility and moving velocity of frozen ram spermatozoa showed a steady decrease. Additionally, the presence of 1, 4-CHD cannot increase the percentage of frozen spermatozoa with intact acrosome and membrane. When the isotonic binding buffer was used to dilute the thawed spermatozoa, the percentage of cells labeled with propidium iodide (PI) after cryopreservation in the presence of 1, 4-CHD was significantly higher than that of spermatozoa frozen in the absence of 1, 4-CHD (P < 0.05). However, the percentage of frozen-thawed spermatozoa with exposed PS in the presence of 1, 4-CHD was significantly less than that of spermatozoa frozen in the absence of 1, 4-CHD (P < 0.01). When the basic extenders with an osmolarity of 404mOsm, 528mOsm, 648mOsm, or 853mOsm were used to dilute the frozen-thawed spermatozoa respectively, there is no significant difference between the four groups with respect to the moving velocity and membrane integrity (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the presence of 1, 4-CHD cannot improve the motility, moving velocity, acrosome staus, and membrane integrity of frozen ram spermatozoa. However, 1, 4-CHD may inhibit apoptosis caused by freezing and thawing.

  7. Analysis of the Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared Spectra of cis,cis- and trans,trans-1,4-DIFLUOROBUTADIENE-1-d_{1} and trans,trans-1,4-DIFLUOROBUTADIENE-1,4-d_{2}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Norman C.; Chen, Yihui; Lu, Yuhua; Neese, Christopher F.; Nemchick, Deacon J.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2013-06-01

    Samples of cis,cis- and trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-1-d_{1} (DFBD) and trans,trans-DFBD-1,4-d_{2} have been synthesized and investigated with high-resolution (0.0015 cm^{-1}) infrared spectroscopy. For the first two species the rotational structure in more than one band has been analyzed. For the 1,4-d_{2} species the spectrum of only one C-type band was available in an isotopic mixture. Ground state rotational constants are reported for all three molecules. It is proposed that quartic centrifugal distortion constants computed with a B3LYP/cc-pVTZ model can be used to assess the quality of observed rotational constants. The favorable comparison of predicted and observed ground state rotational constants for all four ^{13}C species of cis,trans-DFBD, which is MW active, demonstrates that the ground state rotational constants for the ^{13}C species of the cis,cis and trans,trans isomers can be successfully predicted with high accuracy. Rotational constants for a full set of isotopologues will be used to determine accurate semiexperimental equilibrium structures of the cis,cis and trans,trans species of DFBD. N. C. Craig, C. M. Oertel, D. C. Oertel, M. J. Tubergen, R. J. Lavrich, A. M Chaka J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 4230-4235 (2002).

  8. Laboratory Investigation Of Mechanisms For 1,4-Dioxane Destruction By Ozone In Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in analytical detection methods have made it possible to quantify 1,4-dioxane contamination in groundwater, even at well-characterized sites where it had not been previously detected. Although 1,4-dioxane is difficult to treat because of its chemical and physical proper...

  9. 20 CFR 1.4 - Where are other rules concerning OWCP functions found?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... functions found? 1.4 Section 1.4 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF... functions found? (a) The rules of the OWCP governing its functions under the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act and its extensions are set forth in subchapter A of chapter VI of this title. (b) The rules...

  10. IN-SITU OXIDATION OF 1,4-DIOXANE (LABORATORY RESULTS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest in the solvent stabilizer, 1,4-dioxane, is increasing because analytical detection limits have decreased indicating its presence at chlorinated volatile organic compound contaminated sites. The most common method for removing 1,4-dioxane from contaminated water is advanc...

  11. Anti-voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.4 antibodies in myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Romi, Fredrik; Suzuki, Shigeaki; Suzuki, Norihiro; Petzold, Axel; Plant, Gordon T; Gilhus, Nils Erik

    2012-07-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease characterized by skeletal muscle weakness mainly caused by acetylcholine receptor antibodies. MG can be divided into generalized and ocular, and into early-onset (<50 years of age) and late-onset (≥50 years of age). Anti-Kv1.4 antibodies targeting α-subunits (Kv1.4) of the voltage-gated potassium K(+) channel occurs frequently among patients with severe MG, accounting for 18% of a Japanese MG population. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical features and serological associations of anti-Kv1.4 antibodies in a Caucasian MG population with mild and localized MG. Serum samples from 129 Caucasian MG patients with mainly ocular symptoms were tested for the presence of anti-Kv1.4 antibodies and compared to clinical and serological parameters. There were 22 (17%) anti-Kv1.4 antibody-positive patients, most of them women with late-onset MG, and all of them with mild MG. This contrasts to the Japanese anti-Kv1.4 antibody-positive patients who suffered from severe MG with bulbar symptoms, myasthenic crisis, thymoma, myocarditis and prolonged QT time on electrocardiography, despite equal anti-Kv1.4 antibody occurrence in both populations. No other clinical or serological parameters influenced anti-Kv1.4 antibody occurrence.

  12. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR 1,4 - DIOXANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    1,4 -Dioxane is a cyclic ether that is primarily utilized for industrial applications. These applications include 1,4 -dioxane as a solvent, reaction medium, wetting, degreasing, and dispersing agent, and for stabilization of chlorinated solvents (e.g. 1,1,1 -trichloroethane). ...

  13. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4... TAXES Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a... taxable year results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations...

  14. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4 Section... Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a return for a... results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations...

  15. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4 Section... Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a return for a... results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10662 - Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction...-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (PMN P-11-204) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1142 - 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1142 Section 180.1142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1142 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; exemption from the requirement of...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1142 - 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1142 Section 180.1142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1142 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; exemption from the requirement of...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1142 - 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1142 Section 180.1142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1142 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; exemption from the requirement of...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1142 - 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1142 Section 180.1142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1142 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; exemption from the requirement of...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1142 - 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1142 Section 180.1142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1142 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; exemption from the requirement of...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... glycol and 1 to 34 mole percent of 1,4-cyclo-hexanedimethanol (70 percent trans isomer, 30 percent cls isomer) Inherent viscosity of a 0.50 percent solution of the copolymer in phenol-tetrachloroethane (60:40... ethylene glycol and 1 to 15 mole percent of 1,4-cyclohexane-di-methanol (70 percent trans isomer,...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... glycol and 1 to 34 mole percent of 1,4-cyclo-hexanedimethanol (70 percent trans isomer, 30 percent cls isomer) Inherent viscosity of a 0.50 percent solution of the copolymer in phenol-tetrachloroethane (60:40... ethylene glycol and 1 to 15 mole percent of 1,4-cyclohexane-di-methanol (70 percent trans isomer,...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... glycol and 1 to 34 mole percent of 1,4-cyclo-hexanedimethanol (70 percent trans isomer, 30 percent cls isomer) Inherent viscosity of a 0.50 percent solution of the copolymer in phenol-tetrachloroethane (60:40... ethylene glycol and 1 to 15 mole percent of 1,4-cyclohexane-di-methanol (70 percent trans isomer,...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... glycol and 1 to 34 mole percent of 1,4-cyclo-hexanedimethanol (70 percent trans isomer, 30 percent cls isomer) Inherent viscosity of a 0.50 percent solution of the copolymer in phenol-tetrachloroethane (60:40... ethylene glycol and 1 to 15 mole percent of 1,4-cyclohexane-di-methanol (70 percent trans isomer,...

  6. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4 Section... Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a return for a... results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations...

  7. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4... TAXES Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a... taxable year results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations...

  8. 17 CFR 240.15Ba1-4 - Withdrawal from municipal advisor registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Withdrawal from municipal advisor registration. 240.15Ba1-4 Section 240.15Ba1-4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules...

  9. Bioactive 1 4-Dihydroxy-5-phenyl-2-pyridinone alkaloids from Septoria pistaciarum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four new 1,4-dihydroxy-5-phenyl-2-pyridinone alkaloids (1-4) were isolated from an EtOAc extract of a culture medium of Septoria pistaciarum. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, and the absolute configuration of the major compound 1 by X-ray crystallographic a...

  10. Dephosphorylation of 1D-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate in rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, A J; Storey, D J; Downes, C P; Michell, R H

    1988-01-01

    Dephosphorylation of 1D-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate [Ins(1,4)P2] in rat liver is catalysed by a cytosolic phosphatase that removes the 1-phosphate group. The Km for Ins(1,4)P2 is approx. 17 microM. Li+ (100 mM) causes 50% inhibition of Ins(1,4)P2 phosphatase activity when activity is measured at the very low substrate concentration of 10 nM, but on raising the substrate concentration to 100 microM there is a greater than 10-fold increase in sensitivity to Li+, suggesting that Li+ acts mainly, but not entirely, as an uncompetitive inhibitor of Ins(1,4)P2 phosphatase. In addition, rat liver cytosol shows Li+-sensitive phosphatase activity against 1D-myo-inositol 1-,3- and 4-monophosphates. The Ins(1,4)P2 1-phosphatase and inositol monophosphatase activities all share an apparent Mr of 47 x 10(3), as determined by gel-filtration chromatography. However, the Ins(1,4)P2 1-phosphatase is more sensitive to inactivation by heat, and can be separated from inositol monophosphatase activity by anion-exchange chromatography. We conclude that rat liver cytosol contains an Ins(1,4)P2 1-phosphatase that is distinct from, but in many ways similar to, inositol monophosphatase. PMID:2848493

  11. Characterization of Two HKT1;4 Transporters from Triticum monococcum to Elucidate the Determinants of the Wheat Salt Tolerance Nax1 QTL.

    PubMed

    Tounsi, Sana; Ben Amar, Siwar; Masmoudi, Khaled; Sentenac, Hervé; Brini, Faiçal; Véry, Anne-Aliénor

    2016-10-01

    TmHKT1;4-A1 and TmHKT1;4-A2 are two Na(+) transporter genes that have been identified as associated with the salt tolerance Nax1 locus found in a durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) line issued from a cross with T. monococcum. In the present study, we were interested in getting clues on the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt tolerance quantitative trait locus (QTL). By analyzing the phylogenetic relationships between wheat and T. monococcum HKT1;4-type genes, we found that durum and bread wheat genomes possess a close homolog of TmHKT1;4-A1, but no functional close homolog of TmHKT1;4-A2. Furthermore, performing real-time reverse transcription-PCR experiments, we showed that TmHKT1;4-A1 and TmHKT1;4-A2 are similarly expressed in the leaves but that TmHKT1;4-A2 is more strongly expressed in the roots, which would enable it to contribute more to the prevention of Na(+) transfer to the shoots upon salt stress. We also functionally characterized the TmHKT1;4-A1 and TmHKT1;4-A2 transporters by expressing them in Xenopus oocytes. The two transporters displayed close functional properties (high Na(+)/K(+) selectivity, low affinity for Na(+), stimulation by external K(+) of Na(+) transport), but differed in some quantitative parameters: Na(+) affinity was 3-fold lower and the maximal inward conductance was 3-fold higher in TmHKT1;4-A2 than in TmHKT1;4-A1. The conductance of TmHKT1;4-A2 at high Na(+) concentration (>10 mM) was also shown to be higher than that of the two durum wheat HKT1;4-type transporters so far characterized. Altogether, these data support the hypothesis that TmHKT1;4-A2 is responsible for the Nax1 trait and provide new insight into the understanding of this QTL.

  12. Mn1.4Co1.4Cu0.2O4 spinel protective coating on ferritic stainless steels for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoyi; Xin, Xianshuang; Luo, Ting; Liu, Leimin; Zhou, Yuchun; Yuan, Chun; Lin, Chucheng; Zhan, Zhongliang; Wang, Shaorong

    2015-03-01

    In an attempt to reduce the oxidation and Cr evaporation rates of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), Mn1.4Co1.4Cu0.2O4 spinel coating is developed on the Crofer22 APU ferritic stainless steel substrate by a powder reduction technique. Doping of Cu into Mn-Co spinels improves electrical conductivity as well as thermal expansion match with the Crofer22 APU interconnect. Good adhesion between the coating and the alloy substrate is achieved by the reactive sintering process using the reduced powders. Long-term isothermal oxidation experiment and area specific resistance (ASR) measurement are investigated. The ASR is less than 4 mΩ cm2 even though the coated alloy undergoes oxidation at 800 °C for 530 h and four thermal cycles from 800 °C to room temperature. The Mn1.4Co1.4Cu0.2O4 spinel coatings demonstrate excellent anti-oxidation performance and long-term stability. It exhibits a promising prospect for the practical application of SOFC alloy interconnect.

  13. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of 1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic Acid-Derived, Redox-Sensitive Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Raghunand, Natarajan; Guntle, Gerald P.; Gokhale, Vijay; Nichol, Gary S.; Mash, Eugene A.; Jagadish, Bhumasamudram

    2010-01-01

    The design and synthesis of three 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (DO3A) derivatives bearing linkers with terminal thiol groups and a preliminary evaluation of their potential for use in assembling redox-sensitive Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast agents are reported. The linkers were selected based on computational docking with a crystal structure of human serum albumin (HSA). Gd(III)-DO3A and Eu(III)-DO3A complexes were synthesized, and the structure of one complex was established by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The binding to HSA of a Gd(III)-DO3A complex bearing a thiol-terminated 3,6-dioxanonyl chain was competitively inhibited by homocysteine and by the corresponding Eu chelate. Binding to HSA was abolished when the terminal thiol group of this complex was absent. The longitudinal water-proton relaxivities (r1) of the three Gd(III)-DO3A complexes and of two Gd(III)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) complexes were measured in saline at 7 Tesla. The DO3A complexes exhibited smaller r1 values, in both bound and free states, than the DOTA complexes. PMID:20722424

  14. Solid-phase organic synthesis of 2-tridecanyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and 2-tridecanyl-1,4-naphthodiol that form redox-active micelles and vesicles.

    PubMed

    Bugarin, Alejandro; Martinez, Luis E; Cooke, Peter; Islam, Tadiqul; Noveron, Juan C

    2014-10-01

    The solid-phase synthesis of new amphiphilic compounds is reported. It is based on a newly designed 1,4-naphthoquinone derivative that contains polar and nonpolar groups and self-assembles into micelles or vesicles in water depending on the concentration. They also display redox-active properties.

  15. Making detailed predictions makes (some) predictions worse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Theresa F.

    In this paper, we investigate whether making detailed predictions about an event makes other predictions worse. Across 19 experiments, 10,895 participants, and 415,960 predictions about 724 professional sports games, we find that people who made detailed predictions about sporting events (e.g., how many hits each baseball team would get) made worse predictions about more general outcomes (e.g., which team would win). We rule out that this effect is caused by inattention or fatigue, thinking too hard, or a differential reliance on holistic information about the teams. Instead, we find that thinking about game-relevant details before predicting winning teams causes people to give less weight to predictive information, presumably because predicting details makes information that is relatively useless for predicting the winning team more readily accessible in memory and therefore incorporated into forecasts. Furthermore, we show that this differential use of information can be used to predict what kinds of games will and will not be susceptible to the negative effect of making detailed predictions.

  16. Biochemical characterization of a GH53 endo-β-1,4-galactanase and a GH35 exo-β-1,4-galactanase from Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Tatsuji; Nishimura, Yuichi; Makino, Yosuke; Sunagawa, Yoichi; Harada, Naoki

    2013-04-01

    An endo-β-1,4-galactanase (PcGAL1) and an exo-β-1,4-galactanase (PcGALX35C) were purified from the culture filtrate of Penicillium chrysogenum 31B. Pcgal1 and Pcgalx35C cDNAs encoding PcGAL1 and PcGALX35C were isolated by in vitro cloning. The deduced amino acid sequences of PcGAL1 and PcGALX35C are highly similar to a putative endo-β-1,4-galactanase of Aspergillus terreus (70% amino acid identity) and a putative β-galactosidase of Neosartorya fischeri (72%), respectively. Pfam analysis revealed a "Glyco_hydro_53" domain in PcGAL1. PcGALX35C is composed of five distinct domains including "Glyco_hydro_35," "BetaGal_dom2," "BetaGal_dom3," and two "BetaGal_dom4_5" domains. Recombinant enzymes (rPcGAL1 and rPcGALX35C) expressed in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris, respectively, were active against lupin galactan. The reaction products of lupin galactan revealed that rPcGAL1 cleaved the substrate in an endo manner. The enzyme accumulated galactose and galactobiose as the main products. The smallest substrate for rPcGAL1 was β-1,4-galactotriose. On the other hand, rPcGALX35C released only galactose from lupin galactan throughout the reaction, indicating that it is an exo-β-1,4-galactanase. rPcGALX35C was active on both β-1,4-galactobiose and triose, but not on lactose, β-1,3- or β-1,6-galactooligosaccharides even after 24 h of incubation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a gene encoding a microbial exo-β-1,4-galactanase. rPcGAL1 and rPcGALX35C acted synergistically in the degradation of lupin galactan and soybean arabinogalactan. Lupin galactan was almost completely degraded to galactose by the combined actions of rPcGAL1 and rPcGALX35C. Surprisingly, neither rPcGAL1 nor rPcGALX35C released any galactose from sugar beet pectin.

  17. Recent development in [1,4]benzodiazepines as potent anticancer agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Gill, Rupinder Kaur; Kaushik, Shiv Om; Chugh, Jasreen; Bansal, Sumit; Shah, Anamik; Bariwal, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    The [1,4]benzodiazepine is an important class of heterocyclic compounds and clinically used for many ailments in humans. The [1,4]benzodiazepine has unique structure that mimics the peptide linkage. This interesting observation completely shifted the interest of medicinal chemist for [1,4]benzodiazepine from CNS acting drugs to anticancer agents. During last few decades, a large number of reports have appeared in the literature highlighting the anticancer activity of [1,4]benzodiazepines. Here, in this article, we have discussed the brief synthesis, origin of [1,4]benzodiazepines as anticancer agent, their mechanism of action and latest developments in this field. We have compiled the most important literature reports from last few decades till date.

  18. Molecular docking NS4B of DENV 1-4 with known bioactive phyto-chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Anubrata; Vibhuti, Arpana; Raj, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Dengue disease is a global disease that has no effective treatment. The dengue virus (DENV) NS4B is a target for designing specific antivirals due to its importance in viral replication. Medicinal plants have been a savior for dengue virus as they consist of a class of phytochemicals having anti-viral activity and can pose a new approach ofstrong drug against viruses. The present study analyzes the activity of compounds against NS4B of DENV (1-4) serotypes. In this study Catechin, Cianidanol, Epicatechin, Eupatoretin, Glabranin, Laurifolin, DL-Catechin, astherapeutic agents were filtered by using Lipinski rule’s five and the drug-likeness property of these agents were used for assessment of pharmacological properties. The molecular docking results presented the 2-D structures of bioactive complex, which interacted with especially conserved residues of target domains. Interestingly, we find the Catechin, Laurifolin, Cianidanol have highest binding energy against NS4B in DENV-1,2,4 which is evident by the formation of more hydrogen bonds with the amino acid residues at the binding site of the receptor. Our results revealed that the bioactive compound, especially Catechin has significant anti-dengue activities. In addition, this study may be helpful in further experimental investigations. PMID:28149049

  19. Climate applications for NOAA 1/4° Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, T.; Banzon, P. V. F.; Liu, G.; Saha, K.; Wilson, C.; Stachniewicz, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Few sea surface temperature (SST) datasets from satellites have the long temporal span needed for climate studies. The NOAA Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (DOISST) on a 1/4° grid, produced at National Centers for Environmental Information, is based primarily on SSTs from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), available from 1981 to the present. AVHRR data can contain biases, particularly when aerosols are present. Over the three decade span, the largest departure of AVHRR SSTs from buoy temperatures occurred during the Mt Pinatubo and El Chichon eruptions. Therefore, in DOISST, AVHRR SSTs are bias-adjusted to match in situ SSTs prior to interpolation. This produces a consistent time series of complete SST fields that is suitable for modelling and investigating local climate phenomena like El Nino or the Pacific warm blob in a long term context. Because many biological processes and animal distributions are temperature dependent, there are also many ecological uses of DOISST (e.g., coral bleaching thermal stress, fish and marine mammal distributions), thereby providing insights into resource management in a changing ocean. The advantages and limitations of using DOISST for different applications will be discussed.

  20. Memory for details with self-referencing.

    PubMed

    Serbun, Sarah J; Shih, Joanne Y; Gutchess, Angela H

    2011-11-01

    Self-referencing benefits item memory, but little is known about the ways in which referencing the self affects memory for details. Experiment 1 assessed whether the effects of self-referencing operate only at the item, or general, level or whether they also enhance memory for specific visual details of objects. Participants incidentally encoded objects by making judgements in reference to the self, a close other (one's mother), or a familiar other (Bill Clinton). Results indicate that referencing the self or a close other enhances both specific and general memory. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed verbal memory for source in a task that relied on distinguishing between different mental operations (internal sources). The results indicate that self-referencing disproportionately enhances source memory, relative to conditions referencing other people, semantic, or perceptual information. We conclude that self-referencing not only enhances specific memory for both visual and verbal information, but can also disproportionately improve memory for specific internal source details.

  1. Detail in architecture: Between arts & crafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulencin, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    Architectural detail represents an important part of architecture. Not only can it be used as an identifier of a specific building but at the same time enhances the experience of the realized project. Within it lie the signs of a great architect and clues to understanding his or her way of thinking. It is therefore the central topic of a seminar offered to architecture students at the Brno University of Technology. During the course of the semester-long class the students acquaint themselves with atypical architectural details of domestic and international architects by learning to read them, understand them and subsequently draw them by creating architectural blueprints. In other words, by general analysis of a detail the students learn theoretical thinking of its architect who, depending on the nature of the design, had to incorporate a variety of techniques and crafts. Students apply this analytical part to their own architectural detail design. The methodology of the seminar consists of experiential learning by project management and is complemented by a series of lectures discussing a diversity of details as well as materials and technologies required to implement it. The architectural detail design is also part of students' bachelors thesis, therefore, the realistic nature of their blueprints can be verified in the production process of its physical counterpart. Based on their own documentation the students choose the most suitable manufacturing process whether it is supplied by a specific technology or a craftsman. Students actively participate in the production and correct their design proposals in real scale with the actual material. A student, as a future architect, stands somewhere between a client and an artisan, materializes his or her idea and adjusts the manufacturing process so that the final detail fulfills aesthetic consistency and is in harmony with its initial concept. One of the very important aspects of the design is its economic cost, an

  2. Detail of north side of Test Stand 'A' base, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of north side of Test Stand 'A' base, showing tanks for distilled water (left), fuel (center), and gaseous nitrogen (right). Other tanks present for tests were removed before this image was taken. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. When Quantitative Details Impair Qualitative Understanding of Multimedia Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkoeijen, Peter; Tabbers, Huib

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we explored why interspersing quantitative details through a multimedia lesson detracts from learners' qualitative understanding. Three experimental conditions were created. In each, participants had to study a qualitative text on the formation, propagation, and dispersion of ocean waves. In the concise condition no…

  4. Details from the Dashboard: Charter Schools by Geographic Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    While a majority of charter schools nationwide operate in urban and suburban areas, charter schools exist in all corners of the nation, and are expanding into all types of communities. This "Details from the Dashboard" report presents statistics on the number of charter schools and students enrolled in charter schools by the four geographic…

  5. Cassini Flybys Reveal Details About Titan Seas and Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-12-01

    The Cassini spacecraft's flybys of Saturn's moon Titan reveal new details about the sizes, depths, and locations of the seas and lakes, whose liquid is mostly methane, that dot the moon's northern hemisphere, according to findings presented by scientists at a 12 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif.

  6. Fate of 1,4-dioxane in the aquatic environment: from sewage to drinking water.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Daria K; Diehl, Peter; Helm, Johanna; Thoms, Alina; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Potential health effects of 1,4-dioxane and the limited data on its occurrence in the water cycle command for more research. In the current study, mobility and persistence of 1,4-dioxane in the sewage-, surface-, and drinking water was investigated. The occurrence of 1,4-dioxane was determined in wastewater samples from four domestic sewage treatment plants (STP). The influent and effluent samples were collected during weekly campaigns. The average influent concentrations in all four plants ranged from 262 ± 32 ng L(-1) to 834 ± 480 ng L(-1), whereas the average effluent concentrations were between 267 ± 35 ng L(-1) and 62,260 ± 36,000 ng L(-1). No removal of 1,4-dioxane during water treatment was observed. Owing to its strong internal chemical bonding, 1,4-dioxane is considered non-biodegradable under conventional bio-treatment technologies. The source of increased 1,4-dioxane concentrations in the effluents was identified to originate from impurities in the methanol used in the postanoxic denitrification process in one of the STPs. In view of poor biodegradation in STPs, surface water samples were collected to establish an extent of 1,4-dioxane pollution. Spatial and temporal distribution of 1,4-dioxane in the Rivers Main, Rhine, and Oder was examined. Concentrations reaching 2200 ng L(-1) in the Oder River, and 860 ng L(-1) in both Main and Rhine River were detected. The average monthly load of 1,4-dioxane in the Rhine River was calculated to equal to 172 kg d(-1). In all rivers, concentration of 1,4-dioxane increased with distance from the spring and was found to negatively correlate with the discharge of the river. Additionally, bank filtration and drinking water samples from two drinking water facilities were analyzed for the presence of 1,4-dioxane. The raw water contained 650 ng L(-1)-670 ng L(-1) of 1,4-dioxane, whereas the concentration in the drinking water fell only to 600 ng L(-1) and 490 ng L(-1), respectively. Neither of the purification

  7. Syntheses and properties of a series of novel surface active salts based on 1,4-dialkyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane and their supermolecular interactions with cucurbit[6]uril

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fei; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Haibo; Cheng, Gongzhen; Zhou, Xiaohai

    2012-06-01

    A series of novel surface active salts, 1,4-dialkyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bromides (2CxDABCOBr2), have been synthesized and characterized. Their melting points show a U-shaped curve with increasing alkyl chain length, while the decomposition temperatures do not show significant differences. Critical aggregation concentration (cac) of 2C6DABCOBr2 determined by the concentration dependence of 1H NMR chemical shifts is about 100 mmol L-1, which is in good agreement with the cac obtained by electrical conductivity and surface tension measurement. The aggregation number of 2C6DABCOBr2 in aqueous solutions studied with a detailed analysis of 1H NMR is 36. The interaction between 2C6DABCOBr2 and cucurbit[6]uril in aqueous solution has also been investigated by 1H NMR and spin-lattice relaxation time measurement (T1), indicating the formation of a complex with one alkyl chain of 2C6DABCOBr2 inserted into the cavity of CB[6].

  8. Thermodynamic insights into the structural basis governing the donor substrate recognition by human beta1,4-galactosyltransferase 7.

    PubMed

    Daligault, Franck; Rahuel-Clermont, Sophie; Gulberti, Sandrine; Cung, Manh-Thong; Branlant, Guy; Netter, Patrick; Magdalou, Jacques; Lattard, Virginie

    2009-03-15

    Human beta1,4-GalT (galactosyltransferase)7 is involved in the biosynthesis of the tetrasaccharide linker protein region (GlcAbeta1-->3Galbeta1-->3Galbeta1-->4Xylbeta1) (where GlcA is glucuronic acid and Xyl is xylose) of proteoglycans, by catalysing the transfer of Gal (galactose) from the uridine 5'-diphosphogalactose to a Xyl residue. This reaction is rate-limiting in glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis. In the present study, we established a large-scale production system of beta1,4-GalT7 fused with the maltose-binding protein to study substrate recognition. Calorimetric binding studies showed that the binding of the donor substrate UDP-Gal largely promoted binding of the acceptor substrate. To identify the structural basis governing substrate recognition, we used a fragment-based approach involving the artificial breakdown of the donor substrate into smaller fragments and characterization of their respective binding to the enzyme by isothermal titration calorimetry. The beta-phosphate, and to a lesser extent the alpha-phosphate, largely contributed to the binding energy. However, the uridine moiety was found to be essential for the optimal positioning of the donor substrate within the binding site. Unexpectedly, the contribution of the Gal moiety in substrate recognition was found to be negligible. Indeed, UDP-Gal, but also various UDP-sugars, could bind to beta1,4-GalT7. Surprisingly, in contrast with other GalTs, soluble beta1,4-GalT7 was able to transfer Glc (glucose), Xyl and, to a lesser extent GlcA and GlcNAc (N-acetyl glucosamine), to acceptor sugars, whereas UDP-Man (mannose) and UDP-GalNAc (N-acetyl galactosamine) were not substrates.

  9. States Anxious to Get Details about Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2009-01-01

    As Congress began debate last week over the size and scope of more than $120 billion in proposed emergency education aid, state leaders were anxiously awaiting the details so they could make specific plans to spend the economic-stimulus money. Governors, state legislators, and state schools chiefs have yet to learn what rules Congress will attach…

  10. Third Sound Amplification and Detailed Balance

    SciTech Connect

    Eddinger, J. D.; Ellis, F. M.

    2006-09-07

    Condensation of atoms from the vapor into a third sound resonance is expected to be capable of acoustic amplification. This results from normal to superfluid conversion that coherently accommodates atoms into the third sound velocity field. Consideration of third sound in light of the equilibrium detailed balance between vapor particles and the superfluid film provides further evidence that acoustic amplification is attainable.

  11. Details on the biography of Jerzy Neyman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    2003-04-01

    Details on the biography of Jerzy Neyman (1894-1981) and a short outline of the native town Tighina in Basarabia (the Republic of Moldova) of the outstanding mathematician and statistician, astronomer, meteorologist, biologist, philosopher and sociologist, founder of the mathematical theory of selection has been given.

  12. Big Heads, Small Details and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sarah; O'Reilly, Helen; Frith, Uta

    2009-01-01

    Autism is thought to be associated with a bias towards detail-focussed processing. While the cognitive basis remains controversial, one strong hypothesis is that there are high processing costs associated with changing from local into global processing. A possible neural mechanism underlying this processing style is abnormal neural connectivity;…

  13. Flexibility Detailed for Testing Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina, A.

    2006-01-01

    A proposed federal regulation on testing students with disabilities provides details on the flexibility available to states and schools for meeting the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act. While state education officials have generally welcomed the flexibility, representatives from advocacy groups for people with disabilities say they are…

  14. The rich detail of cultural symbol systems.

    PubMed

    Read, Dwight W

    2014-08-01

    The goal of forming a science of intentional behavior requires a more richly detailed account of symbolic systems than is assumed by the authors. Cultural systems are not simply the equivalent in the ideational domain of culture of the purported Baldwin Effect in the genetic domain.

  15. Markov chain Monte Carlo method without detailed balance.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Hidemaro; Todo, Synge

    2010-09-17

    We present a specific algorithm that generally satisfies the balance condition without imposing the detailed balance in the Markov chain Monte Carlo. In our algorithm, the average rejection rate is minimized, and even reduced to zero in many relevant cases. The absence of the detailed balance also introduces a net stochastic flow in a configuration space, which further boosts up the convergence. We demonstrate that the autocorrelation time of the Potts model becomes more than 6 times shorter than that by the conventional Metropolis algorithm. Based on the same concept, a bounce-free worm algorithm for generic quantum spin models is formulated as well.

  16. Tile-based Level of Detail for the Parallel Age

    SciTech Connect

    Niski, K; Cohen, J D

    2007-08-15

    Today's PCs incorporate multiple CPUs and GPUs and are easily arranged in clusters for high-performance, interactive graphics. We present an approach based on hierarchical, screen-space tiles to parallelizing rendering with level of detail. Adapt tiles, render tiles, and machine tiles are associated with CPUs, GPUs, and PCs, respectively, to efficiently parallelize the workload with good resource utilization. Adaptive tile sizes provide load balancing while our level of detail system allows total and independent management of the load on CPUs and GPUs. We demonstrate our approach on parallel configurations consisting of both single PCs and a cluster of PCs.

  17. Identification of Biomarker Genes To Predict Biodegradation of 1,4-Dioxane

    PubMed Central

    Gedalanga, Phillip B.; Pornwongthong, Peerapong; Mora, Rebecca; Chiang, Sheau-Yun Dora; Baldwin, Brett; Ogles, Dora

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase gene targets in Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 were evaluated for their use as biomarkers to identify the potential for 1,4-dioxane biodegradation in pure cultures and environmental samples. Our studies using laboratory pure cultures and industrial activated sludge samples suggest that the presence of genes associated with dioxane monooxygenase, propane monooxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase are promising indicators of 1,4-dioxane biotransformation; however, gene abundance was insufficient to predict actual biodegradation. A time course gene expression analysis of dioxane and propane monooxygenases in Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 and mixed communities in wastewater samples revealed important associations with the rates of 1,4-dioxane removal. In addition, transcripts of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes were upregulated during biodegradation, although only the aldehyde dehydrogenase was significantly correlated with 1,4-dioxane concentrations. Expression of the propane monooxygenase demonstrated a time-dependent relationship with 1,4-dioxane biodegradation in P. dioxanivorans CB1190, with increased expression occurring after over 50% of the 1,4-dioxane had been removed. While the fraction of P. dioxanivorans CB1190-like bacteria among the total bacterial population significantly increased with decrease in 1,4-dioxane concentrations in wastewater treatment samples undergoing active biodegradation, the abundance and expression of monooxygenase-based biomarkers were better predictors of 1,4-dioxane degradation than taxonomic 16S rRNA genes. This study illustrates that specific bacterial monooxygenase and dehydrogenase gene targets together can serve as effective biomarkers for 1,4-dioxane biodegradation in the environment. PMID:24632253

  18. RCAN1-4 is a thyroid cancer growth and metastasis suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chaojie; Saji, Motoyasu; Justiniano, Steven E.; Yusof, Adlina Mohd; Zhang, Xiaoli; Yu, Lianbo; Fernández, Soledad; Wakely, Paul; La Perle, Krista; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Pohlman, Neal

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis suppressors are key regulators of tumor growth, invasion, and metastases. Loss of metastasis suppressors has been associated with aggressive tumor behaviors and metastatic progression. We previously showed that regulator of calcineurin 1, isoform 4 (RCAN1-4) was upregulated by the KiSS1 metastatic suppression pathway and could inhibit cell motility when overexpressed in cancer cells. To test the effects of endogenous RCAN1-4 loss on thyroid cancer in vivo, we developed RCAN1-4 knockdown stable cells. Subcutaneous xenograft models demonstrated that RCAN1-4 knockdown promotes tumor growth. Intravenous metastasis models demonstrated that RCAN1-4 loss promotes tumor metastases to the lungs and their subsequent growth. Finally, stable induction of RCAN1-4 expression reduced thyroid cancer cell growth and invasion. Microarray analysis predicted that nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 3 (NFE2L3) was a pivotal downstream effector of RCAN1-4. NFE2L3 overexpression was shown to be necessary for RCAN1-4–mediated enhanced growth and invasiveness and NEF2L3 overexpression independently increased cell invasion. In human samples, NFE2L3 was overexpressed in TCGA thyroid cancer samples versus normal tissues and NFE2L3 overexpression was demonstrated in distant metastasis samples from thyroid cancer patients. In conclusion, we provide the first evidence to our knowledge that RCAN1-4 is a growth and metastasis suppressor in vivo and that it functions in part through NFE2L3. PMID:28289712

  19. Lymphocyte responses to DR1/4 restricted peptides in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, M A; Watson, L; Geursen, A; Tan, P L

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether analog and unrelated DR1/4 binding peptides alter DR1/4 restricted responses of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS--PBL from 25 patients with RA and 12 healthy controls were cultured with DR1/4 restricted peptides of the influenza haemagglutinin, amino acids 307-319 (HA) and matrix proteins, amino acids 17-29 (IM). Responses were determined by 3H-thymidine uptake proliferation assays and limiting dilution analysis. Competitor peptides were analogs HA-R312 and HA-K313 differing from HA by one amino acid at the 312 or 313 position respectively or unrelated peptides which bind to DR1/4. RESULTS--The responses of eight patients with RA to the two stimulatory influenza peptides did not differ significantly from controls and this was confirmed by the frequency estimate of T cells in PBL which responded to HA (mean frequency: 1 in 9.0 x 10(4), n = 5, in DR1/4+ RA patients, 1 in 7.6 x 10(4), n = 5, in DR1/4+ healthy controls). DR1/4 binding analogs of the HA peptide inhibited HA specific peptide responses of PBL from patients with RA and controls. Inhibition was also detected with unrelated peptides which bind to DR1/4 but to which the individual did not respond. CONCLUSION--Similar responses to two DR1/4 restricted peptides were observed in patients with RA and controls. Both antigen analog- and unrelated peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (MHC) can result in the inhibition of antigen specific responses in multi-clonal human lymphocyte populations. However, an analog peptide may be stimulatory in some individuals. These results provide some initial data for the development of a rational approach to MHC-specific immunomodulation in rheumatoid arthritis. Images PMID:8154934

  20. Detailed thermal-hydraulic computation into a containment building

    SciTech Connect

    Caruso. A.; Flour, I.; Simonin, O.

    1995-09-01

    This paper deals with numerical predictions of the influence of water sprays upon stratifications into a containment building using a two-dimensional two-phase flow code. Basic equations and closure assumptions are briefly presented. A test case in a situation involving spray evaporation is first detailed to illustrate the validation step. Then results are presented for a compressible recirculating flow into a containment building with condensation phenomena.

  1. Experimental aerodynamic characteristics of two V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft configurations at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P.; Durston, D. A.; Lummus, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted to measure the aerodynamic characteristics of two horizontal attitude takeoff and landing V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft concepts. In one concept, a jet diffuser ejector was used for the vertical lift system; the other used a remote augmentation lift system (RALS). Wind tunnel tests to investigate the aerodynamic uncertainties and to establish a data base for these types of concepts were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.2 to 2.0. The present report covers tests, conducted in the 11 foot transonic wind tunnel, for Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.4. Detailed effects of varying the angle of attack (up to 27 deg), angle of sideslip (-4 deg to +8 deg), Mach number, Reynolds number, and configuration buildup were investigated. In addition, the effects of wing trailing edge flap deflections, canard incidence, and vertical tail deflections were explored. Variable canard longitudinal location and different shapes of the inboard nacelle body strakes were also investigated.

  2. An Investigation of Placement and Type of Seductive Details: The Primacy Effect of Seductive Details on Text Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Emily; Skinner, Christopher H.; Davis-Richards, Kai; Saudargas, Richard; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Seductive details are interesting, but sometimes irrelevant to the target material present in texts and lectures. In the current study, 388 undergraduate students read six paragraphs describing Sigmund Freud's psychosexual stages (i.e., target material). Participants in four groups also read one of two biographical paragraphs. The biographical…

  3. 1,4-Benzodiazepine drugs adsorption on the Ag colloidal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cîntã, S.; Iliescu, T.; Astilean, S.; David, L.; Cozar, O.; Kiefer, W.

    1999-05-01

    The adsorption behaviour in the SERS complex of diazepam (7-chloro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-3-dihydro-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one) and nitrazepam (1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-5-phenyl-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one) with the Ag colloidal particles is reported and discussed. In both cases, the CN bond vibration of the 1,4-benzodiazepine is strongly affected by adsorption and enhanced. The SERS system of Ag colloid with diazepam or nitrazepam allow the recognition of the drug sample at concentration of 10 -7 mol l -1.

  4. Synthesis and antiinflammatory activity of 6-Acylsubstituted benzo-1,4-dioxanes and dihydrobenzopyrans

    SciTech Connect

    Daukshas, V.K.; Brukshtus, A.B.; Gaidyalis, P.G.; Pyatrauskas, O.Yu.; Udrenaite, E.B.

    1986-07-01

    6-Acylsubstituted benzo-1,4-dioxanes and dihydrobenzopyrans were synthesized by the Friedel-Crafts reaction by the acylation of benzo-1,4-dioxane or corresponding dihydrobenzopyran with an acid chloride in the presence of anhydrous AlCl/sub 3/; the ketone was obtained by the hydrogenation of the chalcone using Raney nickel. The antiinflammatory activity was studied on experimental models of carragheen and bentonite edema of the foot of white rats. Results indicate that derivatives of benzo-1,4-dioxane and dihydrobenzopyran of the type studied show promise as antiinflammatory agents.

  5. Hydrogen consentration meter utilizing a diffusion tube composed of 2 1/4 C r

    DOEpatents

    Roy, Prodyot; Sandusky, David W.; Hartle, Robert T.

    1979-01-01

    A diffusion tube hydrogen meter for improving the sensitivity and response time for the measurement of hydrogen in liquid sodium. The improved hydrogen meter has a composite membrane composed of pure nickel sleeve fitted, for example, over a 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel or niobium diffusion tube. Since the hydrogen permeation rate through 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steels is a factor of four higher than pure nickel, and the permeation rate of hydrogen through niobium is two orders of magnitude greater than the 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, this results in a decrease in response time and an increase in the sensitivity.

  6. L-proline-catalyzed synthesis of highly functionalized multisubstituted 1,4-dihydropyridines.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huanfeng; Mai, Ronghuan; Cao, Hua; Zhu, Qiuhua; Liu, Xiaohang

    2009-12-07

    Highly functionalized multisubstituted 1,4-dihydropyridines 5 have been concisely synthesized in moderate to good yields via L-proline-catalyzed one-pot multicomponent reactions (MCRs) of alkynoates or alkynones 1, amines 2, beta-dicarbonyl compounds 3 and aldehydes 4 under mild conditions. The MCR process involves hydroamination/Knoevenagel condensation/Michael-type addition/intramolecular cyclization processes and leads to the formation of 1,4-dihydropyridines 5. The molecular structure of 5ckaa was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. This method is energy saving and environmentally friendly, providing easy access to diverse multisubstituted polyfunctional 1,4-dihydropyridines.

  7. Processable, high temperature polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and bis-dienes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1988-01-01

    1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene reacts with various anthracene end-capped polyimide oligomers to form Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, and have molecular weights of approximately 21,000 to 32,000. These resins exhibit lower weight loss in air than in nitrogen. This is suggested to be due to dehydration (loss of water ranges from 2 to 5 percent) at temperatures of 390 to 400 C to give thermooxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone. Because of their high softening points and good thermooxidative stability, the polymers have potential as processable, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications.

  8. Addition polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and Bis-dienes: Processable resins for high temperature application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1987-01-01

    1,4,5,8-Tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene reacts with various anthracene endcapped polyimide oligomers to form Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, and have molecular weights of approximately 21,000 to 32,000. Interestingly, these resins appear to be more stable in air then in nitrogen. This is shown to be due to a unique dehydration (loss of water ranges from 2 to 5 percent) at temperatures of 390 to 400 C to give thermo-oxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone. Because of their high softening points and good thermo-oxidative stability, the polymers have potential as processible, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications.

  9. Heats of Formation for CF(sub n) (n = 1 - 4), CF(sup +, sub n) (n = 1 - 4), and CF(sup -, sub n) (n = 1 - 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Accurate heats of formation are computed for CF(sub n) (n = 1 - 4), CF(sup +, sub n) (n = 1 - 4), and CF(sup -, sub n) (n = 1 - 3). The geometries and vibrational frequencies are determined at the B3LYP level of theory. The energetics are determined at the CCSD(T) level of theory. Basis set limit values are obtained by extrapolation. In those cases where the CCSD(T) calculations become prohibitively large, the basis set extrapolation is performed at the MP2 level. The temperature dependence of the heat of formation, heat capacity, and entropy are computed for the temperature range 300 to 4000 K and fit to a polynomial.

  10. Resistance of medical gloves to permeation by methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), and 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDMA).

    PubMed

    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin; Eystein Ruyter, I

    2003-01-01

    Gloves afford hand protection by minimizing skin contact. The effectiveness of medical gloves to protect against permeation of the monomers, methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), and 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDMA), was assessed focusing on permeation rates and degradation of glove materials caused by monomer contact. Fifteen different brands of gloves were tested using a European Standard procedure. Surface images of glove materials before and after exposure to the monomer mixture were obtained using a scanning electron microscope. The standard is not applicable as the only method for estimating the safety of gloves, but it is useful as guideline together with the cumulative permeation of acrylic monomers. Monomer contact on the outside resulted in substantial swelling of most glove materials, and structure changes of the inside surface.

  11. Kinetics and mechanism of auto- and copper-catalyzed oxidation of 1,4-naphthohydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiu; Miller, Christopher J; Pham, A Ninh; Waite, T David

    2014-06-01

    Although quinones represent a class of organic compounds that may exert toxic effects both in vitro and in vivo, the molecular mechanisms involved in quinone species toxicity are still largely unknown, especially in the presence of transition metals, which may both induce the transformation of the various quinone species and result in generation of harmful reactive oxygen species. In this study, the oxidation of 1,4-naphthohydroquinone (NH2Q) in the absence and presence of nanomolar concentrations of Cu(II) in 10 mM NaCl solution over a pH range of 6.5-7.5 has been investigated, with detailed kinetic models developed to describe the predominant mechanisms operative in these systems. In the absence of copper, the apparent oxidation rate of NH2Q increased with increasing pH and initial NH2Q concentration, with concomitant oxygen consumption and peroxide generation. The doubly dissociated species, NQ(2-), has been shown to be the reactive species with regard to the one-electron oxidation by O2 and comproportionation with the quinone species, both generating the semiquinone radical (NSQ(·-)). The oxidation of NSQ(·-) by O2 is shown to be the most important pathway for superoxide (O2(·-)) generation with a high intrinsic rate constant of 1.0×10(8)M(-1)s(-1). Both NSQ(·-) and O2(·-) served as chain-propagating species in the autoxidation of NH2Q. Cu(II) is capable of catalyzing the oxidation of NH2Q in the presence of O2 with the oxidation also accelerated by increasing the pH. Both the uncharged (NH2Q(0)) and the mono-anionic (NHQ(-)) species were found to be the kinetically active forms, reducing Cu(II) with an intrinsic rate constant of 4.0×10(4) and 1.2×10(7)M(-1)s(-1), respectively. The presence of O2 facilitated the catalytic role of Cu(II) by rapidly regenerating Cu(II) via continuous oxidation of Cu(I) and also by efficient removal of NSQ(·-) resulting in the generation of O2(·-). The half-cell reduction potentials of various redox couples at neutral p

  12. A gene from the cellulose synthase-like C family encodes a β-1,4 glucan synthase

    PubMed Central

    Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; Lerouxel, Olivier; Drakakaki, Georgia; Alonso, Ana P.; Liepman, Aaron H.; Keegstra, Kenneth; Raikhel, Natasha; Wilkerson, Curtis G.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the central role of xyloglucan (XyG) in plant cell wall structure and function, important details of its biosynthesis are not understood. To identify the gene(s) responsible for synthesizing the β-1,4 glucan backbone of XyG, we exploited a property of nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) seed development. During the last stages of nasturtium seed maturation, a large amount of XyG is deposited as a reserve polysaccharide. A cDNA library was produced from mRNA isolated during the deposition of XyG, and partial sequences of 10,000 cDNA clones were determined. A single member of the C subfamily from the large family of cellulose synthase-like (CSL) genes was found to be overrepresented in the cDNA library. Heterologous expression of this gene in the yeast Pichia pastoris resulted in the production of a β-1,4 glucan, confirming that the CSLC protein has glucan synthase activity. The Arabidopsis CSLC4 gene, which is the gene with the highest sequence similarity to the nasturtium CSL gene, is coordinately expressed with other genes involved in XyG biosynthesis. These and other observations provide a compelling case that the CSLC gene family encode proteins that synthesize the XyG backbone. PMID:17488821

  13. P1 Trisaccharide (Galα1,4Galβ1,4GlcNAc) Synthesis by Enzyme Glycosylation Reactions Using Recombinant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ziye; Lu, Yuquan; Zhang, Jianbo; Pardee, Keith; Wang, Peng George

    2003-01-01

    The frequency of Escherichia coli infection has lead to concerns over pathogenic bacteria in our food supply and a demand for therapeutics. Glycolipids on gut cells serve as receptors for the Shiga-like toxin produced by E. coli. Oligosaccharide moiety analogues of these glycolipids can compete with receptors for the toxin, thus acting as antibacterials. An enzymatic synthesis of the P1 trisaccharide (Galα1,4Galβ1,4GlcNAc), one of the oligosaccharide analogues, was assessed in this study. In the proposed synthetic pathway, UDP-glucose was generated from sucrose with an Anabaena sp. sucrose synthase and then converted with an E. coli UDP-glucose 4-epimerase to UDP-galactose. Two molecules of galactose were linked to N-acetylglucosamine subsequently with a Helicobacter pylori β-l,4-galactosyltransferase and a Neisseria meningitidis α-1,4-galactosyltransferase to produce one molecule of P1 trisaccharide. The four enzymes were coexpressed in a single genetically engineered E. coli strain that was then permeabilized and used to catalyze the enzymatic reaction. P1 trisaccharide was accumulated up to 50 mM (5.4 g in a 200-ml reaction volume), with a 67% yield based on the consumption of N-acetylglucosamine. This study provides an efficient approach for the preparative-scale synthesis of P1 trisaccharide with recombinant bacteria. PMID:12676690

  14. A 3.1-4.8 GHz CMOS receiver for MB-OFDM UWB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guang, Yang; Wang, Yao; Jiangwei, Yin; Renliang, Zheng; Wei, Li; Ning, Li; Junyan, Ren

    2009-01-01

    An integrated fully differential ultra-wideband CMOS receiver for 3.1-4.8 GHz MB-OFDM systems is presented. A gain controllable low noise amplifier and a merged quadrature mixer are integrated as the RF front-end. Five order Gm-C type low pass filters and VGAs are also integrated for both I and Q IF paths in the receiver. The ESD protected chip is fabricated in a Jazz 0.18 μm RF CMOS process and achieves a maximum total voltage gain of 65 dB, an AGC range of 45 dB with about 6 dB/step, an averaged total noise figure of 6.4 to 8.8 dB over 3 bands and an in-band IIP3 of -5.1 dBm. The receiver occupies 2.3 mm2 and consumes 110 mA from a 1.8 V supply including test buffers and a digital module.

  15. Unaltered cosmic spherules in a 1.4-Gyr-old sandstone from Finland.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, A; Greshake, A; Pesonen, L J; Pihlaja, P

    1998-09-10

    Micrometeorites-submillimetre-sized particles derived from asteroids and comets-occur in significant quantities in deep sea sediments, and the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica. The most abundant micrometeorites are cosmic spherules, which contain nickel-rich spinels that were crystallized and oxidized during atmospheric entry, therefore recording the oxygen content in the uppermost atmosphere. But the use of micrometeorites for detecting past changes in the flux of incoming extraterrestrial matter, and as probes of the evolution of the atmosphere, has been hampered by the fact that most objects with depositional ages higher than 0.5 Myr show severe chemical alteration. Here we report the discovery of unaltered cosmic spherules in a 1.4-Gyr-old sandstone (red bed) from Finland. From this we infer that red beds, a common lithology in the Earth's history, may contain substantial unbiased populations of fossil micrometeorites. The study of such populations would allow systematic research on variations in the micrometeorite flux from the early Proterozoic era to recent times (a time span of about 2.5 Gyr), and could help to better constrain the time when the atmospheric oxygen content was raised to its present level.

  16. T cells deficient in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor are resistant to apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, T; Marks, A R

    1997-01-01

    The type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1) calcium release channel is present on the endoplasmic reticulum of most cell types. T lymphocytes which have been made deficient in IP3R1 lack detectable IP3-induced intracellular calcium release and exhibit defective signaling via the T-cell receptor (TCR) (T. Jayaraman, E. Ondriasova, K. Ondrias, D. Harnick, and A. R. Marks, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:6007-6011, 1995). We now show that IP3R1-deficient T cells are resistant to apoptosis induced by dexamethasone, TCR stimulation, ionizing radiation, and Fas. Resistance to TCR-mediated apoptosis in IP3R1-deficient cells is reversed by pharmacologically raising cytoplasmic calcium levels. TCR-mediated apoptosis can be induced in calcium-free media, indicating that extracellular calcium influx is not required. These findings suggest that intracellular calcium release via the IP3R1 is a critical mediator of apoptosis. PMID:9154798

  17. DOT++: the Dutch Open Telescope with 1.4-m aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettonvil, Felix C.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Sütterlin, Peter; Rutten, Robert J.; Jägers, Aswin P.; Snik, Frans

    2004-10-01

    The Dutch Open Telescope (DOT; http://dot.astro.uu.nl) on La Palma is a revolutionary open solar telescope, on an excellent site, on top of a transparent steel tower, and uses natural air flow to minimize local seeing. The aim is long-duration high-resolution imaging with a multi-wavelength camera system. In order to achieve this, the DOT is equipped with a diffraction limited imaging system and uses the speckle reconstruction technique for removing the remaining atmospheric turbulence. The DOT optical system is simple and consists currently of a 0.45m/F4.44 parabolic mirror and a 10x enlargement lens system. We present our plans to increase the aperture of the DOT from 0.45m to 1.4m. The mirror support and telescope top shall be redesigned, but telescope, tower, multi-wavelength camera system and speckle system remain intact. The new optical design permits user selectable choice between angular resolution and field size, as well as transversal pupil shift introducing the possibility to use obstruction free apertures up to 65cm. The design will include a low order AO system, which improves the speckle S/N substantially during moderate seeing conditions.

  18. Nicotinic acid is a common regulator of heat-sensing TRPV1-4 ion channels.

    PubMed

    Ma, Linlin; Lee, Bo Hyun; Clifton, Heather; Schaefer, Saul; Zheng, Jie

    2015-03-10

    Nicotinic acid (NA, a.k.a. vitamin B3 or niacin) can reduce blood cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins whereas increase high-density lipoproteins. However, when NA is used to treat dyslipidemias, it causes a strong side effect of cutaneous vasodilation, commonly called flushing. A recent study showed that NA may cause flushing by lowering activation threshold temperature of the heat-sensitive capsaicin receptor TRPV1 ion channel, leading to its activation at body temperature. The finding calls into question whether NA might also interact with the homologous heat-sensitive TRPV2-4 channels, particularly given that TRPV3 and TRPV4 are abundantly expressed in keratinocytes of the skin where much of the flushing response occurs. We found that NA indeed potentiated TRPV3 while inhibited TRPV2 and TRPV4. Consistent with these gating effects, NA lowered the heat-activation threshold of TRPV3 but elevated that of TRPV4. We further found that activity of TRPV1 was substantially prolonged by extracellular NA, which may further enhance the direct activation effect. Consistent with the broad gating effect on TRPV1-4 channels, evidence from the present study hints that NA may share the same activation pathway as 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), a common agonist for these TRPV channels. These findings shed new light on the molecular mechanism underlying NA regulation of TRPV channels.

  19. Density Functional Study of 2-[(R-Phenyl)amine]-1,4-naphthalenediones.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sandoval, Z; Calaminici, P; Köster, A M; Lotina-Hennsen, B; King-Díaz, B; Macías-Ruvalcaba, N; Aguilar-Martínez, M; Jiménez-Estrada, M

    2007-05-01

    The molecular and electronic structures of a series of 2-[(R-phenyl)amine]-1,4-naphthalenediones (R = m-Me, p-Me, m-Et, p-CF3, p-Hex, p-Et, m-F, m-Cl, p-OMe, p-COMe, p-Bu, m-COOH, p-Cl, p-COOH, p-Br, m-NO2, m-CN, and p-NO2) and their anions are investigated in the framework of density functional theory. The calculations are of all-electron type using a double zeta valence polarization basis set optimized for density functional theory methods. The theoretical study shows that all compounds are nonplanar. The nonplanarity can be rationalized in terms of occupied π orbitals. A linear correlation between the measured half-wave potentials and the calculated gas-phase electron affinities is found. It holds for local as well as generalized gradient corrected functionals. Structural parameters, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and adiabatic and vertical electron affinities as well as orbital and spin density plots of the studied compounds are presented.

  20. Functional and structural analyses of a 1,4-β-endoglucanase from Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guizhi; Li, Qian; Shang, Na; Huang, Jian-Wen; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Liu, Weidong; Zheng, Yingying; Han, Xu; Chen, Yun; Chen, Chun-Chi; Jin, Jian; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2016-05-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a saprotrophic white-rot fungus which contains a rich set of cellulolytic enzymes. Here, we screened an array of potential 1,4-β-endoglucanases from G. lucidum based on the gene annotation library and found that one candidate gene, GlCel5A, exhibits CMC-hydrolyzing activity. The recombinant GlCel5A protein expressed in Pichia pastoris is able to hydrolyze CMC and β-glucan but not xylan and mannan. The enzyme exhibits optimal activity at 60°C and pH 3-4, and retained 50% activity at 80 and 90°C for at least 15 and 10min. The crystal structure of GlCel5A and its complex with cellobiose, solved at 2.7 and 2.86Å resolution, shows a classical (β/α)8 TIM-barrel fold as seen in other members of glycoside hydrolase family 5. The complex structure contains a cellobiose molecule in the +1 and +2 subsites, and reveals the interactions with the positive sites of the enzyme. Collectively, the present work provides the first comprehensive characterization of an endoglucanase from G. lucidum that possesses properties for industrial applications, and strongly encourages further studying in the cellulolytic enzyme system of G. lucidum.

  1. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of the Salmonella group E1 core trisaccharide using a recombinant beta-(1-->4)-mannosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Thorson, J S

    1999-06-30

    The chemical synthesis of the bacterial O-antigen from Salmonella serogroup E1, 3-O-(4-O-beta-D-mannopyranosyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-alpha-D-galactos e, presents a particular challenge because it contains a beta-(1-->4) mannosidic linkage to L-rhamnose. We report a chemoenzymatic synthesis of this crucial antigenic material which culminates in the enzymatic formation of the critical beta-mannosyl connection catalyzed by Salmonella GDP-alpha-D-Man:alpha Rha1-->3 alpha Gal-PP-Und beta-(1-->4)-mannosyltransferase (ManT beta 4). In comparison with previous synthetic routes, this method is advantageous since it utilizes intermediates, available in significant yield, which can be readily derivatized from the reducing end to present flexibility for analog construction, while the enzymatic construction of the Man1-->4Rha glycosidic bond is both rapid and occurs in high yield. Furthermore, the reported spectroscopic and enzymatic structural characterization of the trisaccharide product furnishes the first indisputable functional link between wbaO and ManT beta 4 and clearly sets the stage for the future mechanistic study and exploitation of this fascinating glycocatalyst.

  2. Clinical relevance of trans 1,4-polyisoprene aging degradation on the longevity of root canal treatment.

    PubMed

    Maniglia-Ferreira, Cláudio; Valverde, Guilherme Bönecker; Silva, João Batista Araújo; de Paula, Regina Célia Monteiro; Feitosa, Judith Pessoa Andrade; de Souza-Filho, Francisco José

    2007-01-01

    This in vivo study investigated the time of degradation of root filling material (trans 1,4-polyisoprene) retrieved from endodontically treated teeth and correlated the occurrence of degradation with the longevity of endodontics. Thirty-six root-filled teeth with different filling times (2 to 30 years) and with and without periapical lesions were selected. All teeth presented clinical indication for root canal retreatment. The association among filling time, presence of periapical lesion and root filling material degradation was investigated. Root filling samples were retrieved from the root canals using a Hedströ m file without solvent. The trans 1,4-polyisoprene was isolated by root filling solubilization in chloroform followed by filtration and centrifugation. GPC and FT-IR were the analytical techniques utilized. Degradation of trans 1,4-polyisoprene occurred with time, as a slow process. It is an oxidative process, and production of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in the residual polymer were observed. Statistically significant decrease of molar mass was observed after 5 (p=0.0001) and 15 (p=0.01) years in teeth with and without periapical lesion, respectively. Bacteria participated in polymer degradation. Gutta-percha aging was proven an important factor for the long-term success of endodontic treatment. The findings of the present study showed that, after 15 years, polymer weight loss may decrease the capacity of the filling mass to seal the root canal space and prevent re-infection, thus compromising significantly the longevity of root canal therapy.

  3. Specificity and detail in autobiographical memory: Same or different constructs?

    PubMed

    Kyung, Yoonhee; Yanes-Lukin, Paula; Roberts, John E

    2016-01-01

    Research on autobiographical memory has focused on whether memories are coded as specific (i.e., describe a single event that happened at a particular time and place). Although some theory and research suggests that the amount of detail in autobiographical memories reflects a similar underlying construct as memory specificity, past research has not investigated whether these variables converge. Therefore, the present study compared the proportion of specific memories and the amount of detail embedded in memory responses to cue words. Results demonstrated that memory detail and proportion of specific memories were not correlated with each other and showed different patterns of association with other conceptually relevant variables. When responses to neutral cue words were examined in multiple linear and logistic regression analyses, the proportion of specific memories uniquely predicted less depressive symptoms, low emotional avoidance, lower emotion reactivity, better executive control and lower rumination, whereas the amount of memory detail uniquely predicted the presence of depression diagnosis, as well as greater depressive symptoms, subjective stress, emotion reactivity and rumination. Findings suggest that the ability to retrieve specific memories and the tendency to retrieve detailed personal memories reflect different constructs that have different implications in the development of emotional distress.

  4. Electronic Structure of PA^{n+; n=1-4} Ions: Looking for Clarity in Actinide Electronic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrozik, Michael; Pitzer, Russell M.; Bursten, Bruce E.

    2009-06-01

    Since the identification of f-orbital contribution to the bonding in PaO^{+}, investigation into Pa cations have hoped to characterize as many of the electronic states possible.^{1} Electronic states of the Pa^{n+; n=1-4} ions have been investigated using multi-reference spin-orbit configuration interaction (MR-SOCI). Each additional electron in the series adds increased complexity and difficulty in evaluation of electronic states. Comparison of results with data at NIST and its institutional analog in France, or lack there of, indicate that L-S coupling does not adequately describe all the complexity present in these ions. Instead of L-S or a {ω-ω} coupling we propose that states of the Pa^{n+; n=1-4} ions would be better described using a J-j labeling of states. (1) Gibson et. al. Organometallics 2007, 26, 3947-3956.

  5. Smoking Costs World $1.4 Trillion a Year in Disease, Lost Productivity

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163313.html Smoking Costs World $1.4 Trillion a Year in Disease, Lost ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly 6 percent of the world's health-care spending is tied to smoking, a ...

  6. Multiple Views of X1.4 Solar Flare on July 12, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows the July 12, 2012 X1.4 class solar flare in a variety of wavelength; 131- Teal colored, 335 - blue colored, 171 - yellow colored and finally a combined wavelength view. All video w...

  7. Side Elevation; 1/4 Plans of Floor Framing, Floor Planking, Roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation; 1/4 Plans of Floor Framing, Floor Planking, Roof Framing and Roof; Longitudinal Section, Cross Section, End Elevation - Eames Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  8. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-1 - Site identification as potentially acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-1 Site identification... available, and will be supplemented in some instances by surface investigations and conceptual...

  9. A new and efficient procedure for the synthesis of hexahydropyrimidine-fused 1,4-naphthoquinones

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Marcelo Isidoro P; Campos, Vinícius R; Resende, Jackson A L C; Silva, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Summary A new and efficient method for the synthesis of hexahydropyrimidine-fused 1,4-naphthoquinones in one step with high yields from the reaction of lawsone with 1,3,5-triazinanes was developed. PMID:26425181

  10. Design and synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives as BACE-1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Jeong; Cho, Joong-Heui; Im, Isak; Lee, So-Deok; Jang, Ji-Yeon; Oh, Yu-Min; Jung, Yong-Keun; Jeon, Eun-Seok; Kim, Yong-Chul

    2010-06-01

    BACE-1 has been shown to be an attractive therapeutic target in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using a 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) scaffold, we synthesized new inhibitors of BACE-1 by modifying the known BACE inhibitor 2 containing a hydroxyethylamine (HEA) motif. Using structure-based drug design based on computer-aided molecular docking, the isophthalamide ring of 2 was replaced with a 1,4-dihydropyridine ring as a brain-targeting strategy. Several of the new dihydropyridine derivatives were synthesized and their BACE-1-inhibitory activities were evaluated using a cell-based, reporter gene assay system that measures the cleavage of alkaline phosphatase (AP)-APP fusion protein by BACE-1. Most of the 1,4-DHP analogs showed BACE-1-inhibitory activities with IC50 values in the range 8-30 microM, suggesting that the 1,4-DHP skeleton may be utilized to develop brain-targeting BACE-1 inhibitors.

  11. VIEW OF ROOM 41A, LOOKING TOWARDS THE SIDES 1/4 CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ROOM 41A, LOOKING TOWARDS THE SIDES 1/4 CORNER OF THE MLP - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  12. 26 CFR 1.4-3 - Husband and wife filing separate returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Husband and wife filing separate returns. 1.4-3... TAXES Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-3 Husband and wife filing separate returns. (a) In general. If the... his wife is less than $5,000, and if each is required to file a return, the husband and the wife...

  13. Production and identification of wheat - Agropyron cristatum (1.4P) alien translocation lines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Hua; Luan, Yang; Wang, Jing-Chang; Wang, Xiao-Guang; Su, Jun-Ji; Zhang, Jin-Peng; Yang, Xin-Ming; Gao, Ai-Nong; Li, Li-Hui

    2010-06-01

    The P genome of Agropyron Gaertn., a wild relative of wheat, contains an abundance of desirable genes that can be utilized as genetic resources to improve wheat. In this study, wheat - Aegilops cylindrica Host gametocidal chromosome 2C addition lines were crossed with wheat - Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. disomic addition line accession II-21 with alien recombinant chromosome (1.4)P. We successfully induced wheat - A. cristatum alien chromosomal translocations for the first time. The frequency of translocation in the progeny was 3.75%, which was detected by molecular markers and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). The translocation chromosomes were identified by dual-color GISH /fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The P genomic DNA was used as probe to detect the (1.4)P chromosome fragment, and pHvG39, pAs1, or pSc119.2 repeated sequences were used as probes to identify wheat translocated chromosomes. The results showed that six types of translocations were identified in the three wheat - A. cristatum alien translocation lines, including the whole arm or terminal portion of a (1.4)P chromosome. The (1.4)P chromosome fragments were translocated to wheat chromosomes 1B, 2B, 5B, and 3D. The breakpoints were located at the centromeres of 1B and 2B, the pericentric locations of 5BS, and the terminals of 5BL and 3DS. In addition, we obtained 12 addition-deletion lines that contained alien A. cristatum chromosome (1.4)P in wheat background. All of these wheat - A. cristatum alien translocation lines and addition-deletion lines would be valuable for identifying A. cristatum chromosome (1.4)P-related genes and providing genetic resources and new germplasm accessions for the genetic improvement of wheat. The specific molecular markers of A. cristatum (1.4)P chromosome have been developed and used to track the (1.4)P chromatin.

  14. Imaging B. anthracis heme catabolism in mice using the IFP1.4 gene reporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Banghe; Robinson, Holly; Wilganowski, Nathaniel; Nobles, Christopher L.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; Maresso, Anthony

    2012-03-01

    B. anthracis is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium which likes all pathogenic bacteria, survive by sequestering heme from its host. To image B. anthracis heme catabolism in vivo, we stably transfect new red excitable fluorescent protein, IFP1.4, that requires the heme catabolism product biliverdin (BV). IFP1.4 reporter has favorable excitation and emission characteristics, which has an absorption peak at 685 nm and an emission peak at 708 nm. Therefore, IFP1.4 reporter can be imaged deeply into the tissue with less contamination from tissue autofluorescence. However, the excitation light "leakage" through optical filters can limit detection and sensitivity of IFP1.4 reporter due to the small Stoke's shift of IFP1.4 fluorescence. To minimize the excitation light leakage, an intensified CCD (ICCD) based infrared fluorescence imaging device was optimized using two band pass filters separated by a focus lens to increase the optical density at the excitation wavelength. In this study, a mouse model (DBA/J2) was first injected with B. anthracis bacteria expressing IFP1.4, 150 μl s.c., on the ventral side of the left thigh. Then mouse was given 250 μl of a 1mM BV solution via I.V. injection. Imaging was conducted as a function of time after infection under light euthanasia, excised tissues were imaged and IFP1.4 fluorescence correlated with standard culture measurements of colony forming units (CFU). The work demonstrates the use of IFP1.4 as a reporter of bacterial utilization of host heme and may provide an important tool for understanding the pathogenesis of bacterial infection and developing new anti-bacterial therapeutics.

  15. Thermal rearrangements in 1,2-poly/1,4-hexadiene/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The work described was carried out to study the thermal rearrangements of two unsaturated diene polymers - 1,2-poly(cis-1,4-hexadiene) (CHD) and 1,2-poly(trans-1.4-hexadiene) (THD). It is shown that both CHD and THD have a predominatly 1,8 diene structure and seem to cyclize mainly by the (2 + 2) thermal cycloaddition of double bonds, and to a small extent also by sigmatropic rearrangement with hydrogen shift.

  16. Physiological and Pathophysiological Insights of Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 Comparison.

    PubMed

    Loussouarn, Gildas; Sternberg, Damien; Nicole, Sophie; Marionneau, Céline; Le Bouffant, Francoise; Toumaniantz, Gilles; Barc, Julien; Malak, Olfat A; Fressart, Véronique; Péréon, Yann; Baró, Isabelle; Charpentier, Flavien

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 α-subunits have been associated with muscular and cardiac channelopathies, respectively. Despite intense research on the structure and function of these channels, a lot of information is still missing to delineate the various physiological and pathophysiological processes underlying their activity at the molecular level. Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 sequences are similar, suggesting structural and functional homologies between the two orthologous channels. This also suggests that any characteristics described for one channel subunit may shed light on the properties of the counterpart channel subunit. In this review article, after a brief clinical description of the muscular and cardiac channelopathies related to Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 mutations, respectively, we compare the knowledge accumulated in different aspects of the expression and function of Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 α-subunits: the regulation of the two encoding genes (SCN4A and SCN5A), the associated/regulatory proteins and at last, the functional effect of the same missense mutations detected in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5. First, it appears that more is known on Nav1.5 expression and accessory proteins. Because of the high homologies of Nav1.5 binding sites and equivalent Nav1.4 sites, Nav1.5-related results may guide future investigations on Nav1.4. Second, the analysis of the same missense mutations in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 revealed intriguing similarities regarding their effects on membrane excitability and alteration in channel biophysics. We believe that such comparison may bring new cues to the physiopathology of cardiac and muscular diseases.

  17. Physiological and Pathophysiological Insights of Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Loussouarn, Gildas; Sternberg, Damien; Nicole, Sophie; Marionneau, Céline; Le Bouffant, Francoise; Toumaniantz, Gilles; Barc, Julien; Malak, Olfat A.; Fressart, Véronique; Péréon, Yann; Baró, Isabelle; Charpentier, Flavien

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 α-subunits have been associated with muscular and cardiac channelopathies, respectively. Despite intense research on the structure and function of these channels, a lot of information is still missing to delineate the various physiological and pathophysiological processes underlying their activity at the molecular level. Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 sequences are similar, suggesting structural and functional homologies between the two orthologous channels. This also suggests that any characteristics described for one channel subunit may shed light on the properties of the counterpart channel subunit. In this review article, after a brief clinical description of the muscular and cardiac channelopathies related to Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 mutations, respectively, we compare the knowledge accumulated in different aspects of the expression and function of Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 α-subunits: the regulation of the two encoding genes (SCN4A and SCN5A), the associated/regulatory proteins and at last, the functional effect of the same missense mutations detected in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5. First, it appears that more is known on Nav1.5 expression and accessory proteins. Because of the high homologies of Nav1.5 binding sites and equivalent Nav1.4 sites, Nav1.5-related results may guide future investigations on Nav1.4. Second, the analysis of the same missense mutations in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 revealed intriguing similarities regarding their effects on membrane excitability and alteration in channel biophysics. We believe that such comparison may bring new cues to the physiopathology of cardiac and muscular diseases. PMID:26834636

  18. Cerebrovascular responsiveness to carbon dioxide in dogs with 1.4% and 2.8% isoflurane.

    PubMed

    McPherson, R W; Briar, J E; Traystman, R J

    1989-05-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) responsiveness to alterations in arterial CO2 tensions (PaCO2) during 1.4% and 2.8% isoflurane anesthesia was assessed. Dogs were initially anesthetized with thiopental (12 mg/kg, iv bolus), their tracheae intubated, after which anesthesia was maintained with 1.4% isoflurane. In eight animals three levels of PaCO2 (25, 40, and 60 mmHg) were studied during 1.4% and 2.8% isoflurane. Mean arterial blood pressure, sagittal sinus pressure, and cerebrospinal fluid pressure were measured and CBF was determined using radiolabeled microspheres. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) was maintained constant at approximately 80 mmHg by inflation of a balloon in the midthoracic aorta. CBF during normocapnia was 70 +/- 14 and 118 +/- 18 ml.min-1.100 g-1 with 1.4% and 2.8% isoflurane, respectively. As PaCO2 was decreased and increased, CBF decreased and increased to 42 +/- 7% and 185 +/- 16% of control, respectively, during 1.4% isoflurane. During 2.8% isoflurane, hypocapnia decreased CBF to 39 +/- 6% of control, but CBF did not increase with hypercapnia. In a second group of animals (n = 8), the effects of changes in CPP during hypercapnia with 1.4% and 2.8% isoflurane were assessed. Increasing CPP approximately 25 mmHg with both 1.4% and 2.8% isoflurane increased CBF but did not change CVR from control. With 1.4% isoflurane, the cerebral vasculature constricts with hypocapnia and dilates with hypercapnia, whereas with 2.8% isoflurane, vasoconstriction to hypocapnia is retained but vasodilation to hypercapnia is absent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. D-glucaro 1,4-lactone and resveratrol as antioxidants in blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Wachowicz, Barbara

    2008-04-01

    The aim of our work was to study the anti-aggregatory and antioxidative effects of natural dietary products, D-glucaro 1,4-lactone (1,4-GL) in combination with phenolic compound resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). Our results in vitro showed that 1,4-GL alone slightly inhibits platelet aggregation induced by thrombin. The combination of resveratrol (0.1 microM) with 0.5 mM of 1,4-GL caused a significant decrease of thrombin-induced platelet aggregation; however separately, neither of studied compound at used concentrations was not effective. When platelets were treated with 1,4-GL (at the concentration of 0.1 mM and higher) and resveratrol (0.1 microM), similar synergistic action of both tested compound on markers of oxidative stress formation was observed. We measured the levels of different specific markers of oxidative stress, e.g., superoxide anion radicals O(2)(-)*, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl group formation. Both tested compounds inhibited also the generation of O(2)(-)* and malondialdehyde that represents enzymatical peroxidation of arachidonic acid leading to thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) formation in platelets after thrombin stimulation. The obtained in vitro results demonstrate that anti-platelet and antioxidative properties of resveratrol may be significantly augmented by another dietary agent such as 1,4-GL, but mechanism synergistic action of these compounds is not yet known.

  20. 1,4-Dialkynylbutatrienes: synthesis, stability, and perspectives in the chemistry of carbo-benzenes.

    PubMed

    Maraval, Valérie; Leroyer, Léo; Harano, Aya; Barthes, Cécile; Saquet, Alix; Duhayon, Carine; Shinmyozu, Teruo; Chauvin, Remi

    2011-04-26

    The π-electron-rich C(8)-conjugated sequence of 1,4-dialkynylbutatrienes is identified as a fragile and fascinating motif occurring in carbo-benzene derivatives, and in Diederich's 1,4-bis(arylethynyl)- or 1,4-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)butatriene "capped" representatives, in particular, in tetraalkynylbutatriene. The family of symmetrical 1,4-dialkynylbutatrienes (E-C≡C)RC=C=C=CR(C≡C-E) is extended to functional caps (E=H, CH(3), C≡CPh, CPh=CHBr, or CPh=CBr(2)) with non-alkynyl substituents at the sp(2) vertices (R=Ph or CF(3)). The targets were selected for their potential in appealing retrosynthetic routes to carbo-benzenes, in which the aromatic C(18) macrocycle would be directly generated by sequential metathesis or reductive coupling processes. The functional 1,4-dialkynylbutrienes were synthesized by either classical methods used for the preparation of generic butatrienes (R'Li/CuX-mediated reductive coupling of gem-dihaloenynes or SnCl(2)/HCl-mediated reduction of 3,6-dioxy-octa-1,4,7-triyne precursors). Their spectroscopic and electrochemical properties are compared and analyzed on the basis of the relative extent of total conjugation.

  1. Toxic effects of 1,4-dichlorobenzene on photosynthesis in Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinhua; Wang, Jie; Feng, Jia; Lv, Junping; Cai, Jin; Liu, Qi; Xie, Shulian

    2016-09-01

    1,4-Dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) is a common organic contaminant in water. To determine the effects of this contaminant on photosynthesis in the freshwater alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa, algal cells were treated with 1,4-DCB at different concentrations for various times, and their photosynthetic pigment contents and chlorophyll fluorescence traits were analyzed. The results showed that 1,4-DCB exerted toxic effects on photosynthesis in C. pyrenoidosa, especially at concentrations exceeding 10 mg/L. The inhibitory effects of 1,4-DCB were time- and concentration-dependent. After treatment with 1,4-DCB (≥10 mg/L), the contents of photosynthetic pigments decreased significantly, the photosystem II reaction center was irreversibly damaged, and the quantum yield of photosystem II decreased significantly. Also, there were sharp decreases in the efficiency of photosynthetic electron transport and energy conversion. Photosystem II became overloaded as the amount of excitation energy distributed to it increased. All of these events weakened the photochemical reaction, and ultimately led to serious inhibition of photosynthesis.

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of some novel 1,4-dihydropyridines as potential antitubercular agents.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Amit; Dodiya, Dipti; Dholariya, Bipin; Kataria, Vipul; Bhuva, Vimal; Shah, Viresh

    2011-11-01

    Recent studies showed that 1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarbamoyl derivatives with lipophilic groups have significant antitubercular activity. In this study, we have synthesized new derivatives of 1,4-dihydropyridines bearing carbmethoxy and carbethoxy group at C-3 and C-5 of the 1,4-dihydropyridine ring. In addition, 1H-pyrazole ring is substituted at C-4 position. These analogues were synthesized by multi-component Hantzsch reaction. The in vitro antitubercular activity of compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37) Rv was evaluated. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration value, 0.02 μg/mL and SI > 500, was found for dimethyl 1,4-dihydro-4-(3-(4-nitrophenyl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2,6-dimethylpyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate 3f, diethyl 1,4-dihydro-4-(3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2,6-dimethylpyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate 4c and diethyl 1,4-dihydro-4-(3-(4-bromophenyl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2,6-dimethyl pyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate 4e, making them more potent than first-line antitubercular drug isoniazid. In addition, these compounds exhibited relatively low cytotoxicity.

  3. Structural concepts and details for seismic design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This manual discusses building and building component behavior during earthquakes, and provides suggested details for seismic resistance which have shown by experience to provide adequate performance during earthquakes. Special design and construction practices are also described which, although they might be common in some high-seismic regions, may not be common in low and moderate seismic-hazard regions of the United States. Special attention is given to describing the level of detailing appropriate for each seismic region. The UBC seismic criteria for all seismic zones is carefully examined, and many examples of connection details are given. The general scope of discussion is limited to materials and construction types common to Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Although the manual is primarily written for professional engineers engaged in performing seismic-resistant design for DOE facilities, the first two chapters, plus the introductory sections of succeeding chapters, contain descriptions which are also directed toward project engineers who authorize, review, or supervise the design and construction of DOE facilities. 88 refs., 188 figs.

  4. Tasmania in Nuna: Witness to a ~1.4 Ga East Antarctica-Laurentia Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpin, J. A.; Mulder, J. A.; Daczko, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    Most recent reconstructions of the supercontinent Nuna juxtapose the North Australian craton, Mawson continent (South Australia-East Antarctica), and Laurentia between 1.6 Ga and 1.3 Ga, but differ in their relative positioning. Tasmania (SE Australia) has not been considered in previous Nuna reconstructions. Prior to late Neoproterozoic rifting, this crustal fragment was likely part of the eastern margin of East Antarctica. The significance of Tasmania's position within Nuna has recently been highlighted with the discovery that the majority of a >10-km-thick marine shelfal package exposed in northwest Tasmania (Rocky Cape Group) was deposited between 1.45 and 1.30 Ga. The detrital zircon signatures of these strata are distinct from other Mesoproterozoic basins in Australia, and instead closely resemble time-equivalent upper parts of the Belt-Purcell Basin of Laurentia, suggesting correlations within Nuna. We investigate the provenance of the Rocky Cape Group quartzites by comparing new detrital zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic data to an extensive compilation of zircon data from Australia, East Antarctica, and Laurentia. Our analysis demonstrates that the Rocky Cape Group is unlikely to have been sourced from any geological terrane exposed in present-day Australia. Instead, zircon isotopic signatures from basement terranes in Laurentia and East Antarctica show striking similarities to the Rocky Cape Group detrital signature. Paleocurrent data indicate a northwest-southeast-trending paleoshoreline
and suggest that the majority of sediment was sourced from Paleoproterozoic crust in SW Laurentia, which was to the southeast (present-day coordinates) of Tasmania. These new data support a SWEAT-like (southwest United States-East Antarctica) configuration for Nuna. We suggest that rifting propagated southward from ca. 1.4 Ga, leaving a thinned continental connection between East Antarctica and southwest Laurentia onto which the lower-middle RCG was deposited prior to 1.3 Ga.

  5. Crystal structures of β-1,4-galactosyltransferase 7 enzyme reveal conformational changes and substrate binding.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Yuko; Ramakrishnan, Boopathy; Qasba, Pradman K

    2013-11-01

    The β-1,4-galactosyltransferase 7 (β4GalT7) enzyme is involved in proteoglycan synthesis. In the presence of a manganese ion, it transfers galactose from UDP-galactose to xylose on a proteoglycan acceptor substrate. We present here the crystal structures of human β4GalT7 in open and closed conformations. A comparison of these crystal structures shows that, upon manganese and UDP or UDP-Gal binding, the enzyme undergoes conformational changes involving a small and a long loop. We also present the crystal structures of Drosophila wild-type β4GalT7 and D211N β4GalT7 mutant enzymes in the closed conformation in the presence of the acceptor substrate xylobiose and the donor substrate UDP-Gal, respectively. To understand the catalytic mechanism, we have crystallized the ternary complex of D211N β4GalT7 mutant enzyme in the presence of manganese with the donor and the acceptor substrates together in the same crystal structure. The galactose moiety of the bound UDP-Gal molecule forms seven hydrogen bonds with the protein molecule. The nonreducing end of the xylose moiety of xylobiose binds to the hydrophobic acceptor sugar binding pocket created by the conformational changes, whereas its extended xylose moiety forms hydrophobic interactions with a Tyr residue. In the ternary complex crystal structure, the nucleophile O4 oxygen atom of the xylose molecule is found in close proximity to the C1 and O5 atoms of the galactose moiety. This is the first time that a Michaelis complex of a glycosyltransferase has been described, and it clearly suggests an SN2 type catalytic mechanism for the β4GalT7 enzyme.

  6. Developmental Expression of Inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate Receptor in the Post-Natal Rat Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Liu, W. J.; Yang, J.

    2015-01-01

    Inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) has been established to be essential for hearing. However, the expression of IP3R in the cochlea in the period of auditory development remains unknown. We investigated the expression of IP3R in the developing rat cochlea using immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We observed its presence in the developing rat cochlea, and changes in IP3R protein expressions from the early post-natal period to adult. At birth (postnatal day 0, P0), IP3R expression was only found in Hensen’s cell. IP3R immunoreactivity first appeared in the sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti at P2. This localization was confirmed by means of double-labeling experiments with Myosin VIIA, a marker for cochlear hair cells. Colocalization of IP3R and Myosin VIIA from P2 to the second post-natal week suggested early expression of IP3R in developing inner and outer hair cells. Claudius’ cells near the spiral ligament were labelled for IP3R from P8 onwards. Transient IP3R expression was observed in the stria vascularis in early post-natal rat from P4 to P8. Spiral ganglion neurons also exhibited weaker IP3R fluorescence signals during post-natal development. The results of RT-PCR demonstrated that all three IP3R isoforms (IP3R1, IP3R2, and IP3R3) were present in rat cochlea during four different developmental stages of cochlea, from P0 to P28. Present immunohistochemical evidence for both change and maintenance of expression of IP3R during post-natal development of the rat cochlea indicated the possible involvement of IP3R-mediated calcium signaling in cochlear development. PMID:26150157

  7. Revisiting the Seductive Details Effect in Multimedia Learning: Context-Dependency of Seductive Details

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Devrim; Doolittle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of context-dependency of seductive details on recall and transfer in multimedia learning environments. Seductive details were interesting yet irrelevant sentences in the instructional text. Two experiments were conducted. The purpose of Experiment 1 was to identify context-dependent and…

  8. DoD Cloud Computing Strategy Needs Implementation Plan and Detailed Waiver Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-04

    specialists to use when acquiring cloud services. The matrix contains 21 issues specific to cloud computing that should be addressed in cloud computing...No. DODIG-2015-045 D E C E M B E R 4 , 2 0 1 4 DoD Cloud Computing Strategy Needs Implementation Plan and Detailed Waiver Process Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DoD Cloud Computing Strategy Needs Implementation Plan and Detailed

  9. RESRAD model presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Faillace, E.; Chen, S.Y.; Wallo, A. III; Williams, W.A.; Peterson, H.; Domotor, S.

    1998-05-01

    RESRAD was one of the multimedia models selected by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to include in its workshop on radiation dose modeling and demonstration of compliance with the radiological criteria for license termination. This paper is a summary of the presentation made at the workshop and focuses on the 10 questions the NRC distributed to all participants prior to the workshop. The code selection criteria, which were solicited by the NRC, for demonstrating compliance with the license termination rule are also included. Among the RESRAD family of codes, RESRAD and RESRAD-BUILD are designed for evaluating radiological contamination in soils and in buildings. Many documents have been published to support the use of these codes. This paper focuses on these two codes. The pathways considered, the databases and parameters used, quality control and quality assurance, benchmarking, verification and validation of these codes, and capabilities as well as limitations of these codes are discussed in detail.

  10. 1,4-Bis(4-bromo-2,6-diisopropyl­phen­yl)-1,4-diaza­buta-1,3-diene

    PubMed Central

    Guzei, Ilia A.; Hill, Nicholas J.; Van Hout, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    The molecule of the title compound, C26H34Br2N2, lies on a crystallographic inversion center and hence the two imine groups are s-trans. The dihedral angle between the central 1,4-diaza­buta-1,3-diene unit and the attached substituted phenyl ring is 88.4 (7)°. The structure features a C—H⋯N close contact. The crystal selected for this study proved to be a non-merohedral twin with a minor component of 21.8 (3)%. PMID:21580146

  11. A real-time screening assay for GIRK1/4 channel blockers.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kenneth B

    2010-12-01

    The cardiac acetylcholine-activated K(+) channel (I(K,Ach)) represents a novel target for drug therapy in the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). This channel is a member of the G-protein-coupled inward rectifier K(+) (GIRK) channel superfamily and is composed of the GIRK1/4 (Kir3.1 and Kir3.4) subunits. The goal of this study was to develop a cell-based screening assay for identifying new blockers of the GIRK1/4 channel. The mouse atrial HL-1 cell line, expressing the GIRK1/4 channel, was plated in 96-well plate format, loaded with the fluorescent membrane potential-sensitive dye bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol (DiBAC(4)(3)) and measured using a fluorescent imaging plate reader (FLIPR). Application of the muscarinic agonist carbachol to the cells caused a rapid, time-dependent decrease in the fluorescent signal, indicative of K(+) efflux through the GIRK1/4 channel (carbachol vs. control solution, Z' factor = 0.5-0.6). The GIRK1/4 channel fluorescent signal was blocked by BaCl(2) and enhanced by increasing the driving force for K(+) across the cell membrane. To test the utility of the assay for screening GIRK1/4 channel blockers, cells were treated with a small compound library of Na(+) and K(+) channel modulators. Analogues of amiloride and propafenone were identified as channel blockers at concentrations less than 1 µM. Thus, the GIRK1/4 channel assay may be used in the development of new and selective agents for treating AF.

  12. Indirect voltammetric determination of caffeine content in coffee using 1,4-benzoquinone modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Aklilu, Muluken; Tessema, Merid; Redi-Abshiro, Mesfin

    2008-08-15

    In this paper a simple and highly sensitive electroanalytical method for the determination of caffeine content using 1,4-benzoquinone modified carbon paste electrode is presented. The method is based on suppression of 1,4-benzoquinone peak current on addition of caffeine. Square-wave and cyclic voltammetric techniques were utilised for the investigation. The 1,4-benzoquinone modified electrode exhibited a well-defined peak with reproducible peak current values for repetitive measurements; and showed a decrease in peak current value with an increase in caffeine content. The result revealed two linear range regions between 0 mmol L(-1) and 0.5 mmol L(-1) and 0.5 mmol L(-1) and 8.0 mmol L(-1), with detection limits of 0.3 micromol L(-1) and 5.1 micromol L(-1), respectively. The method was then successfully applied to the determination of caffeine content in coffee samples. The effects of pH, electrode composition, step potential, pulse amplitude and square-wave frequency on the voltammetric responses were also investigated.

  13. [Analysis of 1,4-dioxane in drinking water by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufei; Shi, Jiawei; Wang, Li; Jin, Micong

    2015-04-01

    A method for the detection of trace 1,4-dioxane in drinking water using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS/SPME ) with gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (FID) was presented. Both the extraction conditions (SPME fiber, extraction temperature, extraction time, pH and sample volume, et al) and the gas chromatographic conditions were optimized. The results showed that the best response was obtained with 85 µm Carboxen-PDMS above 3 mL water in a 20-mL screw capped vial containing 3 mL sodium hydroxide solution (600 g/L). The best chromatographic separation was obtained on a PTA-5 capillary column (30 m x 0.53 mm x 3.0 µm) which was modified with alkali-bonding and of large pores and thick film. The linear range for 1,4-dioxane was 0.50-50.0 µg/L with the correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9995. The limit of detection (S/N > 3) was 0.14 µg/L. The recoveries for the actual water samples at low, medium and high spiked levels were 95.5%-107%, with the relative standard deviations of 1.1%-5.3% (n = 6). The developed method is simple, accurate, reproducible and highly sensitive. It is suitable for the routine monitoring of trace amount of 1,4-dioxane in the drinking water.

  14. The synthesis and structure of gemini QASs of 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-L-iditol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, Karol; Nowacki, Andrzej; Sikorski, Artur; Dmochowska, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    New, efficient, straightforward method of synthesizing quaternary diammonium salts of 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-L-iditol have been developed. This paper presents the synthesis and structural analysis of diammonium (gemini) salts, including their X-ray diffraction analysis, wherein the linking structure of nitrogen atoms consists of two fused furanoid rings. 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-2,5-di-O-triflyl-D-mannitol and four tertiary amines, i.e., 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP), pyridine, trimethylamine and N,N-dimethyloctylamine, were used for the synthesis. All the syntheses were carried out under mild conditions by the direct nucleophilic displacement of the O-triflil group by the amine. Walden inversion of configuration at C2 and C5 atoms has occurred during the reaction, giving products with L-ido configuration. Furthermore, NMR and X-ray conformational analysis of 1,4:3,6-dianhydrohexitol residue was done. In most cases furanoid rings adopt the twisted conformation both in the crystal and in solution.

  15. Surface chemistry and spectroscopy studies on 1,4-naphthoquinone in cell membrane models using Langmuir monolayers.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Nadia; Lopes, Carla C; Pernambuco Filho, Paulo Castanho A; Carneiro, Bruna R; Caseli, Luciano

    2013-07-15

    Investigating the role of drugs whose pharmaceutical activity is associated with cell membranes is fundamental to comprehending the biochemical processes that occur on membrane surfaces. In this work, we examined the action of 1,4-naphthoquinone in lipid Langmuir monolayers at the air-water interface, which served as a model for half of a membrane, and investigated the molecular interactions involved with tensiometry and vibrational spectroscopy. The surface pressure-area isotherms exhibited a noticeable shift to a lower area in relation to 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (DPPS) lipid monolayers, which indicated a disruption of the monolayer structure and solubilisation of the lipids towards the aqueous subphase. To better correlate to the action of this drug in biological membrane events, cell cultures that represented tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells were spread onto the air-water interface, and 1,4-naphthoquinone was then incorporated. While only slight changes were observed in the non-tumorigenic cells upon drug incorporation, significant changes were observed in the tumorigenic cells, on which the organisation of the Langmuir monolayers was disrupted as evidenced by tensiometry and vibrational spectroscopy. This work then shows that this drug interacts preferentially for specific surfaces. In simplified models, it has a higher effect for the negative charged DPPS rather than the zwitterionic DPPC; and for complex cell cultures, 1,4-naphthoquinone presents a more significant effect for that representing tumorigenic cells.

  16. Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Plan; Chord Joining Detail in Plan & Elevation; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar, & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Section; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar & Horizontal Brace Joint Detail - Narrows Bridge, Spanning Sugar Creek at Old County Road 280 East, Marshall, Parke County, IN

  17. Theoretical investigations of the reaction between 1,4-dithiane-2,5-diol and azomethine imines: mechanisms and diastereoselectivity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Linjie; Qiao, Yan; Lu, Mengxue; Chang, Junbiao

    2015-07-21

    In the present study, mechanistic insights into the domino reaction between 1,4-dithiane-2,5-diol and azomethine imines were derived from the computational study with B3LYP and M06-2X functionals. On the whole, the domino process comprises two consecutive reactions: cleavage of 1,4-dithiane-2,5-diol leading to mercaptoacetaldehyde and [3 + 3] cycloaddition of mercaptoacetaldehyde with azomethine imines. The cleavage of 1,4-dithiane-2,5-diol can take place via multiple possible pathways (1A-1E), and pathway 1E in which double-methanol molecules mediate the proton transfer process is the most energetically favorable, with an energy barrier of 19.9 kcal mol(-1). For the [3 + 3] cycloaddition, three possible pathways (2F-2H) were explored. The calculated energy profiles reveal that pathway 2H with activation energies ranging from 6.9 to 10.2 kcal mol(-1) is more energetically favorable than pathways 2F and 2G. Specifically, pathway 2H comprises three reaction steps: deprotonation of mercaptoacetaldehyde by DABCO allows for the formation of the thiol anion, which subsequently launches a nucleophilic attack on azomethine imines followed by intramolecular cyclization resulting in the final products. The calculated results are in agreement with the experimental observations that the reaction can proceed most efficiently in the presence of both DABCO and methanol. Furthermore, the hydrogen bonding interaction is identified to be the main factor determining the observed diastereoselectivity The current systematic theoretical study gives a full scenario of the reaction between 1,4-dithiane-2,5-diol and azomethine imines catalyzed by DABCO, and thus provides some valuable clues for further investigation and development of this kind of important reaction.

  18. Design, Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Heteroatom-Substituted 1,4-Naphtho- and Benzoquinones.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Nahide Gülşah; Ibis, Cemil; Gokmen, Zeliha; Stasevych, Maryna; Novikov, Volodymyr; Komarovska-Porokhnyavets, Olena; Ozyurek, Mustafa; Guclu, Kubilay; Karakas, Didem; Ulukaya, Engin

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we report the synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation as antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic/anticancer agents of N-, S-, O-substituted-1,4-naphtho- and 2,5-bis(amino-substituted)-1,4-benzoquinone derivatives. In the synthesized compounds, antimicrobial activity at low concentrations against Escherichia coli B-906, Staphylococcus aureus 209-P, and Mycobacterium luteum B-917 bacteria and Candida tenuis VKM Y-70 and Aspergillus niger F-1119 fungi in comparison with controls was identified. 2-(N-Diphenylmethylpiperazin-1-yl)-3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone 9a was the most potent, with a minimum inhibitory concentration value of 3.9 µg/mL against test culture M. luteum. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antioxidant capacity using the cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method. 2,2'-[1-(2-Aminoethyl)piperazin-1-yl]-3,3'-dichloro-bis(1,4-naphthoquinone) 10 showed the highest antioxidant capacity, with a 0.455 CUPRAC-trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) coefficient. Other parameters of antioxidant activity (scavenging effects on OH(·), O2(·-), and H2O2) of these compounds were also determined. The cytotoxic activity of the compounds was investigated by employing the sulforhodamine B cell viability assay against A549 (lung), MCF-7 (breast), DU145 (prostate), and HT-29 (colon) cancer cell lines. Compound 10 exhibited the most powerful cytotoxic activity at a concentration of 20 µM against all cell lines. In addition to the strongest antioxidant activity of compound 10, it also had lowest IC50 values (<3 µM), warranting further in vivo studies due to its anticancer activity.

  19. Academic detailing to teach aging and geriatrics.

    PubMed

    Duckett, Ashley; Cuoco, Theresa; Pride, Pamela; Wiley, Kathy; Iverson, Patty J; Marsden, Justin; Moran, William; Caton, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    Geriatric education is a required component of internal medicine training. Work hour rules and hectic schedules have challenged residency training programs to develop and utilize innovative teaching methods. In this study, the authors examined the use of academic detailing as a teaching intervention in their residents' clinic and on the general medicine inpatient wards to improve clinical knowledge and skills in geriatric care. The authors found that this teaching method enables efficient, directed education without disrupting patient care. We were able to show improvements in medical knowledge as well as self-efficacy across multiple geriatric topics.

  20. Instrumentation for detailed bridge-scour measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landers, Mark N.; Mueller, David S.; Trent, Roy E.; ,

    1993-01-01

    A portable instrumentation system is being developed to obtain channel bathymetry during floods for detailed bridge-scour measurements. Portable scour measuring systems have four components: sounding instrument, horizontal positioning instrument, deployment mechanisms, and data storage device. The sounding instrument will be a digital fathometer. Horizontal position will be measured using a range-azimuth based hydrographic survey system. The deployment mechanism designed for this system is a remote-controlled boat using a small waterplane area, twin-hull design. An on-board computer and radio will monitor the vessel instrumentation, record measured data, and telemeter data to shore.

  1. Common and distinctive features of GNRA tetraloops based on a GUAA tetraloop structure at 1.4 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    CORRELL, CARL C.; SWINGER, KERREN

    2003-01-01

    GNRA tetraloops (N is A, C, G, or U; R is A or G) are basic building blocks of RNA structure that often interact with proteins or other RNA structural elements. Understanding sequence-dependent structural variation among different GNRA tetraloops is an important step toward elucidating the molecular basis of specific GNRA tetraloop recognition by proteins and RNAs. Details of the geometry and hydration of this motif have been based on high-resolution crystallographic structures of the GRRA subset of tetraloops; less is known about the GYRA subset (Y is C or U). We report here the structure of a GUAA tetraloop determined to 1.4 Å resolution to better define these details and any distinctive features of GYRA tetraloops. The tetraloop is part of a 27-nt structure that mimics the universal sarcin/ricin loop from Escherichia coli 23S ribosomal RNA in which a GUAA tetraloop replaces the conserved GAGA tetraloop. The adenosines of the GUAA tetraloop form an intermolecular contact that is a commonplace RNA tertiary interaction called an A-minor motif. This is the first structure to reveal in great detail the geometry and hydration of a GUAA tetraloop and an A-minor motif. Comparison of tetraloop structures shows a common backbone geometry for each of the eight possible tetraloop sequences and suggests a common hydration. After backbone atom superposition, equivalent bases from different tetraloops unexpectedly depart from coplanarity by as much as 48°. This variation displaces the functional groups of tetraloops implicated in protein and RNA binding, providing a recognition feature. PMID:12592009

  2. Common and distinctive features of GNRA tetraloops based on a GUAA tetraloop structure at 1.4 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Correll, Carl C; Swinger, Kerren

    2003-03-01

    GNRA tetraloops (N is A, C, G, or U; R is A or G) are basic building blocks of RNA structure that often interact with proteins or other RNA structural elements. Understanding sequence-dependent structural variation among different GNRA tetraloops is an important step toward elucidating the molecular basis of specific GNRA tetraloop recognition by proteins and RNAs. Details of the geometry and hydration of this motif have been based on high-resolution crystallographic structures of the GRRA subset of tetraloops; less is known about the GYRA subset (Y is C or U). We report here the structure of a GUAA tetraloop determined to 1.4 A resolution to better define these details and any distinctive features of GYRA tetraloops. The tetraloop is part of a 27-nt structure that mimics the universal sarcin/ricin loop from Escherichia coli 23S ribosomal RNA in which a GUAA tetraloop replaces the conserved GAGA tetraloop. The adenosines of the GUAA tetraloop form an intermolecular contact that is a commonplace RNA tertiary interaction called an A-minor motif. This is the first structure to reveal in great detail the geometry and hydration of a GUAA tetraloop and an A-minor motif. Comparison of tetraloop structures shows a common backbone geometry for each of the eight possible tetraloop sequences and suggests a common hydration. After backbone atom superposition, equivalent bases from different tetraloops unexpectedly depart from coplanarity by as much as 48 degrees. This variation displaces the functional groups of tetraloops implicated in protein and RNA binding, providing a recognition feature.

  3. 1,4-Diselenophene-1,4-diketone triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis in human melanoma A375 cells through induction of mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Li, Xiaoling; Huang, Xiaochun; Wong, Yum-Shing; Chen, Tianfeng; Zhang, Yibo; Zheng, Wenjie

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies have supported the role of selenocompounds as potential cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, a novel selenophene-based compound, 1,4-diselenophene-1,4-diketone (DSeD), has been synthesized by Double Friedel-Crafts reaction and identified as a potent antiproliferative agent against a panel of six human caner cell lines. Despite this potency, DSeD was relatively nontoxic toward human normal cells, HS68 fibroblasts and HK-2 kidney cells. These results suggest that DSeD possesses great selectivity between cancer and normal cells. Induction of apoptosis in human melanoma A375 cells by DSeD was evidenced by accumulation of sub-G1 cell population, DNA fragmentation and nuclear condensation. Activation of caspase-9 and depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential indicated the initiation of the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. Pretreatment of cells with general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk and caspase-9 inhibitor z-LEHD-fmk significantly suppressed the cell apoptosis, demonstrating the important roles of caspase and mitochondria in DSeD-induced apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, DSeD-induced apoptosis was found independent of reactive oxygen species generation. Taken together, our results suggest that DSeD induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in A375 cells through activation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway.

  4. Phytotoxicity, uptake and metabolism of 1,4-dichlorobenzene by plant cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.J. |; Bokern, M.; Boehme, C.; Harms, H.; Jones, K.C.

    1996-07-01

    Phytotoxicity, uptake, and metabolism of 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) by carrot (Daucus carota L.), soybean (Glycine max. L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and red goosefoot (Chenopodiun rubrum L.) cell suspension cultures were studied. Sealed glass systems were utilized for the investigation because 1,4-DCB is volatile. The sealed systems affect the growth of plant cells, but do not provide different results when testing xenobiotic uptake and metabolism. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene (40 {micro}g in 40 ml medium) was taken up by carrot (49%), soybean (50%), and red goosefoot (62%) cells. Only the soybean cell cultures provided evidence of the existence of metabolites of this compound, probably conjugates of chlorophenols. Conditions for phytotoxicity tests were modified because the growth of cell cultures was affected when sealed for longer than 2 d. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene is toxic to cell cultures of the three tested plant species (tomato, soybean, and carrot). Concentrations of 0.5 mM caused 50% growth inhibition in carrot and soybean cultures. The tomato cultures were more sensitive, with 0.05 mM causing 50% growth inhibition.

  5. Physiologically based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of 1,4-Dioxane in Rats, Mice, and Humans

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, Lisa M.; Thrall, Karla D.; Poet, Torka S.; Corley, Rick; Weber, Thomas J.; Locey, B. J.; Clarkson, Jacquelyn; Sager, S.; Gargas, M. L.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT 1,4-Dioxane (CAS No. 123-91-1) is used primarily as a solvent or as a solvent stabilizer. It can cause lung, liver and kidney damage at sufficiently high exposure levels. Two physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of 1,4-dioxane and its major metabolite, hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (HEAA), were published in 1990. These models have uncertainties and deficiencies that could be addressed and the model strengthened for use in a contemporary cancer risk assessment for 1,4-dioxane. Studies were performed to fill data gaps and reduce uncertainties pertaining to the pharmacokinetics of 1,4-dioxane and HEAA in rats, mice, and humans. Three types of studies were performed:partition coefficient measurements, blood time course in mice, and in vitro pharmacokinetics using rat, mouse, and human hepatocytes. Updated PBPK models were developed based on these new data and previously available data. The optimized rate of metabolism for the mouse was significantly higher than the value previously estimated. The optimized rat kinetic parameters were similar to those in the 1990 models. Only two human studies were identified. Model predictions were consistent with one study, but did not fit the second as well. In addition, a rat nasal exposure was completed. The results confirmed water directly contacts rat nasal tissues during drinking water under bioassays. Consistent with previous PBPK models, nasal tissues were not specifically included in the model. Use of these models will reduce the uncertainty in future 1,4-dioxane risk assessments.

  6. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and Ran expression during simulated and real microgravity.

    PubMed

    Kriegs, B; Theisen, R; Schnabl, H

    2006-12-01

    In order to gain further insight into the signal transduction pathway concerning gravitropism, we studied the expression profiles of mRNA in etiolated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. Differential-display reverse transcriptase PCR product assayed by capillary electrophoresis revealed the small GTPase Ran, regulating nuclear import and export of proteins. Parallel analysis of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) release by a highly advanced system of metal-dye detection combined with high-performance liquid chromatography provided evidence that the second messenger Ins(1,4,5)P3 is modulated by changes of the gravity vector. Investigations by fast clinorotation and sounding rockets established a positive correlation between the Ins(1,4,5)P3 level and the expression rate of Ran mRNA during simulated and real microgravity. Since an asymmetric distribution of auxin during graviresponse is suggested to induce differential cell elongation, additional information on the perception and transduction pathways was achieved by auxin stimulation experiments. While we were able to demonstrate an auxin-dependent production of Ins(1,4,5)P3, the expression of Ran mRNA was not affected by auxin. Finally, besides the phosphoinositide system as one element of the signal transduction chain linking graviperception to graviresponse, a Ran-mediated interaction model of extracellular microgravity signal perception and intercellular transduction pathway is proposed.

  7. Synthesis of 1,4-annulated cyclooctatetraenophanes based on a novel cubane building block approach.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, Robert M; Pavlović, Drazen

    2004-08-06

    A general synthetic approach to strained 1,4-annulated cyclooctatetraene-based cyclophanes is described. A key feature in this approach is exploitation of the cubane core as a masked cyclooctatetraene synthon. Thus, 1,4-disubstituted cubanes 3 and 4 used as precursors to cyclooctatetraenophanes have been prepared in four steps from the readily available 1,4-cubanedicarboxaldehyde (5). The synthesis of 3 was effected by palladium/copper-mediated coupling of 1,4-bis[(Z,Z)-2-iodovinyl]cubane (6) and 1,4-bis[(Z,Z)-but-1-en-3-ynyl]cubane (8). For the synthesis of 4, on the other hand, modified Eglington-Glaser coupling was applied for the macrocyclization step. The general characteristic of Rh(I) to induce [2 + 2] cycloreversion of the cubane core to syn-tricyclo[4.2.0.0(2,5)]octa-3,7-diene followed by thermal rearrangement to cyclooctatetraene was applied as a key structural transformation toward targeted cyclooctatetraenophanes 1 and 2.

  8. Pseudocapacitance and excellent cyclability of 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone on graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Boota, Muhammad; Chen, Chi; Bécuwe, Matthieu; Miao, Ling; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-04-27

    Electrochemically active organic materials are emerging as low cost, naturally abundant and sustainable alternatives to their metal-based counterparts. However, their usage in energy storage systems is mainly hindered by their poor conductivity, which results in capacitance fade upon cycling. In this paper, we present a redox-active xerogel composed of 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DMQ) decorated on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets via a hydrothermal method as a high capacitance and long cycle life pseudocapacitive electrode. DMQ not only provided stable redox-active centers but also served as a spacer to avoid rGO sheets aggregation and led to a three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical electrode architecture. When a binder-free 50 μm thick rolled film was tested as a pseudocapacitive electrode, it exhibited an excellent capacitance of 650 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1 (780 F cm-3) in 1 M sulfuric acid, outperforming a large number of reported organic and inorganic electrodes. Most importantly, optimized electrodes showed an excellent capacitance retention of 99% after 25 000 cycles at 50 mV s-1. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are further used to understand the charge storage mechanism, the preferred orientation of the adsorbed molecules, charge density distribution and density of states. In conclusion, our combined experimental and theoretical findings demonstrate that the careful selection of the conductive substrate, electrode architecture and organic molecules plays a crucial role in achieving high capacitance and long cycling performance.

  9. Antibodies to inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1 in patients with cerebellar disease

    PubMed Central

    Fouka, Penelope; Alexopoulos, Harry; Chatzi, Ioanna; Dedos, Skarlatos G.; Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Politis, Panagiotis; Tzioufas, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe newly identified autoantibodies associated with cerebellar disorders. Design/Methods: We first screened the sera of 15 patients with cerebellar ataxia, without any known associated autoantibodies, with immunocytochemistry on mouse brain. After characterization and validation of a newly identified antibody, 85 additional patients with suspected autoimmune cerebellar disease were screened using a cell-based assay. Results: Immunoglobulin G from one of the first 15 patients demonstrated a distinct staining pattern on Purkinje neurons. This autoantibody, as characterized further by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, was binding inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1 (IP3R1), an intracellular channel that mediates the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Anti-IP3R1 specificity was then validated with a cell-based assay. On this basis, screening of 85 other patients with cerebellar disease revealed 2 additional IP3R1-positive patients. All 3 patients presented with cerebellar ataxia; the first was eventually diagnosed with primary progressive multiple sclerosis, the second had a homozygous CAG insertion at the gene TBP, and the third was thought to have a neurodegenerative disease. Conclusions: We independently identified an autoantibody against IP3R1, a protein highly expressed in Purkinje neurons, confirming an earlier report. Because a mouse knockout model for IP3R1 exhibits ataxia and epilepsy, this autoantibody may have a functional role. The heterogeneity of the antibody-positive patients suggests that this antibody may either have a direct involvement in disease pathogenesis or it is a surrogate marker secondary to cerebellar injury. Anti-IP3R1 antibodies should be further explored in various ataxic and epileptic syndromes as they may denote a marker of response to immunotherapies. PMID:27957507

  10. New high resolution VLA mosaic at 1.4 GHz of the SNR Puppis A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletti, G.; Dubner, G. M.; Golap, K.; Goss, W. M.

    2006-06-01

    We present new observations at 1.4 GHz of the supernova remnant (SNR) Puppis A made with the VLA in the hybrid DnC and CnB configurations (in 2003 and 2004, respectively). We observed this extended remnant (about 55' diameter) applying a mosaicking technique to combine 39 different pointings. The data were reduced using the AIPS++ software package. The multiscale clean method was used to deconvolve the image. The interferometric image was combined with single dish data extracted from the Parkes Southern Galactic Plane Survey (McClure-Griffiths et al. 2001, AJ, 551, 394) following a feathering technique which involves Fourier transforming of both the single dish and interferometric data onto identical grids. The new image produced by uniformly weighted visibility data, has a final angular resolution of 34 arcsec × 16 arcsec and an rms noise level of 0.5 mJy beam^{-1}; the improvement represents a factor of two in angular resolution and almost ten times in sensitivity compared to the best previous image of Puppis A at 1515 MHz (Dubner et al. 1991, AJ, 101, 1466; HPBW 77 arcsec × 43arcsec, rms noise 3 mJy beam^{-1}). For the first time a highly structured border encircling a diffuse, almost featureless interior was revealed in Puppis A. In particular the northern half of Puppis A displays a wealth of structure along the periphery consisting of short arcs that appear to be oriented rather perpendicular to the shock front on the northeast quadrant, but tangential to it on the northweast side.

  11. Menadione- (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone-) dependent enzymatic redox cycling and calcium release by mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Frei, B; Winterhalter, K H; Richter, C

    1986-07-29

    The results presented in this paper reveal the existence of three distinct menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) reductases in mitochondria: NAD(P)H:(quinone-acceptor) oxidoreductase (D,T-diaphorase), NADPH:(quinone-acceptor) oxidoreductase, and NADH:(quinone-acceptor) oxidoreductase. All three enzymes reduce menadione in a two-electron step directly to the hydroquinone form. NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NADH dehydrogenase) and NAD(P)H azoreductase do not participate significantly in menadione reduction. In mitochondrial extracts, the menadione-induced NAD(P)H oxidation occurs beyond stoichiometric reduction of the quinone and is accompanied by O2 consumption. Benzoquinone is reduced more rapidly than menadione but does not undergo redox cycling. In intact mitochondria, menadione triggers oxidation of intramitochondrial pyridine nucleotides, cyanide-insensitive O2 consumption, and a transient decrease of delta psi. In the presence of intramitochondrial Ca2+, the menadione-induced oxidation of pyridine nucleotides is accompanied by their hydrolysis, and Ca2+ is released from mitochondria. The menadione-induced Ca2+ release leaves mitochondria intact, provided excessive Ca2+ cycling is prevented. In both selenium-deficient and selenium-adequate mitochondria, menadione is equally effective in inducing oxidation of pyridine nucleotides and Ca2+ release. Thus, menadione-induced Ca2+ release is mediated predominantly by enzymatic two-electron reduction of menadione, and not by H2O2 generated by menadione-dependent redox cycling. Our findings argue against D,T-diaphorase being a control device that prevents quinone-dependent oxygen toxicity in mitochondria.

  12. Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of Drosophila beta1,4-Galactosyltransferase-7.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Boopathy; Qasba, Pradman K

    2010-05-14

    The beta1,4-galactosyltransferase-7 (beta4Gal-T7) enzyme, one of seven members of the beta4Gal-T family, transfers in the presence of manganese Gal from UDP-Gal to an acceptor sugar (xylose) that is attached to a side chain hydroxyl group of Ser/Thr residues of proteoglycan proteins. It exhibits the least protein sequence similarity with the other family members, including the well studied family member beta4Gal-T1, which, in the presence of manganese, transfers Gal from UDP-Gal to GlcNAc. We report here the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of beta4Gal-T7 from Drosophila in the presence of manganese and UDP at 1.81 A resolution. In the crystal structure, a new manganese ion-binding motif (HXH) has been observed. Superposition of the crystal structures of beta4Gal-T7 and beta4Gal-T1 shows that the catalytic pocket and the substrate-binding sites in these proteins are similar. Compared with GlcNAc, xylose has a hydroxyl group (instead of an N-acetyl group) at C2 and lacks the CH(2)OH group at C5; thus, these protein structures show significant differences in their acceptor-binding site. Modeling of xylose in the acceptor-binding site of the beta4Gal-T7 crystal structure shows that the aromatic side chain of Tyr(177) interacts strongly with the C5 atom of xylose, causing steric hindrance to any additional group at C5. Because Drosophila Cd7 has a 73% protein sequence similarity to human Cd7, the present crystal structure offers a structure-based explanation for the mutations in human Cd7 that have been linked to Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

  13. Crystal Structure of the Catalytic Domain of Drosophila [beta]1,4-Galactosyltransferase-7

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishnan, Boopathy; Qasba, Pradman K.

    2010-11-03

    The {beta}1,4-galactosyltransferase-7 ({beta}4Gal-T7) enzyme, one of seven members of the {beta}4Gal-T family, transfers in the presence of manganese Gal from UDP-Gal to an acceptor sugar (xylose) that is attached to a side chain hydroxyl group of Ser/Thr residues of proteoglycan proteins. It exhibits the least protein sequence similarity with the other family members, including the well studied family member {beta}4Gal-T1, which, in the presence of manganese, transfers Gal from UDP-Gal to GlcNAc. We report here the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of {beta}4Gal-T7 from Drosophila in the presence of manganese and UDP at 1.81 {angstrom} resolution. In the crystal structure, a new manganese ion-binding motif (HXH) has been observed. Superposition of the crystal structures of {beta}4Gal-T7 and {beta}4Gal-T1 shows that the catalytic pocket and the substrate-binding sites in these proteins are similar. Compared with GlcNAc, xylose has a hydroxyl group (instead of an N-acetyl group) at C2 and lacks the CH{sub 2}OH group at C5; thus, these protein structures show significant differences in their acceptor-binding site. Modeling of xylose in the acceptor-binding site of the {beta}4Gal-T7 crystal structure shows that the aromatic side chain of Tyr{sup 177} interacts strongly with the C5 atom of xylose, causing steric hindrance to any additional group at C5. Because Drosophila Cd7 has a 73% protein sequence similarity to human Cd7, the present crystal structure offers a structure-based explanation for the mutations in human Cd7 that have been linked to Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

  14. A Suzaku View of Accretion-powered X-Ray Pulsar GX 1+4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yuki; Kitamoto, Shunji; Suzuki, Hiroo; Hoshino, Akio; Naik, Sachindra; Jaisawal, Gaurava K.

    2017-03-01

    We present results obtained from a Suzaku observation of the accretion-powered X-ray pulsar GX 1+4. A broadband continuum spectrum of the pulsar was found to be better described by a simple model consisting of a blackbody component and an exponential cutoff power law than the previously used compTT continuum model. Though the pulse profile had a sharp dip in soft X-rays (<10 keV), phase-resolved spectroscopy confirmed that the dimming was not due to an increase in photoelectric absorption. Phase-sliced spectral analysis showed the presence of a significant spectral modulation beyond 10 keV except for the dip phase. A search for the presence of a cyclotron resonance scattering feature in the Suzaku spectra yielded a negative result. Iron K-shell (K{}α and {{{K}}}β ) emission lines from nearly neutral iron ions (

  15. Pseudocapacitance and excellent cyclability of 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone on graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Boota, Muhammad; Chen, Chi; Bécuwe, Matthieu; ...

    2016-04-27

    Electrochemically active organic materials are emerging as low cost, naturally abundant and sustainable alternatives to their metal-based counterparts. However, their usage in energy storage systems is mainly hindered by their poor conductivity, which results in capacitance fade upon cycling. In this paper, we present a redox-active xerogel composed of 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DMQ) decorated on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets via a hydrothermal method as a high capacitance and long cycle life pseudocapacitive electrode. DMQ not only provided stable redox-active centers but also served as a spacer to avoid rGO sheets aggregation and led to a three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical electrode architecture. Whenmore » a binder-free 50 μm thick rolled film was tested as a pseudocapacitive electrode, it exhibited an excellent capacitance of 650 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1 (780 F cm-3) in 1 M sulfuric acid, outperforming a large number of reported organic and inorganic electrodes. Most importantly, optimized electrodes showed an excellent capacitance retention of 99% after 25 000 cycles at 50 mV s-1. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are further used to understand the charge storage mechanism, the preferred orientation of the adsorbed molecules, charge density distribution and density of states. In conclusion, our combined experimental and theoretical findings demonstrate that the careful selection of the conductive substrate, electrode architecture and organic molecules plays a crucial role in achieving high capacitance and long cycling performance.« less

  16. Application of Detailed Chemical Kinetics to Combustion Instability Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-04

    change between 1.2 and 2.11 is the addition of nitrogen chemistry and the present simulations do not contain nitrogen .12 While version 3.0 should produce...results in a more continuous heat release throughout the acoustic cycle and less opportunity for coupling with the chamber acoustics, leading in turn...by a ramp-up before reaching the limit cycle . The detailed chemistry exhibits a smooth decay in amplitude from the ignition spike to the final limit

  17. A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Model for TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2005-01-13

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for 2,4,6-tri-nitrotoluene (TNT) has been developed to explore problems of explosive performance and soot formation during the destruction of munitions. The TNT mechanism treats only gas-phase reactions. Reactions for the decomposition of TNT and for the consumption of intermediate products formed from TNT are assembled based on information from the literature and on current understanding of aromatic chemistry. Thermodynamic properties of intermediate and radical species are estimated by group additivity. Reaction paths are developed based on similar paths for aromatic hydrocarbons. Reaction-rate constant expressions are estimated from the literature and from analogous reactions where the rate constants are available. The detailed reaction mechanism for TNT is added to existing reaction mechanisms for RDX and for hydrocarbons. Computed results show the effect of oxygen concentration on the amount of soot precursors that are formed in the combustion of RDX and TNT mixtures in N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixtures.

  18. Detailed balance of the Feynman micromotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Derek; Davis, Bruce R.; Parrondo, Juan M. R.

    1999-09-01

    One existing implication of micromotors is that they can be powered by rectifying non-equilibrium thermal fluctuations or mechanical vibrations via the so-called Feynman- micromotor. An example of mechanical rectification is found in the batteryless wristwatch. The original concept was described in as early as 1912 by Smoluchowski and was later revisited in 1963 by Feynman, in the context of rectifying thermal fluctuations to obtain useful motion. It has been shown that, although rectification is impossible at equilibrium, it is possible for the Feynman-micromotor to perform work under non-equilibrium conditions. These concepts can now be realized by MEMS technology and may have exciting implications in biomedicine - where the Feynman- micromotor can be used to power a smart pill, for example. Previously, Feynman's analysis of the motor's efficiency has been shown to be flawed by Parrondo and Espanol. We now show there are further problems in Feynman's treatment of detailed balance. In order to design and understand this device correctly, the equations of detailed balance must be found. Feynman's approach was to use probabilities based on energies and we show that this is problematic. In this paper, we demonstrate corrected equations using level crossing probabilities instead. A potential application of the Feynman-micromotor is a batteryless nanopump that consists of a small MEMS chip that adheres to the skin of a patient and dispense nanoliter quantities of medication. Either mechanical or thermal rectification via a Feynman- micromotor, as the power source, is open for possible investigation.

  19. HUBBLE CAPTURES DETAILED IMAGE OF URANUS' ATMOSPHERE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope has peered deep into Uranus' atmosphere to see clear and hazy layers created by a mixture of gases. Using infrared filters, Hubble captured detailed features of three layers of Uranus' atmosphere. Hubble's images are different from the ones taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus 10 years ago. Those images - not taken in infrared light - showed a greenish-blue disk with very little detail. The infrared image allows astronomers to probe the structure of Uranus' atmosphere, which consists of mostly hydrogen with traces of methane. The red around the planet's edge represents a very thin haze at a high altitude. The haze is so thin that it can only be seen by looking at the edges of the disk, and is similar to looking at the edge of a soap bubble. The yellow near the bottom of Uranus is another hazy layer. The deepest layer, the blue near the top of Uranus, shows a clearer atmosphere. Image processing has been used to brighten the rings around Uranus so that astronomers can study their structure. In reality, the rings are as dark as black lava or charcoal. This false color picture was assembled from several exposures taken July 3, 1995 by the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2. CREDIT: Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Lab) and NASA

  20. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, Warren; TMT International Science Development Teams; Science Advisory Committee, TMT

    2015-12-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), the University of California, the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA) and US associate partner, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). Cover image: artist's rendition of the TMT International Observatory on Mauna Kea opening in the late evening before beginning operations.

  1. (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucans in cell walls of the poaceae, lower plants, and fungi: a tale of two linkages.

    PubMed

    Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2009-09-01

    (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucans consist of unbranched and unsubstituted chains of (1,3)- and (1,4)-beta-glucosyl residues, in which the ratio of (1,4)-beta-D-glucosyl residues to (1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl residues appears to influence not only the physicochemical properties of the polysaccharide and therefore its functional properties in cell walls, but also its adoption by different plant species during evolution. The (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucans are widely distributed as non-cellulosic matrix phase polysaccharides in cell walls of the Poaceae, which evolved relatively recently and consist of the grasses and commercially important cereal species, but they are less commonly found in lower vascular plants, such as the horsetails, in algae and in fungi. The (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucans have often been considered to be components mainly of primary cell walls, but recent observations indicate that they can also be located in secondary walls of certain tissues. Enzymes involved in the depolymerisation of (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucans have been well characterized. In contrast, initial difficulties in purifying the enzymes responsible for (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan biosynthesis slowed progress in the identification of the genes that encode (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan synthases, but emerging comparative genomics and associated techniques have allowed at least some of the genes that contribute to (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan synthesis in the Poaceae to be identified. Whether similar genes and enzymes also mediate (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan biosynthesis in lower plants and fungi is not yet known. Here, we compare the different fine structures of (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucans across the plant kingdom, present current information on the genes that have been implicated recently in their biosynthesis, and consider aspects of the cell biology of (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan biosynthesis in the Poaceae.

  2. Children's use of anatomically detailed dolls to recount an event.

    PubMed

    Goodman, G S; Aman, C

    1990-12-01

    The use of anatomically detailed dolls in child sexual abuse investigations has raised several controversial issues related to important theoretical questions in developmental psychology. The present study was designed to examine some of these issues in a methodologically sound experiment. 80 3- and 5-year-old children experienced a social interaction with a male confederate and were later tested under 1 of 4 recall conditions: reenactment with anatomically detailed dolls, reenactment with regular dolls, free recall with visual cues, or free recall without visual cues. The children were also asked a variety of specific and misleading questions, some of them dealing with acts associated with abuse ("He took your clothes off, didn't he?"). Both anatomically detailed and regular dolls along with other props aided 5-year-olds more than 3-year-olds in recounting the event. To use increased rather than decreased age differences. Anatomically detailed dolls did not foster false reports of abuse. Overall, 3-year-olds were more suggestible than 5-year-olds. The findings have implications for children's testimony in child abuse cases and for psychological theories concerning the effects of stimulus support on children's memory.

  3. Local Mode Analysis: Decoding IR Spectra by Visualizing Molecular Details.

    PubMed

    Massarczyk, M; Rudack, T; Schlitter, J; Kuhne, J; Kötting, C; Gerwert, K

    2017-02-08

    Integration of experimental and computational approaches to investigate chemical reactions in proteins has proven to be very successful. Experimentally, time-resolved FTIR difference-spectroscopy monitors chemical reactions at atomic detail. To decode detailed structural information encoded in IR spectra, QM/MM calculations are performed. Here, we present a novel method which we call local mode analysis (LMA) for calculating IR spectra and assigning spectral IR-bands on the basis of movements of nuclei and partial charges from just a single QM/MM trajectory. Through LMA the decoding of IR spectra no longer requires several simulations or optimizations. The novel approach correlates the motions of atoms of a single simulation with the corresponding IR bands and provides direct access to the structural information encoded in IR spectra. Either the contributions of a particular atom or atom group to the complete IR spectrum of the molecule are visualized, or an IR-band is selected to visualize the corresponding structural motions. Thus, LMA decodes the detailed information contained in IR spectra and provides an intuitive approach for structural biologists and biochemists. The unique feature of LMA is the bidirectional analysis connecting structural details to spectral features and vice versa spectral features to molecular motions.

  4. Asymmetric radiation-induced inclusion polymerization of 3-methyl-1,4-pentadiene in deoxycholic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldo, Franco; Ursini, Ornella; Angelini, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    The radiation-induced polymerization of 3-methyl-1,3-pentadiene (3MPD) as an inclusion complex in deoxycholic acid (DOCA) has produced in good yield the optically active polymer poly(3-methyl-1,4-pentadiene) (P3MPD) whose structure and properties were studied by FT-IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis (TGA, DTG and DTA). The data show that the polymer is essentially trans-1,4-P3MPD as expected for the polymerization in constrained media. Trans-1,4-P3MPD is optically active with [ α] D values comprised between +4.3 and +5.6. The optical rotatory dispersion curve of the P3MPD is completely different from that of DOCA as expected.

  5. Regional expression of aquaporin 1, 4, and 9 in the brain during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wiegman, Marchien J; Bullinger, Lisa V; Kohlmeyer, Meghan M; Hunter, Timothy C; Cipolla, Marilyn J

    2008-05-01

    Pregnancy is a state of physiologic adaptation, with significant changes in cardiovascular, renal, and hemodynamic systems. Aquaporins (AQPs) may play a role in facilitating these changes. While AQP expression has been assessed in several organs during pregnancy, little is known about its expression in the brain during pregnancy. Therefore, this study assesses the regional expression of AQP1, 4, and 9 during pregnancy and the postpartum period using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The authors show that AQP1, 4, and 9 are expressed in the anterior and posterior cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem of nonpregnant, midpregnant, late pregnant, and postpartum rats. The regional distribution pattern of AQP4 and 9 remained similar during gestation, whereas this pattern changed for AQP1. The expression levels of AQP1, 4, and 9 in the brainstem did not change with gestation, whereas changes were found in the anterior cerebrum for AQP4 and in the posterior cerebrum and cerebellum for all AQPs.

  6. Substituent Effect on the Photolability of 4-Aryl-1,4-Dihydropyridines.

    PubMed

    García, Cristóbal; Cabezas, Karina; Nonell, Santi; Núñez-Vergara, Luis J; Morales, Javier; Günther, Germán; Pizarro, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    The electronic nature of substituents attached to the 4-aryl moiety of 1,4-dihydropyridines strongly affects the photophysical and photochemical behavior of these family of compounds. The presence of an electron donor substituent on the 4-aryl moiety (or the absence of electron-withdrawing ones) modifies the luminescence lifetimes (τ < 100 ps) and diminishes the photodecomposition quantum yields. For electron-withdrawing substituents, the photodegradation quantum yield is affected by the media, changing more than two orders of magnitude as the polarity is increased. Studies in micellar media allow us to conclude that 4-aryl-1,4-dihydropyridines are located near to the interface; however, the surface charge of micelles has no effect on the photodegradation rate constant or the photoproducts profile. The main conclusion of this work is that the photolability of 4-aryl-1,4-dihydropyridines can be significantly reduced by the incorporation of antioxidant moieties.

  7. [Derivatives of 1,4-dihydropyridines as "priviledged structures" and their pharmacological potential].

    PubMed

    Żorniak, Michał; Mitręga, Katarzyna; Krzemiński, Tadeusz F

    2011-01-01

    Derivatives of 1,4-dihydropyridine belong to group of calcium channel blockers and remain large group of antihypertensive agents. Particular chemical structure and presence of highly reactive binding groups make 1,4-dihydropyridines "privileged structures", which can be modified and change their pharmacological effects. This fact applies to new derivatives as well as metabolites of those drugs. Particularly interesting are outcomes of experiments with metabolites of furnidypine, which tend to cause different pharmacological effect, as well as have different profile of adverse effects from mother drug. Our paper concerns with potential new possibilities of using derivatives of 1,4-dihydropyridines, as well as their metabolites, as agents of more "optimised" effect.

  8. Synthesis of 6-amino-1,4-dihydropyridines that prevent calcium overload and neuronal death.

    PubMed

    León, Rafael; de Los Ríos, Cristóbal; Marco-Contelles, José; López, Manuela G; García, Antonio G; Villarroya, Mercedes

    2008-03-01

    The synthesis and pharmacology of 6-amino-1,4-dihydropyridines, such as ethyl 6-amino-4-aryl-5-cyano-1,4-dihydro-2-methyl-3-pyridinecarboxylic acids (3-16) and 2-amino-4-aryl-7,7-dimethyl-5-oxo-1,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-3-quinolinenitriles (17-21) are described. Compounds 18 and 21, at the concentration of 0.3 microM, proved to be the best blockers of the [Ca(2+)] overload induced by depolarization with high [K(+)] of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, with values of 63.8% and 50.4%, respectively. Most of the compounds induced a remarkable neuroprotective effect against toxicity caused by high [K(+)]-elicited [Ca(2+)] overload, and against H(2)O(2)-generated free radicals, in SH-SY5Y cells.

  9. Transition metals and organic ligands influence biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane.

    PubMed

    Pornwongthong, Peerapong; Mulchandani, Anjali; Gedalanga, Phillip B; Mahendra, Shaily

    2014-05-01

    1,4-Dioxane, a contaminant increasingly detected in water supplies, is a public health concern because it is classified as a possible human carcinogen. 1,4-Dioxane can be biodegraded by aerobic bacteria via monooxygenase-catalyzed reactions. While these metalloenzymes require trace metals as cofactors in their catalytic sites, these metals may be toxic at elevated concentrations. In this study, the effects of transition metals on 1,4-dioxane biodegradation by Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190, a monooxygenase-expressing bacterium, were investigated. Dose-dependent inhibition of 1,4-dioxane biodegradation by Cd(II), Cu(II), and Ni(II) was observed, whereas Zn(II) had no measurable effect on biodegradation rates. 1,4-Dioxane biodegradation in cultures exposed to 2 mg/L Cu(II) was restored in the presence of 0.005, 0.05, and 0.5 mM alginin, 0.05, and 0.5 mM cysteine, and 0.005 mM tannin. These results indicated that specific ligands bind with transition metals and alleviate bacterial toxicity. In parallel experiments, tannin and cysteine inhibited 1,4-dioxane biodegradation, but alginin, BSA, and SRNOM did not affect the biodegradation rates. Thus, monooxygenase-catalyzed biodegradation rates are subject to interactions among transition metals and natural organic ligands in the environment. Mechanistic insights and quantitative data obtained in this study will be useful for designing bioremediation strategies at sites simultaneously contaminated with metals and organic pollutants.

  10. In vitro synthesis of a crystalline (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-D-glucan by a mutated (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-D-glucanase from Bacillus.

    PubMed Central

    Faijes, Magda; Imai, Tomoya; Bulone, Vincent; Planas, Antoni

    2004-01-01

    Oligo- and poly-saccharides have a large number of important biological functions, and they occur in natural composite materials, such as plant cell walls, where they self-assemble during biosynthesis in a poorly understood manner. They can also be used for the formation of artificial composite materials with industrial applications. Fundamental and applied research in biology and nanobiotechnology would benefit from the possibility of synthesizing tailor-made oligo-/poly-saccharides. In the present paper, we demonstrate that such syntheses are possible using genetically modified glycoside hydrolases, i.e. glycosynthases. The ability of the endoglycosynthase derived from Bacillus (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-D-glucanase to catalyse self-condensation of sugar donors was exploited for the in vitro synthesis of a regular polysaccharide. The specificity of the enzyme allowed the polymerization of alpha-laminaribiosyl fluoride via the formation of (1-->4)-beta-linkages to yield a new linear crystalline (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-D-glucan with a repeating 4betaG3betaG unit. MS and methylation analyses indicated that the in vitro product consisted of a mixture of oligosaccharides, the one having a degree of polymerization of 12 being the most abundant. Morphological characterization revealed that the (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-D-glucan forms spherulites which are composed of platelet crystals. X-ray and electron diffraction analyses allowed the proposition of a putative crystallographic structure which corresponds to a monoclinic unit cell with a =0.834 nm, b =0.825 nm, c =2.04 nm and gamma=90.5 degrees. The dimensions of the ab plane are similar to those of cellulose I(beta), but the length of the c -axis is nearly twice that of cellulose I. It is proposed that four glucose residues are present in an extended conformation along the c -axis of the unit cell. The data presented show that glycosynthases represent promising enzymic systems for the synthesis of novel polysaccharides with specific and

  11. Singlet oxygenation of 1,2-poly/1,4-hexadiene/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, M. A.; Rosenberg, M. L.; Gemmer, R. V.

    1979-01-01

    The microstructural changes that occur in cis and trans forms of 1,2-poly(1,4-hexadiene) during methylene blue-photosensitized oxidation were examined by infrared and (C-13)-NMR spectroscopy. The singlet oxygenation of these polymers yielded the expected allylic hydroperoxides accompanied by double bond shifts to new vinyl and trans-vinylene double bonds. The photosensitized oxidation exhibited zero-order kinetics; the relative rates for the cis- and trans-1,2-poly(1,4-hexadiene)s were approximately 3.8:1.0.

  12. Catalytic Direct-type 1,4-Addition Reactions of Alkylazaarenes.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hirotsugu; Igarashi, Ryo; Yamashita, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Shū

    2017-04-10

    1,4-addition reactions of alkylazaarenes catalyzed by strong Brønsted bases have been developed for the first time. The desired reactions with α,β-unsaturated amides proceeded under mild reaction conditions to give the 1,4-adducts in high yields. Both ortho- and para-substituted azaarenes afforded the desired adducts in high yields. Regioselective reactions of di- or trimethylpyridine were found to be possible depending on the acidity of the α-hydrogen atoms. Furthermore, a candidate of allosteric protein kinase modulators was synthesized in two steps. An asymmetric variant of this reaction was also found to be feasible.

  13. Conformational flexibility of the 1,4-dihydropyridine ring in calcium channel agonists and antagonists molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkin, Oleg V.

    1996-12-01

    Conformational flexibility of the 1,4-dihydropyridine ring in 4-aryl derivatives of the 2,6-dimethyl-3,5-dicarbmethoxy-1,4-dihydropyridine has been studied using the MM3 molecular mechanics method. Change of the CCCC endocyclic torsion angle of dihydrocycle in the range of 35° entails an increase of energy less than 1 kcal mol -1. The energy levels below 99% of the molecular population for each molecule were estimated. The interval of the torsion angle change for these regions is about 60°.

  14. Design and synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives as anti-cancer agent.

    PubMed

    Viradiya, Denish; Mirza, Sheefa; Shaikh, Faraz; Kakadiya, Rajesh; Rathod, Anand; Jain, Nayan; Rawal, Rakesh; Shah, Anamik

    2016-12-06

    A series of 1,4-dihydropyridine based compounds bearing benzylpyridinium moiety have been designed and evaluated for in vitro anticancer activity against glioblastoma U87MG, lung cancer A549 and colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cell lines using the MTT assay. Among these compounds, 7b, 7d, 7e, and 7f exhibited potent anticancer activity against the cell lines tested. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized derivatives was compared to standard drugs (carboplatin, gemcitabine, and daunorubicin). Thus, synthesized 1,4-dihydropyridines can be considered as the encouraging molecules for further drug development as anticancer agents.

  15. Design, solvent free synthesis, and antimicrobial evaluation of 1,4 dihydropyridines.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Y L N; Rajack, Abdul; Taraka Ramji, M; Jeson babu, J; Praveen, Ch; Aruna Lakshmi, K

    2012-09-15

    Here in, we report the usage of cellulose sulfuric acid as a heterogeneous eco friendly catalyst for the synthesis of 1,4 dihydropyridines under solvent free conditions via Hantzsch three component reaction of an aldehyde, ethyl acetoacetate and ammonium acetate at 100 °C for 2-5 h. In silico studies were performed on twenty two possible 1,4 dihydropyridines (DHPs) analogues against K(+) channel receptor (KcsA). In order to validate in silico studies, thirteen compounds were synthesized and evaluated as antibacterials against twenty seven ESBL isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli.

  16. Isolated renal vein thrombosis associated with MTHFR-1298 and PAI-1 4G gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Cinemre, Hakan; Bilir, Cemil; Akdemir, Nermin

    2010-12-01

    Isolated renal vein thrombosis is very rare without the presence of nephrotic syndrome. It is more common in the newborns and infants. Whereas major risk factors in adults are the procoagulant states such as protein C or S deficiency, factor V Leiden mutation, primary or secondary antiphospholipid syndrome, severe hypothyroidism, and trauma. Here, we report a case of isolated renal vein thrombosis associated with MTHFR-1298 and PAI-1 4G gene mutations. It should be noted that the presence of MTHFR-1298 and PAI-1 4G gene mutations together might be one of the examples of genetic mutation combinations that increase the likelihood of a thrombotic event.

  17. Co-occurrence of 1,4-dioxane with trichloroethylene in chlorinated solvent groundwater plumes at US Air Force installations: Fact or fiction.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard H; Anderson, Janet K; Bower, Paul A

    2012-10-01

    . Given the extensive data set, these results conclusively demonstrate for the first time that 1,4-dioxane is a relatively common groundwater co-contaminant with TCE. Trend analysis demonstrated a positive log-linear relationship where median 1,4-dioxane levels increased between approximately 6% and approximately 20% of the increase in TCE levels. In conclusion, this data mining exercise suggests that 1,4-dioxane has a probability of co-occurrence of approximately 17% with either TCE and/or TCA. Given the challenges imposed by remediation of 1,4-dioxane and the pending promulgation of a federal regulatory standard, environmental project managers should use the information presented in this article for prioritization of future characterization efforts to respond to the emerging issue. Importantly, site investigations should consider 1,4-dioxane a potential co-contaminant of TCE in groundwater plumes.

  18. [Finishing and detailing, stability and harmony].

    PubMed

    Fourquet, Lucile; Göttle, Magalie; Bounoure, Guy

    2014-03-01

    The finishing and detailing phase, the last stage of active orthodontic treatment, makes it possible to perfect the occlusion, by adhering to criteria defined by various authors and to improve the esthetic result, while achieving the treatment objectives made during the pre-planning phase. The reliability of end of treatment results cannot be ensured without an initial individualized analysis of the risk factors for relapse specific to each patient. It is only after this analysis, that the orthodontist will be able to determine how to comply with these criteria for stability, common in any treatment, and to individually choose and implement reliable procedures. When planning for stability as the treatment objective, orthodontic patients are able to achieve stable alignment. This course of action is the necessary process to help ensure equilibrium and alignment. Eight different methods of alignment, already frequently discussed in the literature, will be described and analyzed in this paper.

  19. Capture barrier distributions: Some insights and details

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, N.; Grar, N.; Trotta, M.

    2007-10-15

    The 'experimental barrier distribution' provides a parameter-free representation of experimental heavy-ion capture cross sections that highlights the effects of entrance-channel couplings. Its relation to the s-wave transmission is discussed, and in particular it is shown how the full capture cross section can be generated from an l=0 coupled-channels calculation. Furthermore, it is shown how this transmission can be simply exploited in calculations of quasifission and evaporation-residue cross sections. The system {sup 48}Ca+{sup 154}Sm is studied in detail. A calculation of the compound-nucleus spin distribution reveals a possible energy dependence of barrier weights due to polarization arising from target and projectile quadrupole phonon states; this effect also gives rise to an entrance-channel 'extra-push'.

  20. Quality and safety of detailed clinical models.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes quality and safety risks related to the development and use of Detailed Clinical Models (DCM) and mechanisms which may be employed to mitigate such risks. The chapter begins with a brief discussion of DCMs and the role they can play in mitigating patient safety risk. There is then a brief description of the risks which DCMs themselves may introduce, followed by the introduction of a standards-based risk assessment method and the ways this assessment method may be applied to DCMs in particular. A general description is then made of the ISO 9000-based approach to quality management systems (QMS) and, specifically, how such an approach may be applied to DCM development, maintenance, deployment and use. The chapter concludes with a discussion of specific DCM quality and safety challenges and governance approaches which may be employed to help address these.

  1. Most Detailed Image of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This new Hubble image -- one among the largest ever produced with the Earth-orbiting observatory -- shows the most detailed view so far of the entire Crab Nebula ever made. The Crab is arguably the single most interesting object, as well as one of the most studied, in all of astronomy. The image is the largest image ever taken with Hubble's WFPC2 workhorse camera.

    The Crab Nebula is one of the most intricately structured and highly dynamical objects ever observed. The new Hubble image of the Crab was assembled from 24 individual exposures taken with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and is the highest resolution image of the entire Crab Nebula ever made.

  2. Detailed gravimetric geoid for the United States.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strange, W. E.; Vincent, S. F.; Berry, R. H.; Marsh, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid was computed for the United States using a combination of satellite-derived spherical harmonic coefficients and 1 by 1 deg mean gravity values from surface gravimetry. Comparisons of this geoid with astrogeodetic geoid data indicate that a precision of plus or minus 2 meters has been obtained. Translations only were used to convert the NAD astrogeodetic geoid heights to geocentric astrogeodetic heights. On the basis of the agreement between the geocentric astrogeodetic geoid heights and the gravimetric geoid heights, no evidence is found for rotation in the North American datum. The value of the zero-order undulation can vary by 10 to 20 meters, depending on which investigator's station positions are used to establish it.

  3. Hubble Captures Detailed Image of Uranus' Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope has peered deep into Uranus' atmosphere to see clear and hazy layers created by a mixture of gases. Using infrared filters, Hubble captured detailed features of three layers of Uranus' atmosphere.

    Hubble's images are different from the ones taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus 10 years ago. Those images - not taken in infrared light - showed a greenish-blue disk with very little detail.

    The infrared image allows astronomers to probe the structure of Uranus' atmosphere, which consists of mostly hydrogen with traces of methane. The red around the planet's edge represents a very thin haze at a high altitude. The haze is so thin that it can only be seen by looking at the edges of the disk, and is similar to looking at the edge of a soap bubble. The yellow near the bottom of Uranus is another hazy layer. The deepest layer, the blue near the top of Uranus, shows a clearer atmosphere.

    Image processing has been used to brighten the rings around Uranus so that astronomers can study their structure. In reality, the rings are as dark as black lava or charcoal.

    This false color picture was assembled from several exposures taken July 3, 1995 by the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2.

    The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  4. Formation of a Structure II Hydrate by 1,4-Thioxane in Sea Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, K. C.; Mancillas, O.; Walz, P. M.; Peltzer, E. T.; Brewer, P. G.

    2007-12-01

    We have show that a sII clathrate hydrate containing 1,4-thioxane (TO) will form under the appropriate pressure and temperature conditions. The molecular size of TO poised it at the boundary between sII hydrate formation either as the sole cage occupant, or where a second help gas molecule is required to stabilize the small hydrate cages. In addition to its size, TO is chemical similar to cyclic ethers, such as tetrahydrofuran, which readily form clathrate hydrates. For the experimental temperatures in this study (all above 273.15 K), a pure TO hydrate was not observed to form. However, binary hydrates of TO and either CH4 and N2 were readily formed under moderate pressure conditions (33-158 bar). Both Raman spectroscopy and visual observations were used to verify that a solid hydrate formed and that TO was trapped in the cages. For TO + CH4, a pressure-temperature phase equilibria diagram was created. This showed that the addition of TO increased hydrate stability versus a pure CH4 system by approximately 10 degC, indicating that should CH4 gas be present a TO hydrate would readily form at shallow depths under typical oceanic temperature regimes. TO is of environmental interest as a breakdown product of mustard gas (1,1'-thiobis[2-chloroethane] as a result of hydrolysis in sea water, and has been shown to occur in seafloor chemical weapon disposal sites. In the years after World War II large quantities of chemical weapons were disposed of in the ocean at sites off the US east and west coasts, off Japan, in the Baltic and Adriatic Seas, and in the Russian Arctic, until the signing of the London Convention in 1972. Mustard gas represents the largest tonnage of weapons materiel and while the general scheme of breakdown by hydrolysis is known there is little information on the actual behavior of these breakdown products in marine sediments. This work illuminates such gaps in knowledge, and formation of a hydrate profoundly alters molecular mobility and diffusion away

  5. Crystal structure of 1,4-bis-(3-ammonio-prop-yl)piperazine-1,4-diium bis-[dichromate(VI)].

    PubMed

    Vetrivel, S; Vinoth, E; Mullai, R U; Aruljothi, R; NizamMohideen, M

    2016-05-01

    The asymmetric unit of the organic-inorganic title salt, (C10H28N4)[Cr2O7]2, comprises one half of an 1,4-bis-(3-ammonio-prop-yl)piperazinediium cation (the other half being generated by the application of inversion symmetry) and a dichromate anion. The piperazine ring of the cation adopts a chair conformation, and the two CrO4 tetra-hedra of the anion are in an almost eclipsed conformation. In the crystal, the cations and anions form a layered arrangement parallel to (001). N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the cations and anions and additional C-H⋯O inter-actions lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network structure.

  6. Crystal structure of 1,4-bis­(3-ammonio­prop­yl)piperazine-1,4-diium bis­[dichromate(VI)

    PubMed Central

    Vetrivel, S.; Vinoth, E.; Mullai, R. U.; Aruljothi, R.; NizamMohideen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the organic–inorganic title salt, (C10H28N4)[Cr2O7]2, comprises one half of an 1,4-bis­(3-ammonio­prop­yl)piperazinediium cation (the other half being generated by the application of inversion symmetry) and a dichromate anion. The piperazine ring of the cation adopts a chair conformation, and the two CrO4 tetra­hedra of the anion are in an almost eclipsed conformation. In the crystal, the cations and anions form a layered arrangement parallel to (001). N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the cations and anions and additional C—H⋯O inter­actions lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network structure. PMID:27308002

  7. 3,1-Benzothiazines, 1,4-Benzodioxines and 1,4-Benzoxazines as Inhibitors of Matriptase-2: Outcome of a Focused Screening Approach

    PubMed Central

    Roydeva, Polya G.; Beckmann, Anna-Madeleine; Stirnberg, Marit; Cesar, Jožko; Kikelj, Danijel; Ilaš, Janez; Gütschow, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The liver enzyme matriptase-2 is a multi-domain, transmembrane serine protease with an extracellular, C-terminal catalytic domain. Synthetic low-molecular weight inhibitors of matriptase-2 have potential as therapeutics to treat iron overload syndromes, in particular in patients with β-thalassemia. A sub-library of 64 compounds was screened for matriptase-2 inhibition and several active compounds were identified. (S)-Ethyl 2-(benzyl(3-((4-carbamidoylphenoxy)methyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxin-6-yl)amino)-2-oxoacetate ((S)-12) showed an IC50 value of less than 10 µM. Structure-activity relationships were discussed and proposals to design new matriptase-2 inhibitors were made. PMID:26771619

  8. A Catalog of Soft X-Ray Shadows, and More Contemplation of the 1/4 KeV Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, S. L.; Freyberg, M. J.; Kuntz, K. D.; Sanders, W. T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a catalog of shadows in the 1/4 keV soft X-ray diffuse background 4 (SXRB) that were identified by a comparison between ROSAT All-Sky Survey maps and DIRB&corrected IRAS 100 micron maps. These "shadows" are the negative correlations between the surface brightness of the SXRB and the column density of the Galactic interstellar medium (ISIM) over limited angular regions (a few degrees in extent). We have compiled an extensive but not exhaustive set of 378 shadows in the polar regions of the Galaxy (Absolute value (beta) > and approximately equal 20 deg.), and determined their foreground and background X-ray intensities (relative to the absorbing features), and the respective hardness ratios of that emission. The portion of the sky that was examined to find these shadows was restricted in general to regions where the minimum column density is less than and approximately equal to 4 x 10(exp 20) H/square cm, i.e., relatively high Galactic latitudes, and to regions away from distinct extended features in the SXRB such as supernova remnants and superbubbles. The results for the foreground intensities agree well with the recent results of a general analysis of the local 1/4 KeV emission while the background intensities show additional. but not unexpected scatter. The results also confirm the existence of a gradient in the hardness of the local 1/4 keV emission along a Galactic center/ anticenter axis with a temperature that varies from 10(exp 6.13) K to 10(exp 6.02) K, respectively. The average temperature of the foreground component from this analysis is 10(exp 6.08) K, compared to 10(exp 6.06) K in the previous analysis. Likewise, the average temperature for the distant component for the current and previous analyses are 10(exp 6.06) K and 10(exp 6.02) K, respectively. Finally, the results for the 1/4 keV halo emission are compared to the observed fluxes at 3/4 keV, where the lack of correlation suggests that the Galactic halo's 1/4 keV and 3/4 ke

  9. Energy efficient engine ICLS Nacelle detail design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskridge, R. R.; Kuchar, A. P.; Stotler, C. L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of the detail design of the Nacelle for the General Electric Energy Efficient Engine (E3) Integrated Core Low Spool (ICLS) test vehicles are presented. A slave nacelle is designed for the ICLS test. Cost and reliability are the important factors considered. The slave nacelle simulates the internal flow lines of the actual Flight Propulsion System (FPS) but has no external fairing. The aerodynamic differences between the ICLS and FPS nacelles are presented, followed by the structural description and analysis of the various nacelle components.

  10. A New Detailed Term Accounting Opacity Code: TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesias, C A; Chen, M H; Isaacs, W; Sonnad, V; Wilson, B G

    2004-04-28

    A new opacity code, TOPAZ, which explicitly includes configuration term structure in the bound-bound transitions is being developed. The goal is to extend the current capabilities of detailed term accounting opacity codes such as OPAL that are limited to lighter elements of astrophysical interest. At present, opacity calculations of heavier elements use statistical methods that rely on the presence of myriad spectral lines for accuracy. However, statistical approaches have been shown to be inadequate for astrophysical opacity calculations. An application of the TOPAZ code will be to study the limits of statistical methods. Comparisons of TOPAZ to other opacity codes as well as experiments are presented.

  11. Inhibitory properties of 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB) derivatives acting on glycogen metabolising enzymes.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Lobo, Mireia; Concia, Alda Lisa; Gómez, Livia; Clapés, Pere; Fita, Ignacio; Guinovart, Joan J; Ferrer, Joan C

    2016-09-26

    Glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP) are the key enzymes that control, respectively, the synthesis and degradation of glycogen, a multi-branched glucose polymer that serves as a form of energy storage in bacteria, fungi and animals. An abnormal glycogen metabolism is associated with several human diseases. Thus, GS and GP constitute adequate pharmacological targets to modulate cellular glycogen levels by means of their selective inhibition. The compound 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB) is a known potent inhibitor of GP. We studied the inhibitory effect of DAB, its enantiomer LAB, and 29 DAB derivatives on the activity of rat muscle glycogen phosphorylase (RMGP) and E. coli glycogen synthase (EcGS). The isoform 4 of sucrose synthase (SuSy4) from Solanum tuberosum L. was also included in the study for comparative purposes. Although these three enzymes possess highly conserved catalytic site architectures, the DAB derivatives analysed showed extremely diverse inhibitory potential. Subtle changes in the positions of crucial residues in their active sites are sufficient to discriminate among the structural differences of the tested inhibitors. For the two Leloir-type enzymes, EcGS and SuSy4, which use sugar nucleotides as donors, the inhibitory potency of the compounds analysed was synergistically enhanced by more than three orders of magnitude in the presence of ADP and UDP, respectively. Our results are consistent with a model in which these compounds bind to the subsite in the active centre of the enzymes that is normally occupied by the glucosyl residue which is transferred between donor and acceptor substrates. The ability to selectively inhibit the catalytic activity of the key enzymes of the glycogen metabolism may represent a new approach for the treatment of disorders of the glycogen metabolism.

  12. The art of poster presentation.

    PubMed

    Maltby, H J; Serrell, M

    1998-04-01

    Need to attract attention with a captivating poster? This article provides helpful suggestions for the design and production of a poster. Layout, colour, balance, lettering and the use of pictures are considered. Details are also provided of the Research-poster Appraisal Tool (R-PAT) developed by Bushy (1991). The authors recommend that poster presenters use the tool to self-assess effectiveness prior to presentation. The tool can also be used by conference organisers for rating displayed posters.

  13. Galaxy And Mass Assembly: the 1.4 GHz SFR indicator, SFR-M* relation and predictions for ASKAP-GAMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, L. J. M.; Huynh, M. T.; Hopkins, A. M.; Seymour, N.; Driver, S. P.; Robotham, A. G. R.; Baldry, I. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bourne, N.; Bremer, M. N.; Brown, M. J. I.; Brough, S.; Cluver, M.; Grootes, M. W.; Jarvis, M.; Loveday, J.; Moffet, A.; Owers, M.; Phillipps, S.; Sadler, E.; Wang, L.; Wilkins, S.; Wright, A.

    2017-04-01

    We present a robust calibration of the 1.4 GHz radio continuum star formation rate (SFR) using a combination of the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey and the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm (FIRST) survey. We identify individually detected 1.4 GHz GAMA-FIRST sources and use a late-type, non-active galactic nucleus, volume-limited sample from GAMA to produce stellar mass-selected samples. The latter are then combined to produce FIRST-stacked images. This extends the robust parametrization of the 1.4 GHz-SFR relation to faint luminosities. For both the individually detected galaxies and our stacked samples, we compare 1.4 GHz luminosity to SFRs derived from GAMA to determine a new 1.4 GHz luminosity-to-SFR relation with well-constrained slope and normalization. For the first time, we produce the radio SFR-M* relation over 2 decades in stellar mass, and find that our new calibration is robust, and produces a SFR-M* relation which is consistent with all other GAMA SFR methods. Finally, using our new 1.4 GHz luminosity-to-SFR calibration we make predictions for the number of star-forming GAMA sources which are likely to be detected in the upcoming Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder surveys, Evolutionary Map of the Universe and Deep Investigation of Neutral Gas Origins.

  14. Structure of β-1,4-mannanase from the common sea hare Aplysia kurodai at 1.05 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Kimihiko; Tsuchiya, Sae; Toyoda, Mayuko; Nanbu, Yuko; Tominaga, Keiko; Yuasa, Keizo; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Tsuji, Akihiko; Mikami, Bunzo

    2012-01-01

    β-1,4-Mannanase (EC 3.2.1.78) catalyzes the hydrolysis of β-1,4-glycosidic bonds within mannan, a major constituent group of the hemicelluloses. Bivalves and gastropods possess β-1,4-mannanase and may degrade mannan in seaweed and/or phytoplankton to obtain carbon and energy using the secreted enzymes in their digestive systems. In the present study, the crystal structure of AkMan, a gastropod β-1,4-mannanase prepared from the common sea hare Aplysia kurodai, was determined at 1.05 Å resolution. This is the first report of the three-dimensional structure of a gastropod β-1,4-mannanase. The structure was compared with bivalve β-1,4-mannanase and the roles of residues in the catalytic cleft were investigated. No obvious binding residue was found in subsite +1 and the substrate-binding site was exposed to the molecular surface, which may account for the enzymatic properties of mannanases that can digest complex substrates such as glucomannan and branched mannan. PMID:23027740

  15. Structure of β-1,4-mannanase from the common sea hare Aplysia kurodai at 1.05 Å resolution.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Kimihiko; Tsuchiya, Sae; Toyoda, Mayuko; Nanbu, Yuko; Tominaga, Keiko; Yuasa, Keizo; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Tsuji, Akihiko; Mikami, Bunzo

    2012-10-01

    β-1,4-Mannanase (EC 3.2.1.78) catalyzes the hydrolysis of β-1,4-glycosidic bonds within mannan, a major constituent group of the hemicelluloses. Bivalves and gastropods possess β-1,4-mannanase and may degrade mannan in seaweed and/or phytoplankton to obtain carbon and energy using the secreted enzymes in their digestive systems. In the present study, the crystal structure of AkMan, a gastropod β-1,4-mannanase prepared from the common sea hare Aplysia kurodai, was determined at 1.05 Å resolution. This is the first report of the three-dimensional structure of a gastropod β-1,4-mannanase. The structure was compared with bivalve β-1,4-mannanase and the roles of residues in the catalytic cleft were investigated. No obvious binding residue was found in subsite +1 and the substrate-binding site was exposed to the molecular surface, which may account for the enzymatic properties of mannanases that can digest complex substrates such as glucomannan and branched mannan.

  16. Collaborative recall of details of an emotional film.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Ineke; Zandstra, Anna Roos E; Hengeveld, Hester M E; Moulds, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative inhibition refers to the phenomenon that when several people work together to produce a single memory report, they typically produce fewer items than when the unique items in the individual reports of the same number of participants are combined (i.e., nominal recall). Yet, apart from this negative effect, collaboration may be beneficial in that group members remove errors from a collaborative report. Collaborative inhibition studies on memory for emotional stimuli are scarce. Therefore, the present study examined both collaborative inhibition and collaborative error reduction in the recall of the details of emotional material in a laboratory setting. Female undergraduates (n = 111) viewed a film clip of a fatal accident and subsequently engaged in either collaborative (n = 57) or individual recall (n = 54) in groups of three. The results show that, across several detail categories, collaborating groups recalled fewer details than nominal groups. However, overall, nominal recall produced more errors than collaborative recall. The present results extend earlier findings on both collaborative inhibition and error reduction to the recall of affectively laden material. These findings may have implications for the applied fields of forensic and clinical psychology.

  17. Organocatalytic Enantioselective Synthesis of 1,4-Dioxanes and Other Oxa-Heterocycles by Oxetane Desymmetrization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Sun, Jianwei

    2016-01-26

    A new asymmetric synthesis of chiral 1,4-dioxanes and other oxa-heterocycles has been developed by means of organocatalytic enantioselective desymmetrization of oxetanes. This mild process proceeds with exceedingly high efficiency and enantioselectivity to establish the quaternary stereocenters. This method complements the existing, yet limited, strategies for the synthesis of these oxa-heterocycles.

  18. 43 CFR 3802.1-4 - Contents of plan of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.1-4 Contents of plan of operations. (a) A plan of operations shall be filed in the District Office of the Bureau of Land Management in which the claim...

  19. Intermediate SCDC Spanish Curricula Units. Language Arts, Unit 1, Kits 1-4, Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanish Curricula Development Center, Miami Beach, FL.

    Reflecting the theme "our community", this unit consists of Kits 1-4 which are organized in three sections: reading, language analysis, and creative expression. The reading section includes two readers which contain three poems and five stories dealing with a grandmother's efforts to help support the family, a female pilot who successfully lands a…

  20. 15. (4"X5" image enlarged from 2 1/4" negative) Sam Fowler, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. (4"X5" image enlarged from 2 1/4" negative) Sam Fowler, Photographer, February 1998 VIEW OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 051-00025D-01986N (JAMES P. HOULIHAN BRIDGE) PIVOT PIER - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 051-00025D-01986N, US 17 & State Route 25 Spanning Savannah River, Port Wentworth, Chatham County, GA

  1. 13. (4'X5' image enlarged from 2 1/4' negative) Sam Fowler, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. (4'X5' image enlarged from 2 1/4' negative) Sam Fowler, Photographer, February 1998 VIEW OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 051-00025D-01986N (JAMES P. HOULIHAN BRIDGE) NORTH SIDE ELEVATION. - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 051-00025D-01986N, US 17 & State Route 25 Spanning Savannah River, Port Wentworth, Chatham County, GA

  2. 17. (4"X5" image enlarged from 2 1/4" negative) Sam Fowler, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. (4"X5" image enlarged from 2 1/4" negative) Sam Fowler, Photographer, February 1998 VIEW OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 051-00025D-01986N (JAMES P. HOULIHAN BRIDGE) APPROACH SPAN FENDER - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 051-00025D-01986N, US 17 & State Route 25 Spanning Savannah River, Port Wentworth, Chatham County, GA

  3. 12. (4'X5' image enlarged from 2 1/4' negative) Sam Fowler, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. (4'X5' image enlarged from 2 1/4' negative) Sam Fowler, Photographer, February 1998 VIEW OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 051-00025D-01986N (JAMES P. HOULIHAN BRIDGE) SOUTH SIDE ELEVATION. - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 051-00025D-01986N, US 17 & State Route 25 Spanning Savannah River, Port Wentworth, Chatham County, GA

  4. 14. (4"X5" image enlarged from 2 1/4" negative) Sam Fowler, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. (4"X5" image enlarged from 2 1/4" negative) Sam Fowler, Photographer, February 1998 VIEW OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 051-00025D-01986N (JAMES P. HOULIHAN BRIDGE) TURN-SPAN AND LOCKING MECHANISM - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 051-00025D-01986N, US 17 & State Route 25 Spanning Savannah River, Port Wentworth, Chatham County, GA

  5. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1577 Section 721.1577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1577 Section 721.1577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1577 Section 721.1577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1577 Section 721.1577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1577 Section 721.1577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. Antimicrobial activities of 1,4-benzoquinones and wheat germ extract.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Hee; Jo, Sung-Hoon; Ha, Kyung-Soo; Song, Ji-Hye; Jang, Hae-Dong; Kwon, Young-In

    2010-08-01

    We evaluated the antibacterial activities of selected edible Korean plant seeds against the food-borne pathogens Staphylococcus aureus KCTC1927, Escherichia coli KCTC2593, Salmonella typhimurium KCTC2054, and Bacillus cereus KCTC1014. While screening for antibacterial agents, we discovered that wheat germ extract contains 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DMBQ) and is highly inhibitory to S. aureus and B. cereus. This is the first report of the antibacterial activity of wheat germ extract. We also investigated the antibacterial activities of the 1,4- benzoquinone standards 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), hydroquinone (HQ), methoxybenzoquinone (MBQ), and 2,6-dimethoxy- 1,4-benzoquinone (DMBQ). DMBQ and BQ were the most highly inhibitory to S. aureus and S. typhimurium, followed by MBQ and HQ. MICs for DMBQ and BQ ranged between 8 and 64 microgram/ml against the four foodborne pathogens tested. DMBQ and BQ showed significant antibacterial activity; the most sensitive organism was S. aureus with an MIC of 8 microgram/ml. BQ exhibited good activity against S. typhimurium (32 microgram/ml) and B. cereus (32 microgram/ml). The results suggest that wheat germ extract has potential for the development of natural antimicrobials and food preservatives for controlling foodborne pathogens.

  11. FIELD STUDY: IN SITU OXIDATION OF 1,4-DIOXANE WITH OZONE AND HYDROGEN PEROXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale field evaluation is underway to assess the effectiveness of in situ oxidation (using ozone with and without hydrogen peroxide) for remediation of 1,4-dioxane and chlorinated volatile organic compounds in groundwater at the Cooper Drum Company Superfund Site located ...

  12. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,4-Dioxane (with Inhalation Update) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On September 9, 2011, the Toxicological Review of 1,4-Dioxane (inhalation) (External Review Draft) was posted for external peer review and public comment. Subsequently, the Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and Exe...

  13. SDO Captures X1.4 Solar Flare on July 12, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie shows the sun July 11-12, ending with the X1.4 class flare on July 12, 2012. It was captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory in the 304 Angstrom wavelength - a wavelength coloriz...

  14. Role of (1,3)(1,4)-β-glucan in cell walls: interaction with cellulose.

    PubMed

    Kiemle, Sarah N; Zhang, Xiao; Esker, Alan R; Toriz, Guillermo; Gatenholm, Paul; Cosgrove, Daniel J

    2014-05-12

    (1,3)(1,4)-β-D-Glucan (mixed-linkage glucan or MLG), a characteristic hemicellulose in primary cell walls of grasses, was investigated to determine both its role in cell walls and its interaction with cellulose and other cell wall polysaccharides in vitro. Binding isotherms showed that MLG adsorption onto microcrystalline cellulose is slow, irreversible, and temperature-dependent. Measurements using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring showed that MLG adsorbed irreversibly onto amorphous regenerated cellulose, forming a thick hydrogel. Oligosaccharide profiling using endo-(1,3)(1,4)-β-glucanase indicated that there was no difference in the frequency and distribution of (1,3) and (1,4) links in bound and unbound MLG. The binding of MLG to cellulose was reduced if the cellulose samples were first treated with certain cell wall polysaccharides, such as xyloglucan and glucuronoarabinoxylan. The tethering function of MLG in cell walls was tested by applying endo-(1,3)(1,4)-β-glucanase to wall samples in a constant force extensometer. Cell wall extension was not induced, which indicates that enzyme-accessible MLG does not tether cellulose fibrils into a load-bearing network.

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,4-Dioxane (External Review Draft, 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of 1,4-dioxane that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  16. 43 CFR 3863.1-4 - Applications for placers containing known lodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Placer Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3863.1-4 Applications for placers containing known lodes. Applicants for patent to a placer claim, who are also in possession of a known vein or lode included...

  17. 43 CFR 3863.1-4 - Applications for placers containing known lodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Placer Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3863.1-4 Applications for placers containing known lodes. Applicants for patent to a placer claim, who are also in possession of a known vein or lode included...

  18. 43 CFR 3863.1-4 - Applications for placers containing known lodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Placer Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3863.1-4 Applications for placers containing known lodes. Applicants for patent to a placer claim, who are also in possession of a known vein or lode included...

  19. 43 CFR 3863.1-4 - Applications for placers containing known lodes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Placer Mining Claim Patent Applications § 3863.1-4 Applications for placers containing known lodes. Applicants for patent to a placer claim, who are also in possession of a known vein or lode included...

  20. Protein kinase A modulation of CaV1.4 calcium channels

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Lingjie; Dick, Ivy E.; Yue, David T.

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of L-type Ca2+ channels by protein kinase A (PKA) represents a crucial element within cardiac, skeletal muscle and neurological systems. Although much work has been done to understand this regulation in cardiac CaV1.2 Ca2+ channels, relatively little is known about the closely related CaV1.4 L-type Ca2+ channels, which feature prominently in the visual system. Here we find that CaV1.4 channels are indeed modulated by PKA phosphorylation within the inhibitor of Ca2+-dependent inactivation (ICDI) motif. Phosphorylation of this region promotes the occupancy of calmodulin on the channel, thus increasing channel open probability (PO) and Ca2+-dependent inactivation. Although this interaction seems specific to CaV1.4 channels, introduction of ICDI1.4 to CaV1.3 or CaV1.2 channels endows these channels with a form of PKA modulation, previously unobserved in heterologous systems. Thus, this mechanism may not only play an important role in the visual system but may be generalizable across the L-type channel family. PMID:27456671