Science.gov

Sample records for 1-4 present detailed

  1. Biodegradation of cis-1,4-Polyisoprene Rubbers by Distinct Actinomycetes: Microbial Strategies and Detailed Surface Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Linos, Alexandros; Berekaa, Mahmoud M.; Reichelt, Rudolf; Keller, Ulrike; Schmitt, Jürgen; Flemming, Hans-Curt; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M.; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Several actinomycetes isolated from nature were able to use both natural rubber (NR) and synthetic cis-1,4-polyisoprene rubber (IR) as a sole source of carbon. According to their degradation behavior, they were divided into two groups. Representatives of the first group grew only in direct contact to the rubber substrate and led to considerable disintegration of the material during cultivation. The second group consisted of weaker rubber decomposers that did not grow adhesively, as indicated by the formation of clear zones (translucent halos) around bacterial colonies after cultivation on NR dispersed in mineral agar. Taxonomic analysis of four selected strains based on 16S rRNA similarity examinations revealed two Gordonia sp. strains, VH2 and Kb2, and one Mycobacterium fortuitum strain, NF4, belonging to the first group as well as one Micromonospora aurantiaca strain, W2b, belonging to the second group. Schiff's reagent staining tests performed for each of the strains indicated colonization of the rubber surface, formation of a bacterial biofilm, and occurrence of compounds containing aldehyde groups during cultivation with NR latex gloves. Detailed analysis by means of scanning electron microscopy yielded further evidence for the two different microbial strategies and clarified the colonization efficiency. Thereby, strains VH2, Kb2, and NF4 directly adhered to and merged into the rubber material, while strain W2b produced mycelial corridors, especially on the surface of IR. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy comprising the attenuated total reflectance technique was applied on NR latex gloves overgrown by cells of the Gordonia strains, which were the strongest rubber decomposers. Spectra demonstrated the decrease in number of cis-1,4 double bonds, the formation of carbonyl groups, and the change of the overall chemical environment, indicating that an oxidative attack at the double bond is the first metabolic step of the biodegradation process. PMID:10742254

  2. Laboratory Investigations Of Mechanisms For 1,4-Dioxane Destruction By Ozone In Water (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in analytical detection methods have made it possible to quantify 1,4-dioxane contamination in groundwater, even a well-characterized sites where it had not been previously detected. Although 1,4-dioxane is difficult to treat because of its chemical and physical propert...

  3. The Effects of Varying Pictorial Detail and Presentation Strategy on Concept Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Don A.

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of varying pictorial detail and presentation strategy on learners of varying grade levels in a visually transmitted concept formation task. Specifically, line drawings containing only relevant details and halftones containing relevant and irrelevant detail were presented successively and…

  4. Remembering the Specific Visual Details of Presented Objects: Neuroimaging Evidence for Effects of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    Memories can be retrieved with varied amounts of visual detail, and the emotional content of information can influence the likelihood that visual detail is remembered. In the present fMRI experiment (conducted with 19 adults scanned using a 3T magnet), we examined the neural processes that correspond with recognition of the visual details of…

  5. Increased Interestingness of Extraneous Details in a Multimedia Science Presentation Leads to Decreased Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Griffith, Emily; Jurkowitz, Ilana T. N.; Rothman, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    In Experiment 1, students received an illustrated booklet, PowerPoint presentation, or narrated animation that explained 6 steps in how a cold virus infects the human body. The material included 6 high-interest details mainly about the role of viruses in sex or death (high group) or 6 low-interest details consisting of facts and health tips about…

  6. The emerging modern face of mood disorders: a didactic editorial with a detailed presentation of data and definitions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The present work represents a detailed description of our current understanding and knowledge of the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis and clinical manifestations of mood disorders, their comorbidity and overlap, and the effect of variables such as gender and age. This review article is largely based on the 'Mood disorders' chapter of the Wikibooks Textbook of Psychiatry http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Textbook_of_Psychiatry/Mood_Disorders. PMID:20385020

  7. International Perspectives on Adapted Physical Activity. Selected Papers Presented at the International Symposium on Adapted Physical Activity (5th, Toronto, Canada, October 1-4, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berridge, Mavis E., Ed.; Ward, Graham R., Ed.

    The 36 papers in this book were presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Adapted Physical Activity. Presentations document some of the research findings and new ideas in physical education and recreation programs designed to improve the quality of life for special populations. The collection represents the breadth of the field, from the…

  8. Literacy-Empowerment-Opportunity: Contributed Papers Presented at the ASLA-AEMA Annual Conference (Phoenix, Arizona, December 1-4, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Carol, Ed.

    This proceedings contains the following papers presented at the 1993 conference of the Arizona State Library Association and Arizona Educational Media Association College and University Libraries Division: (1) "Building a Collection Development Team in an Academic Library" (Bee Gallegos and John Spencer); (2) "Danger, Death and Desire in the…

  9. Anatomy online: presentation of a detailed WWW atlas of human gross anatomy--reference for medical education.

    PubMed

    Jastrow, Holger; Vollrath, Lutz

    2002-11-01

    We present an online anatomy atlas based on the Visible Human Project (VHP) of the US National Library of Medicine. The objective is to provide original unlabeled as well as labeled sections of the human body of high quality and resolution on the Internet, for use in basic and continuing medical education. For a representative overview of the body, 370 axial sections were selected from the male and female data base of the VHP with special regard to regions of clinical interest. Each section is accompanied by its corresponding computer tomography (CT) image and, if available, magnetic resonance images (MRI) for quick and easy comparison of morphologic and radiologic structures. The sections can be studied unlabeled or labeled according to the current Terminologia Anatomica. A linked vocabulary with more than 850 terms explains the labeling. Animations of the sections as well as of CT and MR images allow for further visualization of the topographic relationships of anatomical structures. The responses to the project indicate that students and physicians regard the Internet Atlas of Human Gross Anatomy as a most useful aid for learning and reviewing anatomical details. The atlas is accessible on: http://www.uni-mainz.de/FB/Medizin/Anatomie/workshop/vishuman/Eready.html.

  10. Detailed Sea Level Record from Barbados Spanning 13,000 to 11,000 Years Before Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    Th/U dated reef-crest corals (Acropora palmata) obtained from new Barbados offshore drill cores provide a local sea level reconstruction in unprecedented detail. The time interval, 13,000 to 11,000 years before present (BP), spans the well-studied Younger Dryas pollen zone, a period that has given rise to more than three decades of sensational climate interpretations and popular press. Widely described as a time when Earth's climate reverted to "glacial-like conditions" the various hypotheses that attempt to explain the "cause" of the Younger Dryas climate event have their staunch supporters as well as their critics but there remains little consensus. The Barbados sea level record for this time interval shows that sea level continued to rise during the Younger Dryas, albeit at a slower rate than prior to 13,000 or following 11,000 years BP. The decrease in the rate of sea level rise can simply be explained by the slow expansion of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet beginning 12,800 years BP followed by its faster demise contributing to a period of rapid sea level increase known as Melt Water Pulse 1B. We calculate the ice volume history of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet and it compares favorably to the moraine history and ice models. The Younger Dryas climate event is most often defined by the rapid shifts in atmospheric proxies measured in ice cores from Greenland. The ice core proxies shift into and out of the Younger Dryas climate event in only a few years to a few decades. Abrupt shifts in the climate state associated with the onset and termination of the Younger Dryas as revealed in Greenland Ice cores are not expressed in the smooth Barbados deglacial sea level record. We make the case that these Greenland atmospheric records mark regional atmospheric frontal shifts and changes in air mass sources over an ice sheet that largely did not participate in the deglaciation or sea level change. As proposed decades ago, the warming of the North Atlantic between 14,000 and 13

  11. 1,4-Dioxane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,4 - Dioxane ; CASRN 123 - 91 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  12. 1,4-Dibromobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,4 - Dibromobenzene ; CASRN 106 - 37 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  13. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,4 - Dichlorobenzene ; CASRN 106 - 46 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  14. 1,4-Dithiane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,4 - Dithiane ; CASRN 505 - 29 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  15. Towards detailed knowledge of atomic nuclei—the past, present and future of nuclear structure investigations at GSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerl, J.; Gόrska, M.; Wollersheim, H. J.

    2016-10-01

    Selected experimental nuclear structure physics results are presented which have been obtained at GSI since the mid 70ties employing the UNILAC and the SIS/FRS accelerator facility. It is shown how stable heavy-ion beams as well as radioactive isotope beams of this facility together with state-of-the-art instrumentation produced many discoveries and led to a multitude of important results covering many aspects of nuclear structure. Finally, we discuss the future directions of nuclear structure research at GSI with the FAIR/NUSTAR project.

  16. 7. Photocopy of photographca. 1927 (2 1/4 X 2 1/4' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph--ca. 1927 (2 1/4 X 2 1/4' negative) DETAIL SHOWING ADAPTATION THAT ALLOWED USE OF UPPER END OF ORIGINAL FLUME AND LOWER END JUST RECONSTRUCTED - Power Flume No. 1, Tacoma, La Plata County, CO

  17. A detailed study of a 6 deg diameter field in Scutum. I - Data presentation and overall description of the interstellar matter distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichen, M.; Lanz, T.; Golay, M.; Huguenin, D.

    1990-01-01

    Data on a detailed study of the absorption and interstellar matter distribution in the 6-deg diameter field centered on the star Epsilon Scutum, using frames from the SCAP-2000 UV survey, are presented. Ultraviolet magnitudes at 2000 A were obtained, and 322 stars were measured in the Geneva photometric system. In order to determine spectral types and confirm the distance determination, medium-resolution spectra were obtained for a small number of photometrically distant objects. An overall description of the distribution of interstellar material in the UV is made using star counting methods. Variations of the extinction law in different parts of the field are discussed. A new distance determination of the Sct OB2 association is proposed, and a list of additional probable members of the association is presented.

  18. 26 CFR 303.1-4 - Computation of taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of taxes. 303.1-4 Section 303.1-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION TAXES UNDER THE TRADING WITH THE ENEMY ACT § 303.1-4 Computation of taxes. (a) Detail of...

  19. Academic detailing.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations. PMID:21209521

  20. Hydroxyl radical generation mechanism during the redox cycling process of 1,4-naphthoquinone.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yu; Chen, Chenyong; Li, Yi; Zhao, Jincai; Zhu, Tong

    2012-03-01

    Airborne quinones contribute to adverse health effects of ambient particles probably because of their ability to generate hydroxyl radicals (·OH) via redox cycling, but the mechanisms remain unclear. We examined the chemical mechanisms through which 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ) induced ·OH, and the redox interactions between 1,4-NQ and ascorbate acid (AscH(2)). First, ·OH formation by 1,4-NQ was observed in cellular and acellular systems, and was enhanced by AscH(2). AscH(2) also exacerbated the cytotoxicity of 1,4-NQ in Ana-1 macrophages, at least partially due to enhanced ·OH generation. The detailed mechanism was studied in an AscH(2)/H(2)O(2) physiological system. The existence of a cyclic 1,4-NQ process was shown by detecting the corresponding semiquinone radical (NSQ·-) and hydroquinone (NQH(2)). 1,4-NQ was reduced primarily to NSQ·- by O2·- (which was from AscH(2) reacting with H(2)O(2)), not by AscH(2) as normally thought. At lower doses, 1,4-NQ consumed O2·- to suppress ·OH; however, at higher doses, 1,4-NQ presented a positive association with ·OH. The reaction of NSQ·- with H(2)O(2) to release ·OH was another important channel for OH radical formation except for Haber-Weiss reaction. As a reaction precursor for O2·-, the enhanced ·OH response to 1,4-NQ by AscH(2) was indirect. Reducing substrates were necessary to sustain the redox cycling of 1,4-NQ, leading to more ·OH and a deleterious end point.

  1. Isomerization of 1,4-dioxane under the effect of {gamma}-radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dan, A.V.; Kruglov, D.E.; Pastushenko, E.V.; Shostenko, A.G.

    1992-09-01

    Data were presented previously on the composition of products of {gamma}-radiolysis of 1,4-dioxane. The main products are called H{sub 2} and a polymer, the radiation yield of which does not exceed 1.5-3.5 molecules per 100 eV. Gaseous hydrocarbons and CO were identified in small amounts. The authors studied in detail the reaction mixture obtained as a result of radiation-chemical transformations of 1,4-dioxane (reaction time 10-15 h and temperature 130-150{degrees}C) by chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  2. 16 CFR 1.4 - Public disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public disclosure. 1.4 Section 1.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.4 Public disclosure. Written advice rendered pursuant...

  3. 50 CFR 1.4 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Director. 1.4 Section 1.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.4 Director. Director means the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the...

  4. 45 CFR 1206.1-4 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension. 1206.1-4 Section 1206.1-4 Public... GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance § 1206.1-4 Suspension. (a) General. The responsible Corporation official may...

  5. 45 CFR 1206.1-4 - Suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension. 1206.1-4 Section 1206.1-4 Public... GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance § 1206.1-4 Suspension. (a) General. The responsible Corporation official may...

  6. 45 CFR 1211.1-4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. 1211.1-4 Section 1211.1-4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-4 Policy. It is ACTION's policy to provide volunteers the widest latitude...

  7. 45 CFR 1211.1-4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Policy. 1211.1-4 Section 1211.1-4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-4 Policy. It is ACTION's policy to provide volunteers the widest latitude...

  8. 45 CFR 1211.1-4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policy. 1211.1-4 Section 1211.1-4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-4 Policy. It is ACTION's policy to provide volunteers the widest latitude...

  9. 50 CFR 1.4 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Director. 1.4 Section 1.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.4 Director. Director means the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the...

  10. 50 CFR 1.4 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Director. 1.4 Section 1.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.4 Director. Director means the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the...

  11. 50 CFR 1.4 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Director. 1.4 Section 1.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.4 Director. Director means the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the...

  12. 50 CFR 1.4 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Director. 1.4 Section 1.4 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.4 Director. Director means the Director, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the...

  13. V2.1.4 L2AS Detailed Release Description September 27, 2001

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-14

    ... Report NumAcceptSubr as number of subregions of good quality, instead of number of subregions actually used in final retrieval. ... het. surface retrieval algorithm over areas of 100% dark water. Modify algorithm for selecting a default aerosol model to use in ...

  14. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  15. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  16. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  17. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  18. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  19. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  20. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  1. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  2. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  3. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  4. 43 CFR 1.4 - Disqualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disqualifications. 1.4 Section 1.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... violate the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 203, 205, or 207....

  5. 43 CFR 1.4 - Disqualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Disqualifications. 1.4 Section 1.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... violate the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 203, 205, or 207....

  6. 43 CFR 1.4 - Disqualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disqualifications. 1.4 Section 1.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... violate the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 203, 205, or 207....

  7. 43 CFR 1.4 - Disqualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disqualifications. 1.4 Section 1.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... violate the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 203, 205, or 207....

  8. 43 CFR 1.4 - Disqualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disqualifications. 1.4 Section 1.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... violate the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 203, 205, or 207....

  9. Reproduction of 3/4 White Composite and 1/4 Duroc, 1/4 Meishan, 1/4 Fengjing, or 1/4 Minzhu gilts and sows.

    PubMed

    Young, L D

    1998-06-01

    Females were either 1/4 Duroc, 1/4 Meishan, 1/4 Fengjing, or 1/4 Minzhu, and the remainder were 3/4 White Composite. A greater percentage of Fengjing crosses reached puberty than Duroc or Minzhu (P < .05), and Meishan crosses were intermediate and not different (P > .05) from other breed types. After adjusting for differences in percentage detected owing to termination of observation for estrus, breed types ranked Fengjing, Meishan, Minzhu, and Duroc from youngest to oldest at puberty with approximately 14 d between adjacent breed types. Meishan and Fengjing crosses had a greater (P < .05) ovulation rate than Minzhu or Duroc crosses. With the exception of number of fetuses at 100 d and average fetal weight at 60 d, differences among breed types were not detected (P > .05) for litter or uterine traits measured on gilts slaughtered at 60 or 100 d of gestation. Total number of pigs born was greater (P < .05) for 1/4 Fengjing than for 1/4 Duroc gilts. Gestation length, number born alive, number weaned, litter birth weight, or litter weaning weight for gilts did not differ (P > .05) among breed types. Duroc crosses were heavier (P < .01) than Chinese crosses at d 1 and 28 after farrowing, but breed types did not differ (P > .05) for backfat thickness at those times. Breed types did not differ (P > .05) for the ratio of litter gain from 0 to 28 d/total Mcal or any of the component traits in the ratio. Postweaning estrus activity, conception rate, and litter and uterine traits of sows bred for second parity were not affected (P > .05) by breed type. These analyses indicate that crossbred gilts containing 1/4 Meishan, 1/4 Fengjing, or 1/4 Minzhu will reach puberty earlier, have larger litters, and weigh less at first parity than gilts containing 1/4 Duroc, but they do not have any significant advantage in litter size at second parity.

  10. Dielectric properties of multiatomic alcohols: 1,4-butanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. I.

    2015-12-01

    The dielectric spectra of 1,4-butanediol in the temperature range of 298-423 K are analyzed using the theoretical approaches of Debye, Davidson-Cole, and Forsman, based on the Dissado-Hill theory. It is shown that the dielectric spectra of 1,4-butanediol are described by the Davidson-Cole equation, and the βDC parameter has a pronounced strong temperature dependence. In the Debye theory, the spectrum of the dielectric relaxation of 1,4-butanediol is presented as the sum of two region of dispersions. Conclusions are reached as to the possible mechanisms of dispersion responsible for the obtained regions. The relaxation times of 1,4-butanediol calculated using different equations describing the nonlinear behavior of the relaxation time are compared. The dipole moments of clusters are obtained for the first time and a preliminary analysis is performed using the Dissado-Hill cluster model.

  11. Receptor model for the molecular basis of tissue selectivity of 1, 4-dihydropyridine calcium channel drugs.

    PubMed

    Langs, D A; Strong, P D; Triggle, D J

    1990-09-01

    Our analysis of the solid state conformations of nifedipine [dimethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(2-nitrophenyl)-3,5-pyridinecarboxylate ] and its 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) analogues produced a cartoon description of the important interactions between these drugs and their voltage-dependent calcium channel receptor. In the present study a molecular-level detailed model of the 1,4-DHP receptor binding site has been built from the published amino acid sequence of the alpha 1 subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle transverse tubule membranes. The voltage-sensing component of the channel described in this work differs from other reported for the homologous sodium channel in that it incorporates a water structure and a staggered, rather than eclipsed, hydrogen bonded S4 helix conformation. The major recognition surfaces of the receptor lie in helical grooves on the S4 or voltage-sensing alpha-helix that is positioned in the center of the bundle of transmembrane helices that define each of the four calcium channel domains. Multiple binding clefts defined by Arg-X-X-Arg-P-X-X-S 'reading frames' exist on the S4 strand. The tissue selectivity of nifedipine and its analogues may arise, in part, from conservative changes in the amino acid residues at the P and S positions of the reading frame that define the ester-binding regions of receptors from different tissues. The crystal structures of two tissue-selective nifedipine analogues, nimodipine [isopropyl (2-methoxyethyl) 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-3,5-pyridinecarboxylate ] and nitrendipine [ethyl methyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-3, 5-pyridinecarboxylate] are reported. Nimodipine was observed to have an unusual ester side chain conformation that enhances the fit to the proposed ester-sensing region of the receptor.

  12. Microbial Hydroxylation of 1,4-Cineole

    PubMed Central

    Rosazza, John P. N.; Steffens, James J.; Sariaslani, F. Sima; Goswami, Animesh; Beale, John M.; Reeg, Scot; Chapman, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Microorganisms were examined for their potential to hydroxylate the oxygenated monoterpene 1,4-cineole. Using gas chromatography and thin-layer chromatography, screening experiments revealed that hydroxylation at position 2 was the most commonly observed microbial transformation reaction. In most microorganisms, the predominant alcohol metabolite was the 2-endo-alcohol isomer. Preparative-scale incubations were conducted in order to isolate and characterize microbial transformation products by comparison of proton nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and chromatography profiles with those of cineole standards. Streptomyces griseus yielded 8-hydroxy-1,4-cineole as the major hydroxylation product together with 2-exo- and 2-endo-hydroxy-1,4-cineoles. PMID:16347465

  13. Oriented structures based on trans-1,4-polybutadiene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tervoort-Engelen, Yvonne Maria Theodora

    Oriented structures based on trans 1,4 polybutadiene (t-1,4-PB) are explored in view of the enhancement of intermolecular interactions in fibrous systems. The deformation behavior and properties of both melt and solution crystallized t-1,4-PB films are presented and crosslinking of the oriented structures is discussed. The solution blending of t-1,4-PB and UHMW-PE, and the resulting morphology of the solution crystallized blends as a function of t-1,4-PBN content, are described. Drawing of the solution crystallized blends and the resulting fiber properties, in relation to the fiber morphology, is discussed. The network formation by electron beam irradiation in drawn UHMW-PE/t-1,4-Pb blends is discussed. Results are interpreted in view of the study objective. Some aspects of the morphology of nascent UHMW-PE reactor powders are discussed, focusing on the question of whether chain extended or chain folded crystals prevail in these samples.

  14. 45 CFR 1211.1-4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-4 Policy. It is ACTION's policy to provide volunteers the widest latitude to.... This regulation is designed to assure that the rights of individual volunteers are recognized and...

  15. 45 CFR 1211.1-4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-4 Policy. It is ACTION's policy to provide volunteers the widest latitude to.... This regulation is designed to assure that the rights of individual volunteers are recognized and...

  16. SAS 3 observations of GX 1 + 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, J. P.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Hoffman, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    GX 1 + 4 is one of the brightest celestial sources of high-energy X-rays. It is a pulsar with a period of approximately 2 min (perhaps a multiple of 2 min), decreasing at a variable rate which, since 1971, has averaged approximately 2% per year, but which can be larger than 5% per year. This is the largest rate of decrease observed for any pulsar. The rate of decrease appears to be correlated with the luminosity, in support of the idea that the period decrease is produced by accretion torques acting upon a neutron star. No evidence is seen for a Doppler shift due to motion of the pulsar in a binary orbit; this is consistent with the results of optical observations which suggest that any orbital period is fairly long (months to years). The spectrum of GX 1 + 4 is measured as a function of pulse phase, as well as the phase-averaged total spectrum, and the average spectrum of the pulses alone. The shape of the average pulsed spectrum suggests that the pulsations may be produced by 'hot spots' which are a few hundred meters in extent, with temperatures of approximately 10 to the 8th K (kT being approximately equal to 8 keV).

  17. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing-End Detail - Cumberland Covered Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River, Matthews, Grant County, IN

  18. LIP: The Livermore Interpolation Package, Version 1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsch, F N

    2011-07-06

    or invert the interpolant at an arbitrary number of points. The first section of this report describes the overall design of the package, including both forward and inverse interpolation. Sections 2-6 describe each interpolation method in detail. The software that implements this design is summarized function-by-function in Section 7. For a complete example of package usage, refer to Section 8. The report concludes with a few brief notes on possible software enhancements. For guidance on adding other functional forms to LIP, refer to Appendix B. The reader who is primarily interested in using LIP to solve a problem should skim Section 1, then skip to Sections 7.1-4. Finally, jump ahead to Section 8 and study the example. The remaining sections can be referred to in case more details are desired. Changes since version 1.1 of this document include the new Section 3.2.1 that discusses derivative estimation and new Section 6 that discusses the birational interpolation method. Section numbers following the latter have been modified accordingly.

  19. Equipment for the Disabled. Volumes 1 - 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilshere, E. Rosamond, Comp.

    Four volumes of equipment for the disabled which can simplify their lives and those who live with them are presented. The authors have not included surgical, medical, therapeutic, corrective or gymnastic equipment in the publication. Voume one includes house adaptations and planning, beds and bed accessories, chairs, and wheelchairs and…

  20. Seductive Details in Multimedia Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Gunter Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The seductive detail principle asserts that people learn more deeply from a multimedia presentation when interesting but irrelevant adjuncts are excluded rather than included. However, critics could argue that studies about this principle contain methodological problems. The recent experiment attempts to overcome these problems. Students (N = 108)…

  1. Detail, drivethrough under hoppers, view to southeast. Hungry Horse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, drive-through under hoppers, view to southeast. - Hungry Horse Village, Timber Sand Bunker, Approximately 1 mile south of Highway 2 East & 1/4 mile east of Colorado Boulevard, Hungry Horse, Flathead County, MT

  2. Chord Splicing & Joining Detail; Chord & CrossBracing Joint Details; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord Splicing & Joining Detail; Chord & Cross-Bracing Joint Details; Cross Bracing Center Joint Detail; Chord & Diagonal Joint Detail - Vermont Covered Bridge, Highland Park, spanning Kokomo Creek at West end of Deffenbaugh Street (moved to), Kokomo, Howard County, IN

  3. Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Dunlapsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River, Dunlapsville, Union County, IN

  4. Degradation studies of 1, 6-diisocyanatohexane-extended poly (1, 4-butylene succinate) - bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue repair applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Kulwinder; Singh, K. J.; Anand, Vikas

    2016-05-01

    Bio composite scaffolds prepared from polymer and bio glass provide necessary sites for bone tissue regeneration. In the presented work, bioactive glass scaffolds have been prepared from 1, 6-diisocyanatohexane-extended poly (1, 4-butylene succinate) with different amount of bioactive glass powder by solvent casting method. Prepared scaffolds have been characterized by XRD, FTIR and FESEM techniques. Effect of content of bioactive glass on biodegradability has been investigated in detail.

  5. 31 CFR 1.4 - Public inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public inspection and copying. 1.4 Section 1.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Freedom of Information Act § 1.4 Public inspection and copying. (a) In general. Subject to the application of the exemptions and exclusions...

  6. In Situ X-ray Absorption and Diffraction Studies of Carbon Coated LiFe1/4Mn1/4Co1/4Ni1/4PO4 Cathode During First Charge

    SciTech Connect

    Nam,K.W.; Yang,X.

    2009-04-01

    Synchrotron based in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques are used to study electronic and crystal structure changes of the carbon coated LiFe1/4Mn1/4Co1/4Ni1/4PO4 (LiFe1/4Mn1/4Co1/4Ni1/4PO4/C) cathode material for Li-ion batteries during the first charge. In situ Fe, Mn, Co and Ni K-edge XAS results revealed that the three voltage plateaus at 3.6, 4.2 and 4.7 V vs. Li/Li+ are attributed to the redox reactions of Fe2+/Fe3+, Mn2+/Mn3+ and Co2+/Co3+, respectively, while the apparent capacities above 4.9 V is not originated from the Ni2+/Ni3+ redox, but very likely from the electrolyte decomposition. Interesting phase transition behaviors of LiFe1/4Mn1/4Co1/4Ni1/4PO4/C wereobserved with the formation of an intermediate phase and the solid solution regions. Combined in situ XAS and XRD techniques indicate fast electronic structural changes and slow bulk crystal structural changes.

  7. 7 CFR 1.4 - Public access to certain materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public access to certain materials. 1.4 Section 1.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.4 Public access to certain materials. (a) In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2), each agency within the...

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,4-Dioxane (2010 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The final Toxicological Review of 1,4-dioxane provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to 1,4-dioxane. Human health risk concerns for 1,4-dioxane are primarily related to exposure from drinking, ground, ...

  9. 5 CFR 1.4 - Extent of the excepted service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extent of the excepted service. 1.4 Section 1.4 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND DEFINITIONS (RULE I) § 1.4 Extent of the excepted service. (a) The excepted service shall include all...

  10. 14 CFR Sec. 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false System of accounts coding. Sec. 1-4 Section 1-4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-4 System of accounts coding. (a) A four digit control number...

  11. 14 CFR Sec. 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false System of accounts coding. Sec. 1-4 Section 1-4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-4 System of accounts coding. (a) A four digit control number...

  12. 14 CFR Sec. 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false System of accounts coding. Sec. 1-4 Section 1-4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-4 System of accounts coding. (a) A four digit control number...

  13. 14 CFR Sec. 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false System of accounts coding. Sec. 1-4 Section 1-4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... General Accounting Provisions Sec. 1-4 System of accounts coding. (a) A four digit control number...

  14. 26 CFR 1.4-1 - Number of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Number of exemptions. 1.4-1 Section 1.4-1... and Surtaxes § 1.4-1 Number of exemptions. (a) For the purpose of determining the optional tax imposed under section 3, the taxpayer shall use the number of exemptions allowable to him as deductions...

  15. 26 CFR 1.4-1 - Number of exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Number of exemptions. 1.4-1 Section 1.4-1... and Surtaxes § 1.4-1 Number of exemptions. (a) For the purpose of determining the optional tax imposed under section 3, the taxpayer shall use the number of exemptions allowable to him as deductions...

  16. LF460 detail design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is the final technical report documenting the detail design of the LF460, and advanced turbotip lift fan intended for application with the YJ97-GE-100 turbojet jet generator to a V/STOL transport research aircraft. Primary objective of the design was to achieve a low noise level while maintaining the high thrust/weight ratio capability of a high pressure ratio lift fan. Report covers design requirements and summarizes activities and final results in the areas of aerodynamic and mechanical design, component and system performance, acoustic features and final noise predictions.

  17. Details of meiosis

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 18, discusses the details of meiosis, beginning with the structure and number of chiasmata, i.e., the cytological term for two homologous chromosomes forming a bivalent which begin to repel each other until they are held together only at the point of crossing-over. The synaptonemal complex which consists of two lateral elements which contain protein and RNA is also discussed. The chapter concludes with a description of meiosis in polyploids, human meiosis, and the behavior of X and Y chromosomes. 28 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Reactivity initiated accident test series Test RIA 1-4

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, Z.R.; El-Genk, M.S.; Fukuda, S.K.; LaPointe, R.E.; Osetek, D.J.

    1980-05-01

    The Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) Test RIA 1-4, the first 9-rod fuel rod bundle RIA Test to be performed at BWR hot startup conditions, was completed on April 16, 1980. The test was performed in the Power Burst Facility (PBF). Objective for Test RIA 1-4 was to provide information regarding loss-of-coolable fuel rod geometry following a RIA event for a peak fuel enthalpy equivalent to the present licensing criteria of 280 cal/g. The most severe RIA is the postulated Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) control rod drop during reactor startup. Therefore the test was conducted at BWR hot startup coolant conditions (538 K, 6.45 MPa, 0.8 1/sec). The test sequence began with steady power operation to condition the fuel, establish a short-lived fission product inventory, and calibrate the calorimetric measurements and core power chambers, neutron flux and gamma flux detectors. The test train was removed from the in-pile tube (IPT) to replace one of the fuel rods with a nominally identical irradiated rod and twelve flux wire monitors. A 2.8 ms period power burst was then performed. Coolant flow measurements were made before and after the power burst to characterize the flow blockage that occurred as a result of fuel rod failure.

  19. Detailed Debunking of Denial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enting, I. G.; Abraham, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The disinformation campaign against climate science has been compared to a guerilla war whose tactics undermine the traditional checks and balances of science. One comprehensive approach has to been produce archives of generic responses such as the websites of RealClimate and SkepticalScience. We review our experiences with an alternative approach of detailed responses to a small number of high profile cases. Our particular examples were Professor Ian Plimer and Christopher Monckton, the Third Viscount Monckton of Brenchley, each of whom has been taken seriously by political leaders in our respective countries. We relate our experiences to comparable examples such as John Mashey's analysis of the Wegman report and the formal complaints about Lomborg's "Skeptical Environmentalist" and Durkin's "Great Global Warming Swindle". Our two approaches used contrasting approaches: an on-line video of a lecture vs an evolving compendium of misrepresentations. Additionally our approaches differed in the emphasis. The analysis of Monckton concentrated on the misrepresentation of the science, while the analysis of Plimer concentrated on departures from accepted scientific practice: fabrication of data, misrepresentation of cited sources and unattributed use of the work of others. Benefits of an evolving compendium were the ability to incorporate contributions from members of the public who had identified additional errors and the scope for addressing new aspects as they came to public attention. `Detailed debunking' gives non-specialists a reference point for distinguishing non-science when engaging in public debate.

  20. 40 CFR 721.990 - 1,4-Benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. 721.990 Section 721.990 Protection of Environment..., dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized (PMN P-00-0789; CAS No. 263244-54-8) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.990 - 1,4-Benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. 721.990 Section 721.990 Protection of Environment..., dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized (PMN P-00-0789; CAS No. 263244-54-8) is subject to reporting...

  2. 40 CFR 721.990 - 1,4-Benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. 721.990 Section 721.990 Protection of Environment..., dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized (PMN P-00-0789; CAS No. 263244-54-8) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.990 - 1,4-Benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. 721.990 Section 721.990 Protection of Environment..., dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized (PMN P-00-0789; CAS No. 263244-54-8) is subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 721.990 - 1,4-Benzedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. 721.990 Section 721.990 Protection of Environment..., dimethyl ester, polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses..., polymer with 1,4 - butanediol, cyclized (PMN P-00-0789; CAS No. 263244-54-8) is subject to reporting...

  5. 1,4-Dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-mannitol inhibits glycoprotein processing and mannosidase.

    PubMed

    Palamarczyk, G; Mitchell, M; Smith, P W; Fleet, G W; Elbein, A D

    1985-11-15

    1,4-Dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-mannitol (DIM) was synthesized chemically from benzyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside [Fleet et al (1984) J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun., 1240-1241], and was tested in vitro as an inhibitor of various alpha-mannosidases and in cell culture as an inhibitor of glycoprotein processing. DIM proved to be an effective inhibitor of jack bean alpha-mannosidase, with 50% inhibition requiring 25 to 50 ng/ml inhibitor. It also inhibited lysosomal alpha-mannosidase, but in this case 50% inhibition required about 1 to 2 micrograms/ml. In both cases, the inhibition was of the competitive type when p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside was used as the substrate. The inhibition was better at higher pH values, suggesting that DIM was more effective when the nitrogen in the ring was in the unprotonated form. In addition, rat liver processing mannosidase I was also inhibited by DIM as measured by the release of [3H]mannose from [3H]mannose-labeled Man9GlcNAc. Glycoprotein processing was examined in influenza virus-infected MDCK cells. Infected cells were incubated in various concentrations of DIM and labeled with [2-3H]mannose. Viral and cell pellets were digested with Pronase and glycopeptides were isolated by gel filtration on columns of Bio-Gel P-4. The glycopeptides were then treated with endoglucosaminidase H (Endo H) and rechromatographed on the Bio-Gel column in order to distinguish complex from high-mannose structures. As the DIM concentration in the medium was raised, more and more of the [3H]mannose was incorporated into high-mannose oligosaccharides, and less and less radioactivity was in the complex chains. Most of the Endo H-released oligosaccharides induced by DIM were of the Man9GlcNAc structure, as determined by gel filtration, HPLC, and digestion by alpha-mannosidase. Thus, DIM also appears to inhibit mannosidase I in cell culture. However, about 15% of the Endo H-released oligosaccharides appear to be hybrid types of oligosaccharides, suggesting that

  6. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor subtypes differentially recognize regioisomers of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, M; Takeuchi, H; Riley, A M; Mills, S J; Watanabe, Y; Potter, B V

    1997-01-01

    The Ins(1,4,5)P3 regioisomers, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3, which can mimic the 1,4,5-arrangement on the inositol ring of Ins(1,4,5)P3, were examined for Ca2+ release by using four types of saponin-permeabilized cell possessing various abundances of receptor subtypes, with special reference to the relation of potency to receptor subtype. Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 were weak agonists in rat basophilic leukaemic cells (RBL cells), which possess predominantly subtype II receptors, with respective potencies of 1/200 and less than 1/500 that of Ins(1,4,5)P3 [the EC50 values were 0.2, 45 and more than 100 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively]. Similar rank order potencies were also evaluated for the displacement of [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 bound to RBL cell membranes by these regioisomers. However, they caused Ca2+ release from GH3 rat pituitary cells possessing predominantly subtype I receptors more potently; Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 evoked release at respective concentrations of only one-third and one-twentieth that of Ins(1,4,5)P3 (the EC50 values were 0.4, 1.2 and 8 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively). In COS-1 African green-monkey kidney cells, with the relative abundances of 37% of the subtype II and of 62% of the subtype III receptor, potencies of 1/40 and approx. 1/200 for Ins(1, 4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively were exhibited relative to Ins(1,4,5)P3 (the EC50 values were 0.4, 15 and approx. 80 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively). In HL-60 human leukaemic cells, in spite of the dominant presence of subtype I receptors (71%), similar respective potencies to those seen with COS-1 cells were exhibited (the EC50 values were 0.3, 15 and approx. 100 microM for Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,4,6)P3 and Ins(1,3,6)P3 respectively). These results indicate that these regioisomers are the first ligands that distinguish between receptor subtypes; the present observations are of

  7. Detail of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This color photo of Neptune's large satellite Triton was obtained on Aug. 24 1989 at a range of 530,000 kilometers (330,000 miles). The resolution is about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles), sufficient to begin to show topographic detail. The image was made from pictures taken through the green, violet and ultraviolet filters. In this technique, regions that are highly reflective in the ultraviolet appear blue in color. In reality, there is no part of Triton that would appear blue to the eye. The bright southern hemisphere of Triton, which fills most of this frame, is generally pink in tone as is the even brighter equatorial band. The darker regions north of the equator also tend to be pink or reddish in color. JPL manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

  8. Inhibition of glycogenolysis in primary rat hepatocytes by 1, 4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol.

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, B; Rassov, A; Westergaard, N; Lundgren, K

    1999-01-01

    1,4-Dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB) was identified previously as a potent inhibitor of both the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of glycogen phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.1). In the present study, the effects of DAB were investigated in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. The transport of DAB into hepatocytes was dependent on time and DAB concentration. The rate of DAB transport was 192 pmol/min per mg of protein per mM DAB(medium-concentration). In hepatocytes, DAB inhibited basal and glucagon-stimulated glycogenolysis with IC(50) values of 1.0+/-0.3 and 1.1+/-0.2 microM, respectively. The primary inhibitory effect of DAB on glycogenolysis was shown to be due to inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase but, at higher concentrations of DAB, inhibition of the debranching enzyme (4-alpha-glucanotransferase, EC 2.4.1.25) may have an effect. No effects on glycogen synthesis were observed, demonstrating that glycogen recycling does not occur in cultured hepatocytes under the conditions tested. Furthermore, DAB had no effects on phosphorylase kinase, the enzyme responsible for phosphorylation and thereby activation of glycogen phosphorylase, or on protein phosphatase 1, the enzyme responsible for inactivation of glycogen phosphorylase through dephosphorylation. PMID:10477265

  9. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Joint, Vertical Cross Bracing End Detail - Ceylon Covered Bridge, Limberlost Park, spanning Wabash River at County Road 900 South, Geneva, Adams County, IN

  10. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  11. roof truss detail, historic strap hinge detail Chopawamsic Recreational ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    roof truss detail, historic strap hinge detail - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Main Arts and Crafts Lodge, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  12. 49 CFR 172.523 - EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. 172.523 Section 172.523... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.523 EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on the EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be...

  13. 49 CFR 172.523 - EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. 172.523 Section 172.523... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.523 EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on the EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be...

  14. 49 CFR 172.523 - EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. 172.523 Section 172.523... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.523 EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on the EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be...

  15. 49 CFR 172.523 - EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. 172.523 Section 172.523... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.523 EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on the EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be...

  16. 49 CFR 172.523 - EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. 172.523 Section 172.523... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.523 EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1... subpart, the background color on the EXPLOSIVES 1.4 placard must be orange. The “*” shall be...

  17. Simple synthesis, structure and ab initio study of 1,4-benzodiazepine-2,5-diones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadidi, Khosrow; Aryan, Reza; Mehrdad, Morteza; Lügger, Thomas; Ekkehardt Hahn, F.; Ng, Seik Weng

    2004-04-01

    A simple procedure for the synthesis of pyrido[2,1-c][1,4] benzodiazepine-6,12-dione ( 1) and 1,4-benzodiazepine-2,5-diones ( 2a- 2d), using microwave irradiation and/or conventional heating is reported. The configuration of 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. A detailed ab initio B3LYP/6-31G* calculation of structural parameters and substituent effects on ring inversion barriers (Δ G#) and also free energy differences (Δ G0) for benzodiazepines are reported.

  18. Detailed mechanism of benzene oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, David A.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed quantitative mechanism for the oxidation of benzene in both argon and nitrogen diluted systems is presented. Computed ignition delay time for argon diluted mixtures are in satisfactory agreement with experimental results for a wide range of initial conditions. An experimental temperature versus time profile for a nitrogen diluted oxidation was accurately matched and several concentration profiles were matched qualitatively. Application of sensitivity analysis has given approximate rate constant expressions for the two dominant heat release reactions, the oxidation of C6H5 and C5H5 radicals by molecular oxygen.

  19. 7 CFR 1.4 - Public access to certain materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public access to certain materials. 1.4 Section 1.4... access to certain materials. (a) In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2), each agency within the Department shall make the following materials available for public inspection and copying (unless they are...

  20. 27 CFR 1.4 - Delegations of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Delegation of the Administrator's Authorities in 27 CFR Part 1, Basic Permit Requirements Under the Federal... Administrator. 1.4 Section 1.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Delegations of the Administrator. Most of the regulatory authorities of the Administrator contained in...

  1. 41 CFR 60-1.4 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Equal opportunity clause. 60-1.4 Section 60-1.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... 1-OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS Preliminary Matters; Equal Opportunity...

  2. 41 CFR 60-1.4 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equal opportunity clause. 60-1.4 Section 60-1.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... 1-OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS Preliminary Matters; Equal Opportunity...

  3. Photochemistry Of 2,5-Diacyl-1, 4-Dimethylbenzenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments described in report revealed potentially useful aspects of photochemistry of 2,5-dibenzoyl-1, 4-dimethylbenzene (DBX) and 2,5-diacetyl-1, 4-dimethylbenzene (DAX). Behavior of these compounds reminiscent of orthoalkylphenyl ketones, studied from similar perspective for more than two decades.

  4. 12 CFR 1.4 - Calculation of limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... change in the bank's capital category for purposes of 12 U.S.C. 1831o and 12 CFR 6.3. (b) Effective date... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calculation of limits. 1.4 Section 1.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INVESTMENT SECURITIES §...

  5. Radiolabeling of Cramoll 1,4: Evaluation of the Biodistribution

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira de Carvalho Patricio, Beatriz; Lima-Ribeiro, Maria Helena Madruga; dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza; dos Anjos Carneiro-Leão, Ana Maria; de Souza Albernaz, Marta; Barboza, Thiago; de Souza, Sergio Augusto Lopes; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    The cramoll 1,4 is a well-studied lectin. However, few studies about its biodistribution have been done before. In this study, we radiolabeled the cramol 1,4 with Tc-99m and analyzed the biodistribution. The results showed that the cramol has an abnormal uptake by the bowel with reflections on its clearance mechanism. PMID:21760823

  6. 12 CFR 1.4 - Calculation of limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... change in the bank's capital category for purposes of 12 U.S.C. 1831o and 12 CFR 6.3. (b) Effective date... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calculation of limits. 1.4 Section 1.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INVESTMENT SECURITIES §...

  7. Detailing 'measures that matter'.

    PubMed

    Heavisides, Bob

    2010-04-01

    In a paper originally presented at last October's Healthcare Estates conference in Harrogate, Bob Heavisides, director of facilities at the Milton Keynes NHS Foundation Trust, explains how estates and facilities directors can provide a package of information based on a number of "measures that matter" to demonstrate to their boards that safe systems of work, operational efficiency and effectiveness, and operational parameters, are within, or better than, equivalent-sized Trusts.

  8. Studies on molecular structure, vibrational spectra and molecular docking analysis of 3-Methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl 4-aminobenzoate.

    PubMed

    Suresh, D M; Amalanathan, M; Joe, I Hubert; Jothy, V Bena; Diao, Yun-Peng

    2014-09-15

    The molecular structure, vibrational analysis and molecular docking analysis of the 3-Methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl 4-aminobenzoate (MDDNAB) molecule have been carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic techniques and DFT method. The equilibrium geometry, harmonic vibrational wave numbers, various bonding features have been computed using density functional method. The calculated molecular geometry has been compared with experimental data. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out by using VEDA program. The hyper-conjugative interactions and charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The simulated FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra satisfactorily coincide with the experimental spectra. The PES and charge analysis have been made. The molecular docking was done to identify the binding energy and the Hydrogen bonding with the cancer protein molecule.

  9. Studies on molecular structure, vibrational spectra and molecular docking analysis of 3-Methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl 4-aminobenzoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, D. M.; Amalanathan, M.; Hubert Joe, I.; Bena Jothy, V.; Diao, Yun-Peng

    2014-09-01

    The molecular structure, vibrational analysis and molecular docking analysis of the 3-Methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl 4-aminobenzoate (MDDNAB) molecule have been carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic techniques and DFT method. The equilibrium geometry, harmonic vibrational wave numbers, various bonding features have been computed using density functional method. The calculated molecular geometry has been compared with experimental data. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out by using VEDA program. The hyper-conjugative interactions and charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The simulated FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra satisfactorily coincide with the experimental spectra. The PES and charge analysis have been made. The molecular docking was done to identify the binding energy and the Hydrogen bonding with the cancer protein molecule.

  10. Detailed Clinical Models: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Goossen-Baremans, Anneke; van der Zel, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Due to the increasing use of electronic patient records and other health care information technology, we see an increase in requests to utilize these data. A highly level of standardization is required during the gathering of these data in the clinical context in order to use it for analyses. Detailed Clinical Models (DCM) have been created toward this purpose and several initiatives have been implemented in various parts of the world to create standardized models. This paper presents a review of DCM. Methods Two types of analyses are presented; one comparing DCM against health care information architectures and a second bottom up approach from concept analysis to representation. In addition core parts of the draft ISO standard 13972 on DCM are used such as clinician involvement, data element specification, modeling, meta information, and repository and governance. Results Six initiatives were selected: Intermountain Healthcare, 13606/OpenEHR Archetypes, Clinical Templates, Clinical Contents Models, Health Level 7 templates, and Dutch Detailed Clinical Models. Each model selected was reviewed for their overall development, involvement of clinicians, use of data types, code bindings, expressing semantics, modeling, meta information, use of repository and governance. Conclusions Using both a top down and bottom up approach to comparison reveals many commonalties and differences between initiatives. Important differences include the use of or lack of a reference model and expressiveness of models. Applying clinical data element standards facilitates the use of conceptual DCM models in different technical representations. PMID:21818440

  11. Higgs Boson Searches at Hadron Colliders (1/4)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    In these Academic Training lectures, the phenomenology of Higgs bosons and search strategies at hadron colliders are discussed. After a brief introduction on Higgs bosons in the Standard Model and a discussion of present direct and indirect constraints on its mass the status of the theoretical cross section calculations for Higgs boson production at hadron colliders is reviewed. In the following lectures important experimental issues relevant for Higgs boson searches (trigger, measurements of leptons, jets and missing transverse energy) are presented. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the discovery potential for the Standard Model Higgs boson for both the Tevatron and the LHC experiments. In addition, various scenarios beyond the Standard Model, primarily the MSSM, are considered. Finally, the potential and strategies to measured Higgs boson parameters and the investigation of alternative symmetry breaking scenarios are addressed.

  12. Higgs Boson Searches at Hadron Colliders (1/4)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-21

    In these Academic Training lectures, the phenomenology of Higgs bosons and search strategies at hadron colliders are discussed. After a brief introduction on Higgs bosons in the Standard Model and a discussion of present direct and indirect constraints on its mass the status of the theoretical cross section calculations for Higgs boson production at hadron colliders is reviewed. In the following lectures important experimental issues relevant for Higgs boson searches (trigger, measurements of leptons, jets and missing transverse energy) are presented. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the discovery potential for the Standard Model Higgs boson for both the Tevatron and the LHC experiments. In addition, various scenarios beyond the Standard Model, primarily the MSSM, are considered. Finally, the potential and strategies to measured Higgs boson parameters and the investigation of alternative symmetry breaking scenarios are addressed.

  13. Enantiopure 1,4-diols and 1,4-aminoalcohols via stereoselective acyclic sulfoxide-sulfenate rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Fernández de la Pradilla, Roberto; Colomer, Ignacio; Ureña, Mercedes; Viso, Alma

    2011-05-01

    Treatment of acyclic α-hydroxy and α-tosylamino sulfinyl dienes with amines affords enantiopure 1,4-diol or 1,4-hydroxysulfonamide derivatives in good yields and diastereoselectivities. This one-pot procedure entails a conjugate addition that triggers a diastereoselective sulfoxide-sulfenate [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement.

  14. 21 CFR 177.1240 - 1,4-Cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate and 1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene isophthalate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 1,4-Cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate and 1,4-cyclohexylene dimethylene isophthalate copolymer. 177.1240 Section 177.1240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES:...

  15. Detail, Scandia Hotel, view to southwest showing details of balloon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, Scandia Hotel, view to southwest showing details of balloon framing, including full two-story studs notched to carry girts supporting second story floor joists (210mm lens) - Scandia Hotel, 225 First Street, Eureka, Humboldt County, CA

  16. Detail East Pier Elevation, Transverse Section, Detail Roof Plan As ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail East Pier Elevation, Transverse Section, Detail Roof Plan As Found - Sulphite Railroad Bridge, Former Boston & Maine Railroad (originally Tilton & Franklin Railroad) spanning Winnipesautee River, Franklin, Merrimack County, NH

  17. Detail view of ornamental lighting detail of southwest corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of ornamental lighting detail of southwest corner of Sixth Street Bridge. Looking northeast - Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning 101 Freeway at Sixth Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 58. DETAIL OF PINION AND BULL GEARS: Detail view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. DETAIL OF PINION AND BULL GEARS: Detail view towards northeast of the pinion and bull gears of the winding machinery. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 6. Detail of front entry on E elevation. Detail of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of front entry on E elevation. Detail of round, terra cotta medallions on E elevation indicating date of building. - Central of Georgia Railway, Red (Administration) Building, 233 West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  20. Detail of pumps in troughs, detail of truss attachment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of pumps in troughs, detail of truss - attachment to the wall - as well as the troughs themselves. Interior of the main hatchery building, view to the east. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  1. Bolivia-Brazil gas line route detailed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    This paper reports that state oil companies of Brazil and Bolivia have signed an agreement outlining the route for a 2,270 km pipeline system to deliver natural gas from Bolivian fields to Southeast Brazil. The two sides currently are negotiating details about construction costs as well as contract volumes and prices. Capacity is projected at 283-565 MMcfd. No official details are available, but Roberto Y. Hukai, a director of the Sao Paulo engineering company Jaako Poyry/Technoplan, estimates transportation cost of the Bolivian gas at 90 cents/MMBTU. That would be competitive with the price of gas delivered to the Sao Paulo gas utility Comgas, he the. Brazil's Petroleos Brasileiro SA estimates construction of the pipeline on the Brazilian side alone with cost $1.2-1.4 billion. Bolivia's Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB) is negotiating with private domestic and foreign investors for construction of the Bolivian portion of the project.

  2. 1. 4 LOGAN CIRCLE, SIDE ELEVATION (Photograph of photograph in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 4 LOGAN CIRCLE, SIDE ELEVATION (Photograph of photograph in possession of Turner Associates and Nicholas Satterlee Associates, Washington, DC, 1973.) - 4 Logan Circle (House), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 26 CFR 15.1-4 - Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INCOME TAX REGULATIONS RELATING TO EXPLORATION EXPENDITURES IN THE CASE OF MINING § 15.1-4 Special rules... elections under sections 615(e), 617(a), or 617(b) as to the tax treatment of a partner's distributive...

  4. VIEW OF #1 #4 EXCITER AND GENERATORFIELD RHEOSTATS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF #1 - #4 EXCITER AND GENERATOR-FIELD RHEOSTATS WITH RESISTOR BANKS ON EAST END OF GENERATOR FLOOR. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  5. Influences on physicians' adoption of electronic detailing (e-detailing).

    PubMed

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Doucette, William R

    2009-01-01

    E-detailing means using digital technology: internet, video conferencing and interactive voice response. There are two types of e-detailing: interactive (virtual) and video. Currently, little is known about what factors influence physicians' adoption of e-detailing. The objectives of this study were to test a model of physicians' adoption of e-detailing and to describe physicians using e-detailing. A mail survey was sent to a random sample of 2000 physicians practicing in Iowa. Binomial logistic regression was used to test the model of influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. On the basis of Rogers' model of adoption, the independent variables included relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, peer influence, attitudes, years in practice, presence of restrictive access to traditional detailing, type of specialty, academic affiliation, type of practice setting and control variables. A total of 671 responses were received giving a response rate of 34.7%. A total of 141 physicians (21.0%) reported using of e-detailing. The overall adoption model for using either type of e-detailing was found to be significant. Relative advantage, peer influence, attitudes, type of specialty, presence of restrictive access and years of practice had significant influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. The model of adoption of innovation is useful to explain physicians' adoption of e-detailing. PMID:19306198

  6. Biodegradation Kinetics of 1,4-Dioxane in Chlorinated Solvent Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Gedalanga, Phillip B; Mahendra, Shaily

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the impacts of individual chlorinated solvents and their mixtures on aerobic 1,4-dioxane biodegradation by Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190. The established association of these co-occurring compounds suggests important considerations for their respective biodegradation processes. Our kinetics and mechanistic studies demonstrated that individual solvents inhibited biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane in the following order: 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) > cis-1,2-diochloroethene (cDCE) > trichloroethene (TCE) > 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA). The presence of 5 mg L(-1) 1,1-DCE completely inhibited 1,4-dioxane biodegradation. Subsequently, we determined that 1,1-DCE was the strongest inhibitor of 1,4-dioxane biodegradation by bacterial pure cultures exposed to chlorinated solvent mixtures as well as in environmental samples collected from a site contaminated with chlorinated solvents and 1,4-dioxane. Inhibition of 1,4-dioxane biodegradation rates by chlorinated solvents was attributed to delayed ATP production and down-regulation of both 1,4-dioxane monooxygenase (dxmB) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (aldH) genes. Moreover, increasing concentrations of 1,1-DCE and cis-1,2-DCE to 50 mg L(-1) respectively increased 5.0-fold and 3.5-fold the expression of the uspA gene encoding a universal stress protein. In situ natural attenuation or enhanced biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane is being considered for contaminated groundwater and industrial wastewater, so these results will have implications for selecting 1,4-dioxane bioremediation strategies at sites where chlorinated solvents are present as co-contaminants. PMID:27486928

  7. Calorimetric and computational study of 1,4-dithiacyclohexane 1,1-dioxide (1,4-dithiane sulfone).

    PubMed

    Roux, María Victoria; Temprado, Manuel; Jiménez, Pilar; Notario, Rafael; Guzman-Mejía, Ramón; Juaristi, Eusebio

    2006-03-31

    This work reports the enthalpies of formation in the condensed and gas state of 1,4-dithiacyclohexane 1,1-dioxide (1,4-dithiane sulfone, 5), derived from the enthalpy of combustion in oxygen, measured by a rotating bomb calorimeter and the variation of vapor pressures with temperatures determined by the Knudsen effusion technique. The theoretically estimated enthalpy of formation was calculated from high-level ab initio molecular orbital calculations at the G2(MP2) level. The theoretical calculations appear to be in very good agreement with experiment. A comparison of the conversion of thiane sulfone 3 to 1,3-dithiane sulfone 4 and 1,4-dithiane sulfone 5 clearly shows the 1,3 isomer to be 6.7 kJ mol(-1) less stable, probably owing to diminished electrostatic repulsion between the sulfur heteroatoms in 1,4-sulfone 5. PMID:16555808

  8. Acyloxylation of 1,4-Dioxanes and 1,4-Dithianes Catalyzed by a Copper-Iron Mixed Oxide.

    PubMed

    García-Cabeza, Ana Leticia; Marín-Barrios, Rubén; Moreno-Dorado, F Javier; Ortega, María J; Vidal, Hilario; Gatica, José M; Massanet, Guillermo M; Guerra, Francisco M

    2015-07-01

    The use of a copper-iron mixed oxide as a heterogeneous catalyst for the efficient synthesis of α-acyloxy-1,4-dioxanes and 1,4-dithianes employing t-butyl peroxyesters is reported. The preparation and characterization of the catalyst are described. The effect of the heteroatoms and a plausible mechanism are discussed. The method is operationally simple and involves low-cost starting materials affording products in good to excellent yields.

  9. Evidence of 1,4-dioxane attenuation at groundwater sites contaminated with chlorinated solvents and 1,4-dioxane.

    PubMed

    Adamson, David T; Anderson, R Hunter; Mahendra, Shaily; Newell, Charles J

    2015-06-01

    There is a critical need to develop appropriate management strategies for 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) due to its widespread occurrence and perceived recalcitrance at groundwater sites where chlorinated solvents are present. A comprehensive evaluation of California state (GeoTracker) and Air Force monitoring records was used to provide significant evidence of dioxane attenuation at field sites. Temporal changes in the site-wide maximum concentrations were used to estimate source attenuation rates at the GeoTracker sites (median length of monitoring period = 6.8 years). While attenuation could not be established at all sites, statistically significant positive attenuation rates were confirmed at 22 sites. At sites where dioxane and chlorinated solvents were present, the median value of all statistically significant dioxane source attenuation rates (equivalent half-life = 31 months; n = 34) was lower than 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) but similar to 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). Dioxane attenuation rates were positively correlated with rates for 1,1-DCE and TCE but not TCA. At this set of sites, there was little evidence that chlorinated solvent remedial efforts (e.g., chemical oxidation, enhanced bioremediation) impacted dioxane attenuation. Attenuation rates based on well-specific records from the Air Force data set confirmed significant dioxane attenuation (131 out of 441 wells) at a similar frequency and extent (median equivalent half-life = 48 months) as observed at the California sites. Linear discriminant analysis established a positive correlation between dioxane attenuation and increasing concentrations of dissolved oxygen, while the same analysis found a negative correlation with metals and CVOC concentrations. The magnitude and prevalence of dioxane attenuation documented here suggest that natural attenuation may be used to manage some but not necessarily all dioxane-impacted sites.

  10. Clinical professional governance for detailed clinical models.

    PubMed

    Goossen, William; Goossen-Baremans, Anneke

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the need for Detailed Clinical Models for contemporary Electronic Health Systems, data exchange and data reuse. It starts with an explanation of the components related to Detailed Clinical Models with a brief summary of knowledge representation, including terminologies representing clinic relevant "things" in the real world, and information models that abstract these in order to let computers process data about these things. Next, Detailed Clinical Models are defined and their purpose is described. It builds on existing developments around the world and accumulates in current work to create a technical specification at the level of the International Standards Organization. The core components of properly expressed Detailed Clinical Models are illustrated, including clinical knowledge and context, data element specification, code bindings to terminologies and meta-information about authors, versioning among others. Detailed Clinical Models to date are heavily based on user requirements and specify the conceptual and logical levels of modelling. It is not precise enough for specific implementations, which requires an additional step. However, this allows Detailed Clinical Models to serve as specifications for many different kinds of implementations. Examples of Detailed Clinical Models are presented both in text and in Unified Modelling Language. Detailed Clinical Models can be positioned in health information architectures, where they serve at the most detailed granular level. The chapter ends with examples of projects that create and deploy Detailed Clinical Models. All have in common that they can often reuse materials from earlier projects, and that strict governance of these models is essential to use them safely in health care information and communication technology. Clinical validation is one point of such governance, and model testing another. The Plan Do Check Act cycle can be applied for governance of Detailed Clinical Models

  11. Antimicrobial activity of quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide with 2- and 3-substituted derivatives.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Mónica; Pinheiro, Cátia; Fernandes, Rúben; Noronha, João Paulo; Prudêncio, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    Quinoxaline is a chemical compound that presents a structure that is similar to quinolone antibiotics. The present work reports the study of the antimicrobial activity of quinoxaline N,N-dioxide and some derivatives against bacterial and yeast strains. The compounds studied were quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide (QNX), 2-methylquinoxaline-1,4-dioxide (2MQNX), 2-methyl-3-benzoylquinoxaline-1,4-dioxide (2M3BenzoylQNX), 2-methyl-3-benzylquinoxaline-1,4-dioxide (2M3BQNX), 2-amino-3-cyanoquinoxaline-1,4-dioxide (2A3CQNX), 3-methyl-2-quinoxalinecarboxamide-1,4-dioxide (3M2QNXC), 2-hydroxyphenazine-N,N-dioxide (2HF) and 3-methyl-N-(2-methylphenyl)quinoxalinecarboxamide-1,4-dioxide (3MN(2MF)QNXC). The prokaryotic strains used were Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 6538P, S. aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, E. coli S3R9, E. coli S3R22, E. coli TEM-1 CTX-M9, E. coli TEM-1, E. coli AmpC Mox-2, E. coli CTX-M2 e E. coli CTX-M9. The Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae PYCC 4072 were used as eukaryotic strains. For the compounds that presented activity using the disk diffusion method, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The alterations of cellular viability were evaluated in a time-course assay. Death curves for bacteria and growth curves for S. cerevisiae PYCC 4072 were also accessed. The results obtained suggest potential new drugs for antimicrobial activity chemotherapy since the MIC's determined present low values and cellular viability tests show the complete elimination of the bacterial strain. Also, the cellular viability tests for the eukaryotic model, S. cerevisiae, indicate low toxicity for the compounds tested.

  12. 15. CYLINDER DETAILS; DETAILS OF STEEL FOR CYLINDERS NO. 50 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CYLINDER DETAILS; DETAILS OF STEEL FOR CYLINDERS NO. 50 (PIER 5) AND NO. 66 (PIER 6), DWG. 83, CH BY AF, ECL, APPROVED BY O.F. LACKEY, MAY 18, 1908 - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  13. 10. CYLINDER DETAILS: DETAIL OF STEEL FOR CYLINDER NO. 59, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. CYLINDER DETAILS: DETAIL OF STEEL FOR CYLINDER NO. 59, PIER NO. 6, DWG. 86, 3/4" = 1', MADE BY A.F., CHECKED BY E.C.L., APPROVED BY O.F. LACKEY, JUNE 2, 1908 - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 6, South of Pratt Street between Concord Street & Jones Falls outlet, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  14. Anxiolytic-like effect of the monoterpene 1,4-cineole in mice.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Patrícia Bezerra; Feitosa, Mariana Lima; Silva, Maria Izabel Gomes; Noronha, Emmanuelle Coelho; Moura, Brinell Arcanjo; Venâncio, Edith Teles; Rios, Emiliano Ricardo Vasconcelos; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; Fonteles, Marta Maria de França; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço

    2010-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that some monoterpenes exert anxiolytic- and depressant-like actions, however, these effects from monoterpene 1,4-cineole are still unknown. This work aimed to study the effects of 1,4-cineole in classic animal models for depression- and anxiety-like behavior, specifically the elevated plus maze (EPM), hole board, open field, pentobarbital sleeping time, forced swimming, tail suspension and rota rod tests. 1,4-Cineole was administered orally to mice (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg), while diazepam (1 or 2 mg/kg) and imipramine (10 or 30 mg/kg) were used as standard drugs. 1,4-Cineole (400 mg/kg) modified all parameters observed in the EPM, while no significant variation was observed on general motor activity in the open-field test. In the hole-board assay, 1,4-cineole induced increase on the number of head dips. Forced swimming and tail suspension tests showed that cineole (200 and/or 400 mg/kg) was able to promote significant increase on the immobility time, while a decreased sleep latency was observed (200 and 400 mg/kg ) on the pentobarbital sleeping time. Cineole had no effect on the motor coordination of animals in the rota rod test. The results suggest that 1,4-cineole presents potential anxiolytic-like action consistent with possible general depression of the CNS.

  15. Microbially driven Fenton reaction for degradation of the widespread environmental contaminant 1,4-dioxane.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Ramanan; DiChristina, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    The carcinogenic cyclic ether compound 1,4-dioxane is employed as a stabilizer of chlorinated industrial solvents and is a widespread environmental contaminant in surface water and groundwater. In the present study, a microbially driven Fenton reaction was designed to autocatalytically generate hydroxyl (HO•) radicals that degrade 1,4-dioxane. In comparison to conventional (purely abiotic) Fenton reactions, the microbially driven Fenton reaction operated at circumneutral pH and did not the require addition of exogenous H2O2 or UV irradiation to regenerate Fe(II) as Fenton reagents. The 1,4-dioxane degradation process was driven by pure cultures of the Fe(III)-reducing facultative anaerobe Shewanella oneidensis manipulated under controlled laboratory conditions. S. oneidensis batch cultures were provided with lactate, Fe(III), and 1,4-dioxane and were exposed to alternating aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The microbially driven Fenton reaction completely degraded 1,4-dioxane (10 mM initial concentration) in 53 h with an optimal aerobic-anaerobic cycling period of 3 h. Acetate and oxalate were detected as transient intermediates during the microbially driven Fenton degradation of 1,4-dioxane, an indication that conventional and microbially driven Fenton degradation processes follow similar reaction pathways. The microbially driven Fenton reaction provides the foundation for development of alternative in situ remediation technologies to degrade environmental contaminants susceptible to attack by HO• radicals generated by the Fenton reaction.

  16. Distinct expression profiles of UDP-galactose: β-D-galactoside α1,4-galactosyltransferase and UDP-galactose: β-D-galactoside β1,4-galactosyltransferase in pigeon, ostrich and chicken.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Noriko; Nawa, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2011-03-01

    We previously identified two novel enzymes in pigeon, α1,4- and β1,4-galactosyltransferases (GalTs), which are responsible for the biosynthesis of the Galα1-4Gal and Galβ1-4Gal sequences on glycoproteins, respectively. No such glycan structures and/or enzymes have been found in mammals, suggesting that the expression of these enzymes diverged during the course of vertebrate evolution. To compare their expression profiles among avian species, we first established a method for detecting the activities of these two GalTs based on the two-dimensional high pressure liquid chromatography mapping technique, using 2-aminopyridine-derivatized asialo-biantennary N-glycans as an acceptor substrate. When we analyzed the activities of GalTs in pigeon liver extracts in the presence of UDP-Gal, 13 different products containing Galα1-4Galβ1-4GlcNAc, Galβ1-4Galβ1-4GlcNAc and/or Galα1-4Galβ1-4Galβ1-4GlcNAc branches were identified. The newly formed glycosidic linkages of the enzymatic products were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and methylation analysis, as well as by galactosidase digestions. The activities of both α1,4- and β1,4-GalTs were detected in various tissues in pigeon, although their relative activities were different in each tissue. In contrast, ostrich expressed β1,4-GalT, but not α1,4-GalT, in all tissues analyzed, whereas neither α1,4- nor β1,4-GalT activity was detected in chicken. These results indicate that α1,4- and β1,4-GalTs are expressed in a species-specific manner and are distributed throughout the entire body of pigeon or ostrich when the enzymes are present.

  17. User`s guide for SDDS toolkit Version 1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, M.

    1995-07-06

    The Self Describing Data Sets (SDDS) file protocol is the basis for a powerful and expanding toolkit of over 40 generic programs. These programs are used for simulation postprocessing, graphics, data preparation, program interfacing, and experimental data analysis. This document describes Version 1.4 of the SDDS commandline toolkit. Those wishing to write programs using SDDS should consult the Application Programmer`s Guide for SDDS Version 1.4. The first section of the present document is shared with this reference. This document does not describe SDDS-compliant EPICS applications, of which there are presently 25.

  18. 17 CFR 1.4 - Use of electronic signatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of electronic signatures... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Definitions § 1.4 Use of electronic signatures. For purposes of... pool participant or a client of a commodity trading advisor, an electronic signature executed by...

  19. 17 CFR 1.4 - Use of electronic signatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of electronic signatures... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Definitions § 1.4 Use of electronic signatures. For purposes of... broker, a pool participant or a client of a commodity trading advisor, an electronic signature...

  20. Regioselective Halogenation of 1,4-Benzodiazepinones via CH Activation

    PubMed Central

    Abdelkafi, Hajer; Cintrat, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    This article reports an efficient CH activation process for regioselective halogenation of 1,4-benzodiazepinones. Direct halogenation with NXS (X = Br, I) affords halogenated benzodiazepinones on the central aromatic ring whereas catalyst (Pd(OAc)2) controlled CH activation furnishes regioselectively ortho halogenated benzodiazepinones on the phenyl side chain. PMID:26179245

  1. 13. Engine room, view of Ames aniflow (engine #1). 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Engine room, view of Ames aniflow (engine #1). 4 cylinder-1953, centrifuge oil separator in foreground, doorway to machine shop on right in background, taken from southeast - East Boston Pumping Station, Chelsea Street at Chelsea Creek, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. Sunspot 1520 Releases Strong (X1.4) Solar Flare

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie shows the sun July 10-12, ending with the X1.4 class flare on July 12, 2012. It was captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory in the 131 Angstrom wavelength - a wavelength that is...

  3. Inhibition of the alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase III of Monilinia fructigena by 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-L-threitol and 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-L-arabinitol.

    PubMed Central

    Axamawaty, M T; Fleet, G W; Hannah, K A; Namgoong, S K; Sinnott, M L

    1990-01-01

    1. 1,4-Dideoxy-1,4-imino-L-threitol was synthesized and the synthesis of 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-L-arabinitol was improved. 2. Both compounds are competitive inhibitors of Monilinia fructigena alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase III, the additional hydroxymethyl group in the arabinitol contributing about 17.8 kj/mol (4.25 kcal/mol) to the Gibbs free energy of binding. 3. The affinities (1/Ki) of both compounds vary with pH in a classical bell-shaped way, the pKa value being that of the acid-catalytic group on the enzyme [5.9; Selwood & Sinnott (1988) Biochem. J. 254, 899-901] and the pKb values being those of the free inhibitors, 7.6 and 7.8 respectively. 4. On the basis of these and literature data we suggest that efficient inhibition of a glycosidase at its pH optimum by an appropriate iminoalditol will be found when the pKa of the iminoalditol is below that of the acid-catalytic group of the target enzyme. PMID:2310375

  4. Skeletally Diverse Synthesis of Innovative [2,1-c]-1,4-Oxazepine and [1,4]-Quinoxaline Systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Hsin; Wu, Wen-Chun; Dangate, Prasad S; Shen, Li-Ching; Chung, Wen-Sheng; Sun, Chung-Ming

    2015-10-12

    An efficient, innovative synthesis of [2,1-c]-1, 4-oxazepine and [1,4]-quinoxaline heterocycles along with the embodied pyrimido-pyrrolo motifs was established. Initially, the pyrrole ring was installed using microwave irradiation through an intramolecular base-catalyzed cyclization between acetyl bromomethyl pyrimidine dione and o-amino phenyl methanol or o-phenylenediamine methyl benzoates. Furthermore, oxazepine, and quinoxaline scaffolds were constructed by an acid-catalyzed condensation with a variety of aldehydes by an unconventional Pictet-Spengler reaction strategy. An important aspect of this work is to build novel heterocyclic ring systems with potential medicinal interest.

  5. Skeletally Diverse Synthesis of Innovative [2,1-c]-1,4-Oxazepine and [1,4]-Quinoxaline Systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Hsin; Wu, Wen-Chun; Dangate, Prasad S; Shen, Li-Ching; Chung, Wen-Sheng; Sun, Chung-Ming

    2015-10-12

    An efficient, innovative synthesis of [2,1-c]-1, 4-oxazepine and [1,4]-quinoxaline heterocycles along with the embodied pyrimido-pyrrolo motifs was established. Initially, the pyrrole ring was installed using microwave irradiation through an intramolecular base-catalyzed cyclization between acetyl bromomethyl pyrimidine dione and o-amino phenyl methanol or o-phenylenediamine methyl benzoates. Furthermore, oxazepine, and quinoxaline scaffolds were constructed by an acid-catalyzed condensation with a variety of aldehydes by an unconventional Pictet-Spengler reaction strategy. An important aspect of this work is to build novel heterocyclic ring systems with potential medicinal interest. PMID:26379108

  6. 1,4-Dimethyl­piperazine-1,4-diium bis­(hexa­fluoro­phosphate) dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Su-Wen

    2012-01-01

    In the title hydrated mol­ecular salt, C6H16N2 +·2PF6 −·2H2O, the complete 1,4-dimethyl­piperazine-1,4-diium dication is generated by crystallographic inversion symmetry and both C—N bonds are in equatorial orientations. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H⋯F and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds but there are no direct links between cations and anions. PMID:22590381

  7. Metabolism of inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate by a soluble enzyme fraction from pea (Pisum sativum) roots

    SciTech Connect

    Drobak, B.K.; Watkins, P.A.C.; Roberts, K. ); Chattaway, J.A. Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich ); Dawson, A.P. )

    1991-02-01

    Metabolism of the putative messenger molecule D-myo-inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3}) in plant cells has been studied using a soluble fraction from pea (pisum sativum) roots as enzyme source and (5-{sup 32}P)Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} and (2-{sup 3}H)Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} as tracers. Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} was rapidly converted into both lower and higher inositol phosphates. The major dephosphorylation product was inositol (4,5) bisphosphate (Ins(4,5)P{sub 2}) whereas inositol(1,4)bisphosphate (Ins(1,4)P{sub 2}) was only present in very small quantities throughout a 15 minute incubation period. In addition to these compounds, small amounts of nine other metabolites were produced including inositol and inositol(1,4,5,X)P{sub 4}. Dephosphorylation of Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} to Ins(4,5)P{sub 2} was dependent on Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} concentration and was partially inhibited by the phosphohydrolase inhibitors 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, glucose 6-phosphate, and p-nitrophenylphosphate. Conversion of Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} to Ins(4,5)P{sub 2} and Ins(1,4,5,X)P{sub 4} was inhibited by 55 micromolar Ca{sup 2+}. This study demonstrates that enzymes are present in plant tissues which are capable of rapidly converting Ins(1,4,5)P{sub 3} and that pathways of inositol phosphate metabolism exist which may prove to be unique to the plant kingdom.

  8. Computed tomography:the details.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2007-07-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a well established technique, particularly in medical imaging, but also applied in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging. Basic CT imaging via back-projection is treated in many texts, but often with insufficient detail to appreciate subtleties such as the role of non-uniform sampling densities. Herein are given some details often neglected in many texts.

  9. 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives: Dihydronicotinamide Analogues—Model Compounds Targeting Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Velena, Astrida; Zarkovic, Neven; Gall Troselj, Koraljka; Bisenieks, Egils; Krauze, Aivars; Poikans, Janis; Duburs, Gunars

    2016-01-01

    Many 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs) possess redox properties. In this review DHPs are surveyed as protectors against oxidative stress (OS) and related disorders, considering the DHPs as specific group of potential antioxidants with bioprotective capacities. They have several peculiarities related to antioxidant activity (AOA). Several commercially available calcium antagonist, 1,4-DHP drugs, their metabolites, and calcium agonists were shown to express AOA. Synthesis, hydrogen donor properties, AOA, and methods and approaches used to reveal biological activities of various groups of 1,4-DHPs are presented. Examples of DHPs antioxidant activities and protective effects of DHPs against OS induced damage in low density lipoproteins (LDL), mitochondria, microsomes, isolated cells, and cell cultures are highlighted. Comparison of the AOA of different DHPs and other antioxidants is also given. According to the data presented, the DHPs might be considered as bellwether among synthetic compounds targeting OS and potential pharmacological model compounds targeting oxidative stress important for medicinal chemistry. PMID:26881016

  10. The combinatorial synthesis and chemical and biological evaluation of a 1,4-benzodiazepine library.

    PubMed Central

    Bunin, B A; Plunkett, M J; Ellman, J A

    1994-01-01

    A library of 192 structurally diverse 1,4-benzodiazepine derivatives containing a variety of chemical functionalities including amides, carboxylic acids, amines, phenols, and indoles was constructed from three components, 2-aminobenzophenones, amino acids, and alkylating agents, by employing Geysen's pin apparatus [Geysen, H. M., Rodda, S. J., Mason, T. J., Tribbick, G. & Schoofs, P. G. (1987) J. Immunol. Methods 102, 259-274]. Rigorous analytical verification of the chemical integrity and yield of a representative collection of the diverse derivatives was carried out. In addition, the library of derivatives was evaluated for binding to the cholecystokinin A receptor by employing a competitive radio-ligand binding assay. This provided detailed structure versus activity relationships that were confirmed by independent large-scale synthesis and evaluation of several of the 1,4-benzodiazepine derivatives. PMID:8197123

  11. The fine details of evolution.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Roman A; Thornton, Janet M; Sternberg, Michael J E

    2009-08-01

    Charles Darwin's theory of evolution was based on studies of biology at the species level. In the time since his death, studies at the molecular level have confirmed his ideas about the kinship of all life on Earth and have provided a wealth of detail about the evolutionary relationships between different species and a deeper understanding of the finer workings of natural selection. We now have a wealth of data, including the genome sequences of a wide range of organisms, an even larger number of protein sequences, a significant knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of proteins, DNA and other biological molecules, and a huge body of information about the operation of these molecules as systems in the molecular machinery of all living things. This issue of Biochemical Society Transactions contains papers from oral presentations given at a Biochemical Society Focused Meeting to commemorate the 200th Anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, held on 26-27 January 2009 at the Wellcome Trust Conference Centre, Cambridge. The talks reported on some of the insights into evolution which have been obtained from the study of protein sequences, structures and systems. PMID:19614583

  12. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ROADWAY. DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ROADWAY. DETAIL VIEW OF THE PIERS AND LIGHTING FIXTURES ON THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE. THIS VIEW SHOWS A PORTION OF THE BRIDGE ALONG THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE ROADWAY. EACH FIXTURE ALSO ORIGINALLY HAD FOUR ADDITIONAL GLOBES, WHICH EXTENDED FROM THE COLUMN BELOW THE MAIN GLOBE. THE 'REFUGE' SEATING AREAS ARE ORIGINAL, WHILE THE RAILING IS A LATER ADDITION. - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 40 CFR 721.10678 - 1,4-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1,4-dimethyl ester, hydrogenolysis products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-dimethyl ester, hydrogenolysis products. 721.10678 Section 721.10678 Protection of Environment..., 1,4-dimethyl ester, hydrogenolysis products. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... ester, hydrogenolysis products (PMN P-13-10; CAS No. 1373220-73-5) is subject to reporting under...

  14. Remote sensing of soil moisture content over bare fields at 1.4 GHz frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Choudhury, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    A simple method of estimating moisture content (W) of a bare soil from the observed brightness temperature (T sub B) at 1.4 GHz is discussed. The method is based on a radiative transfer model calculation, which has been successfully used in the past to account for many observational results, with some modifications to take into account the effect of surface roughness. Besides the measured T sub B's, the three additional inputs required by the method are the effective soil thermodynamic temperature, the precise relation between W and the smooth field brightness temperature T sub B and a parameter specifying the surface roughness characteristics. The soil effective temperature can be readily measured and the procedures of estimating surface roughness parameter and obtaining the relation between W and smooth field brightness temperature are discussed in detail. Dual polarized radiometric measurements at an off-nadir incident angle are sufficient to estimate both surface roughness parameter and W, provided that the relation between W and smooth field brightness temperature at the same angle is known. The method of W estimate is demonstrated with two sets of experimental data, one from a controlled field experiment by a mobile tower and the other, from aircraft overflight. The results from both data sets are encouraging when the estimated W's are compared with the acquired ground truth of W's in the top 2 cm layer. An offset between the estimated and the measured W's exists in the results of the analyses, but that can be accounted for by the presently poor knowledge of the relationship between W and smooth field brightness temperature for various types of soils. An approach to quantify this relationship for different soils and thus improve the method of W estimate is suggested.

  15. High-affinity antibodies to the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.P.; Sharp, A.; Strom, M.; Kahl, S.D.

    1986-05-01

    Antibodies with high affinity and specificity for the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers have been produced in rabbits by immunization with dihydropyridine-protein conjugates. Anti-dihydropyridine antibodies were found to specifically bind (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine, (/sup 3/H)-nimodipine, (/sup 3/H)nisoldipine, and (/sup 3/H)PN 200-110 (all 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers) with high affinity, while (/sup 3/H)verapamil, (/sup 3/H)diltiazem, and (/sup 3/H)trifluoperazine were not recognized. The average dissociation constant of the (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine-antibody complex was 0.06 (+/- 0.02) X 10(-9) M for an antiserum studied in detail and ranged from 0.01 to 0.24 X 10(-9) M for all antisera. Inhibition of (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding was specific for the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel modifiers and the concentrations required for half-maximal inhibition ranged between 0.25 and 0.90 nM. Structurally unrelated Ca2+-channel blockers, calmodulin antagonists, inactive metabolites of nitrendipine, and UV-inactivated nisoldipine did not modify (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding to the anti-dihydropyridine antibodies. Dihydropyridines without a bulky substituent in the 4-position of the heterocycle were able to displace (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding, but the concentrations required for half-maximal inhibition were greater than 800 nM. In summary, anti-dihydropyridine antibodies have been shown to have high affinity and specificity for the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers and to exhibit dihydropyridine binding properties similar to the membrane receptor for the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel blockers.

  16. Solubility of carbon monoxide in 1,4-dioxane

    SciTech Connect

    Veleckis, E.; Hacker, D.S.

    1984-01-01

    The solubility of CO in 1,4-dioxane was determined as a function of pressure (7-70 atm) and temperature (80-173/sup 0/C). An expression is given for solubility that relates the mole fraction and partial pressure of CO (in atmospheres) and the temperature in degrees Kelvin. The results, analyzed in terms of the Krichevsky-Ilinskaya equation, showed that the partial molar volume of CO was independent of pressure and that the isobaric Henry's law was obeyed in the ranges studied. Comparisons with other solvents showed that, on the basis of CO dissolution characteristics, 1,4-dioxane can be classified better with polar than with nonpolar solvents.

  17. Ambiphilic boron in 1,4,2,5-diazadiborinine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baolin; Li, Yongxin; Ganguly, Rakesh; Hirao, Hajime; Kinjo, Rei

    2016-01-01

    Boranes have long been known as the archetypal Lewis acids owing to an empty p-orbital on the boron centre. Meanwhile, Lewis basic tricoordinate boranes have been developed in recent years. Here we report the synthesis of an annulated 1,4,2,5-diazadiborinine derivative featuring boron atoms that exhibit both Lewis acidic and basic properties. Experimental and computational studies confirmed that two boron atoms in this molecule are spectroscopically equivalent. Nevertheless, this molecule cleaves C-O, B-H, Si-H and P-H bonds heterolytically, and readily undergoes [4+2] cycloaddition reaction with non-activated unsaturated bonds such as C=O, C=C, C≡C and C≡N bonds. The result, thus, indicates that the indistinguishable boron atoms in 1,4,2,5-diazadiborinine act as both nucleophilic and electrophilic centres, demonstrating ambiphilic nature. PMID:27279265

  18. Catalytic Asymmetric 1,4-Addition Reactions of Simple Alkylnitriles.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yasuhiro; Sato, Io; Suzuki, Hirotsugu; Kobayashi, Shū

    2015-10-01

    The development of catalytic asymmetric carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions of alkylnitriles that do not have an activating group at the α-position, under proton-transfer conditions, is a challenging research topic. Here, we report catalytic asymmetric direct-type 1,4-addition reactions of alkylnitriles with α,β-unsaturated amides by using a catalytic amount of potassium hexamethyldisilazide (KHMDS) with a chiral macro crown ether. The desired reactions proceeded in high yields with good diastereo- and enantioselectivities. To our knowledge, this is the first example of catalytic asymmetric direct-type 1,4-addition reaction of alkylnitriles without any activating group at the α-position.

  19. Ambiphilic boron in 1,4,2,5-diazadiborinine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baolin; Li, Yongxin; Ganguly, Rakesh; Hirao, Hajime; Kinjo, Rei

    2016-01-01

    Boranes have long been known as the archetypal Lewis acids owing to an empty p-orbital on the boron centre. Meanwhile, Lewis basic tricoordinate boranes have been developed in recent years. Here we report the synthesis of an annulated 1,4,2,5-diazadiborinine derivative featuring boron atoms that exhibit both Lewis acidic and basic properties. Experimental and computational studies confirmed that two boron atoms in this molecule are spectroscopically equivalent. Nevertheless, this molecule cleaves C–O, B–H, Si–H and P–H bonds heterolytically, and readily undergoes [4+2] cycloaddition reaction with non-activated unsaturated bonds such as C=O, C=C, C≡C and C≡N bonds. The result, thus, indicates that the indistinguishable boron atoms in 1,4,2,5-diazadiborinine act as both nucleophilic and electrophilic centres, demonstrating ambiphilic nature. PMID:27279265

  20. GHB, GBL and 1,4-BD addiction.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Tibor M; van Amsterdam, Jan G C; van den Brink, Wim

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an addictive substance. Its precursors gammabutyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) show the same properties and may pose even more risks due to different pharmacokinetics. There are indications that problematic GHB use is increasing in the European Union. This review investigates the existing literature on the neurochemistry of GHB and its precursors, their acute toxicity, addiction potential and withdrawal, the proposed molecular mechanism underlying addiction and the treatment of withdrawal and addiction. Current evidence shows that GHB and its precursors are highly addictive, both in humans and animals, probably through a GABAB receptor related mechanism. Severity of withdrawal symptoms can be considered as a medical emergency. Recent studies suggest that benzodiazepines are not very effective, showing a high treatment resistance, whereas detoxification with pharmaceutical GHB proved to be successful. However, relapse in GHB use is frequent and more research is warranted on relapse prevention. This might aid medical practitioners in the field and improve general understanding of the severity of addiction to GHB, GBL and 1,4-BD.

  1. Research Project Investigating the 4-1-4 Month Calendar Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittenger, T.L.

    The main purpose of this project was to discover favorable and unfavorable aspects of the 4-1-4 month calendar plan. The report contains information presented in tabular form obtained by questionnaire from 35 colleges and universities. An introduction and summary accompanies each of the 9 tables. Four of the tables summarize responses from 10…

  2. A microwave-assisted bismuth nitrate-catalyzed unique route toward 1,4-dihydropyridines.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Debasish; Maldonado, Stephanie; Banik, Bimal K

    2012-01-01

    The classical Hantzsch reaction is one of the simplest and most economical methods for the synthesis of biologically important and pharmacologically useful 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives. Bismuth nitrate pentahydrate under microwave irradiation is proven to act as a very efficient catalyst for a one-pot, three-component synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridines in excellent yields from diverse amines/ammonium acetate, aldehydes and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds within 1-3 min under solvent-free conditions. The present environmentally benign procedure for the synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridines is suitable for library synthesis and it will find application in the synthesis of potent biologically active molecules. The excellent yield and extreme rapidity of the method is due to a concurrent effect of the catalyst and microwave irradiation. PMID:22391599

  3. Detailed Astrometric Analysis of Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ROSSI, GUSTAVO B.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Camargo, J. I.; Assafin, M.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): Pluto is the main representant of the transneptunian objects (TNO's), presenting some peculiarities such as an atmosphere and a satellite system with 5 known moons: Charon, discovered in 1978, Nix and Hydra, in 2006, P4 in 2011 and P5 in 2012. Until the arrival of the New Horizons spacecraft to this system (july 2015), stellar occultations are the most efficient method, from the ground, to know physical and dinamical properties of this system. In 2010, it was evident a drift in declinations (about 20 mas/year) comparing to the ephemerides. This fact motivated us to remake the reductions and analysis of a great set of our observations at OPD/LNA, in a total of 15 years. The ephemerides and occultations results was then compared with the astrometric and photometric reductions of CCD images of Pluto (around 6500 images). Two corrections were used for a refinement of the data set: diferential chromatic refraction and photocenter. The first is due to the mean color of background stars beeing redder than the color of Pluto, resulting in a slightly different path of light through the atmosphere (that may cause a difference in position of 0.1”). It became more evident because Pluto is crossing the region of the galactic plane. The photocenter correction is based on two gaussians curves overlapped, with different hights and non-coincident centers, corresponding to Pluto and Charon (since they have less than 1” of angular separation). The objective is to separate these two gaussian curves from the observed one and find the right position of Pluto. The method is strongly dependent of the hight of each of the gaussian curves, related to the respective albedos of charon and Pluto. A detailed analysis of the astrometric results, as well a comparison with occultation results was made. Since Pluto has an orbital period of 248,9 years and our interval of observation is about 15 years, we have around 12% of its observed orbit and also, our

  4. Original antigenic sin with human bocaviruses 1-4.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuemeng; Kantola, Kalle; Hedman, Lea; Arku, Benedict; Hedman, Klaus; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria

    2015-10-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) 1 is a widespread parvovirus causing acute respiratory disease in young children. In contrast, HBoV2 occurs in the gastrointestinal tract and is potentially associated with gastroenteritis, whilst HBoV3 and -4 infections are less frequent and have not yet been linked with human disease. Due to HBoV1 DNA persistence in the nasopharynx, serology has been advocated as a better alternative for diagnosing acute infections. In constitutionally healthy children, we previously noted that pre-existing HBoV2 immunity in a subsequent HBoV1 infection typically resulted in low or non-existent HBoV1-specific antibody responses. A phenomenon describing such immunological events among related viruses has been known since the 1950s as 'original antigenic sin' (OAS). The aim of this study was to characterize this putative OAS phenomenon in a more controlled setting. Follow-up sera of 10 rabbit pairs, inoculated twice with HBoV1-4 virus-like particles (VLPs) or control antigens, in various combinations, were analysed with HBoV1-4 IgG enzyme immunoassays with and without depletion of heterotypic HBoV antibodies. There were no significant IgG boosts after the second inoculation in either the heterologously or the homologously HBoV-inoculated rabbits, but a clear increase in cross-reactivity was seen with time. We could, however, distinguish a distinct OAS pattern from plain cross-reactivity: half of the heterologously inoculated rabbits showed IgG patterns representative of the OAS hypothesis, in line with our prior results with naturally infected children. HBoVs are the first parvoviruses to show the possible existence of OAS. Our findings provide new information on HBoV1-4 immunity and emphasize the complexity of human bocavirus diagnosis. PMID:26224569

  5. Compatibility study of trans-1,4,5,8-tetranitro-1,4,5,8-tetraazadecalin (TNAD) with some energetic components and inert materials.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qi-Long; Xiao-Jiang, Li; La-Ying, Zhang; Ji-Zhen, Li; Hong-Li, Li; Zi-Ru, Liu

    2008-12-30

    The compatibility of trans-1,4,5,8-tetranitro-1,4,5,8-tetraazadecalin (TNAD) with some energetic components and inert materials of solid propellants was studied by using the pressure DSC method where, cyclotetramethylenetetranitroamine (HMX), cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), 1,4-dinitropiperazine (DNP), 1.25/1-NC/NG mixture, lead 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-onate (NTO-Pb), aluminum powder (Al, particle size=13.6microm) and N-nitrodihydroxyethylaminedinitrate (DINA) were used as energetic components and polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyoxytetramethylene-co-oxyethylene (PET), addition product of hexamethylene diisocyanate and water (N-100), 2-nitrodianiline (2-NDPA), 1,3-dimethyl-1,3-diphenyl urea (C2), carbon black (C.B.), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), cupric 2,4-dihydroxy-benzoate (beta-Cu), cupric adipate (AD-Cu) and lead phthalate (phi-Pb) were used as inert materials. It was concluded that the binary systems of TNAD with NTO-Pb, RDX, PET and Al powder are compatible, and systems of TNAD with DINA and HMX are slightly sensitive, and with 2-NDPA, phi-Pb, beta-Cu, AD-Cu and Al2O3 are sensitive, and with PEG, N-100, C2 and C.B. are incompatible. The impact and friction sensitivity data of the TNAD and TNAD in combination with the other energetic materials under present study was also obtained, and there was no consequential affiliation between sensitivity and compatibility.

  6. NOSS Altimeter Detailed Algorithm specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, D. W.; Mcmillan, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    The details of the algorithms and data sets required for satellite radar altimeter data processing are documented in a form suitable for (1) development of the benchmark software and (2) coding the operational software. The algorithms reported in detail are those established for altimeter processing. The algorithms which required some additional development before documenting for production were only scoped. The algorithms are divided into two levels of processing. The first level converts the data to engineering units and applies corrections for instrument variations. The second level provides geophysical measurements derived from altimeter parameters for oceanographic users.

  7. NMR relaxation study of crosslinked cis-1,4-polybutadiene

    SciTech Connect

    Munie, G.C.; Jonas, J.; Rowland, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    Proton relaxation measurements have been used to investigate the effects of crosslinking on the segmental motion in cis-1,4-polybutadiene samples. The temperature dependence of proton spin-lattice relaxation time T/sub 1/ and spin-spin relaxation time T/sub 2/ at 60 and 24.3 MHz is reported in cis-1,4-polybutadiene (PB) samples with different crosslink density including uncrosslinked PB and samples with 140, 40, and 14 repeat units between crosslinks. In addition, spin-lattice relaxation times in rotating coordinate frame, T/sub 1p/, have also been determined. The relaxation data are interpreted in terms of the effects of crosslinks on segmental chain motions. Because of their sensitivity to low-frequency motion, T/sub 2/ data are of major interest. At temperatures well above the T/sub 1/ minimum the small T/sub 2/ temperature dependence resembles solidlike behavior reflecting the nonzero averaging of dipolar interactions due to anisotropic motion of the chain segments between crosslinks. The magnitude of T/sub 2/ at 60/sup 0/C is found to be proportional to the average mass between crosslinks.

  8. 1. 4 gigahertz luminosity function and its evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Condon, J. J.

    1989-03-01

    The local luminosity function was determined at v = 1.4 GHz from radio observations of two low-redshift galaxy samples: (1) spiral and irregular galaxies with apparent blue magnitudes and declinations and (2) galaxies of all morphologies with blue angular diameters of 1.0 arcmin or greater in the declination range between -2.5 deg and +82 deg. Separate luminosity functions for the radio source populations powered by 'starbursts' and 'monsters' were obtained from the latter sample. The amount of evolution required for the local luminosity function to account for the faint sources is discussed. The cosmological evolution of extragalactic radio sources appears to be so strong at all observed luminosities that the local luminosity function and counts of all sources between S of roughly 10 micro-Jy and S of roughly 10 Jy at v = 1.4 GHz can be matched with a model in which most sources are confined to a hollow shell with z of roughly 0.8. 36 refs.

  9. Occupation Competency Profile: Steel Detailer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the steel detailer program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the apprenticeship and industry training committee structure; local…

  10. Recombinant β-1,3-1,4-glucanase from Theobroma cacao impairs Moniliophthora perniciosa mycelial growth.

    PubMed

    Britto, Dahyana Santos; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Andrade, Bruno Silva; Dos Santos, Tassiara Pereira; Pungartnik, Cristina; Cascardo, Júlio Cezar M; Micheli, Fabienne; Gesteira, Abelmon S

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we identified a gene from Theobroma cacao L. genome and cDNA libraries, named TcGlu2, that encodes a β-1,3-1,4-glucanase. The TcGlu2 ORF was 720 bp in length and encoded a polypeptide of 239 amino acids with a molecular mass of 25.58 kDa. TcGlu2 contains a conserved domain characteristic of β-1,3-1,4-glucanases and presented high protein identity with β-1,3-1,4-glucanases from other plant species. Molecular modeling of TcGlu2 showed an active site of 13 amino acids typical of glucanase with β-1,3 and 1,4 action mode. The recombinant cDNA TcGlu2 obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and whose sequence was confirmed by mass spectrometry, has a molecular mass of about 22 kDa (with His-Tag) and showed antifungal activity against the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of the witches' broom disease in cacao. The integrity of the hyphae membranes of M. perniciosa, incubated with protein TcGlu2, was analyzed with propidium iodide. After 1 h of incubation, a strong fluorescence emitted by the hyphae indicating the hydrolysis of the membrane by TcGlu2, was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first study of a cacao β-1,3-1,4-glucanase expression in heterologous system and the first analysis showing the antifungal activity of a β-1,3-1,4-glucanase, in particular against M. perniciosa.

  11. 10. DETAIL, WEST ENTRANCE (CROPPED PRINT FROM 21/4 x 23/4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL, WEST ENTRANCE (CROPPED PRINT FROM 2-1/4 x 2-3/4 NEGATIVE) - U.S. General Services Administration, Central Heating Plant, C & D Streets between Twelfth & Thirteenth Streets Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 11. DETAIL, DECORATIVE PANEL, BREAKERS (CROPPED PRINT FROM 21/4 x ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL, DECORATIVE PANEL, BREAKERS (CROPPED PRINT FROM 2-1/4 x 2-3/4 NEGATIVE) - U.S. General Services Administration, Central Heating Plant, C & D Streets between Twelfth & Thirteenth Streets Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. 14. DETAIL, DECORATIVE PANEL, GENERATOR (CROPPED PRINT FROM 21/4 x ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL, DECORATIVE PANEL, GENERATOR (CROPPED PRINT FROM 2-1/4 x 2-3/4 NEGATIVE) - U.S. General Services Administration, Central Heating Plant, C & D Streets between Twelfth & Thirteenth Streets Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 13. DETAIL, DECORATIVE PANEL, BLOWER (CROPPED PRINT FROM 21/4 x ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL, DECORATIVE PANEL, BLOWER (CROPPED PRINT FROM 2-1/4 x 2-3/4 NEGATIVE) - U.S. General Services Administration, Central Heating Plant, C & D Streets between Twelfth & Thirteenth Streets Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 1.4GHz Survey of Fossil Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwick, Victoria; Wilcots, E.; Hess, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    Fossil groups, luminous, isolated elliptical galaxies with extended x-ray halos, represent the remnants of galactic cannibalism within galaxy groups. Current research has concentrated primarily on visible and x-ray observations. Here, we report the results of a preliminary survey of 34 fossil groups observed at 1.4Ghz using the VLA. We detect radio sources in many of the groups. Using radio emission as a tracer for nuclear activity, we estimate the frequency of past and current AGN activity in fossil groups and extract information about the age and evolutionary history of the fossil groups. Further observations at multiple radio frequencies may then provide information about the role of minor mergers and AGN as sources of heat in the IGM and as remedies to the cooling flow problem.

  16. [Current knowledge on gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1 ,4-butanediol (1,4-BD)].

    PubMed

    Dematteis, Maurice; Pennel, Lucie; Mallaret, Michel

    2012-05-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an old anaesthetic drug which was misused in the 80-90's as an anabolic agent (bodybuilding), recreational drug (drunkenness, euphoric, disinhibiting and aphrodisiac effects) and as a date rape drug (disinhibiting, hypnotic and amnesic effects). Its use in the general population is low, and mainly concerns gay population in nightclubs and young people in parties. The intoxications, above all with alcohol combination, can be severe, with coma and breathing depression, or even fatal. Chronic use leads to psychic and physical dependence; withdrawal syndrome can be severe, with agitation and delirium. In 1999, GHB classification as a narcotic resulted in the increased use of GHB prodrugs gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), which were easily commercially available as solvent and cleaning products. Like GHB, they have a narrow window of use, and share similar toxicity. Their increased cases of recreational use and of severe drug intoxication, abuse and dependence, led the French Ministry of Health in 2011 to prohibit their sale and transfer to the public. PMID:22730800

  17. THE VERY LARGE ARRAY 1.4 GHz SURVEY OF THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: SECOND DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Neal A.; Bonzini, Margherita; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Padovani, Paolo; Rosati, Piero; Fomalont, Edward B.; Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Tozzi, Paolo; Vattakunnel, Shaji

    2013-04-01

    Deep radio observations at 1.4 GHz for the Extended Chandra Deep Field South were performed in 2007 June through September and presented in a first data release. The survey was made using six separate pointings of the Very Large Array with over 40 hr of observation per pointing. In the current paper, we improve on the data reduction to produce a second data release (DR2) mosaic image. This DR2 image covers an area of about a third of a square degree, reaches a best rms sensitivity of 6 {mu}Jy, and has a typical sensitivity of 7.4 {mu}Jy per 2.''8 by 1.''6 beam. We also present a more comprehensive catalog, including sources down to peak flux densities of five or more times the local rms noise along with information on source sizes and relevant pointing data. We discuss in some detail the consideration of whether sources are resolved under the complication of a radio image created as a mosaic of separate pointings each suffering some degree of bandwidth smearing, and the accurate evaluation of the flux densities of such sources. Finally, the radio morphologies and optical/near-IR counterpart identifications are used to identify 17 likely multiple-component sources and arrive at a catalog of 883 radio sources, which is roughly double the number of sources contained in the first data release.

  18. 17. DETAIL OF ONE OF THE HEAD GATES PICTURED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF ONE OF THE HEAD GATES PICTURED IN CO-43-A-16 (SECTION 35). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  19. 9. DETAIL OF DIVERSION STRUCTURE WEST OF DERBY LAKE (SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF DIVERSION STRUCTURE WEST OF DERBY LAKE (SECTION 2) SHOWING DIVERSION GATE TO LAKE LADORA. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. 1,4-Diketones from Cross-Conjugated Dienones: Potassium Permanganate-Interrupted Nazarov Reaction.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yonghoon; Schatz, Devon J; West, Frederick G

    2015-08-17

    A domino potassium permanganate-interrupted Nazarov reaction to yield syn-2,3-disubstituted 1,4-diketones via a decarbonylative cleavage of the Nazarov oxyallyl intermediate, believed to be without precedent, is presented. This process allows syn substituents to be established stereospecifically on the 2-carbon bridge connecting the ketone carbonyl carbons, and the formation of one carbon-carbon and two carbon-oxygen bonds. Two carbon-carbon bonds are cleaved in this process. PMID:26138361

  1. Aircraft empennage structural detail design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meholic, Greg; Brown, Rhonda; Hall, Melissa; Harvey, Robert; Singer, Michael; Tella, Gustavo

    1993-01-01

    This project involved the detailed design of the aft fuselage and empennage structure, vertical stabilizer, rudder, horizontal stabilizer, and elevator for the Triton primary flight trainer. The main design goals under consideration were to illustrate the integration of the control systems devices used in the tail surfaces and their necessary structural supports as well as the elevator trim, navigational lighting system, electrical systems, tail-located ground tie, and fuselage/cabin interface structure. Accommodations for maintenance, lubrication, adjustment, and repairability were devised. Weight, fabrication, and (sub)assembly goals were addressed. All designs were in accordance with the FAR Part 23 stipulations for a normal category aircraft.

  2. Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Wang, Huajian; Costa, M. Mafalda; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Connelly, James N.; Zhang, Baomin; Bian, Lizeng; Canfield, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuating climate is a hallmark of Earth. As one transcends deep into Earth time, however, both the evidence for and the causes of climate change become difficult to establish. We report geochemical and sedimentological evidence for repeated, short-term climate fluctuations from the exceptionally well-preserved ∼1.4-billion-year-old Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We observe two patterns of climate fluctuations: On long time scales, over what amounts to tens of millions of years, sediments of the Xiamaling Formation record changes in geochemistry consistent with long-term changes in the location of the Xiamaling relative to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. On shorter time scales, and within a precisely calibrated stratigraphic framework, cyclicity in sediment geochemical dynamics is consistent with orbital control. In particular, sediment geochemical fluctuations reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment. PMID:25775605

  3. Phytoremediation of 1,4-dioxane-containing recovered groundwater.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Ari M; Kennedy, Jean; LaRue, James C

    2013-01-01

    The results of a pilot-scale phytoremediation study are reported in this paper. Small plots of trees established on a closed municipal waste landfill site were irrigated with recovered groundwater containing 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The plots were managed to minimize the leaching of irrigation water, and leaching was quantified by the use of bromide tracer. Results indicated that the dioxane (2.5 microg/L) was effectively removed, probably via phytovolatilization, and that a full-scale phytoremediation system could be used. A system is now in place at the site in which the recovered groundwater can be treated using two different approaches. A physical treatment system (PTS) will be used during the winter months, and a 12 ha phytoremediation system (stands of coniferous trees) will be used during the growing season. The PTS removes VOCs using an air-stripper, and destroys dioxane using a photo-catalytic oxidation process. Treated water will be routed to the local sewer system. The phytoremediation system, located on the landfill, will be irrigated with effluent from the PTS air-stripper containing dioxane. Seasonal use of the phytoremediation system will reduce reliance on the photo-catalytic oxidation process that is extremely energy consumptive and expensive to operate.

  4. Synthesis and cyclisation of 1,4-disubstituted semicarbazides.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Syeda Farina; Yasin, Khawaja Ansar; Aziz, Shahid

    2010-03-01

    Semicarbazides, besides possessing medicinal properties, also find wide applications in agriculture and industry. We report in this article the synthesis of the four 1,4-disubstituted semicarbazides: 1-cinnamoyl-4-phenyl semicarbazide (1), 1-oleyl-4-phenyl semicarbazides (2), 1,1',1''-tricitryl-4,4',4''-triphenyl semicarbazide (3) and 1-benzoyl-4-phenyl semicarbazide (4), by the condensation of four different hydrazides: cinnamic acid hydrazide (5), oleic acid hydrazide (6), citric acid hydrazide (7) and benzoic acid hydrazide (8). The acid hydrazides were prepared by the condensation of four different acids with phenyl isocyanate. The semicarbazides were also subjected to acid catalysed intramolecular cyclisation. The cyclisation of (1) and (2) afforded substituted 1,3,4-oxadizoles: 2-cinnamoyl-5-aminophenyl 1,3,4-oxadizoles (9) and 2-oleyl-5-aminophenl 1,3,4-oxadizoles (10), respectively, in high yield, while no cyclisation occurred in the cases of (3) and (4). The products in each case have been identified on the basis of melting points and IR spectral studies. PMID:20221937

  5. Atmospheric photochemical degradation of 1,4-unsaturated dicarbonyls

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Jeffries, H.E.; Sexton, K.G.

    1999-12-01

    To better understand fates of aromatics hydrocarbon species in the atmosphere, the authors have investigated the transformation chemistry of butenedial (CHOCH{double{underscore}bond}CHCHO), 4-oxo-2-pentenal (CH{sub 3}COCH{double{underscore}bond}CHCHO), and 3-hexene-2, 5-dione (CH{sub 3}COCH{double{underscore}bond}CHCOCH{sub 3}). These 1,4-unsaturated dicarbonyls are known to be products of aromatic photochemical oxidation. Both hydroxyl radical (OH) and ozone (O{sub 3}) initiated smog chamber experiments under atmospheric conditions were conducted in the University of North Carolina outdoor smog chamber. Carbonyl intermediates and products were measured using the O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatization method followed by gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry analysis. Carbonyl products detected and identified by comparison with standards in the OH-initiated photooxidation of butenedial include formaldehyde, acrolein, glycolaldehyde, glyoxal, and malonaldehyde (CHOCH{sub 2}CHO). For 4-oxo-2-pentenal, the carbonyl products were formaldehyde, methyl vinyl ketone, glycolaldehyde, hydroxyacetone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and malonaldehyde. for 3-hexene-2,5-dione the products were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, hydroxyacetone, and methylglyoxal. Carbonyl products detected in the P{sub 3}-initiated experiments with cyclohexane as the OH scavenger were formaldehyde and glyoxal in butenedial; formaldehyde, glyoxal, methyl-glyoxal, and malonaldehyde in 4-oxo-2-pentenal; and formaldehyde and methylglyoxal in 3-hexene-2,5-dione.

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of diastereoisomers of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-tris-(glutaric acid) (NOTGA) for multimeric radiopharmaceuticals of gallium.

    PubMed

    Guerra Gomez, Francisco L; Uehara, Tomoya; Rokugawa, Takemi; Higaki, Yusuke; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Akizawa, Hiromichi; Arano, Yasushi

    2012-11-21

    In the conventional synthesis of 1,4,7-tris-(glutaric acid)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (NOTGA), four isomeric species are usually generated by the alkylation of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane with α-bromoglutaric acid diester. To estimate their biological efficacies as well as their stability and radiochemistry, the RRR/SSS and RRS/SSR NOTGA-(t)Bu prochelators were isolated and the corresponding cyclic RGDfK (RGD) conjugates with triethylene glycol linkages were prepared. The RRR/SSS and RRS/SSR diastereomers were obtained in 69% and 17% yields, respectively. In the complexation reaction with (67)GaCl(3), both diastereomers provided >98% radiochemical yields at pH 5 within 10 min when the reaction was conducted at room temperature. However, the RRR/SSS diastereomer exhibited more pH-sensitive radiochemical yields between pH 3.5 to 4.5. Despite their diasteromeric nature, both (67)Ga-labeled RGD-NOTGA remained stable during the apo-transferrin challenge, exhibiting similar affinity for integrin α(v)β(3) and biodistribution with predominant renal excretion. Similar tumor uptake was also observed in mice bearing U87MG tumor xenograft, which resulted in impressively high contrast SPECT/CT images. These findings indicate that the RGD-NOTGA conjugates of both diastereomers presented here possess equivalent biological efficacies and their combined usage would be feasible. It is worth noting that specific properties of a given biomolecule, cell expression levels of the corresponding target molecule, and presence or absence of a pharmacokinetic modifier would affect the structural differences between diastereomers on the ligand-receptor interactions and pharmacokinetics. Thus, the preparation of corresponding conjugates and evaluation of their chemical and biological performances still remains important for applying NOTGA to other biomolecules of interest using the diastereomerically pure NOTGA-(t)Bu prochelator.

  7. Solar Data Hub (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Orwig, K.

    2011-04-01

    As power grid integration of renewables becomes ever more important and detailed, the need for a centralized place for solar-related resource data is needed. This presentation describes such a place and website.

  8. A simple and efficient diffusion technique for assay of endo β-1,4-xylanase activity

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, A.K.; Kolte, Atul P.; Senani, S.; Sridhar, Manpal.; Jayapal, Natasha.

    2011-01-01

    Endo-β-1, 4-xylanases is thought to be of great significance for several industries namely paper, pharmaceuticals, food, feed etc. in addition to better utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. The present investigation was aimed to develop an easy, simple and efficient assay technique for endo-β-1, 4-xylanases secreted by the aerobic fungi. Under the proposed protocol, 9 g/L xylan containing agar was prepared in 100 mM phosphate buffer at different pH (4.5, 5.5 and 6.5). The sterilized xylan agar was dispensed in 90 mm petri dishes. 100 µl of culture supernatant of 12 fungal isolates was added to the wells and left overnight at 31±10C. The petri dishes were observed for zone of clearance by naked eye and diameter was measured. Congo red solution (1 g/L) was applied over the petri dishes as per the established protocol and thereafter plates were flooded with 1M Sodium chloride solution for the appearance of zone of clearance. The diameter for zone of clearance by the proposed method and the established protocol was almost identical and ranged from 21 to 42 mm at different pH depending upon the activity of endo-β-1, 4-xylanases. Change of pH towards alkaline side enabled similar or marginal decrease of diameter for the zone of clearance in most of the fungal isolates. The specific activities of these fungal isolates varied from 1.85 to 11.47 IU/mg protein. The present investigation revealed that the proposed simple diffusion technique gave similar results as compared to the established Congo red assay for endo-β-1, 4-xylanases. Moreover, the present technique avoided the cumbersome steps of staining by Congo red and de-staining by sodium chloride. PMID:24031763

  9. Activated Persulfate Treatment of 1,4-Dioxane in the Presence of Chlorinated Solvent Co-contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boving, T. T.; Eberle, D. E. H.; Ball, R.

    2014-12-01

    1,4-dioxane is an emerging groundwater contaminant and a likely human carcinogen. Due to its history as a stabilizer in chlorinated solvents, 1,4-dioxane is often found as a co-contaminant at solvent releases sites such as landfills, solvent recycling facilities, vapor decreasing operations, and fire-training areas. Historically, 1,4-dioxane was not routinely analyzed for at solvent release sites. The lack of analyses and the limitations of the analyses that were performed (i.e. high reporting limits) means that the scale of 1,4-dioxane subsurface contamination is still emerging. With the number of known 1,4-dioxane sites increasing, the need for cost effective 1,4-dioxane remediation technologies is rising as well. Remediation strategies that are capable of treating both 1,4-dioxane as well as chlorinated co-contaminants are of particular importance, especially when treating mixed-waste source zones. In the present study, we examined the fate of 1,4-dioxane during the targeted remediation of aqueous phase volatile organic compounds (VOC) using an activated persulfate based ISCO method (OxyZone®). Bench scale laboratory experiments are used to evaluate the treatability of 1,4-dioxane both as a single compound and in the presence of trichloroethene (TCE) and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA). Possible dependencies on oxidant concentration and reaction kinetics were studied. Preliminary results are promising and show that OxyZone® is persistent and long lived, with oxidation of 1,4-dioxane continuing more than 12 days after initial dosage, even at dilute oxidant concentrations. The oxidative destruction of 1,4-dioxane, TCE and 1,1,1-TCA in single compound batch systems followed pseudo first order reaction kinetics. The rate of oxidation for each contaminant increased linearly with increasing persulfate concentration over the range of oxidant concentrations tested. The rate of oxidative destruction, from most easily degraded to least was: TCE > 1,4-Dioxane > 1

  10. Detailed Jet Dynamics in a Collapsing Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Kobel, Philippe; Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    We present detailed visualizations of the micro-jet forming inside an aspherically collapsing cavitation bubble near a free surface. The high-quality visualizations of large and strongly deformed bubbles disclose so far unseen features of the dynamics inside the bubble, such as a mushroom-like flattened jet-tip, crown formation and micro-droplets. We also find that jetting near a free surface reduces the collapse time relative to the Rayleigh time.

  11. Detailed spectral analysis of decellularized skin implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timchenko, E. V.; Timchenko, P. E.; Volova, L. T.; Dolgushkin, D. A.; Shalkovsky, P. Y.; Pershutkina, S. V.

    2016-08-01

    The resutls of detailed analysis of donor skin implants using Raman spectroscopy method are presented. Fourier-deconvolution method was used to separate overlapping spectrum lines and to improve its informativeness. Based on the processed spectra were introduced coefficients that represent changes in relative concentration of implant components, which determines the quality of implants. It was established that Raman spectroscopy method can be used in assessment of skin implants.

  12. Wind tunnel test on a 1/4.622 Froude scale, hingeless rotor, tilt rotor model, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, J. P.; Alexander, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    Wing tunnel test data on a 1/4.622 Froude scale, hingeless rotor, tilt rotor mode are reported for all potential flight conditions through hover and a wide envelope of transitions. A mathematical model was used to describe the rotor system in real time simulation by means of regression analyses. Details of the model, test program and data system are provided together with four data files for hover and transition.

  13. Quinoxaline 1,4-dioxides: hypoxia-selective therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Diab-Assef, Mona; Haddadin, Makhluf J; Yared, Pierre; Assaad, Chafika; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala U

    2002-04-01

    A problem that confronts clinicians in the treatment of cancer is the resistance of hypoxic tumors to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Thus, the development of new drugs that are toxic to hypoxic cells found in solid tumors is an important objective for effective anticancer chemotherapy. We recently showed that the heterocyclic aromatic N-oxides, quinoxaline 1,4-dioxides (QdNOs), are cytotoxic to tumor cells cultured under hypoxia. In this study, we evaluated the hypoxia-selective toxicity of four diversely substituted QdNOs and determined their effect on the expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) 1alpha in the human colon cancer cell line T-84. The various QdNOs were found to possess a 50- to 100-fold greater cytotoxicity to T-84 cells cultured under hypoxia compared with oxia. Interestingly, the hypoxia cytotoxicity ratio (HCR), the ratio of equitoxic concentrations of the drug under aerobic/anoxic conditions, was highly structure related and depended on the nature of the substituents on the QdNO heterocycle. The most cytotoxic 2-benzoyl-3-phenyl-6,7-dichloro derivative of QdNO (DCQ) was potent at a dose of 1 microM with an HCR of 100 and significantly reduced the levels of HIF-1alpha transcript and protein. The 2-benzoyl-3-phenyl derivative (BPQ) had a hypoxia potency of 20 microM and an HCR of 40. By contrast, the 2-aceto-3-methyl and the 2,3-tetramethylene (TMQ) derivatives of QdNO were much less cytotoxic under hypoxia (HCRs of 8.5 and 6.5, respectively) and reduced the expression of HIF-1alpha mRNA to a much lesser extent. Because the nonchlorinated analogue BPQ did not demonstrate behavior similar to that of DCQ, we hypothesize that the C-6, C-7-chlorine of DCQ might play a significant role in the selective hypoxic cytotoxicity of the drug.

  14. Solid Waste Projection Model: Database (Version 1.4). Technical reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, C.; Cillan, T.

    1993-09-01

    The Solid Waste Projection Model (SWPM) system is an analytical tool developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The SWPM system provides a modeling and analysis environment that supports decisions in the process of evaluating various solid waste management alternatives. This document, one of a series describing the SWPM system, contains detailed information regarding the software and data structures utilized in developing the SWPM Version 1.4 Database. This document is intended for use by experienced database specialists and supports database maintenance, utility development, and database enhancement. Those interested in using the SWPM database should refer to the SWPM Database User`s Guide. This document is available from the PNL Task M Project Manager (D. L. Stiles, 509-372-4358), the PNL Task L Project Manager (L. L. Armacost, 509-372-4304), the WHC Restoration Projects Section Manager (509-372-1443), or the WHC Waste Characterization Manager (509-372-1193).

  15. ADAMS/WT advanced development - version 1.4 and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, A.S.; Depauw, T.R.

    1996-12-31

    ADAMS/WT is an wind-turbine-specific shell for the general-purpose mechanical system simulation package ADAMS5. It was developed under the guidance of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to give engineers and analysts in the wind turbine community access to the analytical power of ADAMS, without having to become expert in its particular technology. The 1.4 version of ADAMS/WT is the most recent upgrade to the package, incorporating the most up-to-date version of the AeroDyn aerodynamic forcing subroutines from the University of Utah. It is also the first version to be made available on the Windows/NT platform. In version 1.4, ADAMS/WT has been significantly improved throughout and runs much faster. Automatic generation of standardized output has been added. The documentation has been extensively augmented with more detailed descriptions, more figures and more examples. ADAMS/WT remains the most powerful analytical tool available for horizontal-axis wind turbine development. 10 figs.

  16. Satellite tobacco mosaic virus refined to 1.4 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Steven B.; Day, John S.; McPherson, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) is among the smallest viruses, having 60 identical subunits arranged with T = 1 icosahedral symmetry. Its crystal structure was solved at 290 K and was refined using, in part, crystals grown in microgravity. Electron-density maps revealed nearly 57% of the genomic ssRNA. Using six flash-cooled crystals, diffraction data were recorded to 1.4 Å resolution and independent refinements of the STMV model were carried out versus the previous 1.8 Å resolution data representing merged data from 21 crystals (271 689 unique reflections), data consisting of corresponding reflections to 1.8 Å resolution from the cooled crystals and 1.4 Å resolution data from the cooled crystals comprised of 570 721 unique reflections. Models were independently refined with full NCS constraints using the program CNS and in restrained mode using the programs CNS, REFMAC5 and SHELX-97, with the latter two procedures including anisotropic temperature factors. Significant additional structural detail emerged from the analyses, including a unique cation and anion arrangement on fivefold axes and a precise assessment of icosahedral symmetry exactness in the crystal lattice. STMV represents the highest resolution native virus structure currently known by a substantial margin, and it permits the evaluation of a precise atomic model of a spherical virus at near-atomic resolution for the first time. PMID:25195746

  17. Quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide: a versatile scaffold endowed with manifold activities.

    PubMed

    Carta, A; Corona, P; Loriga, M

    2005-01-01

    Since 1940s, Quinoxaline 1,4-dioxides (QdNO's) are known as potent antibacterial agents, and subtherapeutic levels have been used to promote growth and improve efficiency of feed conversion in animal feed. They have also shown a selective cytotoxicity against hypoxic cells present in solid tumours. Furthermore, recent studies have put in evidence that QdNO's are endowed with antitubercular, antiprotozoal and anticandida activities. On the other hand, several authors have reported about photoallergic and mutagenic effects of some derivatives. QdNO's may also cause the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and influence the horizontal transfer of virulence genes between bacteria. In this review article we report the biological properties, the mode of action and Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) studies of the QdNO derivatives. Furthermore, some cytogenetic and genotoxic effects, classical and more recent method of synthesis, the quinoxaline 1,4-dioxides, and some of their most important reactions, were also reported.

  18. The dynamics of the extraordinary mass-loss bubble G2. 4 + 1. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Dopita, M.A.; Lozinskaia, T.A. Moskovskii Gosudarstvennyi Universitet, Moscow )

    1990-08-01

    High-resolution forbidden O III observations of the nebula G2.4 + 1.4, a highly reddened, photoionized, mass-loss bubble of very high excitation powered by the most extreme oxygen sequence Wolf-Rayet star known, are presented. These data and the morphology of the nebula prove that the filamentary shell of G2.4 + 1.4 is roughly hemispherical and is blowing out from the near surface of a dense cloud located to the southeast. This emits mainly by photoionization by the central star. Expansion down the strong density gradient has encouraged the development of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability which gives rise to the characteristically scalloped appearance of this nebula. The energy input required to produce this structure is estimated and compared with the properties of the central star. 25 refs.

  19. Experimental and computational thermochemistry of 1,4-benzodioxan and its 6-R derivatives.

    PubMed

    Matos, M Agostinha R; Sousa, Clara C S; Morais, Victor M F

    2008-08-28

    The derivatives of 1,4-benzodioxan are found widely spread in nature and have great biomedical importance. The present work reports an experimental and computational study on the thermochemistry of 1,4-benzodioxan and several of its 6-R derivatives in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K. Our current results were obtained from measurements of combustion energies, at T = 298.15 K, using a static bomb calorimeter. The standard molar enthalpies of vaporization/sublimation were measured by Calvet microcalorimetry and corrected to T = 298.15 K. Additionally, estimates were performed of the enthalpies of formation of all the studied compounds in the gas phase, using DFT and other more accurate correlated calculations, together with appropriate isodesmic or homodesmic reactions. There is a reasonable agreement between computational and experimental results. PMID:18683910

  20. Morphological details in bloodstain particles.

    PubMed

    De Wael, K; Lepot, L

    2015-01-01

    During the commission of crimes blood can be transferred to the clothing of the offender or on other crime related objects. Bloodstain particles are sub-millimetre sized flakes that are lost from dried bloodstains. The nature of these red particles is easily confirmed using spectroscopic methods. In casework, bloodstain particles showing highly detailed morphological features were observed. These provided a rationale for a series of experiments described in this work. It was found that the "largest" particles are shed from blood deposited on polyester and polyamide woven fabrics. No particles are lost from the stains made on absorbent fabrics and from those made on knitted fabrics. The morphological features observed in bloodstain particles can provide important information on the substrates from which they were lost. PMID:25437904

  1. A Generalized Detailed Balance Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruelle, David

    2016-08-01

    Given a system M in a thermal bath we obtain a generalized detailed balance relation for the ratio r=π _τ (K→ J)/π _τ (J→ K) of the transition probabilities M:J→ K and M:K→ J in time τ . We assume an active bath, containing solute molecules in metastable states. These molecules may react with M and the transition J→ K occurs through different channels α involving different reactions with the bath. We find that r=sum p^α r^α , where p^α is the probability that channel α occurs, and r^α depends on the amount of heat (more precisely enthalpy) released to the bath in channel α.

  2. Ruthenium, osmium and rhodium complexes of 1,4-diaryl 1,4-diazabutadiene: radical versus non-radical states.

    PubMed

    Chandra Patra, Sarat; Saha Roy, Amit; Manivannan, Vadivelu; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Ghosh, Prasanta

    2014-09-28

    Ruthenium, osmium and rhodium complexes of 1,4-di(3-nitrophenyl)-1,4-diazabutadiene (LDAB) of types trans-[RuII(LDAB)(PPh3)2Cl2] (1), trans-[OsII(LDAB)(PPh3)2Br2] (2) and trans-[Rh(LDAB)(PPh3)2Cl2] (3) are isolated and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, mass and 1H NMR spectra including the single crystal X-ray structure determination of 1·2toluene. The α-diimine fragment of the LDAB ligand in 1·2toluene is deformed, showing a relatively longer -C=N- bond, 1.320 Å, and a shorter =CH–CH= bond, 1.395 Å. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations on trans-[Ru(LDAB)(PMe3)2Cl2] (1Me) and trans-[Os(LDAB)(PMe3)2Br2] (2Me) with singlet spin states authenticated that the closed shell singlet state (CSS) solutions of 1 and 2 are stable and no perturbation occurs because of the diradical open shell singlet (OSS) state. The EPR spectra of 3 and the Mulliken spin density distribution obtained from the DFT calculation on trans-[Rh(LDAB)(PMe3)2Cl2] (3Me) imply that the ground electronic state of 3 can be defined by the [RhIII(LDAB˙−)(PPh3)2Cl2] (3RhL˙) ↔ [RhII(LDAB)(PPh3)2Cl2] (3Rh˙L) resonating states. In solid, the contribution of 3RhL˙ is higher and the gav is 2.018 with Δg = 0.10, whereas in frozen glasses the contribution of 3Rh˙L is higher and the gav is 2.026 with Δg (frozen glasses) = 0.13. The g parameters of the electrogenerated [1]+ (g1 = 2.456, g2 = 2.128 and g3 = 1.624, Δg = 0.824), [2]+ (g1 = 2.599, g2 = 2.041 and g3 = 1.965, Δg = 0.634), [1]− (g1 = 2.138, g2 = 2.109, g3 = 1.978 and Δg = 0.160) and [2]− (g1 = 2.168, g2 = 2.097, g3 = 1.987 and Δg = 0.181) ions and the spin density distributions obtained from the DFT calculations on [1Me]+, [2Me]+, [1Me]− and [2Me]− reveal that the reversible anodic peaks of 1 and 2 at 0.11 and 0.34 V, referenced versus Fc+/Fc couple, are due to the M(III)/M(II) redox couple, while the reversible cathodic waves at −1.27 V and −0.82 V of 1 and 2 are caused by the LDAB/LDAB˙− redox couple

  3. DETAILED STUDIES OF ELECTRON COOLING FRICTION FORCE.

    SciTech Connect

    FEDOTOV, A.V.; BRUHWILER, D.L.; ABELL, D.T.; SIDORIN, A.O.

    2005-09-18

    High-energy electron cooling for RHIC presents many unique features and challenges. An accurate estimate of the cooling times requires detailed simulation of the electron cooling process. The first step towards such calculations is to have an accurate description of the cooling force. Numerical simulations are being used to explore various features of the friction force which appear due to several effects, including the anisotropy of the electron distribution in velocity space and the effect of a strong solenoidal magnetic field. These aspects are being studied in detail using the VORFAL code, which explicitly resolves close binary collisions. Results are compared with available asymptotic and empirical formulas and also, using the BETACOOL code, with direct numerical integration of less approximate expressions over the specified electron distribution function.

  4. Phosphorylation of the rat Ins(1,4,5)P₃ receptor at T930 within the coupling domain decreases its affinity to Ins(1,4,5)P₃.

    PubMed

    Haun, Shirley; Sun, Lu; Hubrack, Satanay; Yule, David; Machaca, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    The Ins(1,4,5)P 3 receptor acts as a central hub for Ca ( 2+) signaling by integrating multiple signaling modalities into Ca ( 2+) release from intracellular stores downstream of G-protein and tyrosine kinase-coupled receptor stimulation. As such, the Ins(1,4,5)P 3 receptor plays fundamental roles in cellular physiology. The regulation of the Ins(1,4,5)P 3 receptor is complex and involves protein-protein interactions, post-translational modifications, allosteric modulation, and regulation of its sub-cellular distribution. Phosphorylation has been implicated in the sensitization of Ins(1,4,5)P 3-dependent Ca ( 2+) release observed during oocyte maturation. Here we investigate the role of phosphorylation at T-930, a residue phosphorylated specifically during meiosis. We show that a phosphomimetic mutation at T-930 of the rat Ins(1,4,5)P 3 receptor results in decreased Ins(1,4,5)P 3-dependent Ca ( 2+) release and lowers the Ins(1,4,5)P 3 binding affinity of the receptor. These data, coupled to the sensitization of Ins(1,4,5)P 3-dependent Ca ( 2+) release during meiosis, argue that phosphorylation within the coupling domain of the Ins(1,4,5)P 3 receptor acts in a combinatorial fashion to regulate Ins(1,4,5)P 3 receptor function.

  5. Phosphatidic acid stimulates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production in adult cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kurz, T; Wolf, R A; Corr, P B

    1993-03-01

    The cellular content of phosphatidic acid can increase in response to several agonists either by phosphorylation of diacylglycerol after phospholipase C-catalyzed hydrolysis of phospholipids or directly through activation of phospholipase D. Although previous findings indicated that the generation of phosphatidic acid was exclusively a means of regulation of the cellular concentration of diacylglycerol, more recent studies have indicated that phosphatidic acid may also directly regulate several cellular functions. Accordingly, the present study was performed to assess whether phosphatidic acid could stimulate cardiac phospholipase C in intact adult rabbit ventricular myocytes. The mass of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins (1,4,5)P3] was determined by a specific and sensitive binding protein assay and by direct mass measurement using anion exchange chromatography for separation of selected inositol phosphates and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for quantification of inositol monophosphate (IP1), inositol bisphosphate (IP2), inositol trisphosphate (IP3), and inositol tetrakisphosphate (IP4). Phosphatidic acid (10(-9)-10(-6) M) elicited a rapid concentration-dependent increase in Ins (1,4,5)P3 accumulation, with the peak fourfold to fivefold increase at 30 seconds of stimulation; the concentration required for 50% of maximal stimulation was 4.4 x 10(-8) M. The time course of individual inositol phosphates indicated a successive increase in the mass of IP3, IP4, IP2, and IP1 in response to stimulation with phosphatidic acid. The production of Ins (1,4,5)P3 in response to phosphatidic acid was not altered in the absence of extracellular calcium or in the presence of extracellular EGTA (10(-3) M). Thus, these findings indicate that phosphatidic acid is a potent activator of inositol phosphate production in adult ventricular myocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Hyperconjugative and Electrostatic Interactions as Anomeric Triggers in Archetypical 1,4-Dioxane Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Pilar Gema Rodríguez; Montejo, Manuel; López González, Juan Jesús

    2016-02-16

    The anomeric effect accounts for the greater thermodynamic stability of axially arranged six-membered heterocycles holding an electronegative substituent at the C1 position. Within a frame of no general consensus, two different theories are typically claimed to justify this effect mostly based on either hyperconjugative or electrostatic factors. Here we report a theoretical-experimental study of the role of both as anomeric triggers in two archetypical 1,4-dioxane derivatives, using a suitable combination of spectroscopic (IR and vibrational circular dichroism) and computational techniques for the analysis of the solvation environment effect in their anomeric choices. VCD and IR spectroscopies are used as conformer-discriminating tools: a detailed analysis of the evolution of the spectral profiles allows assessing the theoretically predicted changes in the experimental α/β ratios when changing the polar solvent, which are fully explained on the basis of an extensive NBO energy partition scheme that provides a detailed view of the role of hyperconjugative and electrostatic interactions as anomeric regulators. Our results suggest that the anomeric equilibrium cannot be described by a single stereoelectronic effect but by the combined contribution of hyperconjugation and electrostatic repulsions, so that the β-anomeric choice in polar solvents is markedly driven by the strong attenuation of electrostatic repulsive interactions that occurs in solution. PMID:26663638

  7. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture, Tutorial Part 2 - Detailed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handler, Louis

    2014-01-01

    The STRS architecture detail presentation presents each requirement in the STRS Architecture Standard with some examples and supporting information. The purpose is to give a platform provider, application provider, or application integrator a better, more detailed understanding of the STRS Architecture Standard and its use.

  8. The Finer Details: Climate Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    If you want to know whether you will need sunscreen or an umbrella for tomorrow's picnic, you can simply read the local weather report. However, if you are calculating the impact of gas combustion on global temperatures, or anticipating next year's rainfall levels to set water conservation policy, you must conduct a more comprehensive investigation. Such complex matters require long-range modeling techniques that predict broad trends in climate development rather than day-to-day details. Climate models are built from equations that calculate the progression of weather-related conditions over time. Based on the laws of physics, climate model equations have been developed to predict a number of environmental factors, for example: 1. Amount of solar radiation that hits the Earth. 2. Varying proportions of gases that make up the air. 3. Temperature at the Earth's surface. 4. Circulation of ocean and wind currents. 5. Development of cloud cover. Numerical modeling of the climate can improve our understanding of both the past and, the future. A model can confirm the accuracy of environmental measurements taken. in, the past and can even fill in gaps in those records. In addition, by quantifying the relationship between different aspects of climate, scientists can estimate how a future change in one aspect may alter the rest of the world. For example, could an increase in the temperature of the Pacific Ocean somehow set off a drought on the other side of the world? A computer simulation could lead to an answer for this and other questions. Quantifying the chaotic, nonlinear activities that shape our climate is no easy matter. You cannot run these simulations on your desktop computer and expect results by the time you have finished checking your morning e-mail. Efficient and accurate climate modeling requires powerful computers that can process billions of mathematical calculations in a single second. The NCCS exists to provide this degree of vast computing capability.

  9. HIGH-RESOLUTION VERY LARGE ARRAY IMAGING OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY STRIPE 82 AT 1.4 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, J. A.; Becker, R. H.; Zeimann, G. R.; White, R. L.; Richards, G. T.

    2011-07-15

    We present a high-resolution radio survey of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Southern Equatorial Stripe, a.k.a. Stripe 82. This 1.4 GHz survey was conducted with the Very Large Array primarily in the A-configuration, with supplemental B-configuration data to increase sensitivity to extended structure. The survey has an angular resolution of 1.''8 and achieves a median rms noise of 52 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} over 92 deg{sup 2}. This is the deepest 1.4 GHz survey to achieve this large of an area, filling a gap in the phase space between small, deep and large, shallow surveys. It also serves as a pilot project for a larger high-resolution survey with the Expanded Very Large Array. We discuss the technical design of the survey and details of the observations, and we outline our method for data reduction. We present a catalog of 17,969 isolated radio components, for an overall source density of {approx}195 sources deg{sup -2}. The astrometric accuracy of the data is excellent, with an internal check utilizing multiply observed sources yielding an rms scatter of 0.''19 in both right ascension and declination. A comparison to the SDSS DR7 Quasar Catalog further confirms that the astrometry is well tied to the optical reference frame, with mean offsets of 0.''02 {+-} 0.''01 in right ascension, and 0.''01 {+-} 0.''02 in declination. A check of our photometry reveals a small, negative CLEAN-like bias on the level of 35 {mu}Jy. We report on the catalog completeness, finding that 97% of FIRST-detected quasars are recovered in the new Stripe 82 radio catalog, while faint, extended sources are more likely to be resolved out by the resolution bias. We conclude with a discussion of the optical counterparts to the catalog sources, including 76 newly detected radio quasars. The full catalog as well as a search page and cutout server are available online at http://third.ucllnl.org/cgi-bin/stripe82cutout.

  10. Theme Comprehension: Beyond the Details

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Even though theme is cited in two of the 10 Common Core Standards for Reading Literature, little is written on how to teach it. Determining theme while reading a story is a critical element of reading literature, yet some children simply struggle. The instructional strategies presented here are designed to hone students' theme awareness and…

  11. A detailed phylogeny for the Methanomicrobiales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouviere, P.; Mandelco, L.; Winker, S.; Woese, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    The small subunit rRNA sequence of twenty archaea, members of the Methanomicrobiales, permits a detailed phylogenetic tree to be inferred for the group. The tree confirms earlier studies, based on far fewer sequences, in showing the group to be divided into two major clusters, temporarily designated the "methanosarcina" group and the "methanogenium" group. The tree also defines phylogenetic relationships within these two groups, which in some cases do not agree with the phylogenetic relationships implied by current taxonomic names--a problem most acute for the genus Methanogenium and its relatives. The present phylogenetic characterization provides the basis for a consistent taxonomic restructuring of this major methanogenic taxon.

  12. MELCOR modeling of the PBF (Power Burst Facility) Severe Fuel Damage Test 1-4

    SciTech Connect

    Madni, I.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a MELCOR Version 1.8 simulation of the Power Burst Facility (PBF) Severe Fuel Damage (SFD) Test 1--4. The input data for the analysis were obtained from the Test Results Report and from SCDAP/RELAP5 input. Results are presented for the transient liquid level in the test bundle, clad temperatures, shroud temperatures, clad oxidation and hydrogen generation, bundle geometry changes, fission product release, and heat transfer to the bypass flow. Comparisons are made with experimental data and with SCDAP/RELAP5 calculations. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Crystal Structure of a Bacterial Albumin-Binding Domain at 1.4 Angstrom Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, J.F.; Nordberg, P.A.; Hajdu, J.; Lejon, S.; /Uppsala U. /Aalborg U. /Astra Tech, Molndal /SLAC

    2007-11-26

    The albumin-binding domain, or GA module, of the peptostreptococcal albumin-binding protein expressed in pathogenic strains of Finegoldia magna is believed to be responsible for the virulence and increased growth rate of these strains. Here we present the 1.4 Angstrom crystal structure of this domain, and compare it with the crystal structure of the GA-albumin complex. An analysis of protein-protein interactions in the two crystals, and the presence of multimeric GA species in solution, indicate the GA module is 'sticky', and is capable of forming contacts with a range of protein surfaces. This might lead to interactions with different host proteins.

  14. QSAR Studies and Design of Some Tetracyclic 1,4-Benzothiazines as Antimicrobial Agents.

    PubMed

    Mor, S; Nagoria, S; Kumar, A; Kumar, A; Kaushik, C P

    2016-08-01

    A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis has been performed on a series of 20 tetracyclic 1,4-benzothiazines (1a-1t) with antimicrobial activity to explain the observed biological activity trend on structural basis. Multiple linear regression (MLR) method was employed to establish statistically significant QSAR models. The developed models are robust, predictive and free from chance correlation with good fitting ability and sufficient generalizability. These studies revealed the dominance of WHIM parameters in describing antimicrobial activity of the title compounds. Further, design of some more active compounds is presented. PMID:27389854

  15. Molecular cloning of pigeon UDP-galactose:beta-D-galactoside alpha1,4-galactosyltransferase and UDP-galactose:beta-D-galactoside beta1,4-galactosyltransferase, two novel enzymes catalyzing the formation of Gal alpha1-4Gal beta1-4Gal beta1-4GlcNAc sequence.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Noriko; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2010-02-19

    We previously found that pigeon IgG possesses unique N-glycan structures that contain the Gal alpha1-4Gal beta1-4Gal beta1-4GlcNAc sequence at their nonreducing termini. This sequence is most likely produced by putative alpha1,4- and beta1,4-galactosyltransferases (GalTs), which are responsible for the biosynthesis of the Gal alpha1-4Gal and Gal beta1-4Gal sequences on the N-glycans, respectively. Because no such glycan structures have been found in mammalian glycoproteins, the biosynthetic enzymes that produce these glycans are likely to have distinct substrate specificities from the known mammalian GalTs. To study these enzymes, we cloned the pigeon liver cDNAs encoding alpha4GalT and beta4GalT by expression cloning and characterized these enzymes using the recombinant proteins. The deduced amino acid sequence of pigeon alpha4GalT has 58.2% identity to human alpha4GalT and 68.0 and 66.6% identity to putative alpha4GalTs from chicken and zebra finch, respectively. Unlike human and putative chicken alpha4GalTs, which possess globotriosylceramide synthase activity, pigeon alpha4GalT preferred to catalyze formation of the Gal alpha1-4Gal sequence on glycoproteins. In contrast, the sequence of pigeon beta4GalT revealed a type II transmembrane protein consisting of 438 amino acid residues, with no significant homology to the glycosyltransferases so far identified from mammals and chicken. However, hypothetical proteins from zebra finch (78.8% identity), frogs (58.9-60.4%), zebrafish (37.1-43.0%), and spotted green pufferfish (43.3%) were similar to pigeon beta4GalT, suggesting that the pigeon beta4GalT gene was inherited from the common ancestors of these vertebrates. The sequence analysis revealed that pigeon beta4GalT and its homologs form a new family of glycosyltransferases.

  16. Presentation Timer

    2010-06-23

    Abstract Conferences and Meetings feature many presentations on a tight schedule. The Session Timer system provides an electronic display for showing the remaining time in a presentation. It provides continuous feedback so the speaker can judge the pace throughout a presentation. The timer automates the job so the session chairman does not have to awkwardly interrupt the speaker.

  17. Detailed assays conducted on Vietnamese crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Du, P.Q. )

    1990-07-16

    More oil property data, in the form of recent crude oil assays, have been made available for two Vietnamese crude oils, Bach Ho (White Tiger) and Dai Hung (Big Bear). Crude oil data presented earlier gave limited properties of the crudes,which are from the Miocene formations. Further analyses have been conducted on Bach Ho crude from the Oligocene formations. Production from Oligocene is far more representative of the oils produced from the Bach Ho field and marketed worldwide. Currently, Bach Ho is the only producing field. Dai Hung is expected to be in production during the next few years. Bach Ho is currently producing at the rate of 20,000 b/d. That figure is projected to grow to 100,000 b/d by 1992 and to 120,000 b/d by 1995. Detailed assays of both crude oils are presented.

  18. Cornice Detail of Rake, Cornice Detail of Eave, Wood DoubleHung ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cornice Detail of Rake, Cornice Detail of Eave, Wood Double-Hung Window Details, Wood Door Details - Boxley Grist Mill, Boxley vicinity on State Route 43, Buffalo National River, Ponca, Newton County, AR

  19. 40 CFR 180.1142 - 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the residues of the plant growth regulator, 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene (1,4-DMN), when applied postharvest to all sprouting...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1142 - 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the residues of the plant growth regulator, 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene (1,4-DMN), when applied postharvest to all sprouting...

  1. Recovering and preventing loss of detailed memory: differential rates of forgetting for detail types in episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Sekeres, Melanie J; Bonasia, Kyra; St-Laurent, Marie; Pishdadian, Sara; Winocur, Gordon; Grady, Cheryl; Moscovitch, Morris

    2016-02-01

    Episodic memories undergo qualitative changes with time, but little is known about how different aspects of memory are affected. Different types of information in a memory, such as perceptual detail, and central themes, may be lost at different rates. In patients with medial temporal lobe damage, memory for perceptual details is severely impaired, while memory for central details is relatively spared. Given the sensitivity of memory to loss of details, the present study sought to investigate factors that mediate the forgetting of different types of information from naturalistic episodic memories in young healthy adults. The study investigated (1) time-dependent loss of "central" and "peripheral" details from episodic memories, (2) the effectiveness of cuing with reminders to reinstate memory details, and (3) the role of retrieval in preventing forgetting. Over the course of 7 d, memory for naturalistic events (film clips) underwent a time-dependent loss of peripheral details, while memory for central details (the core or gist of events) showed significantly less loss. Giving brief reminders of the clips just before retrieval reinstated memory for peripheral details, suggesting that loss of details is not always permanent, and may reflect both a storage and retrieval deficit. Furthermore, retrieving a memory shortly after it was encoded prevented loss of both central and peripheral details, thereby promoting retention over time. We consider the implications of these results for behavioral and neurobiological models of retention and forgetting.

  2. A detailed gravimetric geoid from North America to Eurasia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, S. F.; Strange, W. E.; Marsh, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of the United States, North Atlantic, and Eurasia, which was computed from a combination of satellite derived and surface gravity data, is presented. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 to + or - 3 m in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 m in those areas where data is sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rapp, Fischer, and Rice for the United States, Bomford in Europe, and Heiskanen and Fischer in India are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, and Europe.

  3. 49 CFR 173.64 - Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks. 173... § 173.64 Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks. (a) Notwithstanding the requirements of § 173.56(b), Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks (see § 173.65 for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks) may...

  4. 49 CFR 173.64 - Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks. 173... § 173.64 Exceptions for Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks. (a) Notwithstanding the requirements of § 173.56(b), Division 1.3 and 1.4 fireworks (see § 173.65 for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks) may...

  5. Experimental and theoretical charge-density analysis of 1,4-bis(5-hexyl-2-thienyl)butane-1,4-dione: applications of a virtual-atom model.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Maqsood; Nassour, Ayoub; Noureen, Sajida; Lecomte, Claude; Jelsch, Christian

    2016-02-01

    The experimental and theoretical charge densities of 1,4-bis(5-hexyl-2-thienyl)butane-1,4-dione, a precursor in the synthesis of thiophene-based semiconductors and organic solar cells, are presented. A dummy bond charges spherical atom model is applied besides the multipolar atom model. The results show that the dummy bond charges model is accurate enough to calculate electrostatic-derived properties which are comparable with those obtained by the multipolar atom model. The refinement statistics and the residual electron density values are found to be intermediate between the independent atom and the multipolar formalisms.

  6. 47 CFR 27.806 - 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding. 27.806 Section 27.806 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.806 1.4 GHz...

  7. 47 CFR 27.806 - 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding. 27.806 Section 27.806 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.806 1.4 GHz...

  8. 47 CFR 27.806 - 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding. 27.806 Section 27.806 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.806 1.4 GHz...

  9. 17 CFR 240.11a1-4(T) - Bond transactions on national securities exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond transactions on national securities exchanges. 240.11a1-4(T) Section 240.11a1-4(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND....11a1-4(T) Bond transactions on national securities exchanges. A transaction in a bond, note,...

  10. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-2 - Site nomination for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site nomination for characterization. 960.3-1-4-2 Section 960.3-1-4-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-2 Site nomination...

  11. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  12. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  13. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-1 - Site identification as potentially acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site identification as potentially acceptable. 960.3-1-4-1 Section 960.3-1-4-1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-1 Site...

  14. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  15. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  16. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  17. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  18. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  19. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-1 - Site identification as potentially acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Site identification as potentially acceptable. 960.3-1-4-1 Section 960.3-1-4-1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-1 Site...

  20. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  1. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-3 - Site recommendation for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Site recommendation for characterization. 960.3-1-4-3 Section 960.3-1-4-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-3 Site...

  2. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  3. 47 CFR 27.806 - 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding. 27.806 Section 27.806 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.806 1.4 GHz...

  4. 47 CFR 27.806 - 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 1.4 GHz service licenses subject to competitive bidding. 27.806 Section 27.806 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES 1.4 GHz Band § 27.806 1.4 GHz...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.1193 - Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. 721... Substances § 721.1193 Benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 2-bromo-1,4-dimethoxy- (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10096 - Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. 721... Substances § 721.10096 Benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzene, 1,4-bis (methoxymethyl)- (PMN...

  15. 49 CFR 174.115 - Loading Division 1.4 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loading Division 1.4 (explosive) materials. 174... RAIL Class I (Explosive) Materials § 174.115 Loading Division 1.4 (explosive) materials. (a) Division 1... car in good condition. Car certificates are not required. Packages of Division 1.4...

  16. 20 CFR 1.4 - Where are other rules concerning OWCP functions found?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Where are other rules concerning OWCP functions found? 1.4 Section 1.4 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PERFORMANCE OF FUNCTIONS § 1.4 Where are other rules concerning...

  17. 20 CFR 1.4 - Where are other rules concerning OWCP functions found?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Where are other rules concerning OWCP functions found? 1.4 Section 1.4 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PERFORMANCE OF FUNCTIONS § 1.4 Where are other rules concerning...

  18. 43 CFR 8365.1-4 - Public health, safety and comfort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public health, safety and comfort. 8365.1-4 Section 8365.1-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... § 8365.1-4 Public health, safety and comfort. (a) No person shall cause a public disturbance or create...

  19. Information Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kritina; Sandor, A.; Thompson, S. G.; McCann, R. S.; Kaiser, M. K.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Stone, L. S.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew on flight vehicles, surface landers and habitats, and during extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Designers of displays and controls for exploration missions must be prepared to select the text formats, label styles, alarms, electronic procedure designs, and cursor control devices that provide for optimal crew performance on exploration tasks. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within the Information Presentation DRP are: 1) Controls, 2) Displays, 3) Procedures, and 4) EVA Operations.

  20. Relaxation processes and glass transition in confined 1,4-polybutadiene films: A Molecular Dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Wolfgang; Solar, Mathieu

    We will present results from Molecular Dynamics simulations of a chemically realistic model of 1,4-polybutadiene (PB) chains confined by graphite walls. Relaxation processes in this system are heterogeneous and anisotropic. We will present evidence for a slow additional relaxation process related to chain desorption from the walls. We also study the structural relaxation resolved with respect to the distance from the graphite walls and show the influence of structural changes on the relaxation behavior. The temperature dependence of the dielectric relaxation in layers of different thickness near the walls shows no indication of a shift of Tg as a function of thickness when analyzed with a Vogel-Fulcher fit. We explain this by the importance of intramolecular dihedral barriers for the glass transition in PB which dominate over the density changes next to a wall except for a 1 nm thick layer directly at the wall.

  1. Structure of rat acidic fibroblast growth factor at 1.4 Å resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Kochoyan, Arthur; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth; Gajhede, Michael

    2007-02-01

    The structure of rat acidic fibroblast growth factor was determined and compared with those of human, bovine and newt origin. The rat and human structures were found to be very similar. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) constitute a family of 22 structurally related heparin-binding polypeptides that are involved in the regulation of cell growth, survival, differentiation and migration. Here, a 1.4 Å resolution X-ray structure of rat FGF1 is presented. Two molecules are present in the asymmetric unit of the crystal and they coordinate a total of five sulfate ions. The structures of human, bovine and newt FGF1 have been published previously. Human and rat FGF1 are found to have very similar structures.

  2. Information Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kritina L.; Thompson, Shelby G.; Sandor, Aniko; McCann, Robert S.; Kaiser, Mary K.; Adelstein, Barnard D.; Begault, Durand R.; Beutter, Brent R.; Stone, Leland S.; Godfroy, Martine

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. In addition to addressing display design issues associated with information formatting, style, layout, and interaction, the Information Presentation DRP is also working toward understanding the effects of extreme environments encountered in space travel on information processing. Work is also in progress to refine human factors-based design tools, such as human performance modeling, that will supplement traditional design techniques and help ensure that optimal information design is accomplished in the most cost-efficient manner. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within the Information Presentation DRP for FY10 are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. The poster will highlight completed and planned work for each subtask.

  3. Conservation Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

  4. Information Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, K.L.; Boyer, J.L.; Sandor, A.; Thompson, S.G.; McCann, R.S.; Begault, D.R.; Adelstein, B.D.; Beutter, B.R.; Stone, L.S.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers at Johnson Space Center and Ames Research Center.

  5. RECONSTRUCTION OF DOSE TO THE RESIDENTS OF OZERSK FROM THE OPERATION OF THE MAYAK PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION: 1948-2002: Progress Report on Project 1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Mokrov, Y.; Rovny, Sergey I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2009-10-23

    This Progress Report for Project 1.4 of the U.S.–Russia Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research continues in the abbreviated format of providing details only on the work accomplished during this six-month reporting period.

  6. Kreatives Schreiben -- aesthetische Kommunikation in der Grundschule (Creative Writing - Aesthetic Communication in the Primary Grades [1-4])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrelmann, Bettina

    1977-01-01

    Asserts that creative writing can be taught in grades 1-4. After a full discussion of the subject, teaching procedures are described. A list is presented of imaginative topics for pupils, such as "conversation between pigeons on the railroad station square" and "advertisement for a dangerous product." (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ATLAS 1.4GHz Data Release 3 (Franzen+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzen, T. M. O.; Banfield, J. K.; Hales, C. A.; Hopkins, A.; Norris, R. P.; Seymour, N.; Chow, K. E.; Herzog, A.; Huynh, M. T.; Lenc, E.; Mao, M. Y.; Middelberg, E.

    2016-04-01

    ATLAS covers two regions, each of ~3 deg2, surroundin (RA=03:30:16.3, DE=-28:05:12.4) and ELAIS-S1 (RA=00:33:50.8, DE=-43:44:57.4). These two fields have previously been observed at 1.4GHz as part of the ATLAS project and are described by Hales et al. (2014, Cat. J/MNRAS/441/2555). Both of these fields were originally targeted for radio observations as they overlap with SWIRE which includes infrared and optical data for the majority of the radio objects. ATCA project C1967 was allocated 1000h distributed over 78d between 2009 June and 2010 June to extend ATLAS. Previous ATLAS DR2 observations (ATCA Project IDs C1035 and C1241) from Hales et al. (2014, Cat. J/MNRAS/441/2555) were combined with our CABB observations to maximize the sensitivity. The data were combined in the image plane for reasons related to bandwidth smearing, and described in detail in Section 3.2. These data consist of two 128MHz bands centred at 1344 and 1432MHz each containing 16 channels of 8MHz in size. Both bands were imaged together using a similar procedure to the CABB data. (1 data file).

  8. MODELING CST ION EXCHANGE FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM SCIX BATCHES 1 - 4

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.

    2011-04-25

    The objective of this work is, through modeling, to predict the performance of Crystalline Silicotitinate (CST) for the removal of cesium from Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Batches 1-4 (as proposed in Revision 16 of the Liquid Waste System Plan). The scope of this task is specified in Technical Task Request (TTR) 'SCIX Feed Modeling', HLE-TTR-2011-003, which specified using the Zheng, Anthony, Miller (ZAM) code to predict CST isotherms for six given SCIX feed compositions and the VErsatile Reaction and SEparation simulator for Liquid Chromatography (VERSE-LC) code to predict ion-exchange column behavior. The six SCIX feed compositions provided in the TTR represent SCIX Batches 1-4 and Batches 1 and 2 without caustic addition. The study also investigated the sensitivity in column performance to: (1) Flow rates of 5, 10, and 20 gpm with 10 gpm as the nominal flow; and (2) Temperatures of 25, 35, and 45 C with 35 C as the nominal temperature. The isotherms and column predictions presented in this report reflect the expected performance of engineered CST IE-911. This form of CST was used in experiments conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that formed the basis for estimating model parameters (Hamm et al., 2002). As has been done previously, the engineered resin capacity is estimated to be 68% of the capacity of particulate CST without binder.

  9. Methoxylation of Singly Bonded 1,4-1',4'-BnC60-C60Bn Dimer: Preferential Formation of 1,4-C60 Adduct with Sterically Less Demanding Addends and Stability Difference between 1,2- and 1,4-OMe(Bn)C60.

    PubMed

    He, Fa-Gui; Li, Zong-Jun; Gao, Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Methoxylation of the singly bonded 1,4-1',4'-BnC60-C60Bn dimer afforded 1,4-OMe(Bn)C60, a 1,4-C60 adduct with sterically less demanding addends, as the major adduct. The situation was different from that of direct functionalization of C60, where 1,2-OMe(Bn)C60 was obtained as the major product. The reaction was studied with in situ vis-NIR spectroscopy and computational calculations to obtain a better understanding of this unusual regioselectivity. The stability difference between 1,2- and 1,4-OMe(Bn)C60 was studied. PMID:27387300

  10. Detailed mechanism for oxidation of benzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, David A.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed mechanism for the oxidation of benzene is presented and used to compute experimentally obtained concentration profiles and ignition delay times over a wide range of equivalence ratio and temperature. The computed results agree qualitatively with all the experimental trends. Quantitative agreement is obtained with several of the composition profiles and for the temperature dependence of the ignition delay times. There are indications, however, that some important reactions are as yet undiscovered in this mechanism. Recent literature expressions have been used for the rate coefficients of most important reactions, except for some involving phenol. The discrepancy between the phenol pyrolysis rate coefficient used in this work and a recent literature expression remains to be explained.

  11. Picornavirus uncoating intermediate captured in atomic detail

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jingshan; Wang, Xiangxi; Hu, Zhongyu; Gao, Qiang; Sun, Yao; Li, Xuemei; Porta, Claudine; Walter, Thomas S.; Gilbert, Robert J.; Zhao, Yuguang; Axford, Danny; Williams, Mark; McAuley, Katherine; Rowlands, David J.; Yin, Weidong; Wang, Junzhi; Stuart, David I.; Rao, Zihe; Fry, Elizabeth E.

    2013-01-01

    It remains largely mysterious how the genomes of non-enveloped eukaryotic viruses are transferred across a membrane into the host cell. Picornaviruses are simple models for such viruses, and initiate this uncoating process through particle expansion, which reveals channels through which internal capsid proteins and the viral genome presumably exit the particle, although this has not been clearly seen until now. Here we present the atomic structure of an uncoating intermediate for the major human picornavirus pathogen CAV16, which reveals VP1 partly extruded from the capsid, poised to embed in the host membrane. Together with previous low-resolution results, we are able to propose a detailed hypothesis for the ordered egress of the internal proteins, using two distinct sets of channels through the capsid, and suggest a structural link to the condensed RNA within the particle, which may be involved in triggering RNA release. PMID:23728514

  12. Enantiopure synthesis of dihydrobenzo[1,4]-oxazine-3-carboxylic acids and a route to benzoxazinyl oxazolidinones.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Rajesh; Dey, Tushar K; Basu, Sourav; Hajra, Saumen

    2015-03-21

    A two step protocol is developed for the efficient synthesis of enantiopure N-Boc-dihydrobenzo[b]-1,4-oxazine-3-carboxylic acids 4 from serine derived cyclic sulfamidate via intramolecular arylamination. The RuPhos Palladacycle along with additional RuPhos ligand is found to be an efficient catalyst for the arylamination of β-(2-bromoaryloxy)amino acids 3 to provide easy and direct access to a variety of dihydrobenzo[b]-1,4-oxazine-3-carboxylic acids 4 with complete retention of enantiopurity in moderate to high yields. Dihydrobenzo[b]-1,4-oxazine-3-carboxylic acids are not only important unnatural amino acids, but are key precursors for the synthesis of important compounds such as benzoxazinyl oxazolidinones. A general approach for the synthesis of benzoxazinyl oxazolidinone is presented.

  13. Occurrence of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor 1,4-Dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol and related iminopentitols in marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Saludes, Jonel P; Lievens, Sarah C; Molinski, Tadeusz F

    2007-03-01

    The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol (1) was isolated from two marine sponges collected in Western Australia and shown by LC-MS to be responsible for the alpha-glycosidase inhibitory activity in different sponge extracts collected over a wide geographic area. The configuration of 1 was determined by application of Marfey's method. The two most inhibitory extracts contained only 1, while the less inhibitory extracts contained 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-xylitol (2) or the putative diastereomeric imino pentitols 3 and 4. The least active or inactive extracts showed no detectable imino pentitols. While both 1 and 2 are known from plants, this is the first report on the isolation and detection of 1 and 2 in marine invertebrates.

  14. Nazarov cyclization of 1,4-pentadien-3-ols: preparation of cyclopenta[b]indoles and spiro[indene-1,4'-quinoline]s.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiming; Xu, Xingzhu; Gu, Zhanshou; Feng, Wei; Qian, Houjun; Li, Zhengyi; Sun, Xiaoqiang; Kwon, Ohyun

    2016-02-14

    The first Lewis acid-catalyzed intramolecular interrupted Nazarov cyclization of 1,4-pentadien-3-ols is described. Using FeBr3 as the catalyst, a series of new substituted cyclopenta[b]indoles was prepared-through a sequence of Nazarov cyclization, nucleophilic amination, and isomerization-with good yields and high diastereo- and regioselectivities. A similar catalytic process was also developed for the synthesis of structurally interesting spiro[indene-1,4'-quinoline]s. PMID:26771024

  15. Distribution, structure and biosynthetic gene families of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Ermawar, Riksfardini A; Collins, Helen M; Byrt, Caitlin S; Betts, Natalie S; Henderson, Marilyn; Shirley, Neil J; Schwerdt, Julian; Lahnstein, Jelle; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Burton, Rachel A

    2015-04-01

    In cereals, the presence of soluble polysaccharides including (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan has downstream implications for human health, animal feed and biofuel applications. Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench is a versatile crop, but there are limited reports regarding the content of such soluble polysaccharides. Here, the amount of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan present in sorghum tissues was measured using a Megazyme assay. Very low amounts were present in the grain, ranging from 0.16%-0.27% (w/w), while there was a greater quantity in vegetative tissues at 0.12-1.71% (w/w). The fine structure of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, as denoted by the ratio of cellotriosyl and cellotetraosyl residues, was assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ranged from 2.6-3:1 in the grain, while ratios in vegetative tissues were lower at 2.1-2.6:1. The distribution of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan was examined using a specific antibody and observed with fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Micrographs showed a variable distribution of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan influenced by temporal and spatial factors. The sorghum orthologs of genes implicated in the synthesis of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in other cereals, such as the Cellulose synthase-like (Csl) F and H gene families were defined. Transcript profiling of these genes across sorghum tissues was carried out using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, indicating that, as in other cereals, CslF6 transcripts dominated.

  16. Detailed sensory memory, sloppy working memory.

    PubMed

    Sligte, Ilja G; Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2010-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables us to actively maintain information in mind for a brief period of time after stimulus disappearance. According to recent studies, VSTM consists of three stages - iconic memory, fragile VSTM, and visual working memory - with increasingly stricter capacity limits and progressively longer lifetimes. Still, the resolution (or amount of visual detail) of each VSTM stage has remained unexplored and we test this in the present study. We presented people with a change detection task that measures the capacity of all three forms of VSTM, and we added an identification display after each change trial that required people to identify the "pre-change" object. Accurate change detection plus pre-change identification requires subjects to have a high-resolution representation of the "pre-change" object, whereas change detection or identification only can be based on the hunch that something has changed, without exactly knowing what was presented before. We observed that people maintained 6.1 objects in iconic memory, 4.6 objects in fragile VSTM, and 2.1 objects in visual working memory. Moreover, when people detected the change, they could also identify the pre-change object on 88% of the iconic memory trials, on 71% of the fragile VSTM trials and merely on 53% of the visual working memory trials. This suggests that people maintain many high-resolution representations in iconic memory and fragile VSTM, but only one high-resolution object representation in visual working memory. PMID:21897823

  17. Overview Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, John

    2001-01-01

    This report provides an overview presentation of the 2000 NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) Review and Planning Meeting. Topics include: 1) a background of the program; 2) 1999 Industry Feedback; 3) FY00 Status, including resource distribution and major accomplishments; 4) FY01 Major Milestones; and 5) Future direction for the program. Specifically, simulation environment/production software and NPSS CORBA Security Development are discussed.

  18. Amperometric carbon paste enzyme electrodes with Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles and 1,4-benzoquinone for glucose determination.

    PubMed

    Erden, Pınar Esra; Zeybek, Bülent; Pekyardımcı, Şule; Kılıç, Esma

    2013-06-01

    Two new amperometric carbon paste enzyme electrodes including Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles with and without 1,4-benzoquinone were developed for glucose determination. Electron transfer properties of unmodified and Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles and/or 1,4-benzoquinone modified carbon paste electrodes were investigated in 0.1 M KCl support electrolyte containing Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) as redox probe by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles increased electron transfer at solution/electrode interface. The parameters affecting the analytical performance of the enzyme electrode have been investigated in detail and optimized for Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticle modified enzyme electrode (Fe(3)O(4)-CPEE). Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles and 1,4-benzoquinone modified enzyme electrode (BQ-Fe(3)O(4)-CPEE) exhibited linear response from 1.9 × 10(-7) M to 3.7 × 10(-6) M, from 7.2 × 10(-6) M to 1.5 × 10(-4) M and from 1.3 × 10(-3) M to 1.2 × 10(-2) M with an excellent detection limit of 1.9 × 10(-8) M. BQ-Fe(3)O(4)-CPEE was used for determination of glucose in serum samples and results were in good agreement with those obtained by spectrophotometric method.

  19. Ab initio study of small Au nY 2 ( n=1-4) clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian-Jun, Guo; Ji-Xian, Yang; Dong, Die

    2008-11-01

    The geometries of the lowest-lying isomers of Au nY 2 ( n=1-4) clusters are determined systematically via the density functional method B3LYP with relativistic effective core potentials (RECP) and LANL2DZ basis set. Several low-lying isomers were determined, and many of them in electronic configurations with a high-spin multiplicity. The gold-yttrium interaction is strong enough to modify the known growth pattern of bare gold clusters. The stability trend of Y-doped Au n clusters is compared to that of pure Au n clusters. The results show that the inclusion of two Y atoms in the clusters improves the cluster stability, and indicate higher stability as the structures grow in size. The present calculations are useful to understand the enhanced catalytic activity and selectivity gained by using yttrium-doped gold catalyst.

  20. Dynamical (e,2e) studies of tetrahydropyran and 1,4-dioxane

    SciTech Connect

    Builth-Williams, J. D.; Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B. E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au; Silva, G. B. da; Chaluvadi, Hari; Madison, D. H.; Brunger, M. J. E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au

    2014-06-07

    We present experimental and theoretical results for the electron-impact ionization of the highest occupied molecular orbitals of tetrahydropyran and 1,4-dioxane. Using an (e,2e) technique in asymmetric coplanar kinematics, angular distributions of the slow ejected electron, with an energy of 20 eV, are measured when incident electrons at 250 eV ionize the target and scatter through an angle of either −10° or −15°. The data are compared with calculations performed at the molecular 3-body distorted wave level. Fair agreement between the theoretical model and the experimental measurements was observed. The similar structures for these targets provide key insights for assessing the limitations of the theoretical calculations. This study in turn facilitates an improved understanding of the dynamics in the ionization process.

  1. Power Burst Facility (PBF) severe fuel damage test 1-4 test results report

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, D.A.; Martinson, Z.R.; Hobbins, R.R.; Allison, C.M.; Carlson, E.R.; Hagrman, D.L.; Cheng, T.C.; Hartwell, J.K.; Vinjamuri, K.; Seifken, L.J.

    1989-04-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the Severe Fuel Damage (SFD) Test 1-4 performed in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is presented. Test SFD 1-4 was the fourth and final test in an internationally sponsored light water reactor severe accident research program, initiated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The overall technical objective of the test was to contribute to the understanding of fuel and control rod behavior, aerosol and hydrogen generation, and fission product release and transport during a high-temperature, severe fuel damage transient. A test bundle, comprised of 26 previously irradiated (36,000 MWd/MtU) pressurized water-reactor-type fuel rods, 2 fresh instrumented fuel rods, and 4 silver-indium-cadmium control rods, was surrounded by an insulating shroud and contained in a pressurized in-pile tube. The experiment consisted of a 1.3-h transient at a coolant pressure of 6.95 MPa in which the inlet coolant flow to the bundle was reduced to 0.6 g/s while the bundle fission power was gradually increased until dryout, heatup, cladding rupture, and oxidation occurred. With sustained fission power and heat from oxidation, temperatures continued to rise rapidly, resulting in zircaloy and control rod absorber alloy melting, fuel liquefaction, material relocation, and the release of hydrogen, aerosols, and fission products. The transient was terminated over a 2100-s time span by slowly reducing the reactor power and cooling the damaged bundle with argon gas. A description and evaluation of the major phenomena, based upon the response of on-line instrumentation, analysis of fission product and aerosol data, postirradiation examination of the fuel bundle, and calculations using the SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code, are presented. 40 refs., 160 figs., 31 tabs.

  2. Chemical Composition of Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Abdominal Glands and the Influence of 1,4-benzoquinones on its Behavior.

    PubMed

    Hassemer, M J; Sant'Ana, J; de Oliveira, M W M; Borges, M; Laumann, R A; Caumo, M; Blassioli-Moraes, M C

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to identify and quantify the compounds present in the abdominal glands of Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer, 1797 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and to evaluate the influence of these compounds on its behavior. The extraction of volatiles present in the abdominal glands was made by dissection (10 individuals per sex) and by air entrainment (200 insects per sex), and they were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, and gas chromatograph-electroantennography detector (GC-EAD). The influence of these volatiles on the behavior of conspecifics was evaluated in a four-arm olfactometer. Twenty-three compounds were identified from male and female abdominal gland extracts, of which six were quinones: the 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone and the 2-ethyl-1,4-benzoquinone were the major components, and 1,4 benzoquinone and three hydroquinones were registered for the first time for this species. The GC-EAD analysis using the crude extracts from abdominal glands showed that male and female antennae responded to the three major benzoquinones. For the olfactometer bioassays, both genders were repelled either by the abdominal gland extracts or by synthetic solutions containing the three benzoquinones. The results suggest that the 1,4-benzoquinones play a role as a repellent to A. diaperinus. PMID:26470358

  3. Cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione-based antiproliferative agents: design, synthesis, and cytotoxic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tumors are diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and, in spite of the progress of medicine over the years, continue to represent a major threat to the health, requiring new therapies. Several synthetic compounds, such as those derived from natural sources, have been identified as anticancer drugs; among these compounds quinone represent the second largest class of anticancer agents in use. Several studies have shown that these act on tumor cells through several mechanisms. An important objective of this work is to develop quinoidscompounds showing antitumor activity, but with fewer side effects. The parachinone cannabinol HU-331, is a small molecule that with its core 4-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone, exhibits a potent and selective cytotoxic activity on different tumor cell lines. A series of derivatives 3-hydroxy-1,4-benzochinoni were thus developed through HU-331 chemical modifications. The purpose of the work is to test the ability of the compounds to induce proliferative inhibition and study the mechanisms of cell death. Methods The antitumor activities were evaluated in vitro by examining their cytotoxic effects against different human cancer cell lines. All cell lines tested were plated in 96-multiwell and treated with HU-100-V at different concentrations and cell viability was evaluated byMTT assay. Subsequently via flow cytometry (FACS) it was possible to assess apoptosis by the system of double labeling with PI and Annexin-V, and the effect of the compounds on ROS formation by measuring the dichlorofluorescein fluorescence. Results The substitution by n-hexyl chain considerably enhanced the bioactivity of the compounds. In details, 2-hexyl-5-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (V), 2,5-Dimethoxy-3-hexyl-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione (XII) and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxy-3-hexyl-cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (XIII) showed most prominent cytotoxicity against almost human tumour cell lines. Compound V was further subjected to downstream apoptotic

  4. 49 CFR 173.65 - Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks... Class 1 § 173.65 Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks. (a) Notwithstanding the requirements of §§ 173.56(b), 173.56(f), 173.56(i), and 173.64, Division 1.4G consumer fireworks may be...

  5. 49 CFR 173.65 - Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks... Class 1 § 173.65 Exceptions for Division 1.4G consumer fireworks. (a) Notwithstanding the requirements of §§ 173.56(b), 173.56(f), 173.56(i), and 173.64, Division 1.4G consumer fireworks may be...

  6. Electrochemical selenium- and iodonium-initiated cyclisation of hydroxy-functionalised 1,4-dienes

    PubMed Central

    Röse, Philipp; Emge, Steffen; Yoshida, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Summary The cobalt(I)-catalysed 1,4-hydrovinylation reaction of allyloxytrimethylsilane and allyl alcohol with substituted 1,3-dienes leads to hydroxy-functionalised 1,4-dienes in excellent regio- and diastereoselective fashion. Those 1,4-dienols can be converted into tetrahydrofuran and pyran derivatives under indirect electrochemical conditions generating selenium or iodonium cations. The reactions proceed in good yields and regioselectivities for the formation of single diastereomers. PMID:25815067

  7. Biosynthesis and molecular actions of specialized 1,4-naphthoquinone natural products produced by horticultural plants.

    PubMed

    Widhalm, Joshua R; Rhodes, David

    2016-01-01

    The 1,4-naphthoquinones (1,4-NQs) are a diverse group of natural products found in every kingdom of life. Plants, including many horticultural species, collectively synthesize hundreds of specialized 1,4-NQs with ecological roles in plant-plant (allelopathy), plant-insect and plant-microbe interactions. Numerous horticultural plants producing 1,4-NQs have also served as sources of traditional medicines for hundreds of years. As a result, horticultural species have been at the forefront of many basic studies conducted to understand the metabolism and function of specialized plant 1,4-NQs. Several 1,4-NQ natural products derived from horticultural plants have also emerged as promising scaffolds for developing new drugs. In this review, the current understanding of the core metabolic pathways leading to plant 1,4-NQs is provided with additional emphasis on downstream natural products originating from horticultural species. An overview on the biochemical mechanisms of action, both from an ecological and pharmacological perspective, of 1,4-NQs derived from horticultural plants is also provided. In addition, future directions for improving basic knowledge about plant 1,4-NQ metabolism are discussed. PMID:27688890

  8. Spectral variability in the X-ray pulsar GX 1+4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Pravdo, S. H.; Rothschild, R. E.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Swank, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of the galactic center region, hard X-ray source GX 1+4 by the GSFC X-ray spectroscopy experiment on OSO-8 confirm that GX 1+4 is a slow X-ray pulsar. The amount of absorption by cold matter in the spectrum of GX 1+4 varies significantly within a 24 hour period, behavior typical of many X-ray binary systems. The light curve for the pulsations from GX 1+4 appears to be energy dependent.

  9. Biosynthesis and molecular actions of specialized 1,4-naphthoquinone natural products produced by horticultural plants.

    PubMed

    Widhalm, Joshua R; Rhodes, David

    2016-01-01

    The 1,4-naphthoquinones (1,4-NQs) are a diverse group of natural products found in every kingdom of life. Plants, including many horticultural species, collectively synthesize hundreds of specialized 1,4-NQs with ecological roles in plant-plant (allelopathy), plant-insect and plant-microbe interactions. Numerous horticultural plants producing 1,4-NQs have also served as sources of traditional medicines for hundreds of years. As a result, horticultural species have been at the forefront of many basic studies conducted to understand the metabolism and function of specialized plant 1,4-NQs. Several 1,4-NQ natural products derived from horticultural plants have also emerged as promising scaffolds for developing new drugs. In this review, the current understanding of the core metabolic pathways leading to plant 1,4-NQs is provided with additional emphasis on downstream natural products originating from horticultural species. An overview on the biochemical mechanisms of action, both from an ecological and pharmacological perspective, of 1,4-NQs derived from horticultural plants is also provided. In addition, future directions for improving basic knowledge about plant 1,4-NQ metabolism are discussed.

  10. Biosynthesis and molecular actions of specialized 1,4-naphthoquinone natural products produced by horticultural plants

    PubMed Central

    Widhalm, Joshua R; Rhodes, David

    2016-01-01

    The 1,4-naphthoquinones (1,4-NQs) are a diverse group of natural products found in every kingdom of life. Plants, including many horticultural species, collectively synthesize hundreds of specialized 1,4-NQs with ecological roles in plant–plant (allelopathy), plant–insect and plant–microbe interactions. Numerous horticultural plants producing 1,4-NQs have also served as sources of traditional medicines for hundreds of years. As a result, horticultural species have been at the forefront of many basic studies conducted to understand the metabolism and function of specialized plant 1,4-NQs. Several 1,4-NQ natural products derived from horticultural plants have also emerged as promising scaffolds for developing new drugs. In this review, the current understanding of the core metabolic pathways leading to plant 1,4-NQs is provided with additional emphasis on downstream natural products originating from horticultural species. An overview on the biochemical mechanisms of action, both from an ecological and pharmacological perspective, of 1,4-NQs derived from horticultural plants is also provided. In addition, future directions for improving basic knowledge about plant 1,4-NQ metabolism are discussed. PMID:27688890

  11. Biosynthesis and molecular actions of specialized 1,4-naphthoquinone natural products produced by horticultural plants

    PubMed Central

    Widhalm, Joshua R; Rhodes, David

    2016-01-01

    The 1,4-naphthoquinones (1,4-NQs) are a diverse group of natural products found in every kingdom of life. Plants, including many horticultural species, collectively synthesize hundreds of specialized 1,4-NQs with ecological roles in plant–plant (allelopathy), plant–insect and plant–microbe interactions. Numerous horticultural plants producing 1,4-NQs have also served as sources of traditional medicines for hundreds of years. As a result, horticultural species have been at the forefront of many basic studies conducted to understand the metabolism and function of specialized plant 1,4-NQs. Several 1,4-NQ natural products derived from horticultural plants have also emerged as promising scaffolds for developing new drugs. In this review, the current understanding of the core metabolic pathways leading to plant 1,4-NQs is provided with additional emphasis on downstream natural products originating from horticultural species. An overview on the biochemical mechanisms of action, both from an ecological and pharmacological perspective, of 1,4-NQs derived from horticultural plants is also provided. In addition, future directions for improving basic knowledge about plant 1,4-NQ metabolism are discussed.

  12. Biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane: effects of enzyme inducers and trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Hand, Steven; Wang, Baixin; Chu, Kung-Hui

    2015-07-01

    1,4-Dioxane is a groundwater contaminant and probable human carcinogen. In this study, two well-studied degradative bacteria Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 and Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 were examined for their 1,4-dioxane degradation ability in the presence and absence of its co-contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCE), under different oxygenase-expression conditions. These two strains were precultured with R2A broth (complex nutrient medium) before supplementation with propane or 1-butanol to induce the expression of different oxygenases. Both propane- and 1-butanol-induced JOB5 and RHA1 were able to degrade 1,4-dioxane, TCE, and mixtures of 1,4-dioxane/TCE. Complete degradation of 1,4-dioxane/TCE mixture was observed only in propane-induced strain JOB5. Inhibition was observed between 1,4-dioxane and TCE for all cells. Furthermore, product toxicity caused incomplete degradation of 1,4-dioxane by 1-butanol-induced JOB5. In general, the more TCE degraded, the greater extent of product toxicity cells experienced; however, susceptibility to product toxicity was found to be both strain- and inducer-dependent. The findings of this study provide fundamental basis for developing an effective in-situ remediation method for 1,4-dioxane-contaminated ground water and the first known study of 1,4-dioxane degradation by wild-type strain RHA1.

  13. Synthesis and antitumor evaluations of symmetrically and unsymmetrically substituted 1,4-bis[(aminoalkyl)amino]anthracene-9,10-diones and 1,4-bis[(aminoalkyl)amino]-5,8-dihydroxyanthracene-9,10-diones.

    PubMed

    Krapcho, A P; Getahun, Z; Avery, K L; Vargas, K J; Hacker, M P; Spinelli, S; Pezzoni, G; Manzotti, C

    1991-08-01

    The ipso bis displacements of fluoride from 1,4-difluoroanthracene-9,10-dione (3) and 1,4-difluoro-5,8-dihydroxyanthracene-9,10-dione (4) by excess of a diamine (or a monoamine) in pyridine at room temperature lead to the symmetrically substituted 1,4-bis-substituted analogues 5 and 6, respectively. The ipso monodisplacements of fluoride from 3 and 4 can be accomplished by treatment with less than 1 molar equiv of a diamine (or a monoamine) to yield 7 and 8, respectively. Treatment of 7 or 8 with a different diamine leads to the unsymmetrically substituted 1,4-bis[(aminoalkyl)amino]anthracene-9,10-diones 9 and 10, respectively. Many of the synthetic unsymmetrical analogues have been evaluated for their antitumor activity against L1210 in vitro and in vivo. Cross resistance of analogue 10a with mitoxantrone (2) and doxorubicin was evaluated against MDR lines in vitro against human colon carcinoma LOVO and its subline resistant to DOXO (LOVO/DOXO). Potential mechanisms for the observed cytotoxicity are presented and discussed.

  14. Singlet oxygen production by pyrano and furano 1,4-naphthoquinones in non-aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    de Lucas, Nanci C; Corrêa, Rodrigo J; Garden, Simon J; Santos, Guilherme; Rodrigues, Reinaldo; Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo M; Ferreira, Sabrina B; Netto-Ferreira, José Carlos; Ferreira, Vitor F; Miro, Paula; Marin, M Luisa; Miranda, Miguel A

    2012-07-01

    The influence of ring size on the photobehaviour of condensed 1,4-naphthoquinone systems, such as pyrano- and furano-derivatives (1 and 2, respectively) has been investigated. The absorption spectra for both families of naphthoquinones reveal clear differences; in the case of 2 they extend to longer wavelengths. A solvatochromic red shift in polar solvents is consistent with the π,π* character of the S(0)→ S(1) electronic transition in all cases. Theoretical (B3LYP) analysis of the HOMO and LUMO Kohn-Sham molecular orbitals of the S(0) state indicates that they are π and π* in nature, consistent with the experimental observation. A systematic study on the efficiency of singlet oxygen generation by these 1,4-naphthoquinones is presented, and values larger than 0.7 were found in every case. In accordance with these results, laser flash photolysis of deoxygenated acetonitrile solutions led to the formation of detectable triplet transient species with absorptions at 390 and 450 nm (1) and at 370 nm (2), with φ(ISC) close to 1. Additionally, the calculated energies for the T(1) states relative to the S(0) states at UB3LYP/6-311++G** are ca. 47 kcal mol(-1) for 1 and 43 kcal mol(-1) for 2. A comparison of the geometrical parameters for the S(0) and T(1) states reveals a marked difference with respect to the arrangement of the exocyclic phenyl ring whilst a comparison of electronic parameters revealed the change from a quinone structure to a di-dehydroquinone diradical structure. PMID:22441459

  15. 12. DETAIL, DECORATIVE PANEL, HEAT EXCHANGER (CROPPED PRINT FROM 21/4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL, DECORATIVE PANEL, HEAT EXCHANGER (CROPPED PRINT FROM 2-1/4 x 2-3/4 NEGATIVE) - U.S. General Services Administration, Central Heating Plant, C & D Streets between Twelfth & Thirteenth Streets Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. 51. LOFT. HEATING. PLANS, ELEVATIONS 7 DETAILS, Y&D No. 107729 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. LOFT. HEATING. PLANS, ELEVATIONS 7 DETAILS, Y&D No. 107729 Scales 3/16', 1/4', 1/2', and 1'; July 2, 1929 - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  17. 24. 'HANGAR SHEDS ELEVATIONS DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. 'HANGAR SHEDS - ELEVATIONS - DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS - PLANT AREA; MODIFICATION CENTER NO. 1, DAGGETT, CALIFORNIA.' Partial elevations, and details of sliding doors and ventilator flaps, as built. Contract no. W509 Eng. 2743; File no. 555/81, revision B, dated April 6, 1943. No sheet number. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA

  18. 18 CFR 401.122 - Supplementary details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Supplementary details. 401.122 Section 401.122 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Provisions § 401.122 Supplementary details....

  19. Understanding Brains: Details, Intuition, and Big Data

    PubMed Central

    Marder, Eve

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how the brain works requires a delicate balance between the appreciation of the importance of a multitude of biological details and the ability to see beyond those details to general principles. As technological innovations vastly increase the amount of data we collect, the importance of intuition into how to analyze and treat these data may, paradoxically, become more important. PMID:25965068

  20. Detailed models of a sample of debris disks: from Herschel, KIN and Spitzer to the JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.; Beichman, C.; Augereau, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Dusty debris disks surrounding main sequence stars are extrasolar equivalents to the Solar System populations of asteroids, icy bodies and dust grains. Many were observed in thermal emission by Herschel with unprecedented wavelength coverage and spatial resolution, complementing available scattered light images, mid-infrared spectra and interferometric measurements. We present detailed models of the HD 181327 and HD 32297 disks obtained with the GRaTer radiative transfer code and made possible thanks to Herschel. We then focus on the intriguing case of the nearby F2V star η Corvi that shows strong infrared excess despite an estimated age of 1.4 Gyr. We establish a detailed model of its disk from the sub-AU scale to its outermost regions based on observations from the Keck Interferometer Nuller, Herschel and Spitzer. These bright and extended disks will be of prime interest for future observations with the JWST. We finally discuss new debris disks science that will be addressed with the NIRCam and MIRI instruments.

  1. Optoelectronic pH Meter: Further Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Anderson, Mejody M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2009-01-01

    A collection of documents provides further detailed information about an optoelectronic instrument that measures the pH of an aqueous cell-culture medium to within 0.1 unit in the range from 6.5 to 7.5. The instrument at an earlier stage of development was reported in Optoelectronic Instrument Monitors pH in a Culture Medium (MSC-23107), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 9 (September 2004), page 4a. To recapitulate: The instrument includes a quartz cuvette through which the medium flows as it is circulated through a bioreactor. The medium contains some phenol red, which is an organic pH-indicator dye. The cuvette sits between a light source and a photodetector. [The light source in the earlier version comprised red (625 nm) and green (558 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs); the light source in the present version comprises a single green- (560 nm)-or-red (623 nm) LED.] The red and green are repeatedly flashed in alternation. The responses of the photodiode to the green and red are processed electronically to obtain the ratio between the amounts of green and red light transmitted through the medium. The optical absorbance of the phenol red in the green light varies as a known function of pH. Hence, the pH of the medium can be calculated from the aforesaid ratio.

  2. Detailed Aerosol Characterization using Polarimetric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasekamp, Otto; di Noia, Antonio; Stap, Arjen; Rietjens, Jeroen; Smit, Martijn; van Harten, Gerard; Snik, Frans

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols are believed to cause the second most important anthropogenic forcing of climate change after greenhouse gases. In contrast to the climate effect of greenhouse gases, which is understood relatively well, the negative forcing (cooling effect) caused by aerosols represents the largest reported uncertainty in the most recent assessment of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). To reduce the large uncertainty on the aerosol effects on cloud formation and climate, accurate satellite measurements of aerosol optical properties (optical thickness, single scattering albedo, phase function) and microphysical properties (size distribution, refractive index, shape) are essential. There is growing consensus in the aerosol remote sensing community that multi-angle measurements of intensity and polarization are essential to unambiguously determine all relevant aerosol properties. This presentations adresses the different aspects of polarimetric remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols, including retrieval algorithm development, validation, and data needs for climate and air quality applications. During past years, at SRON-Netherlands Instite for Space Research retrieval algorithms have been developed that make full use of the capabilities of polarimetric measurements. We will show results of detailed aerosol properties from ground-based- (groundSPEX), airborne- (NASA Research Scanning Polarimeter), and satellite (POLDER) measurements. Also we will discuss observational needs for future instrumentation in order to improve our understanding of the role of aerosols in climate change and air quality.

  3. The purchasable chemical space: a detailed picture.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Xavier; Grüning, Björn A; Bleher, Stefan; Günther, Stefan

    2015-05-26

    The screening of a reduced yet diverse and synthesizable region of the chemical space is a critical step in drug discovery. The ZINC database is nowadays routinely used to freely access and screen millions of commercially available compounds. We collected ∼125 million compounds from chemical catalogs and the ZINC database, yielding more than 68 million unique molecules, including a large portion of described natural products (NPs) and drugs. The data set was filtered using advanced medicinal chemistry rules to remove potentially toxic, promiscuous, metabolically labile, or reactive compounds. We studied the physicochemical properties of this compilation and identified millions of NP-like, fragment-like, inhibitors of protein-protein interactions (i-PPIs) like, and drug-like compounds. The related focused libraries were subjected to a detailed scaffold diversity analysis and compared to reference NPs and marketed drugs. This study revealed thousands of diverse chemotypes with distinct representations of building block combinations among the data sets. An analysis of the stereogenic and shape complexity properties of the libraries also showed that they present well-defined levels of complexity, following the tendency: i-PPIs-like < drug-like < fragment-like < NP-like. As the collected compounds have huge interest in drug discovery and particularly virtual screening and library design, we offer a freely available collection comprising over 37 million molecules under: http://pbox.pharmaceutical-bioinformatics.org , as well as the filtering rules used to build the focused libraries described herein.

  4. Analysis of the Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared Spectra of cis,cis- and trans,trans-1,4-DIFLUOROBUTADIENE-1-d_{1} and trans,trans-1,4-DIFLUOROBUTADIENE-1,4-d_{2}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Norman C.; Chen, Yihui; Lu, Yuhua; Neese, Christopher F.; Nemchick, Deacon J.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2013-06-01

    Samples of cis,cis- and trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-1-d_{1} (DFBD) and trans,trans-DFBD-1,4-d_{2} have been synthesized and investigated with high-resolution (0.0015 cm^{-1}) infrared spectroscopy. For the first two species the rotational structure in more than one band has been analyzed. For the 1,4-d_{2} species the spectrum of only one C-type band was available in an isotopic mixture. Ground state rotational constants are reported for all three molecules. It is proposed that quartic centrifugal distortion constants computed with a B3LYP/cc-pVTZ model can be used to assess the quality of observed rotational constants. The favorable comparison of predicted and observed ground state rotational constants for all four ^{13}C species of cis,trans-DFBD, which is MW active, demonstrates that the ground state rotational constants for the ^{13}C species of the cis,cis and trans,trans isomers can be successfully predicted with high accuracy. Rotational constants for a full set of isotopologues will be used to determine accurate semiexperimental equilibrium structures of the cis,cis and trans,trans species of DFBD. N. C. Craig, C. M. Oertel, D. C. Oertel, M. J. Tubergen, R. J. Lavrich, A. M Chaka J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 4230-4235 (2002).

  5. 40 CFR 721.1920 - 1,4-Bis(3-hydroxy-4-benzoylphenoxy)butane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1,4-Bis(3-hydroxy-4-benzoylphenoxy)butane. 721.1920 Section 721.1920 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1920 1,4-Bis(3-hydroxy-4-benzoylphenoxy)butane. (a) Chemical...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1920 - 1,4-Bis(3-hydroxy-4-benzoylphenoxy)butane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1,4-Bis(3-hydroxy-4-benzoylphenoxy)butane. 721.1920 Section 721.1920 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1920 1,4-Bis(3-hydroxy-4-benzoylphenoxy)butane. (a) Chemical...

  7. NBS-promoted oxidation of fullerene monoradicals leading to regioselective 1,4-difunctional fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Si, Weili; Lu, Shirong; Asao, Naoki; Bao, Ming; Yamamoto, Yoshinori; Jin, Tienan

    2014-12-25

    We have demonstrated that NBS is able to promote the oxidation of fullerene monoradicals to form 1,4-difunctional fullerenes. The singly bonded fullerene dimers were used as fullerene monoradical precursors, which produced various 1,4-fullerenes with a wide range of functional groups in good to high yields with high regioselectivity in terms of cosolvents and nucleophiles.

  8. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4 Section... Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a return for a... results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations...

  9. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4 Section... Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a return for a... results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations...

  10. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4... TAXES Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a... taxable year results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations...

  11. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4... TAXES Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a... taxable year results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations...

  12. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4 Section... Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a return for a... results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... glycol and 1 to 34 mole percent of 1,4-cyclo-hexanedimethanol (70 percent trans isomer, 30 percent cls isomer) Inherent viscosity of a 0.50 percent solution of the copolymer in phenol-tetrachloroethane (60:40... ethylene glycol and 1 to 15 mole percent of 1,4-cyclohexane-di-methanol (70 percent trans isomer,...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... glycol and 1 to 34 mole percent of 1,4-cyclo-hexanedimethanol (70 percent trans isomer, 30 percent cls isomer) Inherent viscosity of a 0.50 percent solution of the copolymer in phenol-tetrachloroethane (60:40... ethylene glycol and 1 to 15 mole percent of 1,4-cyclohexane-di-methanol (70 percent trans isomer,...

  15. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... glycol and 1 to 34 mole percent of 1,4-cyclo-hexanedimethanol (70 percent trans isomer, 30 percent cls isomer) Inherent viscosity of a 0.50 percent solution of the copolymer in phenol-tetrachloroethane (60:40... ethylene glycol and 1 to 15 mole percent of 1,4-cyclohexane-di-methanol (70 percent trans isomer,...

  16. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... glycol and 1 to 34 mole percent of 1,4-cyclo-hexanedimethanol (70 percent trans isomer, 30 percent cls isomer) Inherent viscosity of a 0.50 percent solution of the copolymer in phenol-tetrachloroethane (60:40... ethylene glycol and 1 to 15 mole percent of 1,4-cyclohexane-di-methanol (70 percent trans isomer,...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10662 - Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction...-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (PMN P-11-204) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10662 - Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction...-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (PMN P-11-204) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR 1,4 - DIOXANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    1,4 -Dioxane is a cyclic ether that is primarily utilized for industrial applications. These applications include 1,4 -dioxane as a solvent, reaction medium, wetting, degreasing, and dispersing agent, and for stabilization of chlorinated solvents (e.g. 1,1,1 -trichloroethane). ...

  20. Laboratory Investigation Of Mechanisms For 1,4-Dioxane Destruction By Ozone In Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in analytical detection methods have made it possible to quantify 1,4-dioxane contamination in groundwater, even at well-characterized sites where it had not been previously detected. Although 1,4-dioxane is difficult to treat because of its chemical and physical proper...

  1. IN-SITU OXIDATION OF 1,4-DIOXANE (LABORATORY RESULTS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest in the solvent stabilizer, 1,4-dioxane, is increasing because analytical detection limits have decreased indicating its presence at chlorinated volatile organic compound contaminated sites. The most common method for removing 1,4-dioxane from contaminated water is advanc...

  2. Mn1.4Co1.4Cu0.2O4 spinel protective coating on ferritic stainless steels for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoyi; Xin, Xianshuang; Luo, Ting; Liu, Leimin; Zhou, Yuchun; Yuan, Chun; Lin, Chucheng; Zhan, Zhongliang; Wang, Shaorong

    2015-03-01

    In an attempt to reduce the oxidation and Cr evaporation rates of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), Mn1.4Co1.4Cu0.2O4 spinel coating is developed on the Crofer22 APU ferritic stainless steel substrate by a powder reduction technique. Doping of Cu into Mn-Co spinels improves electrical conductivity as well as thermal expansion match with the Crofer22 APU interconnect. Good adhesion between the coating and the alloy substrate is achieved by the reactive sintering process using the reduced powders. Long-term isothermal oxidation experiment and area specific resistance (ASR) measurement are investigated. The ASR is less than 4 mΩ cm2 even though the coated alloy undergoes oxidation at 800 °C for 530 h and four thermal cycles from 800 °C to room temperature. The Mn1.4Co1.4Cu0.2O4 spinel coatings demonstrate excellent anti-oxidation performance and long-term stability. It exhibits a promising prospect for the practical application of SOFC alloy interconnect.

  3. Solid-phase organic synthesis of 2-tridecanyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and 2-tridecanyl-1,4-naphthodiol that form redox-active micelles and vesicles.

    PubMed

    Bugarin, Alejandro; Martinez, Luis E; Cooke, Peter; Islam, Tadiqul; Noveron, Juan C

    2014-10-01

    The solid-phase synthesis of new amphiphilic compounds is reported. It is based on a newly designed 1,4-naphthoquinone derivative that contains polar and nonpolar groups and self-assembles into micelles or vesicles in water depending on the concentration. They also display redox-active properties.

  4. Specific receptor for inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate in permeabilized rabbit neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, P.G.; Spat, A.; Rubin, R.P.

    1986-03-05

    Neutrophil chemotaxis and degranulation are resultant, in part, from the mobilization of intracellular calcium by inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate ((1,4,5)IP/sub 3/), one of the products of chemoattractant-stimulated phospholipase C activity. High specific activity (ca. 40 Ci/mmol) (/sup 32/P)(1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ was prepared from (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP-labeled human erythrocyte ghosts and was used in binding assays with saponin-permeabilized rabbit peritoneal neutrophils. At 4/sup 0/C and in the presence of inhibitors of the IP/sub 3/ 5-phosphomonoesterase, (/sup 32/P)(1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ rapidly associated with a specific binding component which saturated within 60s. Nonspecific binding, taken as the residual binding in the presence of 10 ..mu..M (1,4,5)IP/sub 3/, was 15% of the total. No specific binding was detected using intact cells. The specific binding to permeable cells was reversible (t/sup 1/2/ approx. 60s) and could be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by (1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ (EC/sub 50/ = 30 nM) and by other calcium mobilizing inositol phosphates ((2,4,5)IP/sub 3/) but not by inactive analogs ((1,4)IP/sub 2/, (4,5)IP/sub 2/, (1)IP). The dose-responses of (1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ and (2,4,5)IP/sub 3/ in inhibiting (/sup 32/P)(1,4,5)IP/sub 3/ specific binding correlated well with their abilities to release Ca/sup 2 +/ from nonmitochondrial vesicular stores in the same preparation of cells, suggesting that the authors have identified the physiological receptor for (1,4,5)IP/sub 3/.

  5. Climate applications for NOAA 1/4° Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, T.; Banzon, P. V. F.; Liu, G.; Saha, K.; Wilson, C.; Stachniewicz, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Few sea surface temperature (SST) datasets from satellites have the long temporal span needed for climate studies. The NOAA Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (DOISST) on a 1/4° grid, produced at National Centers for Environmental Information, is based primarily on SSTs from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), available from 1981 to the present. AVHRR data can contain biases, particularly when aerosols are present. Over the three decade span, the largest departure of AVHRR SSTs from buoy temperatures occurred during the Mt Pinatubo and El Chichon eruptions. Therefore, in DOISST, AVHRR SSTs are bias-adjusted to match in situ SSTs prior to interpolation. This produces a consistent time series of complete SST fields that is suitable for modelling and investigating local climate phenomena like El Nino or the Pacific warm blob in a long term context. Because many biological processes and animal distributions are temperature dependent, there are also many ecological uses of DOISST (e.g., coral bleaching thermal stress, fish and marine mammal distributions), thereby providing insights into resource management in a changing ocean. The advantages and limitations of using DOISST for different applications will be discussed.

  6. 25. 'HANGAR SHEDS TRUSSES DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. 'HANGAR SHEDS - TRUSSES - DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS - PLANT AREA; MODIFICATION CENTER NO. 1, DAGGETT, CALIFORNIA.' Sections and details of trusses, ironwork, and joints, as modified to show ridge joint detail. As built. This blueline also shows the fire suppression system, added in orange pencil for 'Project 13: Bldgs. T-30, T-50, T-70, T-90' at a later, unspecified date. Contract no. W509 Eng. 2743; File no. 555/84, revision B, dated August 24, 1942. No sheet number. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. Fate of 1,4-dioxane in the aquatic environment: from sewage to drinking water.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Daria K; Diehl, Peter; Helm, Johanna; Thoms, Alina; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Potential health effects of 1,4-dioxane and the limited data on its occurrence in the water cycle command for more research. In the current study, mobility and persistence of 1,4-dioxane in the sewage-, surface-, and drinking water was investigated. The occurrence of 1,4-dioxane was determined in wastewater samples from four domestic sewage treatment plants (STP). The influent and effluent samples were collected during weekly campaigns. The average influent concentrations in all four plants ranged from 262 ± 32 ng L(-1) to 834 ± 480 ng L(-1), whereas the average effluent concentrations were between 267 ± 35 ng L(-1) and 62,260 ± 36,000 ng L(-1). No removal of 1,4-dioxane during water treatment was observed. Owing to its strong internal chemical bonding, 1,4-dioxane is considered non-biodegradable under conventional bio-treatment technologies. The source of increased 1,4-dioxane concentrations in the effluents was identified to originate from impurities in the methanol used in the postanoxic denitrification process in one of the STPs. In view of poor biodegradation in STPs, surface water samples were collected to establish an extent of 1,4-dioxane pollution. Spatial and temporal distribution of 1,4-dioxane in the Rivers Main, Rhine, and Oder was examined. Concentrations reaching 2200 ng L(-1) in the Oder River, and 860 ng L(-1) in both Main and Rhine River were detected. The average monthly load of 1,4-dioxane in the Rhine River was calculated to equal to 172 kg d(-1). In all rivers, concentration of 1,4-dioxane increased with distance from the spring and was found to negatively correlate with the discharge of the river. Additionally, bank filtration and drinking water samples from two drinking water facilities were analyzed for the presence of 1,4-dioxane. The raw water contained 650 ng L(-1)-670 ng L(-1) of 1,4-dioxane, whereas the concentration in the drinking water fell only to 600 ng L(-1) and 490 ng L(-1), respectively. Neither of the purification

  8. Fate of 1,4-dioxane in the aquatic environment: from sewage to drinking water.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Daria K; Diehl, Peter; Helm, Johanna; Thoms, Alina; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Potential health effects of 1,4-dioxane and the limited data on its occurrence in the water cycle command for more research. In the current study, mobility and persistence of 1,4-dioxane in the sewage-, surface-, and drinking water was investigated. The occurrence of 1,4-dioxane was determined in wastewater samples from four domestic sewage treatment plants (STP). The influent and effluent samples were collected during weekly campaigns. The average influent concentrations in all four plants ranged from 262 ± 32 ng L(-1) to 834 ± 480 ng L(-1), whereas the average effluent concentrations were between 267 ± 35 ng L(-1) and 62,260 ± 36,000 ng L(-1). No removal of 1,4-dioxane during water treatment was observed. Owing to its strong internal chemical bonding, 1,4-dioxane is considered non-biodegradable under conventional bio-treatment technologies. The source of increased 1,4-dioxane concentrations in the effluents was identified to originate from impurities in the methanol used in the postanoxic denitrification process in one of the STPs. In view of poor biodegradation in STPs, surface water samples were collected to establish an extent of 1,4-dioxane pollution. Spatial and temporal distribution of 1,4-dioxane in the Rivers Main, Rhine, and Oder was examined. Concentrations reaching 2200 ng L(-1) in the Oder River, and 860 ng L(-1) in both Main and Rhine River were detected. The average monthly load of 1,4-dioxane in the Rhine River was calculated to equal to 172 kg d(-1). In all rivers, concentration of 1,4-dioxane increased with distance from the spring and was found to negatively correlate with the discharge of the river. Additionally, bank filtration and drinking water samples from two drinking water facilities were analyzed for the presence of 1,4-dioxane. The raw water contained 650 ng L(-1)-670 ng L(-1) of 1,4-dioxane, whereas the concentration in the drinking water fell only to 600 ng L(-1) and 490 ng L(-1), respectively. Neither of the purification

  9. Extremely Red Objects in Two Quasar Fields at z ~ 1.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Alan; McGrath, Elizabeth; Canalizo, Gabriela

    2006-10-01

    We present an investigation of the properties and environments of bright extremely red objects (EROs) found in the fields of the quasars TXS 0145+386 and 4C 15.55, both at z~1.4. There is marginal evidence from Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) imaging for hot cluster gas with a luminosity of a few 1044 ergs s-1 in the field of 4C 15.55. The TXS 0145+386 field has an upper limit at a similar value, but it also clearly shows an overdensity of faint galaxies. None of the EROs are detected as X-ray sources. For two of the EROs that have spectral energy distributions and rest-frame near-UV spectra that show that they are strongly dominated by old stellar populations, we determine radial surface brightness profiles from adaptive optics images. Both of these galaxies are best fit by profiles close to exponentials, plus a compact nucleus comprising ~30% of the total light in one case and 8% in the other. Neither is well fit by an r1/4-law profile. This apparent evidence for the formation of massive ~2×1011 disks of old stars in the early universe indicates that at least some galaxies formed essentially monolithically, with high star formation rates sustained over a few 108 yr and without the aid of major mergers. Based in part on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; on data obtained with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, which is operated for NASA by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; on data obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii; and on data obtained at the the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, which is operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre on behalf of the UK. Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M

  10. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, Eurasia, and Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, S.; Strange, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia computed from a combination of satellite-derived and surface 1 x 1 gravity data, is presented. Using a consistent set of parameters, this geoid is referenced to an absolute datum. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 meters in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 meters in those areas where data was sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rice for the United States, Bomford and Fischer in Eurasia, and Mather in Australia are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.

  11. Principle of Detailed Balance in Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberty, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the detailed balance on chemical kinetics on the chemical monomolecular triangle reactions are illustrated. A simple experiment that illustrates oscillations, limit cycles, bifurcations and noise are illustrated along with the oscillating reactions.

  12. Syntheses and properties of a series of novel surface active salts based on 1,4-dialkyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane and their supermolecular interactions with cucurbit[6]uril

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fei; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Haibo; Cheng, Gongzhen; Zhou, Xiaohai

    2012-06-01

    A series of novel surface active salts, 1,4-dialkyl-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bromides (2CxDABCOBr2), have been synthesized and characterized. Their melting points show a U-shaped curve with increasing alkyl chain length, while the decomposition temperatures do not show significant differences. Critical aggregation concentration (cac) of 2C6DABCOBr2 determined by the concentration dependence of 1H NMR chemical shifts is about 100 mmol L-1, which is in good agreement with the cac obtained by electrical conductivity and surface tension measurement. The aggregation number of 2C6DABCOBr2 in aqueous solutions studied with a detailed analysis of 1H NMR is 36. The interaction between 2C6DABCOBr2 and cucurbit[6]uril in aqueous solution has also been investigated by 1H NMR and spin-lattice relaxation time measurement (T1), indicating the formation of a complex with one alkyl chain of 2C6DABCOBr2 inserted into the cavity of CB[6].

  13. Identification of Biomarker Genes To Predict Biodegradation of 1,4-Dioxane

    PubMed Central

    Gedalanga, Phillip B.; Pornwongthong, Peerapong; Mora, Rebecca; Chiang, Sheau-Yun Dora; Baldwin, Brett; Ogles, Dora

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase gene targets in Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 were evaluated for their use as biomarkers to identify the potential for 1,4-dioxane biodegradation in pure cultures and environmental samples. Our studies using laboratory pure cultures and industrial activated sludge samples suggest that the presence of genes associated with dioxane monooxygenase, propane monooxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase are promising indicators of 1,4-dioxane biotransformation; however, gene abundance was insufficient to predict actual biodegradation. A time course gene expression analysis of dioxane and propane monooxygenases in Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 and mixed communities in wastewater samples revealed important associations with the rates of 1,4-dioxane removal. In addition, transcripts of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes were upregulated during biodegradation, although only the aldehyde dehydrogenase was significantly correlated with 1,4-dioxane concentrations. Expression of the propane monooxygenase demonstrated a time-dependent relationship with 1,4-dioxane biodegradation in P. dioxanivorans CB1190, with increased expression occurring after over 50% of the 1,4-dioxane had been removed. While the fraction of P. dioxanivorans CB1190-like bacteria among the total bacterial population significantly increased with decrease in 1,4-dioxane concentrations in wastewater treatment samples undergoing active biodegradation, the abundance and expression of monooxygenase-based biomarkers were better predictors of 1,4-dioxane degradation than taxonomic 16S rRNA genes. This study illustrates that specific bacterial monooxygenase and dehydrogenase gene targets together can serve as effective biomarkers for 1,4-dioxane biodegradation in the environment. PMID:24632253

  14. Identification of biomarker genes to predict biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane.

    PubMed

    Gedalanga, Phillip B; Pornwongthong, Peerapong; Mora, Rebecca; Chiang, Sheau-Yun Dora; Baldwin, Brett; Ogles, Dora; Mahendra, Shaily

    2014-05-01

    Bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase gene targets in Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 were evaluated for their use as biomarkers to identify the potential for 1,4-dioxane biodegradation in pure cultures and environmental samples. Our studies using laboratory pure cultures and industrial activated sludge samples suggest that the presence of genes associated with dioxane monooxygenase, propane monooxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase are promising indicators of 1,4-dioxane biotransformation; however, gene abundance was insufficient to predict actual biodegradation. A time course gene expression analysis of dioxane and propane monooxygenases in Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 and mixed communities in wastewater samples revealed important associations with the rates of 1,4-dioxane removal. In addition, transcripts of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes were upregulated during biodegradation, although only the aldehyde dehydrogenase was significantly correlated with 1,4-dioxane concentrations. Expression of the propane monooxygenase demonstrated a time-dependent relationship with 1,4-dioxane biodegradation in P. dioxanivorans CB1190, with increased expression occurring after over 50% of the 1,4-dioxane had been removed. While the fraction of P. dioxanivorans CB1190-like bacteria among the total bacterial population significantly increased with decrease in 1,4-dioxane concentrations in wastewater treatment samples undergoing active biodegradation, the abundance and expression of monooxygenase-based biomarkers were better predictors of 1,4-dioxane degradation than taxonomic 16S rRNA genes. This study illustrates that specific bacterial monooxygenase and dehydrogenase gene targets together can serve as effective biomarkers for 1,4-dioxane biodegradation in the environment.

  15. Molecular target sizes of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors in liver and cerebellum.

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, D L; Potter, B V; Taylor, C W

    1990-01-01

    Ins(1,4,5)P3 is the intracellular messenger that mediates the effects of many cell-surface receptors on intracellular Ca2+ stores. Although radioligand-binding studies have identified high-affinity Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding sites in many tissues, these have not yet been convincingly shown to be the receptors that mediate Ca2+ mobilization, nor is it clear whether there are differences in these binding sites between tissues. Here we report that Ins(1,4,5)P3 binds to a single class of high-affinity sites in both permeabilized hepatocytes (KD = 7.8 +/- 1.1 nM) and cerebellar membranes (KD = 6.5 +/- 2.4 nM), and provide evidence that these are unlikely to reflect binding to either of the enzymes known to metabolize Ins(1,4,5)P3. Furthermore, the rank order of potency of synthetic inositol phosphate analogues in displacing specifically bound Ins(1,4,5)P3 is the same as their rank order of potency in stimulating mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ stores, suggesting that the Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding site may be the physiological receptor. Radiation inactivation of the Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding sites of liver and cerebellum reveals that they have similar molecular target sizes: 257 +/- 36 kDa in liver and 258 +/- 20 kDa in cerebellum. We conclude that an Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding protein with a molecular target size of about 260 kDa is probably the receptor that mediates Ca2+ mobilization in hepatocytes, and our limited data provide no evidence to distinguish this from the cerebellar Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding protein. PMID:2154187

  16. Enhanced decomposition of 1,4-dioxane in water by ozonation under alkaline condition.

    PubMed

    Tian, Gui-Peng; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Li, Ang; Wang, Wen-Long; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2014-01-01

    1,4-Dioxane is a probable human carcinogenic and refractory substance that is widely detected in aquatic environments. Traditional wastewater treatment processes, including activated sludge, cannot remove 1,4-dioxane. Removing 1,4-dioxane with a reaction kinetic constant of 0.32 L/(mol·s) by using ozone, a strong oxidant, is difficult. However, under alkaline environment, ozone generates a hydroxyl radical (•OH) that exhibits strong oxidative potential. Thus, the ozonation of 1,4-dioxane in water under different pH conditions was investigated in this study. In neutral solution, with an inlet ozone feed rate of 0.19 mmol/(L·min), the removal efficiency of 1,4-dioxane was 7.6% at 0.5 h, whereas that in alkaline solution was higher (16.3-94.5%) within a pH range of 9-12. However, the removal efficiency of dissolved organic carbon was considerably lower than that of 1,4-dioxane. This result indicates that several persistent intermediates were generated during 1,4-dioxane ozonation. The pseudo first-order reaction further depicted the reaction of 1,4-dioxane. The obvious kinetic constants (kobs) at pH 9, 10, 11 and 12 were 0.94, 2.41, 24.88 and 2610 L/(mol·s), respectively. Scavenger experiments on radical species indicated that •OH played a key role in removing 1,4-dioxane during ozonation under alkaline condition.

  17. Ancillary-service details: Dynamic scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamic scheduling (DS) is the electronic transfer from one control area to another of the time-varying electricity consumption associated with a load or the time-varying electricity production associated with a generator. Although electric utilities have been using this technique for at least two decades, its use is growing in popularity and importance. This growth is a consequence of the major changes under way in US bulk-power markets, in particular efforts to unbundle generation from transmission and to increase competition among generation providers. DS can promote competition and increase choices. It allows consumers to purchase certain services from entities outside their physical-host area and it allows generators to sell certain services to entities other than their physical host. These services include regulation (following minute-to-minute variations in load) and operating reserves, among others. Such an increase in the number of possible suppliers and customers should encourage innovation and reduce the costs and prices of providing electricity services. The purpose of the project reported here was to collect and analyze data on utility experiences with DS. Chapter 2 provides additional details and examples of the definitions of DS. Chapter 3 explains why DS might be an attractive service that customers and generators, as well as transmission providers, might wan to use. Chapter 4 presents some of the many current DS examples the authors uncovered in their interviews. Chapter 5 discusses the costs and cost-effectiveness of DS. Chapter 6 explains what they believe can and cannot be electronically moved from one control area to another, primarily in terms of the six ancillary services that FERC defined in Order 888. Chapter 7 discusses the need for additional research on DS.

  18. Hydrogen consentration meter utilizing a diffusion tube composed of 2 1/4 C r

    DOEpatents

    Roy, Prodyot; Sandusky, David W.; Hartle, Robert T.

    1979-01-01

    A diffusion tube hydrogen meter for improving the sensitivity and response time for the measurement of hydrogen in liquid sodium. The improved hydrogen meter has a composite membrane composed of pure nickel sleeve fitted, for example, over a 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel or niobium diffusion tube. Since the hydrogen permeation rate through 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steels is a factor of four higher than pure nickel, and the permeation rate of hydrogen through niobium is two orders of magnitude greater than the 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, this results in a decrease in response time and an increase in the sensitivity.

  19. Synthesis and antiinflammatory activity of 6-Acylsubstituted benzo-1,4-dioxanes and dihydrobenzopyrans

    SciTech Connect

    Daukshas, V.K.; Brukshtus, A.B.; Gaidyalis, P.G.; Pyatrauskas, O.Yu.; Udrenaite, E.B.

    1986-07-01

    6-Acylsubstituted benzo-1,4-dioxanes and dihydrobenzopyrans were synthesized by the Friedel-Crafts reaction by the acylation of benzo-1,4-dioxane or corresponding dihydrobenzopyran with an acid chloride in the presence of anhydrous AlCl/sub 3/; the ketone was obtained by the hydrogenation of the chalcone using Raney nickel. The antiinflammatory activity was studied on experimental models of carragheen and bentonite edema of the foot of white rats. Results indicate that derivatives of benzo-1,4-dioxane and dihydrobenzopyran of the type studied show promise as antiinflammatory agents.

  20. Processable, high temperature polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and bis-dienes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1988-01-01

    1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene reacts with various anthracene end-capped polyimide oligomers to form Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, and have molecular weights of approximately 21,000 to 32,000. These resins exhibit lower weight loss in air than in nitrogen. This is suggested to be due to dehydration (loss of water ranges from 2 to 5 percent) at temperatures of 390 to 400 C to give thermooxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone. Because of their high softening points and good thermooxidative stability, the polymers have potential as processable, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications.

  1. Addition polymers from 1,4,5,8-tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene and Bis-dienes: Processable resins for high temperature application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.

    1987-01-01

    1,4,5,8-Tetrahydro-1,4;5,8-diepoxyanthracene reacts with various anthracene endcapped polyimide oligomers to form Diels-Alder cycloaddition copolymers. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, and have molecular weights of approximately 21,000 to 32,000. Interestingly, these resins appear to be more stable in air then in nitrogen. This is shown to be due to a unique dehydration (loss of water ranges from 2 to 5 percent) at temperatures of 390 to 400 C to give thermo-oxidatively stable pentiptycene units along the polymer backbone. Because of their high softening points and good thermo-oxidative stability, the polymers have potential as processible, matrix resins for high temperature composite applications.

  2. catena-Poly[[[tetra-aqua-magnesium]-trans-μ-[(piperazine-1,4-diium-1,4-di-yl)bis-(methyl-ene)]di-phospho-nato] hemihydrate].

    PubMed

    Schilling, Lars-Hendrik; Stock, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    The structure of the title polymer, }[Mg(C6H14N2O6P2)(H2O)4]·0.5H2O} n , is based on centrosymmetric MgO6 octahedra, which are linked by [(piperazine-1,4-diium-1,4-di-yl)bis-(methyl-ene)]di-phospho-nate ligands, forming chains parallel to [1-1-1]. These chains are connected via hydrogen bonds primarily formed between the phospho-nate groups and water mol-ecules. The latter constitute four of the corners of the MgO6 polyhedra and bind to the O atoms of the phospho-nate groups of neighbouring chains. The lattice water molecule is disordered around an inversion centre, exhibiting an occupancy of 0.25. PMID:24109276

  3. 1,4-Di-aza-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane-1,4-diium bis-(3-chloro-benzoate).

    PubMed

    Yao, Zi-Shuo; Sato, Osamu

    2014-02-01

    In the title salt C6H14N2 (2+)·2C7H4ClO2 (-), two 3-chloro-benzoate (3CBA) anions are bridged by one diprotonated 1,4-di-aza-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane-1,4-diium (H2DABCO(2+)) dication through N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. In this way, a trimeric unit is generated, in which the mean planes of the two 3CBA anions are twisted with respect to each other by a dihedral angle of 59.87 (9)°. The trimeric units are linked into a three-dimensional network via weak C-H⋯O inter-actions.

  4. Interior building details of Building C, Room C203: detail decorative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building C, Room C-203: detail decorative radiator and four-over-four windows; southwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  5. Purification and characterization of an endo-1,4-beta-glucanase from Neisseria sicca SB that hydrolyzes beta-1,4 linkages in cellulose acetate.

    PubMed

    Moriyoshi, Kunihiko; Ohmoto, Takashi; Ohe, Tatsuhiko; Sakai, Kiyofumi

    2002-03-01

    An enzyme catalyzing hydrolysis of beta-1,4 bonds in cellulose acetate was purified 18.3-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity from a culture supernatant of Neisseria sicca SB, which can assimilate cellulose acetate as the sole carbon and energy source. The molecular mass of the enzyme was 41 kDa and the isoelectric point was 4.8. The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme were 6.0-7.0 and 60 degrees C. The enzyme catalyzed hydrolysis of water-soluble cellulose acetate (degree of substitution, 0.88) and carboxymethyl cellulose. The Km and Vmax for water-soluble cellulose acetate and carboxymethyl cellulose were 0.242% and 2.24 micromol/min/mg, and 2.28% and 12.8 micromol/min/mg, respectively. It is estimated that the enzyme is a kind of endo-1,4-beta-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) from the substrate specificity and hydrolysis products of cellooligosaccharides. The enzyme and cellulose acetate esterase from Neisseria sicca SB degraded water-insoluble cellulose acetate by synergistic action.

  6. The 100 Strongest Radio Point Sources in the Field of the Large Magellanic Cloud at 1.4 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, J. L.; Tauber, L. A.; Filipovic, M. D.; Crawford, E. J.; de Horta, A. Y.

    2009-06-01

    We present the 100 strongest 1.4~GHz point sources from a new mosaic image in the direction of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The observations making up the mosaic were made using Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) over a ten year period and were combined with Parkes single dish data at 1.4 GHz to complete the image for short spacing. An initial list of co-identifications within 10 arcsec at 0.843, 4.8 and 8.6 GHz consisted of 2682 sources. Elimination of extended objects and artifact noise allowed the creation of a refined list containing 1988 point sources. Most of these are presumed to be background objects seen through the LMC; a small portion may represent compact HII regions, young SNRs and radio planetary nebulae. For the 1988 point sources we find a preliminary average spectral index (α) of -0.53 and present a 1.4 GHz image showing source location in the direction of the LMC.

  7. Biosensors to measure inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate concentration in living cells with spatiotemporal resolution.

    PubMed

    Remus, Timothy P; Zima, Aleksey V; Bossuyt, Julie; Bare, Dan J; Martin, Jody L; Blatter, Lothar A; Bers, Donald M; Mignery, Gregory A

    2006-01-01

    Phosphoinositides participate in many signaling cascades via phospholipase C stimulation, which hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, producing second messengers diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3). Destructive chemical approaches required to measure [InsP3] limit spatiotemporal understanding of subcellular InsP3 signaling. We constructed novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based InsP3 biosensors called FIRE (fluorescent InsP3-responsive element) by fusing plasmids encoding the InsP3-binding domain of InsP3 receptors (types 1-3) between cyan fluorescent protein and yellow fluorescent protein sequences. FIRE was expressed and characterized in COS-1 cells, cultured neonatal cardiac myocytes, and incorporated into an adenoviral vector for expression in adult cardiac ventricular myocytes. FIRE-1 exhibits an approximately 11% increase in the fluorescence ratio (F530/F480) at saturating [InsP3] (apparent K(d) = 31.3 +/- 6.7 nm InsP3). In COS-1 cells, neonatal rat cardiac myocytes and adult cat ventricular myocytes FIRE-1 exhibited comparable dynamic range and a 10% increase in donor (cyan fluorescent protein) fluorescence upon bleach of yellow fluorescent protein, indicative of fluorescence resonance energy transfer. In FIRE-1 expressing ventricular myocytes endothelin-1, phenylephrine, and angiotensin II all produced rapid and spatially resolved increases in [InsP3] using confocal microscopy (with free [InsP3] rising to approximately 30 nm). Local entry of intracellular InsP3 via membrane rupture by a patch pipette (containing InsP3)in myocytes expressing FIRE-1 allowed detailed spatiotemporal monitoring of intracellular InsP3 diffusion. Both endothelin-1-induced and direct InsP3 application (via pipette rupture) revealed that InsP3 diffusion into the nucleus occurs with a delay and blunted rise of [InsP3] versus cytosolic [InsP3]. These new biosensors allow studying InsP3 dynamics at high temporal and spatial resolution that

  8. Kinetics and mechanism of auto- and copper-catalyzed oxidation of 1,4-naphthohydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiu; Miller, Christopher J; Pham, A Ninh; Waite, T David

    2014-06-01

    Although quinones represent a class of organic compounds that may exert toxic effects both in vitro and in vivo, the molecular mechanisms involved in quinone species toxicity are still largely unknown, especially in the presence of transition metals, which may both induce the transformation of the various quinone species and result in generation of harmful reactive oxygen species. In this study, the oxidation of 1,4-naphthohydroquinone (NH2Q) in the absence and presence of nanomolar concentrations of Cu(II) in 10 mM NaCl solution over a pH range of 6.5-7.5 has been investigated, with detailed kinetic models developed to describe the predominant mechanisms operative in these systems. In the absence of copper, the apparent oxidation rate of NH2Q increased with increasing pH and initial NH2Q concentration, with concomitant oxygen consumption and peroxide generation. The doubly dissociated species, NQ(2-), has been shown to be the reactive species with regard to the one-electron oxidation by O2 and comproportionation with the quinone species, both generating the semiquinone radical (NSQ(·-)). The oxidation of NSQ(·-) by O2 is shown to be the most important pathway for superoxide (O2(·-)) generation with a high intrinsic rate constant of 1.0×10(8)M(-1)s(-1). Both NSQ(·-) and O2(·-) served as chain-propagating species in the autoxidation of NH2Q. Cu(II) is capable of catalyzing the oxidation of NH2Q in the presence of O2 with the oxidation also accelerated by increasing the pH. Both the uncharged (NH2Q(0)) and the mono-anionic (NHQ(-)) species were found to be the kinetically active forms, reducing Cu(II) with an intrinsic rate constant of 4.0×10(4) and 1.2×10(7)M(-1)s(-1), respectively. The presence of O2 facilitated the catalytic role of Cu(II) by rapidly regenerating Cu(II) via continuous oxidation of Cu(I) and also by efficient removal of NSQ(·-) resulting in the generation of O2(·-). The half-cell reduction potentials of various redox couples at neutral p

  9. A gene from the cellulose synthase-like C family encodes a β-1,4 glucan synthase

    PubMed Central

    Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; Lerouxel, Olivier; Drakakaki, Georgia; Alonso, Ana P.; Liepman, Aaron H.; Keegstra, Kenneth; Raikhel, Natasha; Wilkerson, Curtis G.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the central role of xyloglucan (XyG) in plant cell wall structure and function, important details of its biosynthesis are not understood. To identify the gene(s) responsible for synthesizing the β-1,4 glucan backbone of XyG, we exploited a property of nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) seed development. During the last stages of nasturtium seed maturation, a large amount of XyG is deposited as a reserve polysaccharide. A cDNA library was produced from mRNA isolated during the deposition of XyG, and partial sequences of 10,000 cDNA clones were determined. A single member of the C subfamily from the large family of cellulose synthase-like (CSL) genes was found to be overrepresented in the cDNA library. Heterologous expression of this gene in the yeast Pichia pastoris resulted in the production of a β-1,4 glucan, confirming that the CSLC protein has glucan synthase activity. The Arabidopsis CSLC4 gene, which is the gene with the highest sequence similarity to the nasturtium CSL gene, is coordinately expressed with other genes involved in XyG biosynthesis. These and other observations provide a compelling case that the CSLC gene family encode proteins that synthesize the XyG backbone. PMID:17488821

  10. Nicotinic acid is a common regulator of heat-sensing TRPV1-4 ion channels.

    PubMed

    Ma, Linlin; Lee, Bo Hyun; Clifton, Heather; Schaefer, Saul; Zheng, Jie

    2015-03-10

    Nicotinic acid (NA, a.k.a. vitamin B3 or niacin) can reduce blood cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins whereas increase high-density lipoproteins. However, when NA is used to treat dyslipidemias, it causes a strong side effect of cutaneous vasodilation, commonly called flushing. A recent study showed that NA may cause flushing by lowering activation threshold temperature of the heat-sensitive capsaicin receptor TRPV1 ion channel, leading to its activation at body temperature. The finding calls into question whether NA might also interact with the homologous heat-sensitive TRPV2-4 channels, particularly given that TRPV3 and TRPV4 are abundantly expressed in keratinocytes of the skin where much of the flushing response occurs. We found that NA indeed potentiated TRPV3 while inhibited TRPV2 and TRPV4. Consistent with these gating effects, NA lowered the heat-activation threshold of TRPV3 but elevated that of TRPV4. We further found that activity of TRPV1 was substantially prolonged by extracellular NA, which may further enhance the direct activation effect. Consistent with the broad gating effect on TRPV1-4 channels, evidence from the present study hints that NA may share the same activation pathway as 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), a common agonist for these TRPV channels. These findings shed new light on the molecular mechanism underlying NA regulation of TRPV channels.

  11. Functional and structural analyses of a 1,4-β-endoglucanase from Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guizhi; Li, Qian; Shang, Na; Huang, Jian-Wen; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Liu, Weidong; Zheng, Yingying; Han, Xu; Chen, Yun; Chen, Chun-Chi; Jin, Jian; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2016-05-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a saprotrophic white-rot fungus which contains a rich set of cellulolytic enzymes. Here, we screened an array of potential 1,4-β-endoglucanases from G. lucidum based on the gene annotation library and found that one candidate gene, GlCel5A, exhibits CMC-hydrolyzing activity. The recombinant GlCel5A protein expressed in Pichia pastoris is able to hydrolyze CMC and β-glucan but not xylan and mannan. The enzyme exhibits optimal activity at 60°C and pH 3-4, and retained 50% activity at 80 and 90°C for at least 15 and 10min. The crystal structure of GlCel5A and its complex with cellobiose, solved at 2.7 and 2.86Å resolution, shows a classical (β/α)8 TIM-barrel fold as seen in other members of glycoside hydrolase family 5. The complex structure contains a cellobiose molecule in the +1 and +2 subsites, and reveals the interactions with the positive sites of the enzyme. Collectively, the present work provides the first comprehensive characterization of an endoglucanase from G. lucidum that possesses properties for industrial applications, and strongly encourages further studying in the cellulolytic enzyme system of G. lucidum. PMID:26992795

  12. 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, a inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor inhibitor, prevents atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Junjie; Liang, Dandan; Zhao, Hong; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Xiaowei; Liu, Yi; Li, Jun; Peng, Luying; Chen, Yi-Han

    2010-07-01

    The expression of the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) is upregulated and the function of IP3R also increases during atrial fibrillation (AF). 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) is a membrane-permeable inhibitor of IP3R. However, the effect of 2-APB on AF is unknown. The aim of the present study is to explore the effects of 2-APB on AF. In vitro rabbit heart models of ischemia-, stretch- and cholinergic agitation-induced AF were developed. Fura-2-acetoxymethyl (Fura-2-AM) and Mg2+-Fura-2-AM were used to monitor alterations of intracellular Ca2+ and ATP, respectively, in HL-1 cells, an atrial muscle cell line, under chemical ischemia or cholinergic agitation. The results showed that inhibition of IP3R significantly reduced the incidence and its probability of being sustained in all three types of AF. IP3R inhibition ameliorated the cytoplasmic Ca2+ overload and energy compromise resulting from chemical ischemia or cholinergic agitation. Thus, IP3R inhibition may be a novel target for AF treatment, and IP3R may be an important molecule in the context of different kinds of AF.

  13. A 3.1-4.8 GHz CMOS receiver for MB-OFDM UWB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guang, Yang; Wang, Yao; Jiangwei, Yin; Renliang, Zheng; Wei, Li; Ning, Li; Junyan, Ren

    2009-01-01

    An integrated fully differential ultra-wideband CMOS receiver for 3.1-4.8 GHz MB-OFDM systems is presented. A gain controllable low noise amplifier and a merged quadrature mixer are integrated as the RF front-end. Five order Gm-C type low pass filters and VGAs are also integrated for both I and Q IF paths in the receiver. The ESD protected chip is fabricated in a Jazz 0.18 μm RF CMOS process and achieves a maximum total voltage gain of 65 dB, an AGC range of 45 dB with about 6 dB/step, an averaged total noise figure of 6.4 to 8.8 dB over 3 bands and an in-band IIP3 of -5.1 dBm. The receiver occupies 2.3 mm2 and consumes 110 mA from a 1.8 V supply including test buffers and a digital module.

  14. Functional and structural analyses of a 1,4-β-endoglucanase from Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guizhi; Li, Qian; Shang, Na; Huang, Jian-Wen; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Liu, Weidong; Zheng, Yingying; Han, Xu; Chen, Yun; Chen, Chun-Chi; Jin, Jian; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2016-05-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a saprotrophic white-rot fungus which contains a rich set of cellulolytic enzymes. Here, we screened an array of potential 1,4-β-endoglucanases from G. lucidum based on the gene annotation library and found that one candidate gene, GlCel5A, exhibits CMC-hydrolyzing activity. The recombinant GlCel5A protein expressed in Pichia pastoris is able to hydrolyze CMC and β-glucan but not xylan and mannan. The enzyme exhibits optimal activity at 60°C and pH 3-4, and retained 50% activity at 80 and 90°C for at least 15 and 10min. The crystal structure of GlCel5A and its complex with cellobiose, solved at 2.7 and 2.86Å resolution, shows a classical (β/α)8 TIM-barrel fold as seen in other members of glycoside hydrolase family 5. The complex structure contains a cellobiose molecule in the +1 and +2 subsites, and reveals the interactions with the positive sites of the enzyme. Collectively, the present work provides the first comprehensive characterization of an endoglucanase from G. lucidum that possesses properties for industrial applications, and strongly encourages further studying in the cellulolytic enzyme system of G. lucidum.

  15. Synthesis, spectral characterization, and pharmacological importance of new 4H-1,4-benzothiazines, their sulfone analogues, and ribofuranosides.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Naveen; Garg, Ankita; Gautam, Dinesh Chand

    2015-01-01

    The present article describes the synthesis of new 4H-1,4-benzothiazines via condensation and oxidative cyclization of substituted 2-aminobenzenethiols with compounds containing active methylene groups. It is believed that the reaction proceeds via intermediary of the enaminoketone system. The sulfone derivatives were synthesized by oxidation of 4H-1,4-benzothiazines using 30% hydrogen peroxide in glacial acetic acid. Benzothiazines were used as bases to prepare ribofuranosides by treatment with a sugar derivative (β-D-ribofuranosyl-1-acetate-2,3,5-tribenzoate). The pharmacological importance of the synthesized compounds was evaluated by their, antimicrobial properties against various bacterial strains and fungal species. The structures of the compounds have been confirmed by spectral and chemical analysis. PMID:25513863

  16. Experimental aerodynamic characteristics of two V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft configurations at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P.; Durston, D. A.; Lummus, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted to measure the aerodynamic characteristics of two horizontal attitude takeoff and landing V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft concepts. In one concept, a jet diffuser ejector was used for the vertical lift system; the other used a remote augmentation lift system (RALS). Wind tunnel tests to investigate the aerodynamic uncertainties and to establish a data base for these types of concepts were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.2 to 2.0. The present report covers tests, conducted in the 11 foot transonic wind tunnel, for Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.4. Detailed effects of varying the angle of attack (up to 27 deg), angle of sideslip (-4 deg to +8 deg), Mach number, Reynolds number, and configuration buildup were investigated. In addition, the effects of wing trailing edge flap deflections, canard incidence, and vertical tail deflections were explored. Variable canard longitudinal location and different shapes of the inboard nacelle body strakes were also investigated.

  17. 40 CFR 180.1142 - 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the plant growth regulator 1,4-dimethylnaphthalene when applied post harvest to potatoes in accordance with good...

  18. Side Elevation; 1/4 Plans of Floor Framing, Floor Planking, Roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation; 1/4 Plans of Floor Framing, Floor Planking, Roof Framing and Roof; Longitudinal Section, Cross Section, End Elevation - Eames Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  19. Process for the production of 1:4 butanediol from maleic anhydride via ester hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Towers, R.G.; Harris, N.; McKee, D.

    1986-01-01

    A process has been developed for the production of 1:4 butanediol (1:4 BDO from maleic anhydride (MA). The three process steps are:- a) Esterifiction of MA to produce a dialkyl maleate ester based on a modification of commercially proven esterification technology; b) Hydrogenation of the ester, at moderate temperatures and pressures, to 1:4 BD using novel low pressure ester hydrogenation technology. Gamma-Butyrolactone (gamma-BL) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) are produced as co-products. The 1:4 BD/Gamma-BL product ratio can be adjusted to respond to market requirements by recycle of the less desirable product, and THF productivity controlled over wide limits by variation of process parameters; c) Product separation by distillation.

  20. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-1 - Site identification as potentially acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... will consider the aquatic and terrestrial ecology; water rights and uses; topography; potential offsite... POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-1 Site...

  1. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-1 - Site identification as potentially acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... will consider the aquatic and terrestrial ecology; water rights and uses; topography; potential offsite... POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-1 Site...

  2. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4-1 - Site identification as potentially acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... will consider the aquatic and terrestrial ecology; water rights and uses; topography; potential offsite... POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4-1 Site...

  3. A new and efficient procedure for the synthesis of hexahydropyrimidine-fused 1,4-naphthoquinones

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Marcelo Isidoro P; Campos, Vinícius R; Resende, Jackson A L C; Silva, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Summary A new and efficient method for the synthesis of hexahydropyrimidine-fused 1,4-naphthoquinones in one step with high yields from the reaction of lawsone with 1,3,5-triazinanes was developed. PMID:26425181

  4. Cytochrome P3-450 cDNA encodes aflatoxin B1-4-hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Faletto, M B; Koser, P L; Battula, N; Townsend, G K; Maccubbin, A E; Gelboin, H V; Gurtoo, H L

    1988-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a potent hepatocarcinogen and ubiquitous dietary contaminant in some countries, is detoxified to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) via cytochrome P-450-mediated AFB1-4-hydroxylase. Genetic studies in mice have demonstrated that the expression of AFB1-4-hydroxylase is regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon locus and suggested that different cytochrome P-450 isozymes catalyze AFB1-4-hydroxylase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities. We have now examined lysates from mammalian cells infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses containing expressible cytochrome P1-450 or P3-450 cDNAs for their ability to metabolize AFB1 to AFM1. Our results show that cytochrome P3-450 cDNA specifies AFB1-4-hydroxylase. This is the first direct assignment of a specific cytochrome P-450 to an AFB1 detoxification pathway. This finding may have relevance to the dietary modulation of AFB1 hepatocarcinogenesis.

  5. Multiple Views of X1.4 Solar Flare on July 12, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows the July 12, 2012 X1.4 class solar flare in a variety of wavelength; 131- Teal colored, 335 - blue colored, 171 - yellow colored and finally a combined wavelength view. All video w...

  6. Making detailed predictions makes (some) predictions worse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Theresa F.

    In this paper, we investigate whether making detailed predictions about an event makes other predictions worse. Across 19 experiments, 10,895 participants, and 415,960 predictions about 724 professional sports games, we find that people who made detailed predictions about sporting events (e.g., how many hits each baseball team would get) made worse predictions about more general outcomes (e.g., which team would win). We rule out that this effect is caused by inattention or fatigue, thinking too hard, or a differential reliance on holistic information about the teams. Instead, we find that thinking about game-relevant details before predicting winning teams causes people to give less weight to predictive information, presumably because predicting details makes information that is relatively useless for predicting the winning team more readily accessible in memory and therefore incorporated into forecasts. Furthermore, we show that this differential use of information can be used to predict what kinds of games will and will not be susceptible to the negative effect of making detailed predictions.

  7. Eros details enhanced by computer processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The NEAR camera's ability to show details of Eros's surface is limited by the spacecraft's distance from the asteroid. That is, the closer the spacecraft is to the surface, the more that details are visible. However mission scientists regularly use computer processing to squeeze an extra measure of information from returned data. In a technique known as 'superresolution', many images of the same scene acquired at very, very slightly different camera pointing are carefully overlain and processed to bright out details even smaller than would normally be visible. In this rendition constructed out of 20 image frames acquired Feb. 12, 2000, the images have first been enhanced ('high-pass filtered') to accentuate small-scale details. Superresolution was then used to bring out features below the normal ability of the camera to resolve.

    Built and managed by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland, NEAR was the first spacecraft launched in NASA's Discovery Program of low-cost, small-scale planetary missions. See the NEAR web page at http://near.jhuapl.edu for more details.

  8. Imaging B. anthracis heme catabolism in mice using the IFP1.4 gene reporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Banghe; Robinson, Holly; Wilganowski, Nathaniel; Nobles, Christopher L.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; Maresso, Anthony

    2012-03-01

    B. anthracis is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium which likes all pathogenic bacteria, survive by sequestering heme from its host. To image B. anthracis heme catabolism in vivo, we stably transfect new red excitable fluorescent protein, IFP1.4, that requires the heme catabolism product biliverdin (BV). IFP1.4 reporter has favorable excitation and emission characteristics, which has an absorption peak at 685 nm and an emission peak at 708 nm. Therefore, IFP1.4 reporter can be imaged deeply into the tissue with less contamination from tissue autofluorescence. However, the excitation light "leakage" through optical filters can limit detection and sensitivity of IFP1.4 reporter due to the small Stoke's shift of IFP1.4 fluorescence. To minimize the excitation light leakage, an intensified CCD (ICCD) based infrared fluorescence imaging device was optimized using two band pass filters separated by a focus lens to increase the optical density at the excitation wavelength. In this study, a mouse model (DBA/J2) was first injected with B. anthracis bacteria expressing IFP1.4, 150 μl s.c., on the ventral side of the left thigh. Then mouse was given 250 μl of a 1mM BV solution via I.V. injection. Imaging was conducted as a function of time after infection under light euthanasia, excised tissues were imaged and IFP1.4 fluorescence correlated with standard culture measurements of colony forming units (CFU). The work demonstrates the use of IFP1.4 as a reporter of bacterial utilization of host heme and may provide an important tool for understanding the pathogenesis of bacterial infection and developing new anti-bacterial therapeutics.

  9. Physiological and Pathophysiological Insights of Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Loussouarn, Gildas; Sternberg, Damien; Nicole, Sophie; Marionneau, Céline; Le Bouffant, Francoise; Toumaniantz, Gilles; Barc, Julien; Malak, Olfat A.; Fressart, Véronique; Péréon, Yann; Baró, Isabelle; Charpentier, Flavien

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 α-subunits have been associated with muscular and cardiac channelopathies, respectively. Despite intense research on the structure and function of these channels, a lot of information is still missing to delineate the various physiological and pathophysiological processes underlying their activity at the molecular level. Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 sequences are similar, suggesting structural and functional homologies between the two orthologous channels. This also suggests that any characteristics described for one channel subunit may shed light on the properties of the counterpart channel subunit. In this review article, after a brief clinical description of the muscular and cardiac channelopathies related to Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 mutations, respectively, we compare the knowledge accumulated in different aspects of the expression and function of Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 α-subunits: the regulation of the two encoding genes (SCN4A and SCN5A), the associated/regulatory proteins and at last, the functional effect of the same missense mutations detected in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5. First, it appears that more is known on Nav1.5 expression and accessory proteins. Because of the high homologies of Nav1.5 binding sites and equivalent Nav1.4 sites, Nav1.5-related results may guide future investigations on Nav1.4. Second, the analysis of the same missense mutations in Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 revealed intriguing similarities regarding their effects on membrane excitability and alteration in channel biophysics. We believe that such comparison may bring new cues to the physiopathology of cardiac and muscular diseases. PMID:26834636

  10. Thermal rearrangements in 1,2-poly/1,4-hexadiene/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The work described was carried out to study the thermal rearrangements of two unsaturated diene polymers - 1,2-poly(cis-1,4-hexadiene) (CHD) and 1,2-poly(trans-1.4-hexadiene) (THD). It is shown that both CHD and THD have a predominatly 1,8 diene structure and seem to cyclize mainly by the (2 + 2) thermal cycloaddition of double bonds, and to a small extent also by sigmatropic rearrangement with hydrogen shift.

  11. Quantitation of 1,4-Benzoxazin-3-ones in Maize by Gas-Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Woodward, M D; Corcuera, L J; Helgeson, J P; Kelman, A; Upper, C D

    1979-01-01

    A gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) procedure is reported for the quantitation of the trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of substituted 2-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-ones (2-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one[HBOA]; 2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one[HMBOA];2,4- dihydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one[DIBOA]; 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one[DIMBOA]; and 2,4-dihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one[DIM (2)BOA]) found in maize (Zea mays L.) extracts. Derivatized samples were chromatographed on columns with liquid phases of 2% DC-11 and 3% OV-17 and detected by flame ionization. Internal standards were methyl palmitate and methyl stearate on DC-11 and methyl behenate on OV-17. Detector response was linear to at least 5 nanomoles for TMS(2)-HBOA and TMS(2)-DIBOA and to 19 nanomoles for TMS(2)-DIMBOA. Standard errors of 2% or less were obtained when four replicate samples were analyzed. For each of the 15 maize lines examined, the amount of DIMBOA determined by GLC was directly proportional to the amount of ferric chloride-reactive material determined colorimetrically.

  12. Beyond topoisomerase inhibition: antitumor 1,4-naphthoquinones as potential inhibitors of human monoamine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Coelho-Cerqueira, Eduardo; Netz, Paulo A; do Canto, Vanessa P; Pinto, Angelo C; Follmer, Cristian

    2014-04-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) action has been involved in the regulation of neurotransmitters levels, cell signaling, cellular growth, and differentiation as well as in the balance of the intracellular polyamine levels. Although so far obscure, MAO inhibitors are believed to have some effect on tumors progression. 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ) has been pointed out as a potential pharmacophore for inhibition of both MAO and DNA topoisomerase activities, this latter associated with antitumor activity. Herein, we demonstrated that certain antitumor 1,4-NQs, including spermidine-1,4-NQ, lapachol, and nor-lapachol display inhibitory activity on human MAO-A and MAO-B. Kinetic studies indicated that these compounds are reversible and competitive MAO inhibitors, being the enzyme selectivity greatly affected by substitutions on 1,4-NQ ring. Molecular docking studies suggested that the most potent MAO inhibitors are capable to bind to the MAO active site in close proximity of flavin moiety. Furthermore, ability to inhibit both MAO-A and MAO-B can be potentialized by the formation of hydrogen bonds between these compounds and FAD and/or the residues in the active site. Although spermidine-1,4-NQs exhibit antitumor action primarily by inhibiting topoisomerase via DNA intercalation, our findings suggest that their effect on MAO activity should be taken into account when their application in cancer therapy is considered.

  13. Monobenzofused 1,4-azaborines: synthesis, characterization, and discovery of a unique coordination mode.

    PubMed

    Xu, Senmiao; Haeffner, Fredrik; Li, Bo; Zakharov, Lev N; Liu, Shih-Yuan

    2014-06-23

    We report the first general synthesis of boron-substituted monobenzofused 1,4-azaborines using ring-closing metathesis of an enamine-containing diene as a key synthetic strategy. As part of our investigations, we discovered that the B-C3 moiety in a 1,4-azaborine can serve uniquely as a η(2)-L-type ligand. This functionality is exemplified by two κ(2)-N-η(2)-BC Pt complexes of a boron-pyridyl-substituted monobenzofused-1,4-azaborine. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of the Pt complexes shows a strong structural contribution from the iminium resonance form of the monobenzofused-1,4-azaborine ligand. We also demonstrate that a palladium(0) complex supported by a 1,4-azaborine-based phosphine ligand can catalyze hydroboration of 1-buten-3-yne with unique selectivity. In view of the importance of arene-metal π-interactions in catalytic applications, this work should open new opportunities for ligand design involving the 1,4-azaborine motif as an arene substitute.

  14. Toxic effects of 1,4-dichlorobenzene on photosynthesis in Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinhua; Wang, Jie; Feng, Jia; Lv, Junping; Cai, Jin; Liu, Qi; Xie, Shulian

    2016-09-01

    1,4-Dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) is a common organic contaminant in water. To determine the effects of this contaminant on photosynthesis in the freshwater alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa, algal cells were treated with 1,4-DCB at different concentrations for various times, and their photosynthetic pigment contents and chlorophyll fluorescence traits were analyzed. The results showed that 1,4-DCB exerted toxic effects on photosynthesis in C. pyrenoidosa, especially at concentrations exceeding 10 mg/L. The inhibitory effects of 1,4-DCB were time- and concentration-dependent. After treatment with 1,4-DCB (≥10 mg/L), the contents of photosynthetic pigments decreased significantly, the photosystem II reaction center was irreversibly damaged, and the quantum yield of photosystem II decreased significantly. Also, there were sharp decreases in the efficiency of photosynthetic electron transport and energy conversion. Photosystem II became overloaded as the amount of excitation energy distributed to it increased. All of these events weakened the photochemical reaction, and ultimately led to serious inhibition of photosynthesis. PMID:27542668

  15. Memory for details with self-referencing.

    PubMed

    Serbun, Sarah J; Shih, Joanne Y; Gutchess, Angela H

    2011-11-01

    Self-referencing benefits item memory, but little is known about the ways in which referencing the self affects memory for details. Experiment 1 assessed whether the effects of self-referencing operate only at the item, or general, level or whether they also enhance memory for specific visual details of objects. Participants incidentally encoded objects by making judgements in reference to the self, a close other (one's mother), or a familiar other (Bill Clinton). Results indicate that referencing the self or a close other enhances both specific and general memory. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed verbal memory for source in a task that relied on distinguishing between different mental operations (internal sources). The results indicate that self-referencing disproportionately enhances source memory, relative to conditions referencing other people, semantic, or perceptual information. We conclude that self-referencing not only enhances specific memory for both visual and verbal information, but can also disproportionately improve memory for specific internal source details.

  16. Tasmania in Nuna: Witness to a ~1.4 Ga East Antarctica-Laurentia Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpin, J. A.; Mulder, J. A.; Daczko, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    Most recent reconstructions of the supercontinent Nuna juxtapose the North Australian craton, Mawson continent (South Australia-East Antarctica), and Laurentia between 1.6 Ga and 1.3 Ga, but differ in their relative positioning. Tasmania (SE Australia) has not been considered in previous Nuna reconstructions. Prior to late Neoproterozoic rifting, this crustal fragment was likely part of the eastern margin of East Antarctica. The significance of Tasmania's position within Nuna has recently been highlighted with the discovery that the majority of a >10-km-thick marine shelfal package exposed in northwest Tasmania (Rocky Cape Group) was deposited between 1.45 and 1.30 Ga. The detrital zircon signatures of these strata are distinct from other Mesoproterozoic basins in Australia, and instead closely resemble time-equivalent upper parts of the Belt-Purcell Basin of Laurentia, suggesting correlations within Nuna. We investigate the provenance of the Rocky Cape Group quartzites by comparing new detrital zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic data to an extensive compilation of zircon data from Australia, East Antarctica, and Laurentia. Our analysis demonstrates that the Rocky Cape Group is unlikely to have been sourced from any geological terrane exposed in present-day Australia. Instead, zircon isotopic signatures from basement terranes in Laurentia and East Antarctica show striking similarities to the Rocky Cape Group detrital signature. Paleocurrent data indicate a northwest-southeast-trending paleoshoreline
and suggest that the majority of sediment was sourced from Paleoproterozoic crust in SW Laurentia, which was to the southeast (present-day coordinates) of Tasmania. These new data support a SWEAT-like (southwest United States-East Antarctica) configuration for Nuna. We suggest that rifting propagated southward from ca. 1.4 Ga, leaving a thinned continental connection between East Antarctica and southwest Laurentia onto which the lower-middle RCG was deposited prior to 1.3 Ga.

  17. Susceptibility of caffeine- and Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced contractions to oxidants in permeabilized vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Wada, S; Okabe, E

    1997-02-01

    Two principal pathways of Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of excitable and non-excitable cells have been described: one pathway dependent on the second messenger D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3), and a second pathway sensitive to Ca2+ and regulated by caffeine and ryanodine. It was found that the Ca(2+)-pump activity of vascular smooth muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum is inhibited by superoxide anion radicals (O2.-); however, the effects of reactive oxygen intermediates on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release in vascular muscle cells are not well defined. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of reactive oxygen intermediates generated from the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase reaction system on contractions induced by caffeine, Ins(1,4,5)P3 and norepinephrine in staphylococcal alpha-toxin-permeabilized rabbit mesenteric arteries. This system generates O2.-, H2O2, and hydroxyl radicals. We wished to identify which class of reactive oxygen intermediates is responsible for the associated loss of vascular smooth muscle contractile function. Caffeine and Ins(1,4,5)P3 produced a transient contraction when the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the permeabilized, preparations was preloaded with pCa 7.0 solution for 5 min before washing with 0.5 mM EGTA solution; norepinephrine also produced a transient contraction. Exposure of the preparations to hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase (for 30 min) attenuated caffeine-induced contraction, but was without effect on Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced contraction. The observed effect of hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase exposure was superoxide dismutase-inhibitable, suggesting O2.- involvement. Hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase also inhibited norepinephrine-induced contraction. The effect of hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase on norepinephrine contraction was protected by catalase, but not by superoxide dismutase and dimethyl sulfoxide; exogenously added H2O2 mimicked the effect of hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase exposure. H2O

  18. Detail in architecture: Between arts & crafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulencin, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    Architectural detail represents an important part of architecture. Not only can it be used as an identifier of a specific building but at the same time enhances the experience of the realized project. Within it lie the signs of a great architect and clues to understanding his or her way of thinking. It is therefore the central topic of a seminar offered to architecture students at the Brno University of Technology. During the course of the semester-long class the students acquaint themselves with atypical architectural details of domestic and international architects by learning to read them, understand them and subsequently draw them by creating architectural blueprints. In other words, by general analysis of a detail the students learn theoretical thinking of its architect who, depending on the nature of the design, had to incorporate a variety of techniques and crafts. Students apply this analytical part to their own architectural detail design. The methodology of the seminar consists of experiential learning by project management and is complemented by a series of lectures discussing a diversity of details as well as materials and technologies required to implement it. The architectural detail design is also part of students' bachelors thesis, therefore, the realistic nature of their blueprints can be verified in the production process of its physical counterpart. Based on their own documentation the students choose the most suitable manufacturing process whether it is supplied by a specific technology or a craftsman. Students actively participate in the production and correct their design proposals in real scale with the actual material. A student, as a future architect, stands somewhere between a client and an artisan, materializes his or her idea and adjusts the manufacturing process so that the final detail fulfills aesthetic consistency and is in harmony with its initial concept. One of the very important aspects of the design is its economic cost, an

  19. Maturational regulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate metabolism in rabbit airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, S M; Berry, G T; Yandrasitz, J R; Grunstein, M M

    1991-01-01

    Airway reactivity has been shown to vary with age; however, the mechanism(s) underlying this process remain unidentified. To elucidate the role of ontogenetic changes in phosphoinositide-linked signal transduction, we examined whether age-related differences in tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) contractility to carbachol (CCh) are associated with developmental changes in the production and metabolism of the second messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins (1,4,5)P3). In TSM segments isolated from 2-wk-old and adult rabbits, both the maximal isometric contractile force and sensitivity (i.e., -logED50) to CCh (10(-10)-10(-4) M) were significantly greater in the immature vs. adult tissues (P less than 0.001). Similarly, Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation elicited by either receptor-coupled stimulation with CCh (10(-10)-10(-4) M) or post-receptor-mediated guanine nucleotide binding protein activation of permeabilized TSM with GTP gamma S (100 microM) was also significantly enhanced in 2-wk-old vs. adult TSM. Measurement of the activities of the degradative enzymes for Ins(1,4,5)P3 demonstrated that: (a) mean +/- SE maximal Ins(1,4,5)P3 3'-kinase activity was significantly reduced in the immature vs. adult TSM (i.e., approximately 71.7 +/- 6.0 vs. 137.8 +/- 10.0 pmol/min per mg protein, respectively; P less than 0.005); (b) by contrast, maximal Ins(1,4,5)P3 5'-phosphatase activity was significantly increased in the immature vs. adult TSM (i.e., 27.9 +/- 1.2 vs. 15.6 +/- 1.5 nmol/min per mg protein, respectively; P less than 0.001); and (c) the Km values for Ins(1,4,5)P3 5'-phosphatase were 14- and 19-fold greater than those for Ins(1,4,5)P3 3'-kinase in the 2-wk-old and adult TSM, respectively. Collectively, the findings suggest that the age-related decrease in agonist-induced rabbit TSM contractility is associated with a diminution in Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation which is attributed, at least in part, to ontogenetic changes in the relative activities of the degradative enzymes for

  20. Details from the Dashboard: Charter Schools by Geographic Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    While a majority of charter schools nationwide operate in urban and suburban areas, charter schools exist in all corners of the nation, and are expanding into all types of communities. This "Details from the Dashboard" report presents statistics on the number of charter schools and students enrolled in charter schools by the four geographic…

  1. DETAIL VIEW, SOUTHEAST ATTIC CHAMBER DOOR. (NOTE THE STRIP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW, SOUTHEAST ATTIC CHAMBER DOOR. (NOTE THE STRIP OF BEADED BOARD IMBEDDED IN THE PLASTER BEARING NAILS. THESE ARE PRESENT IN ALL OF THE ATTIC ROOMS AND WERE LIKELY USED TO HANG CLOTHING - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. When Quantitative Details Impair Qualitative Understanding of Multimedia Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkoeijen, Peter; Tabbers, Huib

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we explored why interspersing quantitative details through a multimedia lesson detracts from learners' qualitative understanding. Three experimental conditions were created. In each, participants had to study a qualitative text on the formation, propagation, and dispersion of ocean waves. In the concise condition no…

  3. Detail of north side of Test Stand 'A' base, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of north side of Test Stand 'A' base, showing tanks for distilled water (left), fuel (center), and gaseous nitrogen (right). Other tanks present for tests were removed before this image was taken. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. Research and Development in Industry: 1999. Detailed Statistical Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Raymond M.

    This report presents results from the 1999 Survey of Industrial Research and Development. It contains a full set of statistics produced from the survey, trends in industrial research and development (R&D) since 1953, and statistics on employment since 1989. Contents include: (1) "Note to Users of Historical Statistics"; (2) "Detailed Statistical…

  5. Toxin A from Clostridium difficile binds to rabbit erythrocyte glycolipids with terminal Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.F.; Krivan, H.C.; Wilkins, T.D.; Smith, D.F.

    1987-08-15

    The binding of Toxin A isolated from Clostridium difficile to rabbit erythrocyte glycolipids has been studied. Total lipid extracts from rabbit erythrocytes were subjected to thin-layer chromatography and toxin-binding glycolipids detected by using /sup 125/I-labeled Toxin A in a direct binding overlay technique. Two major and several minor toxin-binding glycolipids were detected in rabbit erythrocytes by this method. The results of structural analyses of the major toxin-binding glycolipids were consistent with a pentasaccharide-ceramide (Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc-Cer) and a branched decasaccharide-ceramide (Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3(Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-6)Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc-Cer) previously identified as the two most abundant glycolipids in rabbit erythrocytes. /sup 125/I-Toxin A binding to these glycolipids could be inhibited by bovine thyroglobulin, monospecific antiserum to the toxin, or by treatment of the glycolipids with alpha-galactosidase. The absence of toxin interaction with isoglobotriaosylceramide (Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc-Cer) isolated from canine intestine suggested that the GlcNAc residue present in the terminal Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GLcNAc sequence common to all known toxin binding glycoconjugates is required for carbohydrate-specific recognition by Toxin A. These observations are consistent with the proposed carbohydrate binding specificity of Toxin A for the nonreducing terminal sequence, Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc.

  6. The synthesis and structure of gemini QASs of 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-L-iditol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, Karol; Nowacki, Andrzej; Sikorski, Artur; Dmochowska, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    New, efficient, straightforward method of synthesizing quaternary diammonium salts of 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-L-iditol have been developed. This paper presents the synthesis and structural analysis of diammonium (gemini) salts, including their X-ray diffraction analysis, wherein the linking structure of nitrogen atoms consists of two fused furanoid rings. 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-2,5-di-O-triflyl-D-mannitol and four tertiary amines, i.e., 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP), pyridine, trimethylamine and N,N-dimethyloctylamine, were used for the synthesis. All the syntheses were carried out under mild conditions by the direct nucleophilic displacement of the O-triflil group by the amine. Walden inversion of configuration at C2 and C5 atoms has occurred during the reaction, giving products with L-ido configuration. Furthermore, NMR and X-ray conformational analysis of 1,4:3,6-dianhydrohexitol residue was done. In most cases furanoid rings adopt the twisted conformation both in the crystal and in solution.

  7. [Analysis of 1,4-dioxane in drinking water by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufei; Shi, Jiawei; Wang, Li; Jin, Micong

    2015-04-01

    A method for the detection of trace 1,4-dioxane in drinking water using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS/SPME ) with gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (FID) was presented. Both the extraction conditions (SPME fiber, extraction temperature, extraction time, pH and sample volume, et al) and the gas chromatographic conditions were optimized. The results showed that the best response was obtained with 85 µm Carboxen-PDMS above 3 mL water in a 20-mL screw capped vial containing 3 mL sodium hydroxide solution (600 g/L). The best chromatographic separation was obtained on a PTA-5 capillary column (30 m x 0.53 mm x 3.0 µm) which was modified with alkali-bonding and of large pores and thick film. The linear range for 1,4-dioxane was 0.50-50.0 µg/L with the correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9995. The limit of detection (S/N > 3) was 0.14 µg/L. The recoveries for the actual water samples at low, medium and high spiked levels were 95.5%-107%, with the relative standard deviations of 1.1%-5.3% (n = 6). The developed method is simple, accurate, reproducible and highly sensitive. It is suitable for the routine monitoring of trace amount of 1,4-dioxane in the drinking water.

  8. Antiparallel protocadherin homodimers use distinct affinity- and specificity-mediating regions in cadherin repeats 1-4.

    PubMed

    Nicoludis, John M; Vogt, Bennett E; Green, Anna G; Schärfe, Charlotta Pi; Marks, Debora S; Gaudet, Rachelle

    2016-01-01

    Protocadherins (Pcdhs) are cell adhesion and signaling proteins used by neurons to develop and maintain neuronal networks, relying on trans homophilic interactions between their extracellular cadherin (EC) repeat domains. We present the structure of the antiparallel EC1-4 homodimer of human PcdhγB3, a member of the γ subfamily of clustered Pcdhs. Structure and sequence comparisons of α, β, and γ clustered Pcdh isoforms illustrate that subfamilies encode specificity in distinct ways through diversification of loop region structure and composition in EC2 and EC3, which contains isoform-specific conservation of primarily polar residues. In contrast, the EC1/EC4 interface comprises hydrophobic interactions that provide non-selective dimerization affinity. Using sequence coevolution analysis, we found evidence for a similar antiparallel EC1-4 interaction in non-clustered Pcdh families. We thus deduce that the EC1-4 antiparallel homodimer is a general interaction strategy that evolved before the divergence of these distinct protocadherin families. PMID:27472898

  9. Antiparallel protocadherin homodimers use distinct affinity- and specificity-mediating regions in cadherin repeats 1-4

    PubMed Central

    Nicoludis, John M; Vogt, Bennett E; Green, Anna G; Schärfe, Charlotta PI; Marks, Debora S; Gaudet, Rachelle

    2016-01-01

    Protocadherins (Pcdhs) are cell adhesion and signaling proteins used by neurons to develop and maintain neuronal networks, relying on trans homophilic interactions between their extracellular cadherin (EC) repeat domains. We present the structure of the antiparallel EC1-4 homodimer of human PcdhγB3, a member of the γ subfamily of clustered Pcdhs. Structure and sequence comparisons of α, β, and γ clustered Pcdh isoforms illustrate that subfamilies encode specificity in distinct ways through diversification of loop region structure and composition in EC2 and EC3, which contains isoform-specific conservation of primarily polar residues. In contrast, the EC1/EC4 interface comprises hydrophobic interactions that provide non-selective dimerization affinity. Using sequence coevolution analysis, we found evidence for a similar antiparallel EC1-4 interaction in non-clustered Pcdh families. We thus deduce that the EC1-4 antiparallel homodimer is a general interaction strategy that evolved before the divergence of these distinct protocadherin families. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18449.001 PMID:27472898

  10. Susceptibility of 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel to liquid metal induced embrittlement by lithium-lead solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhard, B.A.; Edwards, G.R.

    1984-08-01

    An investigation has been conducted on the liquid metal induced embrittlement susceptibility of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel exposed to lithium and 1a/o lead-lithium at temperatures between 190/sup 0/C and 525/sup 0/C. This research was part of an ongoing effort to evaluate the compatibility of liquid lithium solutions with potential fusion reactor containment materials. Of particular interest was the microstructure present in a weld heat-affected zone, a microstructure known to be highly susceptible to corrosive attack by liquid lead-lithium solutions. Embrittlement susceptibility was determined by conducting tension tests on 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel exposed to an inert environment as well as to a lead-lithium liquid and observing the change in tensile behavior. The 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel was also given a base plate heat treatment to observe its embrittlement susceptibility to 1a/o lead-lithium. The base plate microstructure was severely embrittled at temperatures less than 500/sup 0/C. Tempering the base plate was effective in restoring adequate ductility to the steel.

  11. HCG induces β1,4-GalT I expression and promotes embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lili; Xie, Yunpeng; Fan, Jianhui; Sui, Linlin; Xu, Yuefei; Zhang, Ningning; Ma, Yanni; Li, Yinghua; Kong, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Embryo implantation is regarded as a critical physiological process for the success of pregnancy. There are so many reports on the research of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in artificial insemination, but the impact of HCG on endometrial receptivity has not been elucidated. Beta1, 4-Galactosyltransferase-I (β1,4-GalT-I) is ubiquitously expresses in human tissues with the exception of the brain. It not only transfers galactose from UDP-galactoside to GlcNAc to form Galβl,4-GlcNAc, but plays crucial role as cell adhesion molecule by recognizing and adhering other extracellular matrix and galactose of cell surface glycoprotein and glycolipid in cancer cells invasion and migration. The process of the embryos implantation is very similar to tumor invasion, so many biological factors participate in the tumor invasion also play a role in embryo implantation. We hypothesize that β1,4-GalT-I may take part in embryo implantation. In this study, we demonstrated that the over expression of β1,4-GalT-I was induced by HCG in RL95-2 cells. Moreover, the expression of some molecules, such as TIMP-1, LN and MMPs could be regulated by engineered expression of β1,4-GalT-I and therefore lead to the significantly alteration of adhesion capability of RL95-2 cells, even result in reduced adhesive ability between JAR cells and RL95-2 cells. Furthermore, our results indicated that HCG can obviously increase the EGFR signaling pathways-dependent molecular expression through β1,4-GalT-I, HCG also improved the adhesive ability between JAR cells and RL95-2 cells (P<0.01). Taken together, our data suggested that HCG provides a mechanism to bridge embryo to endometrium through β1,4-GalT. PMID:26191157

  12. Perception of detail in 3D images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heynderickx, Ingrid; Kaptein, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    A lot of current 3D displays suffer from the fact that their spatial resolution is lower compared to their 2D counterparts. One reason for this is that the multiple views needed to generate 3D are often spatially multiplexed. Besides this, imperfect separation of the left- and right-eye view leads to blurring or ghosting, and therefore to a decrease in perceived sharpness. However, people watching stereoscopic videos have reported that the 3D scene contained more details, compared to the 2D scene with identical spatial resolution. This is an interesting notion, that has never been tested in a systematic and quantitative way. To investigate this effect, we had people compare the amount of detail ("detailedness") in pairs of 2D and 3D images. A blur filter was applied to one of the two images, and the blur level was varied using an adaptive staircase procedure. In this way, the blur threshold for which the 2D and 3D image contained perceptually the same amount of detail could be found. Our results show that the 3D image needed to be blurred more than the 2D image. This confirms the earlier qualitative findings that 3D images contain perceptually more details than 2D images with the same spatial resolution.

  13. Detailed numerical simulations of laser cooling processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez-Serrano, J.; Kohel, J.; Thompson, R.; Yu, N.

    2001-01-01

    We developed a detailed semiclassical numerical code of the forces applied on atoms in optical and magnetic fields to increase the understanding of the different roles that light, atomic collisions, background pressure, and number of particles play in experiments with laser cooled and trapped atoms.

  14. 33 CFR 116.20 - Detailed investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Bridge Administration Program determines that a Detailed Investigation should be conducted, the District Commander will initiate an investigation that addresses all of the pertinent data regarding the bridge, including information obtained at a public meeting held under § 116.25. As part of the investigation,...

  15. The rich detail of cultural symbol systems.

    PubMed

    Read, Dwight W

    2014-08-01

    The goal of forming a science of intentional behavior requires a more richly detailed account of symbolic systems than is assumed by the authors. Cultural systems are not simply the equivalent in the ideational domain of culture of the purported Baldwin Effect in the genetic domain. PMID:25162879

  16. Big Heads, Small Details and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sarah; O'Reilly, Helen; Frith, Uta

    2009-01-01

    Autism is thought to be associated with a bias towards detail-focussed processing. While the cognitive basis remains controversial, one strong hypothesis is that there are high processing costs associated with changing from local into global processing. A possible neural mechanism underlying this processing style is abnormal neural connectivity;…

  17. 33 CFR 116.20 - Detailed investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Bridge Programs determines that a Detailed Investigation should be conducted, the District Commander will initiate an investigation that addresses all of the pertinent data regarding the bridge, including... discuss: the obstructive character of the bridge in question; the impact of that bridge upon...

  18. 33 CFR 116.20 - Detailed investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Bridge Programs determines that a Detailed Investigation should be conducted, the District Commander will initiate an investigation that addresses all of the pertinent data regarding the bridge, including... discuss: the obstructive character of the bridge in question; the impact of that bridge upon...

  19. 33 CFR 116.20 - Detailed investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Office of Bridge Programs determines that a Detailed Investigation should be conducted, the District Commander will initiate an investigation that addresses all of the pertinent data regarding the bridge... will discuss: the obstructive character of the bridge in question; the impact of that bridge...

  20. 33 CFR 116.20 - Detailed investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Office of Bridge Programs determines that a Detailed Investigation should be conducted, the District Commander will initiate an investigation that addresses all of the pertinent data regarding the bridge... will discuss: the obstructive character of the bridge in question; the impact of that bridge...

  1. Contrast-detail phantom scoring methodology.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jerry A; Chakrabarti, Kish; Kaczmarek, Richard; Romanyukha, Alexander

    2005-03-01

    Published results of medical imaging studies which make use of contrast detail mammography (CDMAM) phantom images for analysis are difficult to compare since data are often not analyzed in the same way. In order to address this situation, the concept of ideal contrast detail curves is suggested. The ideal contrast detail curves are constructed based on the requirement of having the same product of the diameter and contrast (disk thickness) of the minimal correctly determined object for every row of the CDMAM phantom image. A correlation and comparison of five different quality parameters of the CDMAM phantom image determined for obtained ideal contrast detail curves is performed. The image quality parameters compared include: (1) contrast detail curve--a graph correlation between "minimal correct reading" diameter and disk thickness; (2) correct observation ratio--the ratio of the number of correctly identified objects to the actual total number of objects multiplied by 100; (3) image quality figure--the sum of the product of the diameter of the smallest scored object and its relative contrast; (4) figure-of-merit--the zero disk diameter value obtained from extrapolation of the contrast detail curve to the origin (e.g., zero disk diameter); and (5) k-factor--the product of the thickness and the diameter of the smallest correctly identified disks. The analysis carried out showed the existence of a nonlinear relationship between the above parameters, which means that use of different parameters of CDMAM image quality potentially can cause different conclusions about changes in image quality. Construction of the ideal contrast detail curves for CDMAM phantom is an attempt to determine the quantitative limits of the CDMAM phantom as employed for image quality evaluation. These limits are determined by the relationship between certain parameters of a digital mammography system and the set of the gold disks sizes in the CDMAM phantom. Recommendations are made on

  2. Contrast-detail phantom scoring methodology.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jerry A; Chakrabarti, Kish; Kaczmarek, Richard; Romanyukha, Alexander

    2005-03-01

    Published results of medical imaging studies which make use of contrast detail mammography (CDMAM) phantom images for analysis are difficult to compare since data are often not analyzed in the same way. In order to address this situation, the concept of ideal contrast detail curves is suggested. The ideal contrast detail curves are constructed based on the requirement of having the same product of the diameter and contrast (disk thickness) of the minimal correctly determined object for every row of the CDMAM phantom image. A correlation and comparison of five different quality parameters of the CDMAM phantom image determined for obtained ideal contrast detail curves is performed. The image quality parameters compared include: (1) contrast detail curve--a graph correlation between "minimal correct reading" diameter and disk thickness; (2) correct observation ratio--the ratio of the number of correctly identified objects to the actual total number of objects multiplied by 100; (3) image quality figure--the sum of the product of the diameter of the smallest scored object and its relative contrast; (4) figure-of-merit--the zero disk diameter value obtained from extrapolation of the contrast detail curve to the origin (e.g., zero disk diameter); and (5) k-factor--the product of the thickness and the diameter of the smallest correctly identified disks. The analysis carried out showed the existence of a nonlinear relationship between the above parameters, which means that use of different parameters of CDMAM image quality potentially can cause different conclusions about changes in image quality. Construction of the ideal contrast detail curves for CDMAM phantom is an attempt to determine the quantitative limits of the CDMAM phantom as employed for image quality evaluation. These limits are determined by the relationship between certain parameters of a digital mammography system and the set of the gold disks sizes in the CDMAM phantom. Recommendations are made on

  3. Design, Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Heteroatom-Substituted 1,4-Naphtho- and Benzoquinones.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Nahide Gülşah; Ibis, Cemil; Gokmen, Zeliha; Stasevych, Maryna; Novikov, Volodymyr; Komarovska-Porokhnyavets, Olena; Ozyurek, Mustafa; Guclu, Kubilay; Karakas, Didem; Ulukaya, Engin

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we report the synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation as antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic/anticancer agents of N-, S-, O-substituted-1,4-naphtho- and 2,5-bis(amino-substituted)-1,4-benzoquinone derivatives. In the synthesized compounds, antimicrobial activity at low concentrations against Escherichia coli B-906, Staphylococcus aureus 209-P, and Mycobacterium luteum B-917 bacteria and Candida tenuis VKM Y-70 and Aspergillus niger F-1119 fungi in comparison with controls was identified. 2-(N-Diphenylmethylpiperazin-1-yl)-3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone 9a was the most potent, with a minimum inhibitory concentration value of 3.9 µg/mL against test culture M. luteum. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antioxidant capacity using the cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method. 2,2'-[1-(2-Aminoethyl)piperazin-1-yl]-3,3'-dichloro-bis(1,4-naphthoquinone) 10 showed the highest antioxidant capacity, with a 0.455 CUPRAC-trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) coefficient. Other parameters of antioxidant activity (scavenging effects on OH(·), O2(·-), and H2O2) of these compounds were also determined. The cytotoxic activity of the compounds was investigated by employing the sulforhodamine B cell viability assay against A549 (lung), MCF-7 (breast), DU145 (prostate), and HT-29 (colon) cancer cell lines. Compound 10 exhibited the most powerful cytotoxic activity at a concentration of 20 µM against all cell lines. In addition to the strongest antioxidant activity of compound 10, it also had lowest IC50 values (<3 µM), warranting further in vivo studies due to its anticancer activity. PMID:26633024

  4. Design, Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Heteroatom-Substituted 1,4-Naphtho- and Benzoquinones.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Nahide Gülşah; Ibis, Cemil; Gokmen, Zeliha; Stasevych, Maryna; Novikov, Volodymyr; Komarovska-Porokhnyavets, Olena; Ozyurek, Mustafa; Guclu, Kubilay; Karakas, Didem; Ulukaya, Engin

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we report the synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation as antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic/anticancer agents of N-, S-, O-substituted-1,4-naphtho- and 2,5-bis(amino-substituted)-1,4-benzoquinone derivatives. In the synthesized compounds, antimicrobial activity at low concentrations against Escherichia coli B-906, Staphylococcus aureus 209-P, and Mycobacterium luteum B-917 bacteria and Candida tenuis VKM Y-70 and Aspergillus niger F-1119 fungi in comparison with controls was identified. 2-(N-Diphenylmethylpiperazin-1-yl)-3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone 9a was the most potent, with a minimum inhibitory concentration value of 3.9 µg/mL against test culture M. luteum. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antioxidant capacity using the cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method. 2,2'-[1-(2-Aminoethyl)piperazin-1-yl]-3,3'-dichloro-bis(1,4-naphthoquinone) 10 showed the highest antioxidant capacity, with a 0.455 CUPRAC-trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) coefficient. Other parameters of antioxidant activity (scavenging effects on OH(·), O2(·-), and H2O2) of these compounds were also determined. The cytotoxic activity of the compounds was investigated by employing the sulforhodamine B cell viability assay against A549 (lung), MCF-7 (breast), DU145 (prostate), and HT-29 (colon) cancer cell lines. Compound 10 exhibited the most powerful cytotoxic activity at a concentration of 20 µM against all cell lines. In addition to the strongest antioxidant activity of compound 10, it also had lowest IC50 values (<3 µM), warranting further in vivo studies due to its anticancer activity.

  5. Theoretical investigations of the reaction between 1,4-dithiane-2,5-diol and azomethine imines: mechanisms and diastereoselectivity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Linjie; Qiao, Yan; Lu, Mengxue; Chang, Junbiao

    2015-07-21

    In the present study, mechanistic insights into the domino reaction between 1,4-dithiane-2,5-diol and azomethine imines were derived from the computational study with B3LYP and M06-2X functionals. On the whole, the domino process comprises two consecutive reactions: cleavage of 1,4-dithiane-2,5-diol leading to mercaptoacetaldehyde and [3 + 3] cycloaddition of mercaptoacetaldehyde with azomethine imines. The cleavage of 1,4-dithiane-2,5-diol can take place via multiple possible pathways (1A-1E), and pathway 1E in which double-methanol molecules mediate the proton transfer process is the most energetically favorable, with an energy barrier of 19.9 kcal mol(-1). For the [3 + 3] cycloaddition, three possible pathways (2F-2H) were explored. The calculated energy profiles reveal that pathway 2H with activation energies ranging from 6.9 to 10.2 kcal mol(-1) is more energetically favorable than pathways 2F and 2G. Specifically, pathway 2H comprises three reaction steps: deprotonation of mercaptoacetaldehyde by DABCO allows for the formation of the thiol anion, which subsequently launches a nucleophilic attack on azomethine imines followed by intramolecular cyclization resulting in the final products. The calculated results are in agreement with the experimental observations that the reaction can proceed most efficiently in the presence of both DABCO and methanol. Furthermore, the hydrogen bonding interaction is identified to be the main factor determining the observed diastereoselectivity The current systematic theoretical study gives a full scenario of the reaction between 1,4-dithiane-2,5-diol and azomethine imines catalyzed by DABCO, and thus provides some valuable clues for further investigation and development of this kind of important reaction. PMID:26079432

  6. Detailed thermal-hydraulic computation into a containment building

    SciTech Connect

    Caruso. A.; Flour, I.; Simonin, O.

    1995-09-01

    This paper deals with numerical predictions of the influence of water sprays upon stratifications into a containment building using a two-dimensional two-phase flow code. Basic equations and closure assumptions are briefly presented. A test case in a situation involving spray evaporation is first detailed to illustrate the validation step. Then results are presented for a compressible recirculating flow into a containment building with condensation phenomena.

  7. Tile-based Level of Detail for the Parallel Age

    SciTech Connect

    Niski, K; Cohen, J D

    2007-08-15

    Today's PCs incorporate multiple CPUs and GPUs and are easily arranged in clusters for high-performance, interactive graphics. We present an approach based on hierarchical, screen-space tiles to parallelizing rendering with level of detail. Adapt tiles, render tiles, and machine tiles are associated with CPUs, GPUs, and PCs, respectively, to efficiently parallelize the workload with good resource utilization. Adaptive tile sizes provide load balancing while our level of detail system allows total and independent management of the load on CPUs and GPUs. We demonstrate our approach on parallel configurations consisting of both single PCs and a cluster of PCs.

  8. An Investigation of Placement and Type of Seductive Details: The Primacy Effect of Seductive Details on Text Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Emily; Skinner, Christopher H.; Davis-Richards, Kai; Saudargas, Richard; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Seductive details are interesting, but sometimes irrelevant to the target material present in texts and lectures. In the current study, 388 undergraduate students read six paragraphs describing Sigmund Freud's psychosexual stages (i.e., target material). Participants in four groups also read one of two biographical paragraphs. The biographical…

  9. (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucans in cell walls of the poaceae, lower plants, and fungi: a tale of two linkages.

    PubMed

    Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2009-09-01

    (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucans consist of unbranched and unsubstituted chains of (1,3)- and (1,4)-beta-glucosyl residues, in which the ratio of (1,4)-beta-D-glucosyl residues to (1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl residues appears to influence not only the physicochemical properties of the polysaccharide and therefore its functional properties in cell walls, but also its adoption by different plant species during evolution. The (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucans are widely distributed as non-cellulosic matrix phase polysaccharides in cell walls of the Poaceae, which evolved relatively recently and consist of the grasses and commercially important cereal species, but they are less commonly found in lower vascular plants, such as the horsetails, in algae and in fungi. The (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucans have often been considered to be components mainly of primary cell walls, but recent observations indicate that they can also be located in secondary walls of certain tissues. Enzymes involved in the depolymerisation of (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucans have been well characterized. In contrast, initial difficulties in purifying the enzymes responsible for (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan biosynthesis slowed progress in the identification of the genes that encode (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan synthases, but emerging comparative genomics and associated techniques have allowed at least some of the genes that contribute to (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan synthesis in the Poaceae to be identified. Whether similar genes and enzymes also mediate (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan biosynthesis in lower plants and fungi is not yet known. Here, we compare the different fine structures of (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucans across the plant kingdom, present current information on the genes that have been implicated recently in their biosynthesis, and consider aspects of the cell biology of (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan biosynthesis in the Poaceae.

  10. Phytotoxicity, uptake and metabolism of 1,4-dichlorobenzene by plant cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.J. |; Bokern, M.; Boehme, C.; Harms, H.; Jones, K.C.

    1996-07-01

    Phytotoxicity, uptake, and metabolism of 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) by carrot (Daucus carota L.), soybean (Glycine max. L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and red goosefoot (Chenopodiun rubrum L.) cell suspension cultures were studied. Sealed glass systems were utilized for the investigation because 1,4-DCB is volatile. The sealed systems affect the growth of plant cells, but do not provide different results when testing xenobiotic uptake and metabolism. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene (40 {micro}g in 40 ml medium) was taken up by carrot (49%), soybean (50%), and red goosefoot (62%) cells. Only the soybean cell cultures provided evidence of the existence of metabolites of this compound, probably conjugates of chlorophenols. Conditions for phytotoxicity tests were modified because the growth of cell cultures was affected when sealed for longer than 2 d. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene is toxic to cell cultures of the three tested plant species (tomato, soybean, and carrot). Concentrations of 0.5 mM caused 50% growth inhibition in carrot and soybean cultures. The tomato cultures were more sensitive, with 0.05 mM causing 50% growth inhibition.

  11. Physiologically based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of 1,4-Dioxane in Rats, Mice, and Humans

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, Lisa M.; Thrall, Karla D.; Poet, Torka S.; Corley, Rick; Weber, Thomas J.; Locey, B. J.; Clarkson, Jacquelyn; Sager, S.; Gargas, M. L.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT 1,4-Dioxane (CAS No. 123-91-1) is used primarily as a solvent or as a solvent stabilizer. It can cause lung, liver and kidney damage at sufficiently high exposure levels. Two physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of 1,4-dioxane and its major metabolite, hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (HEAA), were published in 1990. These models have uncertainties and deficiencies that could be addressed and the model strengthened for use in a contemporary cancer risk assessment for 1,4-dioxane. Studies were performed to fill data gaps and reduce uncertainties pertaining to the pharmacokinetics of 1,4-dioxane and HEAA in rats, mice, and humans. Three types of studies were performed:partition coefficient measurements, blood time course in mice, and in vitro pharmacokinetics using rat, mouse, and human hepatocytes. Updated PBPK models were developed based on these new data and previously available data. The optimized rate of metabolism for the mouse was significantly higher than the value previously estimated. The optimized rat kinetic parameters were similar to those in the 1990 models. Only two human studies were identified. Model predictions were consistent with one study, but did not fit the second as well. In addition, a rat nasal exposure was completed. The results confirmed water directly contacts rat nasal tissues during drinking water under bioassays. Consistent with previous PBPK models, nasal tissues were not specifically included in the model. Use of these models will reduce the uncertainty in future 1,4-dioxane risk assessments.

  12. Simultaneous determination of five quinoxaline-1,4-dioxides in animal feeds using an immunochromatographic strip.

    PubMed

    Le, Tao; Zhu, Liqian; Shu, Lihui; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    An immunochromatographic (ICG) strip was developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of five quinoxaline-1,4-dioxides in animal feed. For this purpose, polyclonal antibodies (PcAb) with group-specific quinoxaline-1,4-dioxides were conjugated to colloidal gold particles as the detection reagent for ICG strips to test for quinoxaline-1,4-dioxides. This method achieved semi-quantitative detection of quinoxaline-1,4-dioxides within 5-10 min. The visual lower detection limits of the strip for quinocetone, cyadox, carbadox, mequindox and olaquindox were 10, 15, 15, 20 and 20 ng ml(-1), respectively. Using an ICG strip reader, the 50% inhibitions (IC50 values) were calculated to be 9.1, 13.5, 16.6, 20.2 and 21.3 ng ml(-1) for quinocetone, cyadox, carbadox, mequindox and olaquindox, respectively. When used to analyse samples of animal feed, acceptable recovery rates of 77.5-99.5% and coefficients of variation (CVs) of 4.3-10.7% were obtained. Levels measured with the ICG strip for 10 spiked samples were confirmed by HPLC with a high correlation coefficient of 0.9965 (n = 10). In conclusion, the method was rapid and accurate for simultaneous determination of five quinoxaline-1,4-dioxides antibiotics in animal feed.

  13. Gadolinium-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid conjugate of arabinogalactan as a potential liver-targeting magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yan; Xue, Rong; You, Tianyan; Li, Xiaojing; Pei, Fengkui; Wang, Xuxia; Lei, Hao

    2014-08-18

    A novel biocompatible macromolecule (AG-CM-EDA-DOTA-Gd) was synthesized as a liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. AG-CM-EDA-DOTA-Gd consisted of a carboxymethyl-arabinogalactan unit conjugated with gadolinium-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (Gd-DOTA) via ethylenediamine, and was specifically designed to bind to hepatocyte asialoglycoprotein in vivo, in an effort to develop a potential new tool for the diagnosis of liver diseases. The T1-relaxivity (8.87mmol(-1)Ls(-1)) of AG-CM-EDA-DOTA-Gd was 1.86 times than that of Gd-DOTA (4.76mmol(-1)Ls(-1)) in D2O at 9.4 T and 25°C. MRI experiments showed significant enhancement in rat liver following the intravenous administration of AG-CM-EDA-DOTA-Gd (0.094mmol Gd(3+)/kg body weight), which persisted for longer than Gd-DOTA (0.098mmol Gd(3+)/kg body weight). The mean percentage enhancements in the liver parenchyma were 85.2±6.5% and 19.3±3.3% for AG-CM-EDA-DOTA-Gd and Gd-DOTA, respectively. The results of this study therefore indicate that AG-CM-EDA-DOTA-Gd could be used as a potential liver-targeting contrast agent for MRI.

  14. Thermodynamics of disproportionation and heats of hydration of 1,4-benzosemiquinone and 1,4-naphthosemiquinone at pH 7. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Alegria, A.E.; Munoz, C.; Rodriguez, M.S. )

    1990-01-25

    The thermodynamics of disproportionation of 1,4-benzosemiquinone (BQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}}) and 1,4-naphthosemiquinone (NQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}}) in cacodylic-cacodylate buffer at pH 7.1 was studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and solution calorimetry. The disproportionation of BQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} was found to be more exergonic and exothermic than that corresponding to NQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} in both aqueous and gas phases. These semiquinones disproportionate about 40 times more exothermically in the gaseous than in the aqueous phase. The differences between the enthalpies of disproportionation corresponding to BQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} and NQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} are 51 and 14 kJ/mol in the gaseous and aqueous phases, respectively. The heats of hydration of BQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} and NQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} were determined with a convenient thermochemical cycle based on the enthalpies of disproportionation. The single-ion heats of hydration of BQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} and NQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} were found to be {minus}360 and {minus}377 kJ/mol, respectively. The heats of hydration of the net negative charge in BQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} and NQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} were found to be the same.

  15. catena-Poly[1,4-dihydroxy-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane [aquatri-μ-chlorido-trichloridodicuprate(II)

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei-Qiang; Zhou, Qin-Qin; Zhang, Yi

    2013-04-01

    The title compound, {(C6H14N2O2)[Cu2Cl6(H2O)]}n, consists of 1,4-dihydroxy-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane dications and one-dimensional inorganic anionic {[Cu2Cl6(H2O)](2-)}n chains in which both five-coordinate [CuCl3(H2O)](-) and five-coordinate [CuCl3](-) units exist. These two distinct type of unit are linked together by one chloride ion and are bridged across centres of inversion to further units of their own type through two chloride ions, giving rise to novel polymeric zigzag chains parallel to the c axis. The chains are connected by O-H···Cl hydrogen bonds to produce R2(4)(16) ring motifs, resulting in two-dimensional layers parallel to the ac plane. These layers are linked into a three-dimensional framework with the organic cations via O-H···Cl hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonding between the chains, and between the chains and the organic cations, provides stability to the crystal structure.

  16. Crystal Structure of the Catalytic Domain of Drosophila [beta]1,4-Galactosyltransferase-7

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishnan, Boopathy; Qasba, Pradman K.

    2010-11-03

    The {beta}1,4-galactosyltransferase-7 ({beta}4Gal-T7) enzyme, one of seven members of the {beta}4Gal-T family, transfers in the presence of manganese Gal from UDP-Gal to an acceptor sugar (xylose) that is attached to a side chain hydroxyl group of Ser/Thr residues of proteoglycan proteins. It exhibits the least protein sequence similarity with the other family members, including the well studied family member {beta}4Gal-T1, which, in the presence of manganese, transfers Gal from UDP-Gal to GlcNAc. We report here the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of {beta}4Gal-T7 from Drosophila in the presence of manganese and UDP at 1.81 {angstrom} resolution. In the crystal structure, a new manganese ion-binding motif (HXH) has been observed. Superposition of the crystal structures of {beta}4Gal-T7 and {beta}4Gal-T1 shows that the catalytic pocket and the substrate-binding sites in these proteins are similar. Compared with GlcNAc, xylose has a hydroxyl group (instead of an N-acetyl group) at C2 and lacks the CH{sub 2}OH group at C5; thus, these protein structures show significant differences in their acceptor-binding site. Modeling of xylose in the acceptor-binding site of the {beta}4Gal-T7 crystal structure shows that the aromatic side chain of Tyr{sup 177} interacts strongly with the C5 atom of xylose, causing steric hindrance to any additional group at C5. Because Drosophila Cd7 has a 73% protein sequence similarity to human Cd7, the present crystal structure offers a structure-based explanation for the mutations in human Cd7 that have been linked to Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

  17. Pseudocapacitance and excellent cyclability of 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone on graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Boota, Muhammad; Chen, Chi; Bécuwe, Matthieu; Miao, Ling; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-04-27

    Electrochemically active organic materials are emerging as low cost, naturally abundant and sustainable alternatives to their metal-based counterparts. However, their usage in energy storage systems is mainly hindered by their poor conductivity, which results in capacitance fade upon cycling. In this paper, we present a redox-active xerogel composed of 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DMQ) decorated on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets via a hydrothermal method as a high capacitance and long cycle life pseudocapacitive electrode. DMQ not only provided stable redox-active centers but also served as a spacer to avoid rGO sheets aggregation and led to a three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical electrode architecture. Whenmore » a binder-free 50 μm thick rolled film was tested as a pseudocapacitive electrode, it exhibited an excellent capacitance of 650 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1 (780 F cm-3) in 1 M sulfuric acid, outperforming a large number of reported organic and inorganic electrodes. Most importantly, optimized electrodes showed an excellent capacitance retention of 99% after 25 000 cycles at 50 mV s-1. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are further used to understand the charge storage mechanism, the preferred orientation of the adsorbed molecules, charge density distribution and density of states. In conclusion, our combined experimental and theoretical findings demonstrate that the careful selection of the conductive substrate, electrode architecture and organic molecules plays a crucial role in achieving high capacitance and long cycling performance.« less

  18. Provenance and paleoweathering reconstruction of the Mesoproterozoic Hongshuizhuang Formation (1.4 Ga), northern North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qingyong; Zhong, Ningning; Wang, Yannian; Ma, Ling; Li, Min

    2015-10-01

    This is the first study presenting major and trace elemental data from the Mesoproterozoic Hongshuizhuang Formation shales in Yanshan basin, North China, in order to reconstruct its provenance and chemical weathering history. The shales are strongly depleted in Na2O and Sr and enriched in Y and transition metal elements relative to upper continental crust. Low Zr concentrations and various discriminant plots (e.g., Th/Sc-Zr/Sc and Al2O3-TiO2-Zr) indicate insignificant mineral sorting or recycling of these shales. The rocks show light rare earth element (REE) enrichment (La/YbCN = 3.99-6.92), flat heavy REE, and significantly negative Eu anomalies (Euan = 0.57-0.68) in chondrite-normalized REE patterns, similar to post-Archean Australian average shales. The fairly uniform REE patterns and trace element ratios indicate that the Hongshuizhuang Formation shales were derived from a felsic source area with granodiorite as the dominant contributor. Mixing calculations suggest a mixture of 30 % granite porphyry, 5 % basalt, and 65 % granodiorite as the possible source of the shales, also supporting that granodiorite was the predominant source. Intense chemical weathering of the source terrain is indicated by high values of the premetasomatized chemical index of alteration, plagioclase index of alteration, Rb/Sr, a strong positive correlation between TiO2 and Al2O3, depletion of CaO, Na2O, and Sr, and mineral compositions. Such strong chemical weathering suggests a warm and wet paleoclimate, perhaps due to high atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations, and a near-equatorial location of the North China Craton in the Columbia supercontinent at 1.4 Ga.

  19. Effects of Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate on Osteoclast Differentiation in RANKL-induced Osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Son, Aran; Kim, Min Seuk; Jo, Hae; Byun, Hae Mi; Shin, Dong Min

    2012-02-01

    The receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) signal is an activator of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), which leads to the activation of NF-κB and other signal transduction pathways essential for osteoclastogenesis, such as Ca(2+) signaling. However, the intracellular levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) and IP(3)-mediated cellular function of RANKL during osteoclastogenesis are not known. In the present study, we determined the levels of IP(3) and evaluated IP(3)-mediated osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast activity by RANKL treatment of mouse leukemic macrophage cells (RAW 264.7) and mouse bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage precursor cells (BMMs). During osteoclastogenesis, the expression levels of Ca(2+) signaling proteins such as IP(3) receptors (IP(3)Rs), plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase, and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase type2 did not change by RANKL treatment for up to 6 days in both cell types. At 24 h after RANKL treatment, a higher steady-state level of IP(3) was observed in RAW264.7 cells transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged pleckstrin homology (PH) domains of phospholipase C (PLC) δ, a probe specifically detecting intracellular IP(3) levels. In BMMs, the inhibition of PLC with U73122 [a specific inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC)] and of IP(3)Rs with 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB; a non-specific inhibitor of IP(3)Rs) inhibited the generation of RANKL-induced multinucleated cells and decreased the bone-resorption rate in dentin slice, respectively. These results suggest that intracellular IP(3) levels and the IP(3)-mediated signaling pathway play an important role in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis.

  20. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-isoform diversity in cell death and survival.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Hristina; Vervliet, Tim; Missiaen, Ludwig; Parys, Jan B; De Smedt, Humbert; Bultynck, Geert

    2014-10-01

    Cell-death and -survival decisions are critically controlled by intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and dynamics at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3Rs) play a pivotal role in these processes by mediating Ca(2+) flux from the ER into the cytosol and mitochondria. Hence, it is clear that many pro-survival and pro-death signaling pathways and proteins affect Ca(2+) signaling by directly targeting IP3R channels, which can happen in an IP3R-isoform-dependent manner. In this review, we will focus on how the different IP3R isoforms (IP3R1, IP3R2 and IP3R3) control cell death and survival. First, we will present an overview of the isoform-specific regulation of IP3Rs by cellular factors like IP3, Ca(2+), Ca(2+)-binding proteins, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), thiol modification, phosphorylation and interacting proteins, and of IP3R-isoform specific expression patterns. Second, we will discuss the role of the ER as a Ca(2+) store in cell death and survival and how IP3Rs and pro-survival/pro-death proteins can modulate the basal ER Ca(2+) leak. Third, we will review the regulation of the Ca(2+)-flux properties of the IP3R isoforms by the ER-resident and by the cytoplasmic proteins involved in cell death and survival as well as by redox regulation. Hence, we aim to highlight the specific roles of the various IP3R isoforms in cell-death and -survival signaling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium signaling in health and disease. Guest Editors: Geert Bultynck, Jacques Haiech, Claus W. Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, and Marc Moreau.

  1. Effects of Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate on Osteoclast Differentiation in RANKL-induced Osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Son, Aran; Kim, Min Seuk; Jo, Hae; Byun, Hae Mi

    2012-01-01

    The receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) signal is an activator of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), which leads to the activation of NF-κB and other signal transduction pathways essential for osteoclastogenesis, such as Ca2+ signaling. However, the intracellular levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and IP3-mediated cellular function of RANKL during osteoclastogenesis are not known. In the present study, we determined the levels of IP3 and evaluated IP3-mediated osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast activity by RANKL treatment of mouse leukemic macrophage cells (RAW 264.7) and mouse bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage precursor cells (BMMs). During osteoclastogenesis, the expression levels of Ca2+ signaling proteins such as IP3 receptors (IP3Rs), plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase, and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase type2 did not change by RANKL treatment for up to 6 days in both cell types. At 24 h after RANKL treatment, a higher steady-state level of IP3 was observed in RAW264.7 cells transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged pleckstrin homology (PH) domains of phospholipase C (PLC) δ, a probe specifically detecting intracellular IP3 levels. In BMMs, the inhibition of PLC with U73122 [a specific inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC)] and of IP3Rs with 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB; a non-specific inhibitor of IP3Rs) inhibited the generation of RANKL-induced multinucleated cells and decreased the bone-resorption rate in dentin slice, respectively. These results suggest that intracellular IP3 levels and the IP3-mediated signaling pathway play an important role in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. PMID:22416217

  2. A soluble Bacillus cereus cytochrome P-450cin system catalyzes 1,4-cineole hydroxylations.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, W; Rosazza, J P

    1993-01-01

    A cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system that catalyzes the stereospecific hydroxylation of the monoterpene substrate 1,4-cineole was demonstrated in cell-free preparations of Bacillus cereus UI-1477. 1,4-Cineole hydroxylations were catalyzed by a 100,000 x g (1-h)-centrifuging soluble, hexane-inducible enzyme that activated and incorporated molecular oxygen into hydroxylated products; required NADH; was inhibited by SKF-525A, imidazole, metyrapone, and octylamine; and displayed a 452-nm peak in the carbon monoxide difference absorption spectrum. The constant 7:1 ratio of endo/exo alcohol products formed when 1,4-cineole was hydroxylated by normal cells, hexane-induced cells, and cell extracts suggested that a single enzyme designated cytochrome P-450cin was responsible for both reactions. PMID:8285692

  3. Specificity and detail in autobiographical memory: Same or different constructs?

    PubMed

    Kyung, Yoonhee; Yanes-Lukin, Paula; Roberts, John E

    2016-01-01

    Research on autobiographical memory has focused on whether memories are coded as specific (i.e., describe a single event that happened at a particular time and place). Although some theory and research suggests that the amount of detail in autobiographical memories reflects a similar underlying construct as memory specificity, past research has not investigated whether these variables converge. Therefore, the present study compared the proportion of specific memories and the amount of detail embedded in memory responses to cue words. Results demonstrated that memory detail and proportion of specific memories were not correlated with each other and showed different patterns of association with other conceptually relevant variables. When responses to neutral cue words were examined in multiple linear and logistic regression analyses, the proportion of specific memories uniquely predicted less depressive symptoms, low emotional avoidance, lower emotion reactivity, better executive control and lower rumination, whereas the amount of memory detail uniquely predicted the presence of depression diagnosis, as well as greater depressive symptoms, subjective stress, emotion reactivity and rumination. Findings suggest that the ability to retrieve specific memories and the tendency to retrieve detailed personal memories reflect different constructs that have different implications in the development of emotional distress.

  4. A detailed DSMC surface chemistry model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanova Shumakova, A. N.; Kashkovsky, A. V.; Bondar, Ye. A.

    2014-12-01

    This work is aimed at development of detailed molecular surface chemistry models for DSMC method, their implementation into the SMILE++ software system, verification and validation. An approach to construction of DSMC suface chemistry models based on macroscopic reaction rate data was proposed. The approach was applied to macroscopic data for the air mixture of Deutschmann et al. The resulting DSMC surface chemistry model was implemented into SMILE++ software system and verified for thermal equilibrium conditions.

  5. Detailed scour measurements around a debris accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David S.; Parola, Arthur C.

    1998-01-01

    Detailed scour measurements were made at Farm-Market 2004 over the Brazos River near Lake Jackson, Tex. during flooding in October 1994. Woody debris accumulations on bents 6, 7, and 8 obstructed flow through the bridge, causing scour of the streambed. Measurements at the site included three-dimensional velocities, channel bathymetry, water-surface elevations, water-surface slope, and discharge. Channel geometry upstream from the bridge caused approach conditions to be nonuniform.

  6. Co-occurrence of 1,4-dioxane with trichloroethylene in chlorinated solvent groundwater plumes at US Air Force installations: Fact or fiction.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard H; Anderson, Janet K; Bower, Paul A

    2012-10-01

    . Given the extensive data set, these results conclusively demonstrate for the first time that 1,4-dioxane is a relatively common groundwater co-contaminant with TCE. Trend analysis demonstrated a positive log-linear relationship where median 1,4-dioxane levels increased between approximately 6% and approximately 20% of the increase in TCE levels. In conclusion, this data mining exercise suggests that 1,4-dioxane has a probability of co-occurrence of approximately 17% with either TCE and/or TCA. Given the challenges imposed by remediation of 1,4-dioxane and the pending promulgation of a federal regulatory standard, environmental project managers should use the information presented in this article for prioritization of future characterization efforts to respond to the emerging issue. Importantly, site investigations should consider 1,4-dioxane a potential co-contaminant of TCE in groundwater plumes.

  7. In vitro synthesis of a crystalline (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-D-glucan by a mutated (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-D-glucanase from Bacillus.

    PubMed Central

    Faijes, Magda; Imai, Tomoya; Bulone, Vincent; Planas, Antoni

    2004-01-01

    Oligo- and poly-saccharides have a large number of important biological functions, and they occur in natural composite materials, such as plant cell walls, where they self-assemble during biosynthesis in a poorly understood manner. They can also be used for the formation of artificial composite materials with industrial applications. Fundamental and applied research in biology and nanobiotechnology would benefit from the possibility of synthesizing tailor-made oligo-/poly-saccharides. In the present paper, we demonstrate that such syntheses are possible using genetically modified glycoside hydrolases, i.e. glycosynthases. The ability of the endoglycosynthase derived from Bacillus (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-D-glucanase to catalyse self-condensation of sugar donors was exploited for the in vitro synthesis of a regular polysaccharide. The specificity of the enzyme allowed the polymerization of alpha-laminaribiosyl fluoride via the formation of (1-->4)-beta-linkages to yield a new linear crystalline (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-D-glucan with a repeating 4betaG3betaG unit. MS and methylation analyses indicated that the in vitro product consisted of a mixture of oligosaccharides, the one having a degree of polymerization of 12 being the most abundant. Morphological characterization revealed that the (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-D-glucan forms spherulites which are composed of platelet crystals. X-ray and electron diffraction analyses allowed the proposition of a putative crystallographic structure which corresponds to a monoclinic unit cell with a =0.834 nm, b =0.825 nm, c =2.04 nm and gamma=90.5 degrees. The dimensions of the ab plane are similar to those of cellulose I(beta), but the length of the c -axis is nearly twice that of cellulose I. It is proposed that four glucose residues are present in an extended conformation along the c -axis of the unit cell. The data presented show that glycosynthases represent promising enzymic systems for the synthesis of novel polysaccharides with specific and

  8. Memory for Details with Self-Referencing

    PubMed Central

    Serbun, Sarah J.; Shih, Joanne Y.; Gutchess, Angela H.

    2011-01-01

    Self-referencing benefits item memory, but little is known about the ways in which referencing the self affects memory for details. Experiment 1 assessed whether the effects of self-referencing operate only at the item, or general, level or also enhance memory for specific visual details of objects. Participants incidentally encoded objects by making judgments in reference to the self, a close other (one’s mother), or a familiar other (Bill Clinton). Results indicate that referencing the self or a close other enhances both specific and general memory. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed verbal memory for source in a task that relied on distinguishing between different mental operations (internal sources). Results indicate that self-referencing disproportionately enhances source memory, relative to conditions referencing other people, semantic, or perceptual information. We conclude that self-referencing not only enhances specific memory for both visual and verbal information, but can disproportionately improve memory for specific internal source details as well. PMID:22092106

  9. Structural concepts and details for seismic design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This manual discusses building and building component behavior during earthquakes, and provides suggested details for seismic resistance which have shown by experience to provide adequate performance during earthquakes. Special design and construction practices are also described which, although they might be common in some high-seismic regions, may not be common in low and moderate seismic-hazard regions of the United States. Special attention is given to describing the level of detailing appropriate for each seismic region. The UBC seismic criteria for all seismic zones is carefully examined, and many examples of connection details are given. The general scope of discussion is limited to materials and construction types common to Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Although the manual is primarily written for professional engineers engaged in performing seismic-resistant design for DOE facilities, the first two chapters, plus the introductory sections of succeeding chapters, contain descriptions which are also directed toward project engineers who authorize, review, or supervise the design and construction of DOE facilities. 88 refs., 188 figs.

  10. 1,4-Oxazine β-Secretase 1 (BACE1) Inhibitors: From Hit Generation to Orally Bioavailable Brain Penetrant Leads.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, Frederik J R; Tresadern, Gary; Delgado, Oscar; Martínez-Lamenca, Carolina; Van Gool, Michiel; García-Molina, Aránzazu; Alonso de Diego, Sergio A; Oehlrich, Daniel; Prokopcova, Hana; Alonso, José Manuel; Austin, Nigel; Borghys, Herman; Van Brandt, Sven; Surkyn, Michel; De Cleyn, Michel; Vos, Ann; Alexander, Richard; Macdonald, Gregor; Moechars, Dieder; Gijsen, Harrie; Trabanco, Andrés A

    2015-10-22

    1,4-Oxazines are presented, which show good in vitro inhibition in enzymatic and cellular BACE1 assays. We describe lead optimization focused on reducing the amidine pKa while optimizing interactions in the BACE1 active site. Our strategy permitted modulation of properties such as permeation and especially P-glycoprotein efflux. This led to compounds which were orally bioavailable, centrally active, and which demonstrated robust lowering of brain and CSF Aβ levels, respectively, in mouse and dog models. The amyloid lowering potential of these molecules makes them valuable leads in the search for new BACE1 inhibitors for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26378740

  11. Approaches to Polycyclic 1,4-Dioxygenated Xanthones. Application to Total Synthesis of the Aglycone of IB-00208

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hexacyclic xanthone natural products such as IB-00208 present a formidable challenge in organic synthesis. A new approach to polycyclic 1,4-dioxygenated xanthones from benzocyclobutenones has been developed and applied to the first total synthesis of the aglycone of IB-00208. The 22-step synthesis features an acetylide stitching process that joins an aryl aldehyde with an angularly fused benzocyclobutenone, which was prepared by a ring-closing metathesis reaction. The resulting acetylenic benzocyclobutenone diol underwent a Moore rearrangement to give an intermediate that was further elaborated to the aglycone of IB-00208 as a mixture of hydroquinone–quinone tautomers. PMID:25513888

  12. Characterisation of D-arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase from Candida albicans ATCC 10231.

    PubMed

    Huh, W K; Kim, S T; Yang, K S; Seok, Y J; Hah, Y C; Kang, S O

    1994-11-01

    D-Erythroascorbic acid was detected from the cell extracts of a dimorphic fungus, Candida albicans. Its concentration in yeast cells grown at 25 degrees C was estimated to be about 0.45 mumol/ml cell water. D-Arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase, which catalyses the final step in the biosynthesis of D-erythroascorbic acid, was purified 639-fold from the mitochondrial fraction of C. albicans to apparent homogeneity, with an overall yield of 21.2%, by a purification procedure consisting of Triton X-100 solubilisation, ammonium sulphate precipitation, anion-exchange, hydrophobic-interaction, gel-filtration and dye-ligand chromatographies. Gel-filtration chromatography and polyacrylamide-gradient gel electrophoresis in the presence of deoxycholate gave apparent molecular masses of 110 kDa and 84.4 kDa, respectively. SDS/PAGE showed only one protein band corresponding to a molecular mass of 66.7 kDa. Considering the binding of detergents, the enzyme is suggested to be a single polypeptide. The enzyme showed a typical fluorescence excitation spectrum of a flavin-containing enzyme. The flavin was not released by treatment with SDS, CCl3CO2H or boiling, indicating that it may be covalently bound to the enzyme protein. The enzyme was optimally active at 40 degrees C and at pH 6.1. The enzyme was stable in the range pH 7.5-10. An apparent Km value for D-arabinono-1,4-lactone was 44.1 mM. L-Galactono-1,4-lactone, L-gulono-1,4-lactone and L-xylono-1,4-lactone could also serve as substrates. Competitive inhibition was demonstrated with D-glucono-1,5-lactone, L-arabinono-1,4-lactone, D-galactono-1,4-lactone and D-gulono-1,4-lactone. p-Chloromercuribenzoate, N-ethylmaleimide, iodoacetic acid, iodoacetamide and divalent metal ions such as Cd2+, Hg2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+ exhibited inhibitory effects on the enzyme.

  13. Singlet oxygenation of 1,2-poly/1,4-hexadiene/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, M. A.; Rosenberg, M. L.; Gemmer, R. V.

    1979-01-01

    The microstructural changes that occur in cis and trans forms of 1,2-poly(1,4-hexadiene) during methylene blue-photosensitized oxidation were examined by infrared and (C-13)-NMR spectroscopy. The singlet oxygenation of these polymers yielded the expected allylic hydroperoxides accompanied by double bond shifts to new vinyl and trans-vinylene double bonds. The photosensitized oxidation exhibited zero-order kinetics; the relative rates for the cis- and trans-1,2-poly(1,4-hexadiene)s were approximately 3.8:1.0.

  14. G1-4A, a polysaccharide from Tinospora cordifolia induces peroxynitrite dependent killer dendritic cell (KDC) activity against tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vipul K; Amin, Prayag J; Shankar, Bhavani S

    2014-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) play a central role in the development of an adaptive immune response against tumor. In addition to its role in antigen presentation, DC also possesses cytotoxic activity against tumor cells. We have earlier shown phenotypic and functional maturation of bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) by G1-4A, an arabinogalactan derived from Tinospora cordifolia. In this study, we have investigated the killer phenotype of BMDC matured in the presence of G1-4A, [mBMDC (G1-4A)] on tumor cells. We have observed several fold increase in killing of tumor cells by mBMDC (G1-4A). The tumoricidal activity was not specific to syngeneic tumors cells but could kill xenogenic tumors also. Nitric oxide released by mBMDC (G1-4A) generates peroxynitrite in tumor cells and is responsible for killing of target cells. This killing was completely abrogated by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor 1400W and NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocyanin. The killed target cells are phagocytosed by BMDC which further activate syngeneic cytotoxic T cells. These results thus show that G1-4A treated mBMDC acquire killer phenotype along with maturation which plays an important role in activation of cytotoxic T cells. PMID:25278461

  15. A Catalog of Soft X-Ray Shadows, and More Contemplation of the 1/4 KeV Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, S. L.; Freyberg, M. J.; Kuntz, K. D.; Sanders, W. T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a catalog of shadows in the 1/4 keV soft X-ray diffuse background 4 (SXRB) that were identified by a comparison between ROSAT All-Sky Survey maps and DIRB&corrected IRAS 100 micron maps. These "shadows" are the negative correlations between the surface brightness of the SXRB and the column density of the Galactic interstellar medium (ISIM) over limited angular regions (a few degrees in extent). We have compiled an extensive but not exhaustive set of 378 shadows in the polar regions of the Galaxy (Absolute value (beta) > and approximately equal 20 deg.), and determined their foreground and background X-ray intensities (relative to the absorbing features), and the respective hardness ratios of that emission. The portion of the sky that was examined to find these shadows was restricted in general to regions where the minimum column density is less than and approximately equal to 4 x 10(exp 20) H/square cm, i.e., relatively high Galactic latitudes, and to regions away from distinct extended features in the SXRB such as supernova remnants and superbubbles. The results for the foreground intensities agree well with the recent results of a general analysis of the local 1/4 KeV emission while the background intensities show additional. but not unexpected scatter. The results also confirm the existence of a gradient in the hardness of the local 1/4 keV emission along a Galactic center/ anticenter axis with a temperature that varies from 10(exp 6.13) K to 10(exp 6.02) K, respectively. The average temperature of the foreground component from this analysis is 10(exp 6.08) K, compared to 10(exp 6.06) K in the previous analysis. Likewise, the average temperature for the distant component for the current and previous analyses are 10(exp 6.06) K and 10(exp 6.02) K, respectively. Finally, the results for the 1/4 keV halo emission are compared to the observed fluxes at 3/4 keV, where the lack of correlation suggests that the Galactic halo's 1/4 keV and 3/4 ke

  16. Revisiting the Seductive Details Effect in Multimedia Learning: Context-Dependency of Seductive Details

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Devrim; Doolittle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of context-dependency of seductive details on recall and transfer in multimedia learning environments. Seductive details were interesting yet irrelevant sentences in the instructional text. Two experiments were conducted. The purpose of Experiment 1 was to identify context-dependent and…

  17. Formation of a Structure II Hydrate by 1,4-Thioxane in Sea Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, K. C.; Mancillas, O.; Walz, P. M.; Peltzer, E. T.; Brewer, P. G.

    2007-12-01

    We have show that a sII clathrate hydrate containing 1,4-thioxane (TO) will form under the appropriate pressure and temperature conditions. The molecular size of TO poised it at the boundary between sII hydrate formation either as the sole cage occupant, or where a second help gas molecule is required to stabilize the small hydrate cages. In addition to its size, TO is chemical similar to cyclic ethers, such as tetrahydrofuran, which readily form clathrate hydrates. For the experimental temperatures in this study (all above 273.15 K), a pure TO hydrate was not observed to form. However, binary hydrates of TO and either CH4 and N2 were readily formed under moderate pressure conditions (33-158 bar). Both Raman spectroscopy and visual observations were used to verify that a solid hydrate formed and that TO was trapped in the cages. For TO + CH4, a pressure-temperature phase equilibria diagram was created. This showed that the addition of TO increased hydrate stability versus a pure CH4 system by approximately 10 degC, indicating that should CH4 gas be present a TO hydrate would readily form at shallow depths under typical oceanic temperature regimes. TO is of environmental interest as a breakdown product of mustard gas (1,1'-thiobis[2-chloroethane] as a result of hydrolysis in sea water, and has been shown to occur in seafloor chemical weapon disposal sites. In the years after World War II large quantities of chemical weapons were disposed of in the ocean at sites off the US east and west coasts, off Japan, in the Baltic and Adriatic Seas, and in the Russian Arctic, until the signing of the London Convention in 1972. Mustard gas represents the largest tonnage of weapons materiel and while the general scheme of breakdown by hydrolysis is known there is little information on the actual behavior of these breakdown products in marine sediments. This work illuminates such gaps in knowledge, and formation of a hydrate profoundly alters molecular mobility and diffusion away

  18. Crystal structure of 1,4-bis­(3-ammonio­prop­yl)piperazine-1,4-diium bis­[dichromate(VI)

    PubMed Central

    Vetrivel, S.; Vinoth, E.; Mullai, R. U.; Aruljothi, R.; NizamMohideen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the organic–inorganic title salt, (C10H28N4)[Cr2O7]2, comprises one half of an 1,4-bis­(3-ammonio­prop­yl)piperazinediium cation (the other half being generated by the application of inversion symmetry) and a dichromate anion. The piperazine ring of the cation adopts a chair conformation, and the two CrO4 tetra­hedra of the anion are in an almost eclipsed conformation. In the crystal, the cations and anions form a layered arrangement parallel to (001). N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the cations and anions and additional C—H⋯O inter­actions lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network structure. PMID:27308002

  19. Production, biodistribution, and dosimetry of (47)Sc-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetramethylene phosphonic acid as a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Fatemeh; Moghaddam-Banaem, Leila; Shamsaei, Mojtaba; Samani, Ali; Maragheh, Mohammad G

    2015-01-01

    In this study 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetramethylene phosphonic acid (DOTMP) was used as the polyaminophosphonic acid carrier ligand and the therapeutic potential of the bone seeking radiopharmaceutical (47)Sc-DOTMP was assessed by measuring its dosage-dependent skeletal uptake and then the absorbed radiation dose of human organs was estimated. Because of limited availability of (47)Sc we performed some preliminary studies using (46)Sc. (46)Sc was produced with a specific activity of 116.58 MBq/mg (3.15 mCi/mg) and radionuclide purity of 98%. (46)Sc-DOTMP was prepared and an activity of 1.258 MBq (34 μCi) at a chelant-to-metal ratio of 60:1 was administered to five groups of mice with each group containing 3 mice that were euthanized at 4, 24, 48, 96 and 192 h post administration. The heart, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestine, skin, muscle, and a femur were excised, weighed, and counted. The data were analyzed to determine skeletal uptake and source organ residence times and cumulated activities for (47)Sc-DOTMP. (46)Sc-DOTMP complex was prepared in radiochemical purity about 93%. In vitro stability of complex was evaluated at room temperature for 48 h. Biodistribution studies of complex in mice were studied for 7 days. The data were analyzed to estimate skeletal uptake and absorbed radiation dose of human organs using biodistribution data from mice. By considering the results, (47)Sc-DOTMP is a possible therapeutic agent for using in palliation of bone pain due to metastatic skeletal lesions from several types of primary cancers in prostate, breast, etc.

  20. Tricyclic Pyrazoles. Part 5. Novel 1,4-Dihydroindeno[1,2-c]pyrazole CB2 Ligands Using Molecular Hybridization Based on Scaffold Hopping

    PubMed Central

    Murineddu, Gabriele; Asproni, Battistina; Ruiu, Stefania; Deligia, Francesco; Falzoi, Matteo; Pau, Amedeo; Thomas, Brian F; Zhang, Yanan; Pinna, Gérard A; Pani, Luca; Lazzari, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    In search of new selective CB2 ligands, the synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of novel 1,4-dihydroindeno[1,2-c]pyrazole hybrids of the highly potent prototypicals 5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)-N-fenchyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide 1 and 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-6-methyl-N-(piperidin-1-yl)-1,4-dihydroindeno[1,2-c]pyrazole-3-carboxamide 2 are detailed. We postulated that the introduction of those pharmacophoric elements essential for activity of 1 in the tricyclic core of 2 might provide CB2 ligands with further improved receptor selectivity and biological activity. Among the compounds, 6-chloro-7-methyl-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-fenchyl-1,4-dihydroindeno[1,2-c]pyrazole-3-carboxamide (22) exhibited low two digit nanomolar affinity for the cannabinoid CB2R and maintained a high level of CB2-selectivity. PMID:22876271

  1. Rapid and Convenient Synthesis of the 1,4-Dihydropyridine Privileged Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Lawrence L. W.; Styler, Sarah A.; Dicks, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    A short, semi-microscale synthesis of two 1,4-dihydropyridine drug analogues via a Hantzsch reaction is described, which is appropriate for a second-year undergraduate organic laboratory. Products are specifically chosen to highlight the biological relevance of this compound type while introducing the notion of a privileged structure.…

  2. Intermediate SCDC Spanish Curricula Units. Science/Health, Unit 1, Kits 1-4, Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanish Curricula Development Center, Miami Beach, FL.

    Unified by the theme "our community", this unit, part of nine basic instructional units for intermediate level, reflects the observations of Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans in various regions of the United States. Comprised of Kits 1-4, the unit extends the following basic and interpreted science processes: observing, communicating,…

  3. Calculation of polarized IR absorption spectra for trans-1,4-polyisoprenes of various conformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulov, Kh. Sh.

    2008-07-01

    Polarized IR spectra for two conformations of trans-1,4-polyisoprene (α-and β-gutta-percha) were calculated. The IR dichroism of the absorption bands was calculated for both conformations. The computed results for polarized IR spectra and IR dichroism agree reasonably well with the respective experiment data.

  4. 17 CFR 270.30b1-4 - Report of proxy voting record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Report of proxy voting record... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.30b1-4 Report of proxy voting record....129 of this chapter) not later than August 31 of each year, containing the registrant's proxy...

  5. 17 CFR 270.30b1-4 - Report of proxy voting record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Report of proxy voting record... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.30b1-4 Report of proxy voting record....129 of this chapter) not later than August 31 of each year, containing the registrant's proxy...

  6. Protein kinase A modulation of CaV1.4 calcium channels

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Lingjie; Dick, Ivy E.; Yue, David T.

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of L-type Ca2+ channels by protein kinase A (PKA) represents a crucial element within cardiac, skeletal muscle and neurological systems. Although much work has been done to understand this regulation in cardiac CaV1.2 Ca2+ channels, relatively little is known about the closely related CaV1.4 L-type Ca2+ channels, which feature prominently in the visual system. Here we find that CaV1.4 channels are indeed modulated by PKA phosphorylation within the inhibitor of Ca2+-dependent inactivation (ICDI) motif. Phosphorylation of this region promotes the occupancy of calmodulin on the channel, thus increasing channel open probability (PO) and Ca2+-dependent inactivation. Although this interaction seems specific to CaV1.4 channels, introduction of ICDI1.4 to CaV1.3 or CaV1.2 channels endows these channels with a form of PKA modulation, previously unobserved in heterologous systems. Thus, this mechanism may not only play an important role in the visual system but may be generalizable across the L-type channel family. PMID:27456671

  7. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,4-Dioxane (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On September 9, 2011, the Toxicological Review of 1,4-Dioxane (with inhalation update) (External Review Draft) was posted for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House...

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,4-Dioxane (with Inhalation Update) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On September 9, 2011, the Toxicological Review of 1,4-Dioxane (inhalation) (External Review Draft) was posted for external peer review and public comment. Subsequently, the Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and Exe...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1315 - Ethylene-1, 4-cyclohexylene dimethylene terephthalate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of 1,4-cyclo-hexanedimethanol (70 percent trans isomer, 30 percent cls isomer) Inherent viscosity of...,4-cyclohexane-di-methanol (70 percent trans isomer, 30 percent cls isomer) ......do (1) 0.23... percent trans isomer, 30 percent cis isomer) No test required For each corresponding condition of...

  10. Protein kinase A modulation of CaV1.4 calcium channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Lingjie; Dick, Ivy E.; Yue, David T.

    2016-07-01

    The regulation of L-type Ca2+ channels by protein kinase A (PKA) represents a crucial element within cardiac, skeletal muscle and neurological systems. Although much work has been done to understand this regulation in cardiac CaV1.2 Ca2+ channels, relatively little is known about the closely related CaV1.4 L-type Ca2+ channels, which feature prominently in the visual system. Here we find that CaV1.4 channels are indeed modulated by PKA phosphorylation within the inhibitor of Ca2+-dependent inactivation (ICDI) motif. Phosphorylation of this region promotes the occupancy of calmodulin on the channel, thus increasing channel open probability (PO) and Ca2+-dependent inactivation. Although this interaction seems specific to CaV1.4 channels, introduction of ICDI1.4 to CaV1.3 or CaV1.2 channels endows these channels with a form of PKA modulation, previously unobserved in heterologous systems. Thus, this mechanism may not only play an important role in the visual system but may be generalizable across the L-type channel family.

  11. 19. (4"X5" image enlarged from 2 1/4" negative) Sam Fowler, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. (4"X5" image enlarged from 2 1/4" negative) Sam Fowler, Photographer, February 1998 VIEW OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 051-00025D-01986N (JAMES P. HOULIHAN BRIDGE). NAVIGATIONAL LIGHT LOCATED ON TOP OF FENDER - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 051-00025D-01986N, US 17 & State Route 25 Spanning Savannah River, Port Wentworth, Chatham County, GA

  12. 21 CFR 176.250 - Poly-1,4,7,10,13-pentaaza-15-hydroxyhexadecane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Poly-1,4,7,10,13-pentaaza-15-hydroxyhexadecane. 176.250 Section 176.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND...

  13. Diastereoselective Ni-catalyzed 1,4-hydroboration of chiral dienols#

    PubMed Central

    Ely, Robert J.; Yu, Zhiyong; Morken, James P.

    2015-01-01

    The Ni-catalyzed hydroboration of dienols occurs in a 1,4 fashion and delivers a syn-propionate motif in high diastereoselectivity and with a stereodefined trisubstituted crotylboronic ester. The boronic ester can be further manipulated to provide carbon-carbon or carbon-oxygen bonds. PMID:26028782

  14. IRIS Toxicological Review and Summary Documents for 1,4-Dichlorobenzene (External Peer Review)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA has conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of 1,4-dichlorobenzene that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is meant to ensure that science is used ...

  15. 37 CFR 1.4 - Nature of correspondence and signature requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Reasonably specific enough so that the identity of the signer can be readily recognized. (3) Forms. The... by that person, and should retain evidence of authenticity of the signature. (B) Self certification... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 1.4, see the List of CFR Sections Affected,...

  16. 37 CFR 1.4 - Nature of correspondence and signature requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Reasonably specific enough so that the identity of the signer can be readily recognized. (3) Forms. The... by that person, and should retain evidence of authenticity of the signature. (B) Self certification... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 1.4, see the List of CFR Sections Affected,...

  17. IN SITU OXIDATION FIELD PILOT OF 1,4-DIOXANE AT THE COOPER DRUM SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    1,4-Dioxane, a solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquers, cosmetics, deodorants, cleaning and detergent preparations fluids, has attracted a lot of notice recently because its chemical analytical detection limit has recently been lowered from 50 µg/L to 1 µg/L. It is now commonly de...

  18. Teacher-Student Relationship and Peer Disliking and Liking across Grades 1-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Im, Myung H.

    2016-01-01

    Between-child and within-child effects of teacher-student warmth and conflict on children's peer-nominated disliking and liking across Grades 1-4 (ages 6-10) were investigated in a sample of 746 ethnically diverse and academically at-risk children in Texas. Multilevel modeling controlled for time-invariant between-child differences while modeling…

  19. Linking gold nanoparticles with conductive 1,4-phenylene diisocyanide-gold oligomers.

    PubMed

    Kestell, John; Abuflaha, Rasha; Boscoboinik, J Anibal; Bai, Yun; Bennett, Dennis W; Tysoe, Wilfred T

    2013-02-18

    It is demonstrated that 1,4-phenylene diisocyanide (PDI)-gold oligomers can spontaneously bridge between gold nanoparticles on mica, thereby providing a strategy for electrically interconnecting nanoelectrodes. The barrier height of the bridging oligomer is 0.10 ± 0.02 eV, within the range of previous single-molecule measurements of PDI.

  20. [Enzymes related with NAD synthesis promote conversion of 1,4-butanediol to 4-hydroxybutyrate].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Chen, Guoqiang

    2011-12-01

    Besides medical application, 4-hydroxybutyrate (4-HB) is a precursor of P3HB4HB, a bioplastic showing excellent physical properties and degradability. Escherichia coli S17-1 (pZL-dhaT-aldD) can transform 1, 4-butanediol (1,4-BD) into 4HB with participation of cofactor NAD. To enhance productivity, nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (PncB) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthetase (NadE) were overexpressed to increase intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide concentration and promote reaction process. The shake flask fermentation result showed that the conversion rate increased by 13.03% with help of PncB-NadE, leading to 4.87 g/L 4HB from 10 g/L 1,4-BD, and productivity was increased by 40.91% to 1.86 g/g. These results demonstrated that expression of PncB and NadE is beneficial for conversion of 1,4-BD to 4HB. PMID:22506415

  1. 11. 'Southern Pacific Company Pacific System. 1 180'1/4' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. 'Southern Pacific Company - Pacific System. 1 - 180'-1/4' c. to c. End Pins S. Tr. Thro. Span. 16th crossing Sacramento River, The Phoenix Bridge Co., Phoenixville, Pa., Apr. 25th 1901.' - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 324.99, Milepost 324.99, Shasta Springs, Siskiyou County, CA

  2. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,4-Dioxane (External Review Draft, 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of 1,4-dioxane that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  3. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,4-Dioxane (with Inhalation Update) (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of 1,4-Dioxane (with inhalation update) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  4. Intermediate SCDC Spanish Curricula Units. Language Arts, Unit 1, Kits 1-4, Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanish Curricula Development Center, Miami Beach, FL.

    Reflecting the theme "our community", this unit consists of Kits 1-4 which are organized in three sections: reading, language analysis, and creative expression. The reading section includes two readers which contain three poems and five stories dealing with a grandmother's efforts to help support the family, a female pilot who successfully lands a…

  5. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1577 Section 721.1577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1577 Section 721.1577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1577 Section 721.1577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1577 Section 721.1577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1577 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis [4-(ethenyloxy) butyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ester. 721.1577 Section 721.1577 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1577 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis ester. (a) Chemical substance and... acid, bis ester (PMN P-98-1163; CAS No. 117397-31-6) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. The 8 1/4-inch Clark refractor of the Temple Observatory, Rugby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriott, R. A.

    1991-12-01

    During the 1850s W. R. Dawes purchased five object glasses from the American opticians Alvan Clark and Sons. The only one to have been in continuous use since then was the last of them, in a complete 8 1/4-inch refractor.

  11. The Synthesis of 2-acetyl-1,4-naphthoquinone: A Multi-step Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ivan R.

    1982-01-01

    Outlines 2 procedures for synthesizing 2-acetyl-1,4-naphthoquinone to compare relative merits of the two pathways. The major objective of the exercise is to demonstrate that certain factors should be considered when selecting a pathway for synthesis including availability of starting materials, cost of reagents, number of steps involved,…

  12. Rhodium-catalyzed Carbonylation of 3-Acyloxy-1,4-enynes for the Synthesis of Cyclopentenones

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoxun; Huang, Suyu; Schienebeck, Casi M.; Shu, Dongxu; Tang, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    Functionalized cyclopentenones were synthesized by a Rh-catalyzed carbonylation of 3-acyloxy-1,4-enynes, derived from alkynes and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. The reaction involved a Saucy-Marbet 1,3-acyloxy migration of propargyl esters and a [4+1] cycloaddition of the resulting acyloxy substituted vinylallene with CO. PMID:22381143

  13. Synthesis and diversification of 1,2,3-triazole-fused 1,4-benzodiazepine scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Donald, James R; Martin, Stephen F

    2011-03-01

    A substituted heterocyclic scaffold comprising a 1,4-benzodiazepine fused with a 1,2,3-triazole ring has been synthesized and diversified via a variety of refunctionalizations. The strategy features the rapid assembly of the scaffold by combining 3-4 reactants in an efficient multicomponent assembly process, followed by an intramolecular Huisgen cycloaddition.

  14. Learning Progression of Ecological System Reasoning for Lower Elementary (G1-4) Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hokayem, Hayat Al

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I utilized a learning progression framework to investigate lower elementary students (G1-4) systemic reasoning in ecology and I related students reasoning to their sources of knowledge. I used semi-structured interviews with 44 students from first through fourth grade, four teachers, and eight parents. The results revealed that a…

  15. SDO Captures X1.4 Solar Flare on July 12, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie shows the sun July 11-12, ending with the X1.4 class flare on July 12, 2012. It was captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory in the 304 Angstrom wavelength - a wavelength coloriz...

  16. Chemistry of 5,8-dihydroxy-[1,4]-benzoquinone, a key chromophore in aged cellulosics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    2,5-Dihydroxy-[1,4]-benzoquione is one of the three key chromophores found in aged cellulosics. Knowledge of the general reactivity and chemistry of this compound is helpful for a better understanding of cellulose aging and yellowing as well as bleaching of cellulosic materials - processes which als...

  17. FIELD STUDY: IN SITU OXIDATION OF 1,4-DIOXANE WITH OZONE AND HYDROGEN PEROXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale field evaluation is underway to assess the effectiveness of in situ oxidation (using ozone with and without hydrogen peroxide) for remediation of 1,4-dioxane and chlorinated volatile organic compounds in groundwater at the Cooper Drum Company Superfund Site located ...

  18. Structure-activity studies on 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists and activators

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    Four series of 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca{sup 2+} channel antagonists related to mifedipine were synthesized by a modified Hantzsch procedure to determine the effects of ester (C{sub 3} = CO{sub 2}Me, C{sub 5} = CO{sub 2}R) and phenyl (C{sub 4}) substituents on pharmacological and radioligand binding ((H)nitrendipine) activities in guinea pig ileal longitudinal smooth muscle. Two series of Ca{sup 2+} channel activator 1,4-dihydropyridines, BAY K 8644 (C{sub 3} = NO{sub 2}, C{sub 5} = CO{sub 2}Me) and CGP 28392 (C{sub 2,3} = lactone, C{sub 5} = CO{sub 2}Me) were biochemically evaluated by inhibition of ({sup 3}H)nitrendipine binding in guinea pig ileal longitudinal smooth muscle membranes to establish fundamental structure-activity requirements. A homologous series of bis-1,4-dihydropyridines were synthesized, pharmacologically and biochemically evaluated in an attempt to explore the distribution of the 1,4-dihydropyridine receptor in guinea pig ileal longitudinal smooth muscle membranes. Several potential affinity labels including ester substituted 3- and 4-fluorosulfonyl benzoyl and isothiocyanate derivatives were synthesized and evaluated by inhibition of ({sup 3}H)nitrendipine binding.

  19. Detailed chemical kinetic model for ethanol oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Marinov, N.

    1997-04-01

    A detailed chemical kinetic model for ethanol oxidation has been developed and validated against a variety of experimental data sets. Laminar flame speed data obtained from a constant volume bomb, ignition delay data behind reflected shock waves, and ethanol oxidation product profiles from a turbulent flow reactor were used in this study. Very good agreement was found in modeling the data sets obtained from the three different experimental systems. The computational modeling results show that high temperature ethanol oxidation exhibits strong sensitivity to the fall-off kinetics of ethanol decomposition, branching ratio selection for c2h5oh+oh=products, and reactions involving the hydroperoxyl (HO2) radical.

  20. Instrumentation for detailed bridge-scour measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landers, Mark N.; Mueller, David S.; Trent, Roy E.

    1993-01-01

    A portable instrumentation system is being developed to obtain channel bathymetry during floods for detailed bridge-scour measurements. Portable scour measuring systems have four components: sounding instrument, horizontal positioning instrument, deployment mechanisms, and data storage device. The sounding instrument will be a digital fathometer. Horizontal position will be measured using a range-azimuth based hydrographic survey system. The deployment mechanism designed for this system is a remote-controlled boat using a small waterplane area, twin-hull design. An on-board computer and radio will monitor the vessel instrumentation, record measured data, and telemeter data to shore.

  1. Novel β-1,4-Mannanase Belonging to a New Glycoside Hydrolase Family in Aspergillus nidulans*

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Motoyuki; Kaneko, Yuhei; Ishihara, Saaya; Mochizuki, Mai; Sakai, Kiyota; Yamada, Miyuki; Murata, Shunsuke; Itoh, Eriko; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Sugimura, Yu; Hirano, Tatsuya; Takaya, Naoki; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Kato, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Many filamentous fungi produce β-mannan-degrading β-1,4-mannanases that belong to the glycoside hydrolase 5 (GH5) and GH26 families. Here we identified a novel β-1,4-mannanase (Man134A) that belongs to a new glycoside hydrolase (GH) family (GH134) in Aspergillus nidulans. Blast analysis of the amino acid sequence using the NCBI protein database revealed that this enzyme had no similarity to any sequences and no putative conserved domains. Protein homologs of the enzyme were distributed to limited fungal and bacterial species. Man134A released mannobiose (M2), mannotriose (M3), and mannotetraose (M4) but not mannopentaose (M5) or higher manno-oligosaccharides when galactose-free β-mannan was the substrate from the initial stage of the reaction, suggesting that Man134A preferentially reacts with β-mannan via a unique catalytic mode. Man134A had high catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) toward mannohexaose (M6) compared with the endo-β-1,4-mannanase Man5C and notably converted M6 to M2, M3, and M4, with M3 being the predominant reaction product. The action of Man5C toward β-mannans was synergistic. The growth phenotype of a Man134A disruptant was poor when β-mannans were the sole carbon source, indicating that Man134A is involved in β-mannan degradation in vivo. These findings indicate a hitherto undiscovered mechanism of β-mannan degradation that is enhanced by the novel β-1,4-mannanase, Man134A, when combined with other mannanolytic enzymes including various endo-β-1,4-mannanases. PMID:26385921

  2. Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Plan; Chord Joining Detail in Plan & Elevation; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar, & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Section; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar & Horizontal Brace Joint Detail - Narrows Bridge, Spanning Sugar Creek at Old County Road 280 East, Marshall, Parke County, IN

  3. Detailed Modeling of Higher Order Hierarchical Kepler Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gore, Joanna; Orosz, Jerome A.

    2016-06-01

    Most stars have stellar companions (i.e. they exist in double, triple, or higher order configurations). Binary star systems are those which contain two stars. These systems are valued scientifically because they allow for the measurement of fundamental stellar properties such as masses and radii. These properties in turn allow for detailed studies of stellar evolution. The Kepler space telescope has discovered roughly 2900 eclipsing binary stars in its field of view. Various studies have shown that roughly 20% of the Kepler eclipsing binaries contain companions are are most likely triple star systems. We present a preliminary survey of the orbital properties of the tertiary bodies in a sample of thirty triple systems. In addition, a small number of the triple systems show eclipse events due to the third star. We present the results of detailed modeling of two of these systems, and discuss how in some cases these triple systems allow for extremely precise measurements of the fundamental stellar parameters.

  4. RESRAD model presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; Faillace, E.; Chen, S.Y.; Wallo, A. III; Williams, W.A.; Peterson, H.; Domotor, S.

    1998-05-01

    RESRAD was one of the multimedia models selected by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to include in its workshop on radiation dose modeling and demonstration of compliance with the radiological criteria for license termination. This paper is a summary of the presentation made at the workshop and focuses on the 10 questions the NRC distributed to all participants prior to the workshop. The code selection criteria, which were solicited by the NRC, for demonstrating compliance with the license termination rule are also included. Among the RESRAD family of codes, RESRAD and RESRAD-BUILD are designed for evaluating radiological contamination in soils and in buildings. Many documents have been published to support the use of these codes. This paper focuses on these two codes. The pathways considered, the databases and parameters used, quality control and quality assurance, benchmarking, verification and validation of these codes, and capabilities as well as limitations of these codes are discussed in detail.

  5. A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Model for TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2005-01-13

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for 2,4,6-tri-nitrotoluene (TNT) has been developed to explore problems of explosive performance and soot formation during the destruction of munitions. The TNT mechanism treats only gas-phase reactions. Reactions for the decomposition of TNT and for the consumption of intermediate products formed from TNT are assembled based on information from the literature and on current understanding of aromatic chemistry. Thermodynamic properties of intermediate and radical species are estimated by group additivity. Reaction paths are developed based on similar paths for aromatic hydrocarbons. Reaction-rate constant expressions are estimated from the literature and from analogous reactions where the rate constants are available. The detailed reaction mechanism for TNT is added to existing reaction mechanisms for RDX and for hydrocarbons. Computed results show the effect of oxygen concentration on the amount of soot precursors that are formed in the combustion of RDX and TNT mixtures in N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixtures.

  6. HUBBLE CAPTURES DETAILED IMAGE OF URANUS' ATMOSPHERE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope has peered deep into Uranus' atmosphere to see clear and hazy layers created by a mixture of gases. Using infrared filters, Hubble captured detailed features of three layers of Uranus' atmosphere. Hubble's images are different from the ones taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus 10 years ago. Those images - not taken in infrared light - showed a greenish-blue disk with very little detail. The infrared image allows astronomers to probe the structure of Uranus' atmosphere, which consists of mostly hydrogen with traces of methane. The red around the planet's edge represents a very thin haze at a high altitude. The haze is so thin that it can only be seen by looking at the edges of the disk, and is similar to looking at the edge of a soap bubble. The yellow near the bottom of Uranus is another hazy layer. The deepest layer, the blue near the top of Uranus, shows a clearer atmosphere. Image processing has been used to brighten the rings around Uranus so that astronomers can study their structure. In reality, the rings are as dark as black lava or charcoal. This false color picture was assembled from several exposures taken July 3, 1995 by the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2. CREDIT: Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Lab) and NASA

  7. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, Warren; TMT International Science Development Teams; Science Advisory Committee, TMT

    2015-12-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), the University of California, the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA) and US associate partner, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). Cover image: artist's rendition of the TMT International Observatory on Mauna Kea opening in the late evening before beginning operations.

  8. DEEP NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF PASSIVELY EVOLVING GALAXIES AT z {approx}> 1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Onodera, M.; Carollo, M.; Lilly, S.; Renzini, A.; Mancini, C.; Cappellari, M.; Strazzullo, V.; Daddi, E.; Gobat, R.; McCracken, H. J.; Ilbert, O.; Capak, P.; Cimatti, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kong, X.; Motohara, K.; Ohta, K.; and others

    2012-08-10

    We present the results of new near-IR spectroscopic observations of passive galaxies at z {approx}> 1.4 in a concentration of BzK-selected galaxies in the COSMOS field. The observations have been conducted with Subaru/MOIRCS, and have resulted in absorption lines and/or continuum detection for 18 out of 34 objects. This allows us to measure spectroscopic redshifts for a sample that is almost complete to K{sub AB} = 21. COSMOS photometric redshifts are found in fair agreement overall with the spectroscopic redshifts, with a standard deviation of {approx}0.05; however, {approx}30% of objects have photometric redshifts systematically underestimated by up to {approx}25%. We show that these systematic offsets in photometric redshifts can be removed by using these objects as a training set. All galaxies fall in four distinct redshift spikes at z = 1.43, 1.53, 1.67, and 1.82, with this latter one including seven galaxies. SED fits to broadband fluxes indicate stellar masses in the range of {approx}4-40 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} and that star formation was quenched {approx}1 Gyr before the cosmic epoch at which they are observed. The spectra of several individual galaxies have allowed us to measure their H{delta}{sub F} indices and the strengths of the 4000 A break, which confirms their identification as passive galaxies, as does a composite spectrum resulting from the co-addition of 17 individual spectra. The effective radii of the galaxies have been measured on the COSMOS HST/ACS i{sub F814W}-band image, confirming the coexistence at these redshifts of passive galaxies, which are substantially more compact than their local counterparts with others that follow the local effective radius-stellar mass relation. For the galaxy with the best signal-to-noise spectrum we were able to measure a velocity dispersion of 270 {+-} 105 km s{sup -1} (error bar including systematic errors), indicating that this galaxy lies closely on the virial relation given its stellar

  9. Latex Clearing Protein—an Oxygenase Cleaving Poly(cis-1,4-Isoprene) Rubber at the cis Double Bonds

    PubMed Central

    Hiessl, Sebastian; Böse, Dietrich; Oetermann, Sylvia; Eggers, Jessica; Pietruszka, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Gordonia polyisoprenivorans strain VH2, a potent rubber-degrading actinomycete, harbors two latex clearing proteins (Lcps), which are known to be essential for the microbial degradation of rubber. However, biochemical information on the exact role of this protein in the degradation of polyisoprene was lacking. In this study, the gene encoding Lcp1VH2 was heterologously expressed in strains of Escherichia coli, the corresponding protein was purified, and its role in rubber degradation was examined by measurement of oxygen consumption as well as by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. It turned out that active Lcp1VH2 is a monomer and is responsible for the oxidative cleavage of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) in synthetic as well as in natural rubber by the addition of oxygen (O2) to the cis double bonds. The resulting oligomers possess repetitive isoprene units with aldehyde (CHO-CH2—) and ketone (—CH2-CO-CH3) functional groups at the termini. Two fractions with average isoprene contents of 18 and 10, respectively, were isolated, thus indicating an endocleavage mechanism. The activity of Lcp1VH2 was determined by applying a polarographic assay. Alkenes, acyclic terpenes, or other rubber-like polymers, such as poly(cis-1,4-butadiene) or poly(trans-1,4-isoprene), are not oxidatively cleaved by Lcp1VH2. The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme are at pH 7 and 30°C, respectively. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that active Lcp1VH2 is a Cu(II)-containing oxygenase that exhibits a conserved domain of unknown function which cannot be detected in any other hitherto-characterized enzyme. The results presented here indicate that this domain might represent a new protein family of oxygenases. PMID:24928880

  10. Latex clearing protein-an oxygenase cleaving poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) rubber at the cis double bonds.

    PubMed

    Hiessl, Sebastian; Böse, Dietrich; Oetermann, Sylvia; Eggers, Jessica; Pietruszka, Jörg; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Gordonia polyisoprenivorans strain VH2, a potent rubber-degrading actinomycete, harbors two latex clearing proteins (Lcps), which are known to be essential for the microbial degradation of rubber. However, biochemical information on the exact role of this protein in the degradation of polyisoprene was lacking. In this study, the gene encoding Lcp1VH2 was heterologously expressed in strains of Escherichia coli, the corresponding protein was purified, and its role in rubber degradation was examined by measurement of oxygen consumption as well as by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. It turned out that active Lcp1VH2 is a monomer and is responsible for the oxidative cleavage of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) in synthetic as well as in natural rubber by the addition of oxygen (O2) to the cis double bonds. The resulting oligomers possess repetitive isoprene units with aldehyde (CHO-CH2-) and ketone (-CH2-CO-CH3) functional groups at the termini. Two fractions with average isoprene contents of 18 and 10, respectively, were isolated, thus indicating an endocleavage mechanism. The activity of Lcp1VH2 was determined by applying a polarographic assay. Alkenes, acyclic terpenes, or other rubber-like polymers, such as poly(cis-1,4-butadiene) or poly(trans-1,4-isoprene), are not oxidatively cleaved by Lcp1VH2. The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme are at pH 7 and 30°C, respectively. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that active Lcp1VH2 is a Cu(II)-containing oxygenase that exhibits a conserved domain of unknown function which cannot be detected in any other hitherto-characterized enzyme. The results presented here indicate that this domain might represent a new protein family of oxygenases.

  11. Prognostic Impact of mRNA Expression Levels of HER1-4 (ERBB1-4) in Patients with Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kripp, Melanie; Merx, Kirsten; Wirtz, Ralph Markus; Gaiser, Timo; Eidt, Sebastian; Schwaab, Juliana; Post, Stefan; Wenz, Frederik; Hochhaus, Andreas; Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter; Erben, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Background. No predictive or prognostic biomarker is available for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) undergoing perioperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Members of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of receptor tyrosine kinases EGFR (HER1, ERBB1), HER2 (ERBB2), HER3 (ERBB3), and HER4 (ERBB4) are therapeutic targets in several cancers. The analysis was performed to assess expression levels and study the potential prognostic impact for disease-free and overall survival in patients with LARC. Patients and Methods. ERBB1-4 mRNA expression and tumor proliferation using Ki-67 (MKI67) mRNA were evaluated using RT-quantitative PCR in paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 86 patients (median age: 63) treated with capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil-based CRT within a phase 3 clinical trial. Results. A positive correlation of HER4 and HER2, HER3 and HER2, and HER4 and HER3 with each other was observed. Patients with high mRNA expression of ERBB1 (EGFR, HER1) had significantly increased risk for recurrence and death. Patients with high mRNA expression of MKI67 had reduced risk for relapse. Conclusion. This analysis suggests a prognostic impact of both ERBB1 and MKi67 mRNA expression in LARC patients treated with capecitabine or fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy. PMID:27610130

  12. Synthesis of 1,4-, 2,4-, and 3,4-dimethylphenanthrenes: A novel deoxygenation of arene 1,4-endoxides with trimethylsilyl iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Keeyong; Koreeda, Masato )

    1989-11-24

    A mild, efficient synthesis of the carcinogen 1,4-dimethylphenanthrene (2) and its bay-region methyl-bearing regioisomers 2,4-dimethyl- and 3,4-dimethylphenanthrenes (3 and 4) is described. The synthesis involves a generally applicable strategy that features a furan/dimethyl-1-naphthyne cycloaddition reaction followed by a convenient direct deoxygenation of the resulting enooxide with excess trimethylsilyl iodide generated in situ. The Friedel-Crafts cyclization of p-xylene with {gamma}-butyrolactone/AlCl{sub 3} or {gamma}-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)butyric acid via its trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride derivative results in the formation of a mixture of 5,8-, 6,8-, and 5,7-dimethyl-1-tetralones (17, 20, and 21, respectively) through migration of aromatic methyl groups. The precursor to 6,8-dimethyl-1-naphthyne (10) was prepared from tetralone 20, isolable only as a 5:1 inseparable mixture with 17 from the direct Friedel-Crafts cyclization of p-xylene with {gamma}-butyrolactone, by {alpha}-dibromination with CuBr{sub 2}, dehydrobromination, and tosylation. The precursors to 5,8-dimethyl-1-naphthyne (9) and 7,8-dimethyl-1-naphthyne (11) were synthesized from the corresponding 1-naphthols 15 and 31, respectively. The synthesis of these naphthols involved cycloaddition between the corresponding dimethylated benzyne and furan followed by acid-catalyzed isomerization.

  13. Most Detailed Image of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This new Hubble image -- one among the largest ever produced with the Earth-orbiting observatory -- shows the most detailed view so far of the entire Crab Nebula ever made. The Crab is arguably the single most interesting object, as well as one of the most studied, in all of astronomy. The image is the largest image ever taken with Hubble's WFPC2 workhorse camera.

    The Crab Nebula is one of the most intricately structured and highly dynamical objects ever observed. The new Hubble image of the Crab was assembled from 24 individual exposures taken with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and is the highest resolution image of the entire Crab Nebula ever made.

  14. Capture barrier distributions: Some insights and details

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, N.; Grar, N.; Trotta, M.

    2007-10-15

    The 'experimental barrier distribution' provides a parameter-free representation of experimental heavy-ion capture cross sections that highlights the effects of entrance-channel couplings. Its relation to the s-wave transmission is discussed, and in particular it is shown how the full capture cross section can be generated from an l=0 coupled-channels calculation. Furthermore, it is shown how this transmission can be simply exploited in calculations of quasifission and evaporation-residue cross sections. The system {sup 48}Ca+{sup 154}Sm is studied in detail. A calculation of the compound-nucleus spin distribution reveals a possible energy dependence of barrier weights due to polarization arising from target and projectile quadrupole phonon states; this effect also gives rise to an entrance-channel 'extra-push'.

  15. Hubble Captures Detailed Image of Uranus' Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope has peered deep into Uranus' atmosphere to see clear and hazy layers created by a mixture of gases. Using infrared filters, Hubble captured detailed features of three layers of Uranus' atmosphere.

    Hubble's images are different from the ones taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus 10 years ago. Those images - not taken in infrared light - showed a greenish-blue disk with very little detail.

    The infrared image allows astronomers to probe the structure of Uranus' atmosphere, which consists of mostly hydrogen with traces of methane. The red around the planet's edge represents a very thin haze at a high altitude. The haze is so thin that it can only be seen by looking at the edges of the disk, and is similar to looking at the edge of a soap bubble. The yellow near the bottom of Uranus is another hazy layer. The deepest layer, the blue near the top of Uranus, shows a clearer atmosphere.

    Image processing has been used to brighten the rings around Uranus so that astronomers can study their structure. In reality, the rings are as dark as black lava or charcoal.

    This false color picture was assembled from several exposures taken July 3, 1995 by the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2.

    The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  16. CO adsorption on small Aun (n = 1-4) structures supported on hematite. I. Adsorption on iron terminated α-Fe2O3 (0001) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabisiak, Tomasz; Winiarski, Maciej J.; Kiejna, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This is the first of two papers dealing with the adsorption of Au and formation of Aun nanostructures (n = 1-4) on hematite (0001) surface and adsorption of CO thereon. The stoichiometric Fe-terminated (0001) surface of hematite was investigated using density functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) form with Hubbard correction U, accounting for strong electron correlations (PBE+U). The structural, energetic, and electronic properties of the systems studied were examined for vertical and flattened configurations of Aun nanostructures adsorbed on the hematite surfaces. The flattened ones, which can be viewed as bilayer-like structures, were found energetically more favored than vertical ones. For both classes of structures the adsorption binding energy increases with the number of Au atoms in a structure. The adsorption of Aun induces charge rearrangement at the Aun/oxide contact which is reflected in work function changes. In most considered cases Aun adsorption increases the work function. A detailed analysis of the bonding electron charge is presented and the corresponding electron charge rearrangements at the contacts were quantified by a Bader charge analyses. The interaction of a CO molecule with the Aun nanostructures supported on α-Fe2O3 (0001) and the oxide support was studied. It is found that the CO adsorption binding to the hematite supported Aun structures is more than twice as strong as to the bare hematite surface. Analysis of the Bader charges on the atoms showed that in each case CO binds to the most positively charged (cationic) atom of the Aun structure. Changes in the electronic structure of the Aun species and of the oxide support, and their consequences for the interactions with CO, are discussed.

  17. A 200 MHz-to-1.4 GHz fast-locking pulse width control loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrishamifar, Adib; Navidi, Mir Mohammad; Karimi, Yasha

    2014-03-01

    In this article, we propose a wide frequency range low lock time pulse width control loop (PWCL) circuit. The control stage of the PWCL with proposed frequency selection block can increase its output charge/discharge current at high frequency clocks. Therefore, narrow pulses can be generated at the output of this stage, which leads to the enhancement of the frequency range. Lock time of the circuit is also reduced, owing to the use of optimised second-order passive lead-lag loop filters instead of conventional loop filters. A 0.18-µm CMOS technology and 1.8-V supply voltage are used to verify the operation of the circuit. The simulation results show that the acceptable frequency range is from 200 MHz to 1.4 GHz, while maximum lock time of the circuit at this frequency range is about 580 ns. The proposed PWCL consumes 1 mW of power at 1.4 GHz.

  18. NMR and Infrared Study of Thermal Oxidation of cis-1, 4-Polybutadiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gemmer, Robert V.; Golub, Morton A.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the microstructural changes occuring in CB during thermal, uncatalyzed oxidation was carried out. Although the oxidation of CB is accompanied by extensive crosslinking with attendant insolubilization, it was found possible to follow the oxidation of solid CB directly with C-13 NMR spectroscopy. The predominant products appearing in the C-13 NMR spectra of oxidized CB are epoxides. The presence of lesser amounts of alcohols, peroxides, and carbonyl structures was adduced from complementary infrared and NMR spectra of soluble extracts obtained from the oxidized, crosslinked CB. This distribution of functional groups contrasts with that previously reported for the autooxidation of 1,4-polyisoprene. The difference was rationalized in terms of the relative stabilities of intermediate radical species involved in the autoxidation of CB and 1,4-polyisoprene.

  19. Formation of stable nanowires from ferromagnetic metals using 2-butyne-1,4-diol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Shinichi; Kiguchi, Manabu; Murakoshi, Kei

    2007-01-01

    We mechanically fabricated Fe, Co, and Ni nanowires showing conductance quantization under electrochemical potential control. The effects of 2-butyne-1,4-diol and saccharin on the stability of the nanowires were investigated by measuring the conductance and the stretched length of the nanowires. Nanowires of these ferromagnetic metals were stabilized by adding 2-butyne-1,4-diol. In Co, a monoatomic contact was stretched 0.4 nm in length, indicating the formation of a highly stable monoatomic contact of ferromagnetic metals. The improved stability of the nanowires could originate from specific adsorption of organic molecules on the contacts. Mechanical properties of these metals were considered to explain the origin of the metal-dependent stability of the nanowires.

  20. SW Grenville Province, Canada: the case against post 1.4 Ga accretionary tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanmer, S.; Corrigan, D.; Pehrsson, S.; Nadeau, L.

    2000-03-01

    Seven accretionary sutures, formed between 1.16 and 1.03 Ga, have been identified by different authors in the Ontario-Quebec-Adirondack (OQA) segment of the Mesoproterozoic Grenville orogen in Canada. With one exception, the inferred accretionary terrane boundaries lie within, or at the margins of the Central Metasedimentary Belt (CMB), located between the Central Gneiss Belt and the Adirondack Highlands (Central Granulite Terrane). However, geological, geochronological, and petrological data suggest that the Grenville orogen on both sides of the proposed terrane boundaries (sutures) preserves a common 1.4-1.03 Ga tectonomagmatic history, inconsistent with its origin as a post-1.4 Ga collage of exotic tectonic blocks. Features which straddle the proposed 1.16-1.03 Ga 'sutures', from the Central Gneiss Belt, via the Adirondack Highlands, to the Mauricie area, include: (1) Mesoproterozoic continental crust (1.5-1.4 Ga) forming the host and/or basement to younger magmatic and supracrustal suites. (2) A 1.35-1.3 Ga continental arc, remnants of which occur from the CMB boundary zone (CMBBZ) in Ontario to the Appalachians in the United States, built on the 1.5-1.4 Ga continental crust. (3) Intrusions of 1.17-1.13 Ga age in the Central Gneiss Belt (mafic suite), and the Adirondack Highlands and their Quebec extension (AMCG suite, i.e. anorthosite massifs and related granitoids). (4) Relics of 1.18-1.14 Ga sedimentary basins in the northwestern CMB and the Mauricie area. We propose that an alternative model can adequately account for the observed geology of this part of the Grenville orogen wherein, the rocks of the OQA segment were part of an Andean-type margin between 1.4 and 1.2 Ga. At 1.35-1.3 Ga, a continental magmatic arc was built upon the southeastern margin of Laurentia represented by the 1.5-1.4 Ga Mesoproterozoic continental crust. The arc split at 1.3 Ga forming an ensialic back arc basin, relics of which now occur in the northwestern part of the CMB, and the